Sofer, Luc; Cabanillas, Daniel Garcia; Gayral, Mathieu; Téplier, Rachèle; Pouzoulet, Jérôme; Ducousso, Marie; Dufin, Laurène; Bréhélin, Claire; Ziegler-Graff, Véronique; Brault, Véronique; Revers, Frédéric
The long distance movement of potyviruses is a poorly understood step of the viral cycle. Only factors inhibiting this process, referred to as "Restricted TEV Movement" (RTM), have been identified in Arabidopsis thaliana. On the virus side, the potyvirus coat protein (CP) displays determinants required for long-distance movement and for RTM-based resistance breaking. However, the potyvirus CP was previously shown not to interact with the RTM proteins. We undertook the identification of Arabidopsis factors which directly interact with either the RTM proteins or the CP of lettuce mosaic virus (LMV). An Arabidopsis cDNA library generated from companion cells was screened with LMV CP and RTM proteins using the yeast two-hybrid system. Fourteen interacting proteins were identified. Two of them were shown to interact with CP and the RTM proteins suggesting that a multiprotein complex could be formed between the RTM proteins and virions or viral ribonucleoprotein complexes. Co-localization experiments in Nicotiana benthamiana showed that most of the viral and cellular protein pairs co-localized at the periphery of chloroplasts which suggests a putative role for plastids in this process.
Venkatesh, Jelli; An, Jeongtak; Kang, Won-Hee; Jahn, Molly; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl
Pepper mottle virus (PepMoV) is the most common potyvirus infection of pepper plants and causes significant yield losses. The Pvr7 gene from Capsicum chinense PI159236 and the Pvr4 gene from C. annuum CM334 both have been reported to confer dominant resistance to PepMoV. The Pvr7 locus conferring resistance to PepMoV in C. annuum '9093' was previously mapped to chromosome 10. To develop a high-resolution map of the Pvr7 locus in 9093, we constructed an intraspecific F 2 mapping population consisting of 916 individuals by crossing PepMoV-resistant C. annuum '9093' and the PepMoV-susceptible C. annuum 'Jeju'. To delimit the Pvr7 target region, single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers derived from the Pvr4 region were used for genotyping the F 2 population. Molecular mapping delimited the Pvr7 locus to a physical interval of 258 kb, which was the same region as Pvr4 on chromosome 10. Three SNP markers derived from Pvr4 mapping perfectly cosegregated with PepMoV resistance. Sequencing analyses of the Pvr7 flanking markers and the Pvr4-specific gene indicated that Pvr7 and Pvr4 are the same gene. Resistance spectrum analysis of 9093 against pepper potyviruses showed that 9093 has a resistance spectrum similar to that of cultivar CM334. These combined results demonstrate that, unlike previously thought, the dominant PepMoV resistance in 9093 could be derived from C. annuum 'CM334', and that Pvr4 and Pvr7 should be considered as the same locus.
Poulicard, Nils; Pacios, Luis Fernández; Gallois, Jean-Luc; Piñero, Daniel; García-Arenal, Fernando
This work analyses the genetic variation and evolutionary patterns of recessive resistance loci involved in matching-allele (MA) host-pathogen interactions, focusing on the pvr2 resistance gene to potyviruses of the wild pepper Capsicum annuum glabriusculum (chiltepin). Chiltepin grows in a variety of wild habitats in Mexico, and its cultivation in home gardens started about 25 years ago. Potyvirus infection of Capsicum plants requires the physical interaction of the viral VPg with the pvr2 product, the translation initiation factor eIF4E1. Mutations impairing this interaction result in resistance, according to the MA model. The diversity of pvr2/eIF4E1 in wild and cultivated chiltepin populations from six biogeographical provinces in Mexico was analysed in 109 full-length coding sequences from 97 plants. Eleven alleles were found, and their interaction with potyvirus VPg in yeast-two-hybrid assays, plus infection assays of plants, identified six resistance alleles. Mapping resistance mutations on a pvr2/eIF4E1 model structure showed that most were around the cap-binding pocket and strongly altered its surface electrostatic potential, suggesting resistance-associated costs due to functional constraints. The pvr2/eIF4E1 phylogeny established that susceptibility was ancestral and resistance was derived. The spatial structure of pvr2/eIF4E1 diversity differed from that of neutral markers, but no evidence of selection for resistance was found in wild populations. In contrast, the resistance alleles were much more frequent, and positive selection stronger, in cultivated chiltepin populations, where diversification of pvr2/eIF4E1 was higher. This analysis of the genetic variation of a recessive resistance gene involved in MA host-pathogen interactions in populations of a wild plant show that evolutionary patterns differ according to the plant habitat, wild or cultivated. It also demonstrates that human management of the plant population has profound effects on the
Full Text Available This work analyses the genetic variation and evolutionary patterns of recessive resistance loci involved in matching-allele (MA host-pathogen interactions, focusing on the pvr2 resistance gene to potyviruses of the wild pepper Capsicum annuum glabriusculum (chiltepin. Chiltepin grows in a variety of wild habitats in Mexico, and its cultivation in home gardens started about 25 years ago. Potyvirus infection of Capsicum plants requires the physical interaction of the viral VPg with the pvr2 product, the translation initiation factor eIF4E1. Mutations impairing this interaction result in resistance, according to the MA model. The diversity of pvr2/eIF4E1 in wild and cultivated chiltepin populations from six biogeographical provinces in Mexico was analysed in 109 full-length coding sequences from 97 plants. Eleven alleles were found, and their interaction with potyvirus VPg in yeast-two-hybrid assays, plus infection assays of plants, identified six resistance alleles. Mapping resistance mutations on a pvr2/eIF4E1 model structure showed that most were around the cap-binding pocket and strongly altered its surface electrostatic potential, suggesting resistance-associated costs due to functional constraints. The pvr2/eIF4E1 phylogeny established that susceptibility was ancestral and resistance was derived. The spatial structure of pvr2/eIF4E1 diversity differed from that of neutral markers, but no evidence of selection for resistance was found in wild populations. In contrast, the resistance alleles were much more frequent, and positive selection stronger, in cultivated chiltepin populations, where diversification of pvr2/eIF4E1 was higher. This analysis of the genetic variation of a recessive resistance gene involved in MA host-pathogen interactions in populations of a wild plant show that evolutionary patterns differ according to the plant habitat, wild or cultivated. It also demonstrates that human management of the plant population has profound
Konečná, Eva; Šafářová, Dana; Navrátil, Milan; Hanáček, Pavel; Coyne, Clarice; Flavell, Andrew; Vishnyakova, Margarita; Ambrose, Mike; Redden, Robert; Smýkal, Petr
The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E was shown to be involved in resistance against several potyviruses in plants, including pea. We combined our knowledge of pea germplasm diversity with that of the eIF4E gene to identify novel genetic diversity. Germplasm of 2803 pea accessions was screened for eIF4E intron 3 length polymorphism, resulting in the detection of four eIF4E(A-B-C-S) variants, whose distribution was geographically structured. The eIF4E(A) variant conferring resistance to the P1 PSbMV pathotype was found in 53 accessions (1.9%), of which 15 were landraces from India, Afghanistan, Nepal, and 7 were from Ethiopia. A newly discovered variant, eIF4E(B), was present in 328 accessions (11.7%) from Ethiopia (29%), Afghanistan (23%), India (20%), Israel (25%) and China (39%). The eIF4E(C) variant was detected in 91 accessions (3.2% of total) from India (20%), Afghanistan (33%), the Iberian Peninsula (22%) and the Balkans (9.3%). The eIF4E(S) variant for susceptibility predominated as the wild type. Sequencing of 73 samples, identified 34 alleles at the whole gene, 26 at cDNA and 19 protein variants, respectively. Fifteen alleles were virologically tested and 9 alleles (eIF4E(A-1-2-3-4-5-6-7), eIF4E(B-1), eIF4E(C-2)) conferred resistance to the P1 PSbMV pathotype. This work identified novel eIF4E alleles within geographically structured pea germplasm and indicated their independent evolution from the susceptible eIF4E(S1) allele. Despite high variation present in wild Pisum accessions, none of them possessed resistance alleles, supporting a hypothesis of distinct mode of evolution of resistance in wild as opposed to crop species. The Highlands of Central Asia, the northern regions of the Indian subcontinent, Eastern Africa and China were identified as important centers of pea diversity that correspond with the diversity of the pathogen. The series of alleles identified in this study provides the basis to study the co-evolution of potyviruses and the
Shiboleth, Y M; Arazi, T; Wang, Y; Gal-On, A
Expression of bar, a phosphinothricin acetyltransferase, in plant tissues, leads to resistance of these plants to glufosinate ammonium based herbicides. We have created a bar expressing, attenuated zucchini yellow mosaic potyvirus-vector, AGII-Bar, to enable herbicide use in cucurbit fields. The parental vector, ZYMV-AGII, has been rendered environmentally safe by both disease-symptom attenuation and aphid-assisted virus transmission abolishment. The recombinant AGII-Bar virus-encoding cDNA, when inoculated on diverse cucurbits was highly infectious, accumulated to similar levels as AGII, and elicited attenuated AGII-like symptoms. Potted cucurbits inoculated with AGII-Bar became herbicide resistant about a week post-inoculation. Herbicide resistance was sustained in squash over a period of at least 26 days and for at least 60 days in cucumber grown in a net-house under commercial conditions. To test the applicability of AGII-Bar use in a weed-infested field, a controlled experiment including more than 450 plants inoculated with this construct, was performed. Different dosages of glufosinate ammonium were sprayed, 2 weeks after planting, on the foliage of melons, cucumbers, squash, and watermelons. AGII-Bar provided protection to all inoculated plants, of every variety tested, at each dosage applied, including the highest doses that totally eradicated weeds. This study demonstrates that AGII-Bar can be utilized to facilitate weed control in cucurbits and exemplifies the practical potential of attenuated virus-vector use in agriculture.
Bruun-Rasmussen, M.; Møller, I.S.; Tulinius, G.
to linkage group VI together with other Potyvirus resistances. One of these, sbm1, confers resistance to strains of Pea seedborne mosaic virus and previously has been identified as a mutant allele of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E gene (eIF4E). Sequence comparison of eIF4E from BYMV...... was overcome, and virus from these plants had a codon change causing an Arg to His change at position 116 of the predicted viral genome-linked protein (VPg). Accordingly, plants carrying the wlv resistance gene were infected upon inoculation with BYMV-W derived from cDNA with a His codon at position 116...
Revers, Frédéric; García, Juan Antonio
Potyvirus is the largest genus of plant viruses causing significant losses in a wide range of crops. Potyviruses are aphid transmitted in a nonpersistent manner and some of them are also seed transmitted. As important pathogens, potyviruses are much more studied than other plant viruses belonging to other genera and their study covers many aspects of plant virology, such as functional characterization of viral proteins, molecular interaction with hosts and vectors, structure, taxonomy, evolution, epidemiology, and diagnosis. Biotechnological applications of potyviruses are also being explored. During this last decade, substantial advances have been made in the understanding of the molecular biology of these viruses and the functions of their various proteins. After a general presentation on the family Potyviridae and the potyviral proteins, we present an update of the knowledge on potyvirus multiplication, movement, and transmission and on potyvirus/plant compatible interactions including pathogenicity and symptom determinants. We end the review providing information on biotechnological applications of potyviruses. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The ability of plant viruses to propagate their genomes in host cells depends on many host factors. In the absence of an agrochemical that specifically targets plant viral infection cycles, one of the most effective methods for controlling viral diseases in plants is taking advantage of the host plant’s resistance machinery. Recessive resistance is conferred by a recessive gene mutation that encodes a host factor critical for viral infection. It is a branch of the resistance machinery and, as an inherited characteristic, is very durable. Moreover, recessive resistance may be acquired by a deficiency in a negative regulator of plant defense responses, possibly due to the autoactivation of defense signaling. Eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF 4E and eIF4G and their isoforms are the most widely exploited recessive resistance genes in several crop species, and they are effective against a subset of viral species. However, the establishment of efficient, recessive resistance-type antiviral control strategies against a wider range of plant viral diseases requires genetic resources other than eIF4Es. In this review, we focus on recent advances related to antiviral recessive resistance genes evaluated in model plants and several crop species. We also address the roles of next-generation sequencing and genome editing technologies in improving plant genetic resources for recessive resistance-based antiviral breeding in various crop species.
Ferreira, Juan José; Campa, Ana; Pérez-Vega, Elena; Rodríguez-Suárez, Cristina; Giraldez, Ramón
Anthracnose and bean common mosaic (BCM) are considered major diseases in common bean crop causing severe yield losses worldwide. This work describes the introgression and pyramiding of genes conferring genetic resistance to BCM and anthracnose local races into line A25, a bean genotype classified as market class fabada. Resistant plants were selected using resistance tests or combining resistance tests and marker-assisted selection. Lines A252, A321, A493, Sanilac BC6-Are, and BRB130 were used as resistance sources. Resistance genes to anthracnose (Co-2 ( C ), Co-2 ( A252 ) and Co-3/9) and/or BCM (I and bc-3) were introgressed in line A25 through six parallel backcrossing programs, and six breeding lines showing a fabada seed phenotype were obtained after six backcross generations: line A1258 from A252; A1231 from A321; A1220 from A493; A1183 and A1878 from Sanilac BC6-Are; and line A2418 from BRB130. Pyramiding of different genes were developed using the pedigree method from a single cross between lines obtained in the introgression step: line A1699 (derived from cross A1258 × A1220), A2438 (A1220 × A1183), A2806 (A1878 × A2418), and A3308 (A1699 × A2806). A characterization based on eight morpho-agronomic traits revealed a limited differentiation among the obtained breeding lines and the recurrent line A25. However, using a set of seven molecular markers linked to the loci used in the breeding programs it was possible to differentiate the 11 fabada lines. Considering the genetic control of the resistance in resistant donor lines, the observed segregations in the last backcrossing generation, the reaction against the pathogens, and the expression of the molecular markers it was also possible to infer the genotype conferring resistance in the ten fabada breeding lines obtained. As a result of these breeding programs, genetic resistance to three anthracnose races controlled by genes included in clusters Co-2 and Co-3/9, and genetic resistance to BCM controlled
Choi, Sun Hee; Hagiwara-Komoda, Yuka; Atsumi, Go; Shimada, Ryoko; Hisa, Yusuke; Naito, Satoshi
In pea carrying cyv1, a recessive gene for resistance to Clover yellow vein virus (ClYVV), ClYVV isolate Cl-no30 was restricted to the initially infected cells, whereas isolate 90-1 Br2 overcame this resistance. We mapped the region responsible for breaking of cyv1-mediated resistance by examining infection of cyv1 pea with chimeric viruses constructed from parts of Cl-no30 and 90-1 Br2. The breaking of resistance was attributed to the P3 cistron, which is known to produce two proteins: P3, from the main open reading frame (ORF), and P3N-PIPO, which has the N-terminal part of P3 fused to amino acids encoded by a small open reading frame (ORF) called PIPO in the +2 reading frame. We introduced point mutations that were synonymous with respect to the P3 protein but nonsynonymous with respect to the P3N-PIPO protein, and vice versa, into the chimeric viruses. Infection of plants with these mutant viruses revealed that both P3 and P3N-PIPO were involved in overcoming cyv1-mediated resistance. Moreover, P3N-PIPO quantitatively affected the virulence of Cl-no30 in cyv1 pea. Additional expression in trans of the P3N-PIPO derived from Cl-no30, using White clover mosaic virus as a vector, enabled Cl-no30 to move to systemic leaves in cyv1 pea. Susceptible pea plants infected with chimeric ClYVV possessing the P3 cistron of 90-1 Br2, and which were therefore virulent toward cyv1 pea, accumulated more P3N-PIPO than did those infected with Cl-no30, suggesting that the higher level of P3N-PIPO in infected cells contributed to the breaking of resistance by 90-1 Br2. This is the first report showing that P3N-PIPO is a virulence determinant in plants resistant to a potyvirus. PMID:23616656
Shopan, Jannat; Mou, Haipeng; Zhang, Lili; Zhang, Changtong; Ma, Weiwei; Walsh, John A; Hu, Zhongyuan; Yang, Jinghua; Zhang, Mingfang
Recessive resistances to plant viruses in the Potyvirus genus have been found to be based on mutations in the plant eukaryotic translation initiation factors, eIF4E and eIF4G or their isoforms. Here we report that natural, monogenic recessive resistance to the Potyvirus Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) has been found in a number of mustard (Brassica juncea) accessions. Bulked segregant analysis and sequencing of resistant and susceptible plant lines indicated the resistance is controlled by a single recessive gene, recessive TuMV resistance 03 (retr03), an allele of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B-beta (eIF2Bβ). Silencing of eIF2Bβ in a TuMV-susceptible mustard plant line and expression of eIF2Bβ from a TuMV-susceptible line in a TuMV-resistant mustard plant line confirmed the new resistance mechanism. A functional copy of a specific allele of eIF2Bβ is required for efficient TuMV infection. eIF2Bβ represents a new class of virus resistance gene conferring resistance to any pathogen. eIF2B acts as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for its GTP-binding protein partner eIF2 via interaction with eIF2·GTP at an early step in translation initiation. Further genotyping indicated that a single non-synonymous substitution (A120G) in the N-terminal region of eIF2Bβ was responsible for the TuMV resistance. A reproducible marker has been developed, facilitating marker-assisted selection for TuMV resistance in B. juncea. Our findings provide a new target for seeking natural resistance to potyviruses and new opportunities for the control of potyviruses using genome editing techniques targeted on eIF2Bβ. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Feng, Xue; Orellana, Gardenia; Myers, James; Karasev, Alexander V
Recessive resistance to Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is governed by four genes that include one strain-nonspecific helper gene bc-u, and three strain-specific genes bc-1, bc-2, and bc-3. The bc-3 gene was identified as an eIF4E translation initiation factor gene mediating resistance through disruption of the interaction between this protein and the VPg protein of the virus. The mode of action of bc-1 and bc-2 in expression of BCMV resistance is unknown, although bc-1 gene was found to affect systemic spread of a related potyvirus, Bean common mosaic necrosis virus. To investigate the possible role of both bc-1 and bc-2 genes in replication, cell-to-cell, and long distance movement of BCMV in P. vulgaris, we tested virus spread of eight BCMV isolates representing pathogroups I, IV, VI, VII, and VIII, in a set of bean differentials expressing different combinations of six resistance alleles including bc-u, bc-1, bc-1 2 , bc-2, bc-2 2 , and bc-3. All studied BCMV isolates were able to replicate and spread in inoculated leaves of bean cultivars harboring bc-u, bc-1, bc-1 2 , bc-2, and bc-2 2 alleles and their combinations, while no BCMV replication was found in inoculated leaves of 'IVT7214' carrying the bc-u, bc-2 and bc-3 genes, except for isolate 1755a capable of overcoming the resistance conferred by bc-2 and bc-3. In contrast, the systemic spread of all BCMV isolates from pathogroups I, IV,VI, VII, and VIII was impaired in common bean cultivars carrying bc-1, bc-1 2 , bc-2, and bc-2 2 alleles. The data suggest that bc-1 and bc-2 recessive resistance genes have no effect on the replication and cell-to-cell movement of BCMV, but affect systemic spread of BCMV in common bean. The BCMV resistance conferred by bc-1 and bc-2 and affecting systemic spread was found only partially effective when these two genes were expressed singly. The efficiency of the restriction of the systemic spread of the virus was greatly enhanced when
Ge Rui; Luo Xiaorong; Jiang Yongheng; Zhou Kun; Wang Pei; Wang Qi; Wang Yuangang; Zhang Bo; Li Zhaoji
An integrable silicon-on-insulator (SOI) power lateral MOSFET with a trench gate and a recessed drain (TGRD MOSFET) is proposed to reduce the on-resistance. Both of the trench gate extended to the buried oxide (BOX) and the recessed drain reduce the specific on-resistance (R on,sp ) by widening the vertical conduction area and shortening the extra current path. The trench gate is extended as a field plate improves the electric field distribution. Breakdown voltage (BV) of 97 V and R on,sp of 0.985 mΩ·cm 2 (V GS = 5 V) are obtained for a TGRD MOSFET with 6.5 μm half-cell pitch. Compared with the trench gate SOI MOSFET (TG MOSFET) and the conventional MOSFET, R on,sp of the TGRD MOSFET decreases by 46% and 83% at the same BV, respectively. Compared with the SOI MOSFET with a trench gate and a trench drain (TGTD MOSFET), BV of the TGRD MOSFET increases by 37% at the same R on,sp . (semiconductor devices)
Luo Xiao-Rong; Hu Gang-Yi; Zhang Zheng-Yuan; Luo Yin-Chun; Fan Ye; Wang Xiao-Wei; Fan Yuan-Hang; Cai Jin-Yong; Wang Pei; Zhou Kun
A low specific on-resistance (R on,sp ) integrable silicon-on-insulator (SOI) metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) is proposed and investigated by simulation. The MOSFET features a recessed drain as well as dual gates, which consist of a planar gate and a trench gate extended to the buried oxide layer (BOX) (DGRD MOSFET). First, the dual gates form dual conduction channels, and the extended trench gate also acts as a field plate to improve the electric field distribution. Second, the combination of the trench gate and the recessed drain widens the vertical conduction area and shortens the current path. Third, the P-type top layer not only enhances the drift doping concentration but also modulates the surface electric field distributions. All of these sharply reduce R on,sp and maintain a high breakdown voltage (BV). The BV of 233 V and R on,sp of 4.151 mΩ·cm 2 (V GS = 15 V) are obtained for the DGRD MOSFET with 15-μm half-cell pitch. Compared with the trench gate SOI MOSFET and the conventional MOSFET, R on,sp of the DGRD MOSFET decreases by 36% and 33% with the same BV, respectively. The trench gate extended to the BOX synchronously acts as a dielectric isolation trench, simplifying the fabrication processes. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)
Full Text Available This study characterized isolates of P. capsici that had developed a novel mechanism of resistance to zoxamide, which altered the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC but not the EC50. Molecular analysis revealed that the β-tubulin gene of the resistant isolates contained no mutations and was expressed at the same level as in zoxamide-sensitive isolates. This suggested that P. capsici had developed a novel non-target-site-based resistance to zoxamide. Analysis of the segregation ratio of zoxamide-resistance in the sexual progeny of the sensitive isolates PCAS1 and PCAS2 indicated that the resistance to zoxamide was controlled by one or more recessive nuclear genes. Furthermore, the segregation of resistance in the F1, F2, and BC1 progeny was in accordance with the theoretical ratios of the χ(2 test (P>0.05, which suggested that the resistance to zoxamide was controlled by two recessive genes, and that resistance to zoxamide occurred when at least one pair of these alleles was homozygous. This implies that the risk of zoxamide-resistance in P. capsici is low to moderate. Nevertheless this potential for resistance should be monitored closely, especially if two compatible mating types co-exist in the same field.
A reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay using potyvirus specific primers designed from the core of the coat protein was carried out, and a cDNA fragment of 327 bp was obtained from most of the potyviruses infecting the tropical tuber crops. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) ...
Li, Guoping; Reisig, Dominic; Miao, Jin; Gould, Fred; Huang, Fangneng; Feng, Hongqiang
Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a target species of transgenic corn (Zea mays L.) that expresses single and pyramided Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin. In 2014, S. frugiperda were collected from a light trap in North Carolina, and a total of 212 F1/F2 isofemale lines of S. frugiperda were screened for resistance to Bt and non-Bt corn. All of the 212 isolines were susceptible to corn tissue expressing Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab, Cry1F + Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab, and Cry1F + Cry1Ab + Vip3Aa20. Growth rate bioassays were performed to isolate non-recessive Bt resistance alleles. Seven individuals out of the 212 isofemale lines carried major non-recessive alleles conferring resistance to Cry1F. A pooled colony was created from the seven individuals. This colony was 151.21 times more resistant to Cry1F than a known-susceptible population and was also resistant to Cry1A.105, but was not resistant to Cry2Ab and Vip3Aa20. The results demonstrate that field populations of S. frugiperda collected from North Carolina are generally susceptible to Cry1F, but that some individuals carry resistant alleles. The data generated in this study can be used as baseline data for resistance monitoring.
Ouibrahim, Laurence; Rubio, Ana Giner; Moretti, André; Montané, Marie-Hélène; Menand, Benoît; Meyer, Christian; Robaglia, Christophe; Caranta, Carole
Potyviruses are important plant pathogens that rely on many plant cellular processes for successful infection. TOR (target of rapamycin) signalling is a key eukaryotic energy-signalling pathway controlling many cellular processes such as translation and autophagy. The dependence of potyviruses on active TOR signalling was examined. Arabidopsis lines downregulated for TOR by RNAi were challenged with the potyviruses watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) and turnip mosaic virus (TuMV). WMV accumulation was found to be severely altered while TuMV accumulation was only slightly delayed. In another approach, using AZD-8055, an active site inhibitor of the TOR kinase, WMV infection was found to be strongly affected. Moreover, AZD-8055 application can cure WMV infection. In contrast, TuMV infection was not affected by AZD-8055. This suggests that potyviruses have different cellular requirements for active plant TOR signalling.
Full Text Available Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt toxins have been planted widely to control insect pests, yet evolution of resistance by the pests can reduce the benefits of this approach. Recessive mutations in the extracellular domain of toxin-binding cadherin proteins that confer resistance to Bt toxin Cry1Ac by disrupting toxin binding have been reported previously in three major lepidopteran pests, including the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. Here we report a novel allele from cotton bollworm with a deletion in the intracellular domain of cadherin that is genetically linked with non-recessive resistance to Cry1Ac. We discovered this allele in each of three field-selected populations we screened from northern China where Bt cotton producing Cry1Ac has been grown intensively. We expressed four types of cadherin alleles in heterologous cell cultures: susceptible, resistant with the intracellular domain mutation, and two complementary chimeric alleles with and without the mutation. Cells transfected with each of the four cadherin alleles bound Cry1Ac and were killed by Cry1Ac. However, relative to cells transfected with either the susceptible allele or the chimeric allele lacking the intracellular domain mutation, cells transfected with the resistant allele or the chimeric allele containing the intracellular domain mutation were less susceptible to Cry1Ac. These results suggest that the intracellular domain of cadherin is involved in post-binding events that affect toxicity of Cry1Ac. This evidence is consistent with the vital role of the intracellular region of cadherin proposed by the cell signaling model of the mode of action of Bt toxins. Considered together with previously reported data, the results suggest that both pore formation and cell signaling pathways contribute to the efficacy of Bt toxins.
Wai, T; Grumet, R
The inbred cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) line TMG-1 is resistant to three potyviruses:zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), watermelon mosaic virus (WMV), and the watermelon strain of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV-W). The genetics of resistance to WMV and the relationship of WMV resistance to ZYMV resistance were examined. TMG-1 was crossed with WI-2757, a susceptible inbred line. F1, F2 and backcross progeny populations were screened for resistance to WMV and/or ZYMV. Two independently assorting factors conferred resistance to WMV. One resistance was conferred by a single recessive gene from TMG-1 (wmv-2). The second resistance was conferred by an epistatic interaction between a second recessive gene from TMG-1 (wmv-3) and either a dominant gene from WI-2757 (Wmv-4) or a third recessive gene from TMG-1 (wmv-4) located 20-30 cM from wmv-3. The two resistances exhibited tissue-specific expression. Resistance conferred by wmv-2 was expressed in the cotyledons and throughout the plant. Resistance conferred by wmv-3 + Wmv-4 (or wmv-4) was expressed only in true leaves. The gene conferring resistance to ZYMV appeared to be the same as, or tightly linked to one of the WMV resistance genes, wmv-3.
Oliver Richard P
rnpm2 locus. Conclusion The induction of defence responses and cell death in the susceptible interaction following infection by P. medicaginis suggested this pathogen is not negatively affected by these responses and may promote them. A QTL for resistance was revealed in each of two populations derived from crosses between a resistant accession and two different susceptible accessions. Both loci are recessive in nature, and the simplest explanation for the existence of two separate QTLs is the occurrence of host genotype-specific susceptibility loci that may interact with undetermined P. medicaginis virulence factors.
Melgarejo, T A; Alminaite, A; Fribourg, C; Spetz, C; Valkonen, J P T
Two isolates (SL1 and SL6) of Peru tomato virus (PTV, genus Potyvirus) were obtained from cocona plants (Solanum sessiliflorum) growing in Tingo María, the jungle of the Amazon basin in Peru. One PTV isolate (TM) was isolated from a tomato plant (Lycopersicon esculentum) growing in Huaral at the Peruvian coast. The three PTV isolates were readily transmissible by Myzus persicae. Isolate SL1, but not SL6, caused chlorotic lesions in inoculated leaves of Chenopodium amaranticolor and C. quinoa. Isolate TM differed from SL1 and SL6 in causing more severe mosaic symptoms in tomato, and vein necrosis in the leaves of cocona. Pepper cv. Avelar (Capsicum annuum) showed resistance to the PTV isolates SL1 and SL6 but not TM. The 5'- and 3'-proximal sequences of the three PTV isolates were cloned, sequenced and compared to the corresponding sequences of four PTV isolates from pepper, the only host from which PTV isolates have been previously characterised at the molecular level. Phylogenetic analyses on the P1 protein and coat protein amino acid sequences indicated, in accordance with the phenotypic data from indicator hosts, that the PTV isolates from cocona represented a distinguishable strain. In contrast, the PTV isolates from tomato and pepper were not grouped according to the host. Inclusion of the sequence data from the three PTV isolates of this study in a phylogenetic analysis with other PTV isolates and other potyviruses strengthen the membership of PTV in the so-called "PVY subgroup" of Potyvirus. This subgroup of closely related potyvirus species was also distinguishable from other potyviruses by their more uniform sizes of the protein-encoding regions within the polyprotein.
Skjönsberg, Asa; Herrlin, Petra; Duan, Maoli; Johnson, Ann-Christin; Ulfendahl, Mats
A new strain of waltzing guinea pigs arose spontaneously in a guinea pig breeding facility in Germany in 1996. In addition to obvious vestibular dysfunction, the waltzing animals appear deaf already at birth. Histological analysis revealed that the waltzers lack an open scala media due to the collapse of Reissner's membrane onto the surface of the hearing organ. Subsequent breeding has shown that this strain has a recessive mode of inheritance. The homozygotes are deaf and display a waltzing behaviour throughout their lives while the heterozygotes show no significant signs of inner ear injury despite being carriers of this specific mutated gene of hearing impairment. However, the heterozygous animals offer the opportunity to study how hereditary factors interact with auditory stress. In the present study, the susceptibility of the carriers to noise was investigated. Auditory brainstem responses were obtained prior to and after noise exposure (4 kHz, 110 dB, 6 h). The carriers were significantly less affected by the noise as compared to control animals. This difference was still significant at 4 weeks following noise exposure. It is suggested that the heterozygous animals have an endogenous resistance to auditory stress. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.
García, Juan Antonio; Glasa, Miroslav; Cambra, Mariano; Candresse, Thierry
Plum pox virus (PPV) is a member of the genus Potyvirus in the family Potyviridae. PPV diversity is structured into at least eight monophyletic strains. First discovered in Bulgaria, PPV is nowadays present in most of continental Europe (with an endemic status in many central and southern European countries) and has progressively spread to many countries on other continents. Typical of potyviruses, the PPV genome is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA (ssRNA), with a protein linked to its 5' end and a 3'-terminal poly A tail. It is encapsidated by a single type of capsid protein (CP) in flexuous rod particles and is translated into a large polyprotein which is proteolytically processed in at least 10 final products: P1, HCPro, P3, 6K1, CI, 6K2, VPg, NIapro, NIb and CP. In addition, P3N-PIPO is predicted to be produced by a translational frameshift. PPV causes sharka, the most damaging viral disease of stone fruit trees. It also infects wild and ornamental Prunus trees and has a large experimental host range in herbaceous species. PPV spreads over long distances by uncontrolled movement of plant material, and many species of aphid transmit the virus locally in a nonpersistent manner. A few natural sources of resistance to PPV have been found so far in Prunus species, which are being used in classical breeding programmes. Different genetic engineering approaches are being used to generate resistance to PPV, and a transgenic plum, 'HoneySweet', transformed with the viral CP gene, has demonstrated high resistance to PPV in field tests in several countries and has obtained regulatory approval in the USA. © 2013 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.
Gibbs, Adrian J; Ohshima, Kazusato; Phillips, Matthew J; Gibbs, Mark J
Potyviruses are found world wide, are spread by probing aphids and cause considerable crop damage. Potyvirus is one of the two largest plant virus genera and contains about 15% of all named plant virus species. When and why did the potyviruses become so numerous? Here we answer the first question and discuss the other. We have inferred the phylogenies of the partial coat protein gene sequences of about 50 potyviruses, and studied in detail the phylogenies of some using various methods and evolutionary models. Their phylogenies have been calibrated using historical isolation and outbreak events: the plum pox virus epidemic which swept through Europe in the 20th century, incursions of potyviruses into Australia after agriculture was established by European colonists, the likely transport of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus in cowpea seed from Africa to the Americas with the 16th century slave trade and the similar transport of papaya ringspot virus from India to the Americas. Our studies indicate that the partial coat protein genes of potyviruses have an evolutionary rate of about 1.15x10(-4) nucleotide substitutions/site/year, and the initial radiation of the potyviruses occurred only about 6,600 years ago, and hence coincided with the dawn of agriculture. We discuss the ways in which agriculture may have triggered the prehistoric emergence of potyviruses and fostered their speciation.
Prínscilla Pâmela Nunes Chaves
Full Text Available A cultura da melancia constitui a principal Cucurbitácea cultivada em Tocantins. Porém, nos últimos anos o cultivo vem limitando-se devido algumas doenças, principalmente as ocasionadas por vírus, causando prejuízos na produção. Assim, o desenvolvimento de genótipos com maior nível de resistência pode contribuir para reduzir os custos de produção da cultura. Portanto, o objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade pós-colheita e sensorial de frutos de famílias de melancia obtidas de quatro retrocruzamentos. O trabalho foi conduzido na Universidade Federal do Tocantins. Foram utilizados frutos obtidos de 12 famílias de melancia e a cultivar comercial Crimson Sweet. Para as avaliações físico-químicas foram selecionados dois frutos, sendo avaliados: acidez titulável, sólidos solúveis e coloração interna da polpa. A análise sensorial dos frutos de melancia foi feita através de testes com 30 avaliadores. Foi utilizada escala hedônica de 5 pontos, variando de maior a menor aceitabilidade para as características de aparência global, aceitação comercial e sabor. Em geral, algumas famílias comportaram-se de maneira satisfatória quanto às características físico-químicas e sensoriais, mostrando que podem ser utilizadas nos programas de melhoramento, pois estão com boas características comerciais e com resistência as principais viroses.
Feldhoff, A; Wetzel, T; Peters, D; Kellner, R; Krczal, G
With the introduction of cutting-grown Petunia x hybrida plants on the European market, a new potyvirus which showed no serological reaction with antisera against any other potyviruses infecting petunias was discovered. Infected leaves contained flexuous rod-shaped virus particles of 750-800 nm in length and inclusion bodies (pinwheel structures) typical for potyviruses in ultrathin leaf sections. The purified coat protein with a Mr of approximately 36 kDa could be detected in Western immunoblots with a specific antibody to the coat protein of the petunia-infecting virus. The 3' end of the viral genome encompassing the 3' non-coding region, the coat protein gene, and part of the NIb gene was amplified from infected leaf material by IC/PCR using degenerate and specific primers. Sequences of PCR-generated cDNA clones were compared to other known sequences of potyviruses. Maximum homology of 56% was found in the 3' non-coding region between the petunia isolate and other potyviruses. A maximum homology of 69% was found between the amino acid sequence of the coat protein of the petunia isolate and corresponding sequences of other potyviruses. These data indicate that the petunia-infecting virus is a previously undescribed potyvirus and the name petunia flower mottle virus (PetFMV) is suggested.
Duprat, Anne; Caranta, Carole; Revers, Frédéric; Menand, Benoît; Browning, Karen S; Robaglia, Christophe
An Arabidopsis thaliana line bearing a transposon insertion in the gene coding for the isozyme form of the plant-specific cap-binding protein, eukaryotic initiation factor (iso) 4E (eIF (iso) 4E), has been isolated. This mutant line completely lacks both eIF(iso)4E mRNA and protein, but was found to have a phenotype and fertility indistinguishable from wild-type plants under standard laboratory conditions. In contrast, the amount of the related eIF4E protein was found to increase in seedling extracts. Furthermore, polysome analysis shows that the mRNA encoding eIF4E was being translated at increased levels. Given the known interaction between cap-binding proteins and potyviral genome-linked proteins (VPg), this plant line was challenged with two potyviruses, Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) and Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV) and was found resistant to both, but not to the Nepovirus, Tomato black ring virus (TBRV) and the Cucumovirus, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). Together with previous data showing that the VPg-eIF4E interaction is necessary for virus infectivity and upregulates genome amplification, this shows that the eIF4E proteins are specifically recruited for the replication cycle of potyviruses.
Smith, Lindsey P.; Ng, Shu Wen
Objectives. We examined the effects of state-level unemployment rates during the recession of 2008 on patterns of home food preparation and away-from-home (AFH) eating among low-income and minority populations. Methods. We analyzed pooled cross-sectional data on 118 635 adults aged 18 years or older who took part in the American Time Use Study. Multinomial logistic regression models stratified by gender were used to evaluate the associations between state-level unemployment, poverty, race/ethnicity, and time spent cooking, and log binomial regression was used to assess respondents’ AFH consumption patterns. Results. High state-level unemployment was associated with only trivial increases in respondents’ cooking patterns and virtually no change in their AFH eating patterns. Low-income and racial/ethnic minority groups were not disproportionately affected by the recession. Conclusions. Even during a major economic downturn, US adults are resistant to food-related behavior change. More work is needed to understand whether this reluctance to change is attributable to time limits, lack of knowledge or skill related to food preparation, or lack of access to fresh produce and raw ingredients. PMID:24625145
Smith, Lindsey P; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M
We examined the effects of state-level unemployment rates during the recession of 2008 on patterns of home food preparation and away-from-home (AFH) eating among low-income and minority populations. We analyzed pooled cross-sectional data on 118 635 adults aged 18 years or older who took part in the American Time Use Study. Multinomial logistic regression models stratified by gender were used to evaluate the associations between state-level unemployment, poverty, race/ethnicity, and time spent cooking, and log binomial regression was used to assess respondents' AFH consumption patterns. High state-level unemployment was associated with only trivial increases in respondents' cooking patterns and virtually no change in their AFH eating patterns. Low-income and racial/ethnic minority groups were not disproportionately affected by the recession. Even during a major economic downturn, US adults are resistant to food-related behavior change. More work is needed to understand whether this reluctance to change is attributable to time limits, lack of knowledge or skill related to food preparation, or lack of access to fresh produce and raw ingredients.
Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV, genus Bymovirus factor(s responsible for breaking eIF4E-mediated recessive resistance genes (rym4/5/6 in barley. Genome mapping analysis using chimeric infectious cDNA clones between rym5-breaking (JT10 and rym5-non-breaking (JK05 isolates indicated that genome-linked viral protein (VPg is the determinant protein for breaking the rym5 resistance. Likewise, VPg is also responsible for overcoming the resistances of rym4 and rym6 alleles. Mutational analysis identified that amino acids Ser-118, Thr-120 and His-142 in JT10 VPg are the most critical residues for overcoming rym5 resistance in protoplasts. Moreover, the rym5-non-breaking JK05 could accumulate in the rym5 protoplasts when eIF4E derived from a susceptible barley cultivar was expressed from the viral genome. Thus, the compatibility between VPg and host eIF4E determines the ability of BaYMV to infect barley plants.
Ayala Vasquez, Mariluz; Gonzalez Jaimes, Paola; Gutierrez, Pablo Andres; Cotes, Jose Miguel; Marin Montoya, Mauricio
Tomato tree (Solanum betaceum) is an andean fruit which, due to its high nutricious value and unique organoleptic properties, has very good potential for industrial processing and international marketing. In Antioquia, Colombia, this crop faces several phytosanitary problems, of which viral infections by species of the Potyvirus genus are the most limiting. In this work, potyvirus incidence levels were evaluated in seven regions of the Antioquia province using the ELISA assay. The taxomical identity of two potyvirus associated with this crop was also determined. Serological tests demonstrate the overall presence of potyvirus in six regions, with incidence levels above 80%. The only exception was the municipality of Jardin with an incidence of only 8%. Serological test specific to PVY virus, revealed its presence in many of the infected plants. DNA sequencing of RTPCR amplicons also showed the presence of a new potyvirus for which we propose the name Tamarillo Leaf Malformation Virus (TaLMV). However, to corroborate this taxonomical hypothesis it is necessary to complete the genome sequence of TaLMV. This research represents an important advance in the knowledge of viruses infecting tomato tree. However, future investigations are required to deepen further into the individual effects of each virus as well as the transmission mechanisms and interactions with different varieties of tomato tree.
Moran, J; van Rijswijk, B; Traicevski, V; Kitajima, E W; Mackenzie, A M; Gibbs, A J
Three potyviruses were identified by gene sequencing and found to be widespread in species of Apiaceae in Australia. Only celery mosaic virus was found in celery crops and in one of 180 specimens of feral carrot ( Daucus carota). Another related but distinct novel potyvirus, carrot virus Y, was the only virus found in carrot crops and all except one feral carrot. A more distantly related novel potyvirus, apium virus Y, was found in plants of sea celery ( Apium prostratum), cultivated parsley ( Petroselinum crispum) and the immigrant weed species poison hemlock ( Conium maculatum). These three potyviruses, together with celery yellow mosaic virus of South America and the closely related carrot thin leaf virus and carrot virus B of North America, form a distinct subgenus of the Potyviridae most closely related to turnip mosaic virus and two potyviruses of yam; yam mosaic virus from the Ivory Coast and Japanese yam mosaic virus. Celery mosaic and carrot virus Y are probably recent migrants to Australia, but apium virus Y may have been endemic longer. In ELISA tests using polyclonal antibodies against virions of celery mosaic virus, some isolates of carrot virus Y were indistinguishable from celery mosaic virus, whereas others gave smaller absorbancy values, and those of apium virus Y did not react. This study shows the value of virus identification based on gene sequencing for planning control measures.
Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Potyvirus 名詞 一般 * * * * ポチウイルス ポチウイルス ポチウイルス Thesaurus2015 200906013467309480 C LS07 UNKNOWN_1 Potyvirus
Sheila Conceição Maciel
Full Text Available Catharanthus roseus is a perennial, evergreen herb in the family Apocynaceae, which is used as ornamental and for popular medicine to treat a wide assortment of human diseases. This paper describes a new potyvirus found causing mosaic symptom, foliar malformation and flower variegation in C. roseus. Of 28 test-plants inoculated mechanically with this potyvirus, only C. roseus and Nicotiana benthamiana developed systemic mosaic, whereas Chenopodium amaranticolor and C. quinoa exhibited chlorotic local lesions. The virus was transmitted by Aphis gossypii and Myzus nicotianae. When the nucleotide sequence of the CP gene (768nt was compared with other members of the Potyviridae family, the highest identities varied from 67 to 76 %. For the 3' UTR (286nt, identities varied from 16.8 to 28.6 %. The name Catharanthus mosaic virus (CatMV is proposed for this new potyvirus.
Full Text Available Ultrathin body (UTB and nanoscale body (NSB SOI-MOSFET devices, sharing a similar W/L but with a channel thickness of 46 nm and lower than 5 nm, respectively, were fabricated using a selective “gate-recessed” process on the same silicon wafer. Their current-voltage characteristics measured at room temperature were found to be surprisingly different by several orders of magnitude. We analyzed this result by considering the severe mobility degradation and the influence of a huge series resistance and found that the last one seems more coherent. Then the electrical characteristics of the NSB can be analytically derived by integrating a gate voltage-dependent drain source series resistance. In this paper, the influence of the channel thickness on the series resistance is reported for the first time. This influence is integrated to the analytical model in order to describe the trends of the saturation current with the channel thickness. This modeling approach may be useful to interpret anomalous electrical behavior of other nanodevices in which series resistance and/or mobility degradation is of a great concern.
Ciuffo, Marina; Mammella, Marco; Vallino, Marta; Caciagli, Piero; Turina, Massimo
A potyvirus causing necrosis and leaf distortion on lettuce was found in the Lazio region of Italy. Host range analysis showed its ability to infect only Chenopodium quinoa and C. amaranticolor in addition to some lettuce cultivars. The virus could be transmitted by aphids of the species Myzus persicae. The complete 9829-nt genome was characterized. BLAST analysis of sequence of the complete encoded polyprotein showed that the most closely related virus is asparagus virus 1, with 52 % amino acid sequence identity. These results suggest that this virus should be considered a member of a new species in the genus Potyvirus.
Naderpour, Masoud; Johansen, Ida Elisabeth
Reporter tagged virus clones can provide detailed information on virus–host interactions. In Phaseolus vulgaris (bean), four recessive and one dominant gene are known to control infection by strains of the potyvirus species Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV). To study the interactions between BCMV...
Inoue-Nagata, A.K.; Fonseca, M.E.N.; Resende, de R.O.; Boiteux, L.S.; Monte, D.C.; Dusi, A.N.; Ávila, de A.C.; Vlugt, van der R.A.A.
A potyvirus was found causing yellow mosaic and veinal banding in sweetpepper in Central and Southeast Brazil. The sequence analysis of the 3' terminal region of the viral RNA revealed a coat protein of 278 amino acids, followed by 275 nucleotides in the 3'-untranslated region preceding a
The complete genomic sequence of a novel potyvirus was determined from Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis. Its genomic RNA consists of 9,660 nucleotides (nt) excluding the 3’-terminal poly (A) tail, containing a single open reading frame (ORF) encoding a large polyprotein. The virus shares 52.1-69.7%...
Christiansen, Charlotte; Eriksen, Jonas Nygaard; Møller, Stig Vinther
We study the role of sentiment variables as predictors for US recessions. We combine sentiment variables with either classical recession predictors or common factors based on a large panel of macroeconomic and financial variables. Sentiment variables hold vast predictive power for US recessions...
Full Text Available Sweet potatoes (Ipomea batatas L. are grown extensively, in tropical and temperate regions, and are important food crops worldwide. In Korea, potyviruses, including Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV, Sweet potato virus C (SPVC, Sweet potato virus G (SPVG, Sweet potato virus 2 (SPV2, and Sweet potato latent virus (SPLV, have been detected in sweet potato fields at a high (~95% incidence. In the present work, complete genome sequences of 18 isolates, representing the five potyviruses mentioned above, were compared with previously reported genome sequences. The complete genomes consisted of 10,081 to 10,830 nucleotides, excluding the poly-A tails. Their genomic organizations were typical of the Potyvirus genus, including one target open reading frame coding for a putative polyprotein. Based on phylogenetic analyses and sequence comparisons, the Korean SPFMV isolates belonged to the strains RC and O with >98% nucleotide sequence identity. Korean SPVC isolates had 99% identity to the Japanese isolate SPVC-Bungo and 70% identity to the SPFMV isolates. The Korean SPVG isolates showed 99% identity to the three previously reported SPVG isolates. Korean SPV2 isolates had 97% identity to the SPV2 GWB-2 isolate from the USA. Korean SPLV isolates had a relatively low (88% nucleotide sequence identity with the Taiwanese SPLV-TW isolates, and they were phylogenetically distantly related to SPFMV isolates. Recombination analysis revealed that possible recombination events occurred in the P1, HC-Pro and NIa-NIb regions of SPFMV and SPLV isolates and these regions were identified as hotspots for recombination in the sweet potato potyviruses.
Maria GRILLI CAIOLA
Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false IT X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 In over two decades, while studying saffron reproductive biology, we frequently found ultrastructural alterations typical of potyvirus infection in stigmas, styles and leaves of Crocus sativus (saffron and C. cartwrightianus (wild and ornamental species, a putative ancestor of saffron from different provenance. This suggests that these viruses are widely diffused in cultivated Crocus spp., possibly causing latent infections. The few data found in literature, while highlighting the general lack of attention given by plant virologists to Crocus spp., nevertheless confi rm that potyviruses, particularly Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV, can cause asymptomatic infections in these host species. The reasons and possible implications of widely distributed potyvirus latent infections in Crocus spp. are reported and discussed, with the aim of increasing general awareness of these viruses, and of encouraging sanitary selection programs focused on saffron, that could improve the quantity and quality of yields of the most expensive spice commodity grown.
Liu, Han-Lin; Lin, Wei-Fang; Hu, Wen-Chi; Lee, Yung-An
Potyviruses are major pathogens that often cause mixed infection in calla lilies. To reduce the time and cost of virus indexing, a detection method for the simultaneous targeting of multiple potyviruses was developed by generating a broad-spectrum monoclonal antibody (MAb) for detecting the greatest possible number of potyviruses. The conserved 121-amino-acid core regions of the capsid proteins of Dasheen mosaic potyvirus (DsMV), Konjak mosaic potyvirus (KoMV), and Zantedeschia mild mosaic potyvirus (ZaMMV) were sequentially concatenated and expressed as a recombinant protein for immunization. After hybridoma cell fusion and selection, one stable cell line that secreted a group-specific antibody, named C4 MAb, was selected. In the reaction spectrum test, the C4 MAb detected at least 14 potyviruses by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA) and Western blot analysis. Furthermore, the variable regions of the heavy (VH) and light (VL) chains of the C4 MAb were separately cloned and constructed as single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) for expression in Escherichia coli. Moreover, the pectate lyase E (PelE) signal peptide of Erwinia chrysanthemi S3-1 was added to promote the secretion of C4 scFvs into the medium. According to Western blot analysis and I-ELISA, the soluble C4 scFv (VL-VH) fragment showed a binding specificity similar to that of the C4 MAb. Our results demonstrate that a recombinant protein derived from fusion of the conserved regions of viral proteins has the potential to produce a broad-spectrum MAb against a large group of viruses and that the PelE signal peptide can improve the secretion of scFvs in E. coli. PMID:26209665
Recession is having an impact on training departments. Besides a slowdown, it provides managers with a chance to reevaluate programs to ensure they are attuned to the specific goals of the company. (JOW)
Vlugt, van der R.A.A.
Potato virus Y is the type species of the potyvirus genus, the largest genus of the plant virus family Potyviridae. The virus causes serious problems in the cultivation of several Solanaceous crops and although certain poly- and monogenic resistances are available,
Laursen, Morten Godtfredsen
Gingival recessions and biomechanics “Tissue is the issue, but bone sets the tone.“ A tooth outside the cortical plate can result in loss of bone and development of a gingival recession. The presentation aims to show biomechanical considerations in relation to movement of teeth with gingival...... by moving the root back in the alveolus. The tooth movement is accompanied by bone gain and thus increase the success rate for soft tissue augmentation. The choice of biomechanical system influences the treatment outcome. If a standard straight wire appliance is used, a biomechanical dilemma can arise...
Takakura, Yoshimitsu; Udagawa, Hisashi; Shinjo, Akira; Koga, Kazuharu
Eukaryotic translation-initiation factors eIF4E and eIF(iso)4E in plants play key roles in infection by potyviruses and other plant RNA viruses. Mutations in the genes encoding these factors reduce susceptibility to the viruses, and are the basis of several recessive virus-resistance genes widely used in plant breeding. Because virus variants occasionally break such resistance, the molecular basis for this process must be elucidated. Although deletion mutants of eIF4E1-S of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) resist Potato virus Y (PVY; the type member of the genus Potyvirus), resistance-breaking strains of PVY threaten tobacco production worldwide. Here, we used RNA interference technology to knock down tobacco eIF4E2-S and eIF4E2-T genes or eIF(iso)4E-S and eIF(iso)4E-T genes. Transgenic plants with reduced transcript levels of both eIF(iso)4E-S and eIF(iso)4E-T showed reduced susceptibility to a resistance-breaking PVY strain with a K105E mutation in the viral genome-associated protein (VPg). By screening a population of chemically-induced mutants of eIF(iso)4E-S and eIF(iso)4E-T, we showed that plants with a nonsense mutation in eIF(iso)4E-T, but not eIF(iso)4E-S, showed reduced susceptibility to the resistance-breaking PVY strain. In a yeast two-hybrid assay, VPg of the resistance-breaking strain, but not wild-type PVY, physically interacted with the eIF(iso)4E-T protein. Thus, eIF4E1-S is required for infection by PVY, but eIF(iso)4E-T is required for infection by the resistance-breaking strain. Our study provides the first evidence for the involvement of a host eukaryotic translation-initiation factor in the infection cycle of a resistance-breaking virus strain. The eIF(iso)4E-T mutants will be useful in tobacco breeding to introduce resistance against resistance-breaking PVY strains. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 BSPP and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Gallo, Araiz; Valli, Adrian; Calvo, María; García, Juan Antonio
Accurate assembly of viral particles in the potyvirus Plum pox virus (PPV) has been shown to depend on the contribution of the multifunctional viral protein HCPro. In this study, we show that other viral factors, in addition to the capsid protein (CP) and HCPro, are necessary for the formation of stable PPV virions. The CP produced in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves from a subviral RNA termed LONG, which expresses a truncated polyprotein that lacks P1 and HCPro, together with HCPro supplied in trans , was assembled into virus-like particles and remained stable after in vitro incubation. In contrast, deletions in multiple regions of the LONG coding sequence prevented the CP stabilization mediated by HCPro. In particular, we demonstrated that the first 178 amino acids of P3, but not a specific nucleotide sequence coding for them, are required for CP stability and proper assembly of PPV particles. Using a sequential coagroinfiltration assay, we observed that the subviral LONG RNA replicates and locally spreads in N. benthamiana leaves expressing an RNA silencing suppressor. The analysis of the effect of both point and deletion mutations affecting RNA replication in LONG and full-length PPV demonstrated that this process is essential for the assembly of stable viral particles. Interestingly, in spite of this requirement, the CP produced by a nonreplicating viral RNA can be stably assembled into virions as long as it is coexpressed with a replication-proficient RNA. Altogether, these results highlight the importance of coupling encapsidation to other viral processes to secure a successful infection. IMPORTANCE Viruses of the family Potyviridae are among the most dangerous threats for basically every important crop, and such socioeconomical relevance has made them a subject of many research studies. In spite of this, very little is currently known about proteins and processes controlling viral genome encapsidation by the coat protein. In the case of Plum pox virus (genus
Full Text Available Typical viral symptoms including chlorotic and uneven interveinal yellowing on leaves without leaf malformation was observed on sweet potato field in Tana Toraja, South Sulawesi. To identify the causal of the disease, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and DNA sequencing were carried out to detect the virus from infected plants. RT-PCR using universal primer for C1 gene of Potyvirus was successfully amplified approximately 683bp DNA fragment. The nucleotide sequences of this C1 gene fragment showed 98% homology to Sweet potato virus G (SPVG. Amplification using specific primer for coat protein (CP gene of SPVG followed by DNA sequencing confirmed the association of SPVG from infected plants. Further nucleotide analysis shwowed that SPVG isolate from Tana Toraja had 99.2% homology to isolate from Japan. This is the firstt report of SPVG infection on sweet potato in South Sulawesi.
Fernández-Fernández, M Rosario; Martínez-Torrecuadrada, Jorge L; Roncal, Fernando; Domínguez, Elvira; García, Juan Antonio
PEPSCAN analysis has been used to characterize the immunogenic regions of the capsid protein (CP) in virions of plum pox potyvirus (PPV). In addition to the well-known highly immunogenic N- and C-terminal domains of CP, regions within the core domain of the protein have also shown high immunogenicity. Moreover, the N terminus of CP is not homogeneously immunogenic, alternatively showing regions frequently recognized by antibodies and others that are not recognized at all. These results have helped us to design efficient antigen presentation vectors based on PPV. As predicted by PEPSCAN analysis, a small displacement of the insertion site in a previously constructed vector, PPV-gamma, turned the derived chimeras into efficient immunogens. Vectors expressing foreign peptides at different positions within a highly immunogenic region (amino acids 43 to 52) in the N-terminal domain of CP were the most effective at inducing specific antibody responses against the foreign sequence.
Full Text Available An F2 population derived from the cross of WB01, an introgression line resistant to brown planthopper (BPH originated from Oryza rufipogon Griff. and a susceptible indica variety 9311, was developed for genetic analysis and gene mapping. The population with 303 F2:3 families was genotyped by 141 simple sequence repeat (SSR markers and used for gene mapping. Two softwares, Mapmaker/Exp 3.0 and Windows QTL Cartographer V2.0 were applied to detect QTLs. Totally, two QTLs resistant to BPH, named temporarily as bph22(t and bph23(t, were identified to locate on chromosomes 4 and 8, individually had LOD values of 2.92 and 3.15, and explained 11.3% and 14 .9% of the phenotypic variation, respectively.
Sierra S. Adela
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To determine possible weed hosts of potyviruses associated with the disease known as “tree tomato virus disease” in Antioquia department (Colombia, a sampling was conducted to identify weed species commonly found in commercial crops of S. betaceum affected by the virus and the possible presence of the virus in these plants. The encountered weed species were grouped into seven different taxonomic families, within which we evaluated the ten most common species. The selected weeds, three indicator species of the virus and tree tomato plants were grown in a greenhouse and mechanically inoculated with an extract of infected tree tomato tissue. One month after inoculation, the tree tomato plants and Nicotiana tabacum showed symptoms of the disease and were serologically positive, whereas none of the weeds showed symptoms or were positive for potyviruses serology. In order to confirm that the detection of the virus was not caused by low viral titers that did not reach the minimum detection level of the test used, the tomato tree plants were reinoculated with an extract of sap from the studied weeds and potyviruses was not detected in any of the tested weeds and therefore cannot be considered, with the utilized methodology, as hosts for the potyviruses affecting tree tomato plants.
Su, Xiu; Fu, Shuai; Qian, Yajuan; Zhang, Liqin; Xu, Yi; Zhou, Xueping
A novel potyvirus was discovered in pecan (Carya illinoensis) showing leaf mosaic symptom through the use of deep sequencing of small RNAs. The complete genome of this virus was determined to comprise of 9,310 nucleotides (nt), and shared 24.0% to 58.9% nucleotide similarities with that of other Potyviridae viruses. The genome was deduced to encode a single open reading frame (polyprotein) on the plus strand. Phylogenetic analysis based on the whole genome sequence and coat protein amino acid sequence showed that this virus is most closely related to Lettuce mosaic virus. Using electron microscopy, the typical Potyvirus filamentous particles were identified in infected pecan leaves with mosaic symptoms. Our results clearly show that this virus is a new member of the genus Potyvirus in the family Potyviridae. The virus is tentatively named Pecan mosaic-associated virus (PMaV). Additionally, profiling of the PMaV-derived small RNA (PMaV-sRNA) showed that the most abundant PMaV-sRNAs were 21-nt in length. There are several hotspots for small RNA production along the PMaV genome; two 21-nt PMaV-sRNAs starting at 811 nt and 610 nt of the minus-strand genome were highly repeated.
Kelloniemi, Jani; Mäkinen, Kristiina; Valkonen, Jari P T
Potato virus A (PVA), a potyvirus with a (+)ssRNA genome translated to a large polyprotein, was engineered and used as a gene vector for expression of heterologous proteins in plants. Foreign genes including jellyfish GFP (Aequorea victoria) encoding the green fluorescent protein (GFP, 27 kDa) and the genes of human origin (Homo sapiens) encoding a soluble resistance-related calcium-binding protein (sorcin, 22 kDa) and the catechol-O-methyltransferase (S-COMT; 25 kDa) were cloned between the cistrons for the viral replicase and coat protein (CP). The inserts caused no adverse effects on viral infectivity and virulence, and the inserted sequences remained intact in progeny viruses in the systemically infected leaves. The heterologous proteins were released from the viral polyprotein following cleavage by the main viral proteinase, NIa, at engineered proteolytic processing sites flanking the insert. Active GFP, as indicated by green fluorescence, and S-COMT with high levels of enzymatic activity were produced. In contrast, no sorcin was detected despite the expected equimolar amounts of the foreign and viral proteins being expressed as a polyprotein. These data reveal inherent differences between heterologous proteins in their suitability for production in plants.
Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Schipperijn, Jasper
BACKGROUND: Many children, in particular girls, do not reach the recommended amount of daily physical activity. School recess provides an opportunity for both boys and girls to be physically active, but barriers to recess physical activity are not well understood. This study explores gender...... differences in children's perceptions of barriers to recess physical activity. Based on the socio-ecological model four types of environmental barriers were distinguished: natural, social, physical and organizational environment. METHODS: Data were collected through 17 focus groups (at 17 different schools...... this study, we recommend promoting recess physical activity through a combination of actions, addressing barriers within the natural, social, physical and organizational environment....
M. Parra Fuentes
Full Text Available Título en español: Detección molecular de potyvirus en hojas y minibulbillos de ajo, Allium sativum, asociados a un programa de producción de semilla limpia Título en ingles: Molecular detection of potyvirus in leaves and small bulbs of garlic, Allium sativum, associated a clean seed production program Titulo corto: Detección de potyvirus en plantas de ajo Resumen: El ajo (Allium sativum L se reproduce vegetativamente utilizando bulbillos, condición que favorece la propagación de enfermedades, especialmente bacterias, hongos y virus que afectan la calidad y el rendimiento del cultivo. Por este motivo se implementó la identificación molecular por RT-PCR de los potyvirus LYSV y OYDV en el sistema de producción de semilla limpia de ajo en tres clones nacionales. En la fase de producción de semilla limpia mediante micropropagación, se estandarizó el establecimiento de meristemos de ajo. La presencia de potyvirus se analizó en 586 plántulas mediante ELISA y en 70 por RT-PCR. Para la RT-PCR se extrajo ARN a partir de microbulbillos y hojas de plántulas, obteniéndose 1.7 a 226 ng/ml de ARN y se sintetizó entre 35 a 50 ng de cADN. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que el protocolo de desinfección produjo una viabilidad del 73.6%. El análisis ELISA presentó un saneamiento del 96.1% de las plántulas a potyvirus, mientras que con RT-PCR se identificó la presencia de LYSV en el 8.6% de las muestras evaluadas. El virus del enanismo amarrillo de la cebolla (OYDV no fue detectado en ninguna de las muestras. Los resultados muestran que el cultivo in vitro de meristemos de ajo es una excelente alternativa para la producción de semilla, mostrando un 92% de eficiencia. Además, validan el diagnóstico eficiente del potyvirus LYSV en hojas y microbulbillos de ajo. Palabras clave: Allium sativum, ELISA, micropropagación, LSYV, potyvirus, OYDV, RT-PCR. Abstract: Garlic (Allium sativum L, reproduces vegetatively using bulbils, condition
In 2002, the world output for copper will fall for the first time in nearly a decade because of financial pressure and voluntary constraints. Cutbacks at copper mines amount to 760,000 tonnes per year. These cutbacks have occurred mostly in the United States which holds the largest share of high cost mines. This paper discussed recent developments in both copper supply and demand. The United States is unique as both a large consumer and producer of copper. At 1.35 million tonnes, US mine output in 2001 was at its lowest since 1987. The cutbacks in mining in general were described in this paper with particular reference to the huge loss of mining and metallurgical activity in the United States during a prolonged period of low prices in the mid 1980s. The author noted that this period was followed by an exceptional decade when much of the industry rebounded. Only 8 mines closed outright in the United States and a handful in Canada since the recession of the 1980s, but that is partly because mines got bigger and there are fewer small mines in North America. There are only 4 electrolytic refineries and 3 smelters still active in the entire United States, of which 2 are operating at a fraction of capacity. It was noted that only the buoyancy of China prevented a much bigger decline in copper demand on a global scale
This paper examines five possible explanations for the Great Recession of 2008 and 2009, using data for the United States and the eurozone. Of these five hypotheses, four are not supported by the data, while the fifth appears reasonable.
Sierra S., Adela; Gil R., José Fernando; Patiño H., Luis Fernando; González J., Elena Paola
To determine possible weed hosts of potyviruses associated with the disease known as “tree tomato virus disease” in Antioquia department (Colombia), a sampling was conducted to identify weed species commonly found ...
van Ours, J.C.
The Great Recession is characterized by a GDP-decline that was unprecedented in the past decades. This paper discusses the implications of the Great Recession analyzing labor market data from 20 OECD countries. Comparing the Great Recession with the 1980s recession it is concluded that there is a
Full Text Available The Potato yellow vein virus (PYVV, a Crinivirus with an RNA tripartite genome, is the causal agent of the potato yellow vein disease, reported in Colombian since 1950, with yield reductions of up to 50%. Co-infection of two or more viruses is common in nature and can be associated with differences in virus accumulation and symptom expression. No evidence of mixed infection between PYVV and other viruses has been reported. In this study, eight plants showing yellowing PYVV symptoms: four Solanum tuberosum Group Phureja (P and four Group Andigena (A, were collected in Cundinamarca, Colombia to detect mixed infection in the isolates using next generation sequencing (NGS. The Potato virus Y (PVY complete genome (similar to N strain and the Potato virus V (PVV partial genomes were detected using NGS and re-confirmed by RT-PCR. Preliminary field screening in a large sample showed that PYVV and PVY co-infect potato plants with a prevalence of 21% within the P group and 23% within the A group. This is the first report of co-infection of PYVV and potyvirus in Colombia and with the use of NGS. Considering that potyviruses enhance symptom severity and/or yield reductions in mixed infections, our results may be relevant for disease diagnosis, breeding programs and tuber certification.
In this article recession magnitudes in Europe, the USA and Japan during the Great Recession are compared. The strongest recessions (of severe category) occurred in Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia, while recessions in Japan and the USA were significantly weaker. Even the strongest recession (in Latvia) was found smaller in its magnitude than the Great Depression 1929-1933 in the USA. Hence, comparisons of the Great Recession to the Great Depression in the literature are somewhat exaggerated.
Naderpour, Masoud; Lund, Ole Søgaard; Larsen, Richard
-3 and bc-u, have been proposed to control resistance to the potyviruses Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and Bean common mosaic necrosis virus. In order to identify molecular entities for these genes, we cloned and sequenced P. vulgaris homologues of genes encoding the eIF proteins eIF4E, eIF(iso)4E...
The aphid-transmitted potyviruses of watermelon, including papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), watermelon mosaic virus (WMV), and zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) cause serious damage to the watermelon crop throughout the world. The United States Plant Introduction (PI) 595203 is resistant to ZYMV-FL a...
Mariner, Jean A. Miller; Miller, Richard A.
The current financial crisis and recession in the United States present an opportunity to discuss relevant applications of some topics in typical first-and second-year algebra and precalculus courses. Real-world applications of percent change, exponential functions, and sums of finite geometric sequences can help students understand the problems…
Uzarowska, Anna; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Sarholz, Barbara
Background The potyviruses sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) and maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) are major pathogens of maize worldwide. Two loci, Scmv1 and Scmv2, have ealier been shown to confer complete resistance to SCMV. Custom-made microarrays containing previously identified SCMV resistance...... the effectiveness and reliability of the combination of different expression profiling approaches for the identification and validation of candidate genes. Genes identified in this study represent possible future targets for manipulation of SCMV resistance in maize....
Presented are alternate designs for two existing bridges in Virginia - one with steel beams and the other with prestressed concrete beams - whereby the pier caps are recessed within the depth of the longitudinal beams. The purpose of this recession i...
Ridgers, Nicola D.; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Welk, Gregory J.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Huberty, Jennifer
Background: School recess provides a daily opportunity for physical activity engagement. The purpose of this study was to examine physical activity levels during recess by gender, ethnicity, and grade, and establish the contribution of recess to daily school physical activity levels. Methods: Two hundred and ten children (45% boys) from grades 3…
Musante, Luciana; Ropers, H. Hilger
Most severe forms of intellectual disability (ID) have specific genetic causes. Numerous X chromosome gene defects and disease-causing copy-number variants have been linked to ID and related disorders, and recent studies have revealed that sporadic cases are often due to dominant de novo mutations with low recurrence risk. For autosomal recessive ID (ARID) the recurrence risk is high and, in populations with frequent parental consanguinity, ARID is the most common form of ID. Even so, its elu...
Ability of Aphis gossypii and Myzus persicae to Transmit Cucumber mosaic virus in Single and Mixed Infection with Two Potyviruses to Zucchini Squash Eficiência dos afídeos Aphis gossypii e Myzus persicae na transmissão do Cucumber mosaic virus em infecção simples e mista com dois Potyvirus para abobrinha de moita
Zayame Vegette Pinto
Full Text Available The main objective of this work was to investigate the ability of Aphis gossypii and Myzus persicae to transmit Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV singly and mixed with two potyviruses (Papaya ringspot virus - type W, PRSV-W and Zucchini yellow mosaic virus, ZYMV, to zucchini squash plants (Cucurbita pepo. The results showed that the potyviruses in general were more efficiently transmitted by both species of aphids as compared to CMV. The transmission of PRSV-W, ZYMV and CMV separately was more efficient than in mixture.O objetivo desse trabalho foi estudar a eficiência de Aphis gossypii e Myzus persicae na transmissão do vírus do mosaico do pepino (Cucumber mosaic virus, CMV, isoladamente e em mistura com duas espécies de potyvirus (Vírus do mosaico do mamoeiro = Papaya ringspot virus - type W, PRSV-W e Vírus do mosaico amarelo da abobrinha = Zucchini yellow mosaic virus, ZYMV, para planta-testes de abobrinha de moita (Cucurbita pepo. Os dois potyvirus em geral foram transmitidos com mais eficiência pelas duas espécies de afídeos do que o CMV. A transmissão do PRSV-W, ZYMV e CMV, separadamente, foi mais eficiente do que em mistura.
Mariluz Ayala Vásquez
Full Text Available El tomate de árbol (Solanum betaceum es una fruta andina altamente nutritiva, con propiedades organolépticas únicas para el procesamiento industrial y el mercado internacional. En Antioquia, este cultivo presenta diferentes problemas fitosanitarios, siendo especialmente limitante la Virosis, causada por un complejo viral del que hacen parte entre otras, especies del género Potyvirus. En este trabajo se evaluaron mediante pruebas de ELISA los niveles de incidencia de este grupo viral en cultivos de siete zonas del departamento de Antioquia (Colombia y se determinó la identidad taxonómica de dos de los potyvirus asociados al cultivo. Las pruebas serológicas muestran la presencia de potyvirus en seis de las siete zonas evaluadas, alcanzando niveles superiores al 80% de incidencia, siendo la excepción los cultivos del municipio de Jardín (8%. Pruebas serológicas con anticuerpos específicos para PVY, identificaron a este virus como uno de los presentes en algunas de las muestras sintomáticas colectadas; mientras que análisis de secuencias de amplicones obtenidos mediante RT-PCR, detectaron un nuevo potyvirus, para el que se propone el nombre Tamarillo Leaf Malformation Virus (TaLMV, aunque es necesario completar la secuencia de su genoma para confirmar la validez de esta hipótesis taxonómica. Esta investigación representa un avance importante en el conocimiento que se tiene en Colombia sobre los agentes causales virales del tomate de árbol. Sin embargo, es necesario profundizar en aspectos como los mecanismos de transmisión de estos virus y los efectos individuales y de su interacción sobre las variedades de este cultivo en el país.
Murphy, S M
Employment in construction in Ireland fell by 10% from nearly 282,000 in the second quarter of 2007 to 255,000 in the same period of 2008. Our study looks at the differences in soft tissue upper limb trauma dynamics of a pre- and post-recession Ireland. Construction accounted for 330 patients (27%) of all hand injuries in 2006, but only 18 (3%) in 2009. Our data shows a significant drop in hand injuries related to the construction industry, and more home\\/DIY cases and deliberate self-harm presenting in their stead.
Murphy, S M; Kieran, I; Shaughnessy, M O
Employment in construction in Ireland fell by 10% from nearly 282,000 in the second quarter of 2007 to 255,000 in the same period of 2008. Our study looks at the differences in soft tissue upper limb trauma dynamics of a pre- and post-recession Ireland. Construction accounted for 330 patients (27%) of all hand injuries in 2006, but only 18 (3%) in 2009. Our data shows a significant drop in hand injuries related to the construction industry, and more home/DIY cases and deliberate self-harm presenting in their stead.
Musante, Luciana; Ropers, H Hilger
Most severe forms of intellectual disability (ID) have specific genetic causes. Numerous X chromosome gene defects and disease-causing copy-number variants have been linked to ID and related disorders, and recent studies have revealed that sporadic cases are often due to dominant de novo mutations with low recurrence risk. For autosomal recessive ID (ARID) the recurrence risk is high and, in populations with frequent parental consanguinity, ARID is the most common form of ID. Even so, its elucidation has lagged behind. Here we review recent progress in this field, show that ARID is not rare even in outbred Western populations, and discuss the prospects for improving its diagnosis and prevention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Garcia-Ruiz, Hernan; Gabriel Peralta, Sergio M; Harte-Maxwell, Patricia A
Plant viruses are inducers and targets of antiviral RNA silencing. To condition susceptibility, most plant viruses encode silencing suppressor proteins that interfere with antiviral RNA silencing. The NSs protein is an RNA silencing suppressor in orthotospoviruses, such as the tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). The mechanism of RNA silencing suppression by NSs and its role in virus infection and movement are poorly understood. Here, we cloned and tagged TSWV NSs and expressed it from a GFP-tagged turnip mosaic virus (TuMV-GFP) carrying either a wild-type or suppressor-deficient (AS9) helper component proteinase (HC-Pro). When expressed in cis, NSs restored pathogenicity and promoted systemic infection of suppressor-deficient TuMV-AS9-GFP in Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis thaliana . Inactivating mutations were introduced in NSs RNA-binding domain one. A genetic analysis with active and suppressor-deficient NSs, in combination with wild-type and mutant plants lacking essential components of the RNA silencing machinery, showed that the NSs insert is stable when expressed from a potyvirus. NSs can functionally replace potyviral HC-Pro, condition virus susceptibility, and promote systemic infection and symptom development by suppressing antiviral RNA silencing through a mechanism that partially overlaps that of potyviral HC-Pro. The results presented provide new insight into the mechanism of silencing suppression by NSs and its effect on virus infection.
Knudsen, Eirik Sjåholm; Foss, Kirsten
The economic theory of the firm offers conflicting predictions of how the two major effects of recessions, changes in demand and access to credit, affect firm boundaries. Using data on Norwegian firms in the recent recession, we find support for both increased and reduced vertical integration...... explanation for the conflicting theoretical predictions regarding vertical integration in response to demand and credit shocks....
Ala-Poikela, Marjo; Goytia, Elisa; Haikonen, Tuuli; Rajamäki, Minna-Liisa; Valkonen, Jari P T
The multifunctional helper component proteinase (HCpro) of potyviruses (genus Potyvirus; Potyviridae) shows self-interaction and interacts with other potyviral and host plant proteins. Host proteins that are pivotal to potyvirus infection include the eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF4E and the isoform eIF(iso)4E, which interact with viral genome-linked protein (VPg). Here we show that HCpro of Potato virus A (PVA) interacts with both eIF4E and eIF(iso)4E, with interactions with eIF(iso)4E being stronger, as judged by the data of a yeast two-hybrid system assay. A bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay on leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana showed that HCpro from three potyviruses (PVA, Potato virus Y, and Tobacco etch virus) interacted with the eIF(iso)4E and eIF4E of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum); interactions with eIF(iso)4E and eIF4E of potato (Solanum tuberosum) were weaker. In PVA-infected cells, interactions between HCpro and tobacco eIF(iso)4E were confined to round structures that colocalized with 6K2-induced vesicles. Point mutations introduced to a 4E binding motif identified in the C-terminal region of HCpro debilitated interactions of HCpro with translation initiation factors and were detrimental to the virulence of PVA in plants. The 4E binding motif conserved in HCpro of potyviruses and HCpro-initiation factor interactions suggest new roles for HCpro and/or translation factors in the potyvirus infection cycle.
Yamasoba, Tatsuya; Kikuchi, Shigeru; Takeuchi, Naonobu; Harada, Takehiko; Nomura, Yasuya
The structures of the anterior epitympanic recess and its surrounding tissues were examined among non-inflammatory ear, chronic otitis media with central perforation and cholesteatoma, using axial scans of high resolution computed tomography. The length and width of the recess, as well as the number of the slices where the cog was determined, had no significant differences among them. Thus, the bony structure of the recess was considered to be seldom influenced by inflammatory processes. In the non-inflammatory ear, the degree of pneumatization around the recess was similar to that of the petrous apex cells and lower than that of the mastoid cells. In the chronic otitis media with central perforation and cholesteatoma, the pneumatization of the whole temporal bones was suppressed and the tendency was also found that the cells around the recess were less pneumatized than the mastoid cells. When cholesteatoma invaded into the anterior epitympanic recess, the destruction of the bony protrusion of the lateral wall between the recess and the epitympanum was recognized, as well as the disappearance of the cog. The bony protrusion was considered to be an inferior extention of the cog toward the anterior tympanic spine. (author)
Hospital capital investment is important for acquiring and maintaining technology and equipment needed to provide health care. Reduction in capital investment by a hospital has negative implications for patient outcomes. Most hospitals rely on debt and internal cash flow to fund capital investment. The great recession may have made it difficult for hospitals to borrow, thus reducing their capital investment. I investigated the impact of the great recession on capital investment made by California hospitals. Modeling how hospital capital investment may have been liquidity constrained during the recession is a novel contribution to the literature. I estimated the model with California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development data and system generalized method of moments. Findings suggest that not-for-profit and public hospitals were liquidity constrained during the recession. Comparing the changes in hospital capital investment between 2006 and 2009 showed that hospitals used cash flow to increase capital investment by $2.45 million, other things equal.
Full Text Available Anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with classical features in 2 sisters is reported. The mode of inheritance in these seems to be autosomal recessive; which is a very rare occurrence.
Anat Bracha; Julian Jamison
Confidence in homeownership shifts for those who personally experienced real estate loss during the Great Recession. Older Americans are confident in the value of homeownership. Younger Americans are less confident.
Engsted, Tom; Møller, Stig Vinther; Jensen, Magnus David Sander
We document that over the period 1953-2011 US bond returns are predictable in expansionary periods but unpredictable during recessions. This result holds in both in-sample and out-of-sample analyses and using both univariate regressions and combination forecasting techniques. A simulation study...... but negative in recessions. The results are also consistent with tests showing that the expectations hypothesis of the term structure holds in recessions but not in expansions. However, the results for bonds are in sharp contrast to results for stocks showing that stock returns are predictable in recessions...... but not in expansions. Thus, our results indicate that there is not a common predictive pattern of stock and bond returns associated with the state of the economy....
During a recession, cost-sharing of employer-sponsored health benefits could increase to reduce labor costs in the U.S. Using a variation in the severity of recession shocks across industries, I find evidence that the enrollment rate of high deductible health plans (HDHPs) among workers covered by employer-sponsored health benefits increased more among firms in industries that experienced severe recession shocks. As potential mechanisms, I study employer-side and worker-side mechanisms. I find that employers changed health benefit offerings to force or incentivize workers to enroll in HDHPs. But I find little evidence of an increase in workers' demand for HDHPs due to a reduction in income. These results suggest that the HDHP enrollment rate increased during the Great Recession, as employers tried to save costs of offering health benefits. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Boria, F; Maseda, R; Martín-Cameán, M; De la Calle, M; de Lucas, R
Dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa is a rare inherited disease caused by mutations in the COL7A1 gene. Its recessive variant (recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa) is characterized by the absence or considerably reduced expression of type VII collagen, which leads to marked fragility of the skin and mucous membranes and subsequent blister formation, whether spontaneously or following minimal injury. There have been very few reports of this disease in pregnant women. We present 2 cases of pregnant women with recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa managed in our High-Risk Pregnancy Unit at Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid, Spain. Both patients underwent full-term cesarean delivery, with no further complications for mother or child. Although recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa increases the risk of maternal complications, a patient is not advised against pregnancy. With adequate monitoring, these patients can fulfil their desire to become mothers. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Hospital capital investment is important for acquiring and maintaining technology and equipment needed to provide health care. Reduction in capital investment by a hospital has negative implications for patient outcomes. Most hospitals rely on debt and internal cash flow to fund capital investment. The great recession may have made it difficult for hospitals to borrow, thus reducing their capital investment. I investigated the impact of the great recession on capital investment made by California hospitals. Modeling how hospital capital investment may have been liquidity constrained during the recession is a novel contribution to the literature. I estimated the model with California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development data and system generalized method of moments. Findings suggest that not-for-profit and public hospitals were liquidity constrained during the recession. Comparing the changes in hospital capital investment between 2006 and 2009 showed that hospitals used cash flow to increase capital investment by $2.45 million, other things equal. PMID:28617202
The Great Recession had a large negative impact on the U.S. economy. Asset prices, most notably stock and house prices, declined substantially, resulting in a loss in wealth for many American households. In this article, Makoto Nakajima documents how diverse households were affected in a variety of dimensions during the Great Recession, in particular between 2007 and 2009, using newly available data from the 2007-2009 Survey of Consumer Finances. He discusses why it is important to look at th...
Adamopoulou, Effrosyni; Tanzi, Giulia M.
In this paper we study how the Great Recession affected university students in terms of performance, with a special focus on the dropout probability. To do so, we use individual-level data on a representative sample of university students in Italy in 2007 and 2011. We measure the severity of the recession in terms of increases in adult and youth unemployment rate and we exploit geographical variation to achieve identification. On the one hand, an increase in adult male unemployment rate deter...
Naderpour, M; Lund, O Søgaard; Larsen, R
-binding proteins, eIF4E, eIF(iso)4E and nCBP. In cultivars reported to carry bc-3 resistance, eIF4E was found to display non-silent mutations at codons 53, 65, 76 and 111 closely resembling a pattern of eIF4E mutations determining potyvirus resistance in other plant species. By application of a molecular marker...
Streamflow recession curves are hydrological signatures allowing to study the relationship between groundwater storage and baseflow and/or low flows at the catchment scale. Recent studies have showed that streamflow recession analysis can be quite sensitive to the combination of different models, extraction techniques and parameter estimation methods. In order to better characterize streamflow recession curves, new methodologies combining multiple approaches have been recommended. The HYDRORECESSION toolbox, presented here, is a Matlab graphical user interface developed to analyse streamflow recession time series with the support of different tools allowing to parameterize linear and nonlinear storage-outflow relationships through four of the most useful recession models (Maillet, Boussinesq, Coutagne and Wittenberg). The toolbox includes four parameter-fitting techniques (linear regression, lower envelope, data binning and mean squared error) and three different methods to extract hydrograph recessions segments (Vogel, Brutsaert and Aksoy). In addition, the toolbox has a module that separates the baseflow component from the observed hydrograph using the inverse reservoir algorithm. Potential applications provided by HYDRORECESSION include model parameter analysis, hydrological regionalization and classification, baseflow index estimates, catchment-scale recharge and low-flows modelling, among others. HYDRORECESSION is freely available for non-commercial and academic purposes.
Mathur, Chhavi; Savithri, Handanahal S.
Highlights: ► Pepper vein banding potyvirus VPg harbors Walker motifs. ► VPg exhibits ATPase activity in the presence of NIa-Pro. ► Plausible structural and functional interplay between VPg and NIa-Pro. ► Functional relevance of prolonged presence of VPg-Pro during infection. -- Abstract: Potyviruses temporally regulate their protein function by polyprotein processing. Previous studies have shown that VPg (Viral Protein genome-linked) of Pepper vein banding virus interacts with the NIa-Pro (Nuclear Inclusion-a protease) domain, and modulates the kinetics of the protease. In the present study, we report for the first time that VPg harbors the Walker motifs A and B, and the presence of NIa-Pro, especially in cis (cleavage site (E191A) VPg-Pro mutant), is essential for manifestation of the ATPase activity. Mutation of Lys47 (Walker motif A) and Asp88:Glu89 (Walker motif B) to alanine in E191A VPg-Pro lead to reduced ATPase activity, confirming that this activity was inherent to VPg. We propose that potyviral VPg, established as an intrinsically disordered domain, undergoes plausible structural alterations upon interaction with globular NIa-Pro which induces the ATPase activity.
Majer, Eszter; Navarro, José-Antonio; Daròs, José-Antonio
Plant virus-based expression systems allow quick and efficient production of recombinant proteins in plant biofactories. Among them, a system derived from tobacco etch virus (TEV; genus potyvirus) permits coexpression of equimolar amounts of several recombinant proteins. This work analyzed how to target recombinant proteins to different subcellular localizations in the plant cell using this system. We constructed TEV clones in which green fluorescent protein (GFP), with a chloroplast transit peptide (cTP), a nuclear localization signal (NLS) or a mitochondrial targeting peptide (mTP) was expressed either as the most amino-terminal product or embedded in the viral polyprotein. Results showed that cTP and mTP mediated efficient translocation of GFP to the corresponding organelle only when present at the amino terminus of the viral polyprotein. In contrast, the NLS worked efficiently at both positions. Viruses expressing GFP in the amino terminus of the viral polyprotein produced milder symptoms. Untagged GFPs and cTP and NLS tagged amino-terminal GFPs accumulated to higher amounts in infected tissues. Finally, viral progeny from clones with internal GFPs maintained the extra gene better. These observations will help in the design of potyvirus-based vectors able to coexpress several proteins while targeting different subcellular localizations, as required in plant metabolic engineering. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Hajlasz, M.; Donkers, J.J.T.M.; Sque, S.J.; Heil, S.B.S.; Gravesteijn, Dirk J; Rietveld, F.J.R.; Schmitz, Jurriaan
In this work the choice of appropriate test structures and characterization methods for recessed Ohmic contacts to AlGaN/GaN is discussed. It is shown that, in the worst-case scenario, the prevailing assumption of identical sheet resistance between and under the contacts can lead to errors of up to
NOGER, C.; PATRAT, J. C.; PEUBE, J.; PEUBE, J. L.
The general focus of this aerodynamic noise research, induced by turbulent incompressible flow, is to improve our knowledge of acoustic production mechanisms in the TGV pantograph recess in order to be able to reduce the radiated noise. This work is performed under contract with SNCF as a part of the German-French Cooperation DEUFRAKO K2, and is supported by French Ministries for Transport and Research. Previous studies on TGV noise source locations (DEUFRAKO K) have identified the pantograph recess as one of the important aerodynamic noise sources, for speeds higher than 300 km/h, due to flow separation. The pantograph recess is a very complex rectangular cavity, located both on the power car and the first coach roofs of the TGV, and has not been studied before due to the complex shapes. Its aeroacoustic features are investigated experimentally in a low-subsonic wind tunnel, on a realistic 1/7th scale mock-up both with and without pantographs. Flow velocities, estimated with hot-wire anemometry, and parietal visualizations show the flow to reattach on the recess bottom wall and to separate again at the downstream face. Wall pressure fluctuations and “acoustic” measurements using 14 and 12 in microphones respectively are also measured to qualify the flow: no aerodynamic or acoustic oscillations are observed. The study indicates that the pantograph recess has a different behaviour compared to the usual cavity grazing flows.
Full Text Available The reality in all organization is that the directors and board are in the position of highest influence and their primary responsibility is leadership. As such, considering the consequences of a recession such as we currently face is not the time for directors to abdicate their responsibilities – it is time for governance leadership. The directors and the board must think and respond strategically. The article shows a matrix for positioning the general manager in recession that is similarly with BCG matrix and in the final a table with a set of essential questions for helping the board in new strategies building.
Shih, Chun-Hsing; Hsia, Jui-Kai
Recessed channels were used in scaled dopant-segregated Schottky barrier MOSFETs (DS-SBMOS) to control the severe short-channel effect. The physical operation and device scalability of the DS-SBMOS resulting from the presence of recessed channels and associated gate-corners are elucidated. The coupling of Schottky and gate-corner barriers has a key function in determining the on–off switching and drain current. The gate-corner barriers divide the channel into three regions for protection from the drain penetration field. To prevent resistive degradations in the drive current, an alternative asymmetric recessed channel (ARC) without a source-side gate-corner is proposed to simultaneously optimize both the short-channel effect and drive current in the scaled DS-SBMOS. By employing the proposed ARC architecture, the DS-SBMOS devices can be successfully scaled down, making them promising candidates for next-generation CMOS devices. (paper)
Singh, Ajay; Patwardhan, Anand
All currently available climate models predict a near-surface warming trend under the influence of rising levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. In addition to the direct effects on climate — for example, on the frequency of heat waves — this increase in surface temperatures has important consequences for the cryosphere subsequently hydrological cycle, particularly in regions where water supply is currently dominated by melting snow or ice. The Indian Himalayan region occupies a special place in the mountain ecosystems of the world. These geodynamically young mountains are not only important from the standpoint of climate and as a provider of life, giving water to a large part of the Indian subcontinent, but they also harbor a rich variety of flora, fauna, human communities and cultural diversity. Glaciers in this region are changing in area as well as in volume like those in other parts of the world. Studies have been carried out for recession in some of these glaciers using remote sensing as well as field observation techniques. Spatiotemporal pattern in the recession rate of the studied glaciers has been presented in this paper. Plausible causes for the recession have been also discussed. Finally, future scopes for observation and analysis in glaciers recession have been suggested.
Verstegen, Deborah A.
The impact of the Great Recession and its aftermath has been devastating in Nevada, especially for public education. This article discusses the budget shortfalls and the impact of the economic crisis in Nevada using case study methodology. It provides a review of documents, including Governor Gibbon's proposals for the public K-12 education system…
Hobijn, B.; Elsby, M.W.L.; Sahin, A.
From the perspective of a wide range of labor market outcomes, the recession that began in 2007 represents the deepest downturn in the postwar era. Early on, the nature of labor market adjustment displayed a notable resemblance to that observed in past severe downturns. During the latter half of
Lucian Marius IVANOV
Global recession brought about a significant growth in competition, stressing the need for relevant and reliable intelligence as a support for making efficient strategic decisions. The recent circumstances draw the attention far more earnestly this time on the need for an intelligence structure within companies to be ready for sustaining business management endeavours in line with increasing competitiveness, protection and promotion of their interests.
Lucas, Matthew D.
During recess, the participation of a student with visual impairments in terms of movement can often be both challenging and rewarding for the student and general education teacher. This paper will address common characteristics of students with visual impairments and present basic solutions to improve the participation of these students in the…
Abstract: Background:Epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS) is characterized by intraepidermal blister formation, most commonly appearing in early infancy. Many variants of EBS exist; the four most common variants are inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. The recessive forms are rare and less reported in our ...
Molund, Marius; Paulsrud, Øyvind; Ellingsen Husebye, Elisabeth; Nilsen, Fredrik; Hvaal, Kjetil
Very few studies describe the clinical results and complications following the surgical procedure of gastrocnemius recession. To survey the patient reported outcomes in patients operated with gastrocnemius recession as single procedure for various foot conditions. 93 patients operated with gastrocnemius recession as single procedure between 2006 and 2011 were detected in the database. 73 patients responded to the invitation for study participation. Questionnaires containing patient reported satisfaction, complications, plantar flexion power and visual analog pain score were used for evaluation of the postoperative result. 45/73 (62%) patients reported a good or excellent result. 8/73 (11%) patients reported a significant postoperative complication. 16/73 (22%) patients noted reduced or severely reduced plantar flexion power after surgery. VAS pain score significantly decreased from 7.0 before surgery to 1.8 (p=0.015) after surgery for patients with plantar fasciitis (n=18) and from 5.6 to 2.3 (p<0.01) for patients with metatarsalgia (n=28). Patients treated with gastrocnemius recession for plantar fasciitis demonstrated good clinical results. The complication rate was higher than reported by others. Copyright © 2014 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
College of Agricultural Engineering & Post Harvest Technology (CAEPHT),. Central Agricultural ... during the recession period is the key to its proper management. The spring .... In equation (1), Q is the recession flow, t is time, and a, b are ...
Castelló, María José; Carrasco, Jose Luis; Navarrete-Gómez, Marisa; Daniel, Jacques; Granot, David; Vera, Pablo
DNA-binding protein phosphatases (DBPs) have been identified as a novel class of plant-specific regulatory factors playing a role in plant-virus interactions. NtDBP1 from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) was shown to participate in transcriptional regulation of gene expression in response to virus infection in compatible interactions, and AtDBP1, its closest relative in the model plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), has recently been found to mediate susceptibility to potyvirus, one of the most speciose taxa of plant viruses. Here, we report on the identification of a novel family of highly conserved small polypeptides that interact with DBP1 proteins both in tobacco and Arabidopsis, which we have designated DBP-interacting protein 2 (DIP2). The interaction of AtDIP2 with AtDBP1 was demonstrated in vivo by bimolecular fluorescence complementation, and AtDIP2 was shown to functionally interfere with AtDBP1 in yeast. Furthermore, reducing AtDIP2 gene expression leads to increased susceptibility to the potyvirus Plum pox virus and to a lesser extent also to Turnip mosaic virus, whereas overexpression results in enhanced resistance. Therefore, we describe a novel family of conserved small polypeptides in plants and identify AtDIP2 as a novel host factor contributing to resistance to potyvirus in Arabidopsis.
Čeřovská, Noemi; Hoffmeisterová, Hana; Pečenková, Tamara; Moravec, Tomáš; Synková, Helena; Plchová, Helena; Velemínský, Jiří
Roč. 58, č. 1 (2008), s. 154-161 ISSN 1046-5928 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/06/0973 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : epitopes expression * Human papillomavirus * transient expression * potyvirus-like particles * synergistic infection Subject RIV: EB - Gen etics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.621, year: 2008
Lu, Bin; Sun, Min; Palacios, Tomas Apostol
A semiconductor structure has a first layer that includes a first semiconductor material and a second layer that includes a second semiconductor material. The first semiconductor material is selectively etchable over the second semiconductor material using a first etching process. The first layer is disposed over the second layer. A recess is disposed at least in the first layer. Also described is a method of forming a semiconductor structure that includes a recess. The method includes etching a region in a first layer using a first etching process. The first layer includes a first semiconductor material. The first etching process stops at a second layer beneath the first layer. The second layer includes a second semiconductor material.
Full Text Available The objective of the article was to present possible applications of recession flow curve in a small lowland watershed retention discharge size evaluation. The examined woodland micro catchment area of 0.52 sq km is located in Puszcza Zielonka in central Wielkopolska. The Hutka catchment is typically woody with high retention abilities. The catchment of the Hutka watercourse is forested in 89%, the other 11% is covered by swamps and wasteland. The predominant sites are fresh mixed coniferous forest (BMśw, fresh coniferous forest (Bśw and alder carr forest (Ol. Landscape in catchment is characterized by a large number of interior depressions, filled partly with rainwater or peatbogs, with poorly developed natural drainage. The watercourses do not exceed 1 km in length, the mean width is approx. 0.5 m, while mean depth ranges from 0.2 to 0.3 m. During hydrological research conducted in 1997/1998–1999/2000, 35 major (characteristic raised water stages were observed in Hutka after substantial precipitation. The recession curve dating from 18–24 September 2000 has the α and n rates nearest to average. Comparing the model curve and the curve created by observing watercourse flow, one can notice their resemblance and that they have similar ordinate values as well as shape. In the case of other recession curves, the maximum differences of ordinate values are also about 0.1–0.2 l/s/km2. The measuured α and n rates do not reveal any regularities. There are no significant statistical Horton model parameter (for recession flow curves dependencies between α and n and e.g. initial flows (Qo or the whole period of high water waves (Qp. Consequently, calculated relation between these parameters is only an approximation for the general evaluation of the retention discharge in the catchment area towards retention with flow function.
Gkanoutas-Leventis, Angelos; Nesvetailova, Anastasia
This article addresses the role of world oil price hike of 2007–08 in serving to transform the financial and banking crisis into what is commonly referred to the Great Recession. Existing literature on the global crisis of 2007–09 tends to view it as a financial or banking phenomenon, with analyses focusing mainly on state policies, governance mechanisms and market dynamics in transforming the banking crisis of 2007–08 into the economic recession of 2008-12/13 Although often attributing the global meltdown to wider phenomenon of financialisation, rarely do existing perspectives delve into the role of the commodity sector in the global credit crunch. In this paper, we aim to fill this gap, by inquiring into the role played by oil as a financial asset class in the political economy of the global crisis. - Highlights: • We study the oil price and its effects on the Great Recession. • We approach oil as a financial asset class. • We observe the transformation of oil through deregulation.
Adam S. Ward; Michael N. Gooseff; Michael Fitzgerald; Thomas J. Voltz; Kamini Singha
The transport of solutes along hyporheic flowpaths is recognized as central to numerous biogeochemical cycles, yet our understanding of how this transport changes with baseflow recession, particularly in a spatially distributed manner, is limited. We conducted four steady-state solute tracer injections and collected electrical resistivity data to characterize hyporheic...
Norström, Thor; Grönqvist, Hans
How have suicide rates responded to the marked increase in unemployment spurred by the Great Recession? Our paper puts this issue into a wider perspective by assessing (1) whether the unemployment-suicide link is modified by the degree of unemployment protection, and (2) whether the effect on suicide of the present crisis differs from the effects of previous economic downturns. We analysed the unemployment-suicide link using time-series data for 30 countries spanning the period 1960-2012. Separate fixed-effects models were estimated for each of five welfare state regimes with different levels of unemployment protection (Eastern, Southern, Anglo-Saxon, Bismarckian and Scandinavian). We included an interaction term to capture the possible excess effect of unemployment during the Great Recession. The largest unemployment increases occurred in the welfare state regimes with the least generous unemployment protection. The unemployment effect on male suicides was statistically significant in all welfare regimes, except the Scandinavian one. The effect on female suicides was significant only in the eastern European country group. There was a significant gradient in the effects, being stronger the less generous the unemployment protection. The interaction term capturing the possible excess effect of unemployment during the financial crisis was not significant. Our findings suggest that the more generous the unemployment protection the weaker the detrimental impact on suicide of the increasing unemployment during the Great Recession. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Espinós, Carmen; Calpena, Eduardo; Martínez-Rubio, Dolores; Lupo, Vincenzo
Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease, a hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy that comprises a complex group of more than 50 diseases, is the most common inherited neuropathy. CMT is generally divided into demyelinating forms, axonal forms and intermediate forms. CMT is also characterized by a wide genetic heterogeneity with 29 genes and more than 30 loci involved. The most common pattern of inheritance is autosomal dominant (AD), although autosomal recessive (AR) forms are more frequent in Mediterranean countries. In this chapter we give an overview of the associated genes, mechanisms and epidemiology of AR-CMT forms and their associated phenotypes.
McArdle, F B
Legislation drafted in Switzerland in 1975--77 aims at countering the effects of inflation and recession by bringing increased revenues into the system, reducing expenditures, devising a mechanism to adjust pensions automatically, and improving income maintenance for the unemployed. The proposed legislation to place the social security system on a sound financial basis now needs voter approval in a referendum. Swiss voters meanwhile rejected (in mid-1977) a government-proposed value-added tax designed to finance increasing government contributions during 1978-82. Still to be resolved, therefore, is the problem of how the government will finance higher contributions and still achieve its staged goal of a balanced budget.
Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Andersen, Henriette Bondo; Troelsen, Jens
participated in go-along group interviews, and recess behavior was observed using an ethnographical participant observation approach. All data were analyzed separated systematically answering the Five W Questions. Children were categorized into Low, Middle and High physical activity groups and these groups...... quantitative GPS and accelerometer measurements with qualitative go-along group interviews and participant observations. Data were collected during three weekdays in a public school in Denmark. Eighty-one children (47 girls) wore an accelerometer (ActiGraph GT3X) and GPS (QStarz BT-Q1000xt), sixteen children...
Enckevort, L.J.G. van; Hoogkamp, T.J.H.; Bergervoet, J.E.M.; Visser, R.G.F.; Jacobsen, E.; Stiekma, W.J.; Pereira, A.
In potato, two different in vitro approaches were used to generate recessive mutants. In the first method, monoploid plant material was irradiated to isolate and identify amylose-free (amf) mutants in potato. For isolating secondary mutants in the amf background new monoploids of the amf type were developed. A few selected amf monoploids showed excellent vigour in vitro, large leave; and microtuber formation. A diploid and a monoploid were tested for in vitro mutation induction and irradiated with 0 to 16 Gy X rays. The optimal dose for survival and mutation induction was between 4 and 8 Gy and plants were regenerated from irradiated leaf explants. In the second approach, mutants were induced by insertion of transposable elements in the diploids. This method was used to mutate R genes for resistance to Phytophthora infestans. Diploid heterozygous Rr plants with the immobilised Ds element, closely linked to one of the R genes, were selected. Mobilisation of Ds using Ac element transposase resulted in the selection of plants with active somatic Ds excision frequency of about 10%. In vitro protoplast isolation and plant regeneration from such plants enabled the selection of regenerants with new independent Ds insertions. Hygromycin selection (Ds excision marker on the T-DNA) during protoplast regeneration increased the frequency of Ds excision regenerants to 56%. A total of 582 hygromycin resistant plants were regenerated and selected in vitro. Preliminary analysis of the regenerants showed re-insertions of Ds in the predicted coding sequences of genes. (author)
James Alm; David L. Sjoquist
The "Great Recession" lasted from December 2007 to June 2009, and it wreaked havoc on the revenues of state (and local) governments. While the U.S. economy has improved since the end of the Great Recession, state government revenues have in most cases still not completely recovered. We use various indicators to measure how different states have -- or have not -- recovered in the aftermath of the Great Recession, and we also attempt to explain why these different patterns of recovery have emer...
Full Text Available Azygoesophageal recess (AER is right posterior mediastinal recess . Knowledge of normal radiologic appearance and manifestations of disease in AER can facilitate the detection and diagnosis of many intrathoracic diseases ranging from infective processes to tumors involving mediastinum, lung/pleura, lymphatic system, upper gastrointestinal system (esophagus & stomach & cardio - vascular system. Aim of this study was to investigate various intrathoracic pathologies, altering the configuration of AER on CT in adults & to find out any significance with various disease processes. This study was carried out in CT center, Department of Radiodiagnosis, Krishna Institute of medical sciences, Karad from October 2012 - September 2014. CT thorax of 156 patients was studied for configuration of AER irrespective of pathology. In this study , configuration of AER was altered in descending order with pathologies belonging to following systems: Respiratory system (Lung parenchyma pathologies causing volume loss of right lower lobe particularly Koch’s , UIP , Malignancy , Pleural pathologies (Secondary more common than Primary >Lymphatic system(secondary subcarinal lymph node more common than Primary Lymphoma >Cardio - vascular system(Cardiomegaly particularly Left atrial enlargement >Gastrointestinal system ( hiatus herni a & esophageal Cancer > Mediastinum ( Koch’s of dorsal spine with paraspinal abscess.
Mejía A. Diana Marcela
Full Text Available
El principal limitante del cultivo de tomate de árbol en Colombia es el ataque de virus, el cual reduce la producción y calidad de la fruta. En condiciones de invernadero se evaluó el efecto del inductor de resistencia Acibenzolar-S-metil- ASM (Boost® sobre la incidencia y severidad de la virosis en plantas inoculadas con extracto de hojas naturalmente infectadas con virus, mediante aplicación foliar de 0,08% de producto comercial por planta cada 20 días. La incidencia de la virosis se redujo en 50% cuando el inductor se aplicó antes de la inoculación con el virus, seguido de dos aplicaciones adicionales de ASM, comparado con 100% de incidencia en las plantas inoculadas solo con el extracto de plantas infectadas con el virus, tendencia encontrada también en la curva de desarrollo de la enfermedad. Se observó un retraso de 7 días en la aparición de síntomas cuando se aplicó el inductor antes de la inoculación así como se observó una reducción significativa en el grado de severidad de la enfermedad. El potyvirus fue detectado mediante la prueba ELISA; sin embargo, no se encontraron diferencias estadísticas significativas en su concentración entre los diferentes tratamientos.
Marianne Bitler; Hilary Hoynes; Elira Kuka
In the midst of the Great Recession, median real household income fell from $61,597 in 2007 to $57,025 in 2010 and $51,007 in 2012. Given that the effects of the Great Recession on unemployment were greater for less skilled workers the authors expect the effects of the Great Recession on household incomes to be larger in relative terms for individuals in the lower end of the income distribution. To explore this issue, in this paper, they comprehensively examine the effects of the Great Recess...
Full Text Available AIM: Literature is replete with studies on gingival recession, the apical shift of the gingival margin from the cemento-enamel junction. Chronic periodontitis and frequent toothbrushing are among its aetiological factors. Many of these were however prevalence studies. The current study was therefore aimed at separating prognostic indicators from determinants of the number of recessions. METHOD: 650 consecutive adult patients visiting a Nigerian teaching hospital were examined using a checklist including plaque, calculus, Millers class of recession and other parameters.. A total of 408 recession sites were identified. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients with recession was 42.3 years; mean number of recession was 4.74 Incisors had the highest number of recessions (35.7%. While a factor such as age was related both to the number and prognosis of recession sites, abrasion and plaque were only related to prognosis. Again, some of the factors previously significantly related to prognosis on univariate analysis like calculus and smoking, lost their significance on regression analysis. CONCLUSION: The three strongest predictors of prognosis (Millers class of recession were age, plaque and abrasion. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(3.000: 187-194
Goutoudi, P; Koidis, P T; Konstantinidis, A
In this cross-sectional study, risk and potentially causative factors of gingival recession were examined and their relationship to apical migration of the gingival margin evaluated. Thirty eight patients (18-60 years), displaying one or more sites with gingival recession but without any significant periodontal disease participated. A total of 28 parameters were evaluated in both 'test' teeth (50 teeth with gingival recession) and 'control' teeth (50 contralateral teeth). The results revealed that gingival margin recession was associated with both high inflammatory and plaque scores, with decreased widths of keratinized and attached gingiva and with the subjects' toothbrush bristle hardness.
Schneider, Daniel; Harknett, Kristen; McLanahan, Sara
In the United States, the Great Recession was marked by severe negative shocks to labor market conditions. In this study, we combine longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study with U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics data on local area unemployment rates to examine the relationship between adverse labor market conditions and mothers' experiences of abusive behavior between 2001 and 2010. Unemployment and economic hardship at the household level were positively related to abusive behavior. Further, rapid increases in the unemployment rate increased men's controlling behavior toward romantic partners even after we adjust for unemployment and economic distress at the household level. We interpret these findings as demonstrating that the uncertainty and anticipatory anxiety that go along with sudden macroeconomic downturns have negative effects on relationship quality, above and beyond the effects of job loss and material hardship.
Szinovacz, Maximiliane E; Davey, Adam; Martin, Lauren
The recent recession constitutes one of the macro forces that may have influenced workers' retirement plans. We evaluate a multilevel model that addresses the influence of macro-, meso-, and micro-level factors on retirement plans, changes in these plans, and expected retirement age. Using data from Waves 8 and 9 of the Health and Retirement Study (N=2,618), we find that individuals with defined benefit plans are more prone to change toward plans to stop work before the stock market declined, whereas the opposite trend holds for those without pensions. Debts, ability to reduce work hours, and firm unionization also influenced retirement plans. Findings suggest retirement planning education may be particularly important for workers without defined pensions, especially in times of economic volatility. © The Author(s) 2014.
Cervený, J.; van Ours, J.C.
Abstract: This paper examines whether unemployment of non-western immigrant workers in the Netherlands was disproportionally affected by the Great Recession. We analyze unemployment data covering the period November 2007 to February 2013 finding that the Great Recession affected unemployment rates
Hoynes, Hilary W.; Miller, Douglas L.; Schaller, Jessamyn
In this paper we examine how business cycles affect labor market outcomes in the United States. We conduct a detailed analysis of how cycles affect outcomes differentially across persons of differing age, education, race, and gender, and we compare the cyclical sensitivity during the Great Recession to that in the early 1980s recession. We present…
Park, Heejung; Twenge, Jean M; Greenfield, Patricia M
The Great Recession's influence on American undergraduate students' values was examined, testing Greenfield's and Kasser's theories concerning value development during economic downturns. Study 1 utilised aggregate-level data to investigate (a) population-level value changes between the pre-recession (2004-2006: n = 824,603) and recession freshman cohort (2008-2010: n = 662,262) and (b) overall associations of population-level values with national economic climates over long-term periods by correlating unemployment rates and concurrent aggregate-level values across 1966-2015 (n = 10 million). Study 2 examined individual-level longitudinal value development from freshman to senior year, and whether the developmental trajectories differed between those who completed undergraduate education before the Great Recession (freshmen in 2002, n = 12,792) versus those who encountered the Great Recession during undergraduate years (freshmen in 2006, n = 13,358). Results suggest American undergraduate students' increased communitarianism (supporting Greenfield) and materialism (supporting Kasser) during the Great Recession. The recession also appears to have slowed university students' development of positive self-views. Results contribute to the limited literature on the Great Recession's influence on young people's values. They also offer theoretical and practical implications, as values of this privileged group of young adults are important shapers of societal values, decisions, and policies. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.
Cervený, J.; van Ours, J.C.
This paper examines whether unemployment of non-western immigrant workers in the Netherlands was disproportionally affected by the Great Recession. We analyze unemployment data covering the period November 2007–February 2013 finding that the Great Recession affected unemployment rates of non-western
Lucas, Matthew D.; Justice, Michael J.; Rosko, Kelly M.
The participation of a student with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in recess can often be both challenging and rewarding for the student and teacher. This paper will address common characteristics of children with ADHD and present basic solutions to improve the experience of these children in the recess setting. Initially, the…
Lucas, Matthew D.; Devlin, Katharine M.
The participation of a student with Sickle Cell Anemia in recess can often be both challenging and rewarding for the student and teacher. This paper will address common characteristics of students with Sickle Cell Anemia and present basic solutions to improve the experience of these students in the recess setting. Initially the definition,…
in fertility. The primary objective of this PhD projekt was to identify recessive lethal gentic variants in the main Danish dairy cattle breed. Holstein-Friesian utilzing next generation sequencing (NGS) data. This study shows a potential for the use of the NGS-based reverse genetic approach in identifying...... lethal or semi-lethal recessive gentic variation...
Africa and global recessions: Options for reducing vulnerability in future. ... It concludes that traditional or conventional, market-based approaches do not adequately explain the root causes of global recessions and that the dominant counter-cyclical Keynesian-type fiscal and monetary policies that characterised the ...
This paper examines Nigeria's theoretical economic foundation, the consequence of recession generally and specifically on the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth rate (2008-2010) and on companies together with customers reaction. Business recovery strategies for an upturn over the economic crisis of recession in ...
Karen Ferreira Gazel Yared
Full Text Available A literatura apresenta vários fatores relacionados na etiologia da recessão periodontal, além do processo inflamatório induzido pelo biofilme bacteriano, os quais incluem fatores externos e anatômicos locais. Por meio deste estudo, revistou-se a literatura sobre tais fatores, cujo conhecimento é de grande importância para o ortodontista, contribuindo durante o diagnóstico, planejamento e tratamento ortodôntico propriamente dito.The literature shows that besides dental plaque, some external and anatomic local factors are still related to gingival recession etiology. This study reviewed the literature about those factors, which knownledge is of great benefit to the orthodontist, contributing during diagnostic, planning and orthodontic treatment.
Margerison-Zilko, Claire; Goldman-Mellor, Sidra; Falconi, April; Downing, Janelle
The severity, sudden onset, and multipronged nature of the Great Recession (2007-2009) provided a unique opportunity to examine the health impacts of macroeconomic downturn. We comprehensively review empirical literature examining the relationship between the Recession and mental and physical health outcomes in developed nations. Overall, studies reported detrimental impacts of the Recession on health, particularly mental health. Macro- and individual-level employment- and housing-related sequelae of the Recession were associated with declining fertility and self-rated health, and increasing morbidity, psychological distress, and suicide, although traffic fatalities and population-level alcohol consumption declined. Health impacts were stronger among men and racial/ethnic minorities. Importantly, strong social safety nets in some European countries appear to have buffered those populations from negative health effects. This literature, however, still faces multiple methodological challenges, and more time may be needed to observe the Recession's full health impact. We conclude with suggestions for future work in this field.
Mohammed F Farid
Faden recession achieves marginal superior control of DND and high AC/A ratio in convergence excess partially accommodative ET. Augmented recession also works well with the possible development of consecutive exotropia in cases with extremely high DND. This study recommends Augmented recession for cases with mild to moderate DND and Faden recession for cases with extremely large DND.
Haw, Camilla; Hawton, Keith; Gunnell, David; Platt, Stephen
A growing body of research evidence from countries around the world indicates that economic recession is associated with increases in suicide, particularly in males of working age. To explore contributory and ameliorating factors associated with economic recession and suicide and thereby stimulate further research in this area and encourage policy makers to consider how best to reduce the impact of recession on mental health and suicidal behaviour. We conducted a selective review of the worldwide literature focusing on possible risk factors, mechanisms and preventative strategies for suicidal behaviour linked to economic recession. A model of how recession might affect suicide rates is presented. A major and often prolonged effect of recession is on unemployment and job insecurity. Other important effects include those exerted by financial loss, bankruptcy and home repossession. It is proposed these factors may lead directly or indirectly to mental health problems such as depression, anxiety and binge drinking and then to suicidal behaviour. Countries with active labour market programmes and sustained welfare spending during recessions have less marked increases in suicide rates than those that cut spending on welfare and job-search initiatives for the unemployed. Other measures likely to help include targeted interventions for unemployed people, membership of social organisations and responsible media reporting. Good primary care and mental health services are needed to cope with increased demand in times of economic recession but some governments have in fact reduced healthcare spending as an austerity measure. The research evidence linking recession, unemployment and suicide is substantial, but the evidence for the other mechanisms we have investigated is much more tentative. We describe the limitations of the existing body of research as well as make suggestions for future research into the effects of economic recession on suicidal behaviour. © The Author
Thiede, Brian C; Monnat, Shannon M
The Great Recession of 2007-2009 was the most severe and lengthy economic crisis in the U.S. since the Great Depression. The impacts on the population were multi-dimensional, but operated largely through local labor markets. To examine differences in recession-related changes in county unemployment rates and assess how population and place characteristics shaped these patterns. We calculate and decompose Theil Indexes to describe recession-related changes in the distribution of unemployment rates between counties and states. We use exploratory spatial statistics to identify geographic clusters of counties that experienced similar changes in unemployment. We use spatial regression to evaluate associations between county-level recession impacts on unemployment and demographic composition, industrial structure, and state context. The recession was associated with increased inequality between county labor markets within states, but declining between-state differences. Counties that experienced disproportionate recession-related increases in unemployment were spatially clustered and characterized by large shares of historically disadvantaged racial and ethnic minority populations, low educational attainment, and heavy reliance on pro-cyclical industries. Associations between these sources of vulnerability were partially explained by unobserved state-level factors. The local consequences of macroeconomic trends are associated with county population characteristics, as well as the structural contexts and policy environments in which they are embedded. The recession placed upward pressure on within-state inequality between local labor market conditions. To present new estimates of the recession's impact on local labor markets, quantify how heterogeneous impacts affected the distribution of unemployment prevalence, and identify county characteristics associated with disproportionately large recession-related increases in unemployment.
Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Canchola, Alison J; Nelson, David O; Keegan, Theresa H M; Clarke, Christina A; Cheng, Iona; Shariff-Marco, Salma; DeRouen, Mindy; Catalano, Ralph; Satariano, William A; Davidson-Allen, Kathleen; Glaser, Sally L
In recent years, cancer case counts in the U.S. underwent a large, rapid decline-an unexpected change given population growth for older persons at highest cancer risk. As these declines coincided with the Great Recession, we examined whether they were related to economic conditions. Using California Cancer Registry data from California's 30 most populous counties, we analyzed trends in cancer incidence during pre-recession (1996-2007) and recession/recovery (2008-2012) periods for all cancers combined and the ten most common sites. We evaluated the recession's association with rates using a multifactorial index that measured recession impact, and modeled associations between case counts and county-level unemployment rates using Poisson regression. Yearly cancer incidence rate declines were greater during the recession/recovery (3.3% among males, 1.4% among females) than before (0.7 and 0.5%, respectively), particularly for prostate, lung, and colorectal cancers. Lower case counts, especially for prostate and liver cancer among males and breast cancer, melanoma, and ovarian cancer among females, were associated with higher unemployment rates, irrespective of time period, but independent of secular effects. The associations for melanoma translated up to a 3.6% decrease in cases with each 1% increase in unemployment. Incidence declines were not greater in counties with higher recession impact index. Although recent declines in incidence of certain cancers are not differentially impacted by economic conditions related to the Great Recession relative to pre-recession conditions, the large recent absolute declines in the case counts of some cancer may be attributable to the large declines in unemployment in the recessionary period. This may occur through decreased engagement in preventive health behaviors, particularly for clinically less urgent cancers. Continued monitoring of trends is important to detect any rises in incidence rates as deferred diagnoses come to
Full Text Available Background: The Great Recession of 2007-2009 was the most severe and lengthy economic crisis in the US since the Great Depression of the 1930s. The impacts on the population were multi-dimensional, but operated largely through local labor markets. Objective: To examine differences in recession-related changes in county unemployment rates and assess how population and place characteristics shaped these patterns. Methods: We calculate and decompose Theil Indexes to describe recession-related changes in the distribution of unemployment rates between counties and states. We use exploratory spatial statistics to identify geographic clusters of counties that experienced similar changes in unemployment. We use spatial regression to evaluate associations between county-level recession impacts on unemployment and demographic composition, industrial structure, and state context. Results: The recession was associated with increased inequality between county labor markets within states, but declining between-state differences. Counties that experienced disproportionate recession-related increases in unemployment were spatially clustered and characterized by large shares of historically disadvantaged racial and ethnic minority populations, low educational attainment, and heavy reliance on pro-cyclical industries. Associations between these sources of vulnerability were partially explained by unobserved state-level factors. Conclusions: The local consequences of macroeconomic trends are associated with county population characteristics, and the structural contexts and policy environments in which they are embedded. The recession placed upward pressure on within-state disparities in local labor market conditions. Contribution: To present new estimates of the recession's impact on local labor markets, quantify how heterogeneous impacts affected the distribution of unemployment prevalence, and identify county characteristics associated with disproportionately
Banks, Nicole; Bryant, Joy; Fischer, Roxanne; Huizing, Marjan; Gahl, William A; Gunay-Aygun, Meral
Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) is the most common childhood-onset ciliopathy. As treatments improve, more women are reaching reproductive age, but little is known about ARPKD and pregnancy. In our ongoing study on ARPKD and other ciliopathies, 12 females over 18 years of age were identified and systematically evaluated. Six had children; four carried pregnancies and delivered, one used assisted reproductive technology and had a surrogate carry the pregnancy, and one adopted. We report the outcomes of four pregnancies with live birth deliveries and two women who chose alternate family building options. Patient one was diagnosed at 6 months, and at age 21 had a pregnancy complicated by transient worsening of renal function (creatinine increase from 1.15 to 1.78 mg/dL). Patient two was diagnosed with ARPKD at age seven and had an uncomplicated pregnancy at age 23. Patient three was diagnosed incidentally with ARPKD at age 23, 3 months after completion of an uncomplicated pregnancy. Patient four who had an uncomplicated pregnancy at age 33 was diagnosed with ARPKD at age 46. Women with ARPKD face reproductive decisions largely bereft of information about the pregnancies of other ARPKD patients. We report four cases of pregnancy and ARPKD to expand current knowledge and encourage further research.
Full Text Available Cognitive metaphor analysts comprehend metaphor as a convenient way of not only talking about real life events but also thinking about them: connecting ideas, explaining abstract ideas that are difficult to grasp, conveying messages and emotions, etc. Thus, metaphor in real-world discourse is increasingly becoming the focus of many cognitive studies. In political discourse, metaphor is seen as an ideological tool of deliberate attempts to influence, persuade and manipulate people. As Charteris-Black (2005: 16 put it, politicians try to establish themselves in a positive light or legitimize themselves, i.e., by presenting evidence that they are charismatic leaders who are capable of running their country efficiently. Legitimization goes hand in hand with delegitimization, i.e., negative other-presentation. Metaphor as a cognitive mechanism of ideology may serve both as positive self-representation and as a tool for fault-finding in others. Thus, the study focuses on how three Lithuanian socio-political groups (the leading party, the opposition, and the media legitimize themselves and delegitimize their opponents by using force metaphors to conceptualize the worldwide economic recession. The findings indicate that although the same conceptual metaphor is used for legitimization and delegitimization, its fulfilment scenario appears to be markedly different and it carries different rhetorical implications in the three discourses.
Full Text Available We describe a case of anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (AED with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance, a very rare entity, in a 2-year-old female child of two asymptomatic, consanguineous parents. Their previous child also had a similar condition. Autosomal recessive AED (AR-AED can have its full expression both in males and females and it is clinically indistinguishable from the x-linked recessive AED (XL-AED, which is the most common type of ectodermal dysplasia. Unlike the partially symptomatic carriers of XL-AED, the heterozygotes of AR-AED are phenotypically asymptomatic.
Bor, Jacob; Basu, Sanjay; Coutts, Adam; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David
The aim of this study was to assess changes in alcohol use in the USA during the Great Recession. Drinking participation, drinking frequency, drinking intensity, total alcohol consumption and frequency of binge drinking were assessed in a nationally representative sample of 2,050,431 US women and men aged 18 and older, interviewed between 2006 and 2010. The prevalence of any alcohol use significantly declined during the economic recession, from 52.0% in 2006-2007 to 51.6% in 2008-2009 (P Great Recession there was an increase in abstention from alcohol and a rise in frequent binging.
are useful predictors of US recessions over and above the control variables both in and out of sample. Especially the excess bond premium, capturing the cyclical changes in the relationship between default risk and credit spreads, is found to be a powerful predictor. Overall, models that combine credit......We study the role of credit in forecasting US recession periods with probit models. We employ both classical recession predictors and common factors based on a large panel of financial and macroeconomic variables as control variables. Our findings suggest that a number of credit variables...
... collapse boxes. Description Autosomal recessive congenital stationary night blindness is a disorder of the retina , which is the specialized tissue at the back of the eye that detects light and color. People with this condition typically have difficulty seeing ...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Phase II project will develop a suite of diagnostic sensors using Direct Write technology to measure temperature, surface recession depth, and heat flux of an...
In the Okavango Delta, Botswana, flood-recession farming (molapu) is a lucrative but ... Moreover, some practices involved in molapu farming may pose a threat to the ... Linking research to urban planning at the ICLEI World Congress 2018.
Burke, Tomas R; Duncker, Tobias; Woods, Russell L; Greenberg, Jonathan P; Zernant, Jana; Tsang, Stephen H; Smith, R Theodore; Allikmets, Rando; Sparrow, Janet R; Delori, François C
To quantify fundus autofluorescence (qAF) in patients with recessive Stargardt disease (STGD1). A total of 42 STGD1 patients (ages: 7-52 years) with at least one confirmed disease-associated ABCA4 mutation were studied. Fundus AF images (488-nm excitation) were acquired with a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope equipped with an internal fluorescent reference to account for variable laser power and detector sensitivity. The gray levels (GLs) of each image were calibrated to the reference, zero GL, magnification, and normative optical media density to yield qAF. Texture factor (TF) was calculated to characterize inhomogeneities in the AF image and patients were assigned to the phenotypes of Fishman I through III. Quantified fundus autofluorescence in 36 of 42 patients and TF in 27 of 42 patients were above normal limits for age. Young patients exhibited the relatively highest qAF, with levels up to 8-fold higher than healthy eyes. Quantified fundus autofluorescence and TF were higher in Fishman II and III than Fishman I, who had higher qAF and TF than healthy eyes. Patients carrying the G1916E mutation had lower qAF and TF than most other patients, even in the presence of a second allele associated with severe disease. Quantified fundus autofluorescence is an indirect approach to measuring RPE lipofuscin in vivo. We report that ABCA4 mutations cause significantly elevated qAF, consistent with previous reports indicating that increased RPE lipofuscin is a hallmark of STGD1. Even when qualitative differences in fundus AF images are not evident, qAF can elucidate phenotypic variation. Quantified fundus autofluorescence will serve to establish genotype-phenotype correlations and as an outcome measure in clinical trials.
Burke, Tomas R.; Duncker, Tobias; Woods, Russell L.; Greenberg, Jonathan P.; Zernant, Jana; Tsang, Stephen H.; Smith, R. Theodore; Allikmets, Rando; Sparrow, Janet R.; Delori, François C.
Purpose. To quantify fundus autofluorescence (qAF) in patients with recessive Stargardt disease (STGD1). Methods. A total of 42 STGD1 patients (ages: 7–52 years) with at least one confirmed disease-associated ABCA4 mutation were studied. Fundus AF images (488-nm excitation) were acquired with a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope equipped with an internal fluorescent reference to account for variable laser power and detector sensitivity. The gray levels (GLs) of each image were calibrated to the reference, zero GL, magnification, and normative optical media density to yield qAF. Texture factor (TF) was calculated to characterize inhomogeneities in the AF image and patients were assigned to the phenotypes of Fishman I through III. Results. Quantified fundus autofluorescence in 36 of 42 patients and TF in 27 of 42 patients were above normal limits for age. Young patients exhibited the relatively highest qAF, with levels up to 8-fold higher than healthy eyes. Quantified fundus autofluorescence and TF were higher in Fishman II and III than Fishman I, who had higher qAF and TF than healthy eyes. Patients carrying the G1916E mutation had lower qAF and TF than most other patients, even in the presence of a second allele associated with severe disease. Conclusions. Quantified fundus autofluorescence is an indirect approach to measuring RPE lipofuscin in vivo. We report that ABCA4 mutations cause significantly elevated qAF, consistent with previous reports indicating that increased RPE lipofuscin is a hallmark of STGD1. Even when qualitative differences in fundus AF images are not evident, qAF can elucidate phenotypic variation. Quantified fundus autofluorescence will serve to establish genotype-phenotype correlations and as an outcome measure in clinical trials. PMID:24677105
Liu, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, H.; Zhu, L.; Wu, W.
Lower Ti/Al/Ni/Au Ohmic contact resistance on AlGaN/GaN with wider rapid thermal annealing (RTA) temperature window was achieved using recessed Ohmic contact structure based on self-terminating thermal oxidation assisted wet etching technique (STOAWET), in comparison with conventional Ohmic contacts. Even at lower temperature such as 650°C, recessed structure by STOAWET could still obtain Ohmic contact with contact resistance of 1.97Ω·mm, while conventional Ohmic structure mainly featured as Schottky contact. Actually, both Ohmic contact recess and mesa isolation processes could be accomplished by STOAWET in one process step and the process window of STOAWET is wide, simplifying AlGaN/GaN HEMT device process. Our experiment shows that the isolation leakage current by STOAWET is about one order of magnitude lower than that by inductivity coupled plasma (ICP) performed on the same wafer.
Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Andersen, Henriette Bondo; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine
BACKGROUND: Increasing recess physical activity has been the aim of several interventions, as this setting can provide numerous physical activity opportunities. However, it is unclear if these interventions are equally effective for all children, or if they only appeal to children who are already...... the classroom as a space for physical activity, designing schoolyards with smaller secluded spaces and varied facilities, improving children's self-esteem and body image, e.g., during physical education, and creating teacher organised play activities during recess....
Thiede, Brian C.; Monnat, Shannon M.
Background The Great Recession of 2007–2009 was the most severe and lengthy economic crisis in the U.S. since the Great Depression. The impacts on the population were multi-dimensional, but operated largely through local labor markets. Objective To examine differences in recession-related changes in county unemployment rates and assess how population and place characteristics shaped these patterns. Methods We calculate and decompose Theil Indexes to describe recession-related changes in the distribution of unemployment rates between counties and states. We use exploratory spatial statistics to identify geographic clusters of counties that experienced similar changes in unemployment. We use spatial regression to evaluate associations between county-level recession impacts on unemployment and demographic composition, industrial structure, and state context. Results The recession was associated with increased inequality between county labor markets within states, but declining between-state differences. Counties that experienced disproportionate recession-related increases in unemployment were spatially clustered and characterized by large shares of historically disadvantaged racial and ethnic minority populations, low educational attainment, and heavy reliance on pro-cyclical industries. Associations between these sources of vulnerability were partially explained by unobserved state-level factors. Conclusions The local consequences of macroeconomic trends are associated with county population characteristics, as well as the structural contexts and policy environments in which they are embedded. The recession placed upward pressure on within-state inequality between local labor market conditions. Contribution To present new estimates of the recession’s impact on local labor markets, quantify how heterogeneous impacts affected the distribution of unemployment prevalence, and identify county characteristics associated with disproportionately large recession
Peter N. Ireland
With an estimated New Keynesian model, this paper compares the "Great Recession" of 2007-09 to its two immediate predecessors in 1990-91 and 2001. The model attributes all three downturns to a similar mix of aggregate demand and supply disturbances. The most recent series of adverse shocks lasted longer and became more severe, however, prolonging and deepening the Great Recession. In addition, the zero lower bound on the nominal interest rate prevented monetary policy from stabilizing the US ...
Cerveny, J.; Ours, J.C. van
Abstract: This paper examines whether unemployment of non-western immigrant workers in the Netherlands was disproportionally affected by the Great Recession. We analyze unemployment data covering the period November 2007 to February 2013 finding that the Great Recession affected unemployment rates of non-western immigrant workers in absolute terms more than unemployment rates of native workers. However, in relative terms there is not much of a difference. We also find that the sensitivity of ...
Arindam MANDAL; Prasun BHATTACHARJEE
This study analyzes the impact of the outbreak of the Great Recession of 2007 on the behavior of the Indian stock market. The SENSEX index of the Bombay Stock Exchange is analyzed for the prerecession period of January 2002 – November 2007 and the postrecession outbreak period of December 2007 – July 2010. Substantial increase in SENSEX return volatility observed during the post-recession outbreak period, whereas no substantial difference in returns between two periods is...
Orlacchio, Antonio; Babalini, Carla; Borreca, Antonella; Patrono, Clarice; Massa, Roberto; Basaran, Sarenur; Munhoz, Renato P.; Rogaeva, Ekaterina A.; St George-Hyslop, Peter H.; Bernardi, Giorgio; Kawarai, Toshitaka
The mutation of the spatacsin gene is the single most common cause of autosomal recessive hereditary spastic paraplegia with thin corpus callosum. Common clinical, pathological and genetic features between amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and hereditary spastic paraplegia motivated us to investigate 25 families with autosomal recessive juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and long-term survival for mutations in the spatascin gene. The inclusion criterion was a diagnosis of clinically definite ...
Chrysanthakopoulos, Nikolaos A
The aim of the current research was to assess the prevalence of gingival recession and to investigate possible associations among this condition, periodontal and epidemiological variables in a sample of young Greek adults in a general dental practice. A total of 1,430 young adults was examined clinically and interviewed regarding several periodontal and epidemiological variables. Collected data included demographic variables, oral hygiene habits and smoking status. Clinical examination included the recording of dental plaque, supragingival calculus presence, gingival status and buccal gingival recession. Multivariate logistic regression analysis model was performed to access the possible association between gingival recession and several periodontal and epidemiological variables as potential risk factors. The overall prevalence of gingival recession was 63.9%. The statistical analysis indicated that higher educational level [OR= 2.12, 95% CI= 0.53-8.51], cigarette smoking [OR= 1.97, 95% CI= 1.48-7.91], frequent tooth brushing [OR= 0.98, 95% CI= 0.56-1.96], presence of oral piercing [OR= 0.92, 95% CI= 0.38-1.58], presence of gingival inflammation [OR= 4.54, 95% CI= 1.68-7.16], presence of dental plaque [OR= 1.67, 95% CI= 0.68-2.83] and presence of supragingival calculus [OR=1.34, 95% CI= 0.59-1.88], were the most important associated factors of gingival recession. The observations of the current research supported the results from previous authors that several periodontal factors, educational level and smoking were significantly associated with the presence of gingival recession, while presence of oral piercing was a new factor that was found to be associated with gingival recession. Key words:Gingival recession, prevalence, risk factors, young adults.
The author discusses the construction of models using the five elementary constants esub(s), h/2π, G, c and ksub(B) which can produce a macro or micro world with exacticity. All physical processes in nature determine the gravitational universe recession. A diagram is presented comparing the gravitational and weakly interacting recession. The Big-Bang model is discussed. (A.N.K.)
Ickes, Melinda J; Erwin, Heather; Beighle, Aaron
With the rapid increase in obesity rates among youth, efforts to increase physical activity (PA) have become a priority. School-based strategies for PA promotion must be cost-effective, unobtrusive, and linked to improved academic performance. Efforts to maximize recess PA are advocated because of both health and academic benefits. The purpose of this manuscript was to review recess interventions aimed to improve PA among youth, and make recommendations to develop related best practices. An extensive literature search was conducted to include all primary research articles evaluating any recess intervention with PA as an outcome. The included 13 interventions represented both settings within the U.S and internationally, among preschools and elementary/primary schools. A variety of strategies were used within the design and implementation of each of the interventions including: added equipment/materials, markings, zones, teacher involvement, active video games, activity of the week, and activity cards. Of the included studies, 95% demonstrated positive outcomes as a result of the recess intervention. A number of simple, low-cost strategies can be implemented to maximize the amount of recess time students are allotted. Long-term follow-up studies are warranted for each of the recess strategies identified to be effective.
Chakrabarti, Rajashri; Sutherland, Sarah
While sparse literature exists investigating the impact of the Great Recession on various sectors of the economy, there is virtually no research that studies the effect of the Great Recession, or past recessions, on schools. This paper starts to fill the void. Studying school funding during the recession is of paramount importance because schools…
N. Y. Krakauer
Full Text Available The pattern of streamflow recession after rain events offers clues about the relationship between watershed runoff (observable as river discharge and water storage (not directly observable and can help in water resource assessment and prediction. However, there have been few systematic assessments of how streamflow recession varies across flow rates and how it relates to independent assessments of terrestrial water storage. We characterized the streamflow recession pattern in 61 relatively undisturbed small watersheds (1–100 km2 across the coterminous United States with multiyear records of hourly streamflow from automated gauges. We used the North American Regional Reanalysis to help identify periods where precipitation, snowmelt, and evaporation were small compared to streamflow. The order of magnitude of the recession timescale increases from 1 day at high flow rates (~1 mm h−1 to 10 days at low flow rates (~0.01 mm h−1, leveling off at low flow rates. There is significant variability in the recession timescale at a given flow rate between basins, which correlates with climate and geomorphic variables such as the ratio of mean streamflow to precipitation and soil water infiltration capacity. Stepwise multiple regression was used to construct a six-variable predictive model that explained some 80 % of the variance in recession timescale at high flow rates and 30–50 % at low flow rates. Seasonal and interannual variability in inferred storage shows similar time evolution to regional-scale water storage variability estimated from GRACE satellite gravity data and from land surface modeling forced by observed meteorology, but is up to a factor of 10 smaller. Study of this discrepancy in the inferred storage amplitude may provide clues to the range of validity of the recession curve approach to relating runoff and storage.
Schneider, William; Waldfogel, Jane; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
This paper examines the association between the Great Recession and four measures of the risk for maternal child abuse and neglect: (1) maternal physical aggression; (2) maternal psychological aggression; (3) physical neglect by mothers; and (4) supervisory/exposure neglect by mothers. It draws on rich longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a longitudinal birth cohort study of families in 20 U.S. cities (N = 3,177; 50% African American, 25% Hispanic; 22% non-Hispanic white; 3% other). The study collected information for the 9-year follow-up survey before, during, and after the Great Recession (2007-2010). Interview dates were linked to two macroeconomic measures of the Great Recession: the national Consumer Sentiment Index and the local unemployment rate. Also included are a wide range of socio-demographic controls, as well as city fixed effects and controls for prior parenting. Results indicate that the Great Recession was associated with increased risk of child abuse but decreased risk of child neglect. Households with social fathers present may have been particularly adversely affected. Results also indicate that economic uncertainty during the Great Recession, as measured by the Consumer Sentiment Index and the unemployment rate, had direct effects on the risk of abuse or neglect, which were not mediated by individual-level measures of economic hardship or poor mental health.
This study investigates how the ecologically unequal exchange of carbon dioxide emissions varies with economic recessions. I propose a country-specific approach to examine (1) the relationship between carbon dioxide emissions in developing countries and the "vertical flow" of exports to the United States; and (2) the variations of the relationship before, during, and after two recent economic recessions in 2001 and 2008. Using data on 69 developing nations between 2000 and 2010, I estimate time-series cross-sectional regression models with two-way fixed effects. Results suggest that the vertical flow of exports to the United States is positively associated with carbon dioxide emissions in developing countries. The magnitude of this relationship increased in 2001, 2009, and 2010, and decreased in 2008, but remained stable in non-recession periods, suggesting that economic recessions in the United States are associated with variations of ecologically unequal exchange. Results highlight the impacts of U.S. recessions on carbon emissions in developing countries through the structure of international trade. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Since 2008, many nations, including the United States, have struggled with the effects of a global recession. The state of California has been particularly impacted by the Great Recession. Unemployment rates in California are among the highest in the United States, and a weak fiscal environment has forced deep cutbacks to a variety of state services. This study uses California as a case to explore the effects of economic crisis on public schools and the students they serve. The study draws on two years of survey and interview data with a representative sample of public school principals across California. The data show that, during the Great Recession, students have experienced growing social welfare needs that often shape their well-being and their performance in schools. We also find that the capacity of public schools to meet these needs and provide quality education has been eroded by budget cuts. This study finds that schools primarily serving low-income families have been hardest hit during the recession, in part because they cannot raise private dollars to fill the gap left by public sector cuts. The Great Recession thus has undermined educational quality while producing widening educational inequality in California.
Dayananda Kumar Rajanna
Full Text Available Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD is one of the most common inheritable disease manifesting in infancy and childhood with a frequency of 1:6,000 to 1:55,000 births. The patient in her second trimester presented with a history of amenorrhea. Ultrasound examination revealed bilateral, enlarged, hyperechogenic kidneys, placentomegaly, and severe oligohydramnios. The pregnancy was terminated. An autopsy was performed on the fetus. Both the kidneys were found to be enlarged and the cut surface showed numerous cysts. The liver sections showed changes due to fibrosis. The final diagnosis of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease was made based on these findings. In this article, we correlate the ante-natal ultrasound and histopathological findings in autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease.
Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Schneider, William; Waldfogel, Jane
This study draws on the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N=2,032), a birth cohort study of families with children from 20 U.S. cities. Interviews occurred between August 2007, and February 2010, when the children were approximately 9 years old. Macro-economic indicators of the Great Recession such as the Consumer Sentiment Index and unemployment and home foreclosure rates were matched to the data to estimate the links between different measures of the Great Recession and high frequency maternal spanking. We find that the large decline in consumer confidence during the Great Recession, as measured by the Consumer Sentiment Index, was associated with worse parenting behavior. In particular, lower levels of consumer confidence were associated with increased levels of high frequency spanking, a parenting behavior that is associated with greater likelihood of being contacted by child protective services. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In light of the recent macroeconomic instability in global markets, we examine the evolution of competitive dynamics and firm profitability when industries are subject to recessions. Although ordinary intuition leads most to view recessions as harmful, we highlight conditions under which they enhance the relative value of industry-level supply-side isolating mechanisms, thereby affording early movers significant and sustainable profit advantages vis-à-vis laggards. We observe that the distribution of firm size within the industry switches from a bi-modal distribution (i.e., one dominated by both small and large firms to a right-skewed one (i.e., dominated mostly by large firms in these contexts, thereby signaling the rise of important opportunities in the form of less rivalrous competitive contexts for survivors of recessions. We derive our results from formal modeling and multiple simulation runs.
George J. Avlonitis
Full Text Available Recession is an extremely difficult period for most companies. Especially when a recession has universal dimensions, many companies find themselves unprepared to face great challenges. While marketing in good times has a long-term focus, a broad scope, it is benefits- and opportunities-driven and proactive, in bad times it has a short-term focus, limited and narrow scope, it is cost-and sales-driven and reactive. Panic is not the right reaction. Such difficult times should be overcome through methodical and well planned actions. After all, research has shown that those companies that take a proactive stance and treat the recession as an opportunity are likely to come out of the crisis stronger than before. Specific marketing activities have been proved to be beneficial to companies during a downturn. Below we analyze, ten marketing survival strategies and tactics.
Full Text Available This study analyzes the impact of the outbreak of the Great Recession of 2007 on the behavior of the Indian stock market. The SENSEX index of the Bombay Stock Exchange is analyzed for the prerecession period of January 2002 – November 2007 and the postrecession outbreak period of December 2007 – July 2010. Substantial increase in SENSEX return volatility observed during the post-recession outbreak period, whereas no substantial difference in returns between two periods is found. Also strong co-movements in returns and volatility are observed between the SENSEX and other major stock indexes during the post-recession period. Our results establish the dominance of global factors in influencing Indian stock market behavior during periods of economic turmoil.
Palin, Eino J H; Hakonen, Anna H; Korpela, Mari; Paetau, Anders; Suomalainen, Anu
We studied the genetic background of a family with SCA, showing dominant inheritance and anticipation. Muscle histology, POLG1 gene sequence, neuropathology and mitochondrial DNA analyses in a mother and a son showed typical findings for a mitochondrial disorder, and both were shown to be homozygous for a recessive POLG1 mutation, underlying mitochondrial recessive ataxia syndrome, MIRAS. The healthy father was a heterozygous carrier for the same mutation. Recessively inherited MIRAS mutations should be tested in dominantly inherited SCAs cases of unknown cause, as the high carrier frequency of MIRAS may result in two independent introductions of the mutant allele in the family and thereby mimic dominant inheritance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Purpose: This study aims to describe and compare modified hang-back recession with the conventional hang-back recession in large angle comitant exotropia (XT. Methods: A prospective, interventional, double-blinded, randomized study on adult patients (>18 years undergoing single eye recession-resection for large angle (>30 prism diopters constant comitant XT was conducted between January 2011 and December 2015. Patients in Group A underwent modified hang-back lateral rectus recession with adjustable knot while in Group B underwent conventional hang-back recession with an adjustable knot. Outcome parameters studied were readjustment rate, change in deviation at 6 weeks, complications and need for resurgery at 6 months. Results: The groups were comparable in terms of age and preoperative deviation. The patients with the modified hang back (Group A fared significantly better (P < 0.05 than those with conventional hang back (Group B in terms of lesser need for adjustment, greater correction in deviation at 6 weeks and lesser need for resurgery at 6 months. Conclusion: This modification offers several advantages, significantly reduces resurgery requirement and has no added complications.
Kumar, Amandeep; Bansal, Ankit; Garg, Ajay; Sharma, Bhawani S.
Abstract Anophthalmia is a rare ocular malformation. It is a genetically determined disorder and is typically associated with syndromes. However, sporadic nonsyndromic familial as well as non-familial cases of anophthalmia have also been reported. Non-syndromic familial cases are usually bilateral and have been attributed to autosomal recessive, autosomal dominant, and X-linked inheritance patterns. The authors hereby report a rare case of autosomal recessive unilateral anophthalmia in a patient with no other associated congenital anomaly. Patient was operated for craniopharyngioma. The clinical, radiological and intraoperative findings are discussed. PMID:27928292
Reynolds, Mark A
A convenience sample of 60 subjects (27 male; 33 female) with tongue piercings (case group) and 120 subjects (43 male; 77 female) without tongue piercings (control group), ranging in age from 13 to 28 years, were identified from a mix of races living in a geographic area of low socioeconomic status in Brazil. Subjects were recruited from school groups and university centers between January 2008 and March 2009. For each case, 2 controls were selected on a consecutive basis from the same school according to criteria that included age, gender, smoking, and previous orthodontic treatment. Exclusion criteria included individuals with systemic diseases that might compromise the immune system, as well as antibiotics within 3 months or other medications that could affect the gingival tissues. The key study factor was the use or nonuse of tongue piercings (jewelry). The analysis compared periodontal parameters, such as the occurrence, location, and severity of gingival recession, in subjects with and without tongue jewelry. Gingival recession in the anterior lingual mandibular region was assessed as the primary outcome measure. The study sample was divided according to the presence or absence of gingival recession as well as the severity (1-2, 3, and ≥ 4 mm) of gingival recession. The average age of subjects was similar in the case and control groups (18.9 versus 17.7 years, respectively). Fractures of the anterior teeth were present significantly more frequently in cases than controls (26.7% versus 11.7%, respectively; P piercings (OR = 11.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 5.02-24.09, P <.001). The severity of recession in this region was also significantly higher (calculated using an ordinal scale) in cases than in controls (P < .001). The final multivariate logistic regression model for occurrence of gingival recession included the variables tongue jewelry (yes/no), age, male gender, and the presence of bleeding on probing in the anterior region. Subjects with tongue
Resistance to Plum pox virus strain C in Arabidopsis thaliana and Chenopodium foetidum involves genome-linked viral protein and other viral determinants and might depend on compatibility with host translation initiation factors.
Calvo, María; Martínez-Turiño, Sandra; García, Juan Antonio
Research performed on model herbaceous hosts has been useful to unravel the molecular mechanisms that control viral infections. The most common Plum pox virus (PPV) strains are able to infect Nicotiana species as well as Chenopodium and Arabidopsis species. However, isolates belonging to strain C (PPV-C) that have been adapted to Nicotiana spp. are not infectious either in Chenopodium foetidum or in Arabidopsis thaliana. In order to determine the mechanism underlying this interesting host-specific behavior, we have constructed chimerical clones derived from Nicotiana-adapted PPV isolates from the D and C strains, which differ in their capacity to infect A. thaliana and C. foetidum. With this approach, we have identified the nuclear inclusion a protein (VPg+Pro) as the major pathogenicity determinant that conditions resistance in the presence of additional secondary determinants, different for each host. Genome-linked viral protein (VPg) mutations similar to those involved in the breakdown of eIF4E-mediated resistance to other potyviruses allow some PPV chimeras to infect A. thaliana. These results point to defective interactions between a translation initiation factor and the viral VPg as the most probable cause of host-specific incompatibility, in which other viral factors also participate, and suggest that complex interactions between multiple viral proteins and translation initiation factors not only define resistance to potyviruses in particular varieties of susceptible hosts but also contribute to establish nonhost resistance.
Full Text Available Aim: To compare the surgical outcome of adjustable with the conventional recession in patients with horizontal comitant strabismus. Patients and Methods: A prospective comparative nonrandomized interventional pilot study was performed on patients with horizontal comitant strabismus. Fifty-four patients (27 in each group were allocated into 2 groups to undergo either adjustable suture (AS recession or non-AS (NAS recession along with conventional resection. The patients were followed up for 6 months. A successful outcome was defined as deviation ±10 prism diopters at 6 months. The results were statistically analyzed by Chi-square test, Fisher′s exact test, and Student′s t-test. Results: A successful outcome was found in 24 (88.8% patients in AS and 17 (62.9% in NAS group (P = 0.02. The postoperative adjustment was done in 13 (48.1% patients in AS group. There was one complication (tenon′s cyst in AS group. Conclusion: AS recession may be considered in all cooperative patients undergoing strabismus surgery for comitant deviations.
As states and families begin to recover from the effects of the Great Recession, some of the urgency about college affordability may start to ease. The most recent "Trends in College Pricing" report shows tuition rising more slowly than in recent years (Baum and Ma 2013). Growth in Pell grant applications is also expected to slow as…
Bleeker-Wagemakers, L. M.; Gal, A.; Kumar-Singh, R.; van den Born, L. I.; Li, Y.; Schwinger, E.; Sandkuijl, L. A.; Bergen, A. A.; Kenna, P.; Humphries, P.
Recent evidence suggesting the involvement of mutant rhodopsin proteins in the pathogenesis of autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa has prompted us to investigate whether this form of the disease shows non-allelic genetic heterogeneity, as has previously been shown to be the case in autosomal
The oil peak and the 2007/2008 economic recession are the most recent major global events to destabilise the economies of African countries and to afflict the life chances and social (re) production of the subaltern classes. This paper critically analyses Ghana's oil and gas industry to illustrate these issues. The paper ...
Mazurova, K.; Renkema, A.M.; Navratilova, Z.; Katsaros, C.; Fudalej, P.S.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if facial type is a predictor of the development of gingival recession. METHODS: A cohort of 179 orthodontic patients (76 males, 101 females; age before treatment T S = 12.4 years, SD = 0.8) were followed until 5 years post-treatment (T 5 = 20.7 years, SD = 1.2). The presence
Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Burcharth, Hans F.
The front slope stability of breakwaters with a homogeneous berm was studied in a large number of two dimensional model tests at Aalborg University, Denmark. The results are presented together with a new formula for prediction of the berm recession which is the most important parameter...
Recession Linda Levine Specialist in Labor Economics May 26, 2010 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov R40080 . c11173008 Report...2.8 million.23 Author Contact Information Linda Levine Specialist in Labor Economics firstname.lastname@example.org, 7-7756
In a recent screening programme on hearing loss (HL), we examined 17 common autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss (ARNSHL) genes in every consanguineous Ira- nian family with ARNSHL that was referred to our centre. We first screened GJB2 mutations and then utilized a panel of three to four short ...
Couch, Kenneth A.
Slow economic growth since the end of the U.S. recession in June of 2009 has not yet translated into increases in employment large enough to meaningfully reduce the rate of unemployment. Because expansionary macroeconomic policy has been pursued on both the fiscal and monetary fronts, it appears at first glance that the hands of government at this…
Lynch, Peter; Bustamante, Miguel D
We study the dynamics of a spherical rigid body that rocks and rolls on a plane under the effect of gravity. The distribution of mass is non-uniform and the centre of mass does not coincide with the geometric centre. The symmetric case, with moments of inertia I 1 = I 2 3 , is integrable and the motion is completely regular. Three known conservation laws are the total energy E, Jellett's quantity Q J and Routh's quantity Q R . When the inertial symmetry I 1 = I 2 is broken, even slightly, the character of the solutions is profoundly changed and new types of motion become possible. We derive the equations governing the general motion and present analytical and numerical evidence of the recession, or reversal of precession, that has been observed in physical experiments. We present an analysis of recession in terms of critical lines dividing the (Q R , Q J ) plane into four dynamically disjoint zones. We prove that recession implies the lack of conservation of Jellett's and Routh's quantities, by identifying individual reversals as crossings of the orbit (Q R (t), Q J (t)) through the critical lines. Consequently, a method is found to produce a large number of initial conditions so that the system will exhibit recession.
Orlacchio, Antonio; Babalini, Carla; Borreca, Antonella; Patrono, Clarice; Massa, Roberto; Basaran, Sarenur; Munhoz, Renato P; Rogaeva, Ekaterina A; St George-Hyslop, Peter H; Bernardi, Giorgio; Kawarai, Toshitaka
The mutation of the spatacsin gene is the single most common cause of autosomal recessive hereditary spastic paraplegia with thin corpus callosum. Common clinical, pathological and genetic features between amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and hereditary spastic paraplegia motivated us to investigate 25 families with autosomal recessive juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and long-term survival for mutations in the spatascin gene. The inclusion criterion was a diagnosis of clinically definite amyotrophic lateral sclerosis according to the revised El Escorial criteria. The exclusion criterion was a diagnosis of hereditary spastic paraplegia with thin corpus callosum in line with an established protocol. Additional pathological and genetic evaluations were also performed. Surprisingly, 12 sequence alterations in the spatacsin gene (one of which is novel, IVS30 + 1 G > A) were identified in 10 unrelated pedigrees with autosomal recessive juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and long-term survival. The countries of origin of these families were Italy, Brazil, Canada, Japan and Turkey. The variants seemed to be pathogenic since they co-segregated with the disease in all pedigrees, were absent in controls and were associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis neuropathology in one member of one of these families for whom central nervous system tissue was available. Our study indicates that mutations in the spatascin gene could cause a much wider spectrum of clinical features than previously recognized, including autosomal recessive juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
Caulkins, J.P.; Feichtinger, G.; Grass, D.; Hartl, R.F.; Kort, Peter; Seidl, A.
This paper considers the problem of how to price a conspicuous product while maintaining liquidity during a recession which both reduces demand and freezes credit markets. Reducing price would help maintain cash flow, but low prices can erode brand image and, hence, long-term sales. The paper
with age-appropriate complement of teeth except for a missing tooth 42. ... frenal attachment is more important in gingival recession in the child‑patient. A healthy child‑ ... spared rules out a possible role of brushing-induced gingival abrasion.
Ayers, John W; Althouse, Benjamin M; Allem, Jon-Patrick; Childers, Matthew A; Zafar, Waleed; Latkin, Carl; Ribisl, Kurt M; Brownstein, John S
Economic stressors have been retrospectively associated with net population increases in nonspecific psychological distress (PD). However, no sentinels exist to evaluate contemporaneous associations. Aggregate Internet search query surveillance was used to monitor population changes in PD around the United States' Great Recession. Monthly PD query trends were compared with unemployment, underemployment, homes in delinquency and foreclosure, median home value or sale prices, and S&P 500 trends for 2004-2010. Time series analyses, where economic indicators predicted PD one to seven months into the future, were performed in 2011. PD queries surpassed 1,000,000 per month, of which 300,000 may be attributable to the Great Recession. A one percentage point increase in mortgage delinquencies and foreclosures was associated with a 16% (95%CI, 9-24) increase in PD queries one-month, and 11% (95%CI, 3-18) four months later, in reference to a pre-Great Recession mean. Unemployment and underemployment had similar associations half and one-quarter the intensity. "Anxiety disorder", "what is depression", "signs of depression", "depression symptoms", and "symptoms of depression" were the queries exhibiting the strongest associations with mortgage delinquencies and foreclosures, unemployment or underemployment. Housing prices and S&P 500 trends were not associated with PD queries. A non-traditional measure of PD was used. It is unclear if actual clinically significant depression or anxiety increased during the Great Recession. Alternative explanations for strong associations between the Great Recession and PD queries, such as media, were explored and rejected. Because the economy is constantly changing, this work not only provides a snapshot of recent associations between the economy and PD queries but also a framework and toolkit for real-time surveillance going forward. Health resources, clinician screening patterns, and policy debate may be informed by changes in PD query
Sobotka, Tomáš; Skirbekk, Vegard; Philipov, Dimiter
This article reviews research on the effects of economic recessions on fertility in the developed world. We study how economic downturns, as measured by various indicators, especially by declining GDP levels, falling consumer confidence, and rising unemployment, were found to affect fertility. We also discuss particular mechanisms through which the recession may have influenced fertility behavior, including the effects of economic uncertainty, falling income, changes in the housing market, and rising enrollment in higher education, and also factors that influence fertility indirectly such as declining marriage rates. Most studies find that fertility tends to be pro-cyclical and often rises and declines with the ups and downs of the business cycle. Usually, these aggregate effects are relatively small (typically, a few percentage points) and of short durations; in addition they often influence especially the timing of childbearing and in most cases do not leave an imprint on cohort fertility levels. Therefore, major long-term fertility shifts often continue seemingly uninterrupted during the recession—including the fertility declines before and during the Great Depression of the 1930s and before and during the oil shock crises of the 1970s. Changes in the opportunity costs of childbearing and fertility behavior during economic downturn vary by sex, age, social status, and number of children; childless young adults are usually most affected. Furthermore, various policies and institutions may modify or even reverse the relationship between recessions and fertility. The first evidence pertaining to the recent recession falls in line with these findings. In most countries, the recession has brought a decline in the number of births and fertility rates, often marking a sharp halt to the previous decade of rising fertility rates.
Juan M. Sánchez; Lowell R. Ricketts
Conventional wisdom says that employment at small firms declines more than employment at large firms during recessions. However, that doesn’t seem to have been the case during the Great Recession of 2007-09.
Stitziel, Nathan O.; Fouchier, Sigrid W.; Sjouke, Barbara; Peloso, Gina M.; Moscoso, Alessa M.; Auer, Paul L.; Goel, Anuj; Gigante, Bruna; Barnes, Timothy A.; Melander, Olle; Orho-Melander, Marju; Duga, Stefano; Sivapalaratnam, Suthesh; Nikpay, Majid; Martinelli, Nicola; Girelli, Domenico; Jackson, Rebecca D.; Kooperberg, Charles; Lange, Leslie A.; Ardissino, Diego; McPherson, Ruth; Farrall, Martin; Watkins, Hugh; Reilly, Muredach P.; Rader, Daniel J.; de Faire, Ulf; Schunkert, Heribert; Erdmann, Jeanette; Samani, Nilesh J.; Charnas, Lawrence; Altshuler, David; Gabriel, Stacey; Kastelein, John J. P.; Defesche, Joep C.; Nederveen, Aart J.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Hovingh, G. Kees
Objective Autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia is a rare inherited disorder, characterized by extremely high total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, that has been previously linked to mutations in LDLRAP1. We identified a family with autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia not
Monies, Dorota; Maddirevula, Sateesh; Kurdi, Wesam; Alanazy, Mohammed H.; Alkhalidi, Hisham; Al-Owain, Mohammed; Sulaiman, Raashda A.; Faqeih, Eissa; Goljan, Ewa; Ibrahim, Niema; Abdulwahab, Firdous; Hashem, Mais; Abouelhoda, Mohamed; Shaheen, Ranad; Arold, Stefan T.; Alkuraya, Fowzan S.
The purpose of this study is to describe recessive alleles in strictly dominant genes. Identifying recessive mutations in genes for which only dominant disease or risk alleles have been reported can expand our understanding of the medical relevance
Cohen, Mervyn; Johnson, Tiffanie; Hoyer, Mark
We report a 4-year-old child with a high-riding superior aortic recess of the pericardium, initially misdiagnosed as a possible vascular malformation. The anatomy of the pericardial recesses is reviewed. (orig.)
Megan L. Frank
Full Text Available Background/Objective: Physical activity (PA is important in reducing childhood obesity, yet a majority of children are not meeting PA guidelines. Schools have been identified as a place to promote childhood PA. The purpose of this study was to determine the best type of physically active recess period to increase preschool-aged children's PA. Methods: PA was measured via accelerometers in preschool-aged children (n = 29 during three, 30-min recess conditions (control; structured play; free play on separate school days. Tertile splits were performed based on PA during the free play condition and children were divided into three groups: highly, moderately and least active. Results: For the aggregated sample, children were more (p ≤ 0.001 active during the free play (1282 ± 662 counts. min−1 and structured play (1416 ± 448 counts. min−1 recess versus the control condition (570 ± 460 counts. min−1 and activity was not different between the free play and structured conditions. However, children who were the most active during free play (1970 ± 647 counts·min−1 decreased (p ≤ 0.05 activity during structured play (1462 ± 535 counts·min−1, whereas children who were moderately active (1031 ± 112 counts·min−1 or the least (530 ± 239 counts·min−1 active during free play increased activity during structured play (1383 ± 345 counts·min−1 moderately active, 1313 ± 413 counts·min−1 least active. Conclusion: Providing a physically-active recess period will contribute to preschool-aged children meeting the recommended PA guidelines; however, different children may respond in a different way based upon the structure of the recess period.
Chakrabarti, Rajashri; Livingston, Max; Roy, Joydeep
The Great Recession led to marked declines in state revenue. In this paper we investigate whether (and how) local school districts modified their funding and taxing decisions in response to state aid declines in the post-recession period. Our results reveal school districts responded to state aid cuts in the post-recession period by countering…
Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Schipperijn, Jasper; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Troelsen, Jens
Facilitators and barriers to recess physical activity are not well understood. To date, research on recess physical activity has predominantly focused on quantitative measures typically focusing on a narrow set of predefined factors, often constructed by adults. To really understand the factors affecting recess physical activity it is crucial to…
Ridgers, Nicola D.; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Welk, Gregory J.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Huberty, Jennifer L.
Objective: Little research has investigated children's physical activity levels during school recess and the contribution of recess to school day physical activity levels by weight status. The aims of this study were to examine non-overweight and overweight children's physical activity levels during school recess, and examine the contribution of…
Muchie, Mammo; Baskaran, Angethvar
Since the early 1990s China’s economy has emerged one of the leading economies in the world using judicial mix of policies of economic liberalisation and protection. China’s national system of innovation (NSI) has been evolving and has been adapting to the challenges posed the globalisation. China...... China, which was triggered by the global credit crunch and slow down of trade. Major economies across the world have introduced a series of measures in response to recession and to stem the tide of its negative impacts. These measures included: bank bailouts, rescue packages, fiscal stimuli, and, most...... economies in the world due to the differences among their NSIs.In the case of China, to reduce the negative impacts of the global recession, it announced a fiscal stimulus package of $586b (14% of GDP) in November 2008 aimed to stimulate the domestic demand and also to boost the income of the poor...
Mehdi Siamak MONADJEMI
Full Text Available The financial crises of 2007-2008, caused wide-spread falling output and unemployment, in the affected countries and also globally. The severity of the recession was such that it was called the “Great Recession”. As a result of an increase in demand from China and India, at the same time, oil prices rose significantly. The empirical results from this study show that oil price changes negatively affected global growth rate in the 1970s but not in the 1990s and 2000s. These results suggest that the Great Recession in 2008 that initiated by the financial crises, was independent of a significant rise in oil prices.
Chen, Alice; Sasso, Anthony Lo; Richards, Michael R
An extensive literature documents immediate and persistent adverse labor market outcomes for individuals graduating into an economic downturn, but these effects are heterogeneous across sectors, occupations, and skill levels. In particular, the impact of recessions on the labor market outcomes for new physician graduates remains unknown. We leverage a unique dataset on New York physicians to analyze if and how the Great Recession impacted the labor market of physicians who have completed their residency and fellowship training and are seeking their first job. We find that these physicians do not delay labor market entry and their job searches and other employment outcomes are unaffected by the business cycle. The collage of evidence demonstrates that new graduates were largely unfazed by the recent downturn, which sharply contrasts with other highly educated, high remunerating occupations. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Saglam, Dilek; Bilgici, Meltem Ceyhan; Bekci, Tuemay; Albayrak, Canan; Albayrak, Davut
Osteopetrosis is a hereditary form of sclerosing bone dysplasia with various radiological and clinical presentations. The autosomal recessive type, also known as malignant osteopetrosis, is the most severe type, with the early onset of manifestations. A 5-month-old infant was admitted to our hospital with recurrent respiratory tract infections. Chest X-ray and skeletal survey revealed the classic findings of osteopetrosis, including diffuse osteosclerosis and bone within a bone appearance. At follow-up, the patient presented with, thickened calvarium, multiple prominent encephaloceles, and dural calcifications leading to the intracranial clinical manifestations with bilateral hearing and sight loss. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is one of the causes of encephaloceles and this finding may become dramatic if untreated. (orig.)
Roberto Moro Visconti
Full Text Available Global recession, started in 2008, is still proving an unresolved perfect storm and the financial crisis has affected also the real economy, creating widespread social unrest. Microfinance institutions (MFIs in developing countries seem however less affected by the worldwide turmoil, due to their segmentation and resilience to external shocks. Recession has a big impact on governance mechanisms, altering the equilibriums among different stakeholders and increasing the risk of investment returns; any governance improvement is highly welcome and recommended. No governance, no money for growth or bare survival. In the confused phase we are living in, at the moment there are not evident winners, but the underbanked poorest, unless properly supported, once again risk being the ultimate losers.
Saglam, Dilek; Bilgici, Meltem Ceyhan; Bekci, Tuemay [Ondokuz Mayis University, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Kurupelit, Samsun (Turkey); Albayrak, Canan; Albayrak, Davut [Ondokuz Mayis University, Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Kurupelit, Samsun (Turkey)
Osteopetrosis is a hereditary form of sclerosing bone dysplasia with various radiological and clinical presentations. The autosomal recessive type, also known as malignant osteopetrosis, is the most severe type, with the early onset of manifestations. A 5-month-old infant was admitted to our hospital with recurrent respiratory tract infections. Chest X-ray and skeletal survey revealed the classic findings of osteopetrosis, including diffuse osteosclerosis and bone within a bone appearance. At follow-up, the patient presented with, thickened calvarium, multiple prominent encephaloceles, and dural calcifications leading to the intracranial clinical manifestations with bilateral hearing and sight loss. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is one of the causes of encephaloceles and this finding may become dramatic if untreated. (orig.)
Gould, Elise; Hertel-Fernandez, Alexander
This paper examines recent trends in health insurance cost and coverage for the near-elderly population (aged 55 to 64), with particular attention directed toward the implications of the 2007 recession. We examine coverage by demographic and socioeconomic characteristics from the Current Population Survey and the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. We also estimate the effects of projected increases in the unemployment rate for employer-sponsored insurance coverage of the near elderly in 2009 and 2010. Erosion in coverage is likely to be exacerbated in the short run by the 2007 recession, given rapidly rising unemployment among this age cohort, and in the long-run, given the inability of the labor market to support increased labor market participation of older Americans in jobs that would have traditionally provided health insurance coverage.
Ferlazzo, Edoardo; Striano, Pasquale; Italiano, Domenico; Calarese, Tiziana; Gasparini, Sara; Vanni, Nicola; Fruscione, Floriana; Genton, Pierre; Zara, Federico
Autosomal recessive progressive myoclonus epilepsy due to impaired ceramide synthesis is an extremely rare condition, so far reported in a single family of Algerian origin presenting an unusual, severe form of progressive myoclonus epilepsy characterized by myoclonus, generalized tonic-clonic seizures and moderate to severe cognitive impairment, with probable autosomal recessive inheritance. Disease onset was between 6 and 16 years of age. Genetic study allowed to identify a homozygous nonsynonymous mutation in CERS1, the gene encoding ceramide synthase 1, a transmembrane protein of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), catalyzes the biosynthesis of C18-ceramides. The mutation decreased C18-ceramide levels. In addition, downregulation of CerS1 in neuroblastoma cell line showed activation of ER stress response and induction of proapoptotic pathways. This observation demonstrates that impairment of ceramide biosynthesis underlies neurodegeneration in humans.
Full Text Available This article considers representations of melancholia in post-Celtic Tiger Irish literature. By situating their post-recession fictions in “ghost estates,” or largely uninhabited housing developments, Donal Ryan and Tana French present neoliberally-inflected varieties of melancholia for their contemporary readers to contemplate. The settings of the ghost estates – and the accompanying supernatural elements to the texts – call to mind ghosts of Ireland’s past and legacies of recent economically unsound policies, spurring the reader to think about the imagined loss of futurity that accompanied the Irish economic crash. “Ghost stories for ghost estates,” then, represent an important contribution to the growing field of post-recession Irish literature.
Chen, Edith; Miller, Gregory E; Yu, Tianyi; Brody, Gene H
In the present study, we investigated associations of macro-economic conditions - the Great Recession - with cellular epigenetic aging, allostatic load, and self-reported health, in a group that experiences significant health disparities, African Americans. A sample of 330 African American adolescents in Georgia was followed from pre-recession (2007, M age=16.6) to post-recession (2010, M age=19.3). Economic data were collected in both 2007 and 2010. Three groups were formed to represent economic trajectories across the period of the Great Recession (stable low economic hardship, downward mobility, and stable high economic hardship). At age 19, measures of cellular epigenetic aging (derived from leukocyte DNA methylation profiles, reflecting the disparity between a person's biological and chronological age), allostatic load (composite of blood pressure, C reactive protein, cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and body mass index), and adolescent self-report of health were obtained. Linear trend analyses documented significant differences across all outcomes. The more time adolescents spent under economic hardship, the higher their epigenetic aging [estimate=1.421, SE=0.466, p=.002] and allostatic load [estimate=1.151, SE=0.375, p=.002] scores, and the worse their self-report of health [estimate=4.957, SE=1.800, p=.006]. Specific group comparisons revealed that adolescents in the downward mobility group had higher levels of allostatic load than adolescents in the stable low hardship group [p<.05]. Overall, these findings suggest that the health profiles of African American youth may in part be shaped by environmental macro-economic societal conditions, and that effects on biological markers can be detected relatively early in life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Althouse, Benjamin M; Allem, Jon-Patrick; Childers, Matthew A; Dredze, Mark; Ayers, John W
Associations between economic conditions and health are usually derived from cost-intensive surveys that are intermittently collected with nonspecific measures (i.e., self-rated health). This study identified how precise health concerns changed during the U.S. Great Recession analyzing Google search queries to identify the concern by the query content and their prevalence by the query volume. Excess health concerns were estimated during the Great Recession (December 2008 through 2011) by comparing the cumulative difference between observed and expected (based on linear projections from pre-existing trends) query volume for hundreds of individual terms. As performed in 2013, the 100 queries with the greatest excess were ranked and then clustered into themes based on query content. The specific queries with the greatest relative excess were stomach ulcer symptoms and headache symptoms, respectively, 228% (95% CI=35, 363) and 193% (95% CI=60, 275) greater than expected. Queries typically involved symptomology (i.e., gas symptoms) and diagnostics (i.e., heart monitor) naturally coalescing into themes. Among top themes, headache queries were 41% (95% CI=3, 148); hernia 37% (95% CI=16, 142); chest pain 35% (95% CI=6, 313); and arrhythmia 32% (95% CI=3, 149) greater than expected. Pain was common with back, gastric, joint, and tooth foci, with the latter 19% (95% CI=4, 46) higher. Among just the top 100, there were roughly 205 million excess health concern queries during the Great Recession. Google queries indicate that the Great Recession coincided with substantial increases in health concerns, hinting at how population health specifically changed during that time. © 2013 Published by American Journal of Preventive Medicine on behalf of American Journal of Preventive Medicine.
This study aims to find out the role of macroeconomic fundamentals in Malaysian post recession growth. The selected macroeconomic variables are exports, imports, price level, money supply, interest rate, exchange rate and government expenditure. The technique of cointegration was employed to assess the long run equilibrium relationships among the variables. Then, this study performs the Granger causality tests based on VECM to establish the short run causality among the variables. The long-ru...
Bank for International Settlements
The 12th BIS Annual Conference took place in Lucerne, Switzerland on 20-21 June 2013. The event brought together a distinguished group of central bank governors, leading academics and former public officials to exchange views on the conference theme of "Navigating the Great Recession: what role for monetary policy?". This volume contains the opening address by Stephen Cecchetti (former Economic Adviser, BIS), a keynote address by Finn Kydland (University of California, Santa Barbara) and the ...
Fee, Kyle; Schweitzer, Mark E.
Economists have been arguing about the connection between unemployment and infl ation for decades. Critics claim that the connection is unreliable and leads policymakers astray, while others argue that the relationship is useful for forecasting. We examine the more direct connections between elevated unemployment levels and the rate of increase in wage and labor costs, more generally. We fi nd that wage and labor cost growth has declined markedly following recent recessions. It has again decl...
Johnston, Jennifer J; van der Smagt, Jasper J; Rosenfeld, Jill A; Pagnamenta, Alistair T; Alswaid, Abdulrahman; Baker, Eva H; Blair, Edward; Borck, Guntram; Brinkmann, Julia; Craigen, William; Dung, Vu Chi; Emrick, Lisa; Everman, David B; van Gassen, Koen L; Gulsuner, Suleyman; Harr, Margaret H; Jain, Mahim; Kuechler, Alma; Leppig, Kathleen A; McDonald-McGinn, Donna M; Can, Ngoc Thi Bich; Peleg, Amir; Roeder, Elizabeth R; Rogers, R Curtis; Sagi-Dain, Lena; Sapp, Julie C; Schäffer, Alejandro A; Schanze, Denny; Stewart, Helen; Taylor, Jenny C; Verbeek, Nienke E; Walkiewicz, Magdalena A; Zackai, Elaine H; Zweier, Christiane; Zenker, Martin; Lee, Brendan; Biesecker, Leslie G
PurposeTo characterize the molecular genetics of autosomal recessive Noonan syndrome.MethodsFamilies underwent phenotyping for features of Noonan syndrome in children and their parents. Two multiplex families underwent linkage analysis. Exome, genome, or multigene panel sequencing was used to identify variants. The molecular consequences of observed splice variants were evaluated by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction.ResultsTwelve families with a total of 23 affected children with features of Noonan syndrome were evaluated. The phenotypic range included mildly affected patients, but it was lethal in some, with cardiac disease and leukemia. All of the parents were unaffected. Linkage analysis using a recessive model supported a candidate region in chromosome 22q11, which includes LZTR1, previously shown to harbor mutations in patients with Noonan syndrome inherited in a dominant pattern. Sequencing analyses of 21 live-born patients and a stillbirth identified biallelic pathogenic variants in LZTR1, including putative loss-of-function, missense, and canonical and noncanonical splicing variants in the affected children, with heterozygous, clinically unaffected parents and heterozygous or normal genotypes in unaffected siblings.ConclusionThese clinical and genetic data confirm the existence of a form of Noonan syndrome that is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern and identify biallelic mutations in LZTR1.Genet Med advance online publication, 22 February 2018; doi:10.1038/gim.2017.249.
Nakazawa, M; Wada, Y; Tamai, M
To assess the clinical and molecular genetic studies of patients with autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa associated with a mutation in the arrestin gene. Results of molecular genetic screening and case reports with DNA analysis and clinical features. University medical center. One hundred twenty anamnestically unrelated patients with autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa. DNA analysis was performed by single strand conformation polymorphism followed by nucleotide sequencing to search for a mutation in exon 11 of the arrestin gene. Clinical features were characterized by visual acuity slitlamp biomicroscopy, fundus examinations, fluorescein angiography, kinetic visual field testing, and electroretinography. We identified 3 unrelated patients with retinitis pigmentosa associated with a homozygous 1-base-pair deletion mutation in codon 309 of the arrestin gene designated as 1147delA. All 3 patients showed pigmentary retinal degeneration in the midperipheral area with or without macular involvement. Patient 1 had a sibling with Oguchi disease associated with the same mutation. Patient 2 demonstrated pigmentary retinal degeneration associated with a golden-yellow reflex in the peripheral fundus. Patients 1 and 3 showed features of retinitis pigmentosa without the golden-yellow fundus reflex. Although the arrestin 1147delA has been known as a frequent cause of Oguchi disease, this mutation also may be related to the pathogenesis of autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa. This phenomenon may provide evidence of variable expressivity of the mutation in the arrestin gene.
This paper examines the association between the Great Recession and real assets among families with young children. Real assets such as homes and cars are key indicators of economic well-being that may be especially valuable to low-income families. Using longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,898), we investigate the association between the city unemployment rate and home and car ownership and how the relationship varies by family structure (married, cohabiting, and single parents) and by race/ethnicity (White, Black, and Hispanic mothers). Using mother fixed-effects models, we find that a one percentage point increase in the unemployment rate is associated with a -0.5 percentage point decline in the probability of home ownership and a -0.7 percentage point decline in the probability of car ownership. We also find that the recession was associated with lower levels of home ownership for cohabiting families and for Hispanic families, as well as lower car ownership among single mothers and among Black mothers, whereas no change was observed among married families or White households. Considering that homes and cars are the most important assets among middle and low-income households in the U.S., these results suggest that the rise in the unemployment rate during the Great Recession may have increased household asset inequality across family structures and race/ethnicities, limiting economic mobility, and exacerbating the cycle of poverty. PMID:29401482
Full Text Available This paper examines the association between the Great Recession and real assets among families with young children. Real assets such as homes and cars are key indicators of economic well-being that may be especially valuable to low-income families. Using longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,898, we investigate the association between the city unemployment rate and home and car ownership and how the relationship varies by family structure (married, cohabiting, and single parents and by race/ethnicity (White, Black, and Hispanic mothers. Using mother fixed-effects models, we find that a one percentage point increase in the unemployment rate is associated with a -0.5 percentage point decline in the probability of home ownership and a -0.7 percentage point decline in the probability of car ownership. We also find that the recession was associated with lower levels of home ownership for cohabiting families and for Hispanic families, as well as lower car ownership among single mothers and among Black mothers, whereas no change was observed among married families or White households. Considering that homes and cars are the most important assets among middle and low-income households in the U.S., these results suggest that the rise in the unemployment rate during the Great Recession may have increased household asset inequality across family structures and race/ethnicities, limiting economic mobility, and exacerbating the cycle of poverty.
Duque, Valentina; Pilkauskas, Natasha V; Garfinkel, Irwin
This paper examines the association between the Great Recession and real assets among families with young children. Real assets such as homes and cars are key indicators of economic well-being that may be especially valuable to low-income families. Using longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,898), we investigate the association between the city unemployment rate and home and car ownership and how the relationship varies by family structure (married, cohabiting, and single parents) and by race/ethnicity (White, Black, and Hispanic mothers). Using mother fixed-effects models, we find that a one percentage point increase in the unemployment rate is associated with a -0.5 percentage point decline in the probability of home ownership and a -0.7 percentage point decline in the probability of car ownership. We also find that the recession was associated with lower levels of home ownership for cohabiting families and for Hispanic families, as well as lower car ownership among single mothers and among Black mothers, whereas no change was observed among married families or White households. Considering that homes and cars are the most important assets among middle and low-income households in the U.S., these results suggest that the rise in the unemployment rate during the Great Recession may have increased household asset inequality across family structures and race/ethnicities, limiting economic mobility, and exacerbating the cycle of poverty.
Full Text Available Background: The paper gives an update to earlier analysis considering youth poverty and transition to adulthood, which is timely given the economic crisis engulfing many countries in Europe. Whereas the crisis is affecting young people in particular, there is also a certain degree of variation across Europe. Objective: We document the short-term consequences of the current recession on the transition to adulthood of young Europeans, focusing on two main cornerstones in the transition to adulthood: economic independence and residential autonomy. Methods: We use a combination of OECD Employment Statistics for 2012 and micro-level data from the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC for the period 2005-2011 for 24 countries. Results: We document an increase in economic hardship experienced by young adults in several European countries during the recession, which is starting to translate into higher rates of co-residence with parents, hence delaying the process of leaving home and gaining economic independence. Conclusions: The way countries are reacting to the recession is not yet clear-cut, but economic uncertainty and deprivation is on the rise in those countries hardest hit, which is likely to delay the key markers of transition to adulthood.
Amir Kariznoee; Vahideh Sotoudeh Molashahi; Sakineh Arab kouhsar; Ali Kaab Amir
It is obvious that recession situation leads to demands reduction. Therefore, companies encounter challenges and weak businesses are disappeared and resistant and strength companies remain. In this situation considering the marketing department especially marketing strategy play a significant role. There are many marketing strategies. Companies use these strategies based on their needs or formulate new strategy with regard to their internal and external circumstances. This paper identify and ...
Full Text Available Groundwater has received increasing attention as an important strategic water resource for adaptation to climate change. In this regard, the separation of baseflow from streamflow and the analysis of recession curves make a significant contribution to integrated river basin management. The United States Geological Survey (USGS RECESS model adopting the master-recession curve (MRC method can enhance the accuracy with which baseflow may be separated from streamflow, compared to other baseflow-separation schemes that are more limited in their ability to reflect various watershed/aquifer characteristics. The RECESS model has been widely used for the analysis of hydrographs, but the applications using RECESS were only available through Microsoft-Disk Operating System (MS-DOS. Thus, this study aims to develop a web-based RECESS model for easy separation of baseflow from streamflow, with easy applications for ungauged regions. RECESS on the web derived the alpha factor, which is a baseflow recession constant in the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT, and this variable was provided to SWAT as the input. The results showed that the alpha factor estimated from the web-based RECESS model improved the predictions of streamflow and recession. Furthermore, these findings showed that the baseflow characteristics of the ungauged watersheds were influenced by the land use and slope angle of watersheds, as well as by precipitation and streamflow.
Full Text Available The present paper proposes a theoretical analysis of the performance of deep/shallow recessed hybrid bearing. It is intended that, on the basis of the numerical results drawn from this study, appropriate shallow recess depth and width can be determined for use in the bearing design process. By adopting bulk flow theory, the turbulent Reynolds equation and energy equation are modified and solved numerically including concentrated inertia effects at the recess edge with different depth and width of shallow recess. The results indicate that the load capacity, drag torque increases as the depth of shallow recess is shallower and the width ratio (half angle of deep recess versus half angle of shallow recess is smaller. In contrast, the flow rate decreases as the depth of shallow recess is shallower and the width ratio is smaller. Nevertheless, the appropriate design of the depth and width of shallow recess might well induce the performance of high-speed deep/shallow recessed hybrid bearing.
Gharabaghi, Davoud; Zanjani, Leila Kazemi
According to the literature, accommodative esotropia has an unpredictable course when nonsurgical treatment is considered, especially in cases with a high accommodative convergence/accommodation ratio (AC/A). The aim of this study was to compare the results of augmented recession, slanted recession, and recession with posterior fixation suture of the medial rectus muscles in the treatment of high AC/A esotropia. Twenty-eight children (4 to 14 years old) with high AC/A esotropia with a near-distance disparity greater than 10 PD were included in a prospective, randomized, blinded clinical trial. Nine children underwent recession of both medial rectus muscles and posterior fixation suture (Faden procedure), 9 children underwent augmented recession of the medial rectus muscles, and 10 children underwent slanted recession of both medial rectus muscles. The amount of esodeviation was measured before strabismus surgery and at least 6 months postoperatively. In the augmented recession group, the mean near-distance disparity was reduced from 16.33 +/- 2.17 PD preoperatively to 7.55 +/- 3.87 PD postoperatively (54.21%; P = .056). In the Faden procedure group, it was reduced from 15.22 +/- 4.08 PD to 2.55 +/- 4.03 PD (80.7%; P = .056). In the slanted recession group, it was reduced from 15.50 +/- 4.30 PD to 4.10 +/- 4.80 PD (67.55%; P = .056). The Faden procedure had the best outcome, but slanted recession also was successful. Because of our good results and an easy, non-invasive approach without any additional complications, we recommend slanted recession to treat high AC/A esotropia.
Currie, Janet; Duque, Valentina; Garfinkel, Irwin
We use longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Well-being Study to investigate the impacts of the Great Recession on the health of mothers. We focus on a wide range of physical and mental health outcomes, as well as health behaviors. We find that increases in the unemployment rate decrease self-reported health status and increase smoking and drug use. We also find evidence of heterogeneous impacts. Disadvantaged mothers—African-American, Hispanic, less educated, and unmarried–experience greater deterioration in their health than advantaged mothers—those who are white, married, and college educated. PMID:27212714
Krieger, Lloyd M
Periods of economic downturn place special demands on the plastic surgeon whose practice involves a large amount of cosmetic surgery. When determining strategy during difficult economic times, it is useful to understand the macroeconomic background of these downturns and to draw lessons from businesses in other service industries. Business cycles and monetary policy determine the overall environment in which plastic surgery is practiced. Plastic surgeons can take both defensive and proactive steps to maintain their profits during recessions and to prepare for the inevitable upturn. Care should also be taken when selecting pricing strategy during economic slowdowns.
A labor market tautology says that any change in labor usage can be decomposed into a movement along a marginal productivity schedule and a shift of the schedule. I calculate this decomposition for the recession of 2008, assuming an aggregate Cobb-Douglas marginal productivity schedule, and find that all of the decline in employment and hours since December 2007 is a movement along the schedule. This finding suggests that a reduction in labor supply and/or an increase in labor market distorti...
Savige, Judith; Storey, Helen; Il Cheong, Hae
Alport syndrome results from mutations in the COL4A5 (X-linked) or COL4A3/COL4A4 (recessive) genes. This study examined 754 previously- unpublished variants in these genes from individuals referred for genetic testing in 12 accredited diagnostic laboratories worldwide, in addition to all published...... COL4A5, COL4A3 and COL4A4 variants in the LOVD databases. It also determined genotype-phenotype correlations for variants where clinical data were available. Individuals were referred for genetic testing where Alport syndrome was suspected clinically or on biopsy (renal failure, hearing loss...
Nevo, S.; Zeltzer, M.; Benderly, A.; Levy, J.
Three cases of cerebral gigantism, two sibs and their double first cousin, are described in a large inbred family from Israel. Two of the three were observed and diagnosed at birth and two were followed for two years. They all presented the signs and symptoms considered typical of this syndrome, as well as some of the less frequent findings. Generalized oedema and flexion contractures of the feet were observed in two of the three at birth. This has not hitherto been reported in cases of cerebral gigantism, of whom only a few have been observed and diagnosed at birth. Autosomal recessive inheritance is clearly implied in this family. Images PMID:4841084
Lee, Dohoon; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; McLanahan, Sara S; Notterman, Daniel; Garfinkel, Irwin
Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, this study examined the effects of the Great Recession on maternal harsh parenting. We found that changes in macroeconomic conditions, rather than current conditions, affected harsh parenting, that declines in macroeconomic conditions had a stronger impact on harsh parenting than improvements in conditions, and that mothers' responses to adverse economic conditions were moderated by the DRD2 Taq1A genotype. We found no evidence of a moderating effect for two other, less well-studied SNPs from the DRD4 and DAT1 genes.
I empirically analyze the dynamics of business investment following normal recessions (declines in business investment that are not associated with banking crises) and banking crises. Using a panel of 16 advanced economies, I find evidence for significant non-linear trend reversion or bounce-back effects on the level of business investment following normal recessions, i.e., the deeper the previous recession was, the higher the growth rate of business investment will be. The trend reversion ef...
Lei Wang; Shuyun Jiang
The present paper proposes a theoretical analysis of the performance of deep/shallow recessed hybrid bearing. It is intended that, on the basis of the numerical results drawn from this study, appropriate shallow recess depth and width can be determined for use in the bearing design process. By adopting bulk flow theory, the turbulent Reynolds equation and energy equation are modified and solved numerically including concentrated inertia effects at the recess edge with different depth and widt...
Full Text Available As one of the critical diseases of sugarcane, sugarcane mosaic disease can lead to serious decline in stalk yield and sucrose content. It is mainly caused by Potyvirus sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV and/or Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV, with additional differences in viral strains. RNA interference (RNAi is a novel strategy for producing viral resistant plants. In this study, based on multiple sequence alignment conducted on genomic sequences of different strains and isolates of SrMV, the conserved region of coat protein (CP genes was selected as the target gene and the interference sequence with size of 423 bp in length was obtained through PCR amplification. The RNAi vector pGII00-HACP with an expression cassette containing both hairpin interference sequence and cp4-epsps herbicide-tolerant gene was transferred to sugarcane cultivar ROC22 via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. After herbicide screening, PCR molecular identification, and artificial inoculation challenge, anti-SrMV positive transgenic lines were successfully obtained. SrMV resistance rate of the transgenic lines with the interference sequence was 87.5% based on SrMV challenge by artificial inoculation. The genetically modified SrMV-resistant lines of cultivar ROC22 provide resistant germplasm for breeding lines and can also serve as resistant lines having the same genetic background for study of resistance mechanisms.
O'Riordan, M; Fitzpatrick, F
The economic recession that began in 2007 led to austerity measures and public sector cutbacks in many European countries. Reduced resource allocation to infection prevention and control (IPC) programmes is impeding prevention and control of tuberculosis, HIV and vaccine-preventable infections. In addition, higher rates of infectious disease in the community have a significant impact on hospital services, although the extent of this has not been studied. With a focus on quick deficit reduction, preventive services such IPC may be regarded as non-essential. Where a prevention programme succeeds in reducing disease burden to a low level, its very success can undermine the perceived need for the programme. To mitigate the negative effects of recession, we need to: educate our political leaders about the economic benefits of IPC; better quantify the costs of healthcare-associated infection; and evaluate the effects of budget cuts on healthcare outcomes and IPC activities. Copyright © 2015 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chourabi, Marwa; Liew, Mei Shan; Lim, Shawn; H'mida-Ben Brahim, Dorra; Boussofara, Lobna; Dai, Liang; Wong, Pui Mun; Foo, Jia Nee; Sriha, Badreddine; Robinson, Kim Samirah; Denil, Simon; Common, John Ea; Mamaï, Ons; Ben Khalifa, Youcef; Bollen, Mathieu; Liu, Jianjun; Denguezli, Mohamed; Bonnard, Carine; Saad, Ali; Reversade, Bruno
Cole disease is a genodermatosis of pigmentation following a strict dominant mode of inheritance. In this study, we investigated eight patients affected with an overlapping genodermatosis after recessive inheritance. The patients presented with hypo- and hyperpigmented macules over the body, resembling dyschromatosis universalis hereditaria in addition to punctuate palmoplantar keratosis. By homozygosity mapping and whole-exome sequencing, a biallelic p.Cys120Arg mutation in ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (ENPP1) was identified in all patients. We found that this mutation, like those causing dominant Cole disease, impairs homodimerization of the ENPP1 enzyme that is mediated by its two somatomedin-B-like domains. Histological analysis revealed structural and molecular changes in affected skin that were likely to originate from defective melanocytes because keratinocytes do not express ENPP1. Consistently, RNA-sequencing analysis of patient-derived primary melanocytes revealed alterations in melanocyte development and in pigmentation signaling pathways. We therefore conclude that germline ENPP1 cysteine-specific mutations, primarily affecting the melanocyte lineage, cause a clinical spectrum of dyschromatosis, in which the p.Cys120Arg allele represents a recessive and more severe form of Cole disease. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rafael Fabiano Machado Rosa
Full Text Available CONTEXT: The autosomal recessive form of microcephaly-chorioretinopathy syndrome is a rare genetic condition that is considered to be an important differential diagnosis with congenital toxoplasmosis.CASE REPORT: Our patient was a seven-year-old white boy who was initially diagnosed with congenital toxoplasmosis. However, his serological tests for congenital infections, including toxoplasmosis, were negative. He was the first child of young, healthy and consanguineous parents (fourth-degree relatives. The parents had normal head circumferences and intelligence. The patient presented microcephaly and specific abnormalities of the retina, with multiple diffuse oval areas of pigmentation and patches of chorioretinal atrophy associated with diffuse pigmentation of the fundus. Ophthalmological evaluations on the parents were normal. A computed tomography scan of the child's head showed slight dilation of lateral ventricles and basal cisterns without evidence of calcifications. We did not find any lymphedema in his hands and feet. He had postnatal growth retardation, severe mental retardation and cerebral palsy.CONCLUSIONS: The finding of chorioretinal lesions in a child with microcephaly should raise suspicions of the autosomal recessive form of microcephaly-chorioretinopathy syndrome, especially in cases with an atypical pattern of eye fundus and consanguinity. A specific diagnosis is essential for an appropriate clinical evaluation and for genetic counseling for the patients and their families.
van der Wel, Kjetil A; Saltkjel, Therese; Chen, Wen-Hao; Dahl, Espen; Halvorsen, Knut
This paper investigates the association between the Great Recession and educational inequalities in self-rated general health in 25 European countries. We investigate four different indicators related to economic recession: GDP; unemployment; austerity and a 'crisis' indicator signifying severe simultaneous drops in GDP and welfare generosity. We also assess the extent to which health inequality changes can be attributed to changes in the economic conditions and social capital in the European populations. The paper uses data from the European Social Survey (2002-2014). The analyses include both cross-sectional and lagged associations using multilevel linear regression models with country fixed effects. This approach allows us to identify health inequality changes net of all time-invariant differences between countries. GDP drops and increasing unemployment were associated with decreasing health inequalities. Austerity, however, was related to increasing health inequalities, an association that grew stronger with time. The strongest increase in health inequality was found for the more robust 'crisis' indicator. Changes in trust, social relationships and in the experience of economic hardship of the populations accounted for much of the increase in health inequality. The paper concludes that social policy has an important role in the development of health inequalities, particularly during times of economic crisis. © 2018 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation for SHIL.
Reuter, Miriam S; Musante, Luciana; Hu, Hao; Diederich, Stefan; Sticht, Heinrich; Ekici, Arif B; Uebe, Steffen; Wienker, Thomas F; Bartsch, Oliver; Zechner, Ulrich; Oppitz, Cornelia; Keleman, Krystyna; Jamra, Rami Abou; Najmabadi, Hossein; Schweiger, Susann; Reis, André; Kahrizi, Kimia
NDST1 was recently proposed as a candidate gene for autosomal recessive intellectual disability in two families. It encodes a bifunctional GlcNAc N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase with important functions in heparan sulfate biosynthesis. In mice, Ndst1 is crucial for embryonic development and homozygous null mutations are perinatally lethal. We now report on two additional unrelated families with homozygous missense NDST1 mutations. All mutations described to date predict the substitution of conserved amino acids in the sulfotransferase domain, and mutation modeling predicts drastic alterations in the local protein conformation. Comparing the four families, we noticed significant overlap in the clinical features, including both demonstrated and apparent intellectual disability, muscular hypotonia, epilepsy, and postnatal growth deficiency. Furthermore, in Drosophila, knockdown of sulfateless, the NDST ortholog, impairs long-term memory, highlighting its function in cognition. Our data confirm NDST1 mutations as a cause of autosomal recessive intellectual disability with a distinctive phenotype, and support an important function of NDST1 in human development. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Elcioglu, Nursel H.; Gustavson, Karl H.; Wilkie, Andrew O.M.; Yueksel-Apak, Memune; Spranger, Juergen W.
Autosomal recessive omodysplasia (MIM 258315) is a rare skeletal dysplasia characterized by severe congenital micromelia with shortening and distal tapering of the humeri and femora to give a club-like appearance. Fewer than 20 cases have been reported in the literature so far. The purpose of this study was to more clearly describe the clinical and radiographic phenotypes and their changes with age. Five new patients, including two sibs, with autosomal recessive omodysplasia are presented. Clinical features are rhizomelic dwarfism with limited extension of elbows and knees and a distinct face with a short nose, depressed nasal bridge, long philtrum, midline haemangiomas in infants and cryptorchidism in males. Radiological findings are distal hypoplasia of the short humerus and femur with characteristic radial dislocation and radioulnar diastasis. Based on a review of these and 16 previously reported patients, the regressive nature of the humerofemoral changes and the obvious male predominance are stressed. Phenotypic similarities with the atelosteogenesis group of disorders and with diastrophic dysplasia suggest common pathogenetic mechanisms. (orig.)
Crude oil prices fell dramatically during the fourth quarter of 1992. Refiners are reevaluating their positions to adjust to low demand growth worldwide. The only bright spot appears to be the United States' emergence from its economic recession. However, Japan and Germany are experiencing their own economic recessions, and crude oil supplies show no sign of tightening. Crude oil futures prices have fallen by more than 15% as of January 8, 1993 compared to October 1, 1992. Although the American Petroleum Institute (API) found increases in oil demand during October and November 1992, the increases are attributed to colder weather and the weak 1991 demand that was used for comparison. This issue identifies current factors at work affecting U.S. refining margins and product values, and offers a first quarter 1993 outlook. All data featured in graphs and text come from the Energy detente Refinery Netback Data Series published in each issue, in which gasoline and diesel No. 2 are Lundberg Survey unbranded racks instead of spot quotations. Margins are apparent deltas only and do not reflect actual profits for any individual operation
Chandler, D. G.; Daley, M.; Kasaee Roodsari, B.; Shaw, S. B.; McNamara, J.
Large scale operational hydrologic models should be capable of predicting seasonally low flow and stream intermittency as well as peak flow and inundation. We contrast examples of controls on low flow exerted by geomorphic and climatic setting at small catchment study sites in the Northeast and Northwest of the USA to indicate differences in hydrologic processes. Both regions accumulate winter snowpack and have an extended spring freshet, but the Reynolds Creek CZO and Dry Creek Experimental Watershed (both in Idaho mountains) experience a protracted summer drought, with occasional storms whereas precipitation free periods greater than five days are uncommon in the hilly Sleepers River (Vermont), and Yellow Barn State Forest (New York) and at Ley Creek, on a glacial plain (New York). At both Dry Creek and Reynolds Creek, headwater stream flow direction was transverse to groundwater, and below field capacity discharge was well related to either the ground water surface or corresponded to inversion of the hydraulic gradient over the depth of the soil. At all sites except Ley Creek, the headwaters became intermittent as the main tributary discharge declined, often disconnecting the surface source springs and seeps from the valley bottom stream. At the Idaho sites recession analysis for main stem was further complicated by consumptive use for irrigation and domestic wells. Modeling the recession characteristics of these various settings and across stream orders results in a variety of exponent values for power law scaling approaches that indicate the importance of site context for modeling low flow.
Full Text Available This paper deals with the influence of positive trust on business activities, entrepreneurship development, and economic growth. During the global recession, institutions make numerous decisions to find answers to the crisis that influence the behaviour of entrepreneurs. In such situations, significant stocks of trust are of great importance for economy stability and the motivation of future entrepreneurs. In the first section the terms, functions, and types of trust are defined. The second section presents the results of measuring the interpersonal and institutional trust of young entrepreneurs, representatives of future entrepreneurship and business and bearers of networking ideas in Serbia. The results show that young entrepreneurs have a serious trust deficit, which is worrying in people who are potential future business leaders. Only one fifth of the respondents intends to start their own firm when they have finished studying. The reasons most often given are that government economic policy and monopolies hamper starting a business. Most of the respondents thought that the government should be more involved in providing a better environment for medium and small business. Most respondents believed that the Serbian recession was caused foremost by wrong governmental economic policy, followed by corruption.
Vélez, A M; Spencer, T A; Alves, A P; Moellenbeck, D; Meagher, R L; Chirakkal, H; Siegfried, B D
Transgenic maize, Zea maize L., expressing the Cry1F protein from Bacillus thuringiensis has been registered for Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) control since 2003. Unexpected damage to Cry1F maize was reported in 2006 in Puerto Rico and Cry1F resistance in S. frugiperda was documented. The inheritance of Cry1F resistance was characterized in a S. frugiperda resistant strain originating from Puerto Rico, which displayed >289-fold resistance to purified Cry1F. Concentration-response bioassays of reciprocal crosses of resistant and susceptible parental populations indicated that resistance is recessive and autosomal. Bioassays of the backcross of the F1 generation crossed with the resistant parental strain suggest that a single locus is responsible for resistance. In addition, cross-resistance to Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry1Ba, Cry2Aa and Vip3Aa was assessed in the Cry1F-resistant strain. There was no significant cross-resistance to Cry1Aa, Cry1Ba and Cry2Aa, although only limited effects were observed in the susceptible strain. Vip3Aa was highly effective against susceptible and resistant insects indicating no cross-resistance with Cry1F. In contrast, low levels of cross-resistance were observed for both Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac. Because the resistance is recessive and conferred by a single locus, an F1 screening assay was used to measure the frequency of Cry1F-resistant alleles from populations of Florida and Texas in 2010 and 2011. A total frequency of resistant alleles of 0.13 and 0.02 was found for Florida and Texas populations, respectively, indicating resistant alleles could be found in US populations, although there have been no reports of reduced efficacy of Cry1F-expressing plants.
Julie A Kirsch
Full Text Available The Great Recession of 2007–2009 is regarded as the most severe economic downturn since World War II. This study examined relationships between reported recession hardships and physical health in a national survey of American adults ( N = 1275. Furthermore, education and psychological resources (perceived control, purpose in life, and conscientiousness were tested as moderators of the health impacts of the recession. A greater number of hardships predicted poorer health, especially among the less educated. Psychological resources interacted with education and hardships to predict health outcomes. Although typically viewed as protective factors, such resources became vulnerabilities among educationally disadvantaged adults experiencing greater recession hardships.
Kirsch, Julie A; Ryff, Carol D
The Great Recession of 2007-2009 is regarded as the most severe economic downturn since World War II. This study examined relationships between reported recession hardships and physical health in a national survey of American adults ( N = 1275). Furthermore, education and psychological resources (perceived control, purpose in life, and conscientiousness) were tested as moderators of the health impacts of the recession. A greater number of hardships predicted poorer health, especially among the less educated. Psychological resources interacted with education and hardships to predict health outcomes. Although typically viewed as protective factors, such resources became vulnerabilities among educationally disadvantaged adults experiencing greater recession hardships.
Dagher, Rada K; Chen, Jie; Thomas, Stephen B
We examined gender differences in mental health outcomes during and post-recession versus pre-recession. We utilized 2005-2006, 2008-2009, and 2010-2011 data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Females had lower odds of depression diagnoses during and post-recession and better mental health during the recession, but higher odds of anxiety diagnoses post-recession. Males had lower odds of depression diagnoses and better mental health during and post-recession and lower Kessler 6 scores post-recession. We conducted stratified analyses, which confirmed that the aforementioned findings were consistent across the four different regions of the U.S., by employment status, income and health care utilization. Importantly, we found that the higher odds of anxiety diagnoses among females after the recession were mainly prominent among specific subgroups of females: those who lived in the Northeast or the Midwest, the unemployed, and those with low household income. Gender differences in mental health in association with the economic recession highlight the importance of policymakers taking these differences into consideration when designing economic and social policies to address economic downturns. Future research should examine the reasons behind the decreased depression diagnoses among both genders, and whether they signify decreased mental healthcare utilization or increased social support and more time for exercise and leisure activities.
Funai, Hiroaki; Yabe, Toshie; Kase, Yasuhiro; Kitahara, Nobuo; Horiuchi, Koji; Yano, Jun; Ushijima, Tatsujiro; Iinuma, Toshitaka
Operative findings of the supratubal recess were examined in the 30 patients with acquired cholesteatoma. They were compared with findings of high-resolution CTs (HRCTs) obtained preoperatively. Thus the role of HRCT in cholesteatoma involving the supratubal recess were evaluated. HRCTs of 172 ears without otitis media and 65 ears with tubotympanic type otitis media were analyzed as control. The HRCT has proved to provide excellent informations regarding the presence of cholesteatoma in the supratubal recess. Diagnostic points were as follows. (1) Destruction of the ''cog''. (2) Erosion or destruction of surrounding bony structures, for example, facial canal, tympanic tegmen. (3) Soft tissue density in the supratubal recess. (author)
This work uses Keynesian principles and an analysis of the Colombian population in the 1970s to argue that the Colombian policy of slowing population growth, which was adopted with the aim of improving the general welfare of the population, has had shortterm negative effects on effective demand and thus on the level of employment and welfare. These negative effects were caused by the inflexibility of income distribution, which prevented expansion of the internal market, complicated by the stagnant condition of the external sector and the budget deficit. The results of the Colombian case study demonstrate how the deceleration of population growth beginning in the 1960s had a significant impact on the levels of consumption and savings and on the patterns of consumption, leading to low levels of investment and little dynamism. Although the current Colombian economic recession is aggravated by contextual factors such as the world economic recession, the high cost of capital, the industrial recession, and declining food production among others, at the core of the crisis are longer term structural determinants such as the decline in the rate of population growth and the highly unequal distribution of income and wealth, which have contributed to a shrinking of the internal market for some types of goods. Given the unlikelihood of renewed rapid population growth, the Keynesian model suggests that the only alternative for increasing aggregate demand is state intervention through public spending and investment and reorientation of the financial system to achieve a dynamic redistribution of income. Based on these findings and on proposals of other analysts, a stragegy for revitalization is proposed which would imply a gradual income redistribution to allow increased consumption of mass produced goods by the low income groups. Direct consumption subsidies would be avoided because of their inflationary and import-expanding tendencies; rather, incentives and support would be
Stenosis of the lateral recess in the lumbar spinal canal is a clinical problem, especially in terms of surgical management. Criteria for the diagnosis and surgical treatment of lateral recess stenosis (LRS) are not clearly defined. Several authors have suggested measurement of the lateral recess height (LRH) on computed tomography (CT) scans as a helpful tool for making decisions in regard of management. The present study is based an the assumption that measurement of the lateral recess angle (LRA) may be useful in the clinical management of lateral recess stenosis. The reliability and significance of the results have been analyzed. In 35 patients, the stenosis was confirmed by intraoperative measurement of the lateral recess height. Fifty-three affected lateral recesses were analyzed. Before surgery, the heights on CT scans were measured. The mean value was 3.3 mm (SD = 0.9 mm), while 41 of them were 3.6 mm or less. Furthermore, the angles on CT scans were evaluated. The mean value was 25.9 degrees (SD = 4.9 degrees), 48 of them were 30 degrees or less and only 5 of them achieved more than 30 degrees. Results reveal that the best quantitative determination of a lateral recess stenosis is a CT scan angle measurement with a critical value of 30 degrees. A CT scan height of 3.6 mm or less is also indicative of stenosis. Statistical evaluation of the data by multiple regression analysis revealed agreement between intraoperative findings and measured heights (p = 0.02), while even better results were noted for angles (p < 0.01). Interfacet distance (IF) was found to be least predictive (p = 0.04). (author)
Bianchi, Emily C
Despite widespread interest in narcissism, relatively little is known about the conditions that encourage or dampen it. Drawing on research showing that macroenvironmental conditions in emerging adulthood can leave a lasting imprint on attitudes and behaviors, I argue that people who enter adulthood during recessions are less likely to be narcissistic later in life than those who come of age in more prosperous times. Using large samples of American adults, Studies 1 and 2 showed that people who entered adulthood during worse economic times endorsed fewer narcissistic items as older adults. Study 3 extended these findings to a behavioral manifestation of narcissism: the relative pay of CEOs. CEOs who came of age in worse economic times paid themselves less relative to other top executives in their firms. These findings suggest that macroenvironmental experiences at a critical life stage can have lasting implications for how unique, special, and deserving people believe themselves to be. © The Author(s) 2014.
Gottlieb, Aaron; Pilkauskas, Natasha; Garfinkel, Irwin
Using longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,701; 1998–2010), the authors studied whether the unemployment rate was associated with private financial transfers (PFTs) among urban families with young children and whether family income moderated these associations. They found that an increase in the unemployment rate was associated with greater PFT receipt and that family income moderated the association. Poor and near-poor mothers experienced increases in PFT receipt when unemployment rates were high, whereas mothers with incomes between 2 and 3 times the poverty threshold experienced decreases. Simulations estimating the impact of the Great Recession suggest that moving from 5% to 10% unemployment is associated with a 9-percentage-point increase in the predicted probability of receiving a PFT for the sample as a whole, with greater increases in predicted probabilities among poor and near poor mothers. PMID:25505802
Moffitt, Robert A.
The social safety net responded in significant and favorable ways during the Great Recession. Aggregate per capita expenditures grew significantly, with particularly strong growth in the SNAP, EITC, UI, and Medicaid programs. Distributionally, the increase in transfers was widely shared across demographic groups, including families with and without children, single-parent and two-parent families. Transfers grew as well among families with more employed members and with fewer employed members. However, the increase in transfer amounts was not strongly progressive across income classes within the low-income population, increasingly slightly more for those just below the poverty line and those just above it, compared to those at the bottom of the income distribution. This is mainly the result of the EITC program, which provides greater benefits to those with higher family earnings. The expansions of SNAP and UI benefitted those at the bottom of the income distribution to a greater extent. PMID:27065356
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to design three separate financial distress prediction models that will track the changes in a relative importance of financial ratios throughout three consecutive years. The models were based on the financial data from 2000 privately-owned small and medium-sized enterprises in Croatia from 2006 to 2009, and developed by means of logistic regression. Macroeconomic conditions as well as market dynamic have been changed over the mentioned period. Financial ratios that were less important in one period become more important in the next period. Composition of model starting in 2006 has been changed in the next years. It tells us what financial ratios are more important during the time of economic downturn. Besides, it helps us to understand behavior of small and medium-sized enterprises in the period of prerecession and in the period of recession.
Singh, M.; Mishra, S.; Mohanty, S. S.; Mishra, G. P.
In this paper a two dimensional (2D) rectangular recessed channel-silicon on insulator metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (RRC-SOI MOSFET), using the concept of groove between source and drain regions, which is one of the channel engineering technique to suppress the short channel effect (SCE). This suppression is mainly due to corner potential barrier of the groove and the simulation is carried out by using ATLAS 2D device simulator. To have further improvement of SCE in RRC-SOI MOSFET, three more devices are designed by using dual material gate (DMG) and gate dielectric technique, which results in formation of devices i.e. DMRRC-SOI,MLSMRRC-SOI, MLDMRRC-SOI MOSFET. The effect of different structures of RRC-SOI on AC and RF parameters are investigated and the importance of these devices over RRC MOSFET regarding short channel effect is analyzed.
Singh, M; Mishra, G P; Mishra, S; Mohanty, S S
In this paper a two dimensional (2D) rectangular recessed channel–silicon on insulator metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (RRC-SOI MOSFET), using the concept of groove between source and drain regions, which is one of the channel engineering technique to suppress the short channel effect (SCE). This suppression is mainly due to corner potential barrier of the groove and the simulation is carried out by using ATLAS 2D device simulator. To have further improvement of SCE in RRC-SOI MOSFET, three more devices are designed by using dual material gate (DMG) and gate dielectric technique, which results in formation of devices i.e. DMRRC-SOI,MLSMRRC-SOI, MLDMRRC-SOI MOSFET. The effect of different structures of RRC-SOI on AC and RF parameters are investigated and the importance of these devices over RRC MOSFET regarding short channel effect is analyzed. (paper)
Di Nicola, Elisa; Tavazza, Mario; Lucioli, Alessandra; Salandri, Laura; Ilardi, Vincenza
Some abiotic and biotic conditions are known to have a negative impact on post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS), thus representing a potential concern for the production of stable engineered virus resistance traits. However, depending on the strategy followed to achieve PTGS of the transgene, different responses to external conditions can be expected. In the present study, we utilized the Nicotiana benthamiana–Plum pox virus (PPV) pathosystem to evaluate in detail the stability of intron-hairpin(ihp)-mediated virus resistance under conditions known to adversely affect PTGS. The ihp plants grown at low or high temperatures were fully resistant to multiple PPV challenges, different PPV inoculum concentrations and even to a PPV isolate differing from the ihp construct by more than 28% at the nucleotide level. In addition, infections of ihp plants with viruses belonging to Cucumovirus, Potyvirus or Tombusvirus, all known to affect PTGS at different steps, were not able to defeat PPV resistance. Low temperatures did not affect the accumulation of transgenic small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), whereas a clear increase in the amount of siRNAs was observed during infections sustained by Cucumber mosaic virus and Potato virus Y. Our results show that the above stress factors do not represent an important concern for the production,through ihp-PTGS technology, of transgenic plants having robust virus resistance traits.
Full Text Available This study was initiated to identify causal mutations responsible for autosomal recessive congenital cataracts in consanguineous familial cases.Affected individuals underwent a detailed ophthalmological and clinical examination, and slit-lamp photographs were ascertained for affected individuals who have not yet been operated for the removal of the cataractous lens. Blood samples were obtained, and genomic DNA was extracted from white blood cells. A genome-wide scan was completed with short tandem repeat (STR markers, and the logarithm of odds (LOD scores were calculated. Protein coding exons of CRYAB were sequenced, bi-directionally. Evolutionary conservation was investigated by aligning CRYAB orthologues, and the expression of Cryab in embryonic and postnatal mice lens was investigated with TaqMan probe.The clinical and ophthalmological examinations suggested that all affected individuals had nuclear cataracts. Genome-wide linkage analysis suggested a potential region on chromosome 11q23 harboring CRYAB. DNA sequencing identified a missense variation: c.34C>T (p.R12C in CRYAB that segregated with the disease phenotype in the family. Subsequent interrogation of our entire cohort of familial cases identified a second familial case localized to chromosome 11q23 harboring a c.31C>T (p.R11C mutation. In silico analyses suggested that the mutations identified in familial cases, p.R11C and p.R12C will not be tolerated by the three-dimensional structure of CRYAB. Real-time PCR analysis identified the expression of Cryab in mouse lens as early as embryonic day 15 (E15 that increased significantly until postnatal day 6 (P6 with steady level of expression thereafter.Here, we report two novel missense mutations, p.R11C and p.R12C, in CRYAB associated with autosomal recessive congenital nuclear cataracts.
Full Text Available Transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt toxins have been adopted worldwide, notably in developing countries. In spite of their success in controlling target pests while allowing a substantial reduction of insecticide use, the sustainable control of these pest populations is threatened by the evolution of resistance. The implementation of the "high dose/refuge" strategy for managing insect resistance in transgenic crops aims at delaying the evolution of resistance to Bt crops in pest populations by promoting survival of susceptible insects. However, a crucial condition for the "high dose/refuge" strategy to be efficient is that the inheritance of resistance should be functionally recessive. Busseolafusca developed high levels of resistance to the Bt toxin Cry 1Ab expressed in Bt corn in South Africa. To test whether the inheritance of B. fusca resistance to the Bt toxin could be considered recessive we performed controlled crosses with this pest and evaluated its survival on Bt and non-Bt corn. Results show that resistance of B. fusca to Bt corn is dominant, which refutes the hypothesis of recessive inheritance. Survival on Bt corn was not lower than on non-Bt corn for both resistant larvae and the F1 progeny from resistant × susceptible parents. Hence, resistance management strategies of B. fusca to Bt corn must address non-recessive resistance.
Müller, Hans-Peter; Stadermann, Sabine; Heinecke, Achim
Smoking is a major risk factor for destructive periodontal disease. There is limited information with regard to effects of smoking in subjects with minimal periodontal destruction. The aim of the present investigation was to assess the development of gingival recession in young adult smokers and non-smokers. 61 systemically healthy young adults, 19 to 30 years of age completed the final examination. 30 volunteers smoked at least 20 cigarettes per day, whereas 31 subjects were non-smokers. Clinical periodontal conditions were assessed 4x within a time period of 6 months. Site-specific analyses considering the correlated structure of data were performed. At the outset, 50% of subjects presented with gingival recession at 1 or more sites. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of gingival recession between non-smokers and smokers. Severe recession in excess of 2 mm affected about 23% non-smokers but only 7% smokers. Some further gingival recession developed during the 6-month observation period. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, the risk for recession development appeared not to be influenced by smoking status after adjusting for periodontal probing depth, recession at baseline, tooth brushing frequency, gender, jaw, tooth type and site. Present data did not support the hypothesis that smokers are at an increased risk for the development of gingival recession.
Sawyer, Amanda G.
From 2007 to 2009, the United States experienced one of the greatest economic declines reported in the previous decades, known as the Great Recession (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2012). While a great deal of media attention focused on the immediate financial effects of the recession, little discussion was made about the influence of this crisis…
Dunbar, Afet; Hossler, Don; Shapiro, Doug; Chen, Jin; Martin, Sarah; Torres, Vasti; Zerquera, Desiree; Ziskin, Mary
This report, "National Postsecondary Enrollment Trends: Before, During, and After the Great Recession," brings to light emerging national and regional patterns among traditional-age, first-time students enrolling in colleges and universities during the fall term each year from 2006 through 2010--before, during, and after the recession.…
Takhtamanova, Yelena; Sierminska, Eva
This paper studies the mechanisms driving the persistently high unemployment rate during the last recession and mild recovery. Previous studies have examined the demographic aspect of the recession. We focus on specific industries. Consequently, we propose a methodology to decompose changes in the
Mendoza, Pilar; Malcolm, Zaria; Parish, Nancy
This study investigated qualitatively how undergraduate students experienced the Great Recession at a flagship university in the South Eastern of United States and how this experience relates to their retention. Results indicate that the Great Recession has significantly impacted students' engagement and commitments. We argue that student…
Lance, Keith Curry; Hofschire, Linda; Daisey, Jamie
This report shares the statistical trends for public library use in Colorado before and since the onset of the latest recession. It also includes the voices of librarians from around the state, offering their observations and stories of how public libraries are helping in these difficult times. To determine the impact of the Great Recession on use…
Zerger, Heather M.; Miller, Bryon G.; Valbuena, Diego; Miltenberger, Raymond G.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of student pairing and feedback during recess on children's step counts. During baseline, participants wore a sealed pedometer during recess. During intervention, we paired participants with higher step counts with participants with lower step counts. We encouraged teams to compete for the…
Full Text Available Differences in recess physical activity (PA according to perceived school environment among elementary school children were examined. Participants were 103 children from two schools in Japan. PA was measured using accelerometry for seven consecutive days. Time spent in sedentary or PA (light, moderate, or vigorous during their morning recess (25 min and lunch recess (15 min was determined. The School Physical Activity Environment Scale (three factors: equipment, facility, and safety was used to investigate perceived school environment. Environmental factor scores were assigned to low or high groups for each factor by median. An analysis of covariance, with grade as the covariate, was conducted separately by gender to examine differences in PA between two groups. During lunch recess, boys in the high-equipment group spent significantly more time in moderate PA (high: 1.5; low: 0.8 min whereas girls in this group spent less time in light PA (9.3, 11.0. Boys in the high-facility group spent significantly less time in sedentary (2.3, 3.9 and more time in vigorous PA (2.4, 1.4 during lunch recess, and girls spent more time in moderate (2.1, 1.2 and vigorous PA (1.9, 1.3 during morning recess. Differences were observed in recess PA according to school environment perceptions. The present study may be useful for further intervention studies for the promotion of PA during recess.
Full Text Available AlGaN/GaN, because of their superior material properties, are most suitable semiconductor material for High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs. In this work we investigated the hidden physics behind these materials and studied the effect of recess technology in AlGaN/GaN HEMTs. The device under investigation is simulated for different recess depth using Silvaco-Atlas TCAD. Recess technology improves the performance of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs. We considered three kinds of recess technology gate, ohmic and combination of gate and ohmic. Gate recess improves transconductance gm but it reduces the drain current Id of the device under investigation. Ohmic recess improves the transconductance gm but it introduces leakage current Ig in the device. In order to use AlGaN/GaN for high voltage operation, both the transconductance and the drain current should be reasonably high which is obtained by combining both gate and ohmic recess technologies. A good balance in transconductance and drain current is achieved by combining both gate and ohmic recess technologies without any leakage current.
Wang, Hongmei; Li, Tao; Siahpush, Mohammad; Chen, Li-Wu; Huberty, Jennifer
Background: Many school-based recess interventions have been shown to be effective in increasing physical activity but their relative efficiency compared to other school-based programs are unknown. This study examined the cost-effectiveness of Ready for Recess, a program designed to increase students' physical activity in 2 elementary schools.…
The author estimates the impacts of the local rate of unemployment and the Great Recession on the quit and graduation rates of the U.S. construction trade apprentices over the 2001-2014 period. Trade union participation in training sponsorship had a strong influence on attrition rates. The impacts of the business cycle and the Great Recession on…
Bleeker, Martha; Beyler, Nicholas; James-Burdumy, Susanne; Fortson, Jane
Background: School-based programs, such as Playworks, that guide students in organized activities during recess and make improvements to the recess play yard may lead to significant increases in physical activity--especially for girls. This study builds on past research by investigating the impact of Playworks separately for girls and boys.…
Isaacs, Julia B.
Children throughout the United States continue to be negatively impacted by the lingering effects of the Great Recession, with children in some states more hard hit than others. The impact of the recession on children can be hard to see. Some economic statistics ignore children, while others come out with a long time delay. This updated issue…
Tobey, Trina; McAuliff, Kathleen; Rocha, Celina
Incidences and severity of child abuse have increased since the start of the recession. This study examined the relationship between employment status and severity of symptoms in children abused during a recession year. Participants included 154 females and 65 males between 2 and 17 years old referred to Dallas Children's Advocacy Center after…
Bonioli, E; Palmieri, A; Bertola, A; Bellini, C
Autosomal recessive mode of inheritance of a Coffin-Siris like syndrome: Coffin-Siris syndrome is a rare mental retardation/multiple congenital anomalies syndrome; so far its pattern of inheritance is under debate. We report a child affected by this syndrome, the pedigree of which is consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance.
Gansemer-Topf, Ann M.; Downey, Jillian; Thompson, Katherine; Genschel, Ulrike
Economic recessions impact higher education institutions in complex ways. Several analyses have examined the influence of the 2007-2009 recession on tuition, enrollments, revenues, and expenditures, but the connection of these resource allocation patterns to a student success outcome--namely, retention--is limited. This study examined…
Efrat, Merav W.
Physical activity is linked with health and academic benefits. While recess provides the greatest opportunity for children to accumulate physical activity, most children are not motivated to engage in sufficient amounts of physical activity during recess. Research demonstrates a strong relationship between self-efficacy and children's motivation…
Spencer-Cavaliere, Nancy; Dunn, Janice Causgrove; Watkinson, E. Jane
This study investigated the application of an expectancy-value model to children's activity choices on the playground at recess. The purpose was to test the prediction that expectancies for success and subjective task values are related to decisions to engage in specific recess activities such as climbing, playing soccer, or skipping rope.…
London, Rebecca A; Westrich, Lisa; Stokes-Guinan, Katie; McLaughlin, Milbrey
Recess is a part of the elementary school day with strong implications for school climate. Positive school climate has been linked to a host of favorable student outcomes, from attendance to achievement. We examine 6 low-income elementary schools' experiences implementing a recess-based program designed to provide safe, healthy, and inclusive play to study how improving recess functioning can affect school climate. Data from teacher, principal, and recess coach interviews; student focus groups; recess observations; and a teacher survey are triangulated to understand the ways that recess changed during implementation. Comparing schools that achieved higher- and lower-functioning recesses, we link recess functioning with school climate. Recess improved in all schools, but 4 of the 6 achieved a higher-functioning recess. In these schools, teachers and principals agreed that by the end of the year, recess offered opportunities for student engagement, conflict resolution, pro-social skill development, and emotional and physical safety. Respondents in these four schools linked these changes to improved overall school climate. Recess is an important part of the school day for contributing to school climate. Creating a positive recess climate helps students to be engaged in meaningful play and return to class ready to learn. © 2014, American School Health Association.
King, Christopher J; Chen, Jie; Garza, Mary A; Thomas, Stephen B
Traditionally, economic recessions have resulted in decreased utilization of preventive health services. To explore racial and ethnic differences in breast and cervical cancer screening rates before and during the Great Recession. The Medical Expenditure Panel was the source for identifying 10,894 women, ages 50-74 for breast screening and 19,957 women, ages 21-65 for cervical screening. Survey years included 2004-2005 and 2009-2010. Dependent variables were as follows: 1) receipt of mammogram within the past 2 years; and 2) receipt of a Pap smear within the past 3 years. The interaction of the recession and the likelihood of screening between whites and minorities was analyzed. Multivariate regressions were applied to estimate the likelihood of screening for the two time periods while controlling for a recession variable. Nationally, breast and cervical cancer screening rates dropped during the recession period; white women contributed most to the decline. However, there were significant improvements in timely screening for both cancers among Hispanics during the recession period. After controlling for the recession, African American women were more likely to have timely screenings compared to white women. Screening rates during the recession were lowest in the South, Midwest and West. There was a national reduction in the percentages of women who obtained timely breast and cervical screenings during the Great Recession. Outreach efforts are needed to ensure that women who were not screened during the recession are screened. Widespread education about the Affordable Care Act may be helpful. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chakrabarti, Rajashri; Setren, Elizabeth
There is a slowly emerging literature that seeks to understand how the Great Recession affected other parts of the economy; however, there is no research that examines the effect of Great Recession (or any other recession) on schools. Given the fundamental role of education in human capital formation and growth, it is essential to understand the…
Wang, S. T.; Chen, Y. W.; Chang, L. C.; Chiang, C. J.; Wang, Y. S.
The interaction of surface to subsurface water is an important issue for groundwater resources assessment and management. The influences of surface water to groundwater are mainly through the rainfall recharge, river recharge and discharge and other boundary sources. During a drought period, the interaction of river and groundwater may be one of the main sources of groundwater level recession. Therefore, this study explores the interaction of surface water to groundwater via the groundwater recession. During drought periods, the pumping and river interaction together are the main mechanisms causing the recession of groundwater level. In principle, larger gradient of the recession curve indicates more groundwater discharge and it is an important characteristic of the groundwater system. In this study, to avoid time-consuming manual analysis, the Python programming language is used to develop a statistical analysis model for exploring the groundwater recession information. First, the slopes of the groundwater level hydrograph at every time step were computed for each well. Then, for each well, the represented slope to each groundwater level was defined as the slope with 90% exceedance probability. The relationship between the recession slope and the groundwater level can then be obtained. The developed model is applied to Choushui River Alluvial Fan. In most wells, the results show strong positive correlations between the groundwater levels and the absolute values of the recession slopes.
Chen, Jie; Vargas-Bustamante, Arturo; Mortensen, Karoline; Thomas, Stephen B
To examine the association between the Great Recession of 2007-2009 and health care expenditures along the health care spending distribution, with a focus on racial/ethnic disparities. Secondary data analyses of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (2005-2006 and 2008-2009). Quantile multivariate regressions are employed to measure the different associations between the economic recession of 2007-2009 and health care spending. Race/ethnicity and interaction terms between race/ethnicity and a recession indicator are controlled to examine whether minorities encountered disproportionately lower health spending during the economic recession. The Great Recession was significantly associated with reductions in health care expenditures at the 10th-50th percentiles of the distribution, but not at the 75th-90th percentiles. Racial and ethnic disparities were more substantial at the lower end of the health expenditure distribution; however, on average the reduction in expenditures was similar for all race/ethnic groups. The Great Recession was also positively associated with spending on emergency department visits. This study shows that the relationship between the Great Recession and health care spending varied along the health expenditure distribution. More variability was observed in the lower end of the health spending distribution compared to the higher end. © Health Research and Educational Trust.
Full Text Available Does a country with a heavy dependence on a tourism economy have a tendency to succumb to more risk in a recession? With the shift from manufacturing-based economies in the developing world toward service-based industries, including tourism, a reliance on the tourism industry may erode economic stability in tourism-based countries, making them more prone to fall into a recession due to higher risks. In this paper, we wish to emphasise the positive impact of tourism specialisation indices in the international economy on the probability occurrence of a so-called Great Recession. This article uses a multilevel survival analysis and a generalised linear mixed-effect (GLMM structure modelling to investigate the impact of tourism development on the probability of recession frequency (risk in terms of months of duration and severity, by using data collected from 2007 to 2013 from 71 countries around the world, to see if recession frequency is positively correlated with the various indicators of tourism development. Two GLMMs were fitted to this data: logistic regression and count regression with a Poisson distribution. Results for both regressions show considerable evidence that the ratio between the number of overnight stays and the resident population and travel services as a percentage of commercial service exports positively impacts the probability for a country (from our sample to experience a recession event and can make recession worse in terms of severity, measured in months.
Bazzoli, Gloria J; Fareed, Naleef; Waters, Teresa M
The recent recession had a profound effect on all sectors of the US economy, including health care. We examined how private hospitals fared through the recession and considered how changes in their financial health may affect their ability to respond to future industry challenges. We categorized 2,971 private short-term general medical or surgical hospitals (both nonprofit and for-profit) according to their pre-recession financial health and safety-net status, and we examined their operational status changes and operating and total financial margins during 2006-11. We found that hospitals that were financially weak before the recession remained so during and after the recession. The total margins of nonprofit hospitals (both safety-net and other institutions) declined in 2008 but returned to their pre-recession levels by 2011. The recession did not create additional fiscal pressure on hospitals that were previously financially weak or in safety-net roles. However, both groups continue to have notable financial deficiencies that could limit their abilities to meet the growing demands on the industry.
Searle, A.G.; Edwards, J.H.
Induced recessive mutations can cause harm by (1) partnership with a defective allele already established in the population; (2) partnership with another recessive mutation induced at the same locus; (3) the formation of homozygous descendants, that is, identify by descent; and (4) heterozygous effects. Calculations based on a combination of data from observations on human populations and from mouse experiments suggest that an extra genetically significant dose of 1 cGy X or γ irradiation received by each parent in a stable population with a million liveborn offspring would induce up to 1200 extra recessive mutations. From partnership effects, about one extra case of recessive disease would be expected in the following 10 generations. Homozygosity resulting from identity by descent could not normally occur until the fourth generation after exposure but, on certain assumptions, about ten extra cases of recessive disease would be expected from this cause by the tenth generation. In the same period, about 250 recessive alleles would be eliminated in heterozygotes given 2.5% heterozygous disadvantage. These deleterious heterozygous effects should not be combined with those of dominants, as has been done in some previous risk estimates. It is considered unlikely that many radiation induced recessives would show heterozygous advantage. Certain dominants should be excluded from calculations of mutational risk because they are unlikely to be maintained by mutation. (author)
Lu Chunyan; Yang Zhigang; Zhou Xiangping; Yu Jianqun; Zhu Jie; Yang Kaiqing
Objective: To evaluate the CT features and implications of the pericardial sinuses and recesses effusion by combining the sectional cadavers and 16 multi-slice CT (MSCT) reformation. Methods: The anatomy and communication of the pericardial sinuses and recesses on the axial, coronal and saggital sectional cadavers (respectively 1 case), and the morphologic features on MSCT reformatted images in 104 patients were observed. The detection rate of effusion was analyzed. Results: The sectional cadavers and CT images showed that the pericardial sinuses and recesses were formed by the reflections of the pericardium on the root of the great vessels. The detection rate of the sinuses and recesses was lower in small effusion than in moderate and large effusion (P<0.05). The superior aortic recess was the most common recess for pericardial effusion. Conclusion: The MSCT reformatted images can show the morphologic features of pericardial sinuses and recesses effusion and communications with the pericardial cavity, help differentiate pericardial effusion from other mediastinal or pericardial lesions. (authors)
Khan, Mansoor Ali; Heo, Jun-Woo; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Park, Hyun-Chang
In this work, different gate-head structures have been compared in the context of AlGaN/GaN-based high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs). Field-plate (FP) technology self-aligned to the gate electrode leads to various gate-head structures, most likely gamma (γF)-gate, camel (see symbol)-gate, and mushroom-shaped (T)-gate. In-depth comparison of recessed gate-head structures demonstrated that key performance metrics such as transconductance, output current, and breakdown voltage are better with the T-gate head structure. The recessed T-gate with its one arm toward the source side not only reduces the source-access resistance (R(g) +R(gs)), but also minimizes the source-side dispersion and current leakage, resulting in high transconductance (G(m)) and output current (I(DS)). At the same time, the other arm toward the drain-side reduces the drain-side dispersion and tends to distribute electric field peaks uniformly, resulting in high breakdown voltage (V(BR)). DC and RF analysis showed that the recessed T-gate FP-HEMT is a suitable candidate not only for high-frequency operation, but also for high-power applications.
Nikolaos Andreas Chrysanthakopoulos
Full Text Available Background: Gingival recession is the most common and undesirable condition of the gingiva. The aim of study was to investigate the aetiology and severity of gingival recession in a Greek adult population sample. Methods : The study was performed on 165 males and 179 females, 18-68 years old who sought dental treatment in a private dental practice and showed gingival recession. All subjects were clinically examined and answered questions regarding their oral hygiene habits such as the type of toothbrush, frequency of brushing and method of brushing. The association between gingival recession and the following parameters was assessed: plaque score, gingival score and tooth position. Statistical analysis of the results was accomplished using chi-square test (α = 0.05. Results: The majority (79.4% of the patients showed grade I gingival recession and 15.3% showed grade II gingival recession. The maxillary 1 st and 2 nd molars (35.3% and the mandibular 1 st and 2 nd molars (28.7% were the teeth most frequently affected by root surface exposure. Patients with sub-gingival calculus, bacterial plaque and gingival inflammation (P < 0.05, malpositioned teeth (P < 0.001, horizontal brushing method, medium type of toothbrush (P < 0.001 and brushing once daily (P < 0.001 appeared to be the most common precipitating aetiological factor for gingival recession. Conclusion: According to the results of the present study, gingival recession was the result of more than one factor acting together. Horizontal brushing method, usage of medium type toothbrush and tooth brushing once daily were found to be more associated with gingival recession.
Frone, Michael R
This is the first study to examine broadly the overall net change in U.S. population estimates of alcohol use related to a recession--The Great Recession--among individuals who remain employed. The alcohol variables included drinker status, usual frequency and quantity of alcohol use, frequency of heavy drinking and intoxication, as well as contextual assessments of the frequency and quantity of alcohol use during the workday and after work. The moderating influence of gender, race, and age also was explored. Data for this repeated cross-sectional study were obtained from 2 national telephone surveys of U.S. workers. The first survey occurred prior to the Great Recession (2002-2003; N = 2,501), whereas the second survey occurred during and after the official end of the Great Recession (2008-2011; N = 2,581). The results revealed that the recession was related to a higher proportion of drinkers among middle-aged employees, but not among young employees. Gender and race did not moderate the relation of the recession to drinker status. Among drinkers, the recession was not related to usual alcohol use (frequency and quantity), but was positively related to the frequency of heavy drinking and intoxication. Further, the recession had a differential relation to the contextual alcohol measures. It was negatively related to the frequency and quantity of workday alcohol use, but was positively related to the frequency and quantity of afterwork alcohol use. Among drinkers, gender, race, and age did not moderate the relation of the recession to alcohol use. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
H. G. Rees
Full Text Available The Himalayan region of Nepal and northern India experiences hydrological extremes from monsoonal floods during July to September, when most of the annual precipitation falls, to periods of very low flows during the dry season (December to February. While the monsoon floods cause acute disasters such as loss of human life and property, mudslides and infrastructure damage, the lack of water during the dry season has a chronic impact on the lives of local people. The management of water resources in the region is hampered by relatively sparse hydrometerological networks and consequently, many resource assessments are required in catchments where no measurements exist. A hydrological model for estimating dry season flows in ungauged catchments, based on recession curve behaviour, has been developed to address this problem. Observed flows were fitted to a second order storage model to enable average annual recession behaviour to be examined. Regionalised models were developed, using a calibration set of 26 catchments, to predict three recession curve parameters: the storage constant; the initial recession flow and the start date of the recession. Relationships were identified between: the storage constant and catchment area; the initial recession flow and elevation (acting as a surrogate for rainfall; and the start date of the recession and geographic location. An independent set of 13 catchments was used to evaluate the robustness of the models. The regional models predicted the average volume of water in an annual recession period (1st of October to the 1st of February with an average error of 8%, while mid-January flows were predicted to within ±50% for 79% of the catchments in the data set. Keywords: Himalaya, recession curve, water resources, ungauged catchment, regionalisation, low flows
Huang, Jin; Kim, Youngmi; Birkenmaier, Julie
The present study examined the association between unemployment and household food insecurity during the 2007-2009 economic recession in the USA. Longitudinal survey of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP; 2008-2011). Food insecurity was measured by five questions excerpted from an eighteen-item Food Security Scale. Unemployment was measured by a dichotomous indicator, the number of job losses and the total duration of all episodes in the observation period. As nationally representative data, the SIPP interviewed respondents in multiple waves with a time interval of four months. The study created two analytic samples including working-age household heads employed at the beginning of the observation period. The size of the two samples was 14,417 and 13,080. Unemployment was positively associated with food insecurity (OR=1.55; 95% CI 1.32, 1.83; Punemployment (OR=1.54; 95% CI 1.27, 1.88; Punemployment, one more episode of unemployment increased the odds of food insecurity by 8% (OR=1.08; 95% CI 1.00, 1.18; Punemployment and food insecurity is useful to better identify and serve the at-risk population. Connecting unemployment assistance closely to nutrition assistance could lower the prevalence of food insecurity among unemployed households. Public policy should better account for both episodes and duration of unemployment to reduce food insecurity.
Perelman, Julian; Felix, Sónia; Santana, Rui
The Great Recession started in Portugal in 2009, coupled with severe austerity. This study examines its impact on hospital care utilization, interpreted as caused by demand-side effects (related to variations in population income and health) and supply-side effects (related to hospitals' tighter budgets and reduced capacity). The database included all in-patient stays at all Portuguese NHS hospitals over the 2001-2012 period (n=17.7 millions). We analyzed changes in discharge rates, casemix index, and length of stay (LOS), using a before-after methodology. We additionally measured the association of health care indicators to unemployment. A 3.2% higher rate of discharges was observed after 2009. Urgent stays increased by 2.5%, while elective in-patient stays decreased by 1.4% after 2011. The LOS was 2.8% shorter after the crisis onset, essentially driven by the 4.5% decrease among non-elective stays. A one percentage point increase in unemployment rate was associated to a 0.4% increase in total volume, a 2.3% decrease in day cases, and a 0.1% decrease in LOS. The increase in total and urgent cases may reflect delayed out-patient care and health deterioration; the reduced volume of elective stays possibly signal a reduced capacity; finally, the shorter stays may indicate either efficiency-enhancing measures or reduced quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cadena, Brian C.; Kovak, Brian K.
This paper demonstrates that low-skilled Mexican-born immigrants’ location choices in the U.S. respond strongly to changes in local labor demand, and that this geographic elasticity helps equalize spatial differences in labor market outcomes for low-skilled native workers, who are much less responsive. We leverage the substantial geographic variation in employment losses that occurred during Great Recession, and our results confirm the standard finding that high-skilled populations are quite geographically responsive to employment opportunities while low-skilled populations are much less so. However, low-skilled immigrants, especially those from Mexico, respond even more strongly than high-skilled native-born workers. Moreover, we show that natives living in metro areas with a substantial Mexican-born population are insulated from the effects of local labor demand shocks compared to those in places with few Mexicans. The reallocation of the Mexican-born workforce reduced the incidence of local demand shocks on low-skilled natives’ employment outcomes by more than 50 percent. PMID:27551329
Noland, Robert B; Zhou, Yuhan
An analysis of state-level data from 1984 to 2014 provides evidence on the relationship between economic recessions and US traffic fatalities. While there are large reductions associated with decreases in household median income, other policy variables tend to have additional and in some cases, larger effects. An increase in the inequality of the income distribution, measured by the Gini index, has reduced traffic fatalities. Graduated licensing policies, cell phone laws, and motorcycle helmet requirements are all associated with reductions in fatalities. Other factors include a proxy for medical technology, and access to emergency medical services (based on the percent of vehicle miles traveled in rural areas); reductions in the latter accounted for a substantial reduction in fatalities and is likely another indicator of reduced economic activity. Changes in the road network, mainly increases in the percent of collector roads has increased fatalities. Population growth is associated with increased traffic fatalities and changes in age cohorts has a small negative effect. Overall, results suggest that there has been a beneficial impact on traffic fatalities from reduced economic activity, but various policies adopted by the states have also reduced traffic fatalities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The paper investigates whether the stock market of Bangladesh can be related with the last world recession. The Pearson’s correlation analysis model was used to find the correlation between the Dhaka Stock Exchange General index and real GDP growth rate of the world. The findings show that no statistically significant correlation exists between the two variables inferring that the stock market of Bangladesh was not significantly affected by ‘the great recession’ (2007-2009. The findings of this study are inconsistent with the results of previous studies which claimed that the Bangladesh stock market shares a common stochastic trend with the capital market of USA. The results of this study may be explained mainly by domestic factors such as low market capitalization, market inefficiency, strict monitoring and control by the Security and Exchange Commission and low international participation in the stock market of Bangladesh. All these factors, along with the inconsistency with past results, instigate further investigation.
Norton, Michael A.
Whether conscious of it or not, physicist Tim Berners-Lee basically applied principle of a nuclear chain reaction to electron transport, a remarkable outcome being the world wide web. On a less dense exponential than the nucleus, but still by out of control design (1999), the flow of electrons with high symmetry (hypertext) brought about astonishing new insights to the field. No one in the author's sphere of influence, including the author, ever learned or taught that such chain reactions have a time-recessive trajectory, such that key significant moments in the new science had impact not only the world at present, but on scale overlapping with ancestors. Dr. Chuck Darwin learned man indeed did arise in Africa (brown toastmasters); author suggests his creed ``survival of the fittest'' in post-20th century hindsight, for man initialized nuclear energy in Eurasia (white toastmasters), and nearly brought the world to collapse by dropping nuclear weapons on humans in Asia (yellow toastmasters), be best updated ``survival of the most communicative.'' If true, this informs that the measure of the appended science's power is as equally as important as the measure of its speed, ergo, there really is no energy crisis.
Hellström Pigg, Maritta; Bygum, Anette; Gånemo, Agneta
Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) represents a heterogeneous group of rare disorders of cornification with 3 major subtypes: harlequin ichthyosis (HI), lamellar ichthyosis (LI) and congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (CIE). A 4th subtype has also been proposed: pleomorphic...... ichthyosis (PI), characterized by marked skin changes at birth and subsequently mild symptoms. In nationwide screenings of suspected cases of ARCI in Denmark and Sweden, we identified 132 patients (age range 0.1-86 years) classified as HI (n = 7), LI (n = 70), CIE (n = 17) and PI (n = 38). At birth......-100%). A scoring (0-4) of ichthyosis/ery-thema past infancy showed widely different mean values in the subgroups: HI (3.2/3.1), LI (2.4/0.6), CIE (1.8/1.6), PI (1.1/0.3). Novel or recurrent mutations were found in 113 patients: TGM1 (n = 56), NIPAL4 (n = 15), ALOX12B (n = 15), ABCA12 (n = 8), ALOXE3 (n = 9), SLC27...
Martin Bassols, Nicolau; Vall Castelló, Judit
This paper presents evidence on how the consumption of legal and illegal drugs has changed in response to the Great Recession in Spain. We use a large scale survey from 2005 to 2011 to analyze the association between changes in local economic conditions and drug consumption among individuals aged 15-64. Although Spain was one of the countries hardest hit by the economic downturn, the crisis was unevenly felt across the country. Therefore, we exploit this difference in unemployment rates across provinces to identify the effects of business cycle variations on the consumption of legal and illegal drugs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to find a relation between the deterioration of local economic conditions and a strong increase in the consumption of marihuana and cocaine. We also report a decrease in alcohol consumption but a significant escalation in abusive smoking behavior (smoking every day). We believe that these findings are important not only for the potential negative implications at the individual level but also for the costs to society as a whole. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Martín-Santiago, A; Rodríguez-Pascual, M; Knöpfel, N; Hernández-Martín, Á
Few studies have investigated ear involvement in nonsyndromic autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI). To assess the type and frequency of otologic manifestations of ARCI in patients under follow-up at the pediatric dermatology department of our hospital. We prospectively studied the presence of ear pain, ear itching, tinnitus, otitis, cerumen impaction, accumulation of epithelial debris, and hearing loss. Daily hygiene measures, topical treatments, medical-surgical interventions, and frequency of visits to an ear, nose, and throat (ENT) specialist were noted in the patients' medical records. Ear examination and hearing tests were performed in all cases. Ten patients were studied: 2 had a self-healing collodion baby phenotype and 8 had ichthyosis. There was mention of otologic manifestations in the records of all 8 patients with ichthyosis (100%); 6 of these patients (75%) had abnormalities in the external auditory canal examination and 2 (25%) had conductive hearing loss. Our findings are limited by the small number of patients studied, all of whom were younger than 19 years. The involvement of both dermatologists and ENT specialists in the management of patients with ichthyosis is crucial to ensure the application of the best therapeutic and preventive measures. More studies are needed to assess the prevalence and impact on quality of life of ear involvement in patients with ichthyosis and to determine the optimal interval between ENT visits for these patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.
Volodarsky, Michael; Zilberman, Uri; Birk, Ohad S
To relate the peculiar phenotype of amelogenesis imperfecta in a large Bedouin family to the genotype determined by whole genome linkage analysis. Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a broad group of inherited pathologies affecting enamel formation, characterized by variability in phenotypes, causing mutations and modes of inheritance. Autosomal recessive or compound heterozygous mutations in FAM20A, encoding sequence similarity 20, member A, have been shown to cause several AI phenotypes. Five members from a large consanguineous Bedouin family presented with hypoplastic amelogenesis imperfecta with unerupted and resorbed permanent molars. Following Soroka Medical Center IRB approval and informed consent, blood samples were obtained from six affected offspring, five obligatory carriers and two unaffected siblings. Whole genome linkage analysis was performed followed by Sanger sequencing of FAM20A. The sequencing unravelled a novel homozygous deletion mutation in exon 11 (c.1523delC), predicted to insert a premature stop codon (p.Thr508Lysfs*6). We provide an interesting case of novel mutation in this rare disorder, in which the affected kindred is unique in the large number of family members sharing a similar phenotype. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Gingival recession represents a serious problem, for both patient and physician, especially when exposure of the radicular surface is related to the deterioration of the aesthetic aspect and to a more pronounced dental hyper‐ sensitivity. Scope of the study: to determine the preva‐ lence and severity of recessions in young adults, correlated with the local dental, as well as socio‐economic and cultu‐ ral conditions. Materials and method: A number of 85 persons, having addressed the Department of Perio‐ dontology, Faculty of Dental Medicine of Iasi, between February‐May 2011, were examined. The following para‐ meters were recorded: sex, education level, total number of gingival recessions at the level of the oral cavity, type of brush employed, frequency of dental brushing, amount of attached gingiva, existence of labial phrenum, type of occlusion, presence of certain complications induced by the manifestation of recessions, such as hypersensitivity. Results and discussion: Analysis and correlation of data showed that the most important role in the occurrence of recessions was played by the local factors, which intensi‐ fied the action of the determining element, the bacterial plaque. Thus, the nature of periodontal recessions is of inflammatory type, those with traumatic causes being sta‐ tistically non‐significant. The type of periodontium influ‐ enced the development of recessions, so that, for a delicate periodontium, 10.4 recessions/patient have been discove‐ red, while, in a thick periodontium, only 7 recessions/ patient. In cases of phrenectomies with insertion in the vicinity of the gingival margin, recessions of various sizes have been always present. In cases of dental occlusion, the obtained data suggest that the occurrence of recessions is not considerably influenced by the type of occlusion, the values being quite close. As to their sizes, most of the reces‐ sions were situated at a level of 2‐3 mm, a
Reeves, Aaron; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David
There has been a substantial rise in 'economic suicides' in the Great Recessions afflicting Europe and North America. We estimate that the Great Recession is associated with at least 10 000 additional economic suicides between 2008 and 2010. A critical question for policy and psychiatric practice is whether these suicide rises are inevitable. Marked cross-national variations in suicides in the recession offer one clue that they are potentially avoidable. Job loss, debt and foreclosure increase risks of suicidal thinking. A range of interventions, from upstream return-to-work programmes through to antidepressant prescriptions may help mitigate suicide risk during economic downturn. Royal College of Psychiatrists.
Kongar, Ebru; Berik, Günseli
Feminist and institutionalist literature has challenged the "Mancession" narrative of the 2007-09 recession and produced nuanced and gender-aware analyses of the labor market and well-being outcomes of the recession. Using American Time Use Survey (ATUS) data for 2003-12, this paper examines the recession's impact on gendered patterns of time use over the course of the 2003-12 business cycle. We find that the gender disparity in paid and unpaid work hours followed a U-shaped pattern, narrowin...
Fernando Nascimento de Oliveira
Full Text Available We examine the usefulness of various financial and real sector variables to forecast recessions in Brazil between one and eight quarters ahead. We estimate probabilistic models of recession and select models based on their outof-sample forecasts, using the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC function. We find that the predictive out-of-sample ability of several models vary depending on the numbers of quarters ahead to forecast and on the number of regressors used in the model specification. The models selected seem to be relevant to give early warnings of recessions in Brazil.
Jorge M. Agüero; Martín Valdivia
We explore the permanent effects that recessions have on health-related outcomes of mothers and children in Peru. To account for possible self-selection in giving birth during recessions, we compare the infant mortality rates of siblings born in different phases of the economic cycle. A 1 percent decline in GDP per capita is associated with an increase in infant mortality rates between 0.30 and 0.39 percent. We find evidence that recessions also have a negative effect on long-term health meas...
Lee, Byung Il; Oh, Suk Hoon; Woo, Eung Je; Lee, Soo Yeol; Cho, Min Hyoung; Kwon, Ohin; Seo, Jin Keun; Lee, June-Yub; Baek, Woon Sik
In magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT), we try to reconstruct a cross-sectional resistivity (or conductivity) image of a subject. When we inject a current through surface electrodes, it generates a magnetic field. Using a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner, we can obtain the induced magnetic flux density from MR phase images of the subject. We use recessed electrodes to avoid undesirable artefacts near electrodes in measuring magnetic flux densities. An MREIT image reconstruction algorithm produces cross-sectional resistivity images utilizing the measured internal magnetic flux density in addition to boundary voltage data. In order to develop such an image reconstruction algorithm, we need a three-dimensional forward solver. Given injection currents as boundary conditions, the forward solver described in this paper computes voltage and current density distributions using the finite element method (FEM). Then, it calculates the magnetic flux density within the subject using the Biot-Savart law and FEM. The performance of the forward solver is analysed and found to be enough for use in MREIT for resistivity image reconstructions and also experimental designs and validations. The forward solver may find other applications where one needs to compute voltage, current density and magnetic flux density distributions all within a volume conductor
The majority of the world's sesame (probably over 99%) is shattering, and most of the harvest is manual. In a non-mechanized environment the last thing that farmers want is seed retention (''hold''). They want the seed to fall out as easily as possible. The amount of shattering desired is dependent on the method of harvest. By 1944 the first stage of mechanization was initiated. The indehiscent mutant found in 1943 showed in succeeding generations that it was controlled monogenically, and the homozygous recessive (id/id) gave indehiscence. Unfortunately, the id allele had pleiotropic effects including cupped leaves, twisted stems, short seed pods, semi-sterility, and low yield. Improvements in shatter resistance are relative within a specific program. For example, Sesaco has improved its shatter resistance each year, and still for the USA methods of harvest, further improvements are necessary to allow for better retention in adverse weather. This paper presents a methodology for quantifying shatter resistance so researchers can compare levels of shatter resistance between programs. (author)
Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Schipperijn, Jasper; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine
Facilitators and barriers to recess physical activity are not well understood. To date, research on recess physical activity has predominantly focused on quantitative measures typically focusing on a narrow set of predefined factors, often constructed by adults. To really understand the factors...... 11–12-year-old children. The socio-ecological model was used as the overall theoretical framework. Twelve factors were identified as influencing the children’s recess physical activity: bodily self-esteem and ability; gender; gendered school culture; peer influence; conflicts and exclusion; space...... and place experiences; lack of play facilities; outdoor play policy; use of electronic devices; recess duration; organised activities; and weather. These factors were located within different layers of the socio-ecological model, but were interdependent. The findings speak for implementing a combination...
Azagra-Caro, J.M.; Tijssen, R.J.W.; Yegros-Yegros, A.
The 2007/2008 financial crisis, and ensuing economic recession, had a direct negative effect on university-industry research cooperation in the OECD countries and other economies – it diminished the number of university-industry co-authored research publications (UICs) during the period 2008-13 by 7%. It also changed the relationship between national business expenditure on R&D and UIC output levels. Before the recession the relationship was negative, but became positive during the years 2008-2013. The few countries where business expenditure on R&D increased during recession saw UIC numbers rise. This moderating effect of the recession applies only to ‘domestic UICs’, where universities cooperated with business companies located in the same country. Micro-level research is needed to assess the contributing effects on large university-industry R&D consortia on both domestic and international collaboration patterns. (Author)
Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to translate economic figures and indices into the living conditions of people who are behind the statistics of the U.S. economic recession, which officially began in December 2007 and ended in June 2009. The pathology of the Great Recession began with the financial shock, which resulted from the buildup of financial mischief since the 1980s, and the burst of its real estate bubble by 2007. A recession is a man-made tragedy with a large human cost. This paper addresses this flip side of the current economic crisis by examining its human consequences on different social classes and groups. A breakdown of various data proves that the working class, the majority in U.S. society, suffers most from the recession, and yet, some amongst them even more than others, depending upon their social status with regard to education, race, and age.
Full Text Available The width of the attached gingiva is defined as a distance between the depth of the gingival sulcus or gingival/periodontal pocket to the mucogingival junction. Authors suggest that a minimal amount of attached gingiva is necessary to ensure the gingival health. When the buccal bone plate and gingival tissues are thin and the position of the tooth is too vestibular gingival margin often displaces apically, and gingival recession develops. In the presence of gingival recession and reduced vestibular depth oral hygiene procedures are embarrassed.The definition of class III gingival recession is marginal lack of tissue extended to/or beyond the mucogingival junction with bone and soft tissue loss interdentally or malpositioning of the tooth.Prognosis for class III and IV gingival recession is that only partial coverage can be expected after root coverage procedures - FGG (free gingival graft or connective tissue graft (CTG. Adjunctive surgical techniques would be helpful to achieve better aesthetic outcomes.
Menéndez, A; Alvarez-Uría, M
Light and electron microscopy of the hypothalamic ventricle in neonatal rats demonstrate morphological specializations of the ventricular wall at the level of the premammillary region of the third ventricle. The morphological features are: (1) A ventricular recess that we have called the "hypothalamic dorso-lateral recess" (HDR). (2) The presence of intraventricular capillaries near the dorso-lateral recess. (3) The HDR possessing a specialized ependymal lining; this consists of non-ciliated cells with short microvilli and bleb-like processes. (4) The existence of cerebrospinal fluid-contacting neurons within the HDR. (5) The presence of numerous phagocytic supraependymal cells. The HDR is not found in adult rats. This indicates that the dorso-lateral recess may play a physiological role during development.
Menno, Dominik Francesco; Oliviero, Tommaso
drop in consumption than savers who relatively benefit from a redistribution of housing wealth during the recession. We show that the size of this redistribution mechanism would have been significantly lower if (i) mortgage spreads would have remained at the low pre-crisis levels during the recession......This paper quantifies how the welfare costs of the U.S. Great Recession are distributed across borrowing and saving U.S. households. For this purpose, we use a calibrated dynamic general equilibrium model of housing and household debt with shocks to aggregate income and shocks to the financial...... intermediation sector. The model matches the boom-bust cycle in house prices, the dynamics of household mortgage debt, and the increase in wealth inequality observed in the U.S. between 2001-2013. We find larger welfare costs of the Great Recession for borrowers than for savers. Borrowers experience a larger...
Conclusion: Resorbable membrane is a versatile treatment modality for coverage of isolated buccal gingival recession. Although membrane exposure occurred in four patients, it did not interfere with post operative healing.
Brown, A. J.; McGuire, P.; Wolff, M. J.
We describe efforts to model dust and ice aerosols content and soils and icy surface reflectance in the Martian southern polar region during spring recession (Ls = 152-320) using CRISM emission phase function (EPF) observations.
Turco, G.; Chiesa, G.M.; De Manzoni, G.
The peritoneum of the great abdominal cavity and its recesses are a blind radiographical area which can however be easily outlined by US when it contains fluid. The anatomical study of these usually virtual cavities represent the purpose of this paper. The natural contrast of the peritoneal fluid as amplified by the mechanical effect produced by an adequate amount of fluid, allows a clear visualization of the anatomy of various peritoneal structures in either upper (subphrenic, subhepatic, lesser sac, etc.) or lower (pelvic) areas. The sovramesocolic and the infracolic compartments are in comunication through the two external paracolic gutters which are the main passageways for the fluids between upper and lower compartments. In fact, peritoneal fluids are in constant movement due to different factors, such as gravity, statics, which causes the peritoneal fluids to flow into the lowest part of the peritoneal cavity, and hydrostatic pressure. Pressure differences are thought to convey fluids from various sites of the abdomen into different areas. In the lower abdomen, pressure is 3 times as much as in the upper abdomen, which causes the fluids to move into the subhepatic and subphrenic regions. The redistribution of fluids can be influenced by particular anatomical causes. The phrenicocolic ligament, e.g., is a barrier to the advancing of fluds along the left paracolic gutter, which makes the right paracolic gutter the main passageway for the fluids. This pattern explains why abscesses are more frequent in the right than in the upper left abdominal regions. Another example in the tiny Winslow opening, which does not allow inflammatory material to pass into the lesser sac in case of inflammatory processes of the great peritoneal cavity and viceversa. Moreover, pointing out fluid collections and abscesses is important, since an early diagnosis and a topografic map are essential order to plan treatment
Arno, Gavin; Agrawal, Smriti A; Eblimit, Aiden; Bellingham, James; Xu, Mingchu; Wang, Feng; Chakarova, Christina; Parfitt, David A; Lane, Amelia; Burgoyne, Thomas; Hull, Sarah; Carss, Keren J; Fiorentino, Alessia; Hayes, Matthew J; Munro, Peter M; Nicols, Ralph; Pontikos, Nikolas; Holder, Graham E; Asomugha, Chinwe; Raymond, F Lucy; Moore, Anthony T; Plagnol, Vincent; Michaelides, Michel; Hardcastle, Alison J; Li, Yumei; Cukras, Catherine; Webster, Andrew R; Cheetham, Michael E; Chen, Rui
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is the most frequent form of inherited retinal dystrophy. RP is genetically heterogeneous and the genes identified to date encode proteins involved in a wide range of functional pathways, including photoreceptor development, phototransduction, the retinoid cycle, cilia, and outer segment development. Here we report the identification of biallelic mutations in Receptor Expression Enhancer Protein 6 (REEP6) in seven individuals with autosomal-recessive RP from five unrelated families. REEP6 is a member of the REEP/Yop1 family of proteins that influence the structure of the endoplasmic reticulum but is relatively unstudied. The six variants identified include three frameshift variants, two missense variants, and a genomic rearrangement that disrupts exon 1. Human 3D organoid optic cups were used to investigate REEP6 expression and confirmed the expression of a retina-specific isoform REEP6.1, which is specifically affected by one of the frameshift mutations. Expression of the two missense variants (c.383C>T [p.Pro128Leu] and c.404T>C [p.Leu135Pro]) and the REEP6.1 frameshift mutant in cultured cells suggest that these changes destabilize the protein. Furthermore, CRISPR-Cas9-mediated gene editing was used to produce Reep6 knock-in mice with the p.Leu135Pro RP-associated variant identified in one RP-affected individual. The homozygous knock-in mice mimic the clinical phenotypes of RP, including progressive photoreceptor degeneration and dysfunction of the rod photoreceptors. Therefore, our study implicates REEP6 in retinal homeostasis and highlights a pathway previously uncharacterized in retinal dystrophy. Copyright Â© 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Morpurgo, G.; Puppo, S.; Gualandi, G.; Conti, L.
A simple method capable of detecting recessive lethal damage in a diploid strain of Aspergillus nidulans is described. The method scores the recessive lethals on the 1st, the 3rd and the 5th chromosomes, which represent about 40% of the total map of A. nidulans. Two examples of induced lethals, with ultraviolet irradiation and methyl methanesulfonate are shown. The frequency of lethals may reach 36% of the total population with UV irradiation. (Auth.)
Thomas, P K; Claus, D; King, R H
A family is described with presumed autosomal recessive inheritance in which three siblings developed a progressive neuropathy that combined limb weakness and severe distal sensory loss leading to prominent mutilating changes. Electrophysiological and nerve biopsy findings indicated an axonopathy. The disorder is therefore classifiable as type II hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN II). The clinical features differ from those reported in previously described cases of autosomal recessive HMSN II. This disorder may therefore represent a new variant.
Leist, Anja K.; Hessel, Philipp; Avendano, Mauricio
Background Fluctuations in the national economy shape labour market opportunities and outcomes, which in turn may influence the accumulation of cognitive reserve. This study examines whether economic recessions experienced in early and mid-adulthood are associated with later-life cognitive function. Method Data came from 12,020 respondents in 11 countries participating in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). Cognitive assessments in 2004/5 and 2006/7 were linked to complete work histories retrospectively collected in 2008/9, and to historical annual data on fluctuations in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita for each country. Controlling for confounders, we assessed whether recessions experienced at ages 25-34, 35-44 and 45-49 were associated with cognitive function at ages 50-74. Results Among men, each additional recession at ages 45-49 was associated with worse cognitive function at ages 50-74 (b = -0.06, Confidence Interval [CI] -0.11, -0.01). Among women, each additional recession at ages 25-44 was associated with worse cognitive function at ages 50-74 (b25-34 = -0.03, CI -0.04, -0.01; b35-44= -0.02, CI -0.04, -0.00). Among men, recessions at ages 45-49 influenced risk of being laid-off, whereas among women, recessions at ages 25-44 led to working part-time and higher likelihood of downward occupational mobility, which were all predictors of worse later-life cognitive function. Conclusions Recessions at ages 45-49 among men and 25-44 among women are associated with later-life cognitive function, possibly via more unfavourable labour market trajectories. If replicated in future studies, findings may indicate that policies that ameliorate the impact of recessions on labour market outcomes may promote later-life cognitive function. PMID:24258197
Leist, Anja K; Hessel, Philipp; Avendano, Mauricio
Fluctuations in the national economy shape labour market opportunities and outcomes, which in turn may influence the accumulation of cognitive reserve. This study examines whether economic recessions experienced in early and mid-adulthood are associated with later-life cognitive function. Data came from 12,020 respondents in 11 countries participating in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). Cognitive assessments in 2004/2005 and 2006/2007 were linked to complete work histories retrospectively collected in 2008/2009 and to historical annual data on fluctuations in Gross Domestic Product per capita for each country. Controlling for confounders, we assessed whether recessions experienced at ages 25-34, 35-44 and 45-49 were associated with cognitive function at ages 50-74. Among men, each additional recession at ages 45-49 was associated with worse cognitive function at ages 50-74 (b=-0.06, CI -0.11 to -0.01). Among women, each additional recession at ages 25-44 was associated with worse cognitive function at ages 50-74 (b25-34=-0.03, CI -0.04 to -0.01; b35-44=-0.02, CI -0.04 to -0.00). Among men, recessions at ages 45-49 influenced risk of being laid-off, whereas among women, recessions at ages 25-44 led to working part-time and higher likelihood of downward occupational mobility, which were all predictors of worse later-life cognitive function. Recessions at ages 45-49 among men and 25-44 among women are associated with later-life cognitive function, possibly through more unfavourable labour market trajectories. If replicated in future studies, findings indicate that policies that ameliorate the impact of recessions on labour market outcomes may promote later-life cognitive function.
Rees, H. G.; Holmes, M. G. R.; Young, A. R.; Kansakar, S. R.
The Himalayan region of Nepal and northern India experiences hydrological extremes from monsoonal floods during July to September, when most of the annual precipitation falls, to periods of very low flows during the dry season (December to February). While the monsoon floods cause acute disasters such as loss of human life and property, mudslides and infrastructure damage, the lack of water during the dry season has a chronic impact on the lives of local people. The management of water resources in the region is hampered by relatively sparse hydrometerological networks and consequently, many resource assessments are required in catchments where no measurements exist. A hydrological model for estimating dry season flows in ungauged catchments, based on recession curve behaviour, has been developed to address this problem. Observed flows were fitted to a second order storage model to enable average annual recession behaviour to be examined. Regionalised models were developed, using a calibration set of 26 catchments, to predict three recession curve parameters: the storage constant; the initial recession flow and the start date of the recession. Relationships were identified between: the storage constant and catchment area; the initial recession flow and elevation (acting as a surrogate for rainfall); and the start date of the recession and geographic location. An independent set of 13 catchments was used to evaluate the robustness of the models. The regional models predicted the average volume of water in an annual recession period (1st of October to the 1st of February) with an average error of 8%, while mid-January flows were predicted to within ±50% for 79% of the catchments in the data set.
Mitsuhiro Isaka; Masahiko Befu; Nami Matsubara; Mayuko Ishikawa; Yurie Arase; Toshiyuki Tsuyama; Akiko Doi; Shinichi Namba
Canine medial patellar luxation (MPL) is a very common orthopedic disease in small animals. Because the pathophysiology of this disease involves various pathways, the surgical techniques and results vary according to the veterinarian. Further, the landmark for block recession is not completely clear. We retrospectively evaluated 75 dogs (107 limbs) with MPL in whom our landmark for block recession was used from July 2008 to May 2013. Information regarding the breed, age, sex, body weight, bod...
Pini-Prato, Giovan Paolo; Cozzani, Giuseppe; Magnani, Cristina; Baccetti, Tiziano
This case report describes the healing of gingival recessions on mandibular incisors resulting from orthodontic treatment of a deep bite malocclusion at a 30-year follow-up observation. The marked improvement in the severe recessions was a consequence of the elimination of the direct trauma, orthodontic intrusion of the affected teeth, and subsequent creeping attachment over time. No periodontal treatment was performed before or after orthodontic treatment.
This paper examines the synchronization of business cycles across the G7 countries during US recessions since the 1870's. Using a dynamic measure of business cycle synchronization, results depend on the globalisation period under consideration. On average, US recessions have significantly positive effects on business cycle co-movements only in the period following the breakdown of the Bretton Woods system of fixed exchange rates, while strongly decoupling effects among the G7 econ...
Hylton Hollander; Guangling Liu
This paper establishes the prevailing financial factors that influence credit spread variability, and its impact on the U.S. business cycle over the Great Moderation and Great Recession periods. To do so, we develop a dynamic general equilibrium framework with a central role of financial intermediation and equity assets. Over the Great Moderation and Great Recession periods, we find an important role for bank market power (sticky rate adjustments and loan rate markups) on credit spread variab...
Hylton Hollander and Guangling Liu
This paper establishes the prevailing financial factors that influence credit spread variability, and its impact on the U.S. business cycle over the Great Moderation and Great Recession periods. To do so, we develop a dynamic general equilibrium framework with a central role of financial intermediation and equity assets. Over the Great Moderation and Great Recession periods, we find an important role for bank market power (sticky rate adjustments and loan rate markups) on credit spread variab...
Valéria Ingght Almeida Lima
Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE During surface irrigation, some phases related to its hydraulics are produced. The monitoring of these phases allows determining dvance and recession curves. The recession phase occurs after the application of water to furrows. Hydraulically, it is the most complex phase and therefore difficult to predict in mathematical treatments. To obtain the recession phase, it is necessary to determine the time at which water advances over the soil surface to specific points, called stations, over the area and then record the time at which it disappears. Observing the passage of the recessive front through the measuring stations along the furrows as a function of time defines the recession curve. Using field data obtained by Ramsey (1976 and by the Department of Agriculture and Chemical Engineering, University of Colorado (1980, in three different farms: Horticulture, Stieben e Benson. This work aimed to study the effect of the recession time on the infiltrated profile in surface irrigation.
Wilkinson, Lindsay R
The economic recession has garnered the interest of many scholars, with much attention being drawn to how the recession has affected labor force participation, household wealth, and even retirement decisions. Certainly, the Great Recession has influenced the financial well-being of older adults, but has it had discernible effects on mental health? This study draws on 5,366 respondents from the Health and Retirement Study (2006-2010) to examine objective and subjective measures of financial well-being in the period surrounding the Great Recession. Guided by cumulative inequality theory, this research investigates whether the economic downturn contributed to worsening anxiety and depressive symptoms over a 4-year period. Results from linear fixed effects models reveal that decreases in objective financial resources were associated with increased financial strain during the Great Recession. Unlike the objective indicators, however, financial strain was a strong and robust predictor of worsening mental health between 2006 and 2010. Building on prior research, this study elucidates the factors that shape financial strain and provides evidence that the Great Recession not only affected the financial well-being of older adults but also had adverse effects on mental health. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Gao, Zan; Chen, Senlin; Stodden, David F
To compare young children's different intensity physical activity (PA) levels in physical education, recess and exergaming programs. Participants were 140 first and second grade children (73 girls; Meanage= 7.88 years). Beyond the daily 20-minute recess, participants attended 75-minute weekly physical education classes and another 75-minute weekly exergaming classes. Children's PA levels were assessed by ActiGraph GTX3 accelerometers for 3 sessions in the 3 programs. The outcome variables were percentages of time spent in sedentary, light PA and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). There were significant main effects for program and grade, and an interaction effect for program by grade. Specifically, children's MVPA in exergaming and recess was higher than in physical education. The 2nd-grade children demonstrated lower sedentary behavior and MVPA than the first-grade children during recess; less light PA in both recess and exergaming than first-grade children; and less sedentary behavior but higher MVPA in exergaming than first-grade children. Young children generated higher PA levels in recess and exergaming as compared with physical education. Hence, other school-based PA programs may serve as essential components of a comprehensive school PA program. Implications are provided for educators and health professionals.
Rana, Tarun Kumar; Phogat, Megha; Sharma, Tarun; Prasad, Narayana; Singh, Shailendra
Many patients undergo orthodontic treatment for aesthetic improvement. It is well established that the patients who undergo orthodontic treatment have a high susceptibility to present plaque accumulation on their teeth because of the presence of brackets, wires and/or other orthodontic elements on the teeth surfaces with which the oral hygiene procedures might be more difficult. The orthodontic treatment is a double-action procedure regarding the periodontal tissues which may be very meaningful in increasing the periodontal health status and may be a harmful procedure which can be followed by several types of periodontal complications. There is a strong correlation between the severity and extent of gingival recessions and the orthodontic treatment suggesting that orthodontic tooth movement may lead to gingival recession. The principal objective in the treatment of gingival recession is to cover the exposed root surfaces to improve aesthetics and to reduce hypersensitivity. Different soft tissue grafting procedures have been proposed in the treatment of gingival recessions. Subepithelial connective tissue graft is a reliable method for treatment of gingival recession. The purpose of this case report was to illustrate the relationship between orthodontic therapy and gingival recession and to describe the management of this case.
Full Text Available Introduction. Gingival recession is a displacement of gingival margin apically to cementenamel junction. Objective. The aim of this study was to compare the results achieved with two different surgical procedures used in gingival recession treatment. Methods. Ten patients with bilateral buccal recession on maxillary canines or premolars were included in the study. Professional teeth cleaning was performed before surgery. Recession on the experimental side was treated with connective tissue graft in combination with coronally advanced, split thickness flap (tunnel technique. Control side recession was treated with connective tissue graft in combination with trapezoidal coronally advanced, full thickness flap. Coin toss was used for side decision. The following parameters were evaluated before surgery and 6 months post-op: Vertical Recession Dimension, Clinical Attachment Level, Apico-coronal width of the keratinized tissue, Healing index (Laundry, RES index, and Patient evaluation of esthetic results. Student’s t-test was used for statistical analysis. Results. Six months after surgery, mean root coverage was 91.5±14.1% and 90.1±14.6% on the experimental and on the control side, respectively. RES index, Healing index (Laundry and Patient Subjective evaluation of esthetic results showed significantly better results (p≤0.05. Conclusion. Both surgical procedures produce highly successful clinical results based on evaluated parameters, but this tunnel technique provides significantly better esthetic results. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 41008: Interakcija etiopatogenetskih mehanizama parodontopatije i periimplantitisa sa sistemskim bolestima današnjice
Hawkins, Jaclynn M.
Objectives. This study assessed possible associations between recessions and changes in the magnitude of social disparities in foregone health care, building on previous studies that have linked recessions to lowered health care use. Methods. Data from the 2006 to 2010 waves of the National Health Interview Study were used to examine levels of foregone medical, dental and mental health care and prescribed medications. Differences by race/ethnicity and education were compared before the Great Recession of 2007 to 2009, during the early recession, and later in the recession and in its immediate wake. Results. Foregone care rose for working-aged adults overall in the 2 recessionary periods compared with the pre-recession. For multiple types of pre-recession care, foregoing care was more common for African Americans and Hispanics and less common for Asian Americans than for Whites. Less-educated individuals were more likely to forego all types of care pre-recession. Most disparities in foregone care were stable during the recession, though the African American–White gap in foregone medical care increased, as did the Hispanic–White gap and education gap in foregone dental care. Conclusions. Our findings support the fundamental cause hypothesis, as even during a recession in which more advantaged groups may have had unusually high risk of losing financial assets and employer-provided health insurance, they maintained their relative advantage in access to health care. Attention to the macroeconomic context of social disparities in health care use is warranted. PMID:24328647
Grover, Vishakha; Kapoor, Anoop; Malhotra, Ranjan; Sachdeva, Sonia
Gingival recession is a common occurrence and patients often report to dental clinic with associated problems such as root surface hypersensitivity, esthetic concerns, cervical root abrasions, and root caries that make it a concern for patients. Based upon the fact that gingival recession is an enigma for clinicians because of multitude of etiological factors and plethora of treatment modalities present for its treatment, a survey was conducted to assess knowledge as well as opinion about most common etiology, classification, and preferred treatment of gingival recession and to evaluate the interest and satisfaction of dentists in practicing periodontics. Study design consisted of a cross-sectional online survey, conducted among dentists practicing in state of Punjab, India, in the month of April 2011. A structured online questionnaire consisting of 17 questions evaluating the interest of dentists in periodontics based on knowledge about gingival recession (most of them giving the possibility of multiple choices of answers) was sent to about 300 dentists. Pearson Chi-Square and Mann-Whitney U tests were used for statistical analysis of data collected. P ≤ 0.05 was considered as statistically significant and P ≤ 0.01 considered as highly significant. A greater proportion of periodontists had better knowledge about etiology (P = 0.07), classification (P = 0.000), and treatment of gingival recession (P = 0.000). A greater number of periodontists opted for the surgical modalities to correct the defects produced by gingival recession as compared to non-periodontists and had better interest (P = 0.000) and satisfaction (P = 0.000) in practicing periodontics. The results elucidated that periodontists had better interest and satisfaction in practicing periodontics, and were more inclined towards surgical correction of gingival recession as compared to non-periodontists.
Humphry, M.; Reinstädler, A.; Ivanov, S.; Bisseling, T.; Panstruga, R.
Loss-of-function alleles of plant-specific MLO (Mildew Resistance Locus O) genes confer broad-spectrum powdery mildew resistance in monocot (barley) and dicot (Arabidopsis thaliana, tomato) plants. Recessively inherited powdery mildew resistance in pea (Pisum sativum) er1 plants is, in many aspects,
Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Schipperijn, Jasper; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine
to influence the children’s recess physical activity: bodily self-esteem and ability, gender, gendered school culture, peer influence, conflicts and exclusion, space and place experiences, lack of play facilities, outdoor play policy, use of electronic devices, recess duration, organised activities...... affecting recess physical activity it is crucial to observe and listen to children to know how they engage in and perceive recess physical activity. The aim of this study was to gain knowledge on children’s perceptions and experiences of factors influencing their physical activity behaviour during recess......, and weather. These factors were located within different layers of the socio-ecological model, but were interdependent. The participatory approaches were valuable to capture knowledge on the children’s perceptions and experiences of factors influencing their physical activity behaviour during recess...
The purpose of this study is to describe recessive alleles in strictly dominant genes. Identifying recessive mutations in genes for which only dominant disease or risk alleles have been reported can expand our understanding of the medical relevance of these genes both phenotypically and mechanistically. The Saudi population is enriched for autozygosity, which enhances the homozygous occurrence of alleles, including pathogenic alleles in genes that have been associated only with a dominant inheritance pattern.Exome sequencing of patients from consanguineous families with likely recessive phenotypes was performed. In one family, the genotype of the deceased children was inferred from their parents due to lack of available samples.We describe the identification of 11 recessive variants (5 of which are reported here for the first time) in 11 genes for which only dominant disease or risk alleles have been reported. The observed phenotypes for these recessive variants were novel (e.g., FBN2-related myopathy and CSF1R-related brain malformation and osteopetrosis), typical (e.g., ACTG2-related visceral myopathy), or an apparently healthy state (e.g., PDE11A), consistent with the corresponding mouse knockout phenotypes.Our results show that, in the era of genomic sequencing and
Axelrad, Hila; Sabbath, Erika L; Hawkins, Summer Sherburne
This study examined whether economic changes related to the 2008-2009 Recession were associated with employment status and job quality indicators among older workers in Europe and Israel. Data were derived from 4917 respondents (16,090 observations both before and after the recession) from 13 countries who participated in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe. Annual data on gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, life expectancy, and quarterly unemployment rates were assigned to employment assessments from 2004 to 2013. Using difference-in-differences models, we assessed the recession's implications on individual employment outcomes, while isolating cyclical variation within countries and individual changes over time. Among older workers, decreases in GDP were associated with an increase in the likelihood of being unemployed and a decrease in the likelihood of being retired. An increasing country-level unemployment rate had a significant effect on aspects of job quality: lower prospects for job advancement, lower job security, and higher job satisfaction. Economic recessions are thus negatively associated with employment outcomes for older workers. However, malleable policy-related factors such as longer tenure and improved general health can limit the negative employment and job quality outcomes following a recession.
Redelico, Francisco O.; Proto, Araceli N.; Ausloos, Marcel
Ormerod and Mounfield [P. Ormerod, C. Mounfield, Power law distribution of duration and magnitude of recessions in capitalist economies: Breakdown of scaling, Physica A 293 (2001) 573] and Ausloos et al. [M. Ausloos, J. Mikiewicz, M. Sanglier, The durations of recession and prosperity: Does their distribution follow a power or an exponential law? Physica A 339 (2004) 548] have independently analyzed the duration of recessions for developed countries through the evolution of the GDP in different time windows. It was found that there is a power law governing the duration distribution. We have analyzed data collected from 19 Latin American countries in order to observe whether such results are valid or not for developing countries. The case of prosperity years is also discussed. We observe that the power law of recession time intervals, see Ref. , is valid for Latin American countries as well. Thus an interesting point is discovered: the same scaling time is found in the case of recessions for the three data sets (ca. 1 year), and this could represent a universal feature. Other time scale parameters differ significantly from each other.
Price, Joseph; Just, David R
In this study, we evaluate if moving recess before lunch has an effect on the amount of fruits and vegetables elementary school students eat as part of their school-provided lunch. Participants were 1st-6th grade students from three schools that switched recess from after to before lunch and four similar schools that continued to hold recess after lunch. We collected data for an average of 14 days at each school (4 days during spring 2011, May 3 through June 1, 2011 and 9 days during fall 2011, September 19 through November 11, 2011). All of the schools were in Orem, UT. Data was collected for all students receiving a school lunch and was based on observational plate waste data. We find that moving recess before lunch increased consumption of fruits and vegetables by 0.16 servings per child (a 54% increase) and increased the fraction of children eating at least one serving of fruits or vegetables by 10 percentage points (a 45% increase). In contrast, the schools in our control group actually experienced a small reduction in fruit and vegetable consumption during the same time period. Our results show the benefits of holding recess before lunch and suggest that if more schools implement this policy, there would be significant increases in fruit and vegetable consumption among students who eat school lunch as part of the National School Lunch Program. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Stratton, Gareth; Ridgers, Nicola D; Fairclough, Stuart J; Richardson, David J
This study aimed to compare moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and vigorous physical activity (VPA) in normal-weight and overweight boys and girls during school recess. Four hundred twenty children, age 6 to 10 years, were randomly selected from 25 schools in England. Three hundred seventy-seven children completed the study. BMI was calculated from height and weight measurements, and heart rate reserve thresholds of 50% and 75% reflected children's engagement in MVPA and VPA, respectively. There was a significant main effect for sex and a significant interaction between BMI category and sex for the percent of recess time spent in MVPA and VPA. Normal-weight girls were the least active group, compared with overweight boys and girls who were equally active. Fifty-one boys and 24 girls of normal weight achieved the 40% threshold; of these, 30 boys and 10 girls exceeded 50% of recess time in MVPA. Eighteen overweight boys and 22 overweight girls exceeded the 40% threshold, whereas 8 boys and 8 girls exceeded the 50% threshold. Overweight boys were significantly less active than their normal-weight male counterparts; this difference did not hold true for girls. Even though nearly double the number of normal-weight children achieved the 40% of MVPA during recess compared with overweight children, physical activity promotion in school playgrounds needs to be targeted not only at overweight but at other health parameters, as 40 overweight children met the 40% MVPA target proposed for recess.
Woods, Amelia Mays; McLoughlin, Gabriella M; Kern, Ben D; Graber, Kim C
Public health concerns regarding childhood obesity and sedentary behavior make investigations of children's physical activity (PA) promotion crucial. School recess, a highly discretional time, plays a central role in shaping children's activity preferences. Participants included 40 children (30 girls, 10 boys) from fourth and fifth grades, categorized as low active during recess (<26% moderate-to-vigorous PA [MVPA]). PA was measured via accelerometer (Actigraph wGT3X+) and activity choice gauged through a self-report measure over a 3-day period. To assess attitudes and perceptions of recess, individual interviews were conducted. Accelerometer data were analyzed into minutes and percentage of MVPA; interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed utilizing open and axial coding. Participants were active for 18% of recess, choosing activities that were primarily individual-based. Interview data showed low active children attribute recess enjoyment to social interaction and time away from schoolwork as well as an intention to avoid other children who were unkind and/or caused social conflict. This study supports the importance of gaining a child's perspective of their own behavior, particularly those children classified as less active. Findings add a unique contribution to school health research through an innovative, child-centered approach to explore perceptions of PA. © 2018, American School Health Association.
Travers, Jasmine L; Cohen, Catherine C; Dick, Andrew W; Stone, Patricia W
During the Great Recession in America, African-Americans opted to forgo healthcare more than other racial/ethnic groups. It is not understood whether disparities in forgone care returned to pre-recession levels. Understanding healthcare utilization patterns is important for informing subsequent efforts to decrease healthcare disparities. Therefore, we examined changes in racial disparities in forgone care before, during, and after the Great Recession. Data were pooled from the 2006-2013 National Health Interview Survey. Forgone medical, mental, and prescription care due to affordability were assessed among African-Americans and Whites. Time periods were classified as: pre-recession (May 2006-November 2007), early recession (December 2007-November 2008), late recession (December 2008-May 2010) and post-recession (June 2010-December 2013). Multivariable logistic regressions of race, interacted with time periods, were used to identify disparities in forgone care controlling for other demographics, health insurance coverage, and having a usual place for medical care across time periods. Adjusted Wald tests were performed to identify significant changes in disparities across time periods. The sample consisted of 110,746 adults. African-Americans were more likely to forgo medical care during the post- recession compared to Whites (OR = 1.16, CI = 1.06, 1.26); changes in foregone medical care disparities were significant in that they increased in the post-recession period compared to the pre-recession (OR = 1.17, CI = 1.08, 1.28 and OR = 0.89, CI = 0.77, 1.04, respectively, adjusted Wald Test p-value Great Recession and may be a result of outstanding issues related to healthcare access, cost, and quality. While health insurance is an important component of access to care, it alone should not be expected to remove these disparities due to other financial constraints. Additional strategies are necessary to close remaining gaps in care widened by the Great Recession.
Kim, Saet-Byul; Kang, Won-Hee; Huy, Hoang Ngoc; Yeom, Seon-In; An, Jeong-Tak; Kim, Seungill; Kang, Min-Young; Kim, Hyun Jung; Jo, Yeong Deuk; Ha, Yeaseong; Choi, Doil; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl
Plants have evolved hundreds of nucleotide-binding and leucine-rich domain proteins (NLRs) as potential intracellular immune receptors, but the evolutionary mechanism leading to the ability to recognize specific pathogen effectors is elusive. Here, we cloned Pvr4 (a Potyvirus resistance gene in Capsicum annuum) and Tsw (a Tomato spotted wilt virus resistance gene in Capsicum chinense) via a genome-based approach using independent segregating populations. The genes both encode typical NLRs and are located at the same locus on pepper chromosome 10. Despite the fact that these two genes recognize completely different viral effectors, the genomic structures and coding sequences of the two genes are strikingly similar. Phylogenetic studies revealed that these two immune receptors diverged from a progenitor gene of a common ancestor. Our results suggest that sequence variations caused by gene duplication and neofunctionalization may underlie the evolution of the ability to specifically recognize different effectors. These findings thereby provide insight into the divergent evolution of plant immune receptors. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.
Sarkisova, Tatiana; Petrzik, Karel
Roč. 53, č. 2 (2009), s. 143 ISSN 0001-723X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS500510558 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : Coat protein * Lupinus polyphyllus * Phylogenesis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.746, year: 2009
Cawley, John; Moriya, Asako S; Simon, Kosali
This paper investigates the impact of the macroeconomy on the health insurance coverage of Americans using panel data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation for 2004-2010, a period that includes the Great Recession of 2007-2009. We find that a one percentage point increase in the state unemployment rate is associated with a 1.67 percentage point (2.12%) reduction in the probability that men have health insurance; this effect is strongest among college-educated, white, and older (50-64 years old) men. For women and children, health insurance coverage is not significantly correlated with the unemployment rate, which may be the result of public health insurance acting as a social safety net. Compared with the previous recession, the health insurance coverage of men is more sensitive to the unemployment rate, which may be due to the nature of the Great Recession. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
White, Brandi M; Jones, Walter J; Moran, William P; Simpson, Kit N
Primary care access (PCA) for the homeless can prove challenging, especially during periods of economic distress. In the United States, the most recent recession may have presented additional barriers to accessing care. Limited safety-net resources traditionally used by the homeless may have also been used by the non-homeless, resulting in delays in seeking treatment for the homeless. Using hospitalizations for ambulatory care sensitivity (ACS) conditions as a proxy measure for PCA, this study investigated the recession's impact on PCA for the homeless and non-homeless in four states. The State Inpatient Databases were used to identify ACS admissions. Findings from this study indicate the recession was a barrier to PCA for homeless people who were uninsured. Ensuring that economically-disadvantaged populations have the ability to obtain insurance coverage is crucial to facilitating PCA. With targeted outreach efforts, the Affordable Care Act provides an opportunity for expanding coverage to the homeless.
Rivolta, C; Sweklo, E A; Berson, E L; Dryja, T P
Microdeletions Glu767(1-bp del), Thr967(1-bp del), and Leu1446(2-bp del) in the human USH2A gene have been reported to cause Usher syndrome type II, a disorder characterized by retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and mild-to-severe hearing loss. Each of these three frameshift mutations is predicted to lead to an unstable mRNA transcript that, if translated, would result in a truncated protein lacking the carboxy terminus. Here, we report Cys759Phe, a novel missense mutation in this gene that changes an amino-acid residue within the fifth laminin-epidermal growth factor-like domain of the USH2A gene and that is associated with recessive RP without hearing loss. This single mutation was found in 4.5% of 224 patients with recessive RP, suggesting that USH2A could cause more cases of nonsyndromic recessive RP than does any other gene identified to date.
Landau, D.; Shalev, H.; Carmi, Rivka; Ohaly, M. [Univ. of the Negev, Ashkelon (Israel)
The infantile variant of Bartter syndrome (IBS) is usually associated with maternal polyhydramnios, premature birth, postnatal polyuria and hypokalemic hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis and a typical appearance. IBS is thought to be an autosomal recessive trait. Several congenital tubular defects are associated with sensorineural deafness (SND). However, an association between the IBS and SND has not been reported so far. Here we describe 5 children of an extended consanguineous Bedouin family with IBS and SND. In 3 of the cases, the typical electrolyte imbalance and facial appearance were detected neonatally. SND was detected as early as age 1 month, suggesting either coincidental homozygotization of 2 recessive genes or a pleiotropic effect of one autosomal recessive gene. This association suggests that evaluation of SND is warranted in every case of IBS. 35 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.
Claudio Ramos Conti
Full Text Available Recessions are recurring events in which most firms suffer severe impacts while others are less affected or may even prosper. Strategic management has made little progress in understanding such performance differences. In a scenario of decreased demand, intensified competition, and higher uncertainty, most firms try to survive by pro-cyclically cutting costs and investments. But firms could take advantage of undervalued resources in the market to counter-cyclically invest in new business opportunities to overtake competitors. We survey Brazilian firms in various industries about the 2008-2009 recession and analyze data using PLS-SEM. We find that while most firms pro-cyclically reduce costs and investments in recessions, a counter-cyclical strategy of investing in opportunities created by changes in the market enables superior performance. Most successful are firms with a propensity to recognize opportunities, an entrepreneurial orientation to invest, and the flexibility to efficiently implement investments.
Slayback, D. A.; Tucker, C. J.
We report on the systematic retreat of all glaciers in the tropics of the New World from the mid-1980s to the mid-2000s. These glaciers comprise 99% of the world’s tropical glaciers and occur in Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, and Mexico. It was necessary to use a large quantity of Landsat satellite data (124 images), selecting multiple images for every glacier for both epochs, to minimize confusion of glacier area with snow. Change in glacier extent was combined with a digital elevation model (DEM) to provide information on the elevation and aspect of areas of glacier recession. Overall, we found glacier recession of approximately 30% over twenty years, declining from ~2500 km2 from the mid-1980s to ~1800 km2 in the mid-2000s. In addition, there was a strong association of glacier recession with elevation and aspect. We discuss these trends in relation to hypothesized climatic influences.
Posavec, Kristijan; Giacopetti, Marco; Materazzi, Marco; Birk, Steffen
A new method was developed and implemented into an Excel Visual Basic for Applications (VBAs) algorithm utilizing trigonometry laws in an innovative way to overlap recession segments of time series and create master recession curves (MRCs). Based on a trigonometry approach, the algorithm horizontally translates succeeding recession segments of time series, placing their vertex, that is, the highest recorded value of each recession segment, directly onto the appropriate connection line defined by measurement points of a preceding recession segment. The new method and algorithm continues the development of methods and algorithms for the generation of MRC, where the first published method was based on a multiple linear/nonlinear regression model approach (Posavec et al. 2006). The newly developed trigonometry-based method was tested on real case study examples and compared with the previously published multiple linear/nonlinear regression model-based method. The results show that in some cases, that is, for some time series, the trigonometry-based method creates narrower overlaps of the recession segments, resulting in higher coefficients of determination R 2 , while in other cases the multiple linear/nonlinear regression model-based method remains superior. The Excel VBA algorithm for modeling MRC using the trigonometry approach is implemented into a spreadsheet tool (MRCTools v3.0 written by and available from Kristijan Posavec, Zagreb, Croatia) containing the previously published VBA algorithms for MRC generation and separation. All algorithms within the MRCTools v3.0 are open access and available free of charge, supporting the idea of running science on available, open, and free of charge software. © 2017, National Ground Water Association.
Miller, Gregory E; Chen, Edith; Yu, Tianyi; Brody, Gene H
Some of the country's highest rates of morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease are found in lower-income black communities in the rural Southeast. Research suggests these disparities originate in the early decades of life, and partly reflect the influence of broader socioeconomic forces acting on behavioral and biological processes that accelerate cardiovascular disease progression. However, this hypothesis has not been tested explicitly. Here, we examine metabolic syndrome (MetS) in rural black young adults as a function of their family's economic conditions before and after the Great Recession. In an ongoing prospective study, we followed 328 black youth from rural Georgia, who were 16 to 17 years old when the Great Recession began. When youth were 25, we assessed MetS prevalence using the International Diabetes Federation's guidelines. The sample's overall MetS prevalence was 18.6%, but rates varied depending on family economic trajectory from before to after the Great Recession. MetS prevalence was lowest (10.4%) among youth whose families maintained stable low-income conditions across the Recession. It was intermediate (21.8%) among downwardly mobile youth (ie, those whose families were lower income before the Recession, but slipped into poverty). The highest MetS rates (27.5%) were among youth whose families began the Recession in poverty, and sank into more meager conditions afterwards. The same patterns were observed with 3 alternative MetS definitions. These patterns suggest that broader economic forces shape cardiometabolic risk in young blacks, and may exacerbate disparities already present in this community. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.
S. H. Mernild
Full Text Available Landsat imagery was applied to elucidate glacier fluctuations of land- and marine-terminating outlet glaciers from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS and local land-terminating glaciers and ice caps (GIC peripheral to the GrIS in the Ammassalik region, Southeast Greenland, during the period 1972–2011. Data from 21 marine-terminating glaciers (including the glaciers Helheim, Midgaard, and Fenris, the GrIS land-terminating margin, and 35 GIC were examined and compared to observed atmospheric air temperatures, precipitation, and reconstructed ocean water temperatures (at 400 m depth in the Irminger Sea. Here, we document that net glacier recession has occurred since 1972 in the Ammassalik region for all glacier types and sizes, except for three GIC. The land-terminating GrIS and GIC reflect lower marginal and areal changes than the marine-terminating outlet glaciers. The mean annual land-terminating GrIS and GIC margin recessions were about three to five times lower than the GrIS marine-terminating recession. The marine-terminating outlet glaciers had an average net frontal retreat for 1999–2011 of 0.098 km yr−1, which was significantly higher than in previous sub-periods 1972–1986 and 1986–1999. For the marine-terminating GrIS, the annual areal recession rate has been decreasing since 1972, while increasing for the land-terminating GrIS since 1986. On average for all the observed GIC, a mean net frontal retreat for 1986–2011 of 0.010 ± 0.006 km yr−1 and a mean areal recession of around 1% per year occurred; overall for all observed GIC, a mean recession rate of 27 ± 24% occurred based on the 1986 GIC area. Since 1986, five GIC melted away in the Ammassalik area.
Declercq, Bruno; Delarue, Erik; D'haeseleer, William
This paper investigates the impact of the economic recession on CO 2 emissions in the European power sector, during the years 2008 and 2009. Three main determinants of the power sector's emissions are identified: the demand for electricity, the CO 2 price, and fuel prices. A counterfactual scenario has been set up for each of these, i.e., what these parameters would have been if not affected by the recession. A simulation model of the European power sector is then employed, comparing a historical reference simulation (taking the parameters as actually occurred) with the counterfactual scenarios. The lower electricity demand (due to the recession) is shown to have by far the largest impact, accounting for an emission reduction of about 175 Mton. The lower CO 2 price (due to the recession) resulted in an increase in emissions by about 30 Mton. The impact of fuel prices is more difficult to retrieve; an indicative reduction of about 17 Mton is obtained, mainly as a consequence of the low gas prices in 2009. The simulated combined impact of the parameters results in an emission reduction of about 150 Mton in the European power sector over the years 2008 and 2009 as a consequence of the recession. - Research highlights: → CO 2 emissions are simulated for the European power sector. → Emissions reduced drastically because of the economic recession in 2008 and 2009. → Lower electricity demand had highest impact and accounts for reduction of about 175 Mton. → Impact of different CO 2 and fuel prices on emissions is more limited.
Rosema, N A M; Adam, R; Grender, J M; Van der Sluijs, E; Supranoto, S C; Van der Weijden, G A
To assess gingival recession (GR) in manual and power toothbrush users and evaluate the relationship between GR and gingival abrasion scores (GA). This was an observational (cross-sectional), single-centre, examiner-blind study involving a single-brushing exercise, with 181 young adult participants: 90 manual brush users and 91 oscillating-rotating power brush users. Participants were assessed for GR and GA as primary response variables. Secondary response variables were the level of gingival inflammation, plaque score reduction and brushing duration. Pearson correlation was used to describe the relationship between number of recession sites and number of abrasions. Prebrushing (baseline) and post-brushing GA and plaque scores were assessed and differences analysed using paired tests. Two-sample t-test was used to analyse group differences; ancova was used for analyses of post-brushing changes with baseline as covariate. Overall, 97.8% of the study population had at least one site of ≥1 mm of gingival recession. For the manual group, this percentage was 98.9%, and for the power group, this percentage was 96.7% (P = 0.621). Post-brushing, the power group showed a significantly smaller GA increase than the manual group (P = 0.004); however, there was no significant correlation between number of recession sites and number of abrasions for either group (P ≥ 0.327). Little gingival recession was observed in either toothbrush user group; the observed GR levels were comparable. Lower post-brushing gingival abrasion levels were seen in the power group. There was no correlation between gingival abrasion as a result of brushing and the observed gingival recession following use of either toothbrush. © 2014 The Authors International Journal of Dental Hygiene Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Mark Weisbrot; Rebecca Ray
The Latvian recession, which is now more than two years old, has seen a world-historical drop in GDP of more than 25 percent. The IMF projects another 4 percent drop this year, and predicts that the total loss of output from peak to bottom will reach 30 percent. This would make Latvia’s loss more than that of the U.S. Great Depression downturn of 1929-1933. This paper argues that the depth of the recession and the difficulty of recovery are attributable in large part to the decision to mainta...
Mahajan, D.; Votruba, Marcela
NR2E3 is a gene that encodes for photoreceptor cell specific nuclear receptor, which is involved in cone proliferation. The splice site mutation 119-2A>C in NR2E3 (15q23) has been previously reported to underlie recessive enhanced cone S sensitivity syndrome, clumped pigmentary retinal degeneration, Goldman-Favre syndrome and also autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (RP). However, the mutation c 571 + 2 T > C in NR2E3 has not been previously reported with retinal d...
Full Text Available This paper explores the findings regarding the impact of recession that began in 2008 in Slovenia to the chosen parameters of quality of regional centres, which are reflected in their attractiveness. We wanted to test the assumption of the impact of recession to the attractiveness of regional centres to both internal migration and commuting flows. To this end, an adjusted gravity spatial interaction model was developed by evaluating regression coefficients. We analysedthe impacts of population size, distance, employment, gross personal income, municipality revenue per capita, average price per square metre of apartments and houses, and age structure in the municipality pertaining to the decision to potentially migrate or commute related to the migration and choice of workplace in the regional centre. The impact of the recession was analysed by comparing the estimations of regression coefficients before the recession (2007 and duringthe recession (2011. It is shown that during the recession, internal migrations to regional centres increased considerably, while commuting to regional centres did not change significantly. We alsoshowed that during the recession, the impact of the distance to the decision to migrate to regional centres slightly increased, while the impact of the distance to the decision to commute did not changesignificantly. Notably, during the crisis the impact of municipality revenue per capita in the regional centre to the analysed flows changed the most: during the recession, the decision to migrate and/orcommute to 'more prosperous' regional centres is made more easily.In the future, it is to be expected that local self-governments will make more effort to consider how to attract taxpayers to their local community and hence enrich the community, while the analysis of theseparameters will become more significant for the individual levels of the local self-government. Gravity models, such as the one used here, include different
Sahana, Goutam; Nielsen, Ulrik Sander; Aamand, Gert Pedersen
harboring possible recessive lethal alleles. Effects of the identified haplotypes were estimated on two fertility traits: non-return rates and calving interval. Out of the eight identified genomic regions, six regions were confirmed as having an effect on fertility. The information can be used to avoid......Using genomic data, lethal recessives may be discovered from haplotypes that are common in the population but never occur in the homozygote state in live animals. This approach only requires genotype data from phenotypically normal (i.e. live) individuals and not from the affected embryos that die...
Full Text Available Aim : The study aimed to determine the incidence of gingival recession in the mandibular central incisor region among school children aged 10-15 years in Udaipur (India. Materials and Methods : A sample of 1800 males and female kids were examined in a mobile dental unit. World Health Organisation (WHO rules and standards were followed. Result : Gingival recession, when compared, with respect to age, mean clinical crown length, anterior crowding and frenal involvement was significant (p less than 0.00 with respect to affected teeth.
Full Text Available Gingival recession is a condition that affects a large portion of the young and adult population and negatively affects the aesthetic aspects of the smile. Many factors are related to its development, including orthodontic movement beyond the osseous limits. Many treatment options have been proposed to cover the exposed root surface. The aim of this article was to describe three cases where a subepithelial connective tissue graft was performed, using a microsurgical technique, in the treatment of deep gingival recession after orthodontic treatment. This technique resulted in successful root coverage and keratinized tissue gain, improving the gingival esthetic pattern.
Bart, Ryan; Hope, Allen
Baseflow recession rates vary inter-seasonally in many watersheds. This variability is generally associated with changes in evapotranspiration; however, an additional and less studied control over inter-seasonal baseflow recession rates is the effect of aquifer antecedent storage. Understanding the role of aquifer antecedent storage on baseflow recession rates is crucial for Mediterranean-climate regions, where seasonal asynchronicity of precipitation and energy levels produces large inter-seasonal differences in aquifer storage. The primary objective of this study was to elucidate the relation between aquifer antecedent storage and baseflow recession rates in four central California watersheds using antecedent streamflow as a surrogate for watershed storage. In addition, a parsimonious storage-discharge model consisting of two nonlinear stores in parallel was developed as a heuristic tool for interpreting the empirical results and providing insight into how inter-seasonal changes in aquifer antecedent storage may affect baseflow recession rates. Antecedent streamflow cumulated from the beginning of the wateryear was found to be the strongest predictor of baseflow recession rates, indicating that inter-seasonal differences in aquifer storage are a key control on baseflow recession rates in California watersheds. Baseflow recession rates and antecedent streamflow exhibited a negative power-law relation, with baseflow recession rates decreasing by up to two orders of magnitude as antecedent streamflow levels increased. Inference based on the storage-discharge model indicated that the dominant source of recession flow shifted from small, rapid response aquifers at the beginning of the wet season to large, seasonal aquifers as the wet season progressed. Aquifer antecedent storage in California watersheds should be accounted for along with evapotranspiration when characterizing baseflow recession rates.
Kim, Jinhee; Kang, Won-Hee; Hwang, Jeena; Yang, Hee-Bum; Dosun, Kim; Oh, Chang-Sik; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl
The protein-protein interaction between VPg (viral protein genome-linked) of potyviruses and eIF4E (eukaryotic initiation factor 4E) or eIF(iso)4E of their host plants is a critical step in determining viral virulence. In this study, we evaluated the approach of engineering broad-spectrum resistance in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa) to Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV), which is one of the most important potyviruses, by a systematic knowledge-based approach to interrupt the interaction between TuMV VPg and B. rapa eIF(iso)4E. The seven amino acids in the cap-binding pocket of eIF(iso)4E were selected on the basis of other previous results and comparison of protein models of cap-binding pockets, and mutated. Yeast two-hybrid assay and co-immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that W95L, K150L and W95L/K150E amino acid mutations of B. rapa eIF(iso)4E interrupted its interaction with TuMV VPg. All eIF(iso)4E mutants were able to complement an eIF4E-knockout yeast strain, indicating that the mutated eIF(iso)4E proteins retained their function as a translational initiation factor. To determine whether these mutations could confer resistance, eIF(iso)4E W95L, W95L/K150E and eIF(iso)4E wild-type were over-expressed in a susceptible Chinese cabbage cultivar. Evaluation of the TuMV resistance of T1 and T2 transformants demonstrated that the over-expression of the eIF(iso)4E mutant forms can confer resistance to multiple TuMV strains. These data demonstrate the utility of knowledge-based approaches for the engineering of broad-spectrum resistance in Chinese cabbage. © 2014 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.
Marple, Stacy Ann
In recent times, recess has become threatened by the press for more academic instruction time and by fears of violent behavior. A dramatic indicator of this trend is seen in the increasing number of schools and school districts which have done away with or significantly reduced recess time (BBC news, 2007; Coughlan, 2007; Jarrett, 2002; Pressler,…
Shores, Kenneth; Steinberg, Matthew P.
The Great Recession was the most severe economic downturn in the United States since the Great Depression. Using newly available population-level achievement data from the Stanford Education Data Archive (SEDA), we estimate the impact of the Great Recession on the math and English language arts (ELA) achievement of all grade 3-8 students in the…
Thomas, Kevin J A; Tucker, Catherine
Although the consequences of the Great Recession are extensively discussed in previous research, three critical issue need to be addressed in order to develop a full portrait of the economic experiences of children during this period. First, given the changing immigrant composition of the US child population, new studies are needed for examining the implications of immigrant status for exposure to child poverty during the recession. Second, it is important to understand how traditional patterns of racial inequality among were transformed during the years of the recession. Finally, it is not clear whether recession-related changes in socioeconomic inequalities continued to have implications for child well-being in the post-recession period. Results from this analysis indicate that the adverse effects of the recession were most intense in states with significant changes in their populations of Black and Latino immigrant children. The results further show that declines in parental work opportunities were more consequential for poverty among Whites and Asians. The analysis also finds differential implications of family contexts for child poverty among Black immigrant and natives during the recession. Finally, the results indicate that increases in racial child poverty disparities during the recession did not disappear in the years following the downturn.
Brint, Steven; Yoshikawa, Sarah R. K.; Rotondi, Matthew B.; Viggiano, Tiffany; Maldonado, John
Press reports and industry statistics both give incomplete pictures of the outcomes of the Great Recession for U.S. four-year colleges and universities. To address these gaps, we conducted a statistical analysis of all articles that appeared in Lexis-Nexis on a sample of more than 300 U.S. colleges and universities during the Recession years. We…
Klevering, B.J.; Blankenagel, A.; Maugeri, A.; Cremers, F.P.M.; Hoyng, C.B.; Rohrschneider, K.
PURPOSE: To describe the phenotype of 12 patients with autosomal recessive or isolated cone-rod types of progressive retinal degeneration (CRD) caused by mutations in the ABCA4 gene. METHODS: The charts of patients who had originally received a diagnosis of isolated or autosomal recessive CRD were
Harper, Sam; Bruckner, Tim A
Research suggests that the Great Recession of 2007-2009 led to nearly 5000 excess suicides in the United States. However, prior work has not accounted for seasonal patterning and unique suicide trends by age and gender. We calculated monthly suicide rates from 1999 to 2013 for men and women aged 15 and above. Suicide rates before the Great Recession were used to predict the rate during and after the Great Recession. Death rates for each age-gender group were modeled using Poisson regression with robust variance, accounting for seasonal and nonlinear suicide trajectories. There were 56,658 suicide deaths during the Great Recession. Age- and gender-specific suicide trends before the recession demonstrated clear seasonal and nonlinear trajectories. Our models predicted 57,140 expected suicide deaths, leading to 482 fewer observed than expected suicides (95% confidence interval -2079, 943). We found little evidence to suggest that the Great Recession interrupted existing trajectories of suicide rates. Suicide rates were already increasing before the Great Recession for middle-aged men and women. Future studies estimating the impact of recessions on suicide should account for the diverse and unique suicide trajectories of different social groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
London, Rebecca A.; Westrich, Lisa; Stokes-Guinan, Katie; McLaughlin, Milbrey
Background: Recess is a part of the elementary school day with strong implications for school climate. Positive school climate has been linked to a host of favorable student outcomes, from attendance to achievement. We examine 6 low-income elementary schools' experiences implementing a recess-based program designed to provide safe, healthy,…
Beeldman, Emma; van der Kooi, Anneke J.; de Visser, Marianne; van Maarle, Merel C.; van Ruissen, Fred; Baas, Frank
Approximately 10% of motor neuron disease (MND) patients report a familial predisposition for MND. Autosomal recessively inherited MND is less common and is most often caused by mutations in the superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene. In 2010, autosomal recessively inherited mutations in the optineurin
Usher, Alex; Dunn, Ryan
With the global recession in full effect, post-secondary education in Canada is about to face some very significant challenges. The purpose of this report is to outline the likely main effects of this global recession on the Canadian post-secondary education (PSE) sector, as well as suggest a series of measures that governments can take to help…
Eight cultivars that were thought to have field resistance to stem rust were selected and crossed to produce four four-cultivar hybrids. From those crosses lines were produced that lacked seedling resistance to race 15B-1 of stem rust but had good field resistance to it. They also proved to have field resistance to many other races and it is hoped that the resistance is general. Genetic studies indicated that there is some variation in the lines, but resistance is generally inherited as a quantitative character with several largely recessive genes having small additive effects. This suggests that in an induced mutation programme, no one plant is likely to accumulate sufficient mutant genes that it will appear resistant. (author)
Stem and leaf rust resistance was successfully transferred from Agropyron to wheat by radiation-induced translocations. Mutation induction subsequently proved to be useful in separating an undesired gene for yellow pigment from the resistance. The homoeologous pairing mutant obtained by Sears was also used successfully in obtaining transfers through crossing-over between wheat and Agropyron chromosomes. Another experimental series succeeded in accumulating minor genes for rust resistance, after eliminating major genes for specific resistance. The resistance is polygenic and widely effective although not general. It is recessively inherited, and hoped to be more durable than major gene resistance used so far in the Canadian prairies. An attempt to induce mutations for leaf rust resistance in a small-scale experiment with leading Canadian wheat varieties Manitou and Neepawa using gamma rays and EMS has not been successful. (author)
Khuzhakulov, S.M.; Uzakov, G.N.; Vardiyashvili, A.B
A new method for the regeneration of adsorbents using solar heating systems is proposed. It provides energy saving through the control of the gas composition and humidity in recessed fruit and vegetable storages. The effectiveness of solar heating systems, such as a 'hot box' for the regeneration of adsorbents in fruit and vegetable storages is shown. (author)
Li, Cuihong; Meng, Yonggang; Tian, Yu
A linear inchworm-type stepper motor based on piezoelectric actuator and comb shape electrorheological (ER) clampers was developed and tested. A recession phenomenon in the movement of the motor was found and was significantly affected by the driving voltage of the piezoelectric actuator and ER fluids. A dynamic model to analyze the mechanism of the recession was established. The force ratio of the viscoelastic clamping force (applied high electric field) to the viscous damping force (zero field) of ER fluids is the critical factor which determines the recession. The ratio is also affected by the extension or contraction rate of the actuator during movement, which is affected by the charging and discharging processes. With a relatively large distance between the clamper electrodes and a small displacement activated by the extension of the piezoelectric actuator, the instantaneous shear rate might not be sufficiently high, preventing ER fluids from attaining a shear-thickened and high-strength state. The ratio of yield strength to the viscous strength of ER fluids during movement should be as large as possible to reduce the recession displacement. (paper)
Plunkett, Andrea D.; Yampolsky, Lev Y.
We propose an experimental model suitable for demonstrating allele frequency change in Drosophila melanogaster populations caused by selection against an easily scorable conditional lethal, namely recessive flightless alleles such as apterous and vestigial. Homozygotes for these alleles are excluded from reproduction because the food source used…
Vite, C H; Melniczek, J; Patterson, D; Giger, U
Myotonia is a clinical sign characterized by a delay in skeletal muscle relaxation following electrical or mechanical stimulation. A series of related miniature schnauzer dogs with congenital myotonic myopathy were studied. A composite pedigree of six affected litters and the results of a planned breeding between two affected animals are consistent with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance.
The current research, "Citizen Support for Northern Ohio Community College Funding Initiatives during an Economic Recession Recovery", asks the question: Do the citizens of Northern Ohio support community college funding during difficult economic times? Based on the theory of Stakeholder Analysis, the purpose of this concurrent,…
Baker, Bruce D.
The Great Recession's effect on state school finance systems was unlike previous downturns in the early 1990s and early 2000s in that it: a) involved a greater loss of taxable income in many states, thus greater loss to state general fund revenues, b) also involved a substantial collapse of housing markets and related reduction or at least…
McWhorter, Bruce B.; Ewing, Mark E.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)
Real-time char line recession measurements were made on propellant inhibitors of the Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM). The RSRM FSM-8 static test motor propellant inhibitors (composed of a rubber insulation material) were successfully instrumented with eroding potentiometers and thermocouples. The data was used to establish inhibitor recession versus time relationships. Normally, pre-fire and post-fire insulation thickness measurements establish the thermal performance of an ablating insulation material. However, post-fire inhibitor decomposition and recession measurements are complicated by the fact that most of the inhibitor is back during motor operation. It is therefore a difficult task to evaluate the thermal protection offered by the inhibitor material. Real-time measurements would help this task. The instrumentation program for this static test motor marks the first time that real-time inhibitors. This report presents that data for the center and aft field joint forward facing inhibitors. The data was primarily used to measure char line recession of the forward face of the inhibitors which provides inhibitor thickness reduction versus time data. The data was also used to estimate the inhibitor height versus time relationship during motor operation.
Caulkins, J.P.; Feichtinger, G.; Grass, D.; Hartl, R.F.; Kort, P.M.; Seidl, A.
This paper considers the problem of how to price a conspicuous product when the economy is in a recession that disrupts capital markets. A conspicuous product in this context is a luxury good for which demand is increasing in brand image. Brand image here means the ability of a consumer to impress
Dubroc, Alicia M.
The elimination of recess in schools across the country is becoming a normal occurrence in many communities, large and small. In each study presented in this content analysis, we find that free time and unstructured play is indeed essential to a child's healthy cognitive development. Article 31 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of…
van Dalen, H.P.; Henkens, K.
The present paper analyzes the choices faced by European employers when threatened with the prospect of the mass lay-off of their employees as a result of the Great Recession. By means of a representative survey among employers in Italy, Germany, Denmark, Poland, theNetherlands and Sweden in 2009,
van Dalen, H.P.; Henkens, K.
Summary The present paper analyzes the choices faced by European employers when threatened with the prospect of the mass lay-off of their employees as a result of the Great Recession. By means of a representative survey among employers in Italy, Germany, Denmark, Poland, the Netherlands and Sweden
Schneider, William; Waldfogel, Jane; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
This article examines associations between the Great Recession and 4 aspects of 9-year olds' behavior--aggression (externalizing), anxiety/depression (internalizing), alcohol and drug use, and vandalism-using the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a longitudinal birth cohort drawn from 20 U.S. cities (21% White, 50% Black, 26% Hispanic,…
At 18 months, the Great Recession of December 2007 to June 2009 is the longest recession since World War II. The recession led to soaring unemployment, resulting in loss of employment-based health insurance for millions of people. In addition to seeing increases in uninsured patients, hospitals experienced losses in their investment portfolios, which in turn increased bad debt, charity care, and uncompensated care nationwide. Hospital executives began to devise cost-cutting strategies to balance the rising debt, such as standardizing medical equipment, cutting staff positions, and delaying construction projects and capital expenditures as well as implementing value analysis strategies. The recession is officially over, and, although economic recovery has been slow and unemployment continues to be an issue, hospitals' net revenue started improving as of 2009 and hospital construction started increasing in 2010. Still, caution is warranted in the postrecession climate, because it is unknown what effects will be seen when the Baby Boomer generation begins using Medicare. Copyright © 2014 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Serenari, Christopher; Peterson, M. Nils; Bardon, Robert E.; Brown, Robert D.
The Great Recession contributed to major budget cuts for natural resource Extension programs in the United States. Despite the potentially large cuts, their impacts and how Extension has adapted their programs have not been evaluated. We begin addressing these needs with surveys of Association of Natural Resource Extension Professionals members…
Skinner, Richard A.; Miller, Emily R.
In this article, the authors describe one institution--East Carolina University--that they think is representative of an important type and a large proportion of American universities, the comprehensive public university, and its responses to the lingering Great Recession. As a group, comprehensives handle almost 40 per cent of the total student…
Hilbun, Ashlie Junot; Mamiseishvili, Ketevan
The study we report here explored how private liberal arts colleges adapted to the Great Recession of 2007. We examined institutional changes at three private liberal arts colleges and their effects on the institutions' operations. For this multiple-case study we analyzed data from three colleges in the southeastern region of the United States;…
The purpose of this study was to review the graduate gender divide in STEM fields in the context of the recent Great Recession. The rationale for this study was a continuation of the pipeline paradigm at the graduate level. The goal was also to examine the gender divide in STEM across select institutional types, such as land-grant institutions, as…
Brakman, S.; van Marrewijk, J.G.M.; Partridge, Mark
Using a novel data set for 207 European regions from 22 different countries, we analyse the relevance of urbanisation for the short-term resilience to a major shock. We take the Great Recession, the economic and financial crisis that started in 2008, as our shock and analyse how the European NUTS 2
Carlson, Corey W.
The community college, like all of higher education, has been significantly impacted by the Great Recession and coincidental increased enrollment. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the decision making processes of community college presidents as related to resource allocation and the impact of these decisions on the…
Mattingly, Marybeth J.; Smith, Kristin E.
American families are experiencing the effects of the "Great Recession." Most of the job losses are accruing to men, so families may find it strategic for wives to enter the labor force, or increase their work hours. We consider this possibility using the May 2008 and 2009 Current Population Survey, and compare findings to May 2004 and 2005 data,…
van Dalen, H.P.; Henkens, C.J.I.M.
The present paper analyzes the choices faced by European employers when threatened with the prospect of the mass lay-off of their employees as a result of the Great Recession. By means of a representative survey among employers in Italy, Germany, Denmark, Poland, the Netherlands and Sweden in 2009,
van Dalen, H.P.; Henkens, K.
The present paper analyzes the choices faced by European employers when threatened with the prospect of the mass lay-off of their employees as a result of the Great Recession. By means of a representative survey among employers in Italy, Germany, Denmark, Poland, the Netherlands and Sweden in 2009,
Levy, Brian L; Mouw, Ted; Daniel Perez, Anthony
Labor migration offers an important mechanism to reallocate workers when there are regional differences in employment conditions. Whereas conventional wisdom suggests migration rates should increase during recessions as workers move out of areas that are hit hardest, initial evidence suggested that overall migration rates declined during the Great Recession, despite large regional differences in unemployment and growth rates. In this paper, we use data from the American Community Survey to analyze internal migration trends before and during the economic downturn. First, we find only a modest decline in the odds of adults leaving distressed labor market areas during the recession, which may result in part from challenges related to the housing price crash. Second, we estimate conditional logit models of destination choice for individuals who migrate across labor market areas and find a substantial effect of economic factors such as labor demand, unemployment, and housing values. We also estimate latent class conditional logit models that test whether there is heterogeneity in preferences for destination characteristics among migrants. Over all, the latent class models suggest that roughly equal percentages of migrants were motivated by economic factors before and during the recession. We conclude that fears of dramatic declines in labor migration seem to be unsubstantiated.
Goldhaber, Dan; Strunk, Katharine O.; Brown, Nate; Knight, David S.
One consequence of the Great Recession is that teacher layoffs occurred at a scale previously unseen. In this article, we assess the effects of receiving a layoff notice on teacher mobility using data from Los Angeles and Washington State. Our analyses are based on 6-year panels of data in each site, including 4 years of layoffs. We find that the…
Johansen, J D; Ramsing, D; Vejlsgaard, G
Patients with X-linked recessive ichthyosis (RXLI) were studied as a model of the effect of disturbed epidermal lipid composition on skin barrier function. Thirteen patients with RXLI and 15 age- and sex-matched controls were patch-tested with sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) 0.5% for 24 h. Basal skin...
Schoon, Ingrid; Mortimer, Jeylan
This special section brings together leading experts in psychology and sociology to examine the consequences of the Great Recession for young people's values, achievement orientation, and outlook to the future. Evidence from Europe and the United States suggests that the impact of the recession varies for distinct outcomes and by age, the latter pointing to potential sensitive periods for interventions. Although the direct effects of the recession are not strong, they accelerate pre-existing trends towards more prolonged and precarious transitions to independence, and are likely to bring with them long-term scarring with respect to health and well-being. While feelings of self-confidence and self-worth have eroded, young people continue to subscribe to the "American Dream," the belief that in principle it is possible to make it - even if limitations to one's own capabilities are recognised. Trust in institutions has declined, but support and concern for others have increased, suggesting that in times of economic hardship and uncertainty social relationships become more salient. Young people's response to the recession appears to be less of a "me-first" reaction than "let's help each other": a form of "collective agency" to counter the inadequacy of social safety nets. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.
Lv, Yuanjie; Mo, Jianghui; Song, Xubo; He, Zezhao; Wang, Yuangang; Tan, Xin; Zhou, Xingye; Gu, Guodong; Guo, Hongyu; Feng, Zhihong
Gallium oxide (Ga2O3) metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) were fabricated with gate recess depths of 110 nm and 220 nm, respectively. The gate recess was formed by dry plasma etching with Cr metal as the mask. The fabricated devices with a 25-nm HfO2 gate dielectric both showed a low off-state drain current of about 1.8 × 10-10 A/mm. The effects of recess depth on the electronic characteristics of Ga2O3 MOSFETs were investigated. Upon increasing the recess depth from 110 nm to 220 nm, the saturated drain current decreased from 20.7 mA/mm to 2.6 mA/mm, while the threshold voltage moved increased to +3 V. Moreover, the breakdown voltage increased from 122 V to 190 V. This is mainly because the inverted-trapezoidal gate played the role of a gate-field plate, which suppressed the peak electric field close to the gate.
Leopold, Christine; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K; Vogler, Sabine; Valkova, Silvia; de Joncheere, Kees; Leufkens, Hubert G M; Wagner, Anita K; Ross-Degnan, Dennis; Laing, Richard
OBJECTIVE: To identify pharmaceutical policy changes during the economic recession in eight European countries and to determine whether policy measures resulted in lower sales of, and less expenditure on, pharmaceuticals. METHODS: Information on pharmaceutical policy changes between 2008 and 2011 in
Brian L. Levy
Full Text Available Labor migration offers an important mechanism to reallocate workers when there are regional differences in employment conditions. Whereas conventional wisdom suggests migration rates should increase during recessions as workers move out of areas that are hit hardest, initial evidence suggested that overall migration rates declined during the Great Recession, despite large regional differences in unemployment and growth rates. In this paper we use data from the American Community Survey to analyze internal migration trends before and during the economic downturn. First, we find only a modest decline in the odds of adults leaving distressed labor market areas during the Great Recession, which may result in part from challenges related to the housing price crash. Second, we estimate conditional logit models of destination choice for individuals who migrate across labor market areas; we find a substantial effect of economic factors such as labor demand, unemployment, and housing values. We also estimate latent class conditional logit models that test whether there is heterogeneity in preferences for destination characteristics among migrants. Over all, the latent class models suggest that roughly equal percentages of migrants were motivated by economic factors before and during the Great Recession. We conclude that fears of dramatic declines in labor migration seem to be unsubstantiated.
Nguyen, Ha; Rezaei, Shawheen
This paper explores the spillover effects of job losses via input linkages during the Great Recession. Exploiting exogenous variation in tradable employment shocks across U.S. counties, the paper finds that job losses in the tradable sectors cause further job losses in local supporting services. The result is not due to reverse causation, construction job losses, or credit shortages. In ad...
Johnson, Monica Kirkpatrick; Staff, Jeremy; Patrick, Megan E.; Schulenberg, John E.
This study examines the impact of the “Great Recession” as well as previous recessions in 1991 and 2001 on 8th and 10th graders in the U.S, using annual nationally representative data from the Monitoring the Future study. Historical changes in youth adjustment (self-esteem, depressed mood, risk taking, aggression, and property crime), school achievement (grade point average, time spent on homework, and educational expectations), and structured and unstructured activities (volunteering, employment, sports, and evenings out for fun) were examined between 1991 and 2014. Overall, there were only slight changes in mean levels of adjustment, achievement, and most youth activities. However, the percentage of youth working during the school year did decline during the Great Recession. Several longer term trends were also evident, though not directly tied to recessions. These include an increase in GPA, a decrease in time spent on homework, rising educational expectations, and more time spent volunteering. Future work should assess how the shift to unpaid work activities (e.g., volunteering and internships) among youth is impacting the transition from school to work in the contemporary economy, and whether the Great Recession had deleterious impacts for younger children or among youth whose parents lost work or had their homes foreclosed. PMID:27709614
Johnson, Monica Kirkpatrick; Staff, Jeremy; Patrick, Megan E; Schulenberg, John E
This study examines the impact of the "Great Recession" (from December 2007 to June 2009) on 8th and 10th graders in the USA, using annual nationally representative data from the Monitoring the Future study. Historical changes in youth adjustment (self-esteem, depressed mood, risk taking, aggression and property crime), school achievement (grade point average [GPA], time spent on homework and educational expectations) and structured and unstructured activities (volunteering, employment, sports and evenings out for fun) were examined between 1991 and 2014. Overall, there were only slight changes in mean levels of adjustment, achievement and most youth activities. However, the percentage of youth working during the school year did decline during the Great Recession. Several longer-term trends were also evident, though not directly tied to the Great Recession. These include an increase in GPA, a decrease in time spent on homework, rising educational expectations and more time spent volunteering. Future work should assess how the shift to unpaid work activities (e.g. volunteering and internships) among youth is impacting the transition from school to work in the contemporary economy, and whether the Great Recession had deleterious impacts for younger children or among youth whose parents lost work or had their homes foreclosed. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.
Hotz, A; Fagerberg, C; Vahlquist, A
Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) is a heterogeneous group of disorders of keratinization. To date, ARCI has been associated with following genes: ABCA12, ALOX12B, ALOXE3, CERS3, CYP4F22, NIPAL4, TGM1, PNPLA1 and recently SDR9C7 and SULT2B1.(1-6) Furthermore, seven patients from...
Wyver, Shirley; Engelen, Lina; Bundy, Anita; Naughton, Geraldine
An assumption made when designing recess interventions in schools is that there is a clear demarcation between eating time and play time. We used observational data conducted as part of the Sydney Playground Project to test if this assumption was correct. The Sydney Playground Project is a cluster randomised controlled trial of a recess…
Peters, Michael A.; Besley, Tina
This article explores the different approaches taken to the concepts of work or labour by Marx and Foucault, examining in particular the question of subjectivity in relation to youth unemployment and the current crisis of youth unemployment as part of the aftermath of the global recession of 2008.
In the wake of the deep recession of 2008 and 2009, there has been increased concern over the current level of financial literacy among American citizens. For many, this concern extends to our college students getting ready to enter the real world as they leave college life behind. This study looks at the preparedness of college students to manage…
Rudden, Michael S.
Colleges and universities continue to face significant fiscal challenges in the current recession. A review of ongoing campus facilities planning projects, coupled with a review of more than 30 recent campus master planning requests for proposals and the relevant literature, indicates that colleges and universities are finding innovative ways to…
Security Classification) Mtutagenic potential of nitroguan idine in the Drosophila melano- gaster sex-linked recessive lethal test 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S...Frederick, MD 21701-5012 Commander Commandant US Army Environmental Hygine Academy of Health Sciences. US Army Agency ATTN: AHS-CDM ATTN: Librarian, HSDH
After years of growth and predictions that fund raising for higher education would escape the brunt of the economic crash, the recession has started to affect colleges' efforts to raise money, according to a survey by "The Chronicle" and Moody's Investors Service. Predictions are that 2009 may be an even tougher year for fund raisers, with…
Frömel, Karel; Svozil, Zbynek; Chmelík, František; Jakubec, Lukáš; Groffik, Dorota
Background: This study investigates school lifestyle among adolescents in terms of physical activity (PA) structure: (1) adolescents participating in a physical education lesson (PEL) versus (2) aggregate recess time exceeding 60 minutes. Methods: The research was conducted in 24 secondary schools in the Czech Republic (boys N = 208, girls N =…
Bleeker, Martha; Beyler, Nicholas; James-Burdumy, Susanne; Fortson, Jane
School-based programs, such as Playworks, that guide students in organized activities during recess and make improvements to the recess play yard may lead to significant increases in physical activity-especially for girls. This study builds on past research by investigating the impact of Playworks separately for girls and boys. Twenty-nine schools were randomly assigned to receive Playworks for 1 school year or serve as a control group. Postintervention physical activity data were collected via accelerometers and recess observations. Impacts were estimated separately for girls and boys using regression models. Girls in Playworks schools had significantly higher accelerometer intensity counts and spent more time in vigorous physical activity than girls in control schools. No significant differences based on accelerometer data were found for boys. A significant impact was also found on the types of activities in which girls engaged during recess; girls in the treatment group were less likely than those in the control group to be sedentary and more likely to engage in jumping, tag, and playground games. The current findings suggest that Playworks had a significant impact on some measures of girls' physical activity, but no significant impact on measures of boys' physical activity. © 2015, American School Health Association.
Baquet, Georges; Ridgers, Nicola D; Blaes, Aurélie; Aucouturier, Julien; Van Praagh, Emmanuel; Berthoin, Serge
The school environment influences children's opportunities for physical activity participation. The aim of the present study was to assess objectively measured school recess physical activity in children from high and low socioeconomic backgrounds. Four hundred and seven children (6-11 years old) from 4 primary schools located in high socioeconomic status (high-SES) and low socioeconomic status (low-SES) areas participated in the study. Children's physical activity was measured using accelerometry during morning and afternoon recess during a 4-day school week. The percentage of time spent in light, moderate, vigorous, very high and in moderate- to very high-intensity physical activity were calculated using age-dependent cut-points. Sedentary time was defined as 100 counts per minute. Boys were significantly (p active than girls. No difference in sedentary time between socioeconomic backgrounds was observed. The low-SES group spent significantly more time in light (p physical activity compared to the high-SES group. High-SES boys and girls spent significantly more time in moderate (p physical activity than low-SES boys. Differences were observed in recess physical activity levels according to socioeconomic background and sex. These results indicate that recess interventions should target children in low-SES schools.
Wegman, Fred; Allsop, Richard; Antoniou, Constantinos; Bergel-Hayat, Ruth; Elvik, Rune; Lassarre, Sylvain; Lloyd, Daryl; Wijnen, Wim
This paper presents analyses of how the economic recession that started in 2008 has influenced the number of traffic fatalities in OECD countries. Previous studies of the relationship between economic recessions and changes in the number of traffic fatalities are reviewed. Based on these studies, a causal diagram of the relationship between changes of the business cycle and changes in the number of traffic fatalities is proposed. This causal model is tested empirically by means of multivariate analyses and analyses of accident statistics for Great Britain and Sweden. Economic recession, as indicated both by slower growth of, or decline of gross national product, and by increased unemployment is associated with an accelerated decline in the number of traffic fatalities, i.e. a larger decline than the long-term trend that is normal in OECD countries. The principal mechanisms bringing this about are a disproportionate reduction of driving among high-risk drivers, in particular young drivers and a reduction of fatality rate per kilometre of travel, probably attributable to changes in road user behaviour that are only partly observable. The total number of vehicle kilometres of travel did not change very much as a result of the recession. The paper is based on an ITF-report that presents the analyses in greater detail. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stellino, Megan Babkes; Sinclair, Christina D
This study explored the relationship between children's basic psychological needs satisfaction at recess, level of recess physical activity motivation (RPAM), and recess physical activity (RPA). Fifth-grade children (N = 203; 50.2% boys; 71.7% healthy-weight) completed measures of age, gender, basic psychological need satisfaction, and level of self-determined motivation for RPA. Children also wore pedometers during six consecutive 30-min mid-school-day recesses. Multiple regression analyses indicated unique significant predictors of RPAM and RPA according to gender and weight status. RPAM was significantly predicted by all three basic psychological needs for boys and only competence need satisfaction for girls and healthy-weight children. RPA was predicted by RPAM for girls, competence need satisfaction for overweight children, and autonomy need satisfaction for boys and healthy-weight children. Findings support self-determination theory and provide important insight into the variations in psychological predictors of motivation for RPA and actual physical activity behavior based on gender and weight status.
Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Schipperijn, Jasper; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine
and place experiences; lack of play facilities; outdoor play policy; use of electronic devices; recess duration; organised activities; and weather. These factors were located within different layers of the socio-ecological model, but were interdependent. The findings speak for implementing a combination...
Chung, H.; Bekker, S.; Houwing, H.
This article examines how the recent global recession, together with the general flexibilization of labour markets, is affecting young people. We examine different forms of social exclusion, including unemployment, temporary employment contracts and periods of inactivity, as well as the subjective
Avrahami, L.; Maas, S.; Pasmanik-Chor, M.; Rainshtein, L.; Magal, N.; Smitt, J. H. S.; van Marle, J.; Shohat, M.; Basel-Vanagaite, L.
Autosomal recessive ichthyosis with hypotrichosis (ARIH) syndrome, which is characterized by congenital ichthyosis, abnormal hair and corneal involvement, has recently been shown in one consanguineous Israeli Arab family to be caused by a mutation in the ST14 gene, which encodes serine protease
Full Text Available In the period 2008–2010, the labour market of the European Union was significantly affected by the economic recession, which impacted economic development in all regions of the Czech Republic including the South Moravian Region. Impacts of the economic recession in the labour market were primarily reflected on decline of vacant work places, an increase in job seekers, and thus an increase in the unemployment rate, as well as an increase in long-term unemployment,etc. Enterprises in the region are responding to this situation in different ways, but all have to flexibly adapt – increase or decrease – the number of employees and production as movements in the labour market have been very significant for the past four years. In 2011 and 2012, the economic recession was not discussed anymore. However, has it already finished? The analysis of movements in the labour market, especially comparison of plans and reality in enterprises during and after economic recession is the aim of the paper.
Bivens, Josh; Edwards, Kathryn Anne; Hertel-Fernandez, Alexander; Turner, Anna
It will take years for the labor market to recover from the damage induced by the recent recession. While monthly job losses almost surely peaked in 2009, the unemployment rate will likely peak in 2010 (CBO 2010a). In April, the unemployment rate reached 9.9% and the overall economic cause is simple: firms are not hiring quickly enough, as…
Duchatelet, Sabine; Ostergaard, Elsebet; Cortes, Dina
Eiken syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive skeletal dysplasia. We identified a truncation mutation in the C-terminal cytoplasmic tail of the parathyroid hormone (PTH)/PTH-related peptide (PTHrP) type 1 receptor (PTHR1) gene as the cause of this syndrome. Eiken syndrome differs from Jansen...
Andreasen, Martin Møller; Engsted, Tom; Møller, Stig Vinther
and positive regression slopes. We reproduce these coefficients in a term structure model with business cycle dependent loadings in the market price of risk. This model also predicts excess returns in the right direction during expansions and recessions, whereas the Gaussian affine term structure model...
Homar, T.; van Wijnbergen, S.
Systemic banking crises often continue into recessions with large output losses (Reinhart & Rogoff 2009a). In this paper we ask whether the way Governments intervene in the financial sector has an impact on the economy's subsequent performance. Our theoretical analysis focuses on bank incentives to
Charles E. Keegan; Collin B. Sorenson; Todd A. Morgan; Jean M. Daniels; Steven W. Hayes
Wood product prices and production fell dramatically in 2009 as a severe recession and massive decline in U.S. housing led to a global financial crisis. In 2009 and 2010, virtually every major western mill suffered curtailments and 30 large mills closed permanently. Sales value of wood and paper products in the West dropped from $49 billion in 2005 to $34 billion in...
Kim, Kyoung Tae; Wilmarth, Melissa J.; Henager, Robin
This study analyzed the debt profile of low-income households before and after the Great Recession using the 2007, 2010, and 2013 Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF). We used Heckman selection models to investigate three debt characteristics: (a) the amount of debt, (b) debt-to-income ratio, and (c) debt delinquency. Before and after the Great…
Pape, U.D.; Chaves-Ávila, R.; Pahl, J.B.; Petrella, F.; Pielinski, B.; Savall-Morera, T.
The context conditions for third sector organizations (TSOs) in Europe have significantly changed as a result of the global economic crisis, including decreasing levels of public funding and changing modes of relations with the state. The effect of economic recession, however, varies across Europe.
Rawal, N.; Periquet, M.; Lohmann, E.; Lucking, C.B.; Teive, H.; Ambrosio, G.; Raskin, S.; Lincoln, S.; Hattori, N.; Guimaraes, J.; Horstink, M.W.I.M.; Santos Bele, W. Dos; Brousolle, E.; Destee, A.; Mizuno, Y.; Farrer, M.; Deleuze, J.F.; Michele, G. de; Agid, Y.; Durr, A.; Brice, A.
The frequency of parkin mutations was evaluated in 30 families of highly diverse geographic origin with early-onset autosomal recessive parkinsonism. Twelve different mutations, six of which were new, were found in 10 families from Europe and Brazil. Patients with parkin mutations had significantly
Mets, Sarah; Tryon, Rebecca; Veach, Patricia McCarthy; Zierhut, Heather A
The development of hereditary cancer genetic testing panels has altered genetic counseling practice. Mutations within certain genes on cancer panels pose not only a cancer risk, but also a reproductive risk for autosomal recessive conditions such as Fanconi anemia, constitutional mismatch repair deficiency syndrome, and ataxia telangiectasia. This study aimed to determine if genetic counselors discuss reproductive risks for autosomal recessive conditions associated with genes included on cancer panels, and if so, under what circumstances these risks are discussed. An on-line survey was emailed through the NSGC list-serv. The survey assessed 189 cancer genetic counselors' experiences discussing reproductive risks with patients at risk to carry a mutation or variant of uncertain significance (VUS) in a gene associated with both an autosomal dominant cancer risk and an autosomal recessive syndrome. Over half (n = 82, 55 %) reported having discussed reproductive risks; the remainder (n = 66, 45 %) had not. Genetic counselors who reported discussing reproductive risks primarily did so when patients had a positive result and were of reproductive age. Reasons for not discussing these risks included when a patient had completed childbearing or when a VUS was identified. Most counselors discussed reproductive risk after obtaining results and not during the informed consent process. There is inconsistency as to if and when the discussion of reproductive risks is taking place. The wide variation in responses suggests a need to develop professional guidelines for when and how discussions of reproductive risk for autosomal recessive conditions identified through cancer panels should occur with patients.
Richard H. Mattoon
Like the economy in general, individual state economies are struggling in this recession. State governments face significant constraints in raising additional revenues. Most states are required to balance their budgets regardless of the economic environment. This article considers the role of the federal government in helping the states to manage their finances.
Chassine, T.; Bocquet, B.; Daien, V.; Avila-Fernandez, A.; Ayuso, C.; Collin, R.W.J.; Corton, M.; Hejtmancik, J.F.; Born, L.I. van den; Klevering, B.J.; Riazuddin, S.A.; Sendon, N.; Lacroux, A.; Meunier, I.; Hamel, C.P.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the refractive error in patients with autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (arRP) caused by RP1 mutations and to compare it with that of other genetic subtypes of RP. METHODS: Twenty-six individuals had arRP with RP1 mutations, 25 had autosomal dominant RP (adRP) with RP1
Charlier, Carole; Coppieters, Wouter; Rollin, Frédéric
The widespread use of elite sires by means of artificial insemination in livestock breeding leads to the frequent emergence of recessive genetic defects, which cause significant economic and animal welfare concerns. Here we show that the availability of genome-wide, high-density SNP panels, combi...
There has been limited research on how recessions (or more generally, the strength of the economy) affect drug use and the related outcome of drug selling. This is especially important, given the current economic crisis. This paper aims to use a conceptual framework, previous research, and new research to predict how the current economic crisis may be affecting youth drug selling and drug use. A conceptual framework to understand how a recession could affect youth drug selling and drug use is presented, along with a review of the literature on empirical investigations on how the strength of the economy affects these behaviours among teenagers. In addition, new analyses for young adults are presented. The conceptual framework postulates that a recession would have direct positive effects on the prevalence of youth drug selling but ambiguous direct effects on youth drug use. The conceptual framework also postulates that drug selling and drug use are inter-connected at the individual level and the aggregate level. Thus, any effect of a recession on one would likely affect the other in the same direction. The limited empirical evidence indicates that both drug selling and drug use among youth are higher when the economy is weaker. The current economic crisis will likely increase both youth drug selling and drug use relative to what they would have otherwise been. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Full Text Available Progeria is an autosomal dominant, premature aging syndrome. Six and three year old female siblings had sclcrodermatous changes over the extremities, alopecia, beaked nose, prominent veins and bird-like facies. Radiological features were consistent with features of progeria. The present case highlights rarity of progeria in siblings with a possible autosomal recessive pattern.
Slayback, D. A.; Tucker, C. J.
We report on the climatic trends associated with glacier recession in the tropical Andes from the mid-1980s to the mid-2000s. These glaciers comprise 99% of the world's tropical glaciers and occur in Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, and Venezuela. We previously reported on our comprehensive analysis of Landsat imagery of these glaciers, which indicated an overall recession of approximately 30% in glacierized area between c1987 and c2006, or a drop from ~2500 km2 to ~1800 km2 in total glacier area. In the current work, we have examined trends in temperature, cloud cover, and precipitation and compared these trends with those in glacier recession. For temperature and cloud cover, we use the MERRA reanalysis datasets (Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications) produced by the NASA Goddard's GMAO (Global Modeling and Assimilation Office), which are based on satellite observations. For precipitation, we use the GPCP (Glocal Precipitation Climatology Project) datasets, which are based on both ground and satellite observations. We find that over the glacierized zones, the only significant trends are those in temperature, which show increases of up to 0.5 degree C per decade over some glacierized areas. Trends in cloud cover and precipitation are not generally significant. We discuss these trends in relation to glacier recession trends for each of the major glacierized areas of the tropical Andes.
Weng, Hsin-Yi; Hart, Lynette A
This study investigated how the current economic recession (since December 2007) has affected dog and cat relinquishment, adoption, and euthanasia at the Anti-Cruelty Society animal shelter in Chicago, Illinois. The study compared temporal patterns of the investigated statistics before (2000-2007) the start of the current recession with the patterns after the start of the recession (2008-2010). The results showed that once the guardianship (ownership) of a nonhuman animal had been established, the recession did not greatly affect the owner's decision on relinquishment-except for the relinquishment of senior dogs, which may be associated with increased costs of care. However, an unfavorable economic environment may have reduced adoption of animals. The consequences of a decline in adoptions might be reflected in an increase in the proportion or number of sheltered animals euthanized. This study demonstrated how monitoring changes in temporal patterns in these shelter statistics can help guide animal shelters to better prepare for the current recession.
Dwarfism is a valuable trait in crop breeding, because it increases lodging resistance and decreases damages due to wind and rain. During the course of this study, a semi-dwarf mutant was successfully induced through 200 Gy gamma ray irradiated KI 237 seeds. KI 237 is a pure line with high yield potency, developed through an Indica-Japonica cross of IR36 / Koshihikari. The selected semi-dwarf plant reached 60 - 62 % of plant height of original plant KI 237 at the mature stage. The length of inter nodes, panicle, and seed were also compared between these two plants. The retardation of the 1 st (uppermost) inter nodes was 24 %, moreover, the retardation of panicle and seed length were only 10 % and 2 %, respectively. The elongation pattern of the inter nodes in this mutant was almost the same as sd1 (Dee-geo-woo-gen), the original parent of the first release modern rice variety, but their performances were different. Based on the segregation analysis in M 2 and M 3 generation it was concluded that this mutant was controlled by a single recessive mutated gene. This gene was designated as sd 237-1 . This mutant should be useful as a genetic resource for the improvement of KI 237 line through back-cross breeding as well as be developed further in breeding program directly to be a new high yielding mutant variety. (author)
Reinhard, Erica; Layte, Richard; McCrory, Cathal; Panico, Lidia; Avendano, Mauricio
Economic recessions have been linked to adult health, but few studies have examined how recessions influence the health of young children. This study examines the impact of life transitions linked to the financial crisis in Ireland on the health of young children. Data came from the Growing Up in Ireland Infant Cohort Study (n = 11,134), which assessed children before (2008), during (2011), and after (2013) the recession and incorporated questions on the impacts of the financial crisis on families. Using fixed effects models to control for confounding, we found that a reduction in welfare benefits during the recession was associated with a significant increase in the risk of asthma (β = 0.0136, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.0062, 0.0328) and atopy (β = 0.0161, 95% CI: 0.0026, 0.0297). While parental job loss was not associated with child health, a reduction in working hours was associated with increased reports of fair or poor child health (β = 0.0235, 95% CI: 0.0041, 0.0429), as were difficulties affording basics (β = 0.0193, 95% CI: 0.0005, 0.0381). Results suggest that failing to protect vulnerable families and children during economic recessions may have long-lasting implications for child health. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Aguilar-Palacio, I; Carrera-Lasfuentes, P; Sánchez-Recio, R; Alonso, J P; Rabanaque, M J
Employment status and economic recession have been associated with negative effects on self-rated health, and this effect differs by gender. We analysed the effects of the Spanish economic recession in terms of self-rated health, its differential effect among genders and its influence on gender gap. Repeated cross-sectional study using Spanish health surveys (2001-2014). Logistic regression models were conducted to explore the association between self-rated health and employment status and its evolution over time and gender. To test the impact of the economic recession, pooled data regression models were conducted. In this study, we considered 104,577 subjects. During the last 15 years, women have entered the labour market, leading to wide changes in the Spanish traditional family roles. Instead of an increasing proportion of women workers, gender employment differences persist. Therefore, in 2014, the prevalence of workers was 55.77% in men, whereas in women, it was 44.01%. Self-rated health trends during the economic recession differ by gender, with women improving slightly their self-rated health from a low self-rated health prevalence of 38.76% in 2001 to 33.78% in 2014. On the contrary, men seem more vulnerable to employment circumstances, which have led to substantial reduction in the gender gap. Although a gender gap persists, the change in socio-economic roles seems to increase women's self-rated health, reducing this gap. It is important to promote women's labour market inclusion, even in economic recession periods. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
McWhorter, B. B.; Ewing, M. E.; Bolton, D. E.; Albrechtsen, K. U.; Earnest, T. E.; Noble, T. C.; Longaker, M.
Real-time internal motor insulation char line recession measurements have been evaluated for two full-scale static tests of the Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM). These char line recession measurements were recorded on the forward facing propellant grain inhibitors to better understand the thermal performance of these inhibitors. The RSRM propellant grain inhibitors are designed to erode away during motor operation, thus making it difficult to use post-fire observations to determine inhibitor thermal performance. Therefore, this new internal motor instrumentation is invaluable in establishing an accurate understanding of inhibitor recession versus motor operation time. The data for the first test was presented at the 37th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit (AIAA 2001-3280) in July 2001. Since that time, a second full scale static test has delivered additional real-time data on inhibitor thermal performance. The evaluation of this data is presented in this paper. The second static test, in contrast to the first test, used a slightly different arrangement of instrumentation in the inhibitors. This instrumentation has yielded a better understanding of the inhibitor time dependent inboard tip recession. Graphs of inhibitor recession profiles with time are presented. Inhibitor thermal ablation models have been created from theoretical principals. The model predictions compare favorably with data from both tests. This verified modeling effort is important to support new inhibitor designs for a five segment Space Shuttle solid rocket motor. The internal instrumentation project on RSRM static tests is providing unique opportunities for other real-time internal motor measurements that could not otherwise be directly quantified.
Bahram Kheiry; Ebrahim Erfani
The performance of businesses and organizations and even their survival can be severely affected by recessions. However, all firms are not equally affected by a recession. In fact, some firms even experience better conditions in markets during recessions. Past studies and investigations about marketing in economic turbulent times and especially in proactive marketing suggest that some firms view a recession as an opportunity and develop an aggressive marketing reaction, while others cut back,...
Montecchiani, Celeste; Pedace, Lucia; Lo Giudice, Temistocle; Casella, Antonella; Mearini, Marzia; Gaudiello, Fabrizio; Pedroso, José L.; Terracciano, Chiara; Caltagirone, Carlo; Massa, Roberto; St George-Hyslop, Peter H.; Barsottini, Orlando G. P.; Kawarai, Toshitaka
Abstract Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease is a group of hereditary peripheral neuropathies that share clinical characteristics of progressive distal muscle weakness and atrophy, foot deformities, distal sensory loss, as well as diminished tendon reflexes. Hundreds of causative DNA changes have been found, but much of the genetic basis of the disease is still unexplained. Mutations in the ALS5/SPG11/ KIAA1840 gene are a frequent cause of autosomal recessive hereditary spastic paraplegia with thin corpus callosum and peripheral axonal neuropathy, and account for ∼40% of autosomal recessive juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The overlap of axonal Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease with both diseases, as well as the common autosomal recessive inheritance pattern of thin corpus callosum and axonal Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease in three related patients, prompted us to analyse the ALS5/SPG11/ KIAA1840 gene in affected individuals with autosomal recessive axonal Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease. We investigated 28 unrelated families with autosomal recessive axonal Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease defined by clinical, electrophysiological, as well as pathological evaluation. Besides, we screened for all the known genes related to axonal autosomal recessive Charcot–Marie-Tooth disease (CMT2A2/HMSN2A2/ MFN2 , CMT2B1/ LMNA , CMT2B2/ MED25 , CMT2B5/ NEFL , ARCMT2F/dHMN2B/ HSPB1 , CMT2K/ GDAP1 , CMT2P/ LRSAM1 , CMT2R/ TRIM2 , CMT2S/ IGHMBP2 , CMT2T/ HSJ1 , CMTRID/ COX6A1 , ARAN-NM/ HINT and GAN/ GAN ), for the genes related to autosomal recessive hereditary spastic paraplegia with thin corpus callosum and axonal peripheral neuropathy (SPG7/ PGN , SPG15/ ZFYVE26, SPG21/ ACP33 , SPG35/ FA2H , SPG46/ GBA2 , SPG55/ C12orf65 and SPG56/ CYP2U1 ), as well as for the causative gene of peripheral neuropathy with or without agenesis of the corpus callosum ( SLC12A6 ) . Mitochondrial disorders related to Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease type 2 were also excluded by sequencing POLG and
Montecchiani, Celeste; Pedace, Lucia; Lo Giudice, Temistocle; Casella, Antonella; Mearini, Marzia; Gaudiello, Fabrizio; Pedroso, José L; Terracciano, Chiara; Caltagirone, Carlo; Massa, Roberto; St George-Hyslop, Peter H; Barsottini, Orlando G P; Kawarai, Toshitaka; Orlacchio, Antonio
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease is a group of hereditary peripheral neuropathies that share clinical characteristics of progressive distal muscle weakness and atrophy, foot deformities, distal sensory loss, as well as diminished tendon reflexes. Hundreds of causative DNA changes have been found, but much of the genetic basis of the disease is still unexplained. Mutations in the ALS5/SPG11/KIAA1840 gene are a frequent cause of autosomal recessive hereditary spastic paraplegia with thin corpus callosum and peripheral axonal neuropathy, and account for ∼ 40% of autosomal recessive juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The overlap of axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease with both diseases, as well as the common autosomal recessive inheritance pattern of thin corpus callosum and axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease in three related patients, prompted us to analyse the ALS5/SPG11/KIAA1840 gene in affected individuals with autosomal recessive axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. We investigated 28 unrelated families with autosomal recessive axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease defined by clinical, electrophysiological, as well as pathological evaluation. Besides, we screened for all the known genes related to axonal autosomal recessive Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT2A2/HMSN2A2/MFN2, CMT2B1/LMNA, CMT2B2/MED25, CMT2B5/NEFL, ARCMT2F/dHMN2B/HSPB1, CMT2K/GDAP1, CMT2P/LRSAM1, CMT2R/TRIM2, CMT2S/IGHMBP2, CMT2T/HSJ1, CMTRID/COX6A1, ARAN-NM/HINT and GAN/GAN), for the genes related to autosomal recessive hereditary spastic paraplegia with thin corpus callosum and axonal peripheral neuropathy (SPG7/PGN, SPG15/ZFYVE26, SPG21/ACP33, SPG35/FA2H, SPG46/GBA2, SPG55/C12orf65 and SPG56/CYP2U1), as well as for the causative gene of peripheral neuropathy with or without agenesis of the corpus callosum (SLC12A6). Mitochondrial disorders related to Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2 were also excluded by sequencing POLG and TYMP genes. An additional locus for autosomal recessive Charcot
Zhu, Xun; Yang, Yanjv; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Xie, Wen; Guo, Zhaojiang; Kang, Shi; Xia, Jixing; Zhang, Youjun
Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) formulations in insects may be associated with fitness costs. A lack of costs enables resistance alleles to persist, which may contribute to the rapid development and spread of resistance in populations. To assess the fitness costs associated with Bt Cry1Ac resistance in Plutella xylostella, life tables were constructed for a near-isogenic resistant strain (NIL-R) and a susceptible strain in this study. No fitness costs associated with Cry1Ac resistance in NIL-R were detected, based on the duration of egg and larval stages, the survival of eggs and larvae, adult longevity, fecundity, net reproductive rate, gross reproduction rate, finite rate of increase and mean generation time. Based on log dose-probit lines, resistance in NIL-R is incompletely recessive and results from a single, autosomal, recessive locus; the degree of dominance was estimated to be -0.74 and -0.71 for F1 (resistant ♀ × susceptible ♂) and F1 ' (susceptible ♀ × resistant ♂) progeny respectively. Assessment of near-isogenic Cry1Ac-resistant and Cry1Ac-susceptible strains of P. xylostella indicated that resistance is not accompanied with fitness costs, and that resistance is incompletely recessive. These findings should be useful in managing the development of Bt Cry1Ac resistance. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.
Hunter, Jennifer L.; Heath, Claudia J.
This article uses a random digit dial probability sample (N = 328) to examine the relationship between credit card use behaviors and household well-being during a period of severe economic recession: The Great Recession. The ability to measure the role of credit card use during a period of recession provides unique insights to the study of credit…
D'Haese, Sara; Van Dyck, Delfien; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Cardon, Greet
This pilot study aimed at investigating the effectiveness of lowering playground density on increasing children's physical activity and decreasing sedentary time. Also the feasibility of this intervention was tested. Data were collected in September and October 2012 in three Belgian schools in 187, 9-12 year old children. During the intervention, playground density was decreased by splitting up recesses and decreasing the number of children sharing the playground. A within-subject design was used. Children wore accelerometers during the study week. Three-level (class - participant - measurement (baseline or intervention)) linear regression models were used to determine intervention effects. After the intervention week the school principals filled out a questionnaire concerning the feasibility of the intervention. The available play space was 12.18 ± 4.19 m²/child at baseline and increased to 24.24 ± 8.51 m²/child during intervention. During the intervention sedentary time decreased (-0.58 min/recess; -3.21%/recess) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (+1.04 min/recess; +5.9%/recess) increased during recess and during the entire school day (sedentary time: -3.29%/school day; moderate-to-vigorous physical activity +1.16%/school day). All principals agreed that children enjoyed the intervention; but some difficulties were reported. Lowering playground density can be an effective intervention for decreasing children's sedentary time and increasing their physical activity levels during recess; especially in least active children.
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Gingival recession progression in clinical practice as an ethiological factor of periodontal diseases, and symptoms of the disease have caused the development of various surgical procedures and techniques of the reconstruction of periodontal defects. The aim of this study was to verify efficacy of surgical procedures that include connective tissue autotransplants with periosteum and guided tissue regeneration for the treatment of gingival recession. Methods. The study included 20 teet with gingival recession, Müller class II and III. Ten teeth with gingival recession were treated with resorptive membrane and coronary guided surgical flap (GTR group. On the contralateral side 10 teeth with gingival recession were treated with connective tissue autotransplants with periosteum in combination with coronary guided surgical flap (TVT group. We measured the degree of epithelial attachment (DEA, width of subgingival curettage (WGC and vertical deepness of recession (VDR. For statistical significance we used Student's ttest. Results. The study revealed statistical significance in reducing VDR by both used treatments. Root deepness in GTR and TVT group was 63.5%, and 90%, respectively. With both surgical techniques we achieved coronary dislocation of the epithelial attachment, larger zone of gingival curettage, and better oral hygiene. Conclusion. Current surgical techniques are effective in the regeneration of deep periodontal spaces and the treatment of gingival recession. Significantly better results were achieved with the used coronary guided surgical flap than with guided tissue regeneration.
Richmond, B.; Gadd, P.; Crowell, W.
OverviewThe effects of climate change are being studied globally with coastal erosion in Arctic regions of particular concern. In support of Hilcorp Alaska's Northstar Development, short- and long-term bluff recession rates have been documented at a pipeline shore crossing located in Gwydyr Bay on the Alaskan Beaufort Sea coast. These data are presented, along with the predominant forcing mechanisms, and compared to local and regional recession rates recently published by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Arctic Bluff RecessionCoastal retreat along the northern coast of Alaska occurs at two different rates: infrequent, but rapid erosion induced by strong westerly storms, and seasonal retreat related to thawing and sediment removal under more moderate wave conditions. Variability in the rate of bluff retreat is related to a number of factors, including bluff composition (ice content and sediment type), existence of a fronting beach, and wave exposure. Measured Bluff Recession at the Northstar Pipeline Shore CrossingThe location of the Northstar Development pipeline shore crossing was chosen based on analysis of historical aerial photos acquired between 1949 and 1996. Over this 47-year period, the average annualized rate of bluff retreat in the study area ranged from 1.6 to 3.0 ft/yr. Beginning in 1996, ground-based shoreline monitoring surveys have been conducted along the bluff and ten shore-perpendicular transects at the site. The rates of bluff retreat derived from the survey data have been modest, ranging from no change to 5.8 ft/yr. The monitoring surveys indicate that waves and currents erode the bluffs by direct impact only during infrequent, but strong westerly storms that promote a short-term rise in sea level (storm surge). The more prevalent easterly storms can cause set-down, or reduction in the sea level which limits direct wave impact on the bluff, thereby decreasing the potential for wave induced erosion. Comparative StudiesRecent studies conducted
Gagliardi, Assunta; Besio, Roberta; Carnemolla, Chiara; Landi, Claudia; Armini, Alessandro; Aglan, Mona; Otaify, Ghada; Temtamy, Samia A; Forlino, Antonella; Bini, Luca; Bianchi, Laura
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a collagen-related disorder associated to dominant, recessive or X-linked transmission, mainly caused by mutations in type I collagen genes or in genes involved in type I collagen metabolism. Among the recessive forms, OI types VII, VIII, and IX are due to mutations in CRTAP, P3H1, and PPIB genes, respectively. They code for the three components of the endoplasmic reticulum complex that catalyzes 3-hydroxylation of type I collagen α1Pro986. Under-hydroxylation of this residue leads to collagen structural abnormalities and results in moderate to lethal OI phenotype, despite the exact molecular mechanisms are still not completely clear. To shed light on these recessive forms, primary fibroblasts from OI patients with mutations in CRTAP (n=3), P3H1 (n=3), PPIB (n=1) genes and from controls (n=4) were investigated by a functional proteomic approach. Cytoskeleton and nucleoskeleton asset, protein fate, and metabolism were delineated as mainly affected. While western blot experiments confirmed altered expression of lamin A/C and cofilin-1, immunofluorescence analysis using antibody against lamin A/C and phalloidin showed an aberrant organization of nucleus and cytoskeleton. This is the first report describing an altered organization of intracellular structural proteins in recessive OI and pointing them as possible novel target for OI treatment. OI is a prototype for skeletal dysplasias. It is a highly heterogeneous collagen-related disorder with dominant, recessive and X-linked transmission. There is no definitive cure for this disease, thus a better understanding of the molecular basis of its pathophysiology is expected to contribute in identifying potential targets to develop new treatments. Based on this concept, we performed a functional proteomic study to delineate affected molecular pathways in primary fibroblasts from recessive OI patients, carrying mutations in CRTAP (OI type VII), P3H1 (OI type VIII), and PPIB (OI type IX) genes
Full Text Available Introduction Root coverage supported with complete regeneration of lost periodontal tissues represents the ultimate goal of gingival recession treatment. Objective This study was designed to evaluate clinical effectiveness of platelet rich plasma gel (PRP with connective tissue graft (CTG in the treatment of gingival recession. METHOD 15 gingival recessions Miller class I or II were treated with CTG and PRP (group PRP. Connective tissue graft was harvested from the premolar region using trap door technique. After elevation of the flap, the regional bone and root surface were smeared with activated PRP gel. CTG was also irrigated with PRP gel before placement over the exposed root surface and local bone. Fixed CTG was covered with a coronally advanced flap. The same number of gingival recessions were treated with CTG in combination with the coronally advanced flap with no PRP gel (group TVT. Clinical recordings included recession depth (RD, probing depth (PD, clinical attachment level (CAL and keratinized tissue width (KT before and 1 year after mucogingival surgical treatment. Results Mean value of RD was significantly decreased from 4.93±0.86 mm to 0.60±0.37 (p<0.01 with CTG and PRP and from 4.76±0.74 mm to 0.63±0.29 mm (p<0.01 in CTG group. This difference was not statistically significant. Results of the keratinized tissue width showed significant increase from 0.88± 0.30 mm presurgery to 3.78±0.49 mm (p<0.01 six months after treatment in PRP group and from 0.90±0.34 mm to 3.15±0.41 in TVT group (p<0.01. This difference was statistically significant (p>0.05. No statistically significant differences were observed between treatment groups in CAL and PD. Conclusion Clinical results validate both procedures as effective and highly predictable surgical techniques in solving gingival recession problem. Histological evaluation may confirm advantage of PRP use related to regeneration of periodontal tissues. .
Hamza, Wahiba; Ali Pacha, Lamia; Hamadouche, Tarik; Muller, Jean; Drouot, Nathalie; Ferrat, Farida; Makri, Samira; Chaouch, Malika; Tazir, Meriem; Koenig, Michel; Benhassine, Traki
Autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxias (ARCA) are a complex group of neurodegenerative disorders with great genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity, over 30 genes/loci have been associated with more than 20 different clinical forms of ARCA. Genetic heterogeneity combined with highly variable clinical expression of the cerebellar symptoms and overlapping features complicate furthermore the etiological diagnosis of ARCA. The determination of the most frequent mutations and corresponding ataxias, as well as particular features specific to a population, are mandatory to facilitate and speed up the diagnosis process, especially when an appropriate treatment is available. We explored 166 patients (115 families) refered to the neurology units of Algiers central hospitals (Algeria) with a cerebellar ataxia phenotype segregating as an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples and mutational screening was performed by PCR and direct sequencing or by targeted genomic capture and massive parallel sequencing of 57 genes associated with inherited cerebellar ataxia phenotypes. In this work we report the clinical and molecular results obtained on a large cohort of Algerian patients (110 patients/76 families) with genetically determined autosomal recessive ataxia, representing 9 different types of ARCA and 23 different mutations, including 6 novel ones. The five most common ARCA in this cohort were Friedreich ataxia, ataxia with isolated vitamin E deficiency, ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 2, autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay and ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 1. We report here a large cohort of patients with genetically determined autosomal recessive ataxia and the first study of the genetic context of ARCA in Algeria. This study showed that in Algerian patients, the two most common types of ataxia (Friedreich ataxia and ataxia with isolated vitamin E deficiency) coexist with forms that may be
We report the development of a novel watermelon line ‘USVL-380’ [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] resistant to the zucchini yellow mosaic virus-Florida strain (ZYMV-FL). This breeding line is homozygous for the recessive eukaryotic elongation factor eIF4E allele associated with ZYMV-resis...
Jasmine L Travers
Full Text Available During the Great Recession in America, African-Americans opted to forgo healthcare more than other racial/ethnic groups. It is not understood whether disparities in forgone care returned to pre-recession levels. Understanding healthcare utilization patterns is important for informing subsequent efforts to decrease healthcare disparities. Therefore, we examined changes in racial disparities in forgone care before, during, and after the Great Recession.Data were pooled from the 2006-2013 National Health Interview Survey. Forgone medical, mental, and prescription care due to affordability were assessed among African-Americans and Whites. Time periods were classified as: pre-recession (May 2006-November 2007, early recession (December 2007-November 2008, late recession (December 2008-May 2010 and post-recession (June 2010-December 2013. Multivariable logistic regressions of race, interacted with time periods, were used to identify disparities in forgone care controlling for other demographics, health insurance coverage, and having a usual place for medical care across time periods. Adjusted Wald tests were performed to identify significant changes in disparities across time periods.The sample consisted of 110,746 adults. African-Americans were more likely to forgo medical care during the post- recession compared to Whites (OR = 1.16, CI = 1.06, 1.26; changes in foregone medical care disparities were significant in that they increased in the post-recession period compared to the pre-recession (OR = 1.17, CI = 1.08, 1.28 and OR = 0.89, CI = 0.77, 1.04, respectively, adjusted Wald Test p-value < 0.01. No changes in disparities were seen in prescription and mental forgone care.A persistent increase in forgone medical care disparities existed among African-Americans compared to Whites post-Great Recession and may be a result of outstanding issues related to healthcare access, cost, and quality. While health insurance is an important component of access
Bai, Y.; Pavan, S.N.C.; Zheng, Z.; Zappel, N.F.; Reinstadler, A.; Lotti, C.; Giovanni, de C.; Ricciardi, L.; Lindhout, P.; Visser, R.G.F.; Theres, K.; Panstruga, R.
The resistant cherry tomato (Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme) line LC-95, derived from an accession collected in Ecuador, harbors a natural allele (ol-2) that confers broad-spectrum and recessively inherited resistance to powdery mildew (Oidium neolycopersici). As both the genetic and
E. L. Dadali
Full Text Available Introduction. Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathies are genetically heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by a progressive muscle weakness, atrophy of hand and leg muscles often associated with deformations, and mild to moderate sensory loss. Axonal neuropathy with neuromyotonia (AR-ANM is one of the rarest autosomal recessive hereditary neuropathies. Materials and methods. Six (6 patients (4 men, 2 women aged 14–40 years from unrelated families with suspicion of HMSN were examined clinically, neurophysiologically and using DNA analysis. Results. Neurophysiological examination revealed motor and sensory neuropathy with neuromyotonia signs in all patients. In all cases homozygous variant of recessive mutations с.110G/C (р.Arg37Pro in the gene encoding the histidine triad nucleotide binding protein 1 (HINT1 has been revealed. Conclusion. There is the first description of the clinical and neurophysiological features of six patients with AR-ANM in Russia.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE This paper provides recent cross-national evidence of the impact of the great recession on fertility in Europe in the context of the recent decade. METHODS Using data from the Human Fertility Database (HFD, from Eurostat, and from the OECD database, we employ fixed-effects modeling to study how changes in unemployment rates have affected birth rates across Europe. RESULTS We find that countries that were hit hard by the recession show reduced fertility when compared with a continuation of recent trends, especially at younger ages. CONCLUSIONS Our results indicate a strong relationship between economic conditions and fertility. However, there is variation by region, age, and parity suggesting the importance of life course and institutional factors.
Pruchno, Rachel; Heid, Allison R; Wilson-Genderson, Maureen
Historical events and personal experiences have the potential to alter the way people age. Using a life-course model, we examined how the Economic Recession of 2008 and experienced life events affected the mental health of 3,393 older adults in New Jersey. Data collected between 2006 and 2012 revealed a significant increase in mean depressive symptoms. Multinomial logistic regression analyses indicated that people with incident depression were more likely to have lost a job, become a caregiver, experienced a major illness, or have a family member with a major illness than people with no depression. Compared with the incident depression group, those with remitted depression were less likely to report having lost a job or experienced a major illness. Modeling the effects of individual life events and the economic recession on depression enriches understanding about the association between macro socioeconomic events, life events, and the mental health of older adults.
Full Text Available Detection of recessive mutations that causes complex vertebral malformation (CVM and bovine leukocyte adhesion defi ciency (BLAD in Holstein cattle is especially required for bulls, which are used for artifi cial insemination (A.I.; these enable elimination of carriers from the A.I. programs and therefore prevent transmission of unwanted mutations to a large number of offspring. Some breeders are also interested in the identifi cation of carriers of recessive allele for red and white coat colour (Red factor. Here, we performed genetic tests for detection of mutations associated with CVM, BLAD and Red factor using methods previously reported or modifi ed methods. Analysis of Holstein bulls, which were recommended for A.I in Slovenia in the years 2007 and 2008, revealed four (10 % carriers of CVM, and two (5.4 % carriers of red gene, while all bulls were non-carriers of BLAD.
Ziaja, Wiesław; Ostafin, Krzysztof
A total of 34 new islands (each 0.5 km 2 or above) have appeared due to recession of Arctic glaciers under climate warming since the 1960s. Analysis of maps and satellite images of the Arctic coasts has been a basic method of recognizing these islands. Their origin is the final stage of a process which began in the twentieth century. They appear only on the coasts where bedrock elevations above sea level are surrounded by depressions below this level, filled (at least from the landside) with glaciers. Their recession leads to flooding of the depressions by sea water, thus creating straits which separate the new islands from the mainland. Hence, such new islands appear only in Greenland and the European Arctic. Their ecosystems accommodate to new environmental conditions. In the near future, this process will be intensified in a situation of further warming.
Full Text Available What were the socioeconomic consequences for American youth of having a parent incarcerated during the 2008 Great Recession? We analyze a nationally representative panel study of adolescents who, when interviewed during this recession, were transitioning to and through early adulthood. Young adult children who have had a father or mother imprisoned are at increased risk of experiencing socioeconomic deprivation, including inadequate access to food. We build in this article on recent research showing that postsecondary education has become especially important in determining adult outcomes, and we demonstrate that higher educational attainment reduces intergenerational effects of parental imprisonment. The salient policy implication of this article may be the important protective role of education in reducing unprecedented risks and vulnerabilities imposed by mass parental incarceration.
Méndez-Giménez, Antonio; Cecchini, José-Antonio; Fernández-Río, Javier
To analyze whether an intervention supported by free play with a self-constructed material increases the level of physical activity of students during recess. The participants were 166 children of third to sixth grade, between nine and 12 years old (average = 10.64; SS = 1.13). An experimental project was conducted with pre-test and post-test measurement, and a control group. Experimental group participants built cardboard paddles (third and fourth) and flying rings (fifth and sixth), a material they used freely for one week during recess. ActiGraph-GT3X accelerometers were used to measure physical activity. An ANOVA of repeated measures was used to find differences between groups and genders. Significant intervention effects were found in the analyzed variables: sedentary activity (F = 38.19; p estrategia a gestores y profesores para incrementar la actividad física de los niños durante el recreo.
Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Schipperijn, Jasper
Background: Many children, in particular girls, do not reach the recommended amount of daily physical activity. School recess provides an opportunity for both boys and girls to be physically active, but barriers to recess physical activity are not well understood. This study explores gender...... (53 boys) from fourth grade, with a mean age of 10.4 years. The focus groups included an open group discussion, go-along group interviews, and a gender segregated post-it note activity. A content analysis of the post-it notes was used to prioritize the children´s perceived barriers. This was verified...... barriers, there were both inter- and intra-gender differences in the children´s perceptions of these barriers. Weather was a barrier for all children, apart from the most active boys. Conflicts were perceived as a barrier particularly for those boys who played ballgames. Girls said they would like to have...
Heinrichson, Niels; Santos, Ilmar
A three-dimensional thermoelastohydrodynamic model is applied to the analysis of tilting-pad bearings with spherical pivots and equipped with deep recesses in the high-pressure regions. A potential for a 10-20% reduction in the friction loss compared to conventional plain bearing pads is documented....... Design suggestions minimizing the power loss are given for various length-to-width ratios. The tilting angle in the sliding direction is more sensitive to correct positioning of the pivot point than conventional bearing pads. Improving the performance by equipping a tilting-pad bearing with a deep recess...... therefore requires accurate analysis and design of the bearing. Similarly, a high sensitivity perpendicular to the sliding direction suggests that this method of reducing friction is more feasible when using line pivots or spring beds than when using spherical pivots for controlling the tilting angle....
McFadden, Brandon; Kamps, Debra; Heitzman-Powell, Linda
Children with ASD face enormous challenges in the area of social functioning. Research has shown that impairments in social functioning distinguish this population from both typically developing children and children with disabilities. This study incorporated several evidence-based social skills-teaching procedures (i.e., direct instruction, priming, prompting, peer-mediation, contingent reinforcement, and token economies) directly in the recess setting to increase appropriate social behaviors for four children with ASD (ages 6–8). Elements of Peer Networks and Pivotal Response Training (two types of social skills intervention packages in the literature) were included. Results showed significant increases in social communication between focus children and their peers, as well as generalization of skills to non-intervention recesses. PMID:26312064
Jiang, Y; Wang, Q P; Tamai, K; Ao, J P; Ohno, Y; Miyashita, T; Motoyama, S; Wang, D J
The dry recessed-gate GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) on AlGaN/GaN heterostructure using boron trichloride (BCl 3 ) as etching gas were fabricated and characterized. Etching with different etching power was conducted. Devices with silicon tetrachloride (SiCl 4 ) etching gas were also prepared for comparison. Field-effect mobility and interface state density were extracted from current-voltage (I-V) characteristics. GaN MOSFETs on AlGaN/GaN heterostructure with BCl 3 based dry recess achieved a high maximum electron mobility of 141.5 cm 2 V −1 s −1 and a low interface state density.
McInerney, Melissa; Mellor, Jennifer M
A number of studies report that U.S. state mortality rates, particularly for the elderly, decline during economic downturns. Further, several prior studies use microdata to show that as state unemployment rates rise, physical health improves, unhealthy behaviors decrease, and medical care use declines. We use data on elderly mortality rates and data from the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey from a time period that encompasses the start of the Great Recession. We find that elderly mortality is countercyclical during most of the 1994-2008 period. Further, as unemployment rates rise, seniors report worse mental health and are no more likely to engage in healthier behaviors. We find suggestive evidence that inpatient utilization increases perhaps because of an increased physician willingness to accept Medicare patients. Our findings suggest that either elderly individuals respond differently to recessions than do working age adults, or that the relationship between unemployment and health has changed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The quality of working life depends on the extent to which aspects of the job enable employees to satisfy important psychological needs. In this paper we describe two studies exploring the quality of working life in Croatia during the economic crisis that started in 2008. Within the first study, independent samples of employees recruited by psychology students were asked to self-report quality of their jobs on four occasions between 2008 and 2010. In the second study, we tried to replicate the findings of Study 1, using employees drawn from nationally representative samples of citizens between 2008 and 2011. Results of both studies showed that the quality of working life in Croatia deteriorated during the recession. The decline was mainly related to extrinsic job aspects such as adequate pay, fair pay, and job security. The most hardly hit by the recession were lower educated employees.
This issue of Energy Detente finds that the economic recession and very low prices for natural gas have cut US use of oil and reduced its oil-import dependency. The period 1985 through 1991 is examined by petroleum product. The 1991 decline in crude oil imports is felt to be an anomaly that will reverse itself in the short term; it was caused by the recession and the flurry of additional production during the Persian Gulf conflict. This issue also presents the following: (1) The ED Refining Netback Data Series for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of April 10, 1992; and (2) the ED Fuel Price/Tax Series for countries of the Western Hemisphere, April 1992 Edition
Hamadouche, T; Tazir-Melboucy, M; Benhassine, T
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is a hereditary neuropathy characterized by muscular atrophy and progressive sensitive alterations that affect limbs. The CMT is one of the most heterogenous diseases, clinically as well as genetically. At least twelve loci are responsible for the CMT phenotype, four of them for the autosomal recessive form. The aim of our work was to determinate the implication/exclusion of these four loci in an Algerian family by linkage analysis using microsatellites markers. We have tested the four loci on 8q13-21.1 (CMT4A), 11q23 (CMT4B), 5q23-33 (CMT4C) 8q24 (CMTAR). The haplotype reconstruction allowed us to exclude all the loci in this family, suggesting that the locus (gene) responsible for this form of CMT is localized elsewhere in the genome, thus providing an other observation of the great heterogeneity of the CMT, particularly autosomal recessive.
Full Text Available The years since the 2009 end of the Great Recession have been disastrous for many workers, particularly those with low human capital or other disadvantages. One explanation attributes this to deficient aggregate labor demand, to which marginal workers are more sensitive. A second attributes it to structural changes. Cyclical explanations imply that if aggregate labor demand is increased then many of the post-2009 patterns will revert to their pre-recession trends. Structural explanations suggest recent experience is the “new normal.” This paper reviews data since 2007 for evidence. I examine wage trends to measure the relative importance of supply and demand. I find little wage pressure before 2015, pointing to demand as the binding constraint. The most recent data show some signs of tightness, but still substantial slack.
Thijs Ploumen; Rianne Appel Meulenbroek; Jos Smeets
Purpose - In times of recession a lot of companies need to reduce costs. This also affects the budgets that are available for corporate real estate (CRE). Therefore it is important that the organization of the CRE management (CREM)-department is optimally aligned with CRE-strategy. This study provides a tool for evaluating the organization of the CREM-department when applying the CRE-strategy of cost reduction.Design/methodology/approach - The evaluation tool for alignment of the organization...
Beckman, C.; Roy, R.M.; Sproule, A.
The present study evaluates the effect of supplementing culture medium with α-tocopherol acetate on the yield of sex-linked recessive lethal mutants induced by X-irradiation in mature sperm of Drosophila. Although tocopherol treatment of males had no impact on the yield of mutations, a drastic reduction in mutation frequency was observed when irradiated males were mated to females raised and subsequently maintained on tocopherol-enriched diet. (orig./MG)
Carvalho, Ana Branca; Oliveira, Ivo; Nogueira, Fernanda
Abstract: The main purpose of this article, in the management and health, was to assess the contribution of family health and its role in local development in the context of economic recession and worsening poverty in Portugal. Material and Methods. Data were collected through the questionnaire, 1021 individuals were inquired in Portugal, with statistical treatment through inferential analysis, factorial and regression. They were asked to participate voluntarily in writing through email pa...
De Vos, Michel; Hayward, Bruce E.; Picton, Susan; Sheridan, Eamonn; Bonthron, David T.
We investigated a family with an autosomal recessive syndrome of café-au-lait patches and childhood malignancy, notably supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor. There was no cancer predisposition in heterozygotes; nor was there bowel cancer in any individual. However, autozygosity mapping indicated linkage to a region of 7p22 surrounding the PMS2 mismatch-repair gene. Sequencing of genomic PCR products initially failed to identify a PMS2 mutation. Genome searches then revealed a previo...
Rostol'tsev, K V; Burenkov, R A; Kuz'micheva, I A
Clinico-anatomic observation of autosomal-recessive renal cystic disease and congenital hepatic fibrosis at two fetuses from the same family was done. Mutation of His3124Tyr in 58 exon of PKHD1 gene in heterozygous state was found out. The same pathomorphological changes in the epithelium of cystic renal tubules and bile ducts of the liver were noted. We suggest that the autopsy research of fetuses with congenital abnormalities, detected after prenatal ultrasonic screening, has high diagnostic importance.
Elizabeth Pimentel Rosetti
Full Text Available In a previous study, we evaluated the findings related to the use of resorbable collagen membranes in humans along with DFDBA (demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft. The aim of this subsequent study was to histometrically evaluate in dogs, the healing response of gingival recessions treated with collagen membrane + DFDBA (Guided Tissue Regeneration, GTR compared to a coronally positioned flap (CPF. Two types of treatment were randomly carried out in a split-mouth study. Group 1 was considered as test (GTR: collagen membrane + DFDBA, whereas Group 2 stood for the control (only CPF. The dogs were given chemical bacterial plaque control with 0.2% chlorhexidine digluconate during a 90-day repair period. Afterwards, the animals were killed to obtain biopsies and histometric evaluation of the process of cementum and bone formation, epithelial migration and gingival level. A statistically significant difference was found between groups with a larger extension of neoformed cementum (GTR = 32.72%; CPF = 18.82%; p = 0.0004, new bone (GTR = 23.20%; CPF = 09.90%; p = 0.0401 and with a smaller area of residual gingival recession in the test group (GTR = 50.69%; CPF = 59.73%; p = 0.0055 compared to the control group. The only item assessed that showed no statistical difference was epithelial proliferation on the root surface, with means of 15.14% for the GTR group and 20.34% for the CPF group (p = 0.0890. Within the limits of this study we concluded that the treatment of gingival recession defects with GTR, associating collagen membrane with DFDBA, showed better outcomes in terms of a larger extension of neoformed cementum and bone, as well as in terms of a smaller proportion of residual recessions.
Full Text Available The 2008 and 2009 recession increased pressure on travellers to cut costs on luxury items, such as going on holiday, and this has led to a global tourism decline of 8%. This, however, was not the case in the Kruger National Park (KNP in South Africa where a sustained 1.6% accommodation unit occupancy growth was experienced. In order to sustain this growth, it is of the utmost importance to determine why people still visited the Park during this period. Thus the aim of the study was to determine why people still visited the KNP amidst the 2008 and 2009 economic recession. A total of 355 completed questionnaires were obtained at the Park during 15 December 2009 – 20 December 2009 (high season after which various analyses (including factor analysis were conducted. Six motives were identified and ‘escape’, ‘wildlife experience’ and ‘family benefits’ were rated most important. Push factors were more dominant to the extent that visitors regard taking a holiday to the Park as a necessity. It furthermore seems that visitors adapt their spending behaviour at the Park to still be able to afford the visit. This was the first time that research was conducted at a national park during a recession period and this information is important for South African National Parks, seeing as it provides a better understanding of visitors’ behaviour as well as feeling towards the Park (especially during recession, and leads to improved niche marketing and a competitive advantage. This research also provides a better understanding of visitors’ behaviour during economic downturns.
A. I. J. M. van Dijk
Full Text Available Daily streamflow data were analysed to assess which climate and terrain factors best explain streamflow response in 183 Australian catchments. Assessed descriptors of catchment response included the parameters of fitted baseflow models, and baseflow index (BFI, average quick flow and average baseflow derived by baseflow separation. The variation in response between catchments was compared with indicators of catchment climate, morphology, geology, soils and land use. Spatial coherence in the residual unexplained variation was investigated using semi-variogram techniques. A linear reservoir model (one parameter; recession coefficient produced baseflow estimates as good as those obtained using a non-linear reservoir (two parameters and for practical purposes was therefore considered an appropriate balance between simplicity and explanatory performance. About a third (27–34% of the spatial variation in recession coefficients and BFI was explained by catchment climate indicators, with another 53% of variation being spatially correlated over distances of 100–150 km, probably indicative of substrate characteristics not captured by the available soil and geology data. The shortest recession half-times occurred in the driest catchments and were attributed to intermittent occurrence of fast-draining (possibly perched groundwater. Most (70–84% of the variation in average baseflow and quick flow was explained by rainfall and climate characteristics; another 20% of variation was spatially correlated over distances of 300–700 km, possibly reflecting a combination of terrain and climate factors. It is concluded that catchment streamflow response can be predicted quite well on the basis of catchment climate alone. The prediction of baseflow recession response should be improved further if relevant substrate properties were identified and measured.
Grønskov, Karen; Dooley, Christopher M; Østergaard, Elsebet; Kelsh, Robert N; Hansen, Lars; Levesque, Mitchell P; Vilhelmsen, Kaj; Møllgård, Kjeld; Stemple, Derek L; Rosenberg, Thomas
Autosomal-recessive albinism is a hypopigmentation disorder with a broad phenotypic range. A substantial fraction of individuals with albinism remain genetically unresolved, and it has been hypothesized that more genes are to be identified. By using homozygosity mapping of an inbred Faroese family, we identified a 3.5 Mb homozygous region (10q22.2-q22.3) on chromosome 10. The region contains five protein-coding genes, and sequencing of one of these, C10orf11, revealed a nonsense mutation that segregated with the disease and showed a recessive inheritance pattern. Investigation of additional albinism-affected individuals from the Faroe Islands revealed that five out of eight unrelated affected persons had the nonsense mutation in C10orf11. Screening of a cohort of autosomal-recessive-albinism-affected individuals residing in Denmark showed a homozygous 1 bp duplication in C10orf11 in an individual originating from Lithuania. Immunohistochemistry showed localization of C10orf11 in melanoblasts and melanocytes in human fetal tissue, but no localization was seen in retinal pigment epithelial cells. Knockdown of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) homolog with the use of morpholinos resulted in substantially decreased pigmentation and a reduction of the apparent number of pigmented melanocytes. The morphant phenotype was rescued by wild-type C10orf11, but not by mutant C10orf11. In conclusion, we have identified a melanocyte-differentiation gene, C10orf11, which when mutated causes autosomal-recessive albinism in humans. Copyright © 2013 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Maitre, Bertrand; Russell, Helen; Whelan, Christopher T.
Following an unprecedented boom that attracted the label 'Celtic Tiger', since 2008 Ireland has experienced the most severe economic and labour market crisis since the foundation of the State. The rapid deterioration in the labour market, alongside stringent austerity measures, had a widespread impact. Considerable debate persists as to where the heaviest burden has fallen. Conventional measures of income poverty and inequality have a limited capacity to capture the impact of the recession. T...
Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Schipperijn, Jasper; Troelsen, Jens
Many children, in particular girls, do not reach the recommended amount of daily physical activity. School recess provides an opportunity for both boys and girls to be physically active, but barriers to recess physical activity are not well understood. This study explores gender differences in children's perceptions of barriers to recess physical activity. Based on the socio-ecological model four types of environmental barriers were distinguished: natural, social, physical and organizational environment. Data were collected through 17 focus groups (at 17 different schools) with in total 111 children (53 boys) from fourth grade, with a mean age of 10.4 years. The focus groups included an open group discussion, go-along group interviews, and a gender segregated post-it note activity. A content analysis of the post-it notes was used to rank the children's perceived barriers. This was verified by a thematic analysis of transcripts from the open discussions and go-along interviews. The most frequently identified barriers for both boys and girls were weather, conflicts, lack of space, lack of play facilities and a newly-found barrier, use of electronic devices. While boys and girls identified the same barriers, there were both inter- and intra-gender differences in the perception of these barriers. Weather was a barrier for all children, apart from the most active boys. Conflicts were perceived as a barrier particularly by those boys who played ballgames. Girls said they would like to have more secluded areas added to the school playground, even in large schoolyards where lack of space was not a barrier. This aligned with girls' requests for more "hanging-out" facilities, whereas boys primarily wanted activity promoting facilities. Based on the results from this study, we recommend promoting recess physical activity through a combination of actions, addressing barriers within the natural, social, physical and organizational environment.
Grafe, Ingo; Alexander, Stefanie; Yang, Tao; Lietman, Caressa; Homan, Erica P; Munivez, Elda; Chen, Yuqing; Jiang, Ming Ming; Bertin, Terry; Dawson, Brian; Asuncion, Franklin; Ke, Hua Zhu; Ominsky, Michael S; Lee, Brendan
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is characterized by low bone mass, poor bone quality, and fractures. Standard treatment for OI patients is limited to bisphosphonates, which only incompletely correct the bone phenotype, and seem to be less effective in adults. Sclerostin-neutralizing antibodies (Scl-Ab) have been shown to be beneficial in animal models of osteoporosis, and dominant OI resulting from mutations in the genes encoding type I collagen. However, Scl-Ab treatment has not been studied in models of recessive OI. Cartilage-associated protein (CRTAP) is involved in posttranslational type I collagen modification, and its loss of function results in recessive OI. In this study, we treated 1-week-old and 6-week-old Crtap(-/-) mice with Scl-Ab for 6 weeks (25 mg/kg, s.c., twice per week), to determine the effects on the bone phenotype in models of "pediatric" and "young adult" recessive OI. Vehicle-treated Crtap(-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice served as controls. Compared with control Crtap(-/-) mice, micro-computed tomography (μCT) analyses showed significant increases in bone volume and improved trabecular microarchitecture in Scl-Ab-treated Crtap(-/-) mice in both age cohorts, in both vertebrae and femurs. Additionally, Scl-Ab improved femoral cortical parameters in both age cohorts. Biomechanical testing showed that Scl-Ab improved parameters of whole-bone strength in Crtap(-/-) mice, with more robust effects in the week 6 to 12 cohort, but did not affect the increased bone brittleness. Additionally, Scl-Ab normalized the increased osteoclast numbers, stimulated bone formation rate (week 6 to 12 cohort only), but did not affect osteocyte density. Overall, our findings suggest that Scl-Ab treatment may be beneficial in the treatment of recessive OI caused by defects in collagen posttranslational modification. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
Papatheodorou, A.; Pappas, Nikolaos
Occupational uncertainty has a considerable effect upon consumer decisions during a recession, especially with respect to discretionary products and services such as tourism. Using Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA), the study examines the complex relations among job vulnerability, disposable income for tourism, marketing activities, and price and quality issues for Greek holiday makers returning from their vacations. The article also compares QCA with the two dominant linear methods of a...
Iqbal, Zafar; P?ttmann, Lucia; Musante, Luciana; Razzaq, Attia; Zahoor, Muhammad Yasir; Hu, Hao; Wienker, Thomas F; Garshasbi, Masoud; Fattahi, Zohreh; Gilissen, Christian; Vissers, Lisenka ELM; de Brouwer, Arjan PM; Veltman, Joris A; Pfundt, Rolph; Najmabadi, Hossein
AIMP1/p43 is a multifunctional non-catalytic component of the multisynthetase complex. The complex consists of nine catalytic and three non-catalytic proteins, which catalyze the ligation of amino acids to their cognate tRNA isoacceptors for use in protein translation. To date, two allelic variants in the AIMP1 gene have been reported as the underlying cause of autosomal recessive primary neurodegenerative disorder. Here, we present two consanguineous families from Pakistan and Iran, presenti...
Larti, Farzaneh; Kahrizi, Kimia; Musante, Luciana; Hu, Hao; Papari, Elahe; Fattahi, Zohreh; Bazazzadegan, Niloofar; Liu, Zhe; Banan, Mehdi; Garshasbi, Masoud; Wienker, Thomas F; Hilger Ropers, H; Galjart, Niels; Najmabadi, Hossein
In the context of a comprehensive research project, investigating novel autosomal recessive intellectual disability (ARID) genes, linkage analysis based on autozygosity mapping helped identify an intellectual disability locus on Chr.12q24, in an Iranian family (LOD score=3.7). Next-generation sequencing (NGS) following exon enrichment in this novel interval, detected a nonsense mutation (p.Q1010*) in the CLIP1 gene. CLIP1 encodes a member of microtubule (MT) plus-end tracking proteins, which ...
Full Text Available Structure-function implication on a novel homozygous Trp250/Gly mutation of transglutaminase-1 (TGM1 observed in a patient of autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis is invoked from a bioinformatics analysis. Structural consequences of this mutation are hypothesized in comparison to homologous enzyme human factor XIIIA accepted as valid in similar structural analysis and are projected as guidelines for future studies at an experimental level on TGM1 thus mutated.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze whether an intervention supported by free play with a self-constructed material increases the level of physical activity of students during recess. METHODS The participants were 166 children of third to sixth grade, between nine and 12 years old (average = 10.64; SS = 1.13. An experimental project was conducted with pre-test and post-test measurement, and a control group. Experimental group participants built cardboard paddles (third and fourth and flying rings (fifth and sixth, a material they used freely for one week during recess. ActiGraph-GT3X accelerometers were used to measure physical activity. An ANOVA of repeated measures was used to find differences between groups and genders. RESULTS Significant intervention effects were found in the analyzed variables: sedentary activity (F = 38.19; p < 0.01, light (F = 76.56; p < 0.01, moderate (F = 27.44; p < 0.01, vigorous (F = 61.55; p < 0.01, and moderate and vigorous (F = 68.76; p < 0.01. Significant gender differences were shown (time × group × gender for moderate (F = 6.58; p < 0.05 and vigorous (F = 5.51; p < 0.05 activity. CONCLUSIONS The self-constructed material is effective to increase the physical activity levels of children during recess; it decreases sedentary activity and light physical activity and increases the time devoted to moderate physical activity and vigorous physical activity, both in boys and in girls. The boys had an increase in vigorous physical activity and the girls in moderate physical activity. Due to its low cost, this strategy is recommended for administrators and teachers to increase the physical activity of children during recess.
Okamoto, Nana; Kohmoto, Tomohiro; Naruto, Takuya; Masuda, Kiyoshi; Komori, Takahide; Imoto, Issei
Osteopetrosis is a heritable disorder of the skeleton that is characterized by increased bone density on radiographs caused by defects in osteoclast formation and function. Mutations in >10 genes are identified as causative for this clinically and genetically heterogeneous disease in humans. We report two novel missense variations in a compound heterozygous state in the CLCN7 gene, detected through targeted exome sequencing, in a 15-year-old Japanese female with intermediate autosomal recessive osteopetrosis.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since 2008 some mortality decline is observed in several European countries including Latvia, Lithuania, and Ukraine. We hypothesized that this decline could be caused by decreased alcohol use facilitated by both economic recession and alcohol taxation. This study aimed to check this hypothesis.METHODS: Besides the abovementioned countries which suffered from the economic recession and have increased alcohol excise taxes, we considered data from the WHO-Euro mortality database for Poland which did not suffer from GDP decline and Ireland which decreased alcohol excise in 2009. Both per capita GDP growth change (from -18% in Latvia to +2% in Poland and alcohol excise change (from -20% in Ireland to +60% in Ukraine compared to 2008 rates were considered as independent variables. The outcome was percentage of real mortality decline compared to 2009 extrapolation of 2000-2008 trends, which were built using linear regression separately for major groups of death causes earlier shown to have changed in 2009. Population groups aged 30-59 were considered as those whose mortality declined most.RESULTS: Ten percent increase in alcohol excise taxes was associated with 9.4% decline in respiratory mortality from expected rate, 5.7% decline in causes of death related to nervous system, 4.9% decline in external causes of death, 4.8% decline in circulatory system deaths, 3.5% decline in infectious diseases as causes of death. Cardiovascular mortality decline was marginally associated with measurements of economic crisis (0.7% decline per 1% GDP fall.DISCUSSION: During the economic recession, the portion of all-causes mortality that has declined is most likely alcohol-related. Death causes that have mostly declined during the recession are more strongly associated with alcohol taxation than with GDP fall. Cardiovascular deaths decline related to the economic crisis could have been related to diet changes including smaller proportion of fatty and
Rees, E; Kirov, G; Walters, J T; Richards, A L; Howrigan, D; Kavanagh, D H; Pocklington, A J; Fromer, M; Ruderfer, D M; Georgieva, L; Carrera, N; Gormley, P; Palta, P; Williams, H; Dwyer, S; Johnson, J S; Roussos, P; Barker, D D; Banks, E; Milanova, V; Rose, S A; Chambert, K; Mahajan, M; Scolnick, E M; Moran, J L; Tsuang, M T; Glatt, S J; Chen, W J; Hwu, H-G; Neale, B M; Palotie, A; Sklar, P; Purcell, S M; McCarroll, S A; Holmans, P; Owen, M J; O'Donovan, M C
Genetic associations involving both rare and common alleles have been reported for schizophrenia but there have been no systematic scans for rare recessive genotypes using fully phased trio data. Here, we use exome sequencing in 604 schizophrenia proband-parent trios to investigate the role of recessive (homozygous or compound heterozygous) nonsynonymous genotypes in the disorder. The burden of recessive genotypes was not significantly increased in probands at either a genome-wide level or in any individual gene after adjustment for multiple testing. At a system level, probands had an excess of nonsynonymous compound heterozygous genotypes (minor allele frequency, MAF ⩽ 1%) in voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs; eight in probands and none in parents, P = 1.5 × 10(-)(4)). Previous findings of multiple de novo loss-of-function mutations in this gene family, particularly SCN2A, in autism and intellectual disability provide biological and genetic plausibility for this finding. Pointing further to the involvement of VGSCs in schizophrenia, we found that these genes were enriched for nonsynonymous mutations (MAF ⩽ 0.1%) in cases genotyped using an exome array, (5585 schizophrenia cases and 8103 controls), and that in the trios data, synaptic proteins interacting with VGSCs were also enriched for both compound heterozygosity (P = 0.018) and de novo mutations (P = 0.04). However, we were unable to replicate the specific association with compound heterozygosity at VGSCs in an independent sample of Taiwanese schizophrenia trios (N = 614). We conclude that recessive genotypes do not appear to make a substantial contribution to schizophrenia at a genome-wide level. Although multiple lines of evidence, including several from this study, suggest that rare mutations in VGSCs contribute to the disorder, in the absence of replication of the original findings regarding compound heterozygosity, this conclusion requires evaluation in a larger sample of trios.
McAlister, W.H.; Coe, J.D.; Whyte, M.P.
We report our detailed investigation of a 7-1/2-year-old girl with short stature, aged appearance, decreased subcutaneous fat and muscle mass, dry coarse hair, foot deformities, macroepiphyses with prominent but lax joints, and osteoporosis with recurrent fractures who is the offspring of first cousins. This constellation of abnormalities differs from previously reported cases where macroepiphyses were a prominent finding. Our patient appears, therefore, to have a new, autosomal recessively inherited, syndrome.
McAlister, W.H.; Coe, J.D.; Whyte, M.P.; Shriners Hospital for Crippled Children, St. Louis, MO
We report our detailed investigation of a 7-1/2-year-old girl with short stature, aged appearance, decreased subcutaneous fat and muscle mass, dry coarse hair, foot deformities, macroepiphyses with prominent but lax joints, and osteoporosis with recurrent fractures who is the offspring of first cousins. This constellation of abnormalities differs from previously reported cases where macroepiphyses were a prominent finding. Our patient appears, therefore, to have a new, autosomal recessively inherited, syndrome. (orig.)
Charles W. Calomiris; Joseph Mason; David Wheelock
In 1936-37, the Federal Reserve doubled the reserve requirements imposed on member banks. Ever since, the question of whether the doubling of reserve requirements increased reserve demand and produced a contraction of money and credit, and thereby helped to cause the recession of 1937-1938, has been a matter of controversy. Using microeconomic data to gauge the fundamental reserve demands of Fed member banks, we find that despite being doubled, reserve requirements were not binding on bank re...
Lafzi, Ardeshir; Abolfazli, Nader; Eskandari, Amir
Background and aims Gingival recession (GR), a common problem in periodontium, is associated with various etiologic factors. There is controversy over the role and importance of these factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the etiologic factors of GR in a group of subjects in Northwest Iran. Materials and methods In this case-control study, patients referring to a university clinic (123 patients with GR and 123 patients without GR) were evaluated. Patients were examined by an experien...
Paolino, Aubrey R; Gassmann, Aaron J
The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is among the most serious insect pests of maize in North America. One strategy used to manage this pest is transgenic maize that produces one or more crystalline (Cry) toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). To delay Bt resistance by insect pests, refuges of non-Bt maize are grown in conjunction with Bt maize. Two factors influencing the success of the refuge strategy to delay resistance are the inheritance of resistance and fitness costs, with greater delays in resistance expected when inheritance of resistance is recessive and fitness costs are present. We measured inheritance and fitness costs of resistance for two strains of western corn rootworm with field-evolved resistance to Cry3Bb1 maize. Plant-based and diet-based bioassays revealed that the inheritance of resistance was non-recessive. In a greenhouse experiment, in which larvae were reared on whole maize plants in field soil, no fitness costs of resistance were detected. In a laboratory experiment, in which larvae experienced intraspecific and interspecific competition for food, a fitness cost of delayed larval development was identified, however, no other fitness costs were found. These findings of non-recessive inheritance of resistance and minimal fitness costs, highlight the potential for the rapid evolution of resistance to Cry3Bb1 maize by western corn rootworm, and may help to improve resistance management strategies for this pest.
Aubrey R. Paolino
Full Text Available The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is among the most serious insect pests of maize in North America. One strategy used to manage this pest is transgenic maize that produces one or more crystalline (Cry toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt. To delay Bt resistance by insect pests, refuges of non-Bt maize are grown in conjunction with Bt maize. Two factors influencing the success of the refuge strategy to delay resistance are the inheritance of resistance and fitness costs, with greater delays in resistance expected when inheritance of resistance is recessive and fitness costs are present. We measured inheritance and fitness costs of resistance for two strains of western corn rootworm with field-evolved resistance to Cry3Bb1 maize. Plant-based and diet-based bioassays revealed that the inheritance of resistance was non-recessive. In a greenhouse experiment, in which larvae were reared on whole maize plants in field soil, no fitness costs of resistance were detected. In a laboratory experiment, in which larvae experienced intraspecific and interspecific competition for food, a fitness cost of delayed larval development was identified, however, no other fitness costs were found. These findings of non-recessive inheritance of resistance and minimal fitness costs, highlight the potential for the rapid evolution of resistance to Cry3Bb1 maize by western corn rootworm, and may help to improve resistance management strategies for this pest.
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic causes of autosomal recessive intellectual disabilities (AR-ID in Hamadan province of Iran. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive-analytical cross-sectional study, 25 families with more than one affected with putative autosomal recessive intellectual disability were chosen with collaboration of Welfare Organization of Hamadan province. Families were included a total of 60 patients (39 male and 21 female whose intellectual disability had been confirmed by Raven IQ test. Each family was asked for clinical examination and getting consent form. Blood sample was collected from each family. One proband from each family was tested for CGG repeat expansion in FMR1 gene, chromosomal abnormalities and inborn errors of metabolism. We also performed homozygosity mapping based on STR markers for seven known MCPH loci in families with primary microcephaly and AR-ID. Results: Five families had full mutation of Fragile X syndrome. No chromosomal abnormalities were identified. Metabolic screening revealed one family with Medium Chain Acyl CoA Dehydrogenase deficiency. None of three families with primary microcephaly and AR-ID showed linkage to any of known seven MCPH loci. Conclusion: The main causes of ID in Hamadan province were Fragile X syndrome and Autosomal Recessive Primary Microcephaly with the frequencies of 20% and 12%, respectively.
Nagae, M; Sakamoto, M; Horikawa, E
One approach to reducing occupational stress during an economic recession is to share work amongst employees. This may include reducing employees' working hours to avoid redundancies. To examine whether work-sharing influenced the psychosocial work environment and depressive symptoms encountered by Japanese employees, and to determine which psychosocial factors predict employees' mental health during an economic recession. A survey was performed in a Japanese manufacturing company at the beginning (T1) and end (T2) of a 6-month period during the 2008 economic recession using the validated Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) and Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS). Three hundred and thirty-six male employees completed the questionnaire. Twenty-four per cent of participants showed depressive symptoms at T1. Despite reductions in employees' working hours and job strain (P < 0.001), SDS scores showed no change after 6 months. Logistic regression analyses showed that low social support between the two surveys was associated with depressive symptoms at T2 after adjusting for demographic, lifestyle, workplace factors, scheduled working hours and depressive symptoms at T1. Reductions in job strain did not affect employees' depressive symptoms. Employees with low social support during the study had a significantly higher risk of having depressive symptoms. These findings indicate that social and emotional support within the workplace is important during the work-sharing period. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com
Falconi, April; Gemmill, Alison; Karasek, Deborah; Goodman, Julia; Anderson, Beth; Lee, Murray; Bellows, Benjamin; Catalano, Ralph
Epidemiological evidence indicates an elevated risk for stroke among stressed persons, in general, and among individuals who have lost their job, in particular. We, therefore, tested the hypothesis that stroke accounted for a larger fraction of deaths during the Great Recession than expected from other deaths and from trends, cycles, and other forms of autocorrelation. Based on vital statistics death data from California spanning 132 months from January 2000 through December 2010, we found support for the hypothesis. These findings appear attributable to non-Hispanic white men, who experienced a 5% increase in their monthly odds of stroke-attributable death. Total mortality in this group, however, did not increase. Findings suggest that 879 deaths among older white men shifted from other causes to stroke during the 36 months following the start of the Great Recession. We infer the Great Recession may have affected social, biologic, and behavioral risk factors that altered the life histories of older white men in ways that shifted mortality risk toward stroke. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Staff, Jeremy; Johnson, Monica Kirkpatrick; Patrick, Megan E; Schulenberg, John E
The Great Recession had substantial effects on the labor market in the United States, as elsewhere. To what extent did secondary students' employment decline during this time? Which students are leaving the labor market? Are reductions in employment concentrated in particular jobs? To answer these questions, we use data from the Monitoring the Future study, an ongoing study of secondary students in the United States. More specifically, we examine recent trends in teenage employment using 6 cohorts each of 8 th , 10 th , and 12 th graders (from 2006 to 2011, spanning before, during and after the Great Recession). Results show a gradual decline in school year employment since 2006, including the years after the official end of the recession. Employment during the school year is especially low among 8 th and 10 th graders, Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black youth, and students from disadvantaged backgrounds (based upon parental education), though the recent drop in work has varied little by population subgroups. The decline in employment is, however, concentrated among the oldest students, and working intensely (over 20 hours per week) has dropped more than working moderate hours. Students are more likely to babysit and do lawn work and less likely to hold jobs in office, clerical, and sales positions than in years past. These patterns and recent shifts in job type suggest some degree of job replacement by older workers.