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Sample records for receptor-induced stop signal

  1. Spinal 5-HT7 receptors induce phrenic motor facilitation via EPAC-mTORC1 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, D P; Springborn, S R; Mitchell, G S

    2015-09-01

    Spinal serotonin type 7 (5-HT7) receptors elicit complex effects on motor activity. Whereas 5-HT7 receptor activation gives rise to long-lasting phrenic motor facilitation (pMF), it also constrains 5-HT2 receptor-induced pMF via "cross-talk inhibition." We hypothesized that divergent cAMP-dependent signaling pathways give rise to these distinct 5-HT7 receptor actions. Specifically, we hypothesized that protein kinase A (PKA) mediates cross-talk inhibition of 5-HT2 receptor-induced pMF whereas 5-HT7 receptor-induced pMF results from exchange protein activated by cAMP (EPAC) signaling. Anesthetized, paralyzed, and ventilated rats receiving intrathecal (C4) 5-HT7 receptor agonist (AS-19) injections expressed pMF for >90 min, an effect abolished by pretreatment with a selective EPAC inhibitor (ESI-05) but not a selective PKA inhibitor (KT-5720). Furthermore, intrathecal injections of a selective EPAC activator (8-pCPT-2'-Me-cAMP) were sufficient to elicit pMF. Finally, spinal mammalian target of rapamycin complex-1 (mTORC1) inhibition via intrathecal rapamycin abolished 5-HT7 receptor- and EPAC-induced pMF, demonstrating that spinal 5-HT7 receptors elicit pMF by an EPAC-mTORC1 signaling pathway. Thus 5-HT7 receptors elicit and constrain spinal phrenic motor plasticity via distinct signaling mechanisms that diverge at cAMP (EPAC vs. PKA). Selective manipulation of these molecules may enable refined regulation of serotonin-dependent spinal motor plasticity for therapeutic advantage.

  2. Stopping Condition for Greedy Block Sparse Signal Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Yu; Xie, Ronggui; Yin, Huarui; Wang, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    For greedy block sparse recovery where the sparsity level is unknown, we derive a stopping condition to stop the iteration process. Focused on the block orthogonal matching pursuit (BOMP) algorithm, we model the energy of residual signals at each iteration from a probabilistic perspective. At the iteration when the last supporting block is detected, the resulting energy of residual signals is supposed to suffer an obvious decrease. Based on this, we stop the iteration process when the energy ...

  3. Stopping, goal-conflict, trait anxiety and frontal rhythmic power in the stop-signal task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neo, Phoebe S-H; Thurlow, Jane K; McNaughton, Neil

    2011-12-01

    The medial right frontal cortex is implicated in fast stopping of an initiated motor action in the stop-signal task (SST). To assess whether this region is also involved in the slower behavioural inhibition induced by goal conflict, we tested for effects of goal conflict (when stop and go tendencies are balanced) on low-frequency rhythms in the SST. Stop trials were divided, according to the delays at which the stop signal occurred, into short-, intermediate-, and long-delay trials. Consistent with goal-conflict processing, intermediate-delay trials were associated with greater 7-8 Hz EEG power than short- or long-delay trials at medial right frontal sites (Fz, F4, and F8). At F8, 7-8 Hz power was linked to high trait anxiety and neuroticism. A separate 4-7 Hz power increase was also seen in stop, relative to go, trials, but this was independent of delay, was maximal at the central midline site Cz, and predicted faster stopping. Together with previous data on the SST, these results suggest that the right frontal region could be involved in multiple inhibition mechanisms. We propose a hierarchical model of the control of stopping that integrates the literature on the neural control of fast motor stopping with that on slower, motive-directed behavioural inhibition.

  4. Evaluating the Effects of Traffic on Driver Stopping and Turn Signal Use at a Stop Sign: A Systematic Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebbon, Angela R.; Austin, John; Van Houten, Ron; Malenfant, Louis E.

    2007-01-01

    The current analyses of observational data found that oncoming traffic substantially affected driver stopping patterns and turn signal use at the target stop sign. The percentage of legal stops and turn signal use by drivers in the presence and absence of traffic was analyzed using a multi-element design. The results showed that legal stops were…

  5. When the brain simulates stopping: Neural activity recorded during real and imagined stop-signal tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Villar, Alberto J; Bonilla, F Mauricio; Carrillo-de-la-Peña, María T

    2016-10-01

    It has been suggested that mental rehearsal activates brain areas similar to those activated by real performance. Although inhibition is a key function of human behavior, there are no previous reports of brain activity during imagined response cancellation. We analyzed event-related potentials (ERPs) and time-frequency data associated with motor execution and inhibition during real and imagined performance of a stop-signal task. The ERPs characteristic of stop trials-that is, the stop-N2 and stop-P3-were also observed during covert performance of the task. Imagined stop (IS) trials yielded smaller stop-N2 amplitudes than did successful stop (SS) and unsuccessful stop (US) trials, but midfrontal theta power similar to that in SS trials. The stop-P3 amplitude for IS was intermediate between those observed for SS and US. The results may be explained by the absence of error-processing and correction processes during imagined performance. For go trials, real execution was associated with higher mu and beta desynchronization over motor areas, which confirms previous reports of lower motor activation during imagined execution and also with larger P3b amplitudes, probably indicating increased top-down attention to the real task. The similar patterns of activity observed for imagined and real performance suggest that imagination tasks may be useful for training inhibitory processes. Nevertheless, brain activation was generally weaker during mental rehearsal, probably as a result of the reduced engagement of top-down mechanisms and limited error processing.

  6. Stop feeling: Inhibition of emotional interference following stop-signal trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyal eKalanthroff

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Although a great deal of literature has been dedicated to the mutual links between emotion and the selective attention component of executive control, there is very little data regarding the links between emotion and the inhibitory component of executive control. In the current study we employed an emotional stop-signal task in order to examine whether emotion modulates and is modulated by inhibitory control. Results replicated previous findings showing reduced inhibitory control (longer stop-signal reaction time following negative, compared to neutral pictures. Most importantly, results show decreased emotional interference following stop-signal trials. These results show that the inhibitory control component of executive control can serve to decrease emotional effects. We suggest that inhibitory control and emotion have a two-way connection in which emotion disrupts inhibitory control and activation of inhibitory control disrupts emotion.

  7. Post-Stop-Signal Slowing: Strategies Dominate Reflexes and Implicit Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissett, Patrick G.; Logan, Gordon D.

    2012-01-01

    Control adjustments are necessary to balance competing cognitive demands. One task that is well-suited to explore control adjustments is the stop-signal paradigm, in which subjects must balance initiation and inhibition. One common adjustment in the stop-signal paradigm is post-stop-signal slowing. Existing models of sequential adjustments in the…

  8. AMPA receptor-induced local brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling mediates motor recovery after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, Andrew N; Overman, Justine J; Zhong, Sheng; Mueller, Rudolf; Lynch, Gary; Carmichael, S Thomas

    2011-03-09

    Stroke is the leading cause of adult disability. Recovery after stroke shares similar molecular and cellular properties with learning and memory. A main component of learning-induced plasticity involves signaling through AMPA receptors (AMPARs). We systematically tested the role of AMPAR function in motor recovery in a mouse model of focal stroke. AMPAR function controls functional recovery beginning 5 d after the stroke. Positive allosteric modulators of AMPARs enhance recovery of limb control when administered after a delay from the stroke. Conversely, AMPAR antagonists impair motor recovery. The contributions of AMPARs to recovery are mediated by release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in periinfarct cortex, as blocking local BDNF function in periinfarct cortex blocks AMPAR-mediated recovery and prevents the normal pattern of motor recovery. In contrast to a delayed AMPAR role in motor recovery, early administration of AMPAR agonists after stroke increases stroke damage. These findings indicate that the role of glutamate signaling through the AMPAR changes over time in stroke: early potentiation of AMPAR signaling worsens stroke damage, whereas later potentiation of the same signaling system improves functional recovery.

  9. AMPA Receptor-Induced Local Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Signaling Mediates Motor Recovery after Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Clarkson, Andrew N.; Overman, Justine J; Zhong, Sheng; Mueller, Rudolf; Lynch, Gary; Carmichael, S. Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Stroke is the leading cause of adult disability. Recovery after stroke shares similar molecular and cellular properties with learning and memory. A main component of learning-induced plasticity involves signaling through AMPA receptors (AMPARs). We systematically tested the role of AMPAR function in motor recovery in a mouse model of focal stroke. AMPAR function controls functional recovery beginning 5 d after the stroke. Positive allosteric modulators of AMPARs enhance recovery of limb contr...

  10. Desipramine inhibits histamine H1 receptor-induced Ca2+ signaling in rat hypothalamic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Ah Kang

    Full Text Available The hypothalamus in the brain is the main center for appetite control and integrates signals from adipose tissue and the gastrointestinal tract. Antidepressants are known to modulate the activities of hypothalamic neurons and affect food intake, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which antidepressants modulate hypothalamic function remain unclear. Here we have investigated how hypothalamic neurons respond to treatment with antidepressants, including desipramine and sibutramine. In primary cultured rat hypothalamic cells, desipramine markedly suppressed the elevation of intracellular Ca(2+ evoked by histamine H1 receptor activation. Desipramine also inhibited the histamine-induced Ca(2+ increase and the expression of corticotrophin-releasing hormone in hypothalamic GT1-1 cells. The effect of desipramine was not affected by pretreatment with prazosin or propranolol, excluding catecholamine reuptake activity of desipramine as an underlying mechanism. Sibutramine which is also an antidepressant but decreases food intake, had little effect on the histamine-induced Ca(2+ increase or AMP-activated protein kinase activity. Our results reveal that desipramine and sibutramine have different effects on histamine H1 receptor signaling in hypothalamic cells and suggest that distinct regulation of hypothalamic histamine signaling might underlie the differential regulation of food intake between antidepressants.

  11. Activation of NR2A receptors induces ischemic tolerance through CREB signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasaki, Yasukazu; Sasaki, Tsutomu; Yagita, Yoshiki; Okazaki, Shuhei; Sugiyama, Yukio; Oyama, Naoki; Omura-Matsuoka, Emi; Sakoda, Saburo; Kitagawa, Kazuo

    2010-08-01

    Previous exposure to a nonlethal ischemic insult protects the brain against subsequent harmful ischemia. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are a highly studied target of neuroprotection after ischemia. Recently, NMDA receptor subtypes were implicated in neuronal survival and death. We focused on the contribution of NR2A and cyclic-AMP response element (CRE)-binding protein (CREB) signaling to ischemic tolerance using primary cortical neurons. Ischemia in vitro was modeled by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). Ischemic tolerance was induced by applying 45-mins OGD 24 h before 180-mins OGD. Sublethal OGD also induced cross-tolerance against lethal glutamate and hydrogen peroxide. After sublethal OGD, expression of phosphorylated CREB and CRE transcriptional activity were significantly increased. When CRE activity was inhibited by CREB-S133A, a mutant CREB, ischemic tolerance was abolished. Inhibiting NR2A using NVP-AAM077 attenuated preconditioning-induced neuroprotection and correlated with decreased CRE activity levels. Activating NR2A using bicuculline and 4-aminopiridine induced resistance to lethal ischemia accompanied by elevated CRE activity levels, and this effect was abolished by NVP-AAM077. Elevated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) transcriptional activities were observed after sublethal OGD and administration of bicuculline and 4-aminopiridine. NR2A-containing NMDA receptors and CREB signaling have important functions in the induction of ischemic tolerance. This may provide potential novel therapeutic strategies to treat ischemic stroke.

  12. The role of stop-signal probability and expectation in proactive inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, Matthijs; Kaldewaij, Reinoud; Zandbelt, Bram B; Pas, Pascal; du Plessis, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    The subjective belief of what will happen plays an important role across many cognitive domains, including response inhibition. However, tasks that study inhibition do not distinguish between the processing of objective contextual cues indicating stop-signal probability and the subjective expectation that a stop-signal will or will not occur. Here we investigated the effects of stop-signal probability and the expectation of a stop-signal on proactive inhibition. Twenty participants performed a modified stop-signal anticipation task while being scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging. At the beginning of each trial, the stop-signal probability was indicated by a cue (0% or > 0%), and participants had to indicate whether they expected a stop-signal to occur (yes/no/don't know). Participants slowed down responding on trials with a > 0% stop-signal probability, but this proactive response slowing was even greater when they expected a stop-signal to occur. Analyses were performed in brain regions previously associated with proactive inhibition. Activation in the striatum, supplementary motor area and left dorsal premotor cortex during the cue period was increased when participants expected a stop-signal to occur. In contrast, activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus and right inferior parietal cortex activity during the stimulus-response period was related to the processing of contextual cues signalling objective stop-signal probability, regardless of expectation. These data show that proactive inhibition depends on both the processing of objective contextual task information and the subjective expectation of stop-signals.

  13. The evaporation signal from [alpha] particles stopped in superfluid helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandler, S.R.; Enss, C.; Goldhaber, G.; Lanou, R.E.; Maris, H.J.; More, T.; Porter, F.S.; Seidel, G.M. (Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States))

    1993-11-01

    Alpha particles stopped in a 3 liter volume of liquid helium at 30 mK are observed by the calorimetric detection of helium atoms evaporated from the free surface of the liquid. Quantum evaporation of the helium is produced by the rotons that are created by the [alpha] particle. While the energy spectrum of the 5.5 MeV [alpha]'s from the [sup 241]Am source has a width of less than 0.5%, the energy distribution of the observed evaporation signals extends from the low energy threshold of several keV up to a maximum of several 100 keV, depending on geometrical factors and the collection area of the calorimeter. The origin of the observed distribution may result in part from the presence of the substrate and a dependence on the direction of the track of the [alpha] particle. A simple model of the generation of rotons by the [alpha] particle will be discussed.

  14. 78 FR 13747 - Safety Advisory 2013-01; Passing Stop Signals Protecting Movable Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Safety Advisory 2013-01; Passing Stop Signals Protecting Movable Bridges... secured before permitting a train to pass a signal that is displaying a stop indication and protecting a... Corporation mixed freight train with two locomotives and 82 freight cars, including 51 hazardous materials...

  15. Study of RPV stop signals in paired dijet signatures

    CERN Document Server

    Venckauskaite, Monika

    2016-01-01

    In supersymmetry models squark is the superpartner of the top quark and stop is usually the lightest squark. Trigger Level Analysis (TLA) is a type of analysis that is performed using information from the trigger level which allows for higher event recording rate. TLA is needed, because all events coming from resonances with low masses cannot be recorded due to the large backgrounds. The goal of this project was to determine whether it is possible to use TLA for identifying stop pair production with four-jet final state. We investigated the possibility of separating all of the four jets at the trigger level. Three different cases with stop masses of 80 GeV, 150 GeV and 200 GeV were examined. We found that only a small fraction of generated events (less than 1% for each mass) can be identified as having four jets. Therefore, we need to investigate the scenario where the products of the stop decay merge into one jet because of the Lorentz boost.

  16. Using stop signals to reduce impulsive choices for palatable unhealthy foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veling, Harm; Aarts, Henk; Stroebe, Wolfgang

    2013-05-01

    Exposure to palatable foods in the environment can trigger impulsive reactions to obtain them, which may lead to unhealthy food choices and eating behaviour. Two studies tested the fundamental question whether impulsive unhealthy food choices can be altered by means of linking unhealthy palatable foods to behavioural stop signals. Study 1 adopted a 2 (signal condition: stop signal vs. control) by 2 (appetite: low vs. high) between-subjects design. Study 2 adopted a 2 (signal condition: stop signal vs. control) between-subjects design with frequency to consume unhealthy palatable foods as a continuous factor. Participants performed a task in which behavioural stop signals were either consistently (or not) presented in close temporal proximity to unhealthy palatable snack foods. Next, participants were given the opportunity to select snacks that they would like to consume. Two studies showed that participants were less likely to select unhealthy palatable foods that had been presented near stop signals, and that they selected healthy foods instead. Importantly, this reduction in choices for palatable foods was especially observed when participants' appetite was relatively high (Study 1), or when this food was part of their habit to frequently consume this food (Study 2). These findings show that a short stop signal intervention in which palatable foods are presented in close temporal proximity of stop signals can reduce palatable food choices by modifying an impulsive determinant of eating behaviour. What is already known on this subject? Exposure to unhealthy palatable foods in the environment can lead to impulsive food choices. People's habits towards unhealthy palatable foods and their current state of appetite are important determinants of such impulsive food choices. This impulsive behaviour is hard to change. What this study add? Linking unhealthy palatable foods to behavioural stop signals reduces choices for these foods, and increases healthy food choices

  17. The control of deliberate waiting strategies in a stop-signal task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.P. Sylwan

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available To inhibit an ongoing flow of thoughts or actions has been largely considered to be a crucial executive function, and the stop-signal paradigm makes inhibitory control measurable. Stop-signal tasks usually combine two concurrent tasks, i.e., manual responses to a primary task (go-task are occasionally countermanded by a stimulus which signals participants to inhibit their response in that trial (stop-task. Participants are always instructed not to wait for the stop-signal, since waiting strategies cause the response times to be unstable, invalidating the data. The aim of the present study was to experimentally control the strategies of waiting deliberately for the stop-signal in a stop-task by means of an algorithm that measured the variation in the reaction times to go-stimuli on-line, and displayed a warning legend urging participants to be faster when their reaction times were more than two standard deviations of the mean. Thirty-four university students performed a stop-task with go- and stop-stimuli, both of which were delivered in the visual modality and were lateralized within the visual field. The participants were divided into two groups (group A, without the algorithm, vs group B, with the algorithm. Group B exhibited lower variability of reaction times to go-stimuli, whereas no significant between-group differences were found in any of the measures of inhibitory control, showing that the algorithm succeeded in controlling the deliberate waiting strategies. Differences between deliberate and unintentional waiting strategies, and anxiety as a probable factor responsible for individual differences in deliberate waiting behavior, are discussed.

  18. Empirical Analysis and Modeling of Stop-Line Crossing Time and Speed at Signalized Intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Keshuang; Wang, Fen; Yao, Jiarong; Sun, Jian

    2016-01-01

    In China, a flashing green (FG) indication of 3 s followed by a yellow (Y) indication of 3 s is commonly applied to end the green phase at signalized intersections. Stop-line crossing behavior of drivers during such a phase transition period significantly influences safety performance of signalized intersections. The objective of this study is thus to empirically analyze and model drivers’ stop-line crossing time and speed in response to the specific phase transition period of FG and Y. High-resolution trajectories for 1465 vehicles were collected at three rural high-speed intersections with a speed limit of 80 km/h and two urban intersections with a speed limit of 50 km/h in Shanghai. With the vehicle trajectory data, statistical analyses were performed to look into the general characteristics of stop-line crossing time and speed at the two types of intersections. A multinomial logit model and a multiple linear regression model were then developed to predict the stop-line crossing patterns and speeds respectively. It was found that the percentage of stop-line crossings during the Y interval is remarkably higher and the stop-line crossing time is approximately 0.7 s longer at the urban intersections, as compared with the rural intersections. In addition, approaching speed and distance to the stop-line at the onset of FG as well as area type significantly affect the percentages of stop-line crossings during the FG and Y intervals. Vehicle type and stop-line crossing pattern were found to significantly influence the stop-line crossing speed, in addition to the above factors. The red-light-running seems to occur more frequently at the large intersections with a long cycle length.

  19. Release the BEESTS: Bayesian Estimation of Ex-Gaussian STop-Signal Reaction Time Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora eMatzke

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The stop-signal paradigm is frequently used to study response inhibition. Inthis paradigm, participants perform a two-choice response time task wherethe primary task is occasionally interrupted by a stop-signal that promptsparticipants to withhold their response. The primary goal is to estimatethe latency of the unobservable stop response (stop signal reaction timeor SSRT. Recently, Matzke, Dolan, Logan, Brown, and Wagenmakers (inpress have developed a Bayesian parametric approach that allows for theestimation of the entire distribution of SSRTs. The Bayesian parametricapproach assumes that SSRTs are ex-Gaussian distributed and uses Markovchain Monte Carlo sampling to estimate the parameters of the SSRT distri-bution. Here we present an efficient and user-friendly software implementa-tion of the Bayesian parametric approach —BEESTS— that can be appliedto individual as well as hierarchical stop-signal data. BEESTS comes withan easy-to-use graphical user interface and provides users with summarystatistics of the posterior distribution of the parameters as well various diag-nostic tools to assess the quality of the parameter estimates. The softwareis open source and runs on Windows and OS X operating systems. In sum,BEESTS allows experimental and clinical psychologists to estimate entiredistributions of SSRTs and hence facilitates the more rigorous analysis ofstop-signal data.

  20. Somatosensory effects of action inhibition: a study with the stop-signal paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Eamonn; Haggard, Patrick

    2010-07-01

    When a weak shock is delivered to the finger immediately before a voluntary movement, or during a delay interval where subjects are prepared to make the movement, shock detection rates worsen progressively as the movement approaches. Further, we previously showed that shock detection improves again if a NoGo signal produces inhibition of a prepared response. Here, we used a somatosensory version of the stop-signal paradigm to investigate inhibitory processing during the 'horserace' period when motor excitation and inhibition processes may be simultaneously active. When subjects made a rapid keypress response to a go-signal, shock detection deteriorated in a time-dependent manner, replicating sensory suppression. However, when go-signals were followed by adaptively delayed stop-signals so that subjects could not inhibit the prepared movement, and made errors of commission, we found a paradoxical brief increase in shock detection performance just after the stop-signal, as if in a NoGo trial. During this brief window, the somatosensory system showed a pattern consistent with motor inhibition, even though the motor system itself was too far advanced in movement execution for action to be inhibited. Most models of stop-signal processing propose a two-horse race between excitation and inhibition, with a winner-takes-all solution. We show that there may be distinct motor and somatosensory races. Moreover, inhibitory processes may lead in the somatosensory race, at least briefly, even when excitatory processes win the motor race.

  1. 49 CFR 236.566 - Locomotive of each train operating in train stop, train control or cab signal territory; equipped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., train control or cab signal territory; equipped. 236.566 Section 236.566 Transportation Other... train stop, train control or cab signal territory; equipped. The locomotive from which brakes are controlled, of each train operating in automatic train stop, train control, or cab signal territory shall...

  2. α1A-adrenergic receptor induces activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 through endocytic pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Liu

    Full Text Available G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs activate mitogen-activated protein kinases through a number of distinct pathways in cells. Increasing evidence has suggested that endosomal signaling has an important role in receptor signal transduction. Here we investigated the involvement of endocytosis in α(1A-adrenergic receptor (α(1A-AR-induced activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2. Agonist-mediated endocytic traffic of α(1A-AR was assessed by real-time imaging of living, stably transfected human embryonic kidney 293A cells (HEK-293A. α(1A-AR was internalized dynamically in cells with agonist stimulation, and actin filaments regulated the initial trafficking of α(1A-AR. α(1A-AR-induced activation of ERK1/2 but not p38 MAPK was sensitive to disruption of endocytosis, as demonstrated by 4°C chilling, dynamin mutation and treatment with cytochalasin D (actin depolymerizing agent. Activation of protein kinase C (PKC and C-Raf by α(1A-AR was not affected by 4°C chilling or cytochalasin D treatment. U73122 (a phospholipase C [PLC] inhibitor and Ro 31-8220 (a PKC inhibitor inhibited α(1B-AR- but not α(1A-AR-induced ERK1/2 activation. These data suggest that the endocytic pathway is involved in α(1A-AR-induced ERK1/2 activation, which is independent of G(q/PLC/PKC signaling.

  3. TRPC3 amplifies B-cell receptor-induced ERK signalling via protein kinase D-dependent Rap1 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numaga-Tomita, Takuro; Nishida, Motohiro; Putney, James W; Mori, Yasuo

    2016-01-15

    Sustained activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) has an important role in the decision regarding the cell fate of B-lymphocytes. Recently, we demonstrated that the diacylglycerol-activated non-selective cation channel canonical transient receptor potential 3 (TRPC3) is required for the sustained ERK activation induced by the B-cell receptor. However, the signalling mechanism underlying TRPC3-mediated ERK activation remains elusive. In the present study, we have shown that TRPC3 mediates Ca(2+) influx to sustain activation of protein kinase D (PKD) in a protein kinase C-dependent manner in DT40 B-lymphocytes. The later phase of ERK activation depends on the small G-protein Rap1, known as a downstream target of PKD, whereas the earlier phase of ERK activation depends on the Ras protein. It is of interest that sustained ERK phosphorylation is required for the full induction of the immediate early gene Egr-1 (early growth response 1). These results suggest that TRPC3 reorganizes the BCR signalling complex by switching the subtype of small G-proteins to sustain ERK activation in B-lymphocytes.

  4. MTMR3 risk allele enhances innate receptor-induced signaling and cytokines by decreasing autophagy and increasing caspase-1 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, Amit; Hedl, Matija; Abraham, Clara

    2015-08-18

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by dysregulated host:microbial interactions and cytokine production. Host pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are critical in regulating these interactions. Multiple genetic loci are associated with IBD, but altered functions for most, including in the rs713875 MTMR3/HORMAD2/LIF/OSM region, are unknown. We identified a previously undefined role for myotubularin-related protein 3 (MTMR3) in amplifying PRR-induced cytokine secretion in human macrophages and defined MTMR3-initiated mechanisms contributing to this amplification. MTMR3 decreased PRR-induced phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns3P) and autophagy levels, thereby increasing PRR-induced caspase-1 activation, autocrine IL-1β secretion, NFκB signaling, and, ultimately, overall cytokine secretion. This MTMR3-mediated regulation required the N-terminal pleckstrin homology-GRAM domain and Cys413 within the phosphatase domain of MTMR3. In MTMR3-deficient macrophages, reducing the enhanced autophagy or restoring NFκB signaling rescued PRR-induced cytokines. Macrophages from rs713875 CC IBD risk carriers demonstrated increased MTMR3 expression and, in turn, decreased PRR-induced PtdIns3P and autophagy and increased PRR-induced caspase-1 activation, signaling, and cytokine secretion. Thus, the rs713875 IBD risk polymorphism increases MTMR3 expression, which modulates PRR-induced outcomes, ultimately leading to enhanced PRR-induced cytokines.

  5. MDMA Increases Excitability in the Dentate Gyrus: Role of 5HT2A Receptor Induced PGE2 Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Stuart A.; Huff, Courtney; Chiaia, Nicolas; Gudelsky, Gary A.; Yamamoto, Bryan K.

    2015-01-01

    MDMA is a widely abused psychostimulant which causes release of serotonin in various forebrain regions. Recently, we reported that MDMA increases extracellular glutamate concentrations in the dentate gyrus, via activation of 5HT2A receptors. We examined the role of prostaglandin signaling in mediating the effects of 5HT2A receptor activation on the increases in extracellular glutamate and the subsequent long-term loss of parvalbumin interneurons in the dentate gyrus caused by MDMA. Administration of MDMA into the dentate gyrus of rats increased PGE2 concentrations which was prevented by coadministration of MDL100907, a 5HT2A receptor antagonist. MDMA-induced increases in extracellular glutamate were inhibited by local administration of SC-51089, an inhibitor of the EP1 prostaglandin receptor. Systemic administration of SC-51089 during injections of MDMA prevented the decreases in parvalbumin interneurons observed 10 days later. The loss of parvalbumin immunoreactivity after MDMA exposure coincided with a decrease in paired-pulse inhibition and afterdischarge threshold in the dentate gyrus. These changes were prevented by inhibition of EP1 and 5HT2A receptors during MDMA. Additional experiments revealed an increased susceptibility to kainic acid-induced seizures in MDMA treated rats which could be prevented with SC51089 treatments during MDMA exposure. Overall, these findings suggest that 5HT2A receptors mediate MDMA-induced PGE2 signaling and subsequent increases in glutamate. This signaling mediates parvalbumin cell losses as well as physiologic changes in the dentate gyrus, suggesting that the lack of the inhibition provided by these neurons increases the excitability within the dentate gyrus of MDMA treated rats. PMID:26670377

  6. Stop signals decrease choices for palatable foods through decreased food evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veling, H.P.; Aarts, H.A.G.; Stroebe, W.

    2013-01-01

    The present study explores whether presenting specific palatable foods in close temporal proximity of stop signals in a go/no-go task decreases subsequent evaluations of such foods among participants with a relatively high appetite. Furthermore, we tested whether any decreased evaluations could medi

  7. Development of response activation and inhibition in a selective stop-signal task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Laar, M.C.; van den Wildenberg, W.P.M.; van Boxtel, G.J.M.; van der Molen, M.W.

    2014-01-01

    To gain more insight into the development of action control, the current brain potential study examined response selection, activation, and selective inhibition during choice- and stop-signal processing in three age groups (8-, 12-, and 21-year-olds). Results revealed that age groups differed in the

  8. Stop signals decrease choices for palatable foods through decreased food evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veling, H.P.; Aarts, H.A.G.; Stroebe, W.

    2013-01-01

    The present study explores whether presenting specific palatable foods in close temporal proximity of stop signals in a go/no-go task decreases subsequent evaluations of such foods among participants with a relatively high appetite. Furthermore, we tested whether any decreased evaluations could

  9. The role of stop-signal probability and expectation in proactive inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, M.; Kaldewaij, R.; Zandbelt, B.B.; Pas, P.; Plessis, S. du

    2015-01-01

    The subjective belief of what will happen plays an important role across many cognitive domains, including response inhibition. However, tasks that study inhibition do not distinguish between the processing of objective contextual cues indicating stop-signal probability and the subjective

  10. The role of stop-signal probability and expectation in proactive inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, Matthijs; Kaldewaij, Reinoud; Zandbelt, Bram B; Pas, Pascal; du Plessis, Stefan

    The subjective belief of what will happen plays an important role across many cognitive domains, including response inhibition. However, tasks that study inhibition do not distinguish between the processing of objective contextual cues indicating stop-signal probability and the subjective

  11. Influence of bus stop with left-turn lines between two adjacent signalized intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Ming-Bao; Ye, Lan-Hang; Pei, Ya-Nan

    2016-08-01

    Based on the symmetric two-lane Nagel-Schreckenberg (STNS) model, a three-lane cellular automaton model between two intersections containing a bus stop with left-turning buses is established in which model the occurrences of vehicle accidents are taken into account. The characteristics of traffic flows with different ratios of left-turn lines are discussed via the simulation experiments. The results indicate that the left-turn lines have more negative effects on capacity, accident rate as well as delay if the stop is located close to the intersections, where the negative effect in a near-side stop is more severe than that in a far-side one. The range of appropriate position for a bus stop without the bottleneck effect becomes more and more narrow with the increase of the ratio of left-turn bus lines. When the inflow is small, a short signal cycle and a reasonable offset are beneficial. When the inflow reaches or exceeds the capacity, a longer signal cycle is helpful. But if the stop position is inappropriate, the increase of cycle fails in reducing the negative effect of left-turning buses and the effectiveness of offset is weakened. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 50478088) and the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (Grant No. E2015202266).

  12. The anti-waggle dance: use of the stop signal as negative feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parry Macdonald Kietzman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Numerous activities within honey bee (Apis mellifera L. colonies rely on feedback loops for organization at the group level. Classic examples of these self-organizing behaviors occur during foraging and swarm nest site selection. The waggle dance provides positive feedback, promoting foraging at a specific location or increased scouting at a potential nest site. Rather less well known than the waggle dance, the stop signal, a short vibration often delivered while butting against a dancing bee, is currently best understood as a counter to the waggle dance, offering negative feedback towards the advertised foraging location or nest site. When the stop signal is received by a waggle dancer she is more likely to terminate her dance early and retire from the dance floor. Bees that experienced danger or overcrowding at a food source are more likely to perform the stop signal upon their return to the colony, resulting in an inhibition of foraging at that location. During a swarm’s nest site selection process, scout bees that visited a different site than the one being advertised are more likely to stop-signal the waggle dancer than are scouts that had visited the same site. Over time, the scout bees build recruitment to a single site until a quorum is reached and the swarm can move to it. The balance between the positive feedback from the waggle dance and the negative feedback from the stop signal allows for a more sensitive adjustment of response from the colony as a unit. Many of the processes associated with the feedback loops organizing a honey bee colony’s activities are in striking parallel to other systems, such as intercellular interactions involved in motor neuron function.

  13. A framework for backbone experimental tracking : Piezoelectric actuators, stop-sine signal and Kalman filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyret, Nicolas; Dion, Jean-Luc; Chevallier, Gael

    2016-10-01

    This paper deals with the use of piezoelectric patches for nonlinear dynamic identification. The patches are glued on the structure to identify amplitude-dependent damping and natural frequency; their positions are defined in order to perform the excitation concentrated on the first bending mode. Their locations on the structure allow to perform "stop sines" tests, as, unlike electrodynamic shakers, piezos are embedded on structures and do not modify the studied structure after the excitation signal is switched off. Although, despite the piezo and the stop-sine, the signal is still modulated by other frequency components or polluted by random signals, a post processing with the extended Kalman Filter allows a very good determination of the modal damping and the natural frequency, especially when they depends on the free vibration amplitude.

  14. Response Inhibition in Preschoolers at Familial Risk for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Behavioral and Electrophysiological Stop-Signal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Andrea; Alyagon, Uri; Hadaya, Hadas; Atzaba-Poria, Naama; Auerbach, Judith G.

    2013-01-01

    Children participating in the Ben-Gurion Infant Development Study were assessed with a dynamic-tracking version of the stop-signal task at the age of 5 years. The sample consisted of 60 males. Stop-signal reaction time (SSRT) was correlated with concurrent ratings of the child's attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms.…

  15. Effects of flashing green on driver’s stop/go decision at signalized intersection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈家军; 王炜

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this work is to explore how drivers react to flashing green at signalized intersections. Through video taping and data procession based on photogrammetry, the operating speeds of vehicles before and after the moment when flashing green started was compared using paired-samples T-test. The critical distances between go and stop decisions was defined through cumulative percentage curve. The boundary of dilemma zone was determined by comparing stop distance and travel distance. Amber-running violation was analyzed on the basis of the travel time to the stop line. And finally, a logistic model for stop and go decisions was constructed. The results shows that the stopping ratios of the first vehicles of west-bound and east-bound approaches are 41.3% and 39.8%, respectively; the amber-light running violation ratios of two approaches are 31.6% and 25.4%, respectively; the operating speed growth ratios of first vehicles selecting to cross intersection after the moment when flashing green started are 26.7% and 17.7%, respectively; and the critical distances are 48 m and 46 m, respectively, which are close to 44 m, the boundary of dilemma zone. The developed decision models demonstrate that the probability of go decision is higher when the distance from the stop line is shorter or operating speed is higher. This indicates that flashing green is an effective way to enhance intersection safety, but it should work together with a strict enforcement. In addition, traffic signs near critical distance and reasonable speed limitation are also beneficial to the safety of intersections.

  16. How Do Parameters of Motor Response Influence Selective Inhibition? Evidence from the Stop-Signal Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien Hui Tang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to selectively inhibit the execution of an action while performing other ones is crucial in humans' multitasking daily life. The current study aims to compare selective inhibition for choice reaction involving two effectors or response directions. We adopted a variation of the stop-signal paradigm to examine how selective inhibition is modulated by the way potential motor responses are combined and inhibited. Experiment 1 investigated selective inhibition under different combinations of effectors, namely “index and middle fingers” versus “hand and foot”. The results showed SSRT of the index finger was longer when the other response option was the foot than the middle finger. Experiment 2 examined how selective inhibition differs between selective stopping of effectors and movement directions, and that for most of the situations SSRT is longer for stopping a response based on its direction than effector. After equating complexity of response mapping between direction and effector conditions in Experiment 2, Experiment 3 still showed that SSRT differs between selecting direction or effectors. To summarize, SSRT varies depending on the way response effectors are paired and selectively stopped. Selective inhibition is thus likely not amodal and may involve different inhibitory mechanisms depending on parameters specifying the motor response.

  17. Automatic and Controlled Response Inhibition: Associative Learning in the Go/No-Go and Stop-Signal Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbruggen, Frederick; Logan, Gordon D.

    2008-01-01

    In five experiments, the authors examined the development of automatic response inhibition in the go/no-go paradigm and a modified version of the stop-signal paradigm. They hypothesized that automatic response inhibition may develop over practice when stimuli are consistently associated with stopping. All five experiments consisted of a training phase and a test phase in which the stimulus mapping was reversed for a subset of the stimuli. Consistent with the automatic-inhibition hypothesis, the authors found that responding in the test phase was slowed when the stimulus had been consistently associated with stopping in the training phase. In addition, they found that response inhibition benefited from consistent stimulus-stop associations. These findings suggest that response inhibition may rely on the retrieval of stimulus-stop associations after practice with consistent stimulus-stop mappings. Stimulus-stop mapping is typically consistent in the go/no-go paradigm, so automatic inhibition is likely to occur. However, stimulus-stop mapping is typically inconsistent in the stop-signal paradigm, so automatic inhibition is unlikely to occur. Thus, the results suggest that the two paradigms are not equivalent because they allow different kinds of response inhibition. PMID:18999358

  18. Romantic love is associated with enhanced inhibitory control in an emotional stop-signal task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sensen Song

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study explored whether romantic lovers differ in emotion-related inhibitory control capacity from those who are single. Methods: 88 healthy undergraduate college students participated in the study. Half were currently in love and in a romantic relationship (love group, LG, and half were single and had never been in a romantic relationship (single group, SG. Based on duration of romantic relationship (i.e., love duration, the LG were further divided into two subgroups: early stage love and longer periods of love. All participants completed an emotional Stop Signal Task (eSST, which consisted of a variety of human face stimuli representing sadness (a negative emotion, as well as neutral emotions. Results: Results found that relative to SG, lovers showed greater inhibitory control [shorter stop-signal reaction time (SSRT] during negative emotion condition trials. Furthermore, in early stages of love, SSRT for negative emotion condition trials was significantly shorter compared to that in longer periods of love or SG individuals, with no significant differences between the latter two groups. Conclusions: Compared with individuals who were single, early-stage lovers showed greater capacity for inhibiting action during presentation of negative emotional stimuli. Within a greater social context, greater inhibitory control capacity during early stages of love may be related to the successful formation of romantic relationships, particularly to the ability to persevere in goal-directed action despite negative emotional contexts such as that of sadness.

  19. Romantic Love Is Associated with Enhanced Inhibitory Control in an Emotional Stop-Signal Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sensen; Zou, Zhiling; Song, Hongwen; Wang, Yongming; d'Oleire Uquillas, Federico; Wang, Huijun; Chen, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored whether romantic lovers differ in emotion-related inhibitory control capacity from those who are single. Methods: 88 healthy undergraduate college students participated in the study. Half were currently in love and in a romantic relationship (love group, LG), and half were single and had never been in a romantic relationship (single group, SG). Based on duration of romantic relationship (i.e., love duration), the LG were further divided into two subgroups: "early stage love" and "longer periods of love". All participants completed an emotional Stop Signal Task, consisting of a variety of human face stimuli displaying either sad or neutral affect. Results: Results found that relative to SG, lovers showed greater inhibitory control [shorter stop-signal reaction time (SSRT)] during negative emotion condition trials. Furthermore, in early stages of love, SSRT for negative emotion condition trials was significantly shorter compared to that in "longer periods of love" or SG individuals, with no significant differences between the two latter groups. Conclusion: Compared with individuals who were single, early stage lovers showed greater capacity for inhibiting action during presentation of negative emotional stimuli. Within a greater social context, greater inhibitory control capacity during early stages of love may be related to the successful formation of romantic relationships, particularly to the ability to persevere in goal-directed action despite negative emotional contexts such as that of sadness.

  20. Women are more sensitive than men to prior trial events on the Stop-signal task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Katharine N; Congdon, Eliza; Poldrack, Russell A; Sabb, Fred W; London, Edythe D; Cannon, Tyrone D; Bilder, Robert M

    2014-05-01

    Sexual dimorphism in the brain and cognition is a topic of widespread interest. Many studies of sex differences have focused on visuospatial and verbal abilities, but few studies have investigated sex differences in executive functions. We examined two key components of executive function - response inhibition and response monitoring - in healthy men (n = 285) and women (n = 346) performing the Stop-signal task. In this task, participants are required to make a key press to a stimulus, unless a tone is presented at some delay following the initial stimulus presentation; on these infrequent trials, participants are instructed to inhibit their planned response. Response inhibition was assessed with an estimate of the latency needed to inhibit a response (stop-signal reaction time), and response monitoring was measured by calculating the degree to which participants adjusted their reaction times based on the immediately preceding trial (e.g., speeding following correct trials and slowing following errors). There were no sex differences in overall accuracy or response inhibition, but women showed greater sensitivity to trial history. Women sped up more than men following correct 'Go' trials, and slowed down more than men following errors. These small but statistically significant effects (Cohen's d = 0.25-0.3) suggest more flexible adjustments in speed-accuracy trade-offs in women and greater cognitive flexibility associated with the responsive control of action.

  1. Stop signals provide cross inhibition in collective decision-making by honeybee swarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, Thomas D; Visscher, P Kirk; Schlegel, Thomas; Hogan, Patrick M; Franks, Nigel R; Marshall, James A R

    2012-01-01

    Honeybee swarms and complex brains show many parallels in how they make decisions. In both, separate populations of units (bees or neurons) integrate noisy evidence for alternatives, and, when one population exceeds a threshold, the alternative it represents is chosen. We show that a key feature of a brain--cross inhibition between the evidence-accumulating populations--also exists in a swarm as it chooses its nesting site. Nest-site scouts send inhibitory stop signals to other scouts producing waggle dances, causing them to cease dancing, and each scout targets scouts' reporting sites other than her own. An analytic model shows that cross inhibition between populations of scout bees increases the reliability of swarm decision-making by solving the problem of deadlock over equal sites.

  2. Mood induction effects on motor sequence learning and stop signal reaction time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley, Brian; Seidler, Rachael D

    2017-01-01

    The neurobiological theory of positive affect proposes that positive mood states may benefit cognitive performance due to an increase of dopamine throughout the brain. However, the results of many positive affect studies are inconsistent; this may be due to individual differences. The relationship between dopamine and performance is not linear, but instead follows an inverted "U" shape. Given this, we hypothesized that individuals with high working memory capacity, a proxy measure for dopaminergic transmission, would not benefit from positive mood induction and in fact performance in dopamine-mediated tasks would decline. In contrast, we predicted that individuals with low working memory capacities would receive the most benefit after positive mood induction. Here, we explored the effect of positive affect on two dopamine-mediated tasks, an explicit serial reaction time sequence learning task and the stop signal task, predicting that an individual's performance is modulated not only by working memory capacity, but also on the type of mood. Improvements in explicit sequence learning from pre- to post-positive mood induction were associated with working memory capacity; performance declined in individuals with higher working memory capacities following positive mood induction, but improved in individuals with lower working memory capacities. This was not the case for negative or neutral mood induction. Moreover, there was no relationship between the change in stop signal reaction time with any of the mood inductions and individual differences in working memory capacity. These results provide partial support for the neurobiological theory of positive affect and highlight the importance of taking into account individual differences in working memory when examining the effects of positive mood induction.

  3. The effects of impulsivity and proactive inhibition on reactive inhibition and the go process: insights from vocal and manual stop signal tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Meneses, Leidy J.; Johnson, Blake W.; Sowman, Paul F.

    2015-01-01

    This study measured proactive and reactive response inhibition and their relationships with self-reported impulsivity. We examined the domains of both vocal and manual responding using a stop signal task (SST) with two stop probabilities: high and low probability stop (1/3 and 1/6 stops respectively). Our aim was to evaluate the effect stop probability would have on reactive and proactive inhibition. We tested 44 subjects and found that for the high compared to low probability stop signal condition, more proactive inhibition was evident and this was correlated with a reduction in the stop signal reaction time (SSRT). We found that reactive inhibition had a positive relationship with dysfunctional but not functional impulsivity in both vocal and manual domains of responding. These findings support the hypothesis that proactive inhibition may pre-activate the network for reactive inhibition. PMID:26500518

  4. The effects of impulsivity and proactive inhibition on reactive inhibition and the go process: insights from the stop signal task of vocal and manual responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leidy Janeth Castro-Meneses

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study measured proactive and reactive response inhibition and their relationships with self-reported impulsivity. We examined the domains of both vocal and manual responding using a stop signal task (SST with two stop probabilities: high and low probability stop (1/3 and 1/6 stops respectively. Our aim was to evaluate the effect stop probability would have on reactive and proactive inhibition. We tested 44 subjects and found that for the high compared to low probability stop signal condition, more proactive inhibition was evident and this was correlated with a reduction in the stop signal reaction time (SSRT. We found that reactive inhibition had a positive relationship with dysfunctional but not functional impulsivity in both vocal and manual domains of responding. These findings support the hypothesis that proactive inhibition may pre-activate the network for reactive inhibition.

  5. The Auditory-Evoked N2 and P3 Components in the Stop-Signal Task: Indices of Inhibition, Response-Conflict or Error-Detection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimoska, Aneta; Johnstone, Stuart J.; Barry, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    The N2 and P3 components have been separately associated with response inhibition in the stop-signal task, and more recently, the N2 has been implicated in the detection of response-conflict. To isolate response inhibition activity from early sensory processing, the present study compared processing of the stop-signal with that of a…

  6. Electrophysiological evidence for the involvement of proactive and reactive control in a rewarded stop-signal task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schevernels, Hanne; Bombeke, Klaas; Van der Borght, Liesbet; Hopf, Jens-Max; Krebs, Ruth M; Boehler, C Nicolas

    2015-11-01

    Reward availability is known to facilitate various cognitive operations, which is usually studied in cue-based paradigms that allow for enhanced preparation in reward-related trials. However, recent research using tasks that signal reward availability via task-relevant stimuli suggests that reward can also rapidly promote performance independent of global strategic preparation. Notably, this effect was also observed in a reward-related stop-signal task, in which behavioral measures of inhibition speed were found to be shorter in trials signaling reward. Corresponding fMRI results implied that this effect relies on boosted reactive control as indicated by increased activity in the 'inhibition-related network' in the reward-related condition. Here, we used EEG to better characterize transient modulations of attentional processes likely preceding this ultimate implementation of response inhibition. Importantly, such modulations would probably reflect enhanced proactive control in the form of more top-down attention to reward-related features. Counter to the notion that behavioral benefits would rely purely on reactive control, we found increased stop-evoked attentional processing (larger N1 component) on reward-related trials. This effect was accompanied by enhanced frontal P3 amplitudes reflecting successful stopping, and earlier and larger ERP differences between successful and failed stop trials in the reward-related condition. Finally, more global proactive control processes in the form of a reward context modulation of reward-unrelated trials did not have an effect on stopping performance but did influence attentional processing of go stimuli. Together, these results suggest that proactive and reactive processes can interact to bring about stimulus-specific reward benefits when the task precludes differential global preparation.

  7. Biphasic Erk1/2 activation sequentially involving Gs and Gi signaling is required in beta3-adrenergic receptor-induced primary smooth muscle cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Tarik; Barrichon, Marina; Mourtialon, Pascal; Wendremaire, Maeva; Garrido, Carmen; Sagot, Paul; Bardou, Marc; Lirussi, Frédéric

    2013-05-01

    The beta3 adrenergic receptor (B3-AR) reportedly induces cell proliferation, but the signaling pathways that were proposed, involving either Gs or Gi coupling, remain controversial. To further investigate the role of G protein coupling in B3-AR induced proliferation, we stimulated primary human myometrial smooth muscle cells with SAR150640 (B3-AR agonist) in the absence or presence of variable G-protein inhibitors. Specific B3-AR stimulation led to an Erk1/2 induced proliferation. We observed that the proliferative effects of B3-AR require two Erk1/2 activation peaks (the first after 3min, the second at 8h). Erk1/2 activation at 3min was mimicked by forskolin (adenylyl-cyclase activator), and was resistant to pertussis toxin (Gi inhibitor), suggesting a Gs protein signaling. This first signaling also required the downstream Gs signaling effectors PKA and Src. However, Erk1/2 activation at 8h turned out to be pertussis toxin-dependent, and PKA-independent, indicating a Gi signaling pathway in which Src and PI3K were required. The pharmacological inhibition of both the Gs and Gi pathway abolished B3-AR-induced proliferation. Altogether, these data indicate that B3-AR-induced proliferation depends on the biphasic activation of Erk1/2 sequentially induced by the Gs/PKA/Src and Gi/Src/PI3K signaling pathways. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Driver behaviour at rail level crossings: responses to flashing lights, traffic signals and stop signs in simulated rural driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenné, Michael G; Rudin-Brown, Christina M; Navarro, Jordan; Edquist, Jessica; Trotter, Margaret; Tomasevic, Nebojsa

    2011-05-01

    Australian road and railway authorities have made a concerted effort to reduce the number of rail level crossings, particularly the higher risk passive crossings that are protected by devices such as 'give way' or 'stop' signs. To improve this situation, passive level crossings are often upgraded with active controls such as flashing red lights. Traffic signals may provide good safety outcomes at level crossings but remain untested. The primary purpose of this research was to compare driver behaviour at two railway level crossings with active controls, flashing red lights and traffic signals, to behaviour at the current standard passive level crossing control, a stop sign. Participants drove the MUARC advanced driving simulator for 30 min. During the simulated drive, participants were exposed to three level crossing scenarios. Each scenario consisted of one of three level crossing control types, and was associated with an oncoming train. Mean vehicle speed on approach to the level crossings decreased more rapidly in response to flashing lights than to traffic signals. While speed on approach was lowest for the stop-sign condition, the number of non-compliant drivers (i.e., those who did not stop) at the crossing was highest for this condition. While results indicate that traffic signals at rail level crossings do not appear to offer any safety benefits over and above flashing red lights, further avenues of research are proposed to reach more definitive conclusions. Compliance was lowest for the passive crossing control which provides further support for the ongoing passive crossing upgrades in Australia.

  9. Neural correlates of post-error slowing during a stop signal task: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chiang-shan Ray; Huang, Cong; Yan, Peisi; Paliwal, Prashni; Constable, Robert Todd; Sinha, Rajita

    2008-06-01

    The ability to detect errors and adjust behavior accordingly is essential for maneuvering in an uncertain environment. Errors are particularly prone to occur when multiple, conflicting responses are registered in a situation that requires flexible behavioral outputs; for instance, when a go signal requires a response and a stop signal requires inhibition of the response during a stop signal task (SST). Previous studies employing the SST have provided ample evidence indicating the importance of the medial cortical brain regions in conflict/error processing. Other studies have also related these regional activations to postconflict/error behavioral adjustment. However, very few studies have directly explored the neural correlates of postconflict/error behavioral adjustment. Here we employed an SST to elicit errors in approximately half of the stop trials despite constant behavioral adjustment of the observers. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we showed that prefrontal loci including the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex are involved in post-error slowing in reaction time. These results delineate the neural circuitry specifically involved in error-associated behavioral modifications.

  10. Impaired motor inhibition in adults who stutter - evidence from speech-free stop-signal reaction time tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markett, Sebastian; Bleek, Benjamin; Reuter, Martin; Prüss, Holger; Richardt, Kirsten; Müller, Thilo; Yaruss, J Scott; Montag, Christian

    2016-10-01

    Idiopathic stuttering is a fluency disorder characterized by impairments during speech production. Deficits in the motor control circuits of the basal ganglia have been implicated in idiopathic stuttering but it is unclear how these impairments relate to the disorder. Previous work has indicated a possible deficiency in motor inhibition in children who stutter. To extend these findings to adults, we designed two experiments to probe executive motor control in people who stutter using manual reaction time tasks that do not rely on speech production. We used two versions of the stop-signal reaction time task, a measure for inhibitory motor control that has been shown to rely on the basal ganglia circuits. We show increased stop-signal reaction times in two independent samples of adults who stutter compared to age- and sex-matched control groups. Additional measures involved simple reaction time measurements and a task-switching task where no group difference was detected. Results indicate a deficiency in inhibitory motor control in people who stutter in a task that does not rely on overt speech production and cannot be explained by general deficits in executive control or speeded motor execution. This finding establishes the stop-signal reaction time as a possible target for future experimental and neuroimaging studies on fluency disorders and is a further step towards unraveling the contribution of motor control deficits to idiopathic stuttering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Closing the stop gap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czakon, Michal [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Teilchnphysik und Kosmologie; Mitov, Alexander [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom). Cavendish Lab.; Papucci, Michele [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, CA (United States). Theoretical Physics Group; California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Ruderman, Joshua T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, CA (United States). Theoretical Physics Group; California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; New York Univ., NY (United States). Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics; Weiler, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); CERN - European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). Theory Div.

    2014-07-15

    Light stops are a hallmark of the most natural realizations of weak-scale supersymmetry. While stops have been extensively searched for, there remain open gaps around and below the top mass, due to similarities of stop and top signals with current statistics. We propose a new fast-track avenue to improve light stop searches for R-parity conserving supersymmetry, by comparing top cross section measurements to the theoretical prediction. Stop masses below ∝180 GeV can now be ruled out for a light neutralino. The possibility of a stop signal contaminating the top mass measurement is also briefly addressed.

  12. PD-1 inhibits T-cell receptor induced phosphorylation of the ZAP70/CD3zeta signalosome and downstream signaling to PKCtheta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Kelly-Ann; Fitz, Lori J; Lee, Julie M; Benander, Christina; George, Judith A; Wooters, Joe; Qiu, Yongchang; Jussif, Jason M; Carter, Laura L; Wood, Clive R; Chaudhary, Divya

    2004-09-10

    Engagement of the immunoinhibitory receptor, programmed death-1 (PD-1) attenuates T-cell receptor (TCR)-mediated activation of IL-2 production and T-cell proliferation. Here, we demonstrate that PD-1 modulation of T-cell function involves inhibition of TCR-mediated phosphorylation of ZAP70 and association with CD3zeta. In addition, PD-1 signaling attenuates PKCtheta activation loop phosphorylation in a cognate TCR signal. PKCtheta has been shown to be required for T-cell IL-2 production. A phosphorylated PD-1 peptide, corresponding to the C-terminal immunoreceptor tyrosine-switch motif (ITSM), acts as a docking site in vitro for both SHP-2 and SHP-1, while the phosphorylated peptide containing the N-terminal PD-1 immunoreceptor tyrosine based inhibitory motif (ITIM) associates only with SHP-2.

  13. ALK1 signalling analysis identifies angiogenesis related genes and reveals disparity between TGF-β and constitutively active receptor induced gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafner Mathias

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background TGF-β1 is an important angiogenic factor involved in the different aspects of angiogenesis and vessel maintenance. TGF-β signalling is mediated by the TβRII/ALK5 receptor complex activating the Smad2/Smad3 pathway. In endothelial cells TGF-β utilizes a second type I receptor, ALK1, activating the Smad1/Smad5 pathway. Consequently, a perturbance of ALK1, ALK5 or TβRII activity leads to vascular defects. Mutations in ALK1 cause the vascular disorder hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT. Methods The identification of ALK1 and not ALK5 regulated genes in endothelial cells, might help to better understand the development of HHT. Therefore, the human microvascular endothelial cell line HMEC-1 was infected with a recombinant constitutively active ALK1 adenovirus, and gene expression was studied by using gene arrays and quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Results After 24 hours, 34 genes were identified to be up-regulated by ALK1 signalling. Analysing ALK1 regulated gene expression after 4 hours revealed 13 genes to be up- and 2 to be down-regulated. Several of these genes, including IL-8, ET-1, ID1, HPTPη and TEAD4 are reported to be involved in angiogenesis. Evaluation of ALK1 regulated gene expression in different human endothelial cell types was not in complete agreement. Further on, disparity between constitutively active ALK1 and TGF-β1 induced gene expression in HMEC-1 cells and primary HUVECs was observed. Conclusion Gene array analysis identified 49 genes to be regulated by ALK1 signalling and at least 14 genes are reported to be involved in angiogenesis. There was substantial agreement between the gene array and quantitative real-time PCR data. The angiogenesis related genes might be potential HHT modifier genes. In addition, the results suggest endothelial cell type specific ALK1 and TGF-β signalling.

  14. B cell antigen receptor-induced activation of an IRAK4-dependent signaling pathway revealed by a MALT1-IRAK4 double knockout mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dufner Almut

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The B cell antigen receptor (BCR and pathogen recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4, act in concert to control adaptive B cell responses. However, little is known about the signaling pathways that integrate BCR activation with intrinsic TLR4 stimulation. Antigen receptors initialize activation of the inducible transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB via recruitment of the membrane-associated guanylate kinase caspase recruitment domain protein 11 (CARD11, the adapter molecule B cell CLL/lymphoma 10 (BCL10, and the "paracaspase" mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation gene 1 (MALT1 into lipid rafts. Upon BCR triggering, this activation strictly depends on BCL10, but not on MALT1, leading to the hypothesis that a MALT1-independent NF-κB activation pathway contributes to BCR-induced NF-κB activation downstream of BCL10. The identity of this pathway has remained elusive. Results Using genetic and biochemical approaches, we demonstrate that the IRAK4- and IRAK1-dependent TLR signaling branch is activated upon BCR triggering to induce partial NF-κB activation. BCR-induced MALT1-independent IκB degradation and B cell proliferation were inhibited in MALT1/IRAK4 double knockout B cells. Moreover, IRAK1 was recruited into lipid rafts upon BCR stimulation and activated following transient recruitment of IRAK4. Conclusion We propose that the observed crosstalk between BCR and TLR signaling components may contribute to the discrimination of signals that emanate from single and dual receptor engagement to control adaptive B cell responses.

  15. The activation and differential signalling of the growth hormone receptor induced by pGH or anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibodies in primary rat hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Lan, Hainan; Liu, Huimin; Fu, Zhiling; Yang, Yanhong; Han, Weiwei; Guo, Feng; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Jingsheng; Zheng, Xin

    2013-08-25

    In this report, we have developed a panel of monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibodies to pGH by immunising BALB/c mice with a purified monoclonal anti-pGH antibody (1A3), among which one mAb, termed CG-8F, was selected for further characterisation. We found that CG-8F behaved as a typical Ab2β, not only conformationally competing with pGH for 1A3 but also exhibiting recognition for GHR in a rat hepatocyte model. We next examined the resulting signal transduction pathways triggered by this antibody in rat hepatocytes and found that both pGH and CG-8F could trigger the JAK2-STAT1/3/5-mediated signal transduction pathway. Furthermore, the phosphorylation kinetics of pSTAT1/3/5 induced by either pGH or CG-8F were remarkably similar in the dose-response and time course rat hepatocyte experiments. In contrast, only pGH, but not CG-8F, was capable of inducing ERK phosphorylation. Further experimental studies indicated that the two functional binding sites on CG-8F are required for GHR activation. This study partially reveals the mechanism of action of GH anti-idiotypic antibodies and also indicates that monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibodies represent an effective way to produce GH mimics, suggesting that it is possible to produce signal-specific cytokine agonists using an anti-idiotypic antibody approach.

  16. 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine increases excitability in the dentate gyrus: role of 5HT2A receptor-induced PGE2 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Stuart A; Huff, Courtney; Chiaia, Nicolas; Gudelsky, Gary A; Yamamoto, Bryan K

    2016-03-01

    3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a widely abused psychostimulant, which causes release of serotonin in various forebrain regions. Recently, we reported that MDMA increases extracellular glutamate concentrations in the dentate gyrus, via activation of 5HT2A receptors. We examined the role of prostaglandin signaling in mediating the effects of 5HT2A receptor activation on the increases in extracellular glutamate and the subsequent long-term loss of parvalbumin interneurons in the dentate gyrus caused by MDMA. Administration of MDMA into the dentate gyrus of rats increased PGE2 concentrations which was prevented by coadministration of MDL100907, a 5HT2A receptor antagonist. MDMA-induced increases in extracellular glutamate were inhibited by local administration of SC-51089, an inhibitor of the EP1 prostaglandin receptor. Systemic administration of SC-51089 during injections of MDMA prevented the decreases in parvalbumin interneurons observed 10 days later. The loss of parvalbumin immunoreactivity after MDMA exposure coincided with a decrease in paired-pulse inhibition and afterdischarge threshold in the dentate gyrus. These changes were prevented by inhibition of EP1 and 5HT2A receptors during MDMA. Additional experiments revealed an increased susceptibility to kainic acid-induced seizures in MDMA-treated rats, which could be prevented with SC51089 treatments during MDMA exposure. Overall, these findings suggest that 5HT2A receptors mediate MDMA-induced PGE2 signaling and subsequent increases in glutamate. This signaling mediates parvalbumin cell losses as well as physiologic changes in the dentate gyrus, suggesting that the lack of the inhibition provided by these neurons increases the excitability within the dentate gyrus of MDMA-treated rats. We hypothesized that the widely abused psychostimulant MDMA causes a loss of parvalbumin (PV) cells and increases excitability in the dentate gyrus. MDMA increases serotonin (5HT) release and activates 5HT2A

  17. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome following burns is mediated by brain natriuretic peptide/natriuretic peptide A receptor-induced shock factor 1 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yang-Cheng; Luo, Cheng-Qun; Li, Xiong

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in burn patients is mediated by the brain natriuretic peptide (BNP)/natriuretic peptide A receptor (NPRA)-induced heat shock factor 1 (HSF-1) signalling pathway. Mononuclear cells (MNCs) that were isolated from patients with burn injuries and SIRS mouse models and a RAW264.7 cell line were treated with normal serum or serum obtained from animals with burn injuries. In parallel, small hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) against BNP or NPRA were transfected in both cell types. Western blotting (WB) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to detect protein expression and inflammatory factor levels, respectively. We found that interleukin (IL)-12, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, C-reactive protein (CRP), and BNP levels were increased and IL-10 levels were decreased in the plasma and MNCs in vivo in the animal model of SIRS. Additionally, NPRA was upregulated, whereas HSF-1 was downregulated in monocytes in vivo. Treatment of RAW264.7 cells with burn serum or BNP induced IL-12, TNF-α, and CRP secretion as well as HSF-1 expression. Finally, silencing BNP with shRNA interrupted the effect of burn serum on RAW264.7 cells, and silencing NPRA blocked burn serum- and BNP-mediated changes in RAW264.7 cells. These results suggest that the interaction of NPRA with BNP secreted from circulatory MNCs as well as mononuclear macrophages leads to inflammation via HSF-1 during SIRS development following serious burn injury.

  18. It's not too late: the onset of the frontocentral P3 indexes successful response inhibition in the stop-signal paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Jan R; Aron, Adam R

    2015-04-01

    The frontocentral P3 event-related potential has been proposed as a neural marker of response inhibition. However, this association is disputed: some argue that P3 latency is too late relative to the timing of action stopping (stop-signal reaction time; SSRT) to index response inhibition. We tested whether P3 onset latency is a marker of response inhibition, and whether it coincides with the timing predicted by neurocomputational models. We measured EEG in 62 participants during the stop-signal task, and used independent component analysis and permutation statistics to measure the P3 onset in each participant. We show that P3 onset latency is shorter when stopping is successful, that it is highly correlated with SSRT, and that it coincides with the purported timing of the inhibition process (towards the end of SSRT). These results demonstrate the utility of P3 onset latency as a noninvasive, temporally precise neural marker of the response inhibition process.

  19. Stopping Hot Money or Signaling Bad Policy? Capital Controls and the Onset of Currency Crises.

    OpenAIRE

    Glick, Reuven; Hutchison, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Restrictions on international capital transactions and other payments are usually designed to limit volatile short-term capital flows (“hot money”) and stabilize the exchange rate. Their imposition, however, may have the opposite effect by inadvertently signaling the continuation of macroeconomic imbalances and inconsistent (“bad”) future policy (Bartolini and Drazen, 1997a,b). This paper investigates these alternative hypotheses by testing the impact of restrictions on international capital ...

  20. A touch screen based Stop Signal Response Task in rhesus monkeys for studying impulsivity associated with chronic cocaine self-administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shijing; Heitz, Richard P; Bradberry, Charles W

    2009-02-15

    Among a range of cognitive deficits, human cocaine addicts display increased impulsivity and decreased performance monitoring. In order to establish an animal model that can be used to study the underlying neurobiology of these deficits associated with addiction, we have developed a touch screen based Stop Signal Response Task for rhesus monkeys. This task is essentially identical to the clinically used Stop Signal Task employed for diagnostic and research purposes. In this task, impulsivity is reflected in the amount of time needed to inhibit a response after it has been initiated, the Stop Signal Response Time (SSRT). Performance monitoring is reflected by the slowing of response times following Stop trials (Post-Stop Slowing, PSS). Herein we report on the task structure, the staged methods for training animals to perform the task, and a comparison of performance values for control and cocaine experienced animals. Relative to controls, monkeys that had self-administered cocaine, followed by 18 months abstinence, displayed increased impulsivity (increased SSRT values), and decreased performance monitoring (decreased PSS values). Our results are consistent with human data, and thereby establish an ideal animal model for studying the etiology and underlying neurobiology of cocaine-induced impulse control and performance monitoring deficits.

  1. The effects of methylphenidate on cerebral responses to conflict anticipation and unsigned prediction error in a stop-signal task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manza, Peter; Hu, Sien; Ide, Jaime S; Farr, Olivia M; Zhang, Sheng; Leung, Hoi-Chung; Li, Chiang-shan R

    2016-03-01

    To adapt flexibly to a rapidly changing environment, humans must anticipate conflict and respond to surprising, unexpected events. To this end, the brain estimates upcoming conflict on the basis of prior experience and computes unsigned prediction error (UPE). Although much work implicates catecholamines in cognitive control, little is known about how pharmacological manipulation of catecholamines affects the neural processes underlying conflict anticipation and UPE computation. We addressed this issue by imaging 24 healthy young adults who received a 45 mg oral dose of methylphenidate (MPH) and 62 matched controls who did not receive MPH prior to performing the stop-signal task. We used a Bayesian Dynamic Belief Model to make trial-by-trial estimates of conflict and UPE during task performance. Replicating previous research, the control group showed anticipation-related activation in the presupplementary motor area and deactivation in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and parahippocampal gyrus, as well as UPE-related activations in the dorsal anterior cingulate, insula, and inferior parietal lobule. In group comparison, MPH increased anticipation activity in the bilateral caudate head and decreased UPE activity in each of the aforementioned regions. These findings highlight distinct effects of catecholamines on the neural mechanisms underlying conflict anticipation and UPE, signals critical to learning and adaptive behavior.

  2. Neem leaf glycoprotein prophylaxis transduces immune dependent stop signal for tumor angiogenic switch within tumor microenvironment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saptak Banerjee

    Full Text Available We have reported that prophylactic as well as therapeutic administration of neem leaf glycoprotein (NLGP induces significant restriction of solid tumor growth in mice. Here, we investigate whether the effect of such pretreatment (25µg/mice; weekly, 4 times benefits regulation of tumor angiogenesis, an obligate factor for tumor progression. We show that NLGP pretreatment results in vascular normalization in melanoma and carcinoma bearing mice along with downregulation of CD31, VEGF and VEGFR2. NLGP pretreatment facilitates profound infiltration of CD8+ T cells within tumor parenchyma, which subsequently regulates VEGF-VEGFR2 signaling in CD31+ vascular endothelial cells to prevent aberrant neovascularization. Pericyte stabilization, VEGF dependent inhibition of VEC proliferation and subsequent vascular normalization are also experienced. Studies in immune compromised mice confirmed that these vascular and intratumoral changes in angiogenic profile are dependent upon active adoptive immunity particularly those mediated by CD8+ T cells. Accumulated evidences suggest that NLGP regulated immunomodulation is active in tumor growth restriction and normalization of tumor angiogenesis as well, thereby, signifying its clinical translation.

  3. Neem Leaf Glycoprotein Prophylaxis Transduces Immune Dependent Stop Signal for Tumor Angiogenic Switch within Tumor Microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Saptak; Ghosh, Tithi; Barik, Subhasis; Das, Arnab; Ghosh, Sarbari; Bhuniya, Avishek

    2014-01-01

    We have reported that prophylactic as well as therapeutic administration of neem leaf glycoprotein (NLGP) induces significant restriction of solid tumor growth in mice. Here, we investigate whether the effect of such pretreatment (25µg/mice; weekly, 4 times) benefits regulation of tumor angiogenesis, an obligate factor for tumor progression. We show that NLGP pretreatment results in vascular normalization in melanoma and carcinoma bearing mice along with downregulation of CD31, VEGF and VEGFR2. NLGP pretreatment facilitates profound infiltration of CD8+ T cells within tumor parenchyma, which subsequently regulates VEGF-VEGFR2 signaling in CD31+ vascular endothelial cells to prevent aberrant neovascularization. Pericyte stabilization, VEGF dependent inhibition of VEC proliferation and subsequent vascular normalization are also experienced. Studies in immune compromised mice confirmed that these vascular and intratumoral changes in angiogenic profile are dependent upon active adoptive immunity particularly those mediated by CD8+ T cells. Accumulated evidences suggest that NLGP regulated immunomodulation is active in tumor growth restriction and normalization of tumor angiogenesis as well, thereby, signifying its clinical translation. PMID:25391149

  4. The role of temporal and dynamic signal components in the perception of syllable-final stop voicing by children and adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittrouer, Susan

    2004-04-01

    Adults whose native languages permit syllable-final obstruents, and show a vocalic length distinction based on the voicing of those obstruents, consistently weight vocalic duration strongly in their perceptual decisions about the voicing of final stops, at least in laboratory studies using synthetic speech. Children, on the other hand, generally disregard such signal properties in their speech perception, favoring formant transitions instead. These age-related differences led to the prediction that children learning English as a native language would weight vocalic duration less than adults, but weight syllable-final transitions more in decisions of final-consonant voicing. This study tested that prediction. In the first experiment, adults and children (eight and six years olds) labeled synthetic and natural CVC words with voiced or voiceless stops in final C position. Predictions were strictly supported for synthetic stimuli only. With natural stimuli it appeared that adults and children alike weighted syllable-offset transitions strongly in their voicing decisions. The predicted age-related difference in the weighting of vocalic duration was seen for these natural stimuli almost exclusively when syllable-final transitions signaled a voiced final stop. A second experiment with adults and children (seven and five years old) replicated these results for natural stimuli with four new sets of natural stimuli. It was concluded that acoustic properties other than vocalic duration might play more important roles in voicing decisions for final stops than commonly asserted, sometimes even taking precedence over vocalic duration.

  5. Evaluating lane-by-lane gap-out based signal control for isolated intersection under stop-line, single and multiple advance detection systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandan Keerthi Kancharla

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In isolated intersection’s actuated signal control, inductive loop detector layout plays a crucial role in providingthe vehicle information to the signal controller. Based on vehicle actuations at the detector, the green time is extended till a pre-defined threshold gap-out occurs. The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA proposed various guidelines for detec-tor layouts on low-speed and high-speed approaches. This paper proposes single and multiple advance detection schemes for low-speed traffic movements, that utilizes vehicle actuations from advance detectors located upstream of the stop-line, which are able to detect spill-back queues. The proposed detection schemes operate with actuated signal control based on lane-by-lane gap-out criteria. The performance of the proposed schemes is compared with FHWA’s stop-line and single advance detection schemes in the VISSIM simulation tool. Results have shown that the proposed single advance detection schemes showed improved performance in reducing travel time delay and average number of stops per vehicle under low volumes while the multiple advance detection scheme performed well under high volumes.

  6. A New Paradigm and Computational Framework to Estimate Stop-Signal Reaction Time Distributions from the inhibition of complex motor sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias eTeichert

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Inhibitory control is an important component of executive function that allows organisms to abort emerging behavioral plans or ongoing actions on the fly as new sensory information becomes available. Current models treat inhibitory control as a race between a Go- and a Stop process that may be mediated by partially distinct neural substrates, i.e., the direct and the hyper-direct pathway of the basal ganglia. The fact that finishing times of the Stop process (Stop-Signal Reaction Time, SSRT cannot be observed directly has precluded a precise comparison of the functional properties that govern the initiation (GoRT and inhibition (SSRT of a motor response. To solve this problem, we modified an existing inhibitory paradigm and developed a non-parametric framework to measure the trial-by-trial variability of SSRT. A series of simulations verified that the non-parametric approach is on par with a parametric approach and yields accurate estimates of the entire SSRT distribution from as few as ~750 trials. Our results show that in identical settings, the distribution of SSRT is very similar to the distribution of GoRT albeit somewhat shorter, wider and significantly less right-skewed. The ability to measure the precise shapes of SSRT distributions opens new avenues for research into the functional properties of the hyper-direct pathway that is believed to mediate inhibitory control.

  7. A novel CXCR3-B chemokine receptor-induced growth-inhibitory signal in cancer cells is mediated through the regulation of Bach-1 protein and Nrf2 protein nuclear translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, Murugabaskar; Pal, Soumitro

    2014-02-07

    Chemokines and their receptors play diverse roles in regulating cancer growth and progression. The receptor CXCR3 can have two splice variants with opposite functions. CXCR3-A promotes cell growth, whereas CXCR3-B mediates growth-inhibitory signals. However, the negative signals through CXCR3-B in cancer cells are not well characterized. In this study, we found that CXCR3-B-mediated signaling in MCF-7 and T47D breast cancer cells induced apoptotic cell death. Signals through CXCR3-B decreased the levels of the antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL and increased the expression of apoptotic cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Along with up-regulation in apoptosis, CXCR3-B signals were associated with a decrease in cellular autophagy with reduced levels of the autophagic markers Beclin-1 and LC3B. Notably, CXCR3-B down-regulated the expression of the cytoprotective and antiapoptotic molecule heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) at the transcriptional level. There was an increased nuclear localization of Bach-1 and nuclear export of Nrf2, which are important negative and positive transcription factors, respectively, for HO-1 expression. We also observed that CXCR3-B promoted the activation of p38 MAPK and the inhibition of ERK-1/2. CXCR3-B could not induce cancer cell apoptosis at the optimal level when we either inhibited p38 activity or knocked down Bach-1. Further, CXCR3-B-induced apoptosis was down-regulated when we overexpressed HO-1. Together, our data suggest that CXCR3-B mediates a growth-inhibitory signal in breast cancer cells through the modulations of nuclear translocation of Bach-1 and Nrf2 and down-regulation of HO-1. We suggest that the induction of CXCR3-B-mediated signaling can serve as a novel therapeutic approach where the goal is to promote tumor cell apoptosis.

  8. Light Stops from extra dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Pepin, Mateo

    2016-01-01

    In supersymmetric models the mass of the stops can be considered as the naturalness measure of the theory. Roughly, the lighter the stops are, the more natural the theory is. Both, the absence of supersymmetric signals at experiment and the measurement of the Higgs mass, put scenarios with light stops under increasing tension. I will present a supersymmetry breaking mechanism of the Scherk-Schwarz type that, by introducing extra $SU(2)_L$ triplets in the Higgs sector, is able to generate the correct Higgs mass while keeping stops light.

  9. T Cell Receptor-induced Nuclear Factor κB (NF-κB) Signaling and Transcriptional Activation Are Regulated by STIM1- and Orai1-mediated Calcium Entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaohong; Berry, Corbett T; Ruthel, Gordon; Madara, Jonathan J; MacGillivray, Katelyn; Gray, Carolyn M; Madge, Lisa A; McCorkell, Kelly A; Beiting, Daniel P; Hershberg, Uri; May, Michael J; Freedman, Bruce D

    2016-04-15

    T cell activation following antigen binding to the T cell receptor (TCR) involves the mobilization of intracellular Ca(2+) to activate the key transcription factors nuclear factor of activated T lymphocytes (NFAT) and NF-κB. The mechanism of NFAT activation by Ca(2+) has been determined. However, the role of Ca(2+) in controlling NF-κB signaling is poorly understood, and the source of Ca(2+) required for NF-κB activation is unknown. We demonstrate that TCR- but not TNF-induced NF-κB signaling upstream of IκB kinase activation absolutely requires the influx of extracellular Ca(2+) via STIM1-dependent Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+)/Orai channels. We further show that Ca(2+) influx controls phosphorylation of the NF-κB protein p65 on Ser-536 and that this posttranslational modification controls its nuclear localization and transcriptional activation. Notably, our data reveal that this role for Ca(2+) is entirely separate from its upstream control of IκBα degradation, thereby identifying a novel Ca(2+)-dependent distal step in TCR-induced NF-κB activation. Finally, we demonstrate that this control of distal signaling occurs via Ca(2+)-dependent PKCα-mediated phosphorylation of p65. Thus, we establish the source of Ca(2+) required for TCR-induced NF-κB activation and define a new distal Ca(2+)-dependent checkpoint in TCR-induced NF-κB signaling that has broad implications for the control of immune cell development and T cell functional specificity.

  10. Interleukin-1/toll-like receptor-induced nuclear factor kappa B signaling participates in intima hyperplasia after carotid artery balloon injury in goto-kakizaki rats: a potential target therapy pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaotian Zhang

    Full Text Available The value of restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI is recognized worldwide, especially for diabetic patients. Interleukin-1/Toll-like receptor (IL-1/TLR signaling is involved in innate and adaptive immune responses, but whether and how the IL-1/TLR-induced nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB pathway plays key roles in intimal formation is unclear. The underlying mechanism of intima hyperplasia was investigated with a model of carotid balloon injury in Goto-Kakizaki (GK and Wistar rats and with lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages. Elastic-van Gieson staining showed the medial area peakedon Day 3 post-injury and decreased by Day 7 post-injury in both GK and Wistar rats. The N/M at Day 7 in GK rats was significantly higher than in Wistar rats (p<0.001. The percent of 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU staining-positive cells on Day 3 post-injury was greater than seen on Day 7 post-injury in GK and Wistar rats. The percent of EdU-positive cells on Days 3 and 7 post-injury in Wistar rats was less than that found in GK rats (p<0.01; p<0.05. NFκBp65 immunostaining had increased by Day 7 post-injury. Agilent Whole Genome Oligo Microarray verified that the IL-1/TLR-induced NFκB pathway was activated by carotid balloon injury. TLR4, IL-1 receptor associated kinase, inhibitors α of NFκB, human antigen R, c-Myc (Proto-Oncogene Proteins, EGF-like module-containing mucin-like hormone receptor-like 1 and Interleukin-6 were up-regulated or down-regulated according to immunochemistry, quantitative real-time PCR, Western blotting and Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, we conclude that the IL-1/TLR-induced NFκB pathway participates in the intimal hyperplasia after carotid injury in GK and Wistar rats and that GK rats respond more intensely to the inflammation than Wistar rats.

  11. Stop smoking support programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokeless tobacco - stop smoking programs; Stop smoking techniques; Smoking cessation programs; Smoking cessation techniques ... It is hard to quit smoking if you are acting alone. Smokers may have a ... of quitting with a support program. Stop smoking programs ...

  12. TRPC Channels Mediate a Muscarinic Receptor-Induced Afterdepolarization in Cerebral Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hai-Dun; Villalobos, Claudio; Andrade, Rodrigo

    2009-01-01

    Activation of muscarinic cholinergic receptors on pyramidal cells of the cerebral cortex induces the appearance of a slow afterdepolarization that can sustain autonomous spiking after a brief excitatory stimulus. Accordingly, this phenomenon has been hypothesized to allow for the transient storage of memory traces in neuronal networks. Here we investigated the molecular basis underlying the muscarinic receptor-induced afterdepolarization using molecular biological and electrophysiological strategies. We find that the ability of muscarinic receptors to induce the inward aftercurrent underlying the slow afterdepolarization is inhibited by expression of a Gαq-11 dominant negative and is also markedly reduced in a phospholipase C β1 (PLCβ1) knock-out mouse. Furthermore, we show, using a genetically encoded biosensor, that activation of muscarinic receptor induces the breakdown of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate in pyramidal cells. These results indicate that the Gαq-11/PLCβ1 cascade plays a key role in the ability of muscarinic receptors to signal the inward aftercurrent. We have shown previously that the muscarinic afterdepolarization is mediated by a calcium-activated nonselective cation current, suggesting the possible involvement of TRPC channels. We find that expression of a TRPC dominant negative inhibits, and overexpression of wild-type TRPC5 or TRPC6 enhances, the amplitude of the muscarinic receptor-induced inward aftercurrent. Furthermore, we find that coexpression of TRPC5 and T-type calcium channels is sufficient to reconstitute a muscarinic receptor-activated inward aftercurrent in human embryonic kidney HEK-293 cells. These results indicate that TRPC channels mediate the muscarinic receptor-induced slow afterdepolarization seen in pyramidal cells of the cerebral cortex and suggest a possible role for TRPC channels in mnemonic processes. PMID:19675237

  13. Lifespan changes in global and selective stopping and performance adjustments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Christina Van De Laar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined stopping and performance adjustments in four age groups (M ages: 8, 12, 21, and 76 years. All participants performed on three tasks, a standard two-choice task and the same task in which stop-signal trials were inserted requiring either the suppression of the response activated by the choice stimulus (global stop task or the suppression of the response when one stop signal was presented but not when the other stop signal occurred (selective stop task. The results showed that global stopping was faster than selective stopping in all age groups. Global stopping matured more rapidly than selective stopping. The developmental gain in stopping was considerably more pronounced compared to the loss observed during senescence. All age groups slowed the response on trials without a stop signal in the stop task compared to trials in the choice task, the elderly in particular. In addition, all age groups slowed on trials following stop-signal trials, except the elderly who did not slow following successful inhibits. By contrast, the slowing following failed inhibits was disproportionally larger in the elderly compared to young adults. Finally, sequential effects did not alter the pattern of performance adjustments. The results were interpreted in terms of developmental change in the balance between proactive and reactive control.

  14. Second stop and sbottom searches with a stealth stop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsin-Chia; Li, Lingfeng; Qin, Qin

    2016-11-01

    The top squarks (stops) may be the most wanted particles after the Higgs boson discovery. The searches for the lightest stop have put strong constraints on its mass. However, there is still a search gap in the low mass region if the spectrum of the stop and the lightest neutralino is compressed. In that case, it may be easier to look for the second stop since naturalness requires both stops to be close to the weak scale. The current experimental searches for the second stop are based on the simplified model approach with the decay modes {overset{˜ }{t}}_2to {overset{˜ }{t}}_1Z and {overset{˜ }{t}}_2to {overset{˜ }{t}}_1h . However, in a realistic supersymmetric spectrum there is always a sbottom lighter than the second stop, hence the decay patterns are usually more complicated than the simplified model assumptions. In particular, there are often large branching ratios of the decays {overset{˜ }{t}}_2to {overset{˜ }{b}}_1W and {overset{˜ }{b}}_1to {overset{˜ }{t}}_1W as long as they are open. The decay chains can be even more complex if there are intermediate states of additional charginos and neutralinos in the decays. By studying several MSSM benchmark models at the 14 TeV LHC, we point out the importance of the multi- W final states in the second stop and the sbottom searches, such as the same-sign dilepton and multilepton signals, aside from the traditional search modes. The observed same-sign dilepton excesses at LHC Run 1 and Run 2 may be explained by some of our benchmark models. We also suggest that the vector boson tagging and a new kinematic variable may help to suppress the backgrounds and increase the signal significance for some search channels. Due to the complex decay patterns and lack of the dominant decay channels, the best reaches likely require a combination of various search channels at the LHC for the second stop and the lightest sbottom.

  15. Stimulus devaluation induced by stopping action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Jan R; O'Doherty, John P; Berkebile, Michael M; Linderman, David; Aron, Adam R

    2014-12-01

    Impulsive behavior in humans partly relates to inappropriate overvaluation of reward-associated stimuli. Hence, it is desirable to develop methods of behavioral modification that can reduce stimulus value. Here, we tested whether one kind of behavioral modification--the rapid stopping of actions in the face of reward-associated stimuli--could lead to subsequent devaluation of those stimuli. We developed a novel paradigm with three consecutive phases: implicit reward learning, a stop-signal task, and an auction procedure. In the learning phase, we associated abstract shapes with different levels of reward. In the stop-signal phase, we paired half those shapes with occasional stop-signals, requiring the rapid stopping of an initiated motor response, while the other half of shapes was not paired with stop signals. In the auction phase, we assessed the subjective value of each shape via willingness-to-pay. In 2 experiments, we found that participants bid less for shapes that were paired with stop-signals compared to shapes that were not. This suggests that the requirement to try to rapidly stop a response decrements stimulus value. Two follow-on control experiments suggested that the result was specifically due to stopping action rather than aversiveness, effort, conflict, or salience associated with stop signals. This study makes a theoretical link between research on inhibitory control and value. It also provides a novel behavioral paradigm with carefully operationalized learning, treatment, and valuation phases. This framework lends itself to both behavioral modification procedures in clinical disorders and research on the neural underpinnings of stimulus devaluation.

  16. Inseparability of Go and Stop in Inhibitory Control: Go Stimulus Discriminability Affects Stopping Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning eMa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Inhibitory control, the ability to stop or modify preplanned actions under changing task conditions, is an important component of cognitive functions. Two lines of models of inhibitory control have previously been proposed for human response in the classical stop-signal task, in which subjects must inhibit a default go response upon presentation of an infrequent stop signal: (1 the race model, which posits two independent go and stop processes that race to determine the behavioral outcome, go or stop; and (2 an optimal decision-making model, which posits that observers decides whether and when to go based on continually (Bayesian updated information about both the go and stop stimuli. In this work, we probe the relationship between go and stop processing by explicitly manipulating the discrimination difficulty of the go stimulus. While the race model assumes the go and stop processes are independent, and therefore go stimulus discriminability should not affect the stop stimulus processing, we simulate the optimal model to show that it predicts harder go discrimination results in a longer go reaction time (RT, a lower stop error rate, as well as a faster stop-signal RT. We then present novel behavioral data that validate these model predictions. The results thus favor a fundamentally inseparable account of go and stop processing, in a manner consistent with the optimal model, and contradicting the independence assumption of the race model. More broadly, our findings contribute to the growing evidence that the computations underlying inhibitory control are systematically modulated by cognitive influences in a Bayes-optimal manner, thus opening new avenues for interpreting neural responses underlying inhibitory control.

  17. Inseparability of Go and Stop in Inhibitory Control: Go Stimulus Discriminability Affects Stopping Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Yu, Angela J

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitory control, the ability to stop or modify preplanned actions under changing task conditions, is an important component of cognitive functions. Two lines of models of inhibitory control have previously been proposed for human response in the classical stop-signal task, in which subjects must inhibit a default go response upon presentation of an infrequent stop signal: (1) the race model, which posits two independent go and stop processes that race to determine the behavioral outcome, go or stop; and (2) an optimal decision-making model, which posits that observers decides whether and when to go based on continually (Bayesian) updated information about both the go and stop stimuli. In this work, we probe the relationship between go and stop processing by explicitly manipulating the discrimination difficulty of the go stimulus. While the race model assumes the go and stop processes are independent, and therefore go stimulus discriminability should not affect the stop stimulus processing, we simulate the optimal model to show that it predicts harder go discrimination should result in longer go reaction time (RT), lower stop error rate, as well as faster stop-signal RT. We then present novel behavioral data that validate these model predictions. The results thus favor a fundamentally inseparable account of go and stop processing, in a manner consistent with the optimal model, and contradicting the independence assumption of the race model. More broadly, our findings contribute to the growing evidence that the computations underlying inhibitory control are systematically modulated by cognitive influences in a Bayes-optimal manner, thus opening new avenues for interpreting neural responses underlying inhibitory control.

  18. Dual-specific Phosphatase-6 (Dusp6) and ERK Mediate AMPA Receptor-induced Oligodendrocyte Death*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domercq, Maria; Alberdi, Elena; Sánchez-Gómez, Maria Victoria; Ariz, Usue; Pérez-Samartín, Alberto; Matute, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Oligodendrocytes, the myelinating cells of the CNS, are highly vulnerable to glutamate excitotoxicity, a mechanism involved in tissue damage in multiple sclerosis. Thus, understanding oligodendrocyte death at the molecular level is important to develop new therapeutic approaches to treat the disease. Here, using microarray analysis and quantitative PCR, we observed that dual-specific phosphatase-6 (Dusp6), an extracellular regulated kinase-specific phosphatase, is up-regulated in oligodendrocyte cultures as well as in optic nerves after AMPA receptor activation. In turn, Dusp6 is overexpressed in optic nerves from multiple sclerosis patients before the appearance of evident damage in this structure. We further analyzed the role of Dusp6 and ERK signaling in excitotoxic oligodendrocyte death and observed that AMPA receptor activation induces a rapid increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Blocking Dusp6 expression, which enhances ERK1/2 phosphorylation, significantly diminished AMPA receptor-induced oligodendrocyte death. In contrast, MAPK/ERK pathway inhibition with UO126 significantly potentiates excitotoxic oligodendrocyte death and increases cytochrome c release, mitochondrial depolarization, and mitochondrial calcium overload produced by AMPA receptor stimulation. Upstream analysis demonstrated that MAPK/ERK signaling alters AMPA receptor properties. Indeed, Dusp6 overexpression as well as incubation with UO126 produced an increase in AMPA receptor-induced inward currents and cytosolic calcium overload. Together, these data suggest that levels of phosphorylated ERK, controlled by Dusp6 phosphatase, regulate glutamate receptor permeability and oligodendroglial excitotoxicity. Therefore, targeting Dusp6 may be a useful strategy to prevent oligodendrocyte death in multiple sclerosis and other diseases involving CNS white matter. PMID:21300799

  19. The lifetimes of Pharaonis phoborhodopsin signaling states depend on the rates of proton transfers--effects of hydrostatic pressure and stopped flow experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikukawa, Takashi; Saha, Chabita K; Balashov, Sergei P; Imasheva, Eleonora S; Zaslavsky, Dmitry; Gennis, Robert B; Abe, Takayuki; Kamo, Naoki

    2008-01-01

    Pharaonis phoborhodopsin (ppR), a negative phototaxis receptor of Natronomonas pharaonis, undergoes photocycle similar to the light-driven proton pump bacteriorhodopsin (BR), but the turnover rate is much slower due to much longer lifetimes of the M and O intermediates. The M decay was shown to become as fast as it is in BR in the L40T/F86D mutant. We examined the effects of hydrostatic pressure on the decay of these intermediates. For BR, pressure decelerated M decay but slightly affected O decay. In contrast, with ppR and with its L40T/F86D mutant, pressure slightly affected M decay but accelerated O decay. Clearly, the pressure-dependent factors for M and O decay are different in BR and ppR. In order to examine the deprotonation of Asp75 in unphotolyzed ppR we performed stopped flow experiments. The pH jump-induced deprotonation of Asp75 occurred with 60 ms, which is at least 20 times slower than deprotonation of the equivalent Asp85 in BR and about 10-fold faster than the O decay of ppR. These data suggest that proton transfer is slowed not only in the cytoplasmic channel but also in the extracellular channel of ppR and that the light-induced structural changes in the O intermediate of ppR additionally decrease this rate.

  20. Vaccines Stop Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Vaccines Stop Illness Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of ... meningitis won't infect, cripple, or kill children. Vaccine Safety In light of recent questions about vaccine ...

  1. "Stop Diabetes Now!"

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes "Stop Diabetes Now!" Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents ... Tips for Seniors at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes Lifestyle changes that lead to weight loss—such ...

  2. Depression - stopping your medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000570.htm Depression - stopping your medicines To use the sharing features ... prescription medicines you may take to help with depression, anxiety, or pain. Like any medicine, there are ...

  3. (Light) Stop Signs

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Zhenyu; Krohn, David; Reece, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Stop squarks with a mass just above the top's and which decay to a nearly massless LSP are difficult to probe because of the large SM di-top background. Here we discuss search strategies which could be used to set more stringent bounds in this difficult region. In particular, we note that both the rapidity difference Delta y(t,tbar) and spin correlations (inferred from, for example, Delta phi(l+,l-)) are sensitive to the presence of stops. We emphasize that systematic uncertainties in top quark production can confound analyses looking for stops, making theoretical and experimental progress on the understanding of Standard Model top production at high precision a very important task. We estimate that spin correlation alone, which is relatively robust against such systematic uncertainties, can exclude a 200 GeV stop at 95% confidence with 20 fb^-1 at the 8 TeV LHC.

  4. Gender differences in the association between stop-signal reaction times, body mass indices and/or spontaneous food intake in pre-school children: an early model of compromised inhibitory control and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitan, R D; Rivera, J; Silveira, P P; Steiner, M; Gaudreau, H; Hamilton, J; Kennedy, J L; Davis, C; Dube, L; Fellows, L; Wazana, A; Matthews, S; Meaney, M J

    2015-04-01

    Poor inhibitory control is associated with overeating and/or obesity in school-age children, adolescents and adults. The current study examined whether an objective and reliable marker of response inhibition, the stop-signal reaction time (SSRT), is associated with body mass index (BMI) z-scores and/or food intake during a snack test in pre-school children. The current sample consisted of 193 pre-school children taking part in a longitudinal study of early brain development (Maternal Adversity, Vulnerability and Neurodevelopment (the MAVAN project)). Linear mixed-effect models were used to examine whether the SSRT measured at age 48 months associated with BMI z-scores and/or dietary intake during a laboratory-based snack test. After controlling for significant covariates including maternal BMI, there was a significant gender by SSRT interaction effect in predicting 48-month BMI z-scores. Post-hoc analysis revealed an association between longer SSRTs (poor response inhibition) and higher BMIs in girls but not boys. Across both girls and boys, longer SSRTs were associated with greater intake of carbohydrates and sugars during the snack test. The association between SSRT scores and BMI z-scores in girls was not statistically mediated by carbohydrate or sugar intake. At 48 months of age, slower response inhibition on the Stop-Signal Task associates with higher BMI z-scores in girls, and with higher intake of carbohydrates and sugars during a snack test across both genders. Ongoing follow-up of these children will help clarify the implications of these associations for longer term macronutrient intake, eating-related pathology and/or pathological weight gain over time.

  5. Sneaky light stop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till Eifert

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A light supersymmetric top quark partner (stop with a mass nearly degenerate with that of the standard model (SM top quark can evade direct searches. The precise measurement of SM top properties such as the cross-section has been suggested to give a handle for this ‘stealth stop’ scenario. We present an estimate of the potential impact a light stop may have on top quark mass measurements. The results indicate that certain light stop models may induce a bias of up to a few GeV, and that this effect can hide the shift in, and hence sensitivity from, cross-section measurements. Due to the different initial states, the size of the bias is slightly different between the LHC and the Tevatron. The studies make some simplifying assumptions for the top quark measurement technique, and are based on truth-level samples.

  6. Ready to stop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molitoris, Joseph; Dribe, Martin

    2016-01-01

    the Roteman Database for Stockholm, Sweden between 1878 and 1926 to examine the association of socioeconomic status and fertility and the adoption of stopping behaviour during the city's transition. Using piecewise constant hazard models and logistic regression, we find that a clear class pattern arises...... in which the elite were early practitioners of fertility control, followed by the working classes. As the transition unfolded, socioeconomic differences in stopping behaviour disappeared and overall fertility differentials were also minimized, both of them being consistent with patterns observed in rural...

  7. Stopping the unstoppable

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    How do you stop two very high energy proton beams circulating in opposite directions around a 27-kilometre ring? The answer is the beam dumps. Two tunnels, pointing in opposite directions, are being constructed at point 6 of the LHC. These will allow the beams to be directed into two large beam dumps housed at the ends of the tunnels.

  8. One-stop shopping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, C

    1996-11-25

    The long-term-care industry's new mantras are "continuum of care" and "one-stop shopping." Companies are trying to please consumers who are clamoring for more senior-living options and managed-care organizations that want administratively simple contracting arrangements.

  9. Stopping the Bottle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is coming later. The next week, eliminate another bottle feeding and provide milk in a cup instead. Try to do this when your baby is sitting at the table in a high chair. Generally, the last bottle to stop should be the nighttime bottle. That ...

  10. Animating with Stop Motion Pro

    CERN Document Server

    Sawicki, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Animating with Stop Motion Pro is comprehensive, hands-on guide to achieving professional results with Stop Motion Pro 7.0 software. Gone are the days of stop motion guesswork and waiting to see the finalized result of your meticulous, labor intensive animations. With the push of a mouse button and the Stop Motion Pro software, animators have ten times the capability of simple camera stop motion capture. Re-visualize stop motion character movements, graph these movements and composite characters into a flawless animations with the techniques and step by step tutorials featured in Animating wit

  11. Ready to stop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molitoris, Joseph; Dribe, Martin

    2016-01-01

    the Roteman Database for Stockholm, Sweden between 1878 and 1926 to examine the association of socioeconomic status and fertility and the adoption of stopping behaviour during the city's transition. Using piecewise constant hazard models and logistic regression, we find that a clear class pattern arises...... in which the elite were early practitioners of fertility control, followed by the working classes. As the transition unfolded, socioeconomic differences in stopping behaviour disappeared and overall fertility differentials were also minimized, both of them being consistent with patterns observed in rural......The western fertility decline is arguably the most significant demographic change to have occurred in the past 200 years, yet its causes and processes are still shrouded in ambiguity due to a lack of individual-level longitudinal data. A growing body of research has helped improve our understanding...

  12. The stop on top

    CERN Document Server

    Zakareishvili, Tamar

    2016-01-01

    Supersymmetric partners of the top quark have been sought since the top quark has been discovered at the Tevatron. The searches are more easily performed in scenarios where the mass splitting between the top and the stop is large and where differences in kinematics are striking. The region in which top and stop are almost degenerate in mass is more difficult to explore experimentally as the final state kinematics are very similar, apart from angular-related distributions which reflect the spin/parity difference between the two particles. Usually the searches are performed looking for deviations on the measured top-quark pair production cross section with respect to the standard model prediction, or looking to simple variables such as the difference in the azimuthal angle between two leptons produced after top quark decays.

  13. Has Human Evolution Stopped?

    OpenAIRE

    TEMPLETON, Alan R

    2010-01-01

    It has been argued that human evolution has stopped because humans now adapt to their environment via cultural evolution and not biological evolution. However, all organisms adapt to their environment, and humans are no exception. Culture defines much of the human environment, so cultural evolution has actually led to adaptive evolution in humans. Examples are given to illustrate the rapid pace of adaptive evolution in response to cultural innovations. These adaptive responses have important ...

  14. Does aging stop?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrestani, Parvin; Mueller, Laurence D; Rose, Michael R

    2009-03-01

    Human mortality data show stabilization in mortality rates at very late ages. But human mortality data are difficult to interpret because they are affected by changing medical practices and other historically variable causes of death. However, in the 1990s, data from a variety of labs showed that the mortality rates of medflies, fruit flies, wasps, yeasts, and nematodes also stabilize at very late ages. These reproducible "mortality-rate plateaus" forced biologists to develop theories for their existence. There are two main theories of this kind. "Lifelong heterogeneity" theories suppose that highly robust subcohorts are more abundant at later ages because less robust subcohorts have mostly died off. On this type of theory, aging does not stop; aging continues inexorably in all individuals. In contrast, in evolutionary theories for mortality-rate plateaus, based on the eventual plateaus in Hamilton's Forces of Natural Selection at late ages, aging does indeed stop. A variety of experiments have cast doubt on lifelong heterogeneity theories as explanations of mortality-rate plateaus. A few experiments have corroborated the Hamiltonian theory. This has the important corollary that it appears to be possible for aging to stop, at sufficiently late ages, at least among some populations. The implications of this result for aging research are profound. Most importantly, it suggests the possibility that the physiology of adults undergoing aging may be substantially different from the physiology of life after aging.

  15. Optimally Stopped Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinci, Walter; Lidar, Daniel A.

    2016-11-01

    We combine the fields of heuristic optimization and optimal stopping. We propose a strategy for benchmarking randomized optimization algorithms that minimizes the expected total cost for obtaining a good solution with an optimal number of calls to the solver. To do so, rather than letting the objective function alone define a cost to be minimized, we introduce a further cost-per-call of the algorithm. We show that this problem can be formulated using optimal stopping theory. The expected cost is a flexible figure of merit for benchmarking probabilistic solvers that can be computed when the optimal solution is not known and that avoids the biases and arbitrariness that affect other measures. The optimal stopping formulation of benchmarking directly leads to a real-time optimal-utilization strategy for probabilistic optimizers with practical impact. We apply our formulation to benchmark simulated annealing on a class of maximum-2-satisfiability (MAX2SAT) problems. We also compare the performance of a D-Wave 2X quantum annealer to the Hamze-Freitas-Selby (HFS) solver, a specialized classical heuristic algorithm designed for low-tree-width graphs. On a set of frustrated-loop instances with planted solutions defined on up to N =1098 variables, the D-Wave device is 2 orders of magnitude faster than the HFS solver, and, modulo known caveats related to suboptimal annealing times, exhibits identical scaling with problem size.

  16. Tourette Syndrome: Help Stop Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Button Past Emails Tourette Syndrome: Help Stop Bullying Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... you can increase acceptance by helping to stop bullying of children with TS. Bullying doesn't just ...

  17. GMSB with Light Stops

    CERN Document Server

    Delgado, Antonio; Quiros, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    Gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking (GMSB) is an elegant mechanism to transmit supersymmetry breaking from the hidden to the MSSM observable sector, which solves the supersymmetric flavor problem. However the smallness of the generated stop mixing requires superheavy stops to reproduce the experimental value of the Higgs mass. Two possible ways out are: i) To extend GMSB by direct superpotential messenger-MSSM Yukawa couplings to generate sizeable mixing, thus reintroducing the flavor problem; ii) To extend the MSSM Higgs sector with singlets and/or triplets providing extra tree-level corrections to the Higgs mass. Singlets will not get any soft mass from GMSB and triplets will contribute to the $\\rho$ parameter which could be an issue. In this paper we explore the second way by introducing extra supersymmetric triplets with hypercharges $Y=(0,\\pm 1)$, with a tree-level custodial $SU(2)_L\\otimes SU(2)_R$ global symmetry in the Higgs sector protecting the $\\rho$ parameter: a supersymmetric generalization of ...

  18. Book Review: Stop, Write!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Thulesius

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This book on writing grounded theory is intended for the empirical GT researcher who wants to pursue his/her research until publication. It is the first book devoted entirely to such a crucial issue as writing grounded theory. Thus, Stop, Write: Writing Grounded Theory, is a practical book that fills a gap in GT methodology. In the first chapter of the book, Dr. Glaser says, “Stop unending conceptualization, unending data coverage, and unending listening to others who would egg you on with additional data, ideas and/or requirements or simply wait too long”. The book teaches the reader how to actually write a grounded theory by “simply” writing up the sorted memos. This requires efficient sorting that is dealt with in chapter two on Sorting Memos, which includes precious repetition from Theoretical Sensitivity (1978. How writing can be done effectively is outlined in chapter three The Working Paper. Then follows chapter four on how to rework the first draft with the different tasks of editing for language and professionalism. Thereafter Dr. Glaser discusses Writing Problems in chapter five where he gives useful guidance on how to overcome writing blocks and problems with supervisors and dissertation committees. The book also deals with publishing and with collaboration as experienced between Barney Glaser and the cofounder of grounded theory, Anselm Strauss.

  19. Baryon stopping probes deconfinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolschin, Georg

    2016-08-01

    Stopping and baryon transport in central relativistic Pb + Pb and Au + Au collisions are reconsidered with the aim to find indications for the transition from hadronic to partonic processes. At energies reached at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron ( √{s_{NN}} = 6.3-17.3 GeV) and at RHIC (62.4 GeV) the fragmentation-peak positions as obtained from the data depend linearly on the beam rapidity and are in agreement with earlier results from a QCD-based approach that accounts for gluon saturation. No discontinuities in the net-proton fragmentation peak positions occur in the expected transition region from partons to hadrons at 6-10GeV. In contrast, the mean rapidity loss is predicted to depend linearly on the beam rapidity only at high energies beyond the RHIC scale. The combination of both results offers a clue for the transition from hard partonic to soft hadronic processes in baryon stopping. NICA results could corroborate these findings.

  20. Stop search in the compressed region via semileptonic decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsin-Chia; Gao, Christina; Li, Lingfeng; Neill, Nicolás A.

    2016-05-01

    In supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model, the superpartners of the top quark (stops) play the crucial role in addressing the naturalness problem. For direct pair-production of stops with each stop decaying into a top quark plus the lightest neutralino, the standard stop searches have difficulty finding the stop for a compressed spectrum where the mass difference between the stop and the lightest neutralino is close to the top quark mass, because the events look too similar to the large toverline{t} background. With an additional hard ISR jet, the two neutralinos from the stop decays are boosted in the opposite direction and they can give rise to some missing transverse energy. This may be used to distinguish the stop decays from the backgrounds. In this paper we study the semileptonic decay of such signal events for the compressed mass spectrum. Although the neutrino from the W decay also produces some missing transverse energy, its momentum can be reconstructed from the kinematic assumptions and mass-shell conditions. It can then be subtracted from the total missing transverse momentum to obtain the neutralino contribution. Because it suffers from less backgrounds, we show that the semileptonic decay channel has a better discovery reach than the fully hadronic decay channel along the compressed line {m}_{tilde{t}}-{m}_{tilde{χ}}≈ {m}_t . With 300 fb-1, the 13 TeV LHC can discover the stop up to 500 GeV, covering the most natural parameter space region.

  1. Detection of Receptor-Induced Glycoprotein Conformational Changes on Enveloped Virions by Using Confocal Micro-Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaonan; Liu, Qian; Benavides-Montano, Javier A.; Nicola, Anthony V.; Aston, D. Eric; Rasco, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    Conformational changes in the glycoproteins of enveloped viruses are critical for membrane fusion, which enables viral entry into cells and the pathological cell-cell fusion (syncytia) associated with some viral infections. However, technological capabilities for identifying viral glycoproteins and their conformational changes on actual enveloped virus surfaces are generally scarce, challenging, and time-consuming. Our model, Nipah virus (NiV), is a syncytium-forming biosafety level 4 pathogen with a high mortality rate (40 to 75%) in humans. Once the NiV attachment glycoprotein (G) (NiV-G) binds the cell receptor ephrinB2 or -B3, G triggers conformational changes in the fusion glycoprotein (F) that result in membrane fusion and viral entry. We demonstrate that confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy can, within minutes, simultaneously identify specific G and F glycoprotein signals and receptor-induced conformational changes in NiV-F on NiV virus-like particles (VLPs). First, we identified reproducible G- and F-specific Raman spectral features on NiV VLPs containing M (assembly matrix protein), G, and/or F or on NiV/vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) pseudotyped virions via second-derivative transformations and principal component analysis (PCA). Statistical analyses validated our PCA models. Dynamic temperature-induced conformational changes in F and G or receptor-induced target membrane-dependent conformational changes in F were monitored in NiV pseudovirions in situ in real time by confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy. Advantageously, Raman spectroscopy can identify specific protein signals in relatively impure samples. Thus, this proof-of-principle technological development has implications for the rapid identification and biostability characterization of viruses in medical, veterinary, and food samples and for the analysis of virion glycoprotein conformational changes in situ during viral entry. PMID:23283947

  2. Stop Search in the Compressed Region via Semileptonic Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Hsin-Chia; Li, Lingfeng; Neill, Nicolas A

    2016-01-01

    In supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model, the superpartners of the top quark (stops) play the crucial role in addressing the naturalness problem. For direct pair-production of stops with each stop decaying into a top quark plus the lightest neutralino, the standard stop searches have difficulty finding the stop for a compressed spectrum where the mass difference between the stop and the lightest neutralino is close to the top quark mass, because the events look too similar to the large $t\\bar{t}$ background. With an additional hard ISR jet, the two neutralinos from the stop decays are boosted in the opposite direction and they can give rise to some missing transverse energy. This may be used to distinguish the stop decays from the backgrounds. In this paper we study the semileptonic decay of such signal events for the compressed mass spectrum. Although the neutrino from the $W$ decay also produces some missing transverse energy, its momentum can be reconstructed from the kinematic assumptions and ma...

  3. Has Human Evolution Stopped?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan R. Templeton

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been argued that human evolution has stopped because humans now adapt to their environment via cultural evolution and not biological evolution. However, all organisms adapt to their environment, and humans are no exception. Culture defines much of the human environment, so cultural evolution has actually led to adaptive evolution in humans. Examples are given to illustrate the rapid pace of adaptive evolution in response to cultural innovations. These adaptive responses have important implications for infectious diseases, Mendelian genetic diseases, and systemic diseases in current human populations. Moreover, evolution proceeds by mechanisms other than natural selection. The recent growth in human population size has greatly increased the reservoir of mutational variants in the human gene pool, thereby enhancing the potential for human evolution. The increase in human population size coupled with our increased capacity to move across the globe has induced a rapid and ongoing evolutionary shift in how genetic variation is distributed within and among local human populations. In particular, genetic differences between human populations are rapidly diminishing and individual heterozygosity is increasing, with beneficial health effects. Finally, even when cultural evolution eliminates selection on a trait, the trait can still evolve due to natural selection on other traits. Our traits are not isolated, independent units, but rather are integrated into a functional whole, so selection on one trait can cause evolution to occur on another trait, sometimes with mildly maladaptive consequences.

  4. Has human evolution stopped?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Alan R

    2010-07-01

    It has been argued that human evolution has stopped because humans now adapt to their environment via cultural evolution and not biological evolution. However, all organisms adapt to their environment, and humans are no exception. Culture defines much of the human environment, so cultural evolution has actually led to adaptive evolution in humans. Examples are given to illustrate the rapid pace of adaptive evolution in response to cultural innovations. These adaptive responses have important implications for infectious diseases, Mendelian genetic diseases, and systemic diseases in current human populations. Moreover, evolution proceeds by mechanisms other than natural selection. The recent growth in human population size has greatly increased the reservoir of mutational variants in the human gene pool, thereby enhancing the potential for human evolution. The increase in human population size coupled with our increased capacity to move across the globe has induced a rapid and ongoing evolutionary shift in how genetic variation is distributed within and among local human populations. In particular, genetic differences between human populations are rapidly diminishing and individual heterozygosity is increasing, with beneficial health effects. Finally, even when cultural evolution eliminates selection on a trait, the trait can still evolve due to natural selection on other traits. Our traits are not isolated, independent units, but rather are integrated into a functional whole, so selection on one trait can cause evolution to occur on another trait, sometimes with mildly maladaptive consequences.

  5. UDI STOP Femminicidio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Crivelli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available L'UDI, Unione Donne in Italia, ha collaborato con l'Osservatorio dei Processi Comunicativi a un numero monografico della rivista scientifica M@gm@ dal titolo "Violenza maschile e femminicidio". Il numero monografico vuole mettere a disposizione le analisi, l’esperienza e la storia nostra e delle nostre interlocutrici, come contributo al nostro comune lavoro di sensibilizzazione, contrasto alla violenza maschile sulle donne – femminicidio. “UDI STOP femminicidio” è da anni la nostra campagna contro la violenza di genere, la collaborazione con l’Osservatorio dei Processi Comunicativi è parte integrante di questo sforzo. Il primo e dichiarato dei nostri progetti politici è il contrasto alla cultura e al potere ideologico che consente il femminicidio, la subordinazione culturale e sociale, la percezione della donna come oggetto di dominio, la riduzione in schiavitù di tante donne, comprese molte donne prostitute... Sappiamo di non voler tradire una “responsabilità di genere” che deve necessariamente concretizzarsi in tanti “gesti responsabili”, nella lunga pazienza quotidiana che consente la sedimentazione di un cambiamento radicale nelle coscienze. Vogliamo continuare ad essere l’associazione che coniuga insieme la soggettività personale e l'assunzione diretta di responsabilità, della progettualità a lungo termine che non trova “contraddittorio” misurarsi con la solidarietà concreta e quotidiana con le altre donne, nel tentativo di far nascere le nuove maniere di pensare.

  6. Hypoxia attenuates purinergic P2X receptor-induced inflammatory gene expression in brainstem microglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith SMC

    2013-08-01

    4 correlated only with iNOS. In addition, correlations between P2X7 and P2X4 were lost following hypoxia, suggesting that P2X4 and P2X7 receptor signaling differs in normoxia and hypoxia. Together, these data suggest that hypoxia suppresses P2X receptor-induced inflammatory gene expression, indicating a potentially immunosuppressive role of extracellular nucleotides in brainstem microglia following exposure to hypoxia.Keywords: P2X4, P2X7, P2X1, BzATP, inflammation, cytokine

  7. LHC Availability 2016: Technical Stop 1 to Technical Stop 2

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, Benjamin; Apollonio, Andrea; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    This document summarises the LHC machine availability for the period of Technical Stop 1 (TS1) to Technical Stop 2 (TS2) in 2016. This period was dedicated to proton physics with a bunch spacing of 25ns. This note has been produced and ratified by the Availability Working Group which has complied fault information for the period in question using the Accelerator Fault Tracker.

  8. LHC Availability 2016: Technical Stop 2 to Technical Stop 3

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, Benjamin; Apollonio, Andrea; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    This document summarises the LHC machine availability for the period of Technical Stop 2 (TS2) to Technical Stop 3 (TS3) in 2016. This period was dedicated to proton physics with a bunch spacing of 25ns. This note has been produced and ratified by the Availability Working Group which has complied fault information for the period in question using the Accelerator Fault Tracker.

  9. LHC Availability 2017: Technical Stop 1 to Technical Stop 2

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, Benjamin; Apollonio, Andrea; Walsh, David John; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    This document summarises the LHC machine availability for the period of Technical Stop 1 (TS1) to Technical Stop 2 (TS2) in 2017. This period was dedicated to proton physics with a bunch spacing of 25ns. This note has been produced and ratified by the Availability Working Group which has complied fault information for the period in question using the Accelerator Fault Tracker.

  10. Probing Light Stops with Stoponium

    CERN Document Server

    Batell, Brian

    2015-01-01

    We derive new limits on light stops from diboson resonance searches in the $\\gamma\\gamma$, $Z \\gamma$, $ZZ$, $WW$ and $hh$ channels from the first run of the LHC. If the two-body decays of the light stop are mildly suppressed or kinematically forbidden, stoponium bound states will form in $pp$ collisions and subsequently decay via the pair annihilation of the constituent stops to diboson final states, yielding striking resonance signatures. Remarkably, we find that stoponium searches are highly complementary to direct collider searches and indirect probes of light stops such as Higgs coupling measurements. Using an empirical quarkonia potential model and including the first two $S$-wave stoponium states, we find that in the decoupling limit $m_{\\widetilde t_1} \\lesssim 130$ GeV is excluded for any value of the stop mixing angle and heavy stop mass by the combination of the latest resonance searches and the indirect constraints. The $\\gamma \\gamma$ searches are the most complementary to the indirect constraint...

  11. Stop searches in flavourful supersymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crivellin, Andreas; Haisch, Ulrich; Tunstall, Lewis C.

    2016-09-01

    Natural realisations of supersymmetry require light stops {tilde{t}}_1 , making them a prime target of LHC searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. Depending on the kinematic region, the main search channels are {tilde{t}}_1to t{tilde{χ}}_1^0 , {tilde{t}}_1to W b{tilde{χ}}_1^0 and {tilde{t}}_1to c{tilde{χ}}_1^0 . We first examine the interplay of these decay modes with {tilde{c}}_1to c{tilde{χ}}_1^0 in a model-independent fashion, revealing that a large parameter space region with stop mass values {m_{tilde{t}}}{_1} up to 530 GeV is excluded for any {tilde{t}}_1to c{tilde{χ}}_1^0 branching ratio by LHC Run I data. The impact of {tilde{c}}_1to c{tilde{χ}}_1^0 decays is further illustrated for scenarios with stop-scharm mixing in the right-handed sector, where it has previously been observed that the stop mass limits can be significantly weakened for large mixing. Our analysis shows that once the {tilde{c}}_1to c{tilde{χ}}_1^0 bounds are taken into account, non-zero stop-scharm mixing can lead to an increase in the allowed parameter space by at most 35%, with large areas excluded for arbitrary mixing.

  12. Stopped nucleons in configuration space

    CERN Document Server

    Bialas, Andrzej; Koch, Volker

    2016-01-01

    In this note, using the colour string model, we study the configuration space distribution of stopped nucleons in heavy-ion collisions. We find that the stopped nucleons from the target and the projectile end up separated from each other by the distance increasing with the collision energy. In consequence, for the center of mass energies larger than 6 or 10 GeV (depending on the details of the model) it appears that the system created is not in thermal and chemical equilibrium, and the net baryon density reached is likely not much higher than that already present in the colliding nuclei.

  13. Stop. Write! Writing Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser, PhD, Hon. PhD

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The message in this book, the dictum in this book, is to stop and write when the Grounded Theory (GT methodology puts you in that ready position. Stop unending conceptualization, unending data coverage, and unending listening to others who would egg you on with additional data, ideas and/or requirements or simply wait too long. I will discuss these ideas in detail. My experience with PhD candidates is that for the few who write when ready, many do not and SHOULD. Simply put, many write-up, but many more should.

  14. Long-Lived stop at the LHC with or without R-parity

    OpenAIRE

    Covi, L.; Dradi, F.

    2014-01-01

    We consider scenarios of gravitino LSP and DM with stop NLSP both within R-parity conserving and R-parity violating supersymmetry (RPC and RPV SUSY, respectively). We discuss cosmological bounds from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) and the gravitino abundance and then concentrate on the signals of long-lived stops at the LHC as displaced vertices or metastable particles. Finally we discuss how to distinguish R-parity conserving and R-parity breaking stop decays if they happen withi...

  15. Filling the void - enriching the feature space of successful stopping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huster, René J.; Schneider, Signe; Lavallee, Christina F.; Enriquez-Geppert, Stefanie; Herrmann, Christoph S.

    2017-01-01

    The ability to inhibit behavior is crucial for adaptation in a fast changing environment and is commonly studied with the stop signal task. Current EEG research mainly focuses on the N200 and P300 ERPs and corresponding activity in the theta and delta frequency range, thereby leaving us with a

  16. Remote Shutoff Stops Runaway Lawnmower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grambo, Alan A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how electronics students at Central Nine Career Center designed a kill switch circuit to stop a runaway lawnmower. This project is ideal for a career center since the electronics/robotics, small engines and horticulture classes can all work together on their respective parts of the modification, installation…

  17. Stop searches in flavourful supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Crivellin, Andreas; Tunstall, Lewis C.

    2016-01-01

    Natural realisations of supersymmetry require light stops ${\\tilde t}_1$, making them a prime target of LHC searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. Depending on the kinematic region, the main search channels are ${\\tilde t_1}\\to t \\tilde \\chi^0_1$, ${\\tilde t_1}\\to W b \\tilde \\chi^0_1$ and ${\\tilde t_1}\\to c \\tilde \\chi^0_1$. We first examine the interplay of these decay modes with ${\\tilde c_1}\\to c \\tilde \\chi^0_1$ in a model-independent fashion, revealing the existence of large regions in parameter space which are excluded for any ${\\tilde t_1}\\to c \\tilde \\chi^0_1$ branching ratio. This effect is then illustrated for scenarios with stop-scharm mixing in the right-handed sector, where it has previously been observed that the stop mass limits can be significantly weakened for large mixing. Our analysis shows that once the LHC bounds from ${\\tilde c_1}\\to c \\tilde \\chi^0_1$ searches are taken into account, non-zero stop-scharm mixing leads only to a modest increase in the allowed regions of parameter...

  18. Stopping Power for Degenerate Electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singleton, Jr., Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-16

    This is a first attempt at calculating the BPS stopping power with electron degeneracy corrections. Section I establishes some notation and basic facts. Section II outlines the basics of the calculation, and in Section III contains some brief notes on how to proceed with the details of the calculation. The remaining work for the calculation starts with Section III.

  19. Remote Shutoff Stops Runaway Lawnmower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grambo, Alan A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how electronics students at Central Nine Career Center designed a kill switch circuit to stop a runaway lawnmower. This project is ideal for a career center since the electronics/robotics, small engines and horticulture classes can all work together on their respective parts of the modification, installation…

  20. In Defence of Thought Stopping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Gary Maria

    2009-01-01

    Thought stopping (TS) has a long and established history as an effective mental control technique among the cognitive behavioural therapies (CBT). Recent claims have arisen, particularly from acceptance and mindfulness-based authors, that thought suppression--and therefore TS--is counterproductive. These claims take the syllogistic form: TS is a…

  1. Reparametrizations with given stop data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raussen, Martin

    In [1], we performed a systematic investigation of reparametrizations of continuous paths in a Hausdorff space that relies crucially on a proper understanding of stop data of a (weakly increasing) reparametrization of the unit interval. I am indebted to Marco Grandis (Genova) for pointing out tome...

  2. Reparametrizations with given stop data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raussen, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In [1] we performed a systematic investigation of reparametrizations of continuous paths in a Hausdorff space that relies crucially on a proper understanding of stop data of a (weakly increasing) reprametrizations of the unit interval. I am grateful to Marco Grandis (Genova) for pointing out to me...

  3. Plagiarism: Can It Be Stopped?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, G. Jay

    2011-01-01

    Plagiarism can be controlled, not stopped. The more appropriate question to ask is: What can be done to encourage students to "cheat" correctly by doing the assignment the way it was intended? Cheating by college students continues to reach epidemic proportions on selected campuses, as witnessed by the recent episode at Central Florida University,…

  4. Progress in understanding heavy-ion stopping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmund, P.; Schinner, A.

    2016-09-01

    We report some highlights of our work with heavy-ion stopping in the energy range where Bethe stopping theory breaks down. Main tools are our binary stopping theory (PASS code), the reciprocity principle, and Paul's data base. Comparisons are made between PASS and three alternative theoretical schemes (CasP, HISTOP and SLPA). In addition to equilibrium stopping we discuss frozen-charge stopping, deviations from linear velocity dependence below the Bragg peak, application of the reciprocity principle in low-velocity stopping, modeling of equilibrium charges, and the significance of the so-called effective charge.

  5. Stopping power: Effect of the projectile deceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kompaneets, Roman, E-mail: kompaneets@mpe.mpg.de; Ivlev, Alexei V.; Morfill, Gregor E. [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstr. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    The stopping force is the force exerted on the projectile by its wake. Since the wake does not instantly adjust to the projectile velocity, the stopping force should be affected by the projectile deceleration caused by the stopping force itself. We address this effect by deriving the corresponding correction to the stopping force in the cold plasma approximation. By using the derived expression, we estimate that if the projectile is an ion passing through an electron-proton plasma, the correction is small when the stopping force is due to the plasma electrons, but can be significant when the stopping force is due to the protons.

  6. Surviving scenario of stop decays for ATLAS $\\ell+jets+E^{miss}_T$ search

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Chengcheng; Takeuchi, Michihisa; Yanagida, Tsutomu T

    2016-01-01

    Recently ATLAS reported a $3.3\\sigma$ excess in the stop search with $\\ell+jets+E_T^{miss}$ channel. We try to interpret the signal by a light stop pair production in the MSSM. We find: (1) simple models where stop decays into a higgsino or a bino are not favored. (2) an extension of them can explain the data at $2\\sigma$ level without conflicting with the other search channels. A surviving possibility includes a light stop and a light higgsino, which is expected in a natural SUSY scenario.

  7. The effect of facial makeup on the frequency of drivers stopping for hitchhikers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéguen, Nicolas; Lamy, Lubomir

    2013-08-01

    Judgments of photographs have shown that makeup enhances ratings of women's facial attractiveness. The present study assessed whether makeup affects the stopping behavior of drivers in response to a hitchhiker's signal. Four 20- to 22-year-old female confederates wore facial makeup, or not, while pretending to be hitchhiking. Frequency of stopping was compared in 1,600 male and female drivers. Facial makeup was associated with an increase in the number of male drivers who stopped to offer a ride. Makeup did not affect frequency of stopping by female drivers.

  8. Surviving scenario of stop decays for ATLAS ℓ + jets + E̸T miss search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chengcheng; Nojiri, Mihoko M.; Takeuchi, Michihisa; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.

    2017-04-01

    Recently ATLAS reported a 3.3σ excess in the stop search with ℓ + jets + E̸T miss channel. We try to interpret the signal by a light stop pair production in the MSSM. We find: (1) simple models where stop decays into a higgsino or a bino are not favored. (2) an extension of them can explain the data at 2σ level without conflicting with the other search channels. A surviving possibility includes a light stop and a light higgsino, which is expected in a natural SUSY scenario.

  9. The calcaneo-stop procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usuelli, F G; Montrasio, U Alfieri

    2012-06-01

    Flexible flatfoot is one of the most common deformities. Arthroereisis procedures are designed to correct this deformity. Among them, the calcaneo-stop is a procedure with both biomechanical and proprioceptive properties. It is designed for pediatric treatment. Results similar to endorthesis procedure are reported. Theoretically the procedure can be applied to adults if combined with other procedures to obtain a stable plantigrade foot, but medium-term follow up studies are missing.

  10. Search for Heavy Stops with Merged Top-Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Yang; Osborne, James; Stefanek, Ben A

    2016-01-01

    We study an interesting region of phase space at the LHC for pair-produced stops decaying into hadronic top quarks and light neutralinos. After imposing a sizeable cut on the missing transverse energy, which is the key variable for reducing backgrounds, we have found that the two hadronic tops are likely to merge into a single fat jet. We develop a jet-substructure-based strategy to tag the two merged top-jets and utilize the MT2 variable to further reduce the backgrounds. We obtain about a 50% increase to the ratio of the signal over background and a mild increase on the signal discovery significance, based on a signal with a 1.2 TeV stop and a 100 GeV neutralino, for the 13 TeV LHC with 100 fb$^{-1}$. The general event kinematics could also occur and be explored for other new physics signatures with large missing transverse energy.

  11. Stopping of Ships Equipped with Azipods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Nowicki

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains a description of different possibilities of stopping a large ship equipped with azipods. The model tests were carried out to compare the effectiveness of stopping the ship using the different methods. The ship model used in stopping tests reproduces a large LNG carrier of capacity ~150 000 m3

  12. Which Srategy will stop Flu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Shamsheva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaccine is essentially the only measure by which there is a real opportunity to eliminate an infectious disease. And the flu is no exception. The high variability of influenza virus A/H1N1, which causes a pandemic, and most epidemics, is the problem of creating effective etiotropic treatments and vaccines. The emergence of new vaccine manufacturing technologies, such as genetic engineering, DNA technology, allows for a fresh look at the problem of influenza eradication on the planet. Universal year-round mass vaccination against influenza, not just high-risk groups, should be included in all national vaccination program, but this strategy will help stop influenza infection.

  13. Gauge mediation with light stops

    CERN Document Server

    Delgado, Antonio; Quiros, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism of gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking (GMSB) solves the supersymmetric flavor problem although it requires superheavy stops to reproduce the experimental value (125 GeV) of the Higgs mass. A possible way out is to extend the MSSM Higgs sector with triplets which provide extra tree-level corrections to the Higgs mass. Triplets with neutral components getting vacuum expectation values (VEV) have the problem of generating a tree-level correction to the \\rho parameter. We introduce supersymmetric triplets with hypercharges Y=(0,\\pm 1), with a tree-level custodial SU(2)_L\\otimes SU(2)_R global symmetry in the Higgs sector protecting the \\rho parameter: a supersymmetric generalization of the Georgi-Machacek model. The renormalization group running from the messenger to the electroweak scale mildly breaks the custodial symmetry. We will present realistic low-scale scenarios, their main features being a Bino-like neutralino or right-handed stau as the NLSP, light (1 TeV) stops, exotic couplings (H^\\p...

  14. Stop Codon Reassignment in the Wild

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanova, Natalia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Schwientek, Patrick [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Tripp, H. James [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Rinke, Christian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Pati, Amrita [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Huntemann, Marcel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Visel, Axel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Woyke, Tanja [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Kyrpides, Nikos [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Rubin, Edward [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.

    2014-03-21

    Since the discovery of the genetic code and protein translation mechanisms (1), a limited number of variations of the standard assignment between unique base triplets (codons) and their encoded amino acids and translational stop signals have been found in bacteria and phages (2-3). Given the apparent ubiquity of the canonical genetic code, the design of genomically recoded organisms with non-canonical codes has been suggested as a means to prevent horizontal gene transfer between laboratory and environmental organisms (4). It is also predicted that genomically recoded organisms are immune to infection by viruses, under the assumption that phages and their hosts must share a common genetic code (5). This paradigm is supported by the observation of increased resistance of genomically recoded bacteria to phages with a canonical code (4). Despite these assumptions and accompanying lines of evidence, it remains unclear whether differential and non-canonical codon usage represents an absolute barrier to phage infection and genetic exchange between organisms. Our knowledge of the diversity of genetic codes and their use by viruses and their hosts is primarily derived from the analysis of cultivated organisms. Advances in single-cell sequencing and metagenome assembly technologies have enabled the reconstruction of genomes of uncultivated bacterial and archaeal lineages (6). These initial findings suggest that large scale systematic studies of uncultivated microorganisms and viruses may reveal the extent and modes of divergence from the canonical genetic code operating in nature. To explore alternative genetic codes, we carried out a systematic analysis of stop codon reassignments from the canonical TAG amber, TGA opal, and TAA ochre codons in assembled metagenomes from environmental and host-associated samples, single-cell genomes of uncultivated bacteria and archaea, and a collection of phage sequences

  15. A Conceptual Approach for Optimising Bus Stop Spacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johar, Amita; Jain, S. S.; Garg, P. k.

    2017-06-01

    An efficient public transportation system is essential of any country. The growth, development and shape of the urban areas are mainly due to availability of good transportation (Shah et al. in Inst Town Plan India J 5(3):50-59, 1). In developing countries, like India, travel by local bus in a city is very common. The accidents, congestion, pollution and appropriate location of bus stops are the major problems arising in metropolitan cities. Among all the metropolitan cities in India, Delhi has highest percentage of growth of population and vehicles. Therefore, it is important to adopt efficient and effective ways to improve mobility in different metropolitan cities in order to overcome the problem and to reduce the number of private vehicles on the road. The primary objective of this paper is to present a methodology for developing a model for optimum bus stop spacing (OBSS). It describes the evaluation of existing urban bus route, data collection, development of model for optimizing urban bus route and application of model. In this work, the bus passenger generalized cost method is used to optimize the spacing between bus stops. For the development of model, a computer program is required to be written. The applicability of the model has been evaluated by taking the data of urban bus route of Delhi Transport Corporation (DTC) in Excel sheet in first phase. Later on, it is proposed to develop a programming in C++ language. The developed model is expected to be useful to transport planner for rational design of the spacing of bus stops to save travel time and to generalize operating cost. After analysis it is found that spacing between the bus stop comes out to be between 250 and 500 m. The Proposed Spacing of bus stops is done considering the points that they don't come nearer to metro/rail station, entry or exit of flyover and near traffic signal.

  16. Improving stopping construction to minimize leakage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, Roy H; Mazzella, Andrew L; Martikainen, Anu L

    2012-07-01

    The proper sealing of stoppings is an important step in reducing leakage from the intake to the return airways. Leakage and the subsequent loss of ventilation resulting from improperly sealed stoppings can lead to unhealthy and unsafe working conditions. The research presented in this paper investigates the total leakage of a stopping, including air leakage through the stopping, at the stopping perimeter, and through the coalbed. The study also examines sealing considerations for stoppings that are constructed under roof control screen, the effects that wooden wedges had on inhibiting efficient application of polyurethane foam sealant, and airflow leakage through the surrounding coal. The work involved building a stopping in a dead end room of the NIOSH Safety Research Coal Mine and then pressurising the room using compressed air. Stopping leakage was evaluated by measuring air pressure loss in the enclosed room due to the air leakage. Part of the research utilises a diluted soap solution that was applied to the stopping and the surrounding coal to detect air leakage signified by bubble formations. The results show that stopping leakage can be minimised with proper sealing.

  17. Compression and extraction of stopped muons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taqqu, D

    2006-11-10

    Efficient conversion of a standard positive muon beam into a high-quality slow muon beam is shown to be achievable by compression of a muon swarm stopped in an extended gas volume. The stopped swarm can be squeezed into a mm-size swarm flow that can be extracted into vacuum through a small opening in the stop target walls. Novel techniques of swarm compression are considered. In particular, a density gradient in crossed electric and magnetic fields is used.

  18. Light stop squarks and b-tagging

    CERN Document Server

    Ferretti, Gabriele; Petersson, Christoffer; Torre, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    A significant part of the parameter space for light stop squarks still remains unconstrained by collider searches. For both R-Parity Conserving (RPC) and R-Parity Violating (RPV) scenarios there are regions in which the stop mass is around or below the top quark mass that are particularly challenging experimentally. Here we review the status of light stop searches, both in RPC and RPV scenarios. We also propose strategies, generally based on exploiting b-tagging, to cover the unconstrained regions.

  19. 32 CFR 935.134 - Arm signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arm signals. 935.134 Section 935.134 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.134 Arm signals. (a) Any person operating a motor vehicle and making a turn or coming to a stop shall signal the turn or stop in accordance with this section. (b) A...

  20. 14 CFR 29.675 - Stops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Control Systems § 29.675 Stops. (a) Each... the loads corresponding to the design conditions for the system. (d) For each main rotor blade— (1) Stops that are appropriate to the blade design must be provided to limit travel of the blade about...

  1. 14 CFR 27.675 - Stops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Control Systems § 27.675 Stops. (a) Each... the loads corresponding to the design conditions for the system. (d) For each main rotor blade— (1) Stops that are appropriate to the blade design must be provided to limit travel of the blade about...

  2. Electron and Positron Stopping Powers of Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 7 NIST Electron and Positron Stopping Powers of Materials (PC database for purchase)   The EPSTAR database provides rapid calculations of stopping powers (collisional, radiative, and total), CSDA ranges, radiation yields and density effect corrections for incident electrons or positrons with kinetic energies from 1 keV to 10 GeV, and for any chemically defined target material.

  3. The Potential Stopping Power of Student Photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkle, Bruce E.

    1997-01-01

    Suggests that capturing photographs that have "stopping power" should not be an impossible task, but a reality for student photographers. Lists 19 recent publications and web sites on photography and photojournalism. Discusses ways for scholastic photographers to take pictures with stopping power. (RS)

  4. Stop the Violence: Overcoming Self-Destruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Nelson, Ed.

    The story of the Stop the Violence movement among rap music artists and music industry colleagues is told, along with the story of a video that was produced as part of this initiative. The Stop the Violence project grew out of the reaction to violence among concert goers at a 1987 rap concert on Long Island (New York). Rap musicians have joined…

  5. Variance optimal stopping for geometric Levy processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Kamille Sofie Tågholt; Pedersen, Jesper Lund

    2015-01-01

    The main result of this paper is the solution to the optimal stopping problem of maximizing the variance of a geometric Lévy process. We call this problem the variance problem. We show that, for some geometric Lévy processes, we achieve higher variances by allowing randomized stopping. Furthermore...

  6. Addressing production stops in the food industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Herbert, Luke Thomas; Jacobsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the challenges in the food industry which causes the production lines to stop, illustrated by a case study of an SME size company in the baked goods sector in Denmark. The paper proposes key elements this sector needs to be aware of to effectively address production stops......, and gives examples of the unique challenges faced by the SME food industry....

  7. Nonlinear scale space with spatially varying stopping time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilboa, Guy

    2008-12-01

    A general scale space algorithm is presented for denoising signals and images with spatially varying dominant scales. The process is formulated as a partial differential equation with spatially varying time. The proposed adaptivity is semi-local and is in conjunction with the classical gradient-based diffusion coefficient, designed to preserve edges. The new algorithm aims at maximizing a local SNR measure of the denoised image. It is based on a generalization of a global stopping time criterion presented recently by the author and colleagues. Most notably, the method works well also for partially textured images and outperforms any selection of a global stopping time. Given an estimate of the noise variance, the procedure is automatic and can be applied well to most natural images.

  8. Antiproton stopping at low energies: confirmation of velocity-proportional stopping power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, S P; Csete, A; Ichioka, T; Knudsen, H; Uggerhøj, U I; Andersen, H H

    2002-05-13

    The stopping power for antiprotons in various solid targets has been measured in the low-energy range of 1-100 keV. In agreement with most models, in particular free-electron gas models, the stopping power is found to be proportional to the projectile velocity below the stopping-power maximum. Although a stopping power proportional to velocity has also been observed for protons, the interpretation of such measurements is difficult due to the presence of charge exchange processes. Hence, the present measurements constitute the first unambiguous support for a velocity-proportional stopping power due to target excitations by a pointlike projectile.

  9. Sudden stopping in patients with cerebellar ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrao, Mariano; Conte, Carmela; Casali, Carlo; Ranavolo, Alberto; Mari, Silvia; Di Fabio, Roberto; Perrotta, Armando; Coppola, Gianluca; Padua, Luca; Monamì, Stefano; Sandrini, Giorgio; Pierelli, Francesco

    2013-10-01

    Stopping during walking, a dynamic motor task frequent in everyday life, is very challenging for ataxic patients, as it reduces their gait stability and increases the incidence of falls. This study was conducted to analyse the biomechanical characteristics of upper and lower body segments during abrupt stopping in ataxic patients in order to identify possible strategies used to counteract the instability in the sagittal and frontal plane. Twelve patients with primary degenerative cerebellar ataxia and 12 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects were studied. Time-distance parameters, dynamic stability of the centre of mass, upper body measures and lower joint kinematic and kinetic parameters were analysed. The results indicate that ataxic patients have a great difficulty in stopping abruptly during walking and adopt a multi-step stopping strategy, occasionally with feet parallel, to compensate for their inability to coordinate the upper body and to generate a well-coordinated lower limb joint flexor-extensor pattern and appropriate braking forces for progressively decelerating the progression of the body in the sagittal plane. A specific rehabilitation treatment designed to improve the ability of ataxic patients to transform unplanned stopping into planned stopping, to coordinate upper body and to execute an effective flexion-extension pattern of the hip and knee joints may be useful in these patients in order to improve their stopping performance and prevent falls.

  10. When your cancer treatment stops working

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000851.htm When your cancer treatment stops working To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cancer treatments can keep cancer from spreading and even cure ...

  11. Stop-Catalyzed Baryogenesis Beyond the MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Andrey; Ramsey-Musolf, Michael J; Winslow, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Non-minimal supersymmetric models that predict a tree-level Higgs mass above the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) bound are well motivated by naturalness considerations. Indirect constraints on the stop sector parameters of such models are significantly relaxed compared to the MSSM; in particular, both stops can have weak-scale masses. We revisit the stop-catalyzed electroweak baryogenesis (EWB) scenario in this context. We find that the LHC measurements of the Higgs boson production and decay rates already rule out the possibility of stop-catalyzed EWB. We also introduce a gauge-invariant analysis framework that may generalize to other scenarios in which interactions outside the gauge sector drive the electroweak phase transition.

  12. What Would Happen If We Stopped Vaccinations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Newsletters Events What Would Happen If We Stopped Vaccinations? Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Before the ... and Texas – mainly among groups with low vaccination rates. If vaccination rates dropped to low levels ...

  13. Imagine stopping the progression of Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issue Past Issues Imagine stopping the progression of Alzheimer's Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents For ... I have friends and loved ones suffering from Alzheimer's. But I can imagine… and hope for… a ...

  14. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a dermatologist Home ... how to avoid these situations and develop a plan to stop. Just knowing when you’re inclined ...

  15. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Mohs AUC MyDermPath+ Psoriasis Patient education resources Practice Management Center Coding and reimbursement Coding MACRA Fee schedule ... your nails: Some doctors recommend taking a gradual approach to break the habit. Try to stop biting ...

  16. A Pause-then-Cancel model of stopping: evidence from basal ganglia neurophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Robert; Berke, Joshua D

    2017-04-19

    Many studies have implicated the basal ganglia in the suppression of action impulses ('stopping'). Here, we discuss recent neurophysiological evidence that distinct hypothesized processes involved in action preparation and cancellation can be mapped onto distinct basal ganglia cell types and pathways. We examine how movement-related activity in the striatum is related to a 'Go' process and how going may be modulated by brief epochs of beta oscillations. We then describe how, rather than a unitary 'Stop' process, there appear to be separate, complementary 'Pause' and 'Cancel' mechanisms. We discuss the implications of these stopping subprocesses for the interpretation of the stop-signal reaction time-in particular, some activity that seems too slow to causally contribute to stopping when assuming a single Stop processes may actually be fast enough under a Pause-then-Cancel model. Finally, we suggest that combining complementary neural mechanisms that emphasize speed or accuracy respectively may serve more generally to optimize speed-accuracy trade-offs.This article is part of the themed issue 'Movement suppression: brain mechanisms for stopping and stillness'.

  17. Chocolate equals stop. Chocolate-specific inhibition training reduces chocolate intake and go associations with chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houben, Katrijn; Jansen, Anita

    2015-04-01

    Earlier research has demonstrated that food-specific inhibition training wherein food cues are repeatedly and consistently mapped onto stop signals decreases food intake and bodyweight. The mechanisms underlying these training effects, however, remain unclear. It has been suggested that consistently pairing stimuli with stop signals induces automatic stop associations with those stimuli, thereby facilitating automatic, bottom-up inhibition. This study examined this hypothesis with respect to food-inhibition training. Participants performed a training that consistently paired chocolate with no go cues (chocolate/no-go) or with go cues (chocolate/go). Following training, we measured automatic associations between chocolate and stop versus go, as well as food intake and desire to eat. As expected, food that was consistently mapped onto stopping was indeed more associated with stopping versus going afterwards. In replication of previous results, participants in the no-go condition also showed less desire to eat and reduced food intake relative to the go condition. Together these findings support the idea that food-specific inhibition training prompts the development of automatic inhibition associations, which subsequently facilitate inhibitory control over unwanted food-related urges. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Threshold-Based Bit Error Rate for Stopping Iterative Turbo Decoding in a Varying SNR Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, Roslina; Harun, Harlisya; Mokhtar, Makhfudzah; Adnan, Wan Azizun Wan; Dimyati, Kaharudin

    2017-01-01

    Online bit error rate (BER) estimation (OBE) has been used as a stopping iterative turbo decoding criterion. However, the stopping criteria only work at high signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), and fail to have early termination at low SNRs, which contributes to an additional iteration number and an increase in computational complexity. The failure of the stopping criteria is caused by the unsuitable BER threshold, which is obtained by estimating the expected BER performance at high SNRs, and this threshold does not indicate the correct termination according to convergence and non-convergence outputs (CNCO). Hence, in this paper, the threshold computation based on the BER of CNCO is proposed for an OBE stopping criterion (OBEsc). From the results, OBEsc is capable of terminating early in a varying SNR environment. The optimum number of iterations achieved by the OBEsc allows huge savings in decoding iteration number and decreasing the delay of turbo iterative decoding.

  19. 奖惩线索对停止信号任务中抑制能力和心率、皮肤电的影响%The Effect of Reward and Punishment on Response Disinhibition, Heart Rate and Skin Conductance Level During the Stop Signal Task

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱昭红; 白学军

    2009-01-01

    采用不同类型强化刺激(中性刺激,奖励刺激,惩罚刺激,以及奖励、惩罚刺激并存)来改变可获得奖励和惩罚的强度和频度,分别考察不同类型强化条件对停止信号任务中抑制能力、心率和皮肤电的影响.结果显示:与奖惩混合条件相比,在奖励条件下,被试的反应速度快,但正确抑制率明显低于惩罚条件和奖惩混合条件;在奖励条件下,被试在任务完成过程中的心率明显高于反馈条件、惩罚条件和奖惩混合条件.四种条件下被试的皮肤电活动无差异.%Under four types of reinforcement conditions, the study examined the effects of reward and punishment on response disinhibition, heart rate and skin conductance levels during the stop signal task. The results showed that participants in the reward group made fewer disinhibitory responses than participants in the reward condition of the reward & punishment group and the punishment group, and responded more quickly than subjects in the reward condition of the reward & punishment group. Moreover, participants in the reward & punishment group had a higher heart rate compared with subjects in the reward group and in the punishment group. For all groups, skin conductance level was not significantly different. These findings were consistent with Gray's BAS/BIS theory.

  20. Why stop at two tops?

    CERN Document Server

    Deterre, Cecile; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    An analysis is presented of events containing jets including at least one $b$-tagged jet, sizable missing transverse momentum, and at least two charged leptons including a pair of the same electric charge, with the scalar sum of the jet and lepton transverse momenta being large. Standard Model processes rarely produce these final states, but several models of physics beyond the Standard Model predict an enhanced production rate of such events. Specific models with this feature are considered here: vector-like $T$, $B$, and $T_{5/3}$ quark pair production, and four top quark production under three scenarios (Standard Model, contact interaction, and extra-dimensions). A data sample of 3.2 fb$^{-1}$ of $pp$ collisions at a center-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}$=13 TeV recorded by the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider is used in this analysis. Several signal regions are defined, in which the consistency between the data yield and the background-only hypothesis is checked, and 95\\% confidence level limits a...

  1. Hybrid stop schedule of urban rail train

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengmin Tan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In order to better serve the transport demand of urban area by rail, target at the Ur-ban Rail Train Stop Schedule problem.Design/methodology/approach: Bi-level mathematical programming model and game relation was used.Findings: A 0-1 bi-level mathematical programming model for urban rail transit hybrid Stop Schedule is developed when game relation between train Stop Schedule and passenger transfer choice is considered.Research limitations/implications: The research is still in progress. Practical implications: ChongQing urban rail line 2 was taken as an example, the practical application of the model has proved its feasibility and efficiency.Originality/value: A 0-1 bi-level mathematical programming model for urban rail transit hybrid Stop Schedule is developed. The upper level model is Stop Schedule targeting at the optimal profit from the operators side. The lower level model is passenger routing aims to minimize total travel time. According to its features, the bi-level model is integrated in order to be directly solvable by optimizing software.

  2. Beam Stop for Electron Accelerator Beam Characterisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Greg; Sharp, Vic; Tickner, James; Uher, Josef

    2009-08-01

    Electron linear accelerator applications involving the generation of hard X-rays frequently require accurate knowledge of the electron beam parameters. We developed a beam stop device which houses a tungsten Bremsstrahlung target and enables the electron beam current, energy and position to be monitored. The beam stop consisted of four plates. The first was a removable aluminium (Al) transmission plate. Then followed the tungsten target. Behind the target there were four Al quadrant plates for beam position measurement. The last plate was a thick Al back-stop block. Currents from the four quadrants and the back-stop were measured and the beam lateral position, energy and current were calculated. The beam stop device was optimised using Monte-Carlo simulation, manufactured (including custom-made electronics and software) in our laboratory and tested at the ARPANSA (Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency) linear accelerator in Melbourne. The electron beam energy was determined with a precision of 60 keV at beam energies between 11 and 21 MeV and the lateral beam position was controlled with a precision of 200 mum. The relative changes of the beam current were monitored as well.

  3. New stopping criteria for segmenting DNA sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Li, W

    2001-01-01

    We propose a solution on the stopping criterion in segmenting inhomogeneous DNA sequences with complex statistical patterns. This new stopping criterion is based on Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) in the model selection framework. When this stopping criterion is applied to a left telomere sequence of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the complete genome sequence of bacterium Escherichia coli, borders of biologically meaningful units were identified (e.g. subtelomeric units, replication origin, and replication terminus), and a more reasonable number of domains was obtained. We also introduce a measure called segmentation strength which can be used to control the delineation of large domains. The relationship between the average domain size and the threshold of segmentation strength is determined for several genome sequences.

  4. Impact of Impulse Stops on Pedestrian Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Kwak, Jaeyoung; Luttinen, Tapio; Kosonen, Iisakki

    2015-01-01

    We numerically study the impact of impulse stops on pedestrian flow for a straight corridor with multiple attractions. The impulse stop is simulated by the switching behavior model, a function of the social influence strength and the number of attendees near the attraction. When the pedestrian influx is low, one can observe a stable flow where attendees make a complete stop at an attraction and then leave the attraction after a certain amount of time. When the pedestrian influx is high, an unstable flow is observed for strong social influence. In the unstable flow, attendees near the attraction are crowded out from the clusters by others due to the interpersonal repulsion. The expelled pedestrians impede the pedestrian traffic between the left and right boundaries of the corridor. These collective patterns of pedestrian flow are summarized in a schematic phase diagram.

  5. Molecular dynamics simulations of classical stopping power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Paul E; Surh, Michael P; Richards, David F; Graziani, Frank R; Murillo, Michael S

    2013-11-22

    Molecular dynamics can provide very accurate tests of classical kinetic theory; for example, unambiguous comparisons can be made for classical particles interacting via a repulsive 1/r potential. The plasma stopping power problem, of great interest in its own right, provides an especially stringent test of a velocity-dependent transport property. We have performed large-scale (~10(4)-10(6) particles) molecular dynamics simulations of charged-particle stopping in a classical electron gas that span the weak to moderately strong intratarget coupling regimes. Projectile-target coupling is varied with projectile charge and velocity. Comparisons are made with disparate kinetic theories (both Boltzmann and Lenard-Balescu classes) and fully convergent theories to establish regimes of validity. We extend these various stopping models to improve agreement with the MD data and provide a useful fit to our results.

  6. The Extent of the Stop Coannihilation Strip

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; Zheng, Jiaming

    2014-01-01

    Many supersymmetric models such as the CMSSM feature a strip in parameter space where the lightest neutralino \\chi is identified as the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP), the lighter stop squark \\tilde t_1 is the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle (NLSP), and the relic \\chi cold dark matter density is brought into the range allowed by astrophysics and cosmology by coannihilation with the lighter stop squark \\tilde t_1 NLSP. We calculate the stop coannihilation strip in the CMSSM, incorporating Sommerfeld enhancement effects, and explore the relevant phenomenological constraints and phenomenological signatures. In particular, we show that the \\tilde t_1 may weigh several TeV, and its lifetime may be in the nanosecond range, features that are more general than the specific CMSSM scenarios that we study in this paper.

  7. StopWatcher: A Mobile Application to Improve Stop Sign Awareness for Driving Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Tucker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Stop signs are the primary form of traffic control in the United States. However, they have a tendency to be much less effective than other forms of traffic control like traffic lights. This is due to their smaller size, lack of lighting, and the fact that they may become visually obscured from the road. In this paper, we offer a solution to this problem in the form of a mobile application implemented in the Android platform: StopWatcher. It is designed to alert a driver when they are approaching a stop sign using a voice notification system (VNS. A field test was performed in a snowy environment. The test results demonstrate that the application can detect all of the stop signs correctly, even when some of them were obstructed by the snow, which in turn greatly improves the user awareness of stop signs.

  8. Stop consonant discrimination based on human audition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searle, C L; Jacobson, J Z; Rayment, S G

    1979-03-01

    A system for discrimination of stop consonants has been designed on the basis of studies of auditory physiology and psychophysics. The system consists of a one-third octave filter bank as an approximation to auditory tuning curves, a bank of high speed, wide dynamic range envelope detectors, a logarithmic amplifier, and a digital computer for analysis and display. Features, chosen on the basis of psychophysical experiments, are then abstracted, and fed to a discriminant analysis program which decides on the most probable phomene. Discrimination accuracy of about 77% for stop consonants in initial position has been achieved, with a 15-speaker data set.

  9. Neural and behavioral correlates of selective stopping: Evidence for a different strategy adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Carmona, Alberto J; Albert, Jacobo; Hinojosa, José A

    2016-10-01

    The present study examined the neural and behavioral correlates of selective stopping, a form of inhibition that has scarcely been investigated. The selectivity of the inhibitory process is needed when individuals have to deal with an environment filled with multiple stimuli, some of which require inhibition and some of which do not. The stimulus-selective stop-signal task has been used to explore this issue assuming that all participants interrupt their ongoing responses selectively to stop but not to ignore signals. However, recent behavioral evidence suggests that some individuals do not carry out the task as experimenters expect, since they seemed to interrupt their response non-selectively to both signals. In the present study, we detected and controlled the cognitive strategy adopted by participants (n=57) when they performed a stimulus-selective stop-signal task before comparing brain activation between conditions. In order to determine both the onset and the end of the response cancellation process underlying each strategy and to fully take advantage of the precise temporal resolution of event-related potentials, we used a mass univariate approach. Source localization techniques were also employed to estimate the neural underpinnings of the effects observed at the scalp level. Our results from scalp and source level analysis support the behavioral-based strategy classification. Specific effects were observed depending on the strategy adopted by participants. Thus, when contrasting successful stop versus ignore conditions, increased activation was only evident for subjects who were classified as using a strategy whereby the response interruption process was selective to stop trials. This increased activity was observed during the P3 time window in several left-lateralized brain regions, including middle and inferior frontal gyri, as well as parietal and insular cortices. By contrast, in those participants who used a strategy characterized by stopping non

  10. STOP TALKING ! Inhibition of speech is affected by word frequency and dysfunctional impulsivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wery Van Den Wildenberg

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Speaking is a complex natural behavior that most people master very well. Nevertheless, systematic investigation of the factors that affect adaptive control over speech production is relatively scarce. The present experiments quantified and compared inhibitory control over manual and verbal responses using the stop-signal paradigm. In tasks with only two response alternatives, verbal expressions were slower than manual responses, but the stopping latencies of hand and verbal actions were comparable. When engaged in a standard picture-naming task using a large set of pictures, verbal stopping latencies were considerably prolonged. Interestingly, stopping was slower for naming words that are less frequently used compared to words that are used more frequently. These results indicate that adaptive action control over speech production is affected by lexical processing. This notion is compatible with current theories on speech self-monitoring. Finally, stopping latencies varied with individual differences in impulsivity, indicating that specifically dysfunctional impulsivity, and not functional impulsivity, is associated with slower verbal stopping.

  11. BEAM STOP DESIGN METHODOLOGY AND DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SNS BEAM STOP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polsky, Yarom [ORNL; Plum, Michael A [ORNL; Geoghegan, Patrick J [ORNL; Jacobs, Lorelei L [ORNL; Lu, Wei [ORNL; McTeer, Stephen Mark [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The design of accelerator components such as magnets, accelerator cavities and beam instruments tends to be a fairly standardized and collective effort within the particle accelerator community with well established performance, reliability and, in some cases, even budgetary criteria. Beam stop design, by contrast, has been comparatively subjective historically with much more general goals. This lack of rigor has lead to a variety of facility implementations with limited standardization and minimal consensus on approach to development within the particle accelerator community. At the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), for example, there are four high power beam stops in use, three of which have significantly different design solutions. This paper describes the design of a new off-momentum beam stop for the SNS. The technical description of the system will be complemented by a discussion of design methodology. This paper presented an overview of the new SNS HEBT off-momentum beam stop and outlined a methodology for beam stop system design. The new beam stop consists of aluminium and steel blocks cooled by a closed-loop forced-air system and is expected to be commissioned this summer. The design methodology outlined in the paper represents a basic description of the process, data, analyses and critical decisions involved in the development of a beam stop system.

  12. End-Stop Exemplar Based Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Søren I.

    2003-01-01

    An approach to exemplar based recognition of visual shapes is presented. The shape information is described by attributed interest points (keys) detected by an end-stop operator. The attributes describe the statistics of lines and edges local to the interest point, the position of neighboring...

  13. Five Reasons To Stop Saying "Good Job."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Alfie

    2001-01-01

    Offers five reasons to stop use of positive social reinforcement, or praise, with young children. Maintains that praise manipulates children by taking advantage of their need for adult approval and exploits that dependence for adult convenience, creates "praise junkies," steals the child's pride in his or her own accomplishment, reduces interest…

  14. Bystanders Are the Key to Stopping Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett, Sharon; Notar, Charles E.

    2013-01-01

    Bullying is the dominance over another. Bullying occurs when there is an audience. Peer bystanders provide an audience 85% of instances of bullying. If you remove the audience bullying should stop. The article is a review of literature (2002-2013) on the role of bystanders; importance of bystanders; why bystanders behave as they do; resources to…

  15. Car Stopping Distance on a Tabletop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugland, Ole Anton

    2013-01-01

    Stopping distances in car braking can be an intriguing topic in physics teaching. It illustrates some basic principles of physics, and sheds valuable light on students' attitude towards aggressive driving. Due to safety considerations, it can be difficult to make experiments with actual car braking. (Contains 2 figures.)

  16. Approximations for stop-loss reinsurance premiums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnen, Rajko; Albers, Willem/Wim; Kallenberg, W.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    Various approximations of stop-loss reinsurance premiums are described in literature. For a wide variety of claim size distributions and retention levels, such approximations are compared in this paper to each other, as well as to a quantitative criterion. For the aggregate claims two models are use

  17. Approximations for stop-loss reinsurance premiums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnen, Rajko; Albers, Willem; Kallenberg, Wilbert C.M.

    2005-01-01

    Various approximations of stop-loss reinsurance premiums are described in literature. For a wide variety of claim size distributions and retention levels, such approximations are compared in this paper to each other, as well as to a quantitative criterion. For the aggregate claims two models are use

  18. Approximations for stop-loss reinsurance premiums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnen, R.; Albers, W.; Kallenberg, W.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    Various approximations of stop-loss reinsurance premiums are described in literature. For a wide variety of claim size distributions and retention levels, such approximations are compared in this paper to each other, as well as to a quantitative criterion. For the aggregate claims two models are use

  19. The light stop quark with small stop-neutralino difference in the MSSM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milstene, C.; Carena, Marcela S.; Freitas, A.; Finch, A.; Sopczak, A.; Kluge, Hannelies

    2005-12-01

    The MSSM can explain electro-weak symmetry breaking if one scalar top quark (stop) is light. In addition, in this framework, the neutralino is a good dark matter candidate and for small stop-neutralino mass differences dm{sub i} = 30 GeV, co-annihilation plays an important role to match the results from WMAP and SDSS for the relic density in the universe. In this scenario, the stops mainly decays into charm and neutralino, making its discovery difficult at hadron colliders due to background and trigger limitations. They present results for the discovery reach of the ILC for a DM candidate as low as 0(5 GeV) based on a realistic experimental simulation. Moreover, the stop parameters could be measured with high precision.

  20. Broadcasting a Common Message with Variable-Length Stop-Feedback codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trillingsgaard, Kasper Fløe; Yang, Wei; Durisi, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the maximum coding rate achievable over a two-user broadcast channel for the scenario where a common message is transmitted using variable-length stop-feedback codes. Specifically, upon decoding the common message, each decoder sends a stop signal to the encoder, which transmits...... itself in the absence of a square-root penalty in the asymptotic expansion of the maximum coding rate for large blocklengths, a result also known as zero dispersion. In this paper, we show that this speed-up does not necessarily occur for the broadcast channel with common message. Specifically...

  1. A Note on the Stopping Redundancy of Linear Codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-Tao Xia

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we study the stopping sets, stopping distance and stopping redundancy for binary linear codes.Stopping redundancy is a new concept proposed by Schwartz and Vardy recently for evaluating the performance of a linear code under iterative decoding over a binary erasure channel (BEC). Since the exact value of stopping redundancy is difficult to obtain in general, good lower and upper bounds are important. We obtain a new general upper bound on the stopping redundancy of binary linear codes which improves the corresponding results of Schwartz and Vardy.

  2. End-Stop Exemplar Based Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Søren I.

    2003-01-01

    An approach to exemplar based recognition of visual shapes is presented. The shape information is described by attributed interest points (keys) detected by an end-stop operator. The attributes describe the statistics of lines and edges local to the interest point, the position of neighboring int...... interest points, and (in the training phase) a list of recognition names. Recognition is made by a simple voting procedure. Preliminary experiments indicate that the recognition is robust to noise, small deformations, background clutter and partial occlusion.......An approach to exemplar based recognition of visual shapes is presented. The shape information is described by attributed interest points (keys) detected by an end-stop operator. The attributes describe the statistics of lines and edges local to the interest point, the position of neighboring...

  3. Stop codon reassignments in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Natalia N; Schwientek, Patrick; Tripp, H James; Rinke, Christian; Pati, Amrita; Huntemann, Marcel; Visel, Axel; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Rubin, Edward M

    2014-05-23

    The canonical genetic code is assumed to be deeply conserved across all domains of life with very few exceptions. By scanning 5.6 trillion base pairs of metagenomic data for stop codon reassignment events, we detected recoding in a substantial fraction of the >1700 environmental samples examined. We observed extensive opal and amber stop codon reassignments in bacteriophages and of opal in bacteria. Our data indicate that bacteriophages can infect hosts with a different genetic code and demonstrate phage-host antagonism based on code differences. The abundance and diversity of genetic codes present in environmental organisms should be considered in the design of engineered organisms with altered genetic codes in order to preclude the exchange of genetic information with naturally occurring species.

  4. STOP-EVENT-RELATED POTENTIALS FROM INTRACRANIAL ELECTRODES REVEAL A KEY ROLE OF PREMOTOR AND MOTOR CORTICES IN STOPPING ONGOING MOVEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio eMattia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In humans, the ability to withhold manual motor responses seems to rely on a right-lateralized frontal–basal ganglia–thalamic network, including the pre-supplementary motor area and the inferior frontal gyrus. These areas should drive subthalamic nuclei to implement movement inhibition via the hyperdirect pathway. The output of this network is expected to influence those cortical areas underlying limb movement preparation and initiation, i.e. premotor (PMA and primary motor (M1 cortices. Electroencephalographic (EEG studies have shown an enhancement of the N200/P300 complex in the event-related potentials (ERPs when a planned reaching movement is successfully stopped after the presentation of an infrequent stop-signal. PMA and M1 have been suggested as possible neural sources of this ERP complex but, due to the limited spatial resolution of scalp EEG, it is not yet clear which cortical areas contribute to its generation. To elucidate the role of motor cortices, we recorded epicortical ERPs from the lateral surface of the fronto-temporal lobes of five pharmacoresistant epileptic patients performing a reaching version of the countermanding task while undergoing presurgical monitoring. We consistently found a stereotyped ERP complex on a single-trial level when a movement was successfully cancelled. These ERPs were selectively expressed in M1, PMA and Brodmann's area (BA 9 and their onsets preceded the end of the stop process, suggesting a causal involvement in this executive function. Such ERPs also occurred in unsuccessful-stop trials, that is, when subjects moved despite the occurrence of a stop-signal, mostly when they had long reaction times. These findings support the hypothesis that motor cortices are the final target of the inhibitory command elaborated by the frontal–basal ganglia–thalamic network.

  5. Electron mass stopping power in H2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fursa, Dmitry V.; Zammit, Mark C.; Threlfall, Robert L.; Savage, Jeremy S.; Bray, Igor

    2017-08-01

    Calculations of electron mass stopping power (SP) of electrons in H2 have been performed using the convergent close-coupling method for incident electron energies up to 2000 eV. Convergence of the calculated SP has been established by increasing the size of the close-coupling expansion from 9 to 491 states. Good agreement was found with the SP measurements of Munoz et al. [Chem. Phys. Lett. 433, 253 (2007), 10.1016/j.cplett.2006.10.114].

  6. Upgoing stopping muons in Soudan 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kafka, T. [Argonne National Laboratory, University of Minnesota, Tufts University (United States); Oxford University, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (United Kingdom)

    2005-01-15

    A hitherto untapped sector of Soudan-2 data has been examined, consisting of upgoing stopping muons, originating in neutrino interactions within the rock surrounding the detector, and of one-prong neutrino interactions occuring within the detector that can be ambiguous with upgoing tracks. We observe features of the upgoing data that are compatible with the hypothesis of neutrino oscillations, and we do not observe any such features in the downgoing data.

  7. NEW POLIMER SEALING FLUID STOPS MUD LOSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaw Stryczek

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a composition of sealing fluid, prepared from acrylic acid salt water solution Solakryl M. Laboratory test results of technological properties of its modifications with mineral agents are shown. A new method of sealing mud loss operations with given sealing liquid is discussed along with comments on effects of its use for stopping mud loss in case of freeze-well drilling is described (the paper is published in Croatian.

  8. `Stop' that ambulance! New physics at the LHC?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Soo; Rolbiecki, Krzysztof; Sakurai, Kazuki; Tattersall, Jamie

    2014-12-01

    A number of LHC searches now display intriguing excesses. Most prominently, the measurement of the W + W - cross-section has been consistently ˜ 20% higher than the theoretical prediction across both ATLAS and CMS for both 7 and 8 TeV runs. More recently, supersymmetric searches for final states containing two or three leptons have also seen more events than predicted in certain signal regions. We show that a supersymmetric model containing a light stop, winos and binos can consistently match the data. We perform a fit to all measurements and searches that may be sensitive to our model and find a reduction in the log-likelihood of 15.4 compared to the Standard Model which corresponds to 3.5- σ once the extra degrees of freedom in the fit are considered.

  9. Light stops emerging in WW cross section measurements?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolbiecki, Krzysztof [IFT-UAM/CSIC, Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Fisica Teorica; Sakurai, Kazuki [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    Recent ATLAS and CMS measurements show a slight excess in the WW cross section measurement. While still consistent with the Standard Model within 1-2{sigma}, the excess could be also a first hint of physics beyond the Standard Model. We argue that this effect could be attributed to the production of scalar top quarks within supersymmetric models. The stops of m{sub t{sub 1}}{proportional_to}200 GeV has the right cross section and under some assumptions can significantly contribute to the final state of two leptons and missing energy. We scan this region of parameter space to find particle masses preferred by the WW cross section measurements. Taking one sample benchmark point we show that it can be consistent with low energy observables and Higgs sector measurements and propose a method to distinguish supersymmetric signal from the Standard Model contribution.

  10. `Stop' that ambulance! New physics at the LHC?

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Jong Soo; Sakurai, Kazuki; Tattersall, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    A number of LHC searches now display intriguing excesses. Most prominently, the measurement of the $W^+W^-$ cross-section has been consistently $\\sim 20\\%$ higher than the theoretical prediction across both ATLAS and CMS for both 7 and 8 TeV runs. More recently, supersymmetric searches for final states containing two or three leptons have also seen more events than predicted in certain signal regions. We show that a supersymmetric model containing a light stop, winos and binos can consistently match the data. We perform a fit to all measurements and searches that may be sensitive to our model and find a reduction in the log-likelihood of 13.3 compared to the Standard Model which corresponds to 3.2-$\\sigma$ once the extra degrees of freedom in the fit are considered.

  11. Measuring lifetimes of long-lived charged massive particles stopped in LHC detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Shoji; Hamaguchi, Koichi; Shirai, Satoshi

    2009-10-02

    Long-lived charged massive particles (CHAMPs) appear in various particle physics models beyond the standard model. In this Letter, we discuss the prospects for studying the stopping and decaying events of such long-lived CHAMPs at the LHC detectors, and show that the lifetime measurement (and the study of decay products) is possible with the LHC detectors for a wide range of the lifetime O(0.1)-O(10(10)) sec, by using periods of no pp collision. Even a short lifetime of order 1 sec can be measured by (i) identifying the stopping event with the on-line event filter, (ii) immediately making a beam-dump signal which stops the pp collision of the LHC, and at the same time (iii) changing the trigger menu to optimize it for the detection of a CHAMP decay in the calorimeter. Other possibilities are also discussed.

  12. Bucket shaking stops bunch dancing in Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burov, A.; Tan, C.Y.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    Bunches in Tevatron are known to be longitudinally unstable: their collective oscillations, also called dancing bunches, persist without any signs of decay. Typically, a damper is used to stop these oscillations, but recently, it was theoretically predicted that the oscillations can be stabilized by means of small bucket shaking. Dedicated measurements in Tevatron have shown that this method does stop the dancing. According to predictions of Refs. [2,3], the flattening of the bunch distribution at low amplitudes should make the bunch more stable against LLD. An experiment has been devised to flatten the distribution by modulating the RF phase at the low-amplitude synchrotron frequency for a few degrees of amplitude. These beam studies show that stabilisation really happens. After several consecutive shakings, the dancing disappears and the resulting bunch profile becomes smoother at the top. Although not shown in this report, sometimes a little divot forms at the centre of the distribution. These experiments confirm that resonant RF shaking flattens the bunch distribution at low amplitudes, and the dancing stops.

  13. The cryogenic gas stopping cell of SHIPTRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droese, C., E-mail: christian.droese1@uni-greifswald.de [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität, Felix-Hausdorff-Straße 6, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Helmholtz-Institut Mainz, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Eliseev, S.; Blaum, K. [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Block, M.; Herfurth, F. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Laatiaoui, M. [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Lautenschläger, F. [Technische Universität Darmstadt, Pankratiusstraße 2, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Minaya Ramirez, E. [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Schweikhard, L. [Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität, Felix-Hausdorff-Straße 6, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Simon, V.V. [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Thirolf, P.G. [Ludwig Maximilians-Universität München, Am Coulombwall 1, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2014-11-01

    The overall efficiency of the Penning-trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP at GSI Darmstadt, employed for high-precision mass measurements of exotic nuclei in the mass region above fermium, is presently mostly limited by the stopping and extraction of fusion-evaporation products in the SHIPTRAP gas cell. To overcome this limitation a second-generation gas cell with increased stopping volume was designed. In addition, its operation at cryogenic temperatures leads to a higher gas density at a given pressure and an improved cleanliness of the helium buffer gas. Here, the results of experiments with a {sup 219}Rn recoil ion source are presented. An extraction efficiency of 74(3)% was obtained, a significant increase compared to the extraction efficiency of 30% of the present gas stopping cell operated at room temperature. The optimization of electric fields and other operating parameters at room as well as cryogenic temperatures is described in detail. Furthermore, the extraction time of {sup 219}Rn ions was determined for several operating parameters.

  14. Stopped-Rotor Cyclocopter for Venus Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husseyin, Sema; Warmbrodt, William G.

    2016-01-01

    The cyclocopter system can use two or more rotating blades to create lift, propulsion and control. This system is explored for its use in a mission to Venus. Cyclocopters are not limited to speed and altitude and can provide 360 degrees of vector thrusting which is favorable for good maneuverability. The novel aspect of this study is that no other cyclocopter configuration has been previously proposed for Venus or any (terrestrial or otherwise) exploration application where the cyclocopters rotating blades are stopped, and act as fixed wings. The design considerations for this unique planetary aerial vehicle are discussed in terms of implementing the use of a cyclorotor blade system combined with a fixed wing and stopped rotor mechanism. This proposed concept avoids many of the disadvantages of conventional-rotor stopped-rotor concepts and accounts for the high temperature, pressure and atmospheric density present on Venus while carrying out the mission objectives. The fundamental goal is to find an ideal design that implements the combined use of cyclorotors and fixed wing surfaces. These design concepts will be analyzed with the computational fluid dynamics tool RotCFD for aerodynamic assessment. Aspects of the vehicle design is 3D printed and tested in a small water tunnel or wind tunnel.

  15. Ion stopping powers and CT numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyers, Michael F; Sardesai, Milind; Sun, Sean; Miller, Daniel W

    2010-01-01

    One of the advantages of ion beam therapy is the steep dose gradient produced near the ion's range. Use of this advantage makes knowledge of the stopping powers for all materials through which the beam passes critical. Most treatment planning systems calculate dose distributions using depth dose data measured in water and an algorithm that converts the kilovoltage X-ray computed tomography (CT) number of a given material to its linear stopping power relative to water. Some materials present in kilovoltage scans of patients and simulation phantoms do not lie on the standard tissue conversion curve. The relative linear stopping powers (RLSPs) of 21 different tissue substitutes and positioning, registration, immobilization, and beamline materials were measured in beams of protons accelerated to energies of 155, 200, and 250 MeV; carbon ions accelerated to 290 MeV/n; and iron ions accelerated to 970 MeV/n. These same materials were scanned with both kilovoltage and megavoltage CT scanners to obtain their CT numbers. Measured RLSPs and CT numbers were compared with calculated and/or literature values. Relationships of RLSPs to physical densities, electronic densities, kilovoltage CT numbers, megavoltage CT numbers, and water equivalence values converted by a treatment planning system are given. Usage of CT numbers and substitution of measured values into treatment plans to provide accurate patient and phantom simulations are discussed. 2010 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. "Should I stop or should I go? The role of associations and expectancies": Correction to Best et al. (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Reports an error in "Should I stop or should I go? The role of associations and expectancies" by Maisy Best, Natalia S. Lawrence, Gordon D. Logan, Ian P. L. McLaren and Frederick Verbruggen (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 2016[Jan], Vol 42[1], 115-137). In the article, there is an error in Table 3 of the Results and third paragraph of the Results section labeled Test phase. In Experiment 4, the study performed an exploratory post-hoc test of the go reaction times in the training phase, contrasting stop-associated and go-associated items. Control items were excluded. Instead of reporting the results of the full analysis (with all three items types included), the authors incorrectly reported the results of this post-hoc analysis in Table 3 and in the main text. The correct analysis is presented below. Note that all other analyses reported in the tables and main text are correct. The R code shared via Open Research Exeter data repository (http://hdl.handle .net/10871/17735) is also correct. The interaction between image type and block is no longer significant when control items are included (p .094; p .037 for the post-hoc test). (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2015-40003-001.) Following exposure to consistent stimulus-stop mappings, response inhibition can become automatized with practice. What is learned is less clear, even though this has important theoretical and practical implications. A recent analysis indicates that stimuli can become associated with a stop signal or with a stop goal. Furthermore, expectancy may play an important role. Previous studies that have used stop or no-go signals to manipulate stimulus-stop learning cannot distinguish between stimulus-signal and stimulus-goal associations, and expectancy has not been measured properly. In the present study, participants performed a task that combined features of the go/no-go task and the stop-signal task in which the stop-signal

  17. Stopping power of charged particles due to ion wave excitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, H; Muroki, C; Nambu, M

    2002-08-01

    Stopping power due to ion wave excitations is derived for a charged particle moving in a two-component plasma. Unlike previous theories based on ion-acoustic-wave approximation (IAWA), the excitation of short-wavelength ion waves is taken into account. The obtained stopping power has a magnitude larger than that of IAWA. Stopping power at subsonic velocities, where stopping power in IAWA disappears, is even larger than that of supersonic velocities.

  18. Stopping power of charged particles due to ion wave excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, H.; Muroki, C.; Nambu, M.

    2002-08-01

    Stopping power due to ion wave excitations is derived for a charged particle moving in a two-component plasma. Unlike previous theories based on ion-acoustic-wave approximation (IAWA), the excitation of short-wavelength ion waves is taken into account. The obtained stopping power has a magnitude larger than that of IAWA. Stopping power at subsonic velocities, where stopping power in IAWA disappears, is even larger than that of supersonic velocities.

  19. Time-resolved quantitative analysis of CCK1 receptor-induced intracellular calcium increase.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staljanssens, D.; Vos, W.H. De; Willems, P.H.; Camp, J. Van; Smagghe, G.

    2012-01-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a gastrointestinal hormone, which regulates many physiological functions such as satiety by binding to the CCK receptor (CCKR). Molecules, which recognize this receptor can mimic or block CCK signaling and thereby influence CCKR-mediated processes. We have set up a quantitat

  20. Time-resolved quantitative analysis of CCK1 receptor-induced intracellular calcium increase.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staljanssens, D.; Vos, W.H. De; Willems, P.H.; Camp, J. Van; Smagghe, G.

    2012-01-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a gastrointestinal hormone, which regulates many physiological functions such as satiety by binding to the CCK receptor (CCKR). Molecules, which recognize this receptor can mimic or block CCK signaling and thereby influence CCKR-mediated processes. We have set up a

  1. 49 CFR 37.201 - Intermediate and rest stops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Intermediate and rest stops. 37.201 Section 37.201... DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) § 37.201 Intermediate and rest stops. (a) Whenever an OTRB makes an intermediate or rest stop, a passenger with a disability, including an individual using a...

  2. Moments of random sums and Robbins' problem of optimal stopping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gnedin, A.V.; Iksanov, A.

    2011-01-01

    Robbins' problem of optimal stopping is that of minimising the expected rank of an observation chosen by some nonanticipating stopping rule. We settle a conjecture regarding the value of the stopped variable under the rule that yields the minimal expected rank, by embedding the problem in a much

  3. Stop-loss order, unequal means, and more dangerous distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaas, R.; van Heerwaarden, A.E.

    1992-01-01

    Using a sequence of transformations of subsequent cumulative distribution functions, the connections between the following three relations between risks are established: stop-loss order, stop-loss order with equal means, and being more dangerous. By a related technique, stop-loss order is verified b

  4. 33 CFR 183.528 - Fuel stop valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel stop valves. 183.528 Section...) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Equipment Standards § 183.528 Fuel stop valves. (a) Each electrically operated fuel stop valve in a fuel line between the fuel tank and the...

  5. Moments of random sums and Robbins' problem of optimal stopping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gnedin, A.V.; Iksanov, A.

    2011-01-01

    Robbins' problem of optimal stopping is that of minimising the expected rank of an observation chosen by some nonanticipating stopping rule. We settle a conjecture regarding the value of the stopped variable under the rule that yields the minimal expected rank, by embedding the problem in a much mor

  6. Stopping Speech Suppresses the Task-Irrelevant Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Weidong; Oldenkamp, Caitlin L.; Aron, Adam R.

    2012-01-01

    Some situations require one to quickly stop an initiated response. Recent evidence suggests that rapid stopping engages a mechanism that has diffuse effects on the motor system. For example, stopping the hand dampens the excitability of the task-irrelevant leg. However, it is unclear whether this "global suppression" could apply across wider motor…

  7. Start-Stop Test Procedures on the PEMFC Stack Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitzel, Jens; Nygaard, Frederik; Veltzé, Sune

    The test is addressed to investigate the influence on stack durability of a long stop followed by a restart of a stack. Long stop should be defined as a stop in which the anodic compartment is fully filled by air due to stack leakages. In systems, leakage level of the stack is low and time to fil...

  8. 46 CFR 111.103-9 - Machinery stop stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery stop stations. 111.103-9 Section 111.103-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Remote Stopping Systems § 111.103-9 Machinery stop stations. (a) Each forced...

  9. T-cell receptor-induced JNK activation requires proteolytic inactivation of CYLD by MALT1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staal, Jens; Driege, Yasmine; Bekaert, Tine; Demeyer, Annelies; Muyllaert, David; Van Damme, Petra; Gevaert, Kris; Beyaert, Rudi

    2011-05-04

    The paracaspase mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue 1 (MALT1) is central to lymphocyte activation and lymphomagenesis. MALT1 mediates antigen receptor signalling to NF-κB by acting as a scaffold protein. Furthermore, MALT1 has proteolytic activity that contributes to optimal NF-κB activation by cleaving the NF-κB inhibitor A20. Whether MALT1 protease activity is involved in other signalling pathways, and the identity of the relevant substrates, is unknown. Here, we show that T-cell receptors (TCR) activation, as well as overexpression of the oncogenic API2-MALT1 fusion protein, results in proteolytic inactivation of CYLD by MALT1, which is specifically required for c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation and the inducible expression of a subset of genes. These results indicate a novel role for MALT1 proteolytic activity in TCR-induced JNK activation and reveal CYLD cleavage as the underlying mechanism.

  10. From reactive to proactive and selective control: developing a richer model for stopping inappropriate responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, Adam R

    2011-06-15

    A better understanding of the neural systems underlying impulse control is important for psychiatry. Although most impulses are motivational or emotional rather than motoric per se, it is research into the neural architecture of motor response control that has made the greatest strides. This article reviews recent developments in the cognitive neuroscience of stopping responses. Most research of this kind has focused on reactive control-that is, how subjects stop a response outright when instructed by a signal. It is argued that reactive paradigms are limited as models of control relevant to psychiatry. Instead, a set of paradigms is advocated that begins to model proactive inhibitory control-that is, how a subject prepares to stop an upcoming response tendency. Proactive inhibitory control is generated according to the goals of the subject rather than by an external signal, and it can be selectively targeted at a particular response tendency. This may have wider validity than reactive control as an experimental model for stopping inappropriate responses.

  11. Effect of stoppage time on motion of a bus through a sequence of signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    We study the dynamic motion of a bus moving through the series of traffic signals where the bus stops at bus stops during a time. The dynamic state of the bus depends highly on both stoppage time at the bus stop and cycle time of the signal. It is found that the bus motion has two kinds of dynamic states: the one is the normal state and the other is the offset state. In the normal state, the bus stops normally at both bus stops and signals. In the offset state, the bus passes timely through the signal sometimes and the stoppage time at the bus stop is offset against the stopping time at the signal. If the bus speed has the same value as the car speed, the travel time of the bus is consistent with that of the car in the offset state. The region map (phase diagram) is shown for two kinds of dynamic states: the normal and offset states.

  12. On the momentum distribution of particles participating in nuclear stopping

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mandeep Kaur; Suneel Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear stopping is studied as a function of incident energy and charge of the fragment produced in central heavy-ion collisions (HIC) of $^{197}_{79}$Au+$^{197}_{79}$Au and $^{58}_{28}$Ni+$^{58}_{28}$Ni using stopping parameter VARXZ. Various momentum constraints were imposed to get better insight into the stopping. The comparison of measured and calculated values of stopping for protons reveals the significance of these constraints. Maximum stopping is obtained for the particles lying in the lowest range of the momentum distribution at all incident energies.

  13. Method and apparatus to debug an integrated circuit chip via synchronous clock stop and scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellofatto, Ralph E [Ridgefield, CT; Ellavsky, Matthew R [Rochester, MN; Gara, Alan G [Mount Kisco, NY; Giampapa, Mark E [Irvington, NY; Gooding, Thomas M [Rochester, MN; Haring, Rudolf A [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Hehenberger, Lance G [Leander, TX; Ohmacht, Martin [Yorktown Heights, NY

    2012-03-20

    An apparatus and method for evaluating a state of an electronic or integrated circuit (IC), each IC including one or more processor elements for controlling operations of IC sub-units, and each the IC supporting multiple frequency clock domains. The method comprises: generating a synchronized set of enable signals in correspondence with one or more IC sub-units for starting operation of one or more IC sub-units according to a determined timing configuration; counting, in response to one signal of the synchronized set of enable signals, a number of main processor IC clock cycles; and, upon attaining a desired clock cycle number, generating a stop signal for each unique frequency clock domain to synchronously stop a functional clock for each respective frequency clock domain; and, upon synchronously stopping all on-chip functional clocks on all frequency clock domains in a deterministic fashion, scanning out data values at a desired IC chip state. The apparatus and methodology enables construction of a cycle-by-cycle view of any part of the state of a running IC chip, using a combination of on-chip circuitry and software.

  14. Neural - glial circuits : Can Interneurons stop seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadkarni, Suhita; Jung, Peter

    2004-03-01

    Recent progress in neurobiology suggests that astrocytes - through calcium excitability - are active partners to the neurons by integrating their activity and, in turn, regulating synaptic transmission. In a similar fashion neurons and interneurons are the 'Yin and Yang' of the hippocampus. The dichotomy of excitation and inhibition between pyramidal neurons and interneurons plays a crucial role in the function of the neuronal circuit.We consider a model of a pyramidal cell in contact with one synaptic astrocytes. It has been shown that such a circuit - triggered by transient stimulation - can exhibit sustained oscillations ("seizures") for strong coupling. The question we are considering is, under what conditions synaptic inhibition can stop these seizures?

  15. Stop IT Project Failures Through Risk Management

    CERN Document Server

    Remenyi, D

    1999-01-01

    This book is about information systems development failures and how to avoid them. .It considers what goes wrong with information systems development projects and what actions may be taken to avoid potential difficulties.The reduction of the impact,or even the elimination of the problems,is discussed in terms of an information systems risk management programme. Stop I.T.Project failure helps to ensure that IS project managers are successful in helping to deliver application systems. However, IS development risk can never be entirely eliminated and consequently the practitioner needs to bear in

  16. Early Stop Criterion from the Bootstrap Ensemble

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai; Larsen, Jan; Fog, Torben L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of generalization error estimation in neural networks. A new early stop criterion based on a Bootstrap estimate of the generalization error is suggested. The estimate does not require the network to be trained to the minimum of the cost function, as required...... by other methods based on asymptotic theory. Moreover, in contrast to methods based on cross-validation which require data left out for testing, and thus biasing the estimate, the Bootstrap technique does not have this disadvantage. The potential of the suggested technique is demonstrated on various time...

  17. Jojoba could stop the desert creep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-03-25

    The Sahara desert is estimated to be expanding at a rate of 5km a year. The Sudanese government is experimenting with jojoba in six different regions as the bush has the potential to stop this ''desert creep''. The plant, a native to Mexico, is long known for its resistance to drought and for the versatile liquid wax that can be extracted from its seeds. It is estimated that one hectare of mature plants could produce 3000 kg of oil, currently selling at $50 per litre, and so earn valuable foreign currency.

  18. Plasmon damping and proton stopping in jellium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schinner, Andreas (Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Abteilung fuer Atom- und Kernphysik, Johannes Kepler Universitaet, A-4040 Linz (Austria)); Bachlechner, M.E. (Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Johannes Kepler Universitaet, Linz (Austria)); Boehm, H.M. (Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Johannes Kepler Universitaet, Linz (Austria))

    1994-07-01

    Two-pair excitations in a homogeneous electron gas are investigated within screened second order perturbation theory. Based on a suggestion by Ichimaru [K. Utsumi and S. Ichimaru, Phys. Rev. B 22 (1980) 5203] an additional method of obtaining the effective interelectron interaction is presented. A closer inspection of the basic equation, rewritten as a self-consistency problem, justifies the use of static screening within this model. Fit formulae for all main results are made available. Finally, an application of these calculations to the problem of proton stopping in aluminium is presented, which is in good agreement with the experiment. ((orig.))

  19. Plasmon damping and proton stopping in jellium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinner, Andreas; Bachlechner, Martina E.; Böhm, Helga M.

    1994-07-01

    Two-pair excitations in a homogeneous electron gas are investigated within screened second order perturbation theory. Based on a suggestion by Ichimaru [K. Utsumi and S. Ichimaru, Phys. Rev. B 22 (1980) 5203] an additional method of obtaining the effective interelectron interaction is presented. A closer inspection of the basic equation, rewritten as a selfconsistency problem, justifies the use of static screening within this model. Fit formulae for all main results are made available. Finally, an application of these calculations to the problem of proton stopping in aluminium is presented, which is in good agreement with the experiment.

  20. Structural-Thermal-Optical-Performance (STOP) Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognese, Jeffrey; Irish, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will be given at the 26th Annual Thermal Fluids Analysis Workshop (TFAWS 2015) hosted by the Goddard Spaceflight Center (GSFC) Thermal Engineering Branch (Code 545). A STOP analysis is a multidiscipline analysis, consisting of Structural, Thermal and Optical Performance Analyses, that is performed for all space flight instruments and satellites. This course will explain the different parts of performing this analysis. The student will learn how to effectively interact with each discipline in order to accurately obtain the system analysis results.

  1. Do Stops Slow Down Electroweak Bubble Walls?

    CERN Document Server

    John, P

    2001-01-01

    We compute the wall velocity in the MSSM. We therefore generalize the SMequations of motion for bubble walls moving through a hot plasma at theelectroweak phase transition and calculate the friction terms which describethe viscosity of the plasma. We give the general expressions and apply them toa simple model where stops, tops and W bosons contribute to the friction. In awide range of parameters including those which fulfil the requirements ofbaryogenesis we find a wall velocity of order v = 0.001-0.01 much below the SMvalue.

  2. Frame by frame stop motion non-traditional approaches to stop motion animation

    CERN Document Server

    Gasek, Tom

    2011-01-01

    In a world that is dominated by computer images, alternative stop motion techniques like pixilation, time-lapse photography and down-shooting techniques combined with new technologies offer a new, tangible and exciting approach to animation. With over 25 years professional experience, industry veteran, Tom Gasek presents a comprehensive guide to stop motion animation without the focus on puppetry or model animation. With tips, tricks and hands-on exercises, Frame by Frame will help both experienced and novice filmmakers get the most effective results from this underutilized branch of animation

  3. Optimal Stopping and Policyholder Behaviour in Life Insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Kamille Sofie Tågholt

    at the stopping time. First we solve the problem for spectrally negative geometric Lévy process. We derive both static and dynamic solutions which are excess boundary stopping times. Afterwards we solve the problem for a Cramér-Lundberg process with exponential upwards jumps. We derive a statically optimal...... stopping time which is a hitting time of an interval, and we derive a dynamically optimal stopping time which is an excess boundary stopping time. Finally, we derive optimal stopping times to the optimal stopping problem of minimizing the variance conditioned on a lower bound on the mean. In Chapter 4 we...... consider the American put in a Black-Scholes market. We suggest a model for irrational exercises. We model the exercise by a stochastic intensity which depends on the profitability. Our model contains a single parameter which express how strongly the exercise intensity is affected by the profitability...

  4. Optimal Stopping and Policyholder Behaviour in Life Insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Kamille Sofie Tågholt

    at the stopping time. First we solve the problem for spectrally negative geometric Lévy process. We derive both static and dynamic solutions which are excess boundary stopping times. Afterwards we solve the problem for a Cramér-Lundberg process with exponential upwards jumps. We derive a statically optimal...... stopping time which is a hitting time of an interval, and we derive a dynamically optimal stopping time which is an excess boundary stopping time. Finally, we derive optimal stopping times to the optimal stopping problem of minimizing the variance conditioned on a lower bound on the mean. In Chapter 4 we....... This parameter we denote the rationality parameter. We give sufficient conditions and a probabilistic proof that when the rationality parameter increases to infinity the corresponding prices converge to to classical arbitrage-free price. We conclude the chapter with partial differential equations for valuation...

  5. Kinome analysis of receptor-induced phosphorylation in human natural killer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian König

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Natural killer (NK cells contribute to the defense against infected and transformed cells through the engagement of multiple germline-encoded activation receptors. Stimulation of the Fc receptor CD16 alone is sufficient for NK cell activation, whereas other receptors, such as 2B4 (CD244 and DNAM-1 (CD226, act synergistically. After receptor engagement, protein kinases play a major role in signaling networks controlling NK cell effector functions. However, it has not been characterized systematically which of all kinases encoded by the human genome (kinome are involved in NK cell activation. RESULTS: A kinase-selective phosphoproteome approach enabled the determination of 188 kinases expressed in human NK cells. Crosslinking of CD16 as well as 2B4 and DNAM-1 revealed a total of 313 distinct kinase phosphorylation sites on 109 different kinases. Phosphorylation sites on 21 kinases were similarly regulated after engagement of either CD16 or co-engagement of 2B4 and DNAM-1. Among those, increased phosphorylation of FYN, KCC2G (CAMK2, FES, and AAK1, as well as the reduced phosphorylation of MARK2, were reproducibly observed both after engagement of CD16 and co-engagement of 2B4 and DNAM-1. Notably, only one phosphorylation on PAK4 was differentally regulated. CONCLUSIONS: The present study has identified a significant portion of the NK cell kinome and defined novel phosphorylation sites in primary lymphocytes. Regulated phosphorylations observed in the early phase of NK cell activation imply these kinases are involved in NK cell signaling. Taken together, this study suggests a largely shared signaling pathway downstream of distinct activation receptors and constitutes a valuable resource for further elucidating the regulation of NK cell effector responses.

  6. Innate signaling by the C-type lectin DC-SIGN dictates immune responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunnen, den J.; Gringhuis, S.I.; Geijtenbeek, T.B.H.

    2009-01-01

    Effective immune responses depend on the recognition of pathogens by dendritic cells (DCs) through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). These receptors induce specific signaling pathways that lead to the induction of immune responses against the pathogens. It is becoming evident that C-type lectins

  7. Interaction between two stopped light pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yi-Hsin, E-mail: yhchen920@gmail.com; Lee, Meng-Jung, E-mail: yhchen920@gmail.com; Hung, Weilun, E-mail: yhchen920@gmail.com; Yu, Ite A., E-mail: yu@phys.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Physics and Frontier Research Center on Fundamental and Applied Sciences of Matters, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Chen, Ying-Cheng [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 10617, Taiwan and Department of Physics and Frontier Research Center on Fundamental and Applied Sciences of Matters, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yong-Fan [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

    2014-03-05

    The efficiency of a nonlinear optical process is proportional to the interaction time. We report a scheme of all-optical switching based on two motionless light pulses via the effect of electromagnetically induced transparency. One pulse was stopped as the stationary light pulse (SLP) and the other was stopped as stored light. The time of their interaction via the medium can be prolonged and, hence, the optical nonlinearity is greatly enhanced. Using a large optical density (OD) of 190, we achieved a very long interaction time of 6.9 μs. This can be analogous to the scheme of trapping light pulses by an optical cavity with a Q factor of 8×10{sup 9}. With the approach of using moving light pulses in the best situation, a switch can only be activated at 2 photons per atomic absorption cross section. With the approach of employing a SLP and a stored light pulse, a switch at only 0.56 photons was achieved and the efficiency is significantly improved. Moreover, the simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental data and show that the efficiency can be further improved by increasing the OD of the medium. Our work advances the technology in quantum information manipulation utilizing photons.

  8. Randomly Stopped Sums: Models and Psychological Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eSmithson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an approach to modeling the sums of a continuous random variable over a number of measurement occasions when the number of occasions also is a random variable. A typical example is summing the amounts of time spent attending to pieces of information in an information search task leading to a decision to obtain the total time taken to decide. Although there is a large literature on randomly stopped sums in financial statistics, it is largely absent from psychology. The paper begins with the standard modeling approaches used in financial statistics, and then extends them in two ways. First, the randomly stopped sums are modeled as ``life distributions'' such as the gamma or log-normal distribution. A simulation study investigates Type I error rate accuracy and power for gamma and log-normal versions of this model. Second, a Bayesian hierarchical approach is used for constructing an appropriate general linear model of the sums. Model diagnostics are discussed, and three illustrations are presented from real datasets.

  9. When to stop propranolol for infantile hemangioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Lei; Gu, Yifei; Yu, Zhang; Ying, Hanru; Qiu, Yajing; Ma, Gang; Chen, Hui; Jin, Yunbo; Lin, Xiaoxi

    2017-01-01

    There is no definitive conclusion regarding the optimal timing for terminating propranolol treatment for infantile hemangioma (IH). A total of 149 patients who underwent detailed color Doppler ultrasound examination were included in this study. The characteristics and propranolol treatment of all patients were summarized and analyzed. Patients were divided into two groups according to the lesion regression rate. Among the 149 patients, 38 were assigned to the complete regression group, and 111 were assigned to the partial regression group. The age at which propranolol treatment started, duration of follow-up after treatment discontinuation and rate of adverse events were not significantly different between the two groups. The duration of oral propranolol treatment was shorter in the complete regression group. The age at which propranolol was terminated was younger in the complete regression group, and this group had a lower recurrence rate. Propranolol is safe and effective for the treatment of IHs that require intervention, but it should be stopped at an appropriate time, which is determined primarily by the lesion regression rate after propranolol treatment. Ultrasound is helpful in determining when to stop propranolol for IH. PMID:28225076

  10. TRPV1 and PLC Participate in Histamine H4 Receptor-Induced Itch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunyu Jian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Histamine H4 receptor has been confirmed to play a role in evoking peripheral pruritus. However, the ionic and intracellular signaling mechanism of activation of H4 receptor on the dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons is still unknown. By using cell culture and calcium imaging, we studied the underlying mechanism of activation of H4 receptor on the DRG neuron. Immepip dihydrobromide (immepip—a histamine H4 receptor special agonist under cutaneous injection—obviously induced itch behavior of mice. Immepip-induced scratching behavior could be blocked by TRPV1 antagonist AMG9810 and PLC pathway inhibitor U73122. Application of immepip (8.3–50 μM could also induce a dose-dependent increase in intracellular Ca2+ (Ca2+i of DRG neurons. We found that 77.8% of the immepip-sensitized DRG neurons respond to the TRPV1 selective agonist capsaicin. U73122 could inhibit immepip-induced Ca2+ responses. In addition, immepip-induced Ca2+i increase could be blocked by ruthenium red, capsazepine, and AMG9810; however it could not be blocked by TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031. These results indicate that TRPV1 but not TRPA1 is the important ion channel to induce the DRG neurons’ responses in the downstream signaling pathway of histamine H4 receptor and suggest that TRPV1 may be involved in the mechanism of histamine-induced itch response by H4 receptor activation.

  11. An antibody blocking activin type II receptors induces strong skeletal muscle hypertrophy and protects from atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lach-Trifilieff, Estelle; Minetti, Giulia C; Sheppard, KellyAnn; Ibebunjo, Chikwendu; Feige, Jerome N; Hartmann, Steffen; Brachat, Sophie; Rivet, Helene; Koelbing, Claudia; Morvan, Frederic; Hatakeyama, Shinji; Glass, David J

    2014-02-01

    The myostatin/activin type II receptor (ActRII) pathway has been identified to be critical in regulating skeletal muscle size. Several other ligands, including GDF11 and the activins, signal through this pathway, suggesting that the ActRII receptors are major regulatory nodes in the regulation of muscle mass. We have developed a novel, human anti-ActRII antibody (bimagrumab, or BYM338) to prevent binding of ligands to the receptors and thus inhibit downstream signaling. BYM338 enhances differentiation of primary human skeletal myoblasts and counteracts the inhibition of differentiation induced by myostatin or activin A. BYM338 prevents myostatin- or activin A-induced atrophy through inhibition of Smad2/3 phosphorylation, thus sparing the myosin heavy chain from degradation. BYM338 dramatically increases skeletal muscle mass in mice, beyond sole inhibition of myostatin, detected by comparing the antibody with a myostatin inhibitor. A mouse version of the antibody induces enhanced muscle hypertrophy in myostatin mutant mice, further confirming a beneficial effect on muscle growth beyond myostatin inhibition alone through blockade of ActRII ligands. BYM338 protects muscles from glucocorticoid-induced atrophy and weakness via prevention of muscle and tetanic force losses. These data highlight the compelling therapeutic potential of BYM338 for the treatment of skeletal muscle atrophy and weakness in multiple settings.

  12. Stimulus-response mappings shape inhibition processes: a combined EEG-fMRI study of contextual stopping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina F Lavallee

    Full Text Available Humans are rarely faced with one simple task, but are typically confronted with complex stimulus constellations and varying stimulus-relevance in a given situation. Through modifying the prototypical stop-signal task and by combined recording and analysis of electroencephalography (EEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, we studied the effects of stimulus relevance for the generation of a response or its inhibition. Stimulus response mappings were modified by contextual cues, indicating which of two different stimuli following a go stimulus was relevant for stopping. Overall, response inhibition, that is comparing successful stopping to a stop-signal against go-signal related processes, was associated with increased activity in right inferior and left midfrontal regions, as well as increased EEG delta and theta power; however, stimulus-response conditions in which the most infrequent stop-signal was relevant for inhibition, were associated with decreased activity in regions typically involved in response inhibition, as well as decreased activity in the delta and theta bands as compared to conditions wherein the relevant stop-signal frequency was higher. Behaviorally, this (aforementioned condition, which demanded inhibition only from the most infrequent stimulus, was also associated with reduced reaction times and lower error rates. This pattern of results does not align with typical stimulus frequency-driven findings and suggests interplay between task relevance and stimulus frequency of the stop-signal. Moreover, with a multimodal EEG-fMRI analysis, we demonstrated significant parameterization for response inhibition with delta, theta and beta time-frequency values, which may be interpreted as reflecting conflict monitoring, evaluative and/or motor processes as suggested by previous work (Huster et al., 2013; Aron, 2011. Further multimodal results suggest a possible neurophysiological and behavioral benefit under conditions

  13. The coxsackie-adenovirus receptor induces an inflammatory cardiomyopathy independent of viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Stella; Smith, Julie; Caruso, Laura; Balan, Marko; Opavsky, Mary Anne

    2011-05-01

    The coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR) is a viral receptor for Group B coxsackieviruses (CVBs) and adenoviruses. CAR has been linked with the innate immune response to CVB myocarditis, and with activation of inflammatory cells in vitro. We hypothesized that CAR activates signals that promote inflammation in the myocardium independent of viral infection. To test this we conditionally overexpressed murine CAR in cardiomyocytes of adult binary transgenic mice under the control of a tetracycline-responsive (tet-off) α-myosin heavy chain (αMtTA) promoter (mCAR(+)/αMtTA(+) mice). An inflammatory cardiomyopathy developed in both lines generated (6-mCAR(+)/αMtTA(+) and 12-mCAR(+)/αMtTA(+)) following withdrawal of doxycycline. Cardiac CAR was upregulated at 4weeks of age in 6-mCAR(+)/αMtTA(+) mice and induced a mild inflammatory infiltrate (score 1.3 of 4.0±0.3) at 6weeks, with 95% of mice surviving to that time. In the second line, 12-mCAR(+)/αMtTA(+) mice, CAR was upregulated in the majority of mice by 3weeks of age, and by 5weeks of age more severe cardiac inflammation (score 2.8 of 4.0±0.4) developed with only 56% of mice surviving. The cardiac inflammatory infiltrate was primarily natural killer cells and macrophages in both mCAR(+)/αMtTA(+) lines. A proinflammatory cytokine response with increased cardiac interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-12, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α and IL-6 was detected by real-time RT-PCR. CAR has been linked to signaling via the inflammatory mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades; therefore, we evaluated the response of these pathways in hearts with upregulated CAR. Both stress-activated JNK and p38MAPK were activated in mCAR(+)/αMtTA(+) hearts prior to onset of inflammation and in isolated mCAR(+)/αMtTA(+) cardiomyocytes. In conclusion, we show for the first time that CAR upregulation in the adult mouse heart induces cardiac inflammation reminiscent of early viral myocarditis. CAR-induced stress-activated MAPK

  14. Mas receptor is involved in the estrogen-receptor induced nitric oxide-dependent vasorelaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrino, Agua; Vallejo, Susana; Novella, Susana; Lázaro-Franco, Macarena; Mompeón, Ana; Bueno-Betí, Carlos; Walther, Thomas; Sánchez-Ferrer, Carlos; Peiró, Concepción; Hermenegildo, Carlos

    2017-04-01

    The Mas receptor is involved in the angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7) vasodilatory actions by increasing nitric oxide production (NO). We have previously demonstrated an increased production of Ang-(1-7) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) exposed to estradiol (E2), suggesting a potential cross-talk between E2 and the Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor axis. Here, we explored whether the vasoactive response and NO-related signalling exerted by E2 are influenced by Mas. HUVEC were exposed to 10nM E2 for 24h in the presence or absence of the selective Mas receptor antagonist A779, and the estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist ICI182780 (ICI). E2 increased Akt and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) mRNA and protein expression, measured by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. Furthermore, E2 increased Akt activity (determined by the levels of phospho-Ser(473)) and eNOS activity (by the enhanced phosphorylation of Ser(1177), the activated form), resulting in increased NO production, which was measured by the fluorescence probe DAF-2-FM. These signalling events were dependent on ER and Mas receptor activation, since they were abolished in the presence of ICI or A779. In ex-vivo functional experiments performed with a small-vessel myograph in isolated mesenteric vessels from wild-type mice pre-contracted with noradrenaline, the relaxant response to physiological concentrations of E2 was blocked by ICI and A779, to the same extent to that obtained in the vessels isolated from Mas-deficient. In conclusion, E2 induces NO production and vasodilation through mechanisms that require Mas receptor activation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Intelligent Bus Stops in the Flexible Bus Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razi Iqbal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to discuss Intelligent Bus Stops in a special Demand Responsive Transit (DRT, the Flexible Bus System. These Intelligent Bus Stops are more efficient and information rich than Traditional Bus Stops. The real time synchronization of the Flexible Bus System makes it unique as compared to Traditional Bus Systems. The Main concern is to make Bus Stops intelligent and information rich. Buses are informed about the no. of passengers waiting at the upcoming Bus Stops. If there are no passengers to ride or get off on upcoming Bus Stop, the Bus can skip that Bus Stop and head towards the next Bus Stop where passenger is waiting, which will decrease the ride time of the passengers on the Bus and also the wait time of the passengers waiting on the upcoming Bus Stops. Providing more information at Bus Stops about the Destination (Time to Destination, Distance to Destination etc. and Buses (Bus Location, Arrival Time of Bus etc. makes it easier for the passengers to decide whether to ride a particular Bus or not.

  16. Drivers' smart advisory system improves driving performance at STOP sign intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available STOP signs are often physically blocked by obstacles at the corner, forming a safety threat. To enhance the safety at an un-signalized intersection like a STOP sign intersection, a radio frequency identification (RFID based drivers smart advisory system (DSAS was developed, which provides drivers with an earlier warning message when they are approaching an un-signalized intersection. In this research, a pilot field test was conducted with the DSAS alarm on an approach towards a STOP sign intersection in a residential area in Houston, Texas. The designed test route covers all turning movements, including left turn, through movement, and right turn. GPS units recorded test drivers' driving behaviors. A self-developed MATLAB program and statistically significant difference t-test were applied to analyze the impacts of the DSAS messages on drivers' driving performance, in terms of approaching speed profile, acceleration/deceleration rates, braking distance, and possible extra vehicle emissions induced by the introduction of the DSAS message. Drivers' preference on the DSAS was investigated by a designed survey questionnaire among test drivers. Results showed that the DSAS alarm was able to induce drivers to drive significantly slower to approach a STOP sign intersection, perform smaller fluctuation in acceleration/deceleration rates, and be more aware of a coming STOP sign indicated by decelerating earlier. All test drivers preferred to follow the DSAS alarm on roads for a safety concern. Further, the DSAS alarm caused the reduction in emission rates through movement. For a general observation, more road tests with more participants and different test routes were recommended.

  17. 49 CFR 236.515 - Visibility of cab signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Visibility of cab signals. 236.515 Section 236.515..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Standards § 236.515 Visibility of cab signals. The cab signals...

  18. Scan Quantum Mechanics: Quantum Inertia Stops Superposition

    CERN Document Server

    Gato-Rivera, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    A novel interpretation of the quantum mechanical superposition is put forward. Quantum systems scan all possible available states and switch randomly and very rapidly among them. The longer they remain in a given state, the larger the probability of the system to be found in that state during a measurement. A crucial property that we postulate is quantum inertia, that increases whenever a constituent is added, or the system is perturbed with all kinds of interactions. Once the quantum inertia $I_q$ reaches a critical value $I_{cr}$ for an observable, the switching among the different eigenvalues of that observable stops and the corresponding superposition comes to an end. Consequently, increasing the mass, temperature, gravitational force, etc. of a quantum system increases its quantum inertia until the superposition of states disappears for all the observables and the system transmutes into a classical one. The process could be reversible decreasing the size, temperature, gravitational force, etc. leading to...

  19. The phase effect of electronic stopping power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MaZhong-Quan; ZhengYu-Feng

    1998-01-01

    A corrective factor(φ(E,ρ)≤1) dependent on ion energy and mass density of material for energy loss has been introduced into Bethe-Bloch formula,so that the energy deposition process of fast ion penetrating through the allotropic solid films are well discussed with the two-component assumption.An analysis expression of electronic stopping power for different phase structures has been derived from the contribution of "valence ”and “Core” electrons.The two thirds of inelastic scattering arisen from valence electron was revealed by comparing the theoretical calculation and experimental results on both random and oriented lattice site.THe corrective factor representative to the role of inner electrons increases with the projectile energy but decreases with mass density of solids.

  20. 20 CFR 662.430 - Under what conditions may One-Stop operators designated to operate in a One-Stop delivery system...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... designated to operate in a One-Stop delivery system established prior to the enactment of WIA be designated... DESCRIPTION OF THE ONE-STOP SYSTEM UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT One-Stop Operators § 662.430 Under what conditions may One-Stop operators designated to operate in a One-Stop delivery system...

  1. Report on the first VLHC photon stop cryogenic design experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Geynisman, M; Bossert, R; Darve, C; Ewald, K D; Klebaner, A; Limon, P; Martínez, A

    2004-01-01

    As part of Fermilab's study of a Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC), a water-cooled photon stop was proposed as a device to intercept the synchrotron radiation emitted by the high-energy proton beams in the high-field superconducting magnets with minimal plug-cooling power. Photon stops are radiation absorbers operating at room temperature that protrude into the beam tube at the end of each bending magnet to scrape the synchrotron light emitted by the beam one magnet up- stream. Among the technological challenges regarding photon stops is their cryo-design. The photon stop is water-cooled and operates in a cryogenic environment. A careful cryo-design is therefore essential to enable operation at minimum heat transfer between the room temperature sections and the cryogenic parts. A photon stop cryo- design was developed and a prototype was built. This paper presents the results of the cryogenic experiments conducted on the first VLHC photon-stop prototype.

  2. Moments of random sums and Robbins' problem of optimal stopping

    CERN Document Server

    Gnedin, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Robbins' problem of optimal stopping asks one to minimise the expected {\\it rank} of observation chosen by some nonanticipating stopping rule. We settle a conjecture regarding the {\\it value} of the stopped variable under the rule optimal in the sense of the rank, by embedding the problem in a much more general context of selection problems with the nonanticipation constraint lifted, and with the payoff growing like a power function of the rank.

  3. Car Delay Model near Bus Stops with Mixed Traffic Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Xiaobao; Huan Mei; Gao Ziyou

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a model for estimating car delays at bus stops under mixed traffic using probability theory and queuing theory. The roadway is divided to serve motorized and nonmotorized traffic streams. Bus stops are located on the nonmotorized lanes. When buses dwell at the stop, they block the bicycles. Thus, two conflict points between car stream and other traffic stream are identified. The first conflict point occurs as bicycles merge to the motorized lane to avoid waiting behind the...

  4. Type I Insulin-like Growth Factor Receptor Induces Pulmonary Tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolle M. Linnerth

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite the type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-IR being highly expressed in more than 80% of human lung tumors, a transgenic model of IGF-IR overexpression in the lung has not been created. We produced two novel transgenic mouse models in which IGF-IR is overexpressed in either lung type II alveolar cells (surfactant protein C [SPC]-IGFIR or Clara cells (CCSP-IGFIR in a doxycycline-inducible manner. Overexpression of IGF-IR in either cell type caused multifocal adenomatous alveolar hyperplasia with papillary and solid adenomas. These tumors expressed thyroid transcription factor 1 and Kruppel-like factor 5 in most tumor cells. Similar to our previous work with lung tumors that developed in the mouse mammary tumor virus-IGF-II transgenic mice, the lung tumors that develop in the SPC-IGFIR and CCSP-IGFIR transgenic mice expressed high levels of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein that was localized primarily to the nucleus. Although elevated IGF-IR expression can initiate lung tumor development, tumors can become independent of IGF-IR signaling as IGF-IR down-regulation in established tumors produced tumor regression in some, but not all, of the tumors. These findings implicate IGF-IR as an important initiator of lung tumorigenesis and suggest that the SPC-IGFIR and CCSP-IGFIR transgenic mice can be used to further our understanding of human lung cancer and the role IGF-IR plays in this disease.

  5. KCTD Hetero-oligomers Confer Unique Kinetic Properties on Hippocampal GABAB Receptor-Induced K+ Currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzius, Thorsten; Turecek, Rostislav; Seddik, Riad; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Tiao, Jim; Rem, Pascal D; Metz, Michaela; Kralikova, Michaela; Bouvier, Michel; Gassmann, Martin; Bettler, Bernhard

    2017-02-01

    GABAB receptors are the G-protein coupled receptors for the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, GABA. GABAB receptors were shown to associate with homo-oligomers of auxiliary KCTD8, KCTD12, KCTD12b, and KCTD16 subunits (named after their T1 K(+)-channel tetramerization domain) that regulate G-protein signaling of the receptor. Here we provide evidence that GABAB receptors also associate with hetero-oligomers of KCTD subunits. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments indicate that two-thirds of the KCTD16 proteins in the hippocampus of adult mice associate with KCTD12. We show that the KCTD proteins hetero-oligomerize through self-interacting T1 and H1 homology domains. Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer measurements in live cells reveal that KCTD12/KCTD16 hetero-oligomers associate with both the receptor and the G-protein. Electrophysiological experiments demonstrate that KCTD12/KCTD16 hetero-oligomers impart unique kinetic properties on G-protein-activated Kir3 currents. During prolonged receptor activation (one min) KCTD12/KCTD16 hetero-oligomers produce moderately desensitizing fast deactivating K(+) currents, whereas KCTD12 and KCTD16 homo-oligomers produce strongly desensitizing fast deactivating currents and nondesensitizing slowly deactivating currents, respectively. During short activation (2 s) KCTD12/KCTD16 hetero-oligomers produce nondesensitizing slowly deactivating currents. Electrophysiological recordings from hippocampal neurons of KCTD knock-out mice are consistent with these findings and indicate that KCTD12/KCTD16 hetero-oligomers increase the duration of slow IPSCs. In summary, our data demonstrate that simultaneous assembly of distinct KCTDs at the receptor increases the molecular and functional repertoire of native GABAB receptors and modulates physiologically induced K(+) current responses in the hippocampus.

  6. Intracranial electroencephalography reveals different temporal profiles for dorsal- and ventro-lateral prefrontal cortex in preparing to stop action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, Nicole C; Tandon, Nitin; Pieters, Thomas A; Aron, Adam R

    2013-10-01

    Preparing to stop an inappropriate action requires keeping in mind the task goal and using this to influence the action control system. We tested the hypothesis that different subregions of prefrontal cortex show different temporal profiles consistent with dissociable contributions to preparing-to-stop, with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) representing the task goal and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) implementing action control. Five human subjects were studied using electrocorticography recorded from subdural grids over right lateral frontal cortex. On each trial, a task cue instructed the subject whether stopping might be needed or not (Maybe Stop [MS] or No Stop [NS]), followed by a go cue, and on some MS trials, a subsequent stop signal. We focused on go trials, comparing MS with NS. In the DLPFC, most subjects had an increase in high gamma activity following the task cue and the go cue. In contrast, in the VLPFC, all subjects had activity after the go cue near the time of the motor response on MS trials, related to behavioral slowing, and significantly later than the DLPFC activity. These different temporal profiles suggest that DLPFC and VLPFC could have dissociable roles, with DLPFC representing task goals and VLPFC implementing action control.

  7. An Analysis and Prevention of Stop Marks in Weaving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ge; LIN Shen; CHEN Ming

    2002-01-01

    The cause of stop marks of fabrics in weaving is introduced, and the floating displacement of the cloth fell during loom stoppage is a primary cause of stop marks. The stop marks caused by fabric system are analyzed. A new method to eliminate stop marks by using the electronic let-off system is presented. This new method needn't any special detecting equipment, it can control the fell position by the powerful control program,so the cost is decreased greatly. The method is so flexible that can be applied to weaving all kinds of fabrics.

  8. Measuring the Stop Mixing Angle at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Rolbiecki, Krzysztof; Moortgat-Pick, Gudrid

    2009-01-01

    We present a method to determine the stop mixing angle and its CP-violating phase at the LHC. As an observable we use ratios of branching ratios for different decay modes of the light stop ~t_1 to charginos and neutralinos. These observables can have a very strong dependence on the parameters of the stop sector. We discuss in detail the origin of these effects. Using various combinations of the ratios of branching ratios we show that, depending on the scenario, one can achieve accuracies in the range of a few percent for determining the light stop mass, the mixing angle and the CP phase.

  9. Electronic stopping power of hydrogen in KCl at the stopping maximum and at very low energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primetzhofer, D.; Markin, S. N.; Bauer, P.

    2011-10-01

    The electronic energy loss of hydrogen ions in KCl was investigated in a wide energy range. Thin films of KCl were evaporated on an Au/Si substrate. Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) was performed with protons and deuterons at energies from 30 to 400 keV/nucleon. At lower energies experiments were performed by Time-Of-Flight Low energy ion scattering (TOF-LEIS) again with proton and deuteron projectiles. Experimental results are compared to calculated/tabulated values for the electronic energy loss. Whereas at energies beyond the stopping maximum very good agreement is found, at lower ion energies discrepancies between experiment and calculations increase. At very low ion velocities the extrapolated stopping cross section ɛ predicts vanishing electronic energy loss at energies below 100 eV/nucleon.

  10. Unraveling a three-step spatiotemporal mechanism of triggering of receptor-induced Nipah virus fusion and cell entry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Liu

    Full Text Available Membrane fusion is essential for entry of the biomedically-important paramyxoviruses into their host cells (viral-cell fusion, and for syncytia formation (cell-cell fusion, often induced by paramyxoviral infections [e.g. those of the deadly Nipah virus (NiV]. For most paramyxoviruses, membrane fusion requires two viral glycoproteins. Upon receptor binding, the attachment glycoprotein (HN/H/G triggers the fusion glycoprotein (F to undergo conformational changes that merge viral and/or cell membranes. However, a significant knowledge gap remains on how HN/H/G couples cell receptor binding to F-triggering. Via interdisciplinary approaches we report the first comprehensive mechanism of NiV membrane fusion triggering, involving three spatiotemporally sequential cell receptor-induced conformational steps in NiV-G: two in the head and one in the stalk. Interestingly, a headless NiV-G mutant was able to trigger NiV-F, and the two head conformational steps were required for the exposure of the stalk domain. Moreover, the headless NiV-G prematurely triggered NiV-F on virions, indicating that the NiV-G head prevents premature triggering of NiV-F on virions by concealing a F-triggering stalk domain until the correct time and place: receptor-binding. Based on these and recent paramyxovirus findings, we present a comprehensive and fundamentally conserved mechanistic model of paramyxovirus membrane fusion triggering and cell entry.

  11. Stopping rules employing response rates, time to progression, and early progressive disease for phase II oncology trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goffin John R

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Response rate (RR, the most common early means of assessing oncology drugs, is not suitable as the sole endpoint for phase II trials of drugs which induce disease stability but not regression. Time to progression (TTP may be more sensitive to such agents, but induces recruitment delays in multistage studies. Early progressive disease (EPD is the earliest signal of time to progression, but is less intuitive to investigators, To study drugs with unknown anti-tumour effect, we designed the Combination Stopping Rule (CSR, which allows investigators to establish a hypothesis using RR and TTP, while the program also employs early progressive disease (EPD to assess for drug inactivity during the first stage of study accrual. Methods A computer program was created to generate stopping rules based on specified error rates, trial size, and RR and median TTP of interest and disinterest for a two-stage phase II trial. Rules were generated for stage II such that the null hypothesis (Hnul was rejected if either RR or TTP met desired thresholds, and accepted if both did not. Assuming an exponential distribution for progression, EPD thresholds were determined based on specified TTP values. Stopping rules were generated for stage I such that Hnul was accepted and the study stopped if both RR and EPD were unacceptable. Results Patient thresholds were generated for RR, median TTP, and EPD which achieved specified error rates and which allowed early stopping based on RR and EPD. For smaller proportional differences between interesting and disinteresting values of RR or TTP, larger trials are required to maintain alpha error, and early stopping is more common with a larger first stage. Conclusion Stopping rules are provided for phase II trials for drugs which have either a desirable RR or TTP. In addition, early stopping can be achieved using RR and EPD.

  12. Driving While Non-White: Exploring Traffic Stops and Post-Stop Activities in North Carolina, 2005-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron D. Lippard

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Research has established that Blacks face disproportionate amounts of traffic stops, searches, and arrests by police compared to Whites. However, few studies have ventured past the Black-White dichotomy and considered how Hispanics or other minorities may face the same disparities, especially in places where the Hispanic population has dramatically increased in recent years. Using traffic stop and post-stop data compiled by the North Carolina Department of Justice from 2005 to 2009, this study explored whether Hispanics, Blacks, as well as other racial minorities experienced a higher likelihood of traffic stops, citations, searches, and arrests compared to Whites within sample of city, county, and state law enforcement agencies. We found that generally all racial and ethnic minority groups face higher rates of traffic stops than Whites by almost every law enforcement agency sampled. We also found that rates of post-stop activities including searches, citations, and arrests are higher for all racial and ethnic minority groups examined compared to Whites, especially for Hispanics. Hispanic and non-White disparities in traffic stops also cannot be explained away when controlling for population size, type of law enforcement agency, or the reason stated for the traffic stop (e.g., DWI, speeding, or investigation. More important, however, is that the rate of searches for racial and ethnic minorities did not necessarily match the rates of citations and arrests minorities receive, suggesting that some stops could be racially or ethnically motivated.

  13. Cornavin station to CERN non-stop in 20 minutes

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2011-01-01

    Following several years of work, the construction of the Jardin Alpin – CERN tramline is almost complete, and the first tram is due to arrive at CERN on 30 April. Celebrations to mark the occasion will be held in Meyrin-Village and at CERN.   First tests of the overhead lines, signals, and tracks on the stretch between Jardin-Alpin and CERN on 7 April 2011. From 30 April onwards you will be able to travel from Cornavin station to CERN non-stop in 20 minutes using the No. 18 tram. This is great news, especially when you think that, only four years ago, no part of the stretch between Cornavin and CERN was served by a tramline. At present, if you want to travel between CERN and the city centre by public transport, you have to take the No. 14 or the No. 16 tram and the No. 56 bus, changing at Meyrin-Gravière, where you sometimes have quite a long wait. On 30 April all this will be a thing of the past! The construction work for the Geneva-CERN tramline began in January 20...

  14. Multidimensional measures of impulsivity in obsessive-compulsive disorder: cannot wait and stop.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Yun Sohn

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Although the relationship between obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD and impulsivity has long been debated, impulsivity has not been systematically examined in clinical samples of OCD. Meanwhile, recent findings suggest that impulsivity is multi-dimensional construct that can be examined through several constructs. Therefore, this study is aimed to evaluate multiple facets of impulsivity in OCD. METHOD: The recruitment includes 80 OCD and 76 healthy control participants. Participants completed a test battery comprising three behavioral tasks of stop signal task (SST, delay discounting task (DDT and balloon analog risk test (BART, and one self-report measure of the Barratt Impulsiveness scale (BIS-11. RESULTS: OCD subjects showed significantly lower stop signal reaction time of SST reflecting higher action impulsivity and higher delay discounting parameter of DDT suggesting increased choice impulsivity but significantly lower adjusted mean pump of BART implying lower risk taking propensity of BART than healthy control. CONCLUSION: Increased Action and choice impulsivity, and decreased risk taking propensities were found in OCD. These findings seem to be consistent with clinical characteristics of OCD such as greater preference for or avoid risky situations (avoidance, inability to wait tension relief may provoke safety behaviors (compulsion and inability to stop already started behaviors (repetition.

  15. Stopping Mass Atrocities: Targeting the Dictator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maartje Weerdesteijn

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The international community has determined it carries the responsibility to protect civilians from atrocity crimes if a state is unable or unwilling to do so. These crimes are often perpetrated in authoritarian regimes where they are legitimized through an exclusionary ideology. A comparative case study of Pol Pot and Milosevic indicates that whether the leader truly believes in the ideology he puts forward or merely uses it instrumentally to manipulate the population, is an important variable, which affects the manner in which third parties can respond effectively to these crimes. While Pol Pot was motivated by his ideological zeal, Milosevic used ideology to create a climate in which mass atrocities could be perpetrated in order to garner further power and prestige. In Max Weber’s terminology, Milosevic was guided by instrumental rationality while Pol Pot acted on the basis of value rationality. This case study compares two crucial moments—Vietnam’s invasion of Cambodia and NATO’s bombing of Serbia when the crisis in Kosovo escalated—to analyze the responsiveness of the two leaders. It is argued that ideological leaders are less responsive than non-ideological leaders to foreign policy measures targeted to stop or mitigate the occurrence of atrocities.

  16. Towards the end of the technical stop

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    After several weeks of hard work, the short technical stop of the LHC accelerator is coming to an end. Following a very intense campaign to repair and retest many thousand high voltage connectors, the upgraded magnet protection system is being commissioned. During this period, the current in the main dipole and quadrupole magnets is carefully increased up to 6kA, required to collide protons at 7TeV centre-of-mass energy. This has been achieved for most of the sectors.   The parameters of the upgraded magnet protection system are accurately calibrated. This operation is needed in order for the magnet protection system to be triggered only when a real problem occurs. The system is now able to detect a transition from superconducting to normal conducting state of the superconducting cable joints between magnets, a necessary condition to operate the magnet system above 2kA. Highly accurate measurements of the joint resistances have been performed by stepping up the current to 5kA. The magnets and the...

  17. Stopping Mass Atrocities: Targeting the Dictator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maartje Weerdesteijn

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The international community has determined it carries the responsibility to protect civilians from atrocity crimes if a state is unable or unwilling to do so. These crimes are often perpetrated in authoritarian regimes where they are legitimized through an exclusionary ideology. A comparative case study of Pol Pot and Milosevic indicates that whether the leader truly believes in the ideology he puts forward or merely uses it instrumentally to manipulate the population, is an important variable, which affects the manner in which third parties can respond effectively to these crimes. While Pol Pot was motivated by his ideological zeal, Milosevic used ideology to create a climate in which mass atrocities could be perpetrated in order to garner further power and prestige. In Max Weber’s terminology, Milosevic was guided by instrumental rationality while Pol Pot acted on the basis of value rationality. This case study compares two crucial moments—Vietnam’s invasion of Cambodia and NATO’s bombing of Serbia when the crisis in Kosovo escalated—to analyze the responsiveness of the two leaders. It is argued that ideological leaders are less responsive than non-ideological leaders to foreign policy measures targeted to stop or mitigate the occurrence of atrocities.

  18. A Method for the Precision Mass Measurement of the Stop Quark at the International Linear Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Ayres; /Chicago U. /Argonne /Zurich U.; Milstene, Caroline; /Fermilab; Schmitt, Michael; /Northwestern U.; Sopczak, Andre; /Lancaster U.

    2007-12-01

    Many supersymmetric models predict new particles within the reach of the next generation of colliders. For an understanding of the model structure and the mechanism(s) of symmetry breaking, it is important to know the masses of the new particles precisely. In this article the measurement of the mass of the scalar partner of the top quark (stop) at an e{sup +}e{sup -} collider is studied. A relatively light stop is motivated by attempts to explain electroweak baryogenesis and can play an important role in dark matter relic density. A method is presented which makes use of cross-section measurements near the pair-production threshold as well as at higher center-of-mass energies. It is shown that this method not only increases the statistical precision, but also greatly reduces the systematic uncertainties, which can be important. numerical results are presented, based on a realistic event simulation, for two signal selection strategies: using conventional selection cuts, and using an Iterative Discriminant Analysis (IDA). The studies indicate that a precision of {Delta}m{sub {bar t}{sub 1}} = 0.42 GeV can be achieved, representing a major improvement over previous studies. While the analysis of stops is particularly challenging due to the possibility of stop hadronization, the general procedure could be applied to the mass measurement of other particles as well. They also comment on the potential of the IDA to discover a stop quark in this scenario, and they revisit the accuracy of the theoretical predictions for the neutralino relic density.

  19. Model Passengers’ Travel Time for Conventional Bus Stop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangzhao Xin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited number of berths can result in a subsequent bus stopping at the upstream of a bus stop when all berths are occupied. When this traffic phenomenon occurs, passengers waiting on the platform usually prefer walking to the stopped bus, which leads to additional walking time before boarding the bus. Therefore, passengers’ travel time consumed at a bus stop is divided into waiting time, additional walking time, and boarding time. This paper proposed a mathematical model for analyzing passengers’ travel time at conventional bus stop based on theory of stochastic service system. Field-measured and simulated data were designated to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model. By analyzing the results, conclusion was conducted that short headway can reduce passengers’ waiting time at bus stop. Meanwhile, the theoretical analysis explained the inefficiency of bus stops with more than three berths from the perspective of passengers’ additional walking time. Additional walking time will increase in a large scale when the number of berths at a bus stop exceedsthe threshold of three.

  20. A stop sign for use in the dark.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griep, D.J.

    1969-01-01

    The present official stop sign for use at night - a red light or a red light in combination with an illuminated white vat-type sign - are not sufficiently for road users. A new stop sign has accordingly been developed, which in daylight looks the same as the existing one - a white disc with red edge

  1. One-Stop Career Centers. ERIC Digest No. 208.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imel, Susan

    Since the introduction of one-stop employment systems, many states have attempted to merge traditional employment and training services to provide consolidated programs and easier customer access to services. The Workforce Investment Act (WIA), passed in 1998, requires the formation of locally based one-stop service delivery systems to deliver…

  2. Tongue-Palate Contact of Perceptually Acceptable Alveolar Stops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alice; Gibbon, Fiona E.; O'Donovan, Cliona

    2013-01-01

    Increased tongue-palate contact for perceptually acceptable alveolar stops has been observed in children with speech sound disorders (SSD). This is a retrospective study that further investigated this issue by using quantitative measures to compare the target alveolar stops /t/, /d/ and /n/ produced in words by nine children with SSD (20 tokens of…

  3. A gas cell for stopping, storing and polarizing radioactive particles

    CERN Document Server

    Sytema, A; Böll, O; Chernowitz, D; Dijck, E A; Grasdijk, J O; Hoekstra, S; Jungmann, K; Mathavan, S C; Meinema, C; Mohanty, A; Müller, S E; Portela, M Nuñez; Onderwater, C J G; Pijpker, C; Willmann, L; Wilschut, H W

    2016-01-01

    A radioactive beam of 20Na is stopped in a gas cell filled with Ne gas. The stopped particles are polarized by optical pumping. The degree of polarization that can be achieved is studied. A maximum polarization of 50% was found. The dynamic processes in the cell are described with a phenomenological model.

  4. Quality of ‘glottal’ stops in tracheoesophageal speakers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossum, M.A.; van As-Brooks, C.J.; Hilgers, F.J.M.; Roozen, M.

    2009-01-01

    Glottal stops are conveyed by an abrupt constriction at the level of the glottis. Tracheoesophageal (TE) speakers are known to have poor control over the new voice source (neoglottis), and this might influence the production of 'glottal' stops. This study investigated how TE speakers realized

  5. Nuclear Stopping:. Paving the way from Rhic to Lhc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalsgaard, Hans Hjersing

    Nuclear stopping has been measured at a range of different energies in heavy ion experiments. In this contribution proton data from the BRAHMS experiment at RHIC running at √ {SNN} = 62.4\\ GeV are presented. Furthermore data from AGS, SPS and RHIC are used to estimate the stopping, energy loss and multiplicity at LHC.

  6. Stopping Drug Abuse. ERIC Digest Series Number EA32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauke, Amy

    This digest discusses the issue of stopping drug abuse as a national priority. Several aspects of the drug abuse issue are covered in question-and-answer format: (1) Why should educators be concerned about drug abuse by students? (2) What are school districts doing to stop drug abuse? (3) What social issues are involved? (4) How can schools plan…

  7. Higgs-stoponium mixing near the stop-antistop threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodwin, Geoffrey T.; Chung, Hee Sok; Wagner, Carlos E. M.

    2017-01-01

    Supersymmetric extensions of the standard model contain additional heavy neutral Higgs bosons that are coupled to heavy scalar top quarks (stops). This system exhibits interesting field theoretic phenomena when the Higgs mass is close to the stop-antistop production threshold. Existing work in the literature has examined the digluon-to-diphoton cross section near threshold and has focused on enhancements in the cross section that might arise either from the perturbative contributions to the Higgs-to-digluon and Higgs-to-diphoton form factors or from mixing of the Higgs boson with stoponium states. Near threshold, enhancements in the relevant amplitudes that go as inverse powers of the stop-antistop relative velocity require resummations of perturbation theory and/or nonperturbative treatments. We present a complete formulation of threshold effects at leading order in the stop-antistop relative velocity in terms of nonrelativistic effective field theory. We give detailed numerical calculations for the case in which the stop-antistop Green's function is modeled with a Coulomb-Schrödinger Green's function. We find several general effects that do not appear in a purely perturbative treatment. Higgs-stop-antistop mixing effects displace physical masses from the threshold region, thereby rendering the perturbative threshold enhancements inoperative. In the case of large Higgs-stop-antistop couplings, the displacement of a physical state above threshold substantially increases its width, owing to its decay width to a stop-antistop pair, and greatly reduces its contribution to the cross section.

  8. [Loosening of a Calcaneo-Stop Screw after Trampolining].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trieb, K; Fingernagel, T; Petershofer, A; Hofstaetter, S G

    2015-06-01

    Flexible flatfoot is a common malalignment in the paediatric population. Arthroereisis with a calcaneo-stop screw is an effective surgical procedure for treating juvenile flexible flatfoot after conservative measures have been fully exploited. In the present report, we describe the case of a loosening of a calcaneo-stop screw in a 12-year-old youth after excessive trampolining.

  9. A gas cell for stopping, storing and polarizing radioactive particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sytema, Auke; van den Berg, Joost; Böll, Oliver; Chernowitz, Daniel; Dijck, Elwin; Grasdijk, Jan; Hoekstra, Steven; Jungmann, Klaus-Peter; Chirayath Mathavan, Sreekanth; Meinema, Jacoba Roelien; Mueller, Stefan E.; Portela, M. N.; Onderwater, Cornelis; Pijpker, Coen; Willmann, Lorenz; Wilschut, H. W.

    2016-01-01

    A radioactive beam of Na-20 is stopped in a gas cell filled with Ne gas. The stopped particles are polarized by optical pumping. The degree of polarization that can be achieved is studied. A maximum polarization of 50% was found. The dynamic processes in the cell are described with a phenomenologica

  10. Stop Consonant Productions of Korean-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sue Ann S.; Iverson, Gregory K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct an acoustic examination of the obstruent stops produced by Korean-English bilingual children in connection with the question of whether bilinguals establish distinct categories of speech sounds across languages. Stop productions were obtained from ninety children in two age ranges, five and ten years:…

  11. Ion Stopping Powers and Ranges Whenever You Need Them

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassler, Niels; Christensen, Casper; Tørresø, Jesper Rosholm

    A new app "Electronic Stopping Power" for Android mobile phones and tablets, looks up stopping powers using the ICRU 49 (protons and alphas) and the revised ICRU 73 (lithium and heavier ions) tables. In addition, also MSTAR and an implementation of the Bethe equation expanded to low energies...

  12. 46 CFR 58.01-25 - Means of stopping machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Means of stopping machinery. 58.01-25 Section 58.01-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MAIN AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-25 Means of stopping machinery. Machinery...

  13. Response inhibition deficits in externalizing child psychiatric disorders: An ERP-study with the Stop-task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich Hartmut

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence from behavioural studies suggests that impaired motor response inhibition may be common to several externalizing child psychiatric disorders, although it has been proposed to be the core-deficit in AD/HD. Since similar overt behaviour may be accompanied by different covert brain activity, the aim of this study was to investigate both brain-electric-activity and performance measures in three groups of children with externalizing child psychiatric disorders and a group of normal controls. Methods A Stop-task was used to measure specific aspects of response inhibition in 10 children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD, 8 children with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD, 11 children with comorbid AD/HD+ODD/CD and 11 normal controls. All children were between 8 and 14 years old. Event-related potentials and behavioural responses were recorded. An initial go-signal related microstate, a subsequent Stop-signal related N200, and performance measures were analyzed using ANCOVA with age as covariate. Results Groups did not differ in accuracy or reaction time to the Go-stimuli. However, all clinical groups displayed reduced map strength in a microstate related to initial processing of the Go-stimulus compared to normal controls, whereas topography did not differ. Concerning motor response inhibition, the AD/HD-only and the ODD/CD-only groups displayed slower Stop-signal reaction times (SSRT and Stop-failure reaction time compared to normal controls. In children with comorbid AD/HD+ODD/CD, Stop-failure reaction-time was longer than in controls, but their SSRT was not slowed. Moreover, SSRT in AD/HD+ODD/CD was faster than in AD/HD-only or ODD/CD-only. The AD/HD-only and ODD/CD-only groups displayed reduced Stop-N200 mean amplitude over right-frontal electrodes. This effect reached only a trend for comorbid AD/HD+ODD/CD. Conclusion Following similar attenuations in initial processing of the Go-signal

  14. Variable-Length Coding with Stop-Feedback for the Common-Message Broadcast Channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trillingsgaard, Kasper Fløe; Yang, Wei; Durisi, Giuseppe;

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the maximum coding rate over a K-user discrete memoryless broadcast channel for the scenario where a common message is transmitted using variable-length stop-feedback codes. Specifically, upon decoding the common message, each decoder sends a stop signal to the encoder...... of these bounds reveal that---contrary to the point-to-point case---the second-order term in the asymptotic expansion of the maximum coding rate decays inversely proportional to the square root of the average blocklength. This holds for certain nontrivial common-message broadcast channels, such as the binary...... symmetric broadcast channel. Furthermore, we identify conditions under which our converse and achievability bounds are tight up to the second order. Through numerical evaluations, we illustrate that our second-order asymptotic expansion approximates accurately the maximum coding rate and that the speed...

  15. Search for stop and higgsino production using diphoton Higgs boson decays

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Bansal, Monika; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Luyckx, Sten; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Heracleous, Natalie; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Keaveney, James; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lowette, Steven; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Favart, Laurent; Gay, Arnaud; Léonard, Alexandre; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Perniè, Luca; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Dildick, Sven; Garcia, Guillaume; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Walsh, Sinead; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Alves, Gilvan; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Martins, Thiago; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Malbouisson, Helena; Malek, Magdalena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santaolalla, Javier; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Lagana, Caio; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Marinov, Andrey; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Plestina, Roko; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Guo, Yifei; Li, Qiang; Li, Wenbo; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Zhang, Linlin; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Mekterovic, Darko; Morovic, Srecko; Tikvica, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Assran, Yasser; Elgammal, Sherif; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Müntel, Mait; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Nayak, Aruna; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Daci, Nadir; Dahms, Torsten; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Florent, Alice; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Sabes, David; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Veelken, Christian; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Juillot, Pierre; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Boudoul, Gaelle; Brochet, Sébastien; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Xiao, Hong; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Bontenackels, Michael; Calpas, Betty; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Hindrichs, Otto; Klein, Katja; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Caudron, Julien; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Erdmann, Martin; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Knutzen, Simon; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Weber, Martin; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Lingemann, Joschka; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Asin, Ivan; Bartosik, Nazar; Behr, Joerg; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bell, Alan James; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Choudhury, Somnath; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dooling, Samantha; Dorland, Tyler; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Gunnellini, Paolo; Habib, Shiraz; Hauk, Johannes; Hellwig, Gregor; Hempel, Maria; Horton, Dean; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kieseler, Jan; Kleinwort, Claus; Krämer, Mira; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Friederike; Perrey, Hanno; Petrukhin, Alexey; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Riedl, Caroline; Ron, Elias; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Saxena, Pooja; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schröder, Matthias; Stein, Matthias; Vargas Trevino, Andrea Del Rocio; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Blobel, Volker; Enderle, Holger; Erfle, Joachim; Garutti, Erika; Goebel, Kristin; Görner, Martin; Gosselink, Martijn; Haller, Johannes; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Lange, Jörn; Lapsien, Tobias; Marchesini, Ivan; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Pietsch, Niklas; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Seidel, Markus; Sibille, Jennifer; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Feindt, Michael; Guthoff, Moritz; Hartmann, Frank; Hauth, Thomas; Held, Hauke; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kornmayer, Andreas; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Martschei, Daniel; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Niegel, Martin; Nürnberg, Andreas; Oberst, Oliver; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Röcker, Steffen; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weiler, Thomas; Wolf, Roger; Zeise, Manuel; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Ntomari, Eleni; Psallidas, Andreas; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Gouskos, Loukas; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Stiliaris, Efstathios; Aslanoglou, Xenofon; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Jones, John; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Karancsi, János; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Ruchi; Kaur, Manjit; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Mittal, Monika; Nishu, Nishu; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Jasbir; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Varun; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Modak, Atanu; Mukherjee, Swagata; Roy, Debarati; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Singh, Anil; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Ganguly, Sanmay; Ghosh, Saranya; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kole, Gouranga; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Behnamian, Hadi; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Jafari, Abideh; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pacifico, Nicola; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Singh, Gurpreet; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Meneghelli, Marco; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Gori, Valentina; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Ferretti, Roberta; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Musenich, Riccardo; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Benaglia, Andrea; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Gerosa, Raffaele; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Martelli, Arabella; Marzocchi, Badder; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Galanti, Mario; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Giubilato, Piero; Gozzelino, Andrea; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Passaseo, Marina; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pegoraro, Matteo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Triossi, Andrea; Ventura, Sandro; Zucchetta, Alberto; Zumerle, Gianni; Gabusi, Michele; Ratti, Sergio P; Riccardi, Cristina; Vitulo, Paolo; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Romeo, Francesco; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiezia, Aniello; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Kraan, Aafke; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Moon, Chang-Seong; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Squillacioti, Paola; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Vernieri, Caterina; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Grassi, Marco; Jorda, Clara; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Soffi, Livia; Traczyk, Piotr; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Casasso, Stefano; Costa, Marco; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Ortona, Giacomo; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Potenza, Alberto; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Tamponi, Umberto; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; La Licata, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Montanino, Damiana; Penzo, Aldo; Schizzi, Andrea; Umer, Tomo; Zanetti, Anna; Chang, Sunghyun; Kim, Tae Yeon; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Ji Eun; Kim, Min Suk; Kong, Dae Jung; Lee, Sangeun; Oh, Young Do; Park, Hyangkyu; Son, Dong-Chul; Kim, Jae Yool; Kim, Zero Jaeho; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Kyong Sei; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Chawon; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Jongseok; Lee, Sungeun; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Martínez-Ortega, Jorge; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Villasenor-Cendejas, Luis Manuel; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Doesburg, Robert; Reucroft, Steve; Ahmad, Muhammad; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Butt, Jamila; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khalid, Shoaib; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Wolszczak, Weronika; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Nguyen, Federico; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Savina, Maria; Shmatov, Sergey; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Bunichev, Viacheslav; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Ekmedzic, Marko; Milosevic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Senghi Soares, Mara; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Brun, Hugues; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Graziano, Alberto; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bendavid, Joshua; Benhabib, Lamia; Benitez, Jose F; Bernet, Colin; Bianchi, Giovanni; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Bondu, Olivier; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Christiansen, Tim; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; Colafranceschi, Stefano; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Guio, Federico; De Roeck, Albert; De Visscher, Simon; Di Guida, Salvatore; Dobson, Marc; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Eugster, Jürg; Franzoni, Giovanni; Funk, Wolfgang; Giffels, Manuel; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Girone, Maria; Giunta, Marina; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Gowdy, Stephen; Guida, Roberto; Hammer, Josef; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Karavakis, Edward; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Magini, Nicolo; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moortgat, Filip; Mulders, Martijn; Musella, Pasquale; Orsini, Luciano; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Perez, Emmanuelle; Perrozzi, Luca; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Plagge, Michael; Racz, Attila; Reece, William; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Santanastasio, Francesco; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Sekmen, Sezen; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Steggemann, Jan; Stieger, Benjamin; Stoye, Markus; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; König, Stefan; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Chanon, Nicolas; Deisher, Amanda; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Dünser, Marc; Eller, Philipp; Grab, Christoph; Hits, Dmitry; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Meister, Daniel; Mohr, Niklas; Nägeli, Christoph; Nef, Pascal; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pape, Luc; Pauss, Felicitas; Peruzzi, Marco; Quittnat, Milena; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Rossini, Marco; Starodumov, Andrei; Takahashi, Maiko; Tauscher, Ludwig; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Treille, Daniel; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Cosa, Annapaola; Favaro, Carlotta; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Kilminster, Benjamin; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Robmann, Peter; Snoek, Hella; Taroni, Silvia; Verzetti, Mauro; Yang, Yong; Cardaci, Marco; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Ferro, Cristina; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Li, Syue-Wei; Lin, Willis; Lu, Yun-Ju; Volpe, Roberta; Yu, Shin-Shan; Bartalini, Paolo; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Dietz, Charles; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Majumder, Devdatta; Petrakou, Eleni; Shi, Xin; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wang, Minzu; Wilken, Rachel; Asavapibhop, Burin; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Mehmet; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Aliev, Takhmasib; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Deniz, Muhammed; Gamsizkan, Halil; Guler, Ali Murat; Karapinar, Guler; Ocalan, Kadir; Ozpineci, Altug; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Bahtiyar, Hüseyin; Barlas, Esra; Cankocak, Kerem; Günaydin, Yusuf Oguzhan; Vardarli, Fuat Ilkehan; Yücel, Mete; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Meng, Zhaoxia; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Williams, Thomas; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Ilic, Jelena; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Baber, Mark; Bainbridge, Robert; Buchmuller, Oliver; Burton, Darren; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Gilbert, Andrew; Guneratne Bryer, Arlo; Hall, Geoffrey; Hatherell, Zoe; Hays, Jonathan; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Kenzie, Matthew; Lane, Rebecca; Lucas, Robyn; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Marrouche, Jad; Mathias, Bryn; Nandi, Robin; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Pioppi, Michele; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rose, Andrew; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Sparrow, Alex; Tapper, Alexander; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wakefield, Stuart; Wardle, Nicholas; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Kasmi, Azeddine; Liu, Hongxuan; Scarborough, Tara; Charaf, Otman; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Heister, Arno; Lawson, Philip; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; Sperka, David; St John, Jason; Sulak, Lawrence; Alimena, Juliette; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Christopher, Grant; Cutts, David; Demiragli, Zeynep; Ferapontov, Alexey; Garabedian, Alex; Heintz, Ulrich; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Luk, Michael; Narain, Meenakshi; Segala, Michael; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Speer, Thomas; Swanson, Joshua; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Kopecky, Alexandra; Lander, Richard; Miceli, Tia; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Rutherford, Britney; Searle, Matthew; Shalhout, Shalhout; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Tripathi, Mani; Wilbur, Scott; Yohay, Rachel; Andreev, Valeri; Cline, David; Cousins, Robert; Erhan, Samim; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Felcini, Marta; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Jarvis, Chad; Rakness, Gregory; Schlein, Peter; Takasugi, Eric; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Babb, John; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Jandir, Pawandeep; Lacroix, Florent; Liu, Hongliang; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Malberti, Martina; Nguyen, Harold; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Sturdy, Jared; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Evans, David; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Sudano, Elizabeth; Tadel, Matevz; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Barge, Derek; Campagnari, Claudio; Danielson, Thomas; Flowers, Kristen; Geffert, Paul; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Magaña Villalba, Ricardo; Mccoll, Nickolas; Pavlunin, Viktor; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; West, Christopher; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Di Marco, Emanuele; Duarte, Javier; Kcira, Dorian; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Rogan, Christopher; Spiropulu, Maria; Timciuc, Vladlen; Wilkinson, Richard; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Jang, Dong Wook; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Drell, Brian Robert; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Eggert, Nicholas; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Hopkins, Walter; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Kaadze, Ketino; Klima, Boaz; Kwan, Simon; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena Ingrid; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Nahn, Steve; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Prokofyev, Oleg; Ratnikova, Natalia; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitbeck, Andrew; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yang, Fan; Yun, Jae Chul; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Cheng, Tongguang; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Dobur, Didar; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Hugon, Justin; Kim, Bockjoo; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Matchev, Konstantin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Shchutska, Lesya; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Snowball, Matthew; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Gaultney, Vanessa; Hewamanage, Samantha; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Chen, Jie; Diamond, Brendan; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Dorney, Brian; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Kurt, Pelin; Moon, Dong Ho; O'Brien, Christine; Silkworth, Christopher; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Duru, Firdevs; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Tan, Ping; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bolognesi, Sara; Fehling, David; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Martin, Christopher; Swartz, Morris; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Sekaric, Jadranka; Stringer, Robert; Wang, Quan; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Barfuss, Anne-Fleur; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Shrestha, Shruti; Svintradze, Irakli; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Ying; Marionneau, Matthieu; Mignerey, Alice; Pedro, Kevin; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Apyan, Aram; Barbieri, Richard; Bauer, Gerry; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Dutta, Valentina; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Gulhan, Doga; Klute, Markus; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Stephans, George; Stöckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Velicanu, Dragos; Veverka, Jan; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Yoon, Sungho; Zanetti, Marco; Zhukova, Victoria; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Gude, Alexander; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Pastika, Nathaniel; Rusack, Roger; Singovsky, Alexander; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Kroeger, Rob; Oliveros, Sandra; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David A; Summers, Don; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Keller, Jason; Knowlton, Dan; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Malik, Sudhir; Meier, Frank; Snow, Gregory R; Dolen, James; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Jain, Supriya; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Haley, Joseph; Massironi, Andrea; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Trocino, Daniele; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Anastassov, Anton; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kubik, Andrew; Lusito, Letizia; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Sung, Kevin; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Berry, Douglas; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Chan, Kwok Ming; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Kolb, Jeff; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Morse, David Michael; Pearson, Tessa; Planer, Michael; Ruchti, Randy; Slaunwhite, Jason; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Antonelli, Louis; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Smith, Geoffrey; Vuosalo, Carl; Winer, Brian L; Wolfe, Homer; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Berry, Edmund; Elmer, Peter; Halyo, Valerie; Hebda, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Hunt, Adam; Jindal, Pratima; Koay, Sue Ann; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Raval, Amita; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Zuranski, Andrzej; Brownson, Eric; Lopez, Angel; Mendez, Hector; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Alagoz, Enver; Benedetti, Daniele; Bolla, Gino; Bortoletto, Daniela; De Mattia, Marco; Everett, Adam; Hu, Zhen; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Kurt; Kress, Matthew; Leonardo, Nuno; Lopes Pegna, David; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Xu, Lingshan; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Parashar, Neeti; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Miner, Daniel Carl; Petrillo, Gianluca; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Malik, Sarah; Mesropian, Christina; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Patel, Rishi; Rekovic, Vladimir; Robles, Jorge; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Seitz, Claudia; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Bouhali, Othmane; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Safonov, Alexei; Sakuma, Tai; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Toback, David; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Kunori, Shuichi; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Mao, Yaxian; Melo, Andrew; Sharma, Monika; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wood, John; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Belknap, Donald; Borrello, Laura; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Duric, Senka; Friis, Evan; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lanaro, Armando; Levine, Aaron; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ross, Ian; Sakharov, Alexandre; Sarangi, Tapas; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H

    2014-04-25

    Results are presented of a search for a "natural" supersymmetry scenario with gauge mediated symmetry breaking. It is assumed that only the supersymmetric partners of the top-quark (stop) and the Higgs boson (higgsino) are accessible. Events are examined in which there are two photons forming a Higgs boson candidate, and at least two b-quark jets. In 19.7 inverse femtobarns of proton-proton collision data at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV, recorded in the CMS experiment, no evidence of a signal is found and lower limits at the 95% confidence level are set, excluding the stop mass below 360 to 410 GeV, depending on the higgsino mass.

  16. ToF-MEIS stopping measurements in thin SiC films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linnarsson, M.K., E-mail: marga@kth.se [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of Information and Communication Technology, Integrated Circuits and Devices, P.O. Box E229, SE-16440 Kista-Stockhom (Sweden); Khartsev, S. [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of Information and Communication Technology, Integrated Circuits and Devices, P.O. Box E229, SE-16440 Kista-Stockhom (Sweden); Primetzhofer, D.; Possnert, G. [Uppsala University, Ångström Laboratory, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Ion Physics, P.O. Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Hallén, A. [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, School of Information and Communication Technology, Integrated Circuits and Devices, P.O. Box E229, SE-16440 Kista-Stockhom (Sweden)

    2014-08-01

    Electronic stopping in thin, amorphous, SiC films has been studied by time-of-flight medium energy ion scattering and conventional Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. Amorphous SiC films (8, 21 and 36 nm) were prepared by laser ablation using a single crystalline silicon carbide target. Two kinds of substrate films, one with a lower atomic mass (carbon) and one with higher atomic mass (iridium) compared to silicon has been used. Monte Carlo simulations have been used to evaluate electronic stopping from the shift in energy for the signal scattered from Ir with and without SiC. The two kinds of samples are used to illustrate the strength and challenges for ToF-MEIS compared to conventional RBS.

  17. Ethanol impairs muscarinic receptor-induced neuritogenesis in rat hippocampal slices: Role of astrocytes and extracellular matrix proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Gennaro; Guizzetti, Marina; Dao, Khoi; Mattison, Hayley A; Costa, Lucio G

    2011-12-01

    In an in vitro co-culture system of astrocytes and neurons, stimulation of cholinergic muscarinic receptors in astrocytes had been shown to cause neuritogenesis in hippocampal neurons, and this effect was inhibited by ethanol. The present study sought to confirm these earlier findings in a more complex system, in vitro rat hippocampal slices in culture. Exposure of hippocampal slices to the cholinergic agonist carbachol (1mM for 24h) induced neurite outgrowth in hippocampal pyramidal neurons, which was mediated by activation of muscarinic M3 receptors. Specifically, carbachol induced a >4-fold increase in the length of the longest neurite, and a 4-fold increase in the length of minor neurites and in the number of branches. Co-incubation of carbachol with ethanol (50mM) resulted in significant inhibition of the effects induced by carbachol on all parameters measured. Neurite outgrowth in CNS neurons is dependent on various permissive factors that are produced and released by glial cells. In hippocampal slices carbachol increased the levels of two extracellular matrix protein, fibronectin and laminin-1, by 1.6-fold, as measured by Western blot. Co-incubation of carbachol with ethanol significantly inhibited these increases. Carbachol-induced increases in levels of extracellular matrix proteins were antagonized by a M3 muscarinic receptor antagonist. Furthermore, function-blocking fibronectin or laminin-1 antibodies antagonized the effect of carbachol on neurite outgrowth. These results indicate that in hippocampal slices stimulation of muscarinic M3 receptors induces neurite outgrowth, which is mediated by fibronectin and laminin-1, two extracellular matrix proteins released by astrocytes. By decreasing fibronectin and laminin levels ethanol prevents carbachol-induced neuritogenesis. These findings highlight the importance of glial-neuronal interactions as important targets in the developmental neurotoxicity of alcohol.

  18. Quantum inertia stops superposition: Scan Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gato-Rivera, Beatriz

    2017-08-01

    Scan Quantum Mechanics is a novel interpretation of some aspects of quantum mechanics in which the superposition of states is only an approximate effective concept. Quantum systems scan all possible states in the superposition and switch randomly and very rapidly among them. A crucial property that we postulate is quantum inertia, that increases whenever a constituent is added, or the system is perturbed with all kinds of interactions. Once the quantum inertia Iq reaches a critical value Icr for an observable, the switching among its different eigenvalues stops and the corresponding superposition comes to an end, leaving behind a system with a well defined value of that observable. Consequently, increasing the mass, temperature, gravitational strength, etc. of a quantum system increases its quantum inertia until the superposition of states disappears for all the observables and the system transmutes into a classical one. Moreover, the process could be reversible. Entanglement can only occur between quantum systems because an exact synchronization between the switchings of the systems involved must be established in the first place and classical systems do not have any switchings to start with. Future experiments might determine the critical inertia Icr corresponding to different observables, which translates into a critical mass Mcr for fixed environmental conditions as well as critical temperatures, critical electric and magnetic fields, etc. In addition, this proposal implies a new radiation mechanism from astrophysical objects with strong gravitational fields, giving rise to non-thermal synchrotron emission, that could contribute to neutron star formation. Superconductivity, superfluidity, Bose-Einstein condensates, and any other physical phenomena at very low temperatures must be reanalyzed in the light of this interpretation, as well as mesoscopic systems in general.

  19. Free choice task effects in cross-linguistic stop perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochetov, Alexei

    2005-04-01

    This paper examines the identification of stop place and secondary articulation using a free choice task. Russian syllable-initial and syllable-final stops /p pj t tj/ in nonsense utterances were presented to Russian and Japanese listeners (N=30). Correct identification rates for place and secondary articulation of the target consonants were determined based on written responses (in Cyrillic or Katakana). Both groups of listeners showed better identification of syllable-initial stops compared to syllable-final stops. Among the consonants, /p/ was identified better, and /pj/ was identified worse than the other stops. Native listeners performed better than non-native listeners. The overall correct identification rates were lower than (yet strongly correlated with) the rates previously obtained with the same stimuli using a forced choice phoneme identification task. The lower identification rates in the current study can be explained in part by the errors involving the segmentation and syllabification of palatalized stops. Thus, the palatal articulation of the syllable-final palatalized /pj/ was often interpreted as independent of the stop (e.g., /tapj api/ rendered as /taj papi/ or /tjap api/). It is concluded that the free choice task can successfully complement the forced choice task, providing additional information about the perception of secondary palatalization. [Supported by SSHRC.

  20. Spot the stop with a b-tag

    CERN Document Server

    Ferretti, Gabriele; Petersson, Christoffer; Torre, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    The LHC searches for light compressed stop squarks have resulted in considerable bounds in the case where the stop decays to a neutralino and a charm quark. However, in the case where the stop decays to a neutralino, a bottom quark and two fermions via an off-shell W-boson, there is currently a significant unconstrained region in the stop-neutralino mass plane, still allowing for stop masses in the range 90-140 GeV. In this paper we propose a new monojet-like search for light stops, optimized for the four-body decay mode, in which at least one b-tagged jet is required. We show that, already by using the existing 8 TeV LHC data set, such a search would cover the entire unconstrained region. Moreover, in the process of validating our tools against an ATLAS monojet search, we show that the existing limit can be extended to exclude also stop masses below 100 GeV.

  1. Measurement of the antiproton stopping power of gold - the Barkas effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medenwaldt, R.; Møller, S. P.; Uggerhøj, E.; Worm, T.; Hvelplund, P.; Knudsen, H.; Elsener, K.; Morenzoni, E.

    1991-05-01

    The stopping power of gold has been measured for antiprotons in the energy range 0.2-3 MeV using a novel time-of-flight technique. The antiproton stopping power is found to be less than half the equivalent proton stopping power near the electronic stopping power maximum. In the high-energy limit the two stopping powers merge.

  2. Measurement of the antiproton stopping power of gold - the Barkas effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medenwaldt, R.; Moeller, S.P.; Uggerhoej, E.; Worm, T. (Inst. for Synchrotron Radiation, Aarhus Univ. (Denmark)); Hvelplund, P.; Knudsen, H. (Inst. of Physics, Univ. of Aarhus (Denmark)); Elsener, K. (CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)); Morenzoni, E. (Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland))

    1991-05-06

    The stopping power of gold has been measured for antiprotons in the energy range 0.2-3 MeV using a novel time-of-flight technique. The antiproton stopping power is found to be less than half the equivalent proton stopping power near the electronic stopping power maximum. In the high-energy limit the two stopping powers merge. (orig.).

  3. A Phonemic and Acoustic Analysis of Hindko Oral Stops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroon Ur RASHID

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hindko is an Indo-Aryan language that is mainly spoken in Khyber Pukhtoonkhaw province of Pakistan. This work aims to identify the oral stops of Hindko and determine the intrinsic acoustic cues for them. The phonemic analysis is done with the help of minimal pairs and phoneme distribution in contrastive environments which reveals that Hindko has twelve oral stops with three way series. The acoustic analysis of these segments shows that intrinsically voice onset time (VOT, closure duration and burst are reliable and distinguishing cues of stops in Hindko.

  4. Design of intelligent bus stop based on GPRS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张思远

    2013-01-01

    To provide people waiting on the bus stop the information about the number of passengers on the bus traffic and distance between the site and the running bus. Design a set of intelligent bus stop system. This system counts up the number of the people gets on the bus and the people getting out of the bus to add up the people on the bus by infrared sensor and uses the hall sensor to measure the distance of having driven. Then, send data via GPRS. Finally display on the corresponding bus stop.

  5. Light Stop MSSM versus R-parity violation

    CERN Document Server

    Porod, Werner; Valle, José W F

    2000-01-01

    We discuss the phenomenology of the lightest stops in models where R-parity is broken by bilinear terms. In this class of models we consider scenarios where the R-parity breaking two-body decay stop_1 -> tau + b competes with the leading three-body decays stop_1 -> W^+ + b + neutralino_1, H^+ + b + neutralino_1, b slepton^+_i neutrino_l, b sneutrino_l l^+ (l=e, mu, tau). We demonstrate that the R-parity violating decay can be the dominant one. In particular we focus on the implications for a future electron posistion Linear Collider.

  6. C-stop production by micro injection moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul

    Hearing loss affects human life emotionally, physically, mentally and spiritually. A hearing aid can dramatically improve personal and professional life of man affected by hearing loss and the newly designed product C-Stop can dramatically improve the life a hearing aid. C-Stop is a master piece...... of engineering micro product which integrate many features like beam snapfit, annular snapfit, hinge connection, filter grid, house, lid etc in a single product. All the features are in micro dimensional scale and manufactured by single step of injection moulding. This presentation will cover industrial...... production of C-Stop from design, tooling and moulding view point....

  7. Most Women Stop Drinking After Positive Pregnancy Test, Study Finds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164006.html Most Women Stop Drinking After Positive Pregnancy Test, Study Finds Researchers 'pleasantly surprised' by fact that most quickly made the healthy choice To use the ...

  8. Vaccines Stop Illness | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Diseases and Vaccinations Vaccines Stop Illness Past Issues / Spring 2015 Table of ... like polio and meningitis will affect their children. Vaccine Safety In light of recent questions about vaccine ...

  9. FORWARD-BACKWARD STOCHASTIC DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS WITH STOPPING TIME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴臻

    2004-01-01

    The existence and uniqueness results of fully coupled forward-backward stochastic differential equations with stopping time (unbounded) is obtained. One kind of comparison theorem for this kind of equations is also proved.

  10. 48 CFR 42.1303 - Stop-work orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Suspension of Work, Stop-Work Orders, and Government Delay of... advisable to suspend work pending a decision by the Government and a supplemental agreement providing for...

  11. Higgs-Stoponium Mixing Near the Stop-Antistop Threshold

    CERN Document Server

    Bodwin, Geoffrey T; Wagner, Carlos E M

    2016-01-01

    Supersymmetric extensions of the standard model contain additional heavy neutral Higgs bosons that are coupled to heavy scalar top quarks (stops). This system exhibits interesting field theoretic phenomena when the Higgs mass is close to the stop-antistop production threshold. Existing work in the literature has examined the digluon-to-diphoton cross section near threshold and has focused on enhancements in the cross section that might arise either from the perturbative contributions to the Higgs-to-digluon and Higgs-to-diphoton form factors or from mixing of the Higgs boson with stoponium states. Near threshold, enhancements in the relevant amplitudes that go as inverse powers of the stop-antistop relative velocity require resummations of perturbation theory and/or nonperturbative treatments. We present a complete formulation of threshold effects at leading order in the stop-antistop relative velocity in terms of nonrelativistic effective field theory. We give detailed numerical calculations for the case in ...

  12. Proton Stopping Power of Different Density Profile Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Casas, David; Andreev, Alexander A; Schnürer, Matthias; Morales, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the stopping power of a partially ionized plasma is analyzed by means of free electron stopping and bound electron stopping. For the first one, the RPA dielectric function is used, and for the latter one, an interpolation of high and low projectile velocity formulas is used. The dynamical energy loss of an ion beam inside a plasma is estimated by using an iterative scheme of calculation. The Abel inversion is also applied when we have a plasma with radial symmetry. Finally, we compare our methods with two kind of plasmas. In the first one, we estimate the energy loss in a plasma created by a laser prepulse, whose density is approximated by a piecewise function. For the latter one, a radial electron density is supposed and the stopping is obtained as function of radius from the calculated lateral points. In both cases, the dependence with the density profile is observed.

  13. developing a one stop shop model for integrated land information ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DEPT OF AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING

    Kwame Nkrumah University of Science & Technology. Kumasi, Ghana ... stop shop concept of managing the activities of land agencies in the ... one place. This is a business model that has .... sions stated above into digital format based on.

  14. Observations of NC stop nets for bottlenose dolphin takes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To observe the NC stop net fishery to document the entanglement of bottlenose dolphins and movement of dolphins around the nets.

  15. PROTON STOPPING POWER OF DIFFERENT DENSITY PROFILE PLASMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Casas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the stopping power of a partially ionized plasma is analyzed by means of free electron stopping and bound electron stopping. For the first instance, the RPA dielectric function is used, and for the latter one, an interpolation of high and low projectile velocity formulas is used. The dynamical energy loss of a ion beam inside a plasma is estimated by using an iterative scheme of calculation. The Abel inversion is also applied when we have a plasma with radial symmetry. Finally, we compare our methods with two kind of plasmas. In the first one, we estimate the energy loss in a plasma created by a laser prepulse, whose density is approximated by a piecewise function. For the latter one, a radial electron density is supposed and the stopping is obtained as a function of radius from the calculated lateral points. In both cases, the dependence with the density profile is observed.

  16. Optimal Locations of Bus Stops Connecting Subways near Urban Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Cui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Unsuitable locations of bus stops which provide feeder transportation connecting subways near urban intersections usually lead to the low efficiency of public transport and level of passenger service. A multiobjective optimization model to distribute such stop locations is proposed to attain the shortest total walk distance of passengers and minimum delay time of cars through intersections and travel time of buses. The Pareto frontier and optimal solutions for the proposed model are given by the distance-based and enumerative methods. The Xizhimen bus stop is selected to implement case studies for verifying the validity of the proposed model. The analysis of sensitivity on possible solutions is also carried out in the case studies. The results show that the proposed model is capable of optimizing the locations of bus stops connecting subways near intersections and helpful to improve the level of passengers service and operational efficiency of public transportation.

  17. Stop on Top: SUSY Parameter Regions, Fine-Tuning Constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Demir, Durmus Ali

    2014-01-01

    We analyze common supersymmetric models in order to determine in what parameter regions with what amount of fine-tuning they are capable of accomodating the LHC-allowed top-stop degeneracy window. The stops must be light enough to enable Higgs naturalness yet heavy enough to induce a 125 GeV Higgs boson mass. These two constraints require the two stops to have a large mass splitting. We find that, compared to the usual neutralino-LSP CMSSM, the NUHM and gravitino-LSP CMSSM models possess relatively wide regions in which the light stop weighs close to the top quark. The fine-tuning involved lies in 10^3-10^4 range.

  18. Body Cooling Little Help to Kids When Heart Stops: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163215.html Body Cooling Little Help to Kids When Heart Stops: Study ... 2017 TUESDAY, Jan. 24, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Body cooling offers no advantage over normal temperature control in ...

  19. Towards measuring the stop mixing angle at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolbiecki, Krzysztof; Tattersall, Jamie; Moortgat-Pick, Gudrid [Durham University, Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    We address the question of how to determine the stop mixing angle and its CP-violating phase at the LHC. As an observable we discuss ratios of branching ratios for different decay modes of the light stop t{sub 1} to charginos and neutralinos. These observables can have a very strong dependence on the parameters of the stop sector. We discuss in detail the origin of these effects. Using various combinations of the ratios of branching ratios we argue that, depending on the scenario, the observable may be promising in exposing the light stop mass, the mixing angle and the CP phase. This will, however, require a good knowledge of the supersymmetric spectrum, which is likely to be achievable only in combination with results from a linear collider. (orig.)

  20. Stopping Powers and Ranges of Electrons and Positions,

    Science.gov (United States)

    2) use of the general formulation of Sternheimer and Peierls for the density-effect correcting to the collision stopping power; and (3) use of theoretical bremsstrahlung cross sections of Tseng and Pratt. (Author)

  1. An Analysis of Stopping Criteria in Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS THESIS Bruce Kostal Captain, USAF AFIT/GST/ENS/94M 07 D I ELECTE APR...ANALYSIS OF STOPPING CRITERIA IN ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS THESIS Bruce Kostal Captain, USAF AFIT/GST/ENS/94M-07 ETIC ELECTE 94-12275 APR2 1994 U Approved...for public release; distributi6 unlimited D94󈧮i •6 AFIT/GST/ENS/94M-07 AN ANALYSIS OF STOPPING CRITERIA IN ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS

  2. LHC Availability 2017: Restart to Technical Stop 1

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, Benjamin; Apollonio, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    This document summarises the LHC machine availability for the period of Restart to Technical Stop 1 (TS1) in 2017. This period consisted of recommissioning the LHC following the Extended year End Technical Stop (EYETS 2016-17), and proton physics with a bunch spacing of 25ns. This note has been produced and ratified by the Availability Working Group which has complied fault information for the period in question using the Accelerator Fault Tracker.

  3. Landscape Review on Stop and Search in Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Kath

    2016-01-01

    This report presents a landscape review of key findings and themes in the existing academic literature on stop and search, and relates these to the direction of police policy and practice in Scotland. The report was commissioned by the Scottish Police Authority, via the Scottish Institute for Policing Research, and produced with the support of Police Scotland's stop and search Research and Evaluation Operational Review Group (RE-ORG) and partners

  4. Calculation of the relativistic Bloch correction to stopping power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlen, S. P.

    1982-01-01

    Bloch's technique of joining the nonrelativistic Bethe and Bohr stopping-power expressions by taking into account wave-packet effects for close collisions is extended to the relativistic case. It is found that Bloch's nonrelativistic correction term must be modified and that charge asymmetric terms appear. Excellent agreement is observed by comparing the results of these calculations to recent data on the stopping power of relativistic heavy ions.

  5. Mechanical stop mechanism for overcoming MEMS fabrication tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Hussein; Bourbon, Gilles; Le Moal, Patrice; Haddab, Yassine; Lutz, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    A mechanical stop mechanism is developed in order to compensate MEMS fabrication tolerances in discrete positioning. The mechanical stop mechanism is designed to be implemented on SOI wafers using a common DRIE etching process. The various fabrication tolerances obtained due to the etching process are presented and discussed in the paper. The principle and design of the mechanism are then presented. Finally, experiments on microfabricated positioning prototypes show accurate steps unaffected by the fabrication tolerances.

  6. Assessing Stop-Loss Policy Options through Personnel Flow Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    precipitated the adoption of stop-loss and that can aff ect decisions regarding its replacement. Performance of Base-Case Systems with Stop-Loss 21...SANTA MONICA, CA 90407-2138 OFFICES SANTA MONICA, CA WASHINGTON, DC PITTSBURGH, PA NEW ORLEANS, LA/JACKSON, MS BOSTON, MA DOHA, QA ABU DHABI, AE CAMBRIDGE, UK BRUSSELS, BE REPRESENTATIVE OFFICE MEXICO CITY, MX www.rand.org

  7. Development of a system for wireless stopping of coke oven machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mil' ko, M.S.; Yakushina, E.N.; Babanskii, M.I.; Lipskii, M.N. (SKBA NPO Chermetavtomatika (USSR))

    1991-02-01

    Discusses design and operation of a wireless system for control of quenching cars and machines for opening coke oven doors. The system was developed by Chermetavtomatika and tested in the Mariupol' coking plant. It is used on a coke oven battery with a coke oven volume of 41.6 m{sup 3}. The system controls motion of the quenching cars, stopped the cars, controlled door removal after the quenching car reached the proper position. Main system elements are characterized: signal transmitters and receivers, relay systems. The system, recommended for other coking plants, is characterized as accurate and reliable.

  8. Light Stops and Fine-Tuning in MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Cici, Ali; Un, Cem Salih

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the fine-tuning issue within the MSSM framework. Following the idea that the fine-tuning can measure effects of some missing mechanisms we impose non-universal gaugino masses at the GUT scale, and explore the low scale implications. We consider the stop mass with a special importance and consider the mass scales which are excluded by the LHC experiments. We find that the stop mass can be as light as 200 GeV, while the mass scales below this scale are excluded by the experimental constraints imposed in our analyses. After discussing the fine-tuning and its implications, we consider detection of stop quarks at LHC over some benchmark points which yield stop masses in a range 200-700 GeV. Even though the LHC constraints are severe and they exclude this mass scales for the stop quark, we show that the stops can still escape from detection, when the model is restricted from the GUT scale.

  9. Leptonic mono-top from single stop production at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Duan, Guang Hua; Wu, Lei; Yang, Jin Min; Zhang, Mengchao

    2016-01-01

    Top squark (stop) can be produced via QCD interaction but also the electroweak interaction at the LHC. In this paper, we investigate the observability of the associated production of stop and chargino, $pp \\to \\tilde{t}_1\\tilde{\\chi}^-_1$, in compressed electroweakino scenario at the 14 TeV LHC. Due to the small mass-splitting between the lightest neutralino ($\\tilde{\\chi}^0_1$) and chargino ($\\tilde{\\chi}^-_1$), such a single stop production can give a mono-top signature through the stop decay $\\tilde{t}_1 \\to t \\tilde{\\chi}^0_1$. Focusing on the leptonic mono-top channel, we propose a lab-frame observable $\\cos\\theta_{b\\ell}$ to reduce the SM backgrounds in virtue of a boosted top quark from the stop decay. We find that the single stop production can be probed at $2\\sigma$ level at the HL-LHC for $m_{\\tilde{t}_1}<760$ GeV and $m_{\\tilde{\\chi}^0_1}<150$ GeV.

  10. Alterations of 5-HT1A receptor-induced G-protein functional activation and relationship to memory deficits in patients with pharmacoresistant temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar-Herrera, Manola; Velasco, Ana Luisa; Velasco, Francisco; Trejo, David; Alonso-Vanegas, Mario; Nuche-Bricaire, Avril; Vázquez-Barrón, Daruni; Guevara-Guzmán, Rosalinda; Rocha, Luisa

    2014-12-01

    The 5-hydroxytryptamine-1A (5-HT1A) receptors are known to be involved in the inhibition of seizures in epilepsy. Moreover, studies propose a role for the 5-HT1A receptor in memory function; it is believed that the higher density of this receptor in the hippocampus plays an important role in its regulation. Positron emission tomography (PET) studies in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) have demonstrated that a decrease in 5-HT1A receptor binding in temporal regions may play a role in memory impairment. The evidences lead us to speculate whether this decrease in receptor binding is associated with a reduced receptor number or if the functionality of the 5-HT1A receptor-induced G-protein activation and/or the second messenger cascade is modified. The purpose of the present study is to determine 5-HT1A receptor-induced G-protein functional activation by 8-OH-DPAT-stimulated [(35)S]GTPγS binding assay in hippocampal tissue of surgical patients with mTLE. We correlate functional activity with epilepsy history and neuropsychological assessment of memory. We found that maximum functional activation stimulation values (Emax) of [(35)S]GTPγS binding were significantly increased in mTLE group when compared to autopsy samples. Furthermore, significant correlations were found: (1) positive coefficients between the Emax with the age of patient and frequency of seizures; (2) negative coefficients between the Emax and working memory, immediate recall and delayed recall memory tasks. Our data suggest that the epileptic hippocampus of patients with mTLE presents an increase in 5-HT1A receptor-induced G-protein functional activation, and that this altered activity is related to age and seizure frequency, as well as to memory consolidation deficit.

  11. Exploring the nearly degenerate stop region with sbottom decays

    CERN Document Server

    An, Haipeng; Wang, Lian-Tao

    2016-01-01

    A light stop with mass almost degenerate with the lightest neutralino has important connections with both naturalness and dark matter relic abundance. This region is also very hard to probe at colliders. In this paper, we demonstrate the potential of searching for such stop particles at the LHC from sbottom decays, focusing on two channels with final states $2\\ell+E^{\\rm miss}_{\\rm T}$ and $1b1\\ell+E^{\\rm miss}_{\\rm T}$. We found that, if the lightest sbottom has mass around or below 1 TeV and has a significant branching ratio to decay to stop and $W$ ($\\tilde{b} \\to \\tilde{t}\\,W$), a stop almost degenerate with neutralino can be excluded up to about 500-600 GeV at the 13 TeV LHC with $300\\,{\\rm fb}^{-1}$ data. The searches we propose are complementary to other SUSY searches at the LHC and could have the best sensitivity to the stop-bino coannihilation region. Since they involve final states which have already been used in LHC searches, a reinterpretation of the search results already has sensitivity. Further...

  12. Perception of the English intrusive stops by Korean listeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jeong-Im

    2002-05-01

    This paper reports results of an experiment examining Korean listeners' perception of English intrusive stops in nasal-obstruent clusters. The experiment tests (1) how often intrusive stops are perceived; (2) how language-specific syllable structure constraints influence the perception, given the fact that Korean does not allow consonant clusters in syllable onsets and codas; (3) whether even the perception of phonetic variables like intrusive stops, not phonemes, could be improved by learning. Ninety English non-words with a monosyllable structure of CVC1C2 were created, where C1=/m,n,N/, and C2=/p,k,s/. The stimuli including additional 90 filler items were recorded by three native English speakers and one representative data among them was given to three groups of native Korean listeners in terms of their English proficiency. Each was asked to monitor the target sounds [Warner and Weber, J. Phonetics 29, 23-52 (2001)]. The preliminary results show that identification of intrusive stops in English is totally dependent on Korean syllable structure, so even stimuli with strong acoustic cues were misparsed. Nonetheless, there's a high correlation between perception of intrusive stops and listeners' English proficiency, showing the possibility of the improvement of perception by learning.

  13. Car Delay Model near Bus Stops with Mixed Traffic Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xiaobao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a model for estimating car delays at bus stops under mixed traffic using probability theory and queuing theory. The roadway is divided to serve motorized and nonmotorized traffic streams. Bus stops are located on the nonmotorized lanes. When buses dwell at the stop, they block the bicycles. Thus, two conflict points between car stream and other traffic stream are identified. The first conflict point occurs as bicycles merge to the motorized lane to avoid waiting behind the stopping buses. The second occurs as buses merge back to the motorized lane. The average car delay is estimated as the sum of the average delay at these two conflict points and the delay resulting from following the slower bicycles that merged into the motorized lane. Data are collected to calibrate and validate the developed model from one site in Beijing. The sensitivity of car delay to various operation conditions is examined. The results show that both bus stream and bicycle stream have significant effects on car delay. At bus volumes above 200 vehicles per hour, the curbside stop design is not appropriate because of the long car delays. It can be replaced by the bus bay design.

  14. STOP2 Activates Transcription of Several Genesfor AI- and Low pH-Tolerance that Are Regulatedby STOP1 in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    The zinc-finger protein STOP1 (sensitive to proton rhizotoxicity 1) regulates transcription of multiple genescritical for tolerance to aluminum (AI) and low pH in Arabidopsis. We evaluated the contributions of genes that are sup-pressed in the stop1 mutant to AI- and low pH-tolerance using T-DNA-inserted disruptants, and transgenic stop1 mutantsexpressing each of the suppressed genes. STOP2, a STOP1 homolog, partially recovered AI- and low pH-tolerance byrecovering the expression of genes regulated by STOP1. Growth and root tip viability under proton stress were partiallyrescued in the STOP2-complemented line. STOP2 localized in the nucleus and regulated transcription of two genes (PGIP1and PGIP2) associated with cell wall stabilization at low pH. GUS assays revealed that STOP1 and STOP2 showed similarcellular expression in the root. However, the expression level of STOP2 was much lower than that of STOP1. In a STOP1promoter::STOP2-complemented line, AI tolerance was slightly recovered, concomitant with the recovery of expressionof ALS3 (aluminum sensitive 3) and AtMATE (Arabidopsis thaliana multidrug and toxic compound extrusion), while theexpression of AtALMT1 (aluminum-activated malate transporter 1) was not recovered. These analyses indicated thatSTOP2 is a physiologically minor isoform of STOP1, but it can activate expression of some genes regulated by STOP1.

  15. Stop of magnetic flux movement in levitating superconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolyak, B.M., E-mail: b-smolyak@yandex.ru; Zakharov, M.S., E-mail: maksim.s.zakharov@gmail.com

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • A direct experimental study of magnetic flux creep in the levitating superconductor. • When a levitating object is in a fixed position, magnetic flux movement is observed. • Levitation stops flux creep process. - Abstract: A phenomenon of magnetic relaxation stopping in a levitating superconductor was studied. It was experimentally shown that magnetic flux creep (diffusion of flux lines to regions with lower vortex density) is absent in magnetic suspension of the superconductor. Magnetic relaxation arises, when a rigid constraint that fixes a position of the superconductor relative to a magnet is imposed on a levitating object. It is assumed that oscillations of magnetic structure, which is due to free oscillations of the levitating superconductor, stop magnetic relaxation.

  16. Measurement of stopping beam distributions in the PIBETA detector

    CERN Document Server

    Frlez, E; Li, W; Pocanic, D

    2006-01-01

    Precise calculation of the geometrical acceptance of a large solid angle detector with an integrated stopping target relies on precise knowledge of the beam geometry. We describe four alternative methods that we used to measure the beam stopping distributions in the PIBETA detector active target: (i) light response of segmented target elements to incident beam particles, (ii) back-tracking of charged particles from pi+ and mu+ decays using multi-wire proportional chambers, (iii) volume distribution of the Dalitz decay (pi0->gamma e+e-) event vertices, and (iv) the opening angle distribution of two pi0 photons originating from the beta decay of pi+ at rest. We demonstrate consistent results obtained by these four independent approaches and show how particular beam stopping distributions affect the detector's geometrical acceptance.

  17. Architecture Research of Non-Stop Computer System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUXinsong; QIUYuanjie; YANGFeng; YANGongjun; GUPan; GAOKe

    2004-01-01

    Distributed & parallel server system with distributed & parallel I/O interface has solved the bottleneck between server system and client system, and also has solved the rebuilding problem after system fault. However, the system still has some shortcomings: the switch is the system bottleneck and the system is not adapted to WAN (Wide area network). Therefore, we put forward a new system architecture to overcome these shortcomings and develop the non-stop computer system. The basis of a non-stop system is rebuilt after system fault. The inner architecture of non-stop system must be redundant and the redundancy is the system fault-tolerance redundancy based on distributed mechanism and not backupredundancy. Analysis and test results declare that the system rebuild time after fault is in second scale and its rebuild capability is so strong that the system can be nonstop in the system's lifetime.

  18. Micellar kinetics of a fluorosurfactant through stopped-flow NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yushmanov, Pavel V; Furó, István; Stilbs, Peter

    2006-02-28

    19F NMR chemical shifts and transverse relaxation times T2 were measured as a function of time after quick stopped-flow dilution of aqueous solutions of sodium perfluorooctanoate (NaPFO) with water. Different initial concentrations of micellar solution and different proportions of mixing were tested. Previous stopped-flow studies by time-resolved small-angle X-ray scattering (TR-SAXS) detection indicated a slow (approximately 10 s) micellar relaxation kinetics in NaPFO solutions. In contrast, no evidence of any comparable slow (>100 ms) relaxation process was found in our NMR studies. Possible artifacts of stopped-flow experiments are discussed as well as differences between NMR and SAXS detection methods. Upper bounds on the relative weight of a slow relaxation process are given within existing kinetic theories of micellar dissolution.

  19. One-loop corrections to neutralino-stop coannihilation revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harz, J.; Herrmann, B.; Klasen, M.; Kovařík, K.

    2015-02-01

    We discuss the O (αs) supersymmetric QCD corrections to neutralino-stop coannihilation into a top quark and a gluon in the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). This particular channel can be numerically important in wide ranges of the MSSM parameter space with rather light stops. We discuss technical details such as the renormalization scheme and the phase-space slicing method with two cutoffs. We also comment on improvements with respect to earlier works on the given process. Further, we study for the first time the phenomenologically very interesting interplay of neutralino-stop coannihilation with neutralino-pair annihilation into quark pairs taking the full next-to-leading order SUSY-QCD corrections into account. We demonstrate that the numerical impact of these corrections on the total (co)annihilation cross section and finally on the theoretically predicted neutralino relic density is significant.

  20. One-loop corrections to neutralino-stop coannihilation revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Harz, J; Klasen, M; Kovarik, K

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the ${\\cal O}(\\alpha_s)$ supersymmetric QCD corrections to neutralino-stop coannihilation into a top quark and a gluon in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). This particular channel can be numerically important in wide ranges of the MSSM parameter space with rather light stops. We discuss technical details such as the renormalization scheme and the phase-space slicing method with two cutoffs. We also comment on improvements with respect to earlier works on the given process. Further, we study for the first time the phenomenologically very interesting interplay of neutralino-stop coannihilation with neutralino-pair annihilation into quark pairs taking the full next-to-leading order SUSY-QCD corrections into account. We demonstrate that the numerical impact of these corrections on the total (co)annihilation cross section and finally on the theoretically predicted neutralino relic density is significant.

  1. Companion classroom activities for "stop faking it!" force and motion

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2011-01-01

    Never has it been so easy for educators to learn to teach physical science with confidence. Award-winning author Bill Robertson launched his bestselling Stop Faking It! series in 2002 with Force and Motion--offering elementary and middle school teachers a jargon-free way to learn the background for teaching physical science with confidence. Combining easy-to-understand if irreverent explanations and quirky diagrams, Stop Faking It! Force and Motion helped thousands of teachers, parents, and homeschoolers conquer topics from Newton s laws to the physics of space travel. Now Companion Classroom Activities for Stop Faking It! Force and Motion proves an ideal supplement to the original book or a valuable resource of its own. The hands-on activities and highly readable explanations allow students to first investigate concepts, then discuss learned concepts, and finally apply the concepts to everyday situations. Robertson's wit and humor are sure to keep students and teachers entertained while they tackle topics ...

  2. Shell correction for the stopping power of K electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, P. T.; Rustgi, M. L.; Long, S. A. T.

    1986-01-01

    In view of the inapplicability of the asymptotic expressions for the stopping number available in the literature at high energies, an alternative approach is taken to compute the shell correction to the stopping number of K electrons. Anholt's formula for the K-shell ionization has been used to calculate the excitation function for longitudinal interaction and numerical integration over energy has been carried out to evaluate the shell correction. Comparison with other theoretical calculations is made. It is proposed that, with the inclusion of relativistic effects, an asymptotic expansion of the stopping number with a leading-term logarithmic in the energy of the incident particle would be more meaningful and might enable one to extract the relativistic contribution to the shell correction from it.

  3. Realization of an Automated Vertical Warp Stop Motion Positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik Cloppenburg

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The tension in the warp yarns is a critical variable in the weaving process. If the warp tension is too high or too low the weaving process will be interrupted. A parameter that directly affects the warp tension is the vertical warp stop motion position. The position of the warp stop motion must be set for every produced new article. The setting procedure is performed completely manual. In this paper we present a mechatronic modification of an air jet-weaving machine to adjust the vertical warp stop motion position with the help of actuators. The parameters for the automated movement are determined and an open loop control, which uses a PLC, is proposed.

  4. Ball Screw Actuator Including a Compliant Ball Screw Stop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Hanlon, Casey (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An actuator includes a ball nut, a ball screw, and a ball screw stop. The ball nut is adapted to receive an input torque and in response rotates and supplies a drive force. The ball screw extends through the ball nut and has a first end and a second end. The ball screw receives the drive force from the ball nut and in response selectively translates between a retract position and a extend position. The ball screw stop is mounted on the ball screw proximate the first end to translate therewith. The ball screw stop engages the ball nut when the ball screw is in the extend position, translates, with compliance, a predetermined distance toward the first end upon engaging the ball nut, and prevents further rotation of the ball screw upon translating the predetermined distance.

  5. Ball Screw Actuator Including an Axial Soft Stop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Forrest, Steven Talbert (Inventor); Abel, Steve (Inventor); Woessner, George (Inventor); Hanlon, Casey (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An actuator includes an actuator housing, a ball screw, and an axial soft stop assembly. The ball screw extends through the actuator housing and has a first end and a second end. The ball screw is coupled to receive a drive force and is configured, upon receipt of the drive force, to selectively move in a retract direction and an extend direction. The axial soft stop assembly is disposed within the actuator housing. The axial soft stop assembly is configured to be selectively engaged by the ball screw and, upon being engaged thereby, to translate, with compliance, a predetermined distance in the extend direction, and to prevent further movement of the ball screw upon translating the predetermined distance.

  6. Is the stop mass below the top mass?

    CERN Document Server

    de Boer, Wim; Kazakov, D I

    1994-01-01

    It is shown that a top mass of 174+/-17 GeV, as quoted recently by the CDF Collaboration, constrains the mixing angle between the Higgs doublets in the Minimal Supersymmmetric extension of the Standard Model (MSSM) to: 1.2stop sector and the lightest stop is likely to be below the top mass. In this case the stop production in pp_bar collisions would contribute to the top signature, thus providing a possible explanation for the large effective tt_bar cross section observed by CDF.

  7. Can I Stop Myself From Having a Wet Dream? (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Stop Myself From Having a Wet Dream? KidsHealth > For Teens > Can I Stop Myself From Having a Wet Dream? Print A A A Can I stop myself from having a wet dream? – Tom* You really can't stop wet dreams, ...

  8. Why do People Stop Playing On-Line Games?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek; Razmerita, Liana

    2012-01-01

    The recent initial public offering of shares of Zynga, probably the most important on-line game provider, drew interest of potential investors but also of general public to their business model. What the most interested people learned so far is that if Zynga had not changed their accounting...... practice, they would be in red numbers for several months already. This is most likely caused by people stopping to play their games. This paper provides an estimate of what proportion of people, who played on-line games, already stopped playing them. Additionally, it analyzed the reasons why people...

  9. Substorm onset: Current sheet avalanche and stop layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haerendel, Gerhard

    2015-03-01

    A new scenario is presented for the onset of a substorm and the nature of the breakup arc. There are two main components, current sheet avalanche and stop layer. The first refers to an earthward flow of plasma and magnetic flux from the central current sheet of the tail, triggered spontaneously or by some unknown interaction with an auroral streamer or a suddenly appearing eastward flow at the end of the growth phase. The second offers a mechanism to stop the flow abruptly at the interface between magnetosphere and tail and extract momentum and energy to be partially processed locally and partially transmitted as Poynting flux toward the ionosphere. The stop layer has a width of the order of the ion inertial length. The different dynamics of the ions entering freely and the magnetized electrons create an electric polarization field which stops the ion flow and drives a Hall current by which flow momentum is transferred to the magnetic field. A simple formalism is used to describe the operation of the process and to enable quantitative conclusions. An important conclusion is that by necessity the stop layer is also highly structured in longitude. This offers a natural explanation for the coarse ray structure of the breakup arc as manifestation of elementary paths of energy and momentum transport. The currents aligned with the rays are balanced between upward and downward directions. While the avalanche is invoked for explaining the spontaneous substorm onset at the inner edge of the tail, the expansion of the breakup arc for many minutes is taken as evidence for a continued formation of new stop layers by arrival of flow bursts from the near-Earth neutral line. This is in line with earlier conclusions about the nature of the breakup arc. Small-scale structure, propagation speed, and energy flux are quantitatively consistent with observations. However, the balanced small-scale currents cannot constitute the substorm current wedge. The source of the latter must be

  10. Stopping power of an electron gas with anisotropic temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khelemelia, O. V.; Kholodov, R. I.

    2016-04-01

    A general theory of motion of a heavy charged particle in the electron gas with an anisotropic velocity distribution is developed within the quantum-field method. The analytical expressions for the dielectric susceptibility and the stopping power of the electron gas differs in no way from well-known classic formulas in the approximation of large and small velocities. Stopping power of the electron gas with anisotropic temperature in the framework of the quantum-field method is numerically calculated for an arbitrary angle between directions of the motion of the projectile particle and the electron beam. The results of the numerical calculations are compared with the dielectric model approach.

  11. Anatomy of maximal stop mixing in the MSSM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruemmer, Felix [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Kraml, Sabine; Kulkarni, Suchita [CNRS/IN2P3, INPG, Grenoble (France). Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie

    2012-05-15

    A Standard Model-like Higgs near 125 GeV in the MSSM requires multi-TeV stop masses, or a near-maximal contribution to its mass from stop mixing. We investigate the maximal mixing scenario, and in particular its prospects for being realized it in potentially realistic GUT models. We work out constraints on the possible GUT-scale soft terms, which we compare with what can be obtained from some well-known mechanisms of SUSY breaking mediation. Finally, we analyze two promising scenarios in detail, namely gaugino mediation and gravity mediation with non-universal Higgs masses.

  12. Summary the race to reinvent energy and stop global warming

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Complete summary of Fred Krupp and Miriam Horn's book: ""Earth: The Sequel: The Race to Reinvent Energy and Stop Global Warming"". This summary of the ideas from Fred Krupp and Miriam Horn's book ""Earth: The Sequel"" explains how capitalism, as the most powerful economic force in the world, is the only engine of change that has the strength to stop global warming. In their book, the authors demonstrate how this can be achieved by installing a cap-and-trade initiative, providing genuine economic incentives for companies and reducing their carbon footprint. This summary explains their theory in

  13. Bottom-Fill Method for Stopping Leaking Oil Wells

    CERN Document Server

    Bloomfield, Louis A

    2010-01-01

    Hardware failure at the top of a deep underwater oil well can result in a catastrophic oil leak. The enormous pressure lifting the column of oil in that well makes it nearly impossible to stop from the top with seals or pressurization. We propose to fill the bottom of the well with dense and possibly streamlined objects that can descend through the rising oil. As they accumulate, those objects couple to the oil via viscous and drag forces and increase the oil's effective density. When its effective density exceeds that of the earth's crust, the oil will have essentially stopped flowing.

  14. Vav1 Oncogenic Mutation Inhibits T Cell Receptor-induced Calcium Mobilization through Inhibition of Phospholipase Cγ1 Activation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyazhitsky, Mira; Moas, Etay; Shaginov, Ekaterina; Luria, Anna; Braiman, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Robust elevation of the cytosolic calcium concentration is a crucial early step for T cell activation triggered by the T cell antigen receptor. Vav1 is a proto-oncogene expressed in hematopoietic cells that is indispensable for transducing the calcium-mobilizing signal. Following T cell receptor stimulation, Vav1 facilitates formation of signaling microclusters through multiple interactions with other proteins participating in the signaling cascade. Truncation of the N terminus of Vav1 produces its oncogenic version, which is unable to support normal calcium flux following T cell activation. We show here that truncation of the N-terminal region of Vav1 alters the fine structure of protein complexes in the signaling clusters, affecting the interaction of Vav1 with phospholipase Cγ1 (PLCγ1). This alteration is accompanied by a decrease in PLCγ1 phosphorylation and inhibition of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate production. We suggest that the structural integrity of the N-terminal region of Vav1 is important for the proper formation of the Vav1-associated signaling complexes. The oncogenic truncation of this region elicits conformational changes that interfere with the Vav1-mediated activation of PLCγ1 and that inhibit calcium mobilization. PMID:22474331

  15. Ribosomal readthrough at a short UGA stop codon context triggers dual localization of metabolic enzymes in Fungi and animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina C Stiebler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Translation of mRNA into a polypeptide chain is a highly accurate process. Many prokaryotic and eukaryotic viruses, however, use leaky termination of translation to optimize their coding capacity. Although growing evidence indicates the occurrence of ribosomal readthrough also in higher organisms, a biological function for the resulting extended proteins has been elucidated only in very few cases. Here, we report that in human cells programmed stop codon readthrough is used to generate peroxisomal isoforms of cytosolic enzymes. We could show for NAD-dependent lactate dehydrogenase B (LDHB and NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase 1 (MDH1 that translational readthrough results in C-terminally extended protein variants containing a peroxisomal targeting signal 1 (PTS1. Efficient readthrough occurs at a short sequence motif consisting of a UGA termination codon followed by the dinucleotide CU. Leaky termination at this stop codon context was observed in fungi and mammals. Comparative genome analysis allowed us to identify further readthrough-derived peroxisomal isoforms of metabolic enzymes in diverse model organisms. Overall, our study highlights that a defined stop codon context can trigger efficient ribosomal readthrough to generate dually targeted protein isoforms. We speculate that beyond peroxisomal targeting stop codon readthrough may have also other important biological functions, which remain to be elucidated.

  16. Search for the supersymmetric partner of the top quark in the channel stop anti-stop {yields} e{sup {+-}} {mu}{sup {+-}} sneutrino anti-sneutrino b anti-b in D0 experiment at the Tevatron. Calibration of the D0 electromagnetic calorimeter; Recherche du partenaire supersymetrique du quark top dans le canal stop anti-stop {yields} e{sup {+-}} {mu}{sup {+-}} sneutrino anti-sneutrino b anti-b au sein de l'experience D0 aupres du TeVatron. Calibration du calorimetre electromagnetique de D0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, A

    2006-10-15

    Symmetry is one of the most natural extensions of the standard model. At low energy it may consist in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model which is the framework chosen to perform the search of the stop with 350 pb{sup -1} of data collected by D0 during the run-IIa period of the Tevatron. We selected the events with an electron, a muon, missing transverse energy and non-isolated tracks, signature for the stop decay in 3 particles (stop {yields} bl sneutrino). Since no significant excess of signal is seen, the results are interpreted in terms of limit on the stop production cross-sections, in such a way that we extend the existing exclusion region in the parameter space (m(stop), m(sneutrino)) up to stop masses of 168 (140) GeV for sneutrino masses of 50 (94) GeV. Finally, because of the crucial role of the electromagnetic calorimeter, a fine calibration was performed using Z {yields} e{sup +}e{sup -} events, which improved significantly the energy resolution. (author)

  17. Modeling driver stop/run behavior at the onset of a yellow indication considering driver run tendency and roadway surface conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhenawy, Mohammed; Jahangiri, Arash; Rakha, Hesham A; El-Shawarby, Ihab

    2015-10-01

    The ability to model driver stop/run behavior at signalized intersections considering the roadway surface condition is critical in the design of advanced driver assistance systems. Such systems can reduce intersection crashes and fatalities by predicting driver stop/run behavior. The research presented in this paper uses data collected from two controlled field experiments on the Smart Road at the Virginia Tech Transportation Institute (VTTI) to model driver stop/run behavior at the onset of a yellow indication for different roadway surface conditions. The paper offers two contributions. First, it introduces a new predictor related to driver aggressiveness and demonstrates that this measure enhances the modeling of driver stop/run behavior. Second, it applies well-known artificial intelligence techniques including: adaptive boosting (AdaBoost), random forest, and support vector machine (SVM) algorithms as well as traditional logistic regression techniques on the data in order to develop a model that can be used by traffic signal controllers to predict driver stop/run decisions in a connected vehicle environment. The research demonstrates that by adding the proposed driver aggressiveness predictor to the model, there is a statistically significant increase in the model accuracy. Moreover the false alarm rate is significantly reduced but this reduction is not statistically significant. The study demonstrates that, for the subject data, the SVM machine learning algorithm performs the best in terms of optimum classification accuracy and false positive rates. However, the SVM model produces the best performance in terms of the classification accuracy only.

  18. No Slackers in Tourniquet Use to Stop Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    tation injury just proximal to the knee was selected as the testing apparatus .13 The medial hip–pelvic area had an embedded computer interface that...Use to Stop Bleeding 19 COL (Ret) Kragh is currently a hemorrhage control re- searcher at the USAISR. He is an orthopedic surgeon who previously

  19. A stop sign for use in the dark.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1968-01-01

    The present official stop signs for use at night (a red light or a red light in combination with an illuminated white bat- type sign) are not sufficiently for road- users. For the present type of sign to meet the requirements in this respect it would have to be made far too large and heavy for a man

  20. Thought Stopping And Covert Assertion In The Treatment Of Phobias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimm, David C.

    1973-01-01

    The present paper describes a method combining thought stopping and covert assertion and reports its application in six case histories the majority of which would usually be classified as phobic rather than obsessional. The paper reports successful followups. (Author/LA)

  1. Continuing versus Stopping Prestroke Antihypertensive Therapy in Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krishnan, Kailash; Scutt, Polly; Woodhouse, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: More than 50% of patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) are taking antihypertensive drugs before ictus. Although antihypertensive therapy should be given long term for secondary prevention, whether to continue or stop such treatment during the acute phase of ICH...

  2. Answers to Science Questions from the "Stop Faking It!" Guy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, William C.

    2009-01-01

    This valuable and entertaining compendium of Bill Robertson's popular "Science 101" columns, from NSTA member journal "Science and Children," proves you don't have to be a science geek to understand basic scientific concepts. The author of the best-selling "Stop Faking It!" series explains everything from quarks to photosynthesis, telescopes to…

  3. Inferring Stop-Locations from WiFi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kofoed Wind

    Full Text Available Human mobility patterns are inherently complex. In terms of understanding these patterns, the process of converting raw data into series of stop-locations and transitions is an important first step which greatly reduces the volume of data, thus simplifying the subsequent analyses. Previous research into the mobility of individuals has focused on inferring 'stop locations' (places of stationarity from GPS or CDR data, or on detection of state (static/active. In this paper we bridge the gap between the two approaches: we introduce methods for detecting both mobility state and stop-locations. In addition, our methods are based exclusively on WiFi data. We study two months of WiFi data collected every two minutes by a smartphone, and infer stop-locations in the form of labelled time-intervals. For this purpose, we investigate two algorithms, both of which scale to large datasets: a greedy approach to select the most important routers and one which uses a density-based clustering algorithm to detect router fingerprints. We validate our results using participants' GPS data as well as ground truth data collected during a two month period.

  4. Reasons for Starting and Stopping Electronic Cigarette Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica K. Pepper

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to explore reasons for starting and then stopping electronic cigarette (e-cigarette use. Among a national sample of 3878 U.S. adults who reported ever trying e-cigarettes, the most common reasons for trying were curiosity (53%; because a friend or family member used, gave, or offered e-cigarettes (34%; and quitting or reducing smoking (30%. Nearly two-thirds (65% of people who started using e-cigarettes later stopped using them. Discontinuation was more common among those whose main reason for trying was not goal-oriented (e.g., curiosity than goal-oriented (e.g., quitting smoking (81% vs. 45%, p < 0.001. The most common reasons for stopping e-cigarette use were that respondents were just experimenting (49%, using e-cigarettes did not feel like smoking cigarettes (15%, and users did not like the taste (14%. Our results suggest there are two categories of e-cigarette users: those who try for goal-oriented reasons and typically continue using and those who try for non-goal-oriented reasons and then typically stop using. Research should distinguish e-cigarette experimenters from motivated users whose decisions to discontinue relate to the utility or experience of use. Depending on whether e-cigarettes prove to be effective smoking cessation tools or whether they deter cessation, public health programs may need distinct strategies to reach and influence different types of users.

  5. Inferring Stop-Locations from WiFi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind, David Kofoed; Sapiezynski, Piotr; Furman, Magdalena Anna; Lehmann, Sune

    2016-01-01

    Human mobility patterns are inherently complex. In terms of understanding these patterns, the process of converting raw data into series of stop-locations and transitions is an important first step which greatly reduces the volume of data, thus simplifying the subsequent analyses. Previous research into the mobility of individuals has focused on inferring 'stop locations' (places of stationarity) from GPS or CDR data, or on detection of state (static/active). In this paper we bridge the gap between the two approaches: we introduce methods for detecting both mobility state and stop-locations. In addition, our methods are based exclusively on WiFi data. We study two months of WiFi data collected every two minutes by a smartphone, and infer stop-locations in the form of labelled time-intervals. For this purpose, we investigate two algorithms, both of which scale to large datasets: a greedy approach to select the most important routers and one which uses a density-based clustering algorithm to detect router fingerprints. We validate our results using participants' GPS data as well as ground truth data collected during a two month period.

  6. Impact-parameter-dependent electronic stopping of swift ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schinner, A.; Sigmund, P.

    2010-01-01

    A computational scheme has been developed to estimate the mean electronic energy loss of an incident swift ion on an atomic target as a function of the impact parameter between the moving nuclei. The theoretical basis is binary stopping theory. In order to extract impact-parameter dependencies it wa

  7. Tactical Checkpoint: Hail/Warn Suppress/Stop (Poster)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    distractor , optical suppression , human behavior, checkpoint, ambient light, driver suppression , human experimentation, light, paintball, obscuration...HAIL/WARN AND - SUPPRESS /STOP Poster Presented at the 2010 Directed Energies Professional Society Meeting, 15-19 November 2010. 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...warning to a driver that is approaching a checkpoint. The laser, MCNC light, and the windshield obscuration were evaluated for their suppression

  8. On a rational stopping rule for facilities location algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik

    1984-01-01

    In the multifacility location problem, a number of new facilities are to be located so as to minimize a sum of weighted distances. Love and Yeong (1981) developed a lower bound on the optimal value for use in deciding when to stop an iterative solution procedure. The authors develop a stronger...

  9. 75 FR 19878 - Retroactive Stop Loss Special Pay Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... final rule was published October 23, 2009, with an effective date of October 21, 2009 (74 FR 54751... of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 279 Retroactive Stop Loss Special Pay Compensation AGENCY: Office of the... COMPENSATION Sec. 279.1 Purpose. 279.2 Eligibility. 279.3 Payment. 279.4 Claims process. 279.5...

  10. Stop Tobacco in Restaurants: Fifth Grade Students STIR City Hall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Ronald Vaughan

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses a campaign called STIR: Stop Tobacco in Restaurants, that was started by fourth and fifth grade students. The goal was to end smoking in public places, including restaurants, bowling alleys, sports bars, and pool halls. For two years they motivated their peers, coordinated an information campaign to urge kids and adults to…

  11. What Actually Makes Bullying Stop? Reports from Former Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisen, Ann; Hasselblad, Tove; Holmqvist, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    School bullying is a serious, worldwide problem which is not easily counteracted. The present study focuses on the perspective of former victims, asking them what it was that made the bullying stop in their case. Participants were 273 18-year-old former victims in Sweden, a country in which schools are doing extensive work against bullying and the…

  12. On a rational stopping rule for facilities location algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik

    1984-01-01

    In the multifacility location problem, a number of new facilities are to be located so as to minimize a sum of weighted distances. Love and Yeong (1981) developed a lower bound on the optimal value for use in deciding when to stop an iterative solution procedure. The authors develop a stronger...

  13. Stopping Power of Solid Argon for Helium Ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Besenbacher, F.; Bøttiger, Jørgen; Grauersen, O.

    1981-01-01

    By means of the Rutherford-backscattering method, the stopping cross section of solid argon has been measured for 0.5–3 MeV helium ions to an accuracy of not, vert, similar3%. The results agree within the experimental accuracies with our earlier measurements for gaseous argon over the energy region...

  14. "STOP the Violence": FCCLA Program Tackles School Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Family and Consumer Sciences, 2004

    2004-01-01

    "STOP the Violence--Students Taking on Prevention" is a program designed to involve students and address school violence at its core from the peer-to- peer perspective. Developed by members of the Family, Career and Community Leaders of America (FCCLA), the program empowers young persons to recognize, report, and reduce the potential for youth…

  15. Stop the Tears of Drug and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimon, Jane; Gibson, Terry-Ann; Spear, Caile

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: By participating in this Stop the Tears teaching strategy, students will be able to: (1) analyze how alcohol and drug abuse could affect their lives as well as the lives of their friends and family and, (2) create a media message, such as a poster, pamphlet, poem, or song, in which alcohol and drug prevention is advocated specific to…

  16. EU’s one-stop-shop mechanism : Thinking transnational

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giurgiu, Andra; Boulet, Gertjan; de Hert, Paul

    2015-01-01

    One of the means of strengthening EU data protection law for consumers and for businesses is through the so- called “One-Stop-Shop”. This mechanism sets up a single contact point whereby companies doing business in more than one EU member state will have to deal with only one DPA, namely that of the

  17. Car accidents determined by stopped cars and traffic flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xian-qing; Ma, Yu-qiang

    2002-12-01

    The product of traffic flow and the fraction of stopped cars is proposed to determine the probability Pac for car accidents in the Fukui-Ishibashi model by analysing the necessary conditions of the occurrence of car accidents. Qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the probability Pac can well be explained. A strategy for avoiding car accidents is suggested.

  18. The NOAA OneStop Data Discovery and Access Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, K. S.; Ritchey, N. A.; Relph, J.; Fischman, D.; Neufeld, D.

    2016-12-01

    In accordance with Federal Open Data policies, the NOAA OneStop Project has been created in order to improve discovery of, access to, and increased usability of NOAA data. OneStop is led by the NOAA/NESDIS National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI), and is seen as a NESDIS contribution to NOAA's open data and data stewardship efforts. Data are being made accessible to users through the new OneStop web user interface and also through interoperable web services at NCEI. These interoperable services map directly to the services highlighted in the USGEO Common Framework for Earth Observation Data and include open source technologies like the THREDDS Data Server and OPeNDAP Hyrax Server. Collaborations involving federal, academic, and community partnerships have proven essential to the progress of this major effort in NOAA. The OneStop web user interface is following modern web standards and those identified for US Government web sites at standards.usa.gov. A key aspect of the OneStop project, however, is that it focuses on improving not just the web interface, but also on all of the layers of the data discovery and access framework including the underlying catalog services, metadata, data visualization and subsetting services, and data formats and standards. In each of these areas, partnerships have proven essential in leveraging the best of existing capabilities and for infusing specific innovations. Progress on this major initiative within NOAA will be presented along with specific examples of how collaborations and partnerships have proven essential to improving NOAA's data stewardship services.

  19. Coherent resonance stop bands in alternating gradient beam transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, K.; Okamoto, H.; Tokashiki, Y.; Fukushima, K.

    2017-06-01

    An extensive experimental study is performed to confirm fundamental resonance bands of an intense hadron beam propagating through an alternating gradient linear transport channel. The present work focuses on the most common lattice geometry called "FODO" or "doublet" that consists of two quadrupoles of opposite polarities. The tabletop ion-trap system "S-POD" (Simulator of Particle Orbit Dynamics) developed at Hiroshima University is employed to clarify the parameter-dependence of coherent beam instability. S-POD can provide a non-neutral plasma physically equivalent to a charged-particle beam in a periodic focusing potential. In contrast with conventional experimental approaches relying on large-scale machines, it is straightforward in S-POD to control the doublet geometry characterized by the quadrupole filling factor and drift-space ratio. We verify that the resonance feature does not essentially change depending on these geometric factors. A few clear stop bands of low-order resonances always appear in the same pattern as previously found with the sinusoidal focusing model. All stop bands become widened and shift to the higher-tune side as the beam density is increased. In the space-charge-dominated regime, the most dangerous stop band is located at the bare betatron phase advance slightly above 90 degrees. Experimental data from S-POD suggest that this severe resonance is driven mainly by the linear self-field potential rather than by nonlinear external imperfections and, therefore, unavoidable at high beam density. The instability of the third-order coherent mode generates relatively weak but noticeable stop bands near the phase advances of 60 and 120 degrees. The latter sextupole stop band is considerably enhanced by lattice imperfections. In a strongly asymmetric focusing channel, extra attention may have to be paid to some coupling resonance lines induced by the Coulomb potential. Our interpretations of experimental data are supported by theoretical

  20. Increasing BCI communication rates with dynamic stopping towards more practical use: an ALS study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainsah, B. O.; Collins, L. M.; Colwell, K. A.; Sellers, E. W.; Ryan, D. B.; Caves, K.; Throckmorton, C. S.

    2015-02-01

    Objective. The P300 speller is a brain-computer interface (BCI) that can possibly restore communication abilities to individuals with severe neuromuscular disabilities, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), by exploiting elicited brain signals in electroencephalography (EEG) data. However, accurate spelling with BCIs is slow due to the need to average data over multiple trials to increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the elicited brain signals. Probabilistic approaches to dynamically control data collection have shown improved performance in non-disabled populations; however, validation of these approaches in a target BCI user population has not occurred. Approach. We have developed a data-driven algorithm for the P300 speller based on Bayesian inference that improves spelling time by adaptively selecting the number of trials based on the acute SNR of a user’s EEG data. We further enhanced the algorithm by incorporating information about the user’s language. In this current study, we test and validate the algorithms online in a target BCI user population, by comparing the performance of the dynamic stopping (DS) (or early stopping) algorithms against the current state-of-the-art method, static data collection, where the amount of data collected is fixed prior to online operation. Main results. Results from online testing of the DS algorithms in participants with ALS demonstrate a significant increase in communication rate as measured in bits/min (100-300%), and theoretical bit rate (100-550%), while maintaining selection accuracy. Participants also overwhelmingly preferred the DS algorithms. Significance. We have developed a viable BCI algorithm that has been tested in a target BCI population which has the potential for translation to improve BCI speller performance towards more practical use for communication.

  1. On the Origin of Post-Aspirated Stops: Production and Perception of /s/ + Voiceless Stop Sequences in Andalusian Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Ruch

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the role of articulatory and perceptual factors in the change from pre- to post-aspiration in two varieties of Andalusian Spanish. In an acoustic study, the influence of stop type, speaker age, and variety on the production of pre- and post-aspiration was analyzed in isolated words produced by 24 speakers of a Western and 24 of an Eastern variety, both divided into two age groups. The results confirmed previous findings of a sound change from pre- to post-aspiration in both varieties. Velar stops showed the longest, bilabials the shortest, and dental stops intermediate pre- and post-aspiration durations. The observed universal VOT-pattern was not found for younger Western Andalusian speakers who showed a particularly long VOT in /st/-sequences. A perception experiment with the same subjects as listeners showed that post-aspiration was used as a cue for distinguishing the minimal pair /pata/-/pasta/ by almost all listeners. Production-perception comparisons suggested a relationship between production and perception: subjects who produced long post-aspiration were also more sensitive to this cue. In sum, the results suggest that the sound change has first been actuated in the dental context, possibly due to a higher perceptual prominence of post-aspiration in this context, and that post-aspirated stops in Andalusian Spanish are on their way to being phonologized.

  2. The bradykinin B2 receptor induces multiple cellular responses leading to the proliferation of human renal carcinoma cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kramarenko II

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Inga I Kramarenko1, Thomas A Morinelli1,2, Marlene A Bunni1,2, John R Raymond Sr3, Maria N Garnovskaya11Department of Medicine (Nephrology Division, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA; 2Medical and Research Services of the Ralph H Johnson Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Charleston, SC, USA; 3Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USABackground: The vasoactive peptide bradykinin (BK acts as a potent growth factor for normal kidney cells, but there have been few studies on the role of BK in renal cell carcinomas.Purpose: In this study, we tested the hypothesis that BK also acts as a mitogen in kidney carcinomas, and explored the effects of BK in human renal carcinoma A498 cells.Methods: The presence of mRNAs for BK B1 and BK B2 receptors in A498 cells was demonstrated by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. To study BK signaling pathways, we employed fluorescent measurements of intracellular Ca2+, measured changes in extracellular pH as a reflection of Na+/H+ exchange (NHE with a Cytosensor microphysiometer, and assessed extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK activation by Western blotting.Results: Exposure to 100 nM of BK resulted in the rapid elevation of intracellular Ca2+, caused a ≥30% increase in NHE activity, and a ≥300% increase in ERK phosphorylation. All BK signals were blocked by HOE140, a BK B2 receptor antagonist, but not by a B1 receptor antagonist. Inhibitor studies suggest that BK-induced ERK activation requires phospholipase C and protein kinase C activities, and is Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent. The amiloride analog 5-(N-methyl-N-isobutyl-amiloride (MIA blocked short-term NHE activation and inhibited ERK phosphorylation, suggesting that NHE is critical for ERK activation by BK. BK induced an approximately 40% increase in the proliferation of A498 cells as assessed by bromodeoxyuridine uptake. This effect was blocked by the ERK inhibitor PD98059, and was dependent on NHE activity

  3. Classification of stop place in consonant-vowel contexts using feature extrapolation of acoustic-phonetic features in telephone speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Won; Choi, Jeung-Yoon; Kang, Hong-Goo

    2012-02-01

    Knowledge-based speech recognition systems extract acoustic cues from the signal to identify speech characteristics. For channel-deteriorated telephone speech, acoustic cues, especially those for stop consonant place, are expected to be degraded or absent. To investigate the use of knowledge-based methods in degraded environments, feature extrapolation of acoustic-phonetic features based on Gaussian mixture models is examined. This process is applied to a stop place detection module that uses burst release and vowel onset cues for consonant-vowel tokens of English. Results show that classification performance is enhanced in telephone channel-degraded speech, with extrapolated acoustic-phonetic features reaching or exceeding performance using estimated Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs). Results also show acoustic-phonetic features may be combined with MFCCs for best performance, suggesting these features provide information complementary to MFCCs.

  4. The stopping powers and energy straggling of heavy ions in polymer foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikšová, R.; Macková, A.; Malinský, P.; Hnatowicz, V.; Slepička, P.

    2014-07-01

    The stopping power and energy straggling of 7Li, 12C and 16O ions in thin poly(etheretherketone) (PEEK), polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polycarbonate (PC) foils were measured in the incident beam energy range of 9.4-11.8 MeV using an indirect transmission method. Ions scattered from a thin gold target at an angle of 150° were registered by a partially depleted PIPS detector, partly shielded with a polymer foil placed in front of the detector. Therefore, the signals from both direct and slowed down ions were visible in the same energy spectrum, which was evaluated by the ITAP code, developed at our laboratory. The ITAP code was employed to perform a Gaussian-fitting procedure to provide a complete analysis of each measured spectrum. The measured stopping powers were compared with the predictions obtained from the SRIM-2008 and MSTAR codes and with previous experimental data. The energy straggling data were compared with those calculated by using Bohr's, Lindhard-Scharff and Bethe-Livingston theories.

  5. The stopping powers and energy straggling of heavy ions in polymer foils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikšová, R., E-mail: miksova@ujf.cas.cz [Nuclear Physics Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, J.E. Purkinje University, Ceske Mladeze 8, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Macková, A.; Malinský, P. [Nuclear Physics Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, J.E. Purkinje University, Ceske Mladeze 8, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Hnatowicz, V. [Nuclear Physics Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., 250 68 Rez (Czech Republic); Slepička, P. [Department of Solid State Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, 166 28 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2014-07-15

    The stopping power and energy straggling of {sup 7}Li, {sup 12}C and {sup 16}O ions in thin poly(etheretherketone) (PEEK), polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polycarbonate (PC) foils were measured in the incident beam energy range of 9.4–11.8 MeV using an indirect transmission method. Ions scattered from a thin gold target at an angle of 150° were registered by a partially depleted PIPS detector, partly shielded with a polymer foil placed in front of the detector. Therefore, the signals from both direct and slowed down ions were visible in the same energy spectrum, which was evaluated by the ITAP code, developed at our laboratory. The ITAP code was employed to perform a Gaussian-fitting procedure to provide a complete analysis of each measured spectrum. The measured stopping powers were compared with the predictions obtained from the SRIM-2008 and MSTAR codes and with previous experimental data. The energy straggling data were compared with those calculated by using Bohr’s, Lindhard–Scharff and Bethe–Livingston theories.

  6. Improved Reproduction of Stops in Noise Reduction Systems with Adaptive Windows and Nonstationarity Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Mauler

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A new block-based noise reduction system is proposed which focuses on the preservation of transient sounds like stops or speech onsets. The power level of consonants has been shown to be important for speech intelligibility. In single-channel noise reduction systems, however, these sounds are frequently severely attenuated. The main reasons for this are an insufficient temporal resolution of transient sounds and a delayed tracking of important control parameters. The key idea of the proposed system is the detection of non-stationary input data. Depending on that decision, a pair of spectral analysis-synthesis windows is selected which either provides high temporal or high spectral resolution. Furthermore, the decision-directed approach for the estimation of the a priori SNR is modified so that speech onsets are tracked more quickly without sacrificing performance in stationary signal regions. The proposed solution shows significant improvements in the preservation of stops with an overall system delay (input-output, excluding group delay of noise reduction filter of only 10 milliseconds.

  7. FlpStop, a tool for conditional gene control in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Yvette E; Yang, Helen H; Isaacman-Beck, Jesse; Xie, Marjorie; Gohl, Daryl M; Clandinin, Thomas R

    2017-01-01

    Manipulating gene function cell type-specifically is a common experimental goal in Drosophila research and has been central to studies of neural development, circuit computation, and behavior. However, current cell type-specific gene disruption techniques in flies often reduce gene activity incompletely or rely on cell division. Here we describe FlpStop, a generalizable tool for conditional gene disruption and rescue in post-mitotic cells. In proof-of-principle experiments, we manipulated apterous, a regulator of wing development. Next, we produced conditional null alleles of Glutamic acid decarboxylase 1 (Gad1) and Resistant to dieldrin (Rdl), genes vital for GABAergic neurotransmission, as well as cacophony (cac) and paralytic (para), voltage-gated ion channels central to neuronal excitability. To demonstrate the utility of this approach, we manipulated cac in a specific visual interneuron type and discovered differential regulation of calcium signals across subcellular compartments. Thus, FlpStop will facilitate investigations into the interactions between genes, circuits, and computation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22279.001 PMID:28211790

  8. The contrast between alveolar and velar stops with typical speech data: acoustic and articulatory analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Roberta Michelon; Mota, Helena Bolli; Berti, Larissa Cristina

    2017-06-08

    This study used acoustic and articulatory analyses to characterize the contrast between alveolar and velar stops with typical speech data, comparing the parameters (acoustic and articulatory) of adults and children with typical speech development. The sample consisted of 20 adults and 15 children with typical speech development. The analyzed corpus was organized through five repetitions of each target-word (/'kap ə/, /'tapə/, /'galo/ e /'daɾə/). These words were inserted into a carrier phrase and the participant was asked to name them spontaneously. Simultaneous audio and video data were recorded (tongue ultrasound images). The data was submitted to acoustic analyses (voice onset time; spectral peak and burst spectral moments; vowel/consonant transition and relative duration measures) and articulatory analyses (proportion of significant axes of the anterior and posterior tongue regions and description of tongue curves). Acoustic and articulatory parameters were effective to indicate the contrast between alveolar and velar stops, mainly in the adult group. Both speech analyses showed statistically significant differences between the two groups. The acoustic and articulatory parameters provided signals to characterize the phonic contrast of speech. One of the main findings in the comparison between adult and child speech was evidence of articulatory refinement/maturation even after the period of segment acquisition.

  9. Scattering and stopping of hadrons in nuclear matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strugalski, Z.

    1985-01-01

    It was observed, in the 180 litre xenon bubble chamber, that when hadrons with kinetic energy higher than the pion production threshold fall on a layer of nuclear matter - on an atomic nucleus in other words - in many cases they can pass through it without causing particles production but they are deflected through some deflection angles; if the energy is lower than a few GeV and the nuclear matter layer is thick enough, the hadrons can be stopped in it. The amount of the deflection at a given incident hadron energy varies with the way the hadron strikes the atomic nucleus; the probability of the occurrence of stopping depends on the incident hadron identity and energy, and on the way the hadron passed through the nucleus, as well.

  10. Electronic stopping power in LiF from first principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruneda, J M; Sánchez-Portal, D; Arnau, A; Juaristi, J I; Artacho, Emilio

    2007-12-07

    Using time-dependent density-functional theory we calculate from first principles the rate of energy transfer from a moving proton or antiproton to the electrons of an insulating material, LiF. The behavior of the electronic stopping power versus projectile velocity displays an effective threshold velocity of approximately 0.2 a.u. for the proton, consistent with recent experimental observations, and also for the antiproton. The calculated proton/antiproton stopping-power ratio is approximately 2.4 at velocities slightly above the threshold (v approximately 0.4 a.u.), as compared to the experimental value of 2.1. The projectile energy loss mechanism is observed to be extremely local.

  11. Multiview coding mode decision with hybrid optimal stopping model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tiesong; Kwong, Sam; Wang, Hanli; Wang, Zhou; Pan, Zhaoqing; Kuo, C-C Jay

    2013-04-01

    In a generic decision process, optimal stopping theory aims to achieve a good tradeoff between decision performance and time consumed, with the advantages of theoretical decision-making and predictable decision performance. In this paper, optimal stopping theory is employed to develop an effective hybrid model for the mode decision problem, which aims to theoretically achieve a good tradeoff between the two interrelated measurements in mode decision, as computational complexity reduction and rate-distortion degradation. The proposed hybrid model is implemented and examined with a multiview encoder. To support the model and further promote coding performance, the multiview coding mode characteristics, including predicted mode probability and estimated coding time, are jointly investigated with inter-view correlations. Exhaustive experimental results with a wide range of video resolutions reveal the efficiency and robustness of our method, with high decision accuracy, negligible computational overhead, and almost intact rate-distortion performance compared to the original encoder.

  12. Elucidating the stop bands of structurally colored systems through recursion

    CERN Document Server

    Amir, Ariel

    2012-01-01

    Interference phenomena are the source of some of the spectacular colors of animals and plants in nature. In some of these systems, the physical structure consists of an ordered array of layers with alternating high and low refractive indices. This periodicity leads to an optical band structure that is analogous to the electronic band structure encountered in semiconductor physics; namely, specific bands of wavelengths (the stop bands) are perfectly reflected. Here, we present a minimal model for optical band structure in a periodic multilayer and solve it using recursion relations. We present experimental data for various beetles, whose optical structure resembles the proposed model. The stop bands emerge in the limit of an infinite number of layers by finding the fixed point of the recursive relations. In order for these to converge, an infinitesimal amount of absorption needs to be present, reminiscent of the regularization procedures commonly used in physics calculations. Thus, using only the phenomenon of...

  13. Ball Screw Actuator Including a Stop with an Integral Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Perek, John (Inventor); Geck, Kellan (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An actuator includes a housing assembly, a ball nut, a ball screw, and a ball screw stop. The ball nut is rotationally mounted in the housing assembly, is adapted to receive an input torque, and is configured, upon receipt thereof, to rotate and supply a drive force. The ball screw is mounted within the housing assembly and extends through the ball nut. The ball screw has a first end and a second end, and is coupled to receive the drive force from the ball nut. The ball screw is configured, upon receipt of the drive force, to selectively translate between a stow position and a deploy position. The ball screw stop is mounted on the ball screw to translate therewith and is configured to at selectively engage the housing assembly while the ball screw is translating, and engage the ball nut when the ball screw is in the deploy position.

  14. Activation of G protein-coupled estrogen receptor induces endothelium-independent relaxation of coronary artery smooth muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xuan; Ma, Handong; Barman, Scott A.; Liu, Alexander T.; Sellers, Minga; Stallone, John N.; Prossnitz, Eric R.; White, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    Estrogens can either relax or contract arteries via rapid, nongenomic mechanisms involving classic estrogen receptors (ER). In addition to ERα and ERβ, estrogen may also stimulate G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER) in nonvascular tissue; however, a potential role for GPER in coronary arteries is unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine how GPER activity influenced coronary artery reactivity. In vitro isometric force recordings were performed on endothelium-denuded porcine arteries. These studies were augmented by RT-PCR and single-cell patch-clamp experiments. RT-PCR and immunoblot studies confirmed expression of GPER mRNA and protein, respectively, in smooth muscle from either porcine or human coronary arteries. G-1, a selective GPER agonist, produced a concentration-dependent relaxation of endothelium-denuded porcine coronary arteries in vitro. This response was attenuated by G15, a GPER-selective antagonist, or by inhibiting large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BKCa) channels with iberiotoxin, but not by inhibiting NO signaling. Last, single-channel patch-clamp studies demonstrated that G-1 stimulates BKCa channel activity in intact smooth muscle cells from either porcine or human coronary arteries but had no effect on channels isolated in excised membrane patches. In summary, GPER activation relaxes coronary artery smooth muscle by increasing potassium efflux via BKCa channels and requires an intact cellular signaling mechanism. This novel action of estrogen-like compounds may help clarify some of the controversy surrounding the vascular effects of estrogens. PMID:21791623

  15. Excessive activation of ionotropic glutamate receptors induces apoptotic hair-cell death independent of afferent and efferent innervation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Lavinia

    2017-01-01

    Accumulation of excess glutamate plays a central role in eliciting the pathological events that follow intensely loud noise exposures and ischemia-reperfusion injury. Glutamate excitotoxicity has been characterized in cochlear nerve terminals, but much less is known about whether excess glutamate signaling also contributes to pathological changes in sensory hair cells. I therefore examined whether glutamate excitotoxicity damages hair cells in zebrafish larvae exposed to drugs that mimic excitotoxic trauma. Exposure to ionotropic glutamate receptor (iGluR) agonists, kainic acid (KA) or N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), contributed to significant, progressive hair cell loss in zebrafish lateral-line organs. To examine whether hair-cell loss was a secondary effect of excitotoxic damage to innervating neurons, I exposed neurog1a morphants—fish whose hair-cell organs are devoid of afferent and efferent innervation—to KA or NMDA. Significant, dose-dependent hair-cell loss occurred in neurog1a morphants exposed to either agonist, and the loss was comparable to wild-type siblings. A survey of iGluR gene expression revealed AMPA-, Kainate-, and NMDA-type subunits are expressed in zebrafish hair cells. Finally, hair cells exposed to KA or NMDA appear to undergo apoptotic cell death. Cumulatively, these data reveal that excess glutamate signaling through iGluRs induces hair-cell death independent of damage to postsynaptic terminals. PMID:28112265

  16. Inferring Stop-Locations from WiFi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, David Kofoed; Sapiezynski, Piotr; Furman, Magdalena Anna

    2016-01-01

    Human mobility patterns are inherently complex. In terms of understanding these patterns, the process of converting raw data into series of stop-locations and transitions is an important first step which greatly reduces the volume of data, thus simplifying the subsequent analyses. Previous resear...... the most important routers and one which uses a density-based clustering algorithm to detect router fingerprints. We validate our results using participants' GPS data as well as ground truth data collected during a two month period....

  17. We Can Stop HIV One Conversation at a Time

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-08-28

    As part of the We Can Stop HIV One Conversation at a Time campaign, this 30 second PSA encourages Hispanics/Latinos to talk openly about HIV and AIDS with their families, friends, partners, and communities.  Created: 8/28/2014 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 8/28/2014.

  18. LHC Availability 2016: Restart to Technical Stop 1

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, Benjamin; Apollonio, Andrea; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    This document summarises the LHC machine availability for the period of Restart to Technical Stop 1 (TS1) in 2016. This period was dedicated to restart of the LHC for proton physics with a bunch spacing of 25ns. This note has been produced and ratified by the LHC Availability Working Group which has complied fault information for the period in question using the Accelerator Fault Tracker.

  19. Clamped seismic metamaterials: ultra-low frequency stop bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achaoui, Y.; Antonakakis, T.; Brûlé, S.; Craster, R. V.; Enoch, S.; Guenneau, S.

    2017-06-01

    The regularity of earthquakes, their destructive power, and the nuisance of ground vibration in urban environments, all motivate designs of defence structures to lessen the impact of seismic and ground vibration waves on buildings. Low frequency waves, in the range 1-10 Hz for earthquakes and up to a few tens of Hz for vibrations generated by human activities, cause a large amount of damage, or inconvenience; depending on the geological conditions they can travel considerable distances and may match the resonant fundamental frequency of buildings. The ultimate aim of any seismic metamaterial, or any other seismic shield, is to protect over this entire range of frequencies; the long wavelengths involved, and low frequency, have meant this has been unachievable to date. Notably this is scalable and the effects also hold for smaller devices in ultrasonics. There are three approaches to obtaining shielding effects: bragg scattering, locally resonant sub-wavelength inclusions and zero-frequency stop-band media. The former two have been explored, but the latter has not and is examined here. Elastic flexural waves, applicable in the mechanical vibrations of thin elastic plates, can be designed to have a broad zero-frequency stop-band using a periodic array of very small clamped circles. Inspired by this experimental and theoretical observation, all be it in a situation far removed from seismic waves, we demonstrate that it is possible to achieve elastic surface (Rayleigh) wave reflectors at very large wavelengths in structured soils modelled as a fully elastic layer periodically clamped to bedrock. We identify zero frequency stop-bands that only exist in the limit of columns of concrete clamped at their base to the bedrock. In a realistic configuration of a sedimentary basin 15 m deep we observe a zero frequency stop-band covering a broad frequency range of 0-30 Hz.

  20. Stopping pions in high-energy nuclear cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, W. V.; Johnson, D. P.; Thompson, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    Results of Monte Carlo calculations for the number and energy spectra of charged pions from nuclear-electromagnetic cascades developing in rock are presented for primary hadron energies ranging from 3 to 3000 GeV. These spectra are given as functions of the longitudinal depth in the absorber and the lateral distance from the cascade axis. The number of charged pions which stop in the absorber increases with the primary energy of the hadron initiating the cascade.

  1. Stylistic Analysis of Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    查琳琳

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes the poem Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening by Robert Frost from stylistic perspective.Based on the analysis of stylistic features in terms of phonological,lexical,syntactic and semantic levels,it is revealed that regular rhythm and rhyme,colloquial lexicon, pithy syntax,vivid image and lots of symbols make this poem melodious,easy to understand but filled with deep connotative meaning.

  2. Stopping of relativistic hydrogen- and heliumlike heavy ions

    CERN Document Server

    Soerensen, A H

    2002-01-01

    The stopping power for hydrogen- and heliumlike heavy ions penetrating matter at energies of 100-1000 MeV/u is calculated. For hydrogenlike ions the difference in dE/dx for an extended and a collapsed electron distribution is at the level of 1% and nonperturbative effects easily account for half of the difference. Differences of this magnitude have drastic effects on charge-exchange straggling. The theoretical results lead to good agreement with experimental values when applied in simulations.

  3. English Stop-Smoking Services: One-Year Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauld, Linda; Hiscock, Rosemary; Dobbie, Fiona; Aveyard, Paul; Coleman, Tim; Leonardi-Bee, Jo; McRobbie, Hayden; McEwen, Andy

    2016-01-01

    The UK is a global leader in stop-smoking support—providing free behavioral support and cessation medication via stop smoking services (SSS) without charge to smokers. This study aimed to explore the client and service characteristics associated with abstinence 52 weeks after quitting. A prospective cohort study of 3057 SSS clients in nine different areas of England who began their quit attempt between March 2012 and March 2013 was conducted. Important determinants of long-term quitting were assessed through quit rates and multivariable logistic regression. Our results showed that the overall weighted carbon monoxide validated quit rate for clients at 52 weeks was 7.7% (95% confidence interval (CI) 6.6–9.0). The clients of advisors, whose main role was providing stop-smoking support, were more likely to quit long-term than advisors who had a generalist role in pharmacies or general practices (odds ratio (OR) 2.3 (95% CI 1.2–4.6)). Clients were more likely to achieve abstinence through group support than one-to-one support (OR 3.4 (95% CI 1.7–6.7)). Overall, one in thirteen people who set a quit date with the National Health Service (NHS) Stop-Smoking Service maintain abstinence for a year. Improving abstinence is likely to require a greater emphasis on providing specialist smoking cessation support. Results from this study suggest that over 18,000 premature deaths were prevented through longer-term smoking cessation achieved by smokers who accessed SSS in England from March 2012 to April 2013, but outcomes varied by client characteristic and the type of support provided. PMID:27886140

  4. A Novel High Stop Band All Complementary MOSFET Switched-Capacitor Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moussa Abdallah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Filters are widely used in various applications including communications, electronics and biomedical engineering. The performance and size of the filter is of interest especially in chip implementation. A switched-capacitor low-pass filter was designed and simulated using a 0.18 µm 1P6M CMOS technology. Approach: This circuit design offered obvious advantages in increasing the stopband attenuation, reducing passband ripple and achieving accurate frequency response. Results: This circuit achieved 53 dB stop band attenuation, less than 0.1 dB passband ripple, a 5 KHz cut-off frequency, a 100 KHz stopband frequency and consumes 6 mW from a 2 V power supply. Conclusion: The proposed design is very suitable for the realization of analog signal processing blocks in complementary MOSFET integrated circuits.

  5. Baryon stopping in heavy-ion collisions at Elab = 2A-200A GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Yu. B.; Blaschke, D.

    2016-08-01

    It is argued that an irregularity in the baryon stopping is a natural consequence of the onset of deconfinement occurring in the compression stage of a nuclear collision. It is an effect of the softest point inherent in an equation of state (EoS) with a deconfinement transition. In order to illustrate this effect, calculations within the three-fluid model were performed with three different EoSs: a purely hadronic EoS, an EoS with a first-order phase transition and a third one with a smooth crossover transition. It is demonstrated that this irregularity is a very robust signal of the first-order phase transition that survives under acceptance conditions of the NICA MPD experiment.

  6. Momentum reconstruction at the LHC for probing CP-violation in the stop sector

    CERN Document Server

    Moortgat-Pick, Gudrid; Tattersall, Jamie

    2010-01-01

    We study the potential to observe CP-violating effects in SUSY stop cascade decay chains at the LHC. Asymmetries composed by triple products of momenta of the final state particles are sensitive to CP-violating effects. Due to large boosts that dilute the asymmetries, these can be difficult to observe. If all particle masses in a cascade decay are known, it may be possible to reconstruct all momenta in the decay chains on an event-by-event basis even when we have missing momentum due to a stable LSP. After the reconstruction, the non-diluted CP-violating signal can be recovered and gets significantly enhanced so that an observation may become feasible. A fully hadronic study has been completed to define the areas of the mSUGRA parameter space that may yield a 3-sigma observation with 500 fb^(-1) at the LHC.

  7. Adaptive weak approximation of reflected and stopped diffusions

    KAUST Repository

    Bayer, Christian

    2010-01-01

    We study the weak approximation problem of diffusions, which are reflected at a subset of the boundary of a domain and stopped at the remaining boundary. First, we derive an error representation for the projected Euler method of Costantini, Pacchiarotti and Sartoretto [Costantini et al., SIAM J. Appl. Math., 58(1):73-102, 1998], based on which we introduce two new algorithms. The first one uses a correction term from the representation in order to obtain a higher order of convergence, but the computation of the correction term is, in general, not feasible in dimensions d > 1. The second algorithm is adaptive in the sense of Moon, Szepessy, Tempone and Zouraris [Moon et al., Stoch. Anal. Appl., 23:511-558, 2005], using stochastic refinement of the time grid based on a computable error expansion derived from the representation. Regarding the stopped diffusion, it is based in the adaptive algorithm for purely stopped diffusions presented in Dzougoutov, Moon, von Schwerin, Szepessy and Tempone [Dzougoutov et al., Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. Eng., 44, 59-88, 2005]. We give numerical examples underlining the theoretical results. © de Gruyter 2010.

  8. New therapeutic perspectives in HBV: when to stop NAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Cameo, Cristina; Pons, Mònica; Esteban, Rafael

    2014-02-01

    The goal of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) treatment is to achieve seroclearance of HBsAg. Nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) are one of the first-line treatments for CHB. NAs produce a potent suppression of viral replication but are associated with a low rate of HBsAg seroclearance and a high risk of virological relapse after discontinuation. Because of these reasons, long-term treatment is needed. They are well-tolerated oral drugs, and it seems they do not produce important side-effects in long-term administration. The duration of NA treatment remains unclear, nevertheless, in some patients NAs can be stopped with a low rate of relapse. HBeAg-positive patients could discontinue NA therapy if they achieved HBeAg seroclearance and maintain undetectable HBV DNA. For HBeAg-negative patients, to stop NA treatment is not recommended. In addition to other factors, serum HBsAg titres during treatment have recently been proposed to guide NA-based therapy duration in selected patients. All patients could be stopped from taking treatment if they achieve HBsAg loss.

  9. Effective Listings of Function Stop words for Twitter

    CERN Document Server

    Choy, Murphy

    2012-01-01

    Many words in documents recur very frequently but are essentially meaningless as they are used to join words together in a sentence. It is commonly understood that stop words do not contribute to the context or content of textual documents. Due to their high frequency of occurrence, their presence in text mining presents an obstacle to the understanding of the content in the documents. To eliminate the bias effects, most text mining software or approaches make use of stop words list to identify and remove those words. However, the development of such top words list is difficult and inconsistent between textual sources. This problem is further aggravated by sources such as Twitter which are highly repetitive or similar in nature. In this paper, we will be examining the original work using term frequency, inverse document frequency and term adjacency for developing a stop words list for the Twitter data source. We propose a new technique using combinatorial values as an alternative measure to effectively list o...

  10. Neutrino-induced upward stopping muons in Super-Kamiokande

    CERN Document Server

    Fukuda, Y; Itow, Y; Kajita, T; Kameda, J; Kasuga, S; Kobayashi, K; Kobayashi, Y; Koshio, Y; Miura, M; Nakahata, M; Nakayama, S; Obayashi, Y; Okada, A; Okumura, K; Sakurai, N; Shiozawa, M; Suzuki, Y; Takeuchi, H; Takeuchi, Y; Totsuka, Y; Yamada, S; Earl, M; Habig, A; Kearns, E; Messier, M D; Scholberg, K; Stone, J L; Sulak, L R; Walter, C W; Goldhaber, M; Barszczak, T; Casper, D; Gajewski, W; Kropp, W R; Mine, S; Price, L R; Smy, M B; Sobel, H W; Vagins, M R; Ganezer, K S; Keig, W E; Ellsworth, R W; Tasaka, S; Kibayashi, A; Learned, J G; Matsuno, S; Stenger, V J; Takemori, D; Ishii, T; Ishino, H; Kobayashi, T; Nakamura, K; Oyama, Y; Sakai, A; Sakuda, M; Sasaki, O; Echigo, S; Kohama, M; Suzuki, A T; Inagaki, T; Nishikawa, K; Haines, T J; Blaufuss, E; Kim, B K; Sanford, R; Svoboda, R; Chen, M L; Goodman, J A; Sullivan, G W; Hill, J; Jung, C K; Martens, K; Mauger, C; McGrew, C; Sharkey, E; Viren, B; Yanagisawa, C; Doki, W; Kirisawa, M; Inaba, S; Miyano, K; Okazawa, H; Saji, C; Takahashi, M; Takahata, M; Higuchi, K; Nagashima, Y; Takita, M; Yamaguchi, T; Yoshida, M; Kim, S B; Etoh, M; Hasegawa, A; Hasegawa, T; Hatakeyama, S; Inoue, K; Iwamoto, T; Koga, M; Maruyama, T; Ogawa, H; Shirai, J; Suzuki, A; Tsushima, F; Koshiba, M; Hatakeyama, Y; Koike, M; Nemoto, M; Nishijima, K; Fujiyasu, H; Futagami, T; Hayato, Y; Kanaya, Y; Kaneyuki, K; Watanabe, Y; Kielczewska, D; George, J S; Stachyra, A L; Wilkes, R J; Young, K K

    1999-01-01

    A total of 137 upward stopping muons of minimum energy 1.6 GeV are observed by Super-Kamiokande during 516 detector live days. The measured muon flux is 0.39+/-0.04(stat.)+/-0.02(syst.)x10^{-13}cm^{-2}s^{-1}sr^{-1} compared to an expected flux of 0.73+/-0.16(theo.)x10^{-13}cm^{-2}s^{-1}sr^{-1}. Using our previously-published measurement of the upward through-going muon flux, we calculate the stopping/through-going flux ratio R}, which has less theoretical uncertainty. The measured value of R=0.22+/-0.02(stat.)+/-0.01(syst.) is significantly smaller than the value 0.37^{+0.05}_{-0.04}(theo.) expected using the best theoretical information (the probability that the measured R is a statistical fluctuation below the expected value is 0.39%). A simultaneous fitting to zenith angle distributions of upward stopping and through-going muons gives a result which is consistent with the hypothesis of neutrino oscillations with the parameters sin^2 2\\theta >0.7 and 1.5x10^{-3} < \\Delta m^2 < 1.5x10^{-2} eV^2 at 90% ...

  11. Helping people stop smoking in workplaces: an alternative path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Osman

    2016-03-01

    Initiated by Prof Bertrand Dautzenberg 10 years ago "OFT" and then "OFT Conseil" have been developing different plans to address those smokers where they are working and encourage them to stop. The fact is that many medium and large size companies want their staff to stop smoking to keep people in good health, to protect the image of the company or for any other reason. We are generally commissioned by the Occupational Health Doctors or by Human Resources Managers to intervene. Each year OFT tobaccologists are working in some 75 to 100 companies. OFT and later OFT Conseil have developed a 3 steps programme especially addressed to workplaces. The 3 steps are complementary although not mandatory: 1. Group meeting with smokers to raise awareness of well-being after stopping 2. Individual interview to provide a diagnosis and build up an individual cessation programme 3. A smoking cessation protocol based on 6 to 10 consultations over 6 to 8 months. This plan is financed by the companies and followed only by graduated tobaccologists. The success rate in average is more or less 50% to 60% in the best cases.

  12. Stashing the stops in multijet events at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Diglio, Sara; Moultaka, Gilbert

    2016-01-01

    While the presence of a light stop is increasingly disfavored by the experimental limits set on R-parity conserving scenarios, the naturalness of supersymmetry could still be safely concealed in the more challenging final states predicted by the existence of non-null R-parity violating couplings. Although R-parity violating signatures are extensively looked for at the Large Hadron Collider, these searches always assume 100\\% branching ratios for the direct decays of supersymmetric particles into Standard Model ones. In this paper we scrutinize the implications of relaxing this assumption by focusing on one motivated scenario where the lightest stop is heavier than a chargino and a neutralino. Considering a class of R-parity baryon number violating couplings, we show on general grounds that while the direct decay of the stop into Standard Model particles is dominant for large values of these couplings, smaller values give rise, instead, to the dominance of a plethora of longer decay chains and richer final sta...

  13. Portable semiconductor laser system to stop internal bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rediker, Robert H.; Durville, Frederic M.; Cho, George; Boll, James H.

    1995-03-01

    One significant cause of death during a sever trauma (gun wound or stab wound) is internal bleeding. A semiconductor diode laser system has been used in in vitro studies of cauterizing veins and arteries to stop bleeding. The conditions of laparoscopic surgery, including bleeding conditions (blood flow and pressure), are simulated. Results have been obtained both with and without using a hemostat (e.g., forceps) to temporarily stop the bleeding prior to the cautery. With the hemostat and a fiber-coupled 810-nm laser, blood vessels of up to 5 mm diameter were cauterized with an 8 W output from the fiber. Great cautions must be used in extrapolating from these in vitro results, since the exact conditions of bleeding in a living being are impossible to exactly reproduce in a laboratory in-vitro experiment. In a living being, when blood flow stops the cessation of nourishment to the vessels results in irreversible physiological changes. Also, the blood itself is different from blood in a living being because an anti-clotting agent (heparin) was added in order to inhibit the blood's natural tendency to coagulate.

  14. Stop and Fricative Devoicing in European Portuguese, Italian and German.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, Daniel; Jesus, Luis M T

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes a cross-linguistic production study of devoicing for European Portuguese (EP), Italian, and German. We recorded all stops and fricatives in four vowel contexts and two word positions. We computed the devoicing of the time-varying patterns throughout the stop and fricative duration. Our results show that regarding devoicing behaviour, EP is more similar to German than Italian. While Italian shows almost no devoicing of all phonologically voiced consonants, both EP and German show strong and consistent devoicing through the entire consonant. Differences in consonant position showed no effect for EP and Italian, but were significantly different for German. The height of the vowel context had an effect for German and EP. For EP, we showed that a more posterior place of articulation and low vowel context lead to significantly more devoicing. However, in contrast to German, we could not find an influence of consonant position on devoicing. The high devoicing for all phonologically voiced stops and fricatives and the vowel context influence are a surprising new result. With respect to voicing maintenance, EP is more like German than other Romance languages.

  15. Effect of retroflex sounds on the recognition of Hindi stops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dev, Amita; Agrawal, S. S.; Choudhary, D. Roy

    2004-05-01

    As development of the speech recognition system entirely depends upon the spoken language used for its development and the very fact that speech technology is highly language dependent and reverse engineering is not possible, there is an utmost need to develop such systems for Indian languages. In this paper we present the implementation of a time-delay neural network system (TDNN) in a modular fashion by exploiting the hidden structure of previously phonetic subcategory network for the recognition of Hindi consonants. For the present study we have selected all the Hindi phonemes for the recognition. A vocabulary of 207 Hindi words was designed for the task-specific environment and used as a database. For the recognition of phonemes a three-layered network was constructed and the network was trained using the backpropagation learning algorithm. Experiments were conducted to categorize the Hindi voiced and unvoiced stops, semivowels, vowels, nasals, and fricatives. A close observation of the confusion matrix of Hindi stops revealed maximum confusion of retroflex stops with their nonretroflex counterparts.

  16. Stopping power of C, O and Cl in tantalum oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barradas, Nuno P., E-mail: nunoni@ctn.ist.utl.pt [Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10, ao km 139.7, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Laboratório de Engenharia Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10, ao km 139.7, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Alves, E. [Associação Euratom/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, Lisboa 1049-001 (Portugal); Fonseca, M. [Dep. Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829- 516 Caparica (Portugal); ISLA Campus Lisboa| Laureate International Universities, 1500-210 Lisboa (Portugal); Siketić, Z.; Bogdanović Radović, I. [Ruđer Bošković Institute, P.O. Box 180, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2014-08-01

    Highlights: •We measured the stopping power of C, O, and Cl in tantalum oxide. •A bulk sample method was used, with Bayesian inference data analysis. •Good agreement was found with SRIM2012 calculations. -- Abstract: Tantalum oxide is used in a variety of applications due to its high bandgap, high-K and high index of refraction. Unintentional impurities can change properties of tantalum oxide, and heavy ion elastic recoil detection is a method that can play a fundamental role in the quantification of those impurities. Furthermore, tantalum oxide is frequently part of the samples that also include other materials, which are often analysed with ion beam techniques. However, there are very few reported stopping power measurements for tantalum oxide, and data analysis relies not only on interpolation from a sparse data base but also on the Bragg rule. As is well known, the Bragg rule is often inaccurate for oxides, particularly when the difference in atomic numbers of the involved elements is very large as is case for Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}. We have used a bulk method, previously developed by us and applied successfully to other systems, to determine experimentally the stopping power of tantalum oxide for three different ion types: C, O and Cl. In the present paper the results of our measurements and bulk method analysis are presented.

  17. A Confusion of Signals: James Franck, the Chicago Scientists and Early Efforts to Stop the Bomb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Brian Loring

    1975-01-01

    If the scientists working on the Manhattan Project had realized the consequences of the atomic bomb earlier, formulated their recommendations more precisely, and approached the statesmen in time, American policy on use and control of the bomb might well have been different. (Author/BT)

  18. Can’t Stop the Signal: Regaining Reliable Access to Cyberspace for Command and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-15

    nations now have the ability to destroy or disable satellites outright with anti- satellite ( ASAT ) technology, forcing the combatant commander to analyze...the problem of how to provide cyber without space. 24 Even if the JFC would like to assume that an ASAT -capable nation would not use this ability...for guarantees from the adversary not to utilize ASAT first. This would severely hamper the operational commander’s ability to utilize cyber unless

  19. Using stop signals to reduce impulsive choices for palatable unhealthy foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veling, H.P.; Aarts, H.A.G.; Stroebe, W.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Exposure to palatable foods in the environment can trigger impulsive reactions to obtain them, which may lead to unhealthy food choices and eating behaviour. Two studies tested the fundamental question whether impulsive unhealthy food choices can be altered by means of linking unhealthy

  20. Search for stop pairs in the eμET channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tissandier, Fabrice [Blaise Pascal Univ, Aubiere (France)

    2007-10-09

    The Standard Model gives a satisfying description of subatomic processes at low energy (< 1 TeV). Beyond this energy scale, other models must be considered. Supersymmetry is one of them. It gives in an elegant way, solutions to several Standard Model short comings. This document reports the search for a supersymmetric signal characterized by the production of two stops decaying into two b-jets, one electron, one muon and missing energy. This study has been performed at the D0 experiment, located on the ring of Tevatron collider at FermiLab, (Chicago, USA), whose energy in the center of mass reaches √s = 1.96 TeV. The data used for this analysis have been collected during Run IIa of D0 detector; from april 2003 to march 2006 (~ 1fb-1). The objects handled for this analysis require a good understanding of both calorimeters, muon detectors and trackers. As Tevatron is an hadronic collider and the number of Standard Model processes with the same signature as the signal is low, the background is thus dominated by QCD processes. After the selection cuts, no excess of data has been observed with respect to the Standard Model expectation. D0 experiment sensibility has been improved and the 95% CL exclusion area in [m$\\bar{v}$, m$\\bar{t}$1], extended up to stop masses of 170 GeV/c2 and sneutrino masses of 105 GeV/c2. Besides, a part of my work for the collaboration consisted in elaborating a tool to discriminate calorimetric objects at level 3 trigger system; and also in calibrating the two simulated level 1 readouts.

  1. Vitamin D Levels May Fall When Women Stop Taking Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160259.html Vitamin D Levels May Fall When Women Stop Taking ... 4, 2016 THURSDAY, Aug. 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Vitamin D levels may drop after women stop using ...

  2. Role of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors in α1-adrenergic receptor-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da-li LUO; Jian GAO; Xiao-mei LAN; Gang WANG; Sheng WEI; Rui-ping XIAO; Qi-de HAN

    2006-01-01

    Aim: Intracellular Ca2+ plays pivotal roles in diverse cellular functions, including gene transcription that underlies cardiac remodeling during stress responses. However, the role of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) in the mediation of cardiac intracellular Ca2+ and hypertrophic growth remains elusive. Prior work with neonatal rat ventricular myocytes suggests that activation of IP3Rs may be linked to α1 adrenergic receptor (α1AR) increased stereotyped Ca2+ spark occurrence and global Ca2+ oscillations. Thus, we hypothesized that Ca2+ release through IP3Rs was necessary for α1AR-stimulated cardiac hypertrophy. Methods: We used myoinositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate hexakis (butyryloxymethyl) ester (IP3BM), a membrane-permeant ester of IP3, to activate IP3Rs directly, and Fluo 4/AM to measure intracellular Ca2+ signaling. Results: IP3BM (10μmol·L-1) mimicked the effects of phenylephrine, a selective agonist of α1AR, in increments in local Ca2+ spark release (especially in the perinuclear area) and global Ca2+ transient frequencies. More importantly, IP3R inhibitors, 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate and Xestospongin C, abolished the IP3BM-induced Ca2+ responses, and significantly suppressed α1AR-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy assayed by cell size, [3H] leucine incorporation and atrial natriuretic factor gene expression, during sustained (48 h) phenylephrine stimulation. Conclusion: These results, therefore, provide cellular mechanisms that link IP3R signaling to α1AR-stimulated gene expression and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.

  3. On NonAsymptotic Optimal Stopping Criteria in Monte Carlo Simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Bayer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    We consider the setting of estimating the mean of a random variable by a sequential stopping rule Monte Carlo (MC) method. The performance of a typical second moment based sequential stopping rule MC method is shown to be unreliable in such settings both by numerical examples and through analysis. By analysis and approximations, we construct a higher moment based stopping rule which is shown in numerical examples to perform more reliably and only slightly less efficiently than the second moment based stopping rule.

  4. 49 CFR 236.335 - Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking..., AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Rules and Instructions § 236.335 Dogs, stops and trunnions of mechanical locking. Driving pieces, dogs, stops and trunnions shall be rigidly secured to locking bars. Swing...

  5. Caspase-8 regulation by direct interaction with TRAF6 in T cell receptor-induced NF-kappaB activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidère, Nicolas; Snow, Andrew L; Sakai, Keiko; Zheng, Lixin; Lenardo, Michael J

    2006-08-22

    Triggering of lymphocyte antigen receptors is the critical first step in the adaptive immune response against pathogens. T cell receptor (TCR) ligation assembles a large membrane signalosome, culminating in NF-kappaB activation [1,2]. Recently, caspase-8 was found to play a surprisingly prominent role in lymphocyte activation in addition to its well-known role in apoptosis [3]. Caspase-8 is activated after TCR stimulation and nucleates a complex with B cell lymphoma 10 (BCL10), paracaspase MALT1, and the inhibitors of kappaB kinase (IKK) complex [4]. We now report that the ubiquitin ligase TRAF6 binds to active caspase-8 upon TCR stimulation and facilitates its movement into lipid rafts. We identified in silico two putative TRAF6 binding motifs in the caspase-8 sequence and found that mutation of critical residues within these sites abolished TRAF6 binding and diminished TCR-induced NF-kappaB activation. Moreover, RNAi-mediated silencing of TRAF6 abrogated caspase-8 recruitment to the lipid rafts. Protein kinase Ctheta (PKCtheta), CARMA1, and BCL10 are also required for TCR-induced caspase-8 relocation, but only PKCtheta and BCL10 control caspase-8 activation. Our results suggest that PKCtheta independently controls CARMA1 phosphorylation and BCL10-dependent caspase-8 activation and unveil an essential role for TRAF6 as a critical adaptor linking these two convergent signaling events.

  6. Signal Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    SIGNAL WORDS TOPIC FACT SHEET NPIC fact sheets are designed to answer questions that are commonly asked by the ... making decisions about pesticide use. What are Signal Words? Signal words are found on pesticide product labels, ...

  7. Stimulation of α1a adrenergic receptors induces cellular proliferation or antiproliferative hypertrophy dependent solely on agonist concentration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beilei Lei

    Full Text Available Stimulation of α1aAdrenergic Receptors (ARs is known to have anti-proliferative and hypertrophic effects; however, some studies also suggests this receptor can increase cell proliferation. Surprisingly, we find the α1aAR expressed in rat-1 fibroblasts can produce either phenotype, depending exclusively on agonist concentration. Stimulation of the α1aAR by high dose phenylephrine (>10(-7 M induces an antiproliferative, hypertrophic response accompanied by robust and extended p38 activation. Inhibition of p38 with SB203580 prevented the antiproliferative response, while inhibition of Erk or Jnk had no effect. In stark contrast, stimulation of the α1aAR with low dose phenylephrine (∼10(-8 M induced an Erk-dependent increase in cellular proliferation. Agonist-induced Erk phosphorylation was preceded by rapid FGFR and EGFR transactivation; however, only EGFR inhibition blocked Erk activation and proliferation. The general matrix metalloprotease inhibitor, GM6001, blocked agonist induced Erk activation within seconds, strongly suggesting EGFR activation involved extracellular triple membrane pass signaling. Erk activation required little Ca(2+ release and was blocked by PLCβ or PKC inhibition but not by intracellular Ca(2+ chelation, suggesting Ca(2+ independent activation of novel PKC isoforms. In contrast, Ca(2+ release was essential for PI3K/Akt activation, which was acutely maximal at non-proliferative doses of agonist. Remarkably, our data suggests EGFR transactivation leading to Erk induced proliferation has the lowest activation threshold of any α1aAR response. The ability of α1aARs to induce proliferation are discussed in light of evidence suggesting antagonistic growth responses reflect native α1aAR function.

  8. Protein kinase Czeta mediates micro-opioid receptor-induced cross-desensitization of chemokine receptor CCR5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Changcheng; Rahim, Rahil T; Davey, Penelope C; Bednar, Filip; Bardi, Giuseppe; Zhang, Lily; Zhang, Ning; Oppenheim, Joost J; Rogers, Thomas J

    2011-06-10

    We have previously shown that the μ-opioid receptor (MOR) is capable of mediating cross-desensitization of several chemokine receptors including CCR5, but the biochemical mechanism of this process has not been fully elucidated. We have carried out a series of functional and biochemical studies and found that the mechanism of MOR-induced cross-desensitization of CCR5 involves the activation of PKCζ. Inhibition of PKCζ by its pseudosubstrate inhibitor, or its siRNA, or dominant negative mutants suppresses the cross-desensitization of CCR5. Our results further indicate that the activation of PKCζ is mediated through a pathway involving phosphoinositol-dependent kinase-1 (PDK1). In addition, activation of MOR elevates the phosphorylation level and kinase activity of PKCζ. The phosphorylation of PKCζ can be suppressed by a dominant negative mutant of PDK1. We observed that following MOR activation, the interaction between PKCζ and PDK1 is immediately increased based on the analysis of fluorescent resonance energy transfer in cells with the expression of PKCζ-YFP and PDK1-CFP. In addition, cells expressing PKCζ kinase motif mutants (Lys-281, Thr-410, Thr-560) fail to exhibit full MOR-induced desensitization of CCR5 activity. Taken together, we propose that upon DAMGO treatment, MOR activates PKCζ through a PDK1-dependent signaling pathway to induce CCR5 phosphorylation and desensitization. Because CCR5 is a highly proinflammatory receptor, and a critical coreceptor for HIV-1, these results may provide a novel approach for the development of specific therapeutic agents to treat patients with certain inflammatory diseases or AIDS.

  9. Human haptic perception is interrupted by explorative stops of milliseconds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunwald, Martin; Muniyandi, Manivannan; Kim, Hyun; Kim, Jung; Krause, Frank; Mueller, Stephanie; Srinivasan, Mandayam A

    2014-01-01

    The explorative scanning movements of the hands have been compared to those of the eyes. The visual process is known to be composed of alternating phases of saccadic eye movements and fixation pauses. Descriptive results suggest that during the haptic exploration of objects short movement pauses occur as well. The goal of the present study was to detect these "explorative stops" (ES) during one-handed and two-handed haptic explorations of various objects and patterns, and to measure their duration. Additionally, the associations between the following variables were analyzed: (a) between mean exploration time and duration of ES, (b) between certain stimulus features and ES frequency, and (c) the duration of ES during the course of exploration. Five different Experiments were used. The first two Experiments were classical recognition tasks of unknown haptic stimuli (A) and of common objects (B). In Experiment C space-position information of angle legs had to be perceived and reproduced. For Experiments D and E the PHANToM haptic device was used for the exploration of virtual (D) and real (E) sunken reliefs. In each Experiment we observed explorative stops of different average durations. For Experiment A: 329.50 ms, Experiment B: 67.47 ms, Experiment C: 189.92 ms, Experiment D: 186.17 ms and Experiment E: 140.02 ms. Significant correlations were observed between exploration time and the duration of the ES. Also, ES occurred more frequently, but not exclusively, at defined stimulus features like corners, curves and the endpoints of lines. However, explorative stops do not occur every time a stimulus feature is explored. We assume that ES are a general aspect of human haptic exploration processes. We have tried to interpret the occurrence and duration of ES with respect to the Hypotheses-Rebuild-Model and the Limited Capacity Control System theory.

  10. Human haptic perception is interrupted by explorative stops of milliseconds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eGrunwald

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The explorative scanning movements of the hands have been compared to those of the eyes. The visual process is known to be composed of alternating phases of saccadic eye movements and fixation pauses. Descriptive results suggest that during the haptic exploration of objects short movement pauses occur as well. The goal of the present study was to detect these explorative stops (ES during one-handed and two-handed haptic explorations of various objects and patterns, and to measure their duration. Additionally, the associations between the following variables were analyzed: a between mean exploration time and duration of ES, b between certain stimulus features and ES frequency, and c the duration of ES during the course of exploration. Methods: Five different experiments were used. The first two experiments were classical recognition tasks of unknown haptic stimuli (A and of common objects (B. In experiment C space-position information of angle legs had to be perceived and reproduced. For experiments D and E the PHANToM haptic device was used for the exploration of virtual (D and real (E sunken reliefs. Results: In each experiment we observed explorative stops of different average durations. For experiment A: 329.50 ms, experiment B: 67.47 ms, experiment C: 189.92 ms, experiment D: 186.17 ms and experiment E: 140.02 ms. Significant correlations were observed between exploration time and the duration of the ES. Also, ES occurred more frequently, but not exclusively, at defined stimulus features like corners, curves and the endpoints of lines. However, explorative stops do not occur every time a stimulus feature is explored. Conclusions: We assume that ES are a general aspect of human haptic exploration processes. We have tried to interpret the occurrence and duration of ES with respect to the Hypotheses-Rebuild-Model and the Limited Capacity Control System theory.

  11. Calculation of stopping power ratios for carbon ion dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geithner, Oksana; Andreo, P; Sobolevsky, N; Hartmann, G; Jäkel, O

    2006-05-07

    Water-to-air stopping power ratio calculations for the ionization chamber dosimetry of clinical carbon ion beams with initial energies from 50 to 450 MeV/u have been performed using the Monte Carlo technique. To simulate the transport of a particle in water the computer code SHIELD-HIT v2 was used, which is a newly developed version where substantial modifications were implemented on its predecessor SHIELD-HIT v1 (Gudowska et al 2004 Phys. Med. Biol. 49 1933-58). The code was completely rewritten replacing formerly used single precision variables with double precision variables. The lowest particle transport specific energy was decreased from 1 MeV/u down to 10 keV/u by modifying the Bethe-Bloch formula, thus widening its range for medical dosimetry applications. In addition, the code includes optionally MSTAR and ICRU-73 stopping power data. The fragmentation model was verified and its parameters were also adjusted. The present code version shows excellent agreement with experimental data. It has been used to compute the physical quantities needed for the calculation of stopping power ratios, s(water,air), of carbon beams. Compared with the recommended constant value given in the IAEA Code of Practice, the differences found in the present investigations varied between 0.5% and 1% at the plateau region, respectively for 400 MeV/u and 50 MeV/u beams, and up to 2.3% in the vicinity of the Bragg peak for 50 MeV/u.

  12. Stop staring facial modeling and animation done right

    CERN Document Server

    Osipa, Jason

    2010-01-01

    The de facto official source on facial animation—now updated!. If you want to do character facial modeling and animation at the high levels achieved in today's films and games, Stop Staring: Facial Modeling and Animation Done Right, Third Edition , is for you. While thoroughly covering the basics such as squash and stretch, lip syncs, and much more, this new edition has been thoroughly updated to capture the very newest professional design techniques, as well as changes in software, including using Python to automate tasks.: Shows you how to create facial animation for movies, games, and more;

  13. Your First Stop for Clean Energy Policy Support (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-06-01

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center, an initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial and UN-Energy, helps governments design and adopt policies and programs that support the deployment of transformational low-carbon technologies. The Solutions Center serves as a first-stop clearinghouse of clean energy policy reports, data, and tools and provides expert assistance and peer-to-peer learning forums. This factsheet highlights key Solutions Center offerings, including 'ask an expert' assistance on clean energy policy matters, training and peer learning, and technical resources for policy makers worldwide.

  14. Stopping power of neutrinos and antineutrinos in polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustgi, M. L.; Leung, P. T.; Long, S. A. T.

    1985-01-01

    The Weinberg-Salam model is applied to quantify the energy loss of antineutrinos and neutrinos encountering polymers. The scattering cross-sectional energy due to encounters with electrons is calculated, along with the probability that an antineutrino will remain the same particle. The energy loss reaches a maximum, i.e., stopping occurs, when the probability is unity. The technique is applied to study the energy losses in kapton, a solid organic insulator used for antennas on spacecraft exposed to solar neutrinos with energies ranging from 0.5-10 MeV. The energy loss is found to be negligible.

  15. 20 Aluminum Producers Stop Production in 1stHalf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> In the first half of 2004,the primary aluminumindustry in China had a profit plunge and 20primary aluminum enterprises in the wholecountry have completely stopped productiondue to the power price hikes,small margin ofalumina price reduction,price declining of pri-mary aluminum since May and other factors,making the Chinese producers more and moredifficult to survive.The statistics from theChina Non-Ferrous Metals Industry Associa-tion show that the first six months witnessed

  16. The timing of terrorist attacks: An optimal stopping approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Jensen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available I use a simple optimal stopping model to derive policy relevant insights on the timing of one-shot attacks by small autonomous terrorist units or “lone wolf” individuals. A main insight is that an increase in proactive counterterrorism measures can lead to a short term increase in the number of attempted terrorist attacks because it makes it more risky for existing terrorist units to pursue further development of capabilities. This is consistent with the events in London in 2005 where a terrorist attack on 7 July was followed by a similar but unsuccessful attack two weeks later.

  17. Calculated LET Spectrum from Antiproton Beams Stopping in Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassler, Niels; Holzscheiter, Michael

    2009-01-01

    significantly differ from unity, which seems to warrant closer inspection of the radiobiology in this region. Monte Carlo simulations using FLUKA were performed for calculating the entire particle spectrum of a beam of 126 MeV antiprotons hitting a water phantom. In the plateau region of the simulated...... antiproton beam we observe a dose-averaged unrestricted LET of about 4 keV/μm, which is very different from the expected 0.6 keV/μm of an equivalent primary proton beam. Even though the fluence of secondaries is a magnitude less than the fluence of primary particles, the increased stopping power...

  18. Stop-and-go kinetics in amyloid fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferkinghoff-Borg, Jesper; Fonslet, Jesper; Andersen, Christian Beyschau

    2010-01-01

    in an intermittent fashion, with periods of growth followed by long pauses. The observed exponential distributions of stop and growth times support a Markovian model, in which fibrils shift between the two states with specific rates. Even if the individual rates vary considerably, we observe that the probability......Many human diseases are associated with protein aggregation and fibrillation. We present experiments on in vitro glucagon fibrillation using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, providing real-time measurements of single-fibril growth. We find that amyloid fibrils grow...

  19. Earth's Stopping Effect in Directional Dark Matter Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Kouvaris, Chris

    2015-01-01

    We explore the stopping effect that results from interactions between dark matter and nuclei as the dark matter particles travel undergound towards the detector. Although this effect is negligible for heavy dark matter particles, there is parameter phase space where the underground interactions of the dark matter particles with the nuclei can create observable differences in the spectrum. Dark matter particles that arrive on the detector from below can have less energy from the ones arriving from above. These differences can be potentially detectable by upcoming directional detectors. This can unveil a large amount of information regarding the type and strength of interactions between nuclei and light dark matter candidates.

  20. Over-expression of AhR (aryl hydrocarbon receptor induces neural differentiation of Neuro2a cells: neurotoxicology study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishihara-Sugano Mitsuko

    2006-09-01

    functional marker of catecholaminergic neurotransmitter production. Thus, exogenous AhR induced catecholaminergic differentiation in N2a-Rα cells. Conclusion The excessive activation of AhR resulted in neural differentiation of Neuro2a cells. This result revealed that dioxins may affect the nervous system through the AhR-signaling pathway. Activated AhR may disrupt the strictly regulated brain formation with irregular differentiation occurring rather than cell death.

  1. Cryo-electron microscopy and single molecule fluorescent microscopy detect CD4 receptor induced HIV size expansion prior to cell entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, Son [Deakin University, Victoria 3216 (Australia); CSIRO Australian Animal Health Laboratory, Victoria 3220 (Australia); Tabarin, Thibault [ARC Centre of Excellence in Advanced Molecular Imaging, University of New South Wales, New South Wales 3220 (Australia); Garvey, Megan; Pade, Corinna [Deakin University, Victoria 3216 (Australia); CSIRO Australian Animal Health Laboratory, Victoria 3220 (Australia); Rossy, Jérémie [ARC Centre of Excellence in Advanced Molecular Imaging, University of New South Wales, New South Wales 3220 (Australia); Monaghan, Paul; Hyatt, Alex [CSIRO Australian Animal Health Laboratory, Victoria 3220 (Australia); Böcking, Till [ARC Centre of Excellence in Advanced Molecular Imaging, University of New South Wales, New South Wales 3220 (Australia); Leis, Andrew [CSIRO Australian Animal Health Laboratory, Victoria 3220 (Australia); Gaus, Katharina, E-mail: k.gaus@unsw.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence in Advanced Molecular Imaging, University of New South Wales, New South Wales 3220 (Australia); Mak, Johnson, E-mail: j.mak@deakin.edu.au [Deakin University, Victoria 3216 (Australia); CSIRO Australian Animal Health Laboratory, Victoria 3220 (Australia)

    2015-12-15

    Viruses are often thought to have static structure, and they only remodel after the viruses have entered target cells. Here, we detected a size expansion of virus particles prior to viral entry using cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and single molecule fluorescence imaging. HIV expanded both under cell-free conditions with soluble receptor CD4 (sCD4) targeting the CD4 binding site on the HIV-1 envelope protein (Env) and when HIV binds to receptor on cellular membrane. We have shown that the HIV Env is needed to facilitate receptor induced virus size expansions, showing that the ‘lynchpin’ for size expansion is highly specific. We demonstrate that the size expansion required maturation of HIV and an internal capsid core with wild type stability, suggesting that different HIV compartments are linked and are involved in remodelling. Our work reveals a previously unknown event in HIV entry, and we propose that this pre-entry priming process enables HIV particles to facilitate the subsequent steps in infection. - Highlights: • Cell free viruses are able to receive external trigger that leads to apparent size expansion. • Virus envelope and CD4 receptor engagement is the lynchpin of virus size expansion. • Internal capsid organisation can influence receptor mediated virus size expansion. • Pre-existing virus-associated lipid membrane in cell free virus can accommodate the receptor mediated virus size expansion.

  2. Stopping power for particle therapy: the generic library libdEdx and clinically relevant stopping-power ratios for light ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lühr, Armin Christian; Toftegaard, Jakob; Kantemiris, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    to be known accurately for dosimetry. Methods: An open-source computer library called libdEdx (library for energy loss per unit path length, dE/dx, calculations) is developed, providing stopping-power data from data tables and computer programs as well as a stopping-power formula comprising a large list...

  3. Simulations of the stopping efficiencies of fission ion guides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solders, Andreas; Al-Adili, Ali; Gorelov, Dmitry; Jansson, Kaj; Jokinen, Ari; Kolhinen, Veli; Lantz, Mattias; Mattera, Andrea; Moore, Ian; Nilsson, Niklas; Norlin, Martin; Penttilä, Heikki; Pomp, Stephan; Prokofiev, Alexander V.; Rakopoulos, Vasileios; Rinta-Antila, Sami; Simutkin, Vasily

    2017-09-01

    With the Ion Guide Isotope Separator On-Line (IGISOL) facility, located at the University of Jyväskylä, products of nuclear reactions are separated by mass. The high resolving power of the JYFLTRAP Penning trap, with full separation of individual nuclides, capacitates the study of nuclides far from the line of stability. For the production of neutron-rich medium-heavy nuclides, fissioning of actinides is a feasible reaction. This can be achieved with protons from an in-house accelerator or, alternatively, with neutrons through the addition of a newly developed Be(p,xn)-converter. The hereby-obtained fission products are used in nuclear data measurements, for example fission yields, nuclear masses, Q-values and decay spectroscopy. Prior to separation, the ionized reaction products are stopped in a helium-filled gas cell, referred to as the ion-guide. In this work we present simulations of the stopping of fission products in an ion guide developed for neutron-induced fission. The production and extraction rates are evaluated and compared against experimental values.

  4. Extending the application of DSAM to atypical stopping media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S.; Samanta, S.; Bhattacharjee, R.; Raut, R.; Ghugre, S. S.; Sinha, A. K.; Garg, U.; Chakrabarti, R.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Dhal, A.; Raju, M. Kumar; Madhavan, N.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R. P.; Suryanarayana, K.; Rao, P. V. Madhusudhana; Palit, R.; Saha, S.; Sethi, J.

    2017-01-01

    A methodology that manifolds the possibilities of level lifetime measurements using the Doppler Shift Attenuation Method (DSAM), and extends its application beyond the conventional thin-target-on-thick-elemental-backing setups, is presented. This has been achieved primarily through application of the TRIM code to simulate the stopping of the recoils in the target and the backing media. Using the TRIM code, primarily adopted in the domain of materials research, in the context of lifetime analysis require rendition of the simulation results into a representation that appropriately incorporates the nuances of nuclear reaction along with the associated kinematics, besides the transformation from an energy-coordinate representation to a velocity-direction profile as required for lifetime analysis. The present development makes it possible to practice DSAM in atypical experimental scenarios such as those using molecular or multi-layered target and/or backing as the stopping medium. These aberrant cases, that were beyond representation in the customary Doppler shape analysis can, in the light of the present work, be conveniently used in the DSAM based investigations. The new approach has been validated through re-examination of known lifetimes measured both in the conventional as well as in the deviant setups.

  5. Quantum stopping times stochastic integral in the interacting Fock space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Yuanbao, E-mail: kangyuanb@163.com [College of Mathematics Science, Chong Qing Normal University, Chongqing 400047 (China)

    2015-08-15

    Following the ideas of Hudson [J. Funct. Anal. 34(2), 266-281 (1979)] and Parthasarathy and Sinha [Probab. Theory Relat. Fields 73, 317-349 (1987)], we define a quantum stopping time (QST, for short) τ in the interacting Fock space (IFS, for short), Γ, over L{sup 2}(ℝ{sup +}), which is actually a spectral measure in [0, ∞] such that τ([0, t]) is an adapted process. Motivated by Parthasarathy and Sinha [Probab. Theory Relat. Fields 73, 317-349 (1987)] and Applebaum [J. Funct. Anal. 65, 273-291 (1986)], we also develop a corresponding quantum stopping time stochastic integral (QSTSI, for abbreviations) on the IFS over a subspace of L{sup 2}(ℝ{sup +}) equipped with a filtration. As an application, such integral provides a useful tool for proving that Γ admits a strong factorisation, i.e., Γ = Γ{sub τ]} ⊗ Γ{sub [τ}, where Γ{sub τ]} and Γ{sub [τ} stand for the part “before τ” and the part “after τ,” respectively. Additionally, this integral also gives rise to a natural composition operation among QST to make the space of all QSTs a semigroup.

  6. Stopping dynamics of ions passing through correlated honeycomb clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzer, Karsten; Schlünzen, Niclas; Bonitz, Michael

    2016-12-01

    A combined nonequilibrium Green functions-Ehrenfest dynamics approach is developed that allows for a time-dependent study of the energy loss of a charged particle penetrating a strongly correlated system at zero and finite temperatures. Numerical results are presented for finite inhomogeneous two-dimensional Fermi-Hubbard models, where the many-electron dynamics in the target are treated fully quantum mechanically and the motion of the projectile is treated classically. The simulations are based on the solution of the two-time Dyson (Keldysh-Kadanoff-Baym) equations using the second-order Born, third-order, and T -matrix approximations of the self-energy. As application, we consider protons and helium nuclei with a kinetic energy between 1 and 500 keV/u passing through planar fragments of the two-dimensional honeycomb lattice and, in particular, examine the influence of electron-electron correlations on the energy exchange between projectile and electron system. We investigate the time dependence of the projectile's kinetic energy (stopping power), the electron density, the double occupancy, and the photoemission spectrum. Finally, we show that, for a suitable choice of the Hubbard model parameters, the results for the stopping power are in fair agreement with ab initio simulations for particle irradiation of single-layer graphene.

  7. Broken R-parity, stop decays, and neutrino physics

    CERN Document Server

    Restrepo, D A; Valle, José W F; Restrepo, Diego; Porod, Werner; Valle, Jose W. F.

    2001-01-01

    We discuss the phenomenology of the lightest stop in models where R-parity is broken by bilinear superpotential terms. In this class of models we consider scenarios where the R-parity breaking two-body decay ~t_1->\\tau^+b competes with the leading three-body decays such as ~t_1->W^+b~\\chi^0_1. We demonstrate that the R-parity violating decay can be sizable and in some parts of the parameter space even the dominant one. Moreover we discuss the expectations for \\~t_1->\\mu^+b and ~t_1->e^+b. The recent results from solar and atmospheric neutrinos suggest that these are as important as the tau bottom mode. The \\~t_1->l^+b decays are of particular interest for hadron colliders, as they may allow a full mass reconstruction of the lighter stop. Moreover these decay modes allow cross checks on the neutrino mixing angle involved in the solar neutrino puzzle complementary to those possible using neutralino decays. For the so--called small mixing angle or SMA solution ~t_1->e^+b should be negligible, while for the large...

  8. LHCb: LHCb High Level Trigger design issues for post Long Stop 1 running

    CERN Multimedia

    Albrecht, J; Raven, G; Sokoloff, M D; Williams, M

    2013-01-01

    The LHCb High Level Trigger uses two stages of software running on an Event Filter Farm (EFF) to select events for offline reconstruction and analysis. The first stage (Hlt1) processes approximately 1 MHz of events accepted by a hardware trigger. In 2012, the second stage (Hlt2) wrote 5 kHz to permanent storage for later processing. Following the LHC's Long Stop 1 (anticipated for 2015), the machine energy will increase from 8 TeV in the center-of-mass to 13 TeV and the cross sections for beauty and charm are expected to grow proportionately. We plan to increase the Hlt2 output to 12 kHz, some for immediate offline processing, some for later offline processing, and some ready for immediate analysis. By increasing the absolute computing power of the EFF, and buffering data for processing between machine fills, we should be able to significantly increase the efficiency for signal while improving signal-to-background ratios. In this poster we will present several strategies under consideration and some of th...

  9. 49 CFR 236.512 - Cab signal indication when locomotive enters block where restrictive conditions obtain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cab signal indication when locomotive enters block... TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Standards § 236.512 Cab signal indication when locomotive enters block where...

  10. Influence of crystal-orientation effects on pulse-shape-based identification of heavy-ions stopped in silicon detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardelli, L.; Bini, M.; Casini, G.; Pasquali, G.; Poggi, G.; Barlini, S.; Becla, A.; Berjillos, R.; Borderie, B.; Bougault, R.; Bruno, M.; Cinausero, M.; D'Agostino, M.; de Sanctis, J.; Dueñas, J. A.; Edelbruck, P.; Geraci, E.; Gramegna, F.; Kordyasz, A.; Kozik, T.; Kravchuk, V. L.; Lavergne, L.; Marini, P.; Nannini, A.; Negoita, F.; Olmi, A.; Ordine, A.; Piantelli, S.; Rauly, E.; Rivet, M. F.; Rosato, E.; Scian, C.; Stefanini, A. A.; Vannini, G.; Velica, S.; Vigilante, M.; Fazia Collaboration

    2009-07-01

    Current and charge signals have been collected for Se ions at 408 MeV, S at 160 MeV and Ni at 703 MeV, all stopped in silicon detectors. Some detectors were cut 0∘ off the axis and some off the axis. Important effects on the shape of the silicon current and charge signals have been observed, depending on the orientation of the impinging ion relative to the crystal axes and planes. A degradation of the energy and risetime resolution of about a factor ˜3 with respect to the measured optimal values (for example 7∘ off-axis orientation) is observed for ion impinging directions close to crystal axes and/or planes, i.e. the common scenario for normal incidence on 0∘ cut detectors. For Pulse Shape Analysis applications, the necessity of using such "random" oriented silicon detectors is demonstrated.

  11. Influence of crystal-orientation effects on pulse-shape-based identification of heavy-ions stopped in silicon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardelli, L. [University of Florence (Italy); I.N.F.N. Sezione di Firenze (Italy)], E-mail: bardelli@fi.infn.it; Bini, M. [University of Florence (Italy); I.N.F.N. Sezione di Firenze (Italy); Casini, G. [I.N.F.N. Sezione di Firenze (Italy); Pasquali, G.; Poggi, G. [University of Florence (Italy); I.N.F.N. Sezione di Firenze (Italy); Barlini, S. [LPC Caen, ENSICAEN, Universite de Caen, CNRS/IN2P3, Caen (France); Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay cedex (France); Becla, A. [Jagiellonian University, Institute of Physics, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Berjillos, R. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Huelva, E-21071 Huelva (Spain); Borderie, B. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay cedex (France); Bougault, R. [LPC Caen, ENSICAEN, Universite de Caen, CNRS/IN2P3, Caen (France); Bruno, M. [University of Bologna (Italy); I.N.F.N. Sezione di Bologna (Italy); Cinausero, M. [I.N.F.N. Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (Italy); D' Agostino, M.; De Sanctis, J. [University of Bologna (Italy); I.N.F.N. Sezione di Bologna (Italy); Duenas, J.A. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Huelva, E-21071 Huelva (Spain); Edelbruck, P. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS/IN2P3, Universite Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay cedex (France); Geraci, E. [University of Bologna (Italy); I.N.F.N. Sezione di Bologna (Italy); Gramegna, F. [I.N.F.N. Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (Italy); Kordyasz, A. [Heavy Ion Laboratory, Warsaw University, Pasteura 5a, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland); Kozik, T. [Jagiellonian University, Institute of Physics, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)] (and others)

    2009-07-01

    Current and charge signals have been collected for Se ions at 408 MeV, S at 160 MeV and Ni at 703 MeV, all stopped in silicon detectors. Some detectors were cut 0 deg. off the <111> axis and some off the <100> axis. Important effects on the shape of the silicon current and charge signals have been observed, depending on the orientation of the impinging ion relative to the crystal axes and planes. A degradation of the energy and risetime resolution of about a factor {approx}3 with respect to the measured optimal values (for example 7 deg. off-axis orientation) is observed for ion impinging directions close to crystal axes and/or planes, i.e. the common scenario for normal incidence on 0 deg. cut detectors. For Pulse Shape Analysis applications, the necessity of using such 'random' oriented silicon detectors is demonstrated.

  12. Answers to science questions from the "stop faking it!" guy

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2009-01-01

    This valuable and entertaining compendium of Bill Robertson's popular Science 101 columns, from NSTA member journal Science and Children, proves you don't have to be a science geek to understand basic scientific concepts. The author of the best-selling Stop Faking It! series explains everything from quarks to photosynthesis, telescopes to the expanding universe, and atomic clocks to curveballs all with his trademark wit and irreverence. The 33 short columns, plus a new introduction, provide an introductory science course of sorts, covering topics in life science, Earth and space science, physical science, technology, and more perfect for K-8 teachers, homeschoolers, or parents who just want to boost their science know-how. Easily understood prose and lively illustrations by cartoonist Brian Diskin make this volume an engaging and, more important, readable course you can pass with flying colors.

  13. Tunneling into Microstate Geometries: Quantum Effects Stop Gravitational Collapse

    CERN Document Server

    Bena, Iosif; Puhm, Andrea; Vercnocke, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Collapsing shells form horizons, and when the curvature is small classical general relativity is believed to describe this process arbitrarily well. On the other hand, quantum information theory based (fuzzball/firewall) arguments suggest the existence of some structure at the black hole horizon. This structure can only form if classical general relativity stops being the correct description of the collapsing shell before it reaches the horizon size. We present strong evidence that classical general relativity can indeed break down prematurely, by explicitly computing the quantum tunneling amplitude of a collapsing shell of branes into smooth horizonless microstate geometries. We show that the amplitude for tunneling into microstate geometries with a large number of topologically non-trivial cycles is parametrically larger than exp(-S), which indicates that the shell can tunnel into a horizonless configuration long before the horizon has any chance to form. We also use this technology to investigate the tunne...

  14. Software workstations; One-stop shopping for utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Yaacov, G. (Electric Power Research Inst. (US)); Hoffman, S.

    1990-12-01

    This paper reports that to help electric utilities use their software more efficiently, California's Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has been integrating groups of programs related to common engineering functions - for example, system grounding - into single packages. More than a dozen of these packages are already available. Almost a dozen more, in various stages of development in the Palo Alto institute's technical divisions, are scheduled to be ready between now and 1993. What they offer is one-stop shopping for software solutions. Whether a project involves designing a new transmission line, troubleshooting an equipment problem at a power plant, or planning for future generating needs, utilities have for many years used software to get the job done fast while keeping expenses down. More recent advances in computing power and software engineering have even accelerated the development of programs for utility applications.

  15. Neutrino oscillation effects in Soudan 2 upward-stopping muons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, W. W. M.; Alner, G. J.; Ayres, D. S.; Barr, G. D.; Barrett, W. L.; Border, P. M.; Cobb, J. H.; Cockerill, D. J. A.; Courant, H.; Demuth, D. M.; Fields, T. H.; Gallagher, H. R.; Goodman, M. C.; Kafka, T.; Kasahara, S. M. S.; Litchfield, P. J.; Mann, W. A.; Marshak, M. L.; Miller, W. H.; Mualem, L.; Nelson, J. K.; Napier, A.; Oliver, W. P.; Pearce, G. F.; Peterson, E. A.; Petyt, D. A.; Ruddick, K.; Sanchez, M.; Schneps, J.; Sousa, A.; Thron, J. L.; West, N.

    2005-09-01

    Upward-going stopping muons initiated by atmospheric νμ and ν¯μ interactions in the rock below the Soudan 2 detector have been isolated, together with a companion sample of neutrino-induced single muons, created within the detector, which travel downwards and exit. The downward-going sample is consistent with the atmospheric-neutrino flux prediction, but the upward-going sample exhibits a sizable depletion. Both are consistent with previously reported Soudan 2 neutrino-oscillation results. Inclusion of the two samples in an all-event likelihood analysis, using recent 3D-atmospheric-neutrino-flux calculations, reduces both the allowed oscillation parameter region and the probability of the no-oscillation hypothesis.

  16. Novel trench gate field stop IGBT with trench shorted anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xudong, Chen; Jianbing, Cheng; Guobing, Teng; Houdong, Guo

    2016-05-01

    A novel trench field stop (FS) insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) with a trench shorted anode (TSA) is proposed. By introducing a trench shorted anode, the TSA-FS-IGBT can obviously improve the breakdown voltage. As the simulation results show, the breakdown voltage is improved by a factor of 19.5% with a lower leakage current compared with the conventional FS-IGBT. The turn off time of the proposed structure is 50% lower than the conventional one with less than 9% voltage drop increased at a current density of 150 A/cm2. Additionally, there is no snapback observed. As a result, the TSA-FS-IGBT has a better trade-off relationship between the turn off loss and forward drop. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61274080) and the Postdoctoral Science Foundation of China (No. 2013M541585).

  17. Mini-stop bands in single heterojunction photonic crystal waveguides

    KAUST Repository

    Shahid, N.

    2013-01-01

    Spectral characteristics of mini-stop bands (MSB) in line-defect photonic crystal (PhC) waveguides and in heterostructure PhC waveguides having one abrupt interface are investigated. Tunability of the MSB position by air-fill factor heterostructure PhC waveguides is utilized to demonstrate different filter functions, at optical communication wavelengths, ranging from resonance-like to wide band pass filters with high transmission. The narrowest filter realized has a resonance-like transmission peak with a full width at half maximum of 3.4 nm. These devices could be attractive for coarse wavelength selection (pass and drop) and for sensing applications. 2013 Copyright 2013 Author(s). This article is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.

  18. New stopping power formula for intermediate energy electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gümüş, Hasan

    2008-12-01

    This study presents a new stopping power (SP) formula for electrons. In the modified Bethe-Bloch SP expression, analytical expressions for the effective charge and effective mean excitation energies (EMEE) of target atoms are used, while for the effective charge of incoming electrons, Sugiyama's semiempirical formula from Peterson and Green is used. An analytical expression for practical SP calculations is obtained using the Bethe approximation and a Thomas-Fermi model of the atom. The calculated results of the SP for electrons in some materials, such as H(2)O, H(2), CO(2), N(2), and O(2), are compared with experimental data, together with Penelope code results and a number of other semiempirical and analytical calculations.

  19. CERN stop-over for KEK and Fermilab Directors

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    En route for a meeting of the International Committee for Future Accelerators, ICFA, held at Germany's DESY laboratory, the Directors of Japan's KEK laboratory and Fermilab in the United States had a stop-over at CERN last Wednesday 7 February. Dr Hirotaka Sugawara, Director General of Japan's high energy physics laboratory, KEK, visited the Antiproton Decelerator, AD. From left to right, Masaki Hori, member of the ASACUSA collaboration, John Eades, contact person for ASACUSA, Dr Hirotaka Sugawara, Werner Pirkl, the PS Division engineer responsible for the Radio Frequency Quadrupole decelerator in the foreground, and Kurt Hübner, CERN's Director of Accelerators. Dr Michael S. Witherell, Director of the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Fermilab, visited construction sites for the LHC, ATLAS, and CMS. He is seen here with a module of the CMS hadronic calorimeter in building 186.

  20. [One stop surgery in pediatric surgery. Preliminary report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanges, G; Astuto, M; Sentina, P; Morinello, E; Di Benedetto, A

    2002-01-01

    The One-Stop Surgery (OSS) is a new method of Day Surgery, which combines preoperative evaluation and subsequent operation into one visit. This report describes the initial experience of the authors. Referring physicians were informed by fax about method and selected surgical procedures. Included form helped them to gain anamnestic data and to inform parents about preoperative fast. Form was then sent back by fax to the pediatric surgeon and anesthesiologist who determined the patient suitability and scheduled the day of the surgery. At hospital admission, if the diagnosis was confirmed and no anesthesiologic contraindications were discovered, the patient underwent the prescheduled surgical procedure and was discharged as a day case. Another form containing informations about home postoperative care and telephone numbers for emergency call was gave to the parents. From November 2000 through February 2001 43 patients, aged from 2 to 7 years, underwent one-stop surgical procedure: central venous catheter removal (n = 16), umbilical (n = 2) and inguinal (n = 10) hernia repair, prepuce dorsal slit (n = 15). Recovery of all patient was uneventful. None of them called during the period considered necessary for postoperative follow-up. Decreased costs and increased satisfaction of the patients and parents are the most important advantages of the OSS. Potential disadvantages are a not appropriate indication for the planned procedure and/or an anesthesiologic contraindication at hospital admission. It could involve a waste of human and financial resources and an useless psychologic stress for the family. Authors conclude it is not advisable the OSS use on a large scale without a sound experience in pediatric Day Surgery.

  1. Stress Effects on Stop Bursts in Five Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Tabain

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effects of stress on the stop burst in five languages differing in number of places of articulation, as reflected in burst duration, spectral centre of gravity, and ­spectral standard deviation. The languages studied are English (three places of articulation /p t k/, the Indonesian language Makasar (four places /p t c k/, and the Central Australian languages ­Pitjantjatjara, Warlpiri (both five places /p t ʈ c k/, and Arrernte (six places /p t̪ t ʈ c k/. We find that languages differ in how they manifest stress on the consonant, with Makasar not ­showing any effect of stress at all, and Warlpiri showing an effect on burst duration, but not on the ­spectral measures. For the other languages, the velar /k/ has a “darker” quality (i.e., lower spectral centre of gravity, and/or a less diffuse spectrum (i.e., lower standard deviation under stress; while the alveolar /t/ has a “lighter” quality under stress. In addition, the dental /t̪/ has a more diffuse spectrum under stress. We suggest that this involves enhancement of the features [grave] and [diffuse] under stress, with velars being [+grave] and [–diffuse], alveolars being [–grave], and dentals being [+diffuse]. We discuss the various possible spectral effects of enhancement of these features. Finally, in the languages with five or six places of articulation, the stop burst is longer only for the palatal /c/ and the velar /k/, which have intrinsically long burst durations, and not for the anterior coronals /t̪ t ʈ/, which have intrinsically short burst durations. We suggest that in these systems, [burst duration] is a feature that separates these two groups of consonants.

  2. Stopping power and CSDA range calculations for incident electrons and positrons in breast and brain tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufan, Mustafa Çağatay; Namdar, Tuba; Gümüş, Hasan

    2013-05-01

    The stopping power in some biological compounds for electrons and positrons was calculated over the energy range from 100 eV to 1 GeV. Total stopping power was obtained by summing the electronic (collisional) and radiative stopping power of the target materials and then employing the continuous slowing down approximation (CSDA) to calculate the path length of incident particles in the target. An effective charge approximation was used for the calculation of collisional stopping power, and an analytical expression for the radiation length was applied to obtain the radiative stopping power. Calculations of stopping power and CSDA range were based mostly on analytical expressions, to allow for an easy calculation of these parameters. The results were tabulated and compared with available data.

  3. Stop plutonium; Stop plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-02-01

    This press document aims to inform the public on the hazards bound to the plutonium exploitation in France and especially the plutonium transport. The first part is a technical presentation of the plutonium and the MOX (Mixed Oxide Fuel). The second part presents the installation of the plutonium industry in France. The third part is devoted to the plutonium convoys safety. The highlight is done on the problem of the leak of ''secret'' of such transports. (A.L.B.)

  4. Information seeking stopping behavior in online scenarios the impact of task, technology and individual characteristics

    CERN Document Server

    Hemmer, Erik

    2014-01-01

    The growing amount of information provided via web-based information technologies forces the users of these technologies to stop seeking for information before having acquired all available information. This stopping decision is either made actively following clear guidelines or subconsciously based on the seeker's intuition. This book analyzes the aforementioned duality by developing and testing a multi-theoretical research model dealing with information seeking stopping behavior in online scenarios. Thus, by delivering insights into the mechanisms that influence information seeking activitie

  5. Stopping powers of energetic electrons penetrating condensed matter--theory and application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Zhen-Yu; XIA Yue-Yuan

    2004-01-01

    In this review article, the motivation of studying inelastic energy loss for energetic electrons penetrating through matter and the corresponding technological importance have been outlined. The theoretical development and method for the calculation of stopping powers are described. The stopping power data tables for a group of polymers and bioorganic compounds are presented, and the application aspects of the stopping power data are briefly discussed.

  6. Measurement of the stopping power for 16O in 4He gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torresi, D.; Carbone, D.; Cavallaro, M.; Di Pietro, A.; Fernández Garcia, J. P.; Figuera, P.; Fisichella, M.; Lattuada, M.; Zadro, M.

    2016-12-01

    The stopping power for 16O ions in 4He gas from 1 to 31 MeV is measured using an indirect method. The 16O beam of fixed energy entered a scattering chamber filled with 4He gas at different pressures and its residual energy is measured. The stopping power is determined by differentiating the thickness versus residual energy curve. The measured stopping power is compared with those calculated with the codes SRIM and MSTAR.

  7. Having a goal to stop action is associated with advance control of specific motor representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claffey, Michael P; Sheldon, Sarah; Stinear, Cathy M; Verbruggen, Frederick; Aron, Adam R

    2010-01-01

    An important aspect of cognitive control consists in the ability to stop oneself from making inappropriate responses. In an earlier study we demonstrated that there are different mechanisms for stopping: global and selective [Aron, A. R., Verbruggen, F. (2008). Stop the presses: Dissociating a selective from a global mechanism for stopping. Psychological Science, 19(11) 1146-1153]. We argued that participants are more likely to use a global mechanism when speed is of the essence, whereas they are more likely to use a selective mechanism when they have foreknowledge of which response tendency they may need to stop. Here we further investigate the relationship between foreknowledge and selective stopping. In Experiment 1 we adapted the earlier design to show that individual differences in recall accuracy for the stopping goal correlate with the selectivity of the stopping. This confirms that encoding and using a foreknowledge memory cue is a key enabler for a selective stopping mechanism. In Experiment 2, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), to test the hypothesis that foreknowledge "sets up" a control set whereby control is applied onto the response representation that may need to be stopped in the future. We applied TMS to the left motor cortex and measured motor evoked potentials (MEPs) from the right hand while participants performed a similar behavioral paradigm as Experiment 1. In the foreknowledge period, MEPs were significantly reduced for trials where the right hand was the one that might need to be stopped relative to when it was not. This shows that having a goal of what response may need to be stopped in the future consists in applying advance control onto a specific motor representation.

  8. Stopping-Power and Range Tables for Electrons, Protons, and Helium Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 124 Stopping-Power and Range Tables for Electrons, Protons, and Helium Ions (Web, free access)   The databases ESTAR, PSTAR, and ASTAR calculate stopping-power and range tables for electrons, protons, or helium ions. Stopping-power and range tables can be calculated for electrons in any user-specified material and for protons and helium ions in 74 materials.

  9. ATP signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    The Department of Biology at the University of Copenhagen explains the function of ATP signalling in the pancreas......The Department of Biology at the University of Copenhagen explains the function of ATP signalling in the pancreas...

  10. Stopping power measurements with the Time-of-Flight (ToF) technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontana, Cristiano L., E-mail: fontana@pd.infn.it [Materials Science & Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Chen, Chien-Hung; Crespillo, Miguel L.; Graham, Joseph T.; Xue, Haizhou [Department of Materials Science & Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J. [Materials Science & Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Department of Materials Science & Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States)

    2016-01-01

    A review of measurements of the stopping power of ions in matter is presented along with new measurements of the stopping powers of O, Si, Ti, and Au ions in self-supporting thin foils of SiO{sub 2}, Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}. A Time-of-Flight system at the Ion Beam Materials Laboratory at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, was used in transmission geometry in order to reduce experimental uncertainties. The resulting stopping powers show good precision and accuracy and corroborate previously quoted values in the literature. New stopping data are determined.

  11. Design Considerations for a Stopped-Rotor Cyclocopter for Venus Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husseyin, S.; Warmbrodt, William G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the use of a cycloidal blade system as a means of providing lift and propulsive thrust as well as combined with a stopped rotor system, to create a stopped-rotor cyclocopter vehicle, during a mission to Venus. This stopped-rotor cyclocopter will be capable of flying at all atmospheric levels of Venus as well as landing on the surface for scientific investigation. Three reference conceptual designs with different stopped-rotor cyclocopter yaw angles are tested in RotCFD as well as a model of a hovering cyclorotor for comparison with past work in the literature and innovative study for future projects.

  12. Analysis and enhancement of flexural wave stop bands in 2D periodic plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yubao [Laboratory of Science and Technology on Integrated Logistics Support, National University of Defense Technology, 410073 Changsha (China); The Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory for Sound and Vibration Research, KTH – The Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Feng, Leping [The Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory for Sound and Vibration Research, KTH – The Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Wen, Jihong, E-mail: wenjihong_nudt1@vip.sina.com [Laboratory of Science and Technology on Integrated Logistics Support, National University of Defense Technology, 410073 Changsha (China); Yu, Dianlong; Wen, Xisen [Laboratory of Science and Technology on Integrated Logistics Support, National University of Defense Technology, 410073 Changsha (China)

    2015-07-17

    The band structure and enhancement of flexural wave stop bands in a 2D periodic plate are investigated. A unified method for analysing and designing the stop band of the plates with various attached structures is proposed. The effect of attached structures is considered based on their equivalent parameters (added equivalent mass and equivalent moment of inertia). The influences of the equivalent parameters on the band structures are studied. Three cases are considered: adding pure equivalent mass, pure equivalent moment of inertia and the combination of these two. The stop bands are enhanced via the multi interaction between the host plate and the attached structure. The enhancement pattern is determined, and several ways to obtain a wider combined stop band are presented. The frequency response functions of corresponding finite periodic plates are calculated to verify the stop bands and their enhancement in a number of typical cases. - Highlights: • A unified method for studying the stop band of the plates with various simplified attached structures is proposed. • The enhancement of flexural wave stop bands in a 2D phononic plate is investigated. • The stop bands are widened via multi interaction between the host plate and the attached structure. • The enhancement pattern is determined and several ways to get a wider stop band are presented.

  13. Bus Stops, Maryland Transit Administration Local and Commuter Bus Stops, Published in 2013, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Maryland Transit Administration.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Bus Stops dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2013. It is described as 'Maryland Transit...

  14. Bus Stops, Ctran amd Rtp Bus Stops, Published in 2007, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Town of Cary NC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Bus Stops dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2007. It is described as...

  15. Honey Bee Inhibitory Signaling Is Tuned to Threat Severity and Can Act as a Colony Alarm Signal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Tan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Alarm communication is a key adaptation that helps social groups resist predation and rally defenses. In Asia, the world's largest hornet, Vespa mandarinia, and the smaller hornet, Vespa velutina, prey upon foragers and nests of the Asian honey bee, Apis cerana. We attacked foragers and colony nest entrances with these predators and provide the first evidence, in social insects, of an alarm signal that encodes graded danger and attack context. We show that, like Apis mellifera, A. cerana possesses a vibrational "stop signal," which can be triggered by predator attacks upon foragers and inhibits waggle dancing. Large hornet attacks were more dangerous and resulted in higher bee mortality. Per attack at the colony level, large hornets elicited more stop signals than small hornets. Unexpectedly, stop signals elicited by large hornets (SS large hornet had a significantly higher vibrational fundamental frequency than those elicited by small hornets (SS small hornet and were more effective at inhibiting waggle dancing. Stop signals resulting from attacks upon the nest entrance (SS nest were produced by foragers and guards and were significantly longer in pulse duration than stop signals elicited by attacks upon foragers (SS forager. Unlike SS forager, SS nest were targeted at dancing and non-dancing foragers and had the common effect, tuned to hornet threat level, of inhibiting bee departures from the safe interior of the nest. Meanwhile, nest defenders were triggered by the bee alarm pheromone and live hornet presence to heat-ball the hornet. In A. cerana, sophisticated recruitment communication that encodes food location, the waggle dance, is therefore matched with an inhibitory/alarm signal that encodes information about the context of danger and its threat level.

  16. Honey Bee Inhibitory Signaling Is Tuned to Threat Severity and Can Act as a Colony Alarm Signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ken; Dong, Shihao; Li, Xinyu; Liu, Xiwen; Wang, Chao; Li, Jianjun; Nieh, James C

    2016-03-01

    Alarm communication is a key adaptation that helps social groups resist predation and rally defenses. In Asia, the world's largest hornet, Vespa mandarinia, and the smaller hornet, Vespa velutina, prey upon foragers and nests of the Asian honey bee, Apis cerana. We attacked foragers and colony nest entrances with these predators and provide the first evidence, in social insects, of an alarm signal that encodes graded danger and attack context. We show that, like Apis mellifera, A. cerana possesses a vibrational "stop signal," which can be triggered by predator attacks upon foragers and inhibits waggle dancing. Large hornet attacks were more dangerous and resulted in higher bee mortality. Per attack at the colony level, large hornets elicited more stop signals than small hornets. Unexpectedly, stop signals elicited by large hornets (SS large hornet) had a significantly higher vibrational fundamental frequency than those elicited by small hornets (SS small hornet) and were more effective at inhibiting waggle dancing. Stop signals resulting from attacks upon the nest entrance (SS nest) were produced by foragers and guards and were significantly longer in pulse duration than stop signals elicited by attacks upon foragers (SS forager). Unlike SS forager, SS nest were targeted at dancing and non-dancing foragers and had the common effect, tuned to hornet threat level, of inhibiting bee departures from the safe interior of the nest. Meanwhile, nest defenders were triggered by the bee alarm pheromone and live hornet presence to heat-ball the hornet. In A. cerana, sophisticated recruitment communication that encodes food location, the waggle dance, is therefore matched with an inhibitory/alarm signal that encodes information about the context of danger and its threat level.

  17. Lufthansa Non-stop Flight Connects Guangzhou and Top European Air Hub Daily Guangzhou-Frankfurt non-stop flight services launched

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Lufthansa German Airlines Flight LH789 takes off from Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport for Frankfurt, Germany at 23:30on March 28, 2005. This brand-new flight is the first Lufthansa non-stop flight from Guangzhou to Europe.Bridging South China and Europe, this non-stop flight will reduce travel time between the two centres by five hours and play an important role in furthering South China's economic development.

  18. Lufthansa Non-stop Flight Connects Guangzhou and Top European Air Hub Daily Guangzhou-Frankfurt non-stop flight services launched

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      Lufthansa German Airlines Flight LH789 takes off from Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport for Frankfurt, Germany at 23:30on March 28, 2005. This brand-new flight is the first Lufthansa non-stop flight from Guangzhou to Europe.Bridging South China and Europe, this non-stop flight will reduce travel time between the two centres by five hours and play an important role in furthering South China's economic development.……

  19. 75 FR 21717 - Notice of Application for Approval of Discontinuance or Modification of a Railroad Signal System...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477) or at http://www.dot.gov/privacy... OST input to the appropriate microprocessor and put all signals to stop when one or both switches...

  20. Reasons Why Children and Adolescents with ADHD Stop and Restart Taking Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkman, William B; Simon, John O; Epstein, Jeffery N

    2017-09-12

    To describe the prevalence of reasons why children and adolescents stop and restart attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medicine and whether functional impairment is present after stopping medicine. We used the prospective longitudinal cohort from the Multimodal Treatment of Study of Children with ADHD. At the 12 year follow-up when participants were a mean of 21.1 years old, 372 participants (76% male, 64% Caucasian) reported ever taking ADHD medicine. Participants reported the age when they last stopped and/or restarted ADHD medicine and also endorsed reasons for stopping and restarting. Seventy-seven percent (286/372) reported stopping medicine for a month or longer at some time during childhood or adolescence. Participants were a mean of 13.3 years old when they last stopped medicine. The most commonly endorsed reasons for stopping medication related to 1) medicine not needed/helping, 2) side effects, 3) logistical barriers of getting/taking medication, and 4) social concerns/stigma. Seventeen percent (64/372) reported restarting medicine after stopping for a month or longer. Commonly endorsed reasons for restarting related to 1) medicine needed/helped, 2) resolution of logistical barriers to getting/taking. For both stopping and restarting, the proportion endorsing some reasons differed by age range, with the overall pattern suggesting that parental involvement in decisions decreased with age. Nearly all participants had impairment at the assessment after stopping regardless of whether medication was resumed. Different reasons for stopping and/or restarting medicine are relevant at different times for different teens. Tailored strategies may help engage adolescents as full partners in their treatment plan. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Infliximab stopped severe gastrointestinal bleeding in Crohn's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Satimai Aniwan; Surasak Eakpongpaisit; Boonlert Imraporn; Surachai Amornsawadwatana; Rungsun Rerknimitr

    2012-01-01

    To report the result of rapid ulcer healing by infliximab in Crohn's patients with severe enterocolic bleeding.During 2005 and 2010,inflammatory bowel disease database of King Chulalongkorn Memorial and Samitivej hospitals were reviewed.There were seven Crohn's disease (CD) patients (4 women and 3 men; mean age 52 ± 10.4 years; range:11-86 years).Two of the seven patients developed severe gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) as a flare up of CD whereas the other five patients presented with GIB as their first symptom for CD.Their mean hemoglobin level dropped from 12 ± 1.3 g/dL to 8.7 ± 1.3 g/dL in a 3-d period.Median packed red blood cells units needed for resuscitation was 4 units.Because of uncontrolled bleeding,surgical resection was considered.However,due to the poor surgical candidacy of these patients (n =3) and/or possible development of short bowel syndrome (n =6),surgery was not pursued.Likewise angiographic embolization was not considered in any due to the risk of large infarction.All severe GIBs successfully stopped by one or two doses of intravenous infliximab.Our data suggests that infliximab is an alternative therapy for CD with severe GIB when surgery has limitation or patient is a high risk.

  2. Year-end technical stop: train to work safely

    CERN Multimedia

    Rosaria Marraffino

    2016-01-01

    As mentioned in the previous issue of the Bulletin (see here), the accelerators are currently undergoing maintenance as part of the year-end technical stop (YETS). Hundreds of people are working simultaneously on different machines, and many of them need to be trained in order to work safely underground. From a Safety Training point of view, this has resulted in a significant increase in training requests, most of them at the last minute, which are now being handled – but not without difficulties.     In the LHC mock-up, a helium leak is simulated. In this stressful situation, the trainees learn how to put their mask on in less than 40 seconds.   "The most requested course is the Self-Rescue Mask classroom training,” explains Christoph Balle, Safety Training Section Leader. “In this course, people are trained to face the oxygen deficiency hazards that may occur in CERN's underground areas, learning...

  3. True stopping of light: a new regime for nanophotonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakmakidis, Kosmas L.; Zhang, Xiang; Hess, Ortwin

    2014-09-01

    The extremely large speed of light is a tremendous asset but also makes it challenging to control, store or shrink beyond its wavelength. Particularly, reducing the speed of light down to zero is of fundamental scientific interest that could usher in a host of important photonic applications, some of which are hitherto fundamentally inaccessible. These include cavity-free, low-threshold nanolasers, novel solar-cell designs for efficient harvesting of light, nanoscale quantum information processing (owing to the enhanced density of states), as well as enhanced biomolecular sensing. We shall here present nanoplasmonic-based schemes where timedependent sources excite "complex-frequency" modes in uniform (plasmonic) heterostructures, enabling complete and dispersion-free stopping of light pulses, resilient to realistic levels of dissipative, radiative and surface-roughness losses. Our theoretical and computational results demonstrate extraordinary large lightdeceleration factors (of the order of 15,000,000) in integrated nanophotonic media, comparable only to those attainable with ultracold atomic vapours or with quantum coherence effects, such as coherent population oscillations, in ruby crystals.

  4. New stopping rules for dendrogram classification in TWINSPAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Esmailzadeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to propose a modification of TWINSPAN algorithm with introducing new stopping rules for TWINSPAN. Modified TWINSPAN combines the analysis of heterogeneity of the clusters prior to each division to prevent the imposed divisions of homogeneous clusters and it also solved the limitation of classical TWINSPAN in which the number of clusters increases power of two. For this purpose, ecological groups of Box tree stands in Farim forests were classified with using classical and modified TWINSPAN basis of plant species cover percentage of 60 plots with 400 m2 surface area which were made by releve method (by consideration of indicator stand concept. In this relation, five different heterogeneity measures including Whittaker’s beta diversity and total inertia, Sorensen, Jaccard and Orlo´ci dissimilarity indices which representing diversity and distance indices respectively were involved. Sample plots were also classified from basis of topographical properties using cluster analysis with emphasizing Euclidean distance coefficient and Wards clustering method. Results showed that using of two sets of heterogeneity indices lead to different classification dendrograms. In this relation, results of Whittaker’s beta with total inertia as diversity indices were similar and the other three dissimilarity indices have shown similar behavior. Finally, our results reiterated that modified TWINSPAN did not alter the logic of the TWINSPAN classification, but it increased the flexibility of TWINSPAN dendrogram with changing the hierarchy of divisions in the final classification of ecological groups of Box tree stands in Farim forests.

  5. Putting a Stop to di-Higgs Modifications

    CERN Document Server

    Batell, Brian; Stolarski, Daniel; Verhaaren, Christopher B

    2015-01-01

    Pair production of Higgs bosons at hadron colliders is an enticing channel to search for new physics. New colored particles that couple strongly to the Higgs, such as those most often called upon to address the hierarchy problem, provide well motivated examples in which large enhancements of the di-Higgs rate are possible, at least in principle. However, in such scenarios the di-Higgs production rate is tightly correlated with the single Higgs production rate and, since the latter is observed to be SM-like, one generally expects that only modest enhancements in di-Higgs production are allowed by the LHC Run 1 data. We examine the contribution of top squarks (stops) in a simplified supersymmetry model to di-Higgs production and find that this general expectation is indeed borne out. In particular, the allowed deviations are typically small, but there are tuned regions of parameter space where expectations based on EFT arguments break down in which order 100% enhancements to the di-Higgs production rate are pos...

  6. City Under Siege: Narrating Mumbai Through NonStop Capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Ibrahim

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available When Mumbai became the target of terror in the 26/11 attack in 2008, the events in that city, like other tragic global events in recent years, were narrated through new media platforms. The increasing convergence of technologies and mobile telephony enabled new forms of gaze and the ability to bear witness through these new media technologies. The non-stop capture of events through recording equipment embedded in mobile phones and their connectivity to the World Wide Web constructed Mumbai through civilian narratives and images, and this phe-nomenon was described as the "coming of age of Twitter". Conversely the event raised fundamental questions about the role of broadcasting and protocols in live telecasts of terrorist attacks which have consequences for national security. In narrating the city through the civilian gaze and traditional media the spectacle of suffering in postmodernity becomes an open-ended exercise where the city is both a canvas for showcasing the risks of modernity and new forms of visibilities which emerge from social media and the "act of sharing" content on global plat-forms.

  7. Estimation of Stopped Protons at RHIC BES Energies

    CERN Document Server

    Thakur, Dhananjaya; Garg, Prakhar; Sahoo, Raghunath

    2016-01-01

    The recent net-proton fluctuation results of the STAR experiment from beam energy scan (BES) program at RHIC have drawn much attention to explore the QCD critical point and the nature of deconfinement phase transition. There have been many speculations that the non-monotonic behaviour around 19.6 GeV in STAR results may be due to the existence of QCD critical point. However, the experimentally measured proton distributions contain protons from heavy resonance decays, from baryon stopping and from the production processes. Further, these proton distributions are used to estimate the net-proton number fluctuations as it is difficult to disentangle the protons from the above sources. Assuming that any criticality in the system could affect the particle production, in order to study the dynamical fluctuations at different center of mass energies, it will be interesting to devise a method which accounts for the produced baryons i.e. the protons here. In the present work we present a method to estimate the number o...

  8. Lip kinematics in long and short stop and fricative consonants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfqvist, Anders

    2005-02-01

    This paper examines lip and jaw kinematics in the production of labial stop and fricative consonants where the duration of the oral closure/constriction is varied for linguistic purposes. The subjects were speakers of Japanese and Swedish, two languages that have a contrast between short and long consonants. Lip and jaw movements were recorded using a magnetometer system. Based on earlier work showing that the lips are moving at a high velocity at the oral closure, it was hypothesized that speakers could control closure/constriction duration by varying the position of a virtual target for the lips. According to this hypothesis, the peak vertical position of the lower lip during the oral closure/constriction should be higher for the long than for the short consonants. This would result in the lips staying in contact for a longer period. The results show that this is the case for the Japanese subjects and one Swedish subject who produced non-overlapping distributions of closure/constriction duration for the two categories. However, the peak velocity of the lower lip raising movement did not differ between the two categories. Thus if the lip movements in speech are controlled by specifying a virtual target, that control must involve variations in both the position and the timing of the target. .

  9. Stop flow lithography in perfluoropolyether (PFPE) microfluidic channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bong, Ki Wan; Lee, Jiseok; Doyle, Patrick S

    2014-12-21

    Stop Flow Lithography (SFL) is a microfluidic-based particle synthesis method for creating anisotropic multifunctional particles with applications that range from MEMS to biomedical engineering. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) has been typically used to construct SFL devices as the material enables rapid prototyping of channels with complex geometries, optical transparency, and oxygen permeability. However, PDMS is not compatible with most organic solvents which limit the current range of materials that can be synthesized with SFL. Here, we demonstrate that a fluorinated elastomer, called perfluoropolyether (PFPE), can be an alternative oxygen permeable elastomer for SFL microfluidic flow channels. We fabricate PFPE microfluidic devices with soft lithography and synthesize anisotropic multifunctional particles in the devices via the SFL process--this is the first demonstration of SFL with oxygen lubrication layers in a non-PDMS channel. We benchmark the SFL performance of the PFPE devices by comparing them to PDMS devices. We synthesized particles in both PFPE and PDMS devices under the same SFL conditions and found the difference of particle dimensions was less than a micron. PFPE devices can greatly expand the range of precursor materials that can be processed in SFL because the fluorinated devices are chemically resistant to most organic solvents, an inaccessible class of reagents in PDMS-based devices due to swelling.

  10. Analysis and Prediction of Weather Impacted Ground Stop Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao Xun

    2014-01-01

    When the air traffic demand is expected to exceed the available airport's capacity for a short period of time, Ground Stop (GS) operations are implemented by Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Traffic Flow Management (TFM). The GS requires departing aircraft meeting specific criteria to remain on the ground to achieve reduced demands at the constrained destination airport until the end of the GS. This paper provides a high-level overview of the statistical distributions as well as causal factors for the GSs at the major airports in the United States. The GS's character, the weather impact on GSs, GS variations with delays, and the interaction between GSs and Ground Delay Programs (GDPs) at Newark Liberty International Airport (EWR) are investigated. The machine learning methods are used to generate classification models that map the historical airport weather forecast, schedule traffic, and other airport conditions to implemented GS/GDP operations and the models are evaluated using the cross-validations. This modeling approach produced promising results as it yielded an 85% overall classification accuracy to distinguish the implemented GS days from the normal days without GS and GDP operations and a 71% accuracy to differentiate the GS and GDP implemented days from the GDP only days.

  11. A neuro-mechanical model explaining the physiological role of fast and slow muscle fibres at stop and start of stepping of an insect leg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Tibor Istvan; Grabowska, Martyna; Schmidt, Joachim; Büschges, Ansgar; Daun-Gruhn, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Stop and start of stepping are two basic actions of the musculo-skeletal system of a leg. Although they are basic phenomena, they require the coordinated activities of the leg muscles. However, little is known of the details of how these activities are generated by the interactions between the local neuronal networks controlling the fast and slow muscle fibres at the individual leg joints. In the present work, we aim at uncovering some of those details using a suitable neuro-mechanical model. It is an extension of the model in the accompanying paper and now includes all three antagonistic muscle pairs of the main joints of an insect leg, together with their dedicated neuronal control, as well as common inhibitory motoneurons and the residual stiffness of the slow muscles. This model enabled us to study putative processes of intra-leg coordination during stop and start of stepping. We also made use of the effects of sensory signals encoding the position and velocity of the leg joints. Where experimental observations are available, the corresponding simulation results are in good agreement with them. Our model makes detailed predictions as to the coordination processes of the individual muscle systems both at stop and start of stepping. In particular, it reveals a possible role of the slow muscle fibres at stop in accelerating the convergence of the leg to its steady-state position. These findings lend our model physiological relevance and can therefore be used to elucidate details of the stop and start of stepping in insects, and perhaps in other animals, too.

  12. A neuro-mechanical model explaining the physiological role of fast and slow muscle fibres at stop and start of stepping of an insect leg.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Istvan Toth

    Full Text Available Stop and start of stepping are two basic actions of the musculo-skeletal system of a leg. Although they are basic phenomena, they require the coordinated activities of the leg muscles. However, little is known of the details of how these activities are generated by the interactions between the local neuronal networks controlling the fast and slow muscle fibres at the individual leg joints. In the present work, we aim at uncovering some of those details using a suitable neuro-mechanical model. It is an extension of the model in the accompanying paper and now includes all three antagonistic muscle pairs of the main joints of an insect leg, together with their dedicated neuronal control, as well as common inhibitory motoneurons and the residual stiffness of the slow muscles. This model enabled us to study putative processes of intra-leg coordination during stop and start of stepping. We also made use of the effects of sensory signals encoding the position and velocity of the leg joints. Where experimental observations are available, the corresponding simulation results are in good agreement with them. Our model makes detailed predictions as to the coordination processes of the individual muscle systems both at stop and start of stepping. In particular, it reveals a possible role of the slow muscle fibres at stop in accelerating the convergence of the leg to its steady-state position. These findings lend our model physiological relevance and can therefore be used to elucidate details of the stop and start of stepping in insects, and perhaps in other animals, too.

  13. An experimental investigation of charge-dependent deviations from the Bethe stopping power formula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H.H.; Simonsen, H.; Sørensen, H.

    1969-01-01

    The stopping powers of aluminiun and tantalum for 5–13.5 MeV protons and deuterons and 8–20 MeV 3He and 4He have been measured. At identical velocities, the ratio between the stopping powers for the double-charged and the single-charged ions is systematically higher than the factor four predicted...

  14. Seizure Recurrence in Children after Stopping Antiepileptic Medication: 5-Year Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inn-Chi Lee

    2017-08-01

    Conclusion: We found that a history of status epilepticus, symptomatic partial epilepsy, treatment duration before stopping antiepileptic drugs, and an abnormal EEG when the medication was stopped are important predictors of SR. The risk factors of SR after discontinuing antiepileptic drugs have been investigated in several studies. However, a history of status epilepticus as a predictive factor is rarely mentioned.

  15. Meeting Employers' Needs: How One-Stop Centers Can Attract Business Customers. Business Assistance Note #6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Terri

    The U.S. Department of Labor's One-Stop Career Center initiative is part of the movement of governments to increase the quality and efficiency of their services. One-stop centers bring together public and private resources to meet individuals' and employers' human resource development and labor market needs. In order to meet employers' needs,…

  16. Certain features of the stopping power of gases for fission fragments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demidovich, N.N.; Nakhutin, I.E.; Shatunov, V.G.

    1975-11-20

    The stopping power for the Cf/sup 252/ spontaneous fission fragments in air down to energies approx.0.8 MeV was investigated. The experimental dependence of the electronic stopping power of air for fission fragments differs from that predicted by the theory. (AIP)

  17. Asymptotic behaviour of the S-stopped branching processes with countable state space

    CERN Document Server

    Kyrychynska, Iryna; Yeleyko, Yaroslav

    2011-01-01

    he starting process with countable number of types \\mu(t) generates a stopped branching process \\xi(t). The starting process stops, by falling into the nonempty set S. It is assumed, that the starting process is subcritical, indecomposable and noncyclic. It is proved, that the extinction probability converges to the cyclic function with period 1.

  18. When Enough Is Not Enough: Information Overload and Metacognitive Decisions to Stop Studying Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Kou; Blake, Adam B.; Kerr, Tyson; Castel, Alan D.

    2016-01-01

    People are often exposed to more information than they can actually remember. Despite this frequent form of information overload, little is known about how much information people choose to remember. Using a novel "stop" paradigm, the current research examined whether and how people choose to stop receiving new--possibly…

  19. Spread the Word: The Stop.Think.Connect.[TM] Community Outreach Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Homeland Security, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The "Stop.Think.Connect. Community Outreach Toolkit" was adapted from the Federal Trade Commission's "OnGuardOnline.gov," a project that provides practical tips to help guard against Internet fraud and protect your privacy. The kit will help you offer your community information about protecting kids online. It includes "Stop.Think.Connect.," a…

  20. Numerical analysis of the heat loss of stop valves of heat networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polovnikov Vyacheslav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of mathematical modeling of heat regimes of stop valves of heat networks were given. It was revealed that for the stop valves with a relatively small nominal bore the equivalent pipe length can be reduced more than twice.

  1. Optimal Stopping Problems Driven by Lévy Processes and Pasting Principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Surya, B.A.

    2007-01-01

    Solving optimal stopping problems driven by Lévy processes has been a challenging task and has found many applications in modern theory of mathematical finance. For example situations in which optimal stopping typically arise include the problem of finding the arbitrage-free price of the American p

  2. Monte Carlo simulations on the water-to-air stopping power ratio for carbon ion dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkner, Katrin; Bassler, Niels; Sobolevsky, Nikolai; Jäkel, Oliver

    2009-04-01

    Many papers discussed the I value for water given by the ICRU, concluding that a value of about 80 +/- 2 eV instead of 67.2 eV would reproduce measured ion depth-dose curves. A change in the I value for water would have an effect on the stopping power and, hence, on the water-to-air stopping power ratio, which is important in clinical dosimetry of proton and ion beams. For energies ranging from 50 to 330 MeV/u and for one spread out Bragg peak, the authors compare the impact of the I value on the water-to-air stopping power ratio. The authors calculate ratios from different ICRU stopping power tables and ICRU reports. The stopping power ratio is calculated via track-length dose calculation with SHIELD-HIT07. In the calculations, the stopping power ratio is reduced to a value of 1.119 in the plateau region as compared to the cited value of 1.13 in IAEA TRS-398. At low energies the stopping power ratio increases by up to 6% in the last few tenths of a mm toward the Bragg peak. For a spread out Bragg peak of 13.5 mm width at 130 mm depth, the stopping power ratio increases by about 1% toward the distal end.

  3. New stopping cell capabilities : RF carpet performance at high gas density and cryogenic operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranjan, M.; Purushothaman, S.; Dickel, T.; Geissel, H.; Plass, W. R.; Schaefer, D.; Scheidenberger, C.; Van de Walle, J.; Weick, H.; Dendooven, P.

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a stopping cell to be used at the FRS and Super-FRS (Superconducting FRagment Separator) at the GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy-Ion Research and the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR), both in Darmstadt, Germany. The cell has a stopping volume with a length of 1m and a

  4. 20 CFR 662.400 - Who is the One-Stop operator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... paragraph (c) of this section. The types of entities that may be selected to be the One-Stop operator... organization (including a community-based organization); (4) A private for-profit entity; (5) A government agency; and (6) Another interested organization or entity. (b) One-Stop operators may be a single...

  5. Comparing the Performance of Five Multidimensional CAT Selection Procedures with Different Stopping Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lihua

    2013-01-01

    Through simulated data, five multidimensional computerized adaptive testing (MCAT) selection procedures with varying test lengths are examined and compared using different stopping rules. Fixed item exposure rates are used for all the items, and the Priority Index (PI) method is used for the content constraints. Two stopping rules, standard error…

  6. In vitro comparison of isometric and stop-test contractility parameters for the urinary bladder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. van Mastrigt (Ron); J.J. Glerum (Jacobus)

    1985-01-01

    textabstractContractility parameters in the urinary bladder can be calculated from isometric contractions (no extra patient load as compared to routine cystometry) or from stop-tests (more accurate, simpler analysis). A stop-test involves a voluntarily interrupted micturition with pressure and flow

  7. A Stopped-Flow Kinetics Experiment for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory Using Noncorrosive Reagents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigodich, Richard V.

    2014-01-01

    Stopped-flow kinetics techniques are important to the study of rapid chemical and biochemical reactions. Incorporation of a stopped-flow kinetics experiment into the physical chemistry laboratory curriculum would therefore be an instructive addition. However, the usual reactions studied in such exercises employ a corrosive reagent that can over…

  8. Cross-language switching in stop consonant perception and production by Dutch speakers of english

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flege, J.E.; Eefting, W.

    1987-01-01

    Voiceless /p,t,k/ are implemented as aspirated stops in English, but as unaspirated stops in Dutch. We examined identification of a voice onset time (VOT) continuum ranging from /da/ to /ta/ in two language “sets” designed to induce native Dutch subjects to perceive the stimuli as if they were liste

  9. 20 CFR 662.100 - What is the One-Stop delivery system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... investment, educational, and other human resource programs and funding streams (referred to as One-Stop... Section 662.100 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... maintenance of a One-Stop delivery system that enhances the range and quality of workforce development...

  10. A Stopped-Flow Kinetics Experiment for the Physical Chemistry Laboratory Using Noncorrosive Reagents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigodich, Richard V.

    2014-01-01

    Stopped-flow kinetics techniques are important to the study of rapid chemical and biochemical reactions. Incorporation of a stopped-flow kinetics experiment into the physical chemistry laboratory curriculum would therefore be an instructive addition. However, the usual reactions studied in such exercises employ a corrosive reagent that can over…

  11. Tongue Palate Contact Patterns of Velar Stops in Normal Adult English Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liker, Marko; Gibbon, Fiona E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides a more detailed description of normal tongue palate contact patterns for the occlusion phase of velar stops than currently exists. The study used electropalatography (EPG) to record seven normally speaking adults' contact patterns of voiceless velar stops in nine VkV contexts. A variety of EPG indices measured: per cent…

  12. 40 CFR 267.201 - What must I do when I stop operating the tank system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OPERATING UNDER A STANDARDIZED PERMIT Tank Systems § 267.201 What must I do when I stop operating the tank... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I do when I stop operating the tank system? 267.201 Section 267.201 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  13. THEORETICAL JUSTIFICATION OF EXPONENTIAL DISTRIBUTION LAW OF DISTANCES BETWEEN STOPS OF CITY PUBLIC TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbachov, P.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of investigation of relation bitween the trip distance on stops location on the route between places of attraction. Theoretical justification of the use fulness of exponential distribution with the shift parameter for describing the trip distance between stops is given.

  14. Stimulus devaluation induced by action stopping is greater for explicit value representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan R Wessel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We recently showed that rapidly stopping an action in the face of a reward-related stimulus reduces the subjective value of that stimulus (Wessel et al., 2014. In that study, there were three phases. In an initial learning phase, geometric shapes were associated with monetary value via implicit learning. In a subsequent treatment phase, half the shapes were paired with action-stopping, and half were not. In a final auction phase, shapes that had been paired with stopping in the treatment phase were subjectively perceived as less valuable compared to those that were not. Exploratory post-hoc analysis showed that the stopping-induced devaluation effect was larger for participants with greater explicit knowledge of stimulus values. Here, we repeated the study in 65 participants to systematically test whether the level of explicit knowledge influences the degree of devaluation. The results replicated the core result that action-stopping reduces stimulus value. Furthermore, they showed that this effect was indeed significantly larger in participants with more explicit knowledge of the relative stimulus values in the learning phase. These results speak to the robustness of the stopping-induced devaluation effect, and furthermore imply that behavioral therapies using stopping could be successful in devaluing real-world stimuli, insofar as stimulus values are explicitly represented. Finally, to facilitate future investigations into the applicability of these findings as well as the mechanisms underlying stopping-induced stimulus devaluation, we herein provide open source code for the behavioral paradigm.

  15. Stimulus devaluation induced by action stopping is greater for explicit value representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Jan R; Tonnesen, Alexandra L; Aron, Adam R

    2015-01-01

    We recently showed that rapidly stopping an action in the face of a reward-related stimulus reduces the subjective value of that stimulus (Wessel et al., 2014). In that study, there were three phases. In an initial learning phase, geometric shapes were associated with monetary value via implicit learning. In a subsequent treatment phase, half the shapes were paired with action stopping, and half were not. In a final auction phase, shapes that had been paired with stopping in the treatment phase were subjectively perceived as less valuable compared to those that were not. Exploratory post hoc analyses showed that the stopping-induced devaluation effect was larger for participants with greater explicit knowledge of stimulus values. Here, we repeated the study in 65 participants to systematically test whether the level of explicit knowledge influences the degree of devaluation. The results replicated the core result that action stopping reduces stimulus value. Furthermore, they showed that this effect was indeed significantly larger in participants with more explicit knowledge of the relative stimulus values in the learning phase. These results speak to the robustness of the stopping-induced devaluation effect, and furthermore imply that behavioral therapies using stopping could be successful in devaluing real-world stimuli, insofar as stimulus values are explicitly represented. Finally, to facilitate future investigations into the applicability of these findings, as well as the mechanisms underlying stopping-induced stimulus devaluation, we herein provide open source code for the behavioral paradigm.

  16. Signaling aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Staaden, Moira J; Searcy, William A; Hanlon, Roger T

    2011-01-01

    From psychological and sociological standpoints, aggression is regarded as intentional behavior aimed at inflicting pain and manifested by hostility and attacking behaviors. In contrast, biologists define aggression as behavior associated with attack or escalation toward attack, omitting any stipulation about intentions and goals. Certain animal signals are strongly associated with escalation toward attack and have the same function as physical attack in intimidating opponents and winning contests, and ethologists therefore consider them an integral part of aggressive behavior. Aggressive signals have been molded by evolution to make them ever more effective in mediating interactions between the contestants. Early theoretical analyses of aggressive signaling suggested that signals could never be honest about fighting ability or aggressive intentions because weak individuals would exaggerate such signals whenever they were effective in influencing the behavior of opponents. More recent game theory models, however, demonstrate that given the right costs and constraints, aggressive signals are both reliable about strength and intentions and effective in influencing contest outcomes. Here, we review the role of signaling in lieu of physical violence, considering threat displays from an ethological perspective as an adaptive outcome of evolutionary selection pressures. Fighting prowess is conveyed by performance signals whose production is constrained by physical ability and thus limited to just some individuals, whereas aggressive intent is encoded in strategic signals that all signalers are able to produce. We illustrate recent advances in the study of aggressive signaling with case studies of charismatic taxa that employ a range of sensory modalities, viz. visual and chemical signaling in cephalopod behavior, and indicators of aggressive intent in the territorial calls of songbirds.

  17. Assessment of driver stopping prediction models before and after the onset of yellow using two driving simulator datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanipoor Machiani, Sahar; Abbas, Montasir

    2016-11-01

    Accurate modeling of driver decisions in dilemma zones (DZ), where drivers are not sure whether to stop or go at the onset of yellow, can be used to increase safety at signalized intersections. This study utilized data obtained from two different driving simulator studies (VT-SCORES and NADS datasets) to investigate the possibility of developing accurate driver-decision prediction/classification models in DZ. Canonical discriminant analysis was used to construct the prediction models, and two timeframes were considered. The first timeframe used data collected during green immediately before the onset of yellow, and the second timeframe used data collected during the first three seconds after the onset of yellow. Signal protection algorithms could use the results of the prediction model during the first timeframe to decide the best time for ending the green signal, and could use the results of the prediction model during the first three seconds of yellow to extend the clearance interval. It was found that the discriminant model using data collected during the first three seconds of yellow was the most accurate, at 99% accuracy. It was also found that data collection should focus on variables that are related to speed, acceleration, time, and distance to intersection, as opposed to secondary variables, such as pavement conditions, since secondary variables did not significantly change the accuracy of the prediction models. The results reveal a promising possibility for incorporating the developed models in traffic-signal controllers to improve DZ-protection strategies.

  18. Improving the sensitivity of stop searches with on-shell constrained invariant mass variables

    CERN Document Server

    Cho, Won Sang; Kim, Doojin; Matchev, Konstantin T; Moortgat, Filip; Pape, Luc; Park, Myeonghun

    2015-01-01

    The search for light stops is of paramount importance, both in general as a promising path to the discovery of beyond the standard model physics and more specifically as a way of evaluating the success of the naturalness paradigm. While the LHC experiments have ruled out much of the relevant parameter space, there are "stop gaps", i.e., values of sparticle masses for which existing LHC analyses have relatively little sensitivity to light stops. We point out that techniques involving on-shell constrained M_2 variables can do much to enhance sensitivity in this region and hence help close the stop gaps. We demonstrate the use of these variables for several benchmark points and describe the effect of realistic complications, such as detector effects and combinatorial backgrounds, in order to provide a useful toolkit for light stop searches in particular, and new physics searches at the LHC in general.

  19. Heat-stop structure design with high cooling efficiency for large ground-based solar telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yangyi; Gu, Naiting; Rao, Changhui; Li, Cheng

    2015-07-20

    A heat-stop is one of the most important thermal control devices for a large ground-based solar telescope. For controlling the internal seeing effect, the temperature difference between the heat-stop and the ambient environment needs to be reduced, and a heat-stop with high cooling efficiency is required. In this paper, a novel design concept for the heat-stop, in which a multichannel loop cooling system is utilized to obtain higher cooling efficiency, is proposed. To validate the design, we analyze and compare the cooling efficiency for the multichannel and existing single-channel loop cooling system under the same conditions. Comparative results show that the new design obviously enhances the cooling efficiency of the heat-stop, and the novel design based on the multichannel loop cooling system is obviously better than the existing design by increasing the thermal transfer coefficient.

  20. Calculations on the stopping power of a heterogeneous Warm Dense Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Casas, David; Schnürer, Matthias; Barriga-Carrasco, Manuel D; Morales, Roberto; González-Gallego, Luis

    2015-01-01

    The stopping power of Warm Dense Matter (WDM) is estimated by means of the individual contributions of free electrons and bound electrons existing in this special kind of matter, located between classical and degenerate plasmas. For free electrons, the dielectric formalism, well described in previous works of our research group, is used to estimate free electron stopping power. For bound electrons, mean excitation energy of ions is used. Excitation energies are obtained through atomic calculations of the whole atom or, shell by shell in order to estimate their stopping power. Influence of temperature and density is analyzed in case of an impinging projectile. This influence became important for low projectile velocities and negligible for high ones. Using both analysis, the stopping power of an extended WDM is inferred from a dynamical calculation of energy transferred from the projectile to the plasma, where the Bragg peak and stopping range are calculated. Finally, this theoretical framework is used to stud...