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Sample records for receptor shp inhibits

  1. Allosteric inhibition of SHP2 phosphatase inhibits cancers driven by receptor tyrosine kinases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ying-Nan P.; LaMarche, Matthew J.; Chan, Ho Man; Fekkes, Peter; Garcia-Fortanet, Jorge; Acker, Michael G.; Antonakos, Brandon; Chen, Christine Hiu-Tung; Chen, Zhouliang; Cooke, Vesselina G.; Dobson, Jason R.; Deng, Zhan; Fei, Feng; Firestone, Brant; Fodor, Michelle; Fridrich, Cary; Gao, Hui; Grunenfelder, Denise; Hao, Huai-Xiang; Jacob, Jaison; Ho, Samuel; Hsiao, Kathy; Kang, Zhao B.; Karki, Rajesh; Kato, Mitsunori; Larrow, Jay; La Bonte, Laura R.; Lenoir, Francois; Liu, Gang; Liu, Shumei; Majumdar, Dyuti; Meyer, Matthew J.; Palermo, Mark; Perez, Lawrence; Pu, Minying; Price, Edmund; Quinn, Christopher; Shakya, Subarna; Shultz, Michael D.; Slisz, Joanna; Venkatesan, Kavitha; Wang, Ping; Warmuth, Markus; Williams, Sarah; Yang, Guizhi; Yuan, Jing; Zhang, Ji-Hu; Zhu, Ping; Ramsey, Timothy; Keen, Nicholas J.; Sellers, William R.; Stams, Travis; Fortin , Pascal D. (Novartis)

    2016-06-29

    The non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP2, encoded by PTPN11, has an important role in signal transduction downstream of growth factor receptor signalling and was the first reported oncogenic tyrosine phosphatase1. Activating mutations of SHP2 have been associated with developmental pathologies such as Noonan syndrome and are found in multiple cancer types, including leukaemia, lung and breast cancer and neuroblastoma1, 2, 3, 4, 5. SHP2 is ubiquitously expressed and regulates cell survival and proliferation primarily through activation of the RAS–ERK signalling pathway2, 3. It is also a key mediator of the programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and B- and T-lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) immune checkpoint pathways6, 7. Reduction of SHP2 activity suppresses tumour cell growth and is a potential target of cancer therapy8, 9. Here we report the discovery of a highly potent (IC50 = 0.071 μM), selective and orally bioavailable small-molecule SHP2 inhibitor, SHP099, that stabilizes SHP2 in an auto-inhibited conformation. SHP099 concurrently binds to the interface of the N-terminal SH2, C-terminal SH2, and protein tyrosine phosphatase domains, thus inhibiting SHP2 activity through an allosteric mechanism. SHP099 suppresses RAS–ERK signalling to inhibit the proliferation of receptor-tyrosine-kinase-driven human cancer cells in vitro and is efficacious in mouse tumour xenograft models. Together, these data demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition of SHP2 is a valid therapeutic approach for the treatment of cancers.

  2. Inhibition of Estrogen Receptor Action by the Orphan Receptors, SHP and DAX-1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DiRenzo, James

    2003-01-01

    .... In support of DoD grant # DAMD17-99-1-9163, we present our findings regarding the mechanisms by which two orphan nuclear receptors, SHP and DAX-1 inhibit the actions of ER-alpha and ER-beta action...

  3. Inhibition of Estrogen Receptor Action by the Orphan Receptors, SHP and DAX-1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DiRenzo, James

    2002-01-01

    In support of DoD grant # DAMD17-99-1-9163, we present our progress towards understanding the function of mechanisms of action of two orphan nuclear receptors, SHP and DAX-I as inhibitors of ER alpha and ER beta action...

  4. The function of Shp2 tyrosine phosphatase in the dispersal of acetylcholine receptor clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavan Raghavan

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A crucial event in the development of the vertebrate neuromuscular junction (NMJ is the postsynaptic enrichment of muscle acetylcholine (ACh receptors (AChRs. This process involves two distinct steps: the local clustering of AChRs at synapses, which depends on the activation of the muscle-specific receptor tyrosine kinase MuSK by neural agrin, and the global dispersal of aneural or "pre-patterned" AChR aggregates, which is triggered by ACh or by synaptogenic stimuli. We and others have previously shown that tyrosine phosphatases, such as the SH2 domain-containing phosphatase Shp2, regulate AChR cluster formation in muscle cells, and that tyrosine phosphatases also mediate the dispersal of pre-patterned AChR clusters by synaptogenic stimuli, although the specific phosphatases involved in this latter step remain unknown. Results Using an assay system that allows AChR cluster assembly and disassembly to be studied separately and quantitatively, we describe a previously unrecognized role of the tyrosine phosphatase Shp2 in AChR cluster disassembly. Shp2 was robustly expressed in embryonic Xenopus muscle in vivo and in cultured myotomal muscle cells, and treatment of the muscle cultures with an inhibitor of Shp2 (NSC-87877 blocked the dispersal of pre-patterned AChR clusters by synaptogenic stimuli. In contrast, over-expression in muscle cells of either wild-type or constitutively active Shp2 accelerated cluster dispersal. Significantly, forced expression in muscle of the Shp2-activator SIRPα1 (signal regulatory protein α1 also enhanced the disassembly of AChR clusters, whereas the expression of a truncated SIRPα1 mutant that suppresses Shp2 signaling inhibited cluster disassembly. Conclusion Our results suggest that Shp2 activation by synaptogenic stimuli, through signaling intermediates such as SIRPα1, promotes the dispersal of pre-patterned AChR clusters to facilitate the selective accumulation of AChRs at developing NMJs.

  5. Mdm2 is a novel activator of ApoCIII promoter which is antagonized by p53 and SHP inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhihong; Zhang, Yuxia [Departments of Medicine and Oncological Sciences, Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT 84132 (United States); Wang, Li, E-mail: l.wang@hsc.utah.edu [Departments of Medicine and Oncological Sciences, Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT 84132 (United States)

    2012-01-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mdm2 enhances HNF4{alpha} activation of the ApoCIII promoter via interaction with HNF4{alpha}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p53 antagonizes the effect of Mdm2 activation of the ApoCIII promoter. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SHP strengthens p53 inhibition but abolishes Mdm2 activation of the ApoCIII promoter. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mdm2 alters the enrichment of HNF4{alpha}, p53 and SHP to the ApoCIII promoter. -- Abstract: We examined the effect of Mdm2 on regulation of the ApoCIII promoter and its cross-talk with p53 and nuclear receptor SHP. Overexpression of Mdm2 markedly enhanced ApoCIII promoter activity by HNF4{alpha}. A direct association of Mdm2 protein with the HNF4{alpha} protein was observed by co-immunoprecipitation. Ectopic expression of p53 decreased HNF4{alpha} activation of the ApoCIII promoter and antagonized the effect of Mdm2. Co-expression of SHP further strengthened p53 inhibition and abolished Mdm2 activation of the ApoCIII promoter. Mdm2 inhibited p53-mediated enrichment of HNF4{alpha} to the ApoCIII promoter while simultaneously reducing p53 binding and increasing recruitment of SHP to the ApoCIII promoter. The results from this study implicate a potentially important function of Mdm2 in regulation of lipoprotein metabolism.

  6. Mdm2 is a novel activator of ApoCIII promoter which is antagonized by p53 and SHP inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zhihong; Zhang, Yuxia; Wang, Li

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Mdm2 enhances HNF4α activation of the ApoCIII promoter via interaction with HNF4α. ► p53 antagonizes the effect of Mdm2 activation of the ApoCIII promoter. ► SHP strengthens p53 inhibition but abolishes Mdm2 activation of the ApoCIII promoter. ► Mdm2 alters the enrichment of HNF4α, p53 and SHP to the ApoCIII promoter. -- Abstract: We examined the effect of Mdm2 on regulation of the ApoCIII promoter and its cross-talk with p53 and nuclear receptor SHP. Overexpression of Mdm2 markedly enhanced ApoCIII promoter activity by HNF4α. A direct association of Mdm2 protein with the HNF4α protein was observed by co-immunoprecipitation. Ectopic expression of p53 decreased HNF4α activation of the ApoCIII promoter and antagonized the effect of Mdm2. Co-expression of SHP further strengthened p53 inhibition and abolished Mdm2 activation of the ApoCIII promoter. Mdm2 inhibited p53-mediated enrichment of HNF4α to the ApoCIII promoter while simultaneously reducing p53 binding and increasing recruitment of SHP to the ApoCIII promoter. The results from this study implicate a potentially important function of Mdm2 in regulation of lipoprotein metabolism.

  7. Allosteric Inhibition of SHP2: Identification of a Potent, Selective, and Orally Efficacious Phosphatase Inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortanet, Jorge Garcia; Chen, Christine Hiu-Tung; Chen, Ying-Nan P.; Chen, Zhouliang; Deng, Zhan; Firestone, Brant; Fekkes, Peter; Fodor, Michelle; Fortin, Pascal D.; Fridrich, Cary; Grunenfelder, Denise; Ho, Samuel; Kang, Zhao B.; Karki, Rajesh; Kato, Mitsunori; Keen, Nick; LaBonte, Laura R.; Larrow, Jay; Lenoir, Francois; Liu, Gang; Liu, Shumei; Lombardo, Franco; Majumdar, Dyuti; Meyer, Matthew J.; Palermo, Mark; Perez, Lawrence; Pu, Minying; Ramsey, Timothy; Sellers, William R.; Shultz, Michael D.; Stams, Travis; Towler, Christopher; Wang, Ping; Williams, Sarah L.; Zhang, Ji-Hu; LaMarche, Matthew J. (Novartis)

    2016-09-08

    SHP2 is a nonreceptor protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) encoded by the PTPN11 gene involved in cell growth and differentiation via the MAPK signaling pathway. SHP2 also purportedly plays an important role in the programmed cell death pathway (PD-1/PD-L1). Because it is an oncoprotein associated with multiple cancer-related diseases, as well as a potential immunomodulator, controlling SHP2 activity is of significant therapeutic interest. Recently in our laboratories, a small molecule inhibitor of SHP2 was identified as an allosteric modulator that stabilizes the autoinhibited conformation of SHP2. A high throughput screen was performed to identify progressable chemical matter, and X-ray crystallography revealed the location of binding in a previously undisclosed allosteric binding pocket. Structure-based drug design was employed to optimize for SHP2 inhibition, and several new protein–ligand interactions were characterized. These studies culminated in the discovery of 6-(4-amino-4-methylpiperidin-1-yl)-3-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)pyrazin-2-amine (SHP099, 1), a potent, selective, orally bioavailable, and efficacious SHP2 inhibitor.

  8. Synergistic regulation of the mouse orphan nuclear receptor SHP gene promoter by CLOCK-BMAL1 and LRH-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oiwa, Ako; Kakizawa, Tomoko; Miyamoto, Takahide; Yamashita, Koh; Jiang, Wei; Takeda, Teiji; Suzuki, Satoru; Hashizume, Kiyoshi

    2007-01-01

    Small heterodimer partner (SHP; NR0B2) is an orphan nuclear receptor and acts as a repressor for wide variety of nuclear hormone receptors. We demonstrated here that mouse SHP mRNA showed a circadian expression pattern in the liver. Transient transfection of the mSHP promoter demonstrated that CLOCK-BMAL1, core circadian clock components, bound to E-box (CACGTG), and stimulated the promoter activity by 4-fold. Liver receptor homologue-1 (LRH-1; NR5A2) stimulated the mSHP promoter, and CLOCK-BMAL1 synergistically enhanced the LRH-1-mediated transactivation. Interestingly, SHP did not affect the CLOCK-BMAL1-mediated promoter activity, but strongly repressed the synergistic activation of CLOCK-BMAL1 and LRH-1. Furthermore, in vitro pull-down assays revealed the existence of direct protein-protein interaction between LRH-1 and CLOCK. In summary, this study shows that CLOCK-BMAL1, LRH-1 and SHP coordinately regulate the mSHP gene to generate the circadian oscillation. The cyclic expression of mSHP may affect daily activity of other nuclear receptors and contribute to circadian liver functions

  9. SHP1-mediated cell cycle redistribution inhibits radiosensitivity of non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Rubo; Ding, Qian; Li, Pindong; Xue, Jun; Zou, Zhenwei; Huang, Jing; Peng, Gang

    2013-01-01

    Radioresistance is the common cause for radiotherapy failure in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and the degree of radiosensitivity of tumor cells is different during different cell cycle phases. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of cell cycle redistribution in the establishment of radioresistance in NSCLC, as well as the signaling pathway of SH2 containing Tyrosine Phosphatase (SHP1). A NSCLC subtype cell line, radioresistant A549 (A549S1), was induced by high-dose hypofractionated ionizing radiations. Radiosensitivity-related parameters, cell cycle distribution and expression of cell cycle-related proteins and SHP1 were investigated. siRNA was designed to down-regulate SHP1expression. Compared with native A549 cells, the proportion of cells in the S phase was increased, and cells in the G0/G1 phase were consequently decreased, however, the proportion of cells in the G2/M phase did not change in A549S1 cells. Moreover, the expression of SHP1, CDK4 and CylinD1 were significantly increased, while p16 was significantly down-regulated in A549S1 cells compared with native A549 cells. Furthermore, inhibition of SHP1 by siRNA increased the radiosensitivity of A549S1 cells, induced a G0/G1 phase arrest, down-regulated CDK4 and CylinD1expressions, and up-regulated p16 expression. SHP1 decreases the radiosensitivity of NSCLC cells through affecting cell cycle distribution. This finding could unravel the molecular mechanism involved in NSCLC radioresistance

  10. Large-Scale Phosphoproteomics Reveals Shp-2 Phosphatase-Dependent Regulators of Pdgf Receptor Signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batth, Tanveer S; Papetti, Moreno; Pfeiffer, Anamarija

    2018-01-01

    Despite its low cellular abundance, phosphotyrosine (pTyr) regulates numerous cell signaling pathways in health and disease. We applied comprehensive phosphoproteomics to unravel differential regulators of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)-initiated signaling networks upon activation by Pdgf-ββ, Fgf-2...... of Pdgfr pTyr signaling. Application of a recently introduced allosteric Shp-2 inhibitor revealed global regulation of the Pdgf-dependent tyrosine phosphoproteome, which significantly impaired cell migration. In addition, we present a list of hundreds of Shp-2-dependent targets and putative substrates...

  11. Kaempferol suppresses collagen-induced platelet activation by inhibiting NADPH oxidase and protecting SHP-2 from oxidative inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Su Bin; Jang, Ji Yong; Chae, Yun Hee; Min, Ji Hyun; Baek, Jin Young; Kim, Myunghee; Park, Yunjeong; Hwang, Gwi Seo; Ryu, Jae-Sang; Chang, Tong-Shin

    2015-06-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated upon collagen stimulation act as second messengers to propagate various platelet-activating events. Among the ROS-generating enzymes, NADPH oxidase (NOX) plays a prominent role in platelet activation. Thus, NOX has been suggested as a novel target for anti-platelet drug development. Although kaempferol has been identified as a NOX inhibitor, the influence of kaempferol on the activation of platelets and the underlying mechanism have never been investigated. Here, we studied the effects of kaempferol on NOX activation, ROS-dependent signaling pathways, and functional responses in collagen-stimulated platelets. Superoxide anion generation stimulated by collagen was significantly inhibited by kaempferol in a concentration-dependent manner. More importantly, kaempferol directly bound p47(phox), a major regulatory subunit of NOX, and significantly inhibited collagen-induced phosphorylation of p47(phox) and NOX activation. In accordance with the inhibition of NOX, ROS-dependent inactivation of SH2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-2 (SHP-2) was potently protected by kaempferol. Subsequently, the specific tyrosine phosphorylation of key components (Syk, Vav1, Btk, and PLCγ2) of collagen receptor signaling pathways was suppressed by kaempferol. Kaempferol also attenuated downstream responses, including cytosolic calcium elevation, P-selectin surface exposure, and integrin-αIIbβ3 activation. Ultimately, kaempferol inhibited platelet aggregation and adhesion in response to collagen in vitro and prolonged in vivo thrombotic response in carotid arteries of mice. This study shows that kaempferol impairs collagen-induced platelet activation through inhibition of NOX-derived ROS production and subsequent oxidative inactivation of SHP-2. This effect suggests that kaempferol has therapeutic potential for the prevention and treatment of thrombovascular diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Recruitment of SHP-1 protein tyrosine phosphatase and signalling by a chimeric T-cell receptor-killer inhibitory receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M D; Geisler, C

    2000-01-01

    Receptors expressing the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) in their cytoplasmic tail play an important role in the negative regulation of natural killer and B-cell activation. A subpopulation of T cells expresses the ITIM containing killer cell inhibitory receptor (KIR), which...... recognize MHC class I molecules. Following coligation of KIR with an activating receptor, the tyrosine in the ITIM is phosphorylated and the cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 is recruited to the ITIM via its SH2 domains. It is still not clear how SHP-1 affects T-cell receptor (TCR) signalling...... regarding total protein tyrosine phosphorylation, TCR down-regulation, mobilization of intracellular free calcium, or induction of the activation markers CD69 and CD25....

  13. Mutation of the SHP-2 binding site in growth hormone (GH) receptor prolongs GH-promoted tyrosyl phosphorylation of GH receptor, JAK2, and STAT5B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stofega, M R; Herrington, J; Billestrup, Nils

    2000-01-01

    phosphorylation. Consistent with the effects on STAT5B phosphorylation, tyrosine-to-phenylalanine mutation of tyrosine 595 prolongs the duration of tyrosyl phosphorylation of GHR and JAK2. These data suggest that tyrosine 595 is a major site of interaction of GHR with SHP-2, and that GHR-bound SHP-2 negatively......Binding of GH to GH receptor (GHR) rapidly and transiently activates multiple signal transduction pathways that contribute to the growth-promoting and metabolic effects of GH. While the events that initiate GH signal transduction, such as activation of the Janus tyrosine kinase JAK2, are beginning...

  14. Protein-tyrosine Phosphatase SHP2 Contributes to GDNF Neurotrophic Activity through Direct Binding to Phospho-Tyr687 in the RET Receptor Tyrosine Kinase*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrinjaquet, Maurice; Vilar, Marçal; Ibáñez, Carlos F.

    2010-01-01

    The signaling mechanisms by which neurotrophic receptors regulate neuronal survival and axonal growth are still incompletely understood. In the receptor tyrosine kinase RET, a receptor for GDNF (glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor), the functions of the majority of tyrosine residues that become phosphorylated are still unknown. Here we have identified the protein-tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 as a novel direct interactor of RET and the first effector known to bind to phosphorylated Tyr687 in the juxtamembrane region of the receptor. We show that SHP2 is recruited to RET upon ligand binding in a cooperative fashion, such that both interaction with Tyr687 and association with components of the Tyr1062 signaling complex are required for stable recruitment of SHP2 to the receptor. SHP2 recruitment contributes to the ability of RET to activate the PI3K/AKT pathway and promote survival and neurite outgrowth in primary neurons. Furthermore, we find that activation of protein kinase A (PKA) by forskolin reduces the recruitment of SHP2 to RET and negatively affects ligand-mediated neurite outgrowth. In agreement with this, mutation of Ser696, a known PKA phosphorylation site in RET, enhances SHP2 binding to the receptor and eliminates the effect of forskolin on ligand-induced outgrowth. Together, these findings establish SHP2 as a novel positive regulator of the neurotrophic activities of RET and reveal Tyr687 as a critical platform for integration of RET and PKA signals. We anticipate that several other phosphotyrosines of unknown function in neuronal receptor tyrosine kinases will also support similar regulatory functions. PMID:20682772

  15. Protein-tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 contributes to GDNF neurotrophic activity through direct binding to phospho-Tyr687 in the RET receptor tyrosine kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrinjaquet, Maurice; Vilar, Marçal; Ibáñez, Carlos F

    2010-10-08

    The signaling mechanisms by which neurotrophic receptors regulate neuronal survival and axonal growth are still incompletely understood. In the receptor tyrosine kinase RET, a receptor for GDNF (glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor), the functions of the majority of tyrosine residues that become phosphorylated are still unknown. Here we have identified the protein-tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 as a novel direct interactor of RET and the first effector known to bind to phosphorylated Tyr(687) in the juxtamembrane region of the receptor. We show that SHP2 is recruited to RET upon ligand binding in a cooperative fashion, such that both interaction with Tyr(687) and association with components of the Tyr(1062) signaling complex are required for stable recruitment of SHP2 to the receptor. SHP2 recruitment contributes to the ability of RET to activate the PI3K/AKT pathway and promote survival and neurite outgrowth in primary neurons. Furthermore, we find that activation of protein kinase A (PKA) by forskolin reduces the recruitment of SHP2 to RET and negatively affects ligand-mediated neurite outgrowth. In agreement with this, mutation of Ser(696), a known PKA phosphorylation site in RET, enhances SHP2 binding to the receptor and eliminates the effect of forskolin on ligand-induced outgrowth. Together, these findings establish SHP2 as a novel positive regulator of the neurotrophic activities of RET and reveal Tyr(687) as a critical platform for integration of RET and PKA signals. We anticipate that several other phosphotyrosines of unknown function in neuronal receptor tyrosine kinases will also support similar regulatory functions.

  16. The structural insights of stem cell factor receptor (c-Kit interaction with tyrosine phosphatase-2 (Shp-2: An in silico analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurudutta Gangenahalli U

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stem cell factor (SCF receptor c-Kit is recognized as a key signaling molecule, which transduces signals for the proliferation, differentiation and survival of stem cells. Binding of SCF to its receptor triggers transactivation, leading to the recruitment of kinases and phosphatases to the docking platforms of c-Kit catalytic domain. Tyrosine phosphatase-1 (Shp-1 deactivates/attenuates 'Kit' kinase activity. Whereas, Asp816Val mutation in the Kit activation loop transforms kinase domain to a constitutively activated state (switch off-to-on state, in a ligand-independent manner. This phenomenon completely abrogates negative regulation of Shp-1. To predict the possible molecular basis of interaction between c-Kit and Shp-1, we have performed an in silico protein-protein docking study between crystal structure of activated c-Kit (phosphorylated c-Kit and full length crystal structure of Shp-2, a close structural counterpart of Shp-1. Findings Study revealed a stretch of conserved amino acids (Lys818 to Ser821 in the Kit activation domain, which makes decisive H-bonds with N-sh2 and phosphotyrosine binding pocket residues of the phosphatase. These H-bonds may impose an inhibitory steric hindrance to the catalytic domain of c-Kit, there by blocking further interaction of the activation loop molecules with incoming kinases. We have also predicted a phosphotyrosine binding pocket in SH2 domains of Shp-1, which is found to be predominantly closer to a catalytic groove like structure in c-Kit kinase domain. Conclusions This study predicts that crucial hydrogen bonding between N-sh2 domain of Shp-1 and Kit activation loop can modulate the negative regulation of c-Kit kinase by Shp-1. Thus, this finding is expected to play a significant role in designing suitable gain-of-function c-Kit mutants for inducing conditional proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells.

  17. Cell surface expression of channel catfish leukocyte immune-type receptors (IpLITRs) and recruitment of both Src homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase (SHP)-1 and SHP-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Benjamin C S; Mewes, Jacqueline; Davidson, Chelsea; Burshtyn, Deborah N; Stafford, James L

    2009-04-01

    Channel catfish leukocyte immune-type receptors (IpLITRs) are immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) members believed to play a role in the control and coordination of cellular immune responses in teleost. Putative stimulatory and inhibitory IpLITRs are co-expressed by different types of catfish immune cells (e.g. NK cells, T cells, B cells, and macrophages) but their signaling potential has not been determined. Following cationic polymer-mediated transfections into human cell lines we examined the surface expression, tyrosine phosphorylation, and phosphatase recruitment potential of two types of putative inhibitory IpLITRs using 'chimeric' expression constructs and an epitope-tagged 'native' IpLITR. We also cloned and expressed the teleost Src homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatases (SHP)-1 and SHP-2 and examined their expression in adult tissues and developing zebrafish embryos. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments support the inhibitory signaling potential of distinct IpLITR-types that bound both SHP-1 and SHP-2 following the phosphorylation of tyrosine residues within their cytoplasmic tail (CYT) regions. Phosphatase recruitment by IpLITRs represents an important first step in understanding their influence on immune cell effector functions and suggests that certain inhibitory signaling pathways are conserved among vertebrates.

  18. Enhancing SHP-1 expression with 5-azacytidine may inhibit STAT3 activation and confer sensitivity in lestaurtinib (CEP-701)-resistant FLT3-ITD positive acute myeloid leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jamal, Hamid Ali Nagi; Mat Jusoh, Siti Asmaa; Hassan, Rosline; Johan, Muhammad Farid

    2015-01-01

    Tumor-suppressor genes are inactivated by methylation in several cancers including acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Src homology-2 (SH2)-containing protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1 (SHP-1) is a negative regulator of the JAK/STAT pathway. Transcriptional silencing of SHP-1 plays a critical role in the development and progression of cancers through STAT3 activation. 5-Azacytidine (5-Aza) is a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor that causes DNA demethylation resulting in re-expression of silenced SHP-1. Lestaurtinib (CEP-701) is a multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor that potently inhibits FLT3 tyrosine kinase and induces hematological remission in AML patients harboring the internal tandem duplication of the FLT3 gene (FLT3-ITD). However, the majority of patients in clinical trials developed resistance to CEP-701. Therefore, the aim of this study, was to assess the effect of re-expression of SHP-1 on sensitivity to CEP-701 in resistant AML cells. Resistant cells harboring the FLT3-ITD were developed by overexposure of MV4-11 to CEP-701, and the effects of 5-Aza treatment were investigated. Apoptosis and cytotoxicity of CEP-701 were determined using Annexin V and MTS assays, respectively. Gene expression was performed by quantitative real-time PCR. STATs activity was examined by western blotting and the methylation profile of SHP-1 was studied using MS-PCR and pyrosequencing analysis. Repeated-measures ANOVA and Kruskal–Wallis tests were used for statistical analysis. The cytotoxic dose of CEP-701 on resistant cells was significantly higher in comparison with parental and MV4-11R-cep + 5-Aza cells (p = 0.004). The resistant cells showed a significant higher viability and lower apoptosis compared with other cells (p < 0.001). Expression of SHP-1 was 7-fold higher in MV4-11R-cep + 5-Aza cells compared to parental and resistant cells (p = 0.011). STAT3 was activated in resistant cells. Methylation of SHP-1 was significantly decreased in MV4-11R-cep + 5-Aza cells (p = 0

  19. SHP-1, a novel peptide isolated from seahorse inhibits collagen release through the suppression of collagenases 1 and 3, nitric oxide products regulated by NF-kappaB/p38 kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, BoMi; Qian, Zhong-Ji; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2010-01-01

    Considerable efforts have been taken to identify natural peptides as potential bioactive substances. In this study, novel peptide (SHP-1) derived from seahorse (Hippocampus, Syngnathidae) hydrolysate was explored for its inhibitory effects on collagen release in arthritis with the investigation of its underlying mechanism of action. The efficacy of SHP-1 was determined on cartilage protective effects such as inhibition of collagen and GAG release. SHP-1 was able to suppress not only the expression of collagenases 1 and 3, but also the production of NO via down-regulation of iNOS. However, it presented an irrelevant effect on the level of GAG release in chondrocytic and osteoblastic cells. Inhibition of collagen release by SHP-1 is associated with restraining the phosphorylation of NF-kappaB and p38 kinase cascade. Therefore, it could be suggested that SHP-1 has a potential to be used in arthritis treatment.

  20. Lack of Phosphotyrosine Phosphatase SHP-1 Expression in Malignant T-Cell Lymphoma Cells Results from Methylation of the SHP-1 Promoter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Q; Raghunath, P N; Vonderheid, E

    2000-01-01

    SHP-1 is an important negative regulator of signaling by several receptors including receptors for interleukin-2 (IL-2R) and other cytokines. SHP-1 acts by dephosphorylating the receptors and receptor-associated kinases such as IL-2R-associated Jak3 kinase. We found that SHP-1 protein was not det...

  1. Shp-1 dephosphorylates TRPV1 in dorsal root ganglion neurons and alleviates CFA-induced inflammatory pain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xing; Zhao, Xiao-Tao; Xu, Ling-Chi; Yue, Lu-Peng; Liu, Feng-Yu; Cai, Jie; Liao, Fei-Fei; Kong, Jin-Ge; Xing, Guo-Gang; Yi, Ming; Wan, You

    2015-04-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptors are expressed in nociceptive neurons of rat dorsal root ganglions (DRGs) and mediate inflammatory pain. Nonspecific inhibition of protein-tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) increases the tyrosine phosphorylation of TRPV1 and sensitizes TRPV1. However, less is known about tyrosine phosphorylation's implication in inflammatory pain, compared with that of serine/threonine phosphorylation. Src homology 2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase 1 (Shp-1) is a key phosphatase dephosphorylating TRPV1. In this study, we reported that Shp-1 colocalized with and bound to TRPV1 in nociceptive DRG neurons. Shp-1 inhibitors, including sodium stibogluconate and PTP inhibitor III, sensitized TRPV1 in cultured DRG neurons. In naive rats, intrathecal injection of Shp-1 inhibitors increased both TRPV1 and tyrosine-phosphorylated TRPV1 in DRGs and induced thermal hyperalgesia, which was abolished by pretreatment with TRPV1 antagonists capsazepine, BCTC, or AMG9810. Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammatory pain in rats significantly increased the expression of Shp-1, TRPV1, and tyrosine-phosphorylated TRPV1, as well as the colocalization of Shp-1 and TRPV1 in DRGs. Intrathecal injection of sodium stibogluconate aggravated CFA-induced inflammatory pain, whereas Shp-1 overexpression in DRG neurons alleviated it. These results suggested that Shp-1 dephosphorylated and inhibited TRPV1 in DRG neurons, contributing to maintain thermal nociceptive thresholds in normal rats, and as a compensatory mechanism, Shp-1 increased in DRGs of rats with CFA-induced inflammatory pain, which was involved in protecting against excessive thermal hyperalgesia.

  2. Activation of the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 via the interleukin-6 signal transducing receptor protein gp130 requires tyrosine kinase Jak1 and limits acute-phase protein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaper, F; Gendo, C; Eck, M; Schmitz, J; Grimm, C; Anhuf, D; Kerr, I M; Heinrich, P C

    1998-11-01

    Stimulation of the interleukin-6 (IL-6) signalling pathway occurs via the IL-6 receptor-glycoprotein 130 (IL-6R-gp130) receptor complex and results in the regulation of acute-phase protein genes in liver cells. Ligand binding to the receptor complex leads to tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of Janus kinases (Jak), phosphorylation of the signal transducing subunit gp130, followed by recruitment and phosphorylation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription factors STAT3 and STAT1 and the src homology domain (SH2)-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase (SHP2). The tyrosine phosphorylated STAT factors dissociate from the receptor, dimerize and translocate to the nucleus where they bind to enhancer sequences of IL-6 target genes. Phosphorylated SHP2 is able to bind growth factor receptor bound protein (grb2) and thus might link the Jak/STAT pathway to the ras/raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Here we present data on the dose-dependence, kinetics and kinase requirements for SHP2 phosphorylation after the activation of the signal transducer, gp130, of the IL-6-type family receptor complex. When human fibrosarcoma cell lines deficient in Jak1, Jak2 or tyrosine kinase 2 (Tyk2) were stimulated with IL-6-soluble IL-6R complexes it was found that only in Jak1-, but not in Jak 2- or Tyk2-deficient cells, SHP2 activation was greatly impaired. It is concluded that Jak1 is required for the tyrosine phosphorylation of SHP2. This phosphorylation depends on Tyr-759 in the cytoplasmatic domain of gp130, since a Tyr-759-->Phe exchange abrogates SHP2 activation and in turn leads to elevated and prolonged STAT3 and STAT1 activation as well as enhanced acute-phase protein gene induction. Therefore, SHP2 plays an important role in acute-phase gene regulation.

  3. SHP-1 activation inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and intimal hyperplasia in a rodent model of insulin resistance and diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qi, Weier; Li, Qian; Liew, Chong Wee

    2017-01-01

    . However, the role of SHP-1 in intimal hyperplasia and restenosis has not been clarified in insulin resistance and diabetes. METHODS: We used a femoral artery wire injury mouse model, rodent models with insulin resistance and diabetes, and patients with type 2 diabetes. Further, we modulated SHP-1...... expression using a transgenic mouse that overexpresses SHP-1 in VSMCs (Shp-1-Tg). SHP-1 agonists were also employed to study the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of SHP-1 by oxidised lipids. RESULTS: Mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) exhibited increased femoral artery intimal hyperplasia...... and decreased arterial SHP-1 expression compared with mice fed a regular diet. Arterial SHP-1 expression was also decreased in Zucker fatty rats, Zucker diabetic fatty rats and in patients with type 2 diabetes. In primary cultured VSMCs, oxidised LDL suppressed SHP-1 expression by activating Mek-1 (also known...

  4. Advanced glycation end product Nε-carboxymethyllysine induces endothelial cell injury: the involvement of SHP-1-regulated VEGFR-2 dephosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shing Hwa; Sheu, Wayne Huey Herng; Lee, Maw Rong; Lee, Wen Jane; Yi, Yu Chiao; Yang, Tzung Jie; Jen, Jen Fon; Pan, Hung Chuan; Shen, Chin Chang; Chen, Wen Bao; Tien, Hsing Ru; Sheu, Meei Ling

    2013-06-01

    N(ε)-carboxymethyllysine (CML), a major advanced glycation end product, plays a crucial role in diabetes-induced vascular injury. The roles of protein tyrosine phosphatases and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors in CML-related endothelial cell injury are still unclear. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) are a commonly used human EC type. Here, we tested the hypothesis that NADPH oxidase/reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated SH2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase-1 (SHP-1) activation by CML inhibits the VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2, KDR/Flk-1) activation, resulting in HUVEC injury. CML significantly inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis and reduced VEGFR-2 activation in parallel with the increased SHP-1 protein expression and activity in HUVECs. Adding recombinant VEGF increased forward biological effects, which were attenuated by CML. The effects of CML on HUVECs were abolished by SHP-1 siRNA transfection. Exposure of HUVECs to CML also remarkably escalated the integration of SHP-1 with VEGFR-2. Consistently, SHP-1 siRNA transfection and pharmacological inhibitors could block this interaction and elevating [(3)H]thymidine incorporation. CML also markedly activated the NADPH oxidase and ROS production. The CML-increased SHP-1 activity in HUVECs was effectively attenuated by antioxidants. Moreover, the immunohistochemical staining of SHP-1 and CML was increased, but phospho-VEGFR-2 staining was decreased in the aortic endothelium of streptozotocin-induced and high-fat diet-induced diabetic mice. We conclude that a pathway of tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1-regulated VEGFR-2 dephosphorylation through NADPH oxidase-derived ROS is involved in the CML-triggered endothelial cell dysfunction/injury. These findings suggest new insights into the development of therapeutic approaches to reduce diabetic vascular complications. Copyright © 2013 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Inhibition of STAT3 signaling and induction of SHP1 mediate antiangiogenic and antitumor activities of ergosterol peroxide in U266 multiple myeloma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, Yun-Hee; Jeong, Soo-Jin; Lee, Hyo-Jeong; Lee, Hyo-Jung; Koh, Wonil; Jung, Ji Hoon; Kim, Sun-Hee; Sung-Hoon, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Ergosterol peroxide (EP) derived from edible mushroom has been shown to exert anti-tumor activity in several cancer cells. In the present study, anti-angiogenic activity of EP was investigated with the underlying molecular mechanisms in human multiple myeloma U266 cells. Despite weak cytotoxicity against U266 cells, EP suppressed phosphorylation, DNA binding activity and nuclear translocalization of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in U266 cells at nontoxic concentrations. Also, EP inhibited phosphorylation of the upstream kinases Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and Src in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, EP increased the expression of protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 at protein and mRNA levels, and conversely silencing of the SHP-1 gene clearly blocked EP-mediated STAT3 inactivation. In addition, EP significantly decreased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), one of STAT3 target genes at cellular and protein levels as well as disrupted in vitro tube formation assay. Moreover, EP significantly suppressed the growth of U266 cells inoculated in female BALB/c athymic nude mice and immunohistochemistry revealed that EP effectively reduced the expression of STAT3 and CD34 in tumor sections compared to untreated control. These findings suggest that EP can exert antitumor activity in multiple myeloma U266 cells partly with antiangiogenic activity targeting JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway as a potent cancer preventive agent for treatment of multiple myeloma cells

  6. Loss of PTEN causes SHP2 activation, making lung cancer cells unresponsive to IFN-γ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chia-Ling [Translational Research Center, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Chiang, Tzu-Hui; Tseng, Po-Chun [Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Wang, Yu-Chih [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chiou-Feng, E-mail: cflin2014@tmu.edu.tw [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China)

    2015-10-23

    Src homology-2 domain-containing phosphatase (SHP) 2, an oncogenic phosphatase, inhibits type II immune interferon (IFN)-γ signaling by subverting signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 tyrosine phosphorylation and activation. For cancer immunoediting, this study aimed to investigate the decrease of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN), a tumor suppressor protein, leading to cellular impairment of IFN-γ signaling. In comparison with human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells, the natural PTEN loss in another human lung adenocarcinoma line, PC14PE6/AS2 cells, presents reduced responsiveness in IFN-γ-induced IFN regulatory factor 1 activation and CD54 expression. Artificially silencing PTEN expression in A549 cells also caused cells to be unresponsive to IFN-γ without affecting IFN-γ receptor expression. IFN-γ-induced inhibition of cell proliferation and cytotoxicity were demonstrated in A549 cells but were defective in PC14PE6/AS2 cells and in PTEN-deficient A549 cells. Aberrant activation of SHP2 by ROS was specifically shown in PC14PE6/AS2 cells and PTEN-deficient A549 cells. Inhibiting ROS and SHP2 rescued cellular responses to IFN-γ-induced cytotoxicity and inhibition of cell proliferation in PC14PE6/AS2 cells. These results demonstrate that a decrease in PTEN facilitates ROS/SHP2 signaling, causing lung cancer cells to become unresponsive to IFN-γ. - Highlights: • This study demonstrates that PTEN decrease causes cellular unresponsive to IFN-γ. • Lung cancer cells with PTEN deficiency show unresponsive to IFN-γ signaling. • PTEN decrease inhibits IFN-γ-induced CD54, cell proliferation inhibition, and cytotoxicity. • ROS-mediated SHP2 activation makes PTEN-deficient cells unresponsive to IFN-γ.

  7. SHP-1 is a target of regorafenib in colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hang; Hung, Man-Hsin; Chen, Yen-Lin; Huang, Jui-Wen; Tai, Wei-Tien; Yu, Hui-Chuan; Chen, Kuen-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Regorafenib is an inhibitor of multiple protein kinases which exerts antitumor and antimetastatic activities in metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). SH2 domain-containing phosphatase 1 (SHP-1) is reported to have tumor suppressive potential because it acts as a negative regulator of p-STAT3Tyr705 signaling. However, little is known about the mechanism regarding regorafenib affects SHP-1 tyrosine phosphatase activity and leads to apoptosis and tumor suppression in CRC. Here, we found that regorafenib triggered apoptotic cell death and significantly enhanced SHP-1 activity, which dramatically decreased the phosphorylated form of STAT3 at Tyr705 (p-STAT3Tyr705). Importantly, regorafenib augmented SHP-1 activity by direct disruption of the association between N-SH2 and catalytic PTP domain of SHP-1. Deletion of the N-SH2 domain (dN1) or point mutation (D61A) of SHP-1 blocked the effect of regorafenib-induced SHP-1 activity, growth inhibition and a decrease of p-STAT3Tyr705 expression, suggesting that regorafenib triggers a conformational change in SHP-1 by relieving its autoinhibition. In vivo assay showed that regorafenib significantly inhibited xenograft growth and decreased p-STAT3Tyr705 expression but induced higher SHP-1 activity. Collectively, regorafenib is a novel SHP-1 agonist exerts superior anti-tumor effects by enhancing SHP-1 activity that directly targets p-STAT3Tyr705. Small molecule-enhancement of SHP-1 activity may be a promising therapeutic approach for CRC treatment. PMID:25071018

  8. SHP-1 is directly activated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and regulates BCL-6 in the presence of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phadnis-Moghe, Ashwini S.; Li, Jinpeng [Genetics Program, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Institute for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Crawford, Robert B. [Institute for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Kaminski, Norbert E., E-mail: kamins11@msu.edu [Institute for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The environmental contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), which is a strong AHR agonist, causes significant suppression of human B cell activation and differentiation. The current studies describe the identification of Src homology phosphatase 1 (SHP-1) encoded by the gene PTPN6 as a putative regulator of TCDD-mediated suppression of B cell activation. Shp-1 was initially identified through a genome-wide analysis of AHR binding in mouse B cells in the presence of TCDD. The binding of AHR to the PTPN6 promoter was further confirmed using electrophoretic mobility shift assays in which, specific binding of AHR was detected at four putative DRE sites within PTPN6 promoter. Time-course measurements performed in human B cells highlighted a significant increase in SHP-1 mRNA and protein levels in the presence of TCDD. The changes in the protein levels of SHP-1 were also observed in a TCDD concentration-dependent manner. The increase in SHP-1 levels was also seen to occur due to a change in early signaling events in the presence of TCDD. We have shown that BCL-6 regulates B cell activation by repressing activation marker CD80 in the presence of TCDD. TCDD-treatment led to a significant increase in the double positive (SHP-1{sup hi} BCL-6{sup hi}) population. Interestingly, treatment of naïve human B cells with SHP-1 inhibitor decreased BCL-6 protein levels suggesting possible regulation of BCL-6 by SHP-1 for the first time. Collectively, these results suggest that SHP-1 is regulated by AHR in the presence of TCDD and may, in part through BCL-6, regulate TCDD-mediated suppression of human B cell activation. - Highlights: • SHP-1 encoded by the gene PTPN6 is directly activated by the AHR. • AHR binds to dioxin response elements within the SHP-1 promoter in a TCDD-inducible manner. • TCDD-mediated increase in SHP-1 levels is observed in primary human B cells. • Higher SHP-1 levels help in maintaining high BCL-6 levels in the presence of TCDD. • In

  9. Orphan Nuclear Receptor Small Heterodimer Partner Negatively Regulates Growth Hormone-mediated Induction of Hepatic Gluconeogenesis through Inhibition of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 5 (STAT5) Transactivation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Deuk; Li, Tiangang; Ahn, Seung-Won; Kim, Don-Kyu; Lee, Ji-Min; Hwang, Seung-Lark; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Lee, Chul-Ho; Lee, In-Kyu; Chiang, John Y. L.; Choi, Hueng-Sik

    2012-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is a key metabolic regulator mediating glucose and lipid metabolism. Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is a member of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase superfamily and regulates cell cycle progression. The orphan nuclear receptor small heterodimer partner (SHP: NR0B2) plays a pivotal role in regulating metabolic processes. Here, we studied the role of ATM on GH-dependent regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis in the liver. GH induced phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose 6-phosphatase gene expression in primary hepatocytes. GH treatment and adenovirus-mediated STAT5 overexpression in hepatocytes increased glucose production, which was blocked by a JAK2 inhibitor, AG490, dominant negative STAT5, and STAT5 knockdown. We identified a STAT5 binding site on the PEPCK gene promoter using reporter assays and point mutation analysis. Up-regulation of SHP by metformin-mediated activation of the ATM-AMP-activated protein kinase pathway led to inhibition of GH-mediated induction of hepatic gluconeogenesis, which was abolished by an ATM inhibitor, KU-55933. Immunoprecipitation studies showed that SHP physically interacted with STAT5 and inhibited STAT5 recruitment on the PEPCK gene promoter. GH-induced hepatic gluconeogenesis was decreased by either metformin or Ad-SHP, whereas the inhibition by metformin was abolished by SHP knockdown. Finally, the increase of hepatic gluconeogenesis following GH treatment was significantly higher in the liver of SHP null mice compared with that of wild-type mice. Overall, our results suggest that the ATM-AMP-activated protein kinase-SHP network, as a novel mechanism for regulating hepatic glucose homeostasis via a GH-dependent pathway, may be a potential therapeutic target for insulin resistance. PMID:22977252

  10. Development of severe skeletal defects in induced SHP-2-deficient adult mice: a model of skeletal malformation in humans with SHP-2 mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Bauler

    2011-03-01

    SHP-2 (encoded by PTPN11 is a ubiquitously expressed protein tyrosine phosphatase required for signal transduction by multiple different cell surface receptors. Humans with germline SHP-2 mutations develop Noonan syndrome or LEOPARD syndrome, which are characterized by cardiovascular, neurological and skeletal abnormalities. To study how SHP-2 regulates tissue homeostasis in normal adults, we used a conditional SHP-2 mouse mutant in which loss of expression of SHP-2 was induced in multiple tissues in response to drug administration. Induced deletion of SHP-2 resulted in impaired hematopoiesis, weight loss and lethality. Most strikingly, induced SHP-2-deficient mice developed severe skeletal abnormalities, including kyphoses and scolioses of the spine. Skeletal malformations were associated with alterations in cartilage and a marked increase in trabecular bone mass. Osteoclasts were essentially absent from the bones of SHP-2-deficient mice, thus accounting for the osteopetrotic phenotype. Studies in vitro revealed that osteoclastogenesis that was stimulated by macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL was defective in SHP-2-deficient mice. At least in part, this was explained by a requirement for SHP-2 in M-CSF-induced activation of the pro-survival protein kinase AKT in hematopoietic precursor cells. These findings illustrate an essential role for SHP-2 in skeletal growth and remodeling in adults, and reveal some of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved. The model is predicted to be of further use in understanding how SHP-2 regulates skeletal morphogenesis, which could lead to the development of novel therapies for the treatment of skeletal malformations in human patients with SHP-2 mutations.

  11. Src homology domain 2-containing protein-tyrosine phosphatase-1 (SHP-1) binds and dephosphorylates G(alpha)-interacting, vesicle-associated protein (GIV)/Girdin and attenuates the GIV-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Yash; Pavlova, Yelena; Garcia-Marcos, Mikel; Ghosh, Pradipta

    2011-09-16

    GIV (Gα-interacting vesicle-associated protein, also known as Girdin) is a bona fide enhancer of PI3K-Akt signals during a diverse set of biological processes, e.g. wound healing, macrophage chemotaxis, tumor angiogenesis, and cancer invasion/metastasis. We recently demonstrated that tyrosine phosphorylation of GIV by receptor and non-receptor-tyrosine kinases is a key step that is required for GIV to directly bind and enhance PI3K activity. Here we report the discovery that Src homology 2-containing phosphatase-1 (SHP-1) is the major protein-tyrosine phosphatase that targets two critical phosphotyrosines within GIV and antagonizes phospho-GIV-dependent PI3K enhancement in mammalian cells. Using phosphorylation-dephosphorylation assays, we demonstrate that SHP-1 is the major and specific protein-tyrosine phosphatase that catalyzes the dephosphorylation of tyrosine-phosphorylated GIV in vitro and inhibits ligand-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of GIV downstream of both growth factor receptors and GPCRs in cells. In vitro binding and co-immunoprecipitation assays demonstrate that SHP-1 and GIV interact directly and constitutively and that this interaction occurs between the SH2 domain of SHP-1 and the C terminus of GIV. Overexpression of SHP-1 inhibits tyrosine phosphorylation of GIV and formation of phospho-GIV-PI3K complexes, and specifically suppresses GIV-dependent activation of Akt. Consistently, depletion of SHP-1 enhances peak tyrosine phosphorylation of GIV, which coincides with an increase in peak Akt activity. We conclude that SHP-1 antagonizes the action of receptor and non-receptor-tyrosine kinases on GIV and down-regulates the phospho-GIV-PI3K-Akt axis of signaling.

  12. Pharmacological Targeting SHP-1-STAT3 Signaling Is a Promising Therapeutic Approach for the Treatment of Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ching Fan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available STAT3 activation is associated with poor prognosis in human colorectal cancer (CRC. Our previous data demonstrated that regorafenib (Stivarga is a pharmacological agonist of SH2 domain-containing phosphatase 1 (SHP-1 that enhances SHP-1 activity and induces apoptosis by targeting STAT3 signals in CRC. This study aimed to find a therapeutic drug that is more effective than regorafenib for CRC treatment. Here, we showed that SC-43 was more effective than regorafenib at inducing apoptosis in vitro and suppressing tumorigenesis in vivo. SC-43 significantly increased SHP-1 activity, downregulated p-STAT3Tyr705 level, and induced apoptosis in CRC cells. An SHP-1 inhibitor or knockdown of SHP-1 by siRNA both significantly rescued the SC-43–induced apoptosis and decreased p-STAT3Tyr705 level. Conversely, SHP-1 overexpression increased the effects of SC-43 on apoptosis and p-STAT3Tyr705 level. These data suggest that SC-43–induced apoptosis mediated through the loss of p-STAT3Tyr705 was dependent on SHP-1 function. Importantly, SC-43–enhanced SHP-1 activity was because of the docking potential of SC-43, which relieved the autoinhibited N-SH2 domain of SHP-1 and inhibited p-STAT3Tyr705 signals. Importantly, we observed that a significant negative correlation existed between SHP-1 and p-STAT3Tyr705expression in CRC patients (P = .038. Patients with strong SHP-1 and weak p-STAT3Tyr705 expression had significantly higher overall survival compared with patients with weak SHP-1 and strong p-STAT3Tyr705 expression (P = .029. In conclusion, SHP-1 is suitable to be a useful prognostic marker and a pharmacological target for CRC treatment. Targeting SHP-1-STAT3 signaling by SC-43 may serve as a promising pharmacotherapy for CRC.

  13. The tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 regulates hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α protein levels in endothelial cells under hypoxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan K Alig

    Full Text Available The tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 negatively influences endothelial function, such as VEGF signaling and reactive oxygen species (ROS formation, and has been shown to influence angiogenesis during tissue ischemia. In ischemic tissues, hypoxia induced angiogenesis is crucial for restoring oxygen supply. However, the exact mechanism how SHP-1 affects endothelial function during ischemia or hypoxia remains unclear. We performed in vitro endothelial cell culture experiments to characterize the role of SHP-1 during hypoxia.SHP-1 knock-down by specific antisense oligodesoxynucleotides (AS-Odn increased cell growth as well as VEGF synthesis and secretion during 24 hours of hypoxia compared to control AS-Odn. This was prevented by HIF-1α inhibition (echinomycin and apigenin. SHP-1 knock-down as well as overexpression of a catalytically inactive SHP-1 (SHP-1 CS further enhanced HIF-1α protein levels, whereas overexpression of a constitutively active SHP-1 (SHP-1 E74A resulted in decreased HIF-1α levels during hypoxia, compared to wildtype SHP-1. Proteasome inhibition (MG132 returned HIF-1α levels to control or wildtype levels respectively in these cells. SHP-1 silencing did not alter HIF-1α mRNA levels. Finally, under hypoxic conditions SHP-1 knock-down enhanced intracellular endothelial reactive oxygen species (ROS formation, as measured by oxidation of H2-DCF and DHE fluorescence.SHP-1 decreases half-life of HIF-1α under hypoxic conditions resulting in decreased cell growth due to diminished VEGF synthesis and secretion. The regulatory effect of SHP-1 on HIF-1α stability may be mediated by inhibition of endothelial ROS formation stabilizing HIF-1α protein. These findings highlight the importance of SHP-1 in hypoxic signaling and its potential as therapeutic target in ischemic diseases.

  14. Aqueous extract of Arbutus unedo inhibits STAT1 activation in human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 and human fibroblasts through SHP2 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariotto, S; Ciampa, A R; de Prati, A Carcereri; Darra, E; Vincenzi, S; Sega, M; Cavalieri, E; Shoji, K; Suzuki, H

    2008-05-01

    Arbutus unedo L. has been for a long time employed in traditional and popular medicine as an astringent, diuretic, urinary anti-septic, and more recently, in the therapy of hypertension and diabetes. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) is a fascinating and complex protein with multiple yet contrasting transcriptional functions. Although activation of this nuclear factor is finely regulated in order to control the entire inflammatory process, its hyper-activation or time-spatially erroneous activation may lead to exacerbation of inflammation. The modulation of this nuclear factor, therefore, has recently been considered as a new strategy in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. In this study, we present data showing that the aqueous extract of Arbutus unedo's leaves exerts inhibitory action on interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) elicited activation of STAT1, both in human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 and in human fibroblasts. This down-regulation of STAT1 is shown to result from a reduced tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT1 protein. Evidence is also presented indicating that the inhibitory effect of this extract may be mediated through enhancement of tyrosine phosphorylation of SHP2 tyrosine phosphatase. The modulation of this nuclear factor turns out into the regulation of the expression of a number of genes involved in the inflammatory response such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Taken together, our results suggest that the employment of the Arbutus unedo aqueous extract is promising, at least, as an auxiliary anti-inflammatory treatment of diseases in which STAT1 plays a critical role.

  15. Shp2 in Forebrain Neurons Regulates Synaptic Plasticity, Locomotion, and Memory Formation in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusakari, Shinya; Saitow, Fumihito; Ago, Yukio; Shibasaki, Koji; Sato-Hashimoto, Miho; Matsuzaki, Yasunori; Kotani, Takenori; Murata, Yoji; Hirai, Hirokazu; Matsuda, Toshio; Suzuki, Hidenori

    2015-01-01

    Shp2 (Src homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 2) regulates neural cell differentiation. It is also expressed in postmitotic neurons, however, and mutations of Shp2 are associated with clinical syndromes characterized by mental retardation. Here we show that conditional-knockout (cKO) mice lacking Shp2 specifically in postmitotic forebrain neurons manifest abnormal behavior, including hyperactivity. Novelty-induced expression of immediate-early genes and activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (Erk) were attenuated in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of Shp2 cKO mice, suggestive of reduced neuronal activity. In contrast, ablation of Shp2 enhanced high-K+-induced Erk activation in both cultured cortical neurons and synaptosomes, whereas it inhibited that induced by brain-derived growth factor in cultured neurons. Posttetanic potentiation and paired-pulse facilitation were attenuated and enhanced, respectively, in hippocampal slices from Shp2 cKO mice. The mutant mice also manifested transient impairment of memory formation in the Morris water maze. Our data suggest that Shp2 contributes to regulation of Erk activation and synaptic plasticity in postmitotic forebrain neurons and thereby controls locomotor activity and memory formation. PMID:25713104

  16. Dovitinib Acts As a Novel Radiosensitizer in Hepatocellular Carcinoma by Targeting SHP-1/STAT3 Signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Chao-Yuan [Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiological Technology, Yuanpei University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Tai, Wei-Tien [Department of Medical Research, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); National Center of Excellence for Clinical Trial and Research, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wu, Szu-Yuan [Institute of Toxicology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Biotechnology, Hungkuang University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Shih, Chih-Ting; Chen, Min-Hsuan; Tsai, Ming-Hsien [Department of Medical Research, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Kuo, Chiung-Wen [Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Technology, Yuanpei University of Medical Technology, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Shiau, Chung-Wai [Institute of Biopharmaceutical Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hung, Man-Hsin, E-mail: cindybeaty@gmail.com [Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Oncology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Program in Molecular Medicine, School of Life Science, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Kuen-Feng, E-mail: kfchen1970@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Medical Research, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); National Center of Excellence for Clinical Trial and Research, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2016-06-01

    Purpose: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is among the most lethal human malignancies, and curative therapy is not an option for most patients. There is growing interest in the potential benefit of combining targeted therapies with radiation therapy (RT). This study aimed to characterize the efficacy and mechanism of an investigational drug, dovitinib, used in combination with RT. Methods and Materials: HCC cell lines (PLC5, Hep3B, SK-Hep1, HA59T, and Huh-7) were treated with dovitinib, RT, or both, and apoptosis and signal transduction were analyzed. Results: Dovitinib treatment resulted in Src homology region 2 (SH2) domain-containing phosphatase 1 (SHP-1)-mediated downregulation of p-STAT3 and promoted potent apoptosis of HCC cells. Ectopic expression of STAT3, or inhibition of SHP-1, diminished the effects of dovitinib on HCC cells. By ectopic expression and purified recombinant proteins of various mutant forms of SHP-1, the N-SH2 domain of SHP-1 was found to be required for dovitinib treatment. Overexpression of STAT3 or catalytic-dead mutant SHP-1 restored RT-induced reduction of HCC cell survival. Conversely, ectopic expression of SHP-1 or activation of SHP-1 by dovitinib enhanced the effects of RT against HCC in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions: SHP-1/STAT3 signaling is critically associated with the radiosensitivity of HCC cells. Combination therapy with RT and the SHP-1 agonist, such as dovitinib, resulted in enhanced in vitro and in vivo anti-HCC effects.

  17. Dovitinib Acts As a Novel Radiosensitizer in Hepatocellular Carcinoma by Targeting SHP-1/STAT3 Signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Chao-Yuan; Tai, Wei-Tien; Wu, Szu-Yuan; Shih, Chih-Ting; Chen, Min-Hsuan; Tsai, Ming-Hsien; Kuo, Chiung-Wen; Shiau, Chung-Wai; Hung, Man-Hsin; Chen, Kuen-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is among the most lethal human malignancies, and curative therapy is not an option for most patients. There is growing interest in the potential benefit of combining targeted therapies with radiation therapy (RT). This study aimed to characterize the efficacy and mechanism of an investigational drug, dovitinib, used in combination with RT. Methods and Materials: HCC cell lines (PLC5, Hep3B, SK-Hep1, HA59T, and Huh-7) were treated with dovitinib, RT, or both, and apoptosis and signal transduction were analyzed. Results: Dovitinib treatment resulted in Src homology region 2 (SH2) domain-containing phosphatase 1 (SHP-1)-mediated downregulation of p-STAT3 and promoted potent apoptosis of HCC cells. Ectopic expression of STAT3, or inhibition of SHP-1, diminished the effects of dovitinib on HCC cells. By ectopic expression and purified recombinant proteins of various mutant forms of SHP-1, the N-SH2 domain of SHP-1 was found to be required for dovitinib treatment. Overexpression of STAT3 or catalytic-dead mutant SHP-1 restored RT-induced reduction of HCC cell survival. Conversely, ectopic expression of SHP-1 or activation of SHP-1 by dovitinib enhanced the effects of RT against HCC in vitro and in vivo. Conclusions: SHP-1/STAT3 signaling is critically associated with the radiosensitivity of HCC cells. Combination therapy with RT and the SHP-1 agonist, such as dovitinib, resulted in enhanced in vitro and in vivo anti-HCC effects.

  18. Alteration of SHP-1/p-STAT3 Signaling: A Potential Target for Anticancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Ting Huang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Src homology 2 (SH2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 1 (SHP-1, a non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase, has been reported as a negative regulator of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 and linked to tumor development. In this present review, we will discuss the importance and function of SHP-1/p-STAT3 signaling in nonmalignant conditions as well as malignancies, its cross-talk with other pathways, the current clinical development and the potential role of inhibitors of this pathway in anticancer therapy and clinical relevance of SHP-1/p-STAT3 in cancers. Lastly, we will summarize and highlight work involving novel drugs/compounds targeting SHP-1/p-STAT3 signaling and combined strategies that were/are discovered in our and our colleagues’ laboratories.

  19. Shp2 knockdown and Noonan/LEOPARD mutant Shp2-induced gastrulation defects.

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    Chris Jopling

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Shp2 is a cytoplasmic protein-tyrosine phosphatase that is essential for normal development. Activating and inactivating mutations have been identified in humans to cause the related Noonan and LEOPARD syndromes, respectively. The cell biological cause of these syndromes remains to be determined. We have used the zebrafish to assess the role of Shp2 in early development. Here, we report that morpholino-mediated knockdown of Shp2 in zebrafish resulted in defects during gastrulation. Cell tracing experiments demonstrated that Shp2 knockdown induced defects in convergence and extension cell movements. In situ hybridization using a panel of markers indicated that cell fate was not affected by Shp2 knock down. The Shp2 knockdown-induced defects were rescued by active Fyn and Yes and by active RhoA. We generated mutants of Shp2 with mutations that were identified in human patients with Noonan or LEOPARD Syndrome and established that Noonan Shp2 was activated and LEOPARD Shp2 lacked catalytic protein-tyrosine phosphatase activity. Expression of Noonan or LEOPARD mutant Shp2 in zebrafish embryos induced convergence and extension cell movement defects without affecting cell fate. Moreover, these embryos displayed craniofacial and cardiac defects, reminiscent of human symptoms. Noonan and LEOPARD mutant Shp2s were not additive nor synergistic, consistent with the mutant Shp2s having activating and inactivating roles in the same signaling pathway. Our results demonstrate that Shp2 is required for normal convergence and extension cell movements during gastrulation and that Src family kinases and RhoA were downstream of Shp2. Expression of Noonan or LEOPARD Shp2 phenocopied the craniofacial and cardiac defects of human patients. The finding that defective Shp2 signaling induced cell movement defects as early as gastrulation may have implications for the monitoring and diagnosis of Noonan and LEOPARD syndrome.

  20. Combined Angiotensin Receptor Antagonism and Neprilysin Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubers, Scott A.; Brown, Nancy J.

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure affects approximately 5.7 million people in the United States alone. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, beta-blockers, and aldosterone antagonists have improved mortality in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction, but mortality remains high. In July 2015, the FDA approved the first of a new class of drugs for the treatment of heart failure; valsartan/sacubitril (formerly known as LCZ696 and currently marketed by Novartis as Entresto) combines the angiotensin receptor blocker valsartan and the neprilysin inhibitor prodrug sacubitril in a 1:1 ratio in a sodium supramolecular complex. Sacubitril is converted by esterases to LBQ657, which inhibits neprilysin, the enzyme responsible for the degradation of the natriuretic peptides and many other vasoactive peptides. Thus, this combined angiotensin receptor antagonist and neprilysin inhibitor addresses two of the pathophysiologic mechanisms of heart failure - activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and decreased sensitivity to natriuretic peptides. In the Prospective comparison of ARNI with ACEI to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and morbidity in Heart Failure (PARADIGM-HF) trial, valsartan/sacubitril significantly reduced mortality and hospitalization for heart failure, as well as blood pressure, compared to enalapril in patients with heart failure, reduced ejection fraction, and an elevated circulating level of brain natriuretic peptide or N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide. Ongoing clinical trials are evaluating the role of valsartan/sacubitril in the treatment of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and hypertension. We review here the mechanisms of action of valsartan/sacubitril, the pharmacologic properties of the drug, and its efficacy and safety in the treatment of heart failure and hypertension. PMID:26976916

  1. An investigation of hierachical protein recruitment to the inhibitory platelet receptor, G6B-b.

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    Carmen H Coxon

    Full Text Available Platelet activation is regulated by both positive and negative signals. G6B-b is an inhibitory platelet receptor with an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM and an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based switch motif (ITSM. The molecular basis of inhibition by G6B-b is currently unknown but thought to involve the SH2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1. Here we show that G6B-b also associates with SHP-2, as well as SHP-1, in human platelets. Using a number of biochemical approaches, we found these interactions to be direct and that the tandem SH2 domains of SHP-2 demonstrated a binding affinity for G6B-b 100-fold higher than that of SHP-1. It was also observed that while SHP-1 has an absolute requirement for phosphorylation at both motifs to bind, SHP-2 can associate with G6B-b when only one motif is phosphorylated, with the N-terminal SH2 domain and the ITIM being most important for the interaction. A number of other previously unreported SH2 domain-containing proteins, including Syk and PLCγ2, also demonstrated specificity for G6B-b phosphomotifs and may serve to explain the observation that G6B-b remains inhibitory in the absence of both SHP-1 and SHP-2. In addition, the presence of dual phosphorylated G6B-b in washed human platelets can reduce the EC(50 for both CRP and collagen.

  2. High Concentrations of Tranexamic Acid Inhibit Ionotropic Glutamate Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecker, Irene; Wang, Dian-Shi; Kaneshwaran, Kirusanthy; Mazer, C David; Orser, Beverley A

    2017-07-01

    The antifibrinolytic drug tranexamic acid is structurally similar to the amino acid glycine and may cause seizures and myoclonus by acting as a competitive antagonist of glycine receptors. Glycine is an obligatory co-agonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of glutamate receptors. Thus, it is plausible that tranexamic acid inhibits NMDA receptors by acting as a competitive antagonist at the glycine binding site. The aim of this study was to determine whether tranexamic acid inhibits NMDA receptors, as well as α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid and kainate subtypes of ionotropic glutamate receptors. Tranexamic acid modulation of NMDA, α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid, and kainate receptors was studied using whole cell voltage-clamp recordings of current from cultured mouse hippocampal neurons. Tranexamic acid rapidly and reversibly inhibited NMDA receptors (half maximal inhibitory concentration = 241 ± 45 mM, mean ± SD; 95% CI, 200 to 281; n = 5) and shifted the glycine concentration-response curve for NMDA-evoked current to the right. Tranexamic acid also inhibited α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (half maximal inhibitory concentration = 231 ± 91 mM; 95% CI, 148 to 314; n = 5 to 6) and kainate receptors (half maximal inhibitory concentration = 90 ± 24 mM; 95% CI, 68 to 112; n = 5). Tranexamic acid inhibits NMDA receptors likely by reducing the binding of the co-agonist glycine and also inhibits α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid and kainate receptors. Receptor blockade occurs at high millimolar concentrations of tranexamic acid, similar to the concentrations that occur after topical application to peripheral tissues. Glutamate receptors in tissues including bone, heart, and nerves play various physiologic roles, and tranexamic acid inhibition of these receptors may contribute to adverse drug effects.

  3. Modulation of fatty acid synthase degradation by concerted action of p38 MAP kinase, E3 ligase COP1, and SH2-tyrosine phosphatase Shp2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jianxiu; Deng, Rong; Zhu, Helen H; Zhang, Sharon S; Zhu, Changhong; Montminy, Marc; Davis, Roger; Feng, Gen-Sheng

    2013-02-08

    The Src-homology 2 (SH2) domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase Shp2 has been known to regulate various signaling pathways triggered by receptor and cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases. Here we describe a novel function of Shp2 in control of lipid metabolism by mediating degradation of fatty acid synthase (FASN). p38-phosphorylated COP1 accumulates in the cytoplasm and subsequently binds FASN through Shp2 here as an adapter, leading to FASN-Shp2-COP1 complex formation and FASN degradation mediated by ubiquitination pathway. By fasting p38 is activated and stimulates FASN protein degradation in mice. Consistently, the FASN protein levels are dramatically elevated in mouse liver and pancreas in which Shp2/Ptpn11 is selectively deleted. Thus, this study identifies a new activity for Shp2 in lipid metabolism.

  4. Association of 3BP2 with SHP-1 regulates SHP-1-mediated production of TNF-α in RBL-2H3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihara, Kazuyasu; Nakashima, Kenji; Takeuchi, Kenji; Sada, Kiyonao

    2011-12-01

    Adaptor protein 3BP2, a c-Abl Src homology 3 (SH3) domain-binding protein, is tyrosine phosphorylated and positively regulates mast cell signal transduction after the aggregation of the high affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI). Overexpression of the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain of 3BP2 results in the dramatic suppression of antigen-induced degranulation in rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells. Previously, a linker for activation of T cells (LAT) was identified as one of the 3BP2 SH2 domain-binding protein. In this report, to further understand the functions of 3BP2 in FcεRI-mediated activation of mast cell, we explored the protein that associates with the SH2 domain of 3BP2 and found that SH2 domain-containing phosphatase-1 (SHP-1) inducibly interacts with the SH2 domain of 3BP2 after the aggregation of FcεRI. The phosphorylation of Tyr(564) in the carboxy (C)-terminal tail region of SHP-1 is required for the direct interaction of SHP-1 to the SH2 domain of 3BP2. The expression of the mutant form of SHP-1 which was unable to interact with 3BP2 resulted in the significant reduction in SHP-1-mediated tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production without any effects on the degranulation in antigen-stimulated RBL-2H3 cells. These findings suggest that 3BP2 directly interacts with Tyr(564) -phosphorylated form of SHP-1 and positively regulates the function of SHP-1 in FcεRI-mediated signaling in mast cells. © 2011 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2011 by the Molecular Biology Society of Japan/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Fibroblast growth factor signaling potentiates VE-cadherin stability at adherens junctions by regulating SHP2.

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    Kunihiko Hatanaka

    Full Text Available The fibroblast growth factor (FGF system plays a critical role in the maintenance of vascular integrity via enhancing the stability of VE-cadherin at adherens junctions. However, the precise molecular mechanism is not well understood. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the detailed mechanism of FGF regulation of VE-cadherin function that leads to endothelial junction stabilization.In vitro studies demonstrated that the loss of FGF signaling disrupts the VE-cadherin-catenin complex at adherens junctions by increasing tyrosine phosphorylation levels of VE-cadherin. Among protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs known to be involved in the maintenance of the VE-cadherin complex, suppression of FGF signaling reduces SHP2 expression levels and SHP2/VE-cadherin interaction due to accelerated SHP2 protein degradation. Increased endothelial permeability caused by FGF signaling inhibition was rescued by SHP2 overexpression, indicating the critical role of SHP2 in the maintenance of endothelial junction integrity.These results identify FGF-dependent maintenance of SHP2 as an important new mechanism controlling the extent of VE-cadherin tyrosine phosphorylation, thereby regulating its presence in adherens junctions and endothelial permeability.

  6. PD-1 immunoreceptor inhibits B cell receptor-mediated signaling by recruiting src homology 2-domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase 2 to phosphotyrosine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Taku; Maeda, Akito; Nishimura, Hiroyuki; Kurosaki, Tomohiro; Honjo, Tasuku

    2001-01-01

    PD-1 is an immunoreceptor that belongs to the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily and contains two tyrosine residues in the cytoplasmic region. Studies on PD-1-deficient mice have shown that PD-1 plays critical roles in establishment and/or maintenance of peripheral tolerance, but the mode of action is totally unknown. To study the molecular mechanism for negative regulation of lymphocytes through the PD-1 receptor, we generated chimeric molecules composed of the IgG Fc receptor type IIB (FcγRIIB) extracellular region and the PD-1 cytoplasmic region and expressed them in a B lymphoma cell line, IIA1.6. Coligation of the cytoplasmic region of PD-1 with the B cell receptor (BCR) in IIA1.6 transformants inhibited BCR-mediated growth retardation, Ca2+ mobilization, and tyrosine phosphorylation of effector molecules, including Igβ, Syk, phospholipase C-γ2 (PLCγ2), and ERK1/2, whereas phosphorylation of Lyn and Dok was not affected. Mutagenesis studies indicated that these inhibitory effects do not require the N-terminal tyrosine in the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif-like sequence, but do require the other tyrosine residue in the C-terminal tail. This tyrosine was phosphorylated and recruited src homology 2-domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP-2) on coligation of PD-1 with BCR. These results show that PD-1 can inhibit BCR signaling by recruiting SHP-2 to its phosphotyrosine and dephosphorylating key signal transducers of BCR signaling. PMID:11698646

  7. Analysis of Brazilian SHP policy and its regulation scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiago Filho, Geraldo Lucio; Rocha Galhardo, Camila; Cassia Barbosa, Adriana de; Mambeli Barros, Regina; Gracas Braga da Silva, Fernando das

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the main regulatory changes that occurred in the Brazilian power sector in 2009, along with the impacts these changes caused on the market, especially related to small hydropower (<30 MW). This study addresses regulatory issues based on inventory studies and records of basic projects, changes related to the compensation of the assured energy of SHPs in the Brazilian energy reallocation market, the socio-economic impact resulting from the construction of SHPs, SHPs in alternative resource auctions and finally the general outlook for the growth scenario for SHPs in Brazil according to the ten-year plan (2010-2019). The overall conclusions of this investigation were that the 2008/2009 biennium was a period of great changes in the regulation of small hydropower plants in Brazil, and the SHP market has shown maturity. Additionally, despite SHP being a type of technology that is completely dominated by domestic industry, in recent years, they have experienced policy disincentives caused by changes to rules that inhibit their growth. - Highlights: → Main regulatory changes in Brazilian Power Sector that have occurred in 2009. → The impact of these changes caused on market, especially about SHPs (<30 MW). → The Brazilian growth scenario for SHPs according to the ten-year plan (2010-2019). → 2008/2009 biennium was a period of changes in the Brazilian regulation of SHPs. → SHP is a type of technology that is completely dominated by domestic industry.

  8. Dissection of the BCR-ABL signaling network using highly specific monobody inhibitors to the SHP2 SH2 domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Fern; Gencer, Emel Basak; Georgeon, Sandrine; Koide, Akiko; Yasui, Norihisa; Koide, Shohei; Hantschel, Oliver

    2013-09-10

    The dysregulated tyrosine kinase BCR-ABL causes chronic myelogenous leukemia in humans and forms a large multiprotein complex that includes the Src-homology 2 (SH2) domain-containing phosphatase 2 (SHP2). The expression of SHP2 is necessary for BCR-ABL-dependent oncogenic transformation, but the precise signaling mechanisms of SHP2 are not well understood. We have developed binding proteins, termed monobodies, for the N- and C-terminal SH2 domains of SHP2. Intracellular expression followed by interactome analysis showed that the monobodies are essentially monospecific to SHP2. Two crystal structures revealed that the monobodies occupy the phosphopeptide-binding sites of the SH2 domains and thus can serve as competitors of SH2-phosphotyrosine interactions. Surprisingly, the segments of both monobodies that bind to the peptide-binding grooves run in the opposite direction to that of canonical phosphotyrosine peptides, which may contribute to their exquisite specificity. When expressed in cells, monobodies targeting the N-SH2 domain disrupted the interaction of SHP2 with its upstream activator, the Grb2-associated binder 2 adaptor protein, suggesting decoupling of SHP2 from the BCR-ABL protein complex. Inhibition of either N-SH2 or C-SH2 was sufficient to inhibit two tyrosine phosphorylation events that are critical for SHP2 catalytic activity and to block ERK activation. In contrast, targeting the N-SH2 or C-SH2 revealed distinct roles of the two SH2 domains in downstream signaling, such as the phosphorylation of paxillin and signal transducer and activator of transcription 5. Our results delineate a hierarchy of function for the SH2 domains of SHP2 and validate monobodies as potent and specific antagonists of protein-protein interactions in cancer cells.

  9. Functional requirements for inhibitory signal transmission by the immunomodulatory receptor CD300a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBell, Karen E; Simhadri, Venkateswara R; Mariano, John L; Borrego, Francisco

    2012-04-26

    Activation signals can be negatively regulated by cell surface receptors bearing immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIMs). CD300a, an ITIM bearing type I transmembrane protein, is expressed on many hematopoietic cells, including subsets of lymphocytes. We have taken two approaches to further define the mechanism by which CD300a acts as an inhibitor of immune cell receptor signaling. First, we have expressed in Jurkat T cells a chimeric receptor consisting of the extracellular domains of killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR)2DL2 fused to the transmembrane and cytoplasmic segments of CD300a (KIR-CD300a) to explore surrogate ligand-stimulated inhibition of superantigen stimulated T cell receptor (TCR) mediated cell signaling. We found that intact CD300a ITIMs were essential for inhibition and that the tyrosine phosphorylation of these ITIMs required the src tyrosine kinase Lck. Tyrosine phosphorylation of the CD300a ITIMs created docking sites for both src homology 2 domain containing protein tyrosine phosphatase (SHP)-1 and SHP-2. Suppression of SHP-1 and SHP-2 expression in KIR-CD300a Jurkat T cells with siRNA and the use of DT40 chicken B cell lines expressing CD300a and deficient in several phosphatases revealed that SHP-1, but not SHP-2 or the src homology 2 domain containing inositol 5' phosphatase SHIP, was utilized by CD300a for its inhibitory activity. These studies provide new insights into the function of CD300a in tuning T and B cell responses.

  10. Small heterodimer partner (SHP deficiency protects myocardia from lipid accumulation in high fat diet-fed mice.

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    Jung Hun Ohn

    Full Text Available The small heterodimer partner (SHP regulates fatty acid oxidation and lipogenesis in the liver by regulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR γ expression. SHP is also abundantly expressed in the myocardium. We investigated the effect of SHP expression on myocardia assessing not only heart structure and function but also lipid metabolism and related gene expression in a SHP deletion animal model. Transcriptional profiling with a microarray revealed that genes participating in cell growth, cytokine signalling, phospholipid metabolism, and extracellular matrix are up-regulated in the myocardia of SHP knockout (KO mice compared to those of wild-type (WT mice (nominal p value < 0.05. Consistent with these gene expression changes, the left ventricular masses of SHP KO mice were significantly higher than WT mice (76.8 ± 20.5 mg vs. 52.8 ± 6.8 mg, P = 0.0093. After 12 weeks of high fat diet (HFD, SHP KO mice gained less weight and exhibited less elevation in serum-free fatty acid and less ectopic lipid accumulation in the myocardium than WT mice. According to microarray analysis, genes regulated by PPARγ1 and PPARα were down-regulated in myocardia of SHP KO mice compared to their expression in WT mice after HFD, suggesting that the reduction in lipid accumulation in the myocardium resulted from a decrease in lipogenesis regulated by PPARγ. We confirmed the reduced expression of PPARγ1 and PPARα target genes such as CD36, medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase by SHP KO after HFD.

  11. SHP2 regulates chondrocyte terminal differentiation, growth plate architecture and skeletal cell fates.

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    Margot E Bowen

    Full Text Available Loss of PTPN11/SHP2 in mice or in human metachondromatosis (MC patients causes benign cartilage tumors on the bone surface (exostoses and within bones (enchondromas. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying cartilage tumor formation, we investigated the role of SHP2 in the specification, maturation and organization of chondrocytes. Firstly, we studied chondrocyte maturation by performing RNA-seq on primary chondrocyte pellet cultures. We found that SHP2 depletion, or inhibition of the ERK1/2 pathway, delays the terminal differentiation of chondrocytes from the early-hypertrophic to the late-hypertrophic stage. Secondly, we studied chondrocyte maturation and organization in mice with a mosaic postnatal inactivation of Ptpn11 in chondrocytes. We found that the vertebral growth plates of these mice have expanded domains of early-hypertrophic chondrocytes that have not yet terminally differentiated, and their enchondroma-like lesions arise from chondrocytes displaced from the growth plate due to a disruption in the organization of maturation and ossification zones. Furthermore, we observed that lesions from human MC patients also display disorganized chondrocyte maturation zones. Next, we found that inactivation of Ptpn11 in Fsp1-Cre-expressing fibroblasts induces exostosis-like outgrowths, suggesting that loss of SHP2 in cells on the bone surface and at bone-ligament attachment sites induces ectopic chondrogenesis. Finally, we performed lineage tracing to show that exostoses and enchondromas in mice likely contain mixtures of wild-type and SHP2-deficient chondrocytes. Together, these data indicate that in patients with MC, who are heterozygous for inherited PTPN11 loss-of-function mutations, second-hit mutations in PTPN11 can induce enchondromas by disrupting the organization and delaying the terminal differentiation of growth plate chondrocytes, and can induce exostoses by causing ectopic chondrogenesis of cells on the bone surface. Furthermore, the

  12. Menthol binding and inhibition of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

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    Abrar Ashoor

    Full Text Available Menthol is a common compound in pharmaceutical and commercial products and a popular additive to cigarettes. The molecular targets of menthol remain poorly defined. In this study we show an effect of menthol on the α7 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh receptor function. Using a two-electrode voltage-clamp technique, menthol was found to reversibly inhibit α7-nACh receptors heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Inhibition by menthol was not dependent on the membrane potential and did not involve endogenous Ca(2+-dependent Cl(- channels, since menthol inhibition remained unchanged by intracellular injection of the Ca(2+ chelator BAPTA and perfusion with Ca(2+-free bathing solution containing Ba(2+. Furthermore, increasing ACh concentrations did not reverse menthol inhibition and the specific binding of [(125I] α-bungarotoxin was not attenuated by menthol. Studies of α7- nACh receptors endogenously expressed in neural cells demonstrate that menthol attenuates α7 mediated Ca(2+ transients in the cell body and neurite. In conclusion, our results suggest that menthol inhibits α7-nACh receptors in a noncompetitive manner.

  13. Cocaine Inhibits Dopamine D2 Receptor Signaling via Sigma-1-D2 Receptor Heteromers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Gemma; Moreno, Estefania; Bonaventura, Jordi; Brugarolas, Marc; Farré, Daniel; Aguinaga, David; Mallol, Josefa; Cortés, Antoni; Casadó, Vicent; Lluís, Carmen; Ferre, Sergi

    2013-01-01

    Under normal conditions the brain maintains a delicate balance between inputs of reward seeking controlled by neurons containing the D1-like family of dopamine receptors and inputs of aversion coming from neurons containing the D2-like family of dopamine receptors. Cocaine is able to subvert these balanced inputs by altering the cell signaling of these two pathways such that D1 reward seeking pathway dominates. Here, we provide an explanation at the cellular and biochemical level how cocaine may achieve this. Exploring the effect of cocaine on dopamine D2 receptors function, we present evidence of σ1 receptor molecular and functional interaction with dopamine D2 receptors. Using biophysical, biochemical, and cell biology approaches, we discovered that D2 receptors (the long isoform of the D2 receptor) can complex with σ1 receptors, a result that is specific to D2 receptors, as D3 and D4 receptors did not form heteromers. We demonstrate that the σ1-D2 receptor heteromers consist of higher order oligomers, are found in mouse striatum and that cocaine, by binding to σ1 -D2 receptor heteromers, inhibits downstream signaling in both cultured cells and in mouse striatum. In contrast, in striatum from σ1 knockout animals these complexes are not found and this inhibition is not seen. Taken together, these data illuminate the mechanism by which the initial exposure to cocaine can inhibit signaling via D2 receptor containing neurons, destabilizing the delicate signaling balance influencing drug seeking that emanates from the D1 and D2 receptor containing neurons in the brain. PMID:23637801

  14. Tyr66 acts as a conformational switch in the closed-to-open transition of the SHP-2 N-SH2-domain phosphotyrosine-peptide binding cleft

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    MacKerell Alexander D

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The N-terminal SH2 domain (N-SH2 of the non-receptor tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 is involved both in localization of SHP-2 by recognition of phosphotyrosine (pY peptides and self-inhibition of SHP-2 phosphatase activity through the formation of a protein – protein interface with the phosphatase domain. Mutations that disrupt this interface break the coupling between pY-peptide binding cleft conformation and self-inhibition, thereby increasing both SHP-2 phosphatase activity and pY-peptide binding affinity, and are associated with the congenital condition Noonan syndrome and various pediatric leukemias. To better characterize the molecular process involved in N-SH2 pY-dependent binding, we have applied explicit-solvent molecular dynamics simulations to study the closed-to-open transition of the N-SH2 pY-peptide binding cleft. Results The existence of stable conformations in the left-handed helical and the extended regions of Tyr66 φ/ψ space prevent rapid interconversion of the backbone and create a conformational switch such that Tyr66 in a left-handed helical backbone conformation results in an open cleft and in an extended backbone conformation results in a closed cleft. The stable conformations arise from deep, well-localized free-energy minima in the left-handed helical and extended regions of the Tyr66 φ/ψ map. Changing the Tyr66 backbone conformation from extended to left-handed helical induces a closed-to-open transition in the cleft, and the reverse change in backbone conformation induces the reverse, open-to-closed transition. In the open-cleft state, weak solvent-exposed interactions involving the sidechains of Tyr66, Asp40, Lys55, and Gln57 serve to anchor the Tyr66 sidechain to the surface of the protein and away from the binding cleft entrance, thereby facilitating pY-peptide access to the binding cleft. Conclusion The simulations point to a regulatory role for Tyr66 and surrounding residues in SHP-2 function

  15. HDHPLUS/SHP : heavy residue hydroconversion technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morel, F. [Axens, Rueil Malmaison (France)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation described an integrated refinery process that achieves nearly full conversion of heavy and refractory residues into ultra high quality and ultra low sulphur transportation fuels with a yield great than 100 volume per cent. The Axens, IFP and Intevep/PDVSA Alliance combined the HDHPLUS vacuum residue slurry technology with Sequential Hydro Processing (SHP) of primary hydrocracked products. Both technologies have undergone extensive testing at a refinery in Puerto La Cruz (RPLC), Venezuela to begin production of 50,000 BPSD in 2012. The demonstration unit at Intevep has been used to investigate production of effluent for the downstream SHP processing. This paper also reviewed the SHP bench unit operations at IFP's Lyon research center in France and disclosed the final product yields and qualities. The test results have shown the expected RPLC deep conversion commercial unit performances and fully secure its design basis. tabs., figs.

  16. GABA, its receptors, and GABAergic inhibition in mouse taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvoryanchikov, Gennady; Huang, Yijen A; Barro-Soria, Rene; Chaudhari, Nirupa; Roper, Stephen D

    2011-04-13

    Taste buds consist of at least three principal cell types that have different functions in processing gustatory signals: glial-like (type I) cells, receptor (type II) cells, and presynaptic (type III) cells. Using a combination of Ca2+ imaging, single-cell reverse transcriptase-PCR and immunostaining, we show that GABA is an inhibitory transmitter in mouse taste buds, acting on GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptors to suppress transmitter (ATP) secretion from receptor cells during taste stimulation. Specifically, receptor cells express GABA(A) receptor subunits β2, δ, and π, as well as GABA(B) receptors. In contrast, presynaptic cells express the GABA(A) β3 subunit and only occasionally GABA(B) receptors. In keeping with the distinct expression pattern of GABA receptors in presynaptic cells, we detected no GABAergic suppression of transmitter release from presynaptic cells. We suggest that GABA may serve function(s) in taste buds in addition to synaptic inhibition. Finally, we also defined the source of GABA in taste buds: GABA is synthesized by GAD65 in type I taste cells as well as by GAD67 in presynaptic (type III) taste cells and is stored in both those two cell types. We conclude that GABA is an inhibitory transmitter released during taste stimulation and possibly also during growth and differentiation of taste buds.

  17. New and Unexpected Biological Functions for the Src-Homology 2 Domain-Containing Phosphatase SHP-2 in the Gastrointestinal TractSummary

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    Geneviève Coulombe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available SHP-2 is a tyrosine phosphatase expressed in most embryonic and adult tissues. SHP-2 regulates many cellular functions including growth, differentiation, migration, and survival. Genetic and biochemical evidence show that SHP-2 is required for rat sarcoma viral oncogene/extracellular signal-regulated kinases mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation by most tyrosine kinase receptors, as well as by G-protein–coupled and cytokine receptors. In addition, SHP-2 can regulate the Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription, nuclear factor-κB, phosphatidyl-inositol 3-kinase/Akt, RhoA, Hippo, and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways. Emerging evidence has shown that SHP-2 dysfunction represents a key factor in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal diseases, in particular in chronic inflammation and cancer. Variations within the gene locus encoding SHP-2 have been associated with increased susceptibility to develop ulcerative colitis and gastric atrophy. Furthermore, mice with conditional deletion of SHP-2 in intestinal epithelial cells rapidly develop severe colitis. Similarly, hepatocyte-specific deletion of SHP-2 induces hepatic inflammation, resulting in regenerative hyperplasia and development of tumors in aged mice. However, the SHP-2 gene initially was suggested to be a proto-oncogene because activating mutations of this gene were found in pediatric leukemias and certain forms of liver and colon cancers. Moreover, SHP-2 expression is up-regulated in gastric and hepatocellular cancers. Notably, SHP-2 functions downstream of cytotoxin-associated antigen A (CagA, the major virulence factor of Helicobacter pylori, and is associated with increased risks of gastric cancer. Further compounding this complexity, most recent findings suggest that SHP-2 also coordinates carbohydrate, lipid, and bile acid synthesis in the liver and pancreas. This review aims to summarize current knowledge and recent data regarding the

  18. Fcγ receptor-mediated inflammation inhibits axon regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Zhang

    Full Text Available Anti-glycan/ganglioside antibodies are the most common immune effectors found in patients with Guillain-Barré Syndrome, which is a peripheral autoimmune neuropathy. We previously reported that disease-relevant anti-glycan autoantibodies inhibited axon regeneration, which echo the clinical association of these antibodies and poor recovery in Guillain-Barré Syndrome. However, the specific molecular and cellular elements involved in this antibody-mediated inhibition of axon regeneration are not previously defined. This study examined the role of Fcγ receptors and macrophages in the antibody-mediated inhibition of axon regeneration. A well characterized antibody passive transfer sciatic nerve crush and transplant models were used to study the anti-ganglioside antibody-mediated inhibition of axon regeneration in wild type and various mutant and transgenic mice with altered expression of specific Fcγ receptors and macrophage/microglia populations. Outcome measures included behavior, electrophysiology, morphometry, immunocytochemistry, quantitative real-time PCR, and western blotting. We demonstrate that the presence of autoantibodies, directed against neuronal/axonal cell surface gangliosides, in the injured mammalian peripheral nerves switch the proregenerative inflammatory environment to growth inhibitory milieu by engaging specific activating Fcγ receptors on recruited monocyte-derived macrophages to cause severe inhibition of axon regeneration. Our data demonstrate that the antibody orchestrated Fcγ receptor-mediated switch in inflammation is one mechanism underlying inhibition of axon regeneration. These findings have clinical implications for nerve repair and recovery in antibody-mediated immune neuropathies. Our results add to the complexity of axon regeneration in injured peripheral and central nervous systems as adverse effects of B cells and autoantibodies on neural injury and repair are increasingly recognized.

  19. Gβ promotes pheromone receptor polarization and yeast chemotropism by inhibiting receptor phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismael, Amber; Tian, Wei; Waszczak, Nicholas; Wang, Xin; Cao, Youfang; Suchkov, Dmitry; Bar, Eli; Metodiev, Metodi V; Liang, Jie; Arkowitz, Robert A; Stone, David E

    2016-04-12

    Gradient-directed cell migration (chemotaxis) and growth (chemotropism) are processes that are essential to the development and life cycles of all species. Cells use surface receptors to sense the shallow chemical gradients that elicit chemotaxis and chemotropism. Slight asymmetries in receptor activation are amplified by downstream signaling systems, which ultimately induce dynamic reorganization of the cytoskeleton. During the mating response of budding yeast, a model chemotropic system, the pheromone receptors on the plasma membrane polarize to the side of the cell closest to the stimulus. Although receptor polarization occurs before and independently of actin cable-dependent delivery of vesicles to the plasma membrane (directed secretion), it requires receptor internalization. Phosphorylation of pheromone receptors by yeast casein kinase 1 or 2 (Yck1/2) stimulates their internalization. We showed that the pheromone-responsive Gβγ dimer promotes the polarization of the pheromone receptor by interacting with Yck1/2 and locally inhibiting receptor phosphorylation. We also found that receptor phosphorylation is essential for chemotropism, independently of its role in inducing receptor internalization. A mathematical model supports the idea that the interaction between Gβγ and Yck1/2 results in differential phosphorylation and internalization of the pheromone receptor and accounts for its polarization before the initiation of directed secretion. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  20. Targeting fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling inhibits prostate cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shu; Shao, Longjiang; Yu, Wendong; Gavine, Paul; Ittmann, Michael

    2012-07-15

    Extensive correlative studies in human prostate cancer as well as studies in vitro and in mouse models indicate that fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signaling plays an important role in prostate cancer progression. In this study, we used a probe compound for an FGFR inhibitor, which potently inhibits FGFR-1-3 and significantly inhibits FGFR-4. The purpose of this study is to determine whether targeting FGFR signaling from all four FGFRs will have in vitro activities consistent with inhibition of tumor progression and will inhibit tumor progression in vivo. Effects of AZ8010 on FGFR signaling and invasion were analyzed using immortalized normal prostate epithelial (PNT1a) cells and PNT1a overexpressing FGFR-1 or FGFR-4. The effect of AZ8010 on invasion and proliferation in vitro was also evaluated in prostate cancer cell lines. Finally, the impact of AZ8010 on tumor progression in vivo was evaluated using a VCaP xenograft model. AZ8010 completely inhibits FGFR-1 and significantly inhibits FGFR-4 signaling at 100 nmol/L, which is an achievable in vivo concentration. This results in marked inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation and invasion in PNT1a cells expressing FGFR-1 and FGFR-4 and all prostate cancer cell lines tested. Treatment in vivo completely inhibited VCaP tumor growth and significantly inhibited angiogenesis and proliferation and increased cell death in treated tumors. This was associated with marked inhibition of ERK phosphorylation in treated tumors. Targeting FGFR signaling is a promising new approach to treating aggressive prostate cancer.

  1. SHP2 sails from physiology to pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajan, Mylène; de Rocca Serra, Audrey; Valet, Philippe; Edouard, Thomas; Yart, Armelle

    2015-10-01

    Over the two past decades, mutations of the PTPN11 gene, encoding the ubiquitous protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 (SH2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase 2), have been identified as the causal factor of several developmental diseases (Noonan syndrome (NS), Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines (NS-ML), and metachondromatosis), and malignancies (juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia). SHP2 plays essential physiological functions in organism development and homeostasis maintenance by regulating fundamental intracellular signaling pathways in response to a wide range of growth factors and hormones, notably the pleiotropic Ras/Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) and the Phosphoinositide-3 Kinase (PI3K)/AKT cascades. Analysis of the biochemical impacts of PTPN11 mutations first identified both loss-of-function and gain-of-function mutations, as well as more subtle defects, highlighting the major pathophysiological consequences of SHP2 dysregulation. Then, functional genetic studies provided insights into the molecular dysregulations that link SHP2 mutants to the development of specific traits of the diseases, paving the way for the design of specific therapies for affected patients. In this review, we first provide an overview of SHP2's structure and regulation, then describe its molecular roles, notably its functions in modulating the Ras/MAPK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways, and its physiological roles in organism development and homeostasis. In the second part, we describe the different PTPN11 mutation-associated pathologies and their clinical manifestations, with particular focus on the biochemical and signaling outcomes of NS and NS-ML-associated mutations, and on the recent advances regarding the pathophysiology of these diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Delivery of small interfering RNA for inhibition of endothelial cell apoptosis by hypoxia and serum deprivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Seung-Woo; Hartle, Lauren; Son, Sun Mi; Yang, Fan; Goldberg, Michael; Xu, Qiaobing; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G.

    2008-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) for anti-angiogenic or pro-apoptotic factors in endothelial cells (ECs) has great potential for the treatment of ischemic diseases by promoting angiogenesis or inhibiting apoptosis. Here, we report the utility of small interfering RNA (siRNA) in inhibiting EC apoptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). siRNA was designed and synthesized targeting tumor necrosis factor-α receptor-1 (TNFR-1) and Src homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-1 (SHP-1). Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured under in vitro hypoxic and serum-deprived conditions to simulate in vivo ischemic conditions. Two days after liposomal delivery of siRNA targeting TNFR-1 and SHP-1, significant silencing of each target (TNFR-1; 76.5% and SHP-1; 97.2%) was detected. Under serum-deprived hypoxic (1% oxygen) conditions, TNF-α expression in HUVECs increased relative to normoxic (20% oxygen) and serum-containing conditions. Despite enhanced TNF-α expression, suppression of TNFR-1 or SHP-1 by siRNA delivery not only enhanced expression of angiogenic factors (KDR/Flk-1 and eNOS) and anti-apoptotic factor (Bcl-xL) but also reduced expression of a pro-apoptotic factor (Bax). Transfection of TNFR-1 or SHP-1 siRNA significantly decreased the HUVEC apoptosis while significantly enhancing HUVEC proliferation and capillary formation. The present study demonstrates that TNFR-1 and SHP-1 may be useful targets for the treatment of myocardial or hindlimb ischemia

  3. MDM2 binds and inhibits vitamin D receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Heyne, Kristina; Heil, Tessa-Carina; Bette, Birgit; Reichrath, Jörg; Roemer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    The E3 ubiquitin ligase and transcriptional repressor MDM2 is a potent inhibitor of the p53 family of transcription factors and tumor suppressors. Herein, we report that vitamin D receptor (VDR), another transcriptional regulator and probably, tumor suppressor, is also bound and inhibited by MDM2. This interaction was not affected by vitamin D ligand. VDR was ubiquitylated in the cell and its steady-state level was controlled by the proteasome. Strikingly, overproduced MDM2 reduced the level ...

  4. Endothelial cell SHP-2 negatively regulates neutrophil adhesion and promotes transmigration by enhancing ICAM-1-VE-cadherin interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Meiping; Zhang, Xinhua; Chen, Ao; Gu, Wei; Liu, Jie; Ren, Xiaojiao; Zhang, Jianping; Wu, Xiaoxiong; Place, Aaron T; Minshall, Richard D; Liu, Guoquan

    2017-11-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) mediates the firm adhesion of leukocytes to endothelial cells and initiates subsequent signaling that promotes their transendothelial migration (TEM). Vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin plays a critical role in endothelial cell-cell adhesion, thereby controlling endothelial permeability and leukocyte transmigration. This study aimed to determine the molecular signaling events that originate from the ICAM-1-mediated firm adhesion of neutrophils that regulate VE-cadherin's role as a negative regulator of leukocyte transmigration. We observed that ICAM-1 interacts with Src homology domain 2-containing phosphatase-2 (SHP-2), and SHP-2 down-regulation via silencing of small interfering RNA in endothelial cells enhanced neutrophil adhesion to endothelial cells but inhibited neutrophil transmigration. We also found that VE-cadherin associated with the ICAM-1-SHP-2 complex. Moreover, whereas the activation of ICAM-1 leads to VE-cadherin dissociation from ICAM-1 and VE-cadherin association with actin, SHP-2 down-regulation prevented ICAM-1-VE-cadherin association and promoted VE-cadherin-actin association. Furthermore, SHP-2 down-regulation in vivo promoted LPS-induced neutrophil recruitment in mouse lung but delayed neutrophil extravasation. These results suggest that SHP-2- via association with ICAM-1-mediates ICAM-1-induced Src activation and modulates VE-cadherin switching association with ICAM-1 or actin, thereby negatively regulating neutrophil adhesion to endothelial cells and enhancing their TEM.-Yan, M., Zhang, X., Chen, A., Gu, W., Liu, J., Ren, X., Zhang, J., Wu, X., Place, A. T., Minshall, R. D., Liu, G. Endothelial cell SHP-2 negatively regulates neutrophil adhesion and promotes transmigration by enhancing ICAM-1-VE-cadherin interaction. © FASEB.

  5. IMPDHII Protein Inhibits Toll-like Receptor 2-mediated Activation of NF-κB*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toubiana, Julie; Rossi, Anne-Lise; Grimaldi, David; Belaidouni, Nadia; Chafey, Philippe; Clary, Guilhem; Courtine, Emilie; Pene, Frederic; Mira, Jean-Paul; Claessens, Yann-Erick; Chiche, Jean-Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) plays an essential role in innate immunity by the recognition of a large variety of pathogen-associated molecular patterns. It induces its recruitment to lipid rafts induces the formation of a membranous activation cluster necessary to enhance, amplify, and control downstream signaling. However, the exact composition of the TLR2-mediated molecular complex is unknown. We performed a proteomic analysis in lipopeptide-stimulated THP1 and found IMPDHII protein rapidly recruited to lipid raft. Whereas IMPDHII is essential for lymphocyte proliferation, its biologic function within innate immune signal pathways has not been established yet. We report here that IMPDHII plays an important role in the negative regulation of TLR2 signaling by modulating PI3K activity. Indeed, IMPDHII increases the phosphatase activity of SHP1, which participates to the inactivation of PI3K. PMID:21460227

  6. IGF-1 receptor inhibition by picropodophyllin in medulloblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohshima-Hosoyama, Sachiko; Hosoyama, Tohru; Nelon, Laura D. [Greehey Children' s Cancer Research Institute, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX 78229 (United States); Keller, Charles, E-mail: keller@ohsu.edu [Greehey Children' s Cancer Research Institute, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX 78229 (United States); Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX 78229 (United States); Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX 78229 (United States)

    2010-09-03

    Research highlights: {yields} Igf1r is overexpressed and activated in a Sonic Hedgehog driven model of medulloblastoma. {yields} Picropodophyllin targets and abrogates IGF signaling in medulloblastoma. {yields} Picropodophyllin inhibits medulloblastoma tumor cell growth by induction of apoptosis. -- Abstract: The insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (Igf1r) is a multifunctional membrane-associated tyrosine kinase associated with regulation of transformation, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Increased IGF pathway activity has been reported in human and murine medulloblastoma. Tumors from our genetically-engineered medulloblastoma mouse model over-express Igf1r, and thus this mouse model is a good platform with which to study the role of Igf1r in tumor progression. We hypothesize that inhibition of IGF pathway in medulloblastoma can slow or inhibit tumor growth and metastasis. To test our hypothesis, we tested the role of IGF in tumor growth in vitro by treatment with the tyrosine kinase small molecule inhibitor, picropodophyllin (PPP), which strongly inhibits the IGF pathway. Our results demonstrate that PPP-mediated downregulation of the IGF pathway inhibits mouse tumor cell growth and induces apoptotic cell death in vitro in primary medulloblastoma cultures that are most reflective of tumor cell behavior in vivo.

  7. IGF-1 receptor inhibition by picropodophyllin in medulloblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohshima-Hosoyama, Sachiko; Hosoyama, Tohru; Nelon, Laura D.; Keller, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Igf1r is overexpressed and activated in a Sonic Hedgehog driven model of medulloblastoma. → Picropodophyllin targets and abrogates IGF signaling in medulloblastoma. → Picropodophyllin inhibits medulloblastoma tumor cell growth by induction of apoptosis. -- Abstract: The insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (Igf1r) is a multifunctional membrane-associated tyrosine kinase associated with regulation of transformation, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Increased IGF pathway activity has been reported in human and murine medulloblastoma. Tumors from our genetically-engineered medulloblastoma mouse model over-express Igf1r, and thus this mouse model is a good platform with which to study the role of Igf1r in tumor progression. We hypothesize that inhibition of IGF pathway in medulloblastoma can slow or inhibit tumor growth and metastasis. To test our hypothesis, we tested the role of IGF in tumor growth in vitro by treatment with the tyrosine kinase small molecule inhibitor, picropodophyllin (PPP), which strongly inhibits the IGF pathway. Our results demonstrate that PPP-mediated downregulation of the IGF pathway inhibits mouse tumor cell growth and induces apoptotic cell death in vitro in primary medulloblastoma cultures that are most reflective of tumor cell behavior in vivo.

  8. NMDA receptor antagonists inhibit catalepsy induced by either dopamine D1 or D2 receptor antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, N A; Blackman, A; Awere, S; Leander, J D

    1993-06-11

    In the present study, we investigated the ability of NMDA receptor antagonists to inhibit catalepsy induced by haloperidol, or SCH23390 and clebopride, selective dopamine D1 and D2 receptor antagonists respectively. Catalepsy was measured by recording the time the animal remained with its forepaws placed over a rod 6 cm above the bench. Pretreatment with either the non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801 (0.25-0.5 mg/kg i.p.) or the competitive antagonist, LY274614 (10-20 mg/kg i.p.) reduced the cataleptic response produced by haloperidol (10 mg/kg), SCH23390 (2.5-10 mg/kp i.p.) or clebopride (5-20 mg/kg i.p.). This demonstrates that NMDA receptor antagonists will reduce both dopamine D1 and D2 receptor antagonist-induced catalepsy. Muscle relaxant doses of chlordiazepoxide (10 mg/kg i.p.) failed to reduce the catalepsy induced by haloperidol, suggesting that the anticataleptic effect of the NMDA receptor antagonists was not due to a non-specific action. These results support the hypothesis that NMDA receptor antagonists may have beneficial effects in disorders involving reduced dopaminergic function, such as Parkinson's disease.

  9. Gain-of-function mutations in the gene encoding the tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 induce hydrocephalus in a catalytically dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hong; Yu, Wen-Mei; Waclaw, Ronald R; Kontaridis, Maria I; Neel, Benjamin G; Qu, Cheng-Kui

    2018-03-20

    Catalytically activating mutations in Ptpn11 , which encodes the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP2, cause 50% of Noonan syndrome (NS) cases, whereas inactivating mutations in Ptpn11 are responsible for nearly all cases of the similar, but distinct, developmental disorder Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines (NSML; formerly called LEOPARD syndrome). However, both types of disease mutations are gain-of-function mutations because they cause SHP2 to constitutively adopt an open conformation. We found that the catalytic activity of SHP2 was required for the pathogenic effects of gain-of-function, disease-associated mutations on the development of hydrocephalus in the mouse. Targeted pan-neuronal knockin of a Ptpn11 allele encoding the active SHP2 E76K mutant resulted in hydrocephalus due to aberrant development of ependymal cells and their cilia. These pathogenic effects of the E76K mutation were suppressed by the additional mutation C459S, which abolished the catalytic activity of SHP2. Moreover, ependymal cells in NSML mice bearing the inactive SHP2 mutant Y279C were also unaffected. Mechanistically, the SHP2 E76K mutant induced developmental defects in ependymal cells by enhancing dephosphorylation and inhibition of the transcription activator STAT3. Whereas STAT3 activity was reduced in Ptpn11 E76K/+ cells, the activities of the kinases ERK and AKT were enhanced, and neural cell-specific Stat3 knockout mice also manifested developmental defects in ependymal cells and cilia. These genetic and biochemical data demonstrate a catalytic-dependent role of SHP2 gain-of-function disease mutants in the pathogenesis of hydrocephalus. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  10. Quercetin suppresses insulin receptor signaling through inhibition of the insulin ligand–receptor binding and therefore impairs cancer cell proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Feng [Department of Gastroenterology, The Tenth People’s Hospital of Shanghai, Tongji University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Department of Nanomedicine, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Yang, Yong, E-mail: yyang@houstonmethodist.org [Department of Nanomedicine, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10065 (United States)

    2014-10-03

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Quercetin inhibits insulin ligand–receptor interactions. • Quercetin reduces downstream insulin receptor signaling. • Quercetin blocks insulin induced glucose uptake. • Quercetin suppresses insulin stimulated cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth. - Abstract: Although the flavonoid quercetin is known to inhibit activation of insulin receptor signaling, the inhibitory mechanism is largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that quercetin suppresses insulin induced dimerization of the insulin receptor (IR) through interfering with ligand–receptor interactions, which reduces the phosphorylation of IR and Akt. This inhibitory effect further inhibits insulin stimulated glucose uptake due to decreased cell membrane translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), resulting in impaired cancer cell proliferation. The effect of quercetin in inhibiting tumor growth was also evident in an in vivo model, indicating a potential future application for quercetin in the treatment of cancers.

  11. Quercetin suppresses insulin receptor signaling through inhibition of the insulin ligand–receptor binding and therefore impairs cancer cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Feng; Yang, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Quercetin inhibits insulin ligand–receptor interactions. • Quercetin reduces downstream insulin receptor signaling. • Quercetin blocks insulin induced glucose uptake. • Quercetin suppresses insulin stimulated cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth. - Abstract: Although the flavonoid quercetin is known to inhibit activation of insulin receptor signaling, the inhibitory mechanism is largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that quercetin suppresses insulin induced dimerization of the insulin receptor (IR) through interfering with ligand–receptor interactions, which reduces the phosphorylation of IR and Akt. This inhibitory effect further inhibits insulin stimulated glucose uptake due to decreased cell membrane translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), resulting in impaired cancer cell proliferation. The effect of quercetin in inhibiting tumor growth was also evident in an in vivo model, indicating a potential future application for quercetin in the treatment of cancers

  12. Targeting the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor inhibits ovarian cancer metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Hilary A; Leonhardt, Payton; Ladanyi, Andras; Yamada, S Diane; Montag, Anthony; Im, Hae Kyung; Jagadeeswaran, Sujatha; Shaw, David E; Mazar, Andrew P; Lengyel, Ernst

    2011-02-01

    To understand the functional and preclinical efficacy of targeting the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (u-PAR) in ovarian cancer. Expression of u-PAR was studied in 162 epithelial ovarian cancers, including 77 pairs of corresponding primary and metastatic tumors. The effect of an antibody against u-PAR (ATN-658) on proliferation, adhesion, invasion, apoptosis, and migration was assessed in 3 (SKOV3ip1, HeyA8, and CaOV3) ovarian cancer cell lines. The impact of the u-PAR antibody on tumor weight, number, and survival was examined in corresponding ovarian cancer xenograft models and the mechanism by which ATN-658 blocks metastasis was explored. Only 8% of all ovarian tumors were negative for u-PAR expression. Treatment of SKOV3ip1, HeyA8, and CaOV3 ovarian cancer cell lines with the u-PAR antibody inhibited cell invasion, migration, and adhesion. In vivo, anti-u-PAR treatment reduced the number of tumors and tumor weight in CaOV3 and SKOV3ip1 xenografts and reduced tumor weight and increased survival in HeyA8 xenografts. Immunostaining of CaOV3 xenograft tumors and ovarian cancer cell lines showed an increase in active-caspase 3 and TUNEL staining. Treatment with u-PAR antibody inhibited α(5)-integrin and u-PAR colocalization on primary human omental extracellular matrix. Anti-u-PAR treatment also decreased the expression of urokinase, u-PAR, β(3)-integrin, and fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 both in vitro and in vivo. This study shows that an antibody against u-PAR reduces metastasis, induces apoptosis, and reduces the interaction between u-PAR and α(5)-integrin. This provides a rationale for targeting the u-PAR pathway in patients with ovarian cancer and for further testing of ATN-658 in this indication. ©2010 AACR.

  13. Lipoic Acid Decreases the Viability of Breast Cancer Cells and Activity of PTP1B and SHP2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuban-Jankowska, Alicja; Gorska-Ponikowska, Magdalena; Wozniak, Michal

    2017-06-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases PTP1B and SHP2 are potential targets for anticancer therapy, because of the essential role they play in the development of tumors. PTP1B and SHP2 are overexpressed in breast cancer cells, thus inhibition of their activity can be potentially effective in breast cancer therapy. Lipoic acid has been previously reported to inhibit the proliferation of colon, breast and thyroid cancer cells. We investigated the effect of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) and its reduced form of dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA) on the viability of MCF-7 cancer cells and on the enzymatic activity of PTP1B and SHP2 phosphatases. ALA and DHLA decrease the activity of PTP1B and SHP2, and have inhibitory effects on the viability and proliferation of breast cancer cells. ALA and DHLA can be considered as potential agents for the adjunctive treatment of breast cancer. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  14. Human Diversity in a Cell Surface Receptor that Inhibits Autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Anu; Leite, Mara; Kulasekara, Bridget R; Altura, Melissa A; Ogahara, Cassandra; Weiss, Eli; Fu, Wenqing; Blanc, Marie-Pierre; O'Keeffe, Michael; Terhorst, Cox; Akey, Joshua M; Miller, Samuel I

    2016-07-25

    Mutations in genes encoding autophagy proteins have been associated with human autoimmune diseases, suggesting that diversity in autophagy responses could be associated with disease susceptibility or severity. A cellular genome-wide association study (GWAS) screen was performed to explore normal human diversity in responses to rapamycin, a microbial product that induces autophagy. Cells from several human populations demonstrated variability in expression of a cell surface receptor, CD244 (SlamF4, 2B4), that correlated with changes in rapamycin-induced autophagy. High expression of CD244 and receptor activation with its endogenous ligand CD48 inhibited starvation- and rapamycin-induced autophagy by promoting association of CD244 with the autophagy complex proteins Vps34 and Beclin-1. The association of CD244 with this complex reduced Vps34 lipid kinase activity. Lack of CD244 is associated with auto-antibody production in mice, and lower expression of human CD244 has previously been implicated in severity of human rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus, indicating that increased autophagy as a result of low levels of CD244 may alter disease outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Hypoxia increases exercise heart rate despite combined inhibition of β-adrenergic and muscarinic receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siebenmann, Christoph; Rasmussen, Peter; Sørensen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia increases the heart rate (HR) response to exercise but the mechanism(s) remain unclear. We tested the hypothesis that the tachycardic effect of hypoxia persists during separate but not combined inhibition of β-adrenergic and muscarinic receptors. Nine subjects performed incremental exercise...... combined β-adrenergic and muscarinic receptor inhibition....

  16. Study on expression of SH2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 and SHP-2 in γ-ray irradiation-induced thymus lymphoma in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Dingde; Chen Qi; Han Ling; Cai Jianming; Li Bailong; Huang Yuecheng; Gao Jianguo; Sun Suping

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the expression of SH2 domain containing-protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 and SHP-2 in γ-ray irradiation-induced thymus lymphoma in mice. Methods: Altogether 338 BALB/c mice were randomly divided into irradiation groups and controls. Irradiation groups which were irradiated with γ-rays included canceration groups confirmed with histology and uncanceration groups. The controls were fed synchronistically with irradiation groups. The expression of SHP-1 and SHP-2 was detected with Western blot in thymus cells. Results: The expression of SHP-1 in canceration groups was much higher than that in uncanceration groups and controls significantly, while the expression of SHP-2 in canceration groups was higher than that in uncanceration groups and controls. When authors detected the expression of SHP-2 with Western blot, the authors found another protein with a molecular weight of 55x10 3 , which expression in canceration groups was higher than that in uncanceration groups and controls. Conclusion: The expression of SH2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 and SHP-2 is significantly increased in canceration groups, suggesting that SHP-1 and SHP-2 may be related with γ-ray induced thymus lymphoma in mice. Further research is expected on the relationship between development of cancer and SHP-1 and SHP-2

  17. AhR and SHP regulate phosphatidylcholine and S-adenosylmethionine levels in the one-carbon cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Chae; Seok, Sunmi; Byun, Sangwon; Kong, Bo; Zhang, Yang; Guo, Grace; Xie, Wen; Ma, Jian; Kemper, Byron; Kemper, Jongsook Kim

    2018-02-07

    Phosphatidylcholines (PC) and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) are critical determinants of hepatic lipid levels, but how their levels are regulated is unclear. Here, we show that Pemt and Gnmt, key one-carbon cycle genes regulating PC/SAM levels, are downregulated after feeding, leading to decreased PC and increased SAM levels, but these effects are blunted in small heterodimer partner (SHP)-null or FGF15-null mice. Further, aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is translocated into the nucleus by insulin/PKB signaling in the early fed state and induces Pemt and Gnmt expression. This induction is blocked by FGF15 signaling-activated SHP in the late fed state. Adenoviral-mediated expression of AhR in obese mice increases PC levels and exacerbates steatosis, effects that are blunted by SHP co-expression or Pemt downregulation. PEMT, AHR, and PC levels are elevated in simple steatosis patients, but PC levels are robustly reduced in steatohepatitis-fibrosis patients. This study identifies AhR and SHP as new physiological regulators of PC/SAM levels.

  18. GABA-A Receptors Mediate Tonic Inhibition and Neurosteroid Sensitivity in the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Doodipala Samba

    2018-01-01

    Neurosteroids like allopregnanolone (AP) are positive allosteric modulators of synaptic and extrasynaptic GABA-A receptors. AP and related neurosteroids exhibit a greater potency for δ-containing extrasynaptic receptors. The δGABA-A receptors, which are expressed extrasynaptically in the dentate gyrus and other regions, contribute to tonic inhibition, promoting network shunting as well as reducing seizure susceptibility. Levels of endogenous neurosteroids fluctuate with ovarian cycle. Natural and synthetic neurosteroids maximally potentiate tonic inhibition in the hippocampus and provide robust protection against a variety of limbic seizures and status epilepticus. Recently, a consensus neurosteroid pharmacophore model has been proposed at extrasynaptic δGABA-A receptors based on structure-activity relationship for functional activation of tonic currents and seizure protection. Aside from anticonvulsant actions, neurosteroids have been found to be powerful anxiolytic and anesthetic agents. Neurosteroids and Zn 2+ have preferential affinity for δ-containing receptors. Thus, Zn 2+ can prevent neurosteroid activation of extrasynaptic δGABA-A receptor-mediated tonic inhibition. Recently, we demonstrated that Zn 2+ selectively inhibits extrasynaptic δGABA-A receptors and thereby fully prevents AP activation of tonic inhibition and seizure protection. We confirmed that neurosteroids exhibit greater sensitivity at extrasynaptic δGABA-A receptors. Overall, extrasynaptic GABA-A receptors are primary mediators of tonic inhibition in the brain and play a key role in the pathophysiology of epilepsy and other neurological disorders. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Sigma-1 receptor agonists directly inhibit Nav1.2/1.4 channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Fei Gao

    Full Text Available (+-SKF 10047 (N-allyl-normetazocine is a prototypic and specific sigma-1 receptor agonist that has been used extensively to study the function of sigma-1 receptors. (+-SKF 10047 inhibits K(+, Na(+ and Ca2+ channels via sigma-1 receptor activation. We found that (+-SKF 10047 inhibited Na(V1.2 and Na(V1.4 channels independently of sigma-1 receptor activation. (+-SKF 10047 equally inhibited Na(V1.2/1.4 channel currents in HEK293T cells with abundant sigma-1 receptor expression and in COS-7 cells, which barely express sigma-1 receptors. The sigma-1 receptor antagonists BD 1063,BD 1047 and NE-100 did not block the inhibitory effects of (+-SKF-10047. Blocking of the PKA, PKC and G-protein pathways did not affect (+-SKF 10047 inhibition of Na(V1.2 channel currents. The sigma-1 receptor agonists Dextromethorphan (DM and 1,3-di-o-tolyl-guanidine (DTG also inhibited Na(V1.2 currents through a sigma-1 receptor-independent pathway. The (+-SKF 10047 inhibition of Na(V1.2 currents was use- and frequency-dependent. Point mutations demonstrated the importance of Phe(1764 and Tyr(1771 in the IV-segment 6 domain of the Na(V1.2 channel and Phe(1579 in the Na(V1.4 channel for (+-SKF 10047 inhibition. In conclusion, our results suggest that sigma-1 receptor agonists directly inhibit Na(V1.2/1.4 channels and that these interactions should be given special attention for future sigma-1 receptor function studies.

  20. Sulindac metabolites inhibit epidermal growth factor receptor activation and expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahnen Dennis

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regular use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs is associated with a decreased mortality from colorectal cancer (CRC. NSAIDs induce apoptotic cell death in colon cancer cells in vitro and inhibit growth of neoplastic colonic mucosa in vivo however, the biochemical mechanisms required for these growth inhibitory effects are not well defined. We previously reported that metabolites of the NSAID sulindac downregulate extracellular-signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2 signaling and that this effect is both necessary and sufficient for the apoptotic effects of these drugs. The goal of this project was to specifically test the hypothesis that sulindac metabolites block activation and/or expression of the epidermal growth factor (EGF receptor (EGFR. Methods HT29 human colon cancer cells were treated with EGF, alone, or in the presence of sulindac sulfide or sulindac sulfone. Cells lysates were assayed by immunoblotting for phosphorylated EGFR (pEGFR, pY1068, total EGFR, phosphorylated ERK1/2 (pERK1/2, total ERK1/2, activated caspase-3, and α-tubulin. Results EGF treatment rapidly induced phosphorylation of both EGFR and ERK1/2 in HT29 colon cancer cells. Pretreatment with sulindac metabolites for 24 h blocked EGF-induced phosphorylation of both EGFR and ERK1/2 and decreased total EGFR protein expression. Under basal conditions, downregulation of pEGFR and total EGFR was detected as early as 12 h following sulindac sulfide treatment and persisted through at least 48 h. Sulindac sulfone induced downregulation of pEGFR and total EGFR was detected as early as 1 h and 24 h, respectively, following drug treatment, and persisted through at least 72 h. EGFR downregulation by sulindac metabolites was observed in three different CRC cell lines, occurred prior to the observed downregulation of pERK1/2 and induction of apoptosis by these drugs, and was not dependent of caspase activation. Conclusion These results suggest that

  1. Phenobarbital indirectly activates the constitutive active androstane receptor (CAR) by inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutoh, Shingo; Sobhany, Mack; Moore, Rick; Perera, Lalith; Pedersen, Lee; Sueyoshi, Tatsuya; Negishi, Masahiko

    2013-05-07

    Phenobarbital is a central nervous system depressant that also indirectly activates nuclear receptor constitutive active androstane receptor (CAR), which promotes drug and energy metabolism, as well as cell growth (and death), in the liver. We found that phenobarbital activated CAR by inhibiting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling. Phenobarbital bound to EGFR and potently inhibited the binding of EGF, which prevented the activation of EGFR. This abrogation of EGFR signaling induced the dephosphorylation of receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1) at Tyr(52), which then promoted the dephosphorylation of CAR at Thr(38) by the catalytic core subunit of protein phosphatase 2A. The findings demonstrated that the phenobarbital-induced mechanism of CAR dephosphorylation and activation is mediated through its direct interaction with and inhibition of EGFR.

  2. Calpain/SHP-1 interaction by honokiol dampening peritoneal dissemination of gastric cancer in nu/nu mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shing Hwa Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Honokiol, a small-molecular weight natural product, has previously been reported to activate apoptosis and inhibit gastric tumorigenesis. Whether honokiol inhibits the angiogenesis and metastasis of gastric cancer cells remains unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We tested the effects of honokiol on angiogenic activity and peritoneal dissemination using in vivo, ex vivo and in vitro assay systems. The signaling responses in human gastric cancer cells, human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs, and isolated tumors were detected and analyzed. In a xenograft gastric tumor mouse model, honokiol significantly inhibited the peritoneal dissemination detected by PET/CT technique. Honokiol also effectively attenuated the angiogenesis detected by chick chorioallantoic membrane assay, mouse matrigel plug assay, rat aortic ring endothelial cell sprouting assay, and endothelial cell tube formation assay. Furthermore, honokiol effectively enhanced signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT-3 dephosphorylation and inhibited STAT-3 DNA binding activity in human gastric cancer cells and HUVECs, which was correlated with the up-regulation of the activity and protein expression of Src homology 2 (SH2-containing tyrosine phosphatase-1 (SHP-1. Calpain-II inhibitor and siRNA transfection significantly reversed the honokiol-induced SHP-1 activity. The decreased STAT-3 phosphorylation and increased SHP-1 expression were also shown in isolated peritoneal metastatic tumors. Honokiol was also capable of inhibiting VEGF generation, which could be reversed by SHP-1 siRNA transfection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Honokiol increases expression and activity of SPH-1 that further deactivates STAT3 pathway. These findings also suggest that honokiol is a novel and potent inhibitor of angiogenesis and peritoneal dissemination of gastric cancer cells, providing support for the application potential of honokiol in gastric cancer therapy.

  3. Determination of the catalytic activity of LEOPARD syndrome-associated SHP2 mutants toward parafibromin, a bona fide SHP2 substrate involved in Wnt signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, Saori; Takahashi, Atsushi; Hayashi, Takeru; Tanuma, Sei-ichi; Hatakeyama, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    SHP2, encoded by the PTPN11 gene, is a protein tyrosine phosphatase that plays a key role in the proliferation of cells via RAS-ERK activation. SHP2 also promotes Wnt signaling by dephosphorylating parafibromin. Germline missense mutations of PTPN11 are found in more than half of patients with Noonan syndrome (NS) and LEOPARD syndrome (LS), both of which are congenital developmental disorders with multiple common symptoms. However, whereas NS-associated PTPN11 mutations give rise to gain-of-function SHP2 mutants, LS-associated SHP2 mutants are reportedly loss-of-function mutants. To determine the phosphatase activity of LS-associated SHP2 more appropriately, we performed an in vitro phosphatase assay using tyrosine-phosphorylated parafibromin, a biologically relevant substrate of SHP2 and the positive regulator of Wnt signaling that is activated through SHP2-mediated dephosphorylation. We found that LS-associated SHP2 mutants (Y279C, T468M, Q506P, and Q510E) exhibited a substantially reduced phosphatase activity toward parafibromin when compared with wild-type SHP2. Furthermore, each of the LS-associated mutants displayed a differential degree of decrease in phosphatase activity. Deviation of the SHP2 catalytic activity from a certain range, either too strong or too weak, may therefore lead to similar clinical outcomes in NS and LS, possibly through an imbalanced Wnt signal caused by inadequate dephosphorylation of parafibromin. - Highlights: • LS-associated SHP2 mutants dephosphorylate parafibromin on Y290, Y293, and Y315. • LS-associated SHP2 mutants display a reduced tyrosine phosphatase activity. • LS-specific SHP2-Y279C is catalytically less active than LS-specific SHP2-T468M. • NS/LS-associated SHP2-Q506P has both hyper- and hypomorphic enzymatic properties.

  4. Determination of the catalytic activity of LEOPARD syndrome-associated SHP2 mutants toward parafibromin, a bona fide SHP2 substrate involved in Wnt signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, Saori [Division of Microbiology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokyo University of Science, Chiba (Japan); Takahashi, Atsushi; Hayashi, Takeru [Division of Microbiology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Tanuma, Sei-ichi [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokyo University of Science, Chiba (Japan); Hatakeyama, Masanori, E-mail: mhata@m.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Division of Microbiology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-01-22

    SHP2, encoded by the PTPN11 gene, is a protein tyrosine phosphatase that plays a key role in the proliferation of cells via RAS-ERK activation. SHP2 also promotes Wnt signaling by dephosphorylating parafibromin. Germline missense mutations of PTPN11 are found in more than half of patients with Noonan syndrome (NS) and LEOPARD syndrome (LS), both of which are congenital developmental disorders with multiple common symptoms. However, whereas NS-associated PTPN11 mutations give rise to gain-of-function SHP2 mutants, LS-associated SHP2 mutants are reportedly loss-of-function mutants. To determine the phosphatase activity of LS-associated SHP2 more appropriately, we performed an in vitro phosphatase assay using tyrosine-phosphorylated parafibromin, a biologically relevant substrate of SHP2 and the positive regulator of Wnt signaling that is activated through SHP2-mediated dephosphorylation. We found that LS-associated SHP2 mutants (Y279C, T468M, Q506P, and Q510E) exhibited a substantially reduced phosphatase activity toward parafibromin when compared with wild-type SHP2. Furthermore, each of the LS-associated mutants displayed a differential degree of decrease in phosphatase activity. Deviation of the SHP2 catalytic activity from a certain range, either too strong or too weak, may therefore lead to similar clinical outcomes in NS and LS, possibly through an imbalanced Wnt signal caused by inadequate dephosphorylation of parafibromin. - Highlights: • LS-associated SHP2 mutants dephosphorylate parafibromin on Y290, Y293, and Y315. • LS-associated SHP2 mutants display a reduced tyrosine phosphatase activity. • LS-specific SHP2-Y279C is catalytically less active than LS-specific SHP2-T468M. • NS/LS-associated SHP2-Q506P has both hyper- and hypomorphic enzymatic properties.

  5. Andrographolide induces vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis through a SHP-1-PP2A-p38MAPK-p53 cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Ying; Hsieh, Cheng-Ying; Jayakumar, Thanasekaran; Lin, Kuan-Hung; Chou, Duen-Suey; Lu, Wan-Jung; Hsu, Ming-Jen; Sheu, Joen-Rong

    2014-07-10

    The abnormal growth of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is considered a critical pathogenic process in inflammatory vascular diseases. We have previously demonstrated that protein phosphatase 2 A (PP2A)-mediated NF-κB dephosphorylation contributes to the anti-inflammatory properties of andrographolide, a novel NF-κB inhibitor. In this study, we investigated whether andrographolide causes apoptosis, and characterized its apoptotic mechanisms in rat VSMCs. Andrographolide activated the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK), leading to p53 phosphorylation. Phosphorylated p53 subsequently transactivated the expression of Bax, a pro-apoptotic protein. Transfection with pp2a small interfering RNA (siRNA) suppressed andrographolide-induced p38MAPK activation, p53 phosphorylation, and caspase 3 activation. Andrographolide also activated the Src homology 1 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase (SHP-1), and induced PP2A dephosphorylation, both of which were inhibited by the SHP-1 inhibitor sodium stibogluconate (SSG) or shp-1 siRNA. SSG or shp-1 siRNA prevented andrographolide-induced apoptosis. These results suggest that andrographolide activates the PP2A-p38MAPK-p53-Bax cascade, causing mitochondrial dysfunction and VSMC death through an SHP-1-dependent mechanism.

  6. Competitive inhibition of [3H]dexamethasone binding to mammary glucocorticoid receptor by leupeptin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, L.C.C.; Su, C.; Markland, F.S. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The inhibitory effect of leupeptin on [ 3 H]dexamethasone binding to the glucocorticoid receptor from lactating goat mammary cytosol has been studied. Leupeptin (10 mM) caused a significant (about 35%) inhibition of [ 3 H]dexamethasone binding to glucocorticoid receptor. Binding inhibition is further increased following filtration of unlabeled cytosolic receptor through a Bio-Gel A 0.5-m column. Binding inhibition was partially reversed by monothioglycerol at 10 mM concentration. A double reciprocal plot revealed that leupeptin appears to be a competitive inhibitor of [ 3 H]dexamethasone binding to the glucocorticoid receptor. Low salt sucrose density gradient centrifugation revealed that the leupeptin-treated sample formed a slightly larger (approximately 9 S) receptor complex (leupeptin-free complex sediments at 8 S)

  7. Small heterodimer partner overexpression partially protects against liver tumor development in farnesoid X receptor knockout mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Guodong; Kong, Bo; Zhu, Yan; Zhan, Le; Williams, Jessica A.; Tawfik, Ossama; Kassel, Karen M.; Luyendyk, James P.; Wang, Li; Guo, Grace L.

    2013-01-01

    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR, Nr1h4) and small heterodimer partner (SHP, Nr0b2) are nuclear receptors that are critical to liver homeostasis. Induction of SHP serves as a major mechanism of FXR in suppressing gene expression. Both FXR −/− and SHP −/− mice develop spontaneous hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). SHP is one of the most strongly induced genes by FXR in the liver and is a tumor suppressor, therefore, we hypothesized that deficiency of SHP contributes to HCC development in the livers of FXR −/− mice and therefore, increased SHP expression in FXR −/− mice reduces liver tumorigenesis. To test this hypothesis, we generated FXR −/− mice with overexpression of SHP in hepatocytes (FXR −/− /SHP Tg ) and determined the contribution of SHP in HCC development in FXR −/− mice. Hepatocyte-specific SHP overexpression did not affect liver tumor incidence or size in FXR −/− mice. However, SHP overexpression led to a lower grade of dysplasia, reduced indicator cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. All tumor-bearing mice had increased serum bile acid levels and IL-6 levels, which was associated with activation of hepatic STAT3. In conclusion, SHP partially protects FXR −/− mice from HCC formation by reducing tumor malignancy. However, disrupted bile acid homeostasis by FXR deficiency leads to inflammation and injury, which ultimately results in uncontrolled cell proliferation and tumorigenesis in the liver. - Highlights: • SHP does not prevent HCC incidence nor size in FXR KO mice but reduces malignancy. • Increased SHP promotes apoptosis. • Bile acids and inflammation maybe critical for HCC formation with FXR deficiency

  8. A bacterial tyrosine phosphatase inhibits plant pattern recognition receptor activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by surface-localised pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) is a key component of plant innate immunity. Most known plant PRRs are receptor kinases and initiation of PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) signalling requires phosphorylation of the PR...

  9. Constitutive MHC class I molecules negatively regulate TLR-triggered inflammatory responses via the Fps-SHP-2 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sheng; Liu, Xingguang; Bao, Yan; Zhu, Xuhui; Han, Chaofeng; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Xuemin; Li, Weihua; Cao, Xuetao

    2012-04-22

    The molecular mechanisms that fine-tune Toll-like receptor (TLR)-triggered innate inflammatory responses remain to be fully elucidated. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules can mediate reverse signaling and have nonclassical functions. Here we found that constitutively expressed membrane MHC class I molecules attenuated TLR-triggered innate inflammatory responses via reverse signaling, which protected mice from sepsis. The intracellular domain of MHC class I molecules was phosphorylated by the kinase Src after TLR activation, then the tyrosine kinase Fps was recruited via its Src homology 2 domain to phosphorylated MHC class I molecules. This led to enhanced Fps activity and recruitment of the phosphatase SHP-2, which interfered with TLR signaling mediated by the signaling molecule TRAF6. Thus, constitutive MHC class I molecules engage in crosstalk with TLR signaling via the Fps-SHP-2 pathway and control TLR-triggered innate inflammatory responses.

  10. Melatonin modulates rat myotube-acetylcholine receptors by inhibiting calmodulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida-Paula, Lidiana Duarte; Costa-Lotufo, Leticia V; Silva Ferreira, Zulma; Monteiro, Amanda Elisa G; Isoldi, Mauro Cesar; Godinho, Rosely O; Markus, Regina P

    2005-11-21

    Melatonin, the pineal gland hormone, modulates alpha-bungarotoxin sensitive nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in sympathetic nerve terminals, cerebellum and chick retina imposing a diurnal variation in functional responses [Markus, R.P., Zago, W.M., Carneiro, R.C., 1996. Melatonin modulation of presynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the rat vas deferens. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 279, 18-22; Markus, R.P., Santos, J.M., Zago, W., Reno, L.A., 2003. Melatonin nocturnal surge modulates nicotinic receptors and nicotine-induced [3HI] glutamate release in rat cerebellum slices. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 305, 525-530; Sampaio, L.F.S., Hamassaki-Britto, D.E., Markus, R.P., 2005. Influence of melatonin on the development of functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in cultured chick retinal cells. Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res. 38, 603-613]. Here we show that in rat myotubes forskolin and melatonin reduced the number of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed in plasma membrane. In addition, these cells expressed melatonin MT1 receptors, which are known to be coupled to G(i)-protein. However, the pharmacological profile of melatonin analogs regarding the reduction in cyclic AMP accumulation and number of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors did not point to a mechanism mediated by activation of G(i)-protein coupled receptors. On the other hand, calmidazolium, a classical inhibitor of calmodulin, reduced in a similar manner both effects. Considering that one isoform of adenylyl cyclase present in rat myotubes is regulated by Ca2+/calmodulin, we propose that melatonin modulates the number of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors via reduction in cyclic AMP accumulation.

  11. A Cross-Species Study of PI3K Protein-Protein Interactions Reveals the Direct Interaction of P85 and SHP2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitkopf, Susanne B.; Yang, Xuemei; Begley, Michael J.; Kulkarni, Meghana; Chiu, Yu-Hsin; Turke, Alexa B.; Lauriol, Jessica; Yuan, Min; Qi, Jie; Engelman, Jeffrey A.; Hong, Pengyu; Kontaridis, Maria I.; Cantley, Lewis C.; Perrimon, Norbert; Asara, John M.

    2016-02-01

    Using a series of immunoprecipitation (IP) - tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) experiments and reciprocal BLAST, we conducted a fly-human cross-species comparison of the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) interactome in a drosophila S2R+ cell line and several NSCLC and human multiple myeloma cell lines to identify conserved interacting proteins to PI3K, a critical signaling regulator of the AKT pathway. Using H929 human cancer cells and drosophila S2R+ cells, our data revealed an unexpected direct binding of Corkscrew, the drosophila ortholog of the non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase type II (SHP2) to the Pi3k21B (p60) regulatory subunit of PI3K (p50/p85 human ortholog) but no association with Pi3k92e, the human ortholog of the p110 catalytic subunit. The p85-SHP2 association was validated in human cell lines, and formed a ternary regulatory complex with GRB2-associated-binding protein 2 (GAB2). Validation experiments with knockdown of GAB2 and Far-Western blots proved the direct interaction of SHP2 with p85, independent of adaptor proteins and transfected FLAG-p85 provided evidence that SHP2 binding on p85 occurred on the SH2 domains. A disruption of the SHP2-p85 complex took place after insulin/IGF1 stimulation or imatinib treatment, suggesting that the direct SHP2-p85 interaction was both independent of AKT activation and positively regulates the ERK signaling pathway.

  12. Increased NMDA receptor inhibition at an increased Sevoflurane MAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brosnan Robert J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sevoflurane potently enhances glycine receptor currents and more modestly decreases NMDA receptor currents, each of which may contribute to immobility. This modest NMDA receptor antagonism by sevoflurane at a minimum alveolar concentration (MAC could be reciprocally related to large potentiation of other inhibitory ion channels. If so, then reduced glycine receptor potency should increase NMDA receptor antagonism by sevoflurane at MAC. Methods Indwelling lumbar subarachnoid catheters were surgically placed in 14 anesthetized rats. Rats were anesthetized with sevoflurane the next day, and a pre-infusion sevoflurane MAC was measured in duplicate using a tail clamp method. Artificial CSF (aCSF containing either 0 or 4 mg/mL strychnine was then infused intrathecally at 4 μL/min, and the post-infusion baseline sevoflurane MAC was measured. Finally, aCSF containing strychnine (either 0 or 4 mg/mL plus 0.4 mg/mL dizocilpine (MK-801 was administered intrathecally at 4 μL/min, and the post-dizocilpine sevoflurane MAC was measured. Results Pre-infusion sevoflurane MAC was 2.26%. Intrathecal aCSF alone did not affect MAC, but intrathecal strychnine significantly increased sevoflurane requirement. Addition of dizocilpine significantly decreased MAC in all rats, but this decrease was two times larger in rats without intrathecal strychnine compared to rats with intrathecal strychnine, a statistically significant (P  Conclusions Glycine receptor antagonism increases NMDA receptor antagonism by sevoflurane at MAC. The magnitude of anesthetic effects on a given ion channel may therefore depend on the magnitude of its effects on other receptors that modulate neuronal excitability.

  13. Pumpkin seed extract: Cell growth inhibition of hyperplastic and cancer cells, independent of steroid hormone receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medjakovic, Svjetlana; Hobiger, Stefanie; Ardjomand-Woelkart, Karin; Bucar, Franz; Jungbauer, Alois

    2016-04-01

    Pumpkin seeds have been known in folk medicine as remedy for kidney, bladder and prostate disorders since centuries. Nevertheless, pumpkin research provides insufficient data to back up traditional beliefs of ethnomedical practice. The bioactivity of a hydro-ethanolic extract of pumpkin seeds from the Styrian pumpkin, Cucurbita pepo L. subsp. pepo var. styriaca, was investigated. As pumpkin seed extracts are standardized to cucurbitin, this compound was also tested. Transactivational activity was evaluated for human androgen receptor, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor with in vitro yeast assays. Cell viability tests with prostate cancer cells, breast cancer cells, colorectal adenocarcinoma cells and a hyperplastic cell line from benign prostate hyperplasia tissue were performed. As model for non-hyperplastic cells, effects on cell viability were tested with a human dermal fibroblast cell line (HDF-5). No transactivational activity was found for human androgen receptor, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor, for both, extract and cucurbitin. A cell growth inhibition of ~40-50% was observed for all cell lines, with the exception of HDF-5, which showed with ~20% much lower cell growth inhibition. Given the receptor status of some cell lines, a steroid-hormone receptor independent growth inhibiting effect can be assumed. The cell growth inhibition for fast growing cells together with the cell growth inhibition of prostate-, breast- and colon cancer cells corroborates the ethnomedical use of pumpkin seeds for a treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia. Moreover, due to the lack of androgenic activity, pumpkin seed applications can be regarded as safe for the prostate. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Stimulation of accumbal GABAA receptors inhibits delta2-, but not delta1-, opioid receptor-mediated dopamine efflux in the nucleus accumbens of freely moving rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aono, Yuri; Kiguchi, Yuri; Watanabe, Yuriko; Waddington, John L; Saigusa, Tadashi

    2017-11-15

    The nucleus accumbens contains delta-opioid receptors that may reduce inhibitory neurotransmission. Reduction in GABA A receptor-mediated inhibition of accumbal dopamine release due to delta-opioid receptor activation should be suppressed by stimulating accumbal GABA A receptors. As delta-opioid receptors are divided into delta2- and delta1-opioid receptors, we analysed the effects of the GABA A receptor agonist muscimol on delta2- and delta1-opioid receptor-mediated accumbal dopamine efflux in freely moving rats using in vivo microdialysis. Drugs were administered intracerebrally through the dialysis probe. Doses of compounds indicate total amount administered (mol) during 25-50min infusions. The delta2-opioid receptor agonist deltorphin II (25.0nmol)- and delta1-opioid receptor agonist DPDPE (5.0nmol)-induced increases in dopamine efflux were inhibited by the delta2-opioid receptor antagonist naltriben (1.5nmol) and the delta1-opioid receptor antagonist BNTX (150.0pmol), respectively. Muscimol (250.0pmol) inhibited deltorphin II (25.0nmol)-induced dopamine efflux. The GABA A receptor antagonist bicuculline (50.0pmol), which failed to affect deltorphin II (25.0nmol)-induced dopamine efflux, counteracted the inhibitory effect of muscimol on deltorphin II-induced dopamine efflux. Neither muscimol (250.0pmol) nor bicuculline (50.0 and 500.0pmol) altered DPDPE (5.0nmol)-induced dopamine efflux. The present results show that reduction in accumbal GABA A receptor-mediated inhibition of dopaminergic activity is necessary to produce delta2-opioid receptor-induced increase in accumbal dopamine efflux. This study indicates that activation of delta2- but not delta1-opioid receptors on the cell bodies and/or terminals of accumbal GABAergic interneurons inhibits GABA release and, accordingly, decreases GABA A receptor-mediated inhibition of dopaminergic terminals, resulting in enhanced accumbal dopamine efflux. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Azadirachtin interacts with retinoic acid receptors and inhibits retinoic acid-mediated biological responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoh, Maikho; Babajan, Banaganapalli; Raghavendra, Pongali B; Sureshkumar, Chitta; Manna, Sunil K

    2011-02-11

    Considering the role of retinoids in regulation of more than 500 genes involved in cell cycle and growth arrest, a detailed understanding of the mechanism and its regulation is useful for therapy. The extract of the medicinal plant Neem (Azadirachta indica) is used against several ailments especially for anti-inflammatory, anti-itching, spermicidal, anticancer, and insecticidal activities. In this report we prove the detailed mechanism on the regulation of retinoic acid-mediated cell signaling by azadirachtin, active components of neem extract. Azadirachtin repressed all trans-retinoic acid (ATRA)-mediated nuclear transcription factor κB (NF-κB) activation, not the DNA binding but the NF-κB-dependent gene expression. It did not inhibit IκBα degradation, IκBα kinase activity, or p65 phosphorylation and its nuclear translocation but inhibited NF-κB-dependent reporter gene expression. Azadirachtin inhibited TRAF6-mediated, but not TRAF2-mediated NF-κB activation. It inhibited ATRA-induced Sp1 and CREB (cAMP-response element-binding protein) DNA binding. Azadirachtin inhibited ATRA binding with retinoid receptors, which is supported by biochemical and in silico evidences. Azadirachtin showed strong interaction with retinoid receptors. It suppressed ATRA-mediated removal of retinoid receptors, bound with DNA by inhibiting ATRA binding to its receptors. Overall, our data suggest that azadirachtin interacts with retinoic acid receptors and suppresses ATRA binding, inhibits falling off the receptors, and activates transcription factors like CREB, Sp1, NF-κB, etc. Thus, azadirachtin exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-metastatic responses by a novel pathway that would be beneficial for further anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer therapies.

  16. Azadirachtin Interacts with Retinoic Acid Receptors and Inhibits Retinoic Acid-mediated Biological Responses*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoh, Maikho; Babajan, Banaganapalli; Raghavendra, Pongali B.; Sureshkumar, Chitta; Manna, Sunil K.

    2011-01-01

    Considering the role of retinoids in regulation of more than 500 genes involved in cell cycle and growth arrest, a detailed understanding of the mechanism and its regulation is useful for therapy. The extract of the medicinal plant Neem (Azadirachta indica) is used against several ailments especially for anti-inflammatory, anti-itching, spermicidal, anticancer, and insecticidal activities. In this report we prove the detailed mechanism on the regulation of retinoic acid-mediated cell signaling by azadirachtin, active components of neem extract. Azadirachtin repressed all trans-retinoic acid (ATRA)-mediated nuclear transcription factor κB (NF-κB) activation, not the DNA binding but the NF-κB-dependent gene expression. It did not inhibit IκBα degradation, IκBα kinase activity, or p65 phosphorylation and its nuclear translocation but inhibited NF-κB-dependent reporter gene expression. Azadirachtin inhibited TRAF6-mediated, but not TRAF2-mediated NF-κB activation. It inhibited ATRA-induced Sp1 and CREB (cAMP-response element-binding protein) DNA binding. Azadirachtin inhibited ATRA binding with retinoid receptors, which is supported by biochemical and in silico evidences. Azadirachtin showed strong interaction with retinoid receptors. It suppressed ATRA-mediated removal of retinoid receptors, bound with DNA by inhibiting ATRA binding to its receptors. Overall, our data suggest that azadirachtin interacts with retinoic acid receptors and suppresses ATRA binding, inhibits falling off the receptors, and activates transcription factors like CREB, Sp1, NF-κB, etc. Thus, azadirachtin exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-metastatic responses by a novel pathway that would be beneficial for further anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer therapies. PMID:21127062

  17. Nuclear receptor TLX inhibits TGF-β signaling in glioblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Erik; Zhai, Qiwei [Sahlgrenska Cancer Center at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Box 425, SE 405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden); Zeng, Zhao-jun [Sahlgrenska Cancer Center at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Box 425, SE 405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden); Molecular Biology Research Center, School of Life Sciences, Central South University, 110, Xiangya Road, Changsha, Hunan 410078 (China); Yoshida, Takeshi [Sahlgrenska Cancer Center at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Box 425, SE 405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden); Funa, Keiko, E-mail: keiko.funa@gu.se [Sahlgrenska Cancer Center at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Box 425, SE 405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2016-05-01

    TLX (also called NR2E1) is an orphan nuclear receptor that maintains stemness of neuronal stem cells. TLX is highly expressed in the most malignant form of glioma, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), and is important for the proliferation and maintenance of the stem/progenitor cells of the tumor. Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) is a cytokine regulating many different cellular processes such as differentiation, migration, adhesion, cell death and proliferation. TGF-β has an important function in cancer where it can work as either a tumor suppressor or oncogene, depending on the cancer type and stage of tumor development. Since glioblastoma often have dysfunctional TGF-β signaling we wanted to find out if there is any interaction between TLX and TGF-β in glioblastoma cells. We demonstrate that knockdown of TLX enhances the canonical TGF-β signaling response in glioblastoma cell lines. TLX physically interacts with and stabilizes Smurf1, which can ubiquitinate and target TGF-β receptor II for degradation, whereas knockdown of TLX leads to stabilization of TGF-β receptor II, increased nuclear translocation of Smad2/3 and enhanced expression of TGF-β target genes. The interaction between TLX and TGF-β may play an important role in the regulation of proliferation and tumor-initiating properties of glioblastoma cells. - Highlights: • TLX knockdown enhances TGF-β dependent Smad signaling in glioblastoma cells • TLX knockdown increases the protein level of TGF-β receptor II. • TLX stabilizes and retains Smurf1 in the cytoplasm. • TLX enhances Smurf1-dependent ubiquitination and degradation of TGF-β receptor II.

  18. Nuclear receptor TLX inhibits TGF-β signaling in glioblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Erik; Zhai, Qiwei; Zeng, Zhao-jun; Yoshida, Takeshi; Funa, Keiko

    2016-01-01

    TLX (also called NR2E1) is an orphan nuclear receptor that maintains stemness of neuronal stem cells. TLX is highly expressed in the most malignant form of glioma, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), and is important for the proliferation and maintenance of the stem/progenitor cells of the tumor. Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) is a cytokine regulating many different cellular processes such as differentiation, migration, adhesion, cell death and proliferation. TGF-β has an important function in cancer where it can work as either a tumor suppressor or oncogene, depending on the cancer type and stage of tumor development. Since glioblastoma often have dysfunctional TGF-β signaling we wanted to find out if there is any interaction between TLX and TGF-β in glioblastoma cells. We demonstrate that knockdown of TLX enhances the canonical TGF-β signaling response in glioblastoma cell lines. TLX physically interacts with and stabilizes Smurf1, which can ubiquitinate and target TGF-β receptor II for degradation, whereas knockdown of TLX leads to stabilization of TGF-β receptor II, increased nuclear translocation of Smad2/3 and enhanced expression of TGF-β target genes. The interaction between TLX and TGF-β may play an important role in the regulation of proliferation and tumor-initiating properties of glioblastoma cells. - Highlights: • TLX knockdown enhances TGF-β dependent Smad signaling in glioblastoma cells • TLX knockdown increases the protein level of TGF-β receptor II. • TLX stabilizes and retains Smurf1 in the cytoplasm. • TLX enhances Smurf1-dependent ubiquitination and degradation of TGF-β receptor II.

  19. Small HydroPower (SHP) development in Nigeria: Issues ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria as of today generates less than 4000MW of electricity but has the capability of increasing her generation through small hydropower (SHP) considering unharnessed potentials in the country. In other to increase the percentage contribution of hydroelectricity to the total energy mix and to extend electricity to rural and ...

  20. Nuclear receptor TLX inhibits TGF-β signaling in glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Erik; Zhai, Qiwei; Zeng, Zhao-Jun; Yoshida, Takeshi; Funa, Keiko

    2016-05-01

    TLX (also called NR2E1) is an orphan nuclear receptor that maintains stemness of neuronal stem cells. TLX is highly expressed in the most malignant form of glioma, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), and is important for the proliferation and maintenance of the stem/progenitor cells of the tumor. Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) is a cytokine regulating many different cellular processes such as differentiation, migration, adhesion, cell death and proliferation. TGF-β has an important function in cancer where it can work as either a tumor suppressor or oncogene, depending on the cancer type and stage of tumor development. Since glioblastoma often have dysfunctional TGF-β signaling we wanted to find out if there is any interaction between TLX and TGF-β in glioblastoma cells. We demonstrate that knockdown of TLX enhances the canonical TGF-β signaling response in glioblastoma cell lines. TLX physically interacts with and stabilizes Smurf1, which can ubiquitinate and target TGF-β receptor II for degradation, whereas knockdown of TLX leads to stabilization of TGF-β receptor II, increased nuclear translocation of Smad2/3 and enhanced expression of TGF-β target genes. The interaction between TLX and TGF-β may play an important role in the regulation of proliferation and tumor-initiating properties of glioblastoma cells. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Probenecid inhibits α-adrenergic receptor-mediated vasoconstriction in the human leg vasculature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Piil, Peter Bergmann; Kiehn, Oliver Thistrup

    2018-01-01

    to α1- and α2-adrenergic receptor stimulation in the human forearm and leg vasculature of young healthy male subjects (23±3 years). By use of immunolabeling and confocal microscopy, Panx1 channels were found to be expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells of arterioles in human leg skeletal muscle....... Probenecid treatment increased (Padrenergic receptor stimulation) by ≈15%, whereas the response to the α1-agonist phenylephrine was unchanged. Inhibition...

  2. Dopamine inhibits somatolactin gene expression in tilapia pituitary cells through the dopamine D2 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Quan; Lian, Anji; He, Qi

    2016-07-01

    Dopamine (DA) is an important neurotransmitter in the central nervous system of vertebrates and possesses key hypophysiotropic functions. Early studies have shown that DA has a potent inhibitory effect on somatolactin (SL) release in fish. However, the mechanisms responsible for DA inhibition of SL gene expression are largely unknown. To this end, tilapia DA type-1 (D1) and type-2 (D2) receptor transcripts were examined in the neurointermediate lobe (NIL) of the tilapia pituitary by real-time PCR. In tilapia, DA not only was effective in inhibiting SL mRNA levels in vivo and in vitro, but also could abolish pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)- and salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (sGnRH)-stimulated SL gene expression at the pituitary level. In parallel studies, the specific D2 receptor agonists quinpirole and bromocriptine could mimic the DA-inhibited SL gene expression. Furthermore, the D2 receptor antagonists domperidone and (-)-sulpiride could abolish the SL response to DA or the D2 agonist quinpirole, whereas D1 receptor antagonists SCH23390 and SKF83566 were not effective in this respect. In primary cultures of tilapia NIL cells, D2 agonist quinpirole-inhibited cAMP production could be blocked by co-treatment with the D2 antagonist domperidone and the ability of forskolin to increase cAMP production was also inhibited by quinpirole. Using a pharmacological approach, the AC/cAMP pathway was shown to be involved in quinpirole-inhibited SL mRNA expression. These results provide evidence that DA can directly inhibit SL gene expression at the tilapia pituitary level via D2 receptor through the AC/cAMP-dependent mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Noonan syndrome-causing SHP2 mutants impair ERK-dependent chondrocyte differentiation during endochondral bone growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajan, Mylène; Pernin-Grandjean, Julie; Beton, Nicolas; Gennero, Isabelle; Capilla, Florence; Neel, Benjamin G; Araki, Toshiyuki; Valet, Philippe; Tauber, Maithé; Salles, Jean-Pierre; Yart, Armelle; Edouard, Thomas

    2018-04-12

    Growth retardation is a constant feature of Noonan syndrome (NS) but its physiopathology remains poorly understood. We previously reported that hyperactive NS-causing SHP2 mutants impair the systemic production of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) through hyperactivation of the RAS/extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) signalling pathway. Besides endocrine defects, a direct effect of these mutants on growth plate has not been explored, although recent studies have revealed an important physiological role for SHP2 in endochondral bone growth. We demonstrated that growth plate length was reduced in NS mice, mostly due to a shortening of the hypertrophic zone and to a lesser extent of the proliferating zone. These histological features were correlated with decreased expression of early chondrocyte differentiation markers, and with reduced alkaline phosphatase staining and activity, in NS murine primary chondrocytes. Although IGF1 treatment improved growth of NS mice, it did not fully reverse growth plate abnormalities, notably the decreased hypertrophic zone. In contrast, we documented a role of RAS/ERK hyperactivation at the growth plate level since 1) NS-causing SHP2 mutants enhance RAS/ERK activation in chondrocytes in vivo (NS mice) and in vitro (ATDC5 cells) and 2) inhibition of RAS/ERK hyperactivation by U0126 treatment alleviated growth plate abnormalities and enhanced chondrocyte differentiation. Similar effects were obtained by chronic treatment of NS mice with statins.In conclusion, we demonstrated that hyperactive NS-causing SHP2 mutants impair chondrocyte differentiation during endochondral bone growth through a local hyperactivation of the RAS/ERK signalling pathway, and that statin treatment may be a possible therapeutic approach in NS.

  4. Modulating Estrogen Receptor-related Receptor-α Activity Inhibits Cell Proliferation*

    OpenAIRE

    Bianco, Stéphanie; Lanvin, Olivia; Tribollet, Violaine; Macari, Claire; North, Sophie; Vanacker, Jean-Marc

    2009-01-01

    High expression of the estrogen receptor-related receptor (ERR)-α in human tumors is correlated to a poor prognosis, suggesting an involvement of the receptor in cell proliferation. In this study, we show that a synthetic compound (XCT790) that modulates the activity of ERRα reduces the proliferation of various cell lines and blocks the G1/S transition of the cell cycle in an ERR...

  5. Inhibition of TRAIL-induced apoptosis and forced internalization of TRAIL receptor 1 by adenovirus proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollefson, A E; Toth, K; Doronin, K; Kuppuswamy, M; Doronina, O A; Lichtenstein, D L; Hermiston, T W; Smith, C A; Wold, W S

    2001-10-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis through two receptors, TRAIL-R1 (also known as death receptor 4) and TRAIL-R2 (also known as death receptor 5), that are members of the TNF receptor superfamily of death domain-containing receptors. We show that human adenovirus type 5 encodes three proteins, named RID (previously named E3-10.4K/14.5K), E3-14.7K, and E1B-19K, that independently inhibit TRAIL-induced apoptosis of infected human cells. This conclusion was derived from studies using wild-type adenovirus, adenovirus replication-competent mutants that lack one or more of the RID, E3-14.7K, and E1B-19K genes, and adenovirus E1-minus replication-defective vectors that express all E3 genes, RID plus E3-14.7K only, RID only, or E3-14.7K only. RID inhibits TRAIL-induced apoptosis when cells are sensitized to TRAIL either by adenovirus infection or treatment with cycloheximide. RID induces the internalization of TRAIL-R1 from the cell surface, as shown by flow cytometry and indirect immunofluorescence for TRAIL-R1. TRAIL-R1 was internalized in distinct vesicles which are very likely to be endosomes and lysosomes. TRAIL-R1 is degraded, as indicated by the disappearance of the TRAIL-R1 immunofluorescence signal. Degradation was inhibited by bafilomycin A1, a drug that prevents acidification of vesicles and the sorting of receptors from late endosomes to lysosomes, implying that degradation occurs in lysosomes. RID was also shown previously to internalize and degrade another death domain receptor, Fas, and to prevent apoptosis through Fas and the TNF receptor. RID was shown previously to force the internalization and degradation of the epidermal growth factor receptor. E1B-19K was shown previously to block apoptosis through Fas, and both E1B-19K and E3-14.7K were found to prevent apoptosis through the TNF receptor. These findings suggest that the receptors for TRAIL, Fas ligand, and TNF play a role in limiting virus

  6. Activation of dopamine D3 receptors inhibits reward-related learning induced by cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, H; Kuang, W; Li, S; Xu, M

    2011-03-10

    Memories of learned associations between the rewarding properties of drugs and environmental cues contribute to craving and relapse in humans. The mesocorticolimbic dopamine (DA) system is involved in reward-related learning induced by drugs of abuse. DA D3 receptors are preferentially expressed in mesocorticolimbic DA projection areas. Genetic and pharmacological studies have shown that DA D3 receptors suppress locomotor-stimulant effects of cocaine and reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behaviors. Activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) induced by acute cocaine administration is also inhibited by D3 receptors. How D3 receptors modulate cocaine-induced reward-related learning and associated changes in cell signaling in reward circuits in the brain, however, have not been fully investigated. In the present study, we show that D3 receptor mutant mice exhibit potentiated acquisition of conditioned place preference (CPP) at low doses of cocaine compared to wild-type mice. Activation of ERK and CaMKIIα, but not the c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38, in the nucleus accumbens, amygdala and prefrontal cortex is also potentiated in D3 receptor mutant mice compared to that in wild-type mice following CPP expression. These results support a model in which D3 receptors modulate reward-related learning induced by low doses of cocaine by inhibiting activation of ERK and CaMKIIα in reward circuits in the brain. Copyright © 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Inhibition of radiation-induced polyuria by histamine receptor antagonists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donlon, M.A.; Melia, J.A.; Helgeson, E.A.; Wolfe, W.W.

    1986-03-01

    In previous studies the authors have demonstrated that gamma radiation results in polyuria, which is preceded by polydypsia. This suggests that the increased thirst elicited by radiation causes increased urinary volume (UV). Histamine, which is released following radiation exposure, also elicits drinking by nonirradiated rats when administered exogenously. In this study the authors have investigated both the role of water deprivation and the effect of histamine receptor antagonists (HRA) on radiation-induced polyuria. Sprague-Dawley rats were housed individually in metabolic cages. Water was allowed ad libitum except in deprivation experiments where water was removed for 24 hr immediately following radiation. Cimetidine (CIM), an H2 HRA, and dexbromopheniramine (DXB), an H1 HRA, were administered i.p. (16 and 1 mg/kg, respectively) 30 min prior to irradiation (950 rads from a cobalt source). UV was determined at 24-hr intervals for 3 days preceding irradiation and 24 hr postirradiation. UV in DXB treated rats was significantly reduced 24 hr postirradiation (CON = 427 +/- 54%; DXB = 247 +/- 39% of preirradiated CON) compared to postirradiation control values. CIM did not affect postirradiation UV. These data suggest that radiation-induced polyuria is caused by polydypsia which is, in part, mediated by histamine induced by an H1 receptor.

  8. Inhibition of radiation-induced polyuria by histamine receptor antagonists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donlon, M.A.; Melia, J.A.; Helgeson, E.A.; Wolfe, W.W.

    1986-01-01

    In previous studies the authors have demonstrated that gamma radiation results in polyuria, which is preceded by polydypsia. This suggests that the increased thirst elicited by radiation causes increased urinary volume (UV). Histamine, which is released following radiation exposure, also elicits drinking by nonirradiated rats when administered exogenously. In this study the authors have investigated both the role of water deprivation and the effect of histamine receptor antagonists (HRA) on radiation-induced polyuria. Sprague-Dawley rats were housed individually in metabolic cages. Water was allowed ad libitum except in deprivation experiments where water was removed for 24 hr immediately following radiation. Cimetidine (CIM), an H2 HRA, and dexbromopheniramine (DXB), an H1 HRA, were administered i.p. (16 and 1 mg/kg, respectively) 30 min prior to irradiation (950 rads from a cobalt source). UV was determined at 24-hr intervals for 3 days preceding irradiation and 24 hr postirradiation. UV in DXB treated rats was significantly reduced 24 hr postirradiation (CON = 427 +/- 54%; DXB = 247 +/- 39% of preirradiated CON) compared to postirradiation control values. CIM did not affect postirradiation UV. These data suggest that radiation-induced polyuria is caused by polydypsia which is, in part, mediated by histamine induced by an H1 receptor

  9. Pharmacological or genetic orexin 1 receptor inhibition attenuates MK-801 induced glutamate release in mouse cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah eAluisio

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The orexin/hypocretin neuropeptides are produced by a cluster of neurons within the lateral posterior hypothalamus and participate in neuronal regulation by activating their receptors (OX1 and OX2 receptors. The orexin system projects widely through the brain and functions as an interface between multiple regulatory systems including wakefulness, energy balance, stress, reward and emotion. Recent studies have demonstrated that orexins and glutamate interact at the synaptic level and that orexins facilitate glutamate actions. We tested the hypothesis that orexins modulate glutamate signaling via OX1 receptors by monitoring levels of glutamate in frontal cortex of freely moving mice using enzyme coated biosensors under inhibited OX1 receptor conditions. MK-801, an NMDA receptor antagonist, was administered subcutaneously (0.178 mg/kg to indirectly disinhibit pyramidal neurons and therefore increase cortical glutamate release. In wild-type mice, pretreatment with the OX1 receptor antagonist GSK-1059865 (10 mg/kg S.C. which had no effect by itself, significantly attenuated the cortical glutamate release elicited by MK-801. OX1 receptor knockout mice had a blunted glutamate release response to MK-801 and exhibited about half of the glutamate release observed in wild-type mice in agreement with the data obtained with transient blockade of OX1 receptors. These results indicate that pharmacological (transient or genetic (permanent inhibition of the OX1 receptor similarly interfere with glutamatergic function in the cortex. Selectively targeting the OX1 receptor with an antagonist may normalize hyperglutamatergic states and thus may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of various psychiatric disorders associated with hyperactive states.

  10. Antidepressants inhibit P2X4 receptor function: a possible involvement in neuropathic pain relief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tozaki-Saitoh Hidetoshi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuropathic pain is characterized by pain hypersensitivity to innocuous stimuli (tactile allodynia that is nearly always resistant to known treatments such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or even opioids. It has been reported that some antidepressants are effective for treating neuropathic pain. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. We have recently demonstrated that blocking P2X4 receptors in the spinal cord reverses tactile allodynia after peripheral nerve injury in rats, implying that P2X4 receptors are a key molecule in neuropathic pain. We investigated a possible role of antidepressants as inhibitors of P2X4 receptors and analysed their analgesic mechanism using an animal model of neuropathic pain. Results Antidepressants strongly inhibited ATP-mediated Ca2+ responses in P2X4 receptor-expressing 1321N1 cells, which are known to have no endogenous ATP receptors. Paroxetine exhibited the most powerful inhibition of calcium influx via rat and human P2X4 receptors, with IC50 values of 2.45 μM and 1.87 μM, respectively. Intrathecal administration of paroxetine produced a striking antiallodynic effect in an animal model of neuropathic pain. Co-administration of WAY100635, ketanserin or ondansetron with paroxetine induced no significant change in the antiallodynic effect of paroxetine. Furthermore, the antiallodynic effect of paroxetine was observed even in rats that had received intrathecal pretreatment with 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine, which dramatically depletes spinal 5-hydroxytryptamine. Conclusion These results suggest that paroxetine acts as a potent analgesic in the spinal cord via a mechanism independent of its inhibitory effect on serotonin transporters. Powerful inhibition on P2X4 receptors may underlie the analgesic effect of paroxetine, and it is possible that some antidepressants clinically used in patients with neuropathic pain show antiallodynic effects, at least in part

  11. B cell receptor inhibition as a target for CLL therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyakumar, Deepa; O'Brien, Susan

    2016-03-01

    Inhibitors of the B cell receptor (BCR) represent an attractive therapeutic option for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Recently approved inhibitors of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (ibrutinib) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (idelalisib), are promising agents because they are generally well tolerated and highly effective. These agents may be particularly important in the treatment of older patients who are less able to tolerate the myelosuppression (and infections) associated with chemoimmunotherapy. As a class of medications, BCR inhibitors have some unique side effects including redistribution lymphocytosis. Ibrutinib has specific toxicities including increased risk for bleeding and atrial fibrillation. Idelalisib also has some unique toxicities consisting of transaminitis, diarrhea and pneumonitis. Ongoing clinical trials are evaluating these agents in combination with antibodies, chemotherapy and other small molecules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Inhibition of neointima formation by local delivery of estrogen receptor alpha and beta specific agonists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krom, Y.D.; Pires, N.M.M.; Jukema, J.W.; Vries, M.R. de; Frants, R.R.; Havekes, L.M.; Dijk, K.W. van; Quax, P.H.A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Neointima formation is the underlying mechanism of (in-stent) restenosis. 17β-Estradiol (E2) is known to inhibit injury-induced neointima formation and post-angioplasty restenosis. Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) has been demonstrated to mediate E2 anti-restenotic properties. However, the

  13. Mechanism of inhibition of growth hormone receptor signaling by suppressor of cytokine signaling proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J A; Lindberg, K; Hilton, D J

    1999-01-01

    In this study we have investigated the role of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins in GH receptor-mediated signaling. GH-induced transcription was inhibited by SOCS-1 and SOCS-3, while SOCS-2 and cytokine inducible SH2-containing protein (CIS) had no effect By using chimeric SOCS pro...

  14. Molecular requirements for inhibition of the chemokine receptor CCR8--probe-dependent allosteric interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rummel, Pia Cwarzko; Arfelt, K N; Baumann, L

    2012-01-01

    Here we present a novel series of CCR8 antagonists based on a naphthalene-sulfonamide structure. This structure differs from the predominant pharmacophore for most small-molecule CC-chemokine receptor antagonists, which in fact activate CCR8, suggesting that CCR8 inhibition requires alternative...

  15. Sigma receptor ligand N,N'-di-(ortho-tolyl)guanidine inhibits release of acetylcholine in the guinea pig ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambell, B G; Keana, J F; Weber, E

    1991-11-26

    The inhibition of stimulated contractions of the guinea pig ileum longitudinal muscle/myenteric plexus preparation by sigma receptor ligands has been previously described. In this study, the stimulated release of [3H]acetylcholine from cholinergic nerve terminals in this same preparation was monitored in the presence and absence of sigma receptor ligands. N,N'-Di-(orthotolyl)guanidine (DTG) and other compounds selective for the sigma receptor inhibited stimulated [3H]acetylcholine release. These results suggest that their inhibition of stimulated contractions in this preparation was mediated by inhibition of acetylcholine release.

  16. P2X1 Receptor Antagonists Inhibit HIV-1 Fusion by Blocking Virus-Coreceptor Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroud, Charline; Marin, Mariana; Hammonds, Jason; Spearman, Paul; Melikyan, Gregory B

    2015-09-01

    HIV-1 Env glycoprotein-mediated fusion is initiated upon sequential binding of Env to CD4 and the coreceptor CXCR4 or CCR5. Whereas these interactions are thought to be necessary and sufficient to promote HIV-1 fusion, other host factors can modulate this process. Previous studies reported potent inhibition of HIV-1 fusion by selective P2X1 receptor antagonists, including NF279, and suggested that these receptors play a role in HIV-1 entry. Here we investigated the mechanism of antiviral activity of NF279 and found that this compound does not inhibit HIV-1 fusion by preventing the activation of P2X1 channels but effectively blocks the binding of the virus to CXCR4 or CCR5. The notion of an off-target effect of NF279 on HIV-1 fusion is supported by the lack of detectable expression of P2X1 receptors in cells used in fusion experiments and by the fact that the addition of ATP or the enzymatic depletion of ATP in culture medium does not modulate viral fusion. Importantly, NF279 fails to inhibit HIV-1 fusion with cell lines and primary macrophages when added at an intermediate stage downstream of Env-CD4-coreceptor engagement. Conversely, in the presence of NF279, HIV-1 fusion is arrested downstream of CD4 binding but prior to coreceptor engagement. NF279 also antagonizes the signaling function of CCR5, CXCR4, and another chemokine receptor, as evidenced by the suppression of calcium responses elicited by specific ligands and by recombinant gp120. Collectively, our results demonstrate that NF279 is a dual HIV-1 coreceptor inhibitor that interferes with the functional engagement of CCR5 and CXCR4 by Env. Inhibition of P2X receptor activity suppresses HIV-1 fusion and replication, suggesting that P2X signaling is involved in HIV-1 entry. However, mechanistic experiments conducted in this study imply that P2X1 receptor is not expressed in target cells or involved in viral fusion. Instead, we found that inhibition of HIV-1 fusion by a specific P2X1 receptor antagonist, NF

  17. Resveratrol inhibits PDGF receptor mitogenic signaling in mesangial cells: role of PTP1B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Balachandar; Ghosh-Choudhury, Nandini; Das, Falguni; Mahimainathan, Lenin; Kamat, Amrita; Kasinath, Balakuntalam S.; Abboud, Hanna E.; Choudhury, Goutam Ghosh

    2008-01-01

    Mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis is associated with overactive PDGF receptor signal transduction. We show that the phytoalexin resveratrol dose dependently inhibits PDGF-induced DNA synthesis in mesangial cells with an IC50 of 10 μM without inducing apoptosis. Remarkably, the increased SIRT1 deacetylase activity induced by resveratrol was not necessary for this inhibitory effect. Resveratrol significantly blocked PDGF-stimulated c-Src and Akt kinase activation, resulting in reduced cyclin D1 expression and attenuated pRb phosphorylation and cyclin-dependent kinase-2 (CDK2) activity. Furthermore, resveratrol inhibited PDGFR phosphorylation at the PI 3 kinase and Grb-2 binding sites tyrosine-751 and tyrosine-716, respectively. This deficiency in PDGFR phosphorylation resulted in significant inhibition of PI 3 kinase and Erk1/2 MAPK activity. Interestingly, resveratrol increased the activity of protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B, which dephosphorylates PDGF-stimulated phosphorylation at tyrosine-751 and tyrosine-716 on PDGFR with concomitant reduction in Akt and Erk1/2 kinase activity. PTP1B significantly inhibited PDGF-induced DNA synthesis without inducing apoptosis. These results for the first time provide evidence that the stilbene resveratrol targets PTP1B to inhibit PDGFR mitogenic signaling.—Venkatesan, B., Ghosh-Choudhury, N., Das, F., Mahimainathan, L., Kamat, A., Kasinath, B. S., Abboud, H. E., Choudhury, G. G. Resveratrol inhibits PDGF receptor mitogenic signaling in mesangial cells: role of PTP1B. PMID:18567737

  18. Modulating Estrogen Receptor-related Receptor-α Activity Inhibits Cell Proliferation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Stéphanie; Lanvin, Olivia; Tribollet, Violaine; Macari, Claire; North, Sophie; Vanacker, Jean-Marc

    2009-01-01

    High expression of the estrogen receptor-related receptor (ERR)-α in human tumors is correlated to a poor prognosis, suggesting an involvement of the receptor in cell proliferation. In this study, we show that a synthetic compound (XCT790) that modulates the activity of ERRα reduces the proliferation of various cell lines and blocks the G1/S transition of the cell cycle in an ERRα-dependent manner. XCT790 induces, in a p53-independent manner, the expression of the cell cycle inhibitor p21waf/cip1 at the protein, mRNA, and promoter level, leading to an accumulation of hypophosphorylated Rb. Finally, XCT790 reduces cell tumorigenicity in Nude mice. PMID:19546226

  19. Acutely increasing δGABAA receptor activity impairs memory and inhibits synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whissell, Paul D.; Eng, Dave; Lecker, Irene; Martin, Loren J.; Wang, Dian-Shi; Orser, Beverley A.

    2013-01-01

    Extrasynaptic γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors that contain the δ subunit (δGABAA receptors) are expressed in several brain regions including the dentate gyrus (DG) and CA1 subfields of the hippocampus. Drugs that increase δGABAA receptor activity have been proposed as treatments for a variety of disorders including insomnia, epilepsy and chronic pain. Also, long-term pretreatment with the δGABAA receptor–preferring agonist 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol (THIP) enhances discrimination memory and increases neurogenesis in the DG. Despite the potential therapeutic benefits of such treatments, the effects of acutely increasing δGABAA receptor activity on memory behaviors remain unknown. Here, we studied the effects of THIP (4 mg/kg, i.p.) on memory performance in wild-type (WT) and δGABAA receptor null mutant (Gabrd−/−) mice. Additionally, the effects of THIP on long-term potentiation (LTP), a molecular correlate of memory, were studied within the DG and CA1 subfields of the hippocampus using electrophysiological recordings of field potentials in hippocampal slices. The results showed that THIP impaired performance in the Morris water maze, contextual fear conditioning and object recognition tasks in WT mice but not Gabrd−/− mice. Furthermore, THIP inhibited LTP in hippocampal slices from WT but not Gabrd−/− mice, an effect that was blocked by GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline. Thus, acutely increasing δGABAA receptor activity impairs memory behaviors and inhibits synaptic plasticity. These results have important implications for the development of therapies aimed at increasing δGABAA receptor activity. PMID:24062648

  20. Acutely increasing δGABAA receptor activity impairs memory and inhibits synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul David Whissell

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Extrasynaptic γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA receptors that contain the δ subunit (δGABAA receptors are expressed in several brain regions including the dentate gyrus (DG and CA1 subfields of the hippocampus. Drugs that increase δGABAA receptor activity have been proposed as treatments for a variety of disorders including insomnia, epilepsy and chronic pain. Also, long-term pretreatment with the δGABAA receptor–preferring agonist 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol (THIP enhances discrimination memory and increases neurogenesis in the DG. Despite the potential therapeutic benefits of such treatments, the effects of acutely increasing δGABAA receptor activity on memory behaviors remain unknown. Here, we studied the effects of THIP (4 mg/kg, i.p. on memory performance in wild-type (WT and δGABAA receptor null mutant (Gabrd–/– mice. Additionally, the effects of THIP on long-term potentiation (LTP, a molecular correlate of memory, were studied within the DG and CA1 subfields of the hippocampus using electrophysiological recordings of field potentials in hippocampal slices. The results showed that THIP impaired performance in the Morris water maze, contextual fear conditioning and object recognition tasks in WT mice but not Gabrd–/– mice. Furthermore, THIP inhibited LTP in hippocampal slices from WT but not Gabrd–/– mice, an effect that was blocked by GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline. Thus, acutely increasing δGABAA receptor activity impairs memory behaviors and inhibits synaptic plasticity. These results have important implications for the development of therapies aimed at increasing δGABAA receptor activity.

  1. A neuronal acetylcholine receptor regulates the balance of muscle excitation and inhibition in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maelle Jospin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, cholinergic motor neurons stimulate muscle contraction as well as activate GABAergic motor neurons that inhibit contraction of the contralateral muscles. Here, we describe the composition of an ionotropic acetylcholine receptor that is required to maintain excitation of the cholinergic motor neurons. We identified a gain-of-function mutation that leads to spontaneous muscle convulsions. The mutation is in the pore domain of the ACR-2 acetylcholine receptor subunit and is identical to a hyperactivating mutation in the muscle receptor of patients with myasthenia gravis. Screens for suppressors of the convulsion phenotype led to the identification of other receptor subunits. Cell-specific rescue experiments indicate that these subunits function in the cholinergic motor neurons. Expression of these subunits in Xenopus oocytes demonstrates that the functional receptor is comprised of three alpha-subunits, UNC-38, UNC-63 and ACR-12, and two non-alpha-subunits, ACR-2 and ACR-3. Although this receptor exhibits a partially overlapping subunit composition with the C. elegans muscle acetylcholine receptor, it shows distinct pharmacology. Recordings from intact animals demonstrate that loss-of-function mutations in acr-2 reduce the excitability of the cholinergic motor neurons. By contrast, the acr-2(gf mutation leads to a hyperactivation of cholinergic motor neurons and an inactivation of downstream GABAergic motor neurons in a calcium dependent manner. Presumably, this imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory input into muscles leads to convulsions. These data indicate that the ACR-2 receptor is important for the coordinated excitation and inhibition of body muscles underlying sinusoidal movement.

  2. Hispolon inhibits the growth of estrogen receptor positive human breast cancer cells through modulation of estrogen receptor alpha

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Eun Hyang; Jang, Soon Young; Cho, In-Hye; Hong, Darong; Jung, Bom; Park, Min-Ju; Kim, Jong-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Human estrogen receptor α (ERα) is a nuclear transcription factor that is a major therapeutic target in breast cancer. The transcriptional activity of ERα is regulated by certain estrogen-receptor modulators. Hispolon, isolated from Phellinus linteus, a traditional medicinal mushroom called Sanghwang in Korea, has been used to treat various pathologies, such as inflammation, gastroenteric disorders, lymphatic diseases, and cancers. In this latter context, Hispolon has been reported to exhibit therapeutic efficacy against various cancer cells, including melanoma, leukemia, hepatocarcinoma, bladder cancer, and gastric cancer cells. However, ERα regulation by Hispolon has not been reported. In this study, we investigated the effects of Hispolon on the growth of breast cancer cells. We found that Hispolon decreased expression of ERα at both mRNA and the protein levels in MCF7 and T47D human breast cancer cells. Luciferase reporter assays showed that Hispolon decreased the transcriptional activity of ERα. Hispolon treatment also inhibited expression of the ERα target gene pS2. We propose that Hispolon, an anticancer drug extracted from natural sources, inhibits cell growth through modulation of ERα in estrogen-positive breast cancer cells and is a candidate for use in human breast cancer chemotherapy. - Highlights: • Hispolon decreased ERα expression at both mRNA and protein levels. • Hispolon decreased ERα transcriptional activity. • Hispolon treatment inhibited expression of ERα target gene pS2. • Shikonin is a candidate chemotherapeutic target in the treatment of human breast cancer

  3. Hispolon inhibits the growth of estrogen receptor positive human breast cancer cells through modulation of estrogen receptor alpha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Eun Hyang; Jang, Soon Young; Cho, In-Hye [Department of Pharmacy, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Darong [Department of Life and Nanopharmaceutical Science, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Bom; Park, Min-Ju [Department of Pharmacy, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong-Ho, E-mail: jonghokim@khu.ac.kr [Department of Pharmacy, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-07

    Human estrogen receptor α (ERα) is a nuclear transcription factor that is a major therapeutic target in breast cancer. The transcriptional activity of ERα is regulated by certain estrogen-receptor modulators. Hispolon, isolated from Phellinus linteus, a traditional medicinal mushroom called Sanghwang in Korea, has been used to treat various pathologies, such as inflammation, gastroenteric disorders, lymphatic diseases, and cancers. In this latter context, Hispolon has been reported to exhibit therapeutic efficacy against various cancer cells, including melanoma, leukemia, hepatocarcinoma, bladder cancer, and gastric cancer cells. However, ERα regulation by Hispolon has not been reported. In this study, we investigated the effects of Hispolon on the growth of breast cancer cells. We found that Hispolon decreased expression of ERα at both mRNA and the protein levels in MCF7 and T47D human breast cancer cells. Luciferase reporter assays showed that Hispolon decreased the transcriptional activity of ERα. Hispolon treatment also inhibited expression of the ERα target gene pS2. We propose that Hispolon, an anticancer drug extracted from natural sources, inhibits cell growth through modulation of ERα in estrogen-positive breast cancer cells and is a candidate for use in human breast cancer chemotherapy. - Highlights: • Hispolon decreased ERα expression at both mRNA and protein levels. • Hispolon decreased ERα transcriptional activity. • Hispolon treatment inhibited expression of ERα target gene pS2. • Shikonin is a candidate chemotherapeutic target in the treatment of human breast cancer.

  4. Enzalutamide inhibits androgen receptor-positive bladder cancer cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Takashi; Ide, Hiroki; Kashiwagi, Eiji; El-Shishtawy, Kareem A; Li, Yi; Reis, Leonardo O; Zheng, Yichun; Miyamoto, Hiroshi

    2016-10-01

    Emerging preclinical evidence suggests that androgen-mediated androgen receptor (AR) signals promote bladder cancer progression. However, little is known about the efficacy of an AR signaling inhibitor, enzalutamide, in the growth of bladder cancer cells. In this study, we compared the effects of enzalutamide and 2 other classic antiandrogens, flutamide and bicalutamide, on androgen-induced bladder cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion as well as tumor growth in vivo. Thiazolyl blue cell viability assay, flow cytometry, scratch wound-healing assay, transwell invasion assay, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and reporter gene assay were performed in AR-positive (e.g., UMUC3, TCCSUP, and 647V-AR) and AR-negative (e.g., UMUC3-AR-short hairpin RNA [shRNA], TCCSUP-AR-shRNA, 647V) bladder cancer lines treated with dihydrotestosterone and each AR antagonist. We also used a mouse xenograft model for bladder cancer. Dihydrotestosterone increased bladder cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion indicating that endogenous or exogenous AR was functional. Enzalutamide, hydroxyflutamide, and bicalutamide showed similar inhibitory effects, without significant agonist activity, on androgen-mediated cell viability/apoptosis, cell migration, and cell invasion in AR-positive lines. No significant effects of dihydrotestosterone as well as AR antagonists on the growth of AR-negative cells were seen. Correspondingly, in UMUC3 cells, these AR antagonists down-regulated androgen-induced expression of AR, matrix metalloproteinase-2, and interleukin-6. Androgen-enhanced AR-mediated transcriptional activity was also blocked by each AR antagonist exhibiting insignificant agonist activity. In UMUC3 xenograft-bearing mice, oral gavage treatment with each antiandrogen retarded tumor growth, and only enzalutamide demonstrated a statistically significant suppression compared with mock treatment. Our current data support recent observations indicating the involvement of

  5. Poxvirus-encoded TNF decoy receptors inhibit the biological activity of transmembrane TNF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontejo, Sergio M; Alejo, Ali; Alcami, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Poxviruses encode up to four different soluble TNF receptors, named cytokine response modifier B (CrmB), CrmC, CrmD and CrmE. These proteins mimic the extracellular domain of the cellular TNF receptors to bind and inhibit the activity of TNF and, in some cases, other TNF superfamily ligands. Most of these ligands are released after the enzymic cleavage of a membrane precursor. However, transmembrane TNF (tmTNF) is not only a precursor of soluble TNF but also exerts specific pro-inflammatory and immunological activities. Here, we report that viral TNF receptors bound and inhibited tmTNF and describe some interesting differences in their activity against the soluble cytokine. Thus, CrmE, which does not inhibit mouse soluble TNF, could block murine tmTNF-induced cytotoxicity. We propose that this anti-tmTNF effect should be taken into consideration when assessing the role of viral TNF decoy receptors in the pathogenesis of poxvirus.

  6. Insulin signaling inhibits the 5-HT2C receptor in choroid plexus via MAP kinase

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    Guan Kunliang

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs interact with heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins (G proteins to modulate acute changes in intracellular messenger levels and ion channel activity. In contrast, long-term changes in cellular growth, proliferation and differentiation are often mediated by tyrosine kinase receptors and certain GPCRs by activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinases. Complex interactions occur between these signaling pathways, but the specific mechanisms of such regulatory events are not well-understood. In particular it is not clear whether GPCRs are modulated by tyrosine kinase receptor-MAP kinase pathways. Results Here we describe tyrosine kinase receptor regulation of a GPCR via MAP kinase. Insulin reduced the activity of the 5-HT2C receptor in choroid plexus cells which was blocked by the MAP kinase kinase (MEK inhibitor, PD 098059. We demonstrate that the inhibitory effect of insulin and insulin-like growth factor type 1 (IGF-1 on the 5-HT2C receptor is dependent on tyrosine kinase, RAS and MAP kinase. The effect may be receptor-specific: insulin had no effect on another GPCR that shares the same G protein signaling pathway as the 5-HT2C receptor. This effect is also direct: activated MAP kinase mimicked the effect of insulin, and removing a putative MAP kinase site from the 5-HT2C receptor abolished the effect of insulin. Conclusion These results show that insulin signaling can inhibit 5-HT2C receptor activity and suggest that MAP kinase may play a direct role in regulating the function of a specific GPCR.

  7. The selective estrogen receptor modulator raloxifene inhibits neutrophil extracellular trap formation.

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    Roxana Flores

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Raloxifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator typically prescribed for the prevention/treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Although raloxifene is known to have anti-inflammatory properties, its effect on human neutrophils, the primary phagocytic leukocytes of the immune system, remain poorly understood. Here, through a screen of pharmacologically active small molecules, we find that raloxifene prevents neutrophil cell death in response to the classical activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, a compound known to induce formation of DNA-based neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs. Inhibition of PMA-induced NET production by raloxifene was confirmed using quantitative and imaging-based assays. Human neutrophils from both male and female donors express the nuclear estrogen receptors ERα and ERβ, known targets of raloxifene. Like raloxifene, selective antagonists of these receptors inhibit PMA-induced NET production. Furthermore, raloxifene inhibited PMA-induced ERK phosphorylation but not reactive oxygen species (ROS production, pathways known to be key modulators of NET production. Finally, we found that raloxifene inhibited PMA-induced, NET-based killing of the leading human bacterial pathogen, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. Our results reveal that raloxifene is a potent modulator of neutrophil function and NET production.

  8. Expression, prognostic significance and mutational analysis of protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 in chronic myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Vasiliki; Kontandreopoulou, Elina; Panayiotidis, Panayiotis; Roumelioti, Maria; Angelopoulou, Maria; Kyriazopoulou, Lydia; Diamantopoulos, Panagiotis T; Vaiopoulos, George; Variami, Eleni; Kotsianidis, Ioannis; Athina Viniou, Nora

    2016-05-01

    The protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 dephosphorylates BCR-ABL1, thereby serving as a potential control mechanism of BCR-ABL1 kinase activity. Pathways regulating SHP-1 expression, which could be exploited in the therapeutics of TKI-resistant chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), remain unknown. Moreover, the questions of whether there is any kind of SHP-1 deregulation in CML, contributing to disease initiation or evolution, as well as the question of prognostic significance of SHP-1, have not been definitively answered. This study shows moderately lower SHP-1 mRNA expression in chronic phase CML patients in comparison to healthy individuals and no change in SHP-1 mRNA levels after successful TKI treatment. Mutational analysis of the aminoterminal and phosphatase domains of SHP-1 in patients did not reveal genetic lesions. This study also found no correlation of SHP-1 expression at diagnosis with response to treatment, although a trend for lower SHP-1 expression was noted in the very small non-responders' group of the 3-month therapeutic milestone.

  9. Reversal of metabolic disorders by pharmacological activation of bile acid receptors TGR5 and FXR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Jadhav

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Activation of the bile acid (BA receptors farnesoid X receptor (FXR or G protein-coupled bile acid receptor (GPBAR1; TGR5 improves metabolic homeostasis. In this study, we aim to determine the impact of pharmacological activation of bile acid receptors by INT-767 on reversal of diet-induced metabolic disorders, and the relative contribution of FXR vs. TGR5 to INT-767's effects on metabolic parameters. Methods: Wild-type (WT, Tgr5−/−, Fxr−/−, Apoe−/− and Shp−/− mice were used to investigate whether and how BA receptor activation by INT-767, a semisynthetic agonist for both FXR and TGR5, could reverse diet-induced metabolic disorders. Results: INT-767 reversed HFD-induced obesity dependent on activation of both TGR5 and FXR and also reversed the development of atherosclerosis and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Mechanistically, INT-767 improved hypercholesterolemia by activation of FXR and induced thermogenic genes via activation of TGR5 and/or FXR. Furthermore, INT-767 inhibited several lipogenic genes and de novo lipogenesis in the liver via activation of FXR. We identified peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor γ (PPARγ and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (CEBPα as novel FXR-regulated genes. FXR inhibited PPARγ expression by inducing small heterodimer partner (SHP whereas the inhibition of CEBPα by FXR was SHP-independent. Conclusions: BA receptor activation can reverse obesity, NAFLD, and atherosclerosis by specific activation of FXR or TGR5. Our data suggest that, compared to activation of FXR or TGR5 only, dual activation of both FXR and TGR5 is a more attractive strategy for treatment of common metabolic disorders. Keywords: Farnesoid X receptor, TGR5, Atherosclerosis, Obesity, NAFLD

  10. Electroacupuncture Inhibition of Hyperalgesia in Rats with Adjuvant Arthritis: Involvement of Cannabinoid Receptor 1 and Dopamine Receptor Subtypes in Striatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Shou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electroacupuncture (EA has been regarded as an alternative treatment for inflammatory pain for several decades. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the antinociceptive effect of EA have not been thoroughly clarified. Previous studies have shown that cannabinoid CB1 receptors are related to pain relief. Accumulating evidence has shown that the CB1 and dopamine systems sometimes interact and may operate synergistically in rat striatum. To our knowledge, dopamine D1/D2 receptors are involved in EA analgesia. In this study, we found that repeated EA at Zusanli (ST36 and Kunlun (BL60 acupoints resulted in marked improvements in thermal hyperalgesia. Both western blot assays and FQ-PCR analysis results showed that the levels of CB1 expression in the repeated-EA group were much higher than those in any other group (P=0.001. The CB1-selective antagonist AM251 inhibited the effects of repeated EA by attenuating the increases in CB1 expression. The two kinds of dopamine receptors imparted different actions on the EA-induced CB1 upregulation in AA rat model. These results suggested that the strong activation of the CB1 receptor after repeated EA resulted in the concomitant phenomenon of the upregulation of D1 and D2 levels of gene expression.

  11. Striatal D1- and D2-type dopamine receptors are linked to motor response inhibition in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Chelsea L; Ishibashi, Kenji; Mandelkern, Mark A; Brown, Amira K; Ghahremani, Dara G; Sabb, Fred; Bilder, Robert; Cannon, Tyrone; Borg, Jacqueline; London, Edythe D

    2015-04-15

    Motor response inhibition is mediated by neural circuits involving dopaminergic transmission; however, the relative contributions of dopaminergic signaling via D1- and D2-type receptors are unclear. Although evidence supports dissociable contributions of D1- and D2-type receptors to response inhibition in rats and associations of D2-type receptors to response inhibition in humans, the relationship between D1-type receptors and response inhibition has not been evaluated in humans. Here, we tested whether individual differences in striatal D1- and D2-type receptors are related to response inhibition in human subjects, possibly in opposing ways. Thirty-one volunteers participated. Response inhibition was indexed by stop-signal reaction time on the stop-signal task and commission errors on the continuous performance task, and tested for association with striatal D1- and D2-type receptor availability [binding potential referred to nondisplaceable uptake (BPND)], measured using positron emission tomography with [(11)C]NNC-112 and [(18)F]fallypride, respectively. Stop-signal reaction time was negatively correlated with D1- and D2-type BPND in whole striatum, with significant relationships involving the dorsal striatum, but not the ventral striatum, and no significant correlations involving the continuous performance task. The results indicate that dopamine D1- and D2-type receptors are associated with response inhibition, and identify the dorsal striatum as an important locus of dopaminergic control in stopping. Moreover, the similar contribution of both receptor subtypes suggests the importance of a relative balance between phasic and tonic dopaminergic activity subserved by D1- and D2-type receptors, respectively, in support of response inhibition. The results also suggest that the stop-signal task and the continuous performance task use different neurochemical mechanisms subserving motor response inhibition. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/355990-08$15.00/0.

  12. Basolateral P2X receptors mediate inhibition of NaCl transport in mouse medullary thick ascending limb (mTAL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marques, Rita D; de Bruijn, Pauline I.A.; Sørensen, Mads Vaarby

    2012-01-01

    Extracellular nucleotides regulate epithelial transport via luminal and basolateral P2 receptors. Renal epithelia express multiple P2 receptors, which mediate significant inhibition of solute absorption. Recently, we identified several P2 receptors in the medullary thick ascending limb (m...

  13. Blocking beta 2-adrenergic receptor inhibits dendrite ramification in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qin; Sun, Jin-Xia; Song, Xiang-He; Wang, Jing; Xiong, Cun-Quan; Teng, Fei-Xiang; Gao, Cui-Xiang

    2017-09-01

    Dendrite ramification affects synaptic strength and plays a crucial role in memory. Previous studies revealed a correlation between beta 2-adrenergic receptor dysfunction and Alzheimer's disease (AD), although the mechanism involved is still poorly understood. The current study investigated the potential effect of the selective β 2 -adrenergic receptor antagonist, ICI 118551 (ICI), on Aβ deposits and AD-related cognitive impairment. Morris water maze test results demonstrated that the performance of AD-transgenic (TG) mice treated with ICI (AD-TG/ICI) was significantly poorer compared with NaCl-treated AD-TG mice (AD-TG/NaCl), suggesting that β 2 -adrenergic receptor blockage by ICI might reduce the learning and memory abilities of mice. Golgi staining and immunohistochemical staining revealed that blockage of the β 2 -adrenergic receptor by ICI treatment decreased the number of dendritic branches, and ICI treatment in AD-TG mice decreased the expression of hippocampal synaptophysin and synapsin 1. Western blot assay results showed that the blockage of β 2 -adrenergic receptor increased amyloid-β accumulation by downregulating hippocampal α-secretase activity and increasing the phosphorylation of amyloid precursor protein. These findings suggest that blocking the β 2 -adrenergic receptor inhibits dendrite ramification of hippocampal neurons in a mouse model of AD.

  14. Acute stimulation of brain mu opioid receptors inhibits glucose-stimulated insulin secretion via sympathetic innervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudurí, Eva; Beiroa, Daniel; Stegbauer, Johannes; Fernø, Johan; López, Miguel; Diéguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Rubén

    2016-11-01

    Pancreatic insulin-secreting β-cells express opioid receptors, whose activation by opioid peptides modulates hormone secretion. Opioid receptors are also expressed in multiple brain regions including the hypothalamus, where they play a role in feeding behavior and energy homeostasis, but their potential role in central regulation of glucose metabolism is unknown. Here, we investigate whether central opioid receptors participate in the regulation of insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis in vivo. C57BL/6J mice were acutely treated by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection with specific agonists for the three main opioid receptors, kappa (KOR), delta (DOR) and mu (MOR) opioid receptors: activation of KOR and DOR did not alter glucose tolerance, whereas activation of brain MOR with the specific agonist DAMGO blunted glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), reduced insulin sensitivity, increased the expression of gluconeogenic genes in the liver and, consequently, impaired glucose tolerance. Pharmacological blockade of α2A-adrenergic receptors prevented DAMGO-induced glucose intolerance and gluconeogenesis. Accordingly, DAMGO failed to inhibit GSIS and to impair glucose tolerance in α2A-adrenoceptor knockout mice, indicating that the effects of central MOR activation on β-cells are mediated via sympathetic innervation. Our results show for the first time a new role of the central opioid system, specifically the MOR, in the regulation of insulin secretion and glucose metabolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Activation of GABAB receptors inhibits protein kinase B /Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 signaling

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    Lu Frances Fangjia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Accumulated evidence has suggested that potentiation of cortical GABAergic inhibitory neurotransmission may be a key mechanism in the treatment of schizophrenia. However, the downstream molecular mechanisms related to GABA potentiation remain unexplored. Recent studies have suggested that dopamine D2 receptor antagonists, which are used in the clinical treatment of schizophrenia, modulate protein kinase B (Akt/glycogen synthase kinase (GSK-3 signaling. Here we report that activation of GABAB receptors significantly inhibits Akt/GSK-3 signaling in a β-arrestin-dependent pathway. Agonist stimulation of GABAB receptors enhances the phosphorylation of Akt (Thr-308 and enhances the phosphorylation of GSK-3α (Ser-21/β (Ser-9 in both HEK-293T cells expressing GABAB receptors and rat hippocampal slices. Furthermore, knocking down the expression of β-arrestin2 using siRNA abolishes the GABAB receptor-mediated modulation of GSK-3 signaling. Our data may help to identify potentially novel targets through which GABAB receptor agents may exert therapeutic effects in the treatment of schizophrenia.

  16. Inhibition of amygdaloid dopamine D2 receptors impairs emotional learning measured with fear-potentiated startle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greba, Q; Gifkins, A; Kokkinidis, L

    2001-04-27

    Considerable advances have been made in understanding the neurocircuitry underlying the acquisition and expression of Pavlovian conditioned fear responses. Within the complex cellular and molecular processes mediating fearfulness, amygdaloid dopamine (DA), originating from cells in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the midbrain, is thought to contribute to fear-motivated responding. Considering that blockade of DA D(2) receptors is a common mechanism of action for antipsychotic agents, we hypothesized that inhibition of D(2) receptors in the amygdala may be involved in the antiparanoid effects of these drugs. To assess the role of amygdaloid DA D(2) receptors in aversive emotionality, the D(2) receptor antagonist raclopride was infused into the amygdala prior to Pavlovian fear conditioning. Potentiated startle was used as a behavioral indicator of fear and anxiety. Classical fear conditioning and acoustic startle testing were conducted in a single session allowing for the concomitant assessment of shock reactivity with startle enhancement. Depending on dose, the results found conditioned fear acquisition and retention to be impaired following administration of raclopride into the amygdala. Additionally, the learning deficit was dissociated from shock detection and from fear expression assessed with the shock sensitization of acoustic startle. These findings further refine the known neural mechanisms of amygdala-based emotional learning and memory and were interpreted to suggest that, along with D(1) receptors, D(2) receptors in the amygdala may mediate the formation and the retention of newly-acquired fear associations.

  17. The MADS Box Genes ABS, SHP1, and SHP2 Are Essential for the Coordination of Cell Divisions in Ovule and Seed Coat Development and for Endosperm Formation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Katrin; Bhide, Amey S; Tekleyohans, Dawit G; Wittkop, Benjamin; Snowdon, Rod J; Becker, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Seed formation is a pivotal process in plant reproduction and dispersal. It begins with megagametophyte development in the ovule, followed by fertilization and subsequently coordinated development of embryo, endosperm, and maternal seed coat. Two closely related MADS-box genes, SHATTERPROOF 1 and 2 (SHP1 and SHP2) are involved in specifying ovule integument identity in Arabidopsis thaliana. The MADS box gene ARABIDOPSIS BSISTER (ABS or TT16) is required, together with SEEDSTICK (STK) for the formation of endothelium, part of the seed coat and innermost tissue layer formed by the maternal plant. Little is known about the genetic interaction of SHP1 and SHP2 with ABS and the coordination of endosperm and seed coat development. In this work, mutant and expression analysis shed light on this aspect of concerted development. Triple tt16 shp1 shp2 mutants produce malformed seedlings, seed coat formation defects, fewer seeds, and mucilage reduction. While shp1 shp2 mutants fail to coordinate the timely development of ovules, tt16 mutants show less peripheral endosperm after fertilization. Failure in coordinated division of the innermost integument layer in early ovule stages leads to inner seed coat defects in tt16 and tt16 shp1 shp2 triple mutant seeds. An antagonistic action of ABS and SHP1/SHP2 is observed in inner seed coat layer formation. Expression analysis also indicates that ABS represses SHP1, SHP2, and FRUITFUL expression. Our work shows that the evolutionary conserved Bsister genes are required not only for endothelium but also for endosperm development and genetically interact with SHP1 and SHP2 in a partially antagonistic manner.

  18. The MADS Box Genes ABS, SHP1, and SHP2 Are Essential for the Coordination of Cell Divisions in Ovule and Seed Coat Development and for Endosperm Formation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Ehlers

    Full Text Available Seed formation is a pivotal process in plant reproduction and dispersal. It begins with megagametophyte development in the ovule, followed by fertilization and subsequently coordinated development of embryo, endosperm, and maternal seed coat. Two closely related MADS-box genes, SHATTERPROOF 1 and 2 (SHP1 and SHP2 are involved in specifying ovule integument identity in Arabidopsis thaliana. The MADS box gene ARABIDOPSIS BSISTER (ABS or TT16 is required, together with SEEDSTICK (STK for the formation of endothelium, part of the seed coat and innermost tissue layer formed by the maternal plant. Little is known about the genetic interaction of SHP1 and SHP2 with ABS and the coordination of endosperm and seed coat development. In this work, mutant and expression analysis shed light on this aspect of concerted development. Triple tt16 shp1 shp2 mutants produce malformed seedlings, seed coat formation defects, fewer seeds, and mucilage reduction. While shp1 shp2 mutants fail to coordinate the timely development of ovules, tt16 mutants show less peripheral endosperm after fertilization. Failure in coordinated division of the innermost integument layer in early ovule stages leads to inner seed coat defects in tt16 and tt16 shp1 shp2 triple mutant seeds. An antagonistic action of ABS and SHP1/SHP2 is observed in inner seed coat layer formation. Expression analysis also indicates that ABS represses SHP1, SHP2, and FRUITFUL expression. Our work shows that the evolutionary conserved Bsister genes are required not only for endothelium but also for endosperm development and genetically interact with SHP1 and SHP2 in a partially antagonistic manner.

  19. Inhibition of allergen-induced basophil activation by ASM-024, a nicotinic receptor ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Brittany M; Oliveria, John Paul; Nusca, Graeme M; Smith, Steven G; Beaudin, Sue; Dua, Benny; Watson, Rick M; Assayag, Evelynne Israël; Cormier, Yvon F; Sehmi, Roma; Gauvreau, Gail M

    2014-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) were identified on eosinophils and shown to regulate inflammatory responses, but nAChR expression on basophils has not been explored yet. We investigated surface receptor expression of nAChR α4, α7 and α1/α3/α5 subunits on basophils. Furthermore, we examined the effects of ASM-024, a synthetic nicotinic ligand, on in vitro anti-IgE and in vivo allergen-induced basophil activation. Basophils were enriched from the peripheral blood of allergic donors and the expression of nAChR subunits and muscarinic receptors was determined. Purified basophils were stimulated with anti-IgE in the presence of ASM-024 with or without muscarinic or nicotinic antagonists for the measurement of CD203c expression and histamine release. The effect of 9 days of treatment with 50 and 200 mg ASM-024 on basophil CD203c expression was examined in the blood of mild allergic asthmatics before and after allergen inhalation challenge. nAChR α4, α7 and α1/α3/α5 receptor subunit expression was detected on basophils. Stimulation of basophils with anti-IgE increased CD203c expression and histamine release, which was inhibited by ASM-024 (10(-5) to 10(-)(3) M, p ASM-024 was reversed in the presence of muscarinic and nicotinic antagonists. In subjects with mild asthma, ASM-024 inhalation significantly inhibited basophil CD203c expression measured 24 h after allergen challenge (p = 0.03). This study shows that ASM-024 inhibits IgE- and allergen-induced basophil activation through both nicotinic and muscarinic receptors, and suggests that ASM-024 may be an efficacious agent for modulating allergic asthma responses. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Regulation of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Growth Factor Signaling Pathways by Tyrosine Phosphatase Shp2 in the Retina: A Brief Review

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    Mojdeh Abbasi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available SH2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase-2 (PTPN11 or Shp2 is a ubiquitously expressed protein that plays a key regulatory role in cell proliferation, differentiation and growth factor (GF signaling. This enzyme is well expressed in various retinal neurons and has emerged as an important player in regulating survival signaling networks in the neuronal tissues. The non-receptor phosphatase can translocate to lipid rafts in the membrane and has been implicated to regulate several signaling modules including PI3K/Akt, JAK-STAT and Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK pathways in a wide range of biochemical processes in healthy and diseased states. This review focuses on the roles of Shp2 phosphatase in regulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF neurotrophin signaling pathways and discusses its cross-talk with various GF and downstream signaling pathways in the retina.

  1. The Cellular Prion Protein Prevents Copper-Induced Inhibition of P2X4 Receptors

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    Ramón A. Lorca

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the physiological function of the cellular prion protein (PrPC remains unknown, several evidences support the notion of its role in copper homeostasis. PrPC binds Cu2+ through a domain composed by four to five repeats of eight amino acids. Previously, we have shown that the perfusion of this domain prevents and reverses the inhibition by Cu2+ of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP-evoked currents in the P2X4 receptor subtype, highlighting a modulatory role for PrPC in synaptic transmission through regulation of Cu2+ levels. Here, we study the effect of full-length PrPC in Cu2+ inhibition of P2X4 receptor when both are coexpressed. PrPC expression does not significantly change the ATP concentration-response curve in oocytes expressing P2X4 receptors. However, the presence of PrPC reduces the inhibition by Cu2+ of the ATP-elicited currents in these oocytes, confirming our previous observations with the Cu2+ binding domain. Thus, our observations suggest a role for PrPC in modulating synaptic activity through binding of extracellular Cu2+.

  2. Distinct roles of synaptic and extrasynaptic GABAA receptors in striatal inhibition dynamics

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    Ruixi eLuo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Striatonigral and striatopallidal projecting medium spiny neurons (MSNs express dopamine D1 (D1+ and D2 receptors (D2+, respectively. Both classes receive extensive GABAergic input via expression of synaptic, perisynaptic and extrasynaptic GABAA receptors. The activation patterns of different presynaptic GABAergic neurons produce transient and sustained GABAA receptor-mediated conductance that fulfill distinct physiological roles. We performed single and dual whole cell recordings from striatal neurons in mice expressing fluorescent proteins in interneurons and MSNs. We report specific inhibitory dynamics produced by distinct activation patterns of presynaptic GABAergic neurons as source of synaptic, perisynaptic and extrasynaptic inhibition. Synaptic GABAA receptors in MSNs contain the α2, γ2 and a β subunit. In addition, there is evidence for the developmental increase of the α1 subunit that contributes to faster inhibitory postsynaptic current (IPSC. Tonic GABAergic currents in MSNs from adult mice are carried by extrasynaptic receptors containing the α4 and δ subunit, while in younger mice this current is mediated by receptors that contain the α5 subunit. Both forms of tonic currents are differentially expressed in D1+ and D2+ MSNs. This study extends these findings by relating presynaptic activation with pharmacological analysis of inhibitory conductance in mice where the β3 subunit is conditionally removed in fluorescently labeled D2+ MSNs and in mice with global deletion of the δ subunit. Our results show that responses to low doses of gaboxadol (2μM, a GABAA receptor agonist with preference to δ subunit, are abolished in the δ but not the β3 subunit knock out mice. This suggests that the β3 subunit is not a component of the adult extrasynaptic receptor pool, in contrast to what has been shown for tonic current in young mice. Deletion of the β3 subunit from D2+ MSNs however, removed slow spontaneous IPSCs, implicating its

  3. GABA(B) receptor modulation of feedforward inhibition through hippocampal neurogliaform cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Christopher J; Scott, Ricardo; Rusakov, Dmitri A; Capogna, Marco

    2008-07-02

    Feedforward inhibition of neurons is a fundamental component of information flow control in the brain. We studied the roles played by neurogliaform cells (NGFCs) of stratum lacunosum moleculare of the hippocampus in providing feedforward inhibition to CA1 pyramidal cells. We recorded from synaptically coupled pairs of anatomically identified NGFCs and CA1 pyramidal cells and found that, strikingly, a single presynaptic action potential evoked a biphasic unitary IPSC (uIPSC), consisting of two distinct components mediated by GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptors. A GABA(B) receptor-mediated unitary response has not previously been observed in hippocampal excitatory neurons. The decay of the GABA(A) receptor-mediated response was slow (time constant = 50 ms), and was tightly regulated by presynaptic GABA(B) receptors. Surprisingly, the GABA(B) receptor ligands baclofen and (2S)-3-{[(1S)-1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)ethyl]amino-2-hydroxypropyl}(phenylmethyl)phosphinic acid (CGP55845), while affecting the NGFC-mediated uIPSCs, had no effect on action potential-evoked presynaptic Ca2+ signals monitored in individual axonal boutons of NGFCs with two-photon microscopy. In contrast, baclofen clearly depressed presynaptic Ca2+ transients in non-NGF interneurons. Changes in extracellular Ca2+ concentration that mimicked the effects of baclofen or CGP55845 on uIPSCs significantly altered presynaptic Ca2+ transients. Electrophysiological data suggest that GABA(B) receptors expressed by NGFCs contribute to the dynamic control of the excitatory input to CA1 pyramidal neurons from the temporoammonic path. The NGFC-CA1 pyramidal cell connection therefore provides a unique and subtle mechanism to shape the integration time domain for signals arriving via a major excitatory input to CA1 pyramidal cells.

  4. Effects of protease-activated receptor 1 inhibition on anxiety and fear following status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogovyk, Ruslan; Lunko, Oleksii; Fedoriuk, Mihail; Isaev, Dmytro; Krishtal, Oleg; Holmes, Gregory L; Isaeva, Elena

    2017-02-01

    Protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) is an important contributor to the pathogenesis of a variety of brain disorders associated with a risk of epilepsy development. Using the lithium-pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), we recently showed that inhibition of this receptor during the first ten days after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) results in substantial anti-epileptogenic and neuroprotective effects. As PAR1 is expressed in the central nervous system regions of importance for processing emotional reactions, including amygdala and hippocampus, and TLE is frequently associated with a chronic alteration of the functions of these regions, we tested the hypothesis that PAR1 inhibition could modulate emotionally driven behavioral responses of rats experiencing SE. We showed that SE induces a chronic decrease in the animals' anxiety-related behavior and an increase of locomotor activity. PAR1 inhibition after SE abolished the alteration of the anxiety level but does not affect the increase of locomotor activity in the open field and elevated plus maze tests. Moreover, while PAR1 inhibition produces an impairment of memory recall in the context fear conditioning paradigm in the control group, it substantially improves contextual and cued fear learning in rats experiencing SE. These data suggest that PAR1-dependent signaling is involved in the mechanisms underlying emotional disorders in epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Different mechanisms are involved in the antibody mediated inhibition of ligand binding to the urokinase receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    List, K; Høyer-Hansen, G; Rønne, E

    1999-01-01

    Certain monoclonal antibodies are capable of inhibiting the biological binding reactions of their target proteins. At the molecular level, this type of effect may be brought about by completely different mechanisms, such as competition for common binding determinants, steric hindrance or interfer......Certain monoclonal antibodies are capable of inhibiting the biological binding reactions of their target proteins. At the molecular level, this type of effect may be brought about by completely different mechanisms, such as competition for common binding determinants, steric hindrance......) can be employed as a highly useful tool to characterize the inhibitory mechanism of specific antagonist antibodies. Two inhibitory antibodies against uPAR, mAb R3 and mAb R5, were shown to exhibit competitive and non-competitive inhibition, respectively, of ligand binding to the receptor. The former...

  6. Anterior cingulate serotonin 1B receptor binding is associated with emotional response inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Cunha-Bang, Sofi; Hjordt, Liv Vadskjær; Dam, Vibeke Høyrup

    2017-01-01

    -offender controls, completed an emotional Go/NoGo task requiring inhibition of prepotent motor responses to emotional facial expressions. We also measured cerebral serotonin 1B receptor (5-HT1BR) binding with [11C]AZ10419369 positron emission tomography within regions of the frontal cortex. We hypothesized that 5......-HT1BR would be positively associated with false alarms (failures to inhibit nogo responses) in the context of aversive (angry and fearful) facial expressions. Across groups, we found that frontal cortex 5-HT1BR binding was positively correlated with false alarms when angry faces were go stimuli......Serotonin has a well-established role in emotional processing and is a key neurotransmitter in impulsive aggression, presumably by facilitating response inhibition and regulating subcortical reactivity to aversive stimuli. In this study 44 men, of whom 19 were violent offenders and 25 were non...

  7. PZR coordinates Shp2 Noonan and LEOPARD syndrome signaling in zebrafish and mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paardekooper Overman, Jeroen; Yi, Jae-Sung; Bonetti, Monica; Soulsby, Matthew; Preisinger, Christian; Stokes, Matthew P; Hui, Li; Silva, Jeffrey C; Overvoorde, John; Giansanti, Piero; Heck, Albert J R; Kontaridis, Maria I; den Hertog, Jeroen; Bennett, Anton M

    Noonan syndrome (NS) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by activating mutations in the PTPN11 gene encoding Shp2, which manifests in congenital heart disease, short stature, and facial dysmorphia. The complexity of Shp2 signaling is exemplified by the observation that LEOPARD syndrome (LS)

  8. Gambogic acid inhibits multiple myeloma mediated osteoclastogenesis through suppression of chemokine receptor CXCR4 signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Manoj K; Kale, Vijay P; Song, Chunhua; Sung, Shen-shu; Sharma, Arun K; Talamo, Giampaolo; Dovat, Sinisa; Amin, Shantu G

    2014-10-01

    Bone disease, characterized by the presence of lytic lesions and osteoporosis is the hallmark of multiple myeloma (MM). Stromal cell-derived factor 1α (SDF-1α) and its receptor, CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), has been implicated as a regulator of bone resorption, suggesting that agents that can suppress SDF1α/CXCR4 signaling might inhibit osteoclastogenesis, a process closely linked to bone resorption. We, therefore, investigated whether gambogic acid (GA), a xanthone, could inhibit CXCR4 signaling and suppress osteoclastogenesis induced by MM cells. Through docking studies we predicted that GA directly interacts with CXCR4. This xanthone down-regulates the expression of CXCR4 on MM cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The down-regulation of CXCR4 was not due to proteolytic degradation, but rather GA suppresses CXCR4 mRNA expression by inhibiting nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) DNA binding. This was further confirmed by quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, as GA inhibits p65 binding at the CXCR4 promoter. GA suppressed SDF-1α-induced chemotaxis of MM cells and downstream signaling of CXCR4 by inhibiting phosphorylation of Akt, p38, and Erk1/2 in MM cells. GA abrogated the RANKL-induced differentiation of macrophages to osteoclasts in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In addition, we found that MM cells induced differentiation of macrophages to osteoclasts, and that GA suppressed this process. Importantly, suppression of osteoclastogenesis by GA was mediated through IL-6 inhibition. Overall, our results show that GA is a novel inhibitor of CXCR4 expression and has a strong potential to suppress osteoclastogenesis mediated by MM cells. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Hemin inhibits internalization of transferrin by reticulocytes and promotes phosphorylation of the membrane transferrin receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, T.M.; O'Donnell, M.W.; Aisen, P.; London, I.M.

    1985-01-01

    Addition of hemin to reticulocytes inhibits incorporation of iron from transferrin. Heme also regulates protein synthesis in immature erythroid cells through its effects on phosphorylation of the initiation factor eIF-2. The authors have examined its effects on endocytosis of iron-transferrin and phosphorylation of the transferrin receptor. Hemin reduced iron transport but increased cell-associated transferrin. During uptake of 125 I-labeled transferrin in the steady state, the use of a washing technique to dissociate bound transferrin on the cell membrane showed that radioligand accumulated on the surface of hemin-treated cells. Receptor phosphorylation was investigated by immunoprecipitation of reticulocyte extracts after metabolic labeling with [ 32 P]P/sub i/. In the absence of ligand, phosphorylated receptor was chiefly localized on cell stroma. Exposure to transferrin increased cytosolic phosphorylated receptor from 15-30% to approximately 50% of the total, an effect overcome by hemin treatment. The findings suggest a possible relationship of phosphorylation to endocytosis of the transferrin receptor in reticulocytes

  10. MiR-34a inhibits colon cancer proliferation and metastasis by inhibiting platelet-derived growth factor receptor α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunyan; Wang, Yulin; Lu, Shuming; Zhang, Zhuqing; Meng, Hua; Liang, Lina; Zhang, Yan; Song, Bo

    2015-11-01

    The microRNA (miRNA), miR‑34a is significant in colon cancer progression. In the present study, the role of miR‑34a in colon cancer cell proliferation and metastasis was investigated. It was found that the expression of miR‑34a in colon cancer tissues and cell lines was lower when compared with that of normal tissues and cells. Further research demonstrated that miR‑34a inhibited cell proliferation, induced G1 phase arrest, and suppressed metastasis and epithelial mesenchymal transition in colon cancer cells. Bioinformatic prediction indicated that platelet‑derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRA) was a potential target gene of miR‑34a and a luciferase assay identified that PDGFRA was a novel direct target gene of miR‑34a. In addition, assays of western blot analyses and quantitative reverse‑transcription polymerase chain reaction confirmed that miR‑34a decreased PDGFRA mRNA expression and protein levels in colon cancer cells. Assessment of cellular function indicated that miR‑34a inhibited colon cancer progression via PDGFRA. These findings demonstrate that miR‑34a may act as a negative regulator in colon cancer by targeting PDGFRA.

  11. Procaine rapidly inactivates acetylcholine receptors from Torpedo and competes with agonist for inhibition sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forman, S.A.; Miller, K.W.

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between the high-affinity procaine channel inhibition site and the agonist self-inhibition site on acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) from Torpedo electroplaque was investigated by using rapid 86 Rb + quenched-flux assays at 4 degree C in native AChR-rich vesicles on which 50-60% of ACh activation sites were blocked with α-bungarotoxin (α-BTX). In the presence of channel-activating acetylcholine (ACh) concentrations alone, AChR undergoes one phase of inactivation in under a second. Addition of procaine produces two-phase inactivation similar to that seen with self-inhibiting ACh concentrations rapid inactivation complete in 30-75 ms is followed by fast desensitization at the same k d observed without procaine. The dependence of k r on [procaine] is consistent with a bimolecular association between procaine and its AChR site. Inhibition of AChR function by mixtures of procaine plus self-inhibiting concentrations of ACh or suberyldicholine was studied by reducing the level of α-BTX block in vesicles. The data support a mechanism where procaine binds preferentially to the open-channel AChR state, since no procaine-induced inactivation is observed without agonist and k r 's dependence on [ACh] in channel-activating range closely parallels that of 86 Rb + flux response to ACh

  12. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligand ITE inhibits TGFβ1-induced human myofibroblast differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Geniece M; Xi, Xia; Kulkarni, Ajit A; Olsen, Keith C; Pollock, Stephen J; Baglole, Carolyn J; Gupta, Shikha; Casey, Ann E; Huxlin, Krystel R; Sime, Patricia J; Feldon, Steven E; Phipps, Richard P

    2011-04-01

    Fibrosis can occur in any human tissue when the normal wound healing response is amplified. Such amplification results in fibroblast proliferation, myofibroblast differentiation, and excessive extracellular matrix deposition. Occurrence of these sequelae in organs such as the eye or lung can result in severe consequences to health. Unfortunately, medical treatment of fibrosis is limited by a lack of safe and effective therapies. These therapies may be developed by identifying agents that inhibit critical steps in fibrotic progression; one such step is myofibroblast differentiation triggered by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFβ1). In this study, we demonstrate that TGFβ1-induced myofibroblast differentiation is blocked in human fibroblasts by a candidate endogenous aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligand 2-(1'H-indole-3'-carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester (ITE). Our data show that ITE disrupts TGFβ1 signaling by inhibiting the nuclear translocation of Smad2/3/4. Although ITE functions as an AhR agonist, and biologically persistent AhR agonists, such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, cause severe toxic effects, ITE exhibits no toxicity. Interestingly, ITE effectively inhibits TGFβ1-driven myofibroblast differentiation in AhR(-/-) fibroblasts: Its ability to inhibit TGFβ1 signaling is AhR independent. As supported by the results of this study, the small molecule ITE inhibits myofibroblast differentiation and may be useful clinically as an antiscarring agent. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Midazolam inhibits hippocampal long-term potentiation and learning through dual central and peripheral benzodiazepine receptor activation and neurosteroidogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Tokuda, Kazuhiro; O’Dell, Kazuko A.; Izumi, Yukitoshi; Zorumski, Charles F.

    2010-01-01

    Benzodiazepines (BDZs) enhance γ-aminobutyric acid-A (GABAA) receptor inhibition by direct actions on central BDZ receptors (CBRs). Although some BDZs also bind mitochondrial receptors (translocator protein 18kDa, TSPO) and promote the synthesis of GABA-enhancing neurosteroids, the role of neurosteroids in the clinical effects of BDZs is unknown. In rat hippocampal slices, we compared midazolam, an anesthetic BDZ with clonazepam, an anticonvulsant/anxiolytic BDZ that activates CBRs selectivel...

  14. A novel thromboxane receptor antagonist, nstpbp5185, inhibits platelet aggregation and thrombus formation in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shiu-Wen; Kuo, Heng-Lan; Hsu, Ming-Tsung; Tseng, Yufeng Jane; Lin, Shu-Wha; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Peng, Hui-Chin; Lien, Jin-Cherng; Huang, Tur-Fu

    2016-08-01

    A novel benzimidazole derivative, nstpbp5185, was discovered through in vitro and in vivo evaluations for antiplatelet activity. Thromaboxane receptor (TP) is important in vascular physiology, haemostasis and pathophysiological thrombosis. Nstpbp5185 concentration-dependently inhibited human platelet aggregation caused by collagen, arachidonic acid and U46619. Nstpbp5185 caused a right-shift of the concentration-response curve of U46619 and competitively inhibited the binding of 3H-SQ-29548 to TP receptor expressed on HEK-293 cells, with an IC50 of 0.1 µM, indicating that nstpbp5185 is a TP antagonist. In murine thrombosis models, nstpbp5185 significantly prolonged the latent period in triggering platelet plug formation in mesenteric and FeCl3-induced thrombi formation, and increased the survival rate in pulmonary embolism model with less bleeding than aspirin. This study suggests nstpbp5185, an orally selective anti-thrombotic agent, acting through blockade of TXA2 receptor, may be efficacious for prevention or treatment of pathologic thrombosis.

  15. Oestrogen inhibits human colonic motility by a non-genomic cell membrane receptor-dependent mechanism.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, A M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Classical effects of oestrogen involve activation of target genes after binding nuclear receptors. Oestrogenic effects too rapid for DNA transcription (non-genomic) are known to occur. The effect of oestrogen on colonic motility is unknown despite the prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms in pregnant and premenopausal women. METHODS: Histologically normal colon was obtained from proximal resection margins of colorectal carcinoma specimens. Circular smooth muscle strips were microdissected and suspended in organ baths under 1 g of tension. After equilibration, they were exposed to 17beta-oestradiol (n = 8) or bovine serum albumin (BSA)-conjugated 17beta-oestradiol (n = 8). Fulvestrant, an oestrogen receptor antagonist, was added to some baths (n = 8). Other strips were exposed to calphostin C or cycloheximide. Carbachol was added in increasing concentrations and contractile activity was recorded isometrically. RESULTS: Oestrogen inhibited colonic contractility (mean difference 19.7 per cent; n = 8, P < 0.001). In keeping with non-genomic, rapid-onset steroid action, the effect was apparent within minutes and reversible. It was observed with both 17beta-oestradiol and BSA-conjugated oestrogen, and was not altered by cycloheximide. Effects were inhibited by fulvestrant, suggesting receptor mediation. CONCLUSION: Oestrogen decreases contractility in human colonic smooth muscle by a non-genomic mechanism involving cell membrane coupling.

  16. MiR-125a TNF receptor-associated factor 6 to inhibit osteoclastogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Li-Juan; Liao, Lan; Yang, Li; Li, Yu; Jiang, Tie-Jian

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. In the present study, we found that miR-125a was dramatically down-regulated during macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) induced osteoclastogenesis of circulating CD14+ peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Overexpression of miR-125a in CD14+ PBMCs inhibited osteoclastogenesis, while inhibition of miR-125a promoted osteoclastogenesis. TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), a transduction factor for RANKL/RANK/NFATc1 signal, was confirmed to be a target of miR-125a. EMSA and ChIP assays confirmed that NFATc1 bound to the promoter of the miR-125a. Overexpression of NFATc1 inhibited miR-125a transcription, and block of NFATc1 expression attenuated RANKL-regulated miR-125a transcription. Here, we reported that miR-125a played a biological function in osteoclastogenesis through a novel TRAF6/ NFATc1/miR-125a regulatory feedback loop. It suggests that regulation of miR-125a expression may be a potential strategy for ameliorating metabolic disease. - Highlights: • MiR-125a was significantly down-regulated in osteoclastogenesis of CD14+ PBMCs. • MiR-125a inhibited osteoclast differentiation by targeting TRAF6. • NFATc1 inhibited miR-125a transciption by binding to the promoter of miR-125a. • TRAF6/NFATc1 and miR-125a form a regulatory feedback loop in osteoclastogenesis

  17. Tributyltin and triphenyltin inhibit osteoclast differentiation through a retinoic acid receptor-dependent signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonezawa, Takayuki; Hasegawa, Shin-ichi; Ahn, Jae-Yong; Cha, Byung-Yoon; Teruya, Toshiaki; Hagiwara, Hiromi; Nagai, Kazuo; Woo, Je-Tae

    2007-01-01

    Organotin compounds, such as tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT), have been widely used in agriculture and industry. Although these compounds are known to have many toxic effects, including endocrine-disrupting effects, their effects on bone resorption are unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of organotin compounds, such as monobutyltin (MBT), dibutyltin (DBT), TBT, and TPT, on osteoclast differentiation using mouse monocytic RAW264.7 cells. MBT and DBT had no effects, whereas TBT and TPT dose-dependently inhibited osteoclast differentiation at concentrations of 3-30 nM. Treatment with a retinoic acid receptor (RAR)-specific antagonist, Ro41-5253, restored the inhibition of osteoclastogenesis by TBT and TPT. TBT and TPT reduced receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) induced nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) c1 expression, and the reduction in NFATc1 expression was recovered by Ro41-5253. Our results suggest that TBT and TPT suppress osteoclastogenesis by inhibiting RANKL-induced NFATc1 expression via an RAR-dependent signaling pathway

  18. CDB-4124, a progesterone receptor modulator, inhibits mammary carcinogenesis by suppressing cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiehle, Ronald; Lantvit, Daniel; Yamada, Tohru; Christov, Konstantin

    2011-03-01

    CDB-4124 (Proellex or telapristone acetate) is a modulator of progesterone receptor (PR) signaling, which is currently employed in preclinical studies for prevention and treatment of breast cancer and has been used in clinical studies for treatment of uterine fibroids and endometriosis. Here we provide evidence for its action on steroid hormone-signaling, cell cycle-regulated genes and in vivo on mammary carcinogenesis. When CDB-4124 is given to rats at 200 mg/kg for 24 months, it prevents the development of spontaneous mammary hyperplastic and premalignant lesions. Also, CDB-4124 given as subcutaneous pellets at two different doses suppressed, dose dependently, N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced mammary carcinogenesis. The high dose (30 mg, over 84 days) increased tumor latency from 66 ± 24 days to 87 ± 20 days (P CDB-4124 inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in MNU-induced mammary tumors, which correlated with a decreased proportion of PR(+) tumor cells and with decreased serum progesterone. CDB-4124 did not affect serum estradiol. In a mechanistic study employing T47D cells we found that CDB-4124 suppressed G(1)/G(0)-S transition by inhibiting CDK2 and CDK4 expressions, which correlated with inhibition of estrogen receptor (ER) expression. Taken together, these data indicate that CDB-4124 can suppress the development of precancerous lesions and carcinogen-induced ER(+) mammary tumors in rats, and may have implications for prevention and treatment of human breast cancer.

  19. GLP-1 receptor stimulation depresses heart rate variability and inhibits neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffioen, Kathleen J; Wan, Ruiqian; Okun, Eitan; Wang, Xin; Lovett-Barr, Mary Rachael; Li, Yazhou; Mughal, Mohamed R; Mendelowitz, David; Mattson, Mark P

    2011-01-01

    glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone released from the gut in response to food intake. Whereas GLP-1 acts in the periphery to inhibit glucagon secretion and stimulate insulin release, it also acts in the central nervous system to mediate autonomic control of feeding, body temperature, and cardiovascular function. Because of its role as an incretin hormone, GLP-1 receptor analogs are used as a treatment for type 2 diabetes. Central or peripheral administration of GLP-1 increases blood pressure and heart rate, possibly by activating brainstem autonomic nuclei and increasing vagus nerve activity. However, the mechanism(s) by which GLP-1 receptor stimulation affects cardiovascular function are unknown. We used the long-lasting GLP-1 receptor agonist Exendin-4 (Ex-4) to test the hypothesis that GLP-1 signalling modulates central parasympathetic control of heart rate. using a telemetry system, we assessed heart rate in mice during central Ex-4 administration. Heart rate was increased by both acute and chronic central Ex-4 administration. Spectral analysis indicated that the high frequency and low frequency powers of heart rate variability were diminished by Ex-4 treatment. Finally, Ex-4 decreased both excitatory glutamatergic and inhibitory glycinergic neurotransmission to preganglionic parasympathetic cardiac vagal neurons. these data suggest that central GLP-1 receptor stimulation diminishes parasympathetic modulation of the heart thereby increasing heart rate.

  20. GABA type a receptor trafficking and the architecture of synaptic inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz-Guertin, Joshua M; Jacob, Tija C

    2018-03-01

    Ubiquitous expression of GABA type A receptors (GABA A R) in the central nervous system establishes their central role in coordinating most aspects of neural function and development. Dysregulation of GABAergic neurotransmission manifests in a number of human health disorders and conditions that in certain cases can be alleviated by drugs targeting these receptors. Precise changes in the quantity or activity of GABA A Rs localized at the cell surface and at GABAergic postsynaptic sites directly impact the strength of inhibition. The molecular mechanisms constituting receptor trafficking to and from these compartments therefore dictate the efficacy of GABA A R function. Here we review the current understanding of how GABA A Rs traffic through biogenesis, plasma membrane transport, and degradation. Emphasis is placed on discussing novel GABAergic synaptic proteins, receptor and scaffolding post-translational modifications, activity-dependent changes in GABA A R confinement, and neuropeptide and neurosteroid mediated changes. We further highlight modern techniques currently advancing the knowledge of GABA A R trafficking and clinically relevant neurodevelopmental diseases connected to GABAergic dysfunction. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 78: 238-270, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Chronic ethanol consumption in rats produces opioid antinociceptive tolerance through inhibition of mu opioid receptor endocytosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li He

    Full Text Available It is well known that the mu-opioid receptor (MOR plays an important role in the rewarding properties of ethanol. However, it is less clear how chronic ethanol consumption affects MOR signaling. Here, we demonstrate that rats with prolonged voluntary ethanol consumption develop antinociceptive tolerance to opioids. Signaling through the MOR is controlled at many levels, including via the process of endocytosis. Importantly, agonists at the MOR that promote receptor endocytosis, such as the endogenous peptides enkephalin and β-endorphin, show a reduced propensity to promote antinociceptive tolerance than do agonists, like morphine, which do not promote receptor endocytosis. These observations led us to examine whether chronic ethanol consumption produced opioid tolerance by interfering with MOR endocytosis. Indeed, here we show that chronic ethanol consumption inhibits the endocytosis of MOR in response to opioid peptide. This loss of endocytosis was accompanied by a dramatic decrease in G protein coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2 protein levels after chronic drinking, suggesting that loss of this component of the trafficking machinery could be a mechanism by which endocytosis is lost. We also found that MOR coupling to G-protein was decreased in ethanol-drinking rats, providing a functional explanation for loss of opioid antinociception. Together, these results suggest that chronic ethanol drinking alters the ability of MOR to endocytose in response to opioid peptides, and consequently, promotes tolerance to the effects of opioids.

  2. Mactosylceramide Prevents Glial Cell Overgrowth by Inhibiting Insulin and Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor Signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdøe-Kristensen, Stine; Lund, Viktor K; Wandall, Hans H

    2017-01-01

    , in which the mannosyltransferase Egghead controls conversion of glucosylceramide (GlcCer) to mactosylceramide (MacCer). Lack of elongated GSL in egghead (egh) mutants causes overgrowth of subperineurial glia (SPG), largely due to aberrant activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). However, to what...... of the Drosophila Insulin Receptor (InR) and the FGFR homolog Heartless (Htl) in wild type SPG, and is suppressed by inhibiting Htl and InR activity in egh. Knockdown of GlcCer synthase in the SPG fails to suppress glial overgrowth in egh nerves, and slightly promotes overgrowth in wild type, suggesting that RTK...... hyperactivation is caused by absence of MacCer and not by GlcCer accumulation. We conclude that an early product in GSL biosynthesis, MacCer, prevents inappropriate activation of Insulin and Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptors in Drosophila glia. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  3. A peptide antagonist of the ErbB1 receptor inhibits receptor activation, tumor cell growth and migration in vitro and xenograft tumor growth in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Ruodan; Povlsen, Gro Klitgaard; Soroka, Vladislav

    2010-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor family of receptor tyrosine kinases (ErbBs) plays essential roles in tumorigenesis and cancer disease progression, and therefore has become an attractive target for structure-based drug design. ErbB receptors are activated by ligand-induced homo- and heterodimerization...... constitutes part of the dimerization arm of ErbB3. Inherbin3 binds to the extracellular domains of all four ErbB receptors, with the lowest peptide binding affinity for ErbB4. Inherbin3 functions as an antagonist of epidermal growth factor (EGF)-ErbB1 signaling. We show that Inherbin3 inhibits EGF-induced Erb....... Structural studies have revealed that ErbB receptor dimers are stabilized by receptor-receptor interactions, primarily mediated by a region in the second extracellular domain, termed the "dimerization arm". The present study is the first biological characterization of a peptide, termed Inherbin3, which...

  4. Targeting receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) expression induces apoptosis and inhibits prostate tumor growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elangovan, Indira; Thirugnanam, Sivasakthivel; Chen, Aoshuang; Zheng, Guoxing; Bosland, Maarten C.; Kajdacsy-Balla, André; Gnanasekar, Munirathinam

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Targeting RAGE by RNAi induces apoptosis in prostate cancer cells. ► Silencing RAGE expression abrogates rHMGB1 mediated cell proliferation. ► Down regulation of RAGE by RNAi inhibits PSA secretion of prostate cancer cells. ► Knock down of RAGE abrogates prostate tumor growth in vivo. ► Disruption of RAGE expression in prostate tumor activates death receptors. -- Abstract: Expression of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) plays a key role in the progression of prostate cancer. However, the therapeutic potential of targeting RAGE expression in prostate cancer is not yet evaluated. Therefore in this study, we have investigated the effects of silencing the expression of RAGE by RNAi approach both in vitro and in vivo. The results of this study showed that down regulation of RAGE expression by RNAi inhibited the cell proliferation of androgen-dependent (LNCaP) and androgen-independent (DU-145) prostate cancer cells. Furthermore, targeting RAGE expression resulted in apoptotic elimination of these prostate cancer cells by activation of caspase-8 and caspase-3 death signaling. Of note, the levels of prostate specific antigen (PSA) were also reduced in LNCaP cells transfected with RAGE RNAi constructs. Importantly, the RAGE RNAi constructs when administered in nude mice bearing prostate tumors, inhibited the tumor growth by targeting the expression of RAGE, and its physiological ligand, HMGB1 and by up regulating death receptors DR4 and DR5 expression. Collectively, the results of this study for the first time show that targeting RAGE by RNAi may be a promising alternative therapeutic strategy for treating prostate cancer.

  5. Characterization of niphatenones that inhibit androgen receptor N-terminal domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen A Banuelos

    Full Text Available Androgen ablation therapy causes a temporary reduction in tumor burden in patients with advanced prostate cancer. Unfortunately the malignancy will return to form lethal castration-recurrent prostate cancer (CRPC. The androgen receptor (AR remains transcriptionally active in CRPC in spite of castrate levels of androgens in the blood. AR transcriptional activity resides in its N-terminal domain (NTD. Possible mechanisms of continued AR transcriptional activity may include, at least in part, expression of constitutively active splice variants of AR that lack the C-terminal ligand-binding domain (LBD. Current therapies that target the AR LBD, would not be effective against these AR variants. Currently no drugs are clinically available that target the AR NTD which should be effective against these AR variants as well as full-length AR. Niphatenones were originally isolated and identified in active extracts from Niphates digitalis marine sponge. Here we begin to characterize the mechanism of niphatenones in blocking AR transcriptional activity. Both enantiomers had similar IC50 values of 6 µM for inhibiting the full-length AR in a functional transcriptional assay. However, (S-niphatenone had significantly better activity against the AR NTD compared to (R-niphatenone. Consistent with niphatenones binding to and inhibiting transactivation of AR NTD, niphatenones inhibited AR splice variant. Niphatenone did not affect the transcriptional activity of the related progesterone receptor, but slightly decreased glucocorticoid receptor (GR activity and covalently bound to GR activation function-1 (AF-1 region. Niphatenone blocked N/C interactions of AR without altering either AR protein levels or its intracellular localization in response to androgen. Alkylation with glutathione suggests that niphatenones are not a feasible scaffold for further drug development.

  6. Characterization of Notch1 antibodies that inhibit signaling of both normal and mutated Notch1 receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Aste-Amézaga

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Notch receptors normally play a key role in guiding a variety of cell fate decisions during development and differentiation of metazoan organisms. On the other hand, dysregulation of Notch1 signaling is associated with many different types of cancer as well as tumor angiogenesis, making Notch1 a potential therapeutic target.Here we report the in vitro activities of inhibitory Notch1 monoclonal antibodies derived from cell-based and solid-phase screening of a phage display library. Two classes of antibodies were found, one directed against the EGF-repeat region that encompasses the ligand-binding domain (LBD, and the second directed against the activation switch of the receptor, the Notch negative regulatory region (NRR. The antibodies are selective for Notch1, inhibiting Jag2-dependent signaling by Notch1 but not by Notch 2 and 3 in reporter gene assays, with EC(50 values as low as 5+/-3 nM and 0.13+/-0.09 nM for the LBD and NRR antibodies, respectively, and fail to recognize Notch4. While more potent, NRR antibodies are incomplete antagonists of Notch1 signaling. The antagonistic activity of LBD, but not NRR, antibodies is strongly dependent on the activating ligand. Both LBD and NRR antibodies bind to Notch1 on human tumor cell lines and inhibit the expression of sentinel Notch target genes, including HES1, HES5, and DTX1. NRR antibodies also strongly inhibit ligand-independent signaling in heterologous cells transiently expressing Notch1 receptors with diverse NRR "class I" point mutations, the most common type of mutation found in human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL. In contrast, NRR antibodies failed to antagonize Notch1 receptors bearing rare "class II" or "class III" mutations, in which amino acid insertions generate a duplicated or constitutively sensitive metalloprotease cleavage site. Signaling in T-ALL cell lines bearing class I mutations is partially refractory to inhibitory antibodies as compared to cell

  7. Dopamine inhibition of anterior pituitary adenylate cyclase is mediated through the high-affinity state of the D2 receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgundvaag, B.; George, S.R.

    1985-01-01

    The diterpinoid forskolin stimulated adenylate cyclase activity (measured by conversion of [ 3 H]-ATP to [ 3 H]-cAMP) in anterior pituitary from male and female rats. Inhibition of stimulated adenylate cyclase activity by potent dopaminergic agonists was demonstrable only in female anterior pituitary. The inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity displayed a typically dopaminergic rank order of agonist potencies and could be completely reversed by a specific dopamine receptor antagonist. The IC 50 values of dopamine agonist inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity correlated with equal molarity with the dissociation constant of the high-affinity dopamine agonist-detected receptor binding site and with the IC 50 values for inhibition of prolactin secretion. These findings support the hypothesis that it is the high-affinity form of the D 2 dopamine receptor in anterior pituitary which is responsible for mediating the dopaminergic function of attenuating adenylate cyclase activity. 12 references, 4 figures, 1 table

  8. Cobaltous chloride and hypoxia inhibit aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated responses in breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Shaheen; Liu Shengxi; Stoner, Matthew; Safe, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is expressed in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive ZR-75 breast cancer cells. Treatment with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induces CYP1A1 protein and mRNA levels and also activates inhibitory AhR-ERα crosstalk associated with hormone-induced reporter gene expression. In ZR-75 cells grown under hypoxia, induction of these AhR-mediated responses by TCDD was significantly inhibited. This was not accompanied by decreased nuclear AhR levels or decreased interaction of the AhR complex with the CYP1A1 gene promoter as determined in a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Hypoxia-induced loss of Ah-responsiveness was not associated with induction of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α or other factors that sequester the AhR nuclear translocation (Arnt) protein, and overexpression of Arnt under hypoxia did not restore Ah-responsiveness. The p65 subunit of NFκB which inhibits AhR-mediated transactivation was not induced by hypoxia and was primarily cytosolic in ZR-75 cells grown under hypoxic and normoxic conditions. In ZR-75 cells maintained under hypoxic conditions for 24 h, BRCA1 (an enhancer of AhR-mediated transactivation in breast cancer cells) was significantly decreased and this contributed to loss of Ah-responsiveness. In cells grown under hypoxia for 6 h, BRCA1 was not decreased, but induction of CYP1A1 by TCDD was significantly decreased. Cotreatment of ZR-75 cells with TCDD plus the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide for 6 h enhanced CYP1A1 expression in cells grown under hypoxia and normoxia. These results suggest that hypoxia rapidly induces protein(s) that inhibit Ah-responsiveness and these may be similar to constitutively expressed inhibitors of Ah-responsiveness (under normoxia) that are also inhibited by cycloheximide

  9. Inhibition of thyroid hormone receptor locally in the retina is a therapeutic strategy for retinal degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongwei; Yang, Fan; Butler, Michael R; Belcher, Joshua; Redmond, T Michael; Placzek, Andrew T; Scanlan, Thomas S; Ding, Xi-Qin

    2017-08-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) signaling regulates cell proliferation, differentiation, and metabolism. Recent studies have implicated TH signaling in cone photoreceptor viability. Using mouse models of retinal degeneration, we demonstrated that antithyroid drug treatment and targeting iodothyronine deiodinases (DIOs) to suppress cellular tri-iodothyronine (T3) production or increase T3 degradation preserves cones. In this work, we investigated the effectiveness of inhibition of the TH receptor (TR). Two genes, THRA and THRB , encode TRs; THRB 2 has been associated with cone viability. Using TR antagonists and Thrb2 deletion, we examined the effects of TR inhibition. Systemic and ocular treatment with the TR antagonists NH-3 and 1-850 increased cone density by 30-40% in the Rpe65 -/- mouse model of Leber congenital amaurosis and reduced the number of TUNEL + cells. Cone survival was significantly improved in Rpe65 -/- and Cpfl1 (a model of achromatopsia with Pde6c defect) mice with Thrb2 deletion. Ventral cone density in Cpfl1/Thrb2 -/- and Rpe65 -/- / Thrb2 -/- mice was increased by 1- to 4-fold, compared with age-matched controls. Moreover, the expression levels of TR were significantly higher in the cone-degeneration retinas, suggesting locally elevated TR signaling. This work shows that the effects of antithyroid treatment or targeting DIOs were likely mediated by TRs and that suppressing TR protects cones. Our findings support the view that inhibition of TR locally in the retina is a therapeutic strategy for retinal degeneration management.-Ma, H., Yang, F., Butler, M. R., Belcher, J., Redmond, T. M., Placzek, A. T., Scanlan, T. S., Ding, X.-Q. Inhibition of thyroid hormone receptor locally in the retina is a therapeutic strategy for retinal degeneration. © FASEB.

  10. δ-Tocopherol inhibits receptor tyrosine kinase-induced AKT activation in prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Hong, Jungil; Yang, Chung S

    2016-11-01

    The cancer preventive activity of vitamin E is suggested by epidemiological studies and supported by animal studies with vitamin E forms, γ-tocopherol and δ-tocopherol (δ-T). Several recent large-scale cancer prevention trials with high dose of α-tocopherol, however, yielded disappointing results. Whether vitamin E prevents or promotes cancer is a serious concern. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of action of the different forms of tocopherols would enhance our understanding of this topic. In this study, we demonstrated that δ-T was the most effective tocopherol form in inhibiting prostate cancer cell growth, by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. By profiling the effects of δ-T on the cell signaling using the phospho-kinase array, we found that the most inhibited target was the phosphorylation of AKT on T308. Further study on the activation of AKT by EGFR and IGFR revealed that δ-T attenuated the EGF/IGF-induced activation of AKT (via the phosphorylation of AKT on T308 induced by the activation of PIK3). Expression of dominant active PIK3 and AKT in prostate cancer cell line DU145 in which PIK3, AKT, and PTEN are wild type caused the cells to be reflectory to the inhibition of δ-T, supporting that δ-T inhibits the PIK3-mediated activation of AKT. Our data also suggest that δ-T interferes with the EGF-induced EGFR internalization, which leads to the inhibition of the receptor tyrosine kinase-dependent activation of AKT. In summary, our results revealed a novel mechanism of δ-T in inhibiting prostate cancer cell growth, supporting the cancer preventive activity δ-T. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Direct protein-protein interaction between PLCγ1 and the bradykinin B2 receptor-Importance of growth conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchene, Johan; Chauhan, Sharmila D.; Lopez, Frederic; Pecher, Christiane; Esteve, Jean-Pierre; Girolami, Jean-Pierre; Bascands, Jean-Loup; Schanstra, Joost P.

    2005-01-01

    Recently, we have described a novel protein-protein interaction between the G-protein coupled bradykinin B2 receptor and tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 via an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif (ITIM) sequence located in the C-terminal part of the B2 receptor and the Src homology (SH2) domains of SHP-2. Here we show that phospholipase C (PLC)γ1, another SH2 domain containing protein, can also interact with this ITIM sequence. Using surface plasmon resonance analysis, we observed that PLCγ1 interacted with a peptide containing the phosphorylated form of the bradykinin B2 receptor ITIM sequence. In CHO cells expressing the wild-type B2 receptor, bradykinin-induced transient recruitment and activation of PLCγ1. Interestingly, this interaction was only observed in quiescent and not in proliferating cells. Mutation of the key ITIM residue abolished this interaction with and activation of PLCγ1. Finally we also identified bradykinin-induced PLCγ1 recruitment and activation in primary culture renal mesangial cells

  12. Halothane inhibits the cholinergic-receptor-mediated influx of calcium in primary culture of bovine adrenal medulla cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashima, N.; Wada, A.; Izumi, F.

    1986-01-01

    Adrenal medulla cells are cholinoceptive cells. Stimulation of the acetylcholine receptor causes the influx of Ca to the cells, and Ca acts as the coupler of the stimulus-secretion coupling. In this study, the authors investigated the effects of halothane on the receptor-mediated influx of 45 Ca using cultured bovine adrenal medulla cells. Halothane at clinical concentrations (0.5-2%) inhibited the influx of 45 Ca caused by carbachol, with simultaneous inhibition of catecholamine secretion. The influx of 45 Ca and the secretion of catecholamines caused by K depolarization were inhibited by a large concentration of Mg, which competes with Ca at Ca channels, but not inhibited by halothane. Inhibition of the 45 Ca influx by halothane was not overcome by increase in the carbachol concentration. Inhibition of the 45 Ca influx by halothane was examined in comparison with that caused by a large concentration of Mg by the application of Scatchard analysis as the function of the external Ca concentration. Halothane decreased the maximal influx of 45 Ca without altering the apparent kinetic constant of Ca to Ca channels. On the contrary, a large concentration of Mg increased the apparent kinetic constant without altering the maximal influx of 45 Ca. Based on these findings, the authors suggest that inhibition of the 45 Ca influx by halothane was not due to the direct competitive inhibition of Ca channels, nor to the competitive antagonism of agonist-receptor interaction. As a possibility, halothane seems to inhibit the receptor-mediated activation of Ca channels through the interference of coupling between the receptor and Ca channels

  13. Dual angiotensin receptor and neprilysin inhibition as an alternative to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition in patients with chronic systolic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McMurray, John J V; Packer, Milton; Desai, Akshay S

    2013-01-01

    and natriuresis, inhibit abnormal growth, suppress the RAAS and sympathetic nervous system, and augment parasympathetic activity. The best understood of these mediators are the natriuretic peptides which are metabolized by the enzyme neprilysin. LCZ696 belongs to a new class of drugs, the angiotensin receptor...

  14. Inhibition of the CSF-1 receptor sensitizes ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rong; Jin, Hao; Jin, Congcong; Huang, Xuefeng; Lin, Jinju; Teng, Yili

    2018-03-01

    Ovarian cancer is one of the most common female malignancies, and cisplatin-based chemotherapy is routinely used in locally advanced ovarian cancer patients. Acquired or de novo cisplatin resistance remains the barrier to patient survival, and the mechanisms of cisplatin resistance are still not well understood. In the current study, we found that colony-stimulating-factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R) was upregulated in cisplatin-resistant SK-OV-3 and CaoV-3 cells. Colony-stimulating-factor-1 receptor knockdown suppressed proliferation and enhanced apoptosis in cisplatin-resistant SK-OV-3 and CaoV-3 cells. However, CSF-1R overexpression had inverse effects. While parental SK-OV-3 and CaoV-3 cells were more resistant to cisplatin after CSF-1R overexpression, CSF-1R knockdown in SK-OV-3 and CaoV-3 cells promoted cisplatin sensitivity. Overexpression and knockdown studies also showed that CSF-1R significantly promoted active AKT and ERK1/2 signalling pathways in cisplatin-resistant cells. Furthermore, a combination of cisplatin and CSF-1R inhibitor effectively inhibited tumour growth in xenografts. Taken together, our results provide the first evidence that CSF-1R inhibition can sensitize cisplatin-refractory ovarian cancer cells. This study may help to increase understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying cisplatin resistance in tumours. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Inhibition of androgen receptor by decoy molecules delays progression to castration-recurrent prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Kyung Myung

    Full Text Available Androgen receptor (AR is a member of the steroid receptor family and a therapeutic target for all stages of prostate cancer. AR is activated by ligand binding within its C-terminus ligand-binding domain (LBD. Here we show that overexpression of the AR NTD to generate decoy molecules inhibited both the growth and progression of prostate cancer in castrated hosts. Specifically, it was shown that lentivirus delivery of decoys delayed hormonal progression in castrated hosts as indicated by increased doubling time of tumor volume, prolonged time to achieve pre-castrate levels of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA and PSA nadir. These clinical parameters are indicative of delayed hormonal progression and improved therapeutic response and prognosis. Decoys reduced the expression of androgen-regulated genes that correlated with reduced in situ interaction of the AR with androgen response elements. Decoys did not reduce levels of AR protein or prevent nuclear localization of the AR. Nor did decoys interact directly with the AR. Thus decoys did not inhibit AR transactivation by a dominant negative mechanism. This work provides evidence that the AR NTD plays an important role in the hormonal progression of prostate cancer and supports the development of AR antagonists that target the AR NTD.

  16. Fisetin inhibits liver cancer growth in a mouse model: Relation to dopamine receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang-Feng; Long, Hai-Jiao; Miao, Xiong-Ying; Liu, Guo-Li; Yao, Hong-Liang

    2017-07-01

    Fisetin (3,3',4',7-tetrahydroxyflavone), a natural abundant flavonoid, is produced in different vegetables and fruits. Fisetin has been reported to relate to various positive biological effects, including anti-proliferative, anticancer, anti-oxidative and neuroprotective effects. Dopamine receptors (DRs) belonging to G protein‑coupled receptor family, are known as the target of ~50% of all modern medicinal drugs. DRs consist of various proteins, functioning as transduction of intracellular signals for extracellular stimuli. We found that fisetin performed as DR2 agonist to suppress liver cancer cells proliferation, migration and invasion. Caspase-3 signaling was activated to induce apoptosis for fisetin administration. Furthermore, TGF‑β1 was also inhibited in fisetin-treated liver cancer cells, reducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Additionally, fisetin downregulated VEGFR1, p-ERK1/2, p38 and pJNK, ameliorating liver cancer progression. In vivo, the orthotopically implanted tumors from mice were inhibited by fisetin adminisatration accompanied by prolonged survival rate and higher levels of dopamine. Together, the results indicated a novel therapeutic strategy to suppress liver cancer progression associated with DR2 regulation, indicating that dopamine might be of importance in liver cancer progression.

  17. Inhibition of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3-dependent lung adenocarcinoma with a human monoclonal antibody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjun Yin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Activating mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3 have been identified in multiple types of human cancer and in congenital birth defects. In human lung cancer, fibroblast growth factor 9 (FGF9, a high-affinity ligand for FGFR3, is overexpressed in 10% of primary resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC specimens. Furthermore, in a mouse model where FGF9 can be induced in lung epithelial cells, epithelial proliferation and ensuing tumorigenesis is dependent on FGFR3. To develop new customized therapies for cancers that are dependent on FGFR3 activation, we have used this mouse model to evaluate a human monoclonal antibody (D11 with specificity for the extracellular ligand-binding domain of FGFR3, that recognizes both human and mouse forms of the receptor. Here, we show that D11 effectively inhibits signaling through FGFR3 in vitro, inhibits the growth of FGFR3-dependent FGF9-induced lung adenocarcinoma in mice, and reduces tumor-associated morbidity. Given the potency of FGF9 in this mouse model and the absolute requirement for signaling through FGFR3, this study validates the D11 antibody as a potentially useful and effective reagent for treating human cancers or other pathologies that are dependent on activation of FGFR3.

  18. STC1 interference on calcitonin family of receptors signaling during osteoblastogenesis via adenylate cyclase inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terra, Silvia R; Cardoso, João Carlos R; Félix, Rute C; Martins, Leo Anderson M; Souza, Diogo Onofre G; Guma, Fatima C R; Canário, Adelino Vicente M; Schein, Vanessa

    2015-03-05

    Stanniocalcin 1 (STC1) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) are involved in bone formation/remodeling. Here we investigate the effects of STC1 on functional heterodimer complex CALCRL/RAMP1, expression and activity during osteoblastogenesis. STC1 did not modify CALCRL and ramp1 gene expression during osteoblastogenesis when compared to controls. However, plasma membrane spatial distribution of CALCRL/RAMP1 was modified in 7-day pre-osteoblasts exposed to either CGRP or STC1, and both peptides induced CALCRL and RAMP1 assembly. CGRP, but not STC1 stimulated cAMP accumulation in 7-day osteoblasts and in CALCRL/RAMP1 transfected HEK293 cells. Furthermore, STC1 inhibited forskolin stimulated cAMP accumulation of HEK293 cells, but not in CALCRL/RAMP1 transfected HEK293 cells. However, STC1 inhibited cAMP accumulation in calcitonin receptor (CTR) HEK293 transfected cells stimulated by calcitonin. In conclusion, STC1 signals through inhibitory G-protein modulates CGRP receptor spatial localization during osteoblastogenesis and may function as a regulatory factor interacting with calcitonin peptide members during bone formation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Lactobacillus bulgaricus OLL1181 activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor pathway and inhibits colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamura, Takeyuki; Harama, Daisuke; Fukumoto, Suguru; Nakamura, Yuki; Shimokawa, Naomi; Ishimaru, Kayoko; Ikegami, Shuji; Makino, Seiya; Kitamura, Masanori; Nakao, Atsuhito

    2011-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway has an important role in the regulation of inflammatory responses. Most recently, we have shown that the activation of the AhR pathway by a potent AhR agonist inhibits the development of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis, a model of human ulcerative colitis, by the induction of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the large intestine. Because several strains of probiotic lactic acid bacteria have been reported to inhibit DSS-induced colitis by unidentified mechanisms, we hypothesized that particular strains of lactic acid bacterium might have the potential to activate the AhR pathway, thereby inhibiting DSS-induced colitis. This study investigated whether there are specific lactic acid bacterial strains that can activate the AhR pathway, and if so, whether this AhR-activating potential is associated with suppression of DSS-induced colitis. By using AhR signaling reporter cells, we found that Lactobacillus bulgaricus OLL1181 had the potential to activate the AhR pathway. OLL1181 also induced the mRNA expression of cytochrome P450 family 1A1 (CYP1A1), a target gene of the AhR pathway, in human colon cells, which was inhibited by the addition of an AhR antagonist, α-naphthoflavon (αNF). In addition, mice treated orally with OLL1181 showed an increase in CYP1A1 mRNA expression in the large intestine and amelioration of DSS-induced colitis. Thus, OLL1181 can induce activation of the intestinal AhR pathway and inhibit DSS-induced colitis in mice. This strain of lactic acid bacterium has therefore the potential to activate the AhR pathway, which may be able to suppress colitis. PMID:21321579

  20. Purinergic receptor antagonists inhibit odorant-mediated CREB phosphorylation in sustentacular cells of mouse olfactory epithelium.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dooley, Ruth

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Extracellular nucleotides have long been known to play neuromodulatory roles and to be involved in intercellular signalling. In the olfactory system, ATP is released by olfactory neurons, and exogenous ATP can evoke an increase in intracellular calcium concentration in sustentacular cells, the nonneuronal supporting cells of the olfactory epithelium. Here we investigate the hypothesis that olfactory neurons communicate with sustentacular cells via extracellular ATP and purinergic receptor activation. RESULTS: Here we show that exposure of mice to a mixture of odorants induced a significant increase in the levels of the transcription factor CREB phosphorylated at Ser-133 in the nuclei of both olfactory sensory neurons and sustentacular cells. This activation was dependent on adenylyl cyclase III-mediated olfactory signaling and on activation of P2Y purinergic receptors on sustentacular cells. Purinergic receptor antagonists inhibited odorant-dependent CREB phosphorylation specifically in the nuclei of the sustentacular cells. CONCLUSION: Our results point to a possible role for extracellular nucleotides in mediating intercellular communication between the neurons and sustentacular cells of the olfactory epithelium in response to odorant exposure. Maintenance of extracellular ionic gradients and metabolism of noxious chemicals by sustentacular cells may therefore be regulated in an odorant-dependent manner by olfactory sensory neurons.

  1. Purinergic receptor antagonists inhibit odorant-mediated CREB phosphorylation in sustentacular cells of mouse olfactory epithelium

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dooley, Ruth

    2011-08-22

    Abstract Background Extracellular nucleotides have long been known to play neuromodulatory roles and to be involved in intercellular signalling. In the olfactory system, ATP is released by olfactory neurons, and exogenous ATP can evoke an increase in intracellular calcium concentration in sustentacular cells, the nonneuronal supporting cells of the olfactory epithelium. Here we investigate the hypothesis that olfactory neurons communicate with sustentacular cells via extracellular ATP and purinergic receptor activation. Results Here we show that exposure of mice to a mixture of odorants induced a significant increase in the levels of the transcription factor CREB phosphorylated at Ser-133 in the nuclei of both olfactory sensory neurons and sustentacular cells. This activation was dependent on adenylyl cyclase III-mediated olfactory signaling and on activation of P2Y purinergic receptors on sustentacular cells. Purinergic receptor antagonists inhibited odorant-dependent CREB phosphorylation specifically in the nuclei of the sustentacular cells. Conclusion Our results point to a possible role for extracellular nucleotides in mediating intercellular communication between the neurons and sustentacular cells of the olfactory epithelium in response to odorant exposure. Maintenance of extracellular ionic gradients and metabolism of noxious chemicals by sustentacular cells may therefore be regulated in an odorant-dependent manner by olfactory sensory neurons.

  2. Phosphorylation inhibits DNA-binding of alternatively spliced aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kewley, Robyn J.; Whitelaw, Murray L.

    2005-01-01

    The basic helix-loop-helix/PER-ARNT-SIM homology (bHLH/PAS) transcription factor ARNT (aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator) is a key component of various pathways which induce the transcription of cytochrome P450 and hypoxia response genes. ARNT can be alternatively spliced to express Alt ARNT, containing an additional 15 amino acids immediately N-terminal to the DNA-binding basic region. Here, we show that ARNT and Alt ARNT proteins are differentially phosphorylated by protein kinase CKII in vitro. Phosphorylation had an inhibitory effect on DNA-binding to an E-box probe by Alt ARNT, but not ARNT, homodimers. This inhibitory phosphorylation occurs through Ser77. Moreover, a point mutant, Alt ARNT S77A, shows increased activity on an E-box reporter gene, consistent with Ser77 being a regulatory site in vivo. In contrast, DNA binding by an Alt ARNT/dioxin receptor heterodimer to the xenobiotic response element is not inhibited by phosphorylation with CKII, nor does Alt ARNT S77A behave differently from wild type Alt ARNT in the context of a dioxin receptor heterodimer

  3. Purinergic receptor antagonists inhibit odorant-mediated CREB phosphorylation in sustentacular cells of mouse olfactory epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatt Hanns

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extracellular nucleotides have long been known to play neuromodulatory roles and to be involved in intercellular signalling. In the olfactory system, ATP is released by olfactory neurons, and exogenous ATP can evoke an increase in intracellular calcium concentration in sustentacular cells, the nonneuronal supporting cells of the olfactory epithelium. Here we investigate the hypothesis that olfactory neurons communicate with sustentacular cells via extracellular ATP and purinergic receptor activation. Results Here we show that exposure of mice to a mixture of odorants induced a significant increase in the levels of the transcription factor CREB phosphorylated at Ser-133 in the nuclei of both olfactory sensory neurons and sustentacular cells. This activation was dependent on adenylyl cyclase III-mediated olfactory signaling and on activation of P2Y purinergic receptors on sustentacular cells. Purinergic receptor antagonists inhibited odorant-dependent CREB phosphorylation specifically in the nuclei of the sustentacular cells. Conclusion Our results point to a possible role for extracellular nucleotides in mediating intercellular communication between the neurons and sustentacular cells of the olfactory epithelium in response to odorant exposure. Maintenance of extracellular ionic gradients and metabolism of noxious chemicals by sustentacular cells may therefore be regulated in an odorant-dependent manner by olfactory sensory neurons.

  4. Diurnal inhibition of NMDA-EPSCs at rat hippocampal mossy fibre synapses through orexin-2 receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perin, Martina; Longordo, Fabio; Massonnet, Christine; Welker, Egbert; Lüthi, Anita

    2014-01-01

    Diurnal release of the orexin neuropeptides orexin-A (Ox-A, hypocretin-1) and orexin-B (Ox-B, hypocretin-2) stabilises arousal, regulates energy homeostasis and contributes to cognition and learning. However, whether cellular correlates of brain plasticity are regulated through orexins, and whether they do so in a time-of-day-dependent manner, has never been assessed. Immunohistochemically we found sparse but widespread innervation of hippocampal subfields through Ox-A- and Ox-B-containing fibres in young adult rats. The actions of Ox-A were studied on NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-mediated excitatory synaptic transmission in acute hippocampal slices prepared around the trough (Zeitgeber time (ZT) 4–8, corresponding to 4–8 h into the resting phase) and peak (ZT 23) of intracerebroventricular orexin levels. At ZT 4–8, exogenous Ox-A (100 nm in bath) inhibited NMDA receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents (NMDA-EPSCs) at mossy fibre (MF)–CA3 (to 55.6 ± 6.8% of control, P = 0.0003) and at Schaffer collateral–CA1 synapses (70.8 ± 6.3%, P = 0.013), whereas it remained ineffective at non-MF excitatory synapses in CA3. Ox-A actions were mediated postsynaptically and blocked by the orexin-2 receptor (OX2R) antagonist JNJ10397049 (1 μm), but not by orexin-1 receptor inhibition (SB334867, 1 μm) or by adrenergic and cholinergic antagonists. At ZT 23, inhibitory effects of exogenous Ox-A were absent (97.6 ± 2.9%, P = 0.42), but reinstated (87.2 ± 3.3%, P = 0.002) when endogenous orexin signalling was attenuated for 5 h through i.p. injections of almorexant (100 mg kg−1), a dual orexin receptor antagonist. In conclusion, endogenous orexins modulate hippocampal NMDAR function in a time-of-day-dependent manner, suggesting that they may influence cellular plasticity and consequent variations in memory performance across the sleep–wake cycle. PMID:25085886

  5. PKCɛ mediates substance P inhibition of GABAA receptors-mediated current in rat dorsal root ganglion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Yang; Ma, Ke-tao; Shi, Wen-yan; Wang, Ying-zi; Si, Jun-qiang

    2015-02-01

    The mechanism underlying the modulatory effect of substance P (SP) on GABA-activated response in rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons was investigated. In freshly dissociated rat DRG neurons, whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to record GABA-activated current and sharp electrode intracellular recording technique was used to record GABA-induced membrane depolarization. Application of GABA (1-1000 μmol/L) induced an inward current in a concentration-dependent manner in 114 out of 127 DRG neurons (89.8 %) examined with whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. Bath application of GABA (1-1000 μmol/L) evoked a depolarizing response in 236 out of 257 (91.8%) DRG neurons examined with intracellular recordings. Application of SP (0.001-1 μmol/L) suppressed the GABA-activated inward current and membrane depolarization. The inhibitory effects were concentration-dependent and could be blocked by the selective neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptors antagonist spantide but not by L659187 and SR142801 (1 μmol/L, n=7), selective antagonists of NK2 and NK3. The inhibitory effect of SP was significantly reduced by the calcium chelator BAPTA-AM, phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor U73122, and PKC inhibitor chelerythrine, respectively. The PKA inhibitor H-89 did not affect the SP effect. Remarkably, the inhibitory effect of SP on GABA-activated current was nearly completely removed by a selective PKCε inhibitor epilon-V1-2 but not by safingol and LY333531, selective inhibitors of PKCα and PKCβ. Our results suggest that NK1 receptor mediates SP-induced inhibition of GABA-activated current and membrane depolarization by activating intracellular PLC-Ca²⁺-PKCε cascade. SP might regulate the excitability of peripheral nociceptors through inhibition of the "pre-synaptic inhibition" evoked by GABA, which may explain its role in pain and neurogenic inflammation.

  6. Acute inhibition of selected membrane-proximal mouse T cell receptor signaling by mitochondrial antagonists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwangmi Kim

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available T cells absorb nanometric membrane vesicles, prepared from plasma membrane of antigen presenting cells, via dual receptor/ligand interactions of T cell receptor (TCR with cognate peptide/major histocompatibility complex (MHC plus lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1 with intercellular adhesion molecule 1. TCR-mediated signaling for LFA-1 activation is also required for the vesicle absorption. Exploiting those findings, we had established a high throughput screening (HTS platform and screened a library for isolation of small molecules inhibiting the vesicle absorption. Follow-up studies confirmed that treatments (1 hour with various mitochondrial antagonists, including a class of anti-diabetic drugs (i.e., Metformin and Phenformin, resulted in ubiquitous inhibition of the vesicle absorption without compromising viability of T cells. Further studies revealed that the mitochondrial drug treatments caused impairment of specific membrane-proximal TCR signaling event(s. Thus, activation of Akt and PLC-gamma1 and entry of extracellular Ca(2+ following TCR stimulation were attenuated while polymerization of monomeric actins upon TCR triggering progressed normally after the treatments. Dynamic F-actin rearrangement concurring with the vesicle absorption was also found to be impaired by the drug treatments, implying that the inhibition by the drug treatments of downstream signaling events (and the vesicle absorption could result from lack of directional relocation of signaling and cell surface molecules. We also assessed the potential application of mitochondrial antagonists as immune modulators by probing effects of the long-term drug treatments (24 hours on viability of resting primary T cells and cell cycle progression of antigen-stimulated T cells. This study unveils a novel regulatory mechanism for T cell immunity in response to environmental factors having effects on mitochondrial function.

  7. Inhibition of Protease-activated Receptor 1 Ameliorates Intestinal Radiation Mucositis in a Preclinical Rat Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Junru; Kulkarni, Ashwini [Division of Radiation Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Chintala, Madhu [Schering-Plough Research Institute, Kenilworth, New Jersey (United States); Fink, Louis M. [Nevada Cancer Institute, Las Vegas, Nevada (United States); Hauer-Jensen, Martin, E-mail: mhjensen@life.uams.edu [Division of Radiation Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States); Surgery Service, Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System, Little Rock, Arkansas (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine, using a specific small-molecule inhibitor of protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) signaling, whether the beneficial effect of thrombin inhibition on radiation enteropathy development is due to inhibition of blood clotting or to cellular (PAR1-mediated) thrombin effects. Methods and Materials: Rats underwent fractionated X-irradiation (5 Gy Multiplication-Sign 9) of a 4-cm small-bowel segment. Early radiation toxicity was evaluated in rats receiving PAR1 inhibitor (SCH602539, 0, 10, or 15 mg/kg/d) from 1 day before to 2 weeks after the end of irradiation. The effect of PAR1 inhibition on development of chronic intestinal radiation fibrosis was evaluated in animals receiving SCH602539 (0, 15, or 30 mg/kg/d) until 2 weeks after irradiation, or continuously until termination of the experiment 26 weeks after irradiation. Results: Blockade of PAR1 ameliorated early intestinal toxicity, with reduced overall intestinal radiation injury (P=.002), number of myeloperoxidase-positive (P=.03) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive (P=.04) cells, and collagen III accumulation (P=.005). In contrast, there was no difference in delayed radiation enteropathy in either the 2- or 26-week administration groups. Conclusion: Pharmacological blockade of PAR1 seems to reduce early radiation mucositis but does not affect the level of delayed intestinal radiation fibrosis. Early radiation enteropathy is related to activation of cellular thrombin receptors, whereas platelet activation or fibrin formation may play a greater role in the development of delayed toxicity. Because of the favorable side-effect profile, PAR1 blockade should be further explored as a method to ameliorate acute intestinal radiation toxicity in patients undergoing radiotherapy for cancer and to protect first responders and rescue personnel in radiologic/nuclear emergencies.

  8. Adrenergic receptors inhibit TRPV1 activity in the dorsal root ganglion neurons of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Yumi; Manabe, Miki; Kitamura, Naoki; Shibuya, Izumi

    2018-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) is a polymodal receptor channel that responds to multiple types of stimuli, such as heat, acid, mechanical pressure and some vanilloids. Capsaicin is the most commonly used vanilloid to stimulate TRPV1. TRPV1 channels are expressed in dorsal root ganglion neurons that extend to Aδ- and C-fibers and have a role in the transduction of noxious inputs to the skin into the electrical signals of the sensory nerve. Although noradrenergic nervous systems, including the descending antinociceptive system and the sympathetic nervous system, are known to modulate pain sensation, the functional association between TRPV1 and noradrenaline in primary sensory neurons has rarely been examined. In the present study, we examined the effects of noradrenaline on capsaicin-evoked currents in cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons of the rat by the whole-cell voltage clamp method. Noradrenaline at concentrations higher than 0.1 pM significantly reduced the amplitudes of the inward capsaicin currents recorded at -60 mV holding potential. This inhibitory action was reversed by either yohimbine (an α2 antagonist, 10 nM) or propranolol (a β antagonist, 10 nM). The α2 agonists, clonidine (1 pM) and dexmedetomidine (1 pM) inhibited capsaicin currents, and yohimbine (1 nM) reversed the effects of clonidine. The inhibitory action of noradrenaline was not seen in the neurons pretreated with pertussis toxin (100 μg/ml for 24 h) and the neurons dialyzed intracellularly with guanosine 5'- [β-thio] diphosphate (GDPβS, 200 μM), the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A (250 U/ml) or okadaic acid (1 μM). These results suggest that noradrenaline directly acts on dorsal root ganglion neurons to inhibit the activity of TRPV1 depending on the activation of α2-adrenoceptors followed by the inhibition of the adenylate cyclase/cAMP/protein kinase A pathway.

  9. Inhibition of the Receptor Tyrosine Kinase AXL Restores Paclitaxel Chemosensitivity in Uterine Serous Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palisoul, Marguerite L; Quinn, Jeanne M; Schepers, Emily; Hagemann, Ian S; Guo, Lei; Reger, Kelsey; Hagemann, Andrea R; McCourt, Carolyn K; Thaker, Premal H; Powell, Matthew A; Mutch, David G; Fuh, Katherine C

    2017-12-01

    Uterine serous cancer (USC) is aggressive, and the majority of recurrent cases are chemoresistant. Because the receptor tyrosine kinase AXL promotes invasion and metastasis of USC and is implicated in chemoresistance in other cancers, we assessed the role of AXL in paclitaxel resistance in USC, determined the mechanism of action, and sought to restore chemosensitivity by inhibiting AXL in vitro and in vivo We used short hairpin RNAs and BGB324 to knock down and inhibit AXL. We assessed sensitivity of USC cell lines to paclitaxel and measured paclitaxel intracellular accumulation in vitro in the presence or absence of AXL. We also examined the role of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in AXL-mediated paclitaxel resistance. Finally, we treated USC xenografts with paclitaxel, BGB324, or paclitaxel plus BGB324 and monitored tumor burden. AXL expression was higher in chemoresistant USC patient tumors and cell lines than in chemosensitive tumors and cell lines. Knockdown or inhibition of AXL increased sensitivity of USC cell lines to paclitaxel in vitro and increased cellular accumulation of paclitaxel. AXL promoted chemoresistance even in cells that underwent the EMT in vitro Finally, in vivo studies of combination treatment with BGB324 and paclitaxel showed a greater than 51% decrease in tumor volume after 2 weeks of treatment when compared with no treatment or single-agent treatments ( P USC. Mol Cancer Ther; 16(12); 2881-91. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. Flavonoids Suppress Pseudomonas aeruginosa Virulence through Allosteric Inhibition of Quorum-sensing Receptors*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paczkowski, Jon E.; Mukherjee, Sampriti; McCready, Amelia R.; Cong, Jian-Ping; Aquino, Christopher J.; Kim, Hahn; Henke, Brad R.; Smith, Chari D.; Bassler, Bonnie L.

    2017-01-01

    Quorum sensing is a process of cell-cell communication that bacteria use to regulate collective behaviors. Quorum sensing depends on the production, detection, and group-wide response to extracellular signal molecules called autoinducers. In many bacterial species, quorum sensing controls virulence factor production. Thus, disrupting quorum sensing is considered a promising strategy to combat bacterial pathogenicity. Several members of a family of naturally produced plant metabolites called flavonoids inhibit Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation by an unknown mechanism. Here, we explore this family of molecules further, and we demonstrate that flavonoids specifically inhibit quorum sensing via antagonism of the autoinducer-binding receptors, LasR and RhlR. Structure-activity relationship analyses demonstrate that the presence of two hydroxyl moieties in the flavone A-ring backbone are essential for potent inhibition of LasR/RhlR. Biochemical analyses reveal that the flavonoids function non-competitively to prevent LasR/RhlR DNA binding. Administration of the flavonoids to P. aeruginosa alters transcription of quorum sensing-controlled target promoters and suppresses virulence factor production, confirming their potential as anti-infectives that do not function by traditional bacteriocidal or bacteriostatic mechanisms. PMID:28119451

  11. Pax6 represses androgen receptor-mediated transactivation by inhibiting recruitment of the coactivator SPBP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianne Elvenes

    Full Text Available The androgen receptor (AR has a central role in development and maintenance of the male reproductive system and in the etiology of prostate cancer. The transcription factor Pax6 has recently been reported to act as a repressor of AR and to be hypermethylated in prostate cancer cells. SPBP is a transcriptional regulator that previously has been shown to enhance the activity of Pax6. In this study we have identified SPBP to act as a transcriptional coactivator of AR. We also show that Pax6 inhibits SPBP-mediated enhancement of AR activity on the AR target gene probasin promoter, a repression that was partly reversed by increased expression of SPBP. Enhanced expression of Pax6 reduced the amount of SPBP associated with the probasin promoter when assayed by ChIP in HeLa cells. We mapped the interaction between both AR and SPBP, and AR and Pax6 to the DNA-binding domains of the involved proteins. Further binding studies revealed that Pax6 and SPBP compete for binding to AR. These results suggest that Pax6 represses AR activity by displacing and/or inhibiting recruitment of coactivators to AR target promoters. Understanding the mechanism for inhibition of AR coactivators can give rise to molecular targeted drugs for treatment of prostate cancer.

  12. Technical basis to describe and document the use of the E-600 and SHP-380 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hensley, J.R.

    1997-06-01

    This technical basis document describes and documents the parameters under which the Eberline E-600 ratemeter and the associated SHP-380 detector can be operated to quantify alpha and beta contamination levels. 3 refs., 3 tabs

  13. The theory and practice of 100 pilot SHP-based rural electrification counties in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Gaorong [Organization of the United Nations, Beijing (China). International Centre of Small Hydroelectric Power Plants

    1995-07-01

    This document presents the theory and practice of 100 pilot small hydroelectric power plants (SHP) based rural electrification counties in China. The document reports the research contents, methodology and results, and the pilot benefit analysis and evaluation.

  14. R+-methanandamide inhibits tracheal response to endogenously released acetylcholine via capsazepine-sensitive receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieri, Paola; Martinotti, Enrica; Testai, Lara; Adinolfi, Barbara; Calderone, Vincenzo; Breschi, Maria Cristina

    2003-01-10

    The effects of cannabinoid drugs on the cholinergic response evoked by electrical field stimulation (0.2 ms pulse width, 20 V amplitude, 10 Hz, 7.5 s train duration) in guinea-pig tracheal preparations were investigated. The stable analogue of the endocannabinoid anandamide, R(+)-methanandamide (10(-7)-10(-4) M), produced a dose-dependent inhibition (up to 27+/-5% of control) of electrical field stimulation-mediated atropine-sensitive response. This effect was not blocked by the selective cannabinoid CB(1) receptor antagonist N-(piperidin-1-yl)-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3 carboxamide hydrochloride (SR 141716A; 10(-6) M), and was not reproduced with the cannabinoid CB(1)/CB(2) receptor agonist R(+)-[2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-[(morpholinyl)methyl]pyrrolo [1,2,3-de]-1,4-benzoxazin-6-yl]-(1-naphthalenyl)methanone mesylate) (WIN 55,212-2; 10(-8)-10(-5) M) or the cannabinoid CB(2) receptor selective agonist 1-propyl-2-methyl-3-(1-naphthoyl)indole (JWH-015; 10(-8)-10(-5) M); it was, on the contrary, antagonized by the vanilloid antagonist 2-[2-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl-amino-thiocarbonyl]-7,8-dihydroxy-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-2 benzazepine (capsazepine; 10(-6) M). At the postjunctional level, neither R(+)-methanandamide nor WIN 55,212-2 nor JWH-015 did affect tracheal contractions induced by exogenous acetylcholine (10(-6) M). An inhibitory vanilloid receptor-mediated effect on the cholinergic response evoked by electrical stimulation was confirmed with the vanilloid agonist capsaicin, at doses (3-6 x 10(-8) M) which poorly influenced the basal smooth muscle tone of trachea. In conclusion, our data indicate that in guinea-pig trachea (a) neither CB(1) nor CB(2) cannabinoid receptor-mediated modulation of acetylcholine release occurs; (b) vanilloid VR1-like receptors appear involved in R(+)-methanandamide inhibitory activity on the cholinergic response to electrical field stimulation.

  15. Involvement of direct inhibition of NMDA receptors in the effects of sigma-receptor ligands on glutamate neurotoxicity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, H; Hashino, A; Kume, T; Katsuki, H; Kaneko, S; Akaike, A

    2000-09-15

    This study was performed to examine the roles of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor/phencyclidine (PCP) channel complex in the protective effects of sigma-receptor ligands against glutamate neurotoxicity in cultured cortical neurons derived from fetal rats. A 1-h exposure of cultures to glutamate caused a marked loss of viability, as determined by Trypan blue exclusion. This acute neurotoxicity of glutamate was prevented by NMDA receptor antagonists. Expression of sigma(1) receptor mRNA in cortical cultures was confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). sigma Receptor ligands with affinity for NMDA receptor channels including the PCP site, such as (+)-N-allylnormetazocine ((+)-SKF10,047), haloperidol, and R(-)-N-(3-phenyl-1-propyl)-1-phenyl-2-aminopropane ((-)-PPAP), prevented glutamate neurotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner. In contrast, other sigma-receptor ligands without affinity for NMDA receptors, such as carbetapentane and R(+)-3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-N-propylpiperidine ((+)-3-PPP), did not show neuroprotective effects. Putative endogenous sigma receptor ligands such as pregnenolone, progesterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone did not affect glutamate neurotoxicity. The protective effects of (+)-SKF10,047, haloperidol, and (-)-PPAP were not affected by the sigma(1) receptor antagonist rimcazole. These results suggested that a direct interaction with NMDA receptors but not with sigma receptors plays a crucial role in the neuroprotective effects of sigma receptor ligands with affinity for NMDA receptors.

  16. microRNA-150 inhibits the formation of macrophage foam cells through targeting adiponectin receptor 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jing [Department of Geratory, Linzi District People’s Hospital of Zibo City, Zibo, Shandong (China); Zhang, Suhua, E-mail: drsuhuangzhang@qq.com [Department of HealthCare, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University (Qingdao), Qingdao City, Qingdao (China)

    2016-08-05

    Transformation of macrophages into foam cells plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to determine the expression and biological roles of microRNA (miR)-150 in the formation of macrophage foam cells and to identify its functional target(s). Exposure to 50 μg/ml oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) led to a significant upregulation of miR-150 in THP-1 macrophages. Overexpression of miR-150 inhibited oxLDL-induced lipid accumulation in THP-1 macrophages, while knockdown of miR-150 enhanced lipid accumulation. apoA-I- and HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux was increased by 66% and 43%, respectively, in miR-150-overexpressing macrophages relative to control cells. In contrast, downregulation of miR-150 significantly reduced cholesterol efflux from oxLDL-laden macrophages. Bioinformatic analysis and luciferase reporter assay revealed adiponectin receptor 2 (AdipoR2) as a direct target of miR-150. Small interfering RNA-mediated downregulation of AdipoR2 phenocopied the effects of miR-150 overexpression, reducing lipid accumulation and facilitating cholesterol efflux in oxLDL-treated THP-1 macrophages. Knockdown of AdipoR2 induced the expression of proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), liver X receptor alpha (LXRα), ABCA1, and ABCG1. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of PPARγ or LXRα impaired AdipoR2 silencing-induced upregulation of ABCA1 and ABCG1. Taken together, our results indicate that miR-150 can attenuate oxLDL-induced lipid accumulation in macrophages via promotion of cholesterol efflux. The suppressive effects of miR-150 on macrophage foam cell formation are mediated through targeting of AdipoR2. Delivery of miR-150 may represent a potential approach to prevent macrophage foam cell formation in atherosclerosis. -- Highlights: •miR-150 inhibits macrophage foam cell formation. •miR-150 accelerates cholesterol efflux from oxLDL-laden macrophages. •miR-150 suppresses macrophage foam cell

  17. PTP1B and SHP2 in POMC neurons reciprocally regulate energy balance in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banno, Ryoichi; Zimmer, Derek; De Jonghe, Bart C.; Atienza, Marybless; Rak, Kimberly; Yang, Wentian; Bence, Kendra K.

    2010-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) and SH2 domain–containing protein tyrosine phosphatase–2 (SHP2) have been shown in mice to regulate metabolism via the central nervous system, but the specific neurons mediating these effects are unknown. Here, we have shown that proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neuron–specific deficiency in PTP1B or SHP2 in mice results in reciprocal effects on weight gain, adiposity, and energy balance induced by high-fat diet. Mice with POMC neuron–specific deletion of the gene encoding PTP1B (referred to herein as POMC-Ptp1b–/– mice) had reduced adiposity, improved leptin sensitivity, and increased energy expenditure compared with wild-type mice, whereas mice with POMC neuron–specific deletion of the gene encoding SHP2 (referred to herein as POMC-Shp2–/– mice) had elevated adiposity, decreased leptin sensitivity, and reduced energy expenditure. POMC-Ptp1b–/– mice showed substantially improved glucose homeostasis on a high-fat diet, and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies revealed that insulin sensitivity in these mice was improved on a standard chow diet in the absence of any weight difference. In contrast, POMC-Shp2–/– mice displayed impaired glucose tolerance only secondary to their increased weight gain. Interestingly, hypothalamic Pomc mRNA and α–melanocyte-stimulating hormone (αMSH) peptide levels were markedly reduced in POMC-Shp2–/– mice. These studies implicate PTP1B and SHP2 as important components of POMC neuron regulation of energy balance and point to what we believe to be a novel role for SHP2 in the normal function of the melanocortin system. PMID:20160350

  18. SHP1 Regulates Bone Mass by Directing Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menghui Jiang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Osteoblasts and adipocytes are derived from a common precursor, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. Alterations in the normal fate of differentiating MSCs are involved in the development of obesity and osteoporosis. Here, we report that viable motheaten (mev mice, which are deficient in the SH2-domain-containing phosphatase-1 (SHP1, develop osteoporosis spontaneously. Consistently, MSCs from mev/mev mice exhibit significantly reduced osteogenic potential and greatly increased adipogenic potential. When MSCs were transplanted into nude mice, SHP1-deficient MSCs resulted in diminished bone formation compared with wild-type MSCs. SHP1 was found to bind to GSK3β and suppress its kinase activity by dephosphorylating pY216, thus resulting in β-catenin stabilization. Mice, in which SHP1 was deleted in MSCs using SHP1fl/flDermo1-cre, displayed significantly decreased bone mass and increased adipose tissue. Taken together, these results suggest a possible role for SHP1 in controlling tissue homeostasis through modulation of MSC differentiation via Wnt signaling regulation.

  19. MECHANICAL VIBRATION INHIBITS OSTEOCLAST FORMATION BY REDUCING DC-STAMP RECEPTOR EXPRESSION IN OSTEOCLAST PRECURSOR CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, R.N.; Voglewede, P.A.; Liu, D.

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that physical inactivity leads to loss of muscle mass, but it also causes bone loss. Mechanistically, osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption have recently been shown to be regulated by vibration. However, the underlying mechanism behind the inhibition of osteoclast formation is yet unknown. Therefore, we investigated whether mechanical vibration of osteoclast precursor cells affects osteoclast formation by the involvement of fusion-related molecules such as dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP), and P2X7 receptor (P2X7R). RAW264.7 (a murine osteoclastic-like cell line) cells were treated with 20 ng/ml receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL). For 3 consecutive days, the cells were subjected to 1 hour of mechanical vibration with 20 µm displacement at a frequency of 4 Hz and compared to the control cells that were treated under the same condition but without the vibration. After 5 days of culture, osteoclast formation was determined. Gene expression of DC-STAMP and P2X7R by RAW264.7 cells were determined after 1 hour mechanical vibration, while protein production of the DC-STAMP was determined after 6 hours of post incubation after vibration. As a result, mechanical vibration of RAW264.7 cells inhibited the formation of osteoclasts. Vibration down-regulated DC-STAMP gene expression by 1.6-fold in the presence of RANKL and by 1.4-fold in the absence of RANKL. Additionally, DC-STAMP protein production was also down-regulated by 1.4-fold in the presence of RANKL and by 1.2-fold in the absence of RANKL in RAW264.7 cells in response to mechanical vibration. However, vibration did not affect P2X7R gene expression. Mouse anti-DC-STAMP antibody inhibited osteoclast formation in the absence of vibration. Our results suggest that mechanical vibration of osteoclast precursor cells reduce DC-STAMP expression in osteoclast precursor cells leading to the inhibition of osteoclast formation. PMID:23994170

  20. Mechanical vibration inhibits osteoclast formation by reducing DC-STAMP receptor expression in osteoclast precursor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Rishikesh N; Voglewede, Philip A; Liu, Dawei

    2013-12-01

    It is well known that physical inactivity leads to loss of muscle mass, but it also causes bone loss. Mechanistically, osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption have recently been shown to be regulated by vibration. However, the underlying mechanism behind the inhibition of osteoclast formation is yet unknown. Therefore, we investigated whether mechanical vibration of osteoclast precursor cells affects osteoclast formation by the involvement of fusion-related molecules such as dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP) and P2X7 receptor (P2X7R). RAW264.7 (a murine osteoclastic-like cell line) cells were treated with 20ng/ml receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL). For 3 consecutive days, the cells were subjected to 1h of mechanical vibration with 20μm displacement at a frequency of 4Hz and compared to the control cells that were treated under the same condition but without the vibration. After 5days of culture, osteoclast formation was determined. Gene expression of DC-STAMP and P2X7R by RAW264.7 cells was determined after 1h of mechanical vibration, while protein production of the DC-STAMP was determined after 6h of postincubation after vibration. As a result, mechanical vibration of RAW264.7 cells inhibited the formation of osteoclasts. Vibration down-regulated DC-STAMP gene expression by 1.6-fold in the presence of RANKL and by 1.4-fold in the absence of RANKL. Additionally, DC-STAMP protein production was also down-regulated by 1.4-fold in the presence of RANKL and by 1.2-fold in the absence of RANKL in RAW264.7 cells in response to mechanical vibration. However, vibration did not affect P2X7R gene expression. Mouse anti-DC-STAMP antibody inhibited osteoclast formation in the absence of vibration. Our results suggest that mechanical vibration of osteoclast precursor cells reduces DC-STAMP expression in osteoclast precursor cells leading to the inhibition of osteoclast formation. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Inhibition of estrogen-responsive gene activation by the retinoid X receptor beta: evidence for multiple inhibitory pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segars, J H; Marks, M S; Hirschfeld, S; Driggers, P H; Martinez, E; Grippo, J F; Brown, M; Wahli, W; Ozato, K

    1993-04-01

    The retinoid X receptor beta (RXR beta; H-2RIIBP) forms heterodimers with various nuclear hormone receptors and binds multiple hormone response elements, including the estrogen response element (ERE). In this report, we show that endogenous RXR beta contributes to ERE binding activity in nuclear extracts of the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. To define a possible regulatory role of RXR beta regarding estrogen-responsive transcription in breast cancer cells, RXR beta and a reporter gene driven by the vitellogenin A2 ERE were transfected into estrogen-treated MCF-7 cells. RXR beta inhibited ERE-driven reporter activity in a dose-dependent and element-specific fashion. This inhibition occurred in the absence of the RXR ligand 9-cis retinoic acid. The RXR beta-induced inhibition was specific for estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated ERE activation because inhibition was observed in ER-negative MDA-MB-231 cells only following transfection of the estrogen-activated ER. No inhibition of the basal reporter activity was observed. The inhibition was not caused by simple competition of RXR beta with the ER for ERE binding, since deletion mutants retaining DNA binding activity but lacking the N-terminal or C-terminal domain failed to inhibit reporter activity. In addition, cross-linking studies indicated the presence of an auxiliary nuclear factor present in MCF-7 cells that contributed to RXR beta binding of the ERE. Studies using known heterodimerization partners of RXR beta confirmed that RXR beta/triiodothyronine receptor alpha heterodimers avidly bind the ERE but revealed the existence of another triiodothyronine-independent pathway of ERE inhibition. These results indicate that estrogen-responsive genes may be negatively regulated by RXR beta through two distinct pathways.

  2. Targeting Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Receptor Inhibits Pancreatic Cancer Growth and Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramani, Ramadevi; Lopez-Valdez, Rebecca; Arumugam, Arunkumar; Nandy, Sushmita; Boopalan, Thiyagarajan; Lakshmanaswamy, Rajkumar

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal cancers. Increasing incidence and mortality indicates that there is still much lacking in detection and management of the disease. This is partly due to a lack of specific symptoms during early stages of the disease. Several growth factor receptors have been associated with pancreatic cancer. Here, we have investigated if an RNA interference approach targeted to IGF-IR could be effective and efficient against pancreatic cancer growth and metastasis. For that, we evaluated the effects of IGF-1R inhibition using small interfering RNA (siRNAs) on tumor growth and metastasis in HPAC and PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cell lines. We found that silencing IGF-1R inhibits pancreatic cancer growth and metastasis by blocking key signaling pathways such AKT/PI3K, MAPK, JAK/STAT and EMT. Silencing IGF-1R resulted in an anti-proliferative effect in PANC-1 and HPAC pancreatic cancer cell lines. Matrigel invasion, transwell migration and wound healing assays also revealed a role for IGF-1R in metastatic properties of pancreatic cancer. These results were further confirmed using Western blotting analysis of key intermediates involved in proliferation, epithelial mesenchymal transition, migration, and invasion. In addition, soft agar assays showed that silencing IGF-1R also blocks the colony forming capabilities of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro. Western blots, as well as, flow cytometric analysis revealed the induction of apoptosis in IGF-1R silenced cells. Interestingly, silencing IGF-1R also suppressed the expression of insulin receptor β. All these effects together significantly control pancreatic cancer cell growth and metastasis. To conclude, our results demonstrate the significance of IGF-1R in pancreatic cancer. PMID:24809702

  3. Autoantibodies against Muscarinic Type 3 Receptor in Sjögren's Syndrome Inhibit Aquaporin 5 Trafficking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung Ha; Gauna, Adrienne E.; Perez, Geidys; Park, Yun-jong; Pauley, Kaleb M.; Kawai, Toshihisa; Cha, Seunghee

    2013-01-01

    Sjögren's syndrome (SjS) is a chronic autoimmune disease that mainly targets the salivary and lacrimal glands. It has been controversial whether anti-muscarinic type 3 receptor (α-M3R) autoantibodies in patients with SjS inhibit intracellular trafficking of aquaporin-5 (AQP5), water transport protein, leading to secretory dysfunction. To address this issue, GFP-tagged human AQP5 was overexpressed in human salivary gland cells (HSG-hAQP5) and monitored AQP5 trafficking to the plasma membrane following carbachol (CCh, M3R agonist) stimulation. AQP5 trafficking was indeed mediated by M3R stimulation, shown in partial blockage of trafficking by M3R-antagonist 4-DAMP. HSG-hAQP5 pre-incubated with SjS plasma for 24 hours significantly reduced AQP5 trafficking with CCh, compared with HSG-hAQP5 pre-incubated with healthy control (HC) plasma. This inhibition was confirmed by monoclonal α-M3R antibody and pre-absorbed plasma. Interestingly, HSG-hAQP5 pre-incubated with SjS plasma showed no change in cell volume, compared to the cells incubated with HC plasma showing shrinkage by twenty percent after CCh-stimulation. Our findings clearly indicate that binding of anti-M3R autoantibodies to the receptor, which was verified by immunoprecipitation, suppresses AQP5 trafficking to the membrane and contribute to impaired fluid secretion in SjS. Our current study urges further investigations of clinical associations between SjS symptoms, such as degree of secretory dysfunction, cognitive impairment, and/or bladder irritation, and different profiles (titers, isotypes, and/or specificity) of anti-M3R autoantibodies in individuals with SjS. PMID:23382834

  4. Liver X receptor activation inhibits PC-3 prostate cancer cells via the beta-catenin pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youlin, Kuang; Li, Zhang; Weiyang, He; Jian, Kang; Siming, Liang; Xin, Gou

    2017-03-01

    Liver X receptors (LXRs) are nuclear receptors family of ligand-dependent transcription factors that play a crucial role in regulating cholesterol metabolism and inflammation. Recent studies show that LXR agonists exhibit anti-cancer activities in a variety of cancer cell lines including prostate. To further identify the potential mechanisms of LXRα activation on prostate cancer, we investigated the effect of LXR agonist T0901317 on PC3 prostate cancer cell and in which activity of beta-catenin pathway involved. Prostate cancer PC3 cells were transfected with LXR-a siRNA and treated with LXR activator T0901317. qRT-PCR and western blot were used to detect the LXR-a expression. beta-catenin, cyclin D1 and c-MYC were analyzed by western blot. Cell apoptosis was examined by flow cytometry and Cell proliferation was assessed by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay. Cell migration was detected by Transwell chambers. Data showed that T0901317 significantly inhibited PC3 cell proliferation as well as invasion and increased apoptosis in vitro. Furthermore, we found that LXRα activation induced the reduction of beta-catenin expression in PC3 cells, and this inhibitory effect could be totally abolished when cells were treated with LXRα. Meanwhile, the expression of beta-catenin target gene cyclin D1 and c-MYC were also decreased. This study provided additional evidence that LXR activation inhibited PC-3 prostate cancer cells via suppressing beta-catenin pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Inhibition of fibroblast growth factor receptor with AZD4547 mitigates juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Tran; New, Jacob; Jones, Joel W; Usman, Shireen; Yalamanchali, Sreeya; Tawfik, Ossama; Hoover, Larry; Bruegger, Dan E; Thomas, Sufi Mary

    2017-10-01

    Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) is a benign tumor that presents in adolescent males. Although surgical excision is the mainstay of treatment, recurrences complicate treatment. There is a need to develop less invasive approaches for management. JNA tumors are composed of fibroblasts and vascular endothelial cells. We identified fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in JNA-derived fibroblasts. FGFR influences fibroblast proliferation and VEGF is necessary for angiogenesis. We hypothesized that targeting FGFR would mitigate JNA fibroblast proliferation, invasion, and migration, and that targeting the VEGF receptor would attenuate endothelial tubule formation. After informed consent, fibroblasts from JNA explants of 3 patients were isolated. Fibroblasts were treated with FGFR inhibitor AZD4547, 0 to 25 μg/mL for 72 hours and proliferation was quantified using CyQuant assay. Migration and invasion of JNA were assessed using 24-hour transwell assays with subsequent fixation and quantification. Mitigation of FGFR and downstream signaling was evaluated by immunoblotting. Tubule formation was assessed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) treated with vehicle control (dimethylsulfoxide [DMSO]) or semaxanib (SU5416) as well as in serum-free media (SFM) or JNA conditioned media (CM). Tubule length was compared between treatment groups. Compared to control, AZD4547 inhibited JNA fibroblast proliferation, migration, and invasion through inhibition of FGFR and downstream signaling, specifically phosphorylation of - p44/42 mitogen activated protein kinase (p44/42 MAPK). JNA fibroblast CM significantly increased HUVEC tubule formation (p = 0.0039). AZD4547 effectively mitigates FGFR signaling and decreases JNA fibroblast proliferation, migration, and invasion. SU5416 attenuated JNA fibroblast-induced tubule formation. AZD4547 may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of JNA. © 2017 ARS

  6. Piperlongumine inhibits atherosclerotic plaque formation and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation by suppressing PDGF receptor signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Dong Ju [Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Kim, Soo Yeon [Division of Life Science, Korea Basic Science Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Han, Seong Su [University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Iowa City, IA (United States); Kim, Chan Woo [Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Department of Bioinspired Science, Ehwa Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kumar, Sandeep [Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Park, Byeoung Soo [Nanotoxtech Co., Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sung Eun [Division of Applied Biology and Chemistry, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Yeo Pyo [College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Hanjoong, E-mail: hjo@emory.edu [Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Department of Bioinspired Science, Ehwa Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young Hyun, E-mail: pyh012@sch.ac.kr [Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Natural Sciences, Soonchunhyang University, Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anti-atherogenic effect of PL was examined using partial carotid ligation model in ApoE KO mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PL prevented atherosclerotic plaque development, VSMCs proliferation, and NF-{kappa}B activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Piperlongumine reduced vascular smooth muscle cell activation through PDGF-R{beta} and NF-{kappa}B-signaling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PL may serve as a new therapeutic molecule for atherosclerosis treatment. -- Abstract: Piperlongumine (piplartine, PL) is an alkaloid found in the long pepper (Piper longum L.) and has well-documented anti-platelet aggregation, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer properties; however, the role of PL in prevention of atherosclerosis is unknown. We evaluated the anti-atherosclerotic potential of PL in an in vivo murine model of accelerated atherosclerosis and defined its mechanism of action in aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in vitro. Local treatment with PL significantly reduced atherosclerotic plaque formation as well as proliferation and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) activation in an in vivo setting. PL treatment in VSMCs in vitro showed inhibition of migration and platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB)-induced proliferation to the in vivo findings. We further identified that PL inhibited PDGF-BB-induced PDGF receptor beta activation and suppressed downstream signaling molecules such as phospholipase C{gamma}1, extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 and Akt. Lastly, PL significantly attenuated activation of NF-{kappa}B-a downstream transcriptional regulator in PDGF receptor signaling, in response to PDGF-BB stimulation. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate a novel, therapeutic mechanism by which PL suppresses atherosclerosis plaque formation in vivo.

  7. Soluble Form of Canine Transferrin Receptor Inhibits Canine Parvovirus Infection In Vitro and In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jiexia; Pan, Sumin; Liang, Shuang; Zhong, Zhenyu; He, Ying; Lin, Hongyu; Li, Wenyan; Wang, Liyue; Li, Xiujin; Zhong, Fei

    2013-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) disease is an acute, highly infectious disease threatening the dog-raising industry. So far there are no effective therapeutic strategies to control this disease. Although the canine transferrin receptor (TfR) was identified as a receptor for CPV infection, whether extracellular domain of TfR (called soluble TfR (sTfR)) possesses anti-CPV activities remains elusive. Here, we used the recombinant sTfR prepared from HEK293T cells with codon-optimized gene structure to investigate its anti-CPV activity both in vitro and in vivo. Our results indicated that codon optimization could significantly improve sTfR expression in HEK293T cells. The prepared recombinant sTfR possessed a binding activity to both CPV and CPV VP2 capsid proteins and significantly inhibited CPV infection of cultured feline F81 cells and decreased the mortality of CPV-infected dogs, which indicates that the sTfR has the anti-CPV activity both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:24089666

  8. Soluble Form of Canine Transferrin Receptor Inhibits Canine Parvovirus Infection In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiexia Wen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Canine parvovirus (CPV disease is an acute, highly infectious disease threatening the dog-raising industry. So far there are no effective therapeutic strategies to control this disease. Although the canine transferrin receptor (TfR was identified as a receptor for CPV infection, whether extracellular domain of TfR (called soluble TfR (sTfR possesses anti-CPV activities remains elusive. Here, we used the recombinant sTfR prepared from HEK293T cells with codon-optimized gene structure to investigate its anti-CPV activity both in vitro and in vivo. Our results indicated that codon optimization could significantly improve sTfR expression in HEK293T cells. The prepared recombinant sTfR possessed a binding activity to both CPV and CPV VP2 capsid proteins and significantly inhibited CPV infection of cultured feline F81 cells and decreased the mortality of CPV-infected dogs, which indicates that the sTfR has the anti-CPV activity both in vitro and in vivo.

  9. Blocking oxytocin receptors inhibits vaginal marking to male odors in female Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Luis A; Albers, H Elliott; Petrulis, Aras

    2010-12-02

    In Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), precopulatory behaviors such as vaginal scent marking are essential for attracting a suitable mate. Vaginal marking is dependent on forebrain areas implicated in the neural regulation of reproductive behaviors in rodents, including the medial preoptic/anterior hypothalamus (MPOA-AH). Within MPOA-AH, the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) acts to facilitate copulation (lordosis), as well as ultrasonic vocalizations towards males. It is not known, however, if OT in this area also facilitates vaginal marking. In the present study, a specific oxytocin receptor antagonist (OTA) was injected into MPOA-AH of intact female Syrian hamsters to determine if oxytocin receptor-dependent signaling is critical for the normal expression of vaginal marking elicited by male, female, and clean odors. OTA injections significantly inhibited vaginal marking in response to male odors compared with vehicle injections. There was no effect of OTA on marking in response to either female or clean odors. When injected into the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), a nearby region to MPOA-AH, OTA was equally effective in decreasing marking. Finally, the effects of OTA appear to be specific to vaginal marking, as OTA injections in MPOA-AH or BNST did not alter general locomotor activity, flank marking, or social odor investigation. Considered together, these results suggest that OT in MPOA-AH and/or BNST normally facilitates male odor-induced vaginal marking, providing further evidence that OT generally supports prosocial interactions among conspecifics. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Structural basis for subtype-specific inhibition of the P2X7 receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karasawa, Akira; Kawate, Toshimitsu (Cornell)

    2016-12-09

    The P2X7 receptor is a non-selective cation channel activated by extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Chronic activation of P2X7 underlies many health problems such as pathologic pain, yet we lack effective antagonists due to poorly understood mechanisms of inhibition. Here we present crystal structures of a mammalian P2X7 receptor complexed with five structurally-unrelated antagonists. Unexpectedly, these drugs all bind to an allosteric site distinct from the ATP-binding pocket in a groove formed between two neighboring subunits. This novel drug-binding pocket accommodates a diversity of small molecules mainly through hydrophobic interactions. Functional assays propose that these compounds allosterically prevent narrowing of the drug-binding pocket and the turret-like architecture during channel opening, which is consistent with a site of action distal to the ATP-binding pocket. These novel mechanistic insights will facilitate the development of P2X7-specific drugs for treating human diseases.

  11. Desipramine inhibits histamine H1 receptor-induced Ca2+ signaling in rat hypothalamic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Ah Kang

    Full Text Available The hypothalamus in the brain is the main center for appetite control and integrates signals from adipose tissue and the gastrointestinal tract. Antidepressants are known to modulate the activities of hypothalamic neurons and affect food intake, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which antidepressants modulate hypothalamic function remain unclear. Here we have investigated how hypothalamic neurons respond to treatment with antidepressants, including desipramine and sibutramine. In primary cultured rat hypothalamic cells, desipramine markedly suppressed the elevation of intracellular Ca(2+ evoked by histamine H1 receptor activation. Desipramine also inhibited the histamine-induced Ca(2+ increase and the expression of corticotrophin-releasing hormone in hypothalamic GT1-1 cells. The effect of desipramine was not affected by pretreatment with prazosin or propranolol, excluding catecholamine reuptake activity of desipramine as an underlying mechanism. Sibutramine which is also an antidepressant but decreases food intake, had little effect on the histamine-induced Ca(2+ increase or AMP-activated protein kinase activity. Our results reveal that desipramine and sibutramine have different effects on histamine H1 receptor signaling in hypothalamic cells and suggest that distinct regulation of hypothalamic histamine signaling might underlie the differential regulation of food intake between antidepressants.

  12. Inhibition of the MEK-1/p42 MAP kinase reduces aryl hydrocarbon receptor-DNA interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yim, Sujin; Oh, Myoungsuk; Choi, Su Mi; Park, Hyunsung

    2004-01-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induces expression of the cytochrome P450 1A1 gene, cyp1a1, by binding to its receptor, aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). TCDD-bound AhR translocates to the nucleus and forms a heterodimer with its partner protein, AhR nuclear translocator (Arnt). The AhR/Arnt heterodimer then binds to the dioxin-response elements (DREs) in the cyp1a1 enhancer and stimulates transcription of cyp1a1. We tested whether kinase pathways are involved in this process by treating Hepa1c1c7 cells with kinase inhibitors. The MEK-1 inhibitor PD98059 reduced TCDD-induced transcription of cyp1a1. TCDD treatment results in phosphorylation of p44/p42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), a substrate of MEK-1. Overexpression of dominant negative form of p42 MAPK suppressed TCDD-dependent transcription of a reporter gene controlled by dioxin-response elements (DREs), and pretreatment with PD98059 also blocked this transcription. PD98059 pretreatment also inhibited TCDD-induced DRE binding of the AhR/Arnt heterodimer. Together these results indicate that TCDD activates the MEK-1/p44/p42 MAPK pathway, which in turn activates AhR and so facilitates binding of AhR to the cyp1a1 DRE

  13. Role of Shp2 in forebrain neurons in regulating metabolic and cardiovascular functions and responses to leptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Carmo, J M; da Silva, A A; Sessums, P O; Ebaady, S H; Pace, B R; Rushing, J S; Davis, M T; Hall, J E

    2014-06-01

    We examined whether deficiency of Src homology 2 containing phosphatase (Shp2) signaling in forebrain neurons alters metabolic and cardiovascular regulation under various conditions and if it attenuates the anorexic and cardiovascular effects of leptin. We also tested whether forebrain Shp2 deficiency alters blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) responses to acute stress. Forebrain Shp2(-/-) mice were generated by crossing Shp2(flox/flox) mice with CamKIIα-cre mice. At 22-24 weeks of age, the mice were instrumented for telemetry for measurement of BP, HR and body temperature (BT). Oxygen consumption (VO2), energy expenditure and motor activity were monitored by indirect calorimetry. Shp2/CamKIIα-cre mice were heavier (46±3 vs 32±1 g), hyperglycemic, hyperleptinemic, hyperinsulinemic and hyperphagic compared to Shp2(flox/flox) control mice. Shp2/CamKIIα-cre mice exhibited reduced food intake responses to fasting/refeeding and impaired regulation of BT when exposed to 15 and 30 °C ambient temperatures. Despite being obese and having many features of metabolic syndrome, Shp2/CamKIIα-cre mice had similar daily average BP and HR compared to Shp2(flox/flox) mice (112±2 vs 113±1 mm Hg and 595±34 vs 650±40 b.p.m.), but exhibited increased BP and HR responses to cold exposure and acute air-jet stress test. Leptin's ability to reduce food intake and to raise BP were markedly attenuated in Shp2/CamKIIα-cre mice. These results suggest that forebrain Shp2 signaling regulates food intake, appetite responses to caloric deprivation and thermogenic control of body temperature during variations in ambient temperature. Deficiency of Shp2 signaling in the forebrain is associated with augmented cardiovascular responses to cold and acute stress but attenuated BP responses to leptin.

  14. CINPA1 binds directly to constitutive androstane receptor and inhibits its activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherian, Milu T; Chai, Sergio C; Wright, William C; Singh, Aman; Alexandra Casal, Morgan; Zheng, Jie; Wu, Jing; Lee, Richard E; Griffin, Patrick R; Chen, Taosheng

    2018-03-31

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and pregnane X receptor (PXR) are xenobiotic sensors that regulate the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes and efflux transporters. CAR activation promotes drug elimination, thereby reducing therapeutic effectiveness, or causes adverse drug effects via toxic metabolites. CAR inhibitors could be used to attenuate these adverse drug effects. CAR and PXR share ligands and target genes, confounding the understanding of the regulation of receptor-specific activity. We previously identified a small-molecule inhibitor, CINPA1, that inhibits CAR (without activating PXR at lower concentrations) by altering CAR-coregulator interactions and reducing CAR recruitment to DNA response elements of regulated genes. However, solid evidence was not presented for the direct binding of CINPA1 to CAR. In this study, we demonstrate direct interaction of CINPA1 with the CAR ligand-binding domain (CAR-LBD) and identify key residues involved in such interactions through a combination of biophysical and computational methods. We found that CINPA1 resides in the ligand-binding pocket to stabilize the CAR-LBD in a more rigid, less fluid state. Molecular dynamics simulations, together with our previously reported docking model, enabled us to predict which CAR residues were critical for interactions with CINPA1. The importance of these residues for CINPA1 binding were then validated by directed mutations and testing the mutant CAR proteins in transcription reporter and coregulatory interaction assays. We demonstrated strong hydrogen bonding of CINPA1 with N165 and H203 and identified other residues involved in hydrophobic contacts with CINPA1. Overall, our data confirm that CINPA1 directly binds to CAR. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Haloperidol inhibits the development of atherosclerotic lesions in LDL receptor knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sluis, Ronald J; Nahon, Joya E; Reuwer, Anne Q; Van Eck, Miranda; Hoekstra, Menno

    2015-05-01

    Antipsychotic drugs have been shown to modulate the expression of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), a key factor in the anti-atherogenic reverse cholesterol transport process, in vitro. Here we evaluated the potential of the typical antipsychotic drug haloperidol to modulate the cholesterol efflux function of macrophages in vitro and their susceptibility to atherosclerosis in vivo. Thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages were used for in vitro studies. Hyperlipidaemic low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor knockout mice were implanted with a haloperidol-containing pellet and subsequently fed a Western-type diet for 5 weeks to induce the development of atherosclerotic lesions in vivo. Haloperidol induced a 54% decrease in the mRNA expression of ABCA1 in peritoneal macrophages. This coincided with a 30% decrease in the capacity of macrophages to efflux cholesterol to apolipoprotein A1. Haloperidol treatment stimulated the expression of ABCA1 (+51%) and other genes involved in reverse cholesterol transport, that is, CYP7A1 (+98%) in livers of LDL receptor knockout mice. No change in splenic ABCA1 expression was noted. However, the average size of the atherosclerotic size was significantly smaller (-31%) in the context of a mildly more atherogenic metabolic phenotype upon haloperidol treatment. More importantly, haloperidol markedly lowered MCP-1 expression (-70%) and secretion (-28%) by peritoneal macrophages. Haloperidol treatment lowered the susceptibility of hyperlipidaemic LDL receptor knockout mice to develop atherosclerotic lesions. Our findings suggest that the beneficial effect of haloperidol on atherosclerosis susceptibility can be attributed to its ability to inhibit macrophage chemotaxis. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  16. The Ly49E receptor inhibits the immune control of acute Trypanosoma cruzi infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Filtjens

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi circulates in the blood upon infection and invades a variety of cells. Parasites intensively multiply during the acute phase of infection and persist lifelong at low levels in tissues and blood during the chronic phase. Natural killer (NK and NKT cells play an important role in the immune control of T. cruzi infection, mainly by releasing the cytokine IFN-γ that activates the microbicidal action of macrophages and other cells and shapes a protective type 1 immune response. The mechanisms by which immune cells are regulated to produce IFN-γ during T. cruzi infection are still incompletely understood. Here, we show that urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA is induced early upon T. cruzi infection, and remains elevated until day 20 post inoculation. We previously demonstrated that the inhibitory receptor Ly49E, which is expressed, among others, on NK and NKT cells, is triggered by uPA. Therefore, we compared wild type (WT to Ly49E knockout (KO mice for their control of experimental T. cruzi infection. Our results show that young, i.e. 4- and 6-week-old, Ly49E KO mice control the infection better than WT mice, indicated by a lower parasite load and less cachexia. The beneficial effect of Ly49E depletion is more obvious in 4-week-old male than in female mice and weakens in 8-week-old mice. In young mice, the lower T. cruzi parasitemia in Ly49E KO mice is paralleled by higher IFN-γ production compared to their WT controls. Our data indicate that Ly49E receptor expression inhibits the immune control of T. cruzi infection. This is the first demonstration that the inhibitory Ly49E receptor can interfere with the immune response to a pathogen in vivo.

  17. An interspecies comparison of mercury inhibition on muscarinic acetylcholine receptor binding in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Niladri; Stamler, Christopher J.; Loua, Kovana Marcel; Chan, H.M.

    2005-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a ubiquitous pollutant that can disrupt neurochemical signaling pathways in mammals. It is well documented that inorganic Hg (HgCl 2 ) and methyl Hg (MeHg) can inhibit the binding of radioligands to the muscarinic acetylcholine (mACh) receptor in rat brains. However, little is known concerning this relationship in specific anatomical regions of the brain or in other species, including humans. The purpose of this study was to explore the inhibitory effects of HgCl 2 and MeHg on [ 3 H]-quinuclidinyl benzilate ([ 3 H]-QNB) binding to the mACh receptor in the cerebellum and cerebral cortex regions from human, rat, mouse, mink, and river otter brain tissues. Saturation binding curves were obtained from each sample to calculate receptor density (B max ) and ligand affinity (K d ). Subsequently, samples were exposed to HgCl 2 or MeHg to derive IC50 values and inhibition constants (K i ). Results demonstrate that HgCl 2 is a more potent inhibitor of mACh receptor binding than MeHg, and the receptors in the cerebellum are more sensitive to Hg-mediated mACh receptor inhibition than those in the cerebral cortex. Species sensitivities, irrespective of Hg type and brain region, can be ranked from most to least sensitive: river otter > rat > mink > mouse > humans. In summary, our data demonstrate that Hg can inhibit the binding [ 3 H]-QNB to the mACh receptor in a range of mammalian species. This comparative study provides data on interspecies differences and a framework for interpreting results from human, murine, and wildlife studies

  18. Adenosine A₂A receptors inhibit delayed rectifier potassium currents and cell differentiation in primary purified oligodendrocyte cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppi, Elisabetta; Cellai, Lucrezia; Maraula, Giovanna; Pugliese, Anna Maria; Pedata, Felicita

    2013-10-01

    Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) are a population of cycling cells which persist in the adult central nervous system (CNS) where, under opportune stimuli, they differentiate into mature myelinating oligodendrocytes. Adenosine A(2A) receptors are Gs-coupled P1 purinergic receptors which are widely distributed throughout the CNS. It has been demonstrated that OPCs express A(2A) receptors, but their functional role in these cells remains elusive. Oligodendrocytes express distinct voltage-gated ion channels depending on their maturation. Here, by electrophysiological recordings coupled with immunocytochemical labeling, we studied the effects of adenosine A(2A) receptors on membrane currents and differentiation of purified primary OPCs isolated from the rat cortex. We found that the selective A(2A) agonist, CGS21680, inhibits sustained, delayed rectifier, K(+) currents (I(K)) without modifying transient (I(A)) conductances. The effect was observed in all cells tested, independently from time in culture. CGS21680 inhibition of I(K) current was concentration-dependent (10-200 nM) and blocked in the presence of the selective A(2A) antagonist SCH58261 (100 nM). It is known that I(K) currents play an important role during OPC development since their block decreases cell proliferation and differentiation. In light of these data, our further aim was to investigate whether A(2A) receptors modulate these processes. CGS21680, applied at 100 nM in the culture medium of oligodendrocyte cultures, inhibits OPC differentiation (an effect prevented by SCH58261) without affecting cell proliferation. Data demonstrate that cultured OPCs express functional A(2A) receptors whose activation negatively modulate I(K) currents. We propose that, by this mechanism, A(2A) adenosine receptors inhibit OPC differentiation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Midazolam inhibits chondrogenesis via peripheral benzodiazepine receptor in human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Ching; Wu, King-Chuen; Huang, Bu-Miin; So, Edmund Cheung; Wang, Yang-Kao

    2018-05-01

    Midazolam, a benzodiazepine derivative, is widely used for sedation and surgery. However, previous studies have demonstrated that Midazolam is associated with increased risks of congenital malformations, such as dwarfism, when used during early pregnancy. Recent studies have also demonstrated that Midazolam suppresses osteogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Given that hypertrophic chondrocytes can differentiate into osteoblast and osteocytes and contribute to endochondral bone formation, the effect of Midazolam on chondrogenesis remains unclear. In this study, we applied a human MSC line, the KP cell, to serve as an in vitro model to study the effect of Midazolam on chondrogenesis. We first successfully established an in vitro chondrogenic model in a micromass culture or a 2D high-density culture performed with TGF-β-driven chondrogenic induction medium. Treatment of the Midazolam dose-dependently inhibited chondrogenesis, examined using Alcian blue-stained glycosaminoglycans and the expression of chondrogenic markers, such as SOX9 and type II collagen. Inhibition of Midazolam by peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) antagonist PK11195 or small interfering RNA rescued the inhibitory effects of Midazolam on chondrogenesis. In addition, Midazolam suppressed transforming growth factor-β-induced Smad3 phosphorylation, and this inhibitory effect could be rescued using PBR antagonist PK11195. This study provides a possible explanation for Midazolam-induced congenital malformations of the musculoskeletal system through PBR. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  20. Emerging role of epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition in therapy for advanced malignancy: focus on NSCLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langer, Corey J.

    2004-01-01

    Combination chemotherapy regimens have emerged as the standard approach in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. Meta-analyses have demonstrated a 2-month increase in median survival after platinum-based therapy vs. best supportive care, and an absolute 10% improvement in the 1-year survival rate. Just as importantly, cytotoxic therapy has produced benefits in symptom control and quality of life. Newer agents, including the taxanes, vinorelbine, gemcitabine, and irinotecan, have expanded our therapeutic options in the treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. Despite their contributions, we have reached a therapeutic plateau, with response rates seldom exceeding 30-40% in cooperative group studies and 1-year survival rates stable between 30% and 40%. It is doubtful that substituting one agent for another in various combinations will lead to any further improvement in these rates. The thrust of current research has focused on targeted therapy, and epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition is one of the most promising clinical strategies. Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors currently under investigation include the small molecules gefitinib (Iressa, ZD1839) and erlotinib (Tarceva, OSI-774), as well as monoclonal antibodies such as cetuximab (IMC-225, Erbitux). Agents that have only begun to undergo clinical evaluation include CI-1033, an irreversible pan-erbB tyrosine kinase inhibitor, and PKI166 and GW572016, both examples of dual kinase inhibitors (inhibiting epidermal growth factor receptor and Her2). Preclinical models have demonstrated synergy for all these agents in combination with either chemotherapy or radiotherapy, leading to great enthusiasm regarding their ultimate contribution to lung cancer therapy. However, serious clinical challenges persist. These include the identification of the optimal dose(s); the proper integration of these agents into popular, established cytotoxic regimens; and the selection of the optimal setting(s) in which

  1. Valerian inhibits rat hepatocarcinogenesis by activating GABA(A receptor-mediated signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kakehashi

    Full Text Available Valerian is widely used as a traditional medicine to improve the quality of sleep due to interaction of several active components with the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA A receptor (GABA(AR system. Recently, activation of GABA signaling in stem cells has been reported to suppress cell cycle progression in vivo. Furthermore, possible inhibitory effects of GABA(AR agonists on hepatocarcinogenesis have been reported. The present study was performed to investigate modulating effects of Valerian on hepatocarcinogenesis using a medium-term rat liver bioassay. Male F344 rats were treated with one of the most powerful Valerian species (Valeriana sitchensis at doses of 0, 50, 500 and 5000 ppm in their drinking water after initiation of hepatocarcinogenesis with diethylnitrosamine (DEN. Formation of glutathione S-transferase placental form positive (GST-P(+ foci was significantly inhibited by Valerian at all applied doses compared with DEN initiation control rats. Generation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in the rat liver was significantly suppressed by all doses of Valerian, likely due to suppression of Nrf2, CYP7A1 and induction of catalase expression. Cell proliferation was significantly inhibited, while apoptosis was induced in areas of GST-P(+ foci of Valerian groups associated with suppression of c-myc, Mafb, cyclin D1 and induction of p21(Waf1/Cip1, p53 and Bax mRNA expression. Interestingly, expression of the GABA(AR alpha 1 subunit was observed in GST-P(+ foci of DEN control rats, with significant elevation associated with Valerian treatment. These results indicate that Valerian exhibits inhibitory effects on rat hepatocarcinogenesis by inhibiting oxidative DNA damage, suppressing cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis in GST-P(+ foci by activating GABA(AR-mediated signaling.

  2. Effects of epidermal growth factor receptor kinase inhibition on radiation response in canine osteosarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, Fernanda B; Morrison, Jodi A; Mutsaers, Anthony J

    2016-05-31

    Radiation therapy is a palliative treatment modality for canine osteosarcoma, with transient improvement in analgesia observed in many cases. However there is room for improvement in outcome for these patients. It is possible that the addition of sensitizing agents may increase tumor response to radiation therapy and prolong quality of life. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression has been documented in canine osteosarcoma and higher EGFR levels have been correlated to a worse prognosis. However, effects of EGFR inhibition on radiation responsiveness in canine osteosarcoma have not been previously characterized. This study examined the effects of the small molecule EGFR inhibitor erlotinib on canine osteosarcoma radiation responses, target and downstream protein expression in vitro. Additionally, to assess the potential impact of treatment on tumor angiogenesis, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels in conditioned media were measured. Erlotinib as a single agent reduced clonogenic survival in two canine osteosarcoma cell lines and enhanced the impact of radiation in one out of three cell lines investigated. In cell viability assays, erlotinib enhanced radiation effects and demonstrated single agent effects. Erlotinib did not alter total levels of EGFR, nor inhibit downstream protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) activation. On the contrary, erlotinib treatment increased phosphorylated Akt in these osteosarcoma cell lines. VEGF levels in conditioned media increased after erlotinib treatment as a single agent and in combination with radiation in two out of three cell lines investigated. However, VEGF levels decreased with erlotinib treatment in the third cell line. Erlotinib treatment promoted modest enhancement of radiation effects in canine osteosarcoma cells, and possessed activity as a single agent in some cell lines, indicating a potential role for EGFR inhibition in the treatment of a subset of osteosarcoma patients. The relative radioresistance of

  3. Enzalutamide inhibits proliferation of gemcitabine-resistant bladder cancer cells with increased androgen receptor expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameyama, Koji; Horie, Kengo; Mizutani, Kosuke; Kato, Taku; Fujita, Yasunori; Kawakami, Kyojiro; Kojima, Toshio; Miyazaki, Tatsuhiko; Deguchi, Takashi; Ito, Masafumi

    2017-01-01

    Advanced bladder cancer is treated mainly with gemcitabine and cisplatin, but most patients eventually become resistance. Androgen receptor (AR) signaling has been implicated in bladder cancer as well as other types of cancer including prostate cancer. In this study, we investigated the expression and role of AR in gemcitabine-resistant bladder cancer cells and also the potential of enzalutamide, an AR inhibitor, as a therapeutic for the chemoresistance. First of all, we established gemcitabine-resistant T24 cells (T24GR) from T24 bladder cancer cells and performed gene expression profiling. Microarray analysis revealed upregulation of AR expression in T24GR cells compared with T24 cells. AR mRNA and protein expression was confirmed to be increased in T24GR cells, respectively, by quantitative RT-PCR and western blot analysis, which was associated with more potent AR transcriptional activity as measured by luciferase reporter assay. The copy number of AR gene in T24GR cells determined by PCR was twice as many as that of T24 cells. AR silencing by siRNA transfection resulted in inhibition of proliferation of T24GR cells. Cell culture in charcoal-stripped serum and treatment with enzalutamide inhibited growth of T24GR cells, which was accompanied by cell cycle arrest. AR transcriptional activity was found to be reduced in T24GR cells by enzalutamide treatment. Lastly, enzalutamide also inhibited cell proliferation of HTB5 bladder cancer cells that express AR and possess intrinsic resistance to gemcitabine. Our results suggest that enzalutamide may have the potential to treat patients with advanced gemcitabine-resistant bladder cancer with increased AR expression.

  4. Estrogen receptor beta signaling inhibits PDGF induced human airway smooth muscle proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambhore, Nilesh Sudhakar; Katragadda, Rathnavali; Raju Kalidhindi, Rama Satyanarayana; Thompson, Michael A; Pabelick, Christina M; Prakash, Y S; Sathish, Venkatachalem

    2018-04-20

    Airway smooth muscle (ASM) cell hyperplasia driven by persistent inflammation is a hallmark feature of remodeling in asthma. Sex steroid signaling in the lungs is of considerable interest, given epidemiological data showing more asthma in pre-menopausal women and aging men. Our previous studies demonstrated that estrogen receptor (ER) expression increases in asthmatic human ASM; however, very limited data are available regarding differential roles of ERα vs. ERβ isoforms in human ASM cell proliferation. In this study, we evaluated the effect of selective ERα and ERβ modulators on platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-stimulated ASM proliferation and the mechanisms involved. Asthmatic and non-asthmatic primary human ASM cells were treated with PDGF, 17β-estradiol, ERα-agonist and/or ERβ-agonist and/or G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor 30 (GPR30/GPER) agonist and proliferation was measured using MTT and CyQuant assays followed by cell cycle analysis. Transfection of small interfering RNA (siRNA) ERα and ERβ significantly altered the human ASM proliferation. The specificity of siRNA transfection was confirmed by Western blot analysis. Gene and protein expression of cell cycle-related antigens (PCNA and Ki67) and C/EBP were measured by RT-PCR and Western analysis, along with cell signaling proteins. PDGF significantly increased ASM proliferation in non-asthmatic and asthmatic cells. Treatment with PPT showed no significant effect on PDGF-induced proliferation, whereas WAY interestingly suppressed proliferation via inhibition of ERK1/2, Akt, and p38 signaling. PDGF-induced gene expression of PCNA, Ki67 and C/EBP in human ASM was significantly lower in cells pre-treated with WAY. Furthermore, WAY also inhibited PDGF-activated PCNA, C/EBP, cyclin-D1, and cyclin-E. Overall, we demonstrate ER isoform-specific signaling in the context of ASM proliferation. Activation of ERβ can diminish remodeling in human ASM by inhibiting pro-proliferative signaling pathways

  5. β-Adrenergic receptor stimulation inhibits proarrhythmic alternans in postinfarction border zone cardiomyocytes: a computational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomek, Jakub; Rodriguez, Blanca; Bub, Gil; Heijman, Jordi

    2017-08-01

    The border zone (BZ) of the viable myocardium adjacent to an infarct undergoes extensive autonomic and electrical remodeling and is prone to repolarization alternans-induced cardiac arrhythmias. BZ remodeling processes may promote or inhibit Ca 2+ and/or repolarization alternans and may differentially affect ventricular arrhythmogenesis. Here, we used a detailed computational model of the canine ventricular cardiomyocyte to study the determinants of alternans in the BZ and their regulation by β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) stimulation. The BZ model developed Ca 2+ transient alternans at slower pacing cycle lengths than the control model, suggesting that the BZ may promote spatially heterogeneous alternans formation in an infarcted heart. β-AR stimulation abolished alternans. By evaluating all combinations of downstream β-AR stimulation targets, we identified both direct (via ryanodine receptor channels) and indirect [via sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca 2+ load] modulation of SR Ca 2+ release as critical determinants of Ca 2+ transient alternans. These findings were confirmed in a human ventricular cardiomyocyte model. Cell-to-cell coupling indirectly modulated the likelihood of alternans by affecting the action potential upstroke, reducing the trigger for SR Ca 2+ release in one-dimensional strand simulations. However, β-AR stimulation inhibited alternans in both single and multicellular simulations. Taken together, these data highlight a potential antiarrhythmic role of sympathetic hyperinnervation in the BZ by reducing the likelihood of alternans and provide new insights into the underlying mechanisms controlling Ca 2+ transient and repolarization alternans. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We integrated, for the first time, postmyocardial infarction electrical and autonomic remodeling in a detailed, validated computer model of β-adrenergic stimulation in ventricular cardiomyocytes. Here, we show that β-adrenergic stimulation inhibits alternans and provide novel insights

  6. Lipids Derived from Virulent Francisella tularensis Broadly Inhibit Pulmonary Inflammation via Toll-Like Receptor 2 and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Deborah D.; Ireland, Robin; Alinger, Joshua B.; Small, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is a Gram-negative facultative intracellular pathogen that causes an acute lethal respiratory disease in humans. The heightened virulence of the pathogen is linked to its unique ability to inhibit Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated inflammatory responses. The bacterial component and mechanism of this inhibition are unknown. Here we show that lipids isolated from virulent but not attenuated strains of F. tularensis are not detected by host cells, inhibit production of proinflammatory cytokines by primary macrophages in response to known TLR ligands, and suppress neutrophil recruitment in vivo. We further show that lipid-mediated inhibition of inflammation is dependent on TLR2, MyD88, and the nuclear hormone and fatty acid receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα). Pathogen lipid-mediated interference with inflammatory responses through the engagement of TLR2 and PPARα represents a novel manipulation of host signaling pathways consistent with the ability of highly virulent F. tularensis to efficiently evade host immune responses. PMID:23925884

  7. Inhibition of cerebrovascular raf activation attenuates cerebral blood flow and prevents upregulation of contractile receptors after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansar, Saema; Maddahi, Aida; Edvinsson, Lars

    2011-01-01

    of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 signal pathway. We hypothesize that SAH initiates cerebrovascular ERK1/2 activation, resulting in receptor upregulation. The raf inhibitor will inhibit the molecular events upstream ERK1/2 and may provide...

  8. Head losses in small hydropower plant trash racks (SHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Walczak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Small hydropower plants (SHP are technical facilities that are part of alternative energy sources [Paish 2002]. They are primarily characterised by low unit power (in Poland below 5 MW and are often constructed on existing barrages. Electrical current produced by these plants is used to meet local demand. Considering the exploitation of SHPs, it is important to ensure a stable flow through turbines. Aggidis et al. [2010] analysed SHP equipment costs depending on the turbine set. The turbines are protected against damage with trash racks applied for capturing water-borne detritus, such as plant debris carried by water. However, trash racks as solid equipment of SHPs cause head losses, and as a consequence reduce the efficiency of the system. These losses result not only from the spacing of bars, their shape and the technical condition of the inlet chamber, but also from plant debris, its nature, and the quantity of accumulated material that effectively limits the flow. The plant debris captured on trash racks is characterised by diversity in terms of species composition related to the vegetation period and the area where hydraulic facilities are located. Therefore, it is important to maintain trash racks clean by regular removal of the accumulated material. In this context, modernised and newly built power plants are fitted with mechanical cleaners. In older facilities, manual intervention for regular cleaning is required. The present study analyses how the bar shape and the orientation angle of trash racks as well as the accumulated plant debris affect head losses. The results were obtained from laboratory tests. The research examined the impact the inclination angle of trash racks (30°, 60° and 80° has on head loss values for three different shapes of bars (cylindrical, angled and flat rectangular and various weight portions of plant debris (0.25, 0.375 and 0.5 kg. The summarised losses were determined by measuring the difference in water

  9. Mannose receptor induces T-cell tolerance via inhibition of CD45 and up-regulation of CTLA-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuette, Verena; Embgenbroich, Maria; Ulas, Thomas; Welz, Meike; Schulte-Schrepping, Jonas; Draffehn, Astrid M; Quast, Thomas; Koch, Katharina; Nehring, Melanie; König, Jessica; Zweynert, Annegret; Harms, Frederike L; Steiner, Nancy; Limmer, Andreas; Förster, Irmgard; Berberich-Siebelt, Friederike; Knolle, Percy A; Wohlleber, Dirk; Kolanus, Waldemar; Beyer, Marc; Schultze, Joachim L; Burgdorf, Sven

    2016-09-20

    The mannose receptor (MR) is an endocytic receptor involved in serum homeostasis and antigen presentation. Here, we identify the MR as a direct regulator of CD8(+) T-cell activity. We demonstrate that MR expression on dendritic cells (DCs) impaired T-cell cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. This regulatory effect of the MR was mediated by a direct interaction with CD45 on the T cell, inhibiting its phosphatase activity, which resulted in up-regulation of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated Protein 4 (CTLA-4) and the induction of T-cell tolerance. Inhibition of CD45 prevented expression of B-cell lymphoma 6 (Bcl-6), a transcriptional inhibitor that directly bound the CTLA-4 promoter and regulated its activity. These data demonstrate that endocytic receptors expressed on DCs contribute to the regulation of T-cell functionality.

  10. Acutely increasing δGABA(A) receptor activity impairs memory and inhibits synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whissell, Paul D; Eng, Dave; Lecker, Irene; Martin, Loren J; Wang, Dian-Shi; Orser, Beverley A

    2013-01-01

    Extrasynaptic γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptors that contain the δ subunit (δGABA(A) receptors) are expressed in several brain regions including the dentate gyrus (DG) and CA1 subfields of the hippocampus. Drugs that increase δGABA(A) receptor activity have been proposed as treatments for a variety of disorders including insomnia, epilepsy and chronic pain. Also, long-term pretreatment with the δGABA(A) receptor-preferring agonist 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol (THIP) enhances discrimination memory and increases neurogenesis in the DG. Despite the potential therapeutic benefits of such treatments, the effects of acutely increasing δGABA(A) receptor activity on memory behaviors remain unknown. Here, we studied the effects of THIP (4 mg/kg, i.p.) on memory performance in wild-type (WT) and δGABA(A) receptor null mutant (Gabrd(-/-)) mice. Additionally, the effects of THIP on long-term potentiation (LTP), a molecular correlate of memory, were studied within the DG and CA1 subfields of the hippocampus using electrophysiological recordings of field potentials in hippocampal slices. The results showed that THIP impaired performance in the Morris water maze, contextual fear conditioning and object recognition tasks in WT mice but not Gabrd(-/-) mice. Furthermore, THIP inhibited LTP in hippocampal slices from WT but not Gabrd(-/-) mice, an effect that was blocked by GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline. Thus, acutely increasing δGABA(A) receptor activity impairs memory behaviors and inhibits synaptic plasticity. These results have important implications for the development of therapies aimed at increasing δGABA(A) receptor activity.

  11. Context-dependent modulation of alphabetagamma and alphabetadelta GABA A receptors by penicillin: implications for phasic and tonic inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hua-Jun; Botzolakis, Emmanuel J; Macdonald, Robert L

    2009-01-01

    Penicillin, an open-channel blocker of GABA(A) receptors, was recently reported to inhibit phasic, but not tonic, currents in hippocampal neurons. To distinguish between isoform-specific and context-dependent modulation as possible explanations for this selectivity, the effects of penicillin were evaluated on recombinant GABA(A) receptors expressed in HEK293T cells. When co-applied with saturating GABA, penicillin decreased peak amplitude, induced rebound, and prolonged deactivation of currents evoked from both synaptic and extrasynaptic receptor isoforms. However, penicillin had isoform-specific effects on the extent of desensitization, reflecting its ability to differentially modulate peak (non-equilibrium) and residual (near-equilibrium) currents. This suggested that the context of activation could determine the apparent sensitivity of a given receptor isoform to penicillin. To test this hypothesis, we explored the ability of penicillin to modulate synaptic and extrasynaptic isoform currents that were activated under more physiologically relevant conditions. Interestingly, while currents evoked from synaptic isoforms under phasic conditions (transient activation by a saturating concentration of GABA) were substantially inhibited by penicillin, currents evoked from extrasynaptic isoforms under tonic conditions (prolonged application by a sub-saturating concentration of GABA) were minimally affected. We therefore concluded that the reported inability of penicillin to modulate tonic currents could not simply be attributed to insensitivity of extrasynaptic receptors, but rather, reflected an inability to modulate these receptors in their native context of activation.

  12. EP3 receptors inhibit antidiuretic-hormone-dependent sodium transport across frog skin epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytved, Klaus A.; Nielsen, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Antidiuretic hormone; tight epithelium; prostaglandin receptors; sulprostone; misoprostol; cAMP; cellular Ca2+......Antidiuretic hormone; tight epithelium; prostaglandin receptors; sulprostone; misoprostol; cAMP; cellular Ca2+...

  13. Fasitibant chloride, a kinin B2 receptor antagonist, and dexamethasone interact to inhibit carrageenan-induced inflammatory arthritis in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenti, Claudio; Giuliani, Sandro; Cialdai, Cecilia; Tramontana, Manuela; Maggi, Carlo Alberto

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Bradykinin, through the kinin B2 receptor, is involved in inflammatory processes related to arthropathies. B2 receptor antagonists inhibited carrageenan-induced arthritis in rats in synergy with anti-inflammatory steroids. The mechanism(s) underlying this drug interaction was investigated. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Drugs inhibiting inflammatory mediators released by carrageenan were injected, alone or in combination, into the knee joint of pentobarbital anaesthetized rats 30 min before intra-articular administration of carrageenan. Their effects on the carrageenan-induced inflammatory responses (joint pain, oedema and neutrophil recruitment) and release of inflammatory mediators (prostaglandins, IL-1β, IL-6 and the chemokine GRO/CINC-1), were assessed after 6 h. KEY RESULTS The combination of fasitibant chloride (MEN16132) and dexamethasone was more effective than each drug administered alone in inhibiting knee joint inflammation and release of inflammatory mediators. Fasitibant chloride, MK571, atenolol, des-Arg9-[Leu8]-bradykinin (B2 receptor, leukotriene, catecholamine and B1 receptor antagonists, respectively) and dexketoprofen (COX inhibitor), reduced joint pain and, except for the latter, also diminished joint oedema. A combination of drugs inhibiting joint pain (fasitibant chloride, des-Arg9-[Leu8]-bradykinin, dexketoprofen, MK571 and atenolol) and oedema (fasitibant chloride, des-Arg9-[Leu8]-bradykinin, MK571 and atenolol) abolished the respective inflammatory response, producing inhibition comparable with that achieved with the combination of fasitibant chloride and dexamethasone. MK571 alone was able to block neutrophil recruitment. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Bradykinin-mediated inflammatory responses to intra-articular carrageenan were not controlled by steroids, which were not capable of preventing bradykinin effects either by direct activation of the B2 receptor, or through the indirect effects mediated by release of eicosanoids

  14. Inhibition of iodine-125-labeled human follitropin binding to testicular receptor by epidermal growth factor and synthetic peptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sluss, P.M.; Krystek, S.R. Jr.; Andersen, T.T.; Melson, B.E.; Huston, J.S.; Ridge, R.; Reichert, L.E. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Two tetrapeptide sequence homologies between mouse epidermal growth factor precursor (mEGFP) and human follitropin (FSH) were revealed by a computer program that identifies identical residues among polypeptide sequences. The two tetrapeptides, Lys-Thr-Cys-Thr (KTCT) and Thr-Arg-Asp-Leu (TRDL), are present in the hormone-specific beta subunit of FSH from all species studied. These tetrapeptides are not present in the alpha subunit, which is common to all pituitary glycoprotein hormones. Both tetrapeptides are also found in mEGFP, and one tetrapeptide, TRDL, is located within the 53-residue form of mEGF purified from mouse submaxillary glands. Computer-generated hydropathy profiles predicted that both tetrapeptides are located in hydrophilic portions of the FSH beta subunit and that TRDL is in a hydrophilic portion of commercially available mEGF. Therefore, the tetrapeptides might be accessible to receptor binding sites for FSH. We report that mEGF inhibits binding of 125 I-labeled human FSH to receptors in testis by 50% (I50) at a concentration of 1.8 X 10(-5) M. No binding inhibition was observed by GnRH or arginine-vasopressin at 10(-4) M, neither of which contain the tetrapeptide sequences. FSH beta subunit, which contains both tetrapeptides, also inhibited binding (I50 = 9 X 10(-8) M) of 125 I-labeled human FSH to testis receptor. Thus, it appears that FSH beta subunit and mEGF are capable of inhibiting binding of FSH to testicular FSH receptors, presumably through interactions that include the homologous tetrapeptides. This presumption was supported by the observation that the synthetic tetrapeptides (KTCT or TRDL) were also active in inhibiting binding of 125 I-labeled human FSH to testis receptor

  15. Hyperosmotic stress inhibits insulin receptor substrate-1 function by distinct mechanisms in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gual, Philippe; Gonzalez, Teresa; Grémeaux, Thierry

    2003-01-01

    . Furthermore, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor rapamycin prevented the osmotic shock-induced phosphorylation of IRS-1 on Ser307. The inhibition of mTOR completely reversed the inhibitory effect of hyperosmotic stress on insulin-induced IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation and PI 3-kinase activation......In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, hyperosmotic stress was found to inhibit insulin signaling, leading to an insulin-resistant state. We show here that, despite normal activation of insulin receptor, hyperosmotic stress inhibits both tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and IRS-1....... In addition, prolonged osmotic stress enhanced the degradation of IRS proteins through a rapamycin-insensitive pathway and a proteasome-independent process. These data support evidence of new mechanisms involved in osmotic stress-induced cellular insulin resistance. Short-term osmotic stress induces...

  16. Ketamine-induced inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 contributes to the augmentation of AMPA receptor signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beurel, Eléonore; Grieco, Steven F; Amadei, Celeste; Downey, Kimberlee; Jope, Richard S

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Sub-anesthetic doses of ketamine have been found to provide rapid antidepressant actions, indicating that the cellular signaling systems targeted by ketamine are potential sites for therapeutic intervention. Ketamine acts as an antagonist of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, and animal studies indicate that subsequent augmentation of signaling by α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptors is critical for the antidepressant outcome. Methods In this study, we tested if the inhibitory effect of ketamine on glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) affected hippocampal cell-surface AMPA receptors using immunoblotting of membrane and synaptosomal extracts from wild-type and GSK3 knockin mice. Results Treatment with an antidepressant dose of ketamine increased the hippocampal membrane level of the AMPA glutamate receptor (GluA)1 subunit, but did not alter the localization of GluA2, GluA3, or GluA4. This effect of ketamine was abrogated in GSK3 knockin mice expressing mutant GSK3 that cannot be inhibited by ketamine, demonstrating that ketamine-induced inhibition of GSK3 is necessary for up-regulation of cell surface AMPA GluA1 subunits. AMPA receptor trafficking is regulated by post-synaptic density-95 (PSD-95), a substrate for GSK3. Ketamine treatment decreased the hippocampal membrane level of phosphorylated PSD-95 on Thr-19, the target of GSK3 that promotes AMPA receptor internalization. Conclusions These results demonstrate that ketamine-induced inhibition of GSK3 causes reduced phosphorylation of PSD-95, diminishing the internalization of AMPA GluA1 subunits to allow for augmented signaling through AMPA receptors following ketamine treatment. PMID:27687706

  17. PTP1B Inhibition Causes Rac1 Activation by Enhancing Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayako Tsuchiya

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The present study investigated the signaling pathway underlying Rac1 activation induced by the linoleic acid derivative 8-[2-(2-pentyl-cyclopropylmethyl-cyclopropyl]-octanoic acid (DCP-LA. Methods: Activity of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B was assayed under cell-free conditions. Western blot was carried out to quantify phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1 and Akt in PC-12 cells. Rac1 activity was monitored in the föerster resonance energy transfer (FRET analysis using living and fixed PC-12 cells. Results: DCP-LA markedly suppressed PTP1B activity in a concentration (100 pM-100 µM-dependent manner. In the DCP-LA binding assay, fluorescein-conjugated DCP-LA produced a single fluorescent signal band at 60 kDa, corresponding to the molecule of PTP1B, and the signal was attenuated or abolished by co-treatment or pretreatment with non-conjugated DCP-LA. DCP-LA significantly enhanced nerve growth factor (NGF-stimulated phosphorylation of IRS-1 at Tyr1222 and Akt1/2 at Thr308/309 and Ser473/474 in PC-12 cells. In the FRET analysis, DCP-LA significantly enhanced NGF-stimulated Rac1 activation, which is abrogated by the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K inhibitor wortmannin, the 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1 inhibitor BX912, or the Akt inhibitor MK2206. Conclusion: The results of the present study show that DCP-LA-induced PTP1B inhibition, possibly through its direct binding, causes Rac1 activation by enhancing a pathway along a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK/IRS-1/PI3K/Akt/Rac1 axis.

  18. Targeting non-small cell lung cancer cells by dual inhibition of the insulin receptor and the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma E Vincent

    Full Text Available Phase III trials of the anti-insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R antibody figitumumab in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients have been discontinued owing to lack of survival benefit. We investigated whether inhibition of the highly homologous insulin receptor (IR in addition to the IGF1R would be more effective than inhibition of the IGF1R alone at preventing the proliferation of NSCLC cells. Signalling through IGF1R and IR in the NSCLC cell lines A549 and Hcc193 was stimulated by a combination of IGF1, IGF2 and insulin. It was inhibited by antibodies that block ligand binding, αIR3 (IGF1R and IR47-9 (IR, and by the ATP-competitive small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors AZ12253801 and NVPAWD742 which inhibit both IGF1R and IR tyrosine kinases. The effect of inhibitors was determined by an anchorage-independent proliferation assay and by analysis of Akt phosphorylation. In Hcc193 cells the reduction in cell proliferation and Akt phosphorylation due to anti-IGF1R antibody was enhanced by antibody-mediated inhibition of the IR whereas in A549 cells, with a relatively low IR:IGF1R expression ratio, it was not. In each cell line proliferation and Akt phosphorylation were more effectively inhibited by AZ12253801 and NVPAWD742 than by combined αIR3 and IR47-9. When the IGF1R alone is inhibited, unencumbered signalling through the IR can contribute to continued NSCLC cell proliferation. We conclude that small molecule inhibitors targeting both the IR and IGF1R more effectively reduce NSCLC cell proliferation in a manner independent of the IR:IGF1R expression ratio, providing a therapeutic rationale for the treatment of this disease.

  19. Dopamine inhibits reproduction in female zebrafish (Danio rerio) via three pituitary D2 receptor subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Romain; Affaticati, Pierre; Yamamoto, Kei; Jolly, Cécile; Bureau, Charlotte; Baloche, Sylvie; Gonnet, Françoise; Vernier, Philippe; Dufour, Sylvie; Pasqualini, Catherine

    2013-02-01

    In many teleosts, the stimulatory control of gonadotrope axis by GnRH is opposed by an inhibitory control by dopamine (DA). The functional importance of this inhibitory pathway differs widely from one teleostean species to another. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a teleost fish that has become increasingly popular as an experimental vertebrate model. However, the role of DA in the neuroendocrine control of its reproduction has never been studied. Here the authors evaluated in sexually regressed female zebrafish the effects of in vivo treatments with a DA D2 receptor (D2-R) antagonist domperidone, or a GnRH agonist, alone and in combination, on the pituitary level of FSHβ and LHβ transcripts, the gonadosomatic index, and the ovarian histology. Only the double treatment with GnRH agonist and domperidone could induce an increase in the expression of LHβ, in the gonadosomatic index, and a stimulation of ovarian vitellogenesis, indicating that removal of dopaminergic inhibition is required for the stimulatory action of GnRH and reactivation of ovarian function to occur. Using double immunofluorescent staining on pituitary, the authors showed in this species the innervation of LH cells by tyrosine-hydroxylase immunoreactive fibers. Finally, using in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence, the authors showed that the three subtypes of zebrafish DA D2-R (D2a, D2b, and D2c) were expressed in LH-producing cells, suggesting that they all may be involved in mediating this inhibition. These results show for the first time that, in zebrafish, DA has a direct and potent inhibitory action capable of opposing the stimulatory effect of GnRH in the neuroendocrine control of reproduction.

  20. Expression and clinical significance of tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 in colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Peifen; Guo, Wenjie; Yuan, Huaqin; Li, Qian; Wang, Weicheng; Sun, Yang; Li, Xiaomin; Gu, Yanhong

    2014-04-01

    Protein-tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2, encoded by gene PTPN11, has been identified as a tumor-promoting factor in several types of leukemia and is hyper-activated by other mechanisms in some solid tumors including gastric cancer, breast cancer, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), etc. But few were reported on the expression and significances of SHP-2 in colon cancer. Here, we detect SHP-2 expression in colon cancer cells, colon cancer-induced by AOM+DSS in mice and 232 human colon cancer specimens, including 58 groups of self-matched adjacent peritumor tissues and normal tissues. We found that compared to the normal colon tissues, SHP-2 significantly decreased in tumor tissues (Pcolon tumor cells as well as mice colon tumors. And in humans samples, low SHP-2 expression showed a significantly correlation with poor tumor differentiation (P<0.05), late TNM stage (P=0.1666) and lymph node metastasis (P<0.05). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Nifedipine inhibits advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) interaction-mediated proximal tubular cell injury via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Takanori; Yamagishi, Sho-ichi; Takeuchi, Masayoshi; Ueda, Seiji; Fukami, Kei; Okuda, Seiya

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Nifedipine inhibited the AGE-induced up-regulation of RAGE mRNA levels in tubular cells, which was prevented by GW9662, an inhibitor of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ. → GW9662 treatment alone increased RAGE mRNA levels in tubular cells. → Nifedipine inhibited the AGE-induced reactive oxygen species generation, NF-κB activation and increases in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and transforming growth factor-β gene expression in tubular cells, all of which were blocked by GW9662. -- Abstract: There is a growing body of evidence that advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) interaction evokes oxidative stress generation and subsequently elicits inflammatory and fibrogenic reactions, thereby contributing to the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy. We have previously found that nifedipine, a calcium-channel blocker (CCB), inhibits the AGE-induced mesangial cell damage in vitro. However, effects of nifedipine on proximal tubular cell injury remain unknown. We examined here whether and how nifedipine blocked the AGE-induced tubular cell damage. Nifedipine, but not amlodipine, a control CCB, inhibited the AGE-induced up-regulation of RAGE mRNA levels in tubular cells, which was prevented by the simultaneous treatment of GW9662, an inhibitor of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ). GW9662 treatment alone was found to increase RAGE mRNA levels in tubular cells. Further, nifedipine inhibited the AGE-induced reactive oxygen species generation, NF-κB activation and increases in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and transforming growth factor-beta gene expression in tubular cells, all of which were blocked by GW9662. Our present study provides a unique beneficial aspect of nifedipine on diabetic nephropathy; it could work as an anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory agent against AGEs in tubular cells by suppressing RAGE expression via PPARγ activation.

  2. Nifedipine inhibits advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) interaction-mediated proximal tubular cell injury via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsui, Takanori [Department of Pathophysiology and Therapeutics of Diabetic Vascular Complications, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Yamagishi, Sho-ichi, E-mail: shoichi@med.kurume-u.ac.jp [Department of Pathophysiology and Therapeutics of Diabetic Vascular Complications, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Takeuchi, Masayoshi [Department of Pathophysiological Science, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Science, Hokuriku University, Kanazawa (Japan); Ueda, Seiji; Fukami, Kei; Okuda, Seiya [Department of Medicine, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan)

    2010-07-23

    Research highlights: {yields} Nifedipine inhibited the AGE-induced up-regulation of RAGE mRNA levels in tubular cells, which was prevented by GW9662, an inhibitor of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma}. {yields} GW9662 treatment alone increased RAGE mRNA levels in tubular cells. {yields} Nifedipine inhibited the AGE-induced reactive oxygen species generation, NF-{kappa}B activation and increases in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and transforming growth factor-{beta} gene expression in tubular cells, all of which were blocked by GW9662. -- Abstract: There is a growing body of evidence that advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) interaction evokes oxidative stress generation and subsequently elicits inflammatory and fibrogenic reactions, thereby contributing to the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy. We have previously found that nifedipine, a calcium-channel blocker (CCB), inhibits the AGE-induced mesangial cell damage in vitro. However, effects of nifedipine on proximal tubular cell injury remain unknown. We examined here whether and how nifedipine blocked the AGE-induced tubular cell damage. Nifedipine, but not amlodipine, a control CCB, inhibited the AGE-induced up-regulation of RAGE mRNA levels in tubular cells, which was prevented by the simultaneous treatment of GW9662, an inhibitor of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}). GW9662 treatment alone was found to increase RAGE mRNA levels in tubular cells. Further, nifedipine inhibited the AGE-induced reactive oxygen species generation, NF-{kappa}B activation and increases in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and transforming growth factor-beta gene expression in tubular cells, all of which were blocked by GW9662. Our present study provides a unique beneficial aspect of nifedipine on diabetic nephropathy; it could work as an anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory agent against AGEs in tubular cells by suppressing RAGE expression

  3. Plant lectin can target receptors containing sialic acid, exemplified by podoplanin, to inhibit transformed cell growth and migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhon Alberto Ochoa-Alvarez

    Full Text Available Cancer is a leading cause of death of men and women worldwide. Tumor cell motility contributes to metastatic invasion that causes the vast majority of cancer deaths. Extracellular receptors modified by α2,3-sialic acids that promote this motility can serve as ideal chemotherapeutic targets. For example, the extracellular domain of the mucin receptor podoplanin (PDPN is highly O-glycosylated with α2,3-sialic acid linked to galactose. PDPN is activated by endogenous ligands to induce tumor cell motility and metastasis. Dietary lectins that target proteins containing α2,3-sialic acid inhibit tumor cell growth. However, anti-cancer lectins that have been examined thus far target receptors that have not been identified. We report here that a lectin from the seeds of Maackia amurensis (MASL with affinity for O-linked carbohydrate chains containing sialic acid targets PDPN to inhibit transformed cell growth and motility at nanomolar concentrations. Interestingly, the biological activity of this lectin survives gastrointestinal proteolysis and enters the cardiovascular system to inhibit melanoma cell growth, migration, and tumorigenesis. These studies demonstrate how lectins may be used to help develop dietary agents that target specific receptors to combat malignant cell growth.

  4. Midazolam inhibits hippocampal long-term potentiation and learning through dual central and peripheral benzodiazepine receptor activation and neurosteroidogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuda, Kazuhiro; O'Dell, Kazuko A; Izumi, Yukitoshi; Zorumski, Charles F

    2010-12-15

    Benzodiazepines (BDZs) enhance GABA(A) receptor inhibition by direct actions on central BDZ receptors (CBRs). Although some BDZs also bind mitochondrial receptors [translocator protein (18 kDa) (TSPO)] and promote the synthesis of GABA-enhancing neurosteroids, the role of neurosteroids in the clinical effects of BDZs is unknown. In rat hippocampal slices, we compared midazolam, an anesthetic BDZ, with clonazepam, an anticonvulsant/anxiolytic BDZ that activates CBRs selectively. Midazolam, but not clonazepam, increased neurosteroid levels in CA1 pyramidal neurons without changing TSPO immunostaining. Midazolam, but not clonazepam, also augmented a form of spike inhibition after stimulation adjacent to the pyramidal cell layer and inhibited induction of long-term potentiation. These effects were prevented by finasteride, an inhibitor of neurosteroid synthesis, or 17PA [17-phenyl-(3α,5α)-androst-16-en-3-ol], a blocker of neurosteroid effects on GABA(A) receptors. Moreover, the synaptic effects were mimicked by a combination of clonazepam with FGIN (2-[2-(4-fluorophenyl)-1H-indol-3-yl]-N,N-dihexylacetamide), a selective TSPO agonist, or a combination of clonazepam with exogenous allopregnanolone. Consistent with these in vitro results, finasteride abolished the effects of midazolam on contextual fear learning when administrated 1 d before midazolam injection. Thus, dual activation of CBRs and TSPO appears to result in unique actions of clinically important BDZs. Furthermore, endogenous neurosteroids are shown to be important regulators of pyramidal neuron function and synaptic plasticity.

  5. Adenosine inhibits neutrophil vascular endothelial growth factor release and transendothelial migration via A2B receptor activation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wakai, A

    2012-02-03

    The effects of adenosine on neutrophil (polymorphonuclear neutrophils; PMN)-directed changes in vascular permeability are poorly characterized. This study investigated whether adenosine modulates activated PMN vascular endothelial growth factor (vascular permeability factor; VEGF) release and transendothelial migration. PMN activated with tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha, 10 ng\\/mL) were incubated with adenosine and its receptor-specific analogues. Culture supernatants were assayed for VEGF. PMN transendothelial migration across human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) monolayers was assessed in vitro. Adhesion molecule receptor expression was assessed flow cytometrically. Adenosine and some of its receptor-specific analogues dose-dependently inhibited activated PMN VEGF release. The rank order of potency was consistent with the affinity profile of human A2B receptors. The inhibitory effect of adenosine was reversed by 3,7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine, an A2 receptor antagonist. Adenosine (100 microM) or the A2B receptor agonist 5\\'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA, 100 microM) significantly reduced PMN transendothelial migration. However, expression of activated PMN beta2 integrins and HUVEC ICAM-1 were not significantly altered by adenosine or NECA. Adenosine attenuates human PMN VEGF release and transendothelial migration via the A2B receptor. This provides a novel target for the modulation of PMN-directed vascular hyperpermeability in conditions such as the capillary leak syndrome.

  6. Inhibition of Androgen Receptor Nuclear Localization and Castration-Resistant Prostate Tumor Growth by Pyrroloimidazole-based Small Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoodi, Khalid Z; Xu, Yadong; Dar, Javid A; Eisermann, Kurtis; Pascal, Laura E; Parrinello, Erica; Ai, Junkui; Johnston, Paul A; Nelson, Joel B; Wipf, Peter; Wang, Zhou

    2017-10-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that controls the expression of androgen-responsive genes. A key step in androgen action, which is amplified in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), is AR nuclear translocation. Small molecules capable of inhibiting AR nuclear localization could be developed as novel therapeutics for CRPC. We developed a high-throughput screen and identified two structurally-related pyrroloimidazoles that could block AR nuclear localization in CRPC cells. We show that these two small molecules, 3-(4-ethoxyphenyl)-6,7-dihydro-5 H -pyrrolo[1,2- a ]imidazole (EPPI) and 3-(4-chlorophenyl)-6,7-dihydro-5 H -pyrrolo[1,2- a ]imidazole (CPPI) can inhibit the nuclear localization and transcriptional activity of AR and reduce the proliferation of AR-positive but not AR-negative prostate cancer cell lines. EPPI and CPPI did not inhibit nuclear localization of the glucocorticoid receptor or the estrogen receptor, suggesting they selectively target AR. In LNCaP tumor xenografts, CPPI inhibited the proliferation of relapsed LNCaP tumors. These findings suggest that EPPI and CPPI could serve as lead structures for the development of therapeutic agents for CRPC. Mol Cancer Ther; 16(10); 2120-9. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. Pu-erh Tea Protects the Nervous System by Inhibiting the Expression of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunjie; Chai, Shaomeng; Ju, Yongzhi; Hou, Lu; Zhao, Hang; Ma, Wei; Li, Tian; Sheng, Jun; Shi, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Glutamate is one of the major excitatory neurotransmitters of the CNS and is essential for numerous key neuronal functions. However, excess glutamate causes massive neuronal death and brain damage owing to excitotoxicity via the glutamate receptors. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) is one of the glutamate receptors and represents a promising target for studying neuroprotective agents of potential application in neurodegenerative diseases. Pu-erh tea, a fermented tea, mainly produced in Yunnan province, China, has beneficial effects, including the accommodation of the CNS. In this study, pu-erh tea markedly decreased the transcription and translation of mGluR5 compared to those by black and green teas. Pu-erh tea also inhibited the expression of Homer, one of the synaptic scaffolding proteins binding to mGluR5. Pu-erh tea protected neural cells from necrosis via blocked Ca 2+ influx and inhibited protein kinase C (PKC) activation induced by excess glutamate. Pu-erh tea relieved rat epilepsy induced by LiCl-pilocarpine in behavioural and physiological assays. Pu-erh tea also decreased the expression of mGluR5 in the hippocampus. These results show that the inhibition of mGluR5 plays a role in protecting neural cells from glutamate. The results also indicate that pu-erh tea contains biological compounds binding transcription factors and inhibiting the expression of mGluR5 and identify pu-erh tea as a novel natural neuroprotective agent.

  8. The insecticide fipronil and its metabolite fipronil sulphone inhibit the rat α1β2γ2L GABAA receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P; Akk, G

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: Fipronil is the active ingredient in a number of widely used insecticides. Human exposure to fipronil leads to symptoms (headache, nausea and seizures) typically associated with the antagonism of GABAA receptors in the brain. In this study, we have examined the modulation of the common brain GABAA receptor subtype by fipronil and its major metabolite, fipronil sulphone. Experimental approach: Whole-cell and single-channel recordings were made from HEK 293 cells transiently expressing rat α1β2γ2L GABAA receptors. Key results: The major effect of fipronil was to increase the rate of current decay in macroscopic recordings. In single-channel recordings, the presence of fipronil resulted in shorter cluster durations without affecting the intracluster open and closed time distributions or the single-channel conductance. The α1V256S mutation, previously shown alleviate channel inhibition by inhibitory steroids and several insecticides, had a relatively small effect on channel block by fipronil. The mode of action of fipronil sulphone was similar to that of its parent compound but the metabolite was less potent at inhibiting the α1β2γ2L receptor. Conclusions and implications: We conclude that exposure to fipronil induces accumulation of receptors in a novel, long-lived blocked state. This process proceeds in parallel with and independently of, channel desensitization. The lower potency of fipronil sulphone indicates that the conversion serves as a detoxifying process in mammalian brain. PMID:18660823

  9. E-cadherin homophilic ligation inhibits cell growth and epidermal growth factor receptor signaling independently of other cell interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrais, Michaël; Chen, Xiao; Perez-Moreno, Mirna

    2007-01-01

    growth inhibitory signals. To address this question, we have selectively formed E-cadherin homophilic bonds at the cell surface of isolated epithelial cells by using functionally active recombinant E-cadherin protein attached to microspheres. We find that E-cadherin ligation alone reduces the frequency...... of cells entering the S phase, demonstrating that E-cadherin ligation directly transduces growth inhibitory signals. E-cadherin binding to beta-catenin is required for cell growth inhibition, but beta-catenin/T-cell factor transcriptional activity is not involved in growth inhibition resulting from...... homophilic binding. Neither E-cadherin binding to p120-catenin nor beta-catenin binding to alpha-catenin, and thereby the actin cytoskeleton, is required for growth inhibition. E-cadherin ligation also inhibits epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor-mediated growth signaling by a beta...

  10. Arctigenin antagonizes mineralocorticoid receptor to inhibit the transcription of Na/K-ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ye; Zhou, Meili; Wang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is one of the most important risk factors in cardiovascular disease and is the most common chronic disease. Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists have been successfully used in clinic for the treatment of hypertension. Our study aims to investigate whether Arctigenin can antagonize MR and inhibit the transcription of Na/K-ATPase. The yeast two-hybrid assay was used to screen natural products and Arctigenin was identified as an MR antagonist. The direct binding of Arctigenin to MR was determined using assays based on surface plasmon resonance, differential scanning calorimetry and fluorescence quenching. Furthermore, results from mammalian one-hybrid and transcriptional activation experiments also confirmed that Arctigenin can potently antagonize MR in cells. We demonstrated that Arctigenin can decrease the level of Na/K-ATPase mRNA by antagonizing MR in HK-2 cells. Our findings show that Arctigenin can effectively decrease Na/K-ATPase transcription; thus highlight its potential as an anti-hypertensive drug lead compound. Our current findings demonstrate that Arctigenin is an antagonist of MR and effectively decreases the Na/K-ATPase 1 gene expression. Our work provides a hint for the drug discovery against cardiovascular disease.

  11. Nanoparticles containing a liver X receptor agonist inhibit inflammation and atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue-Qing; Even-Or, Orli; Xu, Xiaoyang; van Rosmalen, Mariska; Lim, Lucas; Gadde, Suresh; Farokhzad, Omid C; Fisher, Edward A

    2015-01-28

    Liver X receptor (LXR) signaling pathways regulate lipid metabolism and inflammation, which has generated widespread interest in developing synthetic LXR agonists as potential therapeutics for the management of atherosclerosis. In this study, it is demonstrated that nanoparticles (NPs) containing the synthetic LXR agonist GW3965 (NP-LXR) exert anti-inflammatory effects and inhibit the development of atherosclerosis without causing hepatic steatosis. These NPs are engineered through self-assembly of a biodegradable diblock poly(lactide-co-glycolide)-b-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA-b-PEG) copolymer. NP-LXR is significantly more effective than free GW3965 at inducing LXR-target gene expression and suppressing inflammatory factors in macrophages in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, the NPs elicit negligible lipogenic gene stimulation in the liver. Using the Ldlr (-/-) mouse model of atherosclerosis, abundant colocalization of fluorescently labeled NPs within plaque macrophages following systemic administration is seen. Notably, six intravenous injections of NP-LXR over 2 weeks markedly reduce the CD68-positive cell (macrophage) content of plaques (by 50%) without increasing total cholesterol or triglycerides in the liver and plasma. Together, these findings identify GW3965-encapsulated PLGA-b-PEG NPs as a promising nanotherapeutic approach to combat atherosclerosis, providing the benefits of LXR agonists without their adverse effects on hepatic and plasma lipid metabolism. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. A Novel Dietary Flavonoid Fisetin Inhibits Androgen Receptor Signaling and Tumor Growth in Athymic Nude Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naghma; Asim, Mohammad; Afaq, Farrukh; Zaid, Mohammad Abu; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2010-01-01

    Androgen receptor (AR)–mediated signaling plays an important role in the development and progression of prostate cancer (PCa). Hormonal therapies, mainly with combinations of antiandrogens and androgen deprivation, are the mainstay treatment for advanced disease. However, emergence of androgen resistance largely due to inefficient antihormone action limits their therapeutic usefulness. Here, we report that fisetin, a novel dietary flavonoid, acts as a novel AR ligand by competing with the high-affinity androgen to interact with the ligand binding domain of AR. We show that this physical interaction results in substantial decrease in AR stability and decrease in amino-terminal/carboxyl-terminal (N-C) interaction of AR. This results in blunting of AR-mediated transactivation of target genes including prostate-specific antigen (PSA). In addition, treatment of LNCaP cells with fisetin decreased AR protein levels, in part, by decreasing its promoter activity and by accelerating its degradation. Fisetin also synergized with Casodex in inducing apoptosis in LNCaP cells. Treatment with fisetin in athymic nude mice implanted with AR-positive CWR22Rυ1 human PCa cells resulted in inhibition of tumor growth and reduction in serum PSA levels. These data identify fisetin as an inhibitor of AR signaling axis and suggest that it could be a useful chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agent to delay progression of PCa. PMID:18922931

  13. Selective activation of SHP2 activity by cisplatin revealed by a novel chemical probe-based assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, Chun-Chen; Chu, Chi-Yuan; Lin, Jing-Jer; Lo, Lee-Chiang

    2010-01-01

    Src homology-2 (SH2) domain-containing phosphatase 2 (SHP2) is known to participate in several different signaling pathways to mediate cell growth, survival, migration, and differentiation. However, due to the lack of proper analytical tools, it is unclear whether the phosphatase activity of SHP2 is activated in most studies. We have previously developed an activity-based probe LCL2 that formed covalent linkage with catalytically active protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). Here, by combining LCL2 with a SHP2 specific antibody, we established an assay system that enables the direct monitoring of SHP2 activity upon cisplatin treatment of cancer cells. The protocol is advantageous over conventional colorimetric or in-gel PTP assays as it is specific and does not require the use of radioisotope reagents. Using this assay, we found SHP2 activity was selectively activated by cisplatin. Moreover, the activation of SHP2 appeared to be specific for cisplatin as other DNA damage agents failed to activate the activity. Although the role of SHP2 activation by cisplatin treatments is still unclear to us, our results provide the first direct evidence for the activation of SHP2 during cisplatin treatments. More importantly, the concept of using activity-based probe in conjunction with target-specific antibodies could be extended to other enzyme classes.

  14. Activation of adenosine receptors and inhibition of cyclooxygenases: two recent pharmacological approaches to modulation of radiation suppressed hematopoiesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofer, M.; Pospisil, M.; Vacek, A.; Hola, J.; Weiterova, L.; Streitova, D.; Znojil, V.

    2008-01-01

    Searching for drugs conforming to requirements for protection and/or treatment of radiation-induced damage belongs to the most important tasks of current radiobiology. In the Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, Institute of Biophysics, v.v.i., Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Brno, Czech Republic, two original approaches for stimulation of radiation-suppressed hematopoiesis have been tested in recent years, namely activation of adenosine receptors and inhibition of cyclooxygenases. Non-selective activation of adenosine receptors, induced by combined administration of dipyridamole, a drug preventing adenosine uptake and supporting thus its extracellular receptor-mediated action, and adenosine monophosphate, an adenosine prodrug, has been found to stimulate hematopoiesis when the drugs were given either pre- or post-irradiation. When synthetic adenosine receptor agonists selective for individual adenosine receptor subtypes were tested, stimulatory effects in myelosuppressed mice have been found after administration of IB-MECA, a selective adenosine A3 receptor agonist. Non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitors, inhibiting both cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), indomethacin, diclofenac, or flurbiprofen, have been observed to act positively on radiation-perturbed hematopoiesis in sublethally irradiated mice. However, their undesirable gastrointestinal side effects have been found to negatively influence survival of lethally irradiated animals. Recently tested selective COX-2 inhibitor meloxicam, preserving protective action of COX-1-synthesized prostaglandins in the gastrointestinal tissues, has been observed to retain the hematopoiesis-stimulating effects of non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitors and to improve the survival of animals exposed to lethal radiation doses. These findings bear evidence for the possibility to use selective adenosine A3 receptor agonists and selective COX-2 inhibitors in human practice for treatment of

  15. Ergopeptines bromocriptine and ergovaline and the dopamine type-2 receptor inhibitor domperidone inhibit bovine equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1-like activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Edwena D; Xue, Yan; Strickland, James R; Boling, James A; Matthews, James C

    2011-09-14

    Neotyphodium coenophialum-infected tall fescue contains ergopeptines. Except for interactions with biogenic amine receptors (e.g., dopamine type-2 receptor, D2R), little is known about how ergopeptines affect animal metabolism. The effect of ergopeptines on bovine nucleoside transporters (NT) was evaluated using Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells. Equilibrative NT1 (ENT1)-like activity accounted for 94% of total NT activity. Inhibitory competition (IC(50)) experiments found that this activity was inhibited by both bromocriptine (a synthetic model ergopeptine and D2R agonist) and ergovaline (a predominant ergopeptine of tall fescue). Kinetic inhibition analysis indicated that bromocriptine inhibited ENT1-like activity through a competitive and noncompetitive mechanism. Domperidone (a D2R antagonist) inhibited ENT1 activity more in the presence than in the absence of bromocriptine and displayed an IC(50) value lower than that of bromocriptine or ergovaline, suggesting that inhibition was not through D2R-mediated events. These novel mechanistic findings imply that cattle consuming endophyte-infected tall fescue have reduced ENT1 activity and, thus, impaired nucleoside metabolism.

  16. In vitro nuclear receptor inhibition and cytotoxicity of hydraulic fracturing chemicals and their binary mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Peter A; Kumar, Anu

    2018-05-01

    The widespread use of hydraulic fracturing (HF) in oil and gas extraction operations has led to concern over environmental risks posed by chemicals used in HF fluids. Here we employed a suite of stable luciferase reporter gene assays to investigate the potential for selected HF chemicals or geogenics to activate or antagonise nuclear receptor signalling. We screened three biocides (bronopol [BP], glutaraldehyde [GA], and tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium sulfate [THPS]), a surfactant (2-butoxyethanol), a friction reducer (polyacrylamide), and a coal seam geogenic (o-cresol) for their potential to act as agonists or antagonists of the estrogen receptor, androgen receptor, progesterone receptor (PR), glucocorticoid receptor or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). None of the chemicals induced luciferase activity in any of assays used in the study. In antagonistic mode, BP, GA and THPS caused reductions in luciferase activity in the reporter assays at higher concentrations (50-100 μM), while at low concentrations (2-10 μM) GA and THPS enhanced luciferase activity in some assays relative to controls. None of the other tested chemicals exhibited antagonism in the selected assays. In most cases, altered receptor signalling only occurred at concentrations exhibiting cytotoxicity. However, PPARγ activity, and to a lesser extent PR activity, were inhibited by THPS at sub-cytotoxic concentrations. The majority of binary combinations tested exhibited significantly less-than-additive cytotoxicity, and none of the combinations exhibited synergistic cytotoxicity. In summary, the results of the present study indicate that the selected chemicals are not likely to function as direct agonists of the nuclear receptors tested, and only one chemical, THPS was an apparent partial antagonist of two nuclear receptors. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Cellobiose Dehydrogenase Inhibition of Polymerization of Phenolic Compounds and Enhancing Lignin Degradation by Lignina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jing; Liu, Wen; Gao, Pei-Ji

    1999-01-01

    The kinetic behavior of cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) was investigated by steady-state initial velocity studies. Variation in the concentration of one substrate led to changes in K(m) and V(max) of the other substrate. The results were consistent with a ping-pong mechanism. In the presence of cellobiose, CDH could reduce many oxidized products catalyzed by soybean hull peroxidase (SHP). The oxidation product of 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT) catalyzed by SHP inactivated the enzyme itself however, CDH could prevent SHP from inactivation by reducing the oxidation product of HBT. CDH could also inhibit the polymerization of phenolic compounds catalyzed by SHP. It was found that the addition of CDH could enhance kraft pulp lignin degradation by ligninases.

  18. Mechanisms of Inhibition of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor: Implications for Novel Anti-Cancer Therapies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klein, Daryl E

    2005-01-01

    .... No secreted or extracellular ErbB receptor inhibitors have been reported in mammals. However, two natural inhibitors of the highly homologous Drosophila EGF receptor are found in Drosophila melanogaster...

  19. ACE inhibition is superior to angiotensin receptor blockade for renography in renal artery stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karanikas, Georgios; Becherer, Alexander; Wiesner, Karoline; Dudczak, Robert; Kletter, Kurt

    2002-01-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors as well as angiotensin II receptor antagonists are able to prevent the vasoconstrictive effect of angiotensin II on the efferent renal vessels, which is believed to play an important role in renovascular hypertension. This effect is assumed to be essential for the demonstration of renovascular hypertension by captopril renography. In this study, renographic changes induced by captopril and the AT1 receptor antagonist valsartan were compared in patients with a high probability for renovascular hypertension. Twenty-five patients with 33 stenosed renal arteries (grade of stenosis >50%) and hypertension were studied. Captopril, valsartan and baseline renography were performed within 48 h using technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine. Blood pressure was monitored, plasma renin concentration before and after intervention was determined and urinary flow was estimated from the urinary output of the hydrated patients. Alterations in renographic curves after intervention were evaluated according to the Santa Fe consensus on ACE inhibitor renography. Captopril renography was positive, indicating renovascular hypertension, in 25 of the 33 stenosed vessels, whereas valsartan renography was positive in only ten. Blood pressure during captopril and valsartan renography was not different; reduction in blood pressure was the same after valsartan and captopril. Plasma renin concentration was comparable for valsartan and captopril studies, showing suppressed values after intervention in as many as 12 of the 25 patients. Urinary flow after valsartan was higher than after captopril (P<0.05). However, this difference could not explain the markedly higher sensitivity of captopril compared with valsartan in demonstrating renal artery stenosis. In 14 of the 25 patients, blood pressure response to revascularisation was monitored, showing a much better predictive value for captopril renography. It is concluded that captopril renography is much

  20. ACE inhibition is superior to angiotensin receptor blockade for renography in renal artery stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karanikas, Georgios; Becherer, Alexander; Wiesner, Karoline; Dudczak, Robert; Kletter, Kurt [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Vienna (Austria)

    2002-03-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors as well as angiotensin II receptor antagonists are able to prevent the vasoconstrictive effect of angiotensin II on the efferent renal vessels, which is believed to play an important role in renovascular hypertension. This effect is assumed to be essential for the demonstration of renovascular hypertension by captopril renography. In this study, renographic changes induced by captopril and the AT1 receptor antagonist valsartan were compared in patients with a high probability for renovascular hypertension. Twenty-five patients with 33 stenosed renal arteries (grade of stenosis >50%) and hypertension were studied. Captopril, valsartan and baseline renography were performed within 48 h using technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine. Blood pressure was monitored, plasma renin concentration before and after intervention was determined and urinary flow was estimated from the urinary output of the hydrated patients. Alterations in renographic curves after intervention were evaluated according to the Santa Fe consensus on ACE inhibitor renography. Captopril renography was positive, indicating renovascular hypertension, in 25 of the 33 stenosed vessels, whereas valsartan renography was positive in only ten. Blood pressure during captopril and valsartan renography was not different; reduction in blood pressure was the same after valsartan and captopril. Plasma renin concentration was comparable for valsartan and captopril studies, showing suppressed values after intervention in as many as 12 of the 25 patients. Urinary flow after valsartan was higher than after captopril (P<0.05). However, this difference could not explain the markedly higher sensitivity of captopril compared with valsartan in demonstrating renal artery stenosis. In 14 of the 25 patients, blood pressure response to revascularisation was monitored, showing a much better predictive value for captopril renography. It is concluded that captopril renography is much

  1. Leptin receptor signaling inhibits ovarian follicle development and egg laying in chicken hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Nutrition intake during growth strongly influences ovarian follicle development and egg laying in chicken hens, yet the underlying endocrine regulatory mechanism is still poorly understood. The relevant research progress is hindered by difficulties in detection of leptin gene and its expression in the chicken. However, a functional leptin receptor (LEPR) is present in the chicken which has been implicated to play a regulatory role in ovarian follicle development and egg laying. The present study targeted LEPR by immunizing against its extracellular domain (ECD), and examined the resultant ovarian follicle development and egg-laying rate in chicken hens. Methods Hens that have been immunized four times with chicken LEPR ECD were assessed for their egg laying rate and feed intake, numbers of ovarian follicles, gene expression profiles, serum lipid parameters, as well as STAT3 signaling pathway. Results Administrations of cLEPR ECD antigen resulted in marked reductions in laying rate that over time eventually recovered to the levels exhibited by the Control hens. Together with the decrease in egg laying rate, cLEPR-immunized hens also exhibited significant reductions in feed intake, plasma concentrations of glucose, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein. Parallelled by reductions in feed intake, mRNA gene expression levels of AgRP, orexin, and NPY were down regulated, but of POMC, MC4R and lepR up-regulated in Immunized hen hypothalamus. cLEPR-immunization also promoted expressions of apoptotic genes such as caspase3 in theca and fas in granulosa layer, but severely depressed IGF-I expression in both theca and granulosa layers. Conclusions Immunization against cLEPR ECD in egg-laying hens generated antibodies that mimic leptin bioactivity by enhancing leptin receptor transduction. This up-regulated apoptotic gene expression in ovarian follicles, negatively regulated the expression of genes that promote follicular development

  2. Inhibition of Epithelial TNF-α Receptors by Purified Fruit Bromelain Ameliorates Intestinal Inflammation and Barrier Dysfunction in Colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Zijuan; Wang, Liang; Feng, Panpan; Yin, Lianhong; Wang, Chen; Zhi, Shengxu; Dong, Jianyi; Wang, Jingyu; Lin, Yuan; Chen, Dapeng; Xiong, Yongjian; Peng, Jinyong

    2017-01-01

    Activation of the TNF-α receptor (TNFR) leads to an inflammatory response, and anti-TNF therapy has been administered to reduce inflammation symptoms and heal mucosal ulcers in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Bromelain, a complex natural mixture of proteolytic enzymes, has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects. This study aimed to investigate the effect of purified fruit bromelain (PFB)-induced inhibition of epithelial TNFR in a rat colitis model. Colitis was established by intracol...

  3. Inhibition of alpha oscillations through serotonin-2A receptor activation underlies the visual effects of ayahuasca in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Valle, Marta; Ana Elda, Maqueda; Rabella, Mireia; Rodríguez Pujadas, Aina; Antonijoan Arbós, Rosa Maria; Romero Lafuente, Sergio; Alonso López, Joan Francesc; Mañanas Villanueva, Miguel Ángel; Barker, Steven; Friedlander, Pablo; Feilding, Amanda; Riba, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Ayahuasca is an Amazonian psychotropic plant tea typically obtained from two plants, Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis. It contains the psychedelic 5-HT2A and sigma-1 agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) plus ß-carboline alkaloids with monoamine-oxidase (MAO)-inhibiting properties. Although the psychoactive effects of ayahuasca have commonly been attributed solely to agonism at the 5-HT2A receptor, the molecular target of classical psychedelics, this has not been tested experimental...

  4. Selective inhibition of prostaglandin E2 receptors EP2 and EP4 inhibits adhesion of human endometriotic epithelial and stromal cells through suppression of integrin-mediated mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, JeHoon; Banu, Sakhila K; Burghardt, Robert C; Starzinski-Powitz, Anna; Arosh, Joe A

    2013-03-01

    Endometriosis is a chronic gynecological disease of reproductive age women characterized by the presence of functional endometrial tissues outside the uterine cavity. Interactions between the endometriotic cells and the peritoneal extracellular matrix proteins (ECM) are crucial mechanisms that allow adhesion of the endometriotic cells into peritoneal mesothelia. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. In previous studies, we have reported that selective inhibition of PGE2 receptors PTGER2 and PTGER4 decreases survival and invasion of human endometriotic epithelial and stromal cells through multiple mechanisms. Results of the present study indicates that selective inhibition of PTGER2- and PTGER4-mediated PGE2 signaling 1) decreases the expression and/or activity of specific integrin receptor subunits Itgb1 (beta1) and Itgb3 (beta3) but not Itgb5 (beta5), Itga1 (alpha1), Itga2 (alpha2), Itga5 (alpha5), and Itgav (alphav); 2) decreases integrin-signaling components focal adhesion kinase or protein kinase 2 (PTK2) and talin proteins; 3) inhibits interactions between Itgb1/Itgb3 subunits, PTK2, and talin and PTGER2/PTGER4 proteins through beta-arrestin-1 and Src kinase protein complex in human endometriotic epithelial cells 12Z and stromal cells 22B; and 4) decreases adhesion of 12Z and 22B cells to ECM collagen I, collagen IV, fibronectin, and vitronectin in a substrate-specific manner. These novel findings provide an important molecular framework for further evaluation of selective inhibition of PTGER2 and PTGER4 as potential nonsteroidal therapy to expand the spectrum of currently available treatment options for endometriosis in child-bearing age women.

  5. Arctigenin reduces neuronal responses in the somatosensory cortex via the inhibition of non-NMDA glutamate receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borbély, Sándor; Jócsák, Gergely; Moldován, Kinga; Sedlák, Éva; Preininger, Éva; Boldizsár, Imre; Tóth, Attila; Atlason, Palmi T; Molnár, Elek; Világi, Ildikó

    2016-07-01

    Lignans are biologically active phenolic compounds related to lignin, produced in different plants. Arctigenin, a dibenzylbutyrolactone-type lignan, has been used as a neuroprotective agent for the treatment of encephalitis. Previous studies of cultured rat cerebral cortical neurones raised the possibility that arctigenin inhibits kainate-induced excitotoxicity. The aims of the present study were: 1) to analyse the effect of arctigenin on normal synaptic activity in ex vivo brain slices, 2) to determine its receptor binding properties and test the effect of arctigenin on AMPA/kainate receptor activation and 3) to establish its effects on neuronal activity in vivo. Arctigenin inhibited glutamatergic transmission and reduced the evoked field responses. The inhibitory effect of arctigenin on the evoked field responses proved to be substantially dose dependent. Our results indicate that arctigenin exerts its effects under physiological conditions and not only on hyper-excited neurons. Furthermore, arctigenin can cross the blood-brain barrier and in the brain it interacts with kainate sensitive ionotropic glutamate receptors. These results indicate that arctigenin is a potentially useful new pharmacological tool for the inhibition of glutamate-evoked responses in the central nervous system in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Anticonvulsants Based on the α-Substituted Amide Group Pharmacophore Bind to and Inhibit Function of Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivoshein, Arcadius V

    2016-03-16

    Although the antiepileptic properties of α-substituted lactams, acetamides, and cyclic imides have been known for over 60 years, the mechanism by which they act remains unclear. I report here that these compounds bind to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) and inhibit its function. Using transient kinetic measurements with functionally active, nondesensitized receptors, I have discovered that (i) α-substituted lactams and cyclic imides are noncompetitive inhibitors of heteromeric subtypes (such as α4β2 and α3β4) of neuronal nAChRs and (ii) the binding affinity of these compounds toward the nAChR correlates with their potency in preventing maximal electroshock (MES)-induced convulsions in mice. Based on the hypothesis that α-substituted amide group is the essential pharmacophore of these drugs, I found and tested a simple compound, 2-phenylbutyramide. This compound indeed inhibits nAChR and shows good anticonvulsant activity in mice. Molecular docking simulations suggest that α-substituted lactams, acetamides, and cyclic imides bind to the same sites on the extracellular domain of the receptor. These new findings indicate that inhibition of brain nAChRs may play an important role in the action of these antiepileptic drugs, a role that has not been previously recognized.

  7. Glioblastoma chemotherapy adjunct via potent serotonin receptor-7 inhibition using currently marketed high-affinity antipsychotic medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kast, RE

    2010-01-01

    Glioblastoma treatment as now constituted offers increased survival measured in months over untreated patients. Because glioblastomas are active in synthesizing a bewildering variety of growth factors, a systematic approach to inhibiting these is being undertaken as treatment adjunct. The serotonin 7 receptor is commonly overexpressed in glioblastoma. Research documentation showing agonists at serotonin receptor 7 cause increased extracellular regulated kinase 1/2 activation, increased interleukin-6 synthesis, increased signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 activation, increased resistance to apoptosis and other growth enhancing changes in glioblastoma is reviewed in this paper. Because three drugs in wide use to treat thought disorders – paliperidone, pimozide and risperidone – are also potent and well-tolerated inhibitors at serotonin receptor 7, these drugs should be studied for growth factor deprivation in an adjunctive role in glioblastoma treatment. PMID:20880389

  8. Inverse agonism at the P2Y12 receptor and ENT1 transporter blockade contribute to platelet inhibition by ticagrelor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aungraheeta, Riyaad; Conibear, Alexandra; Butler, Mark; Kelly, Eamonn; Nylander, Sven; Mumford, Andrew; Mundell, Stuart J

    2016-12-08

    Ticagrelor is a potent antagonist of the P2Y 12 receptor (P2Y 12 R) and consequently an inhibitor of platelet activity effective in the treatment of atherothrombosis. Here, we sought to further characterize its molecular mechanism of action. Initial studies showed that ticagrelor promoted a greater inhibition of adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP)-induced Ca 2+ release in washed platelets vs other P2Y 12 R antagonists. This additional effect of ticagrelor beyond P2Y 12 R antagonism was in part as a consequence of ticagrelor inhibiting the equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1) on platelets, leading to accumulation of extracellular adenosine and activation of G s -coupled adenosine A 2A receptors. This contributed to an increase in basal cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein phosphorylation (VASP-P). In addition, ticagrelor increased platelet cAMP and VASP-P in the absence of ADP in an adenosine receptor-independent manner. We hypothesized that this increase originated from a direct effect on basal agonist-independent P2Y 12 R signaling, and this was validated in 1321N1 cells stably transfected with human P2Y 12 R. In these cells, ticagrelor blocked the constitutive agonist-independent activity of the P2Y 12 R, limiting basal G i -coupled signaling and thereby increasing cAMP levels. These data suggest that ticagrelor has the pharmacological profile of an inverse agonist. Based on our results showing insurmountable inhibition of ADP-induced Ca 2+ release and forskolin-induced cAMP, the mode of antagonism of ticagrelor also appears noncompetitive, at least functionally. In summary, our studies describe 2 novel modes of action of ticagrelor, inhibition of platelet ENT1 and inverse agonism at the P2Y 12 R that contribute to its effective inhibition of platelet activation. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  9. Inhibition of aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent transcription by resveratrol or kaempferol is independent of estrogen receptor α expression in human breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPherson, Laura; Matthews, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol and kaempferol are natural chemopreventative agents that are also aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) antagonists and estrogen receptor (ER) agonists. In this study we evaluated the role of ERα in resveratrol- and kaempferol-mediated inhibition of AHR-dependent transcription. Kaempferol or resveratrol inhibited dioxin-induced cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) and CYP1B1 expression levels and recruitment of AHR, ERα and co-activators to CYP1A1 and CYP1B1. Both phytochemicals induced the expression and recruitment of ERα to gene amplified in breast cancer 1 (GREB1). RNAi-mediated knockdown of ERα in T-47D cells did not affect the inhibitory action of either phytochemical on AHR activity. Both compounds also inhibited AHR-dependent transcription in ERα-negative MDA-MB-231 and BT-549 breast cancer cells. These data show that ERα does not contribute to the AHR-inhibitory activities of resveratrol and kaempferol. PMID:20846786

  10. Intestinal Serotonin Transporter Inhibition by Toll-Like Receptor 2 Activation. A Feedback Modulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Latorre

    Full Text Available TLR2 is a microbiota recognition receptor that has been described to contribute to intestinal homeostasis and to ameliorate inflammatory intestinal injury. In this context, serotonin (5-HT has shown to be an essential intestinal physiological neuromodulator that is also involved in intestinal inflammatory diseases. Since the interaction between TLR2 activation and the intestinal serotoninergic system remains non-investigated, our main aim was to analyze the effect of TLR2 on intestinal serotonin transporter (SERT activity and expression and the intracellular pathways involved. Caco-2/TC7 cells were used to analyze SERT and TLR2 molecular expression and SERT activity by measuring 5-HT uptake. The results showed that apical TLR2 activation inhibits SERT activity in Caco-2/TC7 cells mainly by reducing SERT protein level either in the plasma membrane, after short-term TLR2 activation or in both the plasma membrane and cell lysate, after long-term activation. cAMP/PKA pathway appears to mediate short-term inhibitory effect of TLR2 on SERT; however, p38 MAPK pathway has been shown to be involved in both short- and long-term TLR2 effect. Reciprocally, 5-HT long-term treatment yielded TLR2 down regulation in Caco-2/TC7 cells. Finally, results from in vivo showed an augmented intestinal SERT expression in mice Tlr2-/-, thus confirming our inhibitory effect of TLR2 on intestinal SERT in vitro. The present work infers that TLR2 may act in intestinal pathophysiology, not only by its inherent innate immune role, but also by regulating the intestinal serotoninergic system.

  11. Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition by anti-CD147 therapy in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, John W; Sweeny, Larissa; Hartman, Yolanda; Zhou, Tong; Rosenthal, Eben L

    2016-02-01

    Advanced cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is an uncommon and aggressive malignancy. As a result, there is limited understanding of its biology and pathogenesis. CD147 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) have been identified as oncologically important targets, but their relationship remains undefined in cutaneous SCC. Multiple cutaneous SCC cell lines (Colo-16, SRB-1, and SRB-12), were treated in vitro with a range of chimeric anti-CD147 monoclonal antibody (mAb) (0, 50, 100, and 200 µg/mL) or transfected with a small interfering RNA against CD147 (SiCD147). Cell proliferation, migration (scratch wound healing assay), and protein expression was then assessed. In vivo, Colo-16 flank xenografts were treated anti-CD147 mAb (150 µg i.p. triweekly). After treatment with anti-CD147 (200 µg/mL), there was a significant decrease in proliferation for all cell lines relative to controls (p CD147 (200 µg/mL) resulted in decreased cell migration for all cell lines, with an average of 43% reduction in closure compared to controls (p CD147 antibody therapy and siRNA mediated reduction in CD147 expression were both found to decrease protein expression of EGFR, which correlated with a reduction in downstream total and phosphorylated protein kinase B (pAKT). Tumor growth in vivo was reduced for both the anti-CD147 treatment group and the SiCD147 group relative to controls. Inhibition and downregulation of CD147 in cutaneous SCC resulted in suppression of the malignant phenotype in vitro and in vivo, which may be mediated in part by an alteration in EGFR expression. As a result, CD147 may serve as a potential therapeutic target for advanced cutaneous SCC. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Clofibric acid, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha ligand, inhibits growth of human ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Yoshihito; Xin, Bing; Shigeto, Tatsuhiko; Umemoto, Mika; Kasai-Sakamoto, Akiko; Futagami, Masayuki; Tsuchida, Shigeki; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Mizunuma, Hideki

    2007-04-01

    Recent reports have shown that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)alpha ligands reduce growth of some types of malignant tumors and prevent carcinogenesis. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of clofibric acid (CA), a ligand for PPARalpha on growth of ovarian malignancy, in in vivo and in vitro experiments using OVCAR-3 and DISS cells derived from human ovarian cancer and aimed to elucidate the molecular mechanism of its antitumor effect. CA treatment significantly suppressed the growth of OVCAR-3 tumors xenotransplanted s.c. and significantly prolonged the survival of mice with malignant ascites derived from DISS cells as compared with control. CA also dose-dependently inhibited cell proliferation of cultured cell lines. CA treatment increased the expression of carbonyl reductase (CR), which promotes the conversion of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) to PGF(2alpha), in implanted OVCAR-3 tumors as well as cultured cells. CA treatment decreased PGE(2) level as well as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) amount in both of OVCAR-3-tumor and DISS-derived ascites. Reduced microvessel density and induced apoptosis were found in solid OVCAR-3 tumors treated by CA. Transfection of CR expression vector into mouse ovarian cancer cells showed significant reduction of PGE(2) level as well as VEGF expression. These results indicate that CA produces potent antitumor effects against ovarian cancer in conjunction with a reduction of angiogenesis and induction of apoptosis. We conclude that CA could be an effective agent in ovarian cancer and should be tested alone and in combination with other anticancer drugs.

  13. Covalent Targeting of Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor Inhibits Metastatic Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Wells S; Tan, Li; Smith, Andrew; Gray, Nathanael S; Wendt, Michael K

    2016-09-01

    Therapeutic targeting of late-stage breast cancer is limited by an inadequate understanding of how tumor cell signaling evolves during metastatic progression and by the currently available small molecule inhibitors capable of targeting these processes. Herein, we demonstrate that both β3 integrin and fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 (FGFR1) are part of an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) program that is required to facilitate metastatic outgrowth in response to fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2). Mechanistically, β3 integrin physically disrupts an interaction between FGFR1 and E-cadherin, leading to a dramatic redistribution of FGFR1 subcellular localization, enhanced FGF2 signaling and increased three-dimensional (3D) outgrowth of metastatic breast cancer cells. This ability of β3 integrin to drive FGFR signaling requires the enzymatic activity of focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Consistent with these mechanistic data, we demonstrate that FGFR, β3 integrin, and FAK constitute a molecular signature capable of predicting decreased survival of patients with the basal-like subtype of breast cancer. Importantly, covalent targeting of a conserved cysteine in the P-loop of FGFR1-4 with our newly developed small molecule, FIIN-4, more effectively blocks 3D metastatic outgrowth as compared with currently available FGFR inhibitors. In vivo application of FIIN-4 potently inhibited the growth of metastatic, patient-derived breast cancer xenografts and murine-derived metastases growing within the pulmonary microenvironment. Overall, the current studies demonstrate that FGFR1 works in concert with other EMT effector molecules to drive aberrant downstream signaling, and that these events can be effectively targeted using our novel therapeutics for the treatment of the most aggressive forms of breast cancer. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(9); 2096-106. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. Voltage-Dependent Inhibition of Glycine Receptor Channels by Niflumic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galyna Maleeva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Niflumic acid (NFA is a member of the fenamate class of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. This compound and its derivatives are used worldwide clinically for the relief of chronic and acute pain. NFA is also a commonly used blocker of voltage-gated chloride channels. Here we present evidence that NFA is an efficient blocker of chloride-permeable glycine receptors (GlyRs with subunit heterogeneity of action. Using the whole-cell configuration of patch-clamp recordings and molecular modeling, we analyzed the action of NFA on homomeric α1ΔIns, α2B, α3L, and heteromeric α1β and α2β GlyRs expressed in CHO cells. NFA inhibited glycine-induced currents in a voltage-dependent manner and its blocking potency in α2 and α3 GlyRs was higher than that in α1 GlyR. The Woodhull analysis suggests that NFA blocks α1 and α2 GlyRs at the fractional electrical distances of 0.16 and 0.65 from the external membrane surface, respectively. Thus, NFA binding site in α1 GlyR is closer to the external part of the membrane, while in α2 GlyR it is significantly deeper in the pore. Mutation G254A at the cytoplasmic part of the α1 GlyR pore-lining TM2 helix (level 2′ increased the NFA blocking potency, while incorporation of the β subunit did not have a significant effect. The Hill plot analysis suggests that α1 and α2 GlyRs are preferably blocked by two and one NFA molecules, respectively. Molecular modeling using Monte Carlo energy minimizations provides the structural rationale for the experimental data and proposes more than one interaction site along the pore where NFA can suppress the ion permeation.

  15. Shp2 signaling in POMC neurons is important for leptin's actions on blood pressure, energy balance, and glucose regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Carmo, Jussara M; da Silva, Alexandre A; Ebaady, Sabira E; Sessums, Price O; Abraham, Ralph S; Elmquist, Joel K; Lowell, Bradford B; Hall, John E

    2014-12-15

    Previous studies showed that Src homology-2 tyrosine phosphatase (Shp2) is an important regulator of body weight. In this study, we examined the impact of Shp2 deficiency specifically in proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons on metabolic and cardiovascular function and on chronic blood pressure (BP) and metabolic responses to leptin. Mice with Shp2 deleted in POMC neurons (Shp2/Pomc-cre) and control mice (Shp2(flox/flox)) were implanted with telemetry probes and venous catheters for measurement of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and leptin infusion. After at least 5 days of stable control measurements, mice received leptin infusion (2 μg·kg(-1)·day(-1) iv) for 7 days. Compared with Shp2(flox/flox) controls, Shp2/Pomc-cre mice at 22 wk of age were slightly heavier (34 ± 1 vs. 31 ± 1 g) but consumed a similar amount of food (3.9 ± 0.3 vs. 3.8 ± 0.2 g/day). Leptin infusion reduced food intake in Shp2(flox/flox) mice (2.6 ± 0.5 g) and Shp2/Pomc-cre mice (3.2 ± 0.3 g). Despite decreasing food intake, leptin infusion increased MAP in control mice, whereas no significant change in MAP was observed in Shp2/Pomc-cre mice. Leptin infusion also decreased plasma glucose and insulin levels in controls (12 ± 1 to 6 ± 1 μU/ml and 142 ± 12 to 81 ± 8 mg/100 ml) but not in Shp2/Pomc-cre mice. Leptin increased V̇o2 by 16 ± 2% in controls and 7 ± 1% in Shp2/Pomc-cre mice. These results indicate that Shp2 signaling in POMC neurons contributes to the long-term BP and antidiabetic actions of leptin and may play a modest role in normal regulation of body weight. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Increases Histamine H3 Receptor-Mediated Inhibition of Glutamatergic Neurotransmission in Rat Dentate Gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varaschin, Rafael K; Allen, Nyika A; Rosenberg, Martina J; Valenzuela, C Fernando; Savage, Daniel D

    2018-02-01

    We have reported that prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE)-induced deficits in dentate gyrus, long-term potentiation (LTP), and memory are ameliorated by the histamine H 3 receptor inverse agonist ABT-239. Curiously, ABT-239 did not enhance LTP or memory in control offspring. Here, we initiated an investigation of how PAE alters histaminergic neurotransmission in the dentate gyrus and other brain regions employing combined radiohistochemical and electrophysiological approaches in vitro to examine histamine H 3 receptor number and function. Long-Evans rat dams voluntarily consumed either a 0% or 5% ethanol solution 4 hours each day throughout gestation. This pattern of drinking, which produces a mean peak maternal serum ethanol concentration of 60.8 ± 5.8 mg/dl, did not affect maternal weight gain, litter size, or offspring birthweight. Radiohistochemical studies in adult offspring revealed that specific [ 3 H]-A349821 binding to histamine H 3 receptors was not different in PAE rats compared to controls. However, H 3 receptor-mediated G i /G o protein-effector coupling, as measured by methimepip-stimulated [ 35 S]-GTPγS binding, was significantly increased in cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and dentate gyrus of PAE rats compared to control. A LIGAND analysis of detailed methimepip concentration-response curves in dentate gyrus indicated that PAE significantly elevates receptor-effector coupling by a lower affinity H 3 receptor population without significantly altering the affinities of H 3 receptor subpopulations. In agreement with the [ 35 S]-GTPγS studies, a similar range of methimepip concentrations also inhibited electrically evoked field excitatory postsynaptic potential responses and increased paired-pulse ratio, a measure of decreased glutamate release, to a significantly greater extent in dentate gyrus slices from PAE rats than in controls. These results suggest that a PAE-induced elevation in H 3 receptor-mediated inhibition of glutamate release from

  17. Colony stimulating factor 1 receptor inhibition delays recurrence of glioblastoma after radiation by altering myeloid cell recruitment and polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Jason H.; Hirai, Takahisa; Deng, Lei; Chernikova, Sophia B.; Urata, Kimiko; West, Brian L.; Brown, J. Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background Glioblastoma (GBM) may initially respond to treatment with ionizing radiation (IR), but the prognosis remains extremely poor because the tumors invariably recur. Using animal models, we previously showed that inhibiting stromal cell–derived factor 1 signaling can prevent or delay GBM recurrence by blocking IR-induced recruitment of myeloid cells, specifically monocytes that give rise to tumor-associated macrophages. The present study was aimed at determining if inhibiting colony stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1) signaling could be used as an alternative strategy to target pro-tumorigenic myeloid cells recruited to irradiated GBM. Methods To inhibit CSF-1 signaling in myeloid cells, we used PLX3397, a small molecule that potently inhibits the tyrosine kinase activity of the CSF-1 receptor (CSF-1R). Combined IR and PLX3397 therapy was compared with IR alone using 2 different human GBM intracranial xenograft models. Results GBM xenografts treated with IR upregulated CSF-1R ligand expression and increased the number of CD11b+ myeloid-derived cells in the tumors. Treatment with PLX3397 both depleted CD11b+ cells and potentiated the response of the intracranial tumors to IR. Median survival was significantly longer for mice receiving combined therapy versus IR alone. Analysis of myeloid cell differentiation markers indicated that CSF-1R inhibition prevented IR-recruited monocyte cells from differentiating into immunosuppressive, pro-angiogenic tumor-associated macrophages. Conclusion CSF-1R inhibition may be a promising strategy to improve GBM response to radiotherapy. PMID:26538619

  18. Group I mGlu receptor stimulation inhibits activation-induced cell death of human T lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiocchetti, Annalisa; Miglio, Gianluca; Mesturini, Riccardo; Varsaldi, Federica; Mocellin, Marco; Orilieri, Elisabetta; Dianzani, Chiara; Fantozzi, Roberto; Dianzani, Umberto; Lombardi, Grazia

    2006-01-01

    The effects of L-glutamate on activation-induced cell death (AICD) of human activated (1 μg ml−1 phytohemagglutinin plus 2 U ml−1 interleukin-2; 8 days) T lymphocytes were studied by measuring anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody (10 μg ml−1; 18 h)-induced cell apoptosis (Annexin V and propidium iodide staining). L-Glutamate (1 × 10−8–1 × 10−4 M) significantly (P⩽0.01) inhibited AICD in a concentration-dependent manner (EC50=6.3 × 10−8 M; maximum inhibition 54.8±6.3% at 1 × 10−6 M). The L-glutamate inhibitory effect was pharmacologically characterized as mediated by group I mGlu receptors, since mGlu receptor agonists reproduced this effect. The EC50 values were: 3.2 × 10−7 M for (1S,3R)-ACPD; 4.5 × 10−8 M for quisqualate; 1.0 × 10−6 M for (S)-3,5-DHPG; 2.0 × 10−5 M for CHPG. Group I mGlu receptor antagonists inhibited the effects of quisqualate 1.0 × 10−6 M. The IC50 values calculated were: 8.7 × 10−5, 4.3 × 10−6 and 6.3 × 10−7 M for AIDA, LY 367385 and MPEP, respectively. L-Glutamate (1 × 10−6 M; 18 h) significantly (P⩽0.05) inhibited FasL expression (40.8±11.3%) (cytofluorimetric analysis), whereas it did not affect Fas signalling. Expression of both mGlu1 and mGlu5 receptor mRNA by T lymphocytes and T-cell lines, as demonstrated by reverse transcriptase–PCR analysis, suggests that L-glutamate-mediated inhibition of AICD was exerted on T cells. These data depict a novel role for L-glutamate in the regulation of the immune response through group I mGlu receptor-mediated mechanisms. PMID:16751798

  19. Co-inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor and insulin-like growth factor receptor 1 enhances radiosensitivity in human breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ping; Veldwijk, Marlon R; Zhang, Qing; Li, Zhao-bin; Xu, Wen-cai; Fu, Shen

    2013-01-01

    Over-expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) or insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) have been shown to closely correlate with radioresistance of breast cancer cells. This study aimed to investigate the impact of co-inhibition of EGFR and IGF-1R on the radiosensitivity of two breast cancer cells with different profiles of EGFR and IGF-1R expression. The MCF-7 (EGFR +/−, IGF-1R +++) and MDA-MB-468 (EGFR +++, IGF-1R +++) breast cancer cell lines were used. Radiosensitizing effects were determined by colony formation assay. Apoptosis and cell cycle distribution were measured by flow cytometry. Phospho-Akt and phospho-Erk1/2 were quantified by western blot. In vivo studies were conducted using MDA-MB-468 cells xenografted in nu/nu mice. In MDA-MB-468 cells, the inhibition of IGF-1R upregulated the p-EGFR expression. Either EGFR (AG1478) or IGF-1R inhibitor (AG1024) radiosensitized MDA-MB-468 cells. In MCF-7 cells, radiosensitivity was enhanced by AG1024, but not by AG1478. Synergistical radiosensitizing effect was observed by co-inhibition of EGFR and IGF-1R only in MDA-MB-468 cells with a DMF 10% of 1.90. The co-inhibition plus irradiation significantly induced more apoptosis and arrested the cells at G0/G1 phase in MDA-MB-468 cells. Only co-inhibition of EGFR and IGF-1R synergistically diminished the expression of p-Akt and p-Erk1/2 in MDA-MB-468 cells. In vivo studies further verified the radiosensitizing effects by co-inhibition of both pathways in a MDA-MB-468 xenograft model. Our data suggested that co-inhibition of EGFR and IGF-1R synergistically radiosensitized breast cancer cells with both EGFR and IGF-1R high expression. The approach may have an important therapeutic implication in the treatment of breast cancer patients with high expression of EGFR and IGF-1R

  20. Glycine and GABAA receptors mediate tonic and phasic inhibitory processes that contribute to prepulse inhibition in the goldfish startle network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C.P. Curtin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Prepulse inhibition (PPI is understood as an inhibitory process that attenuates sensory flow during early stages (20-1000ms of information processing. Here, we applied in vivo electrophysiology and pharmacology to determine if prepulse inhibition (PPI is mediated by glycine receptors (GlyRs and/or GABAA receptors (GABAARs in the goldfish auditory startle circuit. Specifically, we used selective antagonists to dissect the contributions of target receptors on sound-evoked postsynaptic potentials (PSPs recorded in the neurons that initiate startle, the Mauthner-cells (M-cell. We found that strychnine, a GlyR antagonist, disrupted a fast-activated (5 ms and rapidly (< 50ms decaying (feed-forward inhibitory process that disrupts PPI at 20 ms prepulse/pulse inter-stimulus intervals (ISI. Additionally we observed increases of the evoked postsynaptic potential (PSP peak amplitude (+87.43 ± 21.53%; N=9 and duration (+204 ± 48.91%, N=9. In contrast, treatment with bicuculline, a GABAAR antagonist, caused a general reduction in PPI across all tested ISIs (20-500 ms, essentially eliminating PPI at ISIs from 20-100 ms. Bicuculline also increased PSP peak amplitude (+133.8 ± 10.3%, N=5 and PSP duration (+284.95 ± 65.64%, N=5. Treatment with either antagonist also tonically increased post-synaptic excitability in the M-cells, reflected by an increase in the magnitude of antidromically-evoked action potentials (APs by 15.07 ± 3.21%, N=7 and 16.23 ± 7.08%, N=5 for strychnine and bicuculline, respectively. These results suggest that GABAARs and GlyRs are functionally segregated to short- and longer-lasting sound-evoked (phasic inhibitory processes that contribute to PPI, with the mediation of tonic inhibition by both receptor systems being critical for gain control within the M-cell startle circuit.

  1. Fuel Cycle Cost Calculations for a 120,000 shp PWR for Ship Propulsion. RCN Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekker, N.H.; Foggi, C.; Giacomazzi, G.

    1972-02-01

    A parametric study of the fuel cycle costs for a 120,000 SHP PWR for ship propulsion has been carried out. Variable parameters are: fuel pellet diameter, moderating ratio and refuelling scheme. Minimum fuel cycle costs can be obtained at moderating ratios of about 2.2. Both fuel cycle costs and reactor control requirements favour the two batch core. (author)

  2. Edaravone inhibits pressure overload-induced cardiac fibrosis and dysfunction by reducing expression of angiotensin II AT1 receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang WW

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wei-Wei Zhang,1,2 Feng Bai,1 Jin Wang,1 Rong-Hua Zheng,1 Li-Wang Yang,1 Erskine A James,3 Zhi-Qing Zhao1,4 1Department of Physiology, Shanxi Medical University, 2Department of Anesthesiology, Shanxi Provincial People’s Hospital, Taiyuan, Shanxi, China; 3Department of Internal Medicine, Navicent Health, Macon, 4Department of Basic Biomedical Sciences, Mercer University School of Medicine, Savannah, GA, USA Abstract: Angiotensin II (Ang II is known to be involved in the progression of ventricular dysfunction and heart failure by eliciting cardiac fibrosis. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate whether treatment with an antioxidant compound, edaravone, reduces cardiac fibrosis and improves ventricular function by inhibiting Ang II AT1 receptor. The study was conducted in a rat model of transverse aortic constriction (TAC. In control, rats were subjected to 8 weeks of TAC. In treated rats, edaravone (10 mg/kg/day or Ang II AT1 receptor blocker, telmisartan (10 mg/kg/day was administered by intraperitoneal injection or gastric gavage, respectively, during TAC. Relative to the animals with TAC, edaravone reduced myocardial malonaldehyde level and increased superoxide dismutase activity. Protein level of the AT1 receptor was reduced and the AT2 receptor was upregulated, as evidenced by the reduced ratio of AT1 over AT2 receptor (0.57±0.2 vs 3.16±0.39, p<0.05 and less locally expressed AT1 receptor in the myocardium. Furthermore, the protein level of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 was upregulated. In coincidence with these changes, edaravone significantly decreased the populations of macrophages and myofibroblasts in the myocardium, which were accompanied by reduced levels of transforming growth factor beta 1 and Smad2/3. Collagen I synthesis was inhibited and collagen-rich fibrosis was attenuated. Relative to the TAC group, cardiac systolic function was preserved, as shown by increased left ventricular systolic pressure (204±51 vs 110±19

  3. Tissue-type plasminogen activator-binding RNA aptamers inhibiting low-density lipoprotein receptor family-mediated internalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerregaard, Nils; Bøtkjær, Kenneth A; Helsen, Nicky; Andreasen, Peter A; Dupont, Daniel M

    2015-07-01

    Recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA, trade name Alteplase), currently the only drug approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency for the treatment of cerebral ischaemic stroke, has been implicated in a number of adverse effects reportedly mediated by interactions with the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) family receptors, including neuronal cell death and an increased risk of cerebral haemorrhage. The tissue-type plasminogen activator is the principal initiator of thrombolysis in human physiology, an effect that is mediated directly via localised activation of the plasmin zymogen plasminogen at the surface of fibrin clots in the vascular lumen. Here, we sought to identify a ligand to tPA capable of inhibiting the relevant LDL family receptors without interfering with the fibrinolytic activity of tPA. Systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) was employed to isolate tPA-binding RNA aptamers, which were characterised in biochemical assays of tPA association to low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP-1, an LDL receptor family member); tPA-mediated in vitro and ex vivo clot lysis; and tPA-mediated plasminogen activation in the absence and presence of a stimulating soluble fibrin fragment. Two aptamers, K18 and K32, had minimal effects on clot lysis, but were able to efficiently inhibit tPA-LRP-1 association and LDL receptor family-mediated endocytosis in human vascular endothelial cells and astrocytes. These observations suggest that coadministration alongside tPA may be a viable strategy to improve the safety of thrombolytic treatment of cerebral ischaemic stroke by restricting tPA activity to the vascular lumen.

  4. Prostaglandin D2 inhibits airway dendritic cell migration and function in steady state conditions by selective activation of the D prostanoid receptor 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Hammad (Hamida); H.J. de Heer; T. Soullié (Thomas); H.C. Hoogsteden (Henk); F. Trottein; B.N.M. Lambrecht (Bart)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractPGD(2) is the major mediator released by mast cells during allergic responses, and it acts through two different receptors, the D prostanoid receptor 1 (DP1) and DP2, also known as CRTH2. Recently, it has been shown that PGD(2) inhibits the migration of epidermal

  5. Pancreatic and snake venom presynaptically active phospholipases A2 inhibit nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulfius, Catherine A; Kasheverov, Igor E; Kryukova, Elena V; Spirova, Ekaterina N; Shelukhina, Irina V; Starkov, Vladislav G; Andreeva, Tatyana V; Faure, Grazyna; Zouridakis, Marios; Tsetlin, Victor I; Utkin, Yuri N

    2017-01-01

    Phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) are enzymes found throughout the animal kingdom. They hydrolyze phospholipids in the sn-2 position producing lysophospholipids and unsaturated fatty acids, agents that can damage membranes. PLA2s from snake venoms have numerous toxic effects, not all of which can be explained by phospholipid hydrolysis, and each enzyme has a specific effect. We have earlier demonstrated the capability of several snake venom PLA2s with different enzymatic, cytotoxic, anticoagulant and antiproliferative properties, to decrease acetylcholine-induced currents in Lymnaea stagnalis neurons, and to compete with α-bungarotoxin for binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and acetylcholine binding protein. Since nAChRs are implicated in postsynaptic and presynaptic activities, in this work we probe those PLA2s known to have strong presynaptic effects, namely β-bungarotoxin from Bungarus multicinctus and crotoxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus. We also wished to explore whether mammalian PLA2s interact with nAChRs, and have examined non-toxic PLA2 from porcine pancreas. It was found that porcine pancreatic PLA2 and presynaptic β-bungarotoxin blocked currents mediated by nAChRs in Lymnaea neurons with IC50s of 2.5 and 4.8 μM, respectively. Crotoxin competed with radioactive α-bungarotoxin for binding to Torpedo and human α7 nAChRs and to the acetylcholine binding protein. Pancreatic PLA2 interacted similarly with these targets; moreover, it inhibited radioactive α-bungarotoxin binding to the water-soluble extracellular domain of human α9 nAChR, and blocked acetylcholine induced currents in human α9α10 nAChRs heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes. These and our earlier results show that all snake PLA2s, including presynaptically active crotoxin and β-bungarotoxin, as well as mammalian pancreatic PLA2, interact with nAChRs. The data obtained suggest that this interaction may be a general property of all PLA2s, which should be proved by

  6. Pancreatic and snake venom presynaptically active phospholipases A2 inhibit nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A Vulfius

    Full Text Available Phospholipases A2 (PLA2s are enzymes found throughout the animal kingdom. They hydrolyze phospholipids in the sn-2 position producing lysophospholipids and unsaturated fatty acids, agents that can damage membranes. PLA2s from snake venoms have numerous toxic effects, not all of which can be explained by phospholipid hydrolysis, and each enzyme has a specific effect. We have earlier demonstrated the capability of several snake venom PLA2s with different enzymatic, cytotoxic, anticoagulant and antiproliferative properties, to decrease acetylcholine-induced currents in Lymnaea stagnalis neurons, and to compete with α-bungarotoxin for binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs and acetylcholine binding protein. Since nAChRs are implicated in postsynaptic and presynaptic activities, in this work we probe those PLA2s known to have strong presynaptic effects, namely β-bungarotoxin from Bungarus multicinctus and crotoxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus. We also wished to explore whether mammalian PLA2s interact with nAChRs, and have examined non-toxic PLA2 from porcine pancreas. It was found that porcine pancreatic PLA2 and presynaptic β-bungarotoxin blocked currents mediated by nAChRs in Lymnaea neurons with IC50s of 2.5 and 4.8 μM, respectively. Crotoxin competed with radioactive α-bungarotoxin for binding to Torpedo and human α7 nAChRs and to the acetylcholine binding protein. Pancreatic PLA2 interacted similarly with these targets; moreover, it inhibited radioactive α-bungarotoxin binding to the water-soluble extracellular domain of human α9 nAChR, and blocked acetylcholine induced currents in human α9α10 nAChRs heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes. These and our earlier results show that all snake PLA2s, including presynaptically active crotoxin and β-bungarotoxin, as well as mammalian pancreatic PLA2, interact with nAChRs. The data obtained suggest that this interaction may be a general property of all PLA2s, which

  7. Gefitinib Radiosensitizes Stem-Like Glioma Cells: Inhibition of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-Akt-DNA-PK Signaling, Accompanied by Inhibition of DNA Double-Strand Break Repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Khong Bee; Zhu Congju; Wong Yinling; Gao Qiuhan; Ty, Albert; Wong, Meng Cheong

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We compared radiosensitivity of brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs) with matched nonstem glioma cells, and determined whether gefitinib enhanced BTSC radiosensitivity by inhibiting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)–Akt-DNA–dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) signaling, followed by enhanced DNA double-stand breaks (DSBs) and inhibition of DSB repair. Methods and Materials: Radiosensitivity of stem-like gliomaspheres and nonstem glioma cells (obtained at patient neurosurgical resection) were evaluated by clonogenic assays, γ-H 2 AX immunostaining and cell cycle distribution. Survival of irradiated and nonirradiated NOD-SCID mice intracranially implanted with stem-like gliomaspheres were monitored. Glioma cells treated with gefitinib, irradiation, or both were assayed for clonogenic survival, γ-H 2 AX immunostaining, DNA-PKcs expression, and phosphorylation of EGFR and Akt. Results: Stem-like gliomaspheres displayed BTSC characteristics of self-renewal; differentiation into lineages of neurons, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes; and initiation of glioma growth in NOD-SCID mice. Irradiation dose-dependently reduced clonogenic survival, induced G 2 /M arrest and increased γ-H 2 AX immunostaining of nonstem glioma cells, but not stem-like gliomaspheres. There was no difference in survival of irradiated and nonirradiated mice implanted with stem-like gliomaspheres. The addition of gefitinib significantly inhibited clonogenic survival, increased γ-H 2 AX immunostaining, and reduced DNA-PKcs expression of irradiated stem-like gliomaspheres, without affecting irradiated-nonstem glioma cells. Gefitinib alone, and when combined with irradiation, inhibited phosphorylation of EGFR (Y1068 and Y1045) and Akt (S473) in stem-like gliomaspheres. In nonstem glioma cells, gefitinib alone inhibited EGFR Y1068 phosphorylation, with further inhibition by combined gefitinib and irradiation. Conclusions: Stem-like gliomaspheres are resistant to irradiation

  8. Gefitinib radiosensitizes stem-like glioma cells: inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor-Akt-DNA-PK signaling, accompanied by inhibition of DNA double-strand break repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Khong Bee; Zhu, Congju; Wong, Yin Ling; Gao, Qiuhan; Ty, Albert; Wong, Meng Cheong

    2012-05-01

    We compared radiosensitivity of brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs) with matched nonstem glioma cells, and determined whether gefitinib enhanced BTSC radiosensitivity by inhibiting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-Akt-DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) signaling, followed by enhanced DNA double-stand breaks (DSBs) and inhibition of DSB repair. Radiosensitivity of stem-like gliomaspheres and nonstem glioma cells (obtained at patient neurosurgical resection) were evaluated by clonogenic assays, γ-H(2)AX immunostaining and cell cycle distribution. Survival of irradiated and nonirradiated NOD-SCID mice intracranially implanted with stem-like gliomaspheres were monitored. Glioma cells treated with gefitinib, irradiation, or both were assayed for clonogenic survival, γ-H(2)AX immunostaining, DNA-PKcs expression, and phosphorylation of EGFR and Akt. Stem-like gliomaspheres displayed BTSC characteristics of self-renewal; differentiation into lineages of neurons, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes; and initiation of glioma growth in NOD-SCID mice. Irradiation dose-dependently reduced clonogenic survival, induced G(2)/M arrest and increased γ-H(2)AX immunostaining of nonstem glioma cells, but not stem-like gliomaspheres. There was no difference in survival of irradiated and nonirradiated mice implanted with stem-like gliomaspheres. The addition of gefitinib significantly inhibited clonogenic survival, increased γ-H(2)AX immunostaining, and reduced DNA-PKcs expression of irradiated stem-like gliomaspheres, without affecting irradiated-nonstem glioma cells. Gefitinib alone, and when combined with irradiation, inhibited phosphorylation of EGFR (Y1068 and Y1045) and Akt (S473) in stem-like gliomaspheres. In nonstem glioma cells, gefitinib alone inhibited EGFR Y1068 phosphorylation, with further inhibition by combined gefitinib and irradiation. Stem-like gliomaspheres are resistant to irradiation-induced cytotoxicity, G(2)/M arrest, and DNA DSBs, compared with nonstem

  9. Gefitinib Radiosensitizes Stem-Like Glioma Cells: Inhibition of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-Akt-DNA-PK Signaling, Accompanied by Inhibition of DNA Double-Strand Break Repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Khong Bee, E-mail: dmskkb@nccs.com.sg [Brain Tumour Research Laboratory, Division of Medical Sciences, National Cancer Centre Singapore (Singapore); Zhu Congju; Wong Yinling; Gao Qiuhan; Ty, Albert; Wong, Meng Cheong [Brain Tumour Research Laboratory, Division of Medical Sciences, National Cancer Centre Singapore (Singapore)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: We compared radiosensitivity of brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs) with matched nonstem glioma cells, and determined whether gefitinib enhanced BTSC radiosensitivity by inhibiting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-Akt-DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) signaling, followed by enhanced DNA double-stand breaks (DSBs) and inhibition of DSB repair. Methods and Materials: Radiosensitivity of stem-like gliomaspheres and nonstem glioma cells (obtained at patient neurosurgical resection) were evaluated by clonogenic assays, {gamma}-H{sub 2}AX immunostaining and cell cycle distribution. Survival of irradiated and nonirradiated NOD-SCID mice intracranially implanted with stem-like gliomaspheres were monitored. Glioma cells treated with gefitinib, irradiation, or both were assayed for clonogenic survival, {gamma}-H{sub 2}AX immunostaining, DNA-PKcs expression, and phosphorylation of EGFR and Akt. Results: Stem-like gliomaspheres displayed BTSC characteristics of self-renewal; differentiation into lineages of neurons, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes; and initiation of glioma growth in NOD-SCID mice. Irradiation dose-dependently reduced clonogenic survival, induced G{sub 2}/M arrest and increased {gamma}-H{sub 2}AX immunostaining of nonstem glioma cells, but not stem-like gliomaspheres. There was no difference in survival of irradiated and nonirradiated mice implanted with stem-like gliomaspheres. The addition of gefitinib significantly inhibited clonogenic survival, increased {gamma}-H{sub 2}AX immunostaining, and reduced DNA-PKcs expression of irradiated stem-like gliomaspheres, without affecting irradiated-nonstem glioma cells. Gefitinib alone, and when combined with irradiation, inhibited phosphorylation of EGFR (Y1068 and Y1045) and Akt (S473) in stem-like gliomaspheres. In nonstem glioma cells, gefitinib alone inhibited EGFR Y1068 phosphorylation, with further inhibition by combined gefitinib and irradiation. Conclusions: Stem-like gliomaspheres are

  10. Negative regulation of Toll-like receptor signalling 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Antosz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of innate immunity is based on the pattern recognition receptors (PRR that recognize molecular patterns associated with pathogens (PAMPs. Among PRR receptors Toll-like receptors (TLR are distinguished. As a result of contact with pathogens, TLRs activate specific intracellular signaling pathways. It happens through proteins such as adaptor molecules, e.g. MyD88, TIRAP, TRIF, TRAM, and IPS-1, which participate in the cascade activation of kinases (IKK, MAP, RIP-1, TBK-1 as well as transcription factors (NF-κB, AP-1 and regulatory factor (IRF3. The result of this activation is the production of active proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, interferons and enzymes. The PRR pathways are controlled by extra – and intracellular molecules to prevent overexpression of PRR. They include soluble receptors (sTLR, transmembrane proteins (ST2, SIGIRR, RP105, TRAIL-R and intracellular inhibitors (SOCS-1, SOCS-3, sMyD88, TOLLIP, IRAK-M, SARM, A20, β-arrestin, CYLD, SHP. These molecules maintain the balance between activation and inhibition and ensure balancing of the beneficial and adverse effects of antigen recognition.

  11. Receptor for advanced glycation end products inhibits proliferation in osteoblast through suppression of Wnt, PI3K and ERK signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Guofeng; Xu, Jingren; Li, Zengchun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► RAGE overexpression suppresses cell proliferation in MC3T3-E1 cells. ► RAGE overexpression decreases Wnt/β-catenin signaling. ► RAGE overexpression decreases ERK and PI3K signaling. ► Inhibition of Wnt signaling abolishes PI3K signaling restored by RAGE blockade. ► Inhibition of Wnt signaling abolishes ERK signaling restored by RAGE blockade. -- Abstract: Expression of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) plays a crucial role in bone metabolism. However, the role of RAGE in the control of osteoblast proliferation is not yet evaluated. In the present study, we demonstrate that RAGE overexpression inhibits osteoblast proliferation in vitro. The negative regulation of RAGE on cell proliferation results from suppression of Wnt, PI3K and ERK signaling, and is restored by RAGE neutralizing antibody. Prevention of Wnt signaling using Sfrp1 or DKK1 rescues RAGE-decreased PI3K and ERK signaling and cell proliferation, indicating that the altered cell growth in RAGE overexpressing cells is in part secondary to alterations in Wnt signaling. Consistently, RAGE overexpression inhibits the expression of Wnt targets cyclin D1 and c-myc, which is partially reversed by RAGE blockade. Overall, these results suggest that RAGE inhibits osteoblast proliferation via suppression of Wnt, PI3K and ERK signaling, which provides novel mechanisms by which RAGE regulates osteoblast growth.

  12. Receptor for advanced glycation end products inhibits proliferation in osteoblast through suppression of Wnt, PI3K and ERK signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Guofeng [Department of Emergency Surgery, East Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200120 (China); Xu, Jingren [Department of Traditional Chinese Orthopaedics, East Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200120 (China); Li, Zengchun, E-mail: lizc.2007@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Emergency Surgery, East Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200120 (China)

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RAGE overexpression suppresses cell proliferation in MC3T3-E1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RAGE overexpression decreases Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RAGE overexpression decreases ERK and PI3K signaling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of Wnt signaling abolishes PI3K signaling restored by RAGE blockade. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of Wnt signaling abolishes ERK signaling restored by RAGE blockade. -- Abstract: Expression of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) plays a crucial role in bone metabolism. However, the role of RAGE in the control of osteoblast proliferation is not yet evaluated. In the present study, we demonstrate that RAGE overexpression inhibits osteoblast proliferation in vitro. The negative regulation of RAGE on cell proliferation results from suppression of Wnt, PI3K and ERK signaling, and is restored by RAGE neutralizing antibody. Prevention of Wnt signaling using Sfrp1 or DKK1 rescues RAGE-decreased PI3K and ERK signaling and cell proliferation, indicating that the altered cell growth in RAGE overexpressing cells is in part secondary to alterations in Wnt signaling. Consistently, RAGE overexpression inhibits the expression of Wnt targets cyclin D1 and c-myc, which is partially reversed by RAGE blockade. Overall, these results suggest that RAGE inhibits osteoblast proliferation via suppression of Wnt, PI3K and ERK signaling, which provides novel mechanisms by which RAGE regulates osteoblast growth.

  13. Inhibition of cisplatin-induced vomiting by selective 5-hydroxytryptamine M-receptor antagonism.

    OpenAIRE

    Miner, W. D.; Sanger, G. J.

    1986-01-01

    MDL 72222, the selective 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) M-receptor antagonist, prevented or reduced cisplatin-induced emesis in ferrets. It is suggested that cisplatin-induced, and possibly other cytotoxic drug-induced vomiting may involve a 5-HT M-receptor mechanism.

  14. Coordinate expression of activating Fc gamma receptors I and III and inhibiting Fc gamma receptor type II in the determination of joint inflammation and cartilage destruction during immune complex-mediated arthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nabbe, K.C.A.M.; Blom, A.B.; Holthuysen, A.E.M.; Boross, P.; Roth, J.; Verbeek, S.; Lent, P.L.E.M. van; Berg, W.B. van den

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the role of the activating Fc gamma receptor types I and III (Fc gamma RI and Fc gamma RIII, respectively) and the inhibiting Fc gamma receptor II (Fc gamma RII) in inflammation and in various aspects of cartilage destruction during arthritis that is solely induced by immune

  15. Agmatine suppresses peripheral sympathetic tone by inhibiting N-type Ca(2+) channel activity via imidazoline I2 receptor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Hwan; Jeong, Ji-Hyun; Ahn, Duck-Sun; Chung, Seungsoo

    2016-08-26

    Agmatine, a putative endogenous ligand of imidazoline receptors, suppresses cardiovascular function by inhibiting peripheral sympathetic tone. However, the molecular identity of imidazoline receptor subtypes and its cellular mechanism underlying the agmatine-induced sympathetic suppression remains unknown. Meanwhile, N-type Ca(2+) channels are important for the regulation of NA release in the peripheral sympathetic nervous system. Therefore, it is possible that agmatine suppresses NA release in peripheral sympathetic nerve terminals by inhibiting Ca(2+) influx through N-type Ca(2+) channels. We tested this hypothesis by investigating agmatine effect on electrical field stimulation (EFS)-evoked contraction and NA release in endothelium-denuded rat superior mesenteric arterial strips. We also investigated the effect of agmatine on the N-type Ca(2+) current in superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons in rats. Our study demonstrates that agmatine suppresses peripheral sympathetic outflow via the imidazoline I2 receptor in rat mesenteric arteries. In addition, the agmatine-induced suppression of peripheral vascular sympathetic tone is mediated by modulating voltage-dependent N-type Ca(2+) channels in sympathetic nerve terminals. These results suggest a potential cellular mechanism for the agmatine-induced suppression of peripheral sympathetic tone. Furthermore, they provide basic and theoretical information regarding the development of new agents to treat hypertension. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Identification of a novel antagonist of the ErbB1 receptor capable of inhibiting migration of human glioblastoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staberg, Mikkel; Riemer, Christian; Xu, Ruodan

    2013-01-01

    B1 targeting peptide, termed Herfin-1, was designed based on a model of the tertiary structure of the EGF-EGFR ternary complex. The binding kinetics of this peptide were determined employing surface plasmon resonance analyses. ErbB1-4 expression and phosphorylation in human glioblastoma cell lines U...... processing. RESULTS: The present study shows that Herfin-1 functions as an ErbB1 antagonist. It binds to the extracellular domain of ErbB1 with a KD value of 361 nM. In U87 and U118 cells, both expressing high levels of ErbB1, Herfin-1 inhibits EGF-induced ErbB1 phosphorylation and cell migration....... Additionally, Herfin-1 was found to increase neurite outgrowth in cerebellar granule neurons, likely through the inhibition of a sustained weak ErbB1 activation. CONCLUSIONS: Targeting the ErbB1 receptor dimerization interface is a promising strategy to inhibit receptor activation in ErbB1-expressing glioma...

  17. A peptide antagonist of ErbB receptors, Inherbin3, induces neurite outgrowth from rat cerebellar granule neurons through ErbB1 inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Ruodan; Pankratova, Stanislava; Christiansen, Søren Hofman

    2013-01-01

    ErbB receptors not only function in cancer, but are also key developmental regulators in the nervous system. We previously identified an ErbB1 peptide antagonist, Inherbin3, that is capable of inhibiting tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we found that inhibition of ErbB1 kinase ac...

  18. Putative therapeutic targets for symptom subtypes of adult ADHD: D4 receptor agonism and COMT inhibition improve attention and response inhibition in a novel translational animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Anneka; Grayson, Ben; Marsh, Samuel; Hayward, Andrew; Marshall, Kay M; Neill, Joanna C

    2015-04-01

    Prefrontal cortical dopamine plays an important role in cognitive control, specifically in attention and response inhibition; the core deficits in ADHD. We have previously shown that methylphenidate and atomoxetine differentially improve these deficits dependent on baseline performance. The present study extends this work to investigate the effects of putative therapeutic targets in our model. A selective dopamine D4 receptor agonist (A-412997) and the catechol-O-methyl-transferase (COMT) inhibitor; tolcapone, were investigated in the combined subtype of adult ADHD (ADHD-C). Adult female rats were trained to criterion in the 5C-CPT (5-Choice Continuous Performance Task) and then separated into subgroups according to baseline levels of sustained attention, vigilance, and response disinhibition. The subgroups included: high-attentive (HA) and low-attentive with high response disinhibition (ADHD-C). The ADHD-C subgroup was selected to represent the combined subtype of adult ADHD. Effects of tolcapone (3.0, 10.0, 15.0mg/kg) and A-412997 (0.1, 0.3, 1.0µmol/kg) were tested by increasing the variable inter-trial-interval (ITI) duration in the 5C-CPT. Tolcapone (15mg/kg) significantly increased sustained attention, vigilance and response inhibition in ADHD-C animals, and impaired attention in HA animals. A-412997 (1.0µmol/kg) significantly increased vigilance and response inhibition in ADHD-C animals only, with no effect in HA animals. This is the first study to use the translational 5C-CPT to model the adult ADHD-C subtype in rats and to study new targets in this model. Both tolcapone and A-412997 increased vigilance and response inhibition in the ADHD-C subgroup. D4 and COMT are emerging as important potential therapeutic targets in adult ADHD that warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  19. The Antidepressant 5-HT2A Receptor Antagonists Pizotifen and Cyproheptadine Inhibit Serotonin-Enhanced Platelet Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Olivia A.; Karim, Zubair A.; Vemana, Hari Priya; Espinosa, Enma V. P.; Khasawneh, Fadi T.

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable interest in defining new agents or targets for antithrombotic purposes. The 5-HT2A receptor is a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) expressed on many cell types, and a known therapeutic target for many disease states. This serotonin receptor is also known to regulate platelet function. Thus, in our FDA-approved drug repurposing efforts, we investigated the antiplatelet activity of cyproheptadine and pizotifen, two antidepressant 5-HT2A Receptor antagonists. Our results revealed that cyproheptadine and pizotifen reversed serotonin-enhanced ADP-induced platelet aggregation in vitro and ex vivo. And the inhibitory effects of these two agents were found to be similar to that of EMD 281014, a 5-HT2A Receptor antagonist under development. In separate experiments, our studies revealed that these 5-HT2A receptor antagonists have the capacity to reduce serotonin-enhanced ADP-induced elevation in intracellular calcium levels and tyrosine phosphorylation. Using flow cytometry, we also observed that cyproheptadine, pizotifen, and EMD 281014 inhibited serotonin-enhanced ADP-induced phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure, P-selectin expression, and glycoprotein IIb-IIIa activation. Furthermore, using a carotid artery thrombosis model, these agents prolonged the time for thrombotic occlusion in mice in vivo. Finally, the tail-bleeding time was investigated to assess the effect of cyproheptadine and pizotifen on hemostasis. Our findings indicated prolonged bleeding time in both cyproheptadine- and pizotifen-treated mice. Notably, the increases in occlusion and bleeding times associated with these two agents were comparable to that of EMD 281014, and to clopidogrel, a commonly used antiplatelet drug, again, in a fashion comparable to clopidogrel and EMD 281014. Collectively, our data indicate that the antidepressant 5-HT2A antagonists, cyproheptadine and pizotifen do exert antiplatelet and thromboprotective effects, but similar to clopidogrel and EMD 281014, their

  20. Compensatory insulin receptor (IR) activation on inhibition of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R): rationale for cotargeting IGF-1R and IR in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Elizabeth; Gokhale, Prafulla C; Koujak, Susan; Brown, Eric; Eyzaguirre, Alexandra; Tao, Nianjun; Rosenfeld-Franklin, Maryland; Lerner, Lorena; Chiu, M Isabel; Wild, Robert; Epstein, David; Pachter, Jonathan A; Miglarese, Mark R

    2010-10-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) is a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) and critical activator of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-AKT pathway. IGF-1R is required for oncogenic transformation and tumorigenesis. These observations have spurred anticancer drug discovery and development efforts for both biological and small-molecule IGF-1R inhibitors. The ability for one RTK to compensate for another to maintain tumor cell viability is emerging as a common resistance mechanism to antitumor agents targeting individual RTKs. As IGF-1R is structurally and functionally related to the insulin receptor (IR), we asked whether IR is tumorigenic and whether IR-AKT signaling contributes to resistance to IGF-1R inhibition. Both IGF-1R and IR(A) are tumorigenic in a mouse mammary tumor model. In human tumor cells coexpressing IGF-1R and IR, bidirectional cross talk was observed following either knockdown of IR expression or treatment with a selective anti-IGF-1R antibody, MAB391. MAB391 treatment resulted in a compensatory increase in phospho-IR, which was associated with resistance to inhibition of IRS1 and AKT. In contrast, treatment with OSI-906, a small-molecule dual inhibitor of IGF-1R/IR, resulted in enhanced reduction in phospho-IRS1/phospho-AKT relative to MAB391. Insulin or IGF-2 activated the IR-AKT pathway and decreased sensitivity to MAB391 but not to OSI-906. In tumor cells with an autocrine IGF-2 loop, both OSI-906 and an anti-IGF-2 antibody reduced phospho-IR/phospho-AKT, whereas MAB391 was ineffective. Finally, OSI-906 showed superior efficacy compared with MAB391 in human tumor xenograft models in which both IGF-1R and IR were phosphorylated. Collectively, these data indicate that cotargeting IGF-1R and IR may provide superior antitumor efficacy compared with targeting IGF-1R alone.

  1. Hippocampal low-frequency stimulation inhibits afterdischarge and increases GABA (A) receptor expression in amygdala-kindled pharmacoresistant epileptic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guofeng; Wang, Likun; Hong, Zhen; Ren, Siying; Zhou, Feng

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to observe the effects of hippocampal low-frequency stimulation (Hip-LFS) on amygdala afterdischarge and GABA (A) receptor expression in pharmacoresistant epileptic (PRE) rats. A total of 110 healthy adult male Wistar rats were used to generate a model of epilepsy by chronic stimulation of the amygdala. Sixteen PRE rats were selected from 70 amygdala-kindled rats by testing their response to Phenytoin and Phenobarbital, and they were randomly assigned to a pharmacoresistant stimulation group (PRS group, 8 rats) or a pharmacoresistant control group (PRC group, 8 rats). A stimulation electrode was implanted into the hippocampus of all of the rats. Hip-LFS was administered twice per day in the PRS group for two weeks. Simultaneously, amygdala stimulus-induced seizures and afterdischarge were recorded. After the hippocampal stimulation was terminated, the brain tissues were obtained to determine the GABA (A) receptors by a method of immumohistochemistry and a real-time polymerase chain reaction. The stages and duration of the amygdala stimulus-induced epileptic seizures were decreased in the PRS group. The afterdischarge threshold was increased and the duration as well as the afterdischarge frequency was decreased. Simultaneously, the GABA (A) expression was significantly increased in the PRS group. Hip-LFS may inhibit amygdala stimulus-induced epileptic seizures and up-regulate GABA (A) receptor expression in PRE rats. The antiepileptic effects of hippocampal stimulation may be partly achieved by increasing the GABA (A) receptor.

  2. Inhibition of transglutaminase 2 reduces efferocytosis in human macrophages: Role of CD14 and SR-AI receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eligini, S; Fiorelli, S; Tremoli, E; Colli, S

    2016-10-01

    Transglutaminase 2 (TGM2), a member of the transglutaminase family of enzymes, is a multifunctional protein involved in numerous events spanning from cell differentiation, to signal transduction, apoptosis, and wound healing. It is expressed in a variety of cells, macrophages included. Macrophage TGM2 promotes the clearance of apoptotic cells (efferocytosis) and emerging evidence suggests that defective efferocytosis contributes to the consequences of inflammation-associated diseases, including atherosclerotic lesion progression and its sequelae. Of interest, active TGM2 identified in human atherosclerotic lesions plays critical roles in plaque stability through effects on matrix cross-linking and TGFβ activity. This study explores the mechanisms by which TGM2 controls efferocytosis in human macrophages. Herein we show that TGM2 increases progressively during monocyte differentiation towards macrophages and controls their efferocytic potential as well as morphology and viability. Two experimental approaches that took advantage of the inhibition of TGM2 activity and protein silencing give proof that TGM2 reduction significantly impairs macrophage efferocytosis. Among the mechanisms involved we highlighted a role of the receptors CD14 and SR-AI whose levels were markedly reduced by TGM2 inhibition. Conversely, CD36 receptor and αvβ3 integrin levels were not influenced. Of note, lipid accumulation and IL-10 secretion were reduced in macrophages displaying defective efferocytosis. Overall, our data define a crucial role of TGM2 activity during macrophage differentiation via mechanisms involving CD14 and SR-AI receptors and show that TGM2 inhibition triggers a pro-inflammatory phenotype. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A point mutation in the hair cell nicotinic cholinergic receptor prolongs cochlear inhibition and enhances noise protection.

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    Julian Taranda

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The transduction of sound in the auditory periphery, the cochlea, is inhibited by efferent cholinergic neurons projecting from the brainstem and synapsing directly on mechanosensory hair cells. One fundamental question in auditory neuroscience is what role(s this feedback plays in our ability to hear. In the present study, we have engineered a genetically modified mouse model in which the magnitude and duration of efferent cholinergic effects are increased, and we assess the consequences of this manipulation on cochlear function. We generated the Chrna9L9'T line of knockin mice with a threonine for leucine change (L9'T at position 9' of the second transmembrane domain of the alpha9 nicotinic cholinergic subunit, rendering alpha9-containing receptors that were hypersensitive to acetylcholine and had slower desensitization kinetics. The Chrna9L9'T allele produced a 3-fold prolongation of efferent synaptic currents in vitro. In vivo, Chrna9L9'T mice had baseline elevation of cochlear thresholds and efferent-mediated inhibition of cochlear responses was dramatically enhanced and lengthened: both effects were reversed by strychnine blockade of the alpha9alpha10 hair cell nicotinic receptor. Importantly, relative to their wild-type littermates, Chrna9(L9'T/L9'T mice showed less permanent hearing loss following exposure to intense noise. Thus, a point mutation designed to alter alpha9alpha10 receptor gating has provided an animal model in which not only is efferent inhibition more powerful, but also one in which sound-induced hearing loss can be restrained, indicating the ability of efferent feedback to ameliorate sound trauma.

  4. Nitric oxide from inflammatory origin impairs neural stem cell proliferation by inhibiting epidermal growth factor receptor signaling

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    Bruno Pereira Carreira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Neuroinflammation is characterized by activation of microglial cells, followed by production of nitric oxide (NO, which may have different outcomes on neurogenesis, favoring or inhibiting this process. In the present study, we investigated how the inflammatory mediator NO can affect proliferation of neural stem cells (NSC, and explored possible mechanisms underlying this effect. We investigated which mechanisms are involved in the regulation of NSC proliferation following treatment with an inflammatory stimulus (LPS plus IFN-γ, using a culture system of subventricular zone (SVZ-derived NSC mixed with microglia cells obtained from wild-type mice (iNOS+/+ or from iNOS knockout mice (iNOS-/-. We found an impairment of NSC cell proliferation in iNOS+/+ mixed cultures, which was not observed in iNOS-/- mixed cultures. Furthermore, the increased release of NO by activated iNOS+/+ microglial cells decreased the activation of the ERK/MAPK signaling pathway, which was concomitant with an enhanced nitration of the EGF receptor. Preventing nitrogen reactive species formation with MnTBAP, a scavenger of peroxynitrite, or using the peroxynitrite degradation catalyst FeTMPyP, cell proliferation and ERK signaling were restored to basal levels in iNOS+/+ mixed cultures. Moreover, exposure to the NO donor NOC-18 (100 µM, for 48 h, inhibited SVZ-derived NSC proliferation. Regarding the antiproliferative effect of NO, we found that NOC-18 caused the impairment of signaling through the ERK/MAPK pathway, which may be related to increased nitration of the EGF receptor in NSC. Using MnTBAP nitration was prevented, maintaining ERK signaling, rescuing NSC proliferation. We show that NO from inflammatory origin leads to a decreased function of the EGF receptor, which compromised proliferation of NSC. We also demonstrated that NO-mediated nitration of the EGF receptor caused a decrease in its phosphorylation, thus preventing regular proliferation signaling through the

  5. Inhibition of CPU0213, a Dual Endothelin Receptor Antagonist, on Apoptosis via Nox4-Dependent ROS in HK-2 Cells

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    Qing Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Our previous studies have indicated that a novel endothelin receptor antagonist CPU0213 effectively normalized renal function in diabetic nephropathy. However, the molecular mechanisms mediating the nephroprotective role of CPU0213 remain unknown. Methods and Results: In the present study, we first detected the role of CPU0213 on apoptosis in human renal tubular epithelial cell (HK-2. It was shown that high glucose significantly increased the protein expression of Bax and decreased Bcl-2 protein in HK-2 cells, which was reversed by CPU0213. The percentage of HK-2 cells that showed Annexin V-FITC binding was markedly suppressed by CPU0213, which confirmed the inhibitory role of CPU0213 on apoptosis. Given the regulation of endothelin (ET system to oxidative stress, we determined the role of redox signaling in the regulation of CPU0213 on apoptosis. It was demonstrated that the production of superoxide (O2-. was substantially attenuated by CPU0213 treatment in HK-2 cells. We further found that CPU0213 dramatically inhibited expression of Nox4 protein, which gene silencing mimicked the role of CPU0213 on the apoptosis under high glucose stimulation. We finally examined the role of CPU0213 on ET-1 receptors and found that high glucose-induced protein expression of endothelin A and B receptors was dramatically inhibited by CPU0213. Conclusion: Taken together, these results suggest that this Nox4-dependenet O2- production is critical for the apoptosis of HK-2 cells in high glucose. Endothelin receptor antagonist CPU0213 has an anti-apoptosis role through Nox4-dependent O2-.production, which address the nephroprotective role of CPU0213 in diabetic nephropathy.

  6. Estradiol receptors mediate estradiol-induced inhibition of mitochondrial Ca^{2+} efflux in rat caudate nucleus and brain stem

    OpenAIRE

    PETROVIC, SNJEZANA; MILOSEVIC, MAJA; RISTIC-MEDIC, DANIJELA; VELICKOVIC, NATASA; DRAKULIC, DUNJA; GRKOVIC, IVANA; HORVAT, ANICA

    2015-01-01

    Our earlier studies found that in vitro estradiol modulates mitochondrial Ca2+ transport in discrete brain regions. The present study examined the role of estradiol receptors (ERs) in estradiol-induced inhibition of Ca^{2+} efflux from synaptosomal mitochondria isolated from rat caudate nuclei and brain stems. Radioactively labeled CaCl_2 (0.6?0.75 µCi ^45CaCl_{2}) was used for Ca^{2+} transport monitoring. The results revealed that in the presence of ER antagonist 7\\alpha,17ß-[9[(4,4,5,5,5-...

  7. 5-Hydroxytryptamine 1A/7 and 4alpha receptors differentially prevent opioid-induced inhibition of brain stem cardiorespiratory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Dergacheva, Olga; Kamendi, Harriet; Gorini, Christopher; Mendelowitz, David

    2007-08-01

    Opioids evoke respiratory depression, bradycardia, and reduced respiratory sinus arrhythmia, whereas serotonin (5-HT) agonists stimulate respiration and cardiorespiratory interactions. This study tested whether serotonin agonists can prevent the inhibitory effects of opioids on cardiorespiratory function. Spontaneous and rhythmic inspiratory-related activity and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission to premotor parasympathetic cardioinhibitory neurons in the nucleus ambiguus were recorded simultaneously in an in vitro thick slice preparation. The mu-opioid agonist fentanyl inhibited respiratory frequency. The 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A/7 receptor agonist 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin increased respiratory frequency by itself and also prevented the fentanyl-induced respiratory depression. The 5-hydroxytryptamine 4alpha agonist BIMU-8 did not by itself change inspiratory activity but prevented the mu-opioid-mediated respiratory depression. Both spontaneous and inspiratory-evoked GABAergic neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons were inhibited by fentanyl. 8-Hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin inhibited spontaneous but not inspiratory-evoked GABAergic activity to parasympathetic cardiac neurons. However, 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin differentially altered the opioid-mediated depression of inspiratory-evoked GABAergic activity but did not change the opioid-induced reduction in spontaneous GABAergic neurotransmission. In contrast, BIMU-8 did not alter GABAergic neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons by itself but prevented the fentanyl depression of both spontaneous and inspiratory-elicited GABAergic neurotransmission to cardiac vagal neurons. In the presence of tetrodotoxin, the inhibition of GABAergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents with fentanyl is prevented by coapplication of BIMU-8, indicating that BIMU-8 acts at presynaptic GABAergic terminals to prevent fentanyl-induced depression. These results suggest that activation of 5

  8. Inhibition of the 26S proteasome blocks progesterone receptor-dependent transcription through failed recruitment of RNA polymerase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Andrew P; Lonard, David M; Nawaz, Zafar; O'Malley, Bert W

    2005-03-01

    In the present study, we investigated the involvement of protein degradation via the 26S proteasome during progesterone receptor (PR)-mediated transcription in T-47D cells containing a stably integrated MMTV-CAT reporter construct (CAT0 cells). Progesterone induced CAT and HSD11beta2 transcription while co-treatment with the proteasome inhibitor, MG132, blocked PR-induced transcription in a time-dependent fashion. MG132 treatment also inhibited transcription of beta-actin and cyclophilin, but not two proteasome subunit genes, PSMA1 and PSMC1, indicating that proteasome inhibition affects a subset of RNA polymerase II (RNAP(II))-regulated genes. Progesterone-mediated recruitment of RNAP(II) was blocked by MG132 treatment at time points later than 1 h that was not dependent on the continued presence of PR, associated cofactors, and components of the general transcription machinery, supporting the concept that proteasome-mediated degradation is needed for continued transcription. Surprisingly, progesterone-mediated acetylation of histone H4 was inhibited by MG132 with the concomitant recruitment of HDAC3, NCoR, and SMRT. We demonstrate that the steady-state protein levels of SMRT and NCoR are higher in the presence of MG132 in CAT0 cells, consistent with other reports that SMRT and NCoR are targets of the 26S proteasome. However, inhibition of histone deacetylation by trichostatin A (TSA) treatment or SMRT/NCoR knockdown by siRNA did not restore MG132-inhibited progesterone-dependent transcription. Therefore, events other than histone deacetylation and stability of SMRT and NCoR must also play a role in inhibition of PR-mediated transcription.

  9. Therapeutic Targeting of AXL Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibits Tumor Growth and Intraperitoneal Metastasis in Ovarian Cancer Models

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    Pinar Kanlikilicer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite substantial improvements in the treatment strategies, ovarian cancer is still the most lethal gynecological malignancy. Identification of drug treatable therapeutic targets and their safe and effective targeting is critical to improve patient survival in ovarian cancer. AXL receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK has been proposed to be an important therapeutic target for metastatic and advanced-stage human ovarian cancer. We found that AXL-RTK expression is associated with significantly shorter patient survival based on the The Cancer Genome Atlas patient database. To target AXL-RTK, we developed a chemically modified serum nuclease-stable AXL aptamer (AXL-APTAMER, and we evaluated its in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity using in vitro assays as well as two intraperitoneal animal models. AXL-aptamer treatment inhibited the phosphorylation and the activity of AXL, impaired the migration and invasion ability of ovarian cancer cells, and led to the inhibition of tumor growth and number of intraperitoneal metastatic nodules, which was associated with the inhibition of AXL activity and angiogenesis in tumors. When combined with paclitaxel, in vivo systemic (intravenous [i.v.] administration of AXL-aptamer treatment markedly enhanced the antitumor efficacy of paclitaxel in mice. Taken together, our data indicate that AXL-aptamers successfully target in vivo AXL-RTK and inhibit its AXL activity and tumor growth and progression, representing a promising strategy for the treatment of ovarian cancer.

  10. Curcumin Protects against Atherosclerosis in Apolipoprotein E-Knockout Mice by Inhibiting Toll-like Receptor 4 Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shanshan; Zou, Jun; Li, Peiyang; Zheng, Xiumei; Feng, Dan

    2018-01-17

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been reported to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, the current study aimed to investigate whether curcumin suppresses atherosclerosis development in ApoE-knockout (ApoE -/- ) mice by inhibiting TLR4 expression. ApoE -/- mice were fed a high-fat diet supplemented with or without curcumin (0.1% w/w) for 16 weeks. Curcumin supplementation significantly reduced TLR4 expression and macrophage infiltration in atherosclerotic plaques. Curcumin also reduced aortic interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity, and plasma IL-1β, TNF-α, soluble VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 levels. In addition, aortic sinus sections revealed that curcumin treatment reduced the extent of atherosclerotic lesions and inhibited atherosclerosis development. In vitro, curcumin inhibited NF-κB activation in macrophages and reduced TLR4 expression induced by lipopolysaccharide. Our results indicate that curcumin protects against atherosclerosis at least partially by inhibiting TLR4 expression and its related inflammatory reaction.

  11. Competitive inhibition of the nondepolarizing muscle relaxant rocuronium on nicotinic acetylcholine receptor channels in the rat superior cervical ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengmi; Wang, Zhenmeng; Zhang, Jinmin; Qiu, Haibo; Sun, Yuming; Yang, Liqun; Wu, Feixiang; Zheng, Jijian; Yu, Weifeng

    2014-05-01

    A number of case reports now indicate that rocuronium can induce a number of serious side effects. We hypothesized that these side effects might be mediated by the inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) at superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons. Conventional patch clamp recordings were used to study the effects of rocuronium on nAChR currents from enzymatically dissociated rat SCG neurons. We found that ACh induced a peak transient inward current in rat SCG neurons. Additionally, rocuronium suppressed the peak ACh-evoked currents in rat SCG neurons in a concentration-dependent and competitive manner, and it increased the extent of desensitization of nAChRs. The inhibitory rate of rocuronium on nAChR currents did not change significantly at membrane potentials between -70 and -20 mV, suggesting that this inhibition was voltage independent. Lastly, rocuronium preapplication enhanced its inhibitory effect, indicating that this drug might prefer to act on the closed state of nAChR channels. In conclusion, rocuronium, at clinically relevant concentrations, directly inhibits nAChRs at the SCG by interacting with both opened and closed states. This inhibition is competitive, dose dependent, and voltage independent. Blockade of synaptic transmission in the sympathetic ganglia by rocuronium might have potentially inhibitory effects on the cardiovascular system.

  12. Downregulation of TGF-β Receptor-2 Expression and Signaling through Inhibition of Na/K-ATPase.

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    Jennifer La

    Full Text Available Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β is a multi-functional cytokine implicated in the control of cell growth and differentiation. TGF-β signals through a complex of TGF-β receptors 1 and 2 (TGFβR1 and TGFβR2 that phosphorylate and activate Smad2/3 transcription factors driving transcription of the Smad-target genes. The Na+/K+-ATPase is an integral plasma membrane protein critical for maintaining the electro-chemical gradient of Na+ and K+ in the cell. We found that inhibition of the Na+/K+ ATPase by ouabain results in a dramatic decrease in the expression of TGFβR2 in human lung fibrobalsts (HLF at the mRNA and protein levels. This was accompanied by inhibition of TGF-β-induced Smad phosphorylation and the expression of TGF-β target genes, such as fibronectin and smooth muscle alpha-actin. Inhibition of Na+/K+ ATPase by an alternative approach (removal of extracellular potassium had a similar effect in HLF. Finally, treatment of lung alveolar epithelial cells (A549 with ouabain also resulted in the downregulation of TGFβR2, the inhibition of TGF-β-induced Smad phosphorylation and of the expression of mesenchymal markers, vimentin and fibronectin. Together, these data demonstrate a critical role of Na+/K+-ATPase in the control of TGFβR2 expression, TGF-β signaling and cell responses to TGF-β.

  13. Resveratrol, piceatannol and analogs inhibit activation of both wild-type and T877A mutant androgen receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundqvist, Johan; Tringali, Corrado; Oskarsson, Agneta

    2017-11-01

    Prostate cancer growth and progression are mainly dependent on androgens and many current prostate cancer treatment options target the synthesis or function of androgens. We have previously reported that resveratrol and synthetic analogs of resveratrol with a higher bioavailability inhibit the synthesis of androgens in human adrenocortical H295R cells. Now we have studied the antiandrogenic properties of resveratrol, piceatannol and analogs in two different prostate cell lines; LNCaP and RWPE. LNCaP carry a T877A mutation in the androgen receptor while RWPE has a wild-type androgen receptor. We found that resveratrol, piceatannol and all studied analogs were able to inhibit a dihydrotestosterone-induced activation of the androgen receptor, showing that they act as antiandrogens. In LNCaP cells, all studied compounds were able to statistically significantly decrease the androgenic signaling in concentrations ≥1μM and the synthetic analogs trimethylresveratrol (RSVTM) and tetramethylpiceatannol (PICTM) were the most potent compounds. RWPE cells were not as responsive to the studied compounds as the LNCaP cells. A statistically significant decrease in the androgenic signaling was observed at concentrations ≤5μM for most compounds and RSVTM was found to be the most potent compound. Further, we studied the effects of resveratrol, piceatannol and analogs on the levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in LNCaP cells and found that all studied compounds decreased the level of PSA and that the synthetic analogs diacetylresveratrol (RSVDA), triacetylresveratrol (RSVTA) and RSVTM were the most potent compounds, decreasing the PSA level by approx. 50% at concentrations ≥10μM. In a cell-free receptor binding assay we were unable to show binding of resveratrol or analogs to the ligand binding domain of the androgen receptor, indicating that the observed effects are mediated via other mechanisms than direct ligand competition. We conclude that the resveratrol

  14. Nanoparticle-Encapsulated Curcumin Inhibits Diabetic Neuropathic Pain Involving the P2Y12 Receptor in the Dorsal Root Ganglia

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    Tianyu Jia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic peripheral neuropathy results in diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP. Satellite glial cells (SGCs enwrap the neuronal soma in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG. The purinergic 2 (P2 Y12 receptor is expressed on SGCs in the DRG. SGC activation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of DNP. Curcumin has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Because curcumin has poor metabolic stability in vivo and low bioavailability, nanoparticle-encapsulated curcumin was used to improve its targeting and bioavailability. In the present study, our aim was to investigate the effects of nanoparticle-encapsulated curcumin on DNP mediated by the P2Y12 receptor on SGCs in the rat DRG. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy increased the expression levels of the P2Y12 receptor on SGCs in the DRG and enhanced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in rats with diabetes mellitus (DM. Up-regulation of the P2Y12 receptor in SGCs in the DRG increased the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Up-regulation of interleukin-1β (IL-1β and connexin43 (Cx43 resulted in mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in rats with DM. The nanoparticle-encapsulated curcumin decreased up-regulated IL-1β and Cx43 expression and reduced levels of phosphorylated-Akt (p-Akt in the DRG of rats with DM. The up-regulation of P2Y12 on SGCs and the up-regulation of the IL-1β and Cx43 in the DRG indicated the activation of SGCs in the DRG. The nano-curcumin treatment inhibited the activation of SGCs accompanied by its anti-inflammatory effect to decrease the up-regulated CGRP expression in the DRG neurons. Therefore, the nanoparticle-encapsulated curcumin treatment decreased the up-regulation of the P2Y12 receptor on SGCs in the DRG and decreased mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in rats with DM.

  15. Differential Mechanisms for SHP2 Binding and Activation Are Exploited by Geographically Distinct Helicobacter pylori CagA Oncoproteins

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    Takeru Hayashi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori East Asian CagA is more closely associated with gastric cancer than Western CagA. Here we show that, upon tyrosine phosphorylation, the East Asian CagA-specific EPIYA-D segment binds to the N-SH2 domain of pro-oncogenic SHP2 phosphatase two orders of magnitude greater than Western CagA-specific EPIYA-C. This high-affinity binding is achieved via cryptic interaction between Phe at the +5 position from phosphotyrosine in EPIYA-D and a hollow on the N-SH2 phosphopeptide-binding floor. Also, duplication of EPIYA-C in Western CagA, which increases gastric cancer risk, enables divalent high-affinity binding with SHP2 via N-SH2 and C-SH2. These strong CagA bindings enforce enzymatic activation of SHP2, which endows cells with neoplastic traits. Mechanistically, N-SH2 in SHP2 is in an equilibrium between stimulatory “relaxed” and inhibitory “squeezed” states, which is fixed upon high-affinity CagA binding to the “relaxed” state that stimulates SHP2. Accordingly, East Asian CagA and Western CagA exploit distinct mechanisms for SHP2 deregulation.

  16. Deletion of SHP-2 in mesenchymal stem cells causes growth retardation, limb and chest deformity, and calvarial defects in mice

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    Philip E. Lapinski

    2013-11-01

    In mice, induced global disruption of the Ptpn11 gene, which encodes the SHP-2 tyrosine phosphatase, results in severe skeletal abnormalities. To understand the extent to which skeletal abnormalities can be attributed to perturbation of SHP-2 function in bone-forming osteoblasts and chondrocytes, we generated mice in which disruption of Ptpn11 is restricted to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs and their progeny, which include both cell types. MSC-lineage-specific SHP-2 knockout (MSC SHP-2 KO mice exhibited postnatal growth retardation, limb and chest deformity, and calvarial defects. These skeletal abnormalities were associated with an absence of mature osteoblasts and massive chondrodysplasia with a vast increase in the number of terminally differentiated hypertrophic chondrocytes in affected bones. Activation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs and protein kinase B (PKB; also known as AKT was impaired in bone-forming cells of MSC SHP-2 KO mice, which provides an explanation for the skeletal defects that developed. These findings reveal a cell-autonomous role for SHP-2 in bone-forming cells in mice in the regulation of skeletal development. The results add to our understanding of the pathophysiology of skeletal abnormalities observed in humans with germline mutations in the PTPN11 gene (e.g. Noonan syndrome and LEOPARD syndrome.

  17. 5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, a vitamin K3 analogue, suppresses STAT3 activation pathway through induction of protein tyrosine phosphatase, SHP-1: potential role in chemosensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandur, Santosh K; Pandey, Manoj K; Sung, Bokyung; Aggarwal, Bharat B

    2010-01-01

    The activation of signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) has been linked with carcinogenesis through survival, proliferation, and angiogenesis of tumor cells. Agents that can suppress STAT3 activation have potential not only for prevention but also for treatment of cancer. In the present report, we investigated whether 5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (plumbagin), an analogue of vitamin K, and isolated from chitrak (Plumbago zeylanica), an Ayurvedic medicinal plant, can modulate the STAT3 pathway. We found that plumbagin inhibited both constitutive and interleukin 6-inducible STAT3 phosphorylation in multiple myeloma (MM) cells and this correlated with the inhibition of c-Src, Janus-activated kinase (JAK)1, and JAK2 activation. Vanadate, however, reversed the plumbagin-induced downregulation of STAT3 activation, suggesting the involvement of a protein tyrosine phosphatase. Indeed, we found that plumbagin induced the expression of the protein tyrosine phosphatase, SHP-1, and silencing of the SHP-1 abolished the effect of plumbagin. This agent also downregulated the expression of STAT3-regulated cyclin D1, Bcl-xL, and vascular endothelial growth factor; activated caspase-3; induced poly (ADP ribose) polymerase cleavage; and increased the sub-G(1) population of MM cells. Consistent with these results, overexpression of constitutive active STAT3 significantly reduced the plumbagin-induced apoptosis. When compared with AG490, a rationally designed STAT3/JAK2 inhibitor, plumbagin was found more potent in suppressing the proliferation of cells. Plumbagin also significantly potentiated the apoptotic effects of thalidomide and bortezomib in MM cells. Overall, these results suggest that the plumbagin inhibits STAT3 activation pathway through the induction of SHP-1 and this may mediate the sensitization of STAT3 overexpressing cancers to chemotherapeutic agents.

  18. Combined treatment with a β3 -adrenergic receptor agonist and a muscarinic receptor antagonist inhibits detrusor overactivity induced by cold stress in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Tetsuya; Ogawa, Teruyuki; Minagawa, Tomonori; Nagai, Takashi; Suzuki, Toshiro; Saito, Tetsuichi; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Nakazawa, Masaki; Ishizuka, Osamu

    2017-04-01

    This study determined if combined treatment with the muscarinic receptor (MR) antagonist solifenacin and the β 3 -adrenergic receptor (AR) agonist mirabegron could inhibit detrusor overactivity induced by cold stress in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Thirty-two female 10-week-old SHRs were fed an 8% NaCl-supplemented diet for 4 weeks. Cystometric measurements of the unanesthetized, unrestricted rats were performed at room temperature (RT, 27 ± 2°C) for 20 min. The rats were then intravenously administered vehicle, 0.1 mg/kg solifenacin alone, 0.1 mg/kg mirabegron alone, or the combination of 0.1 mg/kg mirabegron and 0.1 mg/kg solifenacin (n = 8 each group). Five minutes later, the treated rats were exposed to low temperature (LT, 4 ± 2°C) for 40 min. Finally, the rats were returned to RT. After the cystometric investigations, the β 3 -ARs and M 3 -MRs expressed within the urinary bladders were analyzed. Just after transfer from RT to LT, vehicle-, solifenacin-, and mirabegron-treated SHRs exhibited detrusor overactivity that significantly decreased voiding interval and bladder capacity. However, treatment with the combination of solifenacin and mirabegron partially inhibited the cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity patterns. The decreases of voiding interval and bladder capacity in the combination-treated rats were significantly inhibited compared to other groups. Within the urinary bladders, there were no differences between expression levels of M 3 -MR and β 3 -AR mRNA. The tissue distribution of M 3 -MRs was similar to that of the β 3 -ARs. This study suggested that the combination of solifenacin and mirabegron act synergistically to inhibit the cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity in SHRs. Neurourol. Urodynam. 36:1026-1033, 2017. © 2016 The Authors. Neurourology and Urodynamics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors. Neurourology and Urodynamics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. beta-TrCP inhibition reduces prostate cancer cell growth via upregulation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor.

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    Udi Gluschnaider

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is a common and heterogeneous disease, where androgen receptor (AR signaling plays a pivotal role in development and progression. The initial treatment for advanced prostate cancer is suppression of androgen signaling. Later on, essentially all patients develop an androgen independent stage which does not respond to anti hormonal treatment. Thus, alternative strategies targeting novel molecular mechanisms are required. beta-TrCP is an E3 ligase that targets various substrates essential for many aspects of tumorigenesis.Here we show that beta-TrCP depletion suppresses prostate cancer and identify a relevant growth control mechanism. shRNA targeted against beta-TrCP reduced prostate cancer cell growth and cooperated with androgen ablation in vitro and in vivo. We found that beta-TrCP inhibition leads to upregulation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR mediating the therapeutic effect. This phenomenon could be ligand independent, as the AhR ligand 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin (TCDD did not alter prostate cancer cell growth. We detected high AhR expression and activation in basal cells and atrophic epithelial cells of human cancer bearing prostates. AhR expression and activation is also significantly higher in tumor cells compared to benign glandular epithelium.Together these observations suggest that AhR activation may be a cancer counteracting mechanism in the prostate. We maintain that combining beta-TrCP inhibition with androgen ablation could benefit advanced prostate cancer patients.

  20. S-layer proteins from Lactobacillus sp. inhibit bacterial infection by blockage of DC-SIGN cell receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado Acosta, Mariano; Ruzal, Sandra M; Cordo, Sandra M

    2016-11-01

    Many species of Lactobacillus sp. possess Surface(s) layer proteins in their envelope. Among other important characteristics S-layer from Lactobacillus acidophilus binds to the cellular receptor DC-SIGN (Dendritic Cell-Specific Intercellular adhesion molecule-3-Grabbing Non-integrin; CD209), which is involved in adhesion and infection of several families of bacteria. In this report we investigate the activity of new S-layer proteins from the Lactobacillus family (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus helveticus and Lactobacillus kefiri) over the infection of representative microorganisms important to human health. After the treatment of DC-SIGN expressing cells with these proteins, we were able to diminish bacterial infection by up to 79% in both gram negative and mycobacterial models. We discovered that pre-treatment of the bacteria with S-layers from Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus brevis reduced bacteria viability but also prevent infection by the pathogenic bacteria. We also proved the importance of the glycosylation of the S-layer from Lactobacillus kefiri in the binding to the receptor and thus inhibition of infection. This novel characteristic of the S-layers proteins may contribute to the already reported pathogen exclusion activity for these Lactobacillus probiotic strains; and might be also considered as a novel enzymatic antimicrobial agents to inhibit bacterial infection and entry to host cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Gemfibrozil, a lipid lowering drug, inhibits the activation of primary human microglia via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Malabendu; Pahan, Kalipada

    2012-08-01

    Microglial activation participates in the pathogenesis of various neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. However, mechanisms by which microglial activation could be controlled are poorly understood. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) are transcription factors belonging to the nuclear receptor super family with diverse effect. This study underlines the importance of PPARβ/δ in mediating the anti-inflammatory effect of gemfibrozil, an FDA-approved lipid-lowering drug, in primary human microglia. Bacterial lipopolysachharides (LPS) induced the expression of various proinflammatory molecules and upregulated the expression of microglial surface marker CD11b in human microglia. However, gemfibrozil markedly suppressed proinflammatory molecules and CD11b in LPS-stimulated microglia. Human microglia expressed PPAR-β and -γ, but not PPAR-α. Interestingly, either antisense knockdown of PPAR-β or antagonism of PPAR-β by a specific chemical antagonist abrogated gemfibrozil-mediated inhibition of microglial activation. On the other hand, blocking of PPAR-α and -γ had no effect on gemfibrozil-mediated anti-inflammatory effect in microglia. These results highlight the fact that gemfibrozil regulates microglial activation by inhibiting inflammatory gene expression in a PPAR-β dependent pathway and further reinforce its therapeutic application in several neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases.

  2. Receptor-like protein-tyrosine phosphatase alpha specifically inhibits insulin-increased prolactin gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacob, K K; Sap, J; Stanley, F M

    1998-01-01

    A physiologically relevant response to insulin, stimulation of prolactin promoter activity in GH4 pituitary cells, was used as an assay to study the specificity of protein-tyrosine phosphatase function. Receptor-like protein-tyrosine phosphatase alpha (RPTPalpha) blocks the effect of insulin...... is specific by two criteria. A number of potential RPTPalpha targets were ruled out by finding (a) that they are not affected or (b) that they are not on the pathway to insulin-increased prolactin-CAT activity. The negative effect of RPTPalpha on insulin activation of the prolactin promoter is not due...... to reduced phosphorylation or kinase activity of the insulin receptor or to reduced phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 or Shc. Inhibitor studies suggest that insulin-increased prolactin gene expression is mediated by a Ras-like GTPase but is not mitogen-activated protein kinase dependent...

  3. Effects of SOV-induced phosphatase inhibition and expression of protein tyrosine phosphatases in rat corneal endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Li; Harris, Deshea L; Joyce, Nancy C

    2005-11-01

    Contact inhibition is an important mechanism for maintaining corneal endothelium in a non-replicative state. Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) play a role in regulating the integrity of cell-cell contacts, differentiation, and growth. In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether phosphatases are involved in the maintenance of contact-dependent inhibition of proliferation in corneal endothelial cells and to identify candidate PTPs that are expressed in these cells and might be involved in regulation of contact inhibition. Confluent cultures of rat corneal endothelial cells or endothelium in ex vivo corneas were treated with the general phosphatase inhibitor, sodium orthovanadate (SOV). Immunocytochemistry (ICC) evaluated the effect of SOV on cell-cell contacts by staining for ZO-1, and on cell cycle progression by staining for Ki67. Transverse sections of rat cornea and cultured rat corneal endothelial cells were used to test for expression of the candidate PTPs: PTP-mu, PTP-LAR, PTP1B, SHP-1, SHP-2, and PTEN using ICC and either Western blots or RT-PCR. ZO-1 staining demonstrated that SOV induced a time-dependent release of cell-cell contacts in confluent cultures of corneal endothelial cells and in the endothelium of ex vivo corneas. Staining for Ki67 indicated that SOV promoted limited cell cycle progression in the absence of serum. PTP-mu, PTP1B, SHP-1, SHP-2, and PTEN, but not PTP-LAR, were expressed in rat corneal endothelial cells in situ and in culture. The subcellular location of PTP-mu and PTP1B differed in subconfluent and confluent cells, while that of SHP-1, SHP-2, and PTEN was similar, regardless of confluent status. Western blots confirmed the expression of PTP1B, SHP-1, SHP-2, and PTEN. RT-PCR confirmed expression of PTP-mu mRNA. Phosphatases are involved in regulation of junctional integrity and of cell proliferation in corneal endothelial cells. PTP-mu, PTP1B, SHP-1, SHP-2, and PTEN are expressed in rat corneal endothelium and may be involved in

  4. Regulation of ITAM adaptor molecules and their receptors by inhibition of calcineurin-NFAT signalling during late stage osteoclast differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zawawi, M.S.F. [Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) (Malaysia); Discipline of Anatomy and Pathology, School of Medical Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Dharmapatni, A.A.S.S.K.; Cantley, M.D. [Discipline of Anatomy and Pathology, School of Medical Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); McHugh, K.P. [University of Florida, College of Dentistry, Fl (United States); Haynes, D.R. [Discipline of Anatomy and Pathology, School of Medical Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Crotti, T.N., E-mail: tania.crotti@adelaide.edu.au [Discipline of Anatomy and Pathology, School of Medical Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia)

    2012-10-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calcineurin/NFAT inhibitors FK506 and VIVIT treated human PBMC derived osteoclasts in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differential regulation of ITAM receptors and adaptor molecules by calcineurin/NFAT inhibitors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FK506 and VIVIT suppress ITAM factors during late phase osteoclast differentiation. -- Abstract: Osteoclasts are specialised bone resorptive cells responsible for both physiological and pathological bone loss. Osteoclast differentiation and activity is dependent upon receptor activator NF-kappa-B ligand (RANKL) interacting with its receptor RANK to induce the transcription factor, nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 1 (NFATc1). The immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-dependent pathway has been identified as a co-stimulatory pathway in osteoclasts. Osteoclast-associated receptor (OSCAR) and triggering receptor expressed in myeloid cells (TREM2) are essential receptors that pair with adaptor molecules Fc receptor common gamma chain (FcR{gamma}) and DNAX-activating protein 12 kDa (DAP12) respectively to induce calcium signalling. Treatment with calcineurin-NFAT inhibitors, Tacrolimus (FK506) and the 11R-VIVIT (VIVIT) peptide, reduces NFATc1 expression consistent with a reduction in osteoclast differentiation and activity. This study aimed to investigate the effects of inhibiting calcineurin-NFAT signalling on the expression of ITAM factors and late stage osteoclast genes including cathepsin K (CathK), Beta 3 integrin ({beta}3) and Annexin VIII (AnnVIII). Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were differentiated with RANKL and macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) over 10 days in the presence or absence of FK506 or VIVIT. Osteoclast formation (as assessed by tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)) and activity (assessed by dentine pit resorption) were significantly reduced with treatment. Quantitative real

  5. An improved ivermectin-activated chloride channel receptor for inhibiting electrical activity in defined neuronal populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynagh, Timothy Peter; Lynch, Joseph W

    2010-01-01

    The ability to silence the electrical activity of defined neuronal populations in vivo is dramatically advancing our understanding of brain function. This technology may eventually be useful clinically for treating a variety of neuropathological disorders caused by excessive neuronal activity...... conductance, homomeric expression, and human origin may render the F207A/A288G alpha1 glycine receptor an improved silencing receptor for neuroscientific and clinical purposes. As all known highly ivermectin-sensitive GluClRs contain an endogenous glycine residue at the corresponding location, this residue...

  6. Dual orexin receptor antagonist 12 inhibits expression of proteins in neurons and glia implicated in peripheral and central sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, R J; Denson, J E; Sullivan, L Q; Durham, P L

    2014-06-06

    Sensitization and activation of trigeminal nociceptors is implicated in prevalent and debilitating orofacial pain conditions including temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders. Orexins are excitatory neuropeptides that function to regulate many physiological processes and are reported to modulate nociception. To determine the role of orexins in an inflammatory model of trigeminal activation, the effects of a dual orexin receptor antagonist (DORA-12) on levels of proteins that promote peripheral and central sensitization and changes in nocifensive responses were investigated. In adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, mRNA for orexin receptor 1 (OX₁R) and receptor 2 (OX₂R) were detected in trigeminal ganglia and spinal trigeminal nucleus (STN). OX₁R immunoreactivity was localized primarily in neuronal cell bodies in the V3 region of the ganglion and in laminas I-II of the STN. Animals injected bilaterally with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) in the TMJ capsule exhibited increased expression of P-p38, P-ERK, and lba1 in trigeminal ganglia and P-ERK and lba1 in the STN at 2 days post injection. However, levels of each of these proteins in rats receiving daily oral DORA-12 were inhibited to near basal levels. Similarly, administration of DORA-12 on days 3 and 4 post CFA injection in the TMJ effectively inhibited the prolonged stimulated expression of protein kinase A, NFkB, and Iba1 in the STN on day 5 post injection. While injection of CFA mediated a nocifensive response to mechanical stimulation of the orofacial region at 2h and 3 and 5 days post injection, treatment with DORA-12 suppressed the nocifensive response on day 5. Somewhat surprisingly, nocifensive responses were again observed on day 10 post CFA stimulation in the absence of daily DORA-12 administration. Our results provide evidence that DORA-12 can inhibit CFA-induced stimulation of trigeminal sensory neurons by inhibiting expression of proteins associated with sensitization of peripheral and central

  7. Histamine acting on H1 receptor promotes inhibition of proliferation via PLC, RAC, and JNK-dependent pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notcovich, Cintia; Diez, Federico; Tubio, Maria Rosario; Baldi, Alberto; Kazanietz, Marcelo G.; Davio, Carlos; Shayo, Carina

    2010-01-01

    It is well established that histamine modulates cell proliferation through the activation of the histamine H1 receptor (H1R), a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that is known to couple to phospholipase C (PLC) activation via Gq. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether H1R activation modulates Rho GTPases, well-known effectors of Gq/G 11 -coupled receptors, and whether such modulation influences cell proliferation. Experiments were carried out in CHO cells stably expressing H1R (CHO-H1R). By using pull-down assays, we found that both histamine and a selective H1R agonist activated Rac and RhoA in a time- and dose-dependent manner without significant changes in the activation of Cdc42. Histamine response was abolished by the H1R antagonist mepyramine, RGS2 and the PLC inhibitor U73122, suggesting that Rac and RhoA activation is mediated by H1R via Gq coupling to PLC stimulation. Histamine caused a marked activation of serum response factor activity via the H1R, as determined with a serum-responsive element (SRE) luciferase reporter, and this response was inhibited by RhoA inactivation with C3 toxin. Histamine also caused a significant activation of JNK which was inhibited by expression of the Rac-GAP β2-chimaerin. On the other hand, H1R-induced ERK1/2 activation was inhibited by U73122 but not affected by C3 or β2-chimaerin, suggesting that ERK1/2 activation was dependent on PLC and independent of RhoA or Rac. [ 3 H]-Thymidine incorporation assays showed that both histamine and the H1R agonist inhibited cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner and that the effect was independent of RhoA but partially dependent on JNK and Rac. Our results reveal that functional coupling of the H1R to Gq-PLC leads to the activation of RhoA and Rac small GTPases and suggest distinct roles for Rho GTPases in the control of cell proliferation by histamine.

  8. Adenosine A2A receptors modulate the dopamine D2 receptor-mediated inhibition of synaptic transmission in the mouse prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real, Joana I; Simões, Ana Patrícia; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Ferreira, Samira G; Rial, Daniel

    2018-05-01

    Prefrontal cortex (PFC) circuits are modulated by dopamine acting on D 1 - and D 2 -like receptors, which are pharmacologically exploited to manage neuropsychiatric conditions. Adenosine A 2A receptors (A 2 A R) also control PFC-related responses and A 2 A R antagonists are potential anti-psychotic drugs. As tight antagonistic A 2 A R-D 2 R and synergistic A 2 A R-D 1 R interactions occur in other brain regions, we now investigated the crosstalk between A 2 A R and D 1 /D 2 R controlling synaptic transmission between layers II/III and V in mouse PFC coronal slices. Dopamine decreased synaptic transmission, a presynaptic effect based on the parallel increase in paired-pulse responses. Dopamine inhibition was prevented by the D 2 R-like antagonist sulpiride but not by the D 1 R antagonist SCH23390 and was mimicked by the D 2 R agonist sumanirole, but not by the agonists of either D 4 R (A-412997) or D 3 R (PD128907). Dopamine inhibition was prevented by the A 2 A R antagonist, SCH58261, and attenuated in A 2 A R knockout mice. Accordingly, triple-labelling immunocytochemistry experiments revealed the co-localization of A 2 A R and D 2 R immunoreactivity in glutamatergic (vGluT1-positive) nerve terminals of the PFC. This reported positive A 2 A R-D 2 R interaction controlling PFC synaptic transmission provides a mechanistic justification for the anti-psychotic potential of A 2 A R antagonists. © 2018 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Identification and Characterization of a Novel IL-4 Receptor α Chain (IL-4Rα Antagonist to Inhibit IL-4 Signalling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayyar Ahmed

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: In recent times, allergy has become a financial, physical and psychological burden to the society as a whole. In allergic cascades, cytokine IL-4 binds to IL-4 receptor (IL-4R, consequently producing allergen-specific IgE antibodies by B cells. In addition, among other functions, IL-4 is also responsible for B and T cell proliferation and differentiation. Hence, characterization of novel antagonists that inhibit IL-4 signalling forms the overall aim of this study. Methods: Phage display was used to screen a random 12-mer synthetic peptide library with a human IL-4Rα to identify peptide candidates. Once identified, the peptides were commercially synthesized and used for in vitro immunoassays. Results: We have successfully used phage display to identify M13 phage clones that demonstrated specific binding to IL-4Rα. The peptide N1 was synthesized for use in ELISA, demonstrating significant binding to IL-4Rα and inhibiting interaction with cytokine IL-4. Furthermore, the peptide was tested in a transfected HEK-Blue IL-4 reporter cell line model, which produces alkaline phosphatase (AP. QUANTI-Blue, a substrate, breaks down in the presence of AP producing a blue coloration. Using this colorimetric analysis, >50% inhibition of IL-4 signalling was achieved. Conclusion: We have successfully identified and characterised a synthetic peptide antagonist against IL-4Rα, which effectively inhibits IL-4 interaction with the IL-4Rα in vitro. Since IL-4 interaction with IL-4Rα is a common pathway for many allergies, a prophylactic treatment can be devised by inhibiting this interaction for future treatment of allergies.

  10. Curcumin Modulates Macrophage Polarization Through the Inhibition of the Toll-Like Receptor 4 Expression and its Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaoyao Zhou

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Curcumin, the active ingredient in curcuma rhizomes, has a wide range of therapeutic effects. However, its atheroprotective activity in human acute monocytic leukemia THP-1 cells remains unclear. We investigated the activity and molecular mechanism of action of curcumin in polarized macrophages. Methods: Phorbol myristate acetate (PMA-treated THP-1 cells were differentiated to macrophages, which were further polarized to M1 cells by lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 1 µg/ml and interferon (IFN-γ (20 ng/ml and treated with varying curcumin concentrations. [3H]thymidine (3H-TdR incorporation assays were utilized to measure curcumin-induced growth inhibition. The expression of tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a, interleukin (IL-6, and IL-12B (p40 were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Macrophage polarization and its mechanism were evaluated by flow cytometry and western blot. Additionally, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 small interfering RNA and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK inhibitors were used to further confirm the molecular mechanism of curcumin on macrophage polarization. Results: Curcumin dose-dependently inhibited M1 macrophage polarization and the production of TNF-a, IL-6, and IL-12B (p40. It also decreased TLR4 expression, which regulates M1 macrophage polarization. Furthermore, curcumin significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK, JNK, p38, and nuclear factor (NF-γB. In contrast, SiTLR4 in combination with p-JNK, p-ERK, and p-p38 inhibition reduced the effect of curcumin on polarization. Conclusions: Curcumin can modulate macrophage polarization through TLR4-mediated signaling pathway inhibition, indicating that its effect on macrophage polarization is related to its anti-inflammatory and atheroprotective effects. Our data suggest that curcumin could be used as a therapeutic agent in atherosclerosis.

  11. A Risk Analysis of Small-Hydro Power (SHP Plants Investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Cunha

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The increase in electricity consumption has led to a sharp increase in energy demand which rose environmental and sustainability concerns. To address this issue, there has been an incentive to resource to renewable energy sources for electricity production. Departing from a real case study, the investment appraisal of a SHP project under the present market conditions is described, followed by a sensitivity analysis in order to identify the main sources of risk. The main results obtained showed that in the context of a regulated tariff the project is worthwhile due to a positive NPV. However, if electricity had to be sold at market prices, the project becomes unprofitable. Theresults put also in evidence the vulnerability of the investment to an adverse change in interest rates. Future SHP plant investments should take into account the need to operate in a free market and to compete with technologies based on fossil fuels or large hydro.

  12. Actin retrograde flow controls natural killer cell response by regulating the conformation state of SHP-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matalon, Omri; Ben-Shmuel, Aviad; Kivelevitz, Jessica; Sabag, Batel; Fried, Sophia; Joseph, Noah; Noy, Elad; Biber, Guy; Barda-Saad, Mira

    2018-03-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are a powerful weapon against viral infections and tumor growth. Although the actin-myosin (actomyosin) cytoskeleton is crucial for a variety of cellular processes, the role of mechanotransduction, the conversion of actomyosin mechanical forces into signaling cascades, was never explored in NK cells. Here, we demonstrate that actomyosin retrograde flow (ARF) controls the immune response of primary human NK cells through a novel interaction between β-actin and the SH2-domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-1 (SHP-1), converting its conformation state, and thereby regulating NK cell cytotoxicity. Our results identify ARF as a master regulator of the NK cell immune response. Since actin dynamics occur in multiple cellular processes, this mechanism might also regulate the activity of SHP-1 in additional cellular systems. © 2018 The Authors.

  13. Expression of PML tumor suppressor in A 431 cells reduces cellular growth by inhibiting the epidermal growth factor receptor expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallian, S.; Chang, K.S.

    2004-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that the promyelocytic leukemia, PML, protein functions as a cellular and growth suppressor. Transient expression of PML was also found to repress the activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene promoter. In this study we have examined the effects of PML on A431 cells, which express a high level of + protein. The PML gene was introduced into the cells using the adenovirus-mediated gene transfer system. Western blot analysis on the extracts from the cells expressing PML showed a significant repression in the expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor protein. The cells were examined for growth and DNA synthesis. The data showed a marked reduction in both growth and DNA synthesis rate in the cells expressing PML compared with the control cells. Furthermore, in comparison with the controls, the cells expressing PML were found to be more in G1 phase, fewer in S and about the same number in the G2/M phase. This data clearly demonstrated that the repression of epidermal growth factor receptor expression in A 431 cells by PML was associated with inhibition of cell growth and alteration of the cell cycle distribution, suggesting a novel mechanism for the known growth inhibitory effects of PML

  14. Regulation of DNA Damage Response by Estrogen Receptor β-Mediated Inhibition of Breast Cancer Associated Gene 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Hao Lee

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests that ubiquitin E3 ligases are involved in cancer development as their mutations correlate with genomic instability and genetic susceptibility to cancer. Despite significant findings of cancer-driving mutations in the BRCA1 gene, estrogen receptor (ER-positive breast cancers progress upon treatment with DNA damaging-cytotoxic therapies. In order to understand the underlying mechanism by which ER-positive breast cancer cells develop resistance to DNA damaging agents, we employed an estrogen receptor agonist, Erb-041, to increase the activity of ERβ and negatively regulate the expression and function of the estrogen receptor α (ERα in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Upon Erb-041-mediated ERα down-regulation, the transcription of an ERα downstream effector, BCA2 (Breast Cancer Associated gene 2, correspondingly decreased. The ubiquitination of chromatin-bound BCA2 was induced by ultraviolet C (UVC irradiation but suppressed by Erb-041 pretreatment, resulting in a blunted DNA damage response. Upon BCA2 silencing, DNA double-stranded breaks increased with Rad51 up-regulation and ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM activation. Mechanistically, UV-induced BCA2 ubiquitination and chromatin binding were found to promote DNA damage response and repair via the interaction of BCA2 with ATM, γH2AX and Rad51. Taken together, this study suggests that Erb-041 potentiates BCA2 dissociation from chromatin and co-localization with Rad51, resulting in inhibition of homologous recombination repair.

  15. Azadirachtin Interacts with the Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) Binding Domain of Its Receptors and Inhibits TNF-induced Biological Responses*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoh, Maikho; Kumar, Pankaj; Nagarajaram, Hampathalu A.; Manna, Sunil K.

    2010-01-01

    The role of azadirachtin, an active component of a medicinal plant Neem (Azadirachta indica), on TNF-induced cell signaling in human cell lines was investigated. Azadirachtin blocks TNF-induced activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and also expression of NF-κB-dependent genes such as adhesion molecules and cyclooxygenase 2. Azadirachtin inhibits the inhibitory subunit of NF-κB (IκBα) phosphorylation and thereby its degradation and RelA (p65) nuclear translocation. It blocks IκBα kinase (IKK) activity ex vivo, but not in vitro. Surprisingly, azadirachtin blocks NF-κB DNA binding activity in transfected cells with TNF receptor-associated factor (TRAF)2, TNF receptor-associated death domain (TRADD), IKK, or p65, but not with TNFR, suggesting its effect is at the TNFR level. Azadirachtin blocks binding of TNF, but not IL-1, IL-4, IL-8, or TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) with its respective receptors. Anti-TNFR antibody or TNF protects azadirachtin-mediated down-regulation of TNFRs. Further, in silico data suggest that azadirachtin strongly binds in the TNF binding site of TNFR. Overall, our data suggest that azadirachtin modulates cell surface TNFRs thereby decreasing TNF-induced biological responses. Thus, azadirachtin exerts an anti-inflammatory response by a novel pathway, which may be beneficial for anti-inflammatory therapy. PMID:20018848

  16. Azadirachtin interacts with the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) binding domain of its receptors and inhibits TNF-induced biological responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoh, Maikho; Kumar, Pankaj; Nagarajaram, Hampathalu A; Manna, Sunil K

    2010-02-19

    The role of azadirachtin, an active component of a medicinal plant Neem (Azadirachta indica), on TNF-induced cell signaling in human cell lines was investigated. Azadirachtin blocks TNF-induced activation of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) and also expression of NF-kappaB-dependent genes such as adhesion molecules and cyclooxygenase 2. Azadirachtin inhibits the inhibitory subunit of NF-kappaB (IkappaB alpha) phosphorylation and thereby its degradation and RelA (p65) nuclear translocation. It blocks IkappaB alpha kinase (IKK) activity ex vivo, but not in vitro. Surprisingly, azadirachtin blocks NF-kappaB DNA binding activity in transfected cells with TNF receptor-associated factor (TRAF)2, TNF receptor-associated death domain (TRADD), IKK, or p65, but not with TNFR, suggesting its effect is at the TNFR level. Azadirachtin blocks binding of TNF, but not IL-1, IL-4, IL-8, or TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) with its respective receptors. Anti-TNFR antibody or TNF protects azadirachtin-mediated down-regulation of TNFRs. Further, in silico data suggest that azadirachtin strongly binds in the TNF binding site of TNFR. Overall, our data suggest that azadirachtin modulates cell surface TNFRs thereby decreasing TNF-induced biological responses. Thus, azadirachtin exerts an anti-inflammatory response by a novel pathway, which may be beneficial for anti-inflammatory therapy.

  17. Maximizing the effect of an α7 nicotinic receptor PAM in a mouse model of schizophrenia-like sensory inhibition deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Karen E; Zheng, Lijun; Floyd, Kirsten L; Stitzel, Jerry A

    2015-06-22

    Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) for the α7 nicotinic receptor hold promise for the treatment of sensory inhibition deficits observed in schizophrenia patients. Studies of these compounds in the DBA/2 mouse, which models the schizophrenia-related deficit in sensory inhibition, have shown PAMs to be effective in improving the deficit. However, the first published clinical trial of a PAM for both sensory inhibition deficits and related cognitive difficulties failed, casting a shadow on this therapeutic approach. The present study used both DBA/2 mice, and C3H Chrna7 heterozygote mice to assess the ability of the α7 PAM, PNU-120596, to improve sensory inhibition. Both of these strains of mice have reduced hippocampal α7 nicotinic receptor numbers and deficient sensory inhibition similar to schizophrenia patients. Low doses of PNU-120596 (1 or 3.33mg/kg) were effective in the DBA/2 mouse but not the C3H Chrna7 heterozygote mouse. Moderate doses of the selective α7 nicotinic receptor agonist, choline chloride (10 or 33mg/kg), were also ineffective in improving sensory inhibition in the C3H Chrna7 heterozygote mouse. However, combining the lowest doses of both PNU-120596 and choline chloride in this mouse model did improve sensory inhibition. We propose here that the difference in efficacy of PNU-120596 between the 2 mouse strains is driven by differences in hippocampal α7 nicotinic receptor numbers, such that C3H Chrna7 heterozygote mice require additional direct stimulation of the α7 receptors. These data may have implications for further clinical testing of putative α7 nicotinic receptor PAMs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. ADAMTS1 inhibits lymphangiogenesis by attenuating phosphorylation of the lymphatic endothelial cell-specific VEGF receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inagaki, Junko; Takahashi, Katsuyuki; Ogawa, Hiroko; Asano, Keiichi; Faruk Hatipoglu, Omer; Zeynel Cilek, Mehmet; Obika, Masanari; Ohtsuki, Takashi [Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama (Japan); Hofmann, Matthias [Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Allergology, Goethe University, Frankfurt (Germany); Kusachi, Shozo [Department of Medical Technology, Okayama University Graduate School of Health Sciences, Okayama (Japan); Ninomiya, Yoshifumi [Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama (Japan); Hirohata, Satoshi, E-mail: hirohas@cc.okayama-u.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama (Japan); International Center, Okayama University, Okayama (Japan)

    2014-05-01

    Angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis play roles in malignant tumor progression, dissemination, and metastasis. ADAMTS1, a member of the matrix metalloproteinase family, is known to inhibit angiogenesis. Recombinant ADAMTS1 was shown to strongly inhibit angiogenesis. We investigated whether ADAMTS1 inhibited lymphangiogenesis in the present study. We examined cell proliferation and cell migration in normal human dermal lymphatic microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC-dLy) transduced with or without adenoviral human ADAMTS1 gene therapy. We then examined the VEGFC/VEGFR3 signal transduction pathway in ADAMTS1-transduced HMVEC-dLy. Cell proliferation and tube formation in Matrigel were significantly lower with transduced ADAMTS1 than with control (non-transduced HMVEC-dLy). The phosphorylation of VEGFR3 was also attenuated by ADAMTS1 gene therapy in HMVEC-dLy. Immunoprecipitation assays revealed that ADAMTS1 formed a complex with VEGFC. Our results demonstrated that ADAMTS1 inhibited lymphangiogenesis in vitro. The data highlight the new function of ADAMTS1 in the regulation of lymphangiogenesis and the therapeutic potential of ADAMTS1 in cancer therapy. - Highlights: • ADAMTS1 significantly inhibited tube formation and cell proliferation in HMVEC-dLy. • Reduced lymph endothelial cell migration in ADAMTS1 transduced co-culture systems. • VEGFC-stimulated phosphorylation of VEGFR3 is attenuated by ADAMTS1. • Reduced phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2 in ADAMTS1 treated HMVEC-dLy. • ADAMTS1 binds directly to VEGFC.

  19. ADAMTS1 inhibits lymphangiogenesis by attenuating phosphorylation of the lymphatic endothelial cell-specific VEGF receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Junko; Takahashi, Katsuyuki; Ogawa, Hiroko; Asano, Keiichi; Faruk Hatipoglu, Omer; Zeynel Cilek, Mehmet; Obika, Masanari; Ohtsuki, Takashi; Hofmann, Matthias; Kusachi, Shozo; Ninomiya, Yoshifumi; Hirohata, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis play roles in malignant tumor progression, dissemination, and metastasis. ADAMTS1, a member of the matrix metalloproteinase family, is known to inhibit angiogenesis. Recombinant ADAMTS1 was shown to strongly inhibit angiogenesis. We investigated whether ADAMTS1 inhibited lymphangiogenesis in the present study. We examined cell proliferation and cell migration in normal human dermal lymphatic microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC-dLy) transduced with or without adenoviral human ADAMTS1 gene therapy. We then examined the VEGFC/VEGFR3 signal transduction pathway in ADAMTS1-transduced HMVEC-dLy. Cell proliferation and tube formation in Matrigel were significantly lower with transduced ADAMTS1 than with control (non-transduced HMVEC-dLy). The phosphorylation of VEGFR3 was also attenuated by ADAMTS1 gene therapy in HMVEC-dLy. Immunoprecipitation assays revealed that ADAMTS1 formed a complex with VEGFC. Our results demonstrated that ADAMTS1 inhibited lymphangiogenesis in vitro. The data highlight the new function of ADAMTS1 in the regulation of lymphangiogenesis and the therapeutic potential of ADAMTS1 in cancer therapy. - Highlights: • ADAMTS1 significantly inhibited tube formation and cell proliferation in HMVEC-dLy. • Reduced lymph endothelial cell migration in ADAMTS1 transduced co-culture systems. • VEGFC-stimulated phosphorylation of VEGFR3 is attenuated by ADAMTS1. • Reduced phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2 in ADAMTS1 treated HMVEC-dLy. • ADAMTS1 binds directly to VEGFC

  20. Quercetin and epigallocatechin gallate inhibit glucose uptake and metabolism by breast cancer cells by an estrogen receptor-independent mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Liliana, E-mail: lilianam87@gmail.com [Department of Biochemistry (U38-FCT), Faculty of Medicine of University of Porto, Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto (Portugal); Araújo, Isabel, E-mail: isa.araujo013@gmail.com [Department of Biochemistry (U38-FCT), Faculty of Medicine of University of Porto, Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto (Portugal); Costa, Tito, E-mail: tito.fmup16@gmail.com [Department of Biochemistry (U38-FCT), Faculty of Medicine of University of Porto, Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto (Portugal); Correia-Branco, Ana, E-mail: ana.clmc.branco@gmail.com [Department of Biochemistry (U38-FCT), Faculty of Medicine of University of Porto, Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto (Portugal); Faria, Ana, E-mail: anafaria@med.up.pt [Department of Biochemistry (U38-FCT), Faculty of Medicine of University of Porto, Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto (Portugal); Chemistry Investigation Centre (CIQ), Faculty of Sciences of University of Porto, Rua Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences of University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Martel, Fátima, E-mail: fmartel@med.up.pt [Department of Biochemistry (U38-FCT), Faculty of Medicine of University of Porto, Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto (Portugal); Keating, Elisa, E-mail: keating@med.up.pt [Department of Biochemistry (U38-FCT), Faculty of Medicine of University of Porto, Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto (Portugal)

    2013-07-15

    In this study we characterized {sup 3}H-2-deoxy-D-glucose ({sup 3}H -DG) uptake by the estrogen receptor (ER)-positive MCF7 and the ER-negative MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell lines and investigated the effect of quercetin (QUE) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) upon {sup 3}H-DG uptake, glucose metabolism and cell viability and proliferation. In both MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells {sup 3}H-DG uptake was (a) time-dependent, (b) saturable with similar capacity (V{sub max}) and affinity (K{sub m}), (c) potently inhibited by cytochalasin B, an inhibitor of the facilitative glucose transporters (GLUT), (d) sodium-independent and (e) slightly insulin-stimulated. This suggests that {sup 3}H-DG uptake by both cell types is mediated by members of the GLUT family, including the insulin-responsive GLUT4 or GLUT12, while being independent of the sodium-dependent glucose transporter (SGLT1). QUE and EGCG markedly and concentration-dependently inhibited {sup 3}H-DG uptake by MCF7 and by MDA-MB-231 cells, and both compounds blocked lactate production by MCF7 cells. Additionally, a 4 h-treatment with QUE or EGCG decreased MCF7 cell viability and proliferation, an effect that was more potent when glucose was available in the extracellular medium. Our results implicate QUE and EGCG as metabolic antagonists in breast cancer cells, independently of estrogen signalling, and suggest that these flavonoids could serve as therapeutic agents/adjuvants even for ER-negative breast tumors. -- Highlights: • Glucose uptake by MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells is mainly mediated by GLUT1. • QUE and EGCG inhibit cellular glucose uptake thus abolishing the Warburg effect. • This process induces cytotoxicity and proliferation arrest in MCF7 cells. • The flavonoids’ effects are independent of estrogen receptor signalling.

  1. Quercetin and epigallocatechin gallate inhibit glucose uptake and metabolism by breast cancer cells by an estrogen receptor-independent mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Liliana; Araújo, Isabel; Costa, Tito; Correia-Branco, Ana; Faria, Ana; Martel, Fátima; Keating, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    In this study we characterized 3 H-2-deoxy-D-glucose ( 3 H -DG) uptake by the estrogen receptor (ER)-positive MCF7 and the ER-negative MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell lines and investigated the effect of quercetin (QUE) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) upon 3 H-DG uptake, glucose metabolism and cell viability and proliferation. In both MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells 3 H-DG uptake was (a) time-dependent, (b) saturable with similar capacity (V max ) and affinity (K m ), (c) potently inhibited by cytochalasin B, an inhibitor of the facilitative glucose transporters (GLUT), (d) sodium-independent and (e) slightly insulin-stimulated. This suggests that 3 H-DG uptake by both cell types is mediated by members of the GLUT family, including the insulin-responsive GLUT4 or GLUT12, while being independent of the sodium-dependent glucose transporter (SGLT1). QUE and EGCG markedly and concentration-dependently inhibited 3 H-DG uptake by MCF7 and by MDA-MB-231 cells, and both compounds blocked lactate production by MCF7 cells. Additionally, a 4 h-treatment with QUE or EGCG decreased MCF7 cell viability and proliferation, an effect that was more potent when glucose was available in the extracellular medium. Our results implicate QUE and EGCG as metabolic antagonists in breast cancer cells, independently of estrogen signalling, and suggest that these flavonoids could serve as therapeutic agents/adjuvants even for ER-negative breast tumors. -- Highlights: • Glucose uptake by MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells is mainly mediated by GLUT1. • QUE and EGCG inhibit cellular glucose uptake thus abolishing the Warburg effect. • This process induces cytotoxicity and proliferation arrest in MCF7 cells. • The flavonoids’ effects are independent of estrogen receptor signalling

  2. LEOPARD syndrome-associated SHP2 mutation confers leanness and protection from diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajan, Mylène; Batut, Aurélie; Cadoudal, Thomas; Deleruyelle, Simon; Le Gonidec, Sophie; Saint Laurent, Céline; Vomscheid, Maëlle; Wanecq, Estelle; Tréguer, Karine; De Rocca Serra-Nédélec, Audrey; Vinel, Claire; Marques, Marie-Adeline; Pozzo, Joffrey; Kunduzova, Oksana; Salles, Jean-Pierre; Tauber, Maithé; Raynal, Patrick; Cavé, Hélène; Edouard, Thomas; Valet, Philippe; Yart, Armelle

    2014-10-21

    LEOPARD syndrome (multiple Lentigines, Electrocardiographic conduction abnormalities, Ocular hypertelorism, Pulmonary stenosis, Abnormal genitalia, Retardation of growth, sensorineural Deafness; LS), also called Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines (NSML), is a rare autosomal dominant disorder associating various developmental defects, notably cardiopathies, dysmorphism, and short stature. It is mainly caused by mutations of the PTPN11 gene that catalytically inactivate the tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 (Src-homology 2 domain-containing phosphatase 2). Besides its pleiotropic roles during development, SHP2 plays key functions in energetic metabolism regulation. However, the metabolic outcomes of LS mutations have never been examined. Therefore, we performed an extensive metabolic exploration of an original LS mouse model, expressing the T468M mutation of SHP2, frequently borne by LS patients. Our results reveal that, besides expected symptoms, LS animals display a strong reduction of adiposity and resistance to diet-induced obesity, associated with overall better metabolic profile. We provide evidence that LS mutant expression impairs adipogenesis, triggers energy expenditure, and enhances insulin signaling, three features that can contribute to the lean phenotype of LS mice. Interestingly, chronic treatment of LS mice with low doses of MEK inhibitor, but not rapamycin, resulted in weight and adiposity gains. Importantly, preliminary data in a French cohort of LS patients suggests that most of them have lower-than-average body mass index, associated, for tested patients, with reduced adiposity. Altogether, these findings unravel previously unidentified characteristics for LS, which could represent a metabolic benefit for patients, but may also participate to the development or worsening of some traits of the disease. Beyond LS, they also highlight a protective role of SHP2 global LS-mimicking modulation toward the development of obesity and associated disorders.

  3. Cholecystokinin Receptor-Targeted Polyplex Nanoparticle Inhibits Growth and Metastasis of Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Burks

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: Our polyplex nanoparticle platform establishes both a strong foundation for the development of receptor-targeted therapeutics and a unique approach for the delivery of siRNA in vivo, thus warranting further exploration of this approach in other types of cancers.

  4. Bicyclams, selective antagonists of the human chemokine receptor CXCR4, potently inhibit feline immunodeficiency virus replication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horzinek, M.C.; Egberink, H.F.; Clercq, E. de; Vliet, A.L.W. van; Balzarini, J.; Bridger, G.J.; Henson, G.; Schols, D.

    1999-01-01

    Bicyclams are low-molecular-weight anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) agents that have been shown to act as potent and selective CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) antagonists. Here, we demonstrate that bicyclams are potent inhibitors of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) replication when

  5. Greater Sensitivity of Blood Pressure Than Renal Toxicity to Tyrosine Kinase Receptor Inhibition With Sunitinib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lankhorst, Stephanie; Baelde, Hans J; Kappers, Mariëtte H W

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension and renal injury are off-target effects of sunitinib, a tyrosine kinase receptor inhibitor used for the treatment of various tumor types. Importantly, these untoward effects are accompanied by activation of the endothelin system. Here, we set up a study to explore the dose dependency...

  6. Activation of serotonin 2C receptors in dopamine neurons inhibits binge-like eating in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neural networks that regulate binge eating remain to be identified, and effective treatments for binge eating are limited. We combined neuroanatomic, pharmacologic, electrophysiological, Cre-lox, and chemogenetic approaches to investigate the functions of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) 2C receptor (5-HT...

  7. Harmaline competitively inhibits [3H]MK-801 binding to the NMDA receptor in rabbit brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, W; Aloyo, V J; Harvey, J A

    1997-10-03

    Harmaline, a beta-carboline derivative, is known to produce tremor through a direct activation of cells in the inferior olive. However, the receptor(s) through which harmaline acts remains unknown. It was recently reported that the tremorogenic actions of harmaline could be blocked by the noncompetitive NMDA channel blocker, MK-801. This study examined whether the blockade of harmaline's action, in the rabbit, by MK-801 was due to a pharmacological antagonism at the MK-801 binding site. This was accomplished by measurement of [3H]MK-801 binding in membrane fractions derived from tissue containing the inferior olivary nucleus and from cerebral cortex. Harmaline completely displaced saturable [3H]MK-801 binding in both the inferior olive and cortex with apparent IC50 values of 60 and 170 microM, respectively. These IC50 values are consistent with the high doses of harmaline required to produce tremor, e.g., 10-30 mg/kg. Non-linear curve fitting analysis of [3H]MK-801 saturation experiments indicated that [3H]MK-801 bound to a single site and that harmaline's displacement of [3H]MK-801 binding to the NMDA receptor was competitive as indicated by a shift in Kd but not in Bmax. In addition, a Schild plot gave a slope that was not significantly different from 1 indicating that harmaline was producing a displacement of [3H]MK-801 from its binding site within the NMDA cation channel and not through an action at the glutamate or other allosteric sites on the NMDA receptor. These findings provide in vitro evidence that the competitive blockade of harmaline-induced tremor by MK-801 occurs within the calcium channel coupled to the NMDA receptor. Our hypothesis is that harmaline produces tremor by acting as an inverse agonist at the MK-801 binding site and thus opening the cation channel.

  8. Inhibition of IGF-1 receptor kinase blocks the differentiation into cardiomyocyte-like cells of BMSCs induced by IGF-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Haibin; Wang, Xiuli; Wang, Lei; Liu, Ying; Wang, Jie; Lv, Qian; Pang, Hui; Zhang, Qinglin; Wang, Zhenquan

    2017-07-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have the potential to transdifferentiate into cardiomyocyte‑like cells (CLCs) if an appropriate cardiac environment is provided. Insulin‑like growth factor‑1 (IGF‑1) plays an important role in the cell migration, survival and differentiation of BMSCs. However, the effect of IGF‑1 on the cellular differentiation remains unclear. In the present study, BMSCs were isolated from rat femurs and tibias and the cells were purified at passage 6 (P6). IGF‑1 and IGF‑1 receptor (IGF‑1R) kinase inhibitor I‑OMe AG538 were added to detect if IGF‑1 could induce BMSCs to transdifferentiate into CLCs and if I‑OMe AG538 could inhibit IGF‑1‑mediated receptor activation and downstream signaling. Immunostaining demonstrated that all P6 BMSCs express CD29 and CD44 but not CD45. BMSCs induced by 15 ng/ml IGF‑1 revealed positivity for cardiac troponin‑T and cardiac troponin‑I. The optimal induction time was 14 days but the expression of these proteins were incompletely inhibited by 300 nmol/l I‑OMe AG538 and completely inhibited by 10 µmol/l I‑OMe AG538. Western blotting showed that the level of IGF‑1R autophosphorylation and the expression of cTnT and cTnI were higher when BMSCs were induced for 14 days. I‑OMe AG538 selectively inhibited IGF‑1‑mediated growth and signal transduction and the inhibitory effect of I‑OMe AG538 were not reverted in the presence of exogenous IGF‑1. In addition, when a time course analysis of the effects of I‑OMe AG538 on mitogen‑activated protein kinase kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3‑kinase signaling were done, we observed a transient inhibitory effect on Erk1/2 and Akt phosphorylation, in keeping with the inhibitory effects on cell growth. Taken together, these data indicate that I‑OMe AG538 could inhibit IGF-1-induced CLCs in BMSCs and this effect is time- and concentration-dependent.

  9. Progesterone receptor (PR) polyproline domain (PPD) mediates inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling in non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawprasertsri, Sornsawan; Pietras, Richard J; Marquez-Garban, Diana C; Boonyaratanakornkit, Viroj

    2016-05-01

    Recent evidence has suggested a possible role for progesterone receptor (PR) in the progression of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, little is known concerning roles of PR in NSCLC. PR contains a polyproline domain (PPD), which directly binds to the SH3 domain of signaling molecules. Because PPD-SH3 interactions are essential for EGFR signaling, we hypothesized that the presence of PR-PPD interfered with EGFR-mediated signaling and cell proliferation. We examined the role of PR-PPD in cell proliferation and signaling by stably expressing PR-B, or PR-B with disrupting mutations in the PPD (PR-BΔSH3), from a tetracycline-regulated promoter in A549 NSCLC cells. PR-B dose-dependently inhibited cell growth in the absence of ligand, and progestin (R5020) treatment further suppressed the growth. Treatment with RU486 abolished PR-B- and R5020-mediated inhibition of cell proliferation. Expression of PR-BΔSH3 and treatment with R5020 or RU486 had no effect on cell proliferation. Furthermore, PR-B expression but not PR-BΔSH3 expression reduced EGF-induced A549 proliferation and activation of ERK1/2, in the absence of ligand. Taken together, our data demonstrated the significance of PR extranuclear signaling through PPD interactions in EGFR-mediated proliferation and signaling in NSCLC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ibrutinib Inhibits ERBB Receptor Tyrosine Kinases and HER2-Amplified Breast Cancer Cell Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Kinoshita, Taisei; Sukbuntherng, Juthamas; Chang, Betty Y; Elias, Laurence

    2016-12-01

    Ibrutinib is a potent, small-molecule Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor developed for the treatment of B-cell malignancies. Ibrutinib covalently binds to Cys481 in the ATP-binding domain of BTK. This cysteine residue is conserved among 9 other tyrosine kinases, including HER2 and EGFR, which can be targeted. Screening large panels of cell lines demonstrated that ibrutinib was growth inhibitory against some solid tumor cells, including those inhibited by other HER2/EGFR inhibitors. Among sensitive cell lines, breast cancer lines with HER2 overexpression were most potently inhibited by ibrutinib (ibrutinib coincided with downregulation of phosphorylation on HER2 and EGFR and their downstream targets, AKT and ERK. Irreversible inhibition of HER2 and EGFR in breast cancer cells was established after 30-minute incubation above 100 nmol/L or following 2-hour incubation at lower concentrations. Furthermore, ibrutinib inhibited recombinant HER2 and EGFR activity that was resistant to dialysis and rapid dilution, suggesting an irreversible interaction. The dual activity toward TEC family (BTK and ITK) and ERBB family kinases was unique to ibrutinib, as ERBB inhibitors do not inhibit or covalently bind BTK or ITK. Xenograft studies with HER2 + MDA-MB-453 and BT-474 cells in mice in conjunction with determination of pharmacokinetics demonstrated significant exposure-dependent inhibition of growth and key signaling molecules at levels that are clinically achievable. Ibrutinib's unique dual spectrum of activity against both TEC family and ERBB kinases suggests broader applications of ibrutinib in oncology. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(12); 2835-44. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  11. Shakuyakukanzoto attenuates oxaliplatin-induced cold dysesthesia by inhibiting the expression of transient receptor potential melastatin 8 in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsugunobu Andoh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy characterized especially as cold dysesthesia is a major dose-limiting side effect of the drug and is very difficult to control. In the present study, we examined whether the traditional herbal formulation Shakuyakukanzoto (SKT: 芍藥甘草湯Sháo Yào Gān Cǎo Tāng could relieve oxaliplatin-induced cold dysesthesia in mice. The inhibitory mechanisms were also investigated. Repetitive administration of SKT (0.1–1.0 g/kg starting from the day after oxaliplatin injection inhibited cold dysesthesia in a dose-dependent manner. Our previous report has shown that the mRNA expression of transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8, characterized as a cold-sensing cation channel, is increased in the dorsal root ganglia of mice treated with oxaliplatin. In addition, TRPM8 antagonist TC-I 2014 (10 and 30 mg/kg also attenuated cold dysesthesia in oxaliplatin-treated mice. Taken together, it is suggested that TRPM8 is involved in the cold dysesthesia induced by oxaliplatin. Repetitive administration of SKT inhibited the mRNA expression of TRPM8 induced by oxaliplatin in the dorsal root ganglia. These results suggested that prophylactic repetitive administration of SKT is effective in preventing the exacerbation of oxaliplatin-induced cold dysesthesia by inhibiting the mRNA expression of TRPM8 in the dorsal root ganglia.

  12. Dual inhibition of Ang-2 and VEGF receptors normalizes tumor vasculature and prolongs survival in glioblastoma by altering macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Teresa E.; Kirkpatrick, Nathaniel D.; Huang, Yuhui; Farrar, Christian T.; Marijt, Koen A.; Kloepper, Jonas; Datta, Meenal; Amoozgar, Zohreh; Seano, Giorgio; Jung, Keehoon; Kamoun, Walid S.; Vardam, Trupti; Snuderl, Matija; Goveia, Jermaine; Chatterjee, Sampurna; Batista, Ana; Muzikansky, Alona; Leow, Ching Ching; Xu, Lei; Batchelor, Tracy T.; Duda, Dan G.; Fukumura, Dai; Jain, Rakesh K.

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastomas (GBMs) rapidly become refractory to anti-VEGF therapies. We previously demonstrated that ectopic overexpression of angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) compromises the benefits of anti-VEGF receptor (VEGFR) treatment in murine GBM models and that circulating Ang-2 levels in GBM patients rebound after an initial decrease following cediranib (a pan-VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor) administration. Here we tested whether dual inhibition of VEGFR/Ang-2 could improve survival in two orthotopic models of GBM, Gl261 and U87. Dual therapy using cediranib and MEDI3617 (an anti–Ang-2–neutralizing antibody) improved survival over each therapy alone by delaying Gl261 growth and increasing U87 necrosis, effectively reducing viable tumor burden. Consistent with their vascular-modulating function, the dual therapies enhanced morphological normalization of vessels. Dual therapy also led to changes in tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). Inhibition of TAM recruitment using an anti–colony-stimulating factor-1 antibody compromised the survival benefit of dual therapy. Thus, dual inhibition of VEGFR/Ang-2 prolongs survival in preclinical GBM models by reducing tumor burden, improving normalization, and altering TAMs. This approach may represent a potential therapeutic strategy to overcome the limitations of anti-VEGFR monotherapy in GBM patients by integrating the complementary effects of anti-Ang2 treatment on vessels and immune cells. PMID:27044097

  13. Pan-SRC kinase inhibition blocks B-cell receptor oncogenic signaling in non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistello, Elena; Katanayeva, Natalya; Dheilly, Elie; Tavernari, Daniele; Donaldson, Maria C; Bonsignore, Luca; Thome, Margot; Christie, Amanda L; Murakami, Mark A; Michielin, Olivier; Ciriello, Giovanni; Zoete, Vincent; Oricchio, Elisa

    2018-05-24

    In diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), activation of the B-cell receptor (BCR) promotes multiple oncogenic signals, which are essential for tumor proliferation. Inhibition of the Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), a BCR downstream target, is therapeutically effective only in a subgroup of patients with DLBCL. Here, we used lymphoma cells isolated from patients with DLBCL to measure the effects of targeted therapies on BCR signaling and to anticipate response. In lymphomas resistant to BTK inhibition, we show that blocking BTK activity enhanced tumor dependencies from alternative oncogenic signals downstream of the BCR, converging on MYC upregulation. To completely ablate the activity of the BCR, we genetically and pharmacologically repressed the activity of the SRC kinases LYN, FYN, and BLK, which are responsible for the propagation of the BCR signal. Inhibition of these kinases strongly reduced tumor growth in xenografts and cell lines derived from patients with DLBCL independent of their molecular subtype, advancing the possibility to be relevant therapeutic targets in broad and diverse groups of DLBCL patients. © 2018 by The American Society of Hematology.

  14. Deletion of the distal COOH-terminus of the A2B adenosine receptor switches internalization to an arrestin- and clathrin-independent pathway and inhibits recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundell, S J; Matharu, A-L; Nisar, S; Palmer, T M; Benovic, J L; Kelly, E

    2010-02-01

    We have investigated the effect of deletions of a postsynaptic density, disc large and zo-1 protein (PDZ) motif at the end of the COOH-terminus of the rat A(2B) adenosine receptor on intracellular trafficking following long-term exposure to the agonist 5'-(N-ethylcarboxamido)-adenosine. The trafficking of the wild type A(2B) adenosine receptor and deletion mutants expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells was studied using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in combination with immunofluorescence microscopy. The wild type A(2B) adenosine receptor and deletion mutants were all extensively internalized following prolonged treatment with NECA. The intracellular compartment through which the Gln(325)-stop receptor mutant, which lacks the Type II PDZ motif found in the wild type receptor initially trafficked was not the same as the wild type receptor. Expression of dominant negative mutants of arrestin-2, dynamin or Eps-15 inhibited internalization of wild type and Leu(330)-stop receptors, whereas only dominant negative mutant dynamin inhibited agonist-induced internalization of Gln(325)-stop, Ser(326)-stop and Phe(328)-stop receptors. Following internalization, the wild type A(2B) adenosine receptor recycled rapidly to the cell surface, whereas the Gln(325)-stop receptor did not recycle. Deletion of the COOH-terminus of the A(2B) adenosine receptor beyond Leu(330) switches internalization from an arrestin- and clathrin-dependent pathway to one that is dynamin dependent but arrestin and clathrin independent. The presence of a Type II PDZ motif appears to be essential for arrestin- and clathrin-dependent internalization, as well as recycling of the A(2B) adenosine receptor following prolonged agonist addition.

  15. Detection of Intracellular Reduced (Catalytically Active) SHP-1 and Analyses of Catalytically Inactive SHP-1 after Oxidation by Pervanadate or H2O2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seeyoung; Love, Paul E

    2018-01-05

    Oxidative inactivation of cysteine-dependent Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases (PTPs) by cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays a critical role in regulating signal transduction in multiple cell types. The phosphatase activity of most PTPs depends upon a 'signature' cysteine residue within the catalytic domain that is maintained in the de-protonated state at physiological pH rendering it susceptible to ROS-mediated oxidation. Direct and indirect techniques for detection of PTP oxidation have been developed (Karisch and Neel, 2013). To detect catalytically active PTPs, cell lysates are treated with iodoacetyl-polyethylene glycol-biotin (IAP-biotin), which irreversibly binds to reduced (S - ) cysteine thiols. Irreversible oxidation of SHP-1 after treatment of cells with pervanadate or H 2 O 2 is detected with antibodies specific for the sulfonic acid (SO 3 H) form of the conserved active site cysteine of PTPs. In this protocol, we describe a method for the detection of the reduced (S - ; active) or irreversibly oxidized (SO 3 H; inactive) form of the hematopoietic PTP SHP-1 in thymocytes, although this method is applicable to any cysteine-dependent PTP in any cell type.

  16. Iptakalim inhibits nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated currents in dopamine neurons acutely dissociated from rat substantia nigra pars compacta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J; DeChon, J; Yan, K C; Liu, Q; Hu, G; Wu, J

    2006-07-31

    Iptakalim hydrochloride, a novel cardiovascular ATP-sensitive K(+) (K(ATP)) channel opener, has shown remarkable antihypertensive and neuroprotective effects in a variety of studies using in vivo and in vitro preparations. We recently found that iptakalim blocked human alpha4-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) heterologously expressed in the human SH-EP1 cell line. In the present study, we examined the effects of iptakalim on several neurotransmitter-induced current responses in single DA neurons freshly dissociated from rat substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), using perforated patch-clamp recordings combined with a U-tube rapid drug application. In identified DA neurons under voltage-clamp configuration, glutamate-, NMDA-, and GABA-induced currents were insensitive to co-application with iptakalim (100 microM), while whole-cell currents induced by ACh (1 mM+1 microM atropine) or an alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors relatively selective agonist, RJR-2403 (300 microM), were eliminated by iptakalim. Iptakalim inhibited RJR-2403-induced current in a concentration-dependent manner, and reduced maximal RJR-2403-induced currents at the highest agonist concentration, suggesting a non-competitive block. In current-clamp mode, iptakalim failed to affect resting membrane potential and spontaneous action potential firing, but abolished RJR-2403-induced neuronal firing acceleration. Together, these results indicate that in dissociated SNc DA neurons, alpha4-containing nAChRs, rather than ionotropic glutamate receptors, GABA(A) receptors or perhaps K-ATP channels are the sensitive targets to mediate iptakalim's pharmacological roles.

  17. Short Stat5-interacting peptide derived from phospholipase C-β3 inhibits hematopoietic cell proliferation and myeloid differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Yasudo

    Full Text Available Constitutive activation of the transcription factor Stat5 in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells leads to various hematopoietic malignancies including myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN. Our recent study found that phospholipase C (PLC-β3 is a novel tumor suppressor involved in MPN, lymphoma and other tumors. Stat5 activity is negatively regulated by the SH2 domain-containing protein phosphatase SHP-1 in a PLC-β3-dependent manner. PLC-β3 can form the multimolecular SPS complex together with SHP-1 and Stat5. The close physical proximity of SHP-1 and Stat5 brought about by interacting with the C-terminal segment of PLC-β3 (PLC-β3-CT accelerates SHP-1-mediated dephosphorylation of Stat5. Here we identify the minimal sequences within PLC-β3-CT required for its tumor suppressor function. Two of the three Stat5-binding noncontiguous regions, one of which also binds SHP-1, substantially inhibited in vitro proliferation of Ba/F3 cells. Surprisingly, an 11-residue Stat5-binding peptide (residues 988-998 suppressed Stat5 activity in Ba/F3 cells and in vivo proliferation and myeloid differentiation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. Therefore, this study further defines PLC-β3-CT as the Stat5- and SHP-1-binding domain by identifying minimal functional sequences of PLC-β3 for its tumor suppressor function and implies their potential utility in the control of hematopoietic malignancies.

  18. Inhibition of Ebola and Marburg Virus Entry by G Protein-Coupled Receptor Antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Han; Lear-Rooney, Calli M; Johansen, Lisa; Varhegyi, Elizabeth; Chen, Zheng W; Olinger, Gene G; Rong, Lijun

    2015-10-01

    Filoviruses, consisting of Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus (MARV), are among the most lethal infectious threats to mankind. Infections by these viruses can cause severe hemorrhagic fevers in humans and nonhuman primates with high mortality rates. Since there is currently no vaccine or antiviral therapy approved for humans, there is an urgent need to develop prophylactic and therapeutic options for use during filoviral outbreaks and bioterrorist attacks. One of the ideal targets against filoviral infection and diseases is at the entry step, which is mediated by the filoviral glycoprotein (GP). In this report, we screened a chemical library of small molecules and identified numerous inhibitors, which are known G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) antagonists targeting different GPCRs, including histamine receptors, 5-HT (serotonin) receptors, muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, and adrenergic receptor. These inhibitors can effectively block replication of both infectious EBOV and MARV, indicating a broad antiviral activity of the GPCR antagonists. The time-of-addition experiment and microscopic studies suggest that GPCR antagonists block filoviral entry at a step following the initial attachment but prior to viral/cell membrane fusion. These results strongly suggest that GPCRs play a critical role in filoviral entry and GPCR antagonists can be developed as an effective anti-EBOV/MARV therapy. Infection of Ebola virus and Marburg virus can cause severe illness in humans with a high mortality rate, and currently there is no FDA-approved vaccine or therapeutic treatment available. The 2013-2015 epidemic in West Africa underscores a lack of our understanding in the infection and pathogenesis of these viruses and the urgency of drug discovery and development. In this study, we have identified numerous inhibitors that are known G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) antagonists targeting different GPCRs. These inhibitors can effectively block replication of both infectious

  19. Dimerization inhibits the activity of receptor-like protein-tyrosine phosphatase-alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, G; den Hertog, J; Su, J

    1999-01-01

    that dimerization can negatively regulate activity, through the interaction of an inhibitory 'wedge' on one monomer with the catalytic cleft of domain 1 in the other monomer. Here we show that dimerization inhibits the activity of a full-length RPTP in vivo. We generated stable disulphide-bonded full...

  20. Inhibition by sigma receptor ligand, MS-377, of N-methyl- D-aspartate-induced currents in dopamine neurons of the rat ventral tegmental area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Yuu; Ishioka, Miwa; Matsubayashi, Hiroaki; Amano, Taku; Sasa, Masashi

    2002-04-01

    MS-377 [( R)-(+)-1-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-[4-(2-methoxyethyl) piperazin-1-yl]methyl-2-pyrrolidinone L-tartrate] is a novel anti-psychotic drug candidate with high affinity for sigma receptors but devoid of binding affinity for PCP binding site of NMDA receptor/ion channel complex. The effects of MS-377 on NMDA receptor and/or its ion channel complex were examined to elucidate the antipsychotic properties of MS-377. We examined the effect of MS-377 on NMDA ( N-methyl- D-aspartate)-induced current in acutely dissociated dopamine neurons of rat ventral tegmental area (VTA) using patch clamp whole cell recording. MS-377 applied in a bath inhibited the peak current evoked by NMDA applied via the U-tube method for 2 s in a concentration-dependent manner. Other sigma receptor ligands, BD-1063 (1-[2-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)ethyl]-4-methylpiperazine), NE-100 ( N, N-dipropyl-2-[4-methoxy-3-(2-phenylenoxy)-phenyl]-ethylamine monohydrochloride) and haloperidol also inhibited NMDA-induced current in a concentration-dependent manner. Interestingly, concomitant application of MS-377 with BD-1063, NE-100 or haloperidol at concentrations that had no effects on NMDA-induced current, potentiated the MS-377-induced inhibition. The results suggest that MS-377, as well as other sigma receptor ligands, indirectly acts on the sigma receptor to inhibit glutaminergic transmission mediated by NMDA receptor/ion channel complex in VTA dopamine neurons, thereby inhibiting dopamine release in target VTA areas.

  1. Context-Dependent Modulation of αβγ and αβγ GABAA Receptors by Penicillin: Implications for Phasic and Tonic Inhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Hua-Jun; Botzolakis, Emmanuel J.; Macdonald, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    Penicillin, an open-channel blocker of GABAA receptors, was recently reported to inhibit phasic, but not tonic, currents in hippocampal neurons. To distinguish between isoform-specific and context-dependent modulation as possible explanations for this selectivity, the effects of penicillin were evaluated on recombinant GABAA receptors expressed in HEK293T cells. When co-applied with saturating GABA, penicillin decreased peak amplitude, induced rebound, and prolonged deactivation of currents e...

  2. Technetium-99 conjugated with methylene diphosphonate inhibits receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand-induced osteoclastogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Wei; Dou, Huan; Liu, Xianqin; Sun, Lingyun; Hou, Yayi

    2012-10-01

    1. In the present study, we investigated the effects of technetium-99 conjugated with methylene diphosphonate ((99)Tc-MDP), an agent used in radionuclide therapy, on receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis and explored the underlying mechanisms. 2. The murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7 and bone marrow-derived-macrophages from C57BL/6 mice (BMM) were used as models for osteoclastogenesis in vitro. The expression of some key factors in RANKL (50 ng/mL)-induced osteoclastogenesis in RAW264.7 cells was investigated by flow cytometry and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). To detect multinucleated osteoclast formation, RAW264.7 cells were induced with RANKL for 4 days, whereas BMM were induced by 50 ng/mL RANKL and 20 ng/mL macrophage colony-stimulating factor for 7 days, before being stained with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase. 3. Osteoclastogenesis was evaluated using the osteoclast markers CD51, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and cathepsin K. At 0.01 μg/mL, (99)Tc-MDP significantly inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis without any cytotoxicity. In addition, (99)Tc-MDP abolished the appearance of multinucleated osteoclasts. 4. Real-time RT-PCR analysis of transcription factor expression revealed that (99)Tc-MDP inhibited the expression of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells. In addition, (99)Tc-MDP inhibited the expression of the inflammatory factors interleukin (IL)-6, tumour necrosis factor-α and IL-1β. Finally, (99)Tc-MDP inhibited the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases in RAW264.7 cells following RANKL stimulation. 5. In conclusion, (99)Tc-MDP possesses anti-osteoclastogenic activity against RANKL-induced osteoclast formation. © 2012 The Authors Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Inhibition of Epithelial TNF-α Receptors by Purified Fruit Bromelain Ameliorates Intestinal Inflammation and Barrier Dysfunction in Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zijuan; Wang, Liang; Feng, Panpan; Yin, Lianhong; Wang, Chen; Zhi, Shengxu; Dong, Jianyi; Wang, Jingyu; Lin, Yuan; Chen, Dapeng; Xiong, Yongjian; Peng, Jinyong

    2017-01-01

    Activation of the TNF-α receptor (TNFR) leads to an inflammatory response, and anti-TNF therapy has been administered to reduce inflammation symptoms and heal mucosal ulcers in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Bromelain, a complex natural mixture of proteolytic enzymes, has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects. This study aimed to investigate the effect of purified fruit bromelain (PFB)-induced inhibition of epithelial TNFR in a rat colitis model. Colitis was established by intracolonic administration of 2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid. Expression of TNFR1 and TNFR2 was measured by quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting. The effect of PFB on colitis was evaluated by examining the inflammatory response and intestinal epithelial barrier function. Our results showed that both TNFR1 and TNFR2 expression were significantly increased in a colitis model, and the increase was significantly reversed by PFB. Colitis symptoms, including infiltration of inflammatory cells, cytokine profiles, epithelial cell apoptosis, and epithelial tight junction barrier dysfunction were significantly ameliorated by PFB. Compared with fruit bromelain and stem bromelain complex, the inhibition of TNFR2 induced by PFB was stronger than that exhibited on TNFR1. These results indicate that PFB showed a stronger selective inhibitory effect on TNFR2 than TNFR1. In other words, purification of fruit bromelain increases its selectivity on TNFR2 inhibition. High expression of epithelial TNFRs in colitis was significantly counteracted by PFB, and PFB-induced TNFR inhibition ameliorated colitis symptoms. These results supply novel insights into potential IBD treatment by PFB.

  4. Histamine H3 receptor activation selectively inhibits dopamine D1 receptor-dependent [3H]GABA release from depolarization-stimulated slices of rat substantia nigra pars reticulata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aceves, J.; Young, J.M.; Arias-Montano, J.A.; Floran, B.; Garcia, M.

    1997-01-01

    The release of [ 3 H]GABA from slices of rat substantia nigra pars reticulata induced by increasing extracellular K + from 6 to 15 mM in the presence of 10 μM sulpiride was inhibited by 73±3% by 1 μM SCH 23390, consistent with a large component of release dependent upon D 1 receptor activation. The histamine H 3 receptor-selective agonist immepip (1 μM) and the non-selective agonist histamine (100 μM) inhibited [ 3 H]GABA release by 78±2 and 80±2%, respectively. The inhibition by both agonists was reversed by the H 3 receptor antagonist thioperamide (1 μM). However, in the presence of 1 μM SCH 23390 depolarization-induced release of [ 3 H]GABA was not significantly decreased by 1 μM immepip. In rats depleted of dopamine by pretreatment with reserpine, immepip no longer inhibited control release of [ 3 H]GABA, but in the presence of 1 μM SKF 38393, which produced a 7±1-fold stimulation of release, immepip reduced the release to a level not statistically different from that in the presence of immepip alone. Immepip (1 μM) also inhibited the depolarization-induced release of [ 3 H]dopamine from substantia nigra pars reticulata slices, by 38±3%.The evidence is consistent with the proposition that activation of histamine H 3 receptors leads to the selective inhibition of the component of depolarization-induced [ 3 H]GABA release in substantia nigra pars reticulata slices which is dependent upon D 1 receptor activation. This appears to be largely an action at the terminals of the striatonigral GABA projection neurons, which may be enhanced by a partial inhibition of dendritic [ 3 H]dopamine release. (Copyright (c) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  5. Antiprogestin mifepristone inhibits the growth of cancer cells of reproductive and non-reproductive origin regardless of progesterone receptor expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tieszen, Chelsea R; Goyeneche, Alicia A; Brandhagen, BreeAnn N; Ortbahn, Casey T; Telleria, Carlos M

    2011-01-01

    Mifepristone (MF) has been largely used in reproductive medicine due to its capacity to modulate the progesterone receptor (PR). The study of MF has been expanded to the field of oncology; yet it remains unclear whether the expression of PR is required for MF to act as an anti-cancer agent. Our laboratory has shown that MF is a potent inhibitor of ovarian cancer cell growth. In this study we questioned whether the growth inhibitory properties of MF observed in ovarian cancer cells would translate to other cancers of reproductive and non-reproductive origin and, importantly, whether its efficacy is related to the expression of cognate PR. Dose-response experiments were conducted with cancer cell lines of the nervous system, breast, prostate, ovary, and bone. Cultures were exposed to vehicle or increasing concentrations of MF for 72 h and analysed for cell number and cell cycle traverse, and hypodiploid DNA content characteristic of apoptotic cell death. For all cell lines, expression of steroid hormone receptors upon treatment with vehicle or cytostatic doses of MF for 24 h was studied by Western blot, whereas the activity of the G1/S regulatory protein Cdk2 in both treatment groups was monitored in vitro by the capacity of Cdk2 to phosphorylate histone H1. MF growth inhibited all cancer cell lines regardless of tissue of origin and hormone responsiveness, and reduced the activity of Cdk2. Cancer cells in which MF induced G1 growth arrest were less susceptible to lethality in the presence of high concentrations of MF, when compared to cancer cells that did not accumulate in G1. While all cancer cell lines were growth inhibited by MF, only the breast cancer MCF-7 cells expressed cognate PR. Antiprogestin MF inhibits the growth of different cancer cell lines with a cytostatic effect at lower concentrations in association with a decline in the activity of the cell cycle regulatory protein Cdk2, and apoptotic lethality at higher doses in association with increased

  6. Antiprogestin mifepristone inhibits the growth of cancer cells of reproductive and non-reproductive origin regardless of progesterone receptor expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortbahn Casey T

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mifepristone (MF has been largely used in reproductive medicine due to its capacity to modulate the progesterone receptor (PR. The study of MF has been expanded to the field of oncology; yet it remains unclear whether the expression of PR is required for MF to act as an anti-cancer agent. Our laboratory has shown that MF is a potent inhibitor of ovarian cancer cell growth. In this study we questioned whether the growth inhibitory properties of MF observed in ovarian cancer cells would translate to other cancers of reproductive and non-reproductive origin and, importantly, whether its efficacy is related to the expression of cognate PR. Methods Dose-response experiments were conducted with cancer cell lines of the nervous system, breast, prostate, ovary, and bone. Cultures were exposed to vehicle or increasing concentrations of MF for 72 h and analysed for cell number and cell cycle traverse, and hypodiploid DNA content characteristic of apoptotic cell death. For all cell lines, expression of steroid hormone receptors upon treatment with vehicle or cytostatic doses of MF for 24 h was studied by Western blot, whereas the activity of the G1/S regulatory protein Cdk2 in both treatment groups was monitored in vitro by the capacity of Cdk2 to phosphorylate histone H1. Results MF growth inhibited all cancer cell lines regardless of tissue of origin and hormone responsiveness, and reduced the activity of Cdk2. Cancer cells in which MF induced G1 growth arrest were less susceptible to lethality in the presence of high concentrations of MF, when compared to cancer cells that did not accumulate in G1. While all cancer cell lines were growth inhibited by MF, only the breast cancer MCF-7 cells expressed cognate PR. Conclusions Antiprogestin MF inhibits the growth of different cancer cell lines with a cytostatic effect at lower concentrations in association with a decline in the activity of the cell cycle regulatory protein Cdk2, and

  7. Olive oil compounds inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 phosphorylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamy, Sylvie; Ouanouki, Amira; Béliveau, Richard; Desrosiers, Richard R.

    2014-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) triggers crucial signaling processes that regulate tumor angiogenesis and, therefore, represents an attractive target for the development of novel anticancer therapeutics. Several epidemiological studies have confirmed that abundant consumption of foods from plant origin is associated with reduced risk of developing cancers. In the Mediterranean basin, the consumption of extra virgin olive oil is an important constituent of the diet. Compared to other vegetable oils, the presence of several phenolic antioxidants in olive oil is believed to prevent the occurrence of a variety of pathological processes, such as cancer. While the strong antioxidant potential of these molecules is well characterized, their antiangiogenic activities remain unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate whether tyrosol (Tyr), hydroxytyrosol (HT), taxifolin (Tax), oleuropein (OL) and oleic acid (OA), five compounds contained in extra virgin olive oil, can affect in vitro angiogenesis. We found that HT, Tax and OA were the most potent angiogenesis inhibitors through their inhibitory effect on specific autophosphorylation sites of VEGFR-2 (Tyr951, Tyr1059, Tyr1175 and Tyr1214) leading to the inhibition of endothelial cell (EC) signaling. Inhibition of VEGFR-2 by these olive oil compounds significantly reduced VEGF-induced EC proliferation and migration as well as their morphogenic differentiation into capillary-like tubular structures in Matrigel. Our study demonstrates that HT, Tax and OA are novel and potent inhibitors of the VEGFR-2 signaling pathway. These findings emphasize the chemopreventive properties of olive oil and highlight the importance of nutrition in cancer prevention. - Highlights: • We investigated five compounds contained in extra virgin olive oil on angiogenesis. • Hydroxytyrosol, taxifolin and oleic acid are the best angiogenesis inhibitors. • Olive oil compounds affect endothelial cell functions essential for

  8. Olive oil compounds inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 phosphorylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamy, Sylvie, E-mail: lamy.sylvie@uqam.ca; Ouanouki, Amira; Béliveau, Richard; Desrosiers, Richard R.

    2014-03-10

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) triggers crucial signaling processes that regulate tumor angiogenesis and, therefore, represents an attractive target for the development of novel anticancer therapeutics. Several epidemiological studies have confirmed that abundant consumption of foods from plant origin is associated with reduced risk of developing cancers. In the Mediterranean basin, the consumption of extra virgin olive oil is an important constituent of the diet. Compared to other vegetable oils, the presence of several phenolic antioxidants in olive oil is believed to prevent the occurrence of a variety of pathological processes, such as cancer. While the strong antioxidant potential of these molecules is well characterized, their antiangiogenic activities remain unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate whether tyrosol (Tyr), hydroxytyrosol (HT), taxifolin (Tax), oleuropein (OL) and oleic acid (OA), five compounds contained in extra virgin olive oil, can affect in vitro angiogenesis. We found that HT, Tax and OA were the most potent angiogenesis inhibitors through their inhibitory effect on specific autophosphorylation sites of VEGFR-2 (Tyr951, Tyr1059, Tyr1175 and Tyr1214) leading to the inhibition of endothelial cell (EC) signaling. Inhibition of VEGFR-2 by these olive oil compounds significantly reduced VEGF-induced EC proliferation and migration as well as their morphogenic differentiation into capillary-like tubular structures in Matrigel. Our study demonstrates that HT, Tax and OA are novel and potent inhibitors of the VEGFR-2 signaling pathway. These findings emphasize the chemopreventive properties of olive oil and highlight the importance of nutrition in cancer prevention. - Highlights: • We investigated five compounds contained in extra virgin olive oil on angiogenesis. • Hydroxytyrosol, taxifolin and oleic acid are the best angiogenesis inhibitors. • Olive oil compounds affect endothelial cell functions essential for

  9. MECHANICAL VIBRATION INHIBITS OSTEOCLAST FORMATION BY REDUCING DC-STAMP RECEPTOR EXPRESSION IN OSTEOCLAST PRECURSOR CELLS

    OpenAIRE

    Kulkarni, R.N.; Voglewede, P.A.; Liu, D.

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that physical inactivity leads to loss of muscle mass, but it also causes bone loss. Mechanistically, osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption have recently been shown to be regulated by vibration. However, the underlying mechanism behind the inhibition of osteoclast formation is yet unknown. Therefore, we investigated whether mechanical vibration of osteoclast precursor cells affects osteoclast formation by the involvement of fusion-related molecules such as dendritic cell-spe...

  10. Amino acid containing thapsigargin analogues deplete androgen receptor protein via synthesis inhibition and induce the death of prostate cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griend, Donald J Vander; Antony, Lizamma; Dalrymple, Susan L

    2009-01-01

    There are quantitative and/or qualitative mechanisms allowing androgen receptor (AR) growth signaling in androgen ablation refractory prostate cancer cells. Regardless of the mechanism, agents that deplete AR protein expression prevent such AR growth signaling. Thapsigargin (TG) is a highly cell......-penetrant sequiterpene-lactone that once inside cells inhibits (IC(50), approximately 10 nmol/L) critically important housekeeping SERCA 2b calcium pumps in the endoplasmic reticulum. Using a series of five genetically diverse androgen ablation refractory human prostate cancer lines (LNCaP, LAPC-4, VCaP, MDA-PCa-2b......-specific proteases, such as prostate-specific antigen and prostate-specific membrane antigen, or cancer-specific proteases, such as fibroblast activation protein, so that toxicity of these prodrugs is selectively targeted to metastatic sites of prostate cancer. Based on these results, these prodrugs are undergoing...

  11. Investigation of the GPR39 zinc receptor following inhibition of monoaminergic neurotransmission and potentialization of glutamatergic neurotransmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Młyniec, Katarzyna; Gaweł, Magdalena; Librowski, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Zinc can regulate neural function in the brain via the GPR39 receptor. In the present study we investigated whether inhibition of serotonin, noradrenaline and dopamine synthesis and potentialization of glutamate, via administration of p-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA), α-methyl-p-tyrosine (αMT) and N......-methyl-d-aspartatic acid (NMDA), respectively, would cause changes in GPR39 levels. Western blot analysis showed GPR39 up-regulation following 3-day administration of αMT and NMDA in the frontal cortex, and GPR39 down-regulation following 10-day administration of pCPA, αMT, and NMDA in the hippocampus of CD-1 mice....... There were no changes in serum zinc levels. Additionally, we investigated tryptophan, tyrosine and glutamate concentrations in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of GPR39 knockout (GPR39 KO) mice. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) showed a significant decrease in tryptophan and tyrosine...

  12. Role of spinal metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 in pudendal inhibition of the nociceptive bladder reflex in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Jeremy N; Rogers, Marc J; Xiao, Zhiying; Shen, Bing; Wang, Jicheng; Schwen, Zeyad; Roppolo, James R; de Groat, William C; Tai, Changfeng

    2015-04-15

    This study examined the role of spinal metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) in the nociceptive C-fiber afferent-mediated spinal bladder reflex and in the inhibtion of this reflex by pudendal nerve stimulation (PNS). In α-chloralose-anesthetized cats after spinal cord transection at the T9/T10 level, intravesical infusion of 0.25% acetic acid irritated the bladder, activated nociceptive C-fiber afferents, and induced spinal reflex bladder contractions of low amplitude (reflexes were responsible for a major component of the contractions. This study shows that spinal mGluR5 plays an important role in the nociceptive C-fiber afferent-mediated spinal bladder reflex and in pudendal inhibition of this spinal reflex. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Clopidogrel (Plavix®), a P2Y(12) receptor antagonist, inhibits bone cell function in vitro and decreases trabecular bone in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Syberg, Susanne; Brandao-Burch, Andrea; Patel, Jessal J

    2012-01-01

    Clopidogrel (Plavix®), a selective P2Y(12) receptor antagonist, is widely prescribed to reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke and acts via the inhibition of platelet aggregation. Accumulating evidence now suggests that extracellular nucleotides, signalling through P2 receptors, play...... a significant role in bone, modulating both osteoblast and osteoclast function. In this study, we investigated the effects of clopidogrel treatment on (1) bone cell formation, differentiation and activity in vitro; and, (2) trabecular and cortical bone parameters in vivo. P2Y(12) receptor expression...

  14. Eel Kisspeptins: Identification, Functional Activity, and Inhibition on both Pituitary LH and GnRH Receptor Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérémy Pasquier

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The European eel (Anguilla anguilla presents a blockade of sexual maturation at a prepubertal stage due to a deficient production of gonadotropins. We previously initiated, in the eel, the investigation of the kisspeptin system, one of the major gatekeepers of puberty in mammals, and we predicted the sequence of two Kiss genes. In the present study, we cloned and sequenced Kiss1 and Kiss2 cDNAs from the eel brain. The tissue distributions of Kiss1 and Kiss2 transcripts, as investigated by quantitative real-time PCR, showed that both genes are primarily expressed in the eel brain and pituitary. The two 10-residue long sequences characteristic of kisspeptin, eel Kp1(10 and Kp2(10, as well as two longer sequences, predicted as mature peptides, eel Kp1(15 and Kp2(12, were synthesized and functionally analyzed. Using rat Kiss1 receptor-transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells, we found that the four synthesized eel peptides were able to induce [Ca2+]i responses, indicating their ability to bind mammalian KissR-1 and to activate second messenger pathways. In primary culture of eel pituitary cells, all four peptides were able to specifically and dose-dependently inhibit lhβ expression, without any effect on fshβ, confirming our previous data with heterologous kisspeptins. Furthermore, in this eel in vitro system, all four peptides inhibited the expression of the type 2 GnRH receptor (gnrh-r2. Our data revealed a dual inhibitory effect of homologous kisspeptins on both pituitary lhβ and gnrh-r2 expression in the European eel.

  15. Inhibition of alpha oscillations through serotonin-2A receptor activation underlies the visual effects of ayahuasca in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Marta; Maqueda, Ana Elda; Rabella, Mireia; Rodríguez-Pujadas, Aina; Antonijoan, Rosa Maria; Romero, Sergio; Alonso, Joan Francesc; Mañanas, Miquel Àngel; Barker, Steven; Friedlander, Pablo; Feilding, Amanda; Riba, Jordi

    2016-07-01

    Ayahuasca is an Amazonian psychotropic plant tea typically obtained from two plants, Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis. It contains the psychedelic 5-HT2A and sigma-1 agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) plus β-carboline alkaloids with monoamine-oxidase (MAO)-inhibiting properties. Although the psychoactive effects of ayahuasca have commonly been attributed solely to agonism at the 5-HT2A receptor, the molecular target of classical psychedelics, this has not been tested experimentally. Here we wished to study the contribution of the 5-HT2A receptor to the neurophysiological and psychological effects of ayahuasca in humans. We measured drug-induced changes in spontaneous brain oscillations and subjective effects in a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study involving the oral administration of ayahuasca (0.75mg DMT/kg body weight) and the 5-HT2A antagonist ketanserin (40mg). Twelve healthy, experienced psychedelic users (5 females) participated in four experimental sessions in which they received the following drug combinations: placebo+placebo, placebo+ayahuasca, ketanserin+placebo and ketanserin+ayahuasca. Ayahuasca induced EEG power decreases in the delta, theta and alpha frequency bands. Current density in alpha-band oscillations in parietal and occipital cortex was inversely correlated with the intensity of visual imagery induced by ayahuasca. Pretreatment with ketanserin inhibited neurophysiological modifications, reduced the correlation between alpha and visual effects, and attenuated the intensity of the subjective experience. These findings suggest that despite the chemical complexity of ayahuasca, 5-HT2A activation plays a key role in the neurophysiological and visual effects of ayahuasca in humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  16. Preferential Inhibition of Tonically over Phasically Activated NMDA Receptors by Pregnane Derivatives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vyklický, Vojtěch; Smejkalová, Tereza; Krausová, Barbora; Balík, Aleš; Kořínek, Miloslav; Borovská, Jiřina; Horák, Martin; Chvojková, Markéta; Kletečková, Lenka; Valeš, Karel; Černý, Jiří; Nekardová, Michaela; Chodounská, Hana; Kudová, Eva; Vyklický ml., Ladislav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 7 (2016), s. 2161-2175 ISSN 0270-6474 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/12/1464; GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069; GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020028; GA ČR(CZ) GBP208/12/G016; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0025; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : memantine * neuroprotection * neurosteroid * NMDA receptor * pregnanolone sulfate * synaptic transmission Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 5.988, year: 2016

  17. Cell surface estrogen receptor alpha is upregulated during subchronic metabolic stress and inhibits neuronal cell degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Barbati

    Full Text Available In addition to the classical nuclear estrogen receptor, the expression of non-nuclear estrogen receptors localized to the cell surface membrane (mER has recently been demonstrated. Estrogen and its receptors have been implicated in the development or progression of numerous neurodegenerative disorders. Furthermore, the pathogenesis of these diseases has been associated with disturbances of two key cellular programs: apoptosis and autophagy. An excess of apoptosis or a defect in autophagy has been implicated in neurodegeneration. The aim of this study was to clarify the role of ER in determining neuronal cell fate and the possible implication of these receptors in regulating either apoptosis or autophagy. The human neuronal cell line SH-SY5Y and mouse neuronal cells in primary culture were thus exposed to chronic minimal peroxide treatment (CMP, a form of subcytotoxic minimal chronic stress previously that mimics multiple aspects of long-term cell stress and represents a limited molecular proxy for neurodegenerative processes. We actually found that either E2 or E2-bovine serum albumin construct (E2BSA, i.e. a non-permeant form of E2 was capable of modulating intracellular cell signals and regulating cell survival and death. In particular, under CMP, the up-regulation of mERα, but not mERβ, was associated with functional signals (ERK phosphorylation and p38 dephosphorylation compatible with autophagic cytoprotection triggering and leading to cell survival. The mERα trafficking appeared to be independent of the microfilament system cytoskeletal network but was seemingly associated with microtubular apparatus network, i.e., to MAP2 molecular chaperone. Importantly, antioxidant treatments, administration of siRNA to ERα, or the presence of antagonist of ERα hindered these events. These results support that the surface expression of mERα plays a pivotal role in determining cell fate, and that ligand-induced activation of mER signalling exerts a

  18. Comparison of the tumor inhibiting effects of three histamine H2-receptor antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1983-01-01

    Three histamine H2-receptor antagonists, Cimetidine, Metiamide and Ranitidine, were tested for their inhibitory effect on two experimental bowel cancer models. In the first model mitotic rates were measured in dimethylhydrazine-induced tumors of rat colon and in the second model volumetric changes in human large bowel cancer xenografts were assessed. In tumors of rat colon all three drugs were able to suppress mitotic activity, but the effects of Metiamide and Ranitidine were more prolonged than that of Cimetidine in each of two lines of human bowel cancer that were used. Metiamide and Ranitidine were also more effective growth inhibitors than was Cimetidine.

  19. Presynaptic inhibition of spontaneous acetylcholine release mediated by P2Y receptors at the mouse neuromuscular junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lorenzo, S; Veggetti, M; Muchnik, S; Losavio, A

    2006-09-29

    coupled to G(i/o) proteins. The protein kinase C (PKC) antagonist chelerythrine and the calmodulin antagonist N-(6-aminohexil)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide hydrochloride (W-7) occluded the effect of betagamma-imido ATP, while the protein kinase A (PKA) antagonist KT-5720 and the inhibitor of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CAMKII) KN-62 failed to do so. betagamma-Imido ATP did not affect 10, 15 and 20 mM K(+)-evoked release and application of reactive blue-2 before incubation in high K(+) induced a higher asynchronous secretion. Thus, our results show that at mammalian neuromuscular junctions, ATP induces presynaptic inhibition of spontaneous ACh release due to the modulation of Ca(2+) channels related to tonic secretion through the activation of P2Y receptors coupled to G(i/o) proteins. We also demonstrated that at increasing degrees of membrane depolarization evoked by K(+), endogenously released ATP induces presynaptic inhibition as a means of preventing excessive neurotransmitter secretion.

  20. Steroid receptor coactivator 1 deficiency increases MMTV-neu mediated tumor latency and differentiation specific gene expression, decreases metastasis, and inhibits response to PPAR ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Ji Seung; Crowe, David L

    2010-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) subgroup of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily is activated by a variety of natural and synthetic ligands. PPARs can heterodimerize with retinoid X receptors, which have homology to other members of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Ligand binding to PPAR/RXRs results in recruitment of transcriptional coactivator proteins such as steroid receptor coactivator 1 (SRC-1) and CREB binding protein (CBP). Both SRC-1 and CBP are histone acetyltransferases, which by modifying nucleosomal histones, produce more open chromatin structure and increase transcriptional activity. Nuclear hormone receptors can recruit limiting amounts of coactivators from other transcription factor binding sites such as AP-1, thereby inhibiting the activity of AP-1 target genes. PPAR and RXR ligands have been used in experimental breast cancer therapy. The role of coactivator expression in mammary tumorigenesis and response to drug therapy has been the subject of recent studies. We examined the effects of loss of SRC-1 on MMTV-neu mediated mammary tumorigenesis. SRC-1 null mutation in mammary tumor prone mice increased the tumor latency period, reduced tumor proliferation index and metastasis, inhibited response to PPAR and RXR ligands, and induced genes involved in mammary gland differentiation. We also examined human breast cancer cell lines overexpressing SRC-1 or CBP. Coactivator overexpression increased cellular proliferation with resistance to PPAR and RXR ligands and remodeled chromatin of the proximal epidermal growth factor receptor promoter. These results indicate that histone acetyltransferases play key roles in mammary tumorigenesis and response to anti-proliferative therapies

  1. Peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonists inhibit the release of proinflammatory cytokines from RSV-infected epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, Ralf; Koenig, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    The epithelial cells of the airways are the target cells for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection and the site of the majority of the inflammation associated with the disease. Recently, peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily, has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory properties. Therefore, we investigated the role of PPARγ agonists (15d-PGJ 2 , ciglitazone and troglitazone) on the synthesis of RSV-induced cytokine release from RSV-infected human lung epithelial cells (A549). We observed that all PPARγ ligands inhibited dose-dependently the release of TNF-α, GM-CSF, IL-1α, IL-6 and the chemokines CXCL8 (IL-8) and CCL5 (RANTES) from RSV-infected A549 cells. Concomitantly, the PPARγ ligands diminished the cellular amount of mRNA encoding for IL-6, CXCL8 and CCL5 and the RSV-induced binding activity of the transcription factors NF-κB (p65/p50) and AP-1 (c-fos), respectively. Our data presented herein suggest a potential application of PPARγ ligands in the anti-inflammatory treatment of RSV infection

  2. Onbaekwon Suppresses Colon Cancer Cell Invasion by Inhibiting Expression of the CXC Chemokine Receptor 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Buyun; Yoon, Jaewoo; Yoon, Seong Woo; Park, Byoungduck

    2017-06-01

    Cysteine X cysteine (CXC) chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) and C-X-C motif chemokine 12 (CXCL12) were originally identified as chemoattractants between immune cells and sites of inflammation. Since studies have validated an increased level of CXCL12 and its receptor in patients with colorectal cancers, CXCL12/CXCR4 axis has been considered as a valuable marker of cancer metastasis. Therefore, identification of CXCR4 inhibitors has great potential to abrogate tumor metastasis. Onbaekwon (OBW) is a complex herbal formula that is derived from the literature of traditional Korean medicine Dongeuibogam. In this study, we demonstrated that OBW suppressed CXCR4 expression in various cancer cell types in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Both proteasomal and lysosomal inhibitors had no effect to prevent the OBW-induced suppression of CXCR4, suggesting that the inhibitory effect of OBW was not due to proteolytic degradation but occurred at the transcriptional level. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay further confirmed that OBW could block endogenous activation of nuclear factor kappa B, a key transcription factor that regulates the expression of CXCR4 in colon cancer cells. Consistent with the aforementioned molecular basis, OBW abolished cell invasion induced by CXCL12 in colon cancer cells. Together, our results suggest that OBW, as a novel inhibitor of CXCR4, could be a promising therapeutic agent contributing to cancer treatment.

  3. Forsythoside A exerts antipyretic effect on yeast-induced pyrexia mice via inhibiting transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cuiling; Su, Hongchang; Wan, Hongye; Qin, Qingxia; Wu, Xuan; Kong, Xiangying; Lin, Na

    2017-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a non-selective cation channel gated by noxious heat, playing major roles in thermoregulation. Forsythoside A (FT-A) is the most abundant phenylethanoid glycosides in Fructus Forsythiae, which has been prescribed as a medicinal herb for treating fever in China for a long history. However, how FT-A affects pyrexia and what is the underlying molecular mechanism remain largely unknown. Here we found that FT-A exerted apparent antipyretic effect through decreasing the levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and interleukin 8 (IL-8) in a dose-dependent fashion on the yeast induced pyrexia mice. Interestingly, FT-A significantly downregulated TRPV1 expression in the hypothalamus and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of the yeast induced pyrexia mice. Moreover, FT-A inhibited IL-8 and PGE2 secretions, and calcium influx in the HEK 293T-TRPV1 cells after stimulated with capsaicin, the specific TRPV1 agonist. Further investigation of the molecular mechanisms revealed that FT-A treatment rapidly inhibited phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 in both yeast induced pyrexia mice and HEK 293T-TRPV1 cells. These results suggest that FT-A may serve as a potential antipyretic agent and the therapeutic action of Fructus Forsythiae on pyretic related disease is, in part, due to the FT-A activities. PMID:28123347

  4. Lithocholic acid controls adaptive immune responses by inhibition of Th1 activation through the Vitamin D receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pols, Thijs W H; Puchner, Teresa; Korkmaz, H Inci; Vos, Mariska; Soeters, Maarten R; de Vries, Carlie J M

    2017-01-01

    Bile acids are established signaling molecules next to their role in the intestinal emulsification and uptake of lipids. We here aimed to identify a potential interaction between bile acids and CD4+ Th cells, which are central in adaptive immune responses. We screened distinct bile acid species for their potency to affect T cell function. Primary human and mouse CD4+ Th cells as well as Jurkat T cells were used to gain insight into the mechanism underlying these effects. We found that unconjugated lithocholic acid (LCA) impedes Th1 activation as measured by i) decreased production of the Th1 cytokines IFNγ and TNFαα, ii) decreased expression of the Th1 genes T-box protein expressed in T cells (T-bet), Stat-1 and Stat4, and iii) decreased STAT1α/β phosphorylation. Importantly, we observed that LCA impairs Th1 activation at physiological relevant concentrations. Profiling of MAPK signaling pathways in Jurkat T cells uncovered an inhibition of ERK-1/2 phosphorylation upon LCA exposure, which could provide an explanation for the impaired Th1 activation. LCA induces these effects via Vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling since VDR RNA silencing abrogated these effects. These data reveal for the first time that LCA controls adaptive immunity via inhibition of Th1 activation. Many factors influence LCA levels, including bile acid-based drugs and gut microbiota. Our data may suggest that these factors also impact on adaptive immunity via a yet unrecognized LCA-Th cell axis.

  5. Essential Oil of Pinus koraiensis Exerts Antiobesic and Hypolipidemic Activity via Inhibition of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors Gamma Signaling

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    Hyun-Suk Ko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Our group previously reported that essential oil of Pinus koraiensis (EOPK exerts antihyperlipidemic effects via upregulation of low-density lipoprotein receptor and inhibition of acyl-coenzyme A. In the present study, we investigated the antiobesity and hypolipidemic mechanism of EOPK using in vitro 3T3-L1 cells and in vivo HFD-fed rats. EOPK markedly suppressed fat accumulation and intracellular triglyceride associated with downregulation of adipogenic transcription factor expression, including PPARγ and CEBPα in the differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Additionally, EOPK attenuated the expression levels of FABP and GPDH as target genes of PPARγ during adipocyte differentiation. Furthermore, PPARγ inhibitor GW9662 enhanced the decreased expression of FABP and PPARγ and fat accumulation induced by EOPK. To confirm the in vitro activity of EOPK, animal study was performed by administering normal diet, HFD, and/or EOPK at the dose of 100 or 200 mg/kg for 6 weeks. Consistently, EOPK significantly suppressed body weight gain, serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and AI value and increased HDL cholesterol in a dose-dependent manner. Immunohistochemistry revealed that EOPK treatment abrogated the expression of PPARγ in the liver tissue sections of EOPK-treated rats. Taken together, our findings suggest that EOPK has the antiobesic and hypolipidemic potential via inhibition of PPARγ-related signaling.

  6. Essential Oil of Pinus koraiensis Exerts Antiobesic and Hypolipidemic Activity via Inhibition of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors Gamma Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Hyun-Suk; Lee, Hyo-Jeong; Lee, Hyo-Jung; Sohn, Eun Jung; Yun, Miyong; Lee, Min-Ho; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Our group previously reported that essential oil of Pinus koraiensis (EOPK) exerts antihyperlipidemic effects via upregulation of low-density lipoprotein receptor and inhibition of acyl-coenzyme A. In the present study, we investigated the antiobesity and hypolipidemic mechanism of EOPK using in vitro 3T3-L1 cells and in vivo HFD-fed rats. EOPK markedly suppressed fat accumulation and intracellular triglyceride associated with downregulation of adipogenic transcription factor expression, including PPAR γ and CEBP α in the differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Additionally, EOPK attenuated the expression levels of FABP and GPDH as target genes of PPAR γ during adipocyte differentiation. Furthermore, PPAR γ inhibitor GW9662 enhanced the decreased expression of FABP and PPAR γ and fat accumulation induced by EOPK. To confirm the in vitro activity of EOPK, animal study was performed by administering normal diet, HFD, and/or EOPK at the dose of 100 or 200 mg/kg for 6 weeks. Consistently, EOPK significantly suppressed body weight gain, serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and AI value and increased HDL cholesterol in a dose-dependent manner. Immunohistochemistry revealed that EOPK treatment abrogated the expression of PPAR γ in the liver tissue sections of EOPK-treated rats. Taken together, our findings suggest that EOPK has the antiobesic and hypolipidemic potential via inhibition of PPAR γ -related signaling.

  7. Propofol inhibits hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced human gastric epithelial cell injury by suppressing the Toll-like receptor 4 pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao-Li Zhang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the role of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 pathway in normal human gastric epithelial (GES-1 cells under hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R in vitro, and the effect of propofol on injured GES-1 cells as well as its possible mechanism. Before H/R induction, GES-1 cells were preconditioned with fat emulsion, propofol, or epigallocatechin gallate. Then cell viability, cell apoptosis, and related molecules in the cells were analyzed under experimental conditions. We found that propofol 50 μmol/L markedly inhibited the H/R injury under hypoxia 1.5 h/reoxygenation 2 hours by promoting GES-1 cell viability and decreasing cell apoptosis. The TLR4 signal may be involved in the protective effect of propofol against H/R injury. The malondialdehyde contents and superoxide dismutase activities were recovered under propofol preconditioning. In summary, propofol preconditioning may exert a protective effect on H/R injury in GES-1 cells and the mechanism may be via inhibition of the activated TLR4 signal under H/R conditions.

  8. Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase mediates inhibition of Th17 differentiation via catabolism of endogenous aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Geoffrey L; Wang, Qun; Swerdlow, Bonnie; Bhat, Geetha; Kolbeck, Roland; Fung, Michael

    2013-07-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a key transcriptional regulator of Th17-cell differentiation. Although endogenous ligands have yet to be identified, evidence suggests that tryptophan metabolites can act as agonists for the AhR. Tryptophan metabolites are abundant in circulation, so we hypothesized that cell intrinsic factors might exist to regulate the exposure of Th17 cells to AhR-dependent activities. Here, we find that Th17 cells preferentially express kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO), which is an enzyme involved in catabolism of the tryptophan metabolite kynurenine. KMO inhibition, either with a specific inhibitor or via siRNA-mediated silencing, markedly increased IL-17 production in vitro, whereas IFN-γ production by Th1 cells was unaffected. Inhibition of KMO significantly exacerbated disease in a Th17-driven model of autoimmune gastritis, suggesting that expression of KMO by Th17 cells serves to limit their continuous exposure to physiological levels of endogenous AhR ligands in vivo. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Kaempferol inhibits fibroblast collagen synthesis, proliferation and activation in hypertrophic scar via targeting TGF-β receptor type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongwei; Yang, Liu; Zhang, Yuebing; Gao, Zhigang

    2016-10-01

    Hypertrophic scar (HPS) formation is a debilitating condition that results in pain, esthetic symptom and loss of tissue function. So far, no satisfactory therapeutic approach has been available for HPS treatment. In this study, we discovered that a natural small molecule, kaempferol, could significantly inhibit HPS formation in a mechanical load-induced mouse model. Our results also demonstrated that kaempferol remarkably attenuated collagen synthesis, proliferation and activation of fibroblasts in vitro and in vivo. Western blot analysis further revealed that kaempferol significantly down-regulated Smad2 and Smad3 phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner. At last, we found that such bioactivity of kaempferol which resulted from the inhibition of TGF-β1/Smads signaling was induced by the selective binding of kaempferol to TGF-β receptor type I (TGFβRI). These findings suggest that kaempferol could be developed into a promising agent for the treatment of HPS or other fibroproliferative disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Inhibition of tumor metastasis by a growth factor receptor bound protein 2 Src homology 2 domain-binding antagonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giubellino, Alessio; Gao, Yang; Lee, Sunmin; Lee, Min-Jung; Vasselli, James R; Medepalli, Sampath; Trepel, Jane B; Burke, Terrence R; Bottaro, Donald P

    2007-07-01

    Metastasis, the primary cause of death in most forms of cancer, is a multistep process whereby cells from the primary tumor spread systemically and colonize distant new sites. Blocking critical steps in this process could potentially inhibit tumor metastasis and dramatically improve cancer survival rates; however, our understanding of metastasis at the molecular level is still rudimentary. Growth factor receptor binding protein 2 (Grb2) is a widely expressed adapter protein with roles in epithelial cell growth and morphogenesis, as well as angiogenesis, making it a logical target for anticancer drug development. We have previously shown that a potent antagonist of Grb2 Src homology-2 domain-binding, C90, blocks growth factor-driven cell motility in vitro and angiogenesis in vivo. We now report that C90 inhibits metastasis in vivo in two aggressive tumor models, without affecting primary tumor growth rate. These results support the potential efficacy of this compound in reducing the metastatic spread of primary solid tumors and establish a critical role for Grb2 Src homology-2 domain-mediated interactions in this process.

  11. Dihydroartemisinin counteracts fibrotic portal hypertension via farnesoid X receptor-dependent inhibition of hepatic stellate cell contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenxuan; Lu, Chunfeng; Zhang, Feng; Shao, Jiangjuan; Yao, Shunyu; Zheng, Shizhong

    2017-01-01

    Portal hypertension is a frequent pathological symptom occurring especially in hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis. Current paradigms indicate that inhibition of hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation and contraction is anticipated to be an attractive therapeutic strategy, because activated HSC dominantly facilitates an increase in intrahepatic vein pressure through secreting extracellular matrix and contracting. Our previous in vitro study indicated that dihydroartemisinin (DHA) inhibited contractility of cultured HSC by activating intracellular farnesoid X receptor (FXR). However, the effect of DHA on fibrosis-related portal hypertension still requires clarification. In this study, gain- and loss-of-function models of FXR in HSC were established to investigate the mechanisms underlying DHA protection against chronic CCl 4 -caused hepatic fibrosis and portal hypertension. Immunofluorescence staining visually showed a decrease in FXR expression in CCl 4 -administrated rat HSC but an increase in that in DHA-treated rat HSC. Serum diagnostics and morphological analyses consistently indicated that DHA exhibited hepatoprotective effects on CCl 4 -induced liver injury. DHA also reduced CCl 4 -caused inflammatory mediator expression and inflammatory cell infiltration. These improvements were further enhanced by INT-747 but weakened by Z-guggulsterone. Noteworthily, DHA, analogous to INT-747, significantly lowered portal vein pressure and suppressed fibrogenesis. Experiments on mice using FXR shRNA lentivirus consolidated the results above. Mechanistically, inhibition of HSC activation and contraction was found as a cellular basis for DHA to relieve portal hypertension. These findings demonstrated that DHA attenuated portal hypertension in fibrotic rodents possibly by targeting HSC contraction via a FXR activation-dependent mechanism. FXR could be a target molecule for reducing portal hypertension during hepatic fibrosis. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  12. Estrogen receptor β inhibits estradiol-induced proliferation and migration of MCF-7 cells through regulation of mitofusin 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Liu, Yueping; Geng, Cuizhi; Qi, Xiaowei; Jiang, Jun

    2013-06-01

    In the present study, we investigated whether estrogen receptor (ER) β affected the proliferation and migration of the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 through regulation of mitofusin 2 (mfn2). A previous study reported that mfn2 may be regulated by ER through a non-classical pathway; in this pathway, the ER modulates the activities of other transcription factors by stabilizing their binding to DNA and/or recruiting coactivators to the complex. However, the previous study, unlike the study presented here, did not directly explore the interactions between ER and mfn2. Here, RT-PCR and western blot analysis were used to test the expression of mfn2 in MCF-7 cells after exposure to different doses of estradiol (E2). The ability of cells to proliferate and migrate was determined by MTT assay and a monolayer-wounding protocol, respectively. Finally, changes in MCF-7 cell biology after transfection with ERβ or mfn2 expression vectors were investigated, and the role of ERβ in mfn2 expression was also explored. Our results showed that E2 attenuated mfn2 expression in a dose-dependent manner, concomitant with the activation of proliferation and migration of MCF-7 cells. The mfn2 expression vector effectively suppressed E2-induced upregulation of PCNA and migration in MCF-7 cells. ERβ inhibited the E2-induced mfn2 downregulation that accompanied the inhibition of proliferation and migration in MCF-7 cells. Briefly, ERβ may inhibit E2-induced proliferation and migration of MCF-7 cells through regulation of mfn2.

  13. Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-Receptor α Strongly Inhibits Melanoma Growth In Vitro and In Vivo

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    Debora Faraone

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous melanoma is the most aggressive skin cancer; it is highly metastatic and responds poorly to current therapies. The expression of platelet-derived growth factor receptors (PDGF-Rs is reported to be reduced in metastatic melanoma compared with benign nevi or normal skin; we then hypothesized that PDGF-Rα may control growth of melanoma cells. We show here that melanoma cells overexpressing PDGF-Rα respond to serum with a significantly lower proliferation compared with that of controls. Apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, pRb dephosphorylation, and DNA synthesis inhibition were also observed in cells overexpressing PDGF-Rα. Proliferation was rescued by PDGF-Rα inhibitors, allowing to exclude nonspecific toxic effects and indicating that PDGF-Rα mediates autocrine antiproliferation signals in melanoma cells. Accordingly, PDGF-Rα was found to mediate staurosporine cytotoxicity. A protein array-based analysis of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway revealed that melanoma cells overexpressing PDGF-Rα show a strong reduction of c-Jun phosphorylated in serine 63 and of protein phosphatase 2A/Bα and a marked increase of p38γ, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3, and signal regulatory protein α1 protein expression. In a mouse model of primary melanoma growth, infection with the Ad-vector overexpressing PDGF-Rα reached a significant 70% inhibition of primary melanoma growth (P < .001 and a similar inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. All together, these data demonstrate that PDGF-Rα strongly impairs melanoma growth likely through autocrine mechanisms and indicate a novel endogenous mechanism involved in melanoma control.

  14. Targeting the MET oncogene by concomitant inhibition of receptor and ligand via an antibody-"decoy" strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilico, Cristina; Modica, Chiara; Maione, Federica; Vigna, Elisa; Comoglio, Paolo M

    2018-04-25

    MET, a master gene sustaining "invasive growth," is a relevant target for cancer precision therapy. In the vast majority of tumors, wild-type MET behaves as a "stress-response" gene and relies on the ligand (HGF) to sustain cell "scattering," invasive growth and apoptosis protection (oncogene "expedience"). In this context, concomitant targeting of MET and HGF could be crucial to reach effective inhibition. To test this hypothesis, we combined an anti-MET antibody (MvDN30) inducing "shedding" (i.e., removal of MET from the cell surface), with a "decoy" (i.e., the soluble extracellular domain of the MET receptor) endowed with HGF-sequestering ability. To avoid antibody/decoy interaction-and subsequent neutralization-we identified a single aminoacid in the extracellular domain of MET-lysine 842-that is critical for MvDN30 binding and engineered the corresponding recombinant decoyMET (K842E). DecoyMET K842E retains the ability to bind HGF with high affinity and inhibits HGF-induced MET phosphorylation. In HGF-dependent cellular models, MvDN30 antibody and decoyMET K842E used in combination cooperate in restraining invasive growth, and synergize in blocking cancer cell "scattering." The antibody and the decoy unbridle apoptosis of colon cancer stem cells grown in vitro as spheroids. In a preclinical model, built by orthotopic transplantation of a human pancreatic carcinoma in SCID mice engineered to express human HGF, concomitant treatment with antibody and decoy significantly reduces metastatic spread. The data reported indicate that vertical targeting of the MET/HGF axis results in powerful inhibition of ligand-dependent MET activation, providing proof of concept in favor of combined target therapy of MET "expedience." © 2018 UICC.

  15. Inhibition of receptor tyrosine kinase signalling by small molecule agonist of T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattila, Elina; Marttila, Heidi; Sahlberg, Niko; Kohonen, Pekka; Tähtinen, Siri; Halonen, Pasi; Perälä, Merja; Ivaska, Johanna

    2010-01-01

    T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase (TCPTP/TC45) is a ubiquitously expressed intra-cellular non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase involved in the negative regulation of several cancer relevant cellular signalling pathways. We have previously shown that interaction between the α-cytoplasmic tail of α1β1 integrin and TCPTP activates TCPTP by disrupting an inhibitory intra-molecular bond in TCPTP. Thus, inhibition of the regulatory interaction in TCPTP is a desirable strategy for TCPTP activation and attenuation of oncogenic RTK signalling. However, this is challenging with low molecular weight compounds. We developed a high-throughput compatible assay to analyse activity of recombinant TCPTP in vitro. Using this assay we have screened 64280 small molecules to identify novel agonists for TCPTP. Dose-dependent response to TCPTP agonist was performed using the in vitro assay. Inhibition effects and specificity of TCPTP agonists were evaluated using TCPTP expressing and null mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Western blot analysis was used to evaluate attenuation of PDGFRβ and EGFR phosphorylation. Inhibition of VEGF signalling was analysed with VEGF-induced endothelial cell sprouting assays. From the screen we identified six TCPTP agonists. Two compounds competed with α1-cytoplasmic domain for binding to TCPTP, suggesting that they activate TCPTP similar to α1-cyt by disrupting the intra-molecular bond in TCPTP. Importantly, one of the compounds (spermidine) displayed specificity towards TCPTP in cells, since TCPTP -/- cells were 43-fold more resistant to the compound than TCPTP expressing cells. This compound attenuates PDGFRβ and VEGFR2 signalling in cells in a TCPTP-dependent manner and functions as a negative regulator of EGFR phosphorylation in cancer cells. In this study we showed that small molecules mimicking TCPTP-α1 interaction can be used as TCPTP agonists. These data provide the first proof-of-concept description of the use of high-throughput screening

  16. Concurrent Autophagy Inhibition Overcomes the Resistance of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in Human Bladder Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Minyong; Lee, Kyoung-Hwa; Lee, Hye Sun; Jeong, Chang Wook; Kwak, Cheol; Kim, Hyeon Hoe; Ku, Ja Hyeon

    2017-02-04

    Despite the potential therapeutic efficacy of epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors in the treatment of advanced stage bladder cancer, there currently is no clear evidence to support this hypothesis. In this study, we investigate whether the concurrent treatment of autophagy-blocking agents with EGFR inhibitors exerts synergistic anti-cancer effects in T24 and J82 human bladder cancer cells. Lapatinib and gefitinib were used as EGFR inhibitors, and bafilomycin A1 (BFA1), chloroquine (CQ) and 3-methyladenine (3-MA) were used as the pharmacologic inhibitors of autophagy activities. To assess the proliferative and self-renewal capabilities, the Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and a clonogenic assay were performed, respectively. To examine apoptotic cell death, flow cytometry using annexin-V/propidium iodide (PI) was used. To measure the autophagy activities, the expression levels of LC3I and II was determined by Western blot analysis. To validate the synergistic effects of autophagy inhibition with EGFR inhibitors, we specifically blocked key autophagy regulatory gene ATG12 by transfection of small interference RNA and examined the phenotypic changes. Of note, lapatinib and gefitinib triggered autophagy activities in T24 and J82 human bladder cancer cells, as indicated by upregulation of LC3II. More importantly, inhibiting autophagy activities with pharmacologic inhibitors (BFA1, CQ or 3-MA) remarkably reduced the cell viabilities and clonal proliferation of T24 and J82 cells, compared to those treated with either of the agents alone. We also obtained similar results of the enhanced anti-cancer effects of EGFR inhibitors by suppressing the expression of ATG12. Notably, the apoptotic assay showed that synergistic anti-cancer effects were induced via the increase of apoptotic cell death. In summary, concomitant inhibition of autophagy activities potentiated the anti-cancer effects of EGFR inhibitors in human bladder cancer cells, indicating a novel

  17. Concurrent Autophagy Inhibition Overcomes the Resistance of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in Human Bladder Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minyong Kang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite the potential therapeutic efficacy of epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR inhibitors in the treatment of advanced stage bladder cancer, there currently is no clear evidence to support this hypothesis. In this study, we investigate whether the concurrent treatment of autophagy-blocking agents with EGFR inhibitors exerts synergistic anti-cancer effects in T24 and J82 human bladder cancer cells. Lapatinib and gefitinib were used as EGFR inhibitors, and bafilomycin A1 (BFA1, chloroquine (CQ and 3-methyladenine (3-MA were used as the pharmacologic inhibitors of autophagy activities. To assess the proliferative and self-renewal capabilities, the Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8 assay and a clonogenic assay were performed, respectively. To examine apoptotic cell death, flow cytometry using annexin-V/propidium iodide (PI was used. To measure the autophagy activities, the expression levels of LC3I and II was determined by Western blot analysis. To validate the synergistic effects of autophagy inhibition with EGFR inhibitors, we specifically blocked key autophagy regulatory gene ATG12 by transfection of small interference RNA and examined the phenotypic changes. Of note, lapatinib and gefitinib triggered autophagy activities in T24 and J82 human bladder cancer cells, as indicated by upregulation of LC3II. More importantly, inhibiting autophagy activities with pharmacologic inhibitors (BFA1, CQ or 3-MA remarkably reduced the cell viabilities and clonal proliferation of T24 and J82 cells, compared to those treated with either of the agents alone. We also obtained similar results of the enhanced anti-cancer effects of EGFR inhibitors by suppressing the expression of ATG12. Notably, the apoptotic assay showed that synergistic anti-cancer effects were induced via the increase of apoptotic cell death. In summary, concomitant inhibition of autophagy activities potentiated the anti-cancer effects of EGFR inhibitors in human bladder cancer cells, indicating

  18. Grb-IR: A SH2-Domain-Containing Protein that Binds to the Insulin Receptor and Inhibits Its Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Roth, Richard A.

    1995-10-01

    To identify potential signaling molecules involved in mediating insulin-induced biological responses, a yeast two-hybrid screen was performed with the cytoplasmic domain of the human insulin receptor (IR) as bait to trap high-affinity interacting proteins encoded by human liver or HeLa cDNA libraries. A SH2-domain-containing protein was identified that binds with high affinity in vitro to the autophosphorylated IR. The mRNA for this protein was found by Northern blot analyses to be highest in skeletal muscle and was also detected in fat by PCR. To study the role of this protein in insulin signaling, a full-length cDNA encoding this protein (called Grb-IR) was isolated and stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells overexpressing the human IR. Insulin treatment of these cells resulted in the in situ formation of a complex of the IR and the 60-kDa Grb-IR. Although almost 75% of the Grb-IR protein was bound to the IR, it was only weakly tyrosine-phosphorylated. The formation of this complex appeared to inhibit the insulin-induced increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of two endogenous substrates, a 60-kDa GTPase-activating-protein-associated protein and, to a lesser extent, IR substrate 1. The subsequent association of this latter protein with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase also appeared to be inhibited. These findings raise the possibility that Grb-IR is a SH2-domain-containing protein that directly complexes with the IR and serves to inhibit signaling or redirect the IR signaling pathway.

  19. Different protein kinase C isoenzymes mediate inhibition of cardiac rapidly activating delayed rectifier K+ current by different G-protein coupled receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xueli; Wang, Yuhong; Zhang, Hua; Shen, Li; Xu, Yanfang

    2017-12-01

    Elevated angiotensin II (Ang II) and sympathetic activity contributes to a high risk of ventricular arrhythmias in heart disease. The rapidly activating delayed rectifier K + current (I Kr ) carried by the hERG channels plays a critical role in cardiac repolarization, and decreased I Kr is involved in increased cardiac arrhythmogenicity. Stimulation of α 1A -adrenoreceptors or angiotensin II AT 1 receptors is known to inhibit I Kr via PKC. Here, we have identified the PKC isoenzymes mediating the inhibition of I Kr by activation of these two different GPCRs. The whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to record I Kr in guinea pig cardiomyocytes and HEK293 cells co-transfected with hERG and α 1A -adrenoreceptor or AT 1 receptor genes. A broad spectrum PKC inhibitor Gö6983 (not inhibiting PKCε), a selective cPKC inhibitor Gö6976 and a PKCα-specific inhibitor peptide, blocked the inhibition of I Kr by the α 1A -adrenoreceptor agonist A61603. However, these inhibitors did not affect the reduction of I Kr by activation of AT 1 receptors, whereas the PKCε-selective inhibitor peptide did block the effect. The effects of angiotensin II and the PKCε activator peptide were inhibited in mutant hERG channels in which 17 of the 18 PKC phosphorylation sites were deleted, whereas a deletion of the N-terminus of the hERG channels selectively prevented the inhibition elicited by A61603 and the cPKC activator peptide. Our results indicated that inhibition of I Kr by activation of α 1A -adrenoreceptors or AT 1 receptors were mediated by PKCα and PKCε isoforms respectively, through different molecular mechanisms. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  20. Chlorotoxin Fused to IgG-Fc Inhibits Glioblastoma Cell Motility via Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomonari Kasai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorotoxin is a 36-amino acid peptide derived from Leiurus quinquestriatus (scorpion venom, which has been shown to inhibit low-conductance chloride channels in colonic epithelial cells. Chlorotoxin also binds to matrix metalloproteinase-2 and other proteins on glioma cell surfaces. Glioma cells are considered to require the activation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 during invasion and migration. In this study, for targeting glioma, we designed two types of recombinant chlorotoxin fused to human IgG-Fcs with/without a hinge region. Chlorotoxin fused to IgG-Fcs was designed as a dimer of 60 kDa with a hinge region and a monomer of 30 kDa without a hinge region. The monomeric and dimeric forms of chlorotoxin inhibited cell proliferation at 300 nM and induced internalization in human glioma A172 cells. The monomer had a greater inhibitory effect than the dimer; therefore, monomeric chlorotoxin fused to IgG-Fc was multivalently displayed on the surface of bionanocapsules to develop a drug delivery system that targeted matrix metalloproteinase-2. The target-dependent internalization of bionanocapsules in A172 cells was observed when chlorotoxin was displayed on the bionanocapsules. This study indicates that chlorotoxin fused to IgG-Fcs could be useful for the active targeting of glioblastoma cells.

  1. Stilbene induced inhibition of androgen receptor dimerization: implications for AR and ARΔLBD-signalling in human prostate cancer cells.

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    Wolfgang Streicher

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Advanced castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC is often characterized by an increase of C-terminally truncated, constitutively active androgen receptor (AR variants. Due to the absence of a ligand binding domain located in the AR-C-terminus, these receptor variants (also termed ARΔLBD are unable to respond to all classical forms of endocrine treatments like surgical/chemical castration and/or application of anti-androgens. METHODOLOGY: In this study we tested the effects of the naturally occurring stilbene resveratrol (RSV and (E-4-(2, 6-Difluorostyryl-N, N-dimethylaniline, a fluorinated dialkylaminostilbene (FIDAS on AR- and ARΔLBD in prostate cancer cells. The ability of the compounds to modulate transcriptional activity of AR and the ARΔLBD-variant Q640X was shown by reporter gene assays. Expression of endogenous AR and ARΔLBD mRNA and protein levels were determined by qRT-PCR and Western Blot. Nuclear translocation of AR-molecules was analyzed by fluorescence microscopy. AR and ARΔLBD/Q640X homo-/heterodimer formation was assessed by mammalian two hybrid assays. Biological activity of both compounds in vivo was demonstrated using a chick chorioallantoic membrane xenograft assay. RESULTS: The stilbenes RSV and FIDAS were able to significantly diminish AR and Q640X-signalling. Successful inhibition of the Q640X suggests that RSV and FIDAS are not interfering with the AR-ligand binding domain like all currently available anti-hormonal drugs. Repression of AR and Q640X-signalling by RSV and FIDAS in prostate cancer cells was caused by an inhibition of the AR and/or Q640X-dimerization. Although systemic bioavailability of both stilbenes is very low, both compounds were also able to downregulate tumor growth and AR-signalling in vivo. CONCLUSION: RSV and FIDAS are able to inhibit the dimerization of AR and ARΔLBD molecules suggesting that stilbenes might serve as lead compounds for a novel generation of AR-inhibitors.

  2. The stress protein heat shock cognate 70 (Hsc70) inhibits the Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftinca, Mircea; Flynn, Robyn; Basso, Lilian; Melo, Helvira; Aboushousha, Reem; Taylor, Lauren; Altier, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Specialized cellular defense mechanisms prevent damage from chemical, biological, and physical hazards. The heat shock proteins have been recognized as key chaperones that maintain cell survival against a variety of exogenous and endogenous stress signals including noxious temperature. However, the role of heat shock proteins in nociception remains poorly understood. We carried out an expression analysis of the constitutively expressed 70 kDa heat-shock cognate protein, a member of the stress-induced HSP70 family in lumbar dorsal root ganglia from a mouse model of Complete Freund's Adjuvant-induced chronic inflammatory pain. We used immunolabeling of dorsal root ganglion neurons, behavioral analysis and patch clamp electrophysiology in both dorsal root ganglion neurons and HEK cells transfected with Hsc70 and Transient Receptor Potential Channels to examine their functional interaction in heat shock stress condition. We report an increase in protein levels of Hsc70 in mouse dorsal root ganglia, 3 days post Complete Freund's Adjuvant injection in the hind paw. Immunostaining of Hsc70 was observed in most of the dorsal root ganglion neurons, including the small size nociceptors immunoreactive to the TRPV1 channel. Standard whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to record Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid type 1 current after exposure to heat shock. We found that capsaicin-evoked currents are inhibited by heat shock in dorsal root ganglion neurons and transfected HEK cells expressing Hsc70 and TRPV1. Blocking Hsc70 with matrine or spergualin compounds prevented heat shock-induced inhibition of the channel. We also found that, in contrast to TRPV1, both the cold sensor channels TRPA1 and TRPM8 were unresponsive to heat shock stress. Finally, we show that inhibition of TRPV1 depends on the ATPase activity of Hsc70 and involves the rho-associated protein kinase. Our work identified Hsc70 and its ATPase activity as a central cofactor of TRPV1 channel function

  3. Liver X Receptor Agonists Inhibit the Phospholipid Regulatory Gene CTP: Phosphoethanolamine Cytidylyltransferase-Pcyt2

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    Lin Zhu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic pulse-chase experiments demonstrated that 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-OH, the endogenous activator of the liver X receptor (LXR, significantly reduced the biosynthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine via CDP-ethanolamine (Kennedy pathway at the step catalyzed by CTP: phosphoethanolamine cytidylyltransferase (Pcyt2. In the mouse embryonic fibroblasts C3H10T1/2, the LXR synthetic agonist TO901317 lowered Pcyt2 promoter-luciferase activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, 25-OH and TO901317 reduced mouse Pcyt2 mRNA and protein levels by 35–60%. The inhibitory effects of oxysterols and TO901317 on the Pcyt2 promoter function, mRNA and protein expression were conserved in the human breast cancer cells MCF-7. These studies identify the Pcyt2 gene as a novel target whereby LXR agonists may indirectly modulate inflammatory responses and atherosclerosis.

  4. An endogenous aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligand inhibits proliferation and migration of human ovarian cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Li, Yan; Jiang, Yi-Zhou; Dai, Cai-Feng; Patankar, Manish S; Song, Jia-Sheng; Zheng, Jing

    2013-10-28

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand-activated transcription factor mediates many biological processes. Herein, we investigated if 2-(1'H-indole-3'-carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester (ITE, an endogenous AhR ligand) regulated proliferation and migration of human ovarian cancer cells via AhR. We found that AhR was widely present in many histotypes of ovarian cancer tissues. ITE suppressed OVCAR-3 cell proliferation and SKOV-3 cell migration in vitro, which were blocked by AhR knockdown. ITE also suppressed OVCAR-3 cell growth in mice. These data suggest that the ITE might potentially be used for therapeutic intervention for at least a subset of human ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Epidermal growth factor receptor activation by diesel particles is mediated by tyrosine phosphatase inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tal, Tamara L.; Bromberg, Philip A.; Kim, Yumee; Samet, James M.

    2008-01-01

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) is associated with increased cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are a major component of ambient PM and may contribute to PM-induced pulmonary inflammation. Proinflammatory signaling is mediated by phosphorylation-dependent signaling pathways whose activation is opposed by the activity of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases) which thereby function to maintain signaling quiescence. PTPases contain an invariant catalytic cysteine that is susceptible to electrophilic attack. DEP contain electrophilic oxy-organic compounds that may contribute to the oxidant effects of PM. Therefore, we hypothesized that exposure to DEP impairs PTPase activity allowing for unopposed basal kinase activity. Here we report that exposure to 30 μg/cm 2 DEP for 4 h induces differential activation of signaling in primary cultures of human airway epithelial cells (HAEC), a primary target cell in PM inhalation. In-gel kinase activity assay of HAEC exposed to DEPs of low (L-DEP), intermediate (I-DEP) or high (H-DEP) organic content showed differential activation of intracellular kinases. Exposure to these DEP also induced varying levels of phosphorylation of the receptor tyrosine kinase EGFR in a manner that requires EGFR kinase activity but does not involve receptor dimerization. We demonstrate that treatment with DEP results in an impairment of total and EGFR-directed PTPase activity in HAEC with a potency that is independent of the organic content of these particles. These data show that DEP-induced EGFR phosphorylation in HAEC is the result of a loss of PTPase activities which normally function to dephosphorylate EGFR in opposition to baseline EGFR kinase activity

  6. L-arginine prevents xanthoma development and inhibits atherosclerosis in LDL receptor knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aji, W; Ravalli, S; Szabolcs, M; Jiang, X C; Sciacca, R R; Michler, R E; Cannon, P J

    1997-01-21

    The potential antiatherosclerotic actions of NO were investigated in four groups of mice (n = 10 per group) lacking functional LDL receptor genes, an animal model of familial hypercholesterolemia. Group 1 was fed a regular chow diet. Groups 2 through 4 were fed a 1.25% high-cholesterol diet. In addition, group 3 received supplemental L-arginine and group 4 received L-arginine and N omega-nitro-L-arginine (L-NA), an inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS). Animals were killed at 6 months; aortas were stained with oil red O for planimetry and with antibodies against constitutive and inducible NOSs. Plasma cholesterol was markedly increased in the animals receiving the high-cholesterol diet. Xanthomas appeared in all mice fed the high-cholesterol diet alone but not in those receiving L-arginine. Aortic atherosclerosis was present in all mice on the high-cholesterol diet. The mean atherosclerotic lesion area was reduced significantly (P < .01) in the cholesterol-fed mice given L-arginine compared with those receiving the high-cholesterol diet alone. The mean atherosclerotic lesion area was significantly larger (P < .01) in cholesterol-fed mice receiving L-arginine + L-NA than in those on the high-cholesterol diet alone. Within the atherosclerotic plaques, endothelial cells immunoreacted for endothelial cell NOS; macrophages, foam cells, and smooth muscle cells immunostained strongly for inducible NOS and nitrotyrosine residues. The data indicate that L-arginine prevents xanthoma formation and reduces atherosclerosis in LDL receptor knockout mice fed a high-cholesterol diet. The abrogation of the beneficial effects of L-arginine by L-NA suggests that the antiatherosclerotic actions of L-arginine are mediated by NOS. The data suggest that L-arginine may be beneficial in familial hypercholesterolemia.

  7. Suppression of asparaginyl endopeptidase attenuates breast cancer-induced bone pain through inhibition of neurotrophin receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Peng; Ding, Yuanyuan; Han, Zhenkai; Mu, Ying; Hong, Tao; Zhu, Yongqiang; Li, Hongxi

    2017-01-01

    Objective Cancer-induced bone pain is a common clinical problem in breast cancer patients with bone metastasis. However, the mechanisms driving cancer-induced bone pain are poorly known. Recent studies show that a novel protease, asparaginyl endopeptidase (AEP) plays crucial roles in breast cancer metastasis and progression. We aim to determine the functions and targeted suppress of AEP in a mouse model of breast cancer-induced bone pain. Methods Breast cancer cells with AEP knocked-down or overexpression were constructed and implanted into the intramedullary space of the femur to induce pain-like behavior in mice. AEP-specific inhibitors or purified AEP proteins were further used in animal model. The histological characters of femur and pain ethological changes were measured. The expressions of AEP and neurotrophin receptors (p75NTR and TrkA) in dorsal root ganglion and spinal cord were examined. Results Femur radiographs and histological analysis revealed that cells with AEP knocked-down reduced bone destruction and pain behaviors. However, cells with AEP overexpression elevated bone damage and pain behaviors. Further, Western blot results found that the expressions of p75NTR and TrkA in dorsal root ganglions and spinal cords were reduced in mice inoculated with AEP knocked-down cells. Targeted suppression of AEP with specific small compounds significantly reduced the bone pain while purified recombinant AEP proteins increased bone pain. Conclusions AEP aggravate the development of breast cancer bone metastasis and bone pain by increasing the expression of neurotrophin receptors. AEP might be an effective target for treatment of breast cancerinduced bone pain.

  8. Protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP2/PTPN11 mistargeting as a consequence of SH2-domain point mutations associated with Noonan Syndrome and leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Pia J; Rigbolt, Kristoffer T G; Paterok, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    SHP2/PTPN11 is a key regulator of cytokine, growth factor and integrin signaling. SHP2 influences cell survival, proliferation and differentiation by regulating major signaling pathways. Mutations in PTPN11 cause severe diseases like Noonan, LEOPARD syndrome or leukemia. Whereas several...

  9. The lectins griffithsin, cyanovirin-N and scytovirin inhibit HIV-1 binding to the DC-SIGN receptor and transfer to CD4+ cells

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Alexandre, Kabamba B

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available It is generally believed that during the sexual transmission of HIV-1, the glycan-specific DC-SIGN receptor binds the virus and mediates its transfer to CD4(+) cells. The lectins griffithsin (GRFT), cyanovirin-N (CV-N) and scytovirin (SVN) inhibit...

  10. CaMKII inhibition with KN93 attenuates endothelin and serotonin receptor-mediated vasoconstriction and prevents subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced deficits in sensorimotor function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edvinsson, Lars; Povlsen, Gro Klitgaard; Ahnstedt, Hilda

    2014-01-01

    tested the hypothesis that inhibition of calcium calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) may reduce cerebral vasoconstriction mediated by endothelin and serotonin receptors and improve neurological outcome after experimental SAH. METHODS: SAH was induced in adult rats by injection of 250 μ...

  11. Epidermal growth factor receptor-induced activato protein 1 activity controls density-dependent growht inhibition in normal rat kidney fibroblasts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornberg, J.J.; Dekker, H.; Peters, P.H.J.; Langerak, P.; Westerhoff, H.V.; Lankelma, J.; Zoelen, E.J.J.

    2006-01-01

    Density-dependent growth inhibition secures tissue homeostasis. Dysfunction of the mechanisms, which regulate this type of growth control is a major cause of neoplasia. In confluent normal rat kidney (NRK) fibroblasts, epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor levels decline, ultimately rendering these

  12. Ciproxifan, a histamine H{sub 3} receptor antagonist and inverse agonist, presynaptically inhibits glutamate release in rat hippocampus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Cheng-Wei; Lin, Tzu-Yu [Department of Anesthesiology, Far-Eastern Memorial Hospital, Pan-Chiao District, New Taipei City 22060, Taiwan (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yuan Ze University, Taoyuan 320, Taiwan (China); Chang, Chia-Ying [Department of Anesthesiology, Far-Eastern Memorial Hospital, Pan-Chiao District, New Taipei City 22060, Taiwan (China); Department of Chemistry, Fu Jen Catholic University, No. 510, Chung-Cheng Road, Hsin-Chuang District, New Taipei City 24205, Taiwan (China); Huang, Shu-Kuei [Department of Anesthesiology, Far-Eastern Memorial Hospital, Pan-Chiao District, New Taipei City 22060, Taiwan (China); Wang, Su-Jane, E-mail: med0003@mail.fju.edu.tw [School of Medicine, Fu Jen Catholic University, No. 510, Chung-Cheng Rd., Hsin-Chuang, New Taipei 24205, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Chinese Herbal Medicine, College of Human Ecology, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Taoyuan City, Taiwan (China)

    2017-03-15

    Ciproxifan is an H{sub 3} receptor antagonist and inverse agonist with antipsychotic effects in several preclinical models; its effect on glutamate release has been investigated in the rat hippocampus. In a synaptosomal preparation, ciproxifan reduced 4-aminopyridine (4-AP)-evoked Ca{sup 2+}-dependent glutamate release and cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} concentration elevation but did not affect the membrane potential. The inhibitory effect of ciproxifan on 4-AP-evoked glutamate release was prevented by the Gi/Go-protein inhibitor pertussis toxin and Ca{sub v}2.2 (N-type) and Ca{sub v}2.1 (P/Q-type) channel blocker ω-conotoxin MVIIC, but was not affected by the intracellular Ca{sup 2+}-release inhibitors dantrolene and CGP37157. Furthermore, the phospholipase A{sub 2} (PLA{sub 2}) inhibitor OBAA, prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}), PGE2 subtype 2 (EP{sub 2}) receptor antagonist PF04418948, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor FR180204 eliminated the inhibitory effect of ciproxifan on glutamate release. Ciproxifan reduced the 4-AP-evoked phosphorylation of ERK and synapsin I, a presynaptic target of ERK. The ciproxifan-mediated inhibition of glutamate release was prevented in synaptosomes from synapsin I-deficient mice. Moreover, ciproxifan reduced the frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents without affecting their amplitude in hippocampal slices. Our data suggest that ciproxifan, acting through the blockade of Gi/Go protein-coupled H{sub 3} receptors present on hippocampal nerve terminals, reduces voltage-dependent Ca{sup 2+} entry by diminishing PLA{sub 2}/PGE{sub 2}/EP{sub 2} receptor pathway, which subsequently suppresses the ERK/synapsin I cascade to decrease the evoked glutamate release. - Highlights: • Ciproxifan presynaptically reduces glutamate release in the hippocampus in vitro. • Decrease in voltage-dependent Ca{sup 2+} influx is involved. • A role for the PLA{sub 2}/PGE{sub 2}/EP{sub 2} pathway in the action of

  13. Involvement of PPAR-γ in the neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of angiotensin type 1 receptor inhibition: effects of the receptor antagonist telmisartan and receptor deletion in a mouse MPTP model of Parkinson's disease

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    Garrido-Gil Pablo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several recent studies have shown that angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1 antagonists such as candesartan inhibit the microglial inflammatory response and dopaminergic cell loss in animal models of Parkinson's disease. However, the mechanisms involved in the neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of AT1 blockers in the brain have not been clarified. A number of studies have reported that AT1 blockers activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR γ. PPAR-γ activation inhibits inflammation, and may be responsible for neuroprotective effects, independently of AT1 blocking actions. Methods We have investigated whether oral treatment with telmisartan (the most potent PPAR-γ activator among AT1 blockers provides neuroprotection against dopaminergic cell death and neuroinflammation, and the possible role of PPAR-γ activation in any such neuroprotection. We used a mouse model of parkinsonism induced by the dopaminergic neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP and co-administration of the PPAR-γ antagonist GW9662 to study the role of PPAR-γ activation. In addition, we used AT1a-null mice lesioned with MPTP to study whether deletion of AT1 in the absence of any pharmacological effect of AT1 blockers provides neuroprotection, and investigated whether PPAR-γ activation may also be involved in any such effect of AT1 deletion by co-administration of the PPAR-γ antagonist GW9662. Results We observed that telmisartan protects mouse dopaminergic neurons and inhibits the microglial response induced by administration of MPTP. The protective effects of telmisartan on dopaminergic cell death and microglial activation were inhibited by co-administration of GW9662. Dopaminergic cell death and microglial activation were significantly lower in AT1a-null mice treated with MPTP than in mice not subjected to AT1a deletion. Interestingly, the protective effects of AT1 deletion were also inhibited by co

  14. Conazole fungicides inhibit Leydig cell testosterone secretion and androgen receptor activation in vitro

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    Maarke J.E. Roelofs

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Conazole fungicides are widely used in agriculture despite their suspected endocrine disrupting properties. In this study, the potential (anti-androgenic effects of ten conazoles were assessed and mutually compared with existing data. Effects of cyproconazole (CYPRO, fluconazole (FLUC, flusilazole (FLUS, hexaconazole (HEXA, myconazole (MYC, penconazole (PEN, prochloraz (PRO, tebuconazole (TEBU, triadimefon (TRIA, and triticonazole (TRIT were examined using murine Leydig (MA-10 cells and human T47D-ARE cells stably transfected with an androgen responsive element and a firefly luciferase reporter gene. Six conazoles caused a decrease in basal testosterone (T secretion by MA-10 cells varying from 61% up to 12% compared to vehicle-treated control. T secretion was concentration-dependently inhibited after exposure of MA-10 cells to several concentrations of FLUS (IC50 = 12.4 μM or TEBU (IC50 = 2.4 μM in combination with LH. The expression of steroidogenic and cholesterol biosynthesis genes was not changed by conazole exposure. Also, there were no changes in reactive oxygen species (ROS formation that could explain the altered T secretion after exposure to conazoles. Nine conazoles decreased T-induced AR activation (IC50s ranging from 10.7 to 71.5 μM and effect potencies (REPs were calculated relative to the known AR antagonist flutamide (FLUT. FLUC had no effect on AR activation by T. FLUS was the most potent (REP = 3.61 and MYC the least potent (REP = 0.03 AR antagonist. All other conazoles had a comparable REP from 0.12 to 0.38. Our results show distinct in vitro anti-androgenic effects of several conazole fungicides arising from two mechanisms: inhibition of T secretion and AR antagonism, suggesting potential testicular toxic effects. These effects warrant further mechanistic investigation and clearly show the need for accurate exposure data in order to perform proper (human risk assessment of this class of compounds.

  15. Context-Dependent Modulation of αβγ and αβγ GABAA Receptors by Penicillin: Implications for Phasic and Tonic Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hua-Jun; Botzolakis, Emmanuel J.; Macdonald, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Penicillin, an open-channel blocker of GABAA receptors, was recently reported to inhibit phasic, but not tonic, currents in hippocampal neurons. To distinguish between isoform-specific and context-dependent modulation as possible explanations for this selectivity, the effects of penicillin were evaluated on recombinant GABAA receptors expressed in HEK293T cells. When co-applied with saturating GABA, penicillin decreased peak amplitude, induced rebound, and prolonged deactivation of currents evoked from both synaptic and extrasynaptic receptor isoforms. However, penicillin had isoform-specific effects on the extent of desensitization, reflecting its ability to differentially modulate peak (non-equilibrium) and residual (near-equilibrium) currents. This suggested that the context of activation could determine the apparent sensitivity of a given receptor isoform to penicillin. To test this hypothesis, we explored the ability of penicillin to modulate synaptic and extrasynaptic isoforms that were activated under more physiologically relevant conditions. Interestingly, while currents evoked from synaptic isoforms under phasic conditions (transient activation by a saturating concentration of GABA) were substantially inhibited by penicillin, currents evoked from extrasynaptic isoforms under tonic conditions (prolonged application by a sub-saturating concentration of GABA) were minimally affected. We therefore concluded that the reported inability of penicillin to modulate tonic currents could not simply be attributed to insensitivity of extrasynaptic receptors, but rather, reflected an inability to modulate these receptors in their native context of activation. PMID:18775733

  16. An examination of the effects of subthalamic nucleus inhibition or μ-opioid receptor stimulation on food-directed motivation in the non-deprived rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Wayne E.; Choi, Eugene; Guy, Elizabeth G.

    2012-01-01

    The subthalamic nucleus (STN) serves important functions in regulating movement, cognition, and motivation and is connected with cortical and basal ganglia circuits that process reward and reinforcement. In order to further examine the role of the STN on motivation toward food in non-deprived rats, these experiments studied the effects of pharmacological inhibition or μ-opioid receptor stimulation of the STN on the 2-hr intake of a sweetened fat diet, the amount of work exerted to earn sucrose on a progressive ratio 2 (PR-2) schedule of reinforcement, and performance on a differential reinforcement of low-rate responding (DRL) schedule for sucrose reward. Separate behavioral groups (N = 6–9) were tested following bilateral inhibition of the STN with the GABAA receptor agonist muscimol (at 0–5 ng/0.5 μl/side) or following μ-opioid receptor stimulation with the agonist D-Ala2, N-MePhe4, Gly-ol-enkephalin (DAMGO; at 0, 0.025 or 0.25 μg/0.5 μl/side). Although STN inhibition increased ambulatory behavior during 2-hr feeding sessions, it did not significantly alter intake of the sweetened fat diet. STN inhibition also did not affect the breakpoint for sucrose pellets during a 1-hr PR-2 reinforcement schedule or impact the number of reinforcers earned on a 1-hr DRL-20 sec reinforcement schedule in non-deprived rats. In contrast, STN μ-opioid receptor stimulation significantly increased feeding on the palatable diet and reduced the reinforcers earned on a DRL-20 schedule, although DAMGO microinfusions had no effect on PR-2 performance. These data suggest that STN inhibition does not enhance incentive motivation for food in the absence of food restriction and that STN μ-opioid receptors play an important and unique role in motivational processes. PMID:22391117

  17. Inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling by a soluble collagen-derived frizzled domain interacting with Wnt3a and the receptors frizzled 1 and 8.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismaïl Hendaoui

    Full Text Available The Wnt/β-catenin pathway controls cell proliferation, death and differentiation. Several families of extracellular proteins can antagonize Wnt/β-catenin signaling, including the decoy receptors known as secreted frizzled related proteins (SFRPs, which have a cysteine-rich domain (CRD structurally similar to the extracellular Wnt-binding domain of the frizzled receptors. SFRPs inhibit Wnt signaling by sequestering Wnts through the CRD or by forming inactive complexes with the frizzled receptors. Other endogenous molecules carrying frizzled CRDs inhibit Wnt signaling, such as V3Nter, which is proteolytically derived from the cell surface component collagen XVIII and contains a biologically active frizzled domain (FZC18 inhibiting in vivo cell proliferation and tumor growth in mice. We recently showed that FZC18 expressing cells deliver short-range signals to neighboring cells, decreasing their proliferation in vitro and in vivo through the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Here, using low concentrations of soluble FZC18 and Wnt3a, we show that they physically interact in a cell-free system. In addition, soluble FZC18 binds the frizzled 1 and 8 receptors' CRDs, reducing cell sensitivity to Wnt3a. Conversely, inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling was partially rescued by the expression of full-length frizzled 1 and 8 receptors, but enhanced by the expression of a chimeric cell-membrane-tethered frizzled 8 CRD. Moreover, soluble, partially purified recombinant FZC18_CRD inhibited Wnt3a-induced β-catenin activation. Taken together, the data indicate that collagen XVIII-derived frizzled CRD shifts Wnt sensitivity of normal cells to a lower pitch and controls their growth.

  18. Methylation profiling of SOCS1, SOCS2, SOCS3, CISH and SHP1 in Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min Yue; Fung, Tsz Kin; Chen, Fang Yuan; Chim, Chor Sang

    2013-10-01

    Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) signalling, pivotal in Philadelphia-negative (Ph-ve) myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN), is negatively regulated by molecules including SOCSs, CISH and SHP1. SOCS1, SOCS2 and SOCS3 methylation have been studied in MPN with discordant results. Herein, we studied the methylation status of SOCS1, SOCS2 and SOCS3, CISH and SHP1 by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP) in cell lines and 45 diagnostic marrow samples of Ph-ve MPN. Moreover, we attempted to explain the discordance of methylation frequency by mapping the studied MSP primers to the respective genes. Methylation was detected in normal controls using SOCS2 MSP primers in the 3'translated exonic sequence, but not primers around the transcription start site in the 5' untranslated regions (5'UTR). SOCS1, SOCS2, SOCS3 and CISH were completely unmethylated in primary MPN samples and cell lines. In contrast, methylation of SHP1 was detected in 8.9% primary marrow samples. Moreover, SHP1 was completely methylated in K562 cell line, leading to reversible SHP1 silencing. A review of methylation studies of SOCS1 and SOCS3 showed that spuriously high rates of SOCS methylation had been reported using MSP primers targeting CpG sites in the 3'translated exonic sequence, which is also methylated in normal controls. However, using MSP primers localized to the 5'UTR, methylation of SOCS1, SOCS2 and SOCS3 is infrequent across all studies. In summary, methylation of SOCS1, SOCS2, SOCS3 and CISH is infrequent in Ph-ve MPN. Appropriate MSP primers are important for accurate estimation of the methylation frequency. The role of SHP1 methylation in the pathogenesis of MPN warrants further investigation. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  19. Breast cancer stem-like cells are inhibited by a non-toxic aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist.

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    Gérald J Prud'homme

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells (CSCs have increased resistance to cancer chemotherapy. They can be enriched as drug-surviving CSCs (D-CSCs by growth with chemotherapeutic drugs, and/or by sorting of cells expressing CSC markers such as aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 (ALDH. CSCs form colonies in agar, mammospheres in low-adherence cultures, and tumors following xenotransplantation in Scid mice. We hypothesized that tranilast, a non-toxic orally active drug with anti-cancer activities, would inhibit breast CSCs.We examined breast cancer cell lines or D-CSCs generated by growth of these cells with mitoxantrone. Tranilast inhibited colony formation, mammosphere formation and stem cell marker expression. Mitoxantrone-selected cells were enriched for CSCs expressing stem cell markers ALDH, c-kit, Oct-4, and ABCG2, and efficient at forming mammospheres. Tranilast markedly inhibited mammosphere formation by D-CSCs and dissociated formed mammospheres, at pharmacologically relevant concentrations. It was effective against D-CSCs of both HER-2+ and triple-negative cell lines. Tranilast was also effective in vivo, since it prevented lung metastasis in mice injected i.v. with triple-negative (MDA-MB-231 mitoxantrone-selected cells. The molecular targets of tranilast in cancer have been unknown, but here we demonstrate it is an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR agonist and this plays a key role. AHR is a transcription factor activated by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other ligands. Tranilast induced translocation of the AHR to the nucleus and stimulated CYP1A1 expression (a marker of AHR activation. It inhibited binding of the AHR to CDK4, which has been linked to cell-cycle arrest. D-CSCs expressed higher levels of the AHR than other cells. Knockdown of the AHR with siRNA, or blockade with an AHR antagonist, entirely abrogated the anti-proliferative and anti-mammosphere activity of tranilast. Thus, the anti-cancer effects of

  20. Inhaled corticosteroids inhibit substance P receptor expression in asthmatic rat airway smooth muscle cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Miao

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurokinins (NKs participate in asthmatic airway inflammation, but the effects of NKs on airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs and those of corticosteroids on NKs are unknown. Methods To investigate the effect of budesonide on substance P (NK-1 receptor (NK-1R expression in the lung and ASMCs, 45 Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: control, asthmatic, and budesonide treatment. Aerosolized ovalbumin was used to generate the asthmatic rat model, and budesonide was administered after ovalbumin inhalation. On day 21, bronchial responsiveness tests, bronchoalveolar lavage, and cell counting were conducted. NK-1R protein expression in the lung was investigated by immunohistochemistry and image analysis. Primary rat ASMC cultures were established, and purified ASMCs of the fourth passage were collected for mRNA and protein studies via real-time RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry, and image analysis. Results NK-1R mRNA and protein expression in the budesonide treatment group rat’s lung and ASMCs were less than that in the asthmatic group but greater than that in the control group. Conclusions NK-1R is involved in the pathogenesis of asthma and that budesonide may downregulate the expression of NK-1R in the ASMCs and airways of asthmatic rats, which may alleviate neurogenic airway inflammation.

  1. Inhibition of common cold-induced aggravation of childhood asthma by leukotriene receptor antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihara, Shigemi; Fukuda, Hironobu; Abe, Toshio; Nishida, Mitsuhiro; Yamada, Yumi; Kanno, Noriko; Arisaka, Osamu

    2012-09-01

    Virus infection is an important risk factor for aggravation of childhood asthma. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of drugs on aggravation of asthma induced by a common cold. Asthma control was examined in a survey of 1,014 Japanese pediatric patients with bronchial asthma. The occurrence of common cold, asthma control, and drugs used for asthma control were investigated using a modified Childhood Asthma Control Test (C-ACT) for patients aged cold and aggravation of asthma were significantly higher in patients aged cold-induced aggravation was significantly less effective in patients aged cold, asthma control was significantly more effective for those treated with leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs) compared to treatment without LTRAs. Asthma control did not differ between patients who did or did not take inhaled corticosteroids or long-acting β2 stimulants. These findings showed a high prevalence of common cold in younger patients with childhood asthma and indicated that common cold can induce aggravation of asthma. LTRAs are useful for long-term asthma control in very young patients who develop an asthma attack due to a common cold.

  2. Calcitonin Receptor Signaling Inhibits Muscle Stem Cells from Escaping the Quiescent State and the Niche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiko Yamaguchi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Calcitonin receptor (Calcr is expressed in adult muscle stem cells (muscle satellite cells [MuSCs]. To elucidate the role of Calcr, we conditionally depleted Calcr from adult MuSCs and found that impaired regeneration after muscle injury correlated with the decreased number of MuSCs in Calcr-conditional knockout (cKO mice. Calcr signaling maintained MuSC dormancy via the cAMP-PKA pathway but had no impact on myogenic differentiation of MuSCs in an undifferentiated state. The abnormal quiescent state in Calcr-cKO mice resulted in a reduction of the MuSC pool by apoptosis. Furthermore, MuSCs were found outside their niche in Calcr-cKO mice, demonstrating cell relocation. This emergence from the sublaminar niche was prevented by the Calcr-cAMP-PKA and Calcr-cAMP-Epac pathways downstream of Calcr. Altogether, the findings demonstrated that Calcr exerts its effect specifically by keeping MuSCs in a quiescent state and in their location, maintaining the MuSC pool.

  3. A Highly Stable Porphyrinic Zirconium Metal–Organic Framework with shp-a Topology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Dawei; Gu, Zhi-Y