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Sample records for receptor recycling finally

  1. Metallic mercury recycling. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, M.A.

    1994-07-01

    Metallic mercury is known to be a hazardous material and is regulated as such. The disposal of mercury, usually by landfill, is expensive and does not remove mercury from the environment. Results from the Metallic Mercury Recycling Project have demonstrated that metallic mercury is a good candidate for reclamation and recycling. Most of the potential contamination of mercury resides in the scum floating on the surface of the mercury. Pinhole filtration was demonstrated to be an inexpensive and easy way of removing residues from mercury. The analysis method is shown to be sufficient for present release practices, and should be sufficient for future release requirements. Data from tests are presented. The consistently higher level of activity of the filter residue versus the bulk mercury is discussed. Recommendations for the recycling procedure are made.

  2. Metallic mercury recycling. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    Metallic mercury is known to be a hazardous material and is regulated as such. The disposal of mercury, usually by landfill, is expensive and does not remove mercury from the environment. Results from the Metallic Mercury Recycling Project have demonstrated that metallic mercury is a good candidate for reclamation and recycling. Most of the potential contamination of mercury resides in the scum floating on the surface of the mercury. Pinhole filtration was demonstrated to be an inexpensive and easy way of removing residues from mercury. The analysis method is shown to be sufficient for present release practices, and should be sufficient for future release requirements. Data from tests are presented. The consistently higher level of activity of the filter residue versus the bulk mercury is discussed. Recommendations for the recycling procedure are made

  3. Dresden 1 plutonium recycle program. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bresnick, S.D.

    1980-01-01

    This is the final report on the Dresden 1 Plutonium Recycle Demonstration Program. It covers the work performed from July 1, 1978 to completion, which includes in-pool inspection of two fuel assemblies, removal of two fuel rods, and post-irradiation examination (PIE) of six fuel rods. Appendix A describes the inspection and rod removal operations, and Appendix B describes the PIE work

  4. A Canadian recycling newsletter. Final phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    A study was performed to publish a Canadian recycling newsletter, to be distributed gradually throughout the country. This report reviews the format, data collection procedures, printing, mailing, advertising, marketing, promotion, and finances of the publication. In the final phase of the study, publication and distribution was to extend to various segments of the secondary materials industry. This would include publishing articles and industry briefs related to the ferrous and non-ferrous metals industry. The publication would be increased to 12 pages and would attempt to become financially self-sufficient. In this phase, the newsletter became firmly established as the voice of Canada's secondary materials market, especially waste paper, where the price guide published by the newsletter became a sort of recognized standard. It was found that financially independent operation was achieved within one year. The newsletter was published on schedule and reader response was positive. Examples of the newsletter, called Recoup, are included in the appendix.

  5. Synaptic activity regulates AMPA receptor trafficking through different recycling pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ning; Jeyifous, Okunola; Munro, Charlotte; Montgomery, Johanna M; Green, William N

    2015-01-01

    Changes in glutamatergic synaptic strength in brain are dependent on AMPA-type glutamate receptor (AMPAR) recycling, which is assumed to occur through a single local pathway. In this study, we present evidence that AMPAR recycling occurs through different pathways regulated by synaptic activity. Without synaptic stimulation, most AMPARs recycled in dynamin-independent endosomes containing the GTPase, Arf6. Few AMPARs recycled in dynamin-dependent endosomes labeled by transferrin receptors (TfRs). AMPAR recycling was blocked by alterations in the GTPase, TC10, which co-localized with Arf6 endosomes. TC10 mutants that reduced AMPAR recycling had no effect on increased AMPAR levels with long-term potentiation (LTP) and little effect on decreased AMPAR levels with long-term depression. However, internalized AMPAR levels in TfR-containing recycling endosomes increased after LTP, indicating increased AMPAR recycling through the dynamin-dependent pathway with synaptic plasticity. LTP-induced AMPAR endocytosis is inconsistent with local recycling as a source of increased surface receptors, suggesting AMPARs are trafficked from other sites. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06878.001 PMID:25970033

  6. Evaluation of recycled asphaltic concrete : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    This report describes a project in which approximately 6,200 tons (5,630 Mg) of asphaltic concrete were recycled through a conventional asphalt batch plant. During the construction of the project, a buildup of asphalt-coated fines occurred in the dry...

  7. The fast-recycling receptor Megalin defines the apical recycling pathway of epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Bay, Andres E.; Schreiner, Ryan; Benedicto, Ignacio; Paz Marzolo, Maria; Banfelder, Jason; Weinstein, Alan M.; Rodriguez-Boulan, Enrique J.

    2016-01-01

    The basolateral recycling and transcytotic pathways of epithelial cells were previously defined using markers such as transferrin (TfR) and polymeric IgA (pIgR) receptors. In contrast, our knowledge of the apical recycling pathway remains fragmentary. Here we utilize quantitative live-imaging and mathematical modelling to outline the recycling pathway of Megalin (LRP-2), an apical receptor with key developmental and renal functions, in MDCK cells. We show that, like TfR, Megalin is a long-lived and fast-recycling receptor. Megalin enters polarized MDCK cells through segregated apical sorting endosomes and subsequently intersects the TfR and pIgR pathways at a perinuclear Rab11-negative compartment termed common recycling endosomes (CRE). Whereas TfR recycles to the basolateral membrane from CRE, Megalin, like pIgR, traffics to subapical Rab11-positive apical recycling endosomes (ARE) and reaches the apical membrane in a microtubule- and Rab11-dependent manner. Hence, Megalin defines the apical recycling pathway of epithelia, with CRE as its apical sorting station. PMID:27180806

  8. Optimizing of the recycling of contaminated concrete debris. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloeckner, J.; Rasch, H.; Schloesser, K.H.; Schon, T.

    1999-01-01

    1. Latest research: So far concrete debris from nuclear facilities has been free released or was treated as radioactive waste. 2. Objective: The objective of this study is to develop solutions and methods for recycling concrete debris. The amount of materials used in nuclear facilities should be limited and the contamination of new materials should be avoided. 3. Methods: The status of recycling was presented using examples of operating or completed decommissioning as well as available studies and literature. The quality requirements for the production of new concrete products using recycled materials has been discussed. The expected amounts of concrete debris for the next 12 years was estimated. For the proposed recycling examples, radiological and economic aspects have been considered. 4. Results: The production of qualified concrete products from concrete debris is possible by using modified receptions. Technical regulations to this are missing. There is no need for the utilization of large amounts of concrete debris for shielding walls. For the production of new shielding-containers for radioactive waste, concrete debris can be applied. Regarding the distance to a central recycling facility the use of mobile equipment can be economical. By using the concrete for filling the cavity or space in a final storage, it is possible to dispose the whole radioactive debris. 5. Application possibilities: The use of concrete debris as an inner concrete shielding in waste-containers today is already possible. For the manufacture of qualified concrete products by using recycling products, further developments and regulations are necessary. (orig.) [de

  9. Odin (ANKS1A modulates EGF receptor recycling and stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiefei Tong

    Full Text Available The ANKS1A gene product, also known as Odin, was first identified as a tyrosine-phosphorylated component of the epidermal growth factor receptor network. Here we show that Odin functions as an effector of EGFR recycling. In EGF-stimulated HEK293 cells tyrosine phosphorylation of Odin was induced prior to EGFR internalization and independent of EGFR-to-ERK signaling. Over-expression of Odin increased EGF-induced EGFR trafficking to recycling endosomes and recycling back to the cell surface, and decreased trafficking to lysosomes and degradation. Conversely, Odin knockdown in both HEK293 and the non-small cell lung carcinoma line RVH6849, which expresses roughly 10-fold more EGF receptors than HEK293, caused decreased EGFR recycling and accelerated trafficking to the lysosome and degradation. By governing the endocytic fate of internalized receptors, Odin may provide a layer of regulation that enables cells to contend with receptor cell densities and ligand concentration gradients that are physiologically and pathologically highly variable.

  10. Quality control of recycled asphaltic concrete : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    This study examined the variations found in recycled asphaltic concrete mix based upon plant quality control data and verification testing. The data was collected from four recycled hot-mix projects constructed in 1981. All plant control and acceptan...

  11. Identification of a Novel Recycling Sequence in the C-tail of FPR2/ALX Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Dawn; McArthur, Simon; Hislop, James N.; Flower, Roderick J.; Perretti, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Formyl-peptide receptor type 2 (FPR2; also called ALX because it is the receptor for lipoxin A4) sustains a variety of biological responses relevant to the development and control of inflammation, yet the cellular regulation of this G-protein-coupled receptor remains unexplored. Here we report that, in response to peptide agonist activation, FPR2/ALX undergoes β-arrestin-mediated endocytosis followed by rapid recycling to the plasma membrane. We identify a transplantable recycling sequence that is both necessary and sufficient for efficient receptor recycling. Furthermore, removal of this C-terminal recycling sequence alters the endocytic fate of FPR2/ALX and evokes pro-apoptotic effects in response to agonist activation. This study demonstrates the importance of endocytic recycling in the anti-apoptotic properties of FPR2/ALX and identifies the molecular determinant required for modulation of this process fundamental for the control of inflammation. PMID:25326384

  12. Arf6, Rab11 and transferrin receptor define distinct populations of recycling endosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hotaka; Fukuda, Mitsunori

    2013-09-01

    Recycling endosomes are key platforms for endocytic recycling that return internalized molecules back to the plasma membrane. To determine how recycling endosomes perform their functions, searching for proteins and lipids that specifically localized at recycling endosomes has often been performed by colocalization analyses between candidate molecules and conventional recycling endosome markers. However, it remains unclear whether all the conventional markers have identical localizations. Here we report finding that three well-known recycling endosome markers, i.e., Arf6, Rab11 and transferrin receptor (TfR), have different intracellular localizations in PC12 cells. The results of immunofluorescence analyses showed that the signals of endogenous Arf6, Rab11 and TfR in nerve growth factor-stimulated PC12 cells generally differed, although there was some overlapping. Our findings provide new information about recycling endosome markers, and they highlight the heterogeneity of recycling endosomes.

  13. Plasma energy recycle and conversion of polymeric (MSW) waste. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, Richard; Grossman, Elihu D.

    2000-12-05

    Final report summarizing research project results of studies of the thermal plasma recycling of polymers, including polyethylene and polypropylene. High levels of recovery of monomers were obtained from the process developed under this study.

  14. Recycling of epidermal growth factor-receptor complexes in A431 cells: Identification of dual pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorkin, A.; Krolenko, S.; Kudrjavtceva, N.; Lazebnik, J.; Teslenko, L.; Soderquist, A.M.; Nikolsky, N.

    1991-01-01

    The intracellular sorting of EGF-receptor complexes (EGF-RC) has been studied in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Recycling of EGF was found to occur rapidly after internalization at 37 degrees C. The initial rate of EGF recycling was reduced at 18 degrees C. A significant pool of internalized EGF was incapable of recycling at 18 degrees C but began to recycle when cells were warmed to 37 degrees C. The relative rate of EGF outflow at 37 degrees C from cells exposed to an 18 degrees C temperature block was slower (t1/2 approximately 20 min) than the rate from cells not exposed to a temperature block (t1/2 approximately 5-7 min). These data suggest that there might be both short- and long-time cycles of EGF recycling in A431 cells. Examination of the intracellular EGF-RC dissociation and dynamics of short- and long-time recycling indicated that EGF recycled as EGF-RC. Moreover, EGF receptors that were covalently labeled with a photoactivatable derivative of 125 I-EGF recycled via the long-time pathway at a rate similar to that of 125 I-EGF. Since EGF-RC degradation was also blocked at 18 degrees C, we propose that sorting to the lysosomal and long-time recycling pathway may occur after a highly temperature-sensitive step, presumably in the late endosomes

  15. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for tritium supply and recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    Tritium, a radioactive gas used in all of the Nation's nuclear weapons, has a short half-life and must be replaced periodically in order for the weapon to operate as designed. Currently, there is no capability to produce the required amounts of tritium within the Nuclear Weapons Complex. The PEIS for Tritium Supply and Recycling evaluates the alternatives for the siting, construction, and operation of tritium supply and recycling facilities at each of five candidate sites: the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, the Nevada Test Site, the Oak Ridge Reservation, the Pantex Plant, and the Savannah River Site. Alternatives for new tritium supply and recycling facilities consist of four different tritium supply technologies: Heavy Water Reactor, Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor, Advanced Light Water Reactor, and Accelerator Production of Tritium. The PEIS also evaluates the impacts of the DOE purchase of an existing operating or partially completed commercial light water reactor or the DOE purchase of irradiation services contracted from commercial power reactors. Additionally, the PEIS includes an analysis of multipurpose reactors that would produce tritium, dispose of plutonium, and produce electricity. Evaluation of impacts on land resources, site infrastructure, air quality and acoustics, water resources, geology and soils, biotic resources, cultural and paleontological resources, socioeconomics, radiological and hazardous chemical impacts during normal operation and accidents to workers and the public, waste management, and intersite transport are included in the assessment

  16. Specific recycling receptors are targeted to the immune synapse by the intraflagellar transport system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finetti, Francesca; Patrussi, Laura; Masi, Giulia; Onnis, Anna; Galgano, Donatella; Lucherini, Orso Maria; Pazour, Gregory J.; Baldari, Cosima T.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT T cell activation requires sustained signaling at the immune synapse, a specialized interface with the antigen-presenting cell (APC) that assembles following T cell antigen receptor (TCR) engagement by major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-bound peptide. Central to sustained signaling is the continuous recruitment of TCRs to the immune synapse. These TCRs are partly mobilized from an endosomal pool by polarized recycling. We have identified IFT20, a component of the intraflagellar transport (IFT) system that controls ciliogenesis, as a central regulator of TCR recycling to the immune synapse. Here, we have investigated the interplay of IFT20 with the Rab GTPase network that controls recycling. We found that IFT20 forms a complex with Rab5 and the TCR on early endosomes. IFT20 knockdown (IFT20KD) resulted in a block in the recycling pathway, leading to a build-up of recycling TCRs in Rab5+ endosomes. Recycling of the transferrin receptor (TfR), but not of CXCR4, was disrupted by IFT20 deficiency. The IFT components IFT52 and IFT57 were found to act together with IFT20 to regulate TCR and TfR recycling. The results provide novel insights into the mechanisms that control TCR recycling and immune synapse assembly, and underscore the trafficking-related function of the IFT system beyond ciliogenesis. PMID:24554435

  17. Quantify the energy and environmental effects of using recycled asphalt and recycled concrete for pavement construction phase I : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study is to quantify the energy and environment impacts from using recycled materials : for highway construction. Specifically, when recycled asphalt pavement is re-used for producing hot mix : asphalt or when recycled concrete ...

  18. Cell-Autonomous Regulation of Mu-Opioid Receptor Recycling by Substance P

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanna L. Bowman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available How neurons coordinate and reprogram multiple neurotransmitter signals is an area of broad interest. Here, we show that substance P (SP, a neuropeptide associated with inflammatory pain, reprograms opioid receptor recycling and signaling. SP, through activation of the neurokinin 1 (NK1R receptor, increases the post-endocytic recycling of the mu-opioid receptor (MOR in trigeminal ganglion (TG neurons in an agonist-selective manner. SP-mediated protein kinase C (PKC activation is both required and sufficient for increasing recycling of exogenous and endogenous MOR in TG neurons. The target of this cross-regulation is MOR itself, given that mutation of either of two PKC phosphorylation sites on MOR abolishes the SP-induced increase in recycling and resensitization. Furthermore, SP enhances the resensitization of fentanyl-induced, but not morphine-induced, antinociception in mice. Our results define a physiological pathway that cross-regulates opioid receptor recycling via direct modification of MOR and suggest a mode of homeostatic interaction between the pain and analgesic systems.

  19. Cell-Autonomous Regulation of Mu-Opioid Receptor Recycling by Substance P

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Shanna L.; Soohoo, Amanda L.; Shiwarski, Daniel J.; Schulz, Stefan; Pradhan, Amynah A.; Puthenveedu, Manojkumar A.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY How neurons coordinate and reprogram multiple neurotransmitter signals is an area of broad interest. Here, we show that substance P (SP), a neuropep-tide associated with inflammatory pain, reprograms opioid receptor recycling and signaling. SP, through activation of the neurokinin 1 (NK1R) receptor, increases the post-endocytic recycling of the muopioid receptor (MOR) in trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons in an agonist-selective manner. SP-mediated protein kinase C (PKC) activation is both required and sufficient for increasing recycling of exogenous and endogenous MOR in TG neurons. The target of this cross-regulation is MOR itself, given that mutation of either of two PKC phosphorylation sites on MOR abolishes the SP-induced increase in recycling and resensitization. Furthermore, SP enhances the resensitization of fentanyl-induced, but not morphine-induced, antinociception in mice. Our results define a physiological pathway that cross-regulates opioid receptor recycling via direct modification of MOR and suggest a mode of homeo-static interaction between the pain and analgesic systems. PMID:25801029

  20. Internalization and recycling of receptor-bound gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist in pituitary gonadotropes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schvartz, I.; Hazum, E.

    1987-01-01

    The fate of cell surface gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptors on pituitary cells was studied utilizing lysosomotropic agents and monensin. Labeling of pituitary cells with a photoreactive GnRH derivative, [azidobenzoyl-D-Lys6]GnRH, revealed a specific band of Mr = 60,000. When photoaffinity-labeled cells were exposed to trypsin immediately after completion of the binding, the radioactivity incorporated into the Mr = 60,000 band decreased, with a concomitant appearance of a proteolytic fragment (Mr = 45,000). This fragment reflects cell surface receptors. Following GnRH binding, the hormone-receptor complexes underwent internalization, partial degradation, and recycling. The process of hormone-receptor complex degradation was substantially prevented by lysosomotropic agents, such as chloroquine and methylamine, or the proton ionophore, monensin. Chloroquine and monensin, however, did not affect receptor recycling, since the tryptic fragment of Mr = 45,000 was evident after treatment with these agents. This suggests that recycling of GnRH receptors in gonadotropes occurs whether or not the internal environment is acidic. Based on these findings, we propose a model describing the intracellular pathway of GnRH receptors

  1. Receptor-targeted metalloradiopharmaceuticals. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Mark A.

    2000-01-01

    Copper (II) and platinum (II) coordination complexes were prepared and characterized. These complexes were designed to afford structural homology with steroidal and non-steroidal estrogens for possible use as receptor-targeted radiopharmaceuticals. While weak affinity for the estrogen receptor was detectable, none would appear to have sufficient receptor-affinity for estrogen-receptor-targeted imaging or therapy

  2. The GPRC6A Receptor displays Constitutive Internalization and Sorting to the Slow Recycling Pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Stine Engesgaard; Ammendrup-Johnsen, Ina; Jansen, Anna Mai

    2017-01-01

    The class C G protein-coupled receptor GPRC6A is a putative nutrient sensing receptor and represents a possible new drug target in metabolic disorders. However, the specific physiological role of this receptor has yet to be identified, and the mechanisms regulating its activity and cell surface...... availability also remain enigmatic. In the present study, we investigated the trafficking properties of GPRC6A by use of both a classical antibody feeding internalization assay in which cells were visualized using confocal microscopy and a novel internalization assay that is based on real-time measurements...... slow recycling pathway, which may be responsible for ensuring a persistent pool of GPRC6A receptors at the cell surface despite chronic agonist exposure. Distinct trafficking pathways have been reported for several of the class C receptors, and our results thus substantiate that non...

  3. Actin-Sorting Nexin 27 (SNX27)-Retromer Complex Mediates Rapid Parathyroid Hormone Receptor Recycling*

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarvey, Jennifer C.; Xiao, Kunhong; Bowman, Shanna L.; Mamonova, Tatyana; Zhang, Qiangmin; Bisello, Alessandro; Sneddon, W. Bruce; Ardura, Juan A.; Jean-Alphonse, Frederic; Vilardaga, Jean-Pierre; Puthenveedu, Manojkumar A.; Friedman, Peter A.

    2016-01-01

    The G protein-coupled parathyroid hormone receptor (PTHR) regulates mineral-ion homeostasis and bone remodeling. Upon parathyroid hormone (PTH) stimulation, the PTHR internalizes into early endosomes and subsequently traffics to the retromer complex, a sorting platform on early endosomes that promotes recycling of surface receptors. The C terminus of the PTHR contains a type I PDZ ligand that binds PDZ domain-containing proteins. Mass spectrometry identified sorting nexin 27 (SNX27) in isolated endosomes as a PTHR binding partner. PTH treatment enriched endosomal PTHR. SNX27 contains a PDZ domain and serves as a cargo selector for the retromer complex. VPS26, VPS29, and VPS35 retromer subunits were isolated with PTHR in endosomes from cells stimulated with PTH. Molecular dynamics and protein binding studies establish that PTHR and SNX27 interactions depend on the PDZ recognition motif in PTHR and the PDZ domain of SNX27. Depletion of either SNX27 or VPS35 or actin depolymerization decreased the rate of PTHR recycling following agonist stimulation. Mutating the PDZ ligand of PTHR abolished the interaction with SNX27 but did not affect the overall rate of recycling, suggesting that PTHR may directly engage the retromer complex. Coimmunoprecipitation and overlay experiments show that both intact and mutated PTHR bind retromer through the VPS26 protomer and sequentially assemble a ternary complex with PTHR and SNX27. SNX27-independent recycling may involve N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor, which binds both PDZ intact and mutant PTHRs. We conclude that PTHR recycles rapidly through at least two pathways, one involving the ASRT complex of actin, SNX27, and retromer and another possibly involving N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor. PMID:27008860

  4. Recycler

    OpenAIRE

    Déniz García, Beatriz

    2018-01-01

    En este trabajo final de máster se propone la creación de una aplicación para dispositivos móviles Android, cuyo objetivo es, mediante la gamificación, motivar a la ciudadanía a reciclar. La idea nace principalmente de la necesidad de mantener la sostenibilidad en las ciudades para las generaciones futuras. Esta idea resulta más atractiva y sencilla de implementar si unimos las tecnologías de la información y comunicación con las transparencia de algunos organismos públicos con el Open dat...

  5. Receptor trafficking via the perinuclear recycling compartment accompanied by cell division is necessary for permanent neurotensin cell sensitization and leads to chronic mitogen-activated protein kinase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toy-Miou-Leong, Mireille; Cortes, Catherine Llorens; Beaudet, Alain; Rostène, William; Forgez, Patricia

    2004-03-26

    Most G protein-coupled receptors are internalized after interaction with their respective ligand, a process that subsequently contributes to cell desensitization, receptor endocytosis, trafficking, and finally cell resensitization. Although cellular mechanisms leading to cell desensitization have been widely studied, those responsible for cell resensitization are still poorly understood. We examined here the traffic of the high affinity neurotensin receptor (NT1 receptor) following prolonged exposure to high agonist concentration. Fluorescence and confocal microscopy of Chinese hamster ovary, human neuroblastoma (CHP 212), and murine neuroblastoma (N1E-115) cells expressing green fluorescent protein-tagged NT1 receptor revealed that under prolonged treatment with saturating concentrations of neurotensin (NT) agonist, NT1 receptor and NT transiently accumulated in the perinuclear recycling compartment (PNRC). During this cellular event, cell surface receptors remained markedly depleted as detected by both confocal microscopy and (125)I-NT binding assays. In dividing cells, we observed that following prolonged NT agonist stimulation, NT1 receptors were removed from the PNRC, accumulated in dispersed vesicles inside the cytoplasm, and subsequently reappeared at the cell surface. This NT binding recovery allowed for constant cell sensitization and led to a chronic activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases p42 and p44. Under these conditions, the constant activation of NT1 receptor generates an oncogenic regulation. These observations support the potent role for neuropeptides, such as NT, in cancer progression.

  6. Development Of Nutrient And Water Recycling Capabilities In Algae Biofuels Production Systems. Final Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundquist, Tryg [California Polytechnic State Univ. (CalPoly), San Luis Obispo, CA (United States). Civil and Environmental Engineering Dept.; Spierling, Ruth [California Polytechnic State Univ. (CalPoly), San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Poole, Kyle [California Polytechnic State Univ. (CalPoly), San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Blackwell, Shelley [California Polytechnic State Univ. (CalPoly), San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Crowe, Braden [California Polytechnic State Univ. (CalPoly), San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Hutton, Matt [California Polytechnic State Univ. (CalPoly), San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Lehr, Corinne [California Polytechnic State Univ. (CalPoly), San Luis Obispo, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry

    2018-01-25

    inhibition was only observed in the final fifth round of reuse. 11. No decline in productivity was detected after 15 rounds of water recycling with nutrients provided by whole digestate in lab cultivation. Lab tests allowed for steady light and temperature, increasing the ability to detect inhibition. 12. In initial pilot inhibition studies, wastewater growth media was reused once while productivity was monitored. Media reuse was accomplished with triplicate sets of 33-m2 raceways operated in series. First-round gross productivity (based on effluent biomass flow) averaged 23 g/m2-day annually while second-round gross productivity averaged 19 g/m2-day annually. In terms of net productivity (based on raceway effluent biomass minus influent biomass), the first-round productivity averaged 15 g/m2-d and second round averaged 13 g/m2-d during June-September operation. The higher productivity in the first-round ponds was likely due to heterotrophic/mixotrophic growth on the wastewater organic matter. 13. In a culminating pilot experiment, coagulant was used to decrease the carry-over of unsettled algae into subsequent rounds of growth. Over nearly 8 months, 93% of the media (the equivalent of 14 rounds of water reuse) was recycled without significant productivity loss compared to controls. Ponds receiving both recycled water and nutrients had net productivities of 14-24 g/m2-d during fall and mid-summer, respectively. 14. Techno-economic analysis of the proposed facility found minimum fuel selling price to range from $7.01/gallon gasoline equivalent without revenue other than fuel to $3.85/GGE with revenue from wastewater treatment fees and LCFS and RIN (Low Carbon Fuel Standard and Renewable Identification Numbers) credits. 15. Life cycle assessment indicated GHG emissions of 40.7 g CO2/MJ fuel and a net energy ratio (energy required/energy produced) of 0.37.

  7. α-Taxilin interacts with sorting nexin 4 and participates in the recycling pathway of transferrin receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Sakane

    Full Text Available Membrane traffic plays a crucial role in delivering proteins and lipids to their intracellular destinations. We previously identified α-taxilin as a binding partner of the syntaxin family, which is involved in intracellular vesicle traffic. α-Taxilin is overexpressed in tumor tissues and interacts with polymerized tubulin, but the precise function of α-taxilin remains unclear. Receptor proteins on the plasma membrane are internalized, delivered to early endosomes and then either sorted to the lysosome for degradation or recycled back to the plasma membrane. In this study, we found that knockdown of α-taxilin induced the lysosomal degradation of transferrin receptor (TfnR, a well-known receptor which is generally recycled back to the plasma membrane after internalization, and impeded the recycling of transferrin. α-Taxilin was immunoprecipitated with sorting nexin 4 (SNX4, which is involved in the recycling of TfnR. Furthermore, knockdown of α-taxilin decreased the number and length of SNX4-positive tubular structures. We report for the first time that α-taxilin interacts with SNX4 and plays a role in the recycling pathway of TfnR.

  8. Progress of Recycling in the Built Environment Final report of the RILEM Technical Committee 217-PRE

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This report is a useful tool for countries starting to recycle aggregates or construction and demolition waste. It contains the latest developments in this field, introduces a completely new approach to the procedure of proportioning concrete mixtures with recycled aggregate, references recent publications, opinions and discrepancies in relation to the durability of recycled concrete, such as freeze-thaw standards, studies of chloride penetration and diffusion, and sulfate attacks, the use of the fine fraction <4mm, quality assurance of concrete recycled aggregate, sustainability and recycling construction waste and global impact assessment of urban renewal based on sustainable recycling strategies for construction and demolition waste. This volume will be of interest to recyclers, researchers and consumers.

  9. Delayed internalization and lack of recycling in a beta2-adrenergic receptor fused to the G protein alpha-subunit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floridi Aristide

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chimeric proteins obtained by the fusion of a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR sequence to the N-terminus of the G protein α-subunit have been extensively used to investigate several aspects of GPCR signalling. Although both the receptor and the G protein generally maintain a fully functional state in such polypeptides, original observations made using a chimera between the β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR and Gαs indicated that the fusion to the α-subunit resulted in a marked reduction of receptor desensitization and down-regulation. To further investigate this phenomenon, we have compared the rates of internalization and recycling between wild-type and Gαs-fused β2AR. Results The rate of agonist-induced internalization, measured as the disappearance of cell surface immunofluorescence in HEK293 cells permanently expressing N-terminus tagged receptors, was reduced three-fold by receptor-G protein fusion. However, both fused and non-fused receptors translocated to the same endocytic compartment, as determined by dual-label confocal analysis of cells co-expressing both proteins and transferrin co-localization. Receptor recycling, determined as the reversion of surface immunofluorescence following the addition of antagonist to cells that were previously exposed to agonist, markedly differed between wild-type and fused receptors. While most of the internalized β2AR returned rapidly to the plasma membrane, β2AR-Gαs did not recycle, and the observed slow recovery for the fusion protein immunofluorescence was entirely accounted for by protein synthesis. Conclusion The covalent linkage between β2AR and Gαs does not appear to alter the initial endocytic translocation of the two proteins, although there is reduced efficiency. It does, however, completely disrupt the process of receptor and G protein recycling. We conclude that the physical separation between receptor and Gα is not necessary for the transit to early endosomes

  10. HIV-1 Nef binds with human GCC185 protein and regulates mannose 6 phosphate receptor recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Manjeet; Kaur, Supinder; Nazir, Aamir; Tripathi, Raj Kamal, E-mail: rajkamalcdri@gmail.com

    2016-05-20

    perturb the mannose 6 phosphate receptor recycling. •Our study identified novel Nef interacting human GCC185 protein and their role regulation of M6P receptor recycling.

  11. Evaluation of recycled hot mix asphalt concrete on Route 220 : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the performance of an approximately 8-mi section of roadway on which the rod two layers of asphalt concrete were milled, recycled through a conventional asphalt batch plant, and relaid. The recycled mix consisted of about 40% re...

  12. Recycling end-of-life vehicles of the future. Final CRADA report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jody, B. J.; Pomykala, J. A.; Spangenberger, J. S.; Daniels, E.; Energy Systems

    2010-01-14

    Argonne National Laboratory (the Contractor) entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with the following Participants: Vehicle Recycling Partnership, LLC (VRP, which consists of General Motors [GM], Ford, and Chrysler), and the American Chemistry Council - Plastics Division (ACC-PD). The purpose of this CRADA is to provide for the effective recycling of automotive materials. The long-term goals are to (1) enable the optimum recycling of automotive materials, thereby obviating the need for legislative mandates or directives; (2) enable the recovery of automotive materials in a cost-competitive manner while meeting the performance requirements of the applications and markets for the materials; and (3) remove recycling barriers/reasons, real or perceived, to the use of advanced lightweighting materials or systems in future vehicles. The issues, technical requirements, and cost and institutional considerations in achieving that goal are complex and will require a concerted, focused, and systematic analysis, together with a technology development program. The scope and tasks of this program are derived from 'A Roadmap for Recycling End-of-Life Vehicles of the Future,' prepared in May 2001 for the DOE Office of Energy, Efficiency, and Renewable Energy (EERE)-Vehicle Technologies Program. The objective of this research program is to enable the maximum recycling of automotive materials and obsolete vehicles through the development and commercialization of technologies for the separation and recovery of materials from end-of-life vehicles (ELVs). The long-term goals are to (1) enable the optimum recycling of automotive materials, thereby obviating the need for legislative mandates or directives; (2) enable the recovery of automotive materials in a cost-competitive manner while meeting the performance requirements of the applications and markets for the materials; and (3) remove recycling barriers/reasons, real or perceived, to the use

  13. Regular Recycling of Wood Ash to Prevent Waste Production (RecAsh). Technical Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Lars E-mail: lars.t.andersson@skogsstyreslen.se

    2007-03-15

    At present, the extraction of harvest residues is predicted to increase in Sweden and Finland. As an effect of the intensified harvesting, the export of nutrients and acid buffering substances from the growth site is also increased. Wood ash could be used to compensate forest soils for such losses. Most wood fuel ash is today often deposited in landfills. If the wood ash is recycled, wood energy is produced without any significant waste production. Ash recycling would therefore contribute to decreasing the production of waste, and to maintaining the chemical quality of forest waters and biological productivity of forest soils in the long term. The project has developed, analysed and demonstrated two regular ash-recycling systems. It has also distributed knowledge gathered about motives for ash recycling as well as technical and administrative solutions through a range of media (handbooks, workshops, field demonstrations, reports, web page and information videos). Hopefully, the project will contribute to decreasing waste problems related to bio-energy production in the EU at large. The project has been organised as a separate structure at the beneficiary and divided in four geographically defined subprojects, one in Finland and three in Sweden (Central Sweden, Northern Sweden, and South-western Sweden). The work in each subproject has been lead by a subproject leader. Each subproject has organised a regional reference group. A project steering committee has been established consisting of senior officials from all concerned partners. The project had nine main tasks with the following main expected deliverables and output: 1. Development of two complete full-scale ash-recycling systems; 2. Production of handbooks of the ash recycling system; 3. Ash classification study to support national actions for recommendations; 4. Organise regional demonstrations of various technical options for ash treatment and spreading; 5. Organise national seminars and demonstrations of

  14. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) displays sustained S1P1 receptor agonism and signaling through S1P lyase-dependent receptor recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatfield, John; Monnier, Lucile; Studer, Rolf; Bolli, Martin H; Steiner, Beat; Nayler, Oliver

    2014-07-01

    The sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) type 1 receptor (S1P1R) is a novel therapeutic target in lymphocyte-mediated autoimmune diseases. S1P1 receptor desensitization caused by synthetic S1P1 receptor agonists prevents T-lymphocyte egress from secondary lymphoid organs into the circulation. The selective S1P1 receptor agonist ponesimod, which is in development for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, efficiently reduces peripheral lymphocyte counts and displays efficacy in animal models of autoimmune disease. Using ponesimod and the natural ligand S1P, we investigated the molecular mechanisms leading to different signaling, desensitization and trafficking behavior of S1P1 receptors. In recombinant S1P1 receptor-expressing cells, ponesimod and S1P triggered Gαi protein-mediated signaling and β-arrestin recruitment with comparable potency and efficiency, but only ponesimod efficiently induced intracellular receptor accumulation. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), ponesimod and S1P triggered translocation of the endogenous S1P1 receptor to the Golgi compartment. However, only ponesimod treatment caused efficient surface receptor depletion, receptor accumulation in the Golgi and degradation. Impedance measurements in HUVEC showed that ponesimod induced only short-lived Gαi protein-mediated signaling followed by resistance to further stimulation, whereas S1P induced sustained Gαi protein-mediated signaling without desensitization. Inhibition of S1P lyase activity in HUVEC rendered S1P an efficient S1P1 receptor internalizing compound and abrogated S1P-mediated sustained signaling. This suggests that S1P lyase - by facilitating S1P1 receptor recycling - is essential for S1P-mediated sustained signaling, and that synthetic agonists are functional antagonists because they are not S1P lyase substrates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Direct demonstration of rapid insulin-like growth factor II receptor internalization and recycling in rat adipocytes. Insulin stimulates 125I-insulin-like growth factor II degradation by modulating the IGF-II receptor recycling process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Y.; Rozek, L.M.; Czech, M.P.

    1985-01-01

    The photoactive insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II analogue 4-azidobenzoyl- 125 I-IGF-II was synthesized and used to label specifically and covalently the Mr = 250,000 Type II IGF receptor. When rat adipocytes are irradiated after a 10-min incubation with 4-azidobenzoyl- 125 I-IGF-II at 10 degrees C and immediately homogenized, most of the labeled IGF-II receptors are associated with the plasma membrane fraction, indicating that receptors accessible to the labeling reagent at low temperature are on the cell surface. However, when the photolabeled cells are incubated at 37 degrees C for various times before homogenization, labeled IGF-II receptors are rapidly internalized with a half-time of 3.5 min as evidenced by a loss from the plasma membrane fraction and a concomitant appearance in the low density microsome fraction. The steady state level of cell surface IGF-II receptors in the presence or absence of IGF-II remains constant under these conditions, demonstrating that IGF-II receptors rapidly recycle back to the cell surface at the same rate as receptor internalization. Using the above methodology, it is shown that acute insulin action: 1) increases the steady state number of cell surface IGF-II receptors; 2) increases the number of ligand-bound IGF-II receptors that are internalized per unit of time; and 3) increases the rate of cellular 125 I-IGF-II degradation by a process that is blocked by anti-IGF-II receptor antibody

  16. Development of superior asphalt recycling agents. Phase 1, Technical feasibility. Final technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullin, J.A.; Davison, R.R.; Glover, C.J.; Chaffin, J.; Liu, M.; Madrid, R.

    1997-07-01

    After an introduction and a literature survey in Chap. 1, Chap. 2 describes the tasks, together with objectives and important results obtained for each task throughout the entire project. Chaps. 3 thru 7 detail work in developing a qualitative and quantitative knowledge of asphalt oxidation, composition dependence of asphalt properties, and guidelines for producing superior asphalt binders through composition control. They also detail the development of a kinetic model for asphalt oxidative aging and present an understanding of the composition dependence of asphalt oxidation as well as other performance-related properties. Chaps. 8 and 9 compare the aging performance of recycled blends produced using commercial recycling agents and industrial supercritical fractions as rejuvenating agents. Oxidative aging of the recycled blends were evaluated along with the performance of the recycled blends in terms of the strategic highway research program performance grading procedure. Chap. 10 summarizes the work completed in the areas of processing schemes development, projection updates, and scale-up and commercialization plans.

  17. Waste paper recycling opportunities for government action. Vol. 1 summary. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, J; Love, P

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of analyses of the current and expected waste paper market conditions in Canada with the objective of identifying government initiatives which could permanently increase recovery levels. Emphasis has been placed upon defining short-term, practical measures which take into account the variations in market conditions for each of the major types of secondary fiber: newsprint, fine paper, and corrugated cardboard. Demand, generation and recovery are analyzed for each of these types on a national and regional basis. The opportunities for increased recycling in each region are identified and recommendations are made regarding appropriate government actions. The principal benefits of increased waste paper reclamation and recycling are perceived as: reducing waste management costs, creating new industries, promoting the conserver ethic, conserving forest and energy resources, and reducing pollution. Includes glossary. 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  18. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for tritium supply and recycling. Volume III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    Tritium, a radioactive gas used in all of the Nation's nuclear weapons, has a short half-life and must be replaced periodically in order for the weapon to operate as designed. Currently, there is no capability to produce the required amounts of tritium within the Nuclear Weapons Complex. The PEIS for Tritium Supply and Recycling evaluates the alternatives for the siting, construction, and operation of tritium supply and recycling facilities at each of five candidate sites: the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, the Nevada Test Site, the Oak Ridge Reservation, the Pantex Plant, and the Savannah River Site. Alternatives for new tritium supply and recycling facilities consist of four different tritium supply technologies: Heavy Water Reactor, Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor, Advanced Light Water Reactor, and Accelerator Production of Tritium. The PEIS also evaluates the impacts of the DOE purchase of an existing operating or partially completed commercial light water reactor or the DOE purchase of irradiation services contracted from commercial power reactors. Additionally, the PEIS includes an analysis of multipurpose reactors that would produce tritium, dispose of plutonium, and produce electricity. Evaluation of impacts on land resources, site infrastructure, air quality and acoustics, water resources, geology and soils, biotic resources, cultural and paleontological resources, socioeconomics, radiological and hazardous chemical impacts during normal operation and accidents to workers and the public, waste management, and intersite transport are included in the assessment

  19. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for tritium supply and recycling. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    Tritium, a radioactive gas used in all of the Nation's nuclear weapons, has a short half-life and must be replaced periodically in order for the weapon to operate as designed. Currently, there is no capability to produce the required amounts of tritium within the Nuclear Weapons Complex. The PEIS for Tritium Supply and Recycling evaluates the alternatives for the siting, construction, and operation of tritium supply and recycling facilities at each of five candidate sites: the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, the Nevada Test Site, the Oak Ridge Reservation, the Pantex Plant, and the Savannah River Site. Alternatives for new tritium supply and recycling facilities consist of four different tritium supply technologies: Heavy Water Reactor, Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor, Advanced Light Water Reactor, and Accelerator Production of Tritium. The PEIS also evaluates the impacts of the DOE purchase of an existing operating or partially completed commercial light water reactor or the DOE purchase of irradiation services contracted from commercial power reactors. Additionally, the PEIS includes an analysis of multipurpose reactors that would produce tritium, dispose of plutonium, and produce electricity. Evaluation of impacts on land resources, site infrastructure, air quality and acoustics, water resources, geology and soils, biotic resources, cultural and paleontological resources, socioeconomics, radiological and hazardous chemical impacts during normal operation and accidents to workers and the public, waste management, and intersite transport are included in the assessment. 550 refs

  20. Characterization of plastic beach debris finalized to its removal: a proposal for a recycling scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrelli, Loris; Poeta, Gianluca; Battisti, Corrado; Sighicelli, Maria

    2017-07-01

    Characterization of beach debris is crucial to assess the strategy to answer questions such as recycling. With the aim to assess its use in a recycling scheme, in this note, we carried out a physical and chemical characterization of plastic litter from a pilot beach in Central Italy, using the FT-IR spectroscopy and thermoanalysis. Fourteen polymers, having mainly thermoplastic origin, were identified; among them, the most represented are polyethylene (41.7%) and polypropylene (36.9%). Chemical and mechanical degradation were clearly observed by an IR spectrum. The thermogravimetric analysis curve of the plastic blend shows the melting point at 120-140 °C, and degradation occurs almost totally in a one-step process within 300-500 °C. The high heating value of the plastic debris is 43.9 MJ kg -1 . Polymer blends obtained by beach debris show mechanical properties similar to the virgin high-density polyethylene polymer. Following the beach plastic debris characterization, a recycling scheme was suggested.

  1. A Research Needs Assessment for waste plastics recycling: Volume 1, Executive summary. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    This first volume provides a summary of the entire project. The study utilized the talents of a large number of participants, including a significant number of peer reviewers from industrial companies, government agencies, and research institutes. in addition, an extensive analysis of relevant literature was carried out. In considering the attractiveness of recycling technologies that are alternatives to waste-to-energy combustion units, a systems approach was utilized. Collection of waste streams containing plastics, sortation, and reclamation of plastics and plastic mixtures, reprocessing or chemical conversion of the reclaimed polymers, and the applicability of the products to specific market segments have been analyzed in the study.

  2. Final Technical Report for EE0006091: H2Pump Hydrogen Recycling System Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staudt, Rhonda [H2Pump LLC, Latham, NY (United States)

    2017-02-21

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the product readiness and to quantify the benefits and customer value proposition of H2Pump’s Hydrogen Recycling System (HRS-100™) by installing and analyzing the operation of multiple prototype 100-kg per day systems in real world customer locations. The data gathered will be used to measure reliability, demonstrate the value proposition to customers, and validate our business model. H2Pump will install, track and report multiple field demonstration systems in industrial heat treating and semi-conductor applications. The customer demonstrations will be used to develop case studies and showcase the benefits of the technology to drive market adoption.

  3. αPIX Is a Trafficking Regulator that Balances Recycling and Degradation of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Kortüm

    Full Text Available Endosomal sorting is an essential control mechanism for signaling through the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR. We report here that the guanine nucleotide exchange factor αPIX, which modulates the activity of Rho-GTPases, is a potent bimodal regulator of EGFR trafficking. αPIX interacts with the E3 ubiquitin ligase c-Cbl, an enzyme that attaches ubiquitin to EGFR, thereby labelling this tyrosine kinase receptor for lysosomal degradation. We show that EGF stimulation induces αPIX::c-Cbl complex formation. Simultaneously, αPIX and c-Cbl protein levels decrease, which depends on both αPIX binding to c-Cbl and c-Cbl ubiquitin ligase activity. Through interaction αPIX sequesters c-Cbl from EGFR and this results in reduced EGFR ubiquitination and decreased EGFR degradation upon EGF treatment. However, quantitatively more decisive for cellular EGFR distribution than impaired EGFR degradation is a strong stimulating effect of αPIX on EGFR recycling to the cell surface. This function depends on the GIT binding domain of αPIX but not on interaction with c-Cbl or αPIX exchange activity. In summary, our data demonstrate a previously unappreciated function of αPIX as a strong promoter of EGFR recycling. We suggest that the novel recycling regulator αPIX and the degradation factor c-Cbl closely cooperate in the regulation of EGFR trafficking: uncomplexed αPIX and c-Cbl mediate a positive and a negative feedback on EGFR signaling, respectively; αPIX::c-Cbl complex formation, however, results in mutual inhibition, which may reflect a stable condition in the homeostasis of EGF-induced signal flow.

  4. Recycle of contaminated scrap metal, comprehensive executive summary. Final report, September 30, 1993--March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    R&D activities have demonstrated Catalytic Extraction Processing (CEP) to be a robust, one-step process process that is relatively insensitive to wide variations in waste composition and is applicable to a broad spectrum of DOE wastes. The feed size and composition compatible with CEP have been increased in a short period of time, and additional R&D should lead to the ability to accept a drum (and larger?) size feed of completely uncharacterized waste. Experiments have validated the CPU (Catalytic Processing Unit). Two commercial facilities have been commissioned and are currently processing mixed low level wastes. Expansion of CEP to transuranic and high level wastes should be the next step in the development and deployment of CEP for recycle, reuse, and disposal of materials from DOE decontamination and decommissioning activities.

  5. Deletion of the distal COOH-terminus of the A2B adenosine receptor switches internalization to an arrestin- and clathrin-independent pathway and inhibits recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundell, S J; Matharu, A-L; Nisar, S; Palmer, T M; Benovic, J L; Kelly, E

    2010-02-01

    We have investigated the effect of deletions of a postsynaptic density, disc large and zo-1 protein (PDZ) motif at the end of the COOH-terminus of the rat A(2B) adenosine receptor on intracellular trafficking following long-term exposure to the agonist 5'-(N-ethylcarboxamido)-adenosine. The trafficking of the wild type A(2B) adenosine receptor and deletion mutants expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells was studied using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in combination with immunofluorescence microscopy. The wild type A(2B) adenosine receptor and deletion mutants were all extensively internalized following prolonged treatment with NECA. The intracellular compartment through which the Gln(325)-stop receptor mutant, which lacks the Type II PDZ motif found in the wild type receptor initially trafficked was not the same as the wild type receptor. Expression of dominant negative mutants of arrestin-2, dynamin or Eps-15 inhibited internalization of wild type and Leu(330)-stop receptors, whereas only dominant negative mutant dynamin inhibited agonist-induced internalization of Gln(325)-stop, Ser(326)-stop and Phe(328)-stop receptors. Following internalization, the wild type A(2B) adenosine receptor recycled rapidly to the cell surface, whereas the Gln(325)-stop receptor did not recycle. Deletion of the COOH-terminus of the A(2B) adenosine receptor beyond Leu(330) switches internalization from an arrestin- and clathrin-dependent pathway to one that is dynamin dependent but arrestin and clathrin independent. The presence of a Type II PDZ motif appears to be essential for arrestin- and clathrin-dependent internalization, as well as recycling of the A(2B) adenosine receptor following prolonged agonist addition.

  6. Analyzing the reprocessing decision: plutonium recycle and nuclear proliferation. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heising, C.D.; Connolly, T.J.

    1978-11-01

    The United States decision to defer indefinitely the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel is examined in this thesis. Bayesian decision analysis is applied to develop a rational framework for the assessment of alternatives. Benefits and costs for each alternative are evaluated and compared in dollar terms to determine the optimal decision. A fuel cycle simulation model is constructed to assess the economic value of reprocessing light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and recycling plutonium. In addition, a dynamic fuel substitution model is used to estimate the economic effects of the reprocessing decision's influence on the introduction date of the liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR). The analysis of benefits and costs is extended to include the social costs due to technological risks, such as accident risk, nuclear theft and/or sabotage, and international nuclear proliferation. These social costs are expressed in dollar terms for comparison with the conventional economic values. Results of the analysis indicate that the domestic social costs are less than the economic benefits by more than three orders of magnitude, and that the permit option dominates those of delay or prohibit. An examination of proliferation risk indicates a factor of approximately 7 between cost-benefits. Thus, on the basis of this analysis, it appears that to permit reprocessing is optimal over delaying or prohibiting the technology

  7. Waste paper recycling opportunities for government action. Vol. 4, corrugated waste. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, J.; Love, P.

    1978-01-01

    This study analyzes current and expected corrugated waste market conditions in Canada, with the objective of identifying government initiatives which could permanently increase recovery levels. Short-term, practical measures are featured. National and regional demand, generation and recovery levels are examined, along with imports and exports to the USA. Over 70% of corrugated waste is consumed in Ontario and Quebec, and most of this waste is generated in those two provinces. Average recovery rates in most major urban areas are estimated at 30-40%. Future demand, generation, and recovery are estimated, and it is suggested that there will be enough domestic demand to permit reclamation of nearly 35% of Canada's total corrugated wastes. This potential level is not expected to change significantly, and new demand opportunities appear minimal. Examination of the potential for future imports from the USA indicates that availability will tighten over the medium term, necessitating a search for new corrugated waste supply sources. Possible sources include supermakets, retail chains and large assembly manufacturing establishments; one of the most promising of these sources is shopping malls, and a study is appended which examines the feasibility of a corrugated waste source separation program within a hypothetical mall. Possible government actions are outlined to improve reclamation and recycling of corrugated waste in Canada, including the improvement of local recovery capabilities in British Columbia, Ontario and Quebec, and the reduction of freight costs for moving corrugated waste from low-recovery areas to high-demand areas. 26 refs., 9 figs., 31 tabs.

  8. Increased Eps15 homology domain 1 and RAB11FIP3 expression regulate breast cancer progression via promoting epithelial growth factor receptor recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Dandan; Liang, Ya-Nan; Stepanova, A A; Liu, Yu; Li, Xiaobo; Wang, Letian; Zhang, Fengmin; Vasilyeva, N V

    2017-02-01

    Recent research indicates that the C-terminal Eps15 homology domain 1 is associated with epithelial growth factor receptor-mediated endocytosis recycling in non-small-cell lung cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical significance of Eps15 homology domain 1 gene expression in relation to phosphorylation of epithelial growth factor receptor expression in patients with breast cancer. Primary breast cancer samples from 306 patients were analyzed for Eps15 homology domain 1, RAB11FIP3, and phosphorylation of epithelial growth factor receptor expression via immunohistochemistry. The clinical significance was assessed via a multivariate Cox regression analysis, Kaplan-Meier curves, and the log-rank test. Eps15 homology domain 1 and phosphorylation of epithelial growth factor receptor were upregulated in 60.46% (185/306) and 53.92% (165/306) of tumor tissues, respectively, as assessed by immunohistochemistry. The statistical correlation analysis indicated that Eps15 homology domain 1 overexpression was positively correlated with the increases in phosphorylation of epithelial growth factor receptor ( r = 0.242, p breast cancer for the overall survival in the total, chemotherapy, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (-) groups. However, the use of combined expression of Eps15 homology domain 1 and phosphorylation of epithelial growth factor receptor markers is more effective for the disease-free survival in the overall population, chemotherapy, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (-) groups. Moreover, the combined markers are also significant prognostic markers of breast cancer in the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (+), estrogen receptor (+), and estrogen receptor (-) groups. Eps15 homology domain 1 has a tumor suppressor function, and the combined marker of Eps15 homology domain 1/phosphorylation of epithelial growth factor receptor expression was identified as a better prognostic marker in breast cancer diagnosis

  9. Founder effect in the Horn of Africa for an insulin receptor mutation that may impair receptor recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffan, E; Soos, M A; Rocha, N

    2011-01-01

    Genetic insulin receptoropathies are a rare cause of severe insulin resistance. We identified the Ile119Met missense mutation in the insulin receptor INSR gene, previously reported in a Yemeni kindred, in four unrelated patients with Somali ancestry. We aimed to investigate a possible genetic...

  10. Materials development and field demonstration of high-recycled-content concrete for energy-efficient building construction; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostowari, Ken; Nosson, Ali

    2000-01-01

    The project developed high-recycled-content concrete material with balanced structural and thermal attributes for use in energy-efficient building construction. Recycled plastics, tire, wool, steel and concrete were used as replacement for coarse aggregates in concrete and masonry production. With recycled materials the specific heat and thermal conductivity of concrete could be tailored to enhance the energy-efficiency of concrete buildings. A comprehensive field project was implemented which confirmed the benefits of high-recycled-content concrete for energy-efficient building construction

  11. Dual pathways for the intracellular processing of insulin. Relationship between retroendocytosis of intact hormone and the recycling of insulin receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, S.

    1985-01-01

    Adipocytes process insulin through either of two pathways: a retroendocytotic pathway that culminates in the release of intact insulin, and a degradative pathway that terminates in the intracellular catabolism and release of degraded ligand. Mechanistically, these pathways were found to differ in several ways. First, temporal differences were found in the rate at which intact and degraded products were extruded. After 125 I-insulin was preloaded into the cell interior, intact ligand was completely released during the first 10 min (t 1/2 = 2 min), whereas degraded insulin was released at a much slower rate over 1 h (t 1/2 greater than 8 min). Secondly, it was found that chloroquine profoundly inhibited the insulin degradative pathway, resulting in the intracellular accumulation of intact ligand and a reduction in the release of degraded products. In contrast, however, chloroquine was without effect on the retroendocytotic processing of insulin. Based on the known actions of chloroquine, it appears that retroendocytosis of insulin does not involve vesicular acidification or dissociation of the insulin-receptor complex and that insulin is most likely carried to the cell exterior in the same vesicles (either receptor-bound or free) as those mediating recycling receptors. Interestingly, accumulation of undergraded insulin within chloroquine-treated cells did not result in the release of additional intact ligand, suggesting that once insulin enters the degradative compartment it is committed to catabolism and cannot exit the cell through the retroendocytotic pathway. A third difference was revealed by the finding that extracellular unlabeled insulin (100 ng/ml) markedly accelerated the rate at which preloaded 125 I-insulin was released from adipocytes (t 1/2 of 3 min versus 7 min in controls cells)

  12. Environmental and functional benefits and trade-offs of hot in-place recycling treatment techniques : final project report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Surface recycling is suitable for pavements with minor cracks limited to 25-50 mm in depth. Hot-in-place recycling (HIR) process includes drying and heating the upper layers, scarifying the soft asphalt, mixing the scarified material with a rejuvenat...

  13. Study of lime vs. no lime in cold in-place recycled asphalt concrete pavements : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    The resilient characteristics of cold in-place recycled asphalt concrete with and without lime were examined. Six core samples were obtained from a site two months after construction; six months later, six additional core samples were obtained from t...

  14. Chemical decontamination of process equipment using recyclable chelating solvent Phase I. Final report, September 1993--June 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is now faced with the task of meeting decontamination and decommissioning obligations at numerous facilities by the year 2019. Due to the tremendous volume of material involved, innovative decontamination technologies are being sought that can reduce the volumes of contaminated waste materials and secondary wastes requiring disposal. With sufficient decontamination, some of the material from DOE facilities could be released as scrap into the commercial sector for recycle, thereby reducing the volume of radioactive waste requiring disposal. Although recycling may initially prove to be more costly than current disposal practices, rapidly increasing disposal costs are expected to make recycling more and more cost effective. Additionally, recycling is now perceived as the ethical choice in a world where the consequences of replacing resources and throwing away reusable materials are impacting the well-being of the environment

  15. Structural basis for pH-insensitive inhibition of immunoglobulin G recycling by an anti-neonatal Fc receptor antibody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenniston, Jon A.; Taylor, Brandy M.; Conley, Gregory P.; Cosic, Janja; Kopacz, Kris J.; Lindberg, Allison P.; Comeau, Stephen R.; Atkins, Kateri; Bullen, Jameson; TenHoor, Christopher; Adelman, Burt A.; Sexton, Daniel J.; Edwards, Thomas E.; Nixon, Andrew E. (Beryllium); (Dyax)

    2017-09-06

    The neonatal Fc receptor FcRn plays a critical role in the trafficking of IgGs across tissue barriers and in retaining high circulating concentrations of both IgG and albumin. Although generally beneficial from an immunological perspective in maintaining IgG populations, FcRn can contribute to the pathogenesis of autoimmune disorders when an abnormal immune response targets normal biological components. We previously described a monoclonal antibody (DX-2507) that binds to FcRn with high affinity at both neutral and acidic pH, prevents the simultaneous binding of IgG, and reduces circulating IgG levels in preclinical animal models. Here, we report a 2.5 Å resolution X-ray crystal structure of an FcRn–DX-2507 Fab complex, revealing a nearly complete overlap of the IgG–Fc binding site in FcRn by complementarity-determining regions in DX-2507. This overlap explains how DX-2507 blocks IgG binding to FcRn and thereby shortens IgG half-life by preventing IgGs from recycling back into circulation. Moreover, the complex structure explains how the DX-2507 interaction is pH-insensitive unlike normal Fc interactions and how serum albumin levels are unaffected by DX-2507 binding. These structural studies could inform antibody-based therapeutic approaches for limiting the effects of IgG-mediated autoimmune disease.

  16. Impaired degradation followed by enhanced recycling of epidermal growth factor receptor caused by hypo-phosphorylation of tyrosine 1045 in RBE cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gui, Anping; Kobayashi, Akira; Motoyama, Hiroaki; Kitazawa, Masato; Takeoka, Michiko; Miyagawa, Shinichi

    2012-01-01

    Since cholangiocarcinoma has a poor prognosis, several epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted therapies with antibody or small molecule inhibitor treatment have been proposed. However, their effect remains limited. The present study sought to understand the molecular genetic characteristics of cholangiocarcinoma related to EGFR, with emphasis on its degradation and recycling. We evaluated EGFR expression and colocalization by immunoblotting and immunofluorescence, cell surface EGFR expression by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), and EGFR ubiquitination and protein binding by immunoprecipitation in the human cholangiocarcinoma RBE and immortalized cholangiocyte MMNK-1 cell lines. Monensin treatment and Rab11a depletion by siRNA were adopted for inhibition of EGFR recycling. Upon stimulation with EGF, ligand-induced EGFR degradation was impaired and the expression of phospho-tyrosine 1068 and phospho-p44/42 MAPK was sustained in RBE cells as compared with MMNK-1 cells. In RBE cells, the process of EGFR sorting for lysosomal degradation was blocked at the early endosome stage, and non-degradated EGFR was recycled to the cell surface. A disrupted association between EGFR and the E3 ubiquitin ligase c-Cbl, as well as hypo-phosphorylation of EGFR at tyrosine 1045 (Tyr1045), were also observed in RBE cells. In RBE cells, up-regulation of EGFR Tyr1045 phosphorylation is a potentially useful molecular alteration in EGFR-targeted therapy. The combination of molecular-targeted therapy determined by the characteristics of individual EGFR phosphorylation events and EGFR recycling inhibition show promise in future treatments of cholangiocarcinoma

  17. Beneficial uses of paper mill residuals for New York State`s recycled-paper mills. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This report evaluates the New York paper mill industry in terms of the productive management and treatment of solid wastes. It identifies current efforts by recycling mills to beneficially use paper mill residuals (often called sludge) and suggests additional options that should be considered by the industry in general and individual mills in particular. It also examines the regulations and economics affecting the mills and suggests actions that could improve the industry`s ability to convert wastes to value-added products. The report recommends that the mills should continue measures to reduce fiber and filler clay losses, promote the transfer of usable fiber and clay to mills able to use them, upgrade sludge dewatering capabilities, and take a more regional approach to solid waste disposal problems. State agencies are urged to support these efforts, encourage the development and commercialization of new beneficial use technologies, and reduce regulatory barriers whenever possible.

  18. The recycling of the actinides neptunium, americium and curium in a fast power reactor to reduce the long term activity in a final store

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beims, H.D.

    1986-01-01

    The starting point for the considerations and calculations given in this dissertation is the inevitable production of radioactive materials in the use of nuclear energy, which creates a considerable potential danger in a final store for a very long period. As one possibility of alleviating this problem, a concept for recycling the waste actinides neptunium, americium and curium was proposed. The waste actinides are separated in the reprocessing of burnt-up fuel elements and reach a further irradiation circuit. There they pass through the stages 'manufacture of irradiation elements', 'use in a fast power reactor' and reprocessing of irradiation elements' several times. In each irradiation and subsequent storage, about 17% of the waste actinides are removed by fission or by conversion into nuclides which can be reused as fuel, so that during the life of 40 years of the fast recycling reacor, the waste actinides can be reduced in mass by one half. In order to determine this mass reduction effect, a model calculation was developed, which includes the representation of the neutron physics and thermal properties of the reactor core and the storage and reprocessing of the irradiation elements. (orig./RB) [de

  19. Recycling waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P I.S.

    1976-01-01

    It is being realized that if environmental quality is to be improved the amount of waste generated by man has to be substantially reduced. There are two ways this can be achieved. First, by conserving materials and energy, and sacrificing economic growth, a solution that is completely unacceptable because it would mean some form of rationing, mass unemployment, and collapse of society as it is known. The second way to reduce the volume of waste is by planned recycling, re-use, and recovery. Already the reclamation industry recovers, processes, and turns back for re-use many products used by industry and thereby reduces the UK's import bill for raw materials. In the book, the author sets out the various ways materials may be recovered from industrial and municipal wastes. The broad technology of waste management is covered and attention is focused on man's new resources lying buried in the mountains of industrial wastes, the emissions from stocks, the effluents and sludges that turn rivers into open sewers, and municipal dumps in seventeen chapters. The final chapter lists terms and concepts used in waste technology, organizations concerned with waste management, and sources of information about recycling waste. (MCW)

  20. Hanford recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, I.M.

    1996-09-01

    This paper is a study of the past and present recycling efforts on the Hanford site and options for future improvements in the recycling program. Until 1996, recycling goals were voluntarily set by the waste generators: this year, DOE has imposed goals for all its sites to accomplish by 1999. Hanford is presently meeting the voluntary site goals, but may not be able to meet all the new DOE goals without changes to the program. Most of these new DOE goals are recycling goals: * Reduce the generation of radioactive (low-level) waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Reduce the generation of low-level mixed waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Reduce the generation of hazardous waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Recycle 33 percent of the sanitary waste from all operations. * Increase affirmative procurement of EPA-designated recycled items to 100 percent. The Hanford recycling program has made great strides-there has been a 98 percent increase in the amount of paper recycled since its inception in 1990. Hanford recycles paper, chemicals cardboard, tires, oil, batteries, rags, lead weights, fluorescent tubes, aerosol products, concrete, office furniture, computer software, drums, toner cartridges, and scrap metal. Many other items are recycled or reused by individual groups on a one time basis without a formal contract. Several contracts are closed-loop contracts which involve all parts of the recycle loop. Considerable savings are generated from recycling, and much more is possible with increased attention and improvements to this program. General methods for improving the recycling program to ensure that the new goals can be met are: a Contract and financial changes 0 Tracking database and methods improvements 0 Expanded recycling efforts. Specifically, the Hanford recycling program would be improved by: 0 Establishing one overall

  1. Carbetocin is a Functional Selective Gq Agonist That Does Not Promote Oxytocin Receptor Recycling After Inducing β-Arrestin-Independent Internalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passoni, I; Leonzino, M; Gigliucci, V; Chini, B; Busnelli, M

    2016-04-01

    Carbetocin, a long-acting oxytocin analogue, has been reported to elicit interesting and peculiar behavioural effects. The present study investigated the molecular pharmacology of carbetocin, aiming to better understand the molecular basis of its action in the brain. Using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer biosensors, we characterised the effects of carbetocin on the three human oxytocin/vasopressin receptors expressed in the nervous system: the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) and the vasopressin V1a (V1aR) and V1b (V1bR) receptors. Our results indicate that (i) carbetocin activates the OXTR but not the V1aR and V1bR at which it may act as an antagonist; (ii) carbetocin selectively activates only the OXTR/Gq pathway displaying a strong functional selectivity; (iii) carbetocin is a partial agonist at the OXTR/Gq coupling; (iv) carbetocin promotes OXTR internalisation via a previously unreported β-arrestin-independent pathway; and (v) carbetocin does not induce OXTR recycling to the plasma membrane. Altogether, these molecular pharmacology features identify carbetocin as a substantially different analogue compared to the endogenous oxytocin and, consequently, carbetocin is not expected to mimic oxytocin in the brain. Whether these unique features of carbetocin could be exploited therapeutically remains to be established. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Neuroendocrinology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  2. Internalization and Recycling of the HER2 Receptor on Human Breast Adenocarcinoma Cells Treated with Targeted Phototoxic Protein DARPinminiSOG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilova, O. N.; Proshkina, G. M.; Lebedenko, E. N.; Deyev, S. M.

    2015-01-01

    Design and evaluation of new high-affinity protein compounds that can selectively and efficiently destroy human cancer cells are a priority research area in biomedicine. In this study we report on the ability of the recombinant phototoxic protein DARPin-miniSOG to interact with breast adenacarcinoma human cells overexpressing the extracellular domain of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). It was found that the targeted phototoxin DARPin-miniSOG specifically binds to the HER2 with following internalization and slow recycling back to the cell membrane. An insight into the role of DARPin-miniSOG in HER2 internalization could contribute to the treatment of HER2-positive cancer using this phototoxic protein. PMID:26483969

  3. Nuclear recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinrad, B.I.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses two aspects of the economics of recycling nuclear fuel: the actual costs and savings of the recycling operation in terms of money spent, made, and saved; and the impact of the recycling on the future cost of uranium. The authors review the relevant physical and chemical processes involved in the recycling process. Recovery of uranium and plutonium is discussed. Fuel recycling in LWRs is examined and a table presents the costs of reprocessing and not reprocessing. The subject of plutonium in fast reactors is addressed. Safeguards and weapons proliferation are discussed

  4. Delivery of folates to the cytoplasm of MA104 cells is mediated by a surface membrane receptor that recycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamen, B.A.; Wang, M.T.; Streckfuss, A.J.; Peryea, X.; Anderson, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    MA104 cells, as well as several other rapidly dividing tissue culture cells, have a folate-binding protein associated with their cell surface. The protein has the properties of a membrane receptor: (a) 5-methyl[ 3 H]tetrahydrofolic acid binds with high affinity (Kd approximately equal to 3 nM); (b) the protein is an integral membrane protein; (c) it appears to deliver physiological concentrations of 5-methyl[ 3 H]tetrahydrofolic acid to the inside of the cell; (d) binding activity is regulated by the concentration of folate within the cell. To better understand the mechanism of action of this receptor, we have studied the pathway of folate internalization. We present evidence that during internalization: (a) folate binds to the membrane receptor; (b) the ligand-receptor complex moves into the cell; (c) the ligand is released from the receptor in an acidic intracellular compartment and moves into the cytoplasm; and (d) the unoccupied receptor returns to the cell surface

  5. Environmental effects of ash recycling on the incidence of 137Cs in vegetation and soil. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoegbom, Lars; Nohrstedt, Hans-Oerjan

    2000-08-01

    Recycling of wood-ash from combustion of bio-fuel could in the future become a common practice in Swedish forestry. As a consequence of the Chernobyl radioactive fallout in 1986 large areas in central Sweden became contaminated. There is a risk that addition of wood-ash originating from these contaminated areas will increase the activity of 137 Cs in a forests if added to a non-contaminated area. We report here of measurements of 137 Cs activity in different coniferous forest compartments from seven field experiments. The activity measurements were made 5-8 years after wood-ash application. The field experiments, in a north-south transect in Sweden, have received a background activity ranging 0 - 40 kBq m -2 as a consequence of the Chernobyl fallout. The applied wood-ash had an activity ranging between 0 - 4.8 kBq kg -1 depending on origin. Samples of the various compartments, taken in autumn 1999, included samples of soil, field vegetation, needles and wood (both twigs and stem wood). The soil and the field-vegetation were analysed using a NaI detector while the samples obtained from the trees were analysed on a GeLi detector. In addition, the soil samples were also analysed for K, by extraction with 1M ammonium lactate. The highest 137 Cs activity concentration was, by far, found in the soil, the activity found in the field-layer and the trees was in general lower. At six of seven sites there were no statistically significant effects of the wood-ash application on radiation, despite the fact that the wood-ash had, at least theoretically, in one case doubled the activity. However, at one site (Vindeln), with an intermediate 137 Cs deposition (10-20 kBq m -2 ) from Chernobyl, there was a statistically significant decrease in 137 Cs activity in the soil as well as in needles and twigs at the wood-ash amended plots. This occurred despite that the wood-ash had added a considerable activity (0.63 kBq m -2 ) to the site. The same ash applied to another site also

  6. Unconventional recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, K.M.

    1996-05-01

    Despite advances made in recycling technology and markets for materials over the past few years, recycling at convention centers, particularly on the show floor itself, can be a vexing problem. Part of the problem lies in the fact that recycling at convention centers has more to do with logistics than it does with these industry trends. However, given the varied nature of convention centers, and the shows they book, a rigid approach to recycling at convention centers is not always feasible. Like the numerous different curbside programs serving communities across the country, what works for one convention center--and one show--many not work for another. These difficulties notwithstanding, more convention centers are offering recycling programs today, and more groups booking conventions these days have begun requesting recycling services.

  7. Final generic environmental statement on the use of recycle plutonium in mixed oxide fuel in light water cooled reactors. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-08-01

    This environmental statement assesses the impacts of the implementation of plutonium recycle in the LWR industry. It is based on assumptions that are intended to reflect conservatively an acceptable level of the application of current technology. It is not intended to be a representation of the ''as low as reasonably achievable'' (ALARA) philosophy. This generic environmental statement discusses the anticipated effects of recycling plutonium in light water nuclear power reactors. It is based on about 30 years of experience with the element in the context of a projected light water nuclear power industry that is already substantial. A background perspective on plutonium, its safety, and its recycling as a reactor fuel is presented

  8. Recycling of engineering plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipments: influence of virgin polycarbonate and impact modifier on the final performance of blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, V; Biswal, Manoranjan; Mohanty, Smita; Nayak, Sanjay K

    2014-05-01

    This study is focused on the recovery and recycling of plastics waste, primarily polycarbonate, poly(acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene) and high impact polystyrene, from end-of-life waste electrical and electronic equipments. Recycling of used polycarbonate, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene, polycarbonate/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene/high impact polystrene material was carried out using material recycling through a melt blending process. An optimized blend composition was formulated to achieve desired properties from different plastics present in the waste electrical and electronic equipments. The toughness of blended plastics was improved with the addition of 10 wt% of virgin polycarbonate and impact modifier (ethylene-acrylic ester-glycidyl methacrylate). The mechanical, thermal, dynamic-mechanical and morphological properties of recycled blend were investigated. Improved properties of blended plastics indicate better miscibility in the presence of a compatibilizer suitable for high-end application.

  9. Final generic environmental statement on the use of recycle plutonium in mixed oxide fuel in light water cooled reactors. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-08-01

    An assessment is presented of the health, safety and environmental effects of the entire light water reactor fuel cycle, considering the comparative effects of three major alternatives: no recycle, recycle of uranium only, and recycle of both uranium and plutonium. The assessment covers the period from 1975 through the year 2000 and includes the cumulative effects for the entire period as well as projections for specific years. Topics discussed include: the light water reactor with plutonium recycle; mixed oxide fuel fabrication; reprocessing plant operations; supporting uranium fuel cycle; transportation of radioactive materials; radioactive waste management; storage of plutonium; radiological health assessment; extended spent fuel storage; and blending of plutonium and uranium at reprocessing plants

  10. Recycling fusion materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooms, L.

    2005-01-01

    The inherent safety and environmental advantages of fusion power in comparison with other energy sources play an important role in the public acceptance. No waste burden for future generations is therefore one of the main arguments to decide for fusion power. The waste issue has thus been studied in several documents and the final conclusion of which it is stated that there is no permanent disposal waste needed if recycling is applied. But recycling of fusion reactor materials is far to be obvious regarding mostly the very high specific activity of the materials to be handled, the types of materials and the presence of tritium. The main objective of research performed by SCK-CEN is to study the possible ways of recycling fusion materials and analyse the challenges of the materials management from fusion reactors, based on current practices used in fission reactors and the requirements for the manufacture of fusion equipment

  11. Pharmacological significance of the interplay between angiotensin receptors: MAS receptors as putative final mediators of the effects elicited by angiotensin AT1 receptors antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernomian, Larissa; Pernomian, Laena; Gomes, Mayara S; da Silva, Carlos H T P

    2015-12-15

    The interplay between angiotensin AT1 receptors and MAS receptors relies on several inward regulatory mechanisms from renin-angiotensin system (RAS) including the functional crosstalk between angiotensin II and angiotensin-(1-7), the competitive AT1 antagonism exhibited by angiotensin-(1-7), the antagonist feature assigned to AT1/MAS heterodimerization on AT1 signaling and the AT1-mediated downregulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Recently, such interplay has acquired an important significance to RAS Pharmacology since a few studies have supporting strong evidences that MAS receptors mediate the effects elicited by AT1 antagonists. The present Perspective provides an overview of the regulatory mechanisms involving AT1 and MAS receptors, their significance to RAS Pharmacology and the future directions on the interplay between angiotensin receptors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Waste material recycling: Assessment of contaminants limiting recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn

    systematically investigated. This PhD project provided detailed quantitative data following a consistent approach to assess potential limitations for the presence of chemicals in relation to material recycling. Paper and plastics were used as illustrative examples of materials with well-established recycling...... schemes and great potential for increase in recycling, respectively. The approach followed in the present work was developed and performed in four distinct steps. As step one, fractional composition of waste paper (30 fractions) and plastics (9 fractions) from households in Åbenrå municipality (Southern...... detrimental to their recycling. Finally, a material flow analysis (MFA) approach revealed the potential for accumulation and spreading of contaminants in material recycling, on the example of the European paper cycle. Assessment of potential mitigation measures indicated that prevention of chemical use...

  13. Tire Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Cryopolymers, Inc. tapped NASA expertise to improve a process for recycling vehicle tires by converting shredded rubber into products that can be used in asphalt road beds, new tires, hoses, and other products. In conjunction with the Southern Technology Applications Center and Stennis Space Center, NASA expertise in cryogenic fuel-handling needed for launch vehicle and spacecraft operations was called upon to improve the recycling concept. Stennis advised Cryopolymers on the type of equipment required, as well as steps to reduce the amount of liquid nitrogen used in the process. They also guided the company to use more efficient ways to control system hardware. It is estimated that more than 300 million tires nationwide are produced per year. Cryopolymers expects to reach a production rate of 5,000 tires recycled per day.

  14. Final generic environmental statement on the use of recycle plutonium in mixed oxide fuel in light water cooled reactors. Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-08-01

    Information concerning the use of plutonium recycle in water cooled reactors is presented under the following chapter headings: probable adverse environmental effects that cannot be avoided; means for mitigating adverse environmental effects; alternative dispositions of plutonium; relationship between local short term uses of man's environment and the maintenance and enhancement of long term productivity; irreversible and irretrievable commitments of resources; and economic analysis and cost-benefit balancing

  15. An assessment and evaluation for recycle/reuse of contaminated process and metallurgical equipment at the DOE Rocky Flats Plant Site -- Building 865. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    An economic analysis of the potential advantages of alternatives for recycling and reusing equipment now stored in Building 865 at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Colorado has been conducted. The inventory considered in this analysis consists primarily of metallurgical and process equipment used before January 1992, during development and production of nuclear weapons components at the site. The economic analysis consists of a thorough building inventory and cost comparisons for four equipment dispositions alternatives. The first is a baseline option of disposal at a Low Level Waste (LLW) landfill. The three alternatives investigated are metal recycling, reuse with the government sector, and release for unrestricted use. This report provides item-by-item estimates of value, disposal cost, and decontamination cost. The economic evaluation methods documented here, the simple cost comparisons presented, and the data provided as a supplement, should provide a foundation for D&D decisions for Building 865, as well as for similar D&D tasks at RFP and at other sites.

  16. Recycling Lesson Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okaz, Abeer Ali

    2013-01-01

    This lesson plan designed for grade 2 students has the goal of teaching students about the environmental practice of recycling. Children will learn language words related to recycling such as: "we can recycle"/"we can't recycle" and how to avoid littering with such words as: "recycle paper" and/or "don't throw…

  17. Recycling Facilities - Land Recycling Cleanup Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Land Recycling Cleanup Location Land Recycling Cleanup Locations (LRCL) are divided into one or more sub-facilities categorized as media: Air, Contained Release or...

  18. Logistics Mode and Network Planning for Recycle of Crop Straw Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Lingyun; Gu, Weidong; Zhang, Qing

    2013-01-01

    To realize the straw biomass industrialized development, it should speed up building crop straw resource recycle logistics network, increasing straw recycle efficiency, and reducing straw utilization cost. On the basis of studying straw recycle process, this paper presents innovative concept and property of straw recycle logistics network, analyses design thinking of straw recycle logistics network, and works out straw recycle logistics mode and network topological structure. Finally, it come...

  19. Recycling of electronic scrap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Jens Brøbech

    This Ph.D. thesis deals with the growingly important field of electronics recycling with special attention to the problem of printed circuit board recycling. A literature survey of contemporary electronics recycling and printed circuit board recycling is presented.Further, an analysis of the role...

  20. Green Science: Revisiting Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palliser, Janna

    2011-01-01

    Recycling has been around for a long time--people have reused materials and refashioned them into needed items for thousands of years. More recently, war efforts encouraged conservation and reuse of materials, and in the 1970s recycling got its official start when recycling centers were created. Now, curbside recycling programs and recycling…

  1. The LDL receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Joseph L; Brown, Michael S

    2009-04-01

    In this article, the history of the LDL receptor is recounted by its codiscoverers. Their early work on the LDL receptor explained a genetic cause of heart attacks and led to new ways of thinking about cholesterol metabolism. The LDL receptor discovery also introduced three general concepts to cell biology: receptor-mediated endocytosis, receptor recycling, and feedback regulation of receptors. The latter concept provides the mechanism by which statins selectively lower plasma LDL, reducing heart attacks and prolonging life.

  2. Testing the validity of a receptor kinetic model via TcNGA functional imaging of liver transplant recipients. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadalnik, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    The author had accomplished the expertise for I-125-HSA plasma volume, galactose clearance for determination of hepatic plasma flow as well as finalizing the kinetic model. They have just completed modifying the microscale Scatchard assay for greater precision of receptor measurement using only 5--10 mg of liver tissue. In addition, he determined during the past year that the most practical method and clinically reasonable measurement of liver volume was to measure the transplanted liver in vivo using Tc-NGA images in the anterior, posterior, and right lateral projections, using the method of Rollo and DeLand. Direct measurement of liver weight obtained during transplant operation was not reliable due to variability of fluid retention in the donor liver secondary to ischemia, preservation fluid, etc., which thereby did not reflect an accurate liver weight which is needed in the kinetic analysis comparison, i.e., V h (hepatic plasma volume)

  3. Actinide recycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Till, C; Chang, Y [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    1990-07-01

    A multitude of studies and assessments of actinide partitioning and transmutation were carried out in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Probably the most comprehensive of these was a study coordinated by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The conclusions of this study were that only rather weak economic and safety incentives existed for partitioning and transmuting the actinides for waste management purposes, due to the facts that (1) partitioning processes were complicated and expensive, and (2) the geologic repository was assumed to contain actinides for hundreds of thousands of years. Much has changed in the few years since then. A variety of developments now combine to warrant a renewed assessment of the actinide recycle. First of all, it has become increasingly difficult to provide to all parties the necessary assurance that the repository will contain essentially all radioactive materials until they have decayed. Assurance can almost certainly be provided to regulatory agencies by sound technical arguments, but it is difficult to convince the general public that the behavior of wastes stored in the ground can be modeled and predicted for even a few thousand years. From this point of view alone there would seem to be a clear benefit in reducing the long-term toxicity of the high-level wastes placed in the repository.

  4. Actinide recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.; Chang, Y.

    1990-01-01

    A multitude of studies and assessments of actinide partitioning and transmutation were carried out in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Probably the most comprehensive of these was a study coordinated by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The conclusions of this study were that only rather weak economic and safety incentives existed for partitioning and transmuting the actinides for waste management purposes, due to the facts that (1) partitioning processes were complicated and expensive, and (2) the geologic repository was assumed to contain actinides for hundreds of thousands of years. Much has changed in the few years since then. A variety of developments now combine to warrant a renewed assessment of the actinide recycle. First of all, it has become increasingly difficult to provide to all parties the necessary assurance that the repository will contain essentially all radioactive materials until they have decayed. Assurance can almost certainly be provided to regulatory agencies by sound technical arguments, but it is difficult to convince the general public that the behavior of wastes stored in the ground can be modeled and predicted for even a few thousand years. From this point of view alone there would seem to be a clear benefit in reducing the long-term toxicity of the high-level wastes placed in the repository

  5. Collection of Recyclables from Cubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wøhlk, Sanne; Bogh, Morten Bie; Mikkelsen, Hardy

    2014-01-01

    Collection of recyclable materials is a major part of reverse logistics and an important issue in sustainable logistics. In this paper we consider a case study where paper and glass are collected from recycling cubes and transported to a treatment facility where it is processed for reuse. We...... analyze how outsourcing the planning and transportation of the service can result in conflicts of interest and as a consequence cause unsustainable solutions. Finally, we suggest an alternative payment structure which can lead to a common goal, overall economic sustainability, and an improved financial...

  6. Noble metal recycling. Project 2: Optimization of discontinuous thermal processes (emission reduction). Final report; Edelmetallrecycling. Teilvorhaben 2: Weiterentwicklung der Verfahrenstechnik bei diskontinuierlichen thermischen Prozessen (Emissionsminderung). Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumbach, G.; Berger, R.

    2000-10-01

    A batch operated incineration process, used for the recycling of precious metals is described in the report. The development of a new combined pyrolysis/oxidation Process is the main focus of the work. This new process has several remarkable advantages compared to traditionally used techniques. The optimisation of the process with a modern fuzzy based control technique is described in detail. The emissions of the process were reduced considerably applying the new process and the innovative control technique. Furthermore the layout of several components of the new process can be reduced in the future. The developed techniques can also be applied in other thermal processes, especially batch processes. Additionally the application of catalysts for PCDD/PCDF reduction in the flue gas upstream and downstream of the filter was investigated. Whereas the catalyst performed well, as expected, downstream of the filter, no acceptable operation was possible upstream of the filter. As the reheating downstream the filter is economically not feasible the application of catalysts is not applicable for the describe process. (orig.) [German] Die Arbeit beschreibt einen diskontinuierlichen thermischen Prozess, der zur Rueckgewinnung von Edelmetallen eingesetzt wird. Der Schwerpunkt der Arbeit liegt auf der Entwicklung eines neuartigen kombinierten Pyrolyse/Oxidations-Prozesses, der gegenueber den traditionell eingesetzten Anlagen grosse Vorteile aufweist. Die Optimierung dieses Prozesses mit Hilfe modernster Fuzzy-Regelungstechnik wird detailliert beschrieben. Mit dem neuen Verfahren und den innovativen Regelungstechniken konnten die Emissionen des Prozesses merklich gesenkt werden, ohne den Energiebedarf negativ zu beeinflussen. Ausserdem koennen zukuenftige Anlagen kleiner ausgelegt werden. Die entwickelten Verfahren koennen auch auf andere thermische Prozesse uebertragen werden. Weiterhin wurde der Einsatz von Katalysatoren zur PCDD/PCDF-Minderung im Rein- und Rohgas untersucht

  7. Synaptotagmin 3 deficiency in T cells impairs recycling of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and thereby inhibits CXCL12 chemokine-induced migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masztalerz, Agnieszka; Zeelenberg, Ingrid S; Wijnands, Yvonne M; de Bruijn, Rosalie; Drager, Angelika M; Janssen, Hans; Roos, Ed

    2007-01-15

    Synaptotagmins regulate vesicle trafficking and fusion of vesicles with membranes - processes that have been implicated in cell migration. We therefore hypothesized that synaptotagmins play a role in T-cell migration. Amongst synaptotagmins 1-11, we found synaptotagmin 3 (SYT3) to be the only one that is expressed in T cells. CXCR4-triggered migration was inhibited by antisense synaptotagmin 3 mRNA and by the isolated C2B domain, known to impair oligomerization of all synaptotagmins, but not by a C2B mutant that binds Ca(2+) but does not block oligomerization. The C2B domain also blocked CXCR4-triggered actin polymerization and invasion. However, CXCR4-dependent adhesion in flow was not affected. Surprisingly, we found that little or no SYT3 is present near the plasma membrane but that it is mainly localized in multivesicular bodies, which also contained much of the CXCR4. Impaired SYT3 function blocked CXCR4 recycling and thus led to reduced surface levels of CXCR4. Migration was restored by overexpression of CXCR4. We conclude that STT3 is essential for CXCR4 recycling in T cells and thereby for the maintenance of high CXCR4 surface levels required for migration.

  8. Modelling Recycling Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hill, Amanda Louise; Leinikka Dall, Ole; Andersen, Frits M.

    2014-01-01

    Within the European Union (EU) a paradigm shift is currently occurring in the waste sector, where EU waste directives and national waste strategies are placing emphasis on resource efficiency and recycling targets. The most recent Danish resource strategy calculates a national recycling rate of 22......% for household waste, and sets an ambitious goal of a 50% recycling rate by 2020. This study integrates the recycling target into the FRIDA model to project how much waste and from which streams should be diverted from incineration to recycling in order to achieve the target. Furthermore, it discusses how...... the existing technological, organizational and legislative frameworks may affect recycling activities. The results of the analysis show that with current best practice recycling rates, the 50% recycling rate cannot be reached without recycling of household biowaste. It also shows that all Danish municipalities...

  9. Environmental aspects of recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansma, R.; Van Gemert, F.

    2001-01-01

    Advanced recycling options were studied. Emphasis was on the production of high-level waste. All other impacts, e.g. emissions, were considered to be of minor importance, since from a technical point of view they can be limited to any desired extent. An objective was to gather data from the industry and to use them in a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) of several fuel cycle options. It was necessary to complete our data set with literature data. At the end of our project we could benefit from the results of several Expert Working Groups of OECD/NEA. Detailed information was available for the once-through fuel cycle (OFC) and the fuel cycle with mono recycling of MOX. For the other more advanced fuel cycle options information was of a more qualitative nature. The established set of data was sufficient to conduct a streamlined LCA with focus on waste production for final disposal. Some remarks should be made before comparing the various fuel cycle options studied. The first relates to plutonium that contributes to more than 90% of the radiotoxicity of the spent fuel for more than 1000 centuries. Large concern for transmutation of minor actinides will disproportional if plutonium itself is not eliminated. The second remark is that the fission products contribute potentially very little to the radiotoxicity especially when some long-lived radionuclides after separation are imprisoned in stable matrices to prevent them to be carried by underground water. From all nuclear fuel cycles considered, the MIX cycle in LWRs, with recycling of plutonium and minor actinides has the lowest minor actinides production (0.018 kg/TW e h) and the plutonium production is also quite low (0.06 kg/TW e h). The MIX cycle without minor actinides recycling performs a little better with respect to plutonium production (0.04 kg/TW e h) but has a relatively high minor actinides production (8.7 kg/TW e h). Another conclusion is that burning of minor actinides in fast reactors (MA 0.28 kg/TW e h, Pu 0

  10. Frequent Questions on Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a list of frequent questions on recycling, broken down into five categories. These are answers to common questions that EPA has received from press and web inquiries. This list is located on the Reduce, Reuse, Recycle website.

  11. Certified Electronics Recyclers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn how EPA encourages all electronics recyclers become certified by demonstrating to an accredited, independent third-party auditor and that they meet specific standards to safely recycle and manage electronics.

  12. Rethink, Rework, Recycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrhen, Linda; DiSpezio, Michael A.

    1991-01-01

    Information about the recycling and reuse of plastics, aluminum, steel, glass, and newspapers is presented. The phases of recycling are described. An activity that allows students to separate recyclable materials is included. The objectives, a list of needed materials, and procedure are provided. (KR)

  13. Aluminium beverage can recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewinski, A von

    1985-08-01

    Canned beverages have become a controversial issue in this era of ecological sensitivity. METALL has already discussed the problem of can recycling. The present article discusses the technical aspects of aluminium can recycling. Two further articles will follow on aluminium can recycling in North America and on the results of European pilot projects.

  14. Modelling Recycling Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    hill, amanda; Leinikka Dall, Ole; Andersen, Frits Møller

    2014-01-01

    % for household waste, and sets an ambitious goal of a 50% recycling rate by 2020. This study integrates the recycling target into the FRIDA model to project how much waste and from which streams should be diverted from incineration to recycling in order to achieve the target. Furthermore, it discusses how...

  15. The recycling is moving

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    The recycling site currently situated near building 133 has been transferred to the car park of building 156. The site is identified by the sign “RECYCLING” and the above logo. In this new, more accessible site, you will find recycling bins for the following waste: PET (recyclable plastic bottles); Aluminium cans; Nespresso coffee capsules.  

  16. Usage of Recycled Pet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ebru Tayyar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing industrialization, urbanization and the technological development have caused to increase depletion of the natural resources and environmental pollution's problem. Especially, for the countries which have not enough space recycling of the waste eliminating waste on regular basis or decreasing the amount and volume of waste have provided the important advantages. There are lots of studies and projects to develop both protect resources and prevent environmental pollution. PET bottles are commonly used in beverage industry and can be reused after physical and chemical recycling processes. Usage areas of recycled PET have been developed rapidly. Although recycled PET is used in plastic industry, composite industry also provides usage alternatives of recycled PET. Textile is a suitable sector for recycling of some plastics made of polymers too. In this study, the recycling technologies and applications of waste PET bottles have been investigated and scientific works in this area have been summarized.

  17. Recycling of wood products. Final report of the preliminary study project partly financed by the Finnish Wood Research Oy; Puutuotteiden kierraetys. Finnish Wood Research Oy:n osarahoittaman esiselvityshankkeen loppuraportti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirhonen, I.; Heraejaervi, H.; Saukkola, P.; Raety, T.; Verkasalo, E., Email: henrik.herajarvi@metla.fi

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this preliminary study was to clarify the present state of recycling of wood in Finland and Europe. In the work the control measures of recycling were examined. In Finland there will be a total amount of 850 000 tons of waste wood per year. Of this amount 670 000 tons is from construction and demolishing of buildings. Burning the wood to energy is technically and economically the most reasonable use of waste wood in Finland and in several other European countries where there is a long heating season. A lot of work has been done to find new ways of utilization. The objective of the European Union to increase the use of renewable natural resources in the energy production creates an additional demand to all kinds of wood, including waste wood. The waste legislation of Finland and EU is directing to recycling, not restricting it. Furthermore, the systems to try to create markets for products containing recycled materials are under development. In the future it is expected that the legislation is tightening and the burning of waste wood is no longer calculated as acceptable recycling. Other ways to utilize wood waste should then already be developed. Furthermore, the development and introduction of new recycling methods are of important significance also when marketing wood and wood products. The recycling should be taken into consideration already at the planning stage of the building

  18. receptores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salete Regina Daronco Benetti

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se trata de un estudio etnográfico, que tuvo lo objetivo de interpretar el sistema de conocimiento y del significado atribuidos a la sangre referente a la transfusión sanguínea por los donadores y receptores de un banco de sangre. Para la colecta de las informaciones se observaron los participantes y la entrevista etnográfica se realizó el análisis de dominio, taxonómicos y temáticos. Los dominios culturales fueron: la sangre es vida: fuente de vida y alimento valioso; creencias religiosas: fuentes simbólicas de apoyos; donación sanguínea: un gesto colaborador que exige cuidarse, gratifica y trae felicidad; donación sanguínea: fuente simbólica de inseguridad; estar enfermo es una condición para realizar transfusión sanguínea; transfusión sanguínea: esperanza de vida; Creencias populares: transfusión sanguínea como riesgo para la salud; donadores de sangre: personas benditas; donar y recibir sangre: como significado de felicidad. Temática: “líquido precioso que origina, sostiene, modifica la vida, provoca miedo e inseguridad”.

  19. The importance of recycling - Responsible recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, Joens Petter

    2014-01-01

    7 times the total emissions from Sweden are saved each year by the recycling industry. It reduces CO 2 emissions and saves the environment. In fact it annually reduces global CO 2 emissions by 500 million tons, which is more than what is being emitted by the world wide aviation industry. Recycling of iron and steel saves 74% energy and reduces water and air pollution by respectively 76% and 86%, compared to primary production. It provides new raw materials and contributes to save energy. There's no sense in producing goods in a permanent material like plastics, that's supposed to be used only once. It's a huge waste of resources. Today the recycling industry provides half of the world's raw materials and this figure is set to increase. It's about environmentally sound management of resources. It's about plain common sense. There has to be a political willingness to facilitate recycling in every way. And from a corporate perspective social responsibility is becoming an increasingly important competitive edge. This is also a communication issue, it has to be a fact that is well known to the market when a company is doing valuable environmental work. We also need a well functioning global market with easy to understand regulations to facilitate global trade. The global demand for recycled materials should influence their collection and use. Fraud and theft has also to be kept at bay which calls for a close collaboration between organizations such as The International Chamber of Commerce, The International Trade Council and the International Maritime Bureau of the commercial crime services. Increasing recycling is the only way to go if we want to minimize our effect on the environment. We have to remember that recycling is essential for the environment. An increase would be a tremendous help to reduce the green house effect. Increasing recycling is not rocket science. We know how to do it, we just have to decide to go through with it

  20. Recycling: You are the solution. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    Americans produce nearly 150 million tons of residential and commercial solid waste each year, or slightly less than 1,400 lb for each one of us. This document contains various items related to public education: exhibit text, vocabulary, collection sites, classroom and individual activities, puzzles, classroom simulations.

  1. Constrained recycling: a framework to reduce landfilling in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Ricardo; Otoma, Suehiro

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a model that integrates three branches of research: (i) economics of solid waste that assesses consumer's willingness to recycle and to pay for disposal; (ii) economics of solid waste that compares private and social costs of final disposal and recycling; and (iii) theories on personal attitudes and social influence. The model identifies two arenas where decisions are made: upstream arena, where residents are decision-makers, and downstream arena, where municipal authorities are decision-makers, and graphically proposes interactions between disposal and recycling, as well as the concept of 'constrained recycling' (an alternative to optimal recycling) to guide policy design. It finally concludes that formative instruments, such as environmental education and benchmarks, should be combined with economic instruments, such as subsidies, to move constraints on source separation and recycling in the context of developing countries.

  2. Lamps recycling aiming at the environment preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamachita, Roberto Akira; Gama, Paulo Henrique R. Pereira; Haddad, Jamil; Santos, Afonso H. Moreira; Guardia, Eduardo C.

    1999-01-01

    The article discusses the following issues of lamps recycling in Brazil: mercury lamps recycling, recycling potential, energy conservation and environmental impacts, enterprises lamps recycling, and incentives policy

  3. Recycling of concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halaszovich, S.

    1988-01-01

    The paper reviews potentials and problems of disposal or recycling of concrete removed from nuclear installations. Due to the difficulties in determining radioactivity limits that are compatible with utilization of recycled material in practice, a method is proposed that takes into account inhalation of dusts, as occurring during the reprocessing or recycling of the concrete, for instance in road building. This method is based on the maximum permissible radioactivity uptake by inhalation of a nuclide mixture of unknown composition. (RB) [de

  4. Benchmarking survey for recycling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marley, Margie Charlotte; Mizner, Jack Harry

    2005-06-01

    This report describes the methodology, analysis and conclusions of a comparison survey of recycling programs at ten Department of Energy sites including Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). The goal of the survey was to compare SNL/NM's recycling performance with that of other federal facilities, and to identify activities and programs that could be implemented at SNL/NM to improve recycling performance.

  5. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    Ashlines: To promote and support the commercially viable and environmentally sound recycling of coal combustion byproducts for productive uses through scientific research, development, and field testing.

  6. Mixed plastics recycling technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hegberg, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Presents an overview of mixed plastics recycling technology. In addition, it characterizes mixed plastics wastes and describes collection methods, costs, and markets for reprocessed plastics products.

  7. Water Recycling in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Young

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Australia is the driest inhabited continent on earth and, more importantly, experiences the most variable rainfall of all the continents on our planet. The vast majority of Australians live in large cities on the coast. Because wastewater treatments plants were all located near the coast, it was thought that large scale recycling would be problematic given the cost of infrastructure and pumping required to establish recycled water schemes. This all changed when Australia experienced a decade of record low rainfall and water utilities were given aggressive targets to increase the volume of water recycled. This resulted in recycled water being accepted as a legitimate source of water for non-drinking purposes in a diversified portfolio of water sources to mitigate climate risk. To ensure community support for recycled water, Australia lead the world in developing national guidelines for the various uses of recycled water to ensure the protection of public health and the environment. Australia now provides a great case study of the developments in maximizing water recycling opportunities from policy, regulatory and technological perspectives. This paper explores the evolution in thinking and how approaches to wastewater reuse has changed over the past 40 years from an effluent disposal issue to one of recognizing wastewater as a legitimate and valuable resource. Despite recycled water being a popular choice and being broadly embraced, the concept of indirect potable reuse schemes have lacked community and political support across Australia to date.

  8. Reuse, Reduce, Recycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Georgia

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of recycling paper in law libraries is also applicable to other types of libraries. Results of surveys of law libraries that investigated recycling practices in 1987 and again in 1990 are reported, and suggestions for reducing the amount of paper used and reusing as much as possible are offered. (LRW)

  9. Used Battery Collection and Recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pistoia, G.; Wiaux, J.P.; Wolsky, S.P.

    2001-01-01

    This book covers all aspects of spent battery collection and recycling. First of all, the legislative and regulatory updates are addressed and the main institutions and programs worldwide are mentioned. An overview of the existing battery systems, of the chemicals used in them and their hazardous properties is made, followed by a survey of the major industrial recycling processes. The safety and efficiency of such processes are stressed. Particular consideration is given to the released emissions, i.e. to the impact on human health and the environment. Methods for the evaluation of this impact are described. Several chapters deal with specific battery chemistries: lead-acid, nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal hydride, zinc (carbon and alkaline), lithium and lithium-ion. For each type of battery, details are provided on the collection/recycling process from the technical, economic and environmental viewpoint. The chemicals recoverable from each process and remarketable are mentioned. A chapter deals with recovering of the large batteries powering electric vehicles, e.g. lead-acid, nickel-metal hydride and lithium-ion. The final chapter is devoted to the important topic of collecting batteries from used electrical and electronic equipment. The uncontrolled disposal of these devices still containing their batteries contributes to environmental pollution

  10. HOUSEHOLD PARTICIPATION IN RECYCLING PROGRAMS: A CASE STUDY FROM MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azilah M Akil

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The increase in per capita income and rapid urbanization, have contributed significantly to changes in consumption behaviour leading to increased waste generation.  Waste disposed to landfill sites is fast becoming unfeasible thus requiring a more effective management of waste material involving waste reduction, reuse and recycling. The success of recycling program, however, is largely dependent on household participation activities which are essentially behaviour driven. The recycling performance of Malaysian households is still low as it stands at 5.5% compared to Singapore and Vietnam which are 56% and 22% respectively. This study examines recycling behaviour among households and the influence of socioeconomic, demographic and behavioural characteristics on households’ participation in recycling program in Malaysia.  A sample of 300 randomly selected household were surveyed.  The findings revealed that most of the households (70% claim that they are practicing recycling particularly types of paper and old clothes. The factors of participation in recycling show equal results both for environmental concerns and economic benefits. Those who did not participate in recycling, listed household issues or behaviour, namely lack of time and materials to recycle, inconvenient, lack of space, lack of facilities and information as well as laziness, as barriers. The paper finally highlights the factors which can encourage household to be involved in recycling and give recommendations to the authorities in terms of facilities and infrastructures to facilitate the program.

  11. A Structural Scale for the Factors of Waste Sensors and Transducers Recycling Based on Consumer Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Ke

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article first introduced the research results of both domestic and foreign scholars on the factors of waste sensors and transducers recycling, and in consideration of the four main bodies in waste sensors and transducers recycling, 14 influencing indicators of waste sensors and transducers recycling are extracted. Then this paper designed a questionnaire according to the 15 indicators of waste home appliance recycling, and put it on a research website. After verification of reliability and validity of the questionnaire, this paper analyzed the influencing factors of waste sensors and transducers recycling by using SPSS 13.0. Finally this article used factor analysis method to identify the representative factors. Two factors are concluded: Factor 1 mainly represents laws and regulations of government, governmental subsidy, governmental technology support, governmental market guidance, governmental monitor and control, recycling knowledge publication by government, social responsibilities of producers and recyclers, technique disposition ability of producers and recyclers, recyclers' service, therefore it could be summarized as government and enterprise disposition capability; while Factor 2 mainly represents consumers' benefit from recycling, convenience of consumers' recycling, mental satisfaction of consumers from recycling, consumers' recycling knowledge, social recycling environment, and thus they could be summarized as consumer incentive factor. This paper would provide some references for the analysis and research on influencing factors of waste sensors and transducers recycling.

  12. The Compressor Recycle System

    OpenAIRE

    Barstad, Bjørn Ove

    2010-01-01

    The compressor recycle system is the main focus of this thesis. When the mass flow through a compressor becomes too low, the compressor can plunge into surge. Surge is a term that is used for axisymmetric oscillation through a compressor and is highly unwanted. The recycle system feeds compressed gas back to the intake when the mass flow becomes too low, and thereby act as a safety system.A mathematical model of the recycle system is extended and simulated in SIMULINK. The mathematical model ...

  13. A Model for Recycling Target Policy under Imperfect Competition With and Without Cooperation Between Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Satoshi Honma; Ming-Chung Chang

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a general theoretical model that describes production and recycling in an n-firm oligopoly market in which firms can cooperate for recycling. We use a three-stage game to analyze a specific recycling issue. In stage 0, the government sets a target recycling rate as well as virgin material and final disposal tax rates. In stage 1, n identical firms simultaneously invest to reduce the cost of recycling given the recycling target. Here we treat this activi...

  14. Recycling of used oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vipulanandan, C.; Ghurye, G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on used oil which is a valuable resource that should be recycled. Recycling used oil saves energy and natural resources. Used oil can be reprocessed and used as fuel in industrial burners and boilers. Unfortunately, more than 400 million gallons/year of used oil is lost through widespread dumping, partly due to lack of effective recycling procedures. Although used oil is not currently a federally listed hazardous waste, the U.S. EPA has proposed to list it as a hazardous waste, which will make recycling of used oil even more attractive. Laboratory samples, representing used oil, were used for detailed parametric studies and to determine the limitation of extending some of the current physical separation techniques such as sedimentation and centrifuging developed for oil-water and solid-liquid separation

  15. Recycling of Metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Anders; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Metals like iron and aluminium are produced from mineral ore and used for a range of products, some of which have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of municipal waste. Packaging in terms of cans, foils and containers are products with a short lifetime. Other products like...... appliances, vehicles and buildings, containing iron and aluminium metals, have long lifetimes before they end up in the waste stream. The recycling of production waste and postconsumer metals has a long history in the metal industry. Some metal smelters are today entirely based on scarp metals. This chapter...... describes briefly how iron and aluminium are produced and how scrap metal is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements and use of recycled products are discussed, as are the resource and environmental issues of metal recycling. Copper and other metals are also found in waste but in much smaller...

  16. Reduce, reuse and recycle

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Afrika, M

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of the internationally accepted waste management hierarchy (Sakai et al, 1996) into South African policy has changed the focus from “end of pipe” waste management towards waste minimisation (reuse, recycling and cleaner production...

  17. Recycling of Glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Damgaard, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Glass is used for many purposes, but in the waste system glass is predominantly found in terms of beverage and food containers with a relatively short lifetime before ending up in the waste. Furthermore there is a large amount of flat glass used in building materials which also ends up in the waste...... system; this glass though has a long lifetime before ending up in the waste. Altogether these product types add up to 82% of the production of the European glass industry (IPCC, 2001). Recycling of glass in terms of cleaning and refilling of bottles as well as the use of broken glass in the production...... of new glass containers is well established in the glass industry. This chapter describes briefly howglass is produced and howwaste glass is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements and use of recycled products are discussed, as are the resource and environmental issues of glass recycling....

  18. A Practical Recycling Project . . .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, Raymond H.; Mikuska, James M.

    1973-01-01

    Descirbes a school district's recycling program of aluminum lunch trays that are collected after their use. The trays are used as scrap metal in industrial education workshop and used for sand castings. (PS)

  19. Challenges in plastics recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Jakobsen, L. G.; Eriksen, Marie Kampmann

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of waste plastics still remains a challenging area in the waste management sector. The current and potential goals proposed on EU or regional levels are difficult to achieve, and even to partially fullfil them the improvements in collection and sorting should be considerable. A study...... was undertaken to investigate the factors affecting quality in plastics recycling. The preliminary results showed factors primarily influencing quality of plastics recycling to be polymer cross contamination, presence of additives, non-polymer impurities, and polymer degradation. Deprivation of plastics quality......, with respect to recycling, has been shown to happen throughout the plastics value chain, but steps where improvements may happen have been preliminary identified. Example of Cr in plastic samples analysed showed potential spreading and accumulation of chemicals ending up in the waste plastics. In order...

  20. Dual recycling for GEO 600

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grote, H; Freise, A; Malec, M; Heinzel, G; Willke, B; Lueck, H; Strain, K A; Hough, J; Danzmann, K

    2004-01-01

    Dual recycling is the combination of signal recycling and power recycling; both optical techniques improve the shot-noise-limited sensitivity of interferometric gravitational-wave detectors. In addition, signal recycling can reduce the loss of light power due to imperfect interference and allows us, in principle, to beat the standard quantum limit. The interferometric gravitational-wave detector GEO 600 is the first of the kilometre-scale detectors to use signal recycling. We have recently equipped the detector with a signal-recycling mirror with a transmittance of 1%. In this paper, we present details of the detector commissioning and the first locks of the dual-recycled interferometer

  1. The Recycler Electron Cooler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shemyakin, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Prost, L. R. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2013-03-19

    The Recycler Electron cooler was the first (and so far, the only) cooler working at a relativistic energy (γ = 9.5). It was successfully developed in 1995-2004 and was in operation at Fermilab in 2005-2011, providing cooling of antiprotons in the Recycler ring. This paper describes the cooler, difficulties in achieving the required electron beam parameters and the ways to overcome them, cooling measurements, and details of operation.

  2. PET and Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Sevencan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This review aims to clarify the need of decreasing the environmental effects caused by human and draw attention to the increasing environmental effects of plastics wastes. Plastics consist of organic molecules with high density molecules or polymers. Main resources of plastics are the residue of oil rafineries. Several advantages of plastics, have increased the usage continuously. Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET is the most commonly used plastics. PET is used to protect food, drinking water, fruit juice, alcoholic beverage, and food packing films. By the increasing interest on the environmental effects of plastic wastes, concerns on the recyclable packing materials also grew up. Also the daily use of recyclable containers consisting PET have increased. There are five steps for recycling of plastics. These steps are; using large amounts of plastics, collecting them in a big center, classifying and sorting the plastics, reproducing the polymers and obtaining new products with melted plastics. Providing a healthy recycling of plastics, the consumers should have knowledge and responsibility. The consumer should know what he/she has to do before putting the plastics in the recycling containers. Recycling containers and bags should be placed near the sources of plastic wastes. Consequently, the plastic wastes and environmental problems they cause will be on the agenda in future. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(4: 307-312

  3. PET and Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Sevencan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This review aims to clarify the need of decreasing the environmental effects caused by human and draw attention to the increasing environmental effects of plastics wastes. Plastics consist of organic molecules with high density molecules or polymers. Main resources of plastics are the residue of oil rafineries. Several advantages of plastics, have increased the usage continuously. Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET is the most commonly used plastics. PET is used to protect food, drinking water, fruit juice, alcoholic beverage, and food packing films. By the increasing interest on the environmental effects of plastic wastes, concerns on the recyclable packing materials also grew up. Also the daily use of recyclable containers consisting PET have increased. There are five steps for recycling of plastics. These steps are; using large amounts of plastics, collecting them in a big center, classifying and sorting the plastics, reproducing the polymers and obtaining new products with melted plastics. Providing a healthy recycling of plastics, the consumers should have knowledge and responsibility. The consumer should know what he/she has to do before putting the plastics in the recycling containers. Recycling containers and bags should be placed near the sources of plastic wastes. Consequently, the plastic wastes and environmental problems they cause will be on the agenda in future. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(4.000: 307-312

  4. Nuclear reactor recyclation device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takigawa, Yukio; Chuma, Kazuto

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent the unevenness for the coolant flow rate even when abnormality occurs to one of recycling pumps. Constitution: A plurality of jet pumps disposed at an interval around the reactor core are divided circumferentially into two sets, and a pipeway is disposed to the outside of each pair including recycling pumps corresponding to each of the sets. The pipeway is connected to the recycling inlet of the jet pump by way of a manifold. The discharge portion of the recycling pumps of the loop pipeway are connected with each other by way of communication pipes, and a normally closed valve is disposed to the communication pipe and the normally closed valve of the communication pipe is opened upon detecting abnormality for one of the recycling pumps. Thus, if either one of the pair of recycling pumps shows abnormal state, coolants flows from the other of pipeway to the outside of the loop pipeway and coolants are supplied from all the jet pumps to the reactor core portion and, accordingly, the not-uniform flow rate can be prevented to eliminate undesired effect on the reactor core. (Kamimura, M.)

  5. Recycling of Paper and Cardboard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Damgaard, Anders

    2011-01-01

    waste. Recycling of paper and cardboard production waste and postconsumer waste has a long history in the pulp and paper industry. The recycled material now makes up more than half of the raw material used in European pulp and paper industry (ERPC, 2004). This chapter describes briefly how paper...... and cardboard are produced and how waste paper is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements and use of recycled products are discussed, as are the resource and environmental issues of paper recycling....

  6. Composition of waste materials and recyclables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Götze, Ramona

    involves several steps to prepare the samples mechanically and/or chemically for final analysis. Not all sample preparation methods are equally well suited for specific waste characterization purposes. The correctness of results and practical feasibility of sample preparation was strongly affected...... for future modelling and assessment of waste management systems. The analyzed fractions were selected based on material properties with relevance for potential recycling processes. The physico-chemical analysis revealed chemical differences between residual and source-segregated samples for several fractions....... The results for parameters associated with organic matter confirmed the idea of cross-contaminated recyclables in residual waste, whereas the results for heavy metals and trace elements were more complex. For many fractions rather high metal contents were found to be intrinsic properties of the recyclables...

  7. Concrete produced with recycled aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. L. Tenório

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis of the mechanical and durable properties of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC for using in concrete. The porosity of recycled coarse aggregates is known to influence the fresh and hardened concrete properties and these properties are related to the specific mass of the recycled coarse aggregates, which directly influences the mechanical properties of the concrete. The recycled aggregates were obtained from construction and demolition wastes (CDW, which were divided into recycled sand (fine and coarse aggregates. Besides this, a recycled coarse aggregate of a specific mass with a greater density was obtained by mixing the recycled aggregates of the CDW with the recycled aggregates of concrete wastes (CW. The concrete was produced in laboratory by combining three water-cement ratios, the ratios were used in agreement with NBR 6118 for structural concretes, with each recycled coarse aggregates and recycled sand or river sand, and the reference concrete was produced with natural aggregates. It was observed that recycled aggregates can be used in concrete with properties for structural concrete. In general, the use of recycled coarse aggregate in combination with recycled sand did not provide good results; but when the less porous was used, or the recycled coarse aggregate of a specific mass with a greater density, the properties of the concrete showed better results. Some RAC reached bigger strengths than the reference concrete.

  8. Impaired imprinting and social behaviors in chicks exposed to mifepristone, a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, during the final week of embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishigori, Hideo; Kagami, Keisuke; Nishigori, Hidekazu

    2014-03-15

    The effects of glucocorticoid receptor dysfunction during embryogenesis on the imprinting abilities and social behaviors of hatchlings were examined using "fertile hen's egg-embryo-chick" system. Of embryos treated with mifepristone (0.4μmol/egg) on day 14, over 75% hatched a day later than the controls (day 22) without external anomalies. The mifepristone-treated hatchlings were assayed for imprinting ability on post-hatching day 2 and for social behaviors on day 3. The findings were as follows: imprinting ability (expressed as preference score) was significantly lower in mifepristone-treated hatchlings than in controls (0.65±0.06 vs. 0.92±0.02, P<0.005). Aggregation tests to evaluate the speed (seconds) required for four chicks, individually isolated with cardboard dividers in a box, to form a group after removal of the barriers showed that aggregation was significantly slower in mifepristone-treated hatchlings than in controls (8.7±1.1 vs. 2.6±0.3, P<0.001). In belongingness tests to evaluate the speed (seconds) for a chick isolated at a corner to join a group of three chicks placed at the opposite corner, mifepristone-treated hatchlings took significantly longer than controls (4.5±0.4/40 cm vs. 2.4±0.08/40 cm, P<0.001). In vocalization tests, using a decibel meter to measure average decibel level/30s (chick vocalization), mifepristone-treated hatchlings had significantly weaker vocalizations than controls (14.2±1.9/30s vs. 26.4±1.3/30s P<0.001). In conclusion, glucocorticoid receptor dysfunction during the last week embryogenesis altered the programming of brain development, resulting in impaired behavioral activities in late life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Japan's fuel recycling policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) has formulated Japanese nuclear fuel recycling plan for the next 20 years, based on the idea that the supply and demand of plutonium should be balanced mainly through the utilization of plutonium for LWRs. The plan was approved by AEC, and is to be incorporated in the 'Long term program for development and utilization of nuclear energy' up for revision next year. The report on 'Nuclear fuel recycling in Japan' by the committee is characterized by Japanese nuclear fuel recycling plan and the supply-demand situation for plutonium, the principle of the possession of plutonium not more than the demand in conformity with nuclear nonproliferation attitude, and the establishment of a domestic fabrication system of uranium-plutonium mixed oxide fuel. The total plutonium supply up to 2010 is estimated to be about 85 t, on the other hand, the demand will be 80-90 t. The treatment of plutonium is the key to the recycling and utilization of nuclear fuel. By around 2000, the private sector will commercialize the fabrication of the MOX fuel for LWRs at the annual rate of about 100 t. Commitment to nuclear nonproliferation, future nuclear fuel recycling program in Japan, MOX fuel fabrication system in Japan and so on are reported. (K.I.)

  10. Recycling of Reinforced Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, R. D.; Collins, Andrew; Cooper, Duncan; Wingfield-Digby, Mark; Watts-Farmer, Archibald; Laurence, Anna; Patel, Kayur; Stevens, Mark; Watkins, Rhodri

    2014-02-01

    This work has shown is that it is possible to recycle continuous and short fibre reinforced thermosetting resins while keeping almost the whole of the original material, both fibres and matrix, within the recyclate. By splitting, crushing hot or cold, and hot forming, it is possible to create a recyclable material, which we designate a Remat, which can then be used to remanufacture other shapes, examples of plates and tubes being demonstrated. Not only can remanufacturing be done, but it has been shown that over 50 % of the original mechanical properties, such as the E modulus, tensile strength, and interlaminar shear strength, can be retained. Four different forms of composite were investigated, a random mat Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) bathroom component and boat hull, woven glass and carbon fibre cloth impregnated with an epoxy resin, and unidirectional carbon fibre pre-preg. One of the main factors found to affect composite recyclability was the type of resin matrix used in the composite. Thermoset resins tested were shown to have a temperature range around the Glass Transition Temperature (Tg) where they exhibit ductile behaviour, hence aiding reforming of the material. The high-grade carbon fibre prepreg was found to be less easy to recycle than the woven of random fibre laminates. One method of remanufacturing was by heating the Remat to above its glass transition temperature, bending it to shape, and then cooling it. However, unless precautions are taken, the geometric form may revert. This does not happen with the crushed material.

  11. Recycling of reprocessed uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randl, R.P.

    1987-01-01

    Since nuclear power was first exploited in the Federal Republic of Germany, the philosophy underlying the strategy of the nuclear fuel cycle has been to make optimum use of the resource potential of recovered uranium and plutonium within a closed fuel cycle. Apart from the weighty argument of reprocessing being an important step in the treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes, permitting their optimum ecological conditioning after the reprocessing step and subsequent storage underground, another argument that, no doubt, carried weight was the possibility of reducing the demand of power plants for natural uranium. In recent years, strategies of recycling have emerged for reprocessed uranium. If that energy potential, too, is to be exploited by thermal recycling, it is appropriate to choose a slightly different method of recycling from the one for plutonium. While the first generation of reprocessed uranium fuel recycled in the reactor cuts down natural uranium requirement by some 15%, the recycling of a second generation of reprocessed, once more enriched uranium fuel helps only to save a further three per cent of natural uranium. Uranium of the second generation already carries uranium-232 isotope, causing production disturbances, and uranium-236 isotope, causing disturbances of the neutron balance in the reactor, in such amounts as to make further fabrication of uranium fuel elements inexpedient, even after mixing with natural uranium feed. (orig./UA) [de

  12. Survey and alignment of the Fermilab recycler antiproton storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arics, Babatunde O.O.

    1999-01-01

    In June of 1999 Fermilab commissioned a newly constructed antiproton storage ring, the 'Recycler Ring', in the Main Injector tunnel directly above the Main Injector beamline. The Recycler Ring is a fixed 8 GeV kinetic energy storage ring and is constructed of strontium ferrite permanent magnets. The 3319.4-meter-circumference Recycler Ring consists of 344 gradient magnets and 100 quadrupoles all of which are permanent magnets. This paper discusses the methods employed to survey and align these permanent magnets within the Recycler Ring with the specified accuracy. The Laser Tracker was the major instrument used for the final magnet alignment. The magnets were aligned along the Recycler Ring with a relative accuracy of ±0.25 mm. (author)

  13. German experience in recycling of contaminated scrap by melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quade, U.

    2003-01-01

    Recycling of radioactively contaminated scrap to products for further application in the nuclear cycle is Germany as an economic alternative. It has been shown that recycling within the nuclear industry reduces the collective dose as well as the number of individuals who receive doses. In the future when decommissioning of NPP will increase, a high amount of slightly radioactive steel scrap has to be managed safely. Recycling will play an important role to keep as much of these materials within the nuclear cycle as economically possible. Siempelkamp supplies a broad range of products made of recycled material from the nuclear industry. Containers made of nodular cast iron for transport and storage of radwaste as well as containers made of concrete with iron granules additive to increase the density up to 4 g/cm 3 , are offered. Interim and final disposal volume, having consequences on costs, can be reduced when recycling is applied for slightly contaminated metallic scrap

  14. Integrated Nuclear Recycle Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patodi, Anuj; Parashar, Abhishek; Samadhiya, Akshay K.; Ray, Saheli; Dey, Mitun; Singh, K.K.

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear Recycle Board (NRB), Tarapur proposes to set up an 'Integrated Nuclear Recycle Plant' at Tarapur. This will be located in the premises of BARC facilities. The project location is at coastal town of Tarapur, 130 Km north of Mumbai. Project area cover of INRP is around 80 hectares. The plant will be designed to process spent fuel received from Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs). This is the first large scale integrated plant of the country. INRP will process spent fuel obtained from indigenous nuclear power plants and perform left over nuclear waste disposal

  15. Mox fuels recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper will firstly emphasis that the first recycling of plutonium is already an industrial reality in France thanks to the high degree of performance of La Hague and MELOX COGEMA's plants. Secondly, recycling of spent Mixed OXide fuel, as a complete MOX fuel cycle, will be demonstrated through the ability of the existing plants and services which have been designed to proceed with such fuels. Each step of the MOX fuel cycle concept will be presented: transportation, reception and storage at La Hague and steps of spent MOX fuel reprocessing. (author)

  16. Filter Backwash Recycling Rule Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the FBRR is to require (PWSs) to review their recycle practices and, where appropriate, work with the state Primacy Agency to make any necessary changes to recycle practices that may compromise microbial control.

  17. Overview of HTGR fuel recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notz, K.J.

    1976-01-01

    An overview of HTGR fuel recycle is presented, with emphasis placed on reprocessing and fuel kernel refabrication. Overall recycle operations include (1) shipment and storage, (2) reprocessing, (3) refabrication, (4) waste handling, and (5) accountability and safeguards

  18. Recycling - Danish Waste Management Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romann, Anne Funch; Thøgersen, John; Husmer, Lis

    The report challanges recycling as the only waste handling strategy. The tonnes of recycled materials should not be the only goal - it is essential to minimize the waste production and focus on eliminating hazardous materials.......The report challanges recycling as the only waste handling strategy. The tonnes of recycled materials should not be the only goal - it is essential to minimize the waste production and focus on eliminating hazardous materials....

  19. Vehicle recycling regulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smink, Carla

    2007-01-01

    The number of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) in the EU is increasing continously. Around 75 percent of an ELV are recyclable metals. The forecast growth in the number of ELVs calls for regulation that aims to minimise the environmental impact of a car. Using Denmark as an example, this article...

  20. Nuclear fuel recycling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.R.; Koch, A.K.; Krawczyk, A.

    1981-01-01

    A process is provided for recycling sintered uranium dioxide fuel pellets rejected during fuel manufacture and the swarf from pellet grinding. The scrap material is prepared mechanically by crushing and milling as a high solids content slurry, using scrap sintered UO 2 pellets as the grinding medium under an inert atmosophere

  1. Recycling as moral behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    It is argued in this paper that in the affluent, industrial societies, environmental behaviours like recycling are typically classified within ""the domain of morality"" in people's minds. Intentions regarding these types of behaviours are not ba a thorough - conscious or unconscious - calculation...

  2. Solid waste characterization and recycling potential for a university campus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armijo de Vega, Carolina; Ojeda Benitez, Sara; Ramirez Barreto, Ma. Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Integrated waste management systems are one of the greatest challenges for sustainable development. For these systems to be successful, the first step is to carry out waste characterization studies. In this paper are reported the results of a waste characterization study performed in the Campus Mexicali I of the Autonomous University of Baja California (UABC). The aim of this study was to set the basis for implementation of a recovery, reduction and recycling waste management program at the campus. It was found that the campus Mexicali I produces 1 ton of solid wastes per day; more than 65% of these wastes are recyclable or potentially recyclable. These results showed that a program for segregation and recycling is feasible on a University Campus. The study also showed that the local market for recyclable waste, under present conditions - number of recycling companies and amounts of recyclables accepted - can absorb all of these wastes. Some alternatives for the potentially recyclables wastes are discussed. Finally some strategies that could be used to reduce waste at the source are discussed as well

  3. LithoRec. Recycling of lithium-ion batteries. Within the R and D program ''Promotion of research and development in the field of electric mobility''. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwade, Arno; Baerwaldt, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    In the project ''LithoRec - Recycling of lithium-ion batteries'' several methods were evaluated for recycling of traction batteries. The planning of dismantling of the battery systems in LithoRec comprised besides the pure system planning also first investigations of the automation of dismantling steps, inter alia, with the prototypical realization of a gripper system for the removal of the battery cells. Processes for disassembling the cells and separating the active materials of the metal foils has been investigated in the laboratory and established with respect to the shredding of the cells in the pilot-plant scale. For hydrometallurgical treatment of separated coating powder of lithium-ion batteries in LithoRec a pilot plant has been realized. Ecological and economical balances on the basis of investigations carried out in the laboratory or pilot plant scale showed positive results. For the separation of the battery systems to the levels of the cathodic active material powder, a consistent approach was developed, which showed very good results in laboratory equipment. [de

  4. Recycling Behavior: A Multidimensional Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Gonzalo Diaz; Palacio, Asuncion Beerli

    2005-01-01

    This work centers on the study of consumer recycling roles to examine the sociodemographic and psychographic profile of the distribution of recycling tasks and roles within the household. With this aim in mind, an empirical work was carried out, the results of which suggest that recycling behavior is multidimensional and comprises the undertaking…

  5. The Fernald Waste Recycling Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motl, G.P.

    1993-01-01

    Recycling is considered a critical component of the waste disposition strategy at the Fernald Plant. It is estimated that 33 million cubic feet of waste will be generated during the Fernald cleanup. Recycling some portion of this waste will not only conserve natural resources and disposal volume but will, even more significantly, support the preservation of existing disposition options such as off-site disposal or on-site storage. Recognizing the strategic implications of recycling, this paper outlines the criteria used at Fernald to make recycle decisions and highlights several of Fernald's current recycling initiatives

  6. Recovering valuable metals from recycled photovoltaic modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Youn Kyu; Kim, Hyun Soo; Tran, Tam; Hong, Sung Kil; Kim, Myong Jun

    2014-07-01

    Recovering valuable metals such as Si, Ag, Cu, and Al has become a pressing issue as end-of-life photovoltaic modules need to be recycled in the near future to meet legislative requirements in most countries. Of major interest is the recovery and recycling of high-purity silicon (> 99.9%) for the production of wafers and semiconductors. The value of Si in crystalline-type photovoltaic modules is estimated to be -$95/kW at the 2012 metal price. At the current installed capacity of 30 GW/yr, the metal value in the PV modules represents valuable resources that should be recovered in the future. The recycling of end-of-life photovoltaic modules would supply > 88,000 and 207,000 tpa Si by 2040 and 2050, respectively. This represents more than 50% of the required Si for module fabrication. Experimental testwork on crystalline Si modules could recover a > 99.98%-grade Si product by HNO3/NaOH leaching to remove Al, Ag, and Ti and other metal ions from the doped Si. A further pyrometallurgical smelting at 1520 degrees C using CaO-CaF2-SiO2 slag mixture to scavenge the residual metals after acid leaching could finally produce > 99.998%-grade Si. A process based on HNO3/NaOH leaching and subsequent smelting is proposed for recycling Si from rejected or recycled photovoltaic modules. Implications: The photovoltaic industry is considering options of recycling PV modules to recover metals such as Si, Ag, Cu, Al, and others used in the manufacturing of the PV cells. This is to retain its "green" image and to comply with current legislations in several countries. An evaluation of potential resources made available from PV wastes and the technologies used for processing these materials is therefore of significant importance to the industry. Of interest are the costs of processing and the potential revenues gained from recycling, which should determine the viability of economic recycling of PV modules in the future.

  7. Recycling phosphorus from wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Camilla Kjærulff

    wastewater-derived products, and to relate this to the availability from other P-containing waste products and mineral P fertiliser. This included aspects of development over time and soil accumulation, as well as effects of soil pH and the spatial distribution in soil. The P sources applied in this PhD work...... reserves. Wastewater represents the largest urban flow of P in waste. Hence, knowledge about plant P availability of products from the wastewater treatment system, and also comparison to other waste P sources and mineral P is essential to obtain an efficient recycling and to prioritise between different P...... recycling options. The work of this PhD focused on the plant P availability of sewage sludge, a P-rich residue from wastewater treatment which is commonly applied to agricultural soil in Denmark. The overall objective of the PhD work was to evaluate the plant availability of P in sewage sludge and other...

  8. Usage of Recycled Pet

    OpenAIRE

    Tayyar, A. Ebru; Üstün, Sevcan

    2010-01-01

    The increasing industrialization, urbanization and the technological development have caused to increase depletion of the natural resources and environmental pollution's problem. Especially, for the countries which have not enough space recycling of the waste eliminating waste on regular basis or decreasing the amount and volume of waste have provided the important advantages. There are lots of studies and projects to develop both protect resources and prevent environmental pollution. PE...

  9. Plutonium recycling in PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youinou, G.; Girieud, R.; Guigon, B.

    2000-01-01

    Two concepts of 100% MOX PWR cores are presented. They are designed such as to minimize the consequences of the introduction of Pu on the core control. The first one has a high moderation ratio and the second one utilizes an enriched uranium support. The important design parameters as well as their capabilities to multi recycle Pu are discussed. We conclude with the potential interest of the two concepts. (author)

  10. COPPER CABLE RECYCLING TECHNOLOGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chelsea Hubbard

    2001-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective technologies for use in deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear facilities. The Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the DOE's Office of Science and Technology (OST) sponsors large-scale demonstration and deployment projects (LSDDPs). At these LSDDPs, developers and vendors of improved or innovative technologies showcase products that are potentially beneficial to the DOE's projects and to others in the D and D community. Benefits sought include decreased health and safety risks to personnel and the environment, increased productivity, and decreased costs of operation. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) generated a list of statements defining specific needs and problems where improved technology could be incorporated into ongoing D and D tasks. One such need is to reduce the volume of waste copper wire and cable generated by D and D. Deactivation and decommissioning activities of nuclear facilities generates hundreds of tons of contaminated copper cable, which are sent to radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology separates the clean copper from contaminated insulation and dust materials in these cables. The recovered copper can then be reclaimed and, more importantly, landfill disposal volumes can be reduced. The existing baseline technology for disposing radioactively contaminated cables is to package the cables in wooden storage boxes and dispose of the cables in radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology is applicable to facility decommissioning projects at many Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities and commercial nuclear power plants undergoing decommissioning activities. The INEEL Copper Cable Recycling Technology Demonstration investigated the effectiveness and efficiency to recycle 13.5 tons of copper cable. To determine the effectiveness

  11. Recycling of merchant ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Klopott

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article briefly outlines the issues concerning ship recycling. It highlights ships' high value as sources of steel scrap and non-ferrous metals, without omitting the fact that they also contain a range of hazardous substances. Moreover, the article also focuses on basic ship demolition methods and their environmental impact, as well as emphasizes the importance of “design for ship recycling” philosophy.

  12. Recycling and Networking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bányai

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the notion that for environmental and legislative reasons improvements The national environmental policies and practice, including recycling strategies, are desirable and in many cases might be economically beneficial has been gaining ground. Although according to recent surveys the state of the environment in Hungary is in line with average values of the European Union, the main challenge for the country is to achieve sustainability in economic, environmental and technological terms. With a view to accession to the European Union, a harmonisation strategy must be worked out and implemented. This harmonisation strategy includes not only legislative aspects, but also social, technological, financial and logistic considerations.Because of the high logistic costs of achieving closed loop recycling systems, the author focuses on logistic aspects and tasks of the improvement phases and concentrates on the possibilities of networking and co-operation. The paper describes some possible alternative solutions for co-operative recycling processes, to improve the following logistic parameters: delivery times, accuracy of supply, running times, utilization of capacities, stock quantities, flexibility, transparency of the system, high forwarding capability, quality of product. The logistic aspects of co-operation will be analysed from the viewpoint of a closed loop economy.

  13. Economics and recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butlin, J A

    1977-06-01

    The current state of recycling technology could appear to be a question of supply and demand, first for storage, disposal, and reclamation facilities, and secondly, for reclaimed materials. If supply and demand are to be relied upon as an environmental policy tool, several conditions need to exist within the economy: supply data for storage and disposal facilities should reflect the full social cost of their use for this purpose relative to any other; demand data for the use of storage facilities must reflect the full social benefit of having waste go through one channel rather than some other; demand for and supply of reclaimed materials for recycling must reflect the full costs and benefits of rechanneling them back into production or consumption; and the markets for products competitive to recycled raw materials (mainly virgin raw materials) should reflect full social costs and benefits, as should the markets for the alternative uses of storage and disposal facilities. If these conditions are met (in addition to a few technical ones), then the problem of waste management will not arise. (MCW)

  14. Recycling of packing plastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gintenreiter-Koegl, S.

    2001-05-01

    The ordinance on the avoidance of packaging waste was a serious intervention in the public and private waste management in Austria. Above all the high expenses for an overall packaging waste collection and the recycling of packaging plastics were criticized. The landfill ordinance comes into force in 2004 and this means another major change in the Austrian waste management system. In the course of this change the overall collection and the recycling and recovery of waste streams, especially of the high caloric plastics waste, have to be discussed again. The goal of this work was on the one hand to develop and adapt the hydrocracking process for the recovery of mixed plastics waste and to show a possible application in Austria. On the other hand the work shows the technical, ecological and economical conditions for packaging plastics recycling and recovery in order to find optimum applications for the processes and to examine their contribution to a sustainable development. A hydrocracking test plant for the processing of mixed plastic wastes was built and had been running for about three years. The tests were carried out successfully and the suitability of the technology for the recovery of packaging plastics could be shown. Results show at least a 35 % yield of fuel. The hydrocracking technology is quite common in the oil industries and therefore an integration on a refinery site is suggested. (author)

  15. Recycling retention functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrable, K.W.; Chabot, G.E.; Johnson, M.H.

    1981-01-01

    Beginning with the concept of any number of physiologically meaningful compartments that recycle material with a central extracellular fluid compartment and considering various excretion pathways, we solve the differential equations describing the kinetics by the method of Laplace to obtain concise algebraic expressions for the retentions. These expressions contain both fundamental and eigenvalue rate constants; the eigenvalue rate constants are obtained from the solution of a polynomial incorporating the fundamental rate constants. Mathematically exact expressions that predict the biodistribution resulting from continuous uptakes are used to obtain very simple mathematically exact steady state expressions as well as approximate expressions applicable to any time. These steady state and approximate expressions contain only the fundamental rate constants; also, they include a recycling factor that describes the increase in the biodistributions because of recycling. To obtain the values of the fundamental rate constants, short term kinetics studies along with data on the long term distributions are suggested. Retention functions obtained in this way predict both the short term and long term distributions; they therefore are useful in the interpretation of bioassay data and in the estimation of internal doses

  16. Centralized consolidation/recycling center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St. Georges, L.T.; Poor, A.D.

    1995-05-01

    There are approximately 175 separate locations on the Hanford Site where dangerous waste is accumulated in hundreds of containers according to compatibility. Materials that are designated as waste could be kept from entering the waste stream by establishing collection points for these materials and wastes and then transporting them to a centralized consolidation/recycling center (hereinafter referred to as the consolidation center). Once there the materials would be prepared for offsite recycling. This document discusses the removal of batteries, partially full aerosol cans, and DOP light ballasts from the traditional waste management approach, which eliminates 89 satellite accumulation areas from the Hanford Site (43 for batteries, 33 for aerosols, and 13 for DOP ballasts). Eliminating these 89 satellite accumulation areas would reduce by hundreds the total number of containers shipped offsite as hazardous waste (due to the increase in containers when the wastes that are accumulated are segregated according to compatibility for final shipment). This new approach is in line with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) draft Universal Waste Rules for these open-quotes nuisanceclose quotes and common waste streams. Additionally, future reviews of other types of wastes that can be handled in this less restrictive and more cost-effective manner will occur as part of daily operations at the consolidation center. The Hanford Site has been identified as a laboratory for reinventing government by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Hazel O'Leary, and as a demonstration zone where open-quotes innovative ideas, processes and technologies can be created, tested and demonstrated.close quotes Additionally, DOE, EPA, and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) have agreed to cut Hanford cleanup costs by $1 billion over a 5-year period

  17. Protecting groundwater resources at biosolids recycling sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Michael J; Kumarasamy, Karthik; Brobst, Robert B; Hais, Alan; Schmitz, Mark D

    2013-01-01

    In developing the national biosolids recycling rule (Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulation Part 503 or Part 503), the USEPA conducted deterministic risk assessments whose results indicated that the probability of groundwater impairment associated with biosolids recycling was insignificant. Unfortunately, the computational capabilities available for performing risk assessments of pollutant fate and transport at that time were limited. Using recent advances in USEPA risk assessment methodology, the present study evaluates whether the current national biosolids pollutant limits remain protective of groundwater quality. To take advantage of new risk assessment approaches, a computer-based groundwater risk characterization screening tool (RCST) was developed using USEPA's Multimedia, Multi-pathway, Multi-receptor Exposure and Risk Assessment program. The RCST, which generates a noncarcinogenic human health risk estimate (i.e., hazard quotient [HQ] value), has the ability to conduct screening-level risk characterizations. The regulated heavy metals modeled in this study were As, Cd, Ni, Se, and Zn. Results from RCST application to biosolids recycling sites located in Yakima County, Washington, indicated that biosolids could be recycled at rates as high as 90 Mg ha, with no negative human health effects associated with groundwater consumption. Only under unrealistically high biosolids land application rates were public health risks characterized as significant (HQ ≥ 1.0). For example, by increasing the biosolids application rate and pollutant concentrations to 900 Mg ha and 10 times the regulatory limit, respectively, the HQ values varied from 1.4 (Zn) to 324.0 (Se). Since promulgation of Part 503, no verifiable cases of groundwater contamination by regulated biosolids pollutants have been reported. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  18. Validation of dose calculation programmes for recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, Shankar; Brun-Yaba, Christine; Yu, Charley; Cheng, Jing-Jy; Williams, Alexander

    2002-12-01

    This report contains the results from an international project initiated by the SSI in 1999. The primary purpose of the project was to validate some of the computer codes that are used to estimate radiation doses due to the recycling of scrap metal. The secondary purpose of the validation project was to give a quantification of the level of conservatism in clearance levels based on these codes. Specifically, the computer codes RESRAD-RECYCLE and CERISE were used to calculate radiation doses to individuals during the processing of slightly contaminated material, mainly in Studsvik, Sweden. Calculated external doses were compared with measured data from different steps of the process. The comparison of calculations and measurements shows that the computer code calculations resulted in both overestimations and underestimations of the external doses for different recycling activities. The SSI draws the conclusion that the accuracy is within one order of magnitude when experienced modellers use their programmes to calculate external radiation doses for a recycling process involving material that is mainly contaminated with cobalt-60. No errors in the codes themselves were found. Instead, the inaccuracy seems to depend mainly on the choice of some modelling parameters related to the receptor (e.g., distance, time, etc.) and simplifications made to facilitate modelling with the codes (e.g., object geometry). Clearance levels are often based on studies on enveloping scenarios that are designed to cover all realistic exposure pathways. It is obvious that for most practical cases, this gives a margin to the individual dose constraint (in the order of 10 micro sievert per year within the EC). This may be accentuated by the use of conservative assumptions when modelling the enveloping scenarios. Since there can obviously be a fairly large inaccuracy in the calculations, it seems reasonable to consider some degree of conservatism when establishing clearance levels based on

  19. Validation of dose calculation programmes for recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menon, Shankar [Menon Consulting, Nykoeping (Sweden); Brun-Yaba, Christine [Inst. de Radioprotection et Securite Nucleaire (France); Yu, Charley; Cheng, Jing-Jy [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.; Bjerler, Jan [Studsvik Stensand, Nykoeping (Sweden); Williams, Alexander [Dept. of Energy (United States). Office of Environmental Management

    2002-12-01

    This report contains the results from an international project initiated by the SSI in 1999. The primary purpose of the project was to validate some of the computer codes that are used to estimate radiation doses due to the recycling of scrap metal. The secondary purpose of the validation project was to give a quantification of the level of conservatism in clearance levels based on these codes. Specifically, the computer codes RESRAD-RECYCLE and CERISE were used to calculate radiation doses to individuals during the processing of slightly contaminated material, mainly in Studsvik, Sweden. Calculated external doses were compared with measured data from different steps of the process. The comparison of calculations and measurements shows that the computer code calculations resulted in both overestimations and underestimations of the external doses for different recycling activities. The SSI draws the conclusion that the accuracy is within one order of magnitude when experienced modellers use their programmes to calculate external radiation doses for a recycling process involving material that is mainly contaminated with cobalt-60. No errors in the codes themselves were found. Instead, the inaccuracy seems to depend mainly on the choice of some modelling parameters related to the receptor (e.g., distance, time, etc.) and simplifications made to facilitate modelling with the codes (e.g., object geometry). Clearance levels are often based on studies on enveloping scenarios that are designed to cover all realistic exposure pathways. It is obvious that for most practical cases, this gives a margin to the individual dose constraint (in the order of 10 micro sievert per year within the EC). This may be accentuated by the use of conservative assumptions when modelling the enveloping scenarios. Since there can obviously be a fairly large inaccuracy in the calculations, it seems reasonable to consider some degree of conservatism when establishing clearance levels based on

  20. Identification and characterization of five non-traditional-source categories: Catastrophic/accidental releases, vehicle repair facilities, recycling, pesticide application, and agricultural operations. Final report, September 1991-September 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sleva, S.; Pendola, J.A.; McCutcheon, J.; Jones, K.; Kersteter, S.L.

    1993-03-01

    The work is part of EPA's program to identify and characterize emissions sources not currently accounted for by either the existing Aerometric Information Retrieval System (AIRS) or State Implementation Plans (SIP) area source methodologies and to develop appropriate emissions estimation methodologies and emission factors for a group of these source categories. Based on the results of the identification and characterization portions of the research, five source categories were selected for methodology and emission factor development: catastrophic/accidental releases, vehicle repair facilities, recycling, pesticide application and agricultural operations. The report presents emissions estimation methodologies and emission factor data for the selected source categories. The discussions for each selected category include general background information, emissions generation activities, pollutants emitted, sources of activity and pollutant data, emissions estimation methodologies, issues to be considered and recommendations. The information used in these discussions was derived from various sources including available literature, industrial and trade association publications and contracts, experts on the category and activity, and knowledgeable federal and state personnel

  1. Japanese Fast Reactor Program for Homogeneous Actinide Recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Makoto; Nagata, Takashi; Kondo, Satoru

    2008-01-01

    In the present report, the homogeneous actinide recycling scenario of Fast Reactor (FR) Cycle Technology Development Project (FaCT) is summarized. First, the scenario of nuclear energy policy in Japan are briefly reviewed. Second, the basic plan of Japan to manage all minor actinide (MA) by recycling is summarized objectives of which are the efficiency increase of uranium resources, the environmental burden reduction, and the increase of nuclear non-proliferation potential. Third, recent results of reactor physics study related to MA-loaded FR cores are briefly described. Fourth, typical nuclear design of MA-loaded FR cores in the FaCT project and their main features are demonstrated with the feasibility to recycle all MA in the future FR equilibrium society. Finally, the research and development program to realize the MA recycling in Japan is introduced, including international cooperation projects. (authors)

  2. Text recycling: acceptable or misconduct?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harriman, Stephanie; Patel, Jigisha

    2014-08-16

    Text recycling, also referred to as self-plagiarism, is the reproduction of an author's own text from a previous publication in a new publication. Opinions on the acceptability of this practice vary, with some viewing it as acceptable and efficient, and others as misleading and unacceptable. In light of the lack of consensus, journal editors often have difficulty deciding how to act upon the discovery of text recycling. In response to these difficulties, we have created a set of guidelines for journal editors on how to deal with text recycling. In this editorial, we discuss some of the challenges of developing these guidelines, and how authors can avoid undisclosed text recycling.

  3. Emulsified industrial oils recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabris, T.

    1982-04-01

    The industrial lubricant market has been analyzed with emphasis on current and/or developing recycling and re-refining technologies. This task has been performed for the United States and other industrialized countries, specifically France, West Germany, Italy and Japan. Attention has been focused at emulsion-type fluids regardless of the industrial application involved. It was found that emulsion-type fluids in the United States represent a much higher percentage of the total fluids used than in other industrialized countries. While recycling is an active matter explored by the industry, re-refining is rather a result of other issues than the mere fact that oil can be regenerated from a used industrial emulsion. To extend the longevity of an emulsion is a logical step to keep expenses down by using the emulsion as long as possible. There is, however, another important factor influencing this issue: regulations governing the disposal of such fluids. The ecological question, the respect for nature and the natural balances, is often seen now as everybody's task. Regulations forbid dumping used emulsions in the environment without prior treatment of the water phase and separation of the oil phase. This is a costly procedure, so recycling is attractive since it postpones the problem. It is questionable whether re-refining of these emulsions - as a business - could stand on its own if these emulsions did not have to be taken apart for disposal purposes. Once the emulsion is separated into a water and an oil phase, however, re-refining of the oil does become economical.

  4. Development of decommissioning recycle simulator for the rational reuse of dismantled wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, Eichi; Ozaki, Sachio; Hironaga, Michihiko; Nishiuchi, Tatsuo

    2002-01-01

    An expert system having a faculty of furnishing motivations for decommissioning planners to establish a rational recycle scenario has been developed and named 'recycle simulator'. This paper presents both a summarized configuration and an algorithm of the proposed system and indicates content of required data-bases and their mutual relations. Finally an instance applying the 'recycle simulator' pointed out some important factors in the reuse of demolished concrete. (author)

  5. Recycle Glass in Foam Glass Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob; Yue, Yuanzheng

    The foam glass industry turn recycle glass into heat insulating building materials. The foaming process is relative insensitive to impurities in the recycle glass. It is therefore considered to play an important role in future glass recycling. We show and discuss trends of use of recycled glasses...... in foam glass industry and the supply sources and capacity of recycle glass....

  6. Behaviour of Recycled Coarse Aggregate Concrete: Age and Successive Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Kirtikanta; Pathappilly, Robin Davis; Sarkar, Pradip

    2016-06-01

    Recycled Coarse Aggregate (RCA) concrete construction technique can be called as `green concrete', as it minimizes the environmental hazard of the concrete waste disposal. Indian standard recommends target mean compressive strength of the conventional concrete in terms of water cement ratio ( w/ c). The present work is an attempt to study the behaviour of RCA concrete from two samples of parent concrete having different age group with regard to the relationship of compressive strength with water cement ratios. Number of recycling may influence the mechanical properties of RCA concrete. The influence of age and successive recycling on the properties such as capillary water absorption, drying shrinkage strain, air content, flexural strength and tensile splitting strength of the RCA concrete are examined. The relationship between compressive strength at different w/ c ratios obtained experimentally is investigated for the two parameters such as age of parent concrete and successive recycling. The recycled concrete using older recycled aggregate shows poor quality. While the compressive strength reduces with successive recycling gradually, the capillary water absorption increases abruptly, which leads to the conclusion that further recycling may not be advisable.

  7. Open-loop recycling: A LCA case study of PET bottle-to-fibre-recycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, L.; Worrell, E.; Patel, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    This study assesses the environmental impact of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottle-to-fibre recycling using the methodology of life-cycle assessment (LCA). Four recycling cases, including mechanical recycling, semi-mechanical recycling, back-to-oligomer recycling and back-to-monomer recycling

  8. Resources, recycle, and substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wymer, R.G.

    A two-fold strategy appears necessary to ensure that the resource needs of the developed and developing nations are met. First, recycle and substitution must be encouraged in those instances where they do find application. Although these measures have limited applicability, they may be of vital importance in those instances where they do apply; in any event, they buy time. Second, practical and economical technologies must be developed to exploit the lower-grade and marginal ores and the oftentimes abundant but highly refractory ores, as well as to greatly increase the recovery of secondary elements present in the ores - elements whose form and amounts in the ores make them economically unrecoverable by themselves, but which are economically recoverable as by-products. It is often the case that if these elements are not recovered during the initial mining and milling operations, they are rendered unrecoverable, in a practical sense, forever. Furthermore, they may even become environmental pollutants. Specific examples of recovery from refractory ores, by-product recovery, and recycle are given. Also, some suggestions of substitutes for important resources are tabulated

  9. Retromer guides STxB and CD8-M6PR from early to recycling endosomes, EHD1 guides STxB from recycling endosome to Golgi

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Jenna E.; Raisley, Brent; Zhou, Xin; Naslavsky, Naava; Taguchi, Tomohiko; Caplan, Steve; Sheff, David

    2012-01-01

    Retrograde trafficking transports proteins, lipids and toxins from the plasma membrane to the Golgi and ER. To reach the Golgi, these cargos must transit the endosomal system, consisting of early endosomes, recycling endosomes, late endosomes and lysosomes. All cargos pass through early endosomes, but may take different routes to the Golgi. Retromer dependent cargos bypass the late endosomes to reach the Golgi. We compared how two very different retromer dependent cargos negotiate the endosomal sorting system. Shiga toxin B, bound to the external layer of the plasma membrane, and chimeric CD8-Mannose-6-Phosphate Receptor, which is anchored via a transmembrane domain. Both appear to pass through the recycling endosome. Ablation of the recycling endosome diverted both of these cargos to an aberrant compartment and prevented them from reaching the Golgi. Once in the recycling endosome, Shiga toxin required EHD1 to traffic to the TGN, while the CD8-Mannose-6-Phosphate Receptor was not significantly dependent on EHD1. Knockdown of retromer components left cargo in the early endosomes, suggesting that it is required for retrograde exit from this compartment. This work establishes the recycling endosome as a required step in retrograde traffic of at least these two retromer dependent cargos. Along this pathway, retromer is associated with EE to recycling endosome traffic, while EHD1 is associated with recycling endosome to TGN traffic of STxB. PMID:22540229

  10. Recycling Pressure-Sensitive Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jihui Guo; Larry Gwin; Carl Houtman; Mark Kroll; Steven J. Severtson

    2012-01-01

    The efficient control of contaminants such as metals, plastics, inks and adhesives during the processing of recovered paper products determines the profitability of recycling mills. In fact, it is arguably the most important technical obstacle in expanding the use of recycled paper.1-4 An especially challenging category of contaminants to manage...

  11. The Dynamic Earth: Recycling Naturally!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldston, M. Jenice; Allison, Elizabeth; Fowler, Lisa; Glaze, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    This article begins with a thought-provoking question: What do you think of when you hear the term "recycle?" Many think about paper, glass, aluminum cans, landfills, and reducing waste by reusing some of these materials. How many of us ever consider the way the systems of Earth dynamically recycle its materials? In the following…

  12. Technology options for future recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, T.

    2001-01-01

    Recycling of nuclear material is indispensable, not only for using valuable resources but also for reducing the debt which we may leave to the next generations. Advanced reprocessing technologies have been developed in several countries to deal with the diversification of nuclear fuels. Also technologies derived from reprocessing or other fuel cycle areas have continued to be developed in terms of recycling. Cost effectiveness and waste-free processing are increasingly important factors in the applicable of an alternate recycling policy. This paper introduces an example of the studies in this field conducted in some countries including Japan and considers the establishment of effective recycling methodologies taking into account the uncertainty of future recycling policy. (author)

  13. Recycling Endosomes and Viral Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale-Costa, Sílvia; Amorim, Maria João

    2016-03-08

    Many viruses exploit specific arms of the endomembrane system. The unique composition of each arm prompts the development of remarkably specific interactions between viruses and sub-organelles. This review focuses on the viral-host interactions occurring on the endocytic recycling compartment (ERC), and mediated by its regulatory Ras-related in brain (Rab) GTPase Rab11. This protein regulates trafficking from the ERC and the trans-Golgi network to the plasma membrane. Such transport comprises intricate networks of proteins/lipids operating sequentially from the membrane of origin up to the cell surface. Rab11 is also emerging as a critical factor in an increasing number of infections by major animal viruses, including pathogens that provoke human disease. Understanding the interplay between the ERC and viruses is a milestone in human health. Rab11 has been associated with several steps of the viral lifecycles by unclear processes that use sophisticated diversified host machinery. For this reason, we first explore the state-of-the-art on processes regulating membrane composition and trafficking. Subsequently, this review outlines viral interactions with the ERC, highlighting current knowledge on viral-host binding partners. Finally, using examples from the few mechanistic studies available we emphasize how ERC functions are adjusted during infection to remodel cytoskeleton dynamics, innate immunity and membrane composition.

  14. Benefit/cost analysis of plutonium recycle options in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowenberg, H.; Burnham, J.B.; Fisher, F.D.; Ray, W.H.

    1977-01-01

    Beginning in 1973, the USAEC started the analysis of the benefit/cost balance of Pu recycling in light-water reactors and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has continued this effort to the present time. A study of the United States nuclear industry from 1975 until 2000 was summarized in a final environmental statement called GESMO - Generic Environmental Statement on Mixed Oxide, NUREG-0002. Cumulative environmental and economic effects for several industry growth patterns were determined. Five alternatives were evaluated, covering the basic options of recycling uranium and plutonium; recycling uranium; and no recycling. The NRC findings, excluding consideration of proliferation and safeguards questions, are: the safety of reactors and fuel-cycle facilities are not significantly affected by recycle; excluding consideration of radiological effects, the environmental effects of recycle are slightly less than those from a non-recycle system; plutonium recycling extends uranium resources and reduces environmental impacts at the same time requiring reprocessing and Pu-handling facilities; despite uncertainties, recycling has probable economic advantages over other fuel concepts; differences in health effects attributable to recycling provide no basis for selecting a particular fuel-cycle option; no waste-management considerations appear that could be a basis for the selection of any particular option. The NRC studies on health, safety and environmental considerations of Pu recycling in the United States of America show that the differences in benefits/costs between the alternative fuel cycles are small and hence do not provide a clear basis for a decision on Pu recycle at this time. Safeguards and international proliferation implications appear to be the controlling factors in reaching a decision. President Carter's statement indefinitely deferring reprocessing and Pu recycle in the United States of America has resulted in a re-evaluation by NRC of its programme to

  15. Recycle and biodestruction of hazardous nitrate wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napier, J.M.; Kosinski, F.E.

    1987-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) owns the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The plant is operated for DOE by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. One of the plant's functions involves the purification and recycling of uranium wastes. The uranium recycle operation uses nitric acid in a solvent extraction purification process, and a waste stream containing nitric acid and other impurities is generated. Before 1976 the wastes were discarded into four unlined percolation ponds. In 1976, processes were developed and installed to recycle 50% of the wastes and to biologically decompose the rest of the nitrates. In 1983 process development studies began for in situ treatment of the four percolation ponds, and the ponds were treated and discharged by May 1986. The treatment processes involved neutralization and precipitation to remove metallic impurities, followed by anaerobic denitrification to reduce the 40,000 ug/g nitrate concentration to less than 50 ug/g. The final steps included flocculation and filtration. Approximately 10 million gallons of water in the ponds were treated and discharged

  16. Space Plastic Recycling System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Techshot's proposed Space Plastic Recycler (SPR) is an automated closed loop plastic recycling system that allows the automated conversion of disposable ISS...

  17. Actinide recycling in reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuesters, H.; Wiese, H.W.; Krieg, B.

    1995-01-01

    The objective is an assessment of the transmutation of long-lived actinides and fission products and the incineration of plutonium for reducing the risk potential of radioactive waste from reactors in comparison to direct waste disposal. The contribution gives an interim account on homogeneous and heterogeneous recycling of 'risk nuclides' in thermal and fast reactors. Important results: - A homogeneous 5 percent admixture of minor actinides (MA) from N4-PWRs to EFR fuel would allow a transmutation not only of the EFR MA, but in addition of the MA from 5 or 6 PWRs of equal power. However, the incineration is restricted by safety considerations. - LWR have only a very low MA incineration potential, due to their disadvantageous neutron capture/fission ratio. - In order to keep the Cm inventory at a low level, it is advantageous to concentrate the Am heterogeneously in particular fuel elements or rods. (orig./HP)

  18. Recycling of plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminsky, W; Menzel, J; Sinn, H

    1976-01-01

    Considering the shortage of raw materials and environmental pollution, the recycling of plastic waste is a very important topic. Pilot plants for research in Funabashi Japan, Franklin (Ohio) U.S.A., and the R 80-process of Krauss Maffei, W. Germany, have demonstrated the possibility of reclaiming plastics from refuse. Old tires and waste from the plastic producing and manufacturing industries are readily available. The pyrolysis of plastic yields gaseous and liquid products, and the exploitation of this cracking reaction has been demonstrated by pilot plants in Japan and Great Britain. Further laboratory scale experiments are taking place in W. Germany. In continuous fluidized beds and in molten salts, polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinylchloride, polystyrene and rubber are pyrolysed and better than 98 percent conversion is obtained. Up to 40 percent of the feed can be obtained as aromatic compounds, and a pilot plant is under construction. As a first step PVC-containing material can be almost quantitatively dehydrochlorinated.

  19. Recycling microcavity optical biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Heather K; Armani, Andrea M

    2011-04-01

    Optical biosensors have tremendous potential for commercial applications in medical diagnostics, environmental monitoring, and food safety evaluation. In these applications, sensor reuse is desirable to reduce costs. To achieve this, harsh, wet chemistry treatments are required to remove surface chemistry from the sensor, typically resulting in reduced sensor performance and increased noise due to recognition moiety and optical transducer degradation. In the present work, we suggest an alternative, dry-chemistry method, based on O2 plasma treatment. This approach is compatible with typical fabrication of substrate-based optical transducers. This treatment completely removes the recognition moiety, allowing the transducer surface to be refreshed with new recognition elements and thus enabling the sensor to be recycled.

  20. Physics of plutonium recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The commercial recycling of plutonium as PuO 2 /UO 2 mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel is an established practice in pressurised water reactors (PWRs) in several countries, the main motivation being the consumption of plutonium arising from spent fuel reprocessing. Although the same motivating factors apply in the case of boiling water reactors (BWRs), they have lagged behind PWRs for various reasons, and MOX utilisation in BWRs has been implemented in only a few reactors to date. One of the reasons is that the nuclear design of BWR MOX assemblies (or bundles) is more complex than that of PWR assemblies. Recognizing the need and the timeliness to address this issue at the international level, the OECD/NEA Working Party on the Physics of Plutonium Fuels and Innovative Fuel Cycles (WPPR) conducted a physics code benchmark test for a BWR assembly. This volume reports on the benchmark results and conclusions that can be drawn from it. (authors)

  1. A tecnologia da reciclagem de polímeros The technology of polymer recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Aparecida da Silva Spinacé

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Solid municipal waste contains a large volume of polymers and its final disposal is a serious environmental problem. Consequently, the recycling of the principal polymers present in the solid waste is an alternative. In this review we describe the mechanical and chemical recycling of polymers and the energy recovery from plastic wastes. Polymer recycling involves not only the development of processing technologies, but also the solution of many chemical and analytical problems. The technological, economical and social aspects of polymer recycling are also considered.

  2. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziemkiewicz, Paul; Vandivort, Tamara; Pflughoeft-Hassett, Debra; Chugh, Y Paul; Hower, James

    2008-08-31

    Each year, over 100 million tons of solid byproducts are produced by coal-burning electric utilities in the United States. Annual production of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts continues to increase as the result of more stringent sulfur emission restrictions. In addition, stricter limits on NOx emissions mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act have resulted in utility burner/boiler modifications that frequently yield higher carbon concentrations in fly ash, which restricts the use of the ash as a cement replacement. Controlling ammonia in ash is also of concern. If newer, “clean coal” combustion and gasification technologies are adopted, their byproducts may also present a management challenge. The objective of the Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) is to develop and demonstrate technologies to address issues related to the recycling of byproducts associated with coal combustion processes. A goal of CBRC is that these technologies, by the year 2010, will lead to an overall ash utilization rate from the current 34% to 50% by such measures as increasing the current rate of FGD byproduct use and increasing in the number of uses considered “allowable” under state regulations. Another issue of interest to the CBRC would be to examine the environmental impact of both byproduct utilization and disposal. No byproduct utilization technology is likely to be adopted by industry unless it is more cost-effective than landfilling. Therefore, it is extremely important that the utility industry provide guidance to the R&D program. Government agencies and privatesector organizations that may be able to utilize these materials in the conduct of their missions should also provide input. The CBRC will serve as an effective vehicle for acquiring and maintaining guidance from these diverse organizations so that the proper balance in the R&D program is achieved.

  3. Graphite Recycling from Spent Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothermel, Sergej; Evertz, Marco; Kasnatscheew, Johannes; Qi, Xin; Grützke, Martin; Winter, Martin; Nowak, Sascha

    2016-12-20

    The present work reports on challenges in utilization of spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs)-an increasingly important aspect associated with a significantly rising demand for electric vehicles (EVs). In this context, the feasibility of anode recycling in combination with three different electrolyte extraction concepts is investigated. The first method is based on a thermal treatment of graphite without electrolyte recovery. The second method additionally utilizes a subcritical carbon-dioxide (subcritical CO 2 )-assisted electrolyte extraction prior to thermal treatment. And the final investigated approach uses supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO 2 ) as extractant, subsequently followed by the thermal treatment. It is demonstrated that the best performance of recycled graphite anodes can be achieved when electrolyte extraction is performed using subcritical CO 2 . Comparative studies reveal that, in the best case, the electrochemical performance of recycled graphite exceeds the benchmark consisting of a newly synthesized graphite anode. As essential efforts towards electrolyte extraction and cathode recycling have been made in the past, the electrochemical behavior of recycled graphite, demonstrating the best performance, is investigated in combination with a recycled LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 cathode. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Response to waste electrical and electronic equipments in China: legislation, recycling system, and advanced integrated process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lei; Xu, Zhenming

    2012-05-01

    Over the past 30 years, China has been suffering from negative environmental impacts from distempered waste electrical and electronic equipments (WEEE) recycling activities. For the purpose of environmental protection and resource reusing, China made a great effort to improve WEEE recycling. This article reviews progresses of three major fields in the development of China's WEEE recycling industry: legal system, formal recycling system, and advanced integrated process. Related laws concerning electronic waste (e-waste) management and renewable resource recycling are analyzed from aspects of improvements and loopholes. The outcomes and challenges for existing formal recycling systems are also discussed. The advantage and deficiency related to advanced integrated recycling processes for typical e-wastes are evaluated respectively. Finally, in order to achieve high disposal rates of WEEE, high-quantify separation of different materials in WEEE and high added value final products produced by separated materials from WEEE, an idea of integrated WEEE recycling system is proposed to point future development of WEEE recycling industry. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  5. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

    2009-07-27

    Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3-4% is expended to provide energy for their manufacture. A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products that are discarded within a year of manufacture. These two observations alone indicate that our current use of plastics is not sustainable. In addition, because of the durability of the polymers involved, substantial quantities of discarded end-of-life plastics are accumulating as debris in landfills and in natural habitats worldwide. Recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of waste requiring disposal. Here, we briefly set recycling into context against other waste-reduction strategies, namely reduction in material use through downgauging or product reuse, the use of alternative biodegradable materials and energy recovery as fuel. While plastics have been recycled since the 1970s, the quantities that are recycled vary geographically, according to plastic type and application. Recycling of packaging materials has seen rapid expansion over the last decades in a number of countries. Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public, industry and governments it

  6. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3–4% is expended to provide energy for their manufacture. A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products that are discarded within a year of manufacture. These two observations alone indicate that our current use of plastics is not sustainable. In addition, because of the durability of the polymers involved, substantial quantities of discarded end-of-life plastics are accumulating as debris in landfills and in natural habitats worldwide. Recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of waste requiring disposal. Here, we briefly set recycling into context against other waste-reduction strategies, namely reduction in material use through downgauging or product reuse, the use of alternative biodegradable materials and energy recovery as fuel. While plastics have been recycled since the 1970s, the quantities that are recycled vary geographically, according to plastic type and application. Recycling of packaging materials has seen rapid expansion over the last decades in a number of countries. Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public, industry and governments it

  7. Coal liquefaction with preasphaltene recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, Robert F.; Miller, Robert N.

    1986-01-01

    A coal liquefaction system is disclosed with a novel preasphaltene recycle from a supercritical extraction unit to the slurry mix tank wherein the recycle stream contains at least 90% preasphaltenes (benzene insoluble, pyridine soluble organics) with other residual materials such as unconverted coal and ash. This subject process results in the production of asphaltene materials which can be subjected to hydrotreating to acquire a substitute for No. 6 fuel oil. The preasphaltene-predominant recycle reduces the hydrogen consumption for a process where asphaltene material is being sought.

  8. Recycling of americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagstroem, Ingela

    1999-12-01

    Separation of actinides from spent nuclear fuel is a part of the process of recycling fissile material. Extracting agents for partitioning the high level liquid waste (HLLW) from conventional PUREX reprocessing is studied. The CTH-process is based on three consecutive extraction cycles. In the first cycle protactinium, uranium, neptunium and plutonium are removed by extraction with di-2-ethylhexyl-phosphoric acid (HDEHP) from a 6 M nitric acid HLLW solution. Distribution ratios for actinides, fission products and corrosion products between HLLW and 1 M HDEHP in an aliphatic diluent have been investigated. To avoid addition of chemicals the acidity is reduced by a tributylphosphate (TBP) extraction cycle. The distribution ratios of elements present in HLLW have been measured between 50 % TBP in an aliphatic diluent and synthetic HLLW in range 0.1-6 M nitric acid. In the third extraction cycle americium and curium are extracted. To separate trivalent actinides from lanthanides a method based on selective stripping of the actinides from 1 M HDEHP is proposed. The aqueous phase containing ammonia, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and lactic acid is recycled in a closed loop after reextraction of the actinides into a second organic phase also containing 1 M HDEHP. Distribution ratios for americium and neodymium have been measured at varying DTPA and lactic acid concentrations and at varying pH. Nitrogen-donor reagents have been shown to have a potential to separate trivalent actinides from lanthanides. 2,2':6,2''-terpyridine as extractant follows the CHON-principle and can in synergy with 2-bromodecanoic acid separate americium from europium. Distribution ratios for americium and europium, in the range of 0.02-0.12 M nitric acid, between nitric acid and 0.02 M terpyridine with 1 M 2-bromodecanoic acid in tert-butylbenzene (TBB) was investigated. Comparison with other nitrogen-donor reagents show that increasing lipophilicity of the molecule, by substitution of

  9. The Three Rs: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Activities, 1991

    1991-01-01

    A student hand-out for a recycling unit defines the terms reduce, recycle, and reuse as they relate to solid waste management. Presents the characteristics of recyclable items such as yard wastes, metals, glass, and paper. Lists organizations through which more information about recycling can be obtained. (MCO)

  10. You're a "What"? Recycling Coordinator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torpey, Elka Maria

    2011-01-01

    Recycling coordinators supervise curbside and dropoff recycling programs for municipal governments or private firms. Today, recycling is mandatory in many communities. And advancements in collection and processing methods have helped to increase the quantity of materials for which the recycling coordinator is responsible. In some communities,…

  11. The Diffusion Effect of MSW Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Tui Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to compare the recycling performance for some waste fractions selected including food waste, bulk waste, paper, metal products, plastics/rubber and glass products and then to develop some directions for the future improvements. The priority of each waste fraction for recycling is also analyzed by using an importance-performance analysis. Traditionally, the recycling rate that is calculated by the ratio of waste recycled to waste collected is used as an indicator to measure recycling performance. Due to a large variation among waste fractions in municipal solid waste (MSW, the recycling rate cannot reflect the actual recycling performance. The ceiling of recycling rate for each waste fraction estimated from the diffusion models is incorporated into a model to calculate recycling performance. The results show that (1 the diffusion effect exists significantly for the recycling of most recyclables but no evidence is found to support the diffusion effect for the recycling of food waste and bulk waste; (2 the recycling performance of waste metal products ranks the top, compared to waste paper, waste glass and other waste fractions; (3 furthermore, an importance-performance analysis (IPA is employed to analyze the priority of recycling programs and thus this paper suggests that the recycling of food waste should be seen as the most priority item to recycle.

  12. Technology options for future recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, T.

    2000-01-01

    It goes without saying that recycling of nuclear material is indispensable, not only for the effective use of valuable resources but also to reduce the debt which we may leave to the next generations. Many developments in advanced reprocessing technologies have been carried out in several countries to deal with the diversification of nuclear fuels. Also technologies derived from reprocessing or other fuel cycle areas have continued to be developed in terms of recycling. Cost effectiveness and waste-free processing are increasingly important factors in the applicable of an alternate recycling policy. This paper introduces an example of the studies in this field, which has been conducted in Japan and considers the establishment of effective recycling methodologies taking into account the uncertainty of future policy. (authors)

  13. Continuous cell recycle fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, R K; Hill, G A; MacDonald, D G

    1991-10-01

    A cell recycle fermentor using a cross-flow membrane filter has been operated for extended periods. Productivities as high as 70 g/l/h were obtained at a cell concentration of 120 g/l and a product concentration of 70 g/l. The experimental results were then fitted to previously derived biokinetic models (Warren et al., 1990) for a continuous stirred tank fermentor. A good fit for growth rate was found and the cell yield was shown to decrease with product concentration. The product yield, however, was found to remain nearly constant at all cell, substrate and product concentrations. These biokinetics, along with a previous model for the membrane filter (Warren et al., 1991) were then used in a simulalation to estimate the costs of producing ethanol in a large scale system. This simulation was optimized using a variant of the steepest descent method from which a fermentor inlet substrate concentration of 150 g/l and a net cost of $CAN 253.5/1000 L ethanol were projected. From a sensitivity analysis, the yield parameters were found to have the greatest effect on ethanol net cost of the fermentor parameters, while the operating costs and the profit was found to be most sensitive to the wheat raw material cost and to the dried grains by-product value. 55 refs., 11 tabs., 7figs.

  14. Fly ash. Quality recycling material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomster, D.; Leisio, C.

    1996-11-01

    Imatran Voima`s coal-fired power plants not only generate power and heat but also produce fly ash which is suitable raw material for recycling. This material for recycling is produced in the flue gas cleaning process. It is economical and, thanks to close quality control, is suitable for use as a raw material in the building materials industry, in asphalt production, and in earthworks. Structures made from fly ash are also safe from an environmental point of view. (orig.)

  15. A recycling molecular beam reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prada-Silva, G.; Haller, G.L.; Fenn, J.B.

    1974-01-01

    In a Recycling Molecular Beam Reactor, RMBR, a beam of reactant gas molecules is formed from a supersonic free jet. After collision with a target the molecules pass through the vacuum pumps and are returned to the nozzle source. Continuous recycling permits the integration of very small reaction probabilities into measurable conversions which can be analyzed by gas chromatography. Some preliminary experiments have been carried out on the isomerization of cyclopropane

  16. Structure of the LDL receptor extracellular domain at endosomalpH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudenko, Gabby; Henry, Lisa; Henderson, Keith; Ichtchenko,Konstantin; Brown, Michael S.; Goldstein, Joseph L.; Deisenhofer, Johann

    2002-09-05

    The structure of the low-density lipoprotein receptor extracellular portion has been determined. The document proposes a mechanism for the release of lipoprotein in the endosome. Without this release, the mechanism of receptor recycling cannot function.

  17. MOX fuel reprocessing and recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillet, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the reprocessing of MOX fuel in UP2-800 plant at La Hague, and to the MOX successive reprocessing and recycling. 1. MOX fuel reprocessing. In a first step, the necessary modifications in UP2-800 to reprocess MOX fuel are set out. Early in the UP2-800 project, actions have been taken to reprocess MOX fuel without penalty. They consist in measures regarding: Dissolution; Radiological shieldings; Nuclear instrumentation; Criticality. 2. Mox successive reprocessing and recycling. The plutonium recycling in the LWR is now a reality and, as said before, the MOX fuel reprocessing is possible in UP2-800 plant at La Hague. The following actions in this field consist in verifying the MOX successive reprocessing and recycling possibilities. After irradiation, the fissile plutonium content of irradiated MOX fuel is decreased and, in this case, the re-use of plutonium in the LWR need an important increase of initial Pu enrichment inconsistent with the Safety reactor constraints. Cogema opted for reprocessing irradiated MOX fuel in dilution with the standard UO2 fuel in appropriate proportions (1 MOX for 4 UO2 fuel for instance) in order to save a fissile plutonium content compatible with MOX successive recycling (at least 3 recyclings) in LWR. (author). 2 figs

  18. PWR benchmarks. From OECD working party on physics of plutonium recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernnat, W.; Lutz, D.; Sartori, E.; Schlosser, G.; Cathalau, S.; Soldevila, M.

    1995-01-01

    A two year study organised by the OECD/NEACOGEMA on the physics of plutonium recycle (Working Party on the Physics of Plutonium Recycle - WPPR) has just completed its final report. The study reviewed the important aspects of the physics of plutonium recycle in Pressurised Water Reactors (PWRs), Bolling Water reactors (BWRs) and fast reactors. The final report includes a description and analysis of the results of three physical benchmark exercises which were specified for PWRs and two for fast reactors. This paper presents a summary of the most important observations and conclusions from the PWR benchmark exercises. (authors)

  19. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    The Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) program was developed as a focused program to remove and/or minimize the barriers for effective management of over 123 million tons of coal combustion byproducts (CCBs) annually generated in the USA. At the time of launching the CBRC in 1998, about 25% of CCBs were beneficially utilized while the remaining was disposed in on-site or off-site landfills. During the ten (10) year tenure of CBRC (1998-2008), after a critical review, 52 projects were funded nationwide. By region, the East, Midwest, and West had 21, 18, and 13 projects funded, respectively. Almost all projects were cooperative projects involving industry, government, and academia. The CBRC projects, to a large extent, successfully addressed the problems of large-scale utilization of CCBs. A few projects, such as the two Eastern Region projects that addressed the use of fly ash in foundry applications, might be thought of as a somewhat smaller application in comparison to construction and agricultural uses, but as a novel niche use, they set the stage to draw interest that fly ash substitution for Portland cement might not attract. With consideration of the large increase in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum in response to EPA regulations, agricultural uses of FGD gypsum hold promise for large-scale uses of a product currently directed to the (currently stagnant) home construction market. Outstanding achievements of the program are: (1) The CBRC successfully enhanced professional expertise in the area of CCBs throughout the nation. The enhanced capacity continues to provide technology and information transfer expertise to industry and regulatory agencies. (2) Several technologies were developed that can be used immediately. These include: (a) Use of CCBs for road base and sub-base applications; (b) full-depth, in situ stabilization of gravel roads or highway/pavement construction recycled materials; and (c) fired bricks containing up to 30%-40% F

  20. Recyclability assessment of nano-reinforced plastic packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez, C.; Hortal, M.; Aliaga, C.; Devis, A.; Cloquell-Ballester, V.A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The study compares the recyclability of polymers with and without nanoparticles. • Visual appearance, material quality and mechanical properties are evaluated. • Minor variations in mechanical properties in R-PE and R-PP with nanoparticles. • Slight degradation of R-PET which affect mechanical properties. • Colour deviations in recycled PE, PP and PET in ranges higher that 0.3 units. - Abstract: Packaging is expected to become the leading application for nano-composites by 2020 due to the great advantages on mechanical and active properties achieved with these substances. As novel materials, and although there are some current applications in the market, there is still unknown areas under development. One key issue to be addressed is to know more about the implications of the nano-composite packaging materials once they become waste. The present study evaluates the extrusion process of four nanomaterials (Layered silicate modified nanoclay (Nanoclay1), Calcium Carbonate (CaCO 3 ), Silver (Ag) and Zinc Oxide (ZnO) as part of different virgin polymer matrices of polyethylene (PE), Polypropylene (PP) and Polyethyleneterephtalate (PET). Thus, the following film plastic materials: (PE–Nanoclay1, PE–CaCO 3 , PP–Ag, PET–ZnO, PET–Ag, PET–Nanoclay1) have been processed considering different recycling scenarios. Results on recyclability show that for PE and PP, in general terms and except for some minor variations in yellowness index, tensile modulus, tensile strength and tear strength (PE with Nanoclay1, PP with Ag), the introduction of nanomaterial in the recycling streams for plastic films does not affect the final recycled plastic material in terms of mechanical properties and material quality compared to conventional recycled plastic. Regarding PET, results show that the increasing addition of nanomaterial into the recycled PET matrix (especially PET–Ag) could influence important properties of the recycled material, due to a slight

  1. Recyclability assessment of nano-reinforced plastic packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez, C., E-mail: csanchez@itene.com [Sustainability Divison, Packaging, Transport and Logistics Research Institute, Albert Einstein 1, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Hortal, M., E-mail: mhortal@itene.com [Sustainability Divison, Packaging, Transport and Logistics Research Institute, Albert Einstein 1, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Aliaga, C., E-mail: caliaga@itene.com [Sustainability Divison, Packaging, Transport and Logistics Research Institute, Albert Einstein 1, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Devis, A., E-mail: adevis@itene.com [Sustainability Divison, Packaging, Transport and Logistics Research Institute, Albert Einstein 1, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Cloquell-Ballester, V.A., E-mail: cloquell@dpi.upv.es [Dpto. Proyectos de Ingeniería, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • The study compares the recyclability of polymers with and without nanoparticles. • Visual appearance, material quality and mechanical properties are evaluated. • Minor variations in mechanical properties in R-PE and R-PP with nanoparticles. • Slight degradation of R-PET which affect mechanical properties. • Colour deviations in recycled PE, PP and PET in ranges higher that 0.3 units. - Abstract: Packaging is expected to become the leading application for nano-composites by 2020 due to the great advantages on mechanical and active properties achieved with these substances. As novel materials, and although there are some current applications in the market, there is still unknown areas under development. One key issue to be addressed is to know more about the implications of the nano-composite packaging materials once they become waste. The present study evaluates the extrusion process of four nanomaterials (Layered silicate modified nanoclay (Nanoclay1), Calcium Carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}), Silver (Ag) and Zinc Oxide (ZnO) as part of different virgin polymer matrices of polyethylene (PE), Polypropylene (PP) and Polyethyleneterephtalate (PET). Thus, the following film plastic materials: (PE–Nanoclay1, PE–CaCO{sub 3}, PP–Ag, PET–ZnO, PET–Ag, PET–Nanoclay1) have been processed considering different recycling scenarios. Results on recyclability show that for PE and PP, in general terms and except for some minor variations in yellowness index, tensile modulus, tensile strength and tear strength (PE with Nanoclay1, PP with Ag), the introduction of nanomaterial in the recycling streams for plastic films does not affect the final recycled plastic material in terms of mechanical properties and material quality compared to conventional recycled plastic. Regarding PET, results show that the increasing addition of nanomaterial into the recycled PET matrix (especially PET–Ag) could influence important properties of the recycled material, due to a

  2. Durability Indicators in High Absorption Recycled Aggregate Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F. Jiménez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of recycled aggregates in structural concrete production has the inconvenience of increasing the fluid transport properties, such as porosity, sorptivity, and permeability, which reduces the resistance against penetration of environmental loads such as carbon dioxide and chloride ion. In this paper, behavior of ten concrete mixtures with different percentages of coarse aggregate replacement was studied. The recycled material was recovered by crushing of concrete rubble and had high absorption values. The results showed that it is possible to achieve good resistance to carbonation and chloride penetration with up to 50% replacement of recycled coarse aggregate for 0.5 water/cement ratio. Finally, new indexes for porosity and sorptivity were proposed to assess the quality of concrete.

  3. The technical development on recycled aggregate concrete for nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukekiyo, M.; Saishu, S.; Ishikura, T.; Ishigure, K.

    2000-01-01

    The large amount of non-radioactive concrete waste generated by decommissioning has a very big impact on the final disposal site. Therefore, NUPEC has been developing technology which recovers at a high ratio the aggregate from the dismantling concrete with a quality which can be used to construct a new nuclear power plant. The developed high-quality recycled aggregate meets the quality standards of the natural aggregate stipulated by the Japanese architectural standard specifications for nuclear power plant facilities. As a result of these experiments, it was confirmed that the recycled concrete which used this high-quality recycled aggregate had a performance equal or better than ordinary concrete which used natural aggregate. (authors)

  4. Effect of simulated mechanical recycling processes on the structure and properties of poly(lactic acid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, F R; Lorenzo, V; Acosta, J; de la Orden, M U; Martínez Urreaga, J

    2018-06-15

    The aim of this work is to study the effects of different simulated mechanical recycling processes on the structure and properties of PLA. A commercial grade of PLA was melt compounded and compression molded, then subjected to two different recycling processes. The first recycling process consisted of an accelerated ageing and a second melt processing step, while the other recycling process included an accelerated ageing, a demanding washing process and a second melt processing step. The intrinsic viscosity measurements indicate that both recycling processes produce a degradation in PLA, which is more pronounced in the sample subjected to the washing process. DSC results suggest an increase in the mobility of the polymer chains in the recycled materials; however the degree of crystallinity of PLA seems unchanged. The optical, mechanical and gas barrier properties of PLA do not seem to be largely affected by the degradation suffered during the different recycling processes. These results suggest that, despite the degradation of PLA, the impact of the different simulated mechanical recycling processes on the final properties is limited. Thus, the potential use of recycled PLA in packaging applications is not jeopardized. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Disposing and recycling waste printed circuit boards: disconnecting, resource recovery, and pollution control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianbo; Xu, Zhenming

    2015-01-20

    Over the past decades, China has been suffering from negative environmental impacts from distempered e-waste recycling activities. After a decade of effort, disassembly and raw materials recycling of environmentally friendly e-waste have been realized in specialized companies, in China, and law enforcement for illegal activities of e-waste recycling has also been made more and more strict. So up to now, the e-waste recycling in China should be developed toward more depth and refinement to promote industrial production of e-waste resource recovery. Waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs), which are the most complex, hazardous, and valuable components of e-waste, are selected as one typical example in this article that reviews the status of related regulations and technologies of WPCBs recycling, then optimizes, and integrates the proper approaches in existence, while the bottlenecks in the WPCBs recycling system are analyzed, and some preliminary experiments of pinch technologies are also conducted. Finally, in order to provide directional guidance for future development of WPCBs recycling, some key points in the WPCBs recycling system are proposed to point towards a future trend in the e-waste recycling industry.

  6. Recycled concrete with coarse recycled aggregate. An overview and analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. González-Fonteboa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The construction field has contributed to environmental degradation, producing a high amount of construction and demolition waste (C&D waste and consuming large volumes of natural resources. In this context, recycled concrete (RC has been recognised as a means to preserve natural resources and reduce space for waste storage. During the last decades, many researchers have developed works studying different recycled concrete properties. This review focuses on structural RC made with coarse recycled aggregate from concrete waste. The main objective is to provide a state of the art report on RC’s properties and an analysis on how to predict them taking into account relevant research works. Moreover, the study tries to collect and update RC findings, proposing equations to define RC’s performance, in terms of mechanical strength, modulus of elasticity, stress-strain, creep and shrinkage.

  7. What can recycling in thermal reactors accomplish?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, Steven J.; Matthern, Gretchen E.; Jacobson, Jacob J.

    2007-01-01

    Thermal recycle provides several potential benefits when used as stop-gap, mixed, or backup recycling to recycling in fast reactors. These three roles involve a mixture of thermal and fast recycling; fast reactors are required to some degree at some time. Stop-gap uses thermal reactors only until fast reactors are adequately deployed and until any thermal-recycle-only facilities have met their economic lifetime. Mixed uses thermal and fast reactors symbiotically for an extended period of time. Backup uses thermal reactors only if problems later develop in the fast reactor portion of a recycling system. Thermal recycle can also provide benefits when used as pure thermal recycling, with no intention to use fast reactors. However, long term, the pure thermal recycling approach is inadequate to meet several objectives. (authors)

  8. What can Recycling in Thermal Reactors Accomplish?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steven Piet; Gretchen E. Matthern; Jacob J. Jacobson

    2007-01-01

    Thermal recycle provides several potential benefits when used as stop-gap, mixed, or backup recycling to recycling in fast reactors. These three roles involve a mixture of thermal and fast recycling; fast reactors are required to some degree at some time. Stop-gap uses thermal reactors only until fast reactors are adequately deployed and until any thermal-recycle-only facilities have met their economic lifetime. Mixed uses thermal and fast reactors symbiotically for an extended period of time. Backup uses thermal reactors only if problems later develop in the fast reactor portion of a recycling system. Thermal recycle can also provide benefits when used as pure thermal recycling, with no intention to use fast reactors. However, long term, the pure thermal recycling approach is inadequate to meet several objectives

  9. Auditing an intensive care unit recycling program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubicki, Mark A; McGain, Forbes; O'Shea, Catherine J; Bates, Samantha

    2015-06-01

    The provision of health care has significant direct environmental effects such as energy and water use and waste production, and indirect effects, including manufacturing and transport of drugs and equipment. Recycling of hospital waste is one strategy to reduce waste disposed of as landfill, preserve resources, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and potentially remain fiscally responsible. We began an intensive care unit recycling program, because a significant proportion of ICU waste was known to be recyclable. To determine the weight and proportion of ICU waste recycled, the proportion of incorrect waste disposal (including infectious waste contamination), the opportunity for further recycling and the financial effects of the recycling program. We weighed all waste and recyclables from an 11-bed ICU in an Australian metropolitan hospital for 7 non-consecutive days. As part of routine care, ICU waste was separated into general, infectious and recycling streams. Recycling streams were paper and cardboard, three plastics streams (polypropylene, mixed plastics and polyvinylchloride [PVC]) and commingled waste (steel, aluminium and some plastics). ICU waste from the waste and recycling bins was sorted into those five recycling streams, general waste and infectious waste. After sorting, the waste was weighed and examined. Recycling was classified as achieved (actual), potential and total. Potential recycling was defined as being acceptable to hospital protocol and local recycling programs. Direct and indirect financial costs, excluding labour, were examined. During the 7-day period, the total ICU waste was 505 kg: general waste, 222 kg (44%); infectious waste, 138 kg (27%); potentially recyclable waste, 145 kg (28%). Of the potentially recyclable waste, 70 kg (49%) was actually recycled (14% of the total ICU waste). In the infectious waste bins, 82% was truly infectious. There was no infectious contamination of the recycling streams. The PVC waste was 37% contaminated

  10. DWPF Recycle Evaporator Simulant Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, M

    2005-01-01

    Testing was performed to determine the feasibility and processing characteristics of an evaporation process to reduce the volume of the recycle stream from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The concentrated recycle would be returned to DWPF while the overhead condensate would be transferred to the Effluent Treatment Plant. Various blends of evaporator feed were tested using simulants developed from characterization of actual recycle streams from DWPF and input from DWPF-Engineering. The simulated feed was evaporated in laboratory scale apparatus to target a 30X volume reduction. Condensate and concentrate samples from each run were analyzed and the process characteristics (foaming, scaling, etc) were visually monitored during each run. The following conclusions were made from the testing: Concentration of the ''typical'' recycle stream in DWPF by 30X was feasible. The addition of DWTT recycle streams to the typical recycle stream raises the solids content of the evaporator feed considerably and lowers the amount of concentration that can be achieved. Foaming was noted during all evaporation tests and must be addressed prior to operation of the full-scale evaporator. Tests were conducted that identified Dow Corning 2210 as an antifoam candidate that warrants further evaluation. The condensate has the potential to exceed the ETP WAC for mercury, silicon, and TOC. Controlling the amount of equipment decontamination recycle in the evaporator blend would help meet the TOC limits. The evaporator condensate will be saturated with mercury and elemental mercury will collect in the evaporator condensate collection vessel. No scaling on heating surfaces was noted during the tests, but splatter onto the walls of the evaporation vessels led to a buildup of solids. These solids were difficult to remove with 2M nitric acid. Precipitation of solids was not noted during the testing. Some of the aluminum present in the recycle streams was converted from gibbsite to

  11. Radioactive materials in recycled metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubenau, J O; Yusko, J G

    1995-04-01

    In recent years, the metal recycling industry has become increasingly aware of an unwanted component in metal scrap--radioactive material. Worldwide, there have been 35 instances where radioactive sources were unintentionally smelted in the course of recycling metal scrap. In some cases contaminated metal consumer products were distributed internationally. In at least one case, serious radiation exposures of workers and the public occurred. Radioactive material appearing in metal scrap includes sources subject to licensing under the Atomic Energy Act and also naturally occurring radioactive material. U.S. mills that have smelted a radioactive source face costs resulting from decontamination, waste disposal, and lost profits that range from 7 to 23 million U.S. dollars for each event. To solve the problem, industry and the government have jointly undertaken initiatives to increase awareness of the problem within the metal recycling industry. Radiation monitoring of recycled metal scrap is being performed increasingly by mills and, to a lesser extent, by scrap processors. The monitoring does not, however, provide 100% protection. Improvements in regulatory oversight by the government could stimulate improved accounting and control of licensed sources. However, additional government effort in this area must be reconciled with competing priorities in radiation safety and budgetary constraints. The threat of radioactive material in recycled metal scrap will continue for the foreseeable future and, thus, poses regulatory policy challenges for both developed and developing nations.

  12. A UK perspective on recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, T.

    1991-01-01

    The United Kingdom, through the recycling of depleted uranium from Magnox reactors into Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (AGR) fuel, has already recycled significant quantities of reprocessed material in reactors owned by Nuclear Electric plc and Scottish Nuclear Limited. This AGR fuel has been satisfactorily irradiated and discharged over a decade or more, and will be reprocessed in the new Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP), currently under construction in the UK. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) and the UK Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) have also been exploiting the potential of plutonium recycled in mixed oxide (MOX) fuel, which they have been making since 1963. All of the UK nuclear companies are committed to further recycling of Magnox depleted uranium during the 1990s, and it is anticipated that oxide recycling will also become firmly established during the next decade. British Nuclear Fuels and Urenco Ltd, as the providers of fuel cycle services, are developing an infrastructure to close the fuel cycle for oxide nuclear fuel, using both the uranium and plutonium arising from reprocessing. (author)

  13. Recycling of polymers: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatyev, Igor A; Thielemans, Wim; Vander Beke, Bob

    2014-06-01

    Plastics are inexpensive, easy to mold, and lightweight. These and many other advantages make them very promising candidates for commercial applications. In many areas, they have substantially suppressed traditional materials. However, the problem of recycling still is a major challenge. There are both technological and economic issues that restrain the progress in this field. Herein, a state-of-art overview of recycling is provided together with an outlook for the future by using popular polymers such as polyolefins, poly(vinyl chloride), polyurethane, and poly(ethylene terephthalate) as examples. Different types of recycling, primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary, and biological recycling, are discussed together with related issues, such as compatibilization and cross-linking. There are various projects in the European Union on research and application of these recycling approaches; selected examples are provided in this article. Their progress is mirrored by granted patents, most of which have a very limited scope and narrowly cover certain technologies. Global introduction of waste utilization techniques to the polymer market is currently not fully developed, but has an enormous potential. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Recycling of plastics in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thienen, N. von; Patel, M.

    1999-01-01

    This article deals with the waste management of post-consumer plastics in Germany and its potential to save fossil fuels and reduce CO 2 emissions. Since most experience is available for packaging, the paper first gives an overview of the legislative background and the material flows for this sector. Then recycling and recovery processes for plastics waste from all sectors are assessed in terms of their contribution to energy saving and CO 2 abatement. Practically all the options studied show a better performance than waste treatment in an average incinerator which has been chosen as the reference case. High ecological benefits can be achieved by mechanical recycling if virgin polymers are substituted. The paper then presents different scenarios for managing plastic waste in Germany in 1995: considerable savings can be made by strongly enhancing the efficiency of waste incinerators. Under these conditions the distribution of plastics waste among mechanical recycling, feedstock recycling and energy recovery has a comparatively mall impact on the overall results. The maximum savings amount to 74 PJ of energy, i.e, 9% of the chemical sector energy demand in 1995 and 7.0 Mt CO 2 , representing 13% of the sector's emissions. The assessment does not support a general recommendation of energy recovery due to the large difference between the German average and the best available municipal waste-to-energy facilities and also due to new technological developments in the field of mechanical recycling

  15. Nuclear recycling: costs, savings, and safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinrad, B.I.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter discusses the economics, physical and chemical processes, and safety of nuclear fuel recycling. The spent fuel must be chemically reprocessed in order to recover uranium and plutonium. Topics considered include indifference costs, recycling in light water reactors (LWRs), plutonium in fast reactors, the choice between recycling and storage, safeguards, and weapons proliferation. It is shown that the economics of recycling nuclear fuel involves the actual costs and savings of the recycling operation in terms of money spent, made, and saved, and the impact of the recycling on the future cost of uranium

  16. UREP: gateway to uranium recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rougeau, J.P.; Durret, L.F.

    1988-01-01

    The industrial experience accumulated in France on recycling makes their conversion service fully reliable technically and economically. Problems associated with chemical and radiochemical behavior have been solved satisfactorily in order to offer customers flexible options for their personal optimization. Economically, a price reduction by a significant factor (up to two) has been proposed by UREP as a firm commitment for the coming years. This is the result of technical experience coupled with favorable scaling effect for the large conversion plant proposed. It is believed that such a positive approach greatly helps customers in managing recycling of their material and generating savings in their fuel cycle economics. This flow of recycled uranium, on top of the 40000 t of natural uranium consumed each year, is a valuable asset available to those utilities which have selected the reprocessing route. 2 figs

  17. Radioactive contamination of recycled metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubenau, J.O.; Cool, D.A.; Yusko, J.G.

    1996-01-01

    Radioactive sources commingled with metal scrap have become a major problem for the metals recycling industry worldwide. Worldwide there have been 38 confirmed reports of radioactive sources accidentally smelted with recycled metal. In some instances, contaminated metal products were subsequently distributed. The metal mills, their products and byproducts from the metal making process such as slags, crosses and dusts from furnaces can become contaminated. In the U.S., imported ferrous metal products such as reinforcement bars, pipe flanges, table legs and fencing components have been found contaminated with taco. U.S. steel mills have unintentionally smelted radioactive sources on 16 occasions. The resulting cost for decontamination waste disposal and temporary closure of the steel mill is typically USD 10,000,000 and has been as much as USD 23,000,000. Other metal recycling industries that have been affected by this problem include aluminum, copper, zinc, gold, lead and vanadium. (author)

  18. Recycling, reducing and reusing: A theoretical framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubursi, A.A.; Butterfield, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    Macroeconomic models are generally based on a particular national income accounting framework. The current approach treats waste and pollution generation in such a way that any increase in these activities increases directly the gross domestic product of the economy. A reformulation is suggested for the accounting framework so as to treat waste management and pollution abatement as services to business whose costs should be charged against business revenue. Even such costs to households may be considered as costs to output. In this way such expenses appear as a cost to society and not as a final output. A new theoretical framework is developed to correspond to the reformulated accounting principle that allows clear identification of recycling activity and waste management. The rectangular input-output framework is particularly suited for this treatment as it allows different industries to produce the same output and identifies different commodities as inputs in the production of the same output. With the new framework, it is possible to examine the socioeconomic consequences of increased use and production of recyclables. Equally important is the ability to assess the relative efficiency of alternative policies to reuse or reduce the use of products and resources through price incentives and full cost charges. 2 tabs

  19. Myo1c regulates lipid raft recycling to control cell spreading, migration and Salmonella invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandstaetter, Hemma; Kendrick-Jones, John; Buss, Folma

    2012-04-15

    A balance between endocytosis and membrane recycling regulates the composition and dynamics of the plasma membrane. Internalization and recycling of cholesterol- and sphingolipid-enriched lipid rafts is an actin-dependent process that is mediated by a specialized Arf6-dependent recycling pathway. Here, we identify myosin1c (Myo1c) as the first motor protein that drives the formation of recycling tubules emanating from the perinuclear recycling compartment. We demonstrate that the single-headed Myo1c is a lipid-raft-associated motor protein that is specifically involved in recycling of lipid-raft-associated glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked cargo proteins and their delivery to the cell surface. Whereas Myo1c overexpression increases the levels of these raft proteins at the cell surface, in cells depleted of Myo1c function through RNA interference or overexpression of a dominant-negative mutant, these tubular transport carriers of the recycling pathway are lost and GPI-linked raft markers are trapped in the perinuclear recycling compartment. Intriguingly, Myo1c only selectively promotes delivery of lipid raft membranes back to the cell surface and is not required for recycling of cargo, such as the transferrin receptor, which is mediated by parallel pathways. The profound defect in lipid raft trafficking in Myo1c-knockdown cells has a dramatic impact on cell spreading, cell migration and cholesterol-dependent Salmonella invasion; processes that require lipid raft transport to the cell surface to deliver signaling components and the extra membrane essential for cell surface expansion and remodeling. Thus, Myo1c plays a crucial role in the recycling of lipid raft membrane and proteins that regulate plasma membrane plasticity, cell motility and pathogen entry.

  20. Influence of Waste Brick Powder in the Mechanical Properties of Recycled Aggregate Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Letelier

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Brick and concrete are the main materials contributing to demolition and construction waste. Considering this precedent, the effects of using both residuals in medium strength concretes are analyzed. Waste brick powder is used as a cement replacement in three different levels: 5%, 10%, and 15%, and it is tested in concretes with no recycled aggregates and concretes with 30% of recycled coarse aggregates replacing natural ones. The compressive strength, the flexural strength, and modulus of elasticity are calculated and compared to a control concrete with no brick powder and no recycled aggregates. The effects of the simultaneous use of both residuals on the physical properties of the recycled concrete are highlighted. Results show that 15% of cement can be replaced by waste brick powder together with 30% of recycled aggregates without suffering significant losses in the strength of the final material when compared to a control concrete.

  1. Mechanical properties of GFRP tube confined recycled concrete under axial compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaogang; Liang, Chaofeng; Zhou, Zechenglong; Dong, Lanqi; Ding, Kewei; Huang, Jialun

    2015-01-01

    This article outlines the recycled aggregate replacement rate and thick-diameter rate of GFRP tube confined in recycled concrete, which has an important impact on the material's compressive strength. Overall, under the same conditions of using recycled concrete, the bearing capacity of short concrete columns can be improved by using broader GFRP tubes. There is a four-fold increase in the bearing capacity of short concrete columns compared to the short column without the restriction of a GFRP tube. The bearing capacity of a short column crafted by recycled coarse aggregate is much lower (about 30%). than those made by common concrete column Additionally, the bearing capacity of short columns made by recycled fine aggregates is also lower than those made by common concrete (approximately 20%). Finally, we find that there is no significant difference between experimental and theoretical data. (paper)

  2. The recycling of reprocessed uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lannegrace, J.-P.

    1991-01-01

    The 1990 update to the Uranium Institute's report ''Uranium Market Issues'', presented to this Symposium last year (1990) stated that the impact of recycled reprocessing products on uranium demand would be limited in the near future to that due to MOX fuel fabrication. The report stated that the recycling of reprocessed uranium was still at an early discussion stage, rather than being a short-term prospect. This paper will set out to challenge this assertion, on the basis both of facts and of economic and environmental incentives. (author)

  3. Waste collection systems for recyclables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Warberg; Merrild, Hanna Kristina; Møller, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    and technical limitations are respected, and what will the environmental and economic consequences be? This was investigated in a case study of a municipal waste management system. Five scenarios with alternative collection systems for recyclables (paper, glass, metal and plastic packaging) were assessed...... and treatment of waste were reduced with increasing recycling, mainly because the high cost for incineration was avoided. However, solutions for mitigation of air pollution caused by increased collection and transport should be sought. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  4. Process to recycle shredder residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jody, Bassam J.; Daniels, Edward J.; Bonsignore, Patrick V.

    2001-01-01

    A system and process for recycling shredder residue, in which separating any polyurethane foam materials are first separated. Then separate a fines fraction of less than about 1/4 inch leaving a plastics-rich fraction. Thereafter, the plastics rich fraction is sequentially contacted with a series of solvents beginning with one or more of hexane or an alcohol to remove automotive fluids; acetone to remove ABS; one or more of EDC, THF or a ketone having a boiling point of not greater than about 125.degree. C. to remove PVC; and one or more of xylene or toluene to remove polypropylene and polyethylene. The solvents are recovered and recycled.

  5. Recycling and surplus chemical programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, T.J.

    1993-05-01

    In 1988, 45 years of defense production came to a close at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. The mission of the Hanford Site was formally changed to environmental restoration and remediation. Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) is the management and operations (M ampersand O) contractor leading the cleanup. Within the framework of future Site cleanup, Hanford recycling and surplus chemical programs are making a viable contribution today to waste minimization, diversion of materials from the waste stream, and setting a standard for future operations. This paper focuses on two successful efforts: paper recycling and surplus chemical sales

  6. A Guide to Running a Recycling Project. [Includes Recycling Handbook].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon Recycling Information and Organizing Network, Portland.

    This guide, designed for both students and adults, is intended for individuals who feel they might be interested in establishing a recycling depot. The guide includes such pertinent information as deciding how to set up a depot, markets and transportation, preparation of materials, where to place the depot and when to operate it, publicity and…

  7. The Recycling Solution: How I Increased Recycling on Dilworth Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, J. Jacob

    2010-01-01

    The grandson of Fred Keller, one of the founders of behavior analysis, Jacob was 10 years old when he conducted the project for his elementary school science fair. We recently contacted Jacob to learn more about his project. He told us the inspiration came from a class field trip to the county recycling center, which included seeing video footage…

  8. Platinum Group Metal Recycling Technology Development - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence Shore

    2009-08-19

    BASF Catalysts LLC, formerly Engelhard Corporation, has completed a project to recover Pt from PEM fuel cell membrane electrode assemblies. The project, which began in 2003, has met the project objective of an environmentally-friendly, cost-effective method for recovery of platinum without release of hydrogen fluoride. This has been achieved using a combination of milling, dispersion and acid leaching. 99% recovery of Pt was achieved, and this high yield can be scaled up using one vessel for a single leach and rinse. Leaching was been successfully achieved using a 10% solids level, double the original target. At this solids content, the reagent and utility costs represent ~0.35% of the Pt value of a lot, using very conservative assumptions. The main cost of the process is capital depreciation, followed by labor.

  9. Sustainability issues in circuit board recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Jens Brøbech; Alting, Leo; Baldo, Gian Luca

    1995-01-01

    The resource recovery and environmental impact issues of printed circuit board recycling by secondary copper smelters are discussed. Guidelines concerning material selection for circuit board manufacture and concerning the recycling processes are given to enhance recovery efficiency and to lower...

  10. Recycled materials in Portland cement concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-06-01

    This report pertains to a comprehensive study involving the use of recycled materials in Portland cement concrete. Three different materials were studied including crushed glass (CG), street sweepings (SS), and recycled concrete (RC). Blast furnace s...

  11. Long-term aging of recycled binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Asphalt pavement is Americas most recycled material. Eighty million tons of asphalt, nearly 80% of all milled asphalt pavement, : is recycled every year [1]. To effectively maintain its 40,000 miles of paved roads, the Florida Department of Transp...

  12. Durable Recycled Superpave Mixes in Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    The use of economical and environment-friendly recycled asphalt materials has become increasingly popular for asphalt pavement construction. In general, reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) and recycled asphalt shingles (RAS) are used in hot-mix asphalt ...

  13. Proceedings of the waste recycling workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, R.E.; Thomas, A.F.; Ries, M.A. [eds.] [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Recorded are seventeen talks from five sessions at the workshop. FERMCO`s recycling program, state of the art recycling technology, and an integrated demonstration of deactivation, decommissioning and decommissioning are presented in the plenary session. In the concrete session, decontamination and recycling are discussed. In the transite session, regulations are considered along with recycling and decontamination. In the metals session, radioactive scrap metals are emphasized. And in the regulatory considerations and liabilities session, DOE and EPA viewpoints are discussed. (GHH)

  14. The Diffusion Effect of MSW Recycling

    OpenAIRE

    Yi-Tui Chen; Fu-Chiang Yang; Shih-Heng Yu

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare the recycling performance for some waste fractions selected including food waste, bulk waste, paper, metal products, plastics/rubber and glass products and then to develop some directions for the future improvements. The priority of each waste fraction for recycling is also analyzed by using an importance-performance analysis. Traditionally, the recycling rate that is calculated by the ratio of waste recycled to waste collected is used as an indicator t...

  15. Does WEEE recycling make sense from an environmental perspective?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hischier, R.; Waeger, P.; Gauglhofer, J.

    2005-01-01

    The production of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) is one of the fastest growing markets in the world. At the same time this also means that the amount of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) will continue to increase in the coming decades. As it is crucial to obtain more knowledge about the environmental consequences of the different WEEE treatment options, a study examining the two Swiss take-back and recycling systems of SWICO (for computers, consumer electronics and telecommunication equipment) and S.EN.S (household appliances) has been conducted. The two systems, which are based on an advanced recycling fee, are well established within Switzerland. With a combined approach of material flow analysis (MFA) and life cycle assessment (LCA), the environmental impacts of these two systems have been estimated, including all further treatment steps, which transform the fractions either into secondary materials or into waste for final disposal. As a baseline, we have used a scenario assuming that no WEEE is recycled and hence only primary production for the similar amount of raw materials. The impact assessment is based on characterization factors according to the Dutch CML methodology. The results show that throughout the complete recycling chain the sorting and dismantling activities of companies are of minor interest; instead the main impact occurs during the treatment applied further downstream to turn the waste into secondary raw materials. Within the two systems in Switzerland, the collection of WEEE seems much more relevant than the sorting and dismantling activities. When comparing the environmental impact of WEEE recycling with that derived from the baseline scenario (incineration of all WEEE and primary production of the raw materials), WEEE recycling proves to be clearly advantageous from an environmental perspective

  16. Lessons learned from the blue box recycling program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St Jacques, H. [Informa Market Research Co. Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2000-06-01

    The success of the Ontario Blue Box recycling program was described. The program, which was initiated by municipalities, is seen as a strong act for the environment which helps connect public behaviour with values. Canada produces the most waste per capita and is the second largest producer of greenhouse gases per capita. The program began in Kitchener, Ontario in 1981 in response to local pressure to take action to reduce waste. By 1998, 3,850,000 of 4,238,000 households in Ontario had access to the program with a participation rate of 90 per cent. In that year alone, 1,841,000 tonnes of household materials were recycled and diverted from the waste stream. The core materials that were initially collected at household curb sides were newsprint, glass containers, steel and aluminium cans. Apartment recycling was introduced as the program evolved but it is still a challenge to achieve recycling efficiencies in multi-unit residential buildings. The success of the program has been attributed to the fact that it was introduced at the right time and tapped into the strong desire to reduce the visible impact of consumerism. It provided a way to do an environmentally good thing with a minimum of inconvenience. Initially, the system was overwhelmed with an excess of recycled material and the closed loop system of the early days was full of gaps. Materials were stockpiled and waiting market development which would finally result in remanufacturing the recycled goods into new products. This part developed more slowly since market values priced virgin materials at lower costs. It was cautioned that this economic reality still applies and will not be corrected until full cost accounting is introduced. 4 tabs.

  17. Recycling at Penn State's Beaver Stadium. "Recycle on the Go" Success Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2009

    2009-01-01

    With a 13-year-old recycling program, The Pennsylvania State University's (Penn State) Beaver Stadium in the past diverted nearly 30 tons of recyclables per year from local landfills. A new initiative to promote recycling in the stadium's tailgating area has helped Penn State more than triple its old recycling record, collecting 112 tons in 2008.…

  18. Recycling nutrients in algae biorefinery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Alba, Laura; Vos, M.P.; Torri, C.; Fabbri, D.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Brilman, Derk Willem Frederik

    2013-01-01

    Algal fuel cells: Repeated nutrient recycling is demonstrated by reusing the aqueous phase obtained from the hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of microalgae. This is achieved, for the first time, by performing a complete set of four continuous growth–HTL cycles. Results show similar growth rates in

  19. The Fulton School Recycling Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Jean

    1994-01-01

    Outlines a school recycling project that started as a newspaper collection for library funds and evolved into a community service. Discusses problems that were overcome, strategies for implementation of the project, and related cross-curricular studies and activities. Contains two curriculum mind maps. (LZ)

  20. Controlling adhesive behavior during recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl Houtman; Karen Scallon; Jihui Guo; XinPing Wang; Steve Severtson; Mark Kroll; Mike Nowak

    2004-01-01

    Adhesives can be formulated to facilitate their removal by typical paper recycling unit operations. The investigations described in this paper are focused on determining fundamental properties that control particle size during pulping. While pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs) with high elastic moduli tend to survive pulping with larger particles, facestock and...

  1. Recyclization reactions leading to benzimidazoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamedov, Vakhid A; Murtazina, Anna M

    2011-01-01

    The published data on the recyclization reactions that afford benzimidazoles are generalized and systematized. Both classical and new methods of benzimidazole synthesis are considered. Attention is focused on the publications over the recent 10-15 years; of the earlier publications, only those unknown to the wide circle of chemists are analyzed.

  2. Recyclization reactions leading to benzimidazoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamedov, Vakhid A.; Murtazina, Anna M.

    2011-05-01

    The published data on the recyclization reactions that afford benzimidazoles are generalized and systematized. Both classical and new methods of benzimidazole synthesis are considered. Attention is focused on the publications over the recent 10-15 years; of the earlier publications, only those unknown to the wide circle of chemists are analyzed.

  3. The chemical recycle of cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Beyer Schuch

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The chemical recycle of cotton textiles and/or other cellulosic materials for the purpose of manufacturing regenerated high quality textiles fibres is a novel process. The objective of related research is based on the forecast of population growth, on resource scarcity predictions, and on the negative environmental impact of the textile industry. These facts lead the need of broadening the scope for long-term textile-to-textile recycle - as the mechanical recycle of natural fibres serve for limited number of cycles, still depends on input of virgin material, and offer a reduced-in-quality output. Critical analysis of scientific papers, relevant related reports, and personal interviews were the base of this study, which shows viable results in laboratorial scale of using low-quality cellulosic materials as input for the development of high-quality regenerated textile fibres though ecological chemical process. Nevertheless, to scale up and implement this innovative recycle method, other peripheral structures are requested, such as recover schemes or appropriate sort, for instance. Further researches should also be considered in regards to colours and impurities.

  4. The economics of plutonium recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, R.A.

    1977-11-01

    The individual cost components and the total fuel cycle costs for natural uranium and uranium-plutonium mixed oxide fuel cycles for CANDU-PHW reactors are discussed. A calculation is performed to establish the economic conditions under which plutonium recycle would be economically attractive. (auth)

  5. Energy recycling: an innovative solution for unrecyclable plastic; Reciclagem energetica: uma solucao inovadora para o plastico nao reciclavel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Julyane Carolina; Oliveira, Magno Andre de; Pires, Pedro Henrique; Silva, Thuanye Peixoto; Rodrigues, Marcia [Centro Universitario de Belo Horizonte (UnBH), MG (Brazil)], e-mails: juhlorah@hotmail.com, marromar2004@yahoo.com.br

    2011-07-01

    This paper shows a new technology that is already used in over 35 countries with more than 750 plants in total and is still under study in Brazil: the energy recycling of plastic. Through studies, tables, comparisons and observations, have to analyze the plastic, chemical composition, the steps of material recycling and energy production, the final products obtained by recycling and gases released during the process. Thus, after highlighting how this technology is advantageous, it is expected to awaken to the reflection that it is feasible to use the recycling energy due to its great benefits environmental, social and economic shown the course of research. (author)

  6. 76 FR 71861 - America Recycles Day, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... electronics annually, and without following proper recycling and management practices, the disposal of our old..., and prevent the recovery and reuse of valuable resources. For the well- being of our people and our..., management, and recycling that will accelerate our burgeoning electronics recycling market and create jobs...

  7. 40 CFR 141.76 - Recycle provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recycle provisions. 141.76 Section 141...) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Filtration and Disinfection § 141.76 Recycle provisions. (a... recycle spent filter backwash water, thickener supernatant, or liquids from dewatering processes must meet...

  8. Recycling of nonferrous metals from waste materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urban, A

    1982-02-01

    Recycling of metals was one of the 9 central subjects of the international symposium on 'Materials and Energy from Refuse', held in Antwerpen on October 20 to 22, 1981. Six of 65 poster sessions papers were on metal recycling; four of them discussed the recycling of nonferrous metals.

  9. Tire recycling technologies: What is the future?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saiwari, Sitisaiyidah; van Hoek, Johannes Wilhelmus; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.; Blume, Anke; Heideman, G.

    2016-01-01

    Recycling is a heavily discussed topic nowadays, and recycled tire material to be re-used for the same application is one of the spear points of current R&D activities. Regarding the immense amount of used tires, more than just one outlet for the recycled material is needed. Besides the commonly

  10. Waste management considerations in HTGR recycle operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pence, D.T.; Shefcik, J.J.; Heath, C.A.

    1975-01-01

    Waste management considerations in the recycle of HTGR fuel are different from those encountered in the recycle of LWR fuel. The types of waste associated with HTGR recycle operations are discussed, and treatment methods for some of the wastes are described

  11. School Recycling Programs: A Handbook for Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This brochure describes some of the many recycling program options that schools can implement in their communities. It focuses on implementing actual recycling projects as a way of teaching the importance and benefits of recycling. The text examines the solid waste crisis and why Americans cannot continue to possess a disposable mentality. It…

  12. On the logistics of recycling : an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flapper, S.D.P.

    1993-01-01

    An overview is given of the different logistic aspects of recycling, where recycling denotes "All the activities required for the reuse of materials and (semi-)finished products after they are no longer used by their last user." Special attention is paid to the forced recycling of durable

  13. Nuclear fuel cycle waste recycling technology deverlopment - Radioactive metal waste recycling technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Won Zin; Moon, Jei Kwon; Jung, Chong Hun; Park, Sang Yoon

    1998-08-01

    With relation to recycling of the radioactive metal wastes which are generated during operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities, the following were described in this report. 1. Analysis of the state of the art on the radioactive metal waste recycling technologies. 2. Economical assessment on the radioactive metal waste recycling. 3. Process development for radioactive metal waste recycling, A. Decontamination technologies for radioactive metal waste recycling. B. Decontamination waste treatment technologies, C. Residual radioactivity evaluation technologies. (author). 238 refs., 60 tabs., 79 figs

  14. Recycling and surface erosion processes in contemporary tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCracken, G.M.

    1979-03-01

    A number of global models have recently had considerable success in describing recycling. These are briefly reviewed. It is shown that large gas concentrations can build up in the walls and that these concentrations are seriously affected by erosion and deposition processes and by deliberate gettering with titanium. Finally, the measurement of the concentration of hydrogen in probes is discussed as a means of measuring plasma edge characteristics

  15. Methods of Recycling, Properties and Applications of Recycled Thermoplastic Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina Elena Grigore

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to provide an updated survey of the main thermoplastic polymers in order to obtain recyclable materials for various industrial and indoor applications. The synthesis approach significantly impacts the properties of such materials and these properties in turn have a significant impact on their applications. Due to the ideal properties of the thermoplastic polymers such as corrosion resistance, low density or user-friendly design, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years, becoming more used than aluminum or other metals. Also, recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today.

  16. An industry response to recycle 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motl, G.P.; Loiselle, V.

    1996-01-01

    The US DOE is expected to issue a policy early this year articulating DOE's position on the recycle of DOE radioactive scrap metal. In anticipation of this 'Recycle 2000' initiative, the nuclear industry has formed a new trade association called the Association of Radioactive Metal Recyclers (ARMR). This article describes the Recycle 2000 initiative, provides some background on the ARMR and its membership, and identifies industry views on the actions to be taken and issues to be resolved in Recycle 2000 is to become a reality

  17. Carambola optics for recycling of light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutz, Ralf; Fu, Ling; Ries, Harald

    2006-04-20

    Recycling of light allows the luminance (radiance) emitted by a light source to be increased at the cost of reducing the total luminous flux (radiant power). Recycling of light means returning part of the emitted light to the source, where part of it will escape absorption. An optical design that is suitable for multiple and controlled recycling is described. Carambola optics is named for its resemblance to star fruit. Several pairs of mirrors or prisms redirect light repeatedly onto the source, thus achieving multiple transits of the light through the source. This recycled light exits the carambola in the same phase space as light directly emitted and not recycled.

  18. Recyclability assessment of nano-reinforced plastic packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, C; Hortal, M; Aliaga, C; Devis, A; Cloquell-Ballester, V A

    2014-12-01

    Packaging is expected to become the leading application for nano-composites by 2020 due to the great advantages on mechanical and active properties achieved with these substances. As novel materials, and although there are some current applications in the market, there is still unknown areas under development. One key issue to be addressed is to know more about the implications of the nano-composite packaging materials once they become waste. The present study evaluates the extrusion process of four nanomaterials (Layered silicate modified nanoclay (Nanoclay1), Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3), Silver (Ag) and Zinc Oxide (ZnO) as part of different virgin polymer matrices of polyethylene (PE), Polypropylene (PP) and Polyethyleneterephtalate (PET). Thus, the following film plastic materials: (PE-Nanoclay1, PE-CaCO3, PP-Ag, PET-ZnO, PET-Ag, PET-Nanoclay1) have been processed considering different recycling scenarios. Results on recyclability show that for PE and PP, in general terms and except for some minor variations in yellowness index, tensile modulus, tensile strength and tear strength (PE with Nanoclay1, PP with Ag), the introduction of nanomaterial in the recycling streams for plastic films does not affect the final recycled plastic material in terms of mechanical properties and material quality compared to conventional recycled plastic. Regarding PET, results show that the increasing addition of nanomaterial into the recycled PET matrix (especially PET-Ag) could influence important properties of the recycled material, due to a slight degradation of the polymer, such as increasing pinholes, degradation fumes and elongation at break. Moreover, it should be noted that colour deviations were visible in most of the samples (PE, PP and PET) in levels higher than 0.3 units (limit perceivable by the human eye). The acceptance of these changes in the properties of recycled PE, PP and PET will depend on the specific applications considered (e.g. packaging applications are more

  19. The Endocytic Recycling Regulatory Protein EHD1 Is Required for Ocular Lens Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Priyanka; Rainey, Mark A.; Bhattacharyya, Sohinee; Mohapatra, Bhopal; George, Manju; Kuracha, Murali R; Storck, Matthew D.; Band, Vimla; Govindarajan, Venkatesh; Band, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    The C-terminal Eps15 homology domain-containing (EHD) proteins play a key role in endocytic recycling, a fundamental cellular process that ensures the return of endocytosed membrane components and receptors back to the cell surface. To define the in vivo biological functions of EHD1, we have generated Ehd1 knockout mice and previously reported a requirement of EHD1 for spermatogenesis. Here, we show that approximately 56% of the Ehd1-null mice displayed gross ocular abnormalities, including anophthalmia, aphakia, microphthalmia and congenital cataracts. Histological characterization of ocular abnormalities showed pleiotropic defects that include a smaller or absent lens, persistence of lens stalk and hyaloid vasculature, and deformed optic cups. To test whether these profound ocular defects resulted from the loss of EHD1 in the lens or in non-lenticular tissues, we deleted the Ehd1 gene selectively in the presumptive lens ectoderm using Le-Cre. Conditional Ehd1 deletion in the lens resulted in developmental defects that included thin epithelial layers, small lenses and absence of corneal endothelium. Ehd1 deletion in the lens also resulted in reduced lens epithelial proliferation, survival and expression of junctional proteins E-cadherin and ZO-1. Finally, Le-Cre-mediated deletion of Ehd1 in the lens led to defects in corneal endothelial differentiation. Taken together, these data reveal a unique role for EHD1 in early lens development and suggest a previously unknown link between the endocytic recycling pathway and regulation of key developmental processes including proliferation, differentiation and morphogenesis. PMID:26455409

  20. Recycling and combustion are complementary; Recycling und Verbrennung bedingen einander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thome-Kozmiensky, Karl J. [vivis CONSULT GmbH, Nietwerder (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    In Germany, the waste management has developed to a medium position between supply and disposal. Numerous waste management companies also operate sorting plants, composting plants, biogas plants, wind power plants, biomass conversion plants and solar power plants. In addition to their traditional tasks, some companies of the energy sector are devoted to the energetic waste management and recycling. Nearly all companies have recognized this trend and have implemented the utilization of renewable energies including waste materials into their strategy.

  1. Unanticipated potential cancer risk near metal recycling facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raun, Loren, E-mail: raun@rice.edu [Department of Statistics, MS 138, Rice University, P.O. Box 1892, Houston, TX 77251-1892 (United States); Pepple, Karl, E-mail: pepple.karl@epa.gov [State and Local Programs Group, Air Quality Policy Division, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Policy, Analysis, and Communications Staff, Mail Drop C404-03, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Hoyt, Daniel, E-mail: hoyt.daniel@epa.gov [Air Surveillance Section, US EPA, Region 6, 6EN-AS, 1445 Ross Avenue, Dallas, TX 75202-2733 (United States); Richner, Donald, E-mail: Donald.Richner@houstontx.gov [Houston Department of Health and Human Services, Bureau of Pollution Control and Prevention, 7411 Park Place Blvd., Houston, TX 77087 (United States); Blanco, Arturo, E-mail: arturo.blanco@houstontx.gov [Pollution Control and Prevention, Environmental Health Division, Houston Department of Health and Human Services, 7411 Park Place Blvd., Houston, TX 77087 (United States); Li, Jiao, E-mail: jiao.li@rice.edu [Wiess School of Natural Science, Rice University, 6100 Main St., Houston, TX 77005 (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Metal recycling is an important growing industry. Prior to this study, area sources consisting of metal recycling facilities fell in a category of limited regulatory scrutiny because of assumed low levels of annual emissions. Initiating with community complaints of nuisance from smoke, dust and odor, the Houston Department of Health and Human Services (HDHHS) began a monitoring program outside metal recycler facilities and found metal particulates in outdoor ambient air at levels which could pose a carcinogenic human health risk. In a study of five similar metal recycler facilities which used a torch cutting process, air downwind and outside the facility was sampled for eight hours between 6 and 10 times each over 18 months using a mobile laboratory. Ten background locations were also sampled. Iron, manganese, copper, chromium, nickel, lead, cobalt, cadmium and mercury were detected downwind of the metal recyclers at frequencies ranging from 100% of the time for iron to 2% of the time for mercury. Of these metals, chromium, nickel, lead, cobalt, cadmium and mercury were not detected in any sample in the background. Two pairs of samples were analyzed for total chromium and hexavalent chromium to establish a ratio of the fraction of hexavalent chromium in total chromium. This fraction was used to estimate hexavalent chromium at all locations. The carcinogenic risk posed to a residential receptor from metal particulate matter concentrations in the ambient air attributed to the metal recyclers was estimated from each of the five facilities in an effort to rank the importance of this source and inform the need for further investigation. The total risk from these area sources ranged from an increased cancer risk of 1 in 1,000,000 to 6 in 10,000 using the 95th upper confidence limit of the mean of the carcinogenic metal particulate matter concentration, assuming the point of the exposure is the sample location for a residential receptor after accounting for wind direction

  2. Unanticipated potential cancer risk near metal recycling facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raun, Loren; Pepple, Karl; Hoyt, Daniel; Richner, Donald; Blanco, Arturo; Li, Jiao

    2013-01-01

    Metal recycling is an important growing industry. Prior to this study, area sources consisting of metal recycling facilities fell in a category of limited regulatory scrutiny because of assumed low levels of annual emissions. Initiating with community complaints of nuisance from smoke, dust and odor, the Houston Department of Health and Human Services (HDHHS) began a monitoring program outside metal recycler facilities and found metal particulates in outdoor ambient air at levels which could pose a carcinogenic human health risk. In a study of five similar metal recycler facilities which used a torch cutting process, air downwind and outside the facility was sampled for eight hours between 6 and 10 times each over 18 months using a mobile laboratory. Ten background locations were also sampled. Iron, manganese, copper, chromium, nickel, lead, cobalt, cadmium and mercury were detected downwind of the metal recyclers at frequencies ranging from 100% of the time for iron to 2% of the time for mercury. Of these metals, chromium, nickel, lead, cobalt, cadmium and mercury were not detected in any sample in the background. Two pairs of samples were analyzed for total chromium and hexavalent chromium to establish a ratio of the fraction of hexavalent chromium in total chromium. This fraction was used to estimate hexavalent chromium at all locations. The carcinogenic risk posed to a residential receptor from metal particulate matter concentrations in the ambient air attributed to the metal recyclers was estimated from each of the five facilities in an effort to rank the importance of this source and inform the need for further investigation. The total risk from these area sources ranged from an increased cancer risk of 1 in 1,000,000 to 6 in 10,000 using the 95th upper confidence limit of the mean of the carcinogenic metal particulate matter concentration, assuming the point of the exposure is the sample location for a residential receptor after accounting for wind direction

  3. Cost effectiveness of recycling: A systems model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonjes, David J., E-mail: david.tonjes@stonybrook.edu [Department of Technology and Society, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3560 (United States); Waste Reduction and Management Institute, School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-5000 (United States); Center for Bioenergy Research and Development, Advanced Energy Research and Technology Center, Stony Brook University, 1000 Innovation Rd., Stony Brook, NY 11794-6044 (United States); Mallikarjun, Sreekanth, E-mail: sreekanth.mallikarjun@stonybrook.edu [Department of Technology and Society, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3560 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Curbside collection of recyclables reduces overall system costs over a range of conditions. • When avoided costs for recyclables are large, even high collection costs are supported. • When avoided costs for recyclables are not great, there are reduced opportunities for savings. • For common waste compositions, maximizing curbside recyclables collection always saves money. - Abstract: Financial analytical models of waste management systems have often found that recycling costs exceed direct benefits, and in order to economically justify recycling activities, externalities such as household expenses or environmental impacts must be invoked. Certain more empirically based studies have also found that recycling is more expensive than disposal. Other work, both through models and surveys, have found differently. Here we present an empirical systems model, largely drawn from a suburban Long Island municipality. The model accounts for changes in distribution of effort as recycling tonnages displace disposal tonnages, and the seven different cases examined all show that curbside collection programs that manage up to between 31% and 37% of the waste stream should result in overall system savings. These savings accrue partially because of assumed cost differences in tip fees for recyclables and disposed wastes, and also because recycling can result in a more efficient, cost-effective collection program. These results imply that increases in recycling are justifiable due to cost-savings alone, not on more difficult to measure factors that may not impact program budgets.

  4. Innovative Vacuum Distillation for Magnesium Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tianbai; Li, Naiyi; Mei, Xiaoming; Yu, Alfred; Shang, Shixiang

    Magnesium recycling now becomes a very important subject as magnesium consumption increases fast around the world. All commonly used magnesium die-casting alloys can be recycled and recovered to the primary metal quality. The recycled materials may be comprised of biscuits, sprues, runners, flash, overflows, dross, sludge, scrap parts, and old parts that are returned from service, An innovative magnesium recycle method, vacuum distillation, is developed and proved out to be able to recycle magnesium scraps, especially machining chips, oily magnesium, smelting sludge, dross or the mixture. With this process at a specific temperature and environment condition, magnesium in scraps can be gasified and then solidified to become crystal magnesium crown. This `recycled' magnesium crown is collected and used as the raw material of magnesium alloys. The experimental results show the vacuum distillation is a feasible and plausible method to recycle magnesium. Further, the cost analysis will be addressed in this paper.

  5. Feedwater recycling system in BWR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimamoto, Yoshiharu.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the reactor safety by preventing thermal stresses and cracks generated in structural materials due to the fluctuations in the temperature for high temperature water - low temperature water mixture near the feedwater nozzle. Method: Feedwater pipes are connected to a pressure vessel not directly but by way of a flow control valve. While the recycled water is circulated from an inlet nozzle to an outlet nozzle through a recycle pump, flow control valve and recycling pipeways, feedwater is fed from the feedwater pipes to the recycling pipeways by way of the flow control valve. More specifically, since the high temperature recycle water and the low temperature recycle water are mixed within the pipeways, the temperature fluctuations resulted from the temperature difference between the recycle water and the feedwater is reduced to prevent thermal fatigue and generation of cracks thereby securing the reactor safety. (Furukawa, Y.)

  6. Overexpression of functional TrkA receptors after internalisation in human airway smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund-Michel, Véronique; Frossard, Nelly

    2008-10-01

    Trafficking of the TrkA receptor after stimulation by NGF is of emerging importance in structural cells in the context of airway inflammatory diseases. We have recently reported the expression of functional TrkA receptors in human airway smooth muscle cells (HASMC). We have here studied the TrkA trafficking mechanisms in these cells. TrkA disappearance from the cell membrane was induced within 5 min of NGF (3pM) stimulation. Co-immunoprecipitation of clathrin-TrkA was revealed, and TrkA internalisation inhibited either by clathrin inhibitors or by siRNA inducing downregulation of endogenous clathrin. TrkA internalised receptors were totally degraded in lysosomes, with no recycling phenomenon. Newly synthesized TrkA receptors were thereafter re-expressed at the cell membrane within 10 h. TrkA re-synthesis was inhibited by blockade of clathrin-dependent internalisation, but not of TrkA receptors lysosomal degradation. Finally, we observed that NGF multiple stimulations progressively increased TrkA expression in HASMC, which was associated with an increase in NGF/TrkA-dependent proliferation. In conclusion, we show here the occurrence of clathrin-dependent TrkA internalisation and lysosomal degradation in the airway smooth muscle, followed by upregulated re-synthesis of functional TrkA receptors and increased proliferative effect in the human airway smooth muscle. This may have pathophysiological consequences in airway inflammatory diseases.

  7. Extending the limits of paper recycling - improvements along the paper value chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Blanco

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The purpose of this study is to analyze how paper recycling activities in Europe can be extended through different improvements along the paper value chain. The importance of this study lies in the identification of the present barriers in paper recycling and how they can be overcome.Area of study: Europe.Material and Methods: All the main stages along the paper value chain have been analyzed for possible improvements: collection of recovered paper (availability and quality, sorting of recovered paper, paper production, and printing and converting activities.Main results: To increase paper recycling in Europe the following improvements are necessary. First, it is mandatory to increase the availability of recovered paper through more efficient collection systems (avoiding the use of commingled collection systems and limiting the competition with energy purposes and the exports. Second, it is necessary to extend sorting activities, which can be achieved by reducing sorting costs by the use of automatized sorting systems. Third, there is a need to increase the recyclability of paper products by the commitment of printing and converting industries to use recycling-friendly printing inks and adhesives. Finally, environmental awareness of the citizens is still an important driver for increasing recycling activities, affecting not only recovery but to all the stages along the paper recycling chain.Research highlights: Although the recycling rate in Europe is already very high (68.9%, there is still room to further extend paper recycling activities through different improvements along the paper value chain.Keywords: paper recycling; sustainability; paper value chain; recovered paper; environmental awareness.

  8. Enzyme recycling in lignocellulosic biorefineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henning; Pinelo, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    platform. Cellulases are the most important enzymes required in this process, but the complex nature of lignocellulose requires several other enzymes (hemicellulases and auxiliary enzymes) for efficient hydrolysis. Enzyme recycling increases the catalytic productivity of the enzymes by reusing them...... for several batches of hydrolysis, and thereby reduces the overall cost associated with the hydrolysis. Research on this subject has been ongoing for many years and several promising technologies and methods have been developed and demonstrated. But only in a very few cases have these technologies been...... upscaled and tested in industrial settings, mainly because of many difficulties with recycling of enzymes from the complex lignocellulose hydrolyzate at industrially relevant conditions, i.e., high solids loadings. The challenges are associated with the large number of different enzymes required...

  9. RECYCLING OF FERROUS METAL SHAVINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Rovin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The most advanced and universal way of chips recycling of ferrous metals is the technology of direct chips remelting in rotational tilting furnaces (RBF directly at the enterprises-sources of waste generation. However common practice of iron and steel chips recycling is based on its briquetting and subsequent remelting in traditional furnaces.For cost reduction when chip briquetting and organization of hot briquetting sections in places of its formation highly efficient equipment – rotational dryer and RBF is proposed. The possibility and effectiveness of developed furnaces for lowand high-temperature chip heating in briquetting lines is proved. Thermal efficiency of such furnaces when dispersed materials heating is much higher than drum or feed-through furnaces. Hot briquetting of shavings reduces the pressing force, which reduces the specific energy consumption. The use of rotary kilns can reduce technological operations and equipment of production sites for the manufacture of briquettes

  10. Vanadium recycling for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, T.J.; Butterworth, G.J.

    1994-04-01

    Very stringent purity specifications must be applied to low activation vanadium alloys, in order to meet recycling goals requiring low residual dose rates after 50--100 years. Methods of vanadium production and purification which might meet these limits are described. Following a suitable cooling period after their use, the vanadium alloy components can be melted in a controlled atmosphere to remove volatile radioisotopes. The aim of the melting and decontamination process will be the achievement of dose rates low enough for ''hands-on'' refabrication of new reactor components from the reclaimed metal. The processes required to permit hands-on recycling appear to be technically feasible, and demonstration experiments are recommended. Background information relevant to the use of vanadium alloys in fusion reactors, including health hazards, resources, and economics, is provided

  11. DWPF recycle minimization: Brainstorming session

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, R.A.; Poirier, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    The recycle stream from the DWPF constitutes a major source of water addition to the High Level Waste evaporator system. As now designed, the entire flow of 3.5 to 6.5 gal/min (at sign 25% and 75% attainment, respectively), or 2 gal/min during idling, flow to the 2H evaporator system (Tank 43). Substantial improvement in the HLW water balance and tank volume management is expected if the DWPF recycle to the HLW evaporator system can be significantly reduced. A task team has been appointed to study alternatives for reducing the flow to the HLW evaporator system and make recommendations for implementation and/or further study and evaluation. The brainstorming session detailed in this report was designed to produce the first cut options for the task team to further evaluate

  12. Benefit/cost analysis of plutonium recycle options in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowenberg, H.; Burnham, J.B.; Fisher, F.; Ray, W.H.

    1977-01-01

    Predictable effects of the recycle of plutonium and uranium recovered from spent LWR fuels were assessed in a final environmental statement (GESMO). Five alternative dispositions of LWR-produced plutonium ranging from prompt recycle of recovered plutonium and uranium to no recovery and no recycle are compared. The assessments consider cumulative effects for the period 1975 through 2000, and are centered on a conservative low growth rate resulting in about 500 LWR's in the U.S. in 2000. A more optimistic growth projection resulting in about 800 LWR's in 2000 is also analyzed in order to assess the effects of industry size upon the impacts. Demands for fuel cycle services were calculated with an ERDA program, NUFUEL, which was modified to include penalties for 236 U and 242 Pu. Unit cost data, including a simulation of market place reaction to supply-demand functions for uranium costs, were combined with the NUFUEL demand data in an economics code, NUCOST. Environmental impacts were also based upon NUFUEL demand data and were developed using a model plant industry concept. Using the most likely unit costs with a 10% discount rate, present worth incentives for prompt recycle over no recycle of $3.2 billion for the lower growth and about $6 billion for the higher growth were indicated. Present worth costs of delays in recycle of up to 5 years were less than $1 billion. Sensitivity of the economic assessments to unit cost variations and discount rates were also evaluated. Environmental impacts other than radiological were lowest for prompt Pu recycle and highest for no recycle. Radiological impacts for the total world wide total body exposure from U.S. industry for the 26 year period were estimated to be: - No recycle-8.2 million person-rem; U only recycle-9.5 million person-rem; Pu and U recycle-8.8 million person-rem. Comparison of the decreased radiological impact of the no recycle option with its increased costs relative to prompt plutonium recycle resulted in a

  13. Slag recycling of irradiated vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorman, P.K.

    1995-01-01

    An experimental inductoslag apparatus to recycle irradiated vanadium was fabricated and tested. An experimental electroslag apparatus was also used to test possible slags. The testing was carried out with slag materials that were fabricated along with impurity bearing vanadium samples. Results obtained include computer simulated thermochemical calculations and experimentally determined removal efficiencies of the transmutation impurities. Analyses of the samples before and after testing were carried out to determine if the slag did indeed remove the transmutation impurities from the irradiated vanadium

  14. 99mTc labelled peptides for imaging of peripheral receptors. Final report of a co-ordinated research project. 1995-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    99m Tc radiopharmaceuticals have remained the workhorse of diagnostic nuclear medicine over the last three decades ever since the introduction of the gamma camera as the main imaging instrument. Due to the near ideal nuclear properties such as gamma energy, half-life, lack of beta radiation and easy availability as a convenient generator system at an affordable cost of 99m Tc, it can be reasonably anticipated that 99m Tc will continue to retain this position in the foreseeable future. To a large extent this has been possible because of the successful development, over the years, of 99m Tc radiopharmaceuticals as substitutes for other clinically well established agents. Examples of these success stories are 99m Tc substitutes for 131 I hippuran and rose bengal 201 Tl and 123 I brain perfusion agents, which have come to be known collectively as 'second generation 99m Tc radiopharmaceuticals'. It should be acknowledged that each one of these developments was a result of innovative and sustained research and development efforts by scientists from different parts of the world. Concurrently these research efforts have made significant contributions to better understanding of the radiochemistry and co-ordination chemistry of 99m Tc. The radiopharmaceutical scientists are now in a much better position to design, prepare and evaluate 99m Tc complexes for specific applications. Building on this capability, the next step is development of 99m Tc substitutes for receptor specific radiopharmaceuticals, which have established clinical potential. Efforts in this direction are already ongoing and the work during the last decade on 99m Tc labelling of monoclonal antibodies can be considered the beginning of these 'third generation 99m Tc radiopharmaceuticals'. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) had organized two co-ordinated research projects (CRPs) in the past covering 99m Tc second generation agents and 99m Tc monoclonal antibodies, and the results were published in

  15. Control device for recycling pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Yoshihiro.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to control the recycling flow rate by the variation coefficient of the recycling flow rate corresponding to the state of the reactor power. Constitution: A number of rotation of an electric power generator for supplying a driving power to recycling pump is calculated in a rotational number setting section such that the deviation between the actual measurement signal for the flow rate of steams from the reactor and an instruction signal for the steam flow rate is reduced to zero. The velocity ratio of the fluid coupling for connecting the motor with the electric power generator is calculated in a rotational number adjusting section such that the deviation between the output signal from the setting section and the measuring signal from the electric power generator is reduced to zero, and a set velocity ratio signal is outputted. The set velocity ratio signal, set velocity ratio measurement signal from the fluid coupling and the rotational number measuring signal for the electric power generator are inputted into a velocity ratio control section to control the velocity ratio of the fluid coupling such that the deviation between both of the velocity ratio signal inputs is reduced to zero by the variation coefficient depending on the number of rotation of the electric power generator. (Sekiya, K.)

  16. Recycle flow rate control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumida, Susumu; Mizuno, Hiroshi; Oka, Yoko.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To attain stable low hydraulic power operation with no abnormal changes in the reactor water level by smoothly varying the speed control for the recycling pump for regulating the reactor core flowrate in BWR type reactors. Constitution: In a recycling control system equipped with an internal pump having a response characteristic higher by ten and several times or more than that of prior pump, a previously programed recycling run-back signal is inputted to a speed regulator upon load interruption of the electric generator to thereby control the operation of the internal pump driving motor such that the speed is decreased rapidly at the initial state and smoothly thereafter. The run-back singal is passed through a primary delay circuit so that the interruption of the motor operation does not directly performed by the signal interruption upon failure. As the result, the amount of void produced is also made smooth and the reactor water level varies smoothly as well, whereby the reactor power can be reduced with a sufficient margin. (Kamimura, M.)

  17. Lithium actinide recycle process demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, G.K.; Pierce, R.D.; McPheeters, C.C. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Several pyrochemical processes have been developed in the Chemical Technology Division of Argonne Laboratory for recovery of actinide elements from LWR spent fuel. The lithium process was selected as the reference process from among the options. In this process the LWR oxide spent fuel is reduced by lithium at 650{degrees}C in the presence of molten LiCl. The Li{sub 2}O formed during the reduction process is soluble in the salt. The spent salt and lithium are recycled after the Li{sub 2}O is electrochemically reduced. The oxygen is liberated as CO{sub 2} at a carbon anode or oxygen at an inert anode. The reduced metal components of the LWR spent fuel are separated from the LiCL salt phase and introduced into an electrorefiner. The electrorefining step separates the uranium and transuranium (TRU) elements into two product streams. The uranium product, which comprises about 96% of the LWR spent fuel mass, may be enriched for recycle into the LWR fuel cycle, stored for future use in breeder reactors, or converted to a suitable form for disposal as waste. The TRU product can be recycled as fast reactor fuel or can be alloyed with constituents of the LWR cladding material to produce a stable waste form.

  18. Management options for recycling radioactive scrap metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehmel, J.C.; MacKinney, J.; Bartlett, J.

    1997-02-01

    The feasibility and advantages of recycling radioactive scrap metals (RSM) have yet to be assessed, given the unique technical, regulatory, safety, and cost-benefit issues that have already been raised by a concerned recycling industry. As is known, this industry has been repeatedly involved with the accidental recycling of radioactive sources and, in some cases, with costly consequences. If recycling were deemed to be a viable option, it might have to be implemented with regulatory monitoring and controls. Its implementation may have to consider various and complex issues and address the requirements and concerns of distinctly different industries. There are three basic options for the recycling of such scraps. They are: (1) recycling through the existing network of metal-scrap dealers and brokers, (2) recycling directly and only with specific steelmills, or (3) recycling through regional processing centers. Under the first option, scrap dealers and brokers would receive material from RSM generators and determine at which steelmills such scraps would be recycled. For the second option, RSM generators would deal directly with selected steelmills under specific agreements. For the third option, generators would ship scraps only to regional centers for processing and shipment to participating steelmills. This paper addresses the potential advantages of each option, identifies the types of arrangements that would need to be secured among all parties, and attempts to assess the receptivity of the recycling industry to each option.

  19. Deep water recycling through time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magni, Valentina; Bouilhol, Pierre; van Hunen, Jeroen

    2014-11-01

    We investigate the dehydration processes in subduction zones and their implications for the water cycle throughout Earth's history. We use a numerical tool that combines thermo-mechanical models with a thermodynamic database to examine slab dehydration for present-day and early Earth settings and its consequences for the deep water recycling. We investigate the reactions responsible for releasing water from the crust and the hydrated lithospheric mantle and how they change with subduction velocity ( v s ), slab age ( a ) and mantle temperature (T m ). Our results show that faster slabs dehydrate over a wide area: they start dehydrating shallower and they carry water deeper into the mantle. We parameterize the amount of water that can be carried deep into the mantle, W (×10 5 kg/m 2 ), as a function of v s (cm/yr), a (Myrs), and T m (°C):[Formula: see text]. We generally observe that a 1) 100°C increase in the mantle temperature, or 2) ∼15 Myr decrease of plate age, or 3) decrease in subduction velocity of ∼2 cm/yr all have the same effect on the amount of water retained in the slab at depth, corresponding to a decrease of ∼2.2×10 5 kg/m 2 of H 2 O. We estimate that for present-day conditions ∼26% of the global influx water, or 7×10 8 Tg/Myr of H 2 O, is recycled into the mantle. Using a realistic distribution of subduction parameters, we illustrate that deep water recycling might still be possible in early Earth conditions, although its efficiency would generally decrease. Indeed, 0.5-3.7 × 10 8 Tg/Myr of H 2 O could still be recycled in the mantle at 2.8 Ga. Deep water recycling might be possible even in early Earth conditions We provide a scaling law to estimate the amount of H 2 O flux deep into the mantle Subduction velocity has a a major control on the crustal dehydration pattern.

  20. Insulin receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, C.R.; Harrison, L.C.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings on insulin receptors. Part A: Methods for the study of structure and function. Topics covered include: Method for purification and labeling of insulin receptors, the insulin receptor kinase, and insulin receptors on special tissues

  1. Characterization of sludges of La Golondrina WWTP: sludges as final containers of the domestic wastewater pollution; Caracterizacion de fangos de la EDAR La Golondrina (EMACSA-Cordoba): su funcion como receptores finales de la contaminacion del agua residual urbana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin Galvin, R.; Alonso Perez de siles, L.; Rojas Moreno, F. J.

    2005-07-01

    Treatment of wastewater is to concentrate the original pollution in a by-product: the wastewater sludge or bio-solid. As example, La Golondrina WWTP (Cordoba-spain) promotes the production of 1,3 kg of sludge per m''3 of wastewater, yielding logically a treated water according to laws. Furthermore, the treatment process there applied reduces the levels of nine majority metals (Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Cd, Ni, Cr, Zn, Hg) from 2,72 mg/l to 1.42 mg/l in the treated water, generating almost, a sludge agrees with the spanish normative to sludge intended to agricultural use (its main fate). Summarizing, the treatment of wastewater supposes the concentration of the original biodegradable load into the sludge around 340 times, while metals exhibited a different concentration degree for each one (from 10.000 times for Fe, u pto 1-2 times for Cd and Hg). Finally, the concentration degree of a metal in the sludge is mainly led by the removed concentration of metal in the treatment process, and after, by the original concentration of metal in the influent wastewater. (Author) 24 refs.

  2. Methods of analysis of the membrane trafficking pathway from recycling endosomes to lysosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Takahide; Fukuda, Mitsunori

    2014-01-01

    The transferrin receptor (TfR) is responsible for iron uptake through its trafficking between the plasma membrane and recycling endosomes, and as a result it has become a well-known marker for recycling endosomes. Although the molecular basis of the TfR recycling pathway has been thoroughly investigated, the TfR degradation mechanism has been poorly understood. Exposure of cultured cells to two drugs, the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide and the V-ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin A1, recently showed that TfR is not only recycled back to the plasma membrane after endocytosis but is constitutively transported to lysosomes for degradation. The results of genome-wide screening of mouse Rab small GTPases (common regulators of membrane trafficking in all eukaryotes) have indicated that Rab12 regulates TfR trafficking to lysosomes independently of the known membrane trafficking pathways, for example, the conventional endocytic pathway and recycling pathway. This chapter summarizes the methods that the authors used to analyze the membrane trafficking pathway from recycling endosomes to lysosomes that is specifically regulated by Rab12. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis of nuclear proliferation resistance reprocessing and recycling technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricia Paviet-Hartmann; Gary Cerefice; Marcela Stacey; Steven Bakhtiar

    2011-05-01

    The PUREX process has been progressively and continuously improved during the past three decades, and these improvements account for successful commercialization of reprocessing in a few countries. The renewed interest in nuclear energy and the international growth of nuclear electricity generation do not equate – and should not be equated -with increasing proliferation risks. Indeed, the nuclear renaissance presents a unique opportunity to enhance the culture of non-proliferation. With the recent revival of interest in nuclear technology, technical methods for prevention of nuclear proliferation are being revisited. Robust strategies to develop new advanced separation technologies are emerging worldwide for sustainability and advancement of nuclear energy with enhanced proliferation resistance. On the other hand, at this moment, there are no proliferation resistance advanced technologies. . Until now proliferation resistance as it applies to reprocessing has been focused on not separating a pure stream of weapons-usable plutonium. France, as an example, has proposed a variant of the PUREX process, the COEX TM process, which does not result on a pure plutonium product stream. A further step is to implement a process based on group extraction of actinides and fission products associated with a homogeneous recycling strategy (UNEX process in the US, GANEX process in France). Such scheme will most likely not be deployable on an industrial scale before 2030 or so because it requires intensive R&D and robust flowsheets. Finally, future generation recycling schemes will handle the used nuclear fuel in fast neutron reactors. This means that the plutonium throughput of the recycling process may increase. The need is obvious for advanced aqueous recycling technologies that are intrinsically more proliferation resistant than the commercial PUREX process. In this paper, we review the actual PUREX process along with the advanced recycling technologies that will enhance

  4. Analysis of nuclear proliferation resistance reprocessing and recycling technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paviet-Hartmann, Patricia; Cerefice, Gary; Stacey, Marcela; Bakhtiar, Steven

    2011-01-01

    The PUREX process has been progressively and continuously improved during the past three decades, and these improvements account for successful commercialization of reprocessing in a few countries. The renewed interest in nuclear energy and the international growth of nuclear electricity generation do not equate - and should not be equated - with increasing proliferation risks. Indeed, the nuclear renaissance presents a unique opportunity to enhance the culture of non-proliferation. With the recent revival of interest in nuclear technology, technical methods for prevention of nuclear proliferation are being revisited. Robust strategies to develop new advanced separation technologies are emerging worldwide for sustainability and advancement of nuclear energy with enhanced proliferation resistance. On the other hand, at this moment, there are no proliferation resistance advanced technologies. Until now proliferation resistance as it applies to reprocessing has been focused on not separating a pure stream of weapons-usable plutonium. France, as an example, has proposed a variant of the PUREX process, the COEX TM process, which does not result on a pure plutonium product stream. A further step is to implement a process based on group extraction of actinides and fission products associated with a homogeneous recycling strategy (UNEX process in the US, GANEX process in France). Such scheme will most likely not be deployable on an industrial scale before 2030 or so because it requires intensive R and D and robust flowsheets. Finally, future generation recycling schemes will handle the used nuclear fuel in fast neutron reactors. This means that the plutonium throughput of the recycling process may increase. The need is obvious for advanced aqueous recycling technologies that are intrinsically more proliferation resistant than the commercial PUREX process. In this paper, we review the actual PUREX process along with the advanced recycling technologies that will enhance

  5. Expansive development of a decommissioning program 'recycle simulator' in nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiuchi, T.; Ozaki, S.; Hironaga, M.

    2004-01-01

    A decommissioning program 'Recycle Simulator' should be put into practice in careful consideration of both recycle of non-radioactive wastes and reduce of radioactive wastes in the coming circulatory social system. Nevertheless current support systems for decommissioning planning mainly deal with decontamination, safety storage and dismantlement, so-called the prior part of the total decommissioning process. Authors emphasize the necessity of total planning of decommissioning including recycle or reuse of a large amount of demolition materials and are propelling the development of the multi expert system named 'Recycle Simulator'. This paper presents an algorithm of the recycling and reusing scenario of demolition materials and a summarized configuration. 'Recycle Simulator' for the demolished concrete was developed in 2000 and presented at a previous International Conference on Nuclear Engineering. Construction of a supporting multi expert system for the totally planning of decommissioning projects is objected by expansive development of the previous version. 3 main conclusions obtained from this paper are the following. (1) The previously developed expert system was advanced in its estimation function toward the satisfaction of decommissioning planners. (2) The applicability of the system was enlarged to all the radioactive and non-radioactive wastes, demolished metal and concrete products, in a corresponding site of decommissioning. (3) Finally decommissioning recycle simulator was completed in a harmonized unification. (authors)

  6. LithoRec. Recycling of lithium-ion batteries. Within the R and D program ''Promotion of research and development in the field of electric mobility''. Final report; LithoRec. Recycling von Lithium-Ionen-Batterien. Im Rahmen des FuE-Programms ''Foerderung von Forschung und Entwicklung im Bereich der Elektromobilitaet''. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwade, Arno [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Partikeltechnik; Baerwaldt, Gunnar [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Niedersaechsisches Forschungszentrum Fahrzeugtechnik

    2012-04-02

    In the project ''LithoRec - Recycling of lithium-ion batteries'' several methods were evaluated for recycling of traction batteries. The planning of dismantling of the battery systems in LithoRec comprised besides the pure system planning also first investigations of the automation of dismantling steps, inter alia, with the prototypical realization of a gripper system for the removal of the battery cells. Processes for disassembling the cells and separating the active materials of the metal foils has been investigated in the laboratory and established with respect to the shredding of the cells in the pilot-plant scale. For hydrometallurgical treatment of separated coating powder of lithium-ion batteries in LithoRec a pilot plant has been realized. Ecological and economical balances on the basis of investigations carried out in the laboratory or pilot plant scale showed positive results. For the separation of the battery systems to the levels of the cathodic active material powder, a consistent approach was developed, which showed very good results in laboratory equipment. [German] In dem Projekt ''LithoRec - Recycling von Lithium-Ionen-Batterien'' wurden mehrere Verfahrenswege zum Recycling von Traktionsbatterien evaluiert. Die Planung der Demontage der Batteriesysteme in LithoRec umfasste neben der reinen Systemplanung auch erste Untersuchungen der Automatisierbarkeit der Demontageschritte, u.a. mit der prototypischen Realisierung eines Greifersystems zur Entnahme von Batteriezellen. Prozesse fuer das Zerlegen der Zellen und das Abtrennen der Aktivmaterialien von den Metallfolien wurden im Labor sowie hinsichtlich des Shredderns der Zellen auch im Technikumsmassstab etabliert und untersucht. Zur hydrometallurgischen Aufbereitung separierter Beschichtungspulver aus Lithium-Ionen-Batterien wurde in LithoRec eine Pilotanlage realisiert. Oekologische und oekonomische Bilanzen auf Basis der im Labor- oder Technikumsmassstab

  7. ZZ WPPR, Pu Recycling Benchmark Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, D.; Mattes, M.; Delpech, Marc; Juanola, Marc

    2002-01-01

    Description of program or function: The NEA NSC Working Party on Physics of Plutonium Recycling has commissioned a series of benchmarks covering: - Plutonium recycling in pressurized-water reactors; - Void reactivity effect in pressurized-water reactors; - Fast Plutonium-burner reactors: beginning of life; - Plutonium recycling in fast reactors; - Multiple recycling in advanced pressurized-water reactors. The results have been published (see references). ZZ-WPPR-1-A/B contains graphs and tables relative to the PWR Mox pin cell benchmark, representing typical fuel for plutonium recycling, one corresponding to a first cycle, the second for a fifth cycle. These computer readable files contain the complete set of results, while the printed report contains only a subset. ZZ-WPPR-2-CYC1 are the results from cycle 1 of the multiple recycling benchmarks

  8. Studies on recycled aggregates-based concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakshvir, Major; Barai, Sudhirkumar V

    2006-06-01

    Reduced extraction of raw materials, reduced transportation cost, improved profits, reduced environmental impact and fast-depleting reserves of conventional natural aggregates has necessitated the use of recycling, in order to be able to conserve conventional natural aggregate. In this study various physical and mechanical properties of recycled concrete aggregates were examined. Recycled concrete aggregates are different from natural aggregates and concrete made from them has specific properties. The percentages of recycled concrete aggregates were varied and it was observed that properties such as compressive strength showed a decrease of up to 10% as the percentage of recycled concrete aggregates increased. Water absorption of recycled aggregates was found to be greater than natural aggregates, and this needs to be compensated during mix design.

  9. Coolant clean-up and recycle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Takao.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the service life of mechanical seals in a shaft sealing device, eliminate leakages and improve the safety by providing a recycle pump for feeding coolants to a coolant clean-up device upon reactor shut-down and adapting the pump treat only low temperature and low pressure coolants. Constitution: The system is adapted to partially take out coolants from the pipeways of a recycling pump upon normal operation and feed them to a clean-up device. Upon reactor shut-down, the recycle pump is stopped and coolants are extracted by the recycle pump for shut-down into the clean-up device. Since the coolants are not fed to the clean-up device by the recycle pump during normal operation as conducted so far, high temperature and high pressure coolants are not directly fed to the recycle pump, thereby enabling to avoid mechanical problems in the pump. (Kamimura, M.)

  10. Development and characterization of composites PEAD recycled / gravel powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, P.V.B de; Goncalves, A.P.B.; Guimaraes, D.H.; Miranda, C.S.; Neto, J.L.M.S.; Carvalho, R.F.; Jose, N.M.

    2014-01-01

    The polymeric composites are heterogeneous materials multiphase, formed by at least one continuous phase and a discontinuous. The matrix used was recycled high density polyethylene (HDPE) and the load used was the residue of crushed stone dust generated by the process of crushing rocks, stocked in the quarries, no final destination, which changes the landscape and provides many environmental problems. With the aim of adding value to a new commercial waste and mitigate the environmental impact work proposes to develop polymeric composites for application in construction. Were prepared of recycled HDPE composites reinforced with three compositions 5,10 and 20% of powder aggregates with two different granulometries. The samples were prepared by pressing and characterized by FTIR analysis, DRX, DSC and TG. It has been observed that increasing the content of grit powder showed significant improvements in thermal and structural properties of the material. (author)

  11. Study on integrated TRU multi-recycling in sodium cooled fast reactor CDFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yun; Xu Mi; Wang Kan

    2010-01-01

    In view of recently proposed closed fuel cycle strategy which would recycle the integrated transuranics (TRU) from PWR spent fuel in the fast reactors, the neutronics characteristics of TRU recycled in China Demonstration Fast Reactor (CDFR) are studied in this paper. The results show that loading integrated TRU to substitute pure Pu as driver fuel will mainly make the influence on sodium void worth and negligible effects on other parameters, and hence TRU recycling in CDFR is feasible from viewpoint of core neutronics. If TRU is multi-recycled, the variation of TRU composition depends on fuel types and the ratio of TRU and U when recycling. It is indicated that, when TRU is multi-recycled in CDFR with MOX fuel, the minor actinides (MA) fraction in TRU will firstly decrease to ∼7.24% (minimum) within 8 TRU recycle times and then slowly increase to ∼7.7% after 20 TRU recycle times; while when TRU is multi-recycled in CDFR with metal fuel (TRU-U-10Zr), the MA fraction in TRU will gradually approach to an equilibrium state with the MA fraction of ∼3.8%, demonstrating better MA transmutation effect in metal fuel core. No matter 7.7 or 3.8%, they are both lower than ∼10% in PWR spent fuel with burnup of 45 GWd/tU, which presents satisfying effect of MA amount controlling for TRU multi-recycling strategy. On the other hand, the corresponding recycling parameters such as TRU heat release and neutron emission rate are also much lower in metal fuel than those in MOX fuel. Moreover, TRU recycled in metal fuel will bring greater fissile Pu isotopes equilibrium fraction due to better breeding capability of metal fuel. Finally, it could be summarized that integrated TRU multi-recycling in fast reactor can make contributions to both breeding and transmutation, and such strategy is a prospective closed fuel cycle manner to achieve the object of effective control of cumulated MA amount and sustainable development of nuclear energy.

  12. Implementing a campus wide recycling program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, L.

    2002-01-01

    'Full text:' The University of Windsor is currently expanding its recycling program to include all buildings on campus, but faces two challenges: 1) uncertainty about the current waste composition and distribution on campus; and 2) uncertainty about the effectiveness of increased recycling. This project assesses the current waste composition and the attitudes of the students towards recycling, and evaluates the effectiveness of proposed recycling activities. At present, paper is the only material that is collected throughout the entire campus. Except for two buildings, all other potentially recyclable materials within buildings, such as metal, glass, and plastic beverage containers, are discarded. The main focus of this research is on beverage containers as they represent clearly identifiable materials, but other materials were examined as well. To quantify the waste, different buildings on campus were classified according to their function: academic,operational and administrative. The waste composition study indicated that approximately 33% of the campus waste which is landfilled is composed of potentially recyclable material. A survey was then conducted to gauge the campus population's views on recycling issues that could affect the design of a recycling program. Interestingly, 97% of the respondents indicated a high willingness to recycle, but were uncertain as to how and where to recycle on campus. The project is currently assessing potential diversion rates using new, clearly identifiable recycling receptacles placed within selected classrooms for all major materials. There is a significant tradeoff however because the cost for new receptacles is considerable: multiple materials containers are often placed in high pedestrian traffic locations (e.g., hallways) and not always in classrooms,of which there are often many. This project will evaluate the basic benefits and costs of implementing a more comprehensive recycling program, and recommend how other

  13. Utility of Recycled Bedding for Laboratory Rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Miyamoto, Toru; Li, Zhixia; Kibushi, Tomomi; Okano, Shinya; Yamasaki, Nakamichi; Kasai, Noriyuki

    2009-01-01

    Animal facilities generate a large amount of used bedding containing excrement as medical waste. We developed a recycling system for used bedding that involves soft hydrothermal processing. In this study, we examined the effects of bedding type on growth, hematologic and serum biochemical values, and organ weights of female and male mice reared on either recycled or fresh bedding from 3 to 33 wk of age. Neither growth nor physiology differed between mice housed on recycled bedding compared wi...

  14. Recycling of contaminated scrap by melting 10 years of experience in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamm, M.; Kreh, R.; Quade, U.

    2000-01-01

    Recycling of slightly radioactively contaminated steel scrap from nuclear installations has been developed in Germany since the early 80's. 14,000 t of steel scrap were melted in the single purpose melting plant CARLA at Siempelkamp, Krefeld, up to now. As much material as possible is used for recycling to cast iron containers, shieldings or to replace iron ore in heavy concrete shieldings by iron granules. By this well developed recycling technique within the nuclear cycle radiation exposure of the general public could be avoided. Due to the max. achievable volume reduction, 80 % of final disposal volume have been saved so far. To manage the upcoming metallic waste from decommissioning of nuclear power plants, this recycling path will play an important role in the future. (authors)

  15. Lapatinib or Trastuzumab Plus Taxane Therapy for Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Positive Advanced Breast Cancer: Final Results of NCIC CTG MA.31.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelmon, Karen A; Boyle, Frances M; Kaufman, Bella; Huntsman, David G; Manikhas, Alexey; Di Leo, Angelo; Martin, Miguel; Schwartzberg, Lee S; Lemieux, Julie; Aparicio, Samuel; Shepherd, Lois E; Dent, Susan; Ellard, Susan L; Tonkin, Katia; Pritchard, Kathleen I; Whelan, Timothy J; Nomikos, Dora; Nusch, Arnd; Coleman, Robert E; Mukai, Hirofumi; Tjulandin, Sergei; Khasanov, Rustem; Rizel, Shulamith; Connor, Anne P; Santillana, Sergio L; Chapman, Judith-Anne W; Parulekar, Wendy R

    2015-05-10

    The efficacy of lapatinib versus trastuzumab combined with taxanes in the first-line setting of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) -positive metastatic breast cancer (BC) is unknown. The MA.31 trial compared a combination of first-line anti-HER2 therapy (lapatinib or trastuzumab) and taxane therapy for 24 weeks, followed by the same anti-HER2 monotherapy until progression. Stratification was by prior (neo)adjuvant anti-HER2 therapy, prior (neo)adjuvant taxane, planned taxane, and liver metastases. The primary end point was intention-to-treat (ITT) progression-free survival (PFS), defined as time from random assignment to progression by RECIST (version 1.0) criteria, or death for patients with locally assessed HER2-positive tumors. The primary test statistic was a stratified log-rank test for noninferiority. PFS was also assessed for patients with centrally confirmed HER2-positive tumors. From July 17, 2008, to December 1, 2011, 652 patients were accrued from 21 countries, resulting in 537 patients with centrally confirmed HER2-positive tumors. Median follow-up was 21.5 months. Median ITT PFS was 9.0 months with lapatinib and 11.3 months with trastuzumab. By ITT analysis, PFS was inferior for lapatinib compared with trastuzumab, with a stratified hazard ratio (HR) of 1.37 (95% CI, 1.13 to 1.65; P = .001). In patients with centrally confirmed HER2-positive tumors, median PFS was 9.1 months with lapatinib and 13.6 months with trastuzumab (HR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.20 to 1.83; P < .001). More grade 3 or 4 diarrhea and rash were observed with lapatinib (P < .001). PFS results were supported by the secondary end point of overall survival, with an ITT HR of 1.28 (95% CI, 0.95 to 1.72; P = .11); in patients with centrally confirmed HER2-positive tumors, the HR was 1.47 (95% CI, 1.03 to 2.09; P = .03). As first-line therapy for HER2-positive metastatic BC, lapatinib combined with taxane was associated with shorter PFS and more toxicity compared with trastuzumab

  16. Thorium-U Recycle Facility (7930)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Thorium-U Recycle Facility (7930), along with the Transuranic Processing Facility (7920). comprise the Radiochemical Engineering Development Complex. 7930 is a...

  17. Resource Efficient Metal and Material Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Markus A.; van Schaik, Antoinette

    Metals enable sustainability through their use and their recyclability. However, various factors can affect the Resource Efficiency of Metal Processing and Recycling. Some typical factors that enable Resource Efficiency include and arranged under the drivers of sustainability: Environment (Maximize Resource Efficiency — Energy, Recyclates, Materials, Water, Sludges, Emissions, Land); Economic Feasibility (BAT & Recycling Systems Simulation / Digitalization, Product vis-à-vis Material Centric Recycling); and Social — Licence to Operate (Legislation, consumer, policy, theft, manual labour.). In order to realize this primary production has to be linked systemically with typical actors in the recycling chain such as Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs), Recyclers & Collection, Physical separation specialists as well as process metallurgical operations that produce high value metals, compounds and products that recycle back to products. This is best done with deep knowledge of multi-physics, technology, product & system design, process control, market, life cycle management, policy, to name a few. The combination of these will be discussed as Design for Sustainability (DfS) and Design for Recycling (DfR) applications.

  18. Pentachlorophenol (PCP) sludge recycling unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The Guelph Utility Pole Company treats utility poles by immersion in pentachlorophenol (PCP) or by pressure treatment with chromated copper arsenate (CCA). The PCP treatment process involves a number of steps, each producing a certain amount of sludge and other wastes. In a plant upgrading program to improve processing and treatment of poles and to reduce and recycle waste, a PCP recovery unit was developed, first as an experimental pilot-scale unit and then as a full-scale unit. The PCP recovery unit is modular in design and can be modified to suit different requirements. In a recycling operation, the sludge is pumped through a preheat system (preheated by waste heat) and suspended solids are removed by a strainer. The sludge is then heated in a tank and at a predetermined temperature it begins to separate into its component parts: oil, steam, and solids. The steam condenses to water containing low amounts of light oil, and this water is pumped through an oil/water separator. The recovered oil is reused in the wood treatment process and the water is used in the CCA plant. The oil remaining in the tank is reused in PCP treatment and the solid waste, which includes small stones and wood particles, is removed and stored. By the third quarter of operation, the recovery unit was operating as designed, processing ca 10,000 gal of sludge. This sludge yielded 6,500 gal of water, 3,500 gal of oil, and ca 30 gal of solids. Introduction of the PCP sludge recycling system has eliminated long-term storage of PCP sludge and minimized costs of hazardous waste disposal. 4 figs

  19. Going for increased recycling. A social cost-benefit analysis; Inzetten op meer recycling. Een maatschappelijke kosten-batenanalyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warringa, G.E.A.; De Bruyn, M.; Bijleveld, M.M.

    2013-05-15

    While the environmental benefits of scenarios geared to increased recycling have been convincingly demonstrated by previous studies, the question arises whether such scenarios bring economic benefits, too. This study therefore assesses the main economic effects of increased recycling in the Netherlands, providing data that can be used to advance policy development in this area. To address the main issue we performed a social cost-benefit analysis (SCBA), a welfare-theory-based tool that can be used to chart the full range of economic impacts ('welfare impacts') of a project or policy intervention. In doing so, a broad definition of welfare is adopted, encompassing not only financial and economic consequences, but also environmental and employment impacts and so on. Using SimaPro, all the environmental interventions inventoried (including energy consumption, transport and recycling process emissions) were assessed for each individual material flow, with impacts being expressed as far as possible in monetary terms to enable comparison. The main social costs of increased recycling are the higher costs for local authorities associated with separate waste collection. There is also reduced revenue for waste incinerators, because more waste will need to be imported from abroad. Finally, there are the policy costs of incentives for increased recycling and extra efforts to induce citizens to separate their waste. The latter costs were not quantified. Over and against these costs are positive welfare impacts. The main benefits are environmental, expressed monetarily in the present study in terms of avoided damage costs for society as a whole and avoided measures for securing government reduction targets. In addition, the separated waste has a value, reflected in lower processing costs. Increased recycling also creates new jobs, while recycling firms generate more profit than waste incinerators. Finally, there are the benefits accruing from greater innovation and

  20. Heavy concrete shieldings made of recycled radio-active steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, D.; Quade, U.; Sappok, M.; Heim, H.

    1998-01-01

    Maintenance and decommissioning of nuclear installations will generate increasing quantities of radioactively contaminated metallic residues. For many years, Siempelkamp has been melting low-level radioactive scrap in order to re-use it for containers of nuclear industry. Another new recycling path has recently been developed by producing steel granules from the melt. These granules are used as replacement for hematite (iron ore) in the production of heavy concrete shieldings. In the CARLA plant (central plant for the recycling of low-level radioactive waste) of Siempelkamp Nuklear- und Umwelttechnik GmbH and Co., the scrap is melted in a medium frequency induction furnace. The liquid iron is poured into a cooling basin through a water jet, which splits the iron into granules. The shape of these granules is determined by various factors, such as water jet speed, pouring rate of the liquid iron and different additives to the melt. In this process, massive spheres with diameters ranging from 1 to 8 mm can be produced which add to the density of heavy concrete elements for optimum shielding. In close cooperation with Boschert, which indeed is an expert for the production of concrete shieldings, a new technology for manufacturing heavy concrete shieldings, containing low-level radioactive steel granules, has been developed. The portion of steel granules in the concrete is approx. 50 weight-%. A concrete density between 2.4 kg/dm 3 and 4.0 kg/dm 3 is available. The compressive strength for the concrete reaches values up to 65 MPa. Different types of Granulate Shielding Casks (GSC) are offered by Siempelkamp. The most famous one is the GSC 200 for 200 1 drums, which has already been qualified for final storage of radioactive wastes at the German Morsleben final repository (ERAM). This newly developed recycling process further increases the quantities of low-level radioactive metallic wastes available for recycling. Expensive storage area can thus be saved respectively

  1. Recycling And Disposal Of Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ui So

    1987-01-15

    This book introduces sewage disposal sludge including properties of sludge and production amount, stabilization of sludge by anaerobic digestion stabilization of sludge by aerobic digestion, stabilization of sludge by chemical method, and dewatering, water process sludge, human waste and waste fluid of septic tank such as disposal of waste fluid and injection into the land, urban waste like definition of urban waste, collection of urban waste, recycling, properties and generation amount, and disposal method and possibility of injection of industrial waste into the ground.

  2. Recycling of photovoltaic end-of-life panels. International overview. Extended abstract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billard, Yannael; Bazin, F.; Lacroix, O.; Antonini, Gerard; Couffignal, Benedicte; Arnaud, Swellen; Binesti, Didier; Cimolino, Lauro; Fangeat, Erwann; Rance, Melanie; Soleille, Sebastien; Veronneau, Cyrille

    2012-10-01

    Since the early 2000's, the general awareness surrounding the importance of recycling by the users and producers of photovoltaic modules has contributed to the emergence of the end-of-life photovoltaic modules recycling activity. This awareness can be attributed to the growing concern on natural resource conservation; the natural shortage in some strategic metals used in photovoltaic; the reinforcement of regulatory framework on waste management in some countries; and the answer given to raising questions regarding the renewability of photovoltaic. In fact, the last ten years have been marked by significant research efforts, which have finally lifted the main technological barriers associated with the recycling of photovoltaic modules. Economically, the activity of recycling photovoltaic modules is not yet viable today, and is instead based on sources of compensation from the client, producer or organizations in charge of the modules collection, on top of the sale of recycled materials. Technology developers are now cautious of investment because the waste stream is still too weak and poorly controlled, the photovoltaic market is unstable, and high competitiveness is indicative of a recycling overcapacity, which could be increasingly significant by 2020. Following the definition of the study bases, the regulatory framework active in specific regions of the world is described, and an objective overview of the developing recycling sector is provided by analyzing all recycling processes, its organizational segmentation and the internal structure of relevant actors. The synthesis of this data provides a realistic guideline on the maturity of the industry and key strategies for the development of activities within this sector. Indeed, the success of this activity will rest partly on the ability of recycling actors to adapt their business model and administrative system to local regulatory framework, and adapt the size of their installation to the transitory volume

  3. Electron beam irradiation process applied to primary and secondary recycled high density polyethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Jéssica R.; Moura, Eduardo de; Geraldo, Áurea B.C., E-mail: ageraldo@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Plastic bags, packaging and furniture items are examples of plastic utilities always present in life. However, the end-of-life of plastics impacts the environment because of this ubiquity and also often their high degradation time. Recycling processes are important in this scenario because they offer many solutions to this problem. Basically, four ways are known for plastic recycling: primary recycling, which consists in re-extrusion of clean plastic scraps from a production plant; secondary recycling, that uses end-of-life products that generally are reduced in size by extrusion to obtain a more desirable shape for reprocessing (pellets and powder); tertiary recover which is related to thermo-chemical methods to produce fuels and petrochemical feedstock; and quaternary route, that is related to energy recovery and it is done in appropriate reactors. In this work, high density polyethylene (HDPE) was recovered to simulate empirically the primary and secondary recycling ways using materials which ranged from pristine to 20-fold re-extrused materials. The final 20-fold recycled thermoplastic was irradiated in an electron beam accelerator under a dose rate of 22.4 kGy/s and absorbed doses of 50 kGy and 100 kGy. The characterization of HDPE in distinct levels of recovering was performed by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric degradation. In the HDPE recycling, degradation and crosslinking are consecutive processes; degradation is very noticeable in the 20-fold recycled product. Despite this, the 20-fold recycled product presents crosslinking after irradiation process and the post-irradiation product presents similarities in spectroscopic and thermal degradation characteristics of pristine, irradiated HDPE. These results are discussed. (author)

  4. Hot Press as a Sustainable Direct Recycling Technique of Aluminium: Mechanical Properties and Surface Integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Nur Kamilah; Lajis, Mohd Amri; Ahmad, Azlan

    2017-08-03

    Meltless recycling technique has been utilized to overcome the lack of primary resources, focusing on reducing the usage of energy and materials. Hot press was proposed as a novel direct recycling technique which results in astoundingly low energy usage in contrast with conventional recycling. The aim of this study is to prove the technical feasibility of this approach by characterizing the recycled samples. For this purpose, AA6061 aluminium chips were recycled by utilizing hot press process under various operating temperature (T s = 430, 480, and 530 °C) and holding times (t s = 60, 90, and 120 min). The maximum mechanical properties of recycled chip are Ultimate tensile strength (UTS) = 266.78 MPa, Elongation to failure (ETF) = 16.129%, while, for surface integrity of the chips, the calculated microhardness is 81.744 HV, exhibited at T s = 530 °C and t s = 120 min. It is comparable to theoretical AA6061 T4-temper where maximum UTS and microhardness is increased up to 9.27% and 20.48%, respectively. As the desired mechanical properties of forgings can only be obtained by means of a final heat treatment, T5-temper, aging after forging process was employed. Heat treated recycled billet AA6061 (T5-temper) are considered comparable with as-received AA6061 T6, where the value of microhardness (98.649 HV) at 175 °C and 120 min of aging condition was revealed to be greater than 3.18%. Although it is quite early to put a base mainly on the observations in experimental settings, the potential for significant improvement offered by the direct recycling methods for production aluminium scrap can be clearly demonstrated. This overtures perspectives for industrial development of solid state recycling processes as environmentally benign alternatives of current melting based practices.

  5. Electron beam irradiation process applied to primary and secondary recycled high density polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Jéssica R.; Moura, Eduardo de; Geraldo, Áurea B.C.

    2017-01-01

    Plastic bags, packaging and furniture items are examples of plastic utilities always present in life. However, the end-of-life of plastics impacts the environment because of this ubiquity and also often their high degradation time. Recycling processes are important in this scenario because they offer many solutions to this problem. Basically, four ways are known for plastic recycling: primary recycling, which consists in re-extrusion of clean plastic scraps from a production plant; secondary recycling, that uses end-of-life products that generally are reduced in size by extrusion to obtain a more desirable shape for reprocessing (pellets and powder); tertiary recover which is related to thermo-chemical methods to produce fuels and petrochemical feedstock; and quaternary route, that is related to energy recovery and it is done in appropriate reactors. In this work, high density polyethylene (HDPE) was recovered to simulate empirically the primary and secondary recycling ways using materials which ranged from pristine to 20-fold re-extrused materials. The final 20-fold recycled thermoplastic was irradiated in an electron beam accelerator under a dose rate of 22.4 kGy/s and absorbed doses of 50 kGy and 100 kGy. The characterization of HDPE in distinct levels of recovering was performed by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric degradation. In the HDPE recycling, degradation and crosslinking are consecutive processes; degradation is very noticeable in the 20-fold recycled product. Despite this, the 20-fold recycled product presents crosslinking after irradiation process and the post-irradiation product presents similarities in spectroscopic and thermal degradation characteristics of pristine, irradiated HDPE. These results are discussed. (author)

  6. Recycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre-Petersen, Maria

    2017-01-01

    introduction of sustainable principles in creative processes may influence expansion of aesthetic spaces of opportunity, and how glass craft and design may contribute to sustainable development. To connect scientific and artistic research with glass craft and design practice and education, I have engaged...... in a practice-based research method in combination with elements of education-based research and action research. The dissertation presents a discussion of theories, methods and practices around glass craft and design and sustainability in relation to a series of activities including personal experiments...... Arts. In order to ensure relevance within this format, a premise for the project has been to develop as holistic a foundation as possible for creative experimentation using the facilities and resources available at this institution. The outcomes of the project include practical, artistic and scientific...

  7. German experience in recycling of ferrous metallic residues from nuclear decommissioning by melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quade, U.; Kluth, Th.

    2008-01-01

    Due to the delay of commissioning of final depositories for nuclear waste on the one hand and the increasing amount of steel scrap resulting from operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities on the other hand, recycling of ferrous metal scrap to packagings made of ductile cast iron becomes more and more economical. A pool of know-how from waste managers, radiation protection experts, metallurgists and foundry experts and their teamwork is required to run this recycling path successfully. Siempelkamp provides this combination of experience by operating a melting facility for slightly radioactive contaminated scrap as well as a foundry for manufacturing of ductile cast iron products for the nuclear industry, both licensed by the German Radiation Protection Ordinance. In 1989, the CARLA plant (Centrale Anlage zum Rezyklieren von leichtradioaktiven Abfollen) started operation. A medium frequency induction furnace with a capacity of 3,2 t is core of the plant. Tools for dismantling and cutting components to chargeable sizes are available. From the total of 23000 t of melted scrap, 12000 t have been recycled to the manufacturing of containers for transport and storage of medium- and high active waste and for shielding plates. Manufacture of the castings takes place in the Siempelkamp foundry located at the same site. 8000 t of melted scrap could be released for industrial recycling. Scrap metal which does not meet the metallurgical specification for cast iron, is converted into iron granules. Up to now more than 2000 t of iron granules have been recycled as additive for heavy concrete containers. This production is in cooperation with an external partner. With regard to the German situation, the cost for recycling is only half compared to high pressure compaction, long-term interim storage and final disposal. The advantage of recycling is approx. 90 % less volume compared to the volume resulting from other disposal paths. It can be concluded that the German

  8. A new hyperspectral imaging based device for quality control in plastic recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifazi, G.; D'Agostini, M.; Dall'Ava, A.; Serranti, S.; Turioni, F.

    2013-05-01

    The quality control of contamination level in the recycled plastics stream has been identified as an important key factor for increasing the value of the recycled material by both plastic recycling and compounder industries. Existing quality control methods for the detection of both plastics and non-plastics contaminants in the plastic waste streams at different stages of the industrial process (e.g. feed, intermediate and final products) are currently based on the manual collection from the stream of a sample and on the subsequent off-line laboratory analyses. The results of such analyses are usually available after some hours, or sometimes even some days, after the material has been processed. The laboratory analyses are time-consuming and expensive (both in terms of equipment cost and their maintenance and of labour cost).Therefore, a fast on-line assessment to monitor the plastic waste feed streams and to characterize the composition of the different plastic products, is fundamental to increase the value of secondary plastics. The paper is finalized to describe and evaluate the development of an HSI-based device and of the related software architectures and processing algorithms for quality assessment of plastics in recycling plants, with particular reference to polyolefins (PO). NIR-HSI sensing devices coupled with multivariate data analysis methods was demonstrated as an objective, rapid and non-destructive technique that can be used for on-line quality and process control in the recycling process of POs. In particular, the adoption of the previous mentioned HD&SW integrated architectures can provide a solution to one of the major problems of the recycling industry, which is the lack of an accurate quality certification of materials obtained by recycling processes. These results could therefore assist in developing strategies to certify the composition of recycled PO products.

  9. Recycle Alaska: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle. Activities Handbook, Teacher's Guide, and Student Worksheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau.

    Recycling is a very important aspect of conserving the environment for future generations. This guide addresses the topic of litter prevention for the Alaskan environment and contains 42 activities. Activity topics covered include Natural Cycles, Human Interruption of Natural Cycles, Reduce, Reuse, Recycle and Recycled Classroom. Grade level,…

  10. Fermilab Recycler Collimation System Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, B. C. [Fermilab; Adamson, P. [Fermilab; Ainsworth, R. [Fermilab; Capista, D. [Fermilab; Hazelwood, K. [Fermilab; Kourbanis, I. [Fermilab; Mokhov, N. V. [Fermilab; Morris, D. K. [Fermilab; Murphy, M. [Fermilab; Sidorov, V. [Fermilab; Stern, E. [Fermilab; Tropin, I. [Fermilab; Yang, M-J. [Fermilab

    2016-10-04

    To provide 700 kW proton beams for neutrino production in the NuMI facility, we employ slip stacking in the Recycler with transfer to the Main Injector for recapture and acceleration. Slip stacking with 12 Booster batches per 1.33 sec cycle of the Main Injector has been implemented and briefly tested while extensive operation with 8 batches and 10 batches per MI cycle has been demonstrated. Operation in this mode since 2013 shows that loss localization is an essential component for long term operation. Beam loss in the Recycler will be localized in a collimation region with design capability for absorbing up to 2 kW of lost protons in a pair of 20-Ton collimators (absorbers). This system will employ a two stage collimation with a thin molybdenum scattering foil to define the bottom edge of both the injected and decelerated-for-slipping beams. Optimization and engineering design of the collimator components and radiation shielding are based on comprehensive MARS15 simulations predicting high collimation efficiency as well as tolerable levels of prompt and residual radiation. The system installation during the Fermilab 2016 facility shutdown will permit commissioning in the subsequent operating period.

  11. Recycling of Rare Earth Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Tom; Bertau, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Any development of an effective process for rare earth (RE) recycling has become more and more challenging, especially in recent years. Since 2011, when commodity prices of REs had met their all-time maximum, prices have dropped rapidly by more than 90 %. An economic process able to offset these fluctuations has to take unconventional methods into account beside well-known strategies like acid/basic leaching or solvent extraction. The solid-state chlorination provides such an unconventional method for mobilizing RE elements from waste streams. Instead of hydrochloric acid this kind of chlorination decomposes NH4Cl thermally to release up to 400 °C hot HCl gas. After cooling the resulting solid metal chlorides may be easily dissolved in pH-adjusted water. Without producing strongly acidic wastes and with NH4Cl as cheap source for hydrogen chloride, solid-state chlorination provides various advantages in terms of costs and disposal. In the course of the SepSELSA project this method was examined, adjusted and optimized for RE recycling from fluorescent lamp scraps as well as Fe14Nd2B magnets. Thereby many surprising influences and trends required various analytic methods to examine the reasons and special mechanisms behind them.

  12. Recycling abandoned lead battery sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, A.H.

    1993-01-01

    In the past, automobile batteries were recycled principally for their lead content. The waste generated at battery wrecking facilities consisted of spent acid, crushed casings (ebonite and plastic), and where secondary smelting was involved, matte, slag, and carbon from the smelting process. These waste products were generally disposed in an on-site in a landfill or stored in piles. If the facility shut down because further commercial operations were not financially viable, the waste piles remained to be addressed at a later date through remedial action or reclamation programs. There are many of these facilities in the US. Nationally, about 28 sites have been discovered by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Superfund program and are under investigation or administrative orders for remedial action. A major remediation effort is now underway at the Gould Superfund Site in Portland, Oregon, which was operated as a secondary smelting facility between 1949 and 1981. This paper describes the nature of the contamination at the Gould site and the work conducted by Canonie Environmental Services Corp. (Canonie) to develop a process which would treat the waste from battery wrecking operations and produce revenue generating recyclable products while removing the source contamination (lead) from the site. The full-scale commercial plant is now operating and is expected to achieve a throughput rate of between 200 and 250 tons per day in the coming weeks

  13. Long-term aging of recycled binders : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    At 80 million tons a year representing more than 80% of all milled asphalt pavement : asphalt paving is Americas most recycled material. Asphalt can be recycled in place, which is : very cost effective; however, aging of recycled binder ca...

  14. Compressive strength improvement for recycled concrete aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Dhiyaa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing amount of construction waste and, concrete remnants, in particular pose a serious problem. Concrete waste exist in large amounts, do not decay and need long time for disintegration. Therefore, in this work old demolished concrete is crashed and recycled to produce recycled concrete aggregate which can be reused in new concrete production. The effect of using recycled aggregate on concrete compressive strength has been experimentally investigated; silica fume admixture also is used to improve recycled concrete aggregate compressive strength. The main parameters in this study are recycled aggregate and silica fume admixture. The percent of recycled aggregate ranged from (0-100 %. While the silica fume ranged from (0-10 %. The experimental results show that the average concrete compressive strength decreases from 30.85 MPa to 17.58 MPa when the recycled aggregate percentage increased from 0% to 100%. While, when silica fume is used the concrete compressive strength increase again to 29.2 MPa for samples with 100% of recycled aggregate.

  15. 75 FR 71003 - America Recycles Day, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ... help create green jobs, support a vibrant American recycling and refurbishing industry, and advance our..., including the recycling of electronic products. The increased use of electronics and technology in our homes... harmful effects of the improper handling and disposal of these products. Currently, most discarded...

  16. Phosphate recycling in the phosphorus industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, W.J.; Klapwijk, A.; Potjer, A.; Rulkens, W.H.; Temmink, B.G.; Kiestra, F.D.G.; Lijmbach, A.C.M.

    2001-01-01

    The feasibility of phosphate recycling in the white phosphorus production process is discussed. Several types of materials may be recycled, provided they are dry inorganic materials, low in iron, copper and zinc. Sewage sludge ash may be used if no iron is used for phosphate precipitation in the

  17. Linguistic Recycling and the Open Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Probal

    2001-01-01

    Examines linguistic recycling in the context of domestic Esperanto use. Argues that word-meaning recycling reflects the same fundamental principles as sentential recursion, and that a linguistics theoretically sensitive to these principles strengthens practical efforts towards the social goal of an open speech community. (Author/VWL)

  18. COMPOSITES FROM RECYCLED WOOD AND PLASTICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ultimate goal of this research was to develop technology to convert recycled wood fiber and plastics into durable products that are recyclable and otherwise environmentally friendly. Two processing technologies were used to prepare wood-plastic composites: air-laying and melt...

  19. FLY ASH RECYCLE IN DRY SCRUBBING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper describes the effects of fly ash recycle in dry scrubbing. (Previous workers have shown that the recycle of product solids improves the utilization of slaked lime--Ca(OH)2--for sulfur dioxide (SO2) removal by spray dryers with bag filters.) In laboratory-scale experimen...

  20. India's ship recycling trade-off

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worrell, E.; Athanasopoulou, V.

    2014-01-01

    The special nature of India's steel industry lends particular importance to ship recycling as a source of scrap. Ship recycling in upgraded 'green' facilities can substitute other 'dirty' ironmaking processes, resulting in energy savings and air pollutant emission reductions for the Indian steel

  1. Recycling of WEEE by magnetic density separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, B.; Giacometti, L.; Di Maio, F.; Rem, P.C.

    2011-01-01

    The paper introduces a new recycling method of WEEE: Magnetic Density Separation. By using this technology, both grade and recovery rate of recycled products are over 90%. Good separations are not only observed in relatively big WEEE samples, but also in samples with smaller sizes or electrical

  2. Plutonium recycle concept for RCC - type PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonet, H.; Charlier, A.; Deramaix, P.; Vanderberg, C.

    1975-01-01

    Self-generated Pu recycling schemes in RCC-type PWRs have been defined. The main results of survey studies performed to compare the relative merits of various Pu recycle strategies and the merits of alternative solutions of the assembly design such as the Pu-island assembly or the all-Pu assembly are presented [fr

  3. Idea Notebook: Recycling with an Educational Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerth, Tom; Wilson, David A.

    1986-01-01

    Four students at St. Louis University High School developed a project to clean up the environment while saving energy and natural resources. Aluminum and steel cans were recycled and the money was used to buy and plant trees. Students learned about recycling, organization, money management, and improving the environment. (JMM)

  4. Rubber Recycling: Chemistry, Processing, and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Myhre, M.; Saiwari, Sitisaiyidah; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2012-01-01

    For both environmental and economic reasons, there is broad interest in recycling rubber and in the continued development of recycling technologies. The use of postindustrial materials is a fairly well-established and documented business. Much effort over the past decade has been put into dealing

  5. Hot Mix Asphalt Recycling : Practices and Principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohajeri, M.

    2015-01-01

    Hot mix asphalt recycling has become common practice all over the world since the 1970s because of the crisis in oil prices. In the Netherlands, hot recycling has advanced to such an extent that in most of the mixtures more than 50% of reclaimed asphalt (RA) is allowed. These mixtures with such a

  6. Sustainability and the Recycling of Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Donna L.; Nilsen, Alleen Pace

    2011-01-01

    With the mention of "sustainability" and "recycling," most people think about reusing paper, plastic, metal, and glass, but what the authors discovered when they embarked on a word-study unit is that the sustainability movement has also brought about the recycling of words. The authors were team-teaching a language awareness class taken by…

  7. WATER RESISTANCE OF RECYCLED PAPER PANEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Rani Suryandono

    2017-06-01

    Alice Wisler (2015 Facts about Recycling Paper. http://greenliving.lovetoknow.com/Facts_About_Recycling_Paper. Accessed 2 April 2016 Clay Miller (2011 5 Benefits of Recycling Paper. http://www.ways2gogreenblog.com/2011/09/28/5-benefits-of-recycling-paper/. Accessed 10 May 2016 Hari Goyal (2015 Grades of Paper. http://www.paperonweb.com/grade.htm. Accessed 2 April 2016 Hari Goyal (2015 Properties of Paper. http://www.paperonweb.com/paperpro.htm. Accessed 2 April 2016 Kathryn Sukalich (2016 Everything You Need to Know about Paper Recycling. http://earth911.com/business-policy/business/paper-recycling-details-basics/. Accessed 15 July 2016 [U1] Larry West (2015 Why Recycle Paper. http://environment.about.com/od/recycling/a/The-Benefits-Of-Paper-Recycling-Why-Recycle-Paper.htm. Accesed 15 June 2016 Marie-Luise Blue (2008 The Advantages of Recycling Paper. http://education.seattlepi.com/advantages-recycling-paper-3440.html. Accessed 15 June 2016 Nina Spitzer (2009 http://www.sheknows.com/home-and-gardening/articles/810025/the-impact-of-disposable-coffee-cups-on-the-environment. Accessed 15 June 2016 Radio New Zealand (2010 Iwi not Giving Up Fight against Tasman Mill Discharges. http://www.radionz.co.nz/news/regional/64521/iwi-not-giving-up-fight-against-tasman-mill-discharges. Accessed 15 July 2016 Rick LeBlanc (2016 Paper Recycling Facts, Figures and Information Sources. https://www.thebalance.com/paper-recycling-facts-figures-and-information-sources-2877868?_ga=1.192832942.544061388.1477446686. Accesed 2 April 2016 Robinson Meyer (2016 Will More Newspapers Go Nonprofit? http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2016/01/newspapers-philadelphia-inquirer-daily-news-nonprofit-lol-taxes/423960/. Accessed 3 August 2016 School of Engineering at Darthmouth (2010 Forest and Paper Industry. http://engineering.dartmouth.edu/~d30345d/courses/engs171/Paper.pdf. Accessed 2 April 2016 T. Subramani, V. Angappan. (2015. Experimental Investigation of Papercrete Concrete

  8. Measures for recycling plastic wastes in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cossais, J C [Ministere de l' Industrie et de la Recherche, 75 - Paris (France). Delegation aux Economies de Matieres Premieres

    1978-05-01

    Raw materials crisis and environmental awareness have lead to the question of intensively dealing with the recycling of plastics. Although plastic wastes (residues) industrially occuring have been recycled for a long time, this is certainly not always the case in the subsequent stages. One must particularly give thought to the considerable quantities of agricultural and municipal wastes. Besides the problem of collecting the waste which can only be satisfactorily solved by separate collection or setting up sorting places, it is necessary for the recycling plastic wastes on a large scale to find or develop sellable products. The product for sale is limited by economical aspects and prejudices against recycled materials. The public have taken to a series of measures in France to simplify recycling plastic wastes. Private industry is also beginning to take interest in this new sources of raw materials.

  9. MOX recycling-an industrial reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shallo, G.D.F.

    1996-01-01

    Reprocessing and plutonium recycling have now attained industrial maturity in France and Europe. Specifically, mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel is fabricated and used in light water reactors (LWRs) in satisfactory operating conditions. The utilities and the fuel cycle industry experience no technical difficulties, and European recycling programs are growing steadily, from 18 reactors in operation today up to 50 expected around the year 2000, putting the system reprocessing-recycling in coherence: 25 t of plutonium will then be used each year to produce the electricity equivalence of 25 millions tons of oil. Plutonium recycling in MOX fuel in current LWRs proves to be technically safe and economically competitive and meets natural resource savings and environmental protection objectives. And recycling responds properly to the nonproliferation concerns. Such an industrial experience gives a unique reference for weapons plutonium disposition through MOX use in reactors

  10. Requirements for the recycling of hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petts, M.

    1990-09-01

    The regulatory status of materials destined to be recycled is not always clear. There have been numerous questions from DOE Field Elements regarding the applicability of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) to certain materials that can be recycled. The Office of Environmental Guidance, RCRA/CERCLA Division, has responded to questions relating to the RCRA regulations as they apply to materials that are recycled or are destined for recycling. Additional regulatory requirements for these materials may be promulgated upon the reauthorization of RCRA (e.g., regulation of used oil). Additional EH-23 information Briefs will be issued as these regulations develop. The Office of Environment, Safety and Health has convened a workshop to establish DOE's position on a number of issues associated with mixed waste and materials management, several relative to recycling

  11. Stabilized fiber-reinforced pavement base course with recycled aggregate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhan, Khaled

    's assumptions for rigid pavements), which has been found to explain reasonably well the field behavior of unreinforced and fiber-reinforced concrete slabs on grade. Finally, a preliminary cost analysis demonstrated that the use of stabilized recycled aggregate instead of a standard crushed stone base course can result in a meaningful economic savings.

  12. Syndapin/SDPN-1 is required for endocytic recycling and endosomal actin association in the Caenorhabditis elegans intestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Adenrele M.; Nguyen, Ken C. Q.; Hall, David H.; Grant, Barth D.

    2016-01-01

    Syndapin/pascin-family F-BAR domain proteins bind directly to membrane lipids and are associated with actin dynamics at the plasma membrane. Previous reports also implicated mammalian syndapin 2 in endosome function during receptor recycling, but precise analysis of a putative recycling function for syndapin in mammalian systems is difficult because of its effects on the earlier step of endocytic uptake and potential redundancy among the three separate genes that encode mammalian syndapin isoforms. Here we analyze the endocytic transport function of the only Caenorhabditis elegans syndapin, SDPN-1. We find that SDPN-1 is a resident protein of the early and basolateral recycling endosomes in the C. elegans intestinal epithelium, and sdpn-1 deletion mutants display phenotypes indicating a block in basolateral recycling transport. sdpn-1 mutants accumulate abnormal endosomes positive for early endosome and recycling endosome markers that are normally separate, and such endosomes accumulate high levels of basolateral recycling cargo. Furthermore, we observed strong colocalization of endosomal SDPN-1 with the F-actin biosensor Lifeact and found that loss of SDPN-1 greatly reduced Lifeact accumulation on early endosomes. Taken together, our results provide strong evidence for an in vivo function of syndapin in endocytic recycling and suggest that syndapin promotes transport via endosomal fission. PMID:27630264

  13. Reusing Recycling Material as Teaching Strategy to Strengthen Environmental Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudit Zaida del Carmen Alarcón de Palma

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was centered interest implement recycling reuse the material as a teaching strategy to strengthen environmental students “Adolfo Moreno” National Basic School Barinitas parish, municipality Bolivar, Barinas state values. School Year 2014 - 2015. The study was based on the paradigm of qualitative research and research in action type. From this point of view, the study focuses on participatory action this mode, it is limited in so-called field layouts. The study its characteristics was fulfilled in the following phases: diagnosis, planning, implementation, evaluation and systematization. Finally, it can be noted that the implementation of teaching strategies reuse recycle material for strengthening environmental students "Adolfo Moreno" National Basic School values; They will be incorporating parents and guardians as well as various educational actors to implement the activities involved in the proposal which seeks to change attitudes to improve through practical actions management standards and conservation practices to achieve an environmental change in institution through technical, theoretical and practical knowledge to strengthen the benefit of recyclables properly handle procedures.

  14. Mechanical properties of recycled concrete in marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianxiu; Huang, Tianrong; Liu, Xiaotian; Wu, Pengcheng; Guo, Zhiying

    2013-01-01

    Experimental work was carried out to develop information about mechanical properties of recycled concrete (RC) in marine environment. By using the seawater and dry-wet circulation to simulate the marine environment, specimens of RC were tested with different replacement percentages of 0%, 30%, and 60% after immersing in seawater for 4, 8, 12, and 16 months, respectively. Based on the analysis of the stress-strain curves (SSCs) and compressive strength, it is revealed that RC' peak value and elastic modulus decreased with the increase of replacement percentage and corroding time in marine environment. And the failure of recycled concrete was speeded up with more obvious cracks and larger angles of 65° to 85° in the surface when compared with normal concrete. Finally, the grey model (GM) with equal time intervals was constructed to investigate the law of compressive strength of recycled concrete in marine environment, and it is found that the GM is accurate and feasible for the prediction of RC compressive strength in marine environment.

  15. Cellulase recycling in biorefineries--is it possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Daniel; Rodrigues, Ana Cristina; Domingues, Lucília; Gama, Miguel

    2015-05-01

    On a near future, bio-based economy will assume a key role in our lives. Lignocellulosic materials (e.g., agroforestry residues, industrial/solid wastes) represent a cheaper and environmentally friendly option to fossil fuels. Indeed, following suitable processing, they can be metabolized by different microorganisms to produce a wide range of compounds currently obtained by chemical synthesis. However, due to the recalcitrant nature of these materials, they cannot be directly used by microorganisms, the conversion of polysaccharides into simpler sugars being thus required. This conversion, which is usually undertaken enzymatically, represents a significant part on the final cost of the process. This fact has driven intense efforts on the reduction of the enzyme cost following different strategies. Here, we describe the fundamentals of the enzyme recycling technology, more specifically, cellulase recycling. We focus on the main strategies available for the recovery of both the liquid- and solid-bound enzyme fractions and discuss the relevant operational parameters (e.g., composition, temperature, additives, and pH). Although the efforts from the industry and enzyme suppliers are primarily oriented toward the development of enzyme cocktails able to quickly and effectively process biomass, it seems clear by now that enzyme recycling is technically possible.

  16. Is Municipal Solid Waste Recycling Economically Efficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavee, Doron

    2007-12-01

    It has traditionally been argued that recycling municipal solid waste (MSW) is usually not economically viable and that only when externalities, long-term dynamic considerations, and/or the entire product life cycle are taken into account, recycling becomes worthwhile from a social point of view. This article explores the results of a wide study conducted in Israel in the years 2000 2004. Our results reveal that recycling is optimal more often than usually claimed, even when externality considerations are ignored. The study is unique in the tools it uses to explore the efficiency of recycling: a computer-based simulation applied to an extensive database. We developed a simulation for assessing the costs of handling and treating MSW under different waste-management systems and used this simulation to explore possible cost reductions obtained by designating some of the waste (otherwise sent to landfill) to recycling. We ran the simulation on data from 79 municipalities in Israel that produce over 60% of MSW in Israel. For each municipality, we were able to arrive at an optimal method of waste management and compare the costs associated with 100% landfilling to the costs born by the municipality when some of the waste is recycled. Our results indicate that for 51% of the municipalities, it would be efficient to adopt recycling, even without accounting for externality costs. We found that by adopting recycling, municipalities would be able to reduce direct costs by an average of 11%. Through interviews conducted with representatives of municipalities, we were also able to identify obstacles to the utilization of recycling, answering in part the question of why actual recycling levels in Israel are lower than our model predicts they should be.

  17. The binding of NCAM to FGFR1 induces a specific cellular response mediated by receptor trafficking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francavilla, Chiara; Cattaneo, Paola; Berezin, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    different from that elicited by FGF-2. In contrast to FGF-induced degradation of endocytic FGFR1, NCAM promotes the stabilization of the receptor, which is recycled to the cell surface in a Rab11- and Src-dependent manner. In turn, FGFR1 recycling is required for NCAM-induced sustained activation of various...

  18. Recycling production designs: the value of coordination and flexibility in aluminum recycling operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brommer, Tracey H.

    The growing motivation for aluminum recycling has prompted interest in recycling alternative and more challenging secondary materials. The nature of these alternative secondary materials necessitates the development of an intermediate recycling facility that can reprocess the secondary materials into a liquid product Two downstream aluminum remelters will incorporate the liquid products into their aluminum alloy production schedules. Energy and environmental benefits result from delivering the products as liquid but coordination challenges persist because of the energy cost to maintain the liquid. Further coordination challenges result from the necessity to establish a long term recycling production plan in the presence of long term downstream aluminum remelter production uncertainty and inherent variation in the daily order schedule of the downstream aluminum remelters. In this context a fundamental question arises, considering the metallurgical complexities of dross reprocessing, what is the value of operating a coordinated set of by-product reprocessing plants and remelting cast houses? A methodology is presented to calculate the optimal recycling center production parameters including 1) the number of recycled products, 2) the volume of recycled products, 3) allocation of recycled materials across recycled products, 4) allocation of recycled products across finished alloys, 4) the level of flexibility for the recycling center to operate. The methods implemented include, 1) an optimization model to describe the long term operations of the recycling center, 2) an uncertainty simulation tool, 3) a simulation optimization method, 4) a dynamic simulation tool with four embedded daily production optimization models of varying degrees of flexibility. This methodology is used to quantify the performance of several recycling center production designs of varying levels of coordination and flexibility. This analysis allowed the identification of the optimal recycling

  19. Road-map design for thorium-uranium breeding recycle in PWR - 031

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shengyi, Si

    2010-01-01

    The paper was focused on designing a road-map to finally approach sustainable Thorium-Uranium ( 232 Th- 233 U) Breeding Recycle in current PWR, without any other change to the fuel lattice and the core internals, but substituting the UOX pellet with Thorium-based pellet. At first, the paper presented some insights to the inherence of Thorium-Uranium fuel conversion or breeding in PWR based on the neutronics theory and revealed the prerequisites for Thorium-Uranium fuel in PWR to achieve sustainable Breeding Recycle; And then, various Thorium-based fuels were designed and examined, and the calculation results further validated the above theoretical deductions; Based on the above theoretical analysis and calculation results, a road-map for sustainable Thorium-Uranium breeding recycle in PWR was outlined finally. (authors)

  20. Mechanical Performance Evaluation of Self-Compacting Concrete with Fine and Coarse Recycled Aggregates from the Precast Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sara A; da Silva, Pedro R; de Brito, Jorge

    2017-08-04

    This paper intends to evaluate the feasibility of reintroducing recycled concrete aggregates in the precast industry. The mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete (SCC) with incorporation of recycled aggregates (RA) (coarse recycled aggregates (CRA) and fine recycled aggregates (FRA)) from crushed precast elements were evaluated. The goal was to evaluate the ability of producing SCC with a minimum pre-established performance in terms of mechanical strength, incorporating variable ratios of RA (FRA/CRA%: 0/0%, 25/25%, 50/50%, 0/100% and 100/0%) produced from precast source concretes with similar target performances. This replication in SCC was made for two strength classes (45 MPa and 65 MPa), with the intention of obtaining as final result concrete with recycled aggregates whose characteristics are compatible with those of a SCC with natural aggregates in terms of workability and mechanical strength. The results enabled conclusions to be established regarding the SCC's produced with fine and coarse recycled aggregates from the precast industry, based on its mechanical properties. The properties studied are strongly affected by the type and content of recycled aggregates. The potential demonstrated, mainly in the hardened state, by the joint use of fine and coarse recycled aggregate is emphasized.

  1. Recycling of acetone by distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, D.L.; Campbell, B.A.; Phelan, J.E.; Harper, M.

    1992-09-01

    The Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) identifies spent acetone solvent as a listed hazardous waste. At Fernald, acetone has been spent that has been contaminated with radionuclides and therefore is identified as a mixed hazardous waste. At the time of this publication there is no available approved method of recycling or disposal of radioactively contaminated spent acetone solvent. The Consent Decree with the Ohio EPA and the Consent Agreement with the United States EPA was agreed upon for the long-term compliant storage of hazardous waste materials. The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility for safely decontaminating spent acetone to background levels of radioactivity for reuse. It was postulated that through heat distillation, radionuclides could be isolated from the spent acetone

  2. Reactor having coolant recycling pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Tadashi; Karatsuka, Shigeki; Yamamoto, Hajime.

    1991-01-01

    In a coolant recycling pump for an LMFBR type reactor, vertical grooves are formed to a static portion which surrounds a pump shaft as far as the lower end thereof. Sodium mists present in an annular gap of the pump shaft form a rotational flow, lose its centrifugal force at the grooved portion and are collected positively to the grooved portion. Further, since the rotational flow in the grooved channel is in a state of a cavity flow, the pressure is released in the grooved portion and a secondary eddy current is formed thereby providing a depressurized state. Accordingly, by a synergestic effect of the centrifugal force and the cavity flow, sodium mists can be recovered completely. (T.M.)

  3. Issues in recycling galvanized scrap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koros, P.J. [LTV Steel Co., Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States); Hellickson, D.A. [General Motors Corp., Detroit, MI (United States); Dudek, F.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-02-10

    The quality of the steel used for most galvanizing (and tinplate) applications makes scrap derived from their production and use a premier solid charge material for steelmaking. In 1989 the AISI created a Task Force to define the issues and to recommend technologically and economically sound approaches to assure continued, unhindered recyclability of the growing volume of galvanized scrap. The AISI program addressed the treatment of full-sized industrial bales of scrap. The current, on-going MRI (US)--Argonne National Laboratory program is focused on ``loose`` scrap from industrial and post-consumer sources. Results from these programs, issues of scrap management from source to steel melting, the choices for handling zinc in iron and steelmaking and the benefits/costs for removal of zinc (and lead) from scrap prior to melting in BOF and foundry operations are reviewed in this paper.

  4. Minor Actinides Recycling in PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delpech, M.; Golfier, H.; Vasile, A.; Varaine, F.; Boucher, L.; Greneche, D.

    2006-01-01

    Recycling of minor actinides in current and near future PWR is considered as one of the options of the general waste management strategy. This paper presents the analysis of this option both from the core physics and fuel cycle point of view. A first indicator of the efficiency of different neutron spectra for transmutation purposes is the capture to fission cross sections ratio which is less favourable by a factor between 5 to 10 in PWRs compared to fast reactors. Another indicator presented is the production of high ranking isotopes like Curium, Berkelium or Californium in the thermal or epithermal spectrum conditions of PWR cores by successive neutron captures. The impact of the accumulation of this elements on the fabrication process of such PWR fuels strongly penalizes this option. The main constraint on minor actinides loadings in PWR (or fast reactors) fuels are related to their direct impact (or the impact of their transmutation products) on the reactivity coefficients, the reactivity control means and the core kinetics parameters. The main fuel cycle physical parameters like the neutron source, the alpha decay power, the gamma and neutrons dose rate and the criticality aspects are also affected. Recent neutronic calculations based on a reference core of the Evolutionary Pressurized Reactor (EPR), indicates typical maximum values of 1 % loadings. Different fuel design options for minor actinides transmutation purposes in PWRs are presented: UOX and MOX, homogeneous and heterogeneous assemblies. In this later case, Americium loading is concentrated in specific pins of a standard UOX assembly. Recycling of Neptunium in UOX and MOX fuels was also studied to improve the proliferation resistance of the fuel. The impact on the core physics and penalties on Uranium enrichment were underlined in this case. (authors)

  5. Recycle and reuse of materials and components from waste streams of nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    All nuclear fuel cycle processes utilize a wide range of equipment and materials to produce the final products they are designed for. However, as at any other industrial facility, during operation of the nuclear fuel cycle facilities, apart from the main products some byproducts, spent materials and waste are generated. A lot of these materials, byproducts or some components of waste have a potential value and may be recycled within the original process or reused outside either directly or after appropriate treatment. The issue of recycle and reuse of valuable material is important for all industries including the nuclear fuel cycle. The level of different materials involvement and opportunities for their recycle and reuse in nuclear industry are different at different stages of nuclear fuel cycle activity, generally increasing from the front end to the back end processes and decommissioning. Minimization of waste arisings and the practice of recycle and reuse can improve process economics and can minimize the potential environmental impact. Recognizing the importance of this subject, the International Atomic Energy Agency initiated the preparation of this report aiming to review and summarize the information on the existing recycling and reuse practice for both radioactive and non-radioactive components of waste streams at nuclear fuel cycle facilities. This report analyses the existing options, approaches and developments in recycle and reuse in nuclear industry

  6. Quality control in the recycling stream of PVC from window frames by hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciani, Valentina; Serranti, Silvia; Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Di Maio, Francesco; Rem, Peter

    2013-05-01

    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is one of the most commonly used thermoplastic materials in respect to the worldwide polymer consumption. PVC is mainly used in the building and construction sector, products such as pipes, window frames, cable insulation, floors, coverings, roofing sheets, etc. are realised utilising this material. In recent years, the problem of PVC waste disposal gained increasing importance in the public discussion. The quantity of used PVC items entering the waste stream is gradually increased as progressively greater numbers of PVC products approach to the end of their useful economic lives. The quality of the recycled PVC depends on the characteristics of the recycling process and the quality of the input waste. Not all PVC-containing waste streams have the same economic value. A transparent relation between value and composition is required to decide if the recycling process is cost effective for a particular waste stream. An objective and reliable quality control technique is needed in the recycling industry for the monitoring of both recycled flow streams and final products in the plant. In this work hyperspectral imaging technique in the near infrared (NIR) range (1000-1700 nm) was applied to identify unwanted plastic contaminants and rubber present in PVC coming from windows frame waste in order to assess a quality control procedure during its recycling process. Results showed as PVC, PE and rubber can be identified adopting the NIR-HSI approach.

  7. A Study of the Closed-Loop Supply Chain Coordination on Waste Glass Bottles Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxue Ran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The recycling of waste products can sharply save manufacturing cost and improve the economic efficiency and corporate-reputation. It also has a great effect on the environment and resources protection. In the management of the closed-loop supply chain, the recycling of waste products and decision-making on pricing often directly affect the supply and demand of products and the operation efficiency of supply chain. Therefore, first we take waste glass bottles as an example and establish a mathematical model to solve the profit of manufacturers and retailers solely. Then, we analyzed whole supply chain profit under a dual-channel recycling condition which is directly recycled by consumers or by retailers. Finally, we concluded that no matter what product’s price, quality, profit, or operational efficiency of supply chain is, the overall recycling is better than the single node recycling model. Based on the analysis, we developed a new model to coordinate the profit of manufacturers and retailers in the supply chain with revenue-sharing contract. A numerical study shows that this approach is applicable and effective.

  8. ERDA activities related to reprocessing and plutonium recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurgeon, D.R.

    1977-01-01

    ERDA has redirected its program in support of the LWR fuel cycle from one emphasizing the commercialization of existing fuel cycle technology to a broader based assessment of alternative fuel cycle concepts with the emphasis on safeguardability and avoidance of proliferation risks. As part of this program, ERDA will evaluate a number of possible technical and institutional options to reduce proliferation risks. ERDA will continue its current program of LWR fuel reprocessing R and D with added emphasis on improved safeguards capability as well as the applicability of conventional reprocessing technology to large multinational plants. These activities and supporting design studies will provide the basis for a decision regarding the design of an optimized system for the management of spent LWR fuel. Such a system would provide a model for the development of future domestic and foreign facilities and programs. A recently completed ERDA study of the benefits of LWR reprocessing and recycle would also be expected to be factored into such a decision. The study concluded that based on currently available data, recycle of uranium and plutonium in LWR's is attractive from the standpoint of economics and resource utilization relative to the discarding of spent fuel. The LWR reprocessing/recycle picture today is clouded by several unresolved policy issues. These include the need for adequate spent fuel storage capacity for both domestic and foreign reactors; the possibility of foreign reprocessing of U.S. produced fuel; the possibility of the disposal of foreign fuel in the U.S.; the possible need to dispose of wastes generated by multinational reprocessing plants; and finally, determination of the optimum balance between recycling recovered plutonium and saving it for the breeder

  9. Recycling melting process of the zirconium alloy chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, Luis A.M. dos; Mucsi, Cristiano S.; Tavares, Luiz A.P.; Alencar, Maicon C.; Gomes, Maurilio P.; Barbosa, Luzinete P.; Rossi, Jesualdo L.

    2017-01-01

    Pressurized water reactors (PWR) commonly use 235 U enriched uranium dioxide pellets as a nuclear fuel, these are assembled and stacked in zirconium alloy tubes and end caps (M5, Zirlo, Zircaloy). During the machining of these components large amounts of chips are generated which are contaminated with cutting fluid. Its storage presents safety and environmental risks due to its pyrophoric and reactive nature. Recycling industry shown interest in its recycling due to its strategic importance. This paper presents a study on the recycling process and the results aiming the efficiency in the cleaning process; the quality control; the obtaining of the pressed electrodes and finally the melting in a Vacuum Arc Remelting furnace (VAR). The recycling process begins with magnetic separation of possible ferrous alloys chips contaminant, the washing of the cutting fluid that is soluble in water, washing with an industrial degreaser, followed by a rinse with continuous flow of water under high pressure and drying with hot air. The first evaluation of the process was done by an Energy Dispersive X-rays Fluorescence Spectrometry (EDXRFS) showed the presence of 10 wt. % to 17 wt. % of impurities due the mixing with stainless steel machining chips. The chips were then pressed in a custom-made matrix of square section (40 x 40 mm - 500 mm in length), resulting in electrodes with 20% of apparent density of the original alloy. The electrode was then melted in a laboratory scale VAR furnace at the CCTM-IPEN, producing a massive ingot with 0.8 kg. It was observed that the samples obtained from Indústrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB) are supposed to be secondary scrap and it is suggested careful separation in the generation of this material. The melting of the chips is possible and feasible in a VAR furnace which reduces the storage volume by up to 40 times of this material, however, it is necessary to correct the composition of the alloy for the melting of these ingots. (author)

  10. 309 plutonium recycle test reactor ion exchanger vault deactivitation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, P.W.

    1996-03-01

    This report documents the deactivation of the ion exchanger vault at the 309 Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) Facility in the 300 Area. The vault deactivation began in May 1995 and was completed in June 1995. The final site restoration and shipment of the low-level waste for disposal was finished in September 1995. The ion exchanger vault deactivation project involved the removal and disposal of twelve ion exchangers and decontaminating and fixing of residual smearable contamination on the ion exchanger vault concrete surfaces

  11. Resource and waste taxation in the theory of the firm with recycling activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, K.

    1999-01-01

    The management of solid waste has become an urgent problem in nations with a great population density. Accordingly, waste reduction through source reduction and recycling has become increasingly important. Our purpose is to show how prevention, recycling and disposal of waste could be part of a theory of the firm. We first derive efficient production functions from production processes with waste as a by-product. Waste obtained as new scrap can partially be recycled by using additional inputs in order to cut back the purchase of virgin material. Waste not completely recyclable will leave the firm as disposal which also entails cost to the firm. We use the dual cost function approach to develop a theory of the firm under solid residual management. Since the producer does not bear the full cost of disposal, there will be a bias toward virgin materials and away from recycling. The goal of the government is to stimulate the firms to recycle with respect to the preservation of exhaustible resources. An incentive to recycle is a tax on resources or on waste. In order to determine the tax levels the government maximizes welfare subject to the dynamic constraint for decumulation of land fill for waste deposits. This gives the user cost and its time profile for taxing waste disposal or virgin material. In a comparative statistics analysis we compare the effect of taxes on waste vs. virgin material on effort to produce in a resource saving manner, on the quantity of recycled material, on output, and on the reduction of waste. Since the impact of environmental regulation on employment is important, our model detects seven effects on labor demand as part of resource conservation policy. We finally carry out a comparative statistics analysis of waste intensive firms operating in different market structures. Of interest is the impact of a resource or waste taxation on market volume, on the number of firms, on resource saving effort, and on profit. 36 refs

  12. Secondary resources and recycling in developing economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghupathy, Lakshmi; Chaturvedi, Ashish

    2013-09-01

    Recycling of metals extends the efficient use of minerals and metals, reduces pressure on environment and results in major energy savings in comparison to primary production. In developing economies recycling had been an integral part of industrial activity and has become a major concern due to the handling of potentially hazardous material without any regard to the occupational health and safety (OH&S) needs. With rising awareness and interest from policy makers, the recycling scenario is changing and the large scale enterprises are entering the recycling sector. There is widespread expectation that these enterprises would use the Best Available Technologies (BAT) leading to better environment management and enhanced resource recovery. The major challenge is to enhance and integrate the activities of other stakeholders in the value chain to make recycling an economically viable and profitable enterprise. This paper is an attempt to propose a sustainable model for recycling in the developing economies through integration of the informal and formal sectors. The main objective is to augment the existing practices using a scientific approach and providing better technology without causing an economic imbalance to the present practices. In this paper studies on lead acid batteries and e-waste recycling in India are presented to evolve a model for "green economy". Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Management and recycling of electronic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanskanen, Pia

    2013-01-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is one of the largest growing waste streams globally. Hence, for a sustainable environment and the economic recovery of valuable material for reuse, the efficient recycling of electronic scrap has been rendered indispensable, and must still be regarded as a major challenge for today’s society. In contrast to the well-established recycling of metallic scrap, it is much more complicated to recycle electronics products which have reached the end of their life as they contain many different types of material types integrated into each other. As illustrated primarily for the recycling of mobile phones, the efficient recycling of WEEE is not only a challenge for the recycling industry; it is also often a question of as-yet insufficient collection infrastructures and poor collection efficiencies, and a considerable lack of the consumer’s awareness for the potential of recycling electronics for the benefit of the environment, as well as for savings in energy and raw materials

  14. Secondary resources and recycling in developing economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghupathy, Lakshmi; Chaturvedi, Ashish

    2013-01-01

    Recycling of metals extends the efficient use of minerals and metals, reduces pressure on environment and results in major energy savings in comparison to primary production. In developing economies recycling had been an integral part of industrial activity and has become a major concern due to the handling of potentially hazardous material without any regard to the occupational health and safety (OH and S) needs. With rising awareness and interest from policy makers, the recycling scenario is changing and the large scale enterprises are entering the recycling sector. There is widespread expectation that these enterprises would use the Best Available Technologies (BAT) leading to better environment management and enhanced resource recovery. The major challenge is to enhance and integrate the activities of other stakeholders in the value chain to make recycling an economically viable and profitable enterprise. This paper is an attempt to propose a sustainable model for recycling in the developing economies through integration of the informal and formal sectors. The main objective is to augment the existing practices using a scientific approach and providing better technology without causing an economic imbalance to the present practices. In this paper studies on lead acid batteries and e-waste recycling in India are presented to evolve a model for “green economy”

  15. Regulation of P2Y1 receptor traffic by sorting Nexin 1 is retromer independent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisar, Shaista; Kelly, Eamonn; Cullen, Pete J; Mundell, Stuart J

    2010-04-01

    The activity and traffic of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) is tightly controlled. Recent work from our laboratory has shown that P2Y(1) and P2Y(12) responsiveness is rapidly and reversibly modulated in human platelets and that the underlying mechanism requires receptor trafficking as an essential part of this process. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying P2Y receptor traffic. Sorting nexin 1 (SNX1) has been shown to regulate the endosomal sorting of cell surface receptors either to lysosomes where they are downregulated or back to the cell surface. These functions may in part be due to interactions of SNX1 with the mammalian retromer complex. In this study, we investigated the role of SNX1 in P2Y receptor trafficking. We show that P2Y(1) receptors recycle via a slow recycling pathway that is regulated by SNX1, whereas P2Y(12) receptors return to the cell surface via a rapid route that is SNX1 independent. SNX1 inhibition caused a dramatic increase in the rate of P2Y(1) receptor recycling, whereas inhibition of Vps26 and Vps35 known to be present in retromer had no effect, indicating that SNX1 regulation of P2Y(1) receptor recycling is retromer independent. In addition, inhibition of SNX4, 6 and 17 proteins did not affect P2Y(1) receptor recycling. SNX1 has also been implicated in GPCR degradation; however, we provide evidence that P2Y receptor degradation is SNX1 independent. These data describe a novel function of SNX1 in the regulation of P2Y(1) receptor recycling and suggest that SNX1 plays multiple roles in endocytic trafficking of GPCRs.

  16. Adiponectin release and insulin receptor targeting share trans-Golgi-dependent endosomal trafficking routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rödiger

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Intracellular vesicle trafficking maintains cellular structures and functions. The assembly of cargo-laden vesicles at the trans-Golgi network is initiated by the ARF family of small GTPases. Here, we demonstrate the role of the trans-Golgi localized monomeric GTPase ARFRP1 in endosomal-mediated vesicle trafficking of mature adipocytes. Methods: Control (Arfrp1flox/flox and inducible fat-specific Arfrp1 knockout (Arfrp1iAT−/− mice were metabolically characterized. In vitro experiments on mature 3T3-L1 cells and primary mouse adipocytes were conducted to validate the impact of ARFRP1 on localization of adiponectin and the insulin receptor. Finally, secretion and transferrin-based uptake and recycling assays were performed with HeLa and HeLa M-C1 cells. Results: We identified the ARFRP1-based sorting machinery to be involved in vesicle trafficking relying on the endosomal compartment for cell surface delivery. Secretion of adiponectin from fat depots was selectively reduced in Arfrp1iAT−/− mice, and Arfrp1-depleted 3T3-L1 adipocytes revealed an accumulation of adiponectin in Rab11-positive endosomes. Plasma adiponectin deficiency of Arfrp1iAT−/− mice resulted in deteriorated hepatic insulin sensitivity, increased gluconeogenesis and elevated fasting blood glucose levels. Additionally, the insulin receptor, undergoing endocytic recycling after ligand binding, was less abundant at the plasma membrane of adipocytes lacking Arfrp1. This had detrimental effects on adipose insulin signaling, followed by insufficient suppression of basal lipolytic activity and impaired adipose tissue expansion. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that adiponectin secretion and insulin receptor surface targeting utilize the same post-Golgi trafficking pathways that are essential for an appropriate systemic insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis. Keywords: Adiponectin, ARFRP1, Exocytosis, Insulin receptor, trans-Golgi

  17. Recycling carbon revenues: transforming costs into opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaidyula, Manasvini; Alberola, Emilie

    2016-01-01

    Governments worldwide generated $26 billion in 2015 in carbon pricing revenues. The benefits and co-benefits of carbon pricing can be enhanced by recycling carbon revenues. Revenue allocation decisions made by governments are vital as these revenues can help shift the narrative on carbon pricing from 'burden to benefit'. Existing carbon pricing schemes can provide useful feedback on revenue recycling. A well-positioned decision-making and governing framework is required to ensure the efficient recycling of carbon revenues

  18. Recycling systems for BWR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Akio; Yamamoto, Fumiaki; Fukumoto, Ryuji.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To stabilize the coolant flowing characteristics and reactor core reactivity. Constitution: The recycling system in a BWR type reactor comprises a recycling pump disposed to the outside of a reactor pressure vessel, a ring header connected to the recycling pump through main pipe ways, and a plurality of pipes branched from and connected with the ring header and connected to a plurality of jet pumps within the pressure vessel. Then, by making the diameter for the pipeways of each of the branched pipes different from each other, the effective cross-sectional area is varied to thereby average the coolant flow rate supplied to each of the jet pumps. (Seki, T.)

  19. Hot Mix Asphalt Recycling: Practices and Principles

    OpenAIRE

    Mohajeri, M.

    2015-01-01

    Hot mix asphalt recycling has become common practice all over the world since the 1970s because of the crisis in oil prices. In the Netherlands, hot recycling has advanced to such an extent that in most of the mixtures more than 50% of reclaimed asphalt (RA) is allowed. These mixtures with such a high RA content are produced in a batch plant to which a parallel drum is attached. In this drum RA is pre-heated to approximately 130°C. Since 2007 another hot mix recycling techniques became availa...

  20. Economic feasibility of radioactive scrap steel recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balhiser, R.; Rosholt, D.; Nichols, F.

    1995-01-01

    The goal of MSE's Radioactive Scrap Steel (RSS) Recycle Program is to develop practical methods for recycling RSS into useful product. This paper provides interim information about ongoing feasibility investigations that are scheduled for completion by September 1995. The project approach, major issues, and cost projections are outlined. Current information indicates that a cost effective RSS Recycling Facility can be designed, built, and in operation by 1999. The RSS team believes that high quality steel plate can be made from RSS at a conversion cost of $1500 per ton or less

  1. Supporting Sustainability through Recycling on Office Premises

    OpenAIRE

    Sierra Quiros, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is about recycling at the Deloitte office. Recycling of office material can be considered as a rather easy way to influence aspects of sustainability. The starting point for this thesis was to give support to Deloitte´s Green Agenda team, who’s aim is to consider recycling and sustainability from business perspectives. One of the main objectives in this thesis is to provide Deloitte with a frame of solutions for them to establish clear rules, policies and norms that encourage...

  2. Reusing recycled aggregates in structural concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Shicong

    The utilization of recycled aggregates in concrete can minimize environmental impact and reduce the consumption of natural resources in concrete applications. The aim of this thesis is to provide a scientific basis for the possible use of recycled aggregates in structure concrete by conducting a comprehensive programme of laboratory study to gain a better understanding of the mechanical, microstructure and durability properties of concrete produced with recycled aggregates. The study also explored possible techniques to of improve the properties of recycled aggregate concrete that is produced with high percentages (≧ 50%) of recycled aggregates. These techniques included: (a) using lower water-to-cement ratios in the concrete mix design; (b) using fly ash as a cement replacement or as an additional mineral admixture in the concrete mixes, and (c) precasting recycled aggregate concrete with steam curing regimes. The characteristics of the recycled aggregates produced both from laboratory and a commercially operated pilot construction and demolition (C&D) waste recycling plant were first studied. A mix proportioning procedure was then established to produce six series of concrete mixtures using different percentages of recycled coarse aggregates with and without the use of fly ash. The water-to-cement (binder) ratios of 0.55, 0.50, 0.45 and 0.40 were used. The fresh properties (including slump and bleeding) of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) were then quantified. The effects of fly ash on the fresh and hardened properties of RAC were then studied and compared with those RAC prepared with no fly ash addition. Furthermore, the effects of steam curing on the hardened properties of RAC were investigated. For micro-structural properties, the interfacial transition zones of the aggregates and the mortar/cement paste were analyzed by SEM and EDX-mapping. Moreover, a detailed set of results on the fracture properties for RAC were obtained. Based on the experimental

  3. Planning logistics network for recyclables collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratković Branislava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization, intensified industrialization, rise of income, and a more sophisticated form of consumerism are leading to an increase in the amount and toxicity of waste all over the world. Whether reused, recycled, incinerated or put into landfill sites, the management of household and industrial waste yield financial and environmental costs. This paper presents a modeling approach that can be used for designing one part of recycling logistics network through defining optimal locations of collection points, and possible optimal scheduling of vehicles for collecting recyclables. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR36005

  4. Hydrogen recycling and transport in the helical divertor of TEXTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clever, Meike

    2010-07-01

    observed. Its absence can be explained using an extended two point model including heat convection applied to the region dominated by parallel transport (laminar region). The radial penetration depth of the neutral hydrogen particles ({lambda}{sub n} {approx} 3-4 cm) estimated from spectroscopic measurements was found to be often larger than the varying radial extent of this laminar region (few mm up to 6 cm) which finally leads to convective heat transport reducing parallel temperature gradients. Increasing the radial extent of the laminar region especially in front of the divertor strike points could lead to an improvement in this respect and provide access to a high recycling regime. The radiation instability developing at high plasma densities in the helical divertor in TEXTOR is preceded by a transient partial detachment of the plasma from the divertor target plates and leads to the formation of a poloidally structured and helically inclined radiating belt, a helical divertor MARFE. While typically leading to a density limit disruption, this MARFE has been stabilised using a feedback system and could provide some divertor functionality such as low target temperature, increased neutral density and increased radiation within the stochastic boundary. Simulations using two different cross-field transport coefficients showed, that an agreement is only found at a certain level of cross-field transport (D {sub perpendicular} {sub to} =1 m{sup 2}s{sup -1}). The inclusion of carbon impurities in the simulations results in the experimentally observed reduction of the recycling flux. (orig.)

  5. Hydrogen recycling and transport in the helical divertor of TEXTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clever, Meike

    2010-01-01

    observed. Its absence can be explained using an extended two point model including heat convection applied to the region dominated by parallel transport (laminar region). The radial penetration depth of the neutral hydrogen particles (λ n ∼ 3-4 cm) estimated from spectroscopic measurements was found to be often larger than the varying radial extent of this laminar region (few mm up to 6 cm) which finally leads to convective heat transport reducing parallel temperature gradients. Increasing the radial extent of the laminar region especially in front of the divertor strike points could lead to an improvement in this respect and provide access to a high recycling regime. The radiation instability developing at high plasma densities in the helical divertor in TEXTOR is preceded by a transient partial detachment of the plasma from the divertor target plates and leads to the formation of a poloidally structured and helically inclined radiating belt, a helical divertor MARFE. While typically leading to a density limit disruption, this MARFE has been stabilised using a feedback system and could provide some divertor functionality such as low target temperature, increased neutral density and increased radiation within the stochastic boundary. Simulations using two different cross-field transport coefficients showed, that an agreement is only found at a certain level of cross-field transport (D perpendicular to =1 m 2 s -1 ). The inclusion of carbon impurities in the simulations results in the experimentally observed reduction of the recycling flux. (orig.)

  6. Syndecan-4 Phosphorylation Is a Control Point for Integrin Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Mark R.; Hamidi, Hellyeh; Bass, Mark D.; Warwood, Stacey; Ballestrem, Christoph; Humphries, Martin J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Precise spatiotemporal coordination of integrin adhesion complex dynamics is essential for efficient cell migration. For cells adherent to fibronectin, differential engagement of α5β1 and αVβ3 integrins is used to elicit changes in adhesion complex stability, mechanosensation, matrix assembly, and migration, but the mechanisms responsible for receptor regulation have remained largely obscure. We identify phosphorylation of the membrane-intercalated proteoglycan syndecan-4 as an essential switch controlling integrin recycling. Src phosphorylates syndecan-4 and, by driving syntenin binding, leads to suppression of Arf6 activity and recycling of αVβ3 to the plasma membrane at the expense of α5β1. The resultant elevation in αVβ3 engagement promotes stabilization of focal adhesions. Conversely, abrogation of syndecan-4 phosphorylation drives surface expression of α5β1, destabilizes adhesion complexes, and disrupts cell migration. These data identify the dynamic spatiotemporal regulation of Src-mediated syndecan-4 phosphorylation as an essential switch controlling integrin trafficking and adhesion dynamics to promote efficient cell migration. PMID:23453597

  7. Somatostatin receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Lars Neisig; Stidsen, Carsten Enggaard; Hartmann, Bolette

    2003-01-01

    functional units, receptors co-operate. The total receptor apparatus of individual cell types is composed of different-ligand receptors (e.g. SRIF and non-SRIF receptors) and co-expressed receptor subtypes (e.g. sst(2) and sst(5) receptors) in characteristic proportions. In other words, levels of individual......-peptides, receptor agonists and antagonists. Relatively long half lives, as compared to those of the endogenous ligands, have been paramount from the outset. Motivated by theoretical puzzles or the shortcomings of present-day diagnostics and therapy, investigators have also aimed to produce subtype...

  8. Solid Waste and Recycling Collection Routes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Cary, North Carolina — View the Town’s current collection schedule, including pick-up day and recycling week designation.The Town of Cary collects garbage weekly at the curb on the same...

  9. Characterization and Modeling of Recycled Pavement Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Because of its documented cost and environmental benefits, cold central plant recycling (CCPR) has attracted the interest of local and state departments of transportation. In 2015 two test pavement sections with CCPR as base layers were constructed a...

  10. BWR Assembly Optimization for Minor Actinide Recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Ivan Maldonado; John M. Christenson; J.P. Renier; T.F. Marcille; J. Casal

    2010-03-22

    The Primary objective of the proposed project is to apply and extend the latest advancements in LWR fuel management optimization to the design of advanced boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel assemblies specifically for the recycling of minor actinides (MAs).

  11. Performance of I-57 recycled concrete pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    In 1986-1987 the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) constructed a demonstration project on I-57 near Effingham, Illinois to evaluate the viability : of recycling an existing jointed reinforced concrete pavement for use as its primary aggreg...

  12. Recycled concrete aggregate in portland cement concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Aggregates can be produced by crushing hydraulic cement concrete and are known as recycled concrete : aggregates (RCA). This report provides results from a New Jersey Department of Transportation study to identify : barriers to the use of RCA in new ...

  13. Evaluation of radioactive scrap metal recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieves, L.A.; Chen, S.Y.; Kohout, E.J.; Nabelssi, B.; Tilbrook, R.W.; Wilson, S.E.

    1995-12-01

    This report evaluates the human health risks and environmental and socio-political impacts of options for recycling radioactive scrap metal (RSM) or disposing of and replacing it. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is assisting the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Oak Ridge Programs Division, in assessing the implications of RSM management alternatives. This study is intended to support the DOE contribution to a study of metal recycling being conducted by the Task Group on Recycling and Reuse of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The focus is on evaluating the justification for the practice of recycling RSM, and the case of iron and steel scrap is used as an example in assessing the impacts. To conduct the evaluation, a considerable set of data was compiled and developed. Much of this information is included in this document to provide a source book of information

  14. Hydrogen recycle modeling in transport codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, H.C.

    1979-01-01

    The hydrogen recycling models now used in Tokamak transport codes are reviewed and the method by which realistic recycling models are being added is discussed. Present models use arbitrary recycle coefficients and therefore do not model the actual recycling processes at the wall. A model for the hydrogen concentration in the wall serves two purposes: (1) it allows a better understanding of the density behavior in present gas puff, pellet, and neutral beam heating experiments; and (2) it allows one to extrapolate to long pulse devices such as EBT, ISX-C and reactors where the walls are observed or expected to saturate. Several wall models are presently being studied for inclusion in transport codes

  15. The continued quest to better recycling behaviour

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Strydom, WF

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available During 2010 a national survey on waste management service delivery and recycling behaviour amongst metropolitan households was conducted. WasteCon2010 conference attendees were also surveyed in parallel and on a voluntary basis. This paper reports...

  16. Organic household waste - incineration or recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Danish Environmental Protection Agency has carried out a cost benefit analysis of the consequences of increasing recycling of organic household waste. In the cost benefit analysis both the economic consequences for the affected parties and the welfare-economic consequences for the society as a whole have been investigated. In the welfare-economic analysis the value of the environmental effects has been included. The analysis shows that it is more expensive for the society to recycle organic household waste by anaerobic digestion or central composting than by incineration. Incineration is the cheapest solution for the society, while central composting is the most expensive. Furthermore, technical studies have shown that there are only small environmental benefits connected with anaerobic digestion of organic waste compared with incineration of the waste. The primary reason for recycling being more expensive than incineration is the necessary, but cost-intensive, dual collection of the household waste. Treatment itself is cheaper for recycling compared to incinerating. (BA)

  17. Evaluation of radioactive scrap metal recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A.; Chen, S.Y.; Kohout, E.J.; Nabelssi, B.; Tilbrook, R.W.; Wilson, S.E.

    1995-12-01

    This report evaluates the human health risks and environmental and socio-political impacts of options for recycling radioactive scrap metal (RSM) or disposing of and replacing it. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is assisting the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Oak Ridge Programs Division, in assessing the implications of RSM management alternatives. This study is intended to support the DOE contribution to a study of metal recycling being conducted by the Task Group on Recycling and Reuse of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The focus is on evaluating the justification for the practice of recycling RSM, and the case of iron and steel scrap is used as an example in assessing the impacts. To conduct the evaluation, a considerable set of data was compiled and developed. Much of this information is included in this document to provide a source book of information.

  18. The feasibility of recycling contaminated concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayers, K.W.; Corroon, W.; Parker, F.L.

    1999-01-01

    The changing mission of the Department of Energy along with the aging of many of its facilities has resulted in renewed emphasis on decontaminating and decommissioning surplus structures. Currently DOE is decontaminating some concrete and sending the clean material to C and D disposal facilities. In other instance, DOE is sending contaminated concrete to LLW disposal facilities. This paper examines the economic feasibility of decontaminating the concrete and recycling the rubble as clean aggregate. A probabilistic cost model was used to examine six potential recycling and disposal scenarios. The model predicted potential costs saving across the DOE complex of nearly one billion dollars. The ability of local markets to assimilate the recycled material was estimated for Washington, Idaho, Tennessee, New Mexico, and South Carolina. The relationships between a number of the economic model's variables were examined to develop operating ranges for initial managerial evaluation of recycling

  19. Irradiation performance of HTGR recycle fissile fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homan, F.J.; Long, E.L. Jr.

    1976-08-01

    The irradiation performance of candidate HTGR recycle fissile fuel under accelerated testing conditions is reviewed. Failure modes for coated-particle fuels are described, and the performance of candidate recycle fissile fuels is discussed in terms of these failure modes. The bases on which UO 2 and (Th,U)O 2 were rejected as candidate recycle fissile fuels are outlined, along with the bases on which the weak-acid resin (WAR)-derived fissile fuel was selected as the reference recycle kernel. Comparisons are made relative to the irradiation behavior of WAR-derived fuels of varying stoichiometry and conclusions are drawn about the optimum stoichiometry and the range of acceptable values. Plans for future testing in support of specification development, confirmation of the results of accelerated testing by real-time experiments, and improvement in fuel performance and reliability are described

  20. Recycling Mentors: an intergenerational, service-learning program to promote recycling and environmental awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'abundo, Michelle L; Fugate-Whitlock, Elizabeth I; Fiala, Kelly A

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of Recycling Mentors was to implement an intergenerational, service-learning program focused on promoting recycling and environmental awareness among students enrolled in Community Health (HEA 301) and Current Issues in Gerontology (GRN 440/540) and adults older than 60 years. Recycling Mentors was conducted in New Hanover County (NHC), North Carolina, where a moderate climate and coastal location attracts many tourists, retirees, and college students. A community like NHC is a good place to implement service-learning that educates both students and older adults about the benefits of recycling to individual health and the environment. During the Fall 2009 semester, undergraduate and graduate students completed institutional review board training and then conducted the program with older adults. The education component of Recycling Mentors included a pre/post survey, brochure, and scheduled visits. Overall, Recycling Mentors was positive service-learning experience with students identifying salient outcomes such as learning about recycling and the environment and working with older adults. In addition, teaching the education component of Recycling Mentors was good practice for students who will be the future health professionals. While service-learning and environmentally themed projects are common, a program that combines the 2 like Recycling Mentors is unique and has the potential to motivate individual change while positively impacting the local community and the environment.

  1. Length sensing and control of a Michelson interferometer with power recycling and twin signal recycling cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräf, Christian; Thüring, André; Vahlbruch, Henning; Danzmann, Karsten; Schnabel, Roman

    2013-03-11

    The techniques of power recycling and signal recycling have proven as key concepts to increase the sensitivity of large-scale gravitational wave detectors by independent resonant enhancement of light power and signal sidebands within the interferometer. Developing the latter concept further, twin signal recycling was proposed as an alternative to conventional detuned signal recycling. Twin signal recycling features the narrow-band sensitivity gain of conventional detuned signal recycling but furthermore facilitates the injection of squeezed states of light, increases the detector sensitivity over a wide frequency band and requires a less complex detection scheme for optimal signal readout. These benefits come at the expense of an additional recycling mirror, thus increasing the number of degrees of freedom in the interferometer which need to be controlled.In this article we describe the development of a length sensing and control scheme and its successful application to a tabletop-scale power recycled Michelson interferometer with twin signal recycling. We were able to lock the interferometer in all relevant longitudinal degrees of freedom and thus laid the foundation for further investigations of this interferometer configuration to evaluate its viability for the application in gravitational wave detectors.

  2. Defense Waste Processing Facility Recycle Stream Evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STONE, MICHAEL

    2006-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) stabilizes high level radioactive waste (HLW) by vitrification of the waste slurries. DWPF currently produces approximately five gallons of dilute recycle for each gallon of waste vitrified. This recycle stream is currently sent to the HLW tank farm at SRS where it is processed through the HLW evaporators with the concentrate eventually sent back to the DWPF for stabilization. Limitations of the HLW evaporators and storage space constraints in the tank farm have the potential to impact the operation of the DWPF and could limit the rate that HLW is stabilized. After an evaluation of various alternatives, installation of a dedicated evaporator for the DWPF recycle stream was selected for further evaluation. The recycle stream consists primarily of process condensates from the pretreatment and vitrification processes. Other recycle streams consist of process samples, sample line flushes, sump flushes, and cleaning solutions from the decontamination and filter dissolution processes. The condensate from the vitrification process contains some species, such as sulfate, that are not appreciably volatile at low temperature and could accumulate in the system if 100% of the evaporator concentrate was returned to DWPF. These species are currently removed as required by solids washing in the tank farm. The cleaning solutions are much higher in solids content than the other streams and are generated 5-6 times per year. The proposed evaporator would be required to concentrate the recycle stream by a factor of 30 to allow the concentrate to be recycled directly to the DWPF process, with a purge stream sent to the tank farm as required to prevent buildup of sulfate and similar species in the process. The overheads are required to meet stringent constraints to allow the condensate to be sent directly to an effluent treatment plant. The proposed evaporator would nearly de-couple the DWPF process from the

  3. Auditing Operating Room Recycling: A Management Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGain, Forbes; Jarosz, Katherine Maria; Nguyen, Martin Ngoc Hoai Huong; Bates, Samantha; O'Shea, Catherine Jane

    2015-08-01

    Much waste arises from operating rooms (ORs). We estimated the practical and financial feasibility of an OR recycling program, weighing all waste from 6 ORs in Melbourne, Australia. Over 1 week, 237 operations produced 1265 kg in total: general waste 570 kg (45%), infectious waste 410 kg (32%), and recyclables 285 kg (23%). The achieved recycling had no infectious contamination. The achieved recycling/potential recycling rate was 285 kg/517 kg (55%). The average waste disposal costs were similar for general waste and recycling. OR recycling rates of 20%-25% total waste were achievable without compromising infection control or financial constraints.

  4. Probabilistic Analysis of Structural Member from Recycled Aggregate Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broukalová, I.; Šeps, K.

    2017-09-01

    The paper aims at the topic of sustainable building concerning recycling of waste rubble concrete from demolition. Considering demands of maximising recycled aggregate use and minimising of cement consumption, composite from recycled concrete aggregate was proposed. The objective of the presented investigations was to verify feasibility of the recycled aggregate cement based fibre reinforced composite in a structural member. Reliability of wall from recycled aggregate fibre reinforced composite was assessed in a probabilistic analysis of a load-bearing capacity of the wall. The applicability of recycled aggregate fibre reinforced concrete in structural applications was demonstrated. The outcomes refer to issue of high scatter of material parameters of recycled aggregate concretes.

  5. Plastic Recycling Experiments in Materials Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Waskom, Tommy L.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this project was to introduce a series of plastic recycling experiments to students in materials-related courses such as materials science, material technology and materials testing. With the plastic recycling experiments, students not only can learn the fundamentals of plastic processing and properties as in conventional materials courses, but also can be exposed to the issue of materials life cycle and the impact on society and environment.

  6. Communication strategy of recycling and collecting bottles

    OpenAIRE

    Slavinská, Lenka

    2009-01-01

    This thesis deals with communication in the field of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). It aims to analyse the relationship between marketing communication and CSR and to evaluate which tools of the communication mix are suitable for the communication of CSR and especially for the communication of recycling. It also deals with the fields of packaging in marketing, recycling, collecting and sorting the packages and sustainable development. Theoretical knowledge is applied on The Coca-Cola ...

  7. Plutonium recycle. In-core fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincent, F.; Berthet, A.; Le Bars, M.

    1985-01-01

    Plutonium recycle in France will concern a dozen of PWR 900 MWe controlled in gray mode till 1995. This paper presents the main characteristics of fuel management with plutonium recycle. The organization of management studies will be copied from this developed for classical management studies. Up these studies, a ''feasibility report'' aims at establishing at each stage of the fuel cycle, the impact of the utilization of fuel containing plutonium [fr

  8. Superior cold recycling : The score project

    OpenAIRE

    LESUEUR, D; POTTI, JJ; SOUTHWELL, C; WALTER, J; CRUZ, M; DELFOSSE, F; ECKMANN, B; FIEDLER, J; RACEK, I; SIMONSSON, B; PLACIN, F; SERRANO, J; RUIZ, A; KALAAJI, A; ATTANE, P

    2004-01-01

    In order to develop Environmentally Friendly Construction Technologies (EFCT) and as part of the 5th Framework Program of Research and Development, the European Community has decided to finance a research project on cold recycling, entitled SCORE "Superior COld REcycling based on benefits of bituminous microemulsions and foamed bitumen. A EFCT system for the rehabilitation and the maintenance of roads". This research project gathers organizations from all over Europe, from industrial partners...

  9. Modern recycling methods in metallurgical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Maj

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of environment caused by increased industrial activities is the main topic of discussions in Poland and in the world. The possibilities of waste recovery and recycling vary in different sectors of the industry, and the specific methods, developed and improved all the time, depend on the type of the waste. In this study, the attention has been focussed mainly on the waste from metallurgical industry and on the available techniques of its recycling

  10. The value and feasibility of proactive recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fthenakis, V.M.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1999-01-01

    Photovoltaics (PV) technology has definite environmental advantages over competing electricity generation technologies, and so far these advantages have driven market penetration. The PV industry follows a pro-active approach to preserve its safe and environmentally friendly nature. Industrial ecology considerations raise the issue of what to do with the PV modules at the end of their useful life. One option is recycling. This paper discusses the value of proactive recycling and compares several alternatives. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  11. Physical and thermal behavior of cement composites reinforced with recycled waste paper fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hospodarova, Viola; Stevulova, Nadezda; Vaclavik, Vojtech; Dvorsky, Tomas

    2017-07-01

    In this study, three types of recycled waste paper fibers were used to manufacture cement composites reinforced with recycled cellulosic fibers. Waste cellulosic fibers in quantity of 0.2, 0.3, and 0.5 wt.% were added to cement mixtures. Physical properties such as density, water capillarity, water absorbability and thermal conductivity of fiber cement composites were studied after 28 days of hardening. However, durability of composites was tested after their water storage up to 90 days. Final results of tested properties of fiber cement composites were compared with cement reference sample without cellulosic fibers.

  12. Recycling ampersand incineration: Evaluating the choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denison, R.A.; Ruston, J.

    1993-01-01

    Conflicts between proponents of municipal solid waste incineration and advocates of recycling have escalated with efforts to reduce the volume of waste that ends up in landfills. Central to this debate is competition for materials that are both combustible and recyclable. Environmental and economic concerns also play a major role. This book, produced by the Environmental Defense Fund, compares recycling and incineration. It is intended for 'citizens, government officials, and business people who want to help resolve the solid-waste crisis.' The book is divided into three parts: recycling and incineration; health and environmental risk of incineration; and planning, public participation, and environmental review requirements. The book does an excellent job of discussing the benefits of recycling and the pitfalls of incineration. It provides helpful information for identifying questions that should be raised about incineration, but it does not raise similar queries about recycling. There is much worthwhile information here, but the book would be more useful if it identified critical issues for all waste reduction and management options

  13. Optical absorption in recycled waste plastic polyethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aji, M. P.; Rahmawati, I.; Priyanto, A.; Karunawan, J.; Wati, A. L.; Aryani, N. P.; Susanto; Wibowo, E.; Sulhadi

    2018-03-01

    We investigated the optical properties of UV spectrum absorption in recycled waste plastic from polyethylene polymer type. Waste plastic polyethylene showed an optical spectrum absorption after it’s recycling process. Spectrum absorption is determined using spectrophotometer UV-Nir Ocean Optics type USB 4000. Recycling method has been processed using heating treatment around the melting point temperature of the polyethylene polymer that are 200°C, 220°C, 240°C, 260°C, and 280°C. In addition, the recycling process was carried out with time variations as well, which are 1h, 1.5h, 2h, and 2.5h. The result of this experiment shows that recycled waste plastic polyethylene has a spectrum absorption in the ∼ 340-550 nm wavelength range. The absorbance spectrum obtained from UV light which is absorbed in the orbital n → π* and the orbital π → π*. This process indicates the existence of electron transition phenomena. This mechanism is affected by the temperature and the heating time where the intensity of absorption increases and widens with the increase of temperature and heating time. Furthermore this study resulted that the higher temperature affected the enhancement of the band gap energy of waste plastic polyethylene. These results show that recycled waste plastic polyethylene has a huge potential to be absorber materials for solar cell.

  14. Paper recycling framework, the "Wheel of Fiber".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervasti, Ilpo; Miranda, Ruben; Kauranen, Ilkka

    2016-06-01

    At present, there is no reliable method in use that unequivocally describes paper industry material flows and makes it possible to compare geographical regions with each other. A functioning paper industry Material Flow Account (MFA) that uses uniform terminology and standard definitions for terms and structures is necessary. Many of the presently used general level MFAs, which are called frameworks in this article, stress the importance of input and output flows but do not provide a uniform picture of material recycling. Paper industry is an example of a field in which recycling plays a key role. Additionally, terms related to paper industry recycling, such as collection rate, recycling rate, and utilization rate, are not defined uniformly across regions and time. Thus, reliably comparing material recycling activity between geographical regions or calculating any regional summaries is difficult or even impossible. The objective of this study is to give a partial solution to the problem of not having a reliable method in use that unequivocally describes paper industry material flows. This is done by introducing a new material flow framework for paper industry in which the flow and stage structure supports the use of uniform definitions for terms related to paper recycling. This new framework is termed the Detailed Wheel of Fiber. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The nonlinear relationship between paper recycling and primary pulp requirements : modeling paper production and recycling in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenk, Niels J.; Moll, Henri C.; Potting, Josepha

    Waste paper is suitable for recycling back into paper or for incineration for energy recovery. If waste paper is used for recycling, secondary pulp replaces virgin pulp. Fiber recycling is limited, however, because of physical constraints—particularly the breakage of fiber in the recycling

  16. Low to high performance recycled cementitious materials: case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Etxeberria Larrañaga, Miren

    2015-01-01

    In this work, four real case studies using concrete produced with recycled aggregates are described. The four real cases carried out in Barcelona are: 1) Pavement filling with control low strength material (CLSM) employing fine recycled aggregates, 2) pervious recycled aggregate concrete employing coarse mixed recycled aggregates in the works undertaken at Cervantes park; 3) Concrete blocks produced employing recycled and slag aggregates as well as sea water for a new breakwater dyke and 4) R...

  17. Energetic conditions of effective recycling of composite castings

    OpenAIRE

    J. Jackowski

    2009-01-01

    The most reasonable way of recycling the metal composite materials consists in separation of the components. In case of the composites with saturated reinforcement it is the only recycling method. The process of separation of the components always undergoes in the presence of an additional liquid phase called a recycling medium. In a three-phase system including the material of composite reinforcement – liquid composite matrix – liquid recycling medium, an important role for the recycling pro...

  18. Federal Research Action Plan on Recycled Tire Crumb Used ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the past several years, parents, athletes, schools, and communities have raised concerns about the safety of recycled tire crumb rubber used as infill for playing fields and playgrounds in the United States. The public has expressed concerns that the use of these fields could potentially be related to certain health effects. Studies to date have not shown an elevated health risk from playing on fields with tire crumb rubber, but these studies have limitations and do not comprehensively evaluate the concerns about health risks from exposure to tire crumb rubber. This status report provides a summary of activities to date, including: (1) stakeholder outreach, (2) the tire crumb rubber manufacturing industry, (3) the final peer-reviewed Literature Review/Gaps Analysis (LRGA), (4) progress on the research activities, and (5) next steps and a timeline for completion of the final report. The status report does not include research findings.

  19. Assessing changes on poly(ethylene terephthalate) properties after recycling: Mechanical recycling in laboratory versus postconsumer recycled material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López, María del Mar Castro, E-mail: quimcl02@udc.es [Grupo de Polímeros, Centro de Investigacións Tecnológicas (CIT), Departamento de Física, Escuela Universitaria Politécnica, Universidade de A Coruña, Campus de Ferrol, 15403 Ferrol (Spain); Ares Pernas, Ana Isabel, E-mail: aares@udc.es [Grupo de Polímeros, Centro de Investigacións Tecnológicas (CIT), Departamento de Física, Escuela Universitaria Politécnica, Universidade de A Coruña, Campus de Ferrol, 15403 Ferrol (Spain); Abad López, Ma José, E-mail: mjabad@udc.es [Grupo de Polímeros, Centro de Investigacións Tecnológicas (CIT), Departamento de Física, Escuela Universitaria Politécnica, Universidade de A Coruña, Campus de Ferrol, 15403 Ferrol (Spain); and others

    2014-10-15

    Keeping rheological, mechanical and thermal properties of virgin poly(ethylene terephthalate), PET, is necessary to assure the quality of second-market applications. A comparative study of these properties has been undertaken in virgin, mechanical recycled and commercial recycled PET samples. Viscoelastic characterization was carried out by rheological measurements. Mechanical properties were estimated by tensile and Charpy impact strength tests. Thermal properties and crystallinity were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry and a deconvolution procedure was applied to study the population of the different crystals. Molecular conformational changes related to crystallinity values were studied by FTIR spectroscopy. Variations in average molecular weight were predicted from rheology. Besides, the presence-absence of linear and cyclic oligomeric species was measured by mass spectrometry techniques, as MALDI-TOF. Mechanical recycled PET undergoes a significant decline in rheological, mechanical and thermal properties upon increasing the number of reprocessing steps. This is due to the cleavage of the ester bonds with reduction in molar mass and raise in cyclic oligomeric species, in particular [GT{sub c}]{sub n} and [GT{sub c}]{sub n}-G type. Chain shortening plus enrichment in trans conformers favour the crystallization process which occurs earlier and faster with modification in crystal populations. Additional physicochemical steps are necessary to preserve the main benefits of PET. - Highlights: • Combination of multiple techniques to characterize the effects of recycling in PET. • Cleavage of ester bonds reduced viscosity, Mw, toughness in mechanical recycled PET. • Virgin, mechanical recycled and commercial recycled PET differ in crystal populations. • Cyclic oligomers [GT{sub c}]{sub n} and [GT{sub c}]{sub n}-G increase from the fourth extrusion cycle onwards.

  20. Membrane Purification Cell for Aluminum Recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David DeYoung; James Wiswall; Cong Wang

    2011-11-29

    Recycling mixed aluminum scrap usually requires adding primary aluminum to the scrap stream as a diluent to reduce the concentration of non-aluminum constituents used in aluminum alloys. Since primary aluminum production requires approximately 10 times more energy than melting scrap, the bulk of the energy and carbon dioxide emissions for recycling are associated with using primary aluminum as a diluent. Eliminating the need for using primary aluminum as a diluent would dramatically reduce energy requirements, decrease carbon dioxide emissions, and increase scrap utilization in recycling. Electrorefining can be used to extract pure aluminum from mixed scrap. Some example applications include producing primary grade aluminum from specific scrap streams such as consumer packaging and mixed alloy saw chips, and recycling multi-alloy products such as brazing sheet. Electrorefining can also be used to extract valuable alloying elements such as Li from Al-Li mixed scrap. This project was aimed at developing an electrorefining process for purifying aluminum to reduce energy consumption and emissions by 75% compared to conventional technology. An electrolytic molten aluminum purification process, utilizing a horizontal membrane cell anode, was designed, constructed, operated and validated. The electrorefining technology could also be used to produce ultra-high purity aluminum for advanced materials applications. The technical objectives for this project were to: - Validate the membrane cell concept with a lab-scale electrorefining cell; - Determine if previously identified voltage increase issue for chloride electrolytes holds for a fluoride-based electrolyte system; - Assess the probability that voltage change issues can be solved; and - Conduct a market and economic analysis to assess commercial feasibility. The process was tested using three different binary alloy compositions (Al-2.0 wt.% Cu, Al-4.7 wt.% Si, Al-0.6 wt.% Fe) and a brazing sheet scrap composition (Al-2

  1. An Experimental Study of Mortars with Recycled Ceramic Aggregates: Deduction and Prediction of the Stress-Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Guadalupe Cabrera-Covarrubias

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The difficult current environmental situation, caused by construction industry residues containing ceramic materials, could be improved by using these materials as recycled aggregates in mortars, with their processing causing a reduction in their use in landfill, contributing to recycling and also minimizing the consumption of virgin materials. Although some research is currently being carried out into recycled mortars, little is known about their stress-strain (σ-ε; therefore, this work will provide the experimental results obtained from recycled mortars with recycled ceramic aggregates (with contents of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 50% and 100%, such as the density and compression strength, as well as the σ-ε curves representative of their behavior. The values obtained from the analytical process of the results in order to finally obtain, through numerical analysis, the equations to predict their behavior (related to their recycled content are those of: σ (elastic ranges and failure maximum, ε (elastic ranges and failure maximum, and Resilience and Toughness. At the end of the investigation, it is established that mortars with recycled ceramic aggregate contents of up to 20% could be assimilated just like mortars with the usual aggregates, and the obtained prediction equations could be used in cases of similar applications.

  2. Estimating the possible range of recycling rates achieved by dump waste pickers: The case of Bantar Gebang in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Shunsuke; Araki, Tetsuya

    2014-06-01

    This article presents informal recycling contributions made by scavengers in the surrounding area of Bantar Gebang final disposal site for municipal solid waste generated in Jakarta. Preliminary fieldwork was conducted through daily conversations with scavengers to identify recycling actors at the site, and then quantitative field surveys were conducted twice. The first survey (n = 504 households) covered 33% of all households in the area, and the second survey (n = 69 households) was conducted to quantify transactions of recyclables among scavengers. Mathematical equations were formulated with assumptions made to estimate the possible range of recycling rates achieved by dump waste pickers. Slightly over 60% of all respondents were involved in informal recycling and over 80% of heads of households were waste pickers, normally referred to as live-in waste pickers and live-out waste pickers at the site. The largest percentage of their spouses were family workers, followed by waste pickers and housewives. Over 95% of all households of respondents had at least one waste picker or one small boss who has a coequal status of a waste picker. Average weight of recyclables collected by waste pickers at the site was estimated to be approximately 100 kg day(-1) per household on the net weight basis. The recycling rate of solid wastes collected by all scavengers at the site was estimated to be in the range of 2.8-7.5% of all solid wastes transported to the site. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. A TOCA/CDC-42/PAR/WAVE functional module required for retrograde endocytic recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhiyong; Grant, Barth D.

    2015-01-01

    Endosome-to-Golgi transport is required for the function of many key membrane proteins and lipids, including signaling receptors, small-molecule transporters, and adhesion proteins. The retromer complex is well-known for its role in cargo sorting and vesicle budding from early endosomes, in most cases leading to cargo fusion with the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Transport from recycling endosomes to the TGN has also been reported, but much less is understood about the molecules that mediate this transport step. Here we provide evidence that the F-BAR domain proteins TOCA-1 and TOCA-2 (Transducer of Cdc42 dependent actin assembly), the small GTPase CDC-42 (Cell division control protein 42), associated polarity proteins PAR-6 (Partitioning defective 6) and PKC-3/atypical protein kinase C, and the WAVE actin nucleation complex mediate the transport of MIG-14/Wls and TGN-38/TGN38 cargo proteins from the recycling endosome to the TGN in Caenorhabditis elegans. Our results indicate that CDC-42, the TOCA proteins, and the WAVE component WVE-1 are enriched on RME-1–positive recycling endosomes in the intestine, unlike retromer components that act on early endosomes. Furthermore, we find that retrograde cargo TGN-38 is trapped in early endosomes after depletion of SNX-3 (a retromer component) but is mainly trapped in recycling endosomes after depletion of CDC-42, indicating that the CDC-42–associated complex functions after retromer in a distinct organelle. Thus, we identify a group of interacting proteins that mediate retrograde recycling, and link these proteins to a poorly understood trafficking step, recycling endosome-to-Golgi transport. We also provide evidence for the physiological importance of this pathway in WNT signaling. PMID:25775511

  4. The Chemical Recycling of PET in the Framework of Sustainable Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achilias, D. S.; Karayannidis, G. P.

    2004-01-01

    In this investigation, all the techniques used in the chemical recycling of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) are critically reviewed according to the overall benefits together with the environmental surcharge that they cause. Those, which are consistent with the principles of sustainable development, are indicated. Experimental data are presented for the acid hydrolysis of PET and compared with previous results on the alkaline hydrolysis of PET with, or without, the use of a phase transfer catalyst. Overall material balances are carried out for the hydrolysis of PET. Finally, it can be postulated that recycling according to the scheme:is the only one within the framework of sustainable development. Therefore, the recycling of PET does not only serve as a partial solution to the solid waste problem but also contributes to the conservation of raw petrochemical products and energy

  5. In vitro structure-activity relationship of Re-cyclized octreotide analogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dannoon, Shorouk F. [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Bigott-Hennkens, Heather M. [Department of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Ma Lixin [Department of Radiology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); International Institute of Nano and Molecular Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Research Service, Harry S. Truman Memorial Veterans' Hospital, Columbia, MO 65201 (United States); Gallazzi, Fabio [Structural Biology Core, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Lewis, Michael R., E-mail: lewismic@missouri.ed [Department of Veterinary Medicine and Surgery, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Research Service, Harry S. Truman Memorial Veterans' Hospital, Columbia, MO 65201 (United States); Jurisson, Silvia S., E-mail: jurissons@missouri.ed [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Introduction: Development of radiolabeled octreotide analogues is of interest for targeting somatostatin receptor (SSTR)-positive tumors for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. We are investigating a direct labeling approach for incorporation of a Re ion into octreotide analogues, where the peptide sequences are cyclized via coordination to Re rather than through a disulfide bridge. Methods: Various octreotide analogue sequences and coordination systems (e.g., S{sub 2}N{sub 2} and S{sub 3}N) were synthesized and cyclized with nonradioactive Re. In vitro competitive binding assays with {sup 111}In-DOTA-Tyr{sup 3}-octreotide in AR42J rat pancreatic tumor cells yielded IC{sub 50} values as a measure of SSTR affinity of the Re-cyclized analogues. Three-dimensional structures of Re-cyclized Tyr{sup 3}-octreotate and its disulfide-bridged analogue were calculated from two-dimensional NMR experiments to visualize the effect of metal cyclization on the analogue's pharmacophore. Results: Only two of the 11 Re-cyclized analogues investigated showed moderate in vitro binding affinity toward somatostatin subtype 2 receptors. Three-dimensional molecular structures of Re- and disulfide-cyclized Tyr{sup 3}-octreotate were calculated, and both of their pharmacophore turns appear to be very similar with minor differences due to metal coordination to the amide nitrogen of one of the pharmacophore amino acids. Conclusions: Various Re-cyclized analogues were developed and analogue 4 had moderate affinity toward somatostatin subtype 2 receptors. In vitro stable studies that are in progress showed stable radiometal cyclization of octreotide analogues via NS{sub 3} and N{sub 2}S{sub 2} coordination forming five- and six-membered chelate rings. In vivo biodistribution studies are underway of {sup 99m}Tc-cyclized analogue 4.

  6. Integration of Demilitarization Contractors and Recyclers - Collateral Benefits of On-Site Training of Recyclers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    item Spherical? Wedge Shaped? Cylindrical? These items are potentially very dangerous 29 Spherical = Not Good If found in a recycling yard, don’t...touch! Call 9-1-1 BLU-63 30 Wedge Shape = Not Good If found in a recycling yard, don’t touch! Call 9-1-1 M72M43 31 Cylindrical = Not Good If found in a

  7. Structural recycled concrete: utilization of recycled aggregate from construction and demolition wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alaejos Gutierrez, P.; Sanchez de Juan, M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to present the main results of CEDEX research works concerning the use of recycled aggregates for structural concretes. By way of conclusion, recommendations on the requirements of the recycled aggregates have been established, providing information about the influence of these aggregates on the properties of structural concrete. (Author)

  8. Cell phone recycling experiences in the United States and potential recycling options in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Geraldo T R; Chang, Shoou-Yuh

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents an overview of cell phone recycling programs currently available in the United States. At the same time, it also provides analyses of the current recycling situation and possible recycling alternatives for Brazil. Although there are several recycling options in the United States, collection rates are still only 10% of all potential devices because customers are not aware of these possibilities. The whole system is financially based on reselling refurbished cell phones and recycled materials to developing countries which represent an effective and strong market. Several recyclers offer funds to collection partners who are either charities or who work with charities while obtaining the materials that they need in order to run their operations. A mobile phone recycling system for Brazil considering the United States experience and the Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) principle is suggested. A deposit/refund/advance-recycling fee is proposed which might be implemented as a voluntary industrial initiative managed by PRO Brazil, a producer responsibility organization. One widespread public-private agreement will integrate all mobile phone stakeholders, and environmental education actions and promotional events will promote citizen's participation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Energy implications of recycling packaging materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Stodolsky, F. [Argonne National Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

    1994-03-01

    In 1992, Congress sought to rewrite the United States comprehensive solid waste legislation -- the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Commodity-specific recycling rates were proposed for consumer-goods packaging materials and newsprint We compare the impacts on energy, materials use, and landfill volume of recycling at those rates to the impacts for alternative methods of material disposition to determine the optimum for each material. After products have served their intended uses, there are several alternative paths for material disposition. These include reuse, recycling to the same product, recycling to a lower-valued product, combustion for energy recovery, incineration without energy recovery, and landfill. Only options considered to be environmentally sound are Included. Both houses of Congress specifically excluded combustion for energy recovery from counting towards the recovery goats, probably because combustion is viewed as a form of disposal and is therefore assumed to waste resources and have n environmental effects. However, co-combustion in coal-fired plants or combustion in appropriately pollution-controlled waste-to-energy plants Is safe, avoids landfill costs, and can displace fossil fuels. In some cases, more fossil fuels can be displaced by combustion than by recycling. We compare the alternative life-cycle energies to the energies for producing the products from virgin materials. Results depend on the material and on the objective to be achieved. There are trade-offs among possible goals. For instance, paper packaging recycling conserves trees but may require greater fossil-fuel input than virgin production. Therefore, the objectives for proposed legislation must be examined to see whether they can most effectively be achieved by mandated recycling rates or by other methods of disposition. The optimal choices for the United States may not necessarily be the same as those for Europe and other parts of the world.

  10. Entropy, recycling and macroeconomics of water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios; Mamassis, Nikos; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2014-05-01

    We propose a macroeconomic model for water quantity and quality supply multipliers derived by water recycling (Karakatsanis et al. 2013). Macroeconomic models that incorporate natural resource conservation have become increasingly important (European Commission et al. 2012). In addition, as an estimated 80% of globally used freshwater is not reused (United Nations 2012), under increasing population trends, water recycling becomes a solution of high priority. Recycling of water resources creates two major conservation effects: (1) conservation of water in reservoirs and aquifers and (2) conservation of ecosystem carrying capacity due to wastewater flux reduction. Statistical distribution properties of the recycling efficiencies -on both water quantity and quality- for each sector are of vital economic importance. Uncertainty and complexity of water reuse in sectors are statistically quantified by entropy. High entropy of recycling efficiency values signifies greater efficiency dispersion; which -in turn- may indicate the need for additional infrastructure for the statistical distribution's both shifting and concentration towards higher efficiencies that lead to higher supply multipliers. Keywords: Entropy, water recycling, water supply multipliers, conservation, recycling efficiencies, macroeconomics References 1. European Commission (EC), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), International Monetary Fund (IMF), Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), United Nations (UN) and World Bank (2012), System of Environmental and Economic Accounting (SEEA) Central Framework (White cover publication), United Nations Statistics Division 2. Karakatsanis, G., N. Mamassis, D. Koutsoyiannis and A. Efstratiades (2013), Entropy and reliability of water use via a statistical approach of scarcity, 5th EGU Leonardo Conference - Hydrofractals 2013 - STAHY '13, Kos Island, Greece, European Geosciences Union, International Association of Hydrological Sciences

  11. Spark Plasma Sintering As a Solid-State Recycling Technique: The Case of Aluminum Alloy Scrap Consolidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimos Paraskevas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, “meltless” recycling techniques have been presented for the light metals category, targeting both energy and material savings by bypassing the final recycling step of remelting. In this context, the use of spark plasma sintering (SPS is proposed in this paper as a novel solid-state recycling technique. The objective is two-fold: (I to prove the technical feasibility of this approach; and (II to characterize the recycled samples. Aluminum (Al alloy scrap was selected to demonstrate the SPS effectiveness in producing fully-dense samples. For this purpose, Al alloy scrap in the form of machining chips was cold pre-compacted and sintered bellow the solidus temperature at 490 °C, under elevated pressure of 200 MPa. The dynamic scrap compaction, combined with electric current-based joule heating, achieved partial fracture of the stable surface oxides, desorption of the entrapped gases and activated the metallic surfaces, resulting in efficient solid-state chip welding eliminating residual porosity. The microhardness, the texture, the mechanical properties, the microstructure and the density of the recycled specimens have been investigated. An X-ray computed tomography (CT analysis confirmed the density measurements, revealing a void-less bulk material with homogeneously distributed intermetallic compounds and oxides. The oxide content of the chips incorporated within the recycled material slightly increases its elastic properties. Finally, a thermal distribution simulation of the process in different segments illustrates the improved energy efficiency of this approach.

  12. Experimental Investigation on Asphalt Binders Ageing Behavior and Rejuvenating Feasibility in Multicycle Repeated Ageing and Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihua Nie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Multicycle repeated utilization of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP is a quite recent development of sustainable pavement materials technology. To investigate ageing rules and recycling possibility of asphalt binders in repeatedly used asphalt mixture, virgin asphalt AH-70 samples were heated by the rolling thin film oven test (RTFOT at 163°C, respectively, for 40, 85, 180, 240, and 300 minutes to simulate different ageing degrees, and then the aged ones were rejuvenated by adding a self-made rejuvenator. This ageing and recycling process was repeated altogether for 5 cycles to simulate repeated use of RAP binders. In repeated recycling, rejuvenator contents for different cycle numbers or ageing durations were not the same, and the optimum ones were initially estimated by an empirical formula and finally obtained by comparative tests. Empirical rheological tests and the infrared spectral (IR analysis were done before and after each cycle of recycling. Results indicate that for impact on deterioration of asphalt binders, ageing time is more important than cycle number. Meanwhile, the asphalt after multicycle repeated ageing and recycling can be restored to the empirical rheological indices level of the virgin asphalt and meet specifications requirements.

  13. Recyclable epoxy resins: An example of green approach for advanced composite applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicala, Gianluca; Rosa, Daniela La; Musarra, Marco; Saccullo, Giuseppe; Banatao, Rey; Pastine, Stefan

    2016-05-01

    Automotive composite applications are increasingly growing due to demand for lightweight structures to comply to the requirements for fuel reduction. HP-RTM is gaining relevance as one of the preferred production technologies for high volume applications. The BMW i3 life module being a notable example of HP-RTM application. The key aspects of HP-RTM are the short injection times (i.e. less than 1min) and the fast curing of the thermoset resins (i.e. less than 10min). The choice of using thermosets poses relevant issues for their limited recycling options. The standard recycling solution is the incineration but, this solution poses some concerns in terms of global environmental impact. Novel solutions are presented in this work based on the use of recyclable epoxy systems. In our work the results of experimentation carried out by our group with cleavable ammines by Connora Technologies and bioepoxy resins by Entropy Resins will be discussed. The multiple uses of recycled matrices obtained treating the recyclable epoxy resins are discussed in the framework of a "cradle" to "crave" approach. Finally, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is used to evaluate the environmental benefits of the proposed approach.

  14. Effective regeneration of anode material recycled from scrapped Li-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Li, Xuelei; Song, Dawei; Miao, Yanli; Song, Jishun; Zhang, Lianqi

    2018-06-01

    Recycling high-valuable metal elements (such as Li, Ni, Co, Al and Cu elements) from scrapped lithium ion batteries can bring significant economic benefits. However, recycling and reusing anode material has not yet attracted wide attention up to now, due to the lower added-value than the above valuable metal materials and the difficulties in regenerating process. In this paper, a novel regeneration process with significant green advance is proposed to regenerate anode material recycled from scrapped Li-ion batteries for the first time. After regenerated, most acetylene black (AB) and all the styrene butadiene rubber (SBR), carboxymethylcellulose sodium (CMC) in recycled anode material are removed, and the surface of anode material is coated with pyrolytic carbon from phenolic resin again. Finally, the regenerated anode material (graphite with coating layer, residual AB and a little CMC pyrolysis product) is obtained. As expected, all the technical indexs of regenerated anode material exceed that of a midrange graphite with the same type, and partial technical indexs are even closed to that of the unused graphite. The results indicate the effective regeneration of anode material recycled from scrapped Li-ion batteries is really achieved.

  15. Present status of recycling waste mobile phones in China: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingying; Ge, Zhongying; Liang, Changjin; An, Ni

    2017-07-01

    A large number of waste mobile phones have already been generated and are being generated. Various countries around the world have all been positively exploring the way of recycling and reuse when facing such a large amount of waste mobile phones. In some countries, processing waste mobile phones has been forming a complete industrial chain, which can not only recycle waste mobile phones to reduce their negative influence on the environment but also turn waste into treasure to acquire economic benefits dramatically. However, the situation of recycling waste mobile phones in China is not going well. Waste mobile phones are not formally covered by existing regulations and policies for the waste electric and electronic equipment in China. In order to explore an appropriate system to recover waste mobile phones, the mobile phone production and the amount of waste mobile phones are introduced in this paper, and status of waste mobile phones recycling is described; then, the disposal technology of electronic waste that would be most likely to be used for processing of electronic waste in industrial applications in the near future is reviewed. Finally, rationalization proposals are put forward based on the current recovery status of waste mobile phones for the purpose of promoting the development of recycling waste mobile phones in developing countries with a special emphasis on China.

  16. Application to refrigerator plastics by mechanical recycling from polypropylene in waste-appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Kyung Ho; Kim, Moon Saeng

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → Polypropylene is mechanically recycled from waste-appliances. → Recycled polypropylene (RPP) is impact enhanced polypropylene with ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR). → Performance evaluation shows that RPP is applicable to refrigerator plastics. -- Abstract: For the application to refrigerator plastics by mechanical recycling from polypropylene (PP) in waste-appliances, it needs to identify the degradation and heterogeneity of recycled polypropylene (RPP). It is applicable the thermal analysis such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), spectroscopic analysis such as Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and morphological analysis such as scanning electronic microscope (SEM). The analysis results show that RPP from waste-appliances is the polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) copolymer enhanced impact property (Impact-PP) and it is possible to apply refrigerator plastics with good impact property at low temperature. Finally, the performance evaluation of RPP is estimated by Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) analysis and is performed by the various mechanical and physical testing methods. It shows that RPP has relatively high molecular weight and balanced properties with strength and toughness. It is expected that RPP by the mechanical recycling from waste-appliances will have about 50% cost-merit.

  17. Recycled wind turbine blades as a feedstock for second generation composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamanpush, Seyed Hossein; Li, Hui; Englund, Karl; Tabatabaei, Azadeh Tavousi

    2018-06-01

    With an increase in renewable wind energy via turbines, an underlying problem of the turbine blade disposal is looming in many areas of the world. These wind turbine blades are predominately a mixture of glass fiber composites (GFCs) and wood and currently have not found an economically viable recycling pathway. This work investigates a series of second generation composites fabricated using recycled wind turbine material and a polyurethane adhesive. The recycled material was first comminuted via a hammer-mill through a range of varying screen sizes, resinated and compressed to a final thickness. The refined particle size, moisture content and resin content were assessed for their influence on the properties of recycled composites. Static bending, internal bond and water sorption properties were obtained for all composites panels. Overall improvement of mechanical properties correlated with increase in resin content, moisture content, and particle size. The current investigation demonstrates that it is feasible and promising to recycle the wind turbine blade to fabricate value-added high-performance composite. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Recycling of batteries after storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posthumus, W.

    1997-06-01

    An overview is given of the types and composition of batteries and their waste processing techniques that are operational or under development. Attention is paid to the demands of the waste processing techniques with respect to the quality of the collected batteries. Finally the storage of batteries is discussed. 18 refs

  19. Recycling in the 90's - a shared responsibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Recycling means different things to different people. To consumers, recycling can mean putting out bottles and cans for curbside collection. To a product maker - a manufacturer of raw materials, fabricator of goods or products, or brand owner - recycling can mean reformulating goods to include recycled materials. To recycling service providers, recycling can mean providing cost-efficient collection services. To public policy makers in all levels of government recycling can mean establishing collection and utilization regulations. For recycling to work successfully, these diverse groups must work together and share responsibility for its success. Also, if recycling is to succeed on a large scale and over the long term, three critical points must be first addressed: These points are: approach, economics, and markets. These points are discussed

  20. Printability of papers recycled from toner and inkjet-printed papers after deinking and recycling processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karademir, Arif; Aydemir, Cem; Tutak, Dogan; Aravamuthan, Raja

    2018-04-01

    In our contemporary world, while part of the fibers used in the paper industry is obtained from primary fibers such as wood and agricultural plants, the rest is obtained from secondary fibers from waste papers. To manufacture paper with high optical quality from fibers of recycled waste papers, these papers require deinking and bleaching of fibers at desired levels. High efficiency in removal of ink from paper mass during recycling, and hence deinkability, are especially crucial for the optical and printability quality of the ultimate manufactured paper. In the present study, deinkability and printability performance of digitally printed paper with toner or inkjet ink were compared for the postrecycling product. To that end, opaque 80 g/m 2 office paper was digitally printed under standard printing conditions with laser toner or inkjet ink; then these sheets of paper were deinked by a deinking process based on the INGEDE method 11 p. After the deinking operation, the optical properties of the obtained recycled handsheets were compared with unprinted (reference) paper. Then the recycled paper was printed on once again under the same conditions as before with inkjet and laser printers, to monitor and measure printing color change before and after recycling, and differences in color universe. Recycling and printing performances of water-based inkjet and toner-based laser printed paper were obtained. The outcomes for laser-printed recycled paper were better than those for inkjet-printed recycled paper. Compared for luminosity Y, brightness, CIE a* and CIE b* values, paper recycled from laser-printed paper exhibited higher value than paper recycled from inkjet-printed paper.

  1. Multiple recycling of plutonium in advanced PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloosterman, J.L.

    1998-04-01

    The influence of the moderator-to-fuel ratio in MOX fueled PWRs on the moderator void coefficient, the fuel temperature coefficient, the moderator temperature coefficient, the boron reactivity worth, the critical boron concentration, the mean neutron generation time and the effective delayed neutron fraction has been assessed. Increasing the moderator-to-fuel ratio to values larger than three, gives a moderator void coefficient sufficiently large to recycle the plutonium at least four times. Scenario studies show that four times recycling of plutonium in PWRs reduces the plutonium mass produced with a factor of three compared with a reference once-through reactor park, but that the americium and curium production triple. If the minor actinides and the remaining plutonium after four times recycling are disposed of, the reduction of the radiotoxicity reaches only a factor of two. This factor increases to five at the maximum when the plutonium is further recycled. Recycling of americium and curium is needed to further reduce the radiotoxicity of the spent fuel. 4 refs

  2. Paper recycling and social policy. [United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, R K; Grace, R

    1976-12-01

    The most promising new source of paper for recycling is the household and small commercial business, whose waste papers can be processed if the paper and board industry is willing to invest capital to develop the facilities and the technology needed to upgrade indigenous fibers. Cost-benefit analyses in the United Kingdom indicate that support of this type of paper recycling has more merit than a buffer stock scheme. Efforts to conserve virgin materials by increasing the use of secondary materials could be further strengthened by taxes on the disposal of virgin materials. Paper recycling policies should include a range of sources, from discarded post-consumer waste paper and boxes to the release and use of energy by incineration, pyrolysis, and hydrolysis. Waste availability is influenced by product durability, replacement by other products (such as plastic wrap for paper), industry maturity, and social attitudes. Public acceptance of lower-quality paper products and improved technology to remove ink and color should combine to make recycling more feasible. Efforts to develop the household and commercial sector will result in lower import requirements for wood pulp and an improved balance of payments for the United Kingdom. Recycled fibers require less water and energy to process, but the process wastes introduce environmental pollutants. Short- and long-term forecasts show a growth rate trend that varies with paper grade and corresponds with general economic growth. (35 references) (DCK)

  3. INEL metal recycle annual report, FY-94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechtold, T.E.

    1994-09-01

    In 1992, the mission of the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant was changed from reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels to development of technologies for conditioning of spent nuclear fuels and other high-level wastes for disposal in a geologic repository. In addition, the Department of Energy (DOE) directed Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to develop a program plan addressing the management of radioactive contaminated scrap metal (RSM) within the DOE complex. Based on discussions with the EM-30 organization, the INEL Metal Recycle program plan was developed to address all issues of RSM management. Major options considered for RSM management were engineered interim storage, land disposal as low-level waste, and beneficial reuse/recycle. From its inception, the Metal Recycle program has emphasized avoidance of storage and disposal costs through beneficial reuse of RSM. The Metal Recycle program plan includes three major activities: Site-by-site inventory of RSM resources; validation of technologies for conversion of RSM to usable products; and identification of parties prepared to participate in development of a RSM recycle business

  4. The unrivalled expertise for Pu recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournier, W.; Pouilloux, M.

    1997-01-01

    Relying on the outstanding performances of the reprocessing facilities and the growing fabrication facilities, the in-reactor Pu recycling program in France and in other European countries is steadily implemented and has reached full-scale industrial operation. The RCR strategy -Reprocessing, Conditioning and Recycling- developed by COGEMA is now a well proven industrial reality. In 1997, plutonium recycling through MOX fuel is a mature industry, with successful operational experience and large-scale fabrication plants. In this field, COGEMA is the main actor, on operating simultaneously three complete multidesign fuel production plants: MELOX plant (in Marcoule), CADARACHE plant and DESSEL plant (in Belgium). Present MOX production capacity available to COGEMA fits 175 tHM per year and will be extended to reach about 325 tHM in the year 2000, that will represent 75% of the total MOX fabrication capacity in Europe. The industrial mastery and the high production level in MOX production assured by high technology processes confers COGEMA an unrivalled expertise for Pu recycling. This allows COGEMA to be a major actor in Pu-based fuels in the coming second nuclear era with advanced fuel cycles. The paper depicts the steps of the progressive advance of COGEMA to reach the Pu recycling expertise. (author)

  5. Software recycling at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HINKELMAN, K.C.

    1999-01-01

    The Hanford Site was the first Department of Energy (DOE) complex to recycle excess software rather than dispose of it in the landfill. This plan, which took over a year to complete, was reviewed for potential legal conflicts, which could arise from recycling rather than disposal of software. It was determined that recycling was an approved method of destruction and therefore did not conflict with any of the licensing agreements that Hanford had with the software manufacturers. The Hanford Recycling Program Coordinator combined efforts with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to recycle all Hanford software through a single contract, which went out for bid in January 1995. It was awarded to GreenDisk, Inc. located in Woodinville Washington and implemented in March 1995. The contract was later re-bid and awarded to EcoDisWGreenDisk in December 1998. The new contract included materials such as; software manuals, diskettes, tyvek wrapping, cardboard and paperboard packaging, compact disks (CDs), videotapes, reel-to-reel tapes, magnetic tapes, audio tapes, and many other types of media

  6. Research methodology in used oil recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    Legislation and activities in the United States on the subject of used oil recycling have increased dramatically in the past several years. However, a substantial portion of both industry and government have some concerns about the lack of scientific and technical research and data on certain aspects of the quality and consistence of recycled petroleum oils, particularly re-refined engine oils. Further, there are some significant environmental concerns about pollution aspects of used oils and their recycling by-products and wastes. Since 1976, the (U.S.) National Bureau of Standards (NBS) has had a legislatively mandated program to''... develop test procedures for the determination of substantial equivalency of re-refined or otherwise processed used oil . . . with new oil for a particular end use'' (42 U.S. Code 6363c). The NBS research includes identification of problem areas in the characterization of used and recycled oils, research into new measurement methods for determination of novel constituents in these materials, and the development and evaluation of appropriate test procedures and standards for recycled oil products. Aspects of this research discussed in this paper include analysis of total elemental content and speciation studies on lead and on the halogens (chlorine and bromine) and hydrocarbon type characterization studies on lubricating oil fractions

  7. Fibroblast growth factor receptors in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuwei; Ding, Zhongyang

    2017-05-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptors are growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases, exerting their roles in embryogenesis, tissue homeostasis, and development of breast cancer. Recent genetic studies have identified some subtypes of fibroblast growth factor receptors as strong genetic loci associated with breast cancer. In this article, we review the recent epidemiological findings and experiment results of fibroblast growth factor receptors in breast cancer. First, we summarized the structure and physiological function of fibroblast growth factor receptors in humans. Then, we discussed the common genetic variations in fibroblast growth factor receptors that affect breast cancer risk. In addition, we also introduced the potential roles of each fibroblast growth factor receptors isoform in breast cancer. Finally, we explored the potential therapeutics targeting fibroblast growth factor receptors for breast cancer. Based on the biological mechanisms of fibroblast growth factor receptors leading to the pathogenesis in breast cancer, targeting fibroblast growth factor receptors may provide new opportunities for breast cancer therapeutic strategies.

  8. GGA3 mediates TrkA endocytic recycling to promote sustained Akt phosphorylation and cell survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuezhi; Lavigne, Pierre; Lavoie, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Although TrkA postendocytic sorting significantly influences neuronal cell survival and differentiation, the molecular mechanism underlying TrkA receptor sorting in the recycling or degradation pathways remains poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that Golgi-localized, γ adaptin-ear–containing ADP ribosylation factor-binding protein 3 (GGA3) interacts directly with the TrkA cytoplasmic tail through an internal DXXLL motif and mediates the functional recycling of TrkA to the plasma membrane. We find that GGA3 depletion by siRNA delays TrkA recycling, accelerates TrkA degradation, attenuates sustained NGF-induced Akt activation, and reduces cell survival. We also show that GGA3’s effect on TrkA recycling is dependent on the activation of Arf6. This work identifies GGA3 as a key player in a novel DXXLL-mediated endosomal sorting machinery that targets TrkA to the plasma membrane, where it prolongs the activation of Akt signaling and survival responses. PMID:26446845

  9. Antimony recycling in the United States in 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, James F.

    2006-01-01

    The importance of recycling has become more obvious as concerns about the environment and import dependence have grown in recent years. When materials are recycled, fewer natural resources are consumed, and less waste products go to landfills or pollute the water and air. This study, one of a series of reports on metals recycling in 2000, discusses the flow of antimony from mining through its uses and disposal with emphasis on recycling. In 2000, the recycling efficiency for antimony was estimated to be 89 percent, and the recycling rate was about 20 percent.

  10. Genetic incorporation of recycled unnatural amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Wooseok; Kim, Sanggil; Jo, Kyubong; Lee, Hyun Soo

    2016-02-01

    The genetic incorporation of unnatural amino acids (UAAs) into proteins has been a useful tool for protein engineering. However, most UAAs are expensive, and the method requires a high concentration of UAAs, which has been a drawback of the technology, especially for large-scale applications. To address this problem, a method to recycle cultured UAAs was developed. The method is based on recycling a culture medium containing the UAA, in which some of essential nutrients were resupplemented after each culture cycle, and induction of protein expression was controlled with glucose. Under optimal conditions, five UAAs were recycled for up to seven rounds of expression without a decrease in expression level, cell density, or incorporation fidelity. This method can generally be applied to other UAAs; therefore, it is useful for reducing the cost of UAAs for genetic incorporation and helpful for expanding the use of the technology to industrial applications.

  11. A utility analysis of MOX recycling policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfaeffli, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    The author presents the advantages of recycling of plutonium and uranium from spent reactor fuel assemblies as follows: natural uranium and enrichment savings, mixed oxide fuel (MOX) fuel assembly cost, MOX compatibility with plant operation, high burnups, spent MOX reprocessing, and non-proliferation aspects.Disadvantages of the recycling effort are noted as well: plutonium degradation with time, plutonium availability, in-core fuel management, administrative authorizations by the licensings authorities, US prior consent, and MOX fuel fabrication capacity. Putting the advantages and disadvantages in perspective, it is concluded that the recycling of MOX in light water reactors represents, under the current circumstances, the most appropriate way of making use of the available plutonium

  12. Rare earth elements: end use and recyclability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2011-01-01

    Rare earth elements are used in mature markets (such as catalysts, glassmaking, lighting, and metallurgy), which account for 59 percent of the total worldwide consumption of rare earth elements, and in newer, high-growth markets (such as battery alloys, ceramics, and permanent magnets), which account for 41 percent of the total worldwide consumption of rare earth elements. In mature market segments, lanthanum and cerium constitute about 80 percent of rare earth elements used, and in new market segments, dysprosium, neodymium, and praseodymium account for about 85 percent of rare earth elements used. Regardless of the end use, rare earth elements are not recycled in large quantities, but could be if recycling became mandated or very high prices of rare earth elements made recycling feasible.

  13. Paper waste - Recycling, incineration or landfilling?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Alejandro; Wenzel, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    comparisons of different management options for waste paper. Despite claims of inconsistency, the LCAs reviewed illustrate the environmental benefits in recycling over incineration or landfill options, for paper and cardboard waste. This broad consensus was found despite differences in geographic location....... Such message has implications for current policy formulation on material recycling and disposal in the EU. Secondly, to identify key methodological issues of paper waste management LCAs, and enlighten the influence of such issues on the conclusions of the LCA studies. Thirdly, in light of the analysis made...... and definitions of the paper recycling/disposal systems studied. A systematic exploration of the LCA studies showed, however, important methodological pitfalls and sources of error, mainly concerning differences in the definition of the system boundaries. Fifteen key assumptions were identified that cover...

  14. Coir dust reinforced recycled polypropylene composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Bianca B. dos; Costa, Marysilvia F. da; Thire, Rossana M. da S.M.

    2015-01-01

    The environmental impacts caused by disposed plastics encourage the search for new alternatives. Recycling polymers leads to the degradation of their mechanical properties, which can be modified by the addition of fillers. In this paper, recycled polypropylene from plastic cups with 2%, 5% and 10% of coir dust were produced with and without the addition of additives. These composites were characterized by tensile tests, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy on the fracture surface. It was verified the effectiveness of the addition of coir dust in improving the elasticity modulus of recycled polypropylene besides the effectiveness of additives used in promoting the adhesion of the powder to the matrix. However, higher levels of coir dust caused the appearance of air bubbles inside the material, which contributed to its embrittlement. The addition of coir dust promoted a decrease in the degree of polypropylene crystallinity. (author)

  15. Recycling of steelmaking dusts: The Radust concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalkanen H.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Recycling of dusts and other wastes of steelmaking is becoming to a necessity of two reasons: due to high contents of iron oxides dusts are valuable raw material for steelmaking and tightening environmental legislation makes the landfill disposal of wastes more expensive. Fine dust fractions from various stages of steelmaking route contain besides iron and carbon heavy metals especially zinc and lead and heavy hydrocarbons that are acceptable neither for landfill disposal nor for recycling back to processes without any spe4cial treatments. Some theoretical and practical aspects concerning high temperature treatments of steelmaking dusts for removal of hazardous components and production of clean high iron raw material for recycling is discussed in this paper. The Radust technology developed at Koverhar steelwork in Finland for treatment of the most problematic fine fractions of blast furnace and oxygen converter dusts is shortly presented and discussed.

  16. Scrap uranium recycling via electron beam melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKoon, R.

    1993-11-01

    A program is underway at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to recycle scrap uranium metal. Currently, much of the material from forging and machining processes is considered radioactive waste and is disposed of by oxidation and encapsulation at significant cost. In the recycling process, uranium and uranium alloys in various forms will be processed by electron beam melting and continuously cast into ingots meeting applicable specifications for virgin material. Existing vacuum processing facilities at LLNL are in compliance with all current federal and state environmental, safety and health regulations for the electron beam melting and vaporization of uranium metal. One of these facilities has been retrofitted with an auxiliary electron beam gun system, water-cooled hearth, crucible and ingot puller to create an electron beam melt furnace. In this furnace, basic process R ampersand D on uranium recycling will be performed with the goal of eventual transfer of this technology to a production facility

  17. Integrated wastewater management by reuse and recycling in a textile industry: a case study in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, M.R.; Trankler, J.

    2005-01-01

    Increasing stringent environmental legislation, scarcity of resources and development of treatment and management techniques for wastewater, have made recycling and reuse feasible and economical in many industrial processes. Wastewater management by integrating all available techniques was studied for reuse and recycling in a textile industry. Cotton and silk fabrics were main products of the selected industry. Approach was divided in to five parts, to achieve the objectives of reuse and recycling: in-house water consumption evaluation, segregation study, optimizing existing WWTP, treatability study and advanced treatment for final effluent to fulfill reuse criteria. Water consumption evaluation was done by in-house survey. Segregation study was performed by analyzing different wastewater streams. Efficiency of existing WWTP for COD and BOD removal was assessed and optimized. Treatability of dye wastewater by ozonation, chemical and nanofiltration was studied. Treatment study of final effluent for TDS and color removal by nanofiltration and chemical treatment was performed. Analyses show the possibilities to conserve and optimize water consumption up to 30% in the production processes by in-house improvement. Segregation study shows that up to 15% wastewater from less polluted streams can be recycled back. Adopting separate efficient treatment techniques could fulfill reuse criteria for remaining wastewater streams (50%). (author)

  18. Marine shale and the Hazwaste recycling debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports that Marine Shale Processors, Inc. (St. Rose, La.), and the Hazardous Waste Treatment Council (Washington, D.C.), an industry trade association, are at the focus of a controversy whose resolution has significant implications for the respective definitions, concepts and legal statuses of hazardous-waste incineration and recycling. Marine Shale Processors (MSP) claims it recycles hazardous wastes from a variety of government and commercial sources by blending it and treating it thermally in a large rotary kiln to produce non-hazardous aggregate material, which is sold for construction, road-building or other purposes. The Hazardous Waste Treatment Council (HWTC) and others allege that, under the provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), MSP is operating an unpermitted hazardous-waste incinerator. According to HWTC officials, MSP's identification as a recycler is inappropriate and has allowed the company unfairly to avoid permitting costs and formal compliance with RCRA standards and regulations. Recently, the Louisiana legislature passed laws declaring that hazardous-waste recyclers in the state must meet the same standards as permitted hazardous-waste incinerators. At press time, a hearing before the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality to determine MSP's status as a recycler under the new laws was set for Sept. 29. Since all parties in the debate over Marine Shale's industry role appear to agree that the controversy is central to the emerging issue of establishing clear distinctions between recycling and hazardous-waste destruction, this article describes the arguments on both sides as these stood in mid-September

  19. Design study of advanced nuclear fuel recycle system. Conceptual study of recycle system using molten salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakehi, I.; Shirai, N.; Hatano, M.; Kajitani, M.; Yonezawa, S.; Kawai, T.; Kawamura, F.; Tobe, K.; Takahashi, K.

    1996-12-01

    For the purpose of developing the future nuclear fuel recycle system, the design study of the advanced nuclear fuel recycle system is being conducted. This report describes intermediate accomplishments in the conceptual system study of the advanced nuclear fuel recycle system. Fundamental concepts of this system is the recycle system using molten salt which intend to break through the conventional concepts of purex and pellet fuel system. Contents of studies in this period are as follows, 1)feasibility study of the process by Cd-cathode for nitride fuel, 2)application study for the molten salt of low melting point (AlCl3+organic salt), 3)research for decladding (advantage of decladding by heat treatment), 4)behavior of FPs in electrorefining (behavior of iodine and volatile FP chlorides, FPs behavior in chlorination), 5)criticality analysis in electrorefiner, 6)drawing of off-gas flow diagram, 7)drawing of process machinery concept (cathode processor, vibration packing), 8)evaluation for the amounts of the high level radioactive wastes, 9)quality of the recycle fuels (FPs contamination of recycle fuel), 10)conceptual study of in-cell handling system, 11)meaning of the advanced nuclear fuel recycle system. The conceptual system study will be completed in describing concepts of the system and discussing issues for the developments. (author)

  20. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurney, Kevin R. [Arizona Univ., Mesa, AZ (United States)

    2015-01-12

    This document constitutes the final report under DOE grant DE-FG-08ER64649. The organization of this document is as follows: first, I will review the original scope of the proposed research. Second, I will present the current draft of a paper nearing submission to Nature Climate Change on the initial results of this funded effort. Finally, I will present the last phase of the research under this grant which has supported a Ph.D. student. To that end, I will present the graduate student’s proposed research, a portion of which is completed and reflected in the paper nearing submission. This final work phase will be completed in the next 12 months. This final workphase will likely result in 1-2 additional publications and we consider the results (as exemplified by the current paper) high quality. The continuing results will acknowledge the funding provided by DOE grant DE-FG-08ER64649.

  1. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeTar, Carleton [P.I.

    2012-12-10

    This document constitutes the Final Report for award DE-FC02-06ER41446 as required by the Office of Science. It summarizes accomplishments and provides copies of scientific publications with significant contribution from this award.

  2. Logistics systems for recycling - Efficient collection of household waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahre, M.

    1995-12-31

    This dissertation investigates collection and recycling of household waste with focus on packaging materials. The purpose is how to describe and explain the design of a collection system according to different system environments in order to achieve high logistics performance in terms of low cost and high service. The research approach consists of two main parts. First, data on existing systems are collected and analyzed. Then a model is used to analyze cost consequences from changes in the system and the environment. Four main properties of reverse distribution channels were identified including the number of distribution levels and distribution points, whether the system is bring or kerbside, the degree of separation at source and the degree of co-collection. The study further demonstrates that performance can be measured in a number of ways including service toward end-markets and households, costs, environmental consequences and programme ratios. Finally, two main environmental factors identified were population density and the number of materials being collected in the system. The major conclusion from the study is that systems in areas with low population density should collect and recycle few materials that should be separated at the source and then co-collected. Systems in areas with high population density, on the other hand, may collect many materials, but then centralized separation (i.e. processing in a MRF) should take place. 103 refs, 72 figs, 65 tabs

  3. Logistics systems for recycling - Efficient collection of household waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahre, M

    1996-12-31

    This dissertation investigates collection and recycling of household waste with focus on packaging materials. The purpose is how to describe and explain the design of a collection system according to different system environments in order to achieve high logistics performance in terms of low cost and high service. The research approach consists of two main parts. First, data on existing systems are collected and analyzed. Then a model is used to analyze cost consequences from changes in the system and the environment. Four main properties of reverse distribution channels were identified including the number of distribution levels and distribution points, whether the system is bring or kerbside, the degree of separation at source and the degree of co-collection. The study further demonstrates that performance can be measured in a number of ways including service toward end-markets and households, costs, environmental consequences and programme ratios. Finally, two main environmental factors identified were population density and the number of materials being collected in the system. The major conclusion from the study is that systems in areas with low population density should collect and recycle few materials that should be separated at the source and then co-collected. Systems in areas with high population density, on the other hand, may collect many materials, but then centralized separation (i.e. processing in a MRF) should take place. 103 refs, 72 figs, 65 tabs

  4. Recycling as a Teaching Strategy for Environmental Conservation (Project execution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deisy Yaneth Bonilla García

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This research study will aim to implement recycling as a teaching strategy for Environmental conservation aimed at students of the state Concentrared Sabaneta School of core Rural School No. 001 pedraza Municipality, Barinas State. It will focus on the qualitative paradigm and design will use action-research participant. The techniques of collecting information to be used will be the semi-structured interview and participant observation, taking as informants 3 students 2 teachers of the institution under study, analysis of information developed through qualitative techniques that will break down the data in their respective categories and sub categories with the final purpose responding to the questions raised in the context of study. This process will seek to integrate into a coherent and logical research results with the contributions of the authors outlined the theoretical framework after work crosscheck everything. The validity and reliability will be established through an exhaustive process of triangulation, in order to establish concrete actions to address the weaknesses detected in relation to the need to implement educational strategies supported in recycling to assist in environmental conservation.

  5. Electric vehicle recycling 2020: Key component power electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulach, Winfried; Schüler, Doris; Sellin, Guido; Elwert, Tobias; Schmid, Dieter; Goldmann, Daniel; Buchert, Matthias; Kammer, Ulrich

    2018-04-01

    Electromobility will play a key role in order to reach the specified ambitious greenhouse gas reduction targets in the German transport sector of 42% between 1990 and 2030. Subsequently, a significant rise in the sale of electric vehicles (EVs) is to be anticipated in future. The amount of EVs to be recycled will rise correspondingly after a delay. This includes the recyclable power electronics modules which are incorporated in every EV as an important component for energy management. Current recycling methods using car shredders and subsequent post shredder technologies show high recycling rates for the bulk metals but are still associated with high losses of precious and strategic metals such as gold, silver, platinum, palladium and tantalum. For this reason, the project 'Electric vehicle recycling 2020 - key component power electronics' developed an optimised recycling route for recycling power electronics modules from EVs which is also practicable in series production and can be implemented using standardised technology. This 'WEEE recycling route' involves the disassembly of the power electronics from the vehicle and a subsequent recycling in an electronic end-of-life equipment recycling plant. The developed recycling process is economical under the current conditions and raw material prices, even though it involves considerably higher costs than recycling using the car shredder. The life cycle assessment shows basically good results, both for the traditional car shredder route and the developed WEEE recycling route: the latter provides additional benefits from some higher recovery rates and corresponding credits.

  6. Attributes to facilitate e-waste recycling behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senawi Nur Hidayah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the set of attributes to facilitate electronic waste (e-waste behaviour among the community. E-waste disposal is increasing from year to year in parallel with increasing of global population. The short lifespan of electronics and poor e-waste recycling behaviour is among the main contributors to the steadily increasing of e-waste generated. Current recycling rate among the nation is lacking behind, which is only 10.5%. A questionnaire survey has been conducted among the students in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia to evaluate the current e-waste recycling practice. The results showed that majority of the respondents did not recycle their e-waste on campus. Aggressive efforts is needed to realize the country’s target of 20% recycling rate in year 2020, one of the effective paths is to minimize e-waste generation via active e-waste recycling behaviour among the community. Extensive literatures have been reviewed to classify the attributes to facilitate effective e-waste recycling among the community. Total of five attributes that identified in this study which are Convenience of E- waste Recycling Infrastruture and Services, E-waste Recycling Information, Incentives For E-waste Recycling, Reminder to Recycle E-waste And E-waste Recycling Infrastructure and Services. The set of attributes identified in this study may serve as guideline for the management in designing program to foster e-waste recycling behaviour among the community.

  7. Coal and recycling mark the way forward

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bignell, E.

    2000-11-01

    A report is given of this year's Mineral Engineering Society's annual conference held in Scarborough, UK. The themes of recycling and coal were chosen for the two days of technical presentations. Topics included the cleaning up of brown field sites; the use of recycled waste oxide to replace iron ore pellets for cooling furnaces in steel making; high pressure filtration of industrial mineral effluent; iron ore mining in Australia; screen development; the status of coal preparation technology, by RJB Mining; study of movement of material (to simulate coal) in a hopper; and a UK-Chinese project on reduction of sulphur in coal.

  8. Fernald scrap metal recycling and beneficial reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motl, G.P.; Burns, D.D.

    1993-10-01

    The Fernald site, formerly the Feed Materials Production Facility, produced uranium metal products to meet defense production requirements for the Department of Energy from 1953 to 1989. In this report is is described how the Fernald scrap metal project has demonstrated that contractor capabilities can be used successfully to recycle large quantities of Department of Energy scrap metal. The project has proven that the open-quotes beneficial reuseclose quotes concept makes excellent economic sense when a market for recycled products can be identified. Topics covered in this report include the scrap metal pile history, the procurement strategy, scrap metal processing, and a discussion of lessons learned

  9. Developments in the US aluminium recycling industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolling, R N

    1983-06-01

    In the USA scrap recovery of aluminium has gained in importance since the war. Today its amounts to about 32% of total supply. On the other hand primary production in the US seems to have hardly any expansion possibilities. The development of the aluminium beverage can is the clearest example for recycling growth. The increased use of aluminium in passenger cars has led to very close technical and local relations of aluminium foundries and secondary smelters. The changing nature of the aluminium business caused by the growth of recycling should be recognized and made use of.

  10. Methanation process utilizing split cold gas recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajbl, Daniel G.; Lee, Bernard S.; Schora, Jr., Frank C.; Lam, Henry W.

    1976-07-06

    In the methanation of feed gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen in multiple stages, the feed gas, cold recycle gas and hot product gas is mixed in such proportions that the mixture is at a temperature sufficiently high to avoid carbonyl formation and to initiate the reaction and, so that upon complete reaction of the carbon monoxide and hydrogen, an excessive adiabatic temperature will not be reached. Catalyst damage by high or low temperatures is thereby avoided with a process that utilizes extraordinarily low recycle ratios and a minimum of investment in operating costs.

  11. Improving the competitiveness of green ship recycling

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, K.P.

    2017-01-01

    The end of life of a ship is determined by its owner on the basis of various commercial and technical factors. Once decided to scrap a ship, almost all end-of-life (EOL) ships are sold to recycling yards for dismantling; except for a few which are converted into museums, hotels, storage, and artificial reefs. As the decision is a commercial one, the selection of a yard is predominantly based on the offer price, which depends on the location of the yard and the recycling process employed.Among...

  12. Biogas-centred domestic waste recycling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, C L

    1983-04-01

    In fast developing suburban towns, there is an urgent need for an integrated system for waste recycling and energy and fertiliser supply on a single house basis. This is because even though toilet waste is handled by a septic tank-soak pit arrangement, kitchen and bathroom water and solid organic wastes have to be discharged outside the house. A biogas based domestic waste recycling system has been designed and constructed and has been successfully working. Some salient features of this plant are discussed here.

  13. Self-protection in dry recycle technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannum, W.H.; Wade, D.; Stanford, G.

    1995-01-01

    In response to the INFCE conclusions, the U.S. undertook development of a new dry fuel cycle. Dry recycle processes have been demonstrated to be feasible. Safeguarding such fuel cycles will be dramatically simpler than the PUREX fuel cycle. At every step of the processes, the materials meet the open-quotes spent-fuel standard.close quotes The scale is compatible with collocation of power reactors and their recycle facility, eliminating off-site transportation and storage of plutonium-bearing materials. Material diverted either covertly or overtly would be difficult (relative to material available by other means) to process into weapons feedstock

  14. Economic analysis of recycling contaminated concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen, A.; Ayers, K.W.; Boren, J.K.; Parker, F.L. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Decontamination and Decommissioning activities in the DOE complex generate large volumes of radioactively contaminated and uncontaminated concrete. Currently, this concrete is usually decontaminated, the contaminated waste is disposed of in a LLW facility and the decontaminated concrete is placed in C&D landfills. A number of alternatives to this practice are available including recycling of the concrete. Cost estimates for six alternatives were developed using a spreadsheet model. The results of this analysis show that recycling alternatives are at least as economical as current practice.

  15. Radioactive metals disposal and recycling impact modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, N.W.; Lunn, R.J.; Belton, V.; Kockar, I.

    2014-01-01

    Screening life cycle assessment models developed to investigate hypothetical disposal and recycling options for the Windscale Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor heat exchangers were used to generate more complex models addressing the main UK radioactive metals inventory. Both studies show there are significant environmental advantages in the metals recycling promoted by the current low level waste disposal policies, strategies and plans. Financial benefits from current metals treatment options are supported and offer even greater benefits when applied to the UK radioactive metals inventory as a whole. (authors)

  16. Desempenho operacional e ambiental de unidades de reciclagem e disposição final de resíduos sólidos domésticos financiadas pelo ICMS Ecológico de Minas Gerais Operational and environmental performance of sanitary landfills and recycling facilities supported by the Ecological ICMS in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco do Prado Filho

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avalia sistemas de reciclagem e de disposição de resíduos sólidos domésticos que possuem incentivos fiscais definidos pela Lei Estadual nº 13.803/2000 de Minas Gerais. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida por análise de documentação de licenciamento ambiental de aterros sanitários e usinas de reciclagem e compostagem de resíduos financiados pela referida Lei e por visitas às unidades sanitárias, sendo usados os instrumentos metodológicos da agência ambiental do Estado de São Paulo (CETESB que avaliam as condições de instalação e operação desses tipos de empreendimentos. Do estudo, constatou-se que o incentivo de Minas Gerais, definido pela Lei do ICMS Ecológico, traz importantes benefícios ambientais aos municípios, embora ainda seja reduzido o número dos contemplados por esse fomento à gestão dos resíduos sólidos urbanos. Conclui-se, também, que algumas das unidades estudadas apresentam problemas de natureza ambiental e operacional.This paper reports a qualitative assessment made at the sanitary landfill, recycling centers and composting units sponsored by the State Law No 13.803/2000, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The analyses of all the documentation used for the environmental licensing process as well as field trips to sanitary landfills and domestic recycle/composting unities were performed. The IQC and IQR indexes from the São Paulo State Environmental Agency (CETESB were used as quality assessment tools. It is concluded that this State Law (Ecological ICMS Law has been promoting substantial environmental benefits to the local communities, despite it is still small the number of cities which have been attended by this regulation for solid waste management. On the other hand, it can be noticed that some operational and environmental issues remain to be addressed in the visited facilities.

  17. Recycling melting process of the zirconium alloy chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Luis A.M. dos; Mucsi, Cristiano S.; Tavares, Luiz A.P.; Alencar, Maicon C.; Gomes, Maurilio P.; Barbosa, Luzinete P.; Rossi, Jesualdo L., E-mail: luisreis.09@gmail.com, E-mail: csmucsi@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Pressurized water reactors (PWR) commonly use {sup 235}U enriched uranium dioxide pellets as a nuclear fuel, these are assembled and stacked in zirconium alloy tubes and end caps (M5, Zirlo, Zircaloy). During the machining of these components large amounts of chips are generated which are contaminated with cutting fluid. Its storage presents safety and environmental risks due to its pyrophoric and reactive nature. Recycling industry shown interest in its recycling due to its strategic importance. This paper presents a study on the recycling process and the results aiming the efficiency in the cleaning process; the quality control; the obtaining of the pressed electrodes and finally the melting in a Vacuum Arc Remelting furnace (VAR). The recycling process begins with magnetic separation of possible ferrous alloys chips contaminant, the washing of the cutting fluid that is soluble in water, washing with an industrial degreaser, followed by a rinse with continuous flow of water under high pressure and drying with hot air. The first evaluation of the process was done by an Energy Dispersive X-rays Fluorescence Spectrometry (EDXRFS) showed the presence of 10 wt. % to 17 wt. % of impurities due the mixing with stainless steel machining chips. The chips were then pressed in a custom-made matrix of square section (40 x 40 mm - 500 mm in length), resulting in electrodes with 20% of apparent density of the original alloy. The electrode was then melted in a laboratory scale VAR furnace at the CCTM-IPEN, producing a massive ingot with 0.8 kg. It was observed that the samples obtained from Indústrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB) are supposed to be secondary scrap and it is suggested careful separation in the generation of this material. The melting of the chips is possible and feasible in a VAR furnace which reduces the storage volume by up to 40 times of this material, however, it is necessary to correct the composition of the alloy for the melting of these ingots. (author)

  18. A strategy for bacterial production of a soluble functional human neonatal Fc receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jan Terje; Justesen, Sune; Berntzen, Gøril

    2008-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I related receptor, the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn), rescues immunoglobulin G (IgG) and albumin from lysosomal degradation by recycling in endothelial cells. FcRn also contributes to passive immunity by mediating transport of IgG from mother to fetus...

  19. Rapid resensitization of purinergic receptor function in human platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundell, S J; Barton, J F; Mayo-Martin, M B; Hardy, A R; Poole, A W

    2008-08-01

    Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is a critical regulator of platelet activation, mediating its actions through two G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), the P2Y(1) and P2Y(12) purinergic receptors. Recently, we demonstrated that both receptors desensitize and internalize in human platelets by differential kinase-dependent mechanisms. To demonstrate whether responses to P2Y(1) and P2Y(12) purinergic receptors resensitize in human platelets and determine the role of receptor traffic in this process. These studies were undertaken either in human platelets or in cells stably expressing epitope-tagged P2Y(1) and P2Y(12) purinergic receptor constructs. In this study we show for the first time that responses to both of these receptors can rapidly resensitize following agonist-dependent desensitization in human platelets. Further, we show that in human platelets or in 1321N1 cells stably expressing receptor constructs, the disruption of receptor internalization, dephosphorylation or subsequent receptor recycling is sufficient to block resensitization of purinergic receptor responses. We also show that, in platelets, internalization of both these receptors is dependent upon dynamin, and that this process is required for resensitization of responses. This study is therefore the first to show that both P2Y(1) and P2Y(12) receptor activities are rapidly and reversibly modulated in human platelets, and it reveals that the underlying mechanism requires receptor trafficking as an essential part of this process.

  20. PRN 94-2: Recycling Empty Aerosol Pesticide Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This notice offers registrants use of an optional label statement permitting recycling as an alternative to instructions to dispose of aerosol pesticide containers. Registrants may add a label reference to recycling the empty aerosol pesticide container.

  1. Performance evaluation of subgrade stabilization with recycled materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-29

    Due to rising costs of good quality acceptable materials for remove/replace options and traditional : subgrade stabilization materials, MDOT is in need to identify potential recycled materials to treat : unacceptable subgrade soils. Use of recycled m...

  2. Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) - Recycling Economic Information (REI) Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The 2016 Recycling Economic Information (REI) Report aims to increase the understanding of the economic implications of material reuse and recycling. The report...

  3. Sensing and controls for power-recycling of TAMA300

    CERN Document Server

    Arai, K

    2002-01-01

    Power recycling will soon be implemented on TAMA300. This paper gives motivation for the TAMA recycling experiment, discusses the planned length sensing/control system and considerations for the lock acquisition process.

  4. A Fundamental Metric for Metal Recycling Applied to Coated Magnesium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meskers, C.E.M.; Reuter, M.A.; Boin, U.; Kvithyld, A.

    2008-01-01

    A fundamental metric for the assessment of the recyclability and, hence, the sustainability of coated magnesium scrap is presented; this metric combines kinetics and thermodynamics. The recycling process, consisting of thermal decoating and remelting, was studied by thermogravimetry and differential

  5. EVALUATION OF RECYCLED PLASTIC LUMBER FOR MARINE APPLICATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report presents an evaluation of the recycled plastic materials (RPM) produced by California Recycling Company (CRC). This evaluation is performed under the Municipal Waste Innovative Technology Evaluation (MITE) Program of the U.S. EPA, Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory...

  6. Environmental suitability of recycled concrete aggregate in highways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The use of recycled concrete aggregate materials in highway constructions as compared to the use of virgin : materials reduces virgin natural resource demands on the environment. In order to evaluate their potential use of : recycle materials in high...

  7. Evaluation of recycled concrete as aggregate in new concrete pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    This study evaluated the use of recycled concrete as coarse aggregate in new concrete pavements. : Recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) produced from demolished pavements in three geographically dispersed locations in Washington state were used to perfo...

  8. Positrusion Filament Recycling System for ISS, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Positrusion ISS Recycler enables recycling of scrap and waste plastics into high-quality filament for 3D printers to enable sustainable in-situ manufacturing on...

  9. Narrative Finality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armine Kotin Mortimer

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available The cloturai device of narration as salvation represents the lack of finality in three novels. In De Beauvoir's Tous les hommes sont mortels an immortal character turns his story to account, but the novel makes a mockery of the historical sense by which men define themselves. In the closing pages of Butor's La Modification , the hero plans to write a book to save himself. Through the thrice-considered portrayal of the Paris-Rome relationship, the ending shows the reader how to bring about closure, but this collective critique written by readers will always be a future book. Simon's La Bataille de Pharsale , the most radical attempt to destroy finality, is an infinite text. No new text can be written. This extreme of perversion guarantees bliss (jouissance . If the ending of De Beauvoir's novel transfers the burden of non-final world onto a new victim, Butor's non-finality lies in the deferral to a future writing, while Simon's writer is stuck in a writing loop, in which writing has become its own end and hence can have no end. The deconstructive and tragic form of contemporary novels proclaims the loss of belief in a finality inherent in the written text, to the profit of writing itself.

  10. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sujit Banerjee

    2005-12-15

    Contaminants present in paper recycling mills can degrade product properties and can also lead to substantial downtime. Of these, adhesive material such as hot melts and pressure sensitive adhesives are especially troublesome. These are known as “ stickies ” and their handling and re- moval requires process equipment such as screens and cleaners as well as chemical additives. In the preceding phase of the project we demonstrated that firing an underwater spark in a tank of stock reduces the tack of the stickies and reduces their impact. The present phase was to demon- strate the technology in full-scale trials, address any issues that might arise, and commercialize the process. Trials were run at the Appleton papers mill in West Carrollton, OH, the Graphics Packag- ing mill at Kalamazoo, MI, Stora Enso mills at Duluth, MN, and Wisconsin Rapids, WI, and the Jackson Paper mill at Sylva, NC. It was shown that the sparker not only detackified stickies but also increased the efficiency of their removal by centrifugal cleaners, improved the effectiveness of dissolved air flotation, and increased the efficiency of flotation deinking. It is estimated that the sparker improves the efficiency of hydrocyclone cleaner, deinking cells and dissolved and dispersed air flotation units by 10-15%. This translates to a corresponding energy benefit in operating these units. The technology has been licensed to Eka Chemicals, a division of Akzo Nobel.

  11. Solid waste recycling in Rajshahi city of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Q Hamidul; Hassan, K Mahbub; Haque, M Ehsanul

    2012-11-01

    Efficient recycling of solid wastes is now a global concern for a sustainable and environmentally sound management. In this study, traditional recycling pattern of solid waste was investigated in Rajshahi municipality which is the fourth largest city of Bangladesh. A questionnaire survey had been carried out in various recycle shops during April 2010 to January 2011. There were 140 recycle shops and most of them were located in the vicinity of Stadium market in Rajshahi. About 1906 people were found to be involved in recycling activities of the city. The major fraction of recycled wastes were sent to capital city Dhaka for further manufacture of different new products. Only a small amount of wastes, specially plastics, were processed in local recycle factories to produce small washing pots and bottle caps. Everyday, an estimated 28.13 tons of recycled solid wastes were handled in Rajshahi city area. This recycled portion accounted for 8.25% of the daily total generated wastes (341 ton d(-1)), 54.6% of total recyclable wastes (51.49 ton d(-1)) and 68.29% of readily recyclable wastes (41.19 ton d(-1)). Major recycled materials were found to be iron, glass, plastic, and papers. Only five factories were involved in preliminary processing of recyclable wastes. Collecting and processing secondary materials, manufacturing recycled-content products, and then buying recycled products created a circle or loop that ensured the overall success of recycling and generated a host of financial, environmental, and social returns. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Dismantling of asphalt and recycling road materials in asphalt layers

    OpenAIRE

    Antunes, M. L.; Batista, F. A.

    2009-01-01

    Este registo pertence ao Repositório Científico do LNEC The interest of recycling of asphalt and other road materials for pavement construction and rehabilitation has been generally growing in Portugal, for the last 15 years. After some occasional demonstration projects dealing with hot and cold in situ recycling of asphalt layers, the first significant experiences with cold in situ recycling and hot mix plant recycling of asphalt applied in full scale rehabilitation projects, ...

  13. Effect of Aqueous Phase Recycling in Continuous Hydrothermal Liquefaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemmer, Maika; Madsen, René Bjerregaard; Houlberg, Kasper

    2016-01-01

    was observed with a maximum increase in the first recycle experiment. However, the recycling of the aqueous phase also resulted in lower heating values and higher water contents in the oil fraction. Based on these findings, recycling the aqueous phase is a trade-off between improved yields and reduced burn...... qualities of the biocrude. That said, recycling also lowers carbon discharge to the aqueous fraction, which may contribute significantly to reducing the environmental footprint of an industrial HTL plant....

  14. Effect of Recycling in Post-Consumer Polystyrene Cups

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Mehnaz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to recycle post-consumer polystyrene cups and to analyze the changes in mechanical and rheological properties of the recycled polystyrene. The me-chanical properties were tensile strength, Young’s modulus and the rheological proper-ties was melt flow index. In order to analyze the changes in properties, material testing results of pristine polystyrene were compared with the recycled polystyrene. The same polystyrene material was recycled and tested twice in order to ...

  15. Industrial waste recycling strategies optimization problem: mixed integer programming model and heuristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jiafu; Liu, Yang; Fung, Richard; Luo, Xinggang

    2008-12-01

    Manufacturers have a legal accountability to deal with industrial waste generated from their production processes in order to avoid pollution. Along with advances in waste recovery techniques, manufacturers may adopt various recycling strategies in dealing with industrial waste. With reuse strategies and technologies, byproducts or wastes will be returned to production processes in the iron and steel industry, and some waste can be recycled back to base material for reuse in other industries. This article focuses on a recovery strategies optimization problem for a typical class of industrial waste recycling process in order to maximize profit. There are multiple strategies for waste recycling available to generate multiple byproducts; these byproducts are then further transformed into several types of chemical products via different production patterns. A mixed integer programming model is developed to determine which recycling strategy and which production pattern should be selected with what quantity of chemical products corresponding to this strategy and pattern in order to yield maximum marginal profits. The sales profits of chemical products and the set-up costs of these strategies, patterns and operation costs of production are considered. A simulated annealing (SA) based heuristic algorithm is developed to solve the problem. Finally, an experiment is designed to verify the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method. By comparing a single strategy to multiple strategies in an example, it is shown that the total sales profit of chemical products can be increased by around 25% through the simultaneous use of multiple strategies. This illustrates the superiority of combinatorial multiple strategies. Furthermore, the effects of the model parameters on profit are discussed to help manufacturers organize their waste recycling network.

  16. Preparation and properties of high-strength recycled concrete in cold areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitao, Y.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Concrete waste was processed into recycled coarse aggregate (RCA, subsequently used to prepare high-strength (> 50 MPa recycled concrete. The resulting material was tested for mechanical performance (ULS. The recycled concrete was prepared to the required design strength by adjusting the water/cement ratio. Concrete containing 0, 20, 50, 80 and 100% recycled aggregate was prepared and studied for workability, deformability and durability. The ultimate aim of the study was to prepare high-strength recycled concrete apt for use in cold climates as a theoretical and experimental basis for the deployment of recycled high-strength concrete in civil engineering and building construction.En este estudio se preparó un hormigón de altas resistencias (> 50 MPa utilizando residuos de hormigón como árido grueso reciclado (RCA. El material resultante se ensayó para determinar sus prestaciones mecánicas (ULS. Para adaptarse a los requerimientos resistentes, se ajustó la relación agua/cemento del hormigón reciclado. Se estudió la trabajabilidad, deformabilidad y durabilidad del hormigón con contenidos del 0, 20, 50, 80 y 100% de árido reciclado. El objetivo final del estudio fue preparar hormigón reciclado de altas resistencias apto para su uso en climas fríos como base teórica y experimental para el desarrollo de este tipo de materiales en obra civil y edificación.

  17. Legionella Effector AnkX Disrupts Host Cell Endocytic Recycling in a Phosphocholination-Dependent Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samual C. Allgood

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The facultative intracellular bacterium Legionella pneumophila proliferates within amoebae and human alveolar macrophages, and it is the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, a life-threatening pneumonia. Within host cells, L. pneumophila establishes a replicative haven by delivering numerous effector proteins into the host cytosol, many of which target membrane trafficking by manipulating the function of Rab GTPases. The Legionella effector AnkX is a phosphocholine transferase that covalently modifies host Rab1 and Rab35. However, a detailed understanding of the biological consequence of Rab GTPase phosphocholination remains elusive. Here, we broaden the understanding of AnkX function by presenting three lines of evidence that it interferes with host endocytic recycling. First, using immunogold transmission electron microscopy, we determined that GFP-tagged AnkX ectopically produced in mammalian cells localizes at the plasma membrane and tubular membrane compartments, sites consistent with targeting the endocytic recycling pathway. Furthermore, the C-terminal region of AnkX was responsible for association with the plasma membrane, and we determined that this region was also able to bind the phosphoinositide lipids PI(3P and PI(4P in vitro. Second, we observed that mCherry-AnkX co-localized with Rab35, a regulator of recycling endocytosis and with major histocompatibility class I protein (MHC-I, a key immunoregulatory protein whose recycling from and back to the plasma membrane is Rab35-dependent. Third, we report that during infection of macrophages, AnkX is responsible for the disruption of endocytic recycling of transferrin, and AnkX's phosphocholination activity is critical for this function. These results support the hypothesis that AnkX targets endocytic recycling during host cell infection. Finally, we have demonstrated that the phosphocholination activity of AnkX is also critical for inhibiting fusion of the Legionella

  18. Melting behaviour of raw materials and recycled stone wool waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Falk, Vickie; Agersted, Karsten; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2018-01-01

    Stone wool is a widely used material for building insulation, to provide thermal comfort along with fire stability and acoustic comfort for all types of buildings. Stone wool waste generated either during production or during renovation or demolition of buildings can be recycled back into the sto...... wool melt production. This study investigates and compares the thermal response and melting behaviour of a conventional stone wool charge and stone wool waste. The study combines differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), hot stage microscopy (HSM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). DSC reveals...... that the conventional charge and stone wool waste have fundamentally different thermal responses, where the charge experiences gas release, phase transition and melting of the individual raw materials. The stone wool waste experiences glass transition, crystallization and finally melting. Both DSC and HSM measurements...

  19. Chemical Recycling of PET Wastes with Different Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khoonkari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical recycling of polyethylene terephthalate, known as PET, has been the subject of increased interest as a valuable feedstock for different chemical processes. In this work, glycolysis of PET waste granules was carried out using excess ethylene glycol in the presence of different simple chemicals acting as catalysts, which are, namely, categorized in ionic liquids, metal salts, hydrotalcites, and enzymes. From every category, some materials as a sample were used, and the one which is going to bring the best result is noted. The effect of some parameters such as temperature, pressure, amount of sample, material ratio, and stirring rate was investigated. As a result we compared the best of each category with the others and final result is shown.

  20. Recycling of organic wastes by employing Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Anoop; Garg, V K

    2011-02-01

    This paper reports the recycling of nutrients by vermicomposting of cow dung (CD), poultry droppings (PD) and food industry sludge (FIS) employing earthworms (Eisenia fetida). A total of six vermicomposting units were established and dynamics of chemical and biological parameters has been studied for 13 weeks. The waste mixture containing 50% CD+25% PD+25% FIS had better fertilizer value among studied waste combinations. At the end of experiment, vermicomposts showed decrease in pH and organic C, but increase in EC, total Kjeldhal N, total available P and total K contents. The C:N ratio of final vermicomposts also reduced to 10.7-12.7 from 22.8 to 56 in different waste combinations. The earthworms have good biomass gain and cocoon production in all vermicomposting units but CD alone and 50% CD+25% PD+25% FIS were better than other studied combinations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Correction magnets for the Fermilab Recycler Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James T Volk et al.

    2003-01-01

    In the commissioning of the Fermilab Recycler ring the need for higher order corrector magnets in the regions near beam transfers was discovered. Three types of permanent magnet skew quadrupoles, and two types of permanent magnet sextupoles were designed and built. This paper describes the need for these magnets, the design, assembly, and magnetic measurements

  2. Lead use and recycling at the INEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losinski, S.J.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1995-08-01

    As part of DOE's efforts to develop a Department-wide management strategy for the use, reuse, and recycle of lead, DOE has requested that each site provide site-specific management and use practices for lead, specifically management and use information that responds to four specific questions of interest. This report provides the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's response to those areas of interest

  3. Optimising product recycling chains by control theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleineidam, U.; Lambert, A.J.D.; Blansjaar, J.; Kok, J.J.; Heijningen, van R.J.J.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, a modelling method is described for production chains including recycling. It consists of elementary models of standard production operations, connected by market modules. The models are analysed using methods from control theory. These methods allow us to investigate essential

  4. Formability of recycled aluminium alloy 5017

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sillekens, W.H.; Sano, T.; Terasaki, M.; Matsuno, K.; Kals, J.A.G.

    1997-01-01

    Innovations in the production of consumer goods are increasingly driven by the necessity of energy and resource conservation. As one of the consequences, designing with respect to recycleability has become an important issue, this being particularly so for non-durable items. Exemplary for the

  5. Crumb Rubber in cold recycled bituminous mixes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dondi, Giulio; Tataranni, Piergiorgio; Pettinari, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    Today recycling is one of the most innovative and interesting techniques for the rehabilitation of destressed road pavements. In recent years the increased interest in this process, has led to the development of various alternative methods for the recovery and the reuse of road bituminous materials...

  6. Recycled sand in lime-based mortars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanidou, M; Anastasiou, E; Georgiadis Filikas, K

    2014-12-01

    The increasing awareness of the society about safe guarding heritage buildings and at the same time protecting the environment promotes strategies of combining principles of restoration with environmentally friendly materials and techniques. Along these lines, an experimental program was carried out in order to investigate the possibility of producing repair, lime-based mortars used in historic buildings incorporating secondary materials. The alternative material tested was recycled fine aggregates originating from mixed construction and demolition waste. Extensive tests on the raw materials have been performed and mortar mixtures were produced using different binding systems with natural, standard and recycled sand in order to compare their mechanical, physical and microstructure properties. The study reveals the improved behavior of lime mortars, even at early ages, due to the reaction of lime with the Al and Si constituents of the fine recycled sand. The role of the recycled sand was more beneficial in lime mortars rather than the lime-pozzolan or lime-pozzolan-cement mortars as a decrease in their performance was recorded in the latter cases due to the mortars' structure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Treatment and recycling of textile wastewaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciardelli, G.; Brighetti, G.

    1999-01-01

    The results of an experimental campaign involving the treatment of textile wastewaters for recycle by mean of an absorption resins pilot plant are briefly described. The case study concerned the treatment and reuse of yarns dyeing wastewaters. Results obtained indicate the possibility of an industrial scale implementation of the technique [it

  8. Producer responsibility and recycling solar photovoltaic modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, N.C.; Pearce, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Rapid expansion of the solar photovoltaic (PV) industry is quickly causing solar to play a growing importance in the energy mix of the world. Over the full life cycle, although to a smaller degree than traditional energy sources, PV also creates solid waste. This paper examines the potential need for PV recycling policies by analyzing existing recycling protocols for the five major types of commercialized PV materials. The amount of recoverable semiconductor material and glass in a 1 m 2 area solar module for the five types of cells is quantified both physically and the profit potential of recycling is determined. The cost of landfill disposal of the whole solar module, including the glass and semiconductor was also determined for each type of solar module. It was found that the economic motivation to recycle most PV modules is unfavorable without appropriate policies. Results are discussed on the need to regulate for appropriate energy and environmental policy in the PV manufacturing industry particularly for PV containing hazardous materials. The results demonstrate the need to encourage producer responsibility not only in the PV manufacturing sector but also in the entire energy industry.

  9. Recycling U and Pu in LWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Hualing.

    1986-01-01

    This article, from viewpoints of technical feasibility, safety evaluation and socioeconomic benefit-risk analysis, introduces and comments on history and status of recycling U and Pu in LWR, dealing with reactor, reprocessing, conversion and fuel element fabrication et al. Author has analysed LWR fuel cycle strategies in China and made a proposal

  10. Natural Borneol Recycling from Cinnamomum camphor chvar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To establish an efficient method to recycle natural borneol from Cinnamomum camphor chvar. Borneol oil residue. Methods: The fractions and raffinate of the oil residue of Cinnamomum camphor chvar. Borneol were obtained by fractional distillation, and analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization ...

  11. Financing, recycling, PR: solutions from Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-06-01

    Foratom Congress, the gathering of Europe's nuclear industry forums, performs an important review of the major difficulties and issues challenging the nuclear industry. Some of the problems such as financing and public relations which dominated discussions during the three-day meeting in Madrid are described. The Pu recycling situation in Europe is also considered.

  12. Recycling and imaging of nuclear singlet hyperpolarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pileio, Giuseppe; Bowen, Sean; Laustsen, Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    observation of the same batch of polarized nuclei over a period of 30 min and more. We report a recycling protocol in which the enhanced nuclear polarization achieved by dissolution-DNP is observed with full intensity and then returned to singlet order. MRI experiments may be run on a portion of the available...

  13. Global recycling - waste trafficking in disguise?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamuk, Bettina; Hansen, Jens Aage

    2007-01-01

    Recycling is used as cover for illegal exporting of hazardous wastes (waste trafficking). This happens in spite of international conventions and codes of good conduct. Additional rules and recommendations are suggested to initiatiate local and national action and compliance with international...

  14. Selective purge for hydrogenation reactor recycle loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Richard W.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2001-01-01

    Processes and apparatus for providing improved contaminant removal and hydrogen recovery in hydrogenation reactors, particularly in refineries and petrochemical plants. The improved contaminant removal is achieved by selective purging, by passing gases in the hydrogenation reactor recycle loop or purge stream across membranes selective in favor of the contaminant over hydrogen.

  15. Technology development for recycling of decommissioning waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, W. K.; Kim, G. N.; Lee, K. W.

    2010-04-01

    The scenarios for recycling or self-disposal of concrete wastes was established according to the regulatory requirements for clearance settled up in overseas countries as well as our country. Through the radiological safety assessment for those scenarios, the exposure rate for the workers and the public was evaluated to come up with the clearance level of radioactive nuclides. On the basis of the results, the necessary condition of the process equipment for a volume reduction and self-disposal was suggested toward recycling in non-nuclear field and limited recycling in nuclear filed. In order to satisfy the clearance level suggested from the assessment of the scenarios for recycling of dismantled concrete wastes, the processes for thermal crushing and mechanical grinding were optimized through the experiments on the characteristics of the thermal and mechanical treatment of concrete wastes generated from the KRR and UCP. As a consequence, the process which can be reduced the radioactive concrete waste volume by about 70% was established. And also, not only the originative integrated thermal crushing equipment in which the concrete wastes were crushed simultaneously with the thermal treatment but also the rotated paddle type impact crushing equipment were developed. An optimized stabilization processes which have the conditions for manufacturing cemented waste form containing the maximum content of fine concrete waste resulting the minimization of increase in volume of cemented waste form was established

  16. Improving the competitiveness of green ship recycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jain, K.P.

    2017-01-01

    The end of life of a ship is determined by its owner on the basis of various commercial and technical factors. Once decided to scrap a ship, almost all end-of-life (EOL) ships are sold to recycling yards for dismantling; except for a few which are converted into museums, hotels, storage, and

  17. Environmental decision making for recycling options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Jens Brøbech

    1997-01-01

    A general method for finding new recycling alternatives in the metals producing industry is presented and tested on two printed wire board scrap cases. The underlying idea for the method is that complex scrap should be introduced in the matrix of man-made material flows at recipient points where ...

  18. WINCO Metal Recycle annual report, FY 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechtold, T.E.

    1993-12-01

    This report is a summary of the first year progress of the WINCO Metal Recycle Program. Efforts were directed towards assessment of radioactive scrap metal inventories, economics and concepts for recycling, technology development, and transfer of technology to the private sector. Seven DOE laboratories worked together to develop a means for characterizing scrap metal. Radioactive scrap metal generation rates were established for several of these laboratories. Initial cost estimates indicate that recycle may be preferable over burial if sufficient decontamination factors can be achieved during melt refining. Radiation levels of resulting ingots must be minimized in order to keep fabrication costs low. Industry has much of the expertise and capability to execute the recycling of radioactive scrap metal. While no single company can sort, melt, refine, roll and fabricate, a combination of two to three can complete this operation. The one process which requires development is in melt refining for removal of radionuclides other than uranium. WINCO is developing this capability in conjunction with academia and industry. This work will continue into FY-94

  19. Economic impacts of the BC recycling regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-08-31

    Extended producer responsibility (EPR) is an environmental approach used in British Columbia (BC) to consider the entire life cycle of a product from the selection and materials and design to the post-consumer stage. This paper discussed EPR strategies that are currently being used to help the BC government remove toxins from its waste stream and develop recycling programs that contribute to the sustainable use of BC's resources. BC's recycling regulation was designed to ensure that producers of designated materials take responsibility for managing products at end-of-life under approved product stewardship plans. The stewardship management recycling program has provided an estimated 1600 full-time equivalent jobs in the province. Overall employment rates are expected to reach over 2100. A waste reduction model (WARM) analysis showed that BC stewardships provide an estimated reduction of 73,000 metric tonnes of carbon equivalent (MTCE). Aluminum can and tire recycling programs account for 82 per cent of the reductions. Diverting the wastes from landfill has helped to avoid the costs of remedial clean-ups as well as avoid the costs of handling hazardous materials. It was concluded that total revenues of $109 million were earned in 2007 from fees, deposits, and the sale of recovered materials. Separate data were provided for stewardship programs for beverage containers; beer containers; tires; used oil; electronics; paint, flammables, and pesticides; tree paint; and pharmaceuticals. 28 tabs., 5 figs.

  20. Recycling of chemical hydrogen storage materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, C.F.; Davis, B.R.; Karan, K.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Light weight chemical hydrides such as sodium borohydride (NaBH4) and lithium borohydride (LiBH4) are promising hydrogen storage materials. They offer several advantages including high volumetric storage density, safe storage, practical storage and operating condition, controlled and rapid hydrogen release kinetics in alkaline aqueous media in the presence of catalysts. In addition, borate or borax, the reaction by-product, is environmentally friendly and can be directly disposed or recycled. One technical barrier for utilizing borohydrides as hydrogen storage material is their high production cost. Sodium borohydride currently costs $90 per kg while lithium borohydride costs $8000 per kg. For commercialization, new and improved technology to manufacture borohydrides must be developed - preferably by recycling borates. We are investigating different inorganic recycling routes for regenerating borohydrides from borates. In this paper, the results of a chlorination-based recycling route, incorporating multi-step reactions, will be discussed. Experiments were conducted to establish the efficiency of various steps of the selected regeneration process. The yields of desired products as a function of reaction temperature and composition were obtained from multi-phase batch reactor. Separation efficiency of desired product was also determined. The results obtained so far appear to be promising. (author)