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Sample records for receptor promoter region

  1. Rarity of DNA sequence alterations in the promoter region of the human androgen receptor gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.F. Cabral

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The human androgen receptor (AR gene promoter lies in a GC-rich region containing two principal sites of transcription initiation and a putative Sp1 protein-binding site, without typical "TATA" and "CAAT" boxes. It has been suggested that mutations within the 5'untranslated region (5'UTR may contribute to the development of prostate cancer by changing the rates of gene transcription and/or translation. In order to investigate this question, the aim of the present study was to search for the presence of mutations or polymorphisms at the AR-5'UTR in 92 prostate cancer patients, where histological diagnosis of adenocarcinoma was established in specimens obtained from transurethral resection or after prostatectomy. The AR-5'UTR was amplified by PCR from genomic DNA samples of the patients and of 100 healthy male blood donors, included as controls. Conformation-sensitive gel electrophoresis was used for DNA sequence alteration screening. Only one band shift was detected in one individual from the blood donor group. Sequencing revealed a new single nucleotide deletion (T in the most conserved portion of the promoter region at position +36 downstream from the transcription initiation site I. Although the effect of this specific mutation remains unknown, its rarity reveals the high degree of sequence conservation of the human androgen promoter region. Moreover, the absence of detectable variation within the critical 5'UTR in prostate cancer patients indicates a low probability of its involvement in prostate cancer etiology.

  2. DNA methylation of specific CpG sites in the promoter region regulates the transcription of the mouse oxytocin receptor.

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    Shimrat Mamrut

    Full Text Available Oxytocin is a peptide hormone, well known for its role in labor and suckling, and most recently for its involvement in mammalian social behavior. All central and peripheral actions of oxytocin are mediated through the oxytocin receptor, which is the product of a single gene. Transcription of the oxytocin receptor is subject to regulation by gonadal steroid hormones, and is profoundly elevated in the uterus and mammary glands during parturition. DNA methylation is a major epigenetic mechanism that regulates gene transcription, and has been linked to reduced expression of the oxytocin receptor in individuals with autism. Here, we hypothesized that transcription of the mouse oxytocin receptor is regulated by DNA methylation of specific sites in its promoter, in a tissue-specific manner. Hypothalamus-derived GT1-7, and mammary-derived 4T1 murine cell lines displayed negative correlations between oxytocin receptor transcription and methylation of the gene promoter, and demethylation caused a significant enhancement of oxytocin receptor transcription in 4T1 cells. Using a reporter gene assay, we showed that methylation of specific sites in the gene promoter, including an estrogen response element, significantly inhibits transcription. Furthermore, methylation of the oxytocin receptor promoter was found to be differentially correlated with oxytocin receptor expression in mammary glands and the uterus of virgin and post-partum mice, suggesting that it plays a distinct role in oxytocin receptor transcription among tissues and under different physiological conditions. Together, these results support the hypothesis that the expression of the mouse oxytocin receptor gene is epigenetically regulated by DNA methylation of its promoter.

  3. Promoter region polymorphism & expression profile of toll like receptor-3 (TLR-3) gene in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients from India

    OpenAIRE

    Medhi, Subhash; Deka, Manab; Deka, Purabi; Swargiary, Shyam S.; Hazam, Rajib K.; Sharma, Manash P.; Gumma, Phani K.; Asim, Mohammad; Kar, P.

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) induces an immune response of the host, manifested by the formation of anti-HCV antibodies mediated by adaptive and innate immunity. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a pivotal role in innate immunity system. This study was aimed to investigate the promoter region polymorphism and expression of TLR3 gene in patients with chronic HCV infection. Methods: Patients with chronic HCV infection (N=180) and an equal number of age-sex matched controls wer...

  4. Different Effects of Homocysteine and Oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein on Methylation Status in the Promoter Region of the Estrogen Receptor α Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yushan HUANG; Kejun PENG; Juan SU; Yuping HUANG; Yizhou XU; Shuren WANG

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the effects of homocysteine (Hcy) and oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) on DNA methylation in the promoter region of the estrogen receptor α (ERα) gene, and its potential mechanism in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Cultured smooth muscle cells (SMCs) of humans were treated by Hcy and ox-LDL with different concentrations for different periods of time. The DNA methylation status was assayed by nested methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction, the lipids that accumulated in the SMCs and foam cell formations were examined with Oil red O staining. The proliferation of SMCs was assayed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method. The results showed that ox-LDL in moderate concentrations (10-40 mg/L) induced de novo methylation in the promoter region of the ERα gene of SMCs. However, high concentrations (50 mg/L) of ox-LDL, resulted in demethylation of ERα. The Hcy treatment resulted in de novo methylation in the promoter region of the ERα gene with a concentration- and treating time-dependent manner, and a dose-dependent promoting effect on SMC proliferation. These data indicated that the two risk factors for atherosclerosis had the function of inducing de novo methylation in the promoter region of the ERα gene of SMCs. However, high concentrations (50mg/L) of ox-LDL induced demethylation, indicating that different risk factors of atherosclerosis with different potency might cause different aberrant methylation patterns in the promoter region of the ERα gene. The atherogenic mechanism of Hcy might involve the hypermethylation of the ERα gene, leading to the proliferation of SMCs in atherosclerotic lesions.

  5. Promoting regional mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anne

    Pricing of transport has been part of EU's common transport policy since this gained momentum in the early 1990s. Since then, it has been closely connected to the trans-European transport network (TEN-T) and to rising demands of efficient mobility systems at a local, regional and Community scale....

  6. Promoter and 3'-untranslated-region haplotypes in the vitamin d receptor gene predispose to osteoporotic fracture: the rotterdam study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Fang (Yue); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); A. d' Alesio; M. Jhamai (Mila); H. Zhao (Hui); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); F. Jehan; H.A.P. Pols (Huib); J.P.T.M. van Leeuwen (Hans); A. Hofman (Albert)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractPolymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor gene (VDR) have been shown to be associated with several complex diseases, including osteoporosis, but the mechanisms are unknown and study results have been inconsistent. We therefore determined sequence variation across the majo

  7. Sport Tourism: Regional Promotion Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Nuno; Ribeiro, J. Cadima; Viseu, José

    2004-01-01

    The main purposes of this paper are (i) to analyze the regional promotion strategies of the UEFA Euro 2004 and (ii) to contribute for the improvement of planning and implementation strategies of tourism marketing at regional level. Data regarding these strategies were collected and synthesided. We verified if these match some of the theoretical issues of promotion and tourism marketing. Despite the fact that already many studies have been made, internationally, on the impact of ...

  8. Comparative promoter region analysis powered by CORG

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    Arndt Peter F

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Promoters are key players in gene regulation. They receive signals from various sources (e.g. cell surface receptors and control the level of transcription initiation, which largely determines gene expression. In vertebrates, transcription start sites and surrounding regulatory elements are often poorly defined. To support promoter analysis, we present CORG http://corg.molgen.mpg.de, a framework for studying upstream regions including untranslated exons (5' UTR. Description The automated annotation of promoter regions integrates information of two kinds. First, statistically significant cross-species conservation within upstream regions of orthologous genes is detected. Pairwise as well as multiple sequence comparisons are computed. Second, binding site descriptions (position-weight matrices are employed to predict conserved regulatory elements with a novel approach. Assembled EST sequences and verified transcription start sites are incorporated to distinguish exonic from other sequences. As of now, we have included 5 species in our analysis pipeline (man, mouse, rat, fugu and zebrafish. We characterized promoter regions of 16,127 groups of orthologous genes. All data are presented in an intuitive way via our web site. Users are free to export data for single genes or access larger data sets via our DAS server http://tomcat.molgen.mpg.de:8080/das. The benefits of our framework are exemplarily shown in the context of phylogenetic profiling of transcription factor binding sites and detection of microRNAs close to transcription start sites of our gene set. Conclusion The CORG platform is a versatile tool to support analyses of gene regulation in vertebrate promoter regions. Applications for CORG cover a broad range from studying evolution of DNA binding sites and promoter constitution to the discovery of new regulatory sequence elements (e.g. microRNAs and binding sites.

  9. The dynamics of mobile promoters: Enhanced stability in promoter regions.

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    Rabbani, Mahnaz; Wahl, Lindi M

    2016-10-21

    Mobile promoters are emerging as a new class of mobile genetic elements, first identified by examining prokaryote genome sequences, and more recently confirmed by experimental observations in bacteria. Recent datasets have identified over 40,000 putative mobile promoters in sequenced prokaryote genomes, however only one-third of these are in regions of the genome directly upstream from coding sequences, that is, in promoter regions. The presence of many promoter sequences in non-promoter regions is unexplained. Here we develop a general mathematical model for the dynamics of mobile promoters, extending previous work to capture the dynamics both within and outside promoter regions. From this general model, we apply rigorous model selection techniques to identify which parameters are statistically justified in describing the available mobile promoter data, and find best-fit values of these parameters. Our results suggest that high rates of horizontal gene transfer maintain the population of mobile promoters in promoter regions, and that once established at these sites, mobile promoters are rarely lost, but are commonly copied to other genomic regions. In contrast, mobile promoter copies in non-promoter regions are more numerous and more volatile, experiencing substantially higher rates of duplication, loss and diversification.

  10. Promoter region of the bovine growth hormone receptor gene: single nucleotide polymorphism discovery in cattle and association with performance in Brangus bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, A J; Rincon, G; Medrano, J F; Elzo, M A; Silver, G A; Thomas, M G

    2008-12-01

    Expression of the GH receptor (GHR) gene and its binding with GH is essential for growth and fat metabolism. A GT microsatellite exists in the promoter of bovine GHR segregating short (11 bp) and long (16 to 20 bp) allele sequences. To detect SNP and complete an association study of genotype to phenotype, we resequenced a 1,195-bp fragment of DNA including the GT microsatellite and exon 1A. Resequencing was completed in 48 familialy unrelated Holstein, Jersey, Brown Swiss, Simmental, Angus, Brahman, and Brangus cattle. Nine SNP were identified. Phylogeny analyses revealed minor distance (i.e., Brahman cattle averaged 27.4 +/- 0.07% divergence from the Bos taurus breeds, whereas divergence of Brangus was intermediate. An association study of genotype to phenotype was completed with data from growing Brangus bulls (n = 553 from 96 sires) and data from 4 of the SNP flanking the GT microsatellite. These SNP were found to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and in phase based on linkage disequilibrium analyses (r(2) = 0.84 and D'= 0.92). An A/G tag SNP was identified (ss86273136) and was located in exon 1A, which began 88 bp downstream from the GT microsatellite. Minor allele frequency of the tag SNP was greater than 10%, and Mendelian segregation was verified in 3 generation pedigrees. The A allele was derived from Brahman, and the G allele was derived from Angus. This tag SNP genotype was a significant effect in analyses of rib fat data collected with ultrasound when bulls were ~365 d of age. Specifically, bulls of the GG genotype had 6.1% more (P = 0.0204) rib fat than bulls of the AA and AG genotypes, respectively. Tag SNP (ss86273136), located in the promoter of GHR, appears to be associated with a measure of corporal fat in Bos taurus x Bos indicus composite cattle.

  11. Dioxin increases the interaction between aryl hydrocarbon receptor and estrogen receptor alpha at human promoters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Shaaima; Valen, Eivind; Sandelin, Albin Gustav

    2009-01-01

    genes with little knowledge of what was occurring at other genomic regions. In this study, we showed using chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by hybridization to promoter focused microarrays (ChIP-chip) that 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin treatment significantly increased the overlap of genomic...... regions bound by both AHR and ER . Conventional and sequential ChIPs confirmed the recruitment of AHR and ER to many of the identified regions. Transcription factor binding site analysis revealed an overrepresentation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor response elements in regions bound by both AHR and ER...

  12. Promoter and 3′-untranslated-region haplotypes in the vitamin D receptor gene predispose to osteoporotic fracture: The Rotterdam study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Fang (Yue); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); A. d' Alesio; M. Jhamai (Mila); H. Zhao (Hui); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); A. Hofman (Albert); J.P.T.M. van Leeuwen (Hans); F. Jehan; H.A.P. Pols (Huib); A.G. Uitterlinden (André)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractPolymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor gene (VDR) have been shown to be associated with several complex diseases, including osteoporosis, but the mechanisms are unknown and study results have been inconsistent. We therefore determined sequence variation across the major relevant parts o

  13. The Paired-box Homeodomain Transcription Factor Pax6 Binds to the Upstream Region of the TRAP Gene Promoter and Suppresses Receptor Activator of NF-κB Ligand (RANKL)-induced Osteoclast Differentiation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogawa, Masakazu; Hisatake, Koji; Atkins, Gerald J.; Findlay, David M.; Enoki, Yuichiro; Sato, Tsuyoshi; Gray, Peter C.; Kanesaki-Yatsuka, Yukiko; Anderson, Paul H.; Wada, Seiki; Kato, Naoki; Fukuda, Aya; Katayama, Shigehiro; Tsujimoto, Masafumi; Yoda, Tetsuya; Suda, Tatsuo; Okazaki, Yasushi; Matsumoto, Masahito

    2013-01-01

    Osteoclast formation is regulated by balancing between the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) expressed in osteoblasts and extracellular negative regulatory cytokines such as interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interferon-β (IFN-β), which can suppress excessive bone destruction. However, relatively little is known about intrinsic negative regulatory factors in RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation. Here, we show the paired-box homeodomain transcription factor Pax6 acts as a negative regulator of RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation. Electrophoretic mobility shift and reporter assays found that Pax6 binds endogenously to the proximal region of the tartrate acid phosphatase (TRAP) gene promoter and suppresses nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1)-induced TRAP gene expression. Introduction of Pax6 retrovirally into bone marrow macrophages attenuates RANKL-induced osteoclast formation. Moreover, we found that the Groucho family member co-repressor Grg6 contributes to Pax6-mediated suppression of the TRAP gene expression induced by NFATc1. These results suggest that Pax6 interferes with RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation together with Grg6. Our results demonstrate that the Pax6 pathway constitutes a new aspect of the negative regulatory circuit of RANKL-RANK signaling in osteoclastogenesis and that the augmentation of Pax6 might therefore represent a novel target to block pathological bone resorption. PMID:23990468

  14. GABAA receptor-expressing neurons promote consumption in Drosophila melanogaster.

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    Cheung, Samantha K; Scott, Kristin

    2017-01-01

    Feeding decisions are highly plastic and bidirectionally regulated by neurons that either promote or inhibit feeding. In Drosophila melanogaster, recent studies have identified four GABAergic interneurons that act as critical brakes to prevent incessant feeding. These GABAergic neurons may inhibit target neurons that drive consumption. Here, we tested this hypothesis by examining GABA receptors and neurons that promote consumption. We find that Resistance to dieldrin (RDL), a GABAA type receptor, is required for proper control of ingestion. Knockdown of Rdl in a subset of neurons causes overconsumption of tastants. Acute activation of these neurons is sufficient to drive consumption of appetitive substances and non-appetitive substances and acute silencing of these neurons decreases consumption. Taken together, these studies identify GABAA receptor-expressing neurons that promote Drosophila ingestive behavior and provide insight into feeding regulation.

  15. GABAA receptor-expressing neurons promote consumption in Drosophila melanogaster

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    Cheung, Samantha K.

    2017-01-01

    Feeding decisions are highly plastic and bidirectionally regulated by neurons that either promote or inhibit feeding. In Drosophila melanogaster, recent studies have identified four GABAergic interneurons that act as critical brakes to prevent incessant feeding. These GABAergic neurons may inhibit target neurons that drive consumption. Here, we tested this hypothesis by examining GABA receptors and neurons that promote consumption. We find that Resistance to dieldrin (RDL), a GABAA type receptor, is required for proper control of ingestion. Knockdown of Rdl in a subset of neurons causes overconsumption of tastants. Acute activation of these neurons is sufficient to drive consumption of appetitive substances and non-appetitive substances and acute silencing of these neurons decreases consumption. Taken together, these studies identify GABAA receptor-expressing neurons that promote Drosophila ingestive behavior and provide insight into feeding regulation. PMID:28362856

  16. Thyroid hormone receptors bind to defined regions of the growth hormone and placental lactogen genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, J W; Voz, M L; Eliard, P H; Mathy-Harter, M; De Nayer, P; Economidis, I V; Belayew, A; Martial, J A; Rousseau, G G

    1986-12-01

    The intracellular receptor for thyroid hormone is a protein found in chromatin. Since thyroid hormone stimulates transcription of the growth hormone gene through an unknown mechanism, the hypothesis that the thyroid hormone-receptor complex interacts with defined regions of this gene has been investigated in a cell-free system. Nuclear extracts from human lymphoblastoid IM-9 cells containing thyroid hormone receptors were incubated with L-3,5,3'-tri[125I]iodothyronine and calf thymus DNA-cellulose. Restriction fragments of the human growth hormone gene were added to determine their ability to inhibit labeled receptor binding to DNA-cellulose. These fragments encompassed nucleotide sequences from about three kilobase pairs upstream to about four kilobase pairs downstream from the transcription initiation site. The thyroid hormone-receptor complex bound preferentially to the 5'-flanking sequences of the growth hormone gene in a region between nucleotide coordinates -290 and -129. The receptor also bound to an analogous promoter region in the human placental lactogen gene, which has 92% nucleotide sequence homology with the growth hormone gene. These binding regions appear to be distinct from those that are recognized by the receptor for glucocorticoids, which stimulate growth hormone gene expression synergistically with thyroid hormone. The presence of thyroid hormone was required for binding of its receptor to the growth hormone gene promoter, suggesting that thyroid hormone renders the receptor capable of recognizing specific gene regions.

  17. promotes pheromone receptor polarization and yeast chemotropism by inhibiting receptor phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismael, Amber; Tian, Wei; Waszczak, Nicholas; Wang, Xin; Cao, Youfang; Suchkov, Dmitry; Bar, Eli; Metodiev, Metodi V; Liang, Jie; Arkowitz, Robert A; Stone, David E

    2016-04-12

    Gradient-directed cell migration (chemotaxis) and growth (chemotropism) are processes that are essential to the development and life cycles of all species. Cells use surface receptors to sense the shallow chemical gradients that elicit chemotaxis and chemotropism. Slight asymmetries in receptor activation are amplified by downstream signaling systems, which ultimately induce dynamic reorganization of the cytoskeleton. During the mating response of budding yeast, a model chemotropic system, the pheromone receptors on the plasma membrane polarize to the side of the cell closest to the stimulus. Although receptor polarization occurs before and independently of actin cable-dependent delivery of vesicles to the plasma membrane (directed secretion), it requires receptor internalization. Phosphorylation of pheromone receptors by yeast casein kinase 1 or 2 (Yck1/2) stimulates their internalization. We showed that the pheromone-responsive Gβγ dimer promotes the polarization of the pheromone receptor by interacting with Yck1/2 and locally inhibiting receptor phosphorylation. We also found that receptor phosphorylation is essential for chemotropism, independently of its role in inducing receptor internalization. A mathematical model supports the idea that the interaction between Gβγ and Yck1/2 results in differential phosphorylation and internalization of the pheromone receptor and accounts for its polarization before the initiation of directed secretion.

  18. The Mouse Solitary Odorant Receptor Gene Promoters as Models for the Study of Odorant Receptor Gene Choice.

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    Andrea Degl'Innocenti

    Full Text Available In vertebrates, several anatomical regions located within the nasal cavity mediate olfaction. Among these, the main olfactory epithelium detects most conventional odorants. Olfactory sensory neurons, provided with cilia exposed to the air, detect volatile chemicals via an extremely large family of seven-transmembrane chemoreceptors named odorant receptors. Their genes are expressed in a monogenic and monoallelic fashion: a single allele of a single odorant receptor gene is transcribed in a given mature neuron, through a still uncharacterized molecular mechanism known as odorant receptor gene choice.Odorant receptor genes are typically arranged in genomic clusters, but a few are isolated (we call them solitary from the others within a region broader than 1 Mb upstream and downstream with respect to their transcript's coordinates. The study of clustered genes is problematic, because of redundancy and ambiguities in their regulatory elements: we propose to use the solitary genes as simplified models to understand odorant receptor gene choice.Here we define number and identity of the solitary genes in the mouse genome (C57BL/6J, and assess the conservation of the solitary status in some mammalian orthologs. Furthermore, we locate their putative promoters, predict their homeodomain binding sites (commonly present in the promoters of odorant receptor genes and compare candidate promoter sequences with those of wild-caught mice. We also provide expression data from histological sections.In the mouse genome there are eight intact solitary genes: Olfr19 (M12, Olfr49, Olfr266, Olfr267, Olfr370, Olfr371, Olfr466, Olfr1402; five are conserved as solitary in rat. These genes are all expressed in the main olfactory epithelium of three-day-old mice. The C57BL/6J candidate promoter of Olfr370 has considerably varied compared to its wild-type counterpart. Within the putative promoter for Olfr266 a homeodomain binding site is predicted. As a whole, our findings

  19. Tumor-promoting effects of cannabinoid receptor type 1 in human melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpi, Sara; Fogli, Stefano; Polini, Beatrice; Montagnani, Valentina; Podestà, Adriano; Breschi, Maria Cristina; Romanini, Antonella; Stecca, Barbara; Nieri, Paola

    2017-04-01

    The role of endocannabinoid system in melanoma development and progression is actually not fully understood. This study was aimed at clarifying whether cannabinoid-type 1 (CB1) receptor may function as tumor-promoting or -suppressing signal in human cutaneous melanoma. CB1 receptor expression was measured in human melanoma cell lines by real-time PCR. A genetic deletion of CB1 receptors in selected melanoma cells was carried out by using three different short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs). Performance of target gene silencing was verified by real-time PCR and Western blot. The effects of CB1 receptor silencing on cell growth, clonogenicity, migration capability, cell cycle progression, and activation of mitogenic signals was tested. Lentiviral shRNAs vectors targeting different regions of the human CB1 gene led to a significant reduction in CB1 receptor mRNA and a near complete loss of CB1 receptor protein, compared to control vector (LV-c). The number of viable cells, the colony-forming ability and cell migration were significantly reduced in cells transduced with CB1 lentiviral shRNAs compared to LV-c. Cell cycle analyses showed arrest at G1/S phase. p-Akt and p-ERK expression were decreased in transduced versus control cells. Findings of this study suggest that CB1 receptor might function as tumor-promoting signal in human cutaneous melanoma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of promoter sequence of toll-like receptor genes in Vechur cattle

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    R. Lakshmi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To analyze the promoter sequence of toll-like receptor (TLR genes in Vechur cattle, an indigenous breed of Kerala with the sequence of Bos taurus and access the differences that could be attributed to innate immune responses against bovine mastitis. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were collected from Jugular vein of Vechur cattle, maintained at Vechur cattle conservation center of Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, using an acid-citrate-dextrose anticoagulant. The genomic DNA was extracted, and polymerase chain reaction was carried out to amplify the promoter region of TLRs. The amplified product of TLR2, 4, and 9 promoter regions was sequenced by Sanger enzymatic DNA sequencing technique. Results: The sequence of promoter region of TLR2 of Vechur cattle with the B. taurus sequence present in GenBank showed 98% similarity and revealed variants for four sequence motifs. The sequence of the promoter region of TLR4 of Vechur cattle revealed 99% similarity with that of B. taurus sequence but not reveals significant variant in motifregions. However, two heterozygous loci were observed from the chromatogram. Promoter sequence of TLR9 gene also showed 99% similarity to B. taurus sequence and revealed variants for four sequence motifs. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that significant variation in the promoter of TLR2 and 9 genes in Vechur cattle breed and may potentially link the influence the innate immunity response against mastitis diseases.

  1. 5-HT7 receptor activation promotes an increase in TrkB receptor expression and phosphorylation.

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    Samarajeewa, Anshula; Goldemann, Lolita; Vasefi, Maryam S; Ahmed, Nawaz; Gondora, Nyasha; Khanderia, Chandni; Mielke, John G; Beazely, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    The serotonin (5-HT) type 7 receptor is expressed throughout the CNS including the cortex and hippocampus. We have previously demonstrated that the application of 5-HT7 receptor agonists to primary hippocampal neurons and SH-SY5Y cells increases platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor expression and promotes neuroprotection against N-methyl-D-aspartate-(NMDA)-induced toxicity. The tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) receptor is one of the receptors for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and is associated with neurodevelopmental and neuroprotective effects. Application of LP 12 to primary cerebral cortical cultures, SH-SY5Y cells, as well as the retinal ganglion cell line, RGC-5, increased both the expression of full length TrkB as well as its basal phosphorylation state at tyrosine 816. The increase in TrkB expression and phosphorylation was observed as early as 30 min after 5-HT7 receptor activation. In addition to full-length TrkB, kinase domain-deficient forms may be expressed and act as dominant-negative proteins toward the full length receptor. We have identified distinct patterns of TrkB isoform expression across our cell lines and cortical cultures. Although TrkB receptor expression is regulated by cyclic AMP and Gαs-coupled GPCRs in several systems, we demonstrate that, depending on the model system, pathways downstream of both Gαs and Gα12 are involved in the regulation of TrkB expression by 5-HT7 receptors. Given the number of psychiatric and degenerative diseases associated with TrkB/BDNF deficiency and the current interest in developing 5-HT7 receptor ligands as pharmaceuticals, identifying signaling relationships between these two receptors will aid in our understanding of the potential therapeutic effects of 5-HT7 receptor ligands.

  2. 5-HT7 receptor activation promotes an increase in TrkB receptor expression and phosphorylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshula eSamarajeewa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The serotonin (5-HT type 7 receptor is expressed throughout the CNS including cortical neurons. We have previously demonstrated that the application of 5-HT7 receptor agonists to primary hippocampal neurons and SH-SY5Y cells increases platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF receptor expression and promotes neuroprotection against N-methyl-D-aspartate-(NMDA-induced toxicity. The tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB receptor is one of the receptors for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and is associated with neurodevelopmental and neuroprotective effects. Application of LP 12 to primary cerebral cortical cultures, SH-SY5Y cells, as well as the retinal ganglion cell line, RGC-5, increased both the expression of full length TrkB as well as its basal phosphorylation state at tyrosine 816. The increase in TrkB expression and phosphorylation was observed as early as 30 min after 5-HT7 receptor activation. In addition to full-length TrkB, kinase domain-deficient forms may be expressed and act as dominant-negative proteins towards the full length receptor. We have identified distinct patterns of TrkB isoform expression across our cell lines and cortical cultures. Although TrkB receptor expression is regulated by cyclic AMP and Gαs-coupled GPCRs in several systems, we demonstrate that, depending on the model system, pathways downstream of both Gαs and Gα12 are involved in the regulation of TrkB expression by 5-HT7 receptors. Given the number of psychiatric and degenerative diseases associated with TrkB/BDNF deficiency and the current interest in developing 5-HT7 receptor ligands as pharmaceuticals, identifying signaling relationships between these two receptors will aid in our understanding of the potential therapeutic effects of 5-HT7 receptor ligands.

  3. 5-HT7 receptor activation promotes an increase in TrkB receptor expression and phosphorylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarajeewa, Anshula; Goldemann, Lolita; Vasefi, Maryam S.; Ahmed, Nawaz; Gondora, Nyasha; Khanderia, Chandni; Mielke, John G.; Beazely, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    The serotonin (5-HT) type 7 receptor is expressed throughout the CNS including the cortex and hippocampus. We have previously demonstrated that the application of 5-HT7 receptor agonists to primary hippocampal neurons and SH-SY5Y cells increases platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor expression and promotes neuroprotection against N-methyl-D-aspartate-(NMDA)-induced toxicity. The tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) receptor is one of the receptors for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and is associated with neurodevelopmental and neuroprotective effects. Application of LP 12 to primary cerebral cortical cultures, SH-SY5Y cells, as well as the retinal ganglion cell line, RGC-5, increased both the expression of full length TrkB as well as its basal phosphorylation state at tyrosine 816. The increase in TrkB expression and phosphorylation was observed as early as 30 min after 5-HT7 receptor activation. In addition to full-length TrkB, kinase domain-deficient forms may be expressed and act as dominant-negative proteins toward the full length receptor. We have identified distinct patterns of TrkB isoform expression across our cell lines and cortical cultures. Although TrkB receptor expression is regulated by cyclic AMP and Gαs-coupled GPCRs in several systems, we demonstrate that, depending on the model system, pathways downstream of both Gαs and Gα12 are involved in the regulation of TrkB expression by 5-HT7 receptors. Given the number of psychiatric and degenerative diseases associated with TrkB/BDNF deficiency and the current interest in developing 5-HT7 receptor ligands as pharmaceuticals, identifying signaling relationships between these two receptors will aid in our understanding of the potential therapeutic effects of 5-HT7 receptor ligands. PMID:25426041

  4. Mechanisms of transcriptional activation of the mouse claudin-5 promoter by estrogen receptor alpha and beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burek, Malgorzata; Steinberg, Katrin; Förster, Carola Y

    2014-07-01

    Claudin-5 is an integral membrane protein and a critical component of endothelial tight junctions that control paracellular permeability. Claudin-5 is expressed at high levels in the brain vascular endothelium. Estrogens have multiple effects on vascular physiology and function. The biological actions of estrogens are mediated by two different estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes, ER alpha and ER beta. Estrogens have beneficial effects in several vascular disorders. Recently we have cloned and characterized a murine claudin-5 promoter and demonstrated 17beta-estradiol (E2)-mediated regulation of claudin-5 in brain and heart microvascular endothelium on promoter, mRNA and protein level. Sequence analysis revealed a putative estrogen response element (ERE) and a putative Sp1 transcription factor binding site in the claudin-5 promoter. The aim of the present study was to further characterize the estrogen-responsive elements of claudin-5 promoter. First, we introduced point mutations in ERE or Sp1 site in -500/+111 or in Sp1 site of -268/+111 claudin-5 promoter construct, respectively. Basal and E2-mediated transcriptional activation of mutated constructs was abrogated in the luciferase reporter gene assay. Next, we examined whether estrogen receptor subtypes bind to the claudin-5 promoter region. For this purpose we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation assays using anti-estrogen receptor antibodies and cellular lysates of E2-treated endothelial cells followed by quantitative PCR analysis. We show enrichment of claudin-5 promoter fragments containing the ERE- and Sp1-binding site in immunoprecipitates after E2 treatment. Finally, in a gel mobility shift assay, we demonstrated DNA-protein interaction of both ER subtypes at ERE. In summary, this study provides evidence that both a non-consensus ERE and a Sp1 site in the claudin-5 promoter are functional and necessary for the basal and E2-mediated activation of the promoter.

  5. Glycine Receptor α2 Subunit Activation Promotes Cortical Interneuron Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Avila

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Glycine receptors (GlyRs are detected in the developing CNS before synaptogenesis, but their function remains elusive. This study demonstrates that functional GlyRs are expressed by embryonic cortical interneurons in vivo. Furthermore, genetic disruption of these receptors leads to interneuron migration defects. We discovered that extrasynaptic activation of GlyRs containing the α2 subunit in cortical interneurons by endogenous glycine activates voltage-gated calcium channels and promotes calcium influx, which further modulates actomyosin contractility to fine-tune nuclear translocation during migration. Taken together, our data highlight the molecular events triggered by GlyR α2 activation that control cortical tangential migration during embryogenesis.

  6. In Planta Processing and Glycosylation of a Nematode CLAVATA3/ENDOSPERM SURROUNDING REGION-Like Effector and Its Interaction with a Host CLAVATA2-Like Receptor to Promote Parasitism1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shiyan; Lang, Ping; Chronis, Demosthenis; Zhang, Sheng; De Jong, Walter S.; Mitchum, Melissa G.

    2015-01-01

    Like other biotrophic plant pathogens, plant-parasitic nematodes secrete effector proteins into host cells to facilitate infection. Effector proteins that mimic plant CLAVATA3/ENDOSPERM SURROUNDING REGION-related (CLE) proteins have been identified in several cyst nematodes, including the potato cyst nematode (PCN); however, the mechanistic details of this cross-kingdom mimicry are poorly understood. Plant CLEs are posttranslationally modified and proteolytically processed to function as bioactive ligands critical to various aspects of plant development. Using ectopic expression coupled with nanoliquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis, we show that the in planta mature form of proGrCLE1, a multidomain CLE effector secreted by PCN during infection, is a 12-amino acid arabinosylated glycopeptide (named GrCLE1-1Hyp4,7g) with striking structural similarity to mature plant CLE peptides. This glycopeptide is more resistant to hydrolytic degradation and binds with higher affinity to a CLAVATA2-like receptor (StCLV2) from potato (Solanum tuberosum) than its nonglycosylated forms. We further show that StCLV2 is highly up-regulated at nematode infection sites and that transgenic potatoes with reduced StCLV2 expression are less susceptible to PCN infection, indicating that interference of the CLV2-mediated signaling pathway confers nematode resistance in crop plants. These results strongly suggest that phytonematodes have evolved to utilize host cellular posttranslational modification and processing machinery for the activation of CLE effectors following secretion into plant cells and highlight the significance of arabinosylation in regulating nematode CLE effector activity. Our finding also provides evidence that multidomain CLEs are modified and processed similarly to single-domain CLEs, adding new insight into CLE maturation in plants. PMID:25416475

  7. Mechanosensitive promoter region in the human HB-GAM gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liedert, Astrid; Kassem, Moustapha; Claes, Lutz;

    2009-01-01

    expression through specific transcription factor binding sites in the promoter region of mechanosensitive genes. In the present study, we demonstrate that the expression of HB-GAM, which is known to have stimulating effects on osteogenic differentiation, is rapidly induced by mechanical loading in hMSC-TERT4...... cells. Analysis of the human HB-GAM gene upstream regulatory region with luciferase reporter gene assays revealed that the upregulation of HB-GAM expression occurred at the transcriptional level and was mainly dependent on the HB-GAM promoter region most upstream containing three potential AP-1 binding...

  8. Structure of the gene for human. beta. /sub 2/-adrenergic receptor: expression and promoter characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emorine, L.J.; Marullo, S.; Delavier-Klutchko, C.; Kaveri, S.V.; Durieu-Trautmann, O.; Strosberg, A.D.

    1987-10-01

    The genomic gene coding for the human ..beta../sub 2/-adrenergic receptor (..beta../sub 2/AR) from A431 epidermoid cells has been isolated. Transfection of the gene into eukaryotic cells restores a fully active receptor/GTP-binding protein/adenylate cyclase complex with ..beta../sub 2/AR properties. Southern blot analyses with ..beta../sub 2/AR-specific probes show that a single ..beta../sub 2/AR gene is common to various human tissues and that its flanking sequences are highly conserved among humans and between man and rabbit, mouse, and hamster. Functional significance of these regions is supported by the presence of a promoter region (including mRNA cap sites, two TATA boxes, a CAAT box, and three G + C-rich regions that resemble binding sites for transcription factor Sp1) 200-300 base pairs 5' to the translation initiation codon. In the 3' flanking region, sequences homologous to glucocorticoid-response elements might be responsible for the increased expression of the ..beta../sub 2/AR gene observed after treatment of the transfected cells with hydrocortisone. In addition, 5' to the promoter region, an open reading frame encodes a 251-residue polypeptide that displays striking homologies with protein kinases and other nucleotide-binding proteins.

  9. Dual hypocretin receptor antagonism is more effective for sleep promotion than antagonism of either receptor alone.

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    Stephen R Morairty

    Full Text Available The hypocretin (orexin system is involved in sleep/wake regulation, and antagonists of both hypocretin receptor type 1 (HCRTR1 and/or HCRTR2 are considered to be potential hypnotic medications. It is currently unclear whether blockade of either or both receptors is more effective for promoting sleep with minimal side effects. Accordingly, we compared the properties of selective HCRTR1 (SB-408124 and SB-334867 and HCRTR2 (EMPA antagonists with that of the dual HCRTR1/R2 antagonist almorexant in the rat. All 4 antagonists bound to their respective receptors with high affinity and selectivity in vitro. Since in vivo pharmacokinetic experiments revealed poor brain penetration for SB-408124, SB-334867 was selected for subsequent in vivo studies. When injected in the mid-active phase, SB-334867 produced small increases in rapid-eye-movement (REM and non-REM (NR sleep. EMPA produced a significant increase in NR only at the highest dose studied. In contrast, almorexant decreased NR latency and increased both NR and REM proportionally throughout the subsequent 6 h without rebound wakefulness. The increased NR was due to a greater number of NR bouts; NR bout duration was unchanged. At the highest dose tested (100 mg/kg, almorexant fragmented sleep architecture by increasing the number of waking and REM bouts. No evidence of cataplexy was observed. HCRTR1 occupancy by almorexant declined 4-6 h post-administration while HCRTR2 occupancy was still elevated after 12 h, revealing a complex relationship between occupancy of HCRT receptors and sleep promotion. We conclude that dual HCRTR1/R2 blockade is more effective in promoting sleep than blockade of either HCRTR alone. In contrast to GABA receptor agonists which induce sleep by generalized inhibition, HCRTR antagonists seem to facilitate sleep by reducing waking "drive".

  10. Characterization of the promoter region of the mouse Xist gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillet, N; Bonny, C; Schorderet, D F

    1995-01-01

    The mouse Xist gene is expressed exclusively from the inactive X chromosome and may be implicated in initiating X inactivation. To better understand the mechanisms underlying the control of Xist expression, we investigated the upstream regulatory region of the mouse Xist promoter. A 1.2-kb upstream region of the Xist gene was sequenced and promoter activity was studied by chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) assays after transfection in murine XX and XY cell lines. The region analyzed (-1157 to +917 showed no in vitro sex-specific promoter activity. However, a minimal constitutional promoter was assigned to a region from -81 to +1, and a cis element from -41 to -15 regulates promoter activity. We showed that a nuclear factor binds to an element located at -30 to -25 (TTAAAG). A second sequence at -41 to -15 does not act as an enhancer and is unable to confer transcriptional activity to the Xist gene on its own. A third region from -82 to -41 is needed for correct expression. Deletion of the segment -441 to -231 is associated with an increase in CAT activity and may represent a silencer element. Images Fig. 3 PMID:8618932

  11. Missense mutations in the growth hormone receptor dimerization region in Laron syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, M.A.; Francke, U. [Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Stanford, CA (United States)]|[Univ. of Stanford, CA (United States); Geffner, M.E.; Bersch, N. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Laron syndrome (LS) is an autosomal recessively inherited condition characterized by insensitivity to endogenous and exogenous GH. Affected individuals have severe episodes and other characteristic features. GH receptor gene mutations are present in all affected individuals in whom molecular studies have been reported. The GH receptor is a plasma membrane-spanning protein in which the extracellular domain binds circulating GH and the intracellular domain interacts with the JAK-2 kinase and possibly other intracellular signaling molecules. GH receptor dimerization occurs on GH binding and is thought to be required for normal signal transduction. We have studied the GH receptor genes of four unrelated individuals affected with LS from the United States, Italy, Saudi Arabia, and India. We have identified four different missense mutations that alter consecutive amino acids 152 to 155 in or near the dimerization domain of the GH receptor. One of these mutations, D152H, has been reported previously in Asian LS patients and, in in vitro studies, the mutant receptor was unable to dimerize. This report increases to over 20 the number of different GH receptor gene mutations that have been reported in LS patients and defines the first apparent mutational {open_quotes}hotspot{close_quotes} region in this gene. This cluster of mutations in patients with classic LS phenotype provides additional in vivo evidence that receptor dimerization plays an important role in signaling GH`s growth promoting and metabolic effects. Further in vitro studies of the mutations in this region are in progress.

  12. ABA receptor PYL9 promotes drought resistance and leaf senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Chan, Zhulong; Gao, Jinghui; Xing, Lu; Cao, Minjie; Yu, Chunmei; Hu, Yuanlei; You, Jun; Shi, Haitao; Zhu, Yingfang; Gong, Yuehua; Mu, Zixin; Wang, Haiqing; Deng, Xin; Wang, Pengcheng; Bressan, Ray A; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2016-02-16

    Drought stress is an important environmental factor limiting plant productivity. In this study, we screened drought-resistant transgenic plants from 65 promoter-pyrabactin resistance 1-like (PYL) abscisic acid (ABA) receptor gene combinations and discovered that pRD29A::PYL9 transgenic lines showed dramatically increased drought resistance and drought-induced leaf senescence in both Arabidopsis and rice. Previous studies suggested that ABA promotes senescence by causing ethylene production. However, we found that ABA promotes leaf senescence in an ethylene-independent manner by activating sucrose nonfermenting 1-related protein kinase 2s (SnRK2s), which subsequently phosphorylate ABA-responsive element-binding factors (ABFs) and Related to ABA-Insensitive 3/VP1 (RAV1) transcription factors. The phosphorylated ABFs and RAV1 up-regulate the expression of senescence-associated genes, partly by up-regulating the expression of Oresara 1. The pyl9 and ABA-insensitive 1-1 single mutants, pyl8-1pyl9 double mutant, and snrk2.2/3/6 triple mutant showed reduced ABA-induced leaf senescence relative to the WT, whereas pRD29A::PYL9 transgenic plants showed enhanced ABA-induced leaf senescence. We found that leaf senescence may benefit drought resistance by helping to generate an osmotic potential gradient, which is increased in pRD29A::PYL9 transgenic plants and causes water to preferentially flow to developing tissues. Our results uncover the molecular mechanism of ABA-induced leaf senescence and suggest an important role of PYL9 and leaf senescence in promoting resistance to extreme drought stress.

  13. Broca's region: novel organizational principles and multiple receptor mapping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Amunts

    Full Text Available There is a considerable contrast between the various functions assigned to Broca's region and its relatively simple subdivision into two cytoarchitectonic areas (44 and 45. Since the regional distribution of transmitter receptors in the cerebral cortex has been proven a powerful indicator of functional diversity, the subdivision of Broca's region was analyzed here using a multireceptor approach. The distribution patterns of six receptor types using in vitro receptor autoradiography revealed previously unknown areas: a ventral precentral transitional cortex 6r1, dorsal and ventral areas 44d and 44v, anterior and posterior areas 45a and 45p, and areas op8 and op9 in the frontal operculum. A significant lateralization of receptors was demonstrated with respect to the cholinergic M(2 receptor, particularly in area 44v+d. We propose a new concept of the anterior language region, which elucidates the relation between premotor cortex, prefrontal cortex, and Broca's region. It offers human brain homologues to the recently described subdivision of area 45, and the segregation of the ventral premotor cortex in macaque brains. The results provide a novel structural basis of the organization of language regions in the brain.

  14. Oxytocin receptor genetic variation promotes human trust behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank eKrueger

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Given that human trust behavior is heritable and intranasal administration of oxytocin enhances trust, the oxytocin receptor (OXTR gene is an excellent candidate to investigate genetic contributions to individual variations in trust behavior. Although a single-nucleotide polymorphism involving an adenine (A/ guanine (G transition (rs53576 has been associated with socio-emotional phenotypes, its link to trust behavior is unclear. We combined genotyping of healthy male students with the administration of a trust game experiment. Our results show that a naturally occurring genetic variation (rs53576 in the OXTR gene is reliably associated with trust behavior rather than a general increase in trustworthy or risk behaviors. Individuals homozygous for the G allele (GG showed higher trust behavior than individuals with A allele carriers (AA/AG. Although the molecular functionality of this polymorphism is still unknown, future research should clarify how the OXTR gene interacts with other genes and the environment in promoting socio-emotional behaviors.

  15. Engineering of core promoter regions enables the construction of constitutive and inducible promoters in Halomonas sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tingting; Li, Teng; Ji, Weiyue; Wang, Qiuyue; Zhang, Haoqian; Chen, Guo-Qiang; Lou, Chunbo; Ouyang, Qi

    2016-02-01

    Halomonas strain TD01, a newly identified halophilic bacterium, has proven to be a promising low-cost host for the production of chemicals. However, genetic manipulation in Halomonas sp. is still difficult due to the lack of well-characterized and tunable expression systems. In this study, a systematic, efficient method was exploited to construct both a constitutive promoter library and inducible promoters. Porin, a highly expressed protein in Halomonas TD01, was first identified from the Halomonas TD01 proteome. Subsequent study of the intergenic region upstream of porin led to the identification of a core promoter region, including -10 and -35 elements. By randomizing the sequence between the -35 and -10 elements, a constitutive promoter library was obtained with 310-fold variation in transcriptional activity; an inducible promoter with a >200-fold induction was built by integrating a lac operator into the core promoter region. As two complementary expression systems, the constitutive and inducible promoters were then employed to regulate the biosynthetic pathway of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) in Halomonas TD01, demonstrating the usefulness of the expression systems, furthermore, they could be applied in future metabolic engineering of Halomonas TD strains, and the systematic method used in this study can be generalized to other less-characterized bacterial strains.

  16. Structural properties of prokaryotic promoter regions correlate with functional features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meysman, Pieter; Collado-Vides, Julio; Morett, Enrique; Viola, Roberto; Engelen, Kristof; Laukens, Kris

    2014-01-01

    The structural properties of the DNA molecule are known to play a critical role in transcription. In this paper, the structural profiles of promoter regions were studied within the context of their diversity and their function for eleven prokaryotic species; Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella Typhimurium, Pseudomonas auroginosa, Geobacter sulfurreducens Helicobacter pylori, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Synechocystis sp., Synechoccocus elongates, Bacillus anthracis, and the archaea Sulfolobus solfataricus. The main anchor point for these promoter regions were transcription start sites identified through high-throughput experiments or collected within large curated databases. Prokaryotic promoter regions were found to be less stable and less flexible than the genomic mean across all studied species. However, direct comparison between species revealed differences in their structural profiles that can not solely be explained by the difference in genomic GC content. In addition, comparison with functional data revealed that there are patterns in the promoter structural profiles that can be linked to specific functional loci, such as sigma factor regulation or transcription factor binding. Interestingly, a novel structural element clearly visible near the transcription start site was found in genes associated with essential cellular functions and growth in several species. Our analyses reveals the great diversity in promoter structural profiles both between and within prokaryotic species. We observed relationships between structural diversity and functional features that are interesting prospects for further research to yet uncharacterized functional loci defined by DNA structural properties.

  17. Structural properties of prokaryotic promoter regions correlate with functional features.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Meysman

    Full Text Available The structural properties of the DNA molecule are known to play a critical role in transcription. In this paper, the structural profiles of promoter regions were studied within the context of their diversity and their function for eleven prokaryotic species; Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella Typhimurium, Pseudomonas auroginosa, Geobacter sulfurreducens Helicobacter pylori, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Synechocystis sp., Synechoccocus elongates, Bacillus anthracis, and the archaea Sulfolobus solfataricus. The main anchor point for these promoter regions were transcription start sites identified through high-throughput experiments or collected within large curated databases. Prokaryotic promoter regions were found to be less stable and less flexible than the genomic mean across all studied species. However, direct comparison between species revealed differences in their structural profiles that can not solely be explained by the difference in genomic GC content. In addition, comparison with functional data revealed that there are patterns in the promoter structural profiles that can be linked to specific functional loci, such as sigma factor regulation or transcription factor binding. Interestingly, a novel structural element clearly visible near the transcription start site was found in genes associated with essential cellular functions and growth in several species. Our analyses reveals the great diversity in promoter structural profiles both between and within prokaryotic species. We observed relationships between structural diversity and functional features that are interesting prospects for further research to yet uncharacterized functional loci defined by DNA structural properties.

  18. Dissection of androgen receptor-promoter interactions: steroid receptors partition their interaction energetics in parallel with their phylogenetic divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Rolando W; Yang, Qin; Miura, Michael T; Bain, David L

    2013-11-15

    Steroid receptors comprise a homologous family of ligand-activated transcription factors. The members include androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptor (ER), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), and progesterone receptor (PR). Phylogenetic studies demonstrate that AR, GR, MR, and PR are most closely related, falling into subgroup 3C. ER is more distantly related, falling into subgroup 3A. To determine the quantitative basis by which receptors generate their unique transcriptional responses, we are systematically dissecting the promoter-binding energetics of all receptors under a single "standard state" condition. Here, we examine the self-assembly and promoter-binding energetics of full-length AR and a mutant associated with prostate cancer, T877A. We first demonstrate that both proteins exist only as monomers, showing no evidence of dimerization. Although this result contradicts the traditional understanding that steroid receptors dimerize in the absence of DNA, it is fully consistent with our previous work demonstrating that GR and two PR isoforms either do not dimerize or dimerize only weakly. Moreover, both AR proteins exhibit substantial cooperativity between binding sites, again as seen for GR and PR. In sharp contrast, the more distantly related ER-α dimerizes so strongly that energetics can only be measured indirectly, yet cooperativity is negligible. Thus, homologous receptors partition their promoter-binding energetics quite differently. Moreover, since receptors most closely related by phylogeny partition their energetics similarly, such partitioning appears to be evolutionarily conserved. We speculate that such differences in energetics, coupled with different promoter architectures, serve as the basis for generating receptor-specific promoter occupancy and thus function.

  19. Cloning the promoter for transforming growth factor-beta type III receptor. Basal and conditional expression in fetal rat osteoblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, C.; Chen, Y.; McCarthy, T. L.; Centrella, M.

    1999-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta binds to three high affinity cell surface molecules that directly or indirectly regulate its biological effects. The type III receptor (TRIII) is a proteoglycan that lacks significant intracellular signaling or enzymatic motifs but may facilitate transforming growth factor-beta binding to other receptors, stabilize multimeric receptor complexes, or segregate growth factor from activating receptors. Because various agents or events that regulate osteoblast function rapidly modulate TRIII expression, we cloned the 5' region of the rat TRIII gene to assess possible control elements. DNA fragments from this region directed high reporter gene expression in osteoblasts. Sequencing showed no consensus TATA or CCAAT boxes, whereas several nuclear factors binding sequences within the 3' region of the promoter co-mapped with multiple transcription initiation sites, DNase I footprints, gel mobility shift analysis, or loss of activity by deletion or mutation. An upstream enhancer was evident 5' proximal to nucleotide -979, and a silencer region occurred between nucleotides -2014 and -2194. Glucocorticoid sensitivity mapped between nucleotides -687 and -253, whereas bone morphogenetic protein 2 sensitivity co-mapped within the silencer region. Thus, the TRIII promoter contains cooperative basal elements and dispersed growth factor- and hormone-sensitive regulatory regions that can control TRIII expression by osteoblasts.

  20. Oncogenic tyrosine kinase NPM-ALK induces expression of the growth-promoting receptor ICOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Wang, Hongyi; Kantekure, Kanchan; Paterson, Jennifer C; Liu, Xiaobin; Schaffer, Andras; Paulos, Chrystal; Milone, Michael C; Odum, Niels; Turner, Suzanne; Marafioti, Teresa; Wasik, Mariusz A

    2011-09-15

    Here we report that T-cell lymphoma cells carrying the NPM-ALK fusion protein (ALK(+) TCL) frequently express the cell-stimulatory receptor ICOS. ICOS expression in ALK(+) TCL is moderate and strictly dependent on the expression and enzymatic activity of NPM-ALK. NPM-ALK induces ICOS expression via STAT3, which triggers the transcriptional activity of the ICOS gene promoter. In addition, STAT3 suppresses the expression of miR-219 that, in turn, selectively inhibits ICOS expression. ALK(+) TCL cell lines display extensive DNA methylation of the CpG island located within intron 1, the putative enhancer region, of the ICOS gene, whereas cutaneous T-cell lymphoma cell lines, which strongly express ICOS, show no methylation of the island. Treatment of the ALK(+) TCL cell lines with DNA methyltransferase inhibitor reversed the CpG island methylation and augmented the expression of ICOS mRNA and protein. Stimulation of the ICOS receptor with anti-ICOS antibody or ICOS ligand-expressing B cells markedly enhanced proliferation of the ALK(+) TCL cells. These results demonstrate that NPM-ALK, acting through STAT3 as the gene transcriptional activator, induces the expression of ICOS, a cell growth promoting receptor. These data also show that the DNA methylation status of the intronic CpG island affects transcriptional activity of the ICOS gene and, consequently, modulates the concentration of the expressed ICOS protein.

  1. Methylation Status of Vitamin D Receptor Gene Promoter in Benign and Malignant Adrenal Tumors

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    Catia Pilon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We previously showed a decreased expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR mRNA/protein in a small group of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC tissues, suggesting the loss of a protective role of VDR against malignant cell growth in this cancer type. Downregulation of VDR gene expression may result from epigenetics events, that is, methylation of cytosine nucleotide of CpG islands in VDR gene promoter. We analyzed methylation of CpG sites in the VDR gene promoter in normal adrenals and adrenocortical tumor samples. Methylation of CpG-rich 5′ regions was assessed by bisulfite sequencing PCR using bisulfite-treated DNA from archival microdissected paraffin-embedded adrenocortical tissues. Three normal adrenals and 23 various adrenocortical tumor samples (15 adenomas and 8 carcinomas were studied. Methylation in the promoter region of VDR gene was found in 3/8 ACCs, while no VDR gene methylation was observed in normal adrenals and adrenocortical adenomas. VDR mRNA and protein levels were lower in ACCs than in benign tumors, and VDR immunostaining was weak or negative in ACCs, including all 3 methylated tissue samples. The association between VDR gene promoter methylation and reduced VDR gene expression is not a rare event in ACC, suggesting that VDR epigenetic inactivation may have a role in adrenocortical carcinogenesis.

  2. Cloning and functional analysis of SEL1L promoter region, a pancreas-specific gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, M; Sorio, C; Malferrari, G; Rogozin, I B; Bernard, L; Scarpa, A; Zollo, M; Biunno, I

    2001-01-01

    We examined the promoter activity of SEL1L, the human ortholog of the C. elegans gene sel-1, a negative regulator of LIN-12/NOTCH receptor proteins. To understand the relation in SEL1L transcription pattern observed in different epithelial cells, we determined the transcription start site and sequenced the 5' flanking region. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of consensus promoter elements--GC boxes and a CAAT box--but the absence of a TATA motif. Potential binding sites for transcription factors that are involved in tissue-specific gene expression were identified, including: activator protein-2 (AP-2), hepatocyte nuclear factor-3 (HNF3 beta), homeobox Nkx2-5 and GATA-1. Transcription activity of the TATA-less SEL1L promoter was analyzed by transient transfection using luciferase reporter gene constructs. A core basal promoter of 302 bp was sufficient for constitutive promoter activity in all the cell types studied. This genomic fragment contains a CAAT and several GC boxes. The activity of the SEL1L promoter was considerably higher in mouse pancreatic beta cells (beta TC3) than in several human pancreatic neoplastic cell lines; an even greater reduction of its activity was observed in cells of nonpancreatic origin. These results suggest that SEL1L promoter may be a useful tool in gene therapy applications for pancreatic pathologies.

  3. Mutational analysis of the promoter and the coding region of the 5-HT1A gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmann, J.; Noethen, M.M.; Shimron-Abarbanell, D. [Univ. of Bonn (Germany)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Disturbances of serotonergic pathways have been implicated in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Serotonin (5HT) receptors can be subdivided into at least three major families (5HT1, 5HT2, and 5HT3). Five human 5HT1 receptor subtypes have been cloned, namely 1A, 1D{alpha}, 1D{beta}, 1E, and 1F. Of these, the 5HT1A receptor is the best characterized subtype. In the present study we sought to identify genetic variation in the 5HT1A receptor gene which through alteration of protein function or level of expression might contribute to the genetics of neuropsychiatric diseases. The coding region and the 5{prime} promoter region of the 5HT1A gene from 159 unrelated subjects (45 schizophrenic, 46 bipolar affective, and 43 patients with Tourette`s syndrome, as well as 25 controls) were analyzed using SSCA. SSCA revealed the presence of two mutations both located in the coding region of the 5HT1A receptor gene. The first mutation is a rare silent C{r_arrow}T substitution at nucleotide position 549. The second mutation is characterized by a base pair substitution (A{r_arrow}G) at the first position of codon 28 and results in an amino acid exchange (Ile{r_arrow}Val). Since Val28 was found only in a single schizophrenic patient and in none of the other patients or controls, we decided to extend our samples and to use a restriction assay for screening a further 74 schizophrenic, 95 bipolar affective, and 49 patients with Tourette`s syndrome, as well as 185 controls, for the presence of the mutation. In total, the mutation was found in 2 schizophrenic patients, in 3 bipolars, in 1 Tourette patient, and in 5 controls. To our knowledge the Ile-28-Val substitution reported here is the first natural occuring molecular variant which has been identified for a serotonin receptor so far.

  4. Endoplasmic reticulum stress contributes to acetylcholine receptor degradation by promoting endocytosis in skeletal muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ailian; Huang, Shiqian; Zhao, Xiaonan; Zhang, Yun; Zhu, Lixun; Ding, Ji; Xu, Congfeng

    2016-01-15

    After binding by acetylcholine released from a motor neuron, a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor at the neuromuscular junction produces a localized end-plate potential, which leads to muscle contraction. Improper turnover and renewal of acetylcholine receptors contributes to the pathogenesis of myasthenia gravis. In the present study, we demonstrate that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress contributes to acetylcholine receptor degradation in C2C12 myocytes. We further show that ER stress promotes acetylcholine receptor endocytosis and lysosomal degradation, which was dampened by blocking endocytosis or treating with lysosome inhibitor. Knockdown of ER stress proteins inhibited acetylcholine receptor endocytosis and degradation, while rescue assay restored its endocytosis and degradation, confirming the effects of ER stress on promoting endocytosis-mediated degradation of junction acetylcholine receptors. Thus, our studies identify ER stress as a factor promoting acetylcholine receptor degradation through accelerating endocytosis in muscle cells. Blocking ER stress and/or endocytosis might provide a novel therapeutic approach for myasthenia gravis.

  5. Truncating Prolactin Receptor Mutations Promote Tumor Growth in Murine Estrogen Receptor-Alpha Mammary Carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obi L. Griffith

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen receptor alpha-positive (ERα+ luminal tumors are the most frequent subtype of breast cancer. Stat1−/− mice develop mammary tumors that closely recapitulate the biological characteristics of this cancer subtype. To identify transforming events that contribute to tumorigenesis, we performed whole genome sequencing of Stat1−/− primary mammary tumors and matched normal tissues. This investigation identified somatic truncating mutations affecting the prolactin receptor (PRLR in all tumor and no normal samples. Targeted sequencing confirmed the presence of these mutations in precancerous lesions, indicating that this is an early event in tumorigenesis. Functional evaluation of these heterozygous mutations in Stat1−/− mouse embryonic fibroblasts showed that co-expression of truncated and wild-type PRLR led to aberrant STAT3 and STAT5 activation downstream of the receptor, cellular transformation in vitro, and tumor formation in vivo. In conclusion, truncating mutations of PRLR promote tumor growth in a model of human ERα+ breast cancer and warrant further investigation.

  6. Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators (SARMs) as Function Promoting Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, Shalender; Jasuja, Ravi

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review The last decade has witnessed unprecedented discovery effort to develop selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) that improve physical function and bone health without adversely affecting the prostate and cardiovascular outcomes. This review describes the historical evolution, the rationale for SARM development, and the mechanisms of testosterone action and SARM selectivity. Recent Findings While steroidal SARMs have been around since the 1940s, a number of nonsteroidal SARMs that do not serve as substrates for CYP19 aromatase or 5α-reductase, act as full agonists in muscle and bone and as partial agonists in prostate are in development. The differing interactions of steroidal and nonsteroidal compounds with AR contribute to their unique pharmacologic actions. Ligand binding induces specific conformational changes in the ligand binding domain, which could modulate surface topology and protein-protein interactions between AR and coregulators, resulting in tissue-specific gene regulation. Preclinical studies have demonstrated the ability of SARMs to increase muscle and bone mass in preclinical rodent models with varying degree of prostate sparing. Phase I trials of SARMs in humans have reported modest increments in fat-free mass. Summary SARMs hold promise as a new class of function promoting anabolic therapies for a number of clinical indications, including functional limitations associated with aging and chronic disease, frailty, cancer cachexia, and osteoporosis. PMID:19357508

  7. Functionality of promoter microsatellites of arginine vasopressin receptor 1A (AVPR1A): implications for autism

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tansey, Katherine E

    2011-03-31

    Abstract Background Arginine vasopressin (AVP) has been hypothesized to play a role in aetiology of autism based on a demonstrated involvement in the regulation of social behaviours. The arginine vasopressin receptor 1A gene (AVPR1A) is widely expressed in the brain and is considered to be a key receptor for regulation of social behaviour. Moreover, genetic variation at AVPR1A has been reported to be associated with autism. Evidence from non-human mammals implicates variation in the 5\\'-flanking region of AVPR1A in variable gene expression and social behaviour. Methods We examined four tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs3803107, rs1042615, rs3741865, rs11174815) and three microsatellites (RS3, RS1 and AVR) at the AVPR1A gene for association in an autism cohort from Ireland. Two 5\\'-flanking region polymorphisms in the human AVPR1A, RS3 and RS1, were also tested for their effect on relative promoter activity. Results The short alleles of RS1 and the SNP rs11174815 show weak association with autism in the Irish population (P = 0.036 and P = 0.008, respectively). Both RS1 and RS3 showed differences in relative promoter activity by length. Shorter repeat alleles of RS1 and RS3 decreased relative promoter activity in the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. Conclusions These aligning results can be interpreted as a functional route for this association, namely that shorter alleles of RS1 lead to decreased AVPR1A transcription, which may proffer increased susceptibility to the autism phenotype.

  8. Functionality of promoter microsatellites of arginine vasopressin receptor 1A (AVPR1A: implications for autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tansey Katherine E

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arginine vasopressin (AVP has been hypothesized to play a role in aetiology of autism based on a demonstrated involvement in the regulation of social behaviours. The arginine vasopressin receptor 1A gene (AVPR1A is widely expressed in the brain and is considered to be a key receptor for regulation of social behaviour. Moreover, genetic variation at AVPR1A has been reported to be associated with autism. Evidence from non-human mammals implicates variation in the 5'-flanking region of AVPR1A in variable gene expression and social behaviour. Methods We examined four tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs (rs3803107, rs1042615, rs3741865, rs11174815 and three microsatellites (RS3, RS1 and AVR at the AVPR1A gene for association in an autism cohort from Ireland. Two 5'-flanking region polymorphisms in the human AVPR1A, RS3 and RS1, were also tested for their effect on relative promoter activity. Results The short alleles of RS1 and the SNP rs11174815 show weak association with autism in the Irish population (P = 0.036 and P = 0.008, respectively. Both RS1 and RS3 showed differences in relative promoter activity by length. Shorter repeat alleles of RS1 and RS3 decreased relative promoter activity in the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. Conclusions These aligning results can be interpreted as a functional route for this association, namely that shorter alleles of RS1 lead to decreased AVPR1A transcription, which may proffer increased susceptibility to the autism phenotype.

  9. Evidence of endogenous mu opioid receptor regulation by epigenetic control of the promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Cheol Kyu; Song, Kyu Young; Kim, Chun Sung; Choi, Hack Sun; Guo, Xiao-Hong; Law, Ping-Yee; Wei, Li-Na; Loh, Horace H

    2007-07-01

    The pharmacological effect of morphine as a painkiller is mediated mainly via the mu opioid receptor (MOR) and is dependent on the number of MORs in the cell surface membrane. While several studies have reported that the MOR gene is regulated by various cis- and trans-acting factors, many questions remain unanswered regarding in vivo regulation. The present study shows that epigenetic silencing and activation of the MOR gene are achieved through coordinated regulation at both the histone and DNA levels. In P19 mouse embryonal carcinoma cells, expression of the MOR was greatly increased after neuronal differentiation. MOR expression could also be induced by a demethylating agent (5'-aza-2'-deoxycytidine) or histone deacetylase inhibitors in the P19 cells, suggesting involvement of DNA methylation and histone deacetylation for MOR gene silencing. Analysis of CpG DNA methylation revealed that the proximal promoter region was unmethylated in differentiated cells compared to its hypermethylation in undifferentiated cells. In contrast, the methylation of other regions was not changed in either cell type. Similar methylation patterns were observed in the mouse brain. In vitro methylation of the MOR promoters suppressed promoter activity in the reporter assay. Upon differentiation, the in vivo interaction of MeCP2 was reduced in the MOR promoter region, coincident with histone modifications that are relevant to active transcription. When MeCP2 was disrupted using MeCP2 small interfering RNA, the endogenous MOR gene was increased. These data suggest that DNA methylation is closely linked to the MeCP2-mediated chromatin structure of the MOR gene. Here, we propose that an epigenetic mechanism consisting of DNA methylation and chromatin modification underlies the cell stage-specific mechanism of MOR gene expression.

  10. Thyroid hormone receptors bind to the promoter of the mouse histone H10 gene and modulate its transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer-Hofmann, R; Alonso, A

    1995-01-01

    It has been shown that the mouse histone H10 promoter contains a DNA element, composed of a direct repeat of the sequence GGTGACC separated by 7 nt, which is able to bind retinoic acid receptors and to modulate transcription of reporter genes following treatment with retinoic acid. We have now investigated whether this DNA motif is also responsive to thyroid hormone. We co-transfected CV-1 monkey kidney cells with chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) expression plasmids containing either 740 bp of the H10 wild-type promoter or five copies of the repeat element cloned in front of the thymidine kinase promoter and expression vectors for human thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) alpha or beta and retinoid X receptor alpha (RXR alpha). Treatment of transfected cells with triiodothyronine led to a dose-dependent increase in CAT activity. Transfection experiments with increasing amounts of expression vectors for either TR alpha or RXR alpha resulted in up to 6-fold enhancement of CAT transcription. Furthermore, point mutations within the half-sites of the response element of the H10 promoter, as well as deletions within the interspace region, lowered CAT activity to 60-80% of that of the wild-type control. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that the repeat element was able to form retarded complexes with TR alpha homodimers, as well as with TR alpha-RXR alpha heterodimers. Our results suggest that thyroid hormone receptors are involved in the regulation of mouse histone H10 expression. Images PMID:8559662

  11. Aging-induced changes in brain regional serotonin receptor binding: Effect of Carnosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, S; Poddar, M K

    2016-04-05

    Monoamine neurotransmitter, serotonin (5-HT) has its own specific receptors in both pre- and post-synapse. In the present study the role of carnosine on aging-induced changes of [(3)H]-5-HT receptor binding in different brain regions in a rat model was studied. The results showed that during aging (18 and 24 months) the [(3)H]-5-HT receptor binding was reduced in hippocampus, hypothalamus and pons-medulla with a decrease in their both Bmax and KD but in cerebral cortex the [(3)H]-5-HT binding was increased with the increase of its only Bmax. The aging-induced changes in [(3)H]-5-HT receptor binding with carnosine (2.0 μg/kg/day, intrathecally, for 21 consecutive days) attenuated in (a) 24-month-aged rats irrespective of the brain regions with the attenuation of its Bmax except hypothalamus where both Bmax and KD were significantly attenuated, (b) hippocampus and hypothalamus of 18-month-aged rats with the attenuation of its Bmax, and restored toward the [(3)H]-5-HT receptor binding that observed in 4-month-young rats. The decrease in pons-medullary [(3)H]-5-HT binding including its Bmax of 18-month-aged rats was promoted with carnosine without any significant change in its cerebral cortex. The [(3)H]-5-HT receptor binding with the same dosages of carnosine in 4-month-young rats (a) increased in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus with the increase in their only Bmax whereas (b) decreased in hypothalamus and pons-medulla with a decrease in their both Bmax and KD. These results suggest that carnosine treatment may (a) play a preventive role in aging-induced brain region-specific changes in serotonergic activity (b) not be worthy in 4-month-young rats in relation to the brain regional serotonergic activity.

  12. A conserved TATA-less proximal promoter drives basal transcription from the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soravia, E; Grebe, A; De Luca, P

    1995-01-01

    The urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) focuses at the cell surface the activation of pro-uPA and, hence, the formation of plasmin, thus enhancing directional extracellular proteolysis. To characterize the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms that control receptor expression, we...... have cloned an uPAR DNA segment containing upstream regulatory sequences from both the human and murine genomes. We report that a proximal promoter, contained within 180 bp from the major transcription start sites of the human uPAR gene, drives basal transcription. This region lacks TATA and CAAT boxes...

  13. Targeted expression of human FSH receptor Asp567Gly mutant mRNA in testis of transgenic mice: role of human FSH receptor promoter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VerenaNordhoff; JorgGromoll; LucaFoppiani; C.MarcLuetjens; StefanSchlatt; ElenaKostova; IlpoHuhtaniemi; EberhardNieschlag; ManuelaSimoni

    2003-01-01

    Aim:To specifically express the Asp567Gly human follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) under the control of its promoter to evaluate the phenotypic consequences in the presence of normal pituitary function.Methods:We produced transgenic mice overexpressing the Asp567Gly human FSHR under the control of a 1.5kb 5’-flanking region fragment of its promoter.Results: Mice were phenotypically normal and fertile.In males,mRNA could be detected in the testis and the brain, indicating that the 1.5kb promoter fragment drives expression not only in the gonads. The testis weight/body weight ratio and the testosterone levels in transgenic and non-transgenic littermates were similar. By in situ hybridisation we found that the transgenic FSHR was highly expressed in Sertoli cells,spermatocytes and round spermatids. However, a radioligand receptor assay failed to show a significant difference in total FSHR binding sites in testis homogenates of transgenic and wild type animals, suggesting that the transgenic FSHR is probably not translated into functional receptor protein. Conclusion: A 1.5kb 5"-region of the human FSHR drives mRNA expression of the transgene in the testis but leads to ectopic expression in germ cells and in the brain. No phenotypic consequences could be documented due to the lack of protein expression.

  14. Oncogenic tyrosine kinase NPM-ALK induces expression of the growth-promoting receptor ICOS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Qian; Wang, HongYi; Kantekure, Kanchan

    2011-01-01

    Here we report that T-cell lymphoma cells carrying the NPM-ALK fusion protein (ALK(+) TCL) frequently express the cell-stimulatory receptor ICOS. ICOS expression in ALK(+) TCL is moderate and strictly dependent on the expression and enzymatic activity of NPM-ALK. NPM-ALK induces ICOS expression via...... STAT3, which triggers the transcriptional activity of the ICOS gene promoter. In addition, STAT3 suppresses the expression of miR-219 that, in turn, selectively inhibits ICOS expression. ALK(+) TCL cell lines display extensive DNA methylation of the CpG island located within intron 1, the putative...... enhancer region, of the ICOS gene, whereas cutaneous T-cell lymphoma cell lines, which strongly express ICOS, show no methylation of the island. Treatment of the ALK(+) TCL cell lines with DNA methyltransferase inhibitor reversed the CpG island methylation and augmented the expression of ICOS m...

  15. Variants in the dopamine-4-receptor gene promoter are not associated with sensation seeking in skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Cynthia J; Rajala, Amelia K; Carlson, Scott R; Rupert, Jim L

    2014-01-01

    Sensation seeking is a personality trait that has been associated with disinhibited behaviours including substance use and gambling, but also with high-risk sport practices including skydiving, paragliding, and downhill skiing. Twin studies have shown that sensation seeking is moderately heritable, and candidate genes encoding components involved in dopaminergic transmission have been investigated as contributing to this type of behaviour. To determine whether variants in the regulatory regions of the dopamine-4-receptor gene (DRD4) influenced sport-specific sensation seeking, we analyzed five polymorphisms (-1106T/C, -906T/C, -809G/A, -291C/T, 120-bp duplication) in the promoter region of the gene in a cohort of skiers and snowboarders (n = 599) that represented a broad range of sensation seeking behaviours. We grouped subjects by genotype at each of the five loci and compared impulsive sensation seeking and domain-specific (skiing) sensation seeking between groups. There were no significant associations between genotype(s) and general or domain-specific sensation seeking in the skiers and snowboarders, suggesting that while DRD4 has previously been implicated in sensation seeking, the promoter variants investigated in this study do not contribute to sensation seeking in this athlete population.

  16. Variants in the dopamine-4-receptor gene promoter are not associated with sensation seeking in skiers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia J Thomson

    Full Text Available Sensation seeking is a personality trait that has been associated with disinhibited behaviours including substance use and gambling, but also with high-risk sport practices including skydiving, paragliding, and downhill skiing. Twin studies have shown that sensation seeking is moderately heritable, and candidate genes encoding components involved in dopaminergic transmission have been investigated as contributing to this type of behaviour. To determine whether variants in the regulatory regions of the dopamine-4-receptor gene (DRD4 influenced sport-specific sensation seeking, we analyzed five polymorphisms (-1106T/C, -906T/C, -809G/A, -291C/T, 120-bp duplication in the promoter region of the gene in a cohort of skiers and snowboarders (n = 599 that represented a broad range of sensation seeking behaviours. We grouped subjects by genotype at each of the five loci and compared impulsive sensation seeking and domain-specific (skiing sensation seeking between groups. There were no significant associations between genotype(s and general or domain-specific sensation seeking in the skiers and snowboarders, suggesting that while DRD4 has previously been implicated in sensation seeking, the promoter variants investigated in this study do not contribute to sensation seeking in this athlete population.

  17. Lack of renal dopamine D5 receptors promotes hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asico, Laureano; Zhang, Xiaojie; Jiang, Jifu; Cabrera, David; Escano, Crisanto S; Sibley, David R; Wang, Xiaoyan; Yang, Yu; Mannon, Roslyn; Jones, John E; Armando, Ines; Jose, Pedro A

    2011-01-01

    Disruption of the dopamine D(5) receptor gene in mice increases BP and causes salt sensitivity. To determine the role of renal versus extrarenal D(5) receptors in BP regulation, we performed cross-renal transplantation experiments. BP was similar between wild-type mice and wild-type mice transplanted with wild-type kidneys, indicating that the transplantation procedure did not affect BP. BP was lower among D(5)(-/-) mice transplanted with wild-type kidneys than D(5)(-/-) kidneys, demonstrating that the renal D(5) receptors are important in BP control. BP was higher in wild-type mice transplanted with D(5)(-/-) kidneys than wild-type kidneys but not significantly different from syngenic transplanted D(5)(-/-) mice, indicating the importance of the kidney in the development of hypertension. On a high-salt diet, all mice with D(5)(-/-) kidneys excreted less sodium than mice with wild-type kidneys. Transplantation of a wild-type kidney into a D(5)(-/-) mouse decreased the renal expression of AT(1) receptors and Nox-2. Conversely, transplantation of a D(5)(-/-) kidney into a wild-type mouse increased the expression of both, suggesting that both renal and extrarenal factors are important in the regulation of AT(1) receptor and Nox-2 expression. These results highlight the role of renal D(5) receptors in BP homeostasis and the pathogenesis of hypertension.

  18. Promotion and regional development. Implementation of regional productive development agencies. The case of Maule region, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Yamil Alul González

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Regional Productive Development Agencies implemented in Chile in 2006, were developed as a way to answer the longing desire to territorially decentralize, and that the own Regions be whom define their future. The Agencies have the responsibility to develop innovation and productive development Agendas in participative processes, which means with public, academic and private actors. Also, the Agencies have the mission to implement Competitive Improvement Plans-PMC (clusters in prioritized economic sectors by the own region. These PMC are leaded by private actors in each sector.

  19. High-throughput mapping of the promoters of the mouse olfactory receptor genes reveals a new type of mammalian promoter and provides insight into olfactory receptor gene regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clowney, E Josephine; Magklara, Angeliki; Colquitt, Bradley M; Pathak, Nidhi; Lane, Robert P; Lomvardas, Stavros

    2011-08-01

    The olfactory receptor (OR) genes are the largest mammalian gene family and are expressed in a monogenic and monoallelic fashion in olfactory neurons. Using a high-throughput approach, we mapped the transcription start sites of 1085 of the 1400 murine OR genes and performed computational analysis that revealed potential transcription factor binding sites shared by the majority of these promoters. Our analysis produced a hierarchical model for OR promoter recognition in which unusually high AT content, a unique epigenetic signature, and a stereotypically positioned O/E site distinguish OR promoters from the rest of the murine promoters. Our computations revealed an intriguing correlation between promoter AT content and evolutionary plasticity, as the most AT-rich promoters regulate rapidly evolving gene families. Within the AT-rich promoter category the position of the TATA-box does not correlate with the transcription start site. Instead, a spike in GC composition might define the exact location of the TSS, introducing the concept of "genomic contrast" in transcriptional regulation. Finally, our experiments show that genomic neighborhood rather than promoter sequence correlates with the probability of different OR genes to be expressed in the same olfactory cell.

  20. Screening of the transcriptional regulatory regions of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2 in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartley Judith

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF has neurotrophic activity which is mediated by its main agonist receptor, VEGFR2. Dysregulation of VEGF causes motor neurone degeneration in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, and expression of VEGFR2 is reduced in motor neurones and spinal cord of patients with ALS. Methods We have screened the promoter region and 4 exonic regions of functional significance of the VEGFR2 gene in a UK population of patients with ALS, for mutations and polymorphisms that may affect expression or function of this VEGF receptor. Results No mutations were identified in the VEGFR2 gene. We found no association between polymorphisms in the regulatory regions of the VEGFR2 gene and ALS. Conclusion Mechanisms other than genetic variation may downregulate expression or function of the VEGFR2 receptor in patients with ALS.

  1. Resistin does not down-regulate the transcription of insulin receptor promoter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-zhi QIAO; Xian-feng WANG; Zhe-rong XU; Yun-mei YANG

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To detect the effect of resistin on the transcription of insulin receptor promoter. Methods: Luciferase reporter gene was fused downstream of human insulin receptor promoter and the enzymatic activity of luciferase was determined in the presence or absence of resistin. The resistin expressed with plasmid was stained with antibody against Myc tag which was in frame fused with resistin coding sequence, and then imaged with confocal microscopy. Results: The treatment of pIRP-LUC transfected cells with recombinant resistin did not result in significant difference in the enzymatic activity of luciferase compared to the untreated cells. Cell staining showed that green fluorescence could be observed in the cytoplasm, but not in the nucleus. Conclusion: The results suggest that the endogenous resistin may functionally locate in the cytoplasm, but does not enter the nucleus and not down-regulate the transcription of insulin receptor promoter.

  2. Pleiotropic β-Agonist–Promoted Receptor Conformations and Signals Independent of Intrinsic Activity

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    β-Agonists used for treatment of obstructive lung disease have a variety of different structures but are typically classified by their intrinsic activities for stimulation of cAMP, and predictions are made concerning other downstream signals based on such a classification. We generated modified β2-adrenergic receptors with insertions of energy donor and acceptor moieties to monitor agonist-promoted conformational changes of the receptor using intramolecular bioluminescence resonance energy tr...

  3. Evidence for multiple promoters of the human IL-5 receptor alpha subunit gene: a novel 6-base pair element determines cell-specific promoter function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Kuvelkar, R; Cheewatrakoolpong, B; Williams, S; Egan, R W; Billah, M M

    1997-12-01

    In addition to a previously characterized promoter (P1), we now show the existence of a second promoter for the human IL-5Ralpha gene. Initially, a genomic region (P2) 5' upstream of human IL-5Ralpha exon 2 was cloned by an inverted PCR. The transcriptional start site was then mapped to a deoxycytidine (C) residue within P2 by analyzing cellular mRNA with both the 5' rapid amplification of cDNA end-PCR and S1 nuclease protection assays. Transfection of eosinophilic HL-60 cells with reporter gene constructs in which either P1 or P2 was linked to the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene resulted in CAT expression; little or no CAT expression occurred in other myeloid and nonmyeloid cell lines. Deletion studies showed that a 66-bp region, ranging from -31 to +35, was sufficient to promote CAT expression in eosinophilic HL-60 cells. Analysis of linker-scanning mutants identified a novel 6-bp element (5' CTAATT 3') spanning -19 to -14 that was essential for P2 promoter activity. In electrophoretic mobility shift assays, a P2 region from -31 to +1 containing the unique 6-bp element, when used as a probe, formed a complex with a protein(s) that was found only in the eosinophilic cell line. This binding activity was lost upon replacement of the 6-bp element with a 6-bp linker, suggesting that this element likely serves as the binding site for an eosinophilic HL-60 cell-specific transcription factor(s). Together, these data suggest an important role for P2 promoter in the regulation of eosinophil-specific expression of the human IL-5 receptor alpha gene.

  4. Toll-Like Receptors in Leishmania Infections: Guardians or Promoters?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilia S. Faria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Protozoa of the genus Leishmania cause a wide variety of pathologies ranging from self-healing skin lesions to visceral damage, depending on the parasite species. The outcome of infection depends on the quality of the adaptive immune response, which is determined by parasite factors and the host genetic background. Innate responses, resulting in the generation of mediators with anti-leishmanial activity, contribute to parasite control and help the development of efficient adaptive responses. Among those, the potential contribution of members of the Toll-like receptors (TLRs family in the control of Leishmania infections started to be investigated about a decade ago. Although most studies appoint a protective role for TLRs, there is growing evidence that in some cases, TLRs facilitate infection. This review highlights recent advances in TLR function during Leishmania infections and discusses their potential role in restraining parasite growth versus yielding disease.

  5. Activation of GLP-1 Receptor Promotes Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Osteogenic Differentiation through β-Catenin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingru Meng

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1 plays an important role in regulating bone remodeling, and GLP-1 receptor agonist shows a positive relationship with osteoblast activity. However, GLP-1 receptor is not found in osteoblast, and the mechanism of GLP-1 receptor agonist on regulating bone remodeling is unclear. Here, we show that the GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin-4 (Ex-4 promoted bone formation and increased bone mass and quality in a rat unloading-induced bone loss model. These functions were accompanied by an increase in osteoblast number and serum bone formation markers, while the adipocyte number was decreased. Furthermore, GLP-1 receptor was detected in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs, but not in osteoblast. Activation of GLP-1 receptor by Ex-4 promoted the osteogenic differentiation and inhibited BMSC adipogenic differentiation through regulating PKA/β-catenin and PKA/PI3K/AKT/GSK3β signaling. These findings reveal that GLP-1 receptor regulates BMSC osteogenic differentiation and provide a molecular basis for therapeutic potential of GLP-1 against osteoporosis.

  6. Pirenzepine Promotes the Dimerization of Muscarinic M1 Receptors through a Three-step Binding Process*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilien, Brigitte; Glasser, Nicole; Clamme, Jean-Pierre; Didier, Pascal; Piemont, Etienne; Chinnappan, Raja; Daval, Sandrine B.; Galzi, Jean-Luc; Mely, Yves

    2009-01-01

    Ligand binding to G protein-coupled receptors is a complex process that involves sequential receptor conformational changes, ligand translocation, and possibly ligand-induced receptor oligomerization. Binding events at muscarinic acetylcholine receptors are usually interpreted from radioligand binding studies in terms of two-step ligand-induced receptor isomerization. We report here, using a combination of fluorescence approaches, on the molecular mechanisms for Bodipy-pirenzepine binding to enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-fused muscarinic M1 receptors in living cells. Real time monitoring, under steady-state conditions, of the strong fluorescence energy transfer signal elicited by this interaction permitted a fine kinetic description of the binding process. Time-resolved fluorescence measurements allowed us to identify discrete EGFP lifetime species and to follow their redistribution upon ligand binding. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, with EGFP brightness analysis, showed that EGFP-fused muscarinic M1 receptors predominate as monomers in the absence of ligand and dimerize upon pirenzepine binding. Finally, all these experimental data could be quantitatively reconciled into a three-step mechanism, with four identified receptor conformational states. Fast ligand binding to a peripheral receptor site initiates a sequence of conformational changes that allows the ligand to access to inner regions of the protein and drives ligand-receptor complexes toward a high affinity dimeric state. PMID:19451648

  7. Pirenzepine promotes the dimerization of muscarinic M1 receptors through a three-step binding process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilien, Brigitte; Glasser, Nicole; Clamme, Jean-Pierre; Didier, Pascal; Piemont, Etienne; Chinnappan, Raja; Daval, Sandrine B; Galzi, Jean-Luc; Mely, Yves

    2009-07-17

    Ligand binding to G protein-coupled receptors is a complex process that involves sequential receptor conformational changes, ligand translocation, and possibly ligand-induced receptor oligomerization. Binding events at muscarinic acetylcholine receptors are usually interpreted from radioligand binding studies in terms of two-step ligand-induced receptor isomerization. We report here, using a combination of fluorescence approaches, on the molecular mechanisms for Bodipy-pirenzepine binding to enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-fused muscarinic M1 receptors in living cells. Real time monitoring, under steady-state conditions, of the strong fluorescence energy transfer signal elicited by this interaction permitted a fine kinetic description of the binding process. Time-resolved fluorescence measurements allowed us to identify discrete EGFP lifetime species and to follow their redistribution upon ligand binding. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, with EGFP brightness analysis, showed that EGFP-fused muscarinic M1 receptors predominate as monomers in the absence of ligand and dimerize upon pirenzepine binding. Finally, all these experimental data could be quantitatively reconciled into a three-step mechanism, with four identified receptor conformational states. Fast ligand binding to a peripheral receptor site initiates a sequence of conformational changes that allows the ligand to access to inner regions of the protein and drives ligand-receptor complexes toward a high affinity dimeric state.

  8. Characterization of promoter region and genomic structure of the murine and human genes encoding Src like adapter protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratchmarova, I; Sosinowski, T; Weiss, A; Witter, K; Vincenz, C; Pandey, A

    2001-01-10

    Src-like adapter protein (SLAP) was identified as a signaling molecule in a yeast two-hybrid system using the cytoplasmic domain of EphA2, a receptor protein tyrosine kinase (Pandey et al., 1995. Characterization of a novel Src-like adapter protein that associates with the Eck receptor tyrosine kinase. J. Biol. Chem. 270, 19201-19204). It is very similar to members of the Src family of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases in that it contains very homologous SH3 and SH2 domains (Abram and Courtneidge, 2000. Src family tyrosine kinases and growth factor signaling. Exp. Cell. Res. 254, 1-13.). However, instead of a kinase domain at the C-terminus, it contains a unique C-terminal region. In order to exclude the possibility that an alternative form exists, we have isolated genomic clones containing the murine Slap gene as well as the human SLA gene. The coding regions of murine Slap and human SLA genes contain seven exons and six introns. Absence of any kinase domain in the genomic region confirm its designation as an adapter protein. Additionally, we have cloned and sequenced approximately 2.6 kb of the region 5' to the initiator methionine of the murine Slap gene. When subcloned upstream of a luciferase gene, this fragment increased the transcriptional activity about 6-fold in a human Jurkat T cell line and approximately 52-fold in a murine T cell line indicating that this region contains promoter elements that dictate SLAP expression. We have also cloned the promoter region of the human SLA gene. Since SLAP is transcriptionally regulated by retinoic acid and by activation of B cells, the cloning of its promoter region will permit a detailed analysis of the elements required for its transcriptional regulation.

  9. Neonatal Fc receptor promoter gene polymorphism does not predict pharmacokinetics of IVIg or the clinical course of GBS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokkink, Willem-Jan R; Haarman, Annechien E G; Tio-Gillen, Anne P; van Rijs, Wouter; Huizinga, Ruth; van Doorn, Pieter A; Jacobs, Bart C

    2016-07-01

    Treatment of Guillain-Barré syndrome with a standard course of high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) results in a variable clinical recovery which is associated with changes in serum IgG levels after treatment. The neonatal Fc-receptor protects IgG from degradation, and a genetic polymorphism in its promoter region that influences the expression of Fc-receptor, may in part explain the variation in IgG levels and outcome. This polymorphism was determined by polymerase chain reaction in a cohort of 257 patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome treated with IVIg. We could not demonstrate a relation between this polymorphism, the pharmacokinetics of IVIg, or the clinical course and outcome.

  10. DNA methylation of PTEN gene promoter region is not correlated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-02-23

    Feb 23, 2012 ... Key words: PTEN, promoter methylation, bladder cancer. INTRODUCTION ... al., 2005), pancreatic cancer (Asano et al., 2004), thyroid cancer (Frisk et al., ..... papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas. J. Hepatobiliary.

  11. Constructing a State Policy To Promote Regionalism in School Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukowsky, Jerome; And Others.

    This paper defines regionalism, sets some tentative directions for the concept, and raises difficult questions related to its application in New York State. Regionalism, which offers an alternative to a State-local school governing system, is used to decentralize the planning and management of public services. A regional unit permits district…

  12. RAGE is a nucleic acid receptor that promotes inflammatory responses to DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirois, Cherilyn M.; Jin, Tengchuan; Miller, Allison L.; Bertheloot, Damien; Nakamura, Hirotaka; Horvath, Gabor L.; Mian, Abubakar; Jiang, Jiansheng; Schrum, Jacob; Bossaller, Lukas; Pelka, Karin; Garbi, Natalio; Brewah, Yambasu; Tian, Jane; Chang, ChewShun; Chowdhury, Partha S.; Sims, Gary P.; Kolbeck, Roland; Coyle, Anthony J.; Humbles, Alison A.

    2013-01-01

    Recognition of DNA and RNA molecules derived from pathogens or self-antigen is one way the mammalian immune system senses infection and tissue damage. Activation of immune signaling receptors by nucleic acids is controlled by limiting the access of DNA and RNA to intracellular receptors, but the mechanisms by which endosome-resident receptors encounter nucleic acids from the extracellular space are largely undefined. In this study, we show that the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) promoted DNA uptake into endosomes and lowered the immune recognition threshold for the activation of Toll-like receptor 9, the principal DNA-recognizing transmembrane signaling receptor. Structural analysis of RAGE–DNA complexes indicated that DNA interacted with dimers of the outermost RAGE extracellular domains, and could induce formation of higher-order receptor complexes. Furthermore, mice deficient in RAGE were unable to mount a typical inflammatory response to DNA in the lung, indicating that RAGE is important for the detection of nucleic acids in vivo. PMID:24081950

  13. Chemokines and chemokine receptors as promoters of prostate cancer growth and progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Nicole; Castellan, Miguel; Shirodkar, Samir S; Lokeshwar, Bal L

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer (CaP) is estimated to be first in incidence among cancers, with more than 240,000 new cases in 2012 in the United States. Chemokines and their receptors provide survival, proliferation, and invasion characteristics to CaP cells in both primary sites of cancer and metastatic locations. The emerging data demonstrate that many chemokines and their receptors are involved in the multistep process of CaP, leading to metastasis, and, further, that these factors act cooperatively to enhance other mechanisms of tumor cell survival, growth, and metastasis. Changes of chemokine receptor cohorts may be necessary to activate tumor-promoting signals. Chemokine receptors can activate downstream effectors, such as mitogen-activated protein kinases, by complex mechanisms of ligand-dependent activation of cryptic growth factors; guanosine triphosphate-binding, protein-coupled activation of survival kinases; or transactivation of other receptors such as ErbB family members. We describe vanguard research in which more than the classic view of chemokine receptor biology was clarified. Control of chemokines and inhibition of their receptor activation may add critical tools to reduce tumor growth, especially in chemo-hormonal refractory CaP that is both currently incurable and the most aggressive form of the disease, accounting for most of the more than 28,000 annual deaths.

  14. Sex differences in estrogen receptor promoter expression in the area postrema

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunxiao Zhang; Tomohiro Hamada

    2013-01-01

    Estrogen receptor α is widely distributed in the rat brain, but the tissue- or target-specificity of the estrogen receptor α gene promoters remains unknown. In the present study, we used transgenic rats expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein under the control of the estrogen receptor α 0/B promoter to examine expression driven by this promoter in two significant nuclei that regulate cardiovascular activity, the area postrema and the nucleus tractus solitarius. Immunohistochemistry showed that enhanced green fluorescent protein-labeled cells were distributed in the area postrema and the nucleus tractus solitarius of both female and male transgenic rats, and a neural network of enhanced green fluorescent protein-positive fibers was seen between the area postrema and the nucleus tractus solitarius. The number of enhanced green fluorescent protein-labeled cells in the area postrema of female rats was significantly higher than in the males, but no significant difference was found in the number of enhanced green fluorescent protein-labeled cells in the nucleus tractus solitarius. The sex differences in the number of enhanced green fluorescent protein-labeled cells in the area postrema was not affected after ovariectomy or 17β-estradiol benzoate treatment in adult rats. Our results suggest that the effects of estrogen in the area postrema are related to the expression of estrogen receptor α under the control of the 0/B promoter, and changes in the sex hormone environment in the adult period do not affect estrogen receptor α expression in the area postrema or the nucleus tractus solitarius.

  15. Activation of dopamine receptors in the nucleus accumbens promotes sucrose-reinforced cued approach behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleem M. Nicola

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine receptor activation in the nucleus accumbens (NAc promotes vigorous environmentally-cued food-seeking in hungry rats. Rats fed ad libitum, however, respond to fewer food-predictive cues, particularly when the value of food reward is low. Here, we investigated whether this difference could be due to differences in the degree of dopamine receptor activation in the NAc. First, we observed that although rats given ad libitum access to chow in their home cages approached a food receptacle in response to reward-predictive cues, the number of such approaches declined as animals accumulated food rewards. Intriguingly, cued approach to food occurred in clusters, with several cued responses followed by successive non-responses. This pattern suggested that behavior was dictated by transitions between two states, responsive and non-responsive. Injection of D1 or D2 dopamine receptor agonists into the NAc dose-dependently increased cue responding by promoting transitions to the responsive state and by preventing transitions to the non-responsive state. In contrast, antagonists of either D1 or D2 receptors promoted long bouts of non-responding by inducing transitions to the non-responsive state and by preventing transitions to the responsive state. Moreover, locomotor behavior during the inter-trial interval was correlated with the responsive state, and was also increased by dopamine receptor agonists. These results suggest that activation of NAc dopamine receptors plays an important role in regulating the probability of approach to food under conditions of normative satiety.

  16. EPO-independent functional EPO receptor in breast cancer enhances estrogen receptor activity and promotes cell proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinbothe, Susann; Larsson, Anna-Maria; Vaapil, Marica; Wigerup, Caroline [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Translational Cancer Research, Medicon Village, Lund University, SE-223 81 Lund (Sweden); CREATE Health, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv (Israel); Sun, Jianmin [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Translational Cancer Research, Medicon Village, Lund University, SE-223 81 Lund (Sweden); Jögi, Annika [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Translational Cancer Research, Medicon Village, Lund University, SE-223 81 Lund (Sweden); CREATE Health, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv (Israel); Neumann, Drorit [Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv (Israel); Rönnstrand, Lars [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Translational Cancer Research, Medicon Village, Lund University, SE-223 81 Lund (Sweden); Påhlman, Sven, E-mail: sven.pahlman@med.lu.se [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Translational Cancer Research, Medicon Village, Lund University, SE-223 81 Lund (Sweden); CREATE Health, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv (Israel)

    2014-02-28

    Highlights: • New anti-human EPOR antibody confirms full-length EPOR expression in breast cancer cells. • Proliferation of breast cancer cells is not affected by rhEPO treatment in vitro. • EPOR knockdown impairs proliferation of ERa positive breast cancer cells. • EPOR knockdown reduces AKT phosphorylation and ERa activity. - Abstract: The main function of Erythropoietin (EPO) and its receptor (EPOR) is the stimulation of erythropoiesis. Recombinant human EPO (rhEPO) is therefore used to treat anemia in cancer patients. However, clinical trials have indicated that rhEPO treatment might promote tumor progression and has a negative effect on patient survival. In addition, EPOR expression has been detected in several cancer forms. Using a newly produced anti-EPOR antibody that reliably detects the full-length isoform of the EPOR we show that breast cancer tissue and cells express the EPOR protein. rhEPO stimulation of cultured EPOR expressing breast cancer cells did not result in increased proliferation, overt activation of EPOR (receptor phosphorylation) or a consistent activation of canonical EPOR signaling pathway mediators such as JAK2, STAT3, STAT5, or AKT. However, EPOR knockdown experiments suggested functional EPO receptors in estrogen receptor positive (ERα{sup +}) breast cancer cells, as reduced EPOR expression resulted in decreased proliferation. This effect on proliferation was not seen in ERα negative cells. EPOR knockdown decreased ERα activity further supports a mechanism by which EPOR affects proliferation via ERα-mediated mechanisms. We show that EPOR protein is expressed in breast cancer cells, where it appears to promote proliferation by an EPO-independent mechanism in ERα expressing breast cancer cells.

  17. Identification and annotation of promoter regions in microbial genome sequences on the basis of DNA stability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vetriselvi Rangannan; Manju Bansal

    2007-08-01

    Analysis of various predicted structural properties of promoter regions in prokaryotic as well as eukaryotic genomes had earlier indicated that they have several common features, such as lower stability, higher curvature and less bendability, when compared with their neighboring regions. Based on the difference in stability between neighboring upstream and downstream regions in the vicinity of experimentally determined transcription start sites, a promoter prediction algorithm has been developed to identify prokaryotic promoter sequences in whole genomes. The average free energy (E) over known promoter sequences and the difference (D) between E and the average free energy over the entire genome (G) are used to search for promoters in the genomic sequences. Using these cutoff values to predict promoter regions across entire Escherichia coli genome, we achieved a reliability of 70% when the predicted promoters were cross verified against the 960 transcription start sites (TSSs) listed in the Ecocyc database. Annotation of the whole E. coli genome for promoter region could be carried out with 49% accuracy. The method is quite general and it can be used to annotate the promoter regions of other prokaryotic genomes.

  18. Polymorphisms in the promoter region of the porcine antiviral MX1 and MX2 genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tungtrakoolsub, P; Noda, T; Morozumi, T; Hamasima, N; Kobayashi, E; Ueda, J; Watanabe, T

    2008-02-01

    The porcine MX1 and MX2 promoters were characterized in this study. Sequencing of the 332-bp MX1 promoter region identified 15 substitutions and insertions at three positions in 21 pigs from 15 breeds, in which nine genotypes were classified. Among the nine genotypes, no statistically significant differences in the promoter activities were observed after interferon (IFN-alpha 2b) treatment of transiently transfected cells containing constructs with luciferase reporter plasmids. The 341-bp MX2 promoter region contained regulatory sequences for ISRE, GC box, Sp1 and AP-1, as well as a TATA box. Nucleotide sequences of the MX2 promoter region revealed four substitutions and one deletion, in which six genotypes were classified. Among the six genotypes, a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05) in MX2 promoter activities after IFN-alpha 2b treatment was detected in transiently transfected cells.

  19. Ferristatin II promotes degradation of transferrin receptor-1 in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaina L Byrne

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that the small molecule iron transport inhibitor ferristatin (NSC30611 acts by down-regulating transferrin receptor-1 (TfR1 via receptor degradation. In this investigation, we show that another small molecule, ferristatin II (NSC8679, acts in a similar manner to degrade the receptor through a nystatin-sensitive lipid raft pathway. Structural domains of the receptor necessary for interactions with the clathrin pathway do not appear to be necessary for ferristatin II induced degradation of TfR1. While TfR1 constitutively traffics through clathrin-mediated endocytosis, with or without ligand, the presence of Tf blocked ferristatin II induced degradation of TfR1. This effect of Tf was lost in a ligand binding receptor mutant G647A TfR1, suggesting that Tf binding to its receptor interferes with the drug's activity. Rats treated with ferristatin II have lower TfR1 in liver. These effects are associated with reduced intestinal (59Fe uptake, lower serum iron and transferrin saturation, but no change in liver non-heme iron stores. The observed hypoferremia promoted by degradation of TfR1 by ferristatin II appears to be due to induced hepcidin gene expression.

  20. CB1 and CB2 receptor expression and promoter methylation in patients with cannabis dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotter, Andrea; Bayerlein, Kristina; Hansbauer, Max; Weiland, Judith; Sperling, Wolfgang; Kornhuber, Johannes; Biermann, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    CB1 and CB2 receptors are influenced via exogenous and endogenous cannabinoids. To date, little is known regarding changes in receptor expression and methylation in THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) dependence. Therefore, the CB1 and CB2 receptor mRNA expression levels and promoter methylation status in the peripheral blood cells of 77 subjects (36 with THC dependence, 21 cigarette smokers and 20 nonsmokers) were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR and methylation-specific PCR. There was a significant difference in CB1 receptor expression levels between the three groups (ANOVA, p CB1 receptor mRNA expression levels (Spearman's rho: r = -0.37; p = 0.002). Using a mixed general linear model, it was demonstrated that the CB1 mRNA expression (as the dependent variable) was associated with the satisfaction with life scale (SWLS) (r = 0.101; T = 2.8; p = 0.007), craving (as measured with the VAS; r = -0.023; T = -2.3; p = 0.023) and the WHO-Assist Subscale for Cannabis consumption (r = -0.068; T = -2.4; p = 0.02). CB1 receptor expression levels and methylation status appear to be altered in subjects with THC dependence.

  1. Glycone-rich Soy Isoflavone Extracts Promote Estrogen Receptor Positive Breast Cancer Cell Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kailee A; Vemuri, Sravan; Alsahafi, Sameerh; Castillo, Rudy; Cheriyath, Venugopalan

    2016-01-01

    Due to the association of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) with breast cancer risk, estrogenically active soy isoflavones are considered as an HRT alternative to alleviate menopausal symptoms. However, several recent reports challenged the health benefits of soy isoflavones and associated them with breast cancer promotion. While glyconic isoflavones are the major constituents of soybean seeds, due to their low cell permeability, they are considered to be biologically inactive. The glyconic isoflavones may exert their effects on membrane-bound estrogen receptors or could be converted to aglycones by extracellular β-glucosidases. Therefore, we hypothesized that despite their low cell permeability, soybean cultivars with high glyconic isoflavones may promote breast cancer cell growth. To test this, composition and estrogenic activity of isoflavones from 54 commercial soybean cultivars were determined. Soybean seeds produced in identical climate and growth conditions were used to minimize the effects of extraneous factors on isoflavone profile and concentrations. The glyconic daidzin concentration negatively correlated with genistin and with other aglycones. Relative to control, isoflavone extracts from 51 cultivars were estrogenic and promoted the growth of estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer cell line MCF-7 from 1.14 to 4.59 folds and other three cultivars slightly reduced the growth. Among these, extracts from three cultivars were highly estrogenic and promoted MCF-7 cell growth by 2.59-4.64 folds (Psoy isoflavone extracts may exert estrogenic effects and promote ER+ breast cancer growth.

  2. Very low density lipoprotein receptor promotes adipocyte differentiation and mediates the proadipogenic effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Huan; Hajri, Tahar

    2011-12-15

    Very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) is a member of the low density receptor family, expressed mostly in adipose tissue, heart, and skeletal muscles. VLDLR binds apolipoprotein-E-triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and plays a key role in lipid metabolism. In adipocytes, VLDLR expression increases with differentiation but it is not known whether it plays a role in the adipogenesis. Here we report that VLDLR expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes is upregulated by PPARγ agonist 15-deoxy-delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) (15d-PGJ(2)) in dose- and time-dependant manners. Knockdown of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) with siRNA abolished pioglitazone- and 15d-PGJ(2)-induced VLDLR expression and simultaneously reduced VLDL uptake in adipocytes. In addition, PPARγ-agonist treatment of control mouse adipocytes (vldlr(+/+)) enhanced adipogenesis and VLDL uptake concurrently with the induction of VLDLR expression. However, vldlr deficiency (vldlr(-/-)) significantly blunted the proadipogenic effects of PPARγ agonists. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of a putative PPARγ responsive sequence (PPRE) within the vldlr promoter, which is responsive to natural (15d-PGJ(2)) and synthetic (pioglitazone) PPARγ agonists. Reporter gene assays using serial deletion of the 5'-flanking region showed that this putative PPRE site induced promoter transactivation, while a site-targeted mutation abolished transactivation. Moreover, electrophoresis mobility shift assay (EMSA) and chromatic immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays showed the specific binding of PPARγ to the PPRE sequence. Together, these results support a crucial function for VLDLR in adipocyte differentiation and mediation of the proadipogenic effect of PPARγ. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Isolation and functional characterization of a novel seed-specific promoter region from peanut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunkara, Sowmini; Bhatnagar-Mathur, Pooja; Sharma, Kiran Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The importance of using tissue-specific promoters in the genetic transformation of plants has been emphasized increasingly. Here, we report the isolation of a novel seed-specific promoter region from peanut and its validation in Arabidopsis and tobacco seeds. The reported promoter region referred to as groundnut seed promoter (GSP) confers seed-specific expression in heterologous systems, which include putative promoter regions of the peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) gene 8A4R19G1. This region was isolated, sequenced, and characterized using gel shift assays. Tobacco transgenics obtained using binary vectors carrying uidA reporter gene driven by GSP and/or cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoters were confirmed through polymerase chain reaction (PCR), RT-PCR, and computational analysis of motifs which revealed the presence of TATA, CAAT boxes, and ATG signals. This seed-specific promoter region successfully targeted the reporter uidA gene to seed tissues in both Arabidopsis and tobacco model systems, where its expression was confirmed by histochemical analysis of the transgenic seeds. This promoter region is routinely being used in the genetic engineering studies in legumes aimed at targeting novel transgenes to the seeds, especially those involved in micronutrient enhancement, fungal resistance, and molecular pharming.

  4. The Digital North Denmark Programme -Promoting Regional Change?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Christian Richter

    2007-01-01

    The Digital North Denmark (DDN) was an IT programme running from 2000 to 2003 in the North Jutland County in Denmark with national government support of € 23 million. The Danish government initiated the programme with the aim of further strengthening regions with an already proven ICT capability...... (Dybkjær and Lindegaard, 1999, p.96-100). The declared approach was to build on the existing competencies in industry as well as at universities. The national government chose two regions – Ørestaden, a new concentration of knowledge-based institutions near Copenhagen Airport, and North Jutland...

  5. Class A scavenger receptor promotes osteoclast differentiation via the enhanced expression of receptor activator of NF-{kappa}B (RANK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takemura, Kenichi [Department of Cell Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, 1-1-1 Honjo, Kumamoto 860-8556 (Japan); Department of Orthopaedic and Neuro-Musculoskeletal Surgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Sakashita, Naomi; Fujiwara, Yukio; Komohara, Yoshihiro; Lei, XiaoFeng; Ohnishi, Koji [Department of Cell Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, 1-1-1 Honjo, Kumamoto 860-8556 (Japan); Suzuki, Hiroshi [National Research Center for Protozoan Diseases, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido (Japan); Kodama, Tatsuhiko [Department of Molecular Biology and Medicine, Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Mizuta, Hiroshi [Department of Orthopaedic and Neuro-Musculoskeletal Surgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Takeya, Motohiro, E-mail: takeya@kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Cell Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, 1-1-1 Honjo, Kumamoto 860-8556 (Japan)

    2010-01-22

    Osteoclasts originate from bone marrow monocyte/macrophage lineage cells, and their differentiation depends on macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator nuclear factor kappa B (RANK) ligand. Class A scavenger receptor (SR-A) is one of the principal functional molecules of macrophages, and its level of expression declines during osteoclast differentiation. To investigate the role of SR-A in osteoclastogenesis, we examined pathological changes in femoral bone and the expression levels of osteoclastogenesis-related molecules in SR-A{sup -/-} mice. The femoral osseous density of SR-A{sup -/-} mice was higher than that of SR-A{sup +/+} mice, and the number of multinucleated osteoclasts was significantly decreased. An in vitro differentiation assay revealed that the differentiation of multinucleated osteoclasts from bone marrow-derived progenitor cells is impaired in SR-A{sup -/-} mice. Elimination of SR-A did not alter the expression level of the M-CSF receptor, c-fms; however, the expression levels of RANK and RANK-related osteoclast-differentiation molecules such as nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 1 (NFATc1) and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) significantly decreased. Furthermore, acetylated low-density lipoprotein (AcLDL), an SR-A ligand, significantly increased the expression level of RANK and MITF during osteoclast differentiation. These data indicate that SR-A promotes osteoclastogenesis via augmentation of the expression level of RANK and its related molecules.

  6. Transrepression of the estrogen receptor promoter by calcitriol in human breast cancer cells via two negative vitamin D response elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Srilatha; Krishnan, Aruna V; Peng, Lihong; Lundqvist, Johan; Feldman, David

    2013-08-01

    Calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3), the hormonally active metabolite of vitamin D, exerts its anti-proliferative activity in breast cancer (BCa) cells by multiple mechanisms including the downregulation of the expression of estrogen receptor α (ER). We analyzed an ∼3.5 kb ER promoter sequence and demonstrated the presence of two potential negative vitamin D response elements (nVDREs), a newly identified putative nVDRE upstream at -2488 to -2473 bp (distal nVDRE) and a previously published sequence (proximal nVDRE) at -94 to -70 bp proximal to the P1 start site. Transactivation analysis using ER promoter deletion constructs and heterologous promoter-reporter constructs revealed that both nVDREs functioned to mediate calcitriol transrepression. In the electrophoretic mobility shift assay, the vitamin D receptor (VDR) showed strong binding to both nVDREs in the presence of calcitriol, and the chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated the recruitment of the VDR to the distal nVDRE site. Mutations in the 5' hexameric DNA sequence of the distal nVDRE resulted in the loss of calcitriol-mediated transrepression and the inhibition of protein-DNA complex formation, demonstrating the importance of these nucleotides in VDR DNA binding and transrepression. A putative nuclear factor-Y (NFY) binding site, identified within the distal nVDRE, led to the findings that NFY bound to the distal nVDRE site interfered with the binding of the VDR at the site and reduced calcitriol-mediated transrepression. In conclusion, the ER promoter region contains two negative VDREs that act in concert to bind to the VDR and both nVDREs are required for the maximal inhibition of ER expression by calcitriol. The suppression of ER expression and estrogen-mediated signaling by calcitriol in BCa cells suggests that vitamin D may be useful in the treatment of ER+ BCa.

  7. Soluble forms of VEGF receptor-1 and -2 promote vascular maturation via mural cell recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorquet, Sophie; Berndt, Sarah; Blacher, Silvia; Gengoux, Emily; Peulen, Olivier; Maquoi, Erik; Noël, Agnès; Foidart, Jean-Michel; Munaut, Carine; Péqueux, Christel

    2010-10-01

    Two soluble forms of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors, sVEGFR-1 and sVEGFR-2, are physiologically released and overproduced in some pathologies. They are known to act as anti-VEGF agents. Here we report that these soluble receptors contribute to vessel maturation by mediating a dialogue between endothelial cells (ECs) and mural cells that leads to blood vessel stabilization. Through a multidisciplinary approach, we provide evidence that these soluble VEGF receptors promote mural cell migration through a paracrine mechanism involving interplay in ECs between VEGF/VEGFR-2 and sphingosine-1-phosphate type-1 (S1P)/S1P1 pathways that leads to endothelial nitric oxyde synthase (eNOS) activation. This new paradigm is supported by the finding that sVEGFR-1 and -2 perform the following actions: 1) induce an eNOS-dependent outgrowth of a mural cell network in an ex vivo model of angiogenesis, 2) increase the mural cell coverage of neovessels in vitro and in vivo, 3) promote mural cell migration toward ECs, and 4) stimulate endothelial S1P1 overproduction and eNOS activation that promote the migration and the recruitment of neighboring mural cells. These findings provide new insights into mechanisms regulating physiological and pathological angiogenesis and vessel stabilization.

  8. Promoting a Precipitation Database for the Mediterranean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lionello, Piero; Llasat, Maria Carmen

    2010-02-01

    MedCLIVAR-HyMeX-MedFriends Workshop; Barcelona, Spain, 7 September 2009; The recovery and extension of precipitation time series in the Mediterranean region was the focus of a workshop held as a side event during the “11th Plinius Conference on Mediterranean Storms.” The workshop was the first occasion for a joint meeting of three projects—Mediterranean Climate Variability and Predictability (MedCLIVAR), Hydrological Cycle in the Mediterranean Experiment (HyMeX), and Mediterranean Flow Regimes From International Experimental and Network Data (MedFriend)—all of which share an interest in the analysis of precipitation at regional scales. Contributions were also presented by the coordinator of the Mediterranean Experiment (MEDEX) project and the chair of the Mediterranean Climate Data Rescue (MEDARE) project. The workshop provided a forum for discussing the present state of data recovery initiatives aimed at improving knowledge of the time-space distribution of precipitation in the Mediterranean region, where rain is simultaneously a crucial resource (rain is scarce over a large fraction of the region) and a risk factor producing floods and resultant loss of life and property.

  9. Urokinase receptor promotes ovarian cancer cell dissemination through its 84-95 sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bifulco, Katia; Votta, Giuseppina; Ingangi, Vincenzo; Di Carluccio, Gioconda; Rea, Domenica; Losito, Simona; Montuori, Nunzia; Ragno, Pia; Stoppelli, Maria Patrizia; Arra, Claudio; Carriero, Maria Vincenza

    2014-06-30

    The clinical relevance of the urokinase receptor (uPAR) as a prognostic marker in ovarian cancer is well documented. We had shown that the uPAR sequence corresponding to 84-95 residues, linking D1 and D2 domains (uPAR84-95), drives cell migration and angiogenesis in a protease-independent manner. This study was aimed at defining the contribution of uPAR84-95 sequence to invasion of ovarian cancer cells. Now, we provide evidence that the ability of uPAR-expressing ovarian cancer cells to cross extra-cellular matrix and mesothelial monolayers is prevented by specific inhibitors of the uPAR84-95 sequence. To specifically investigate uPAR84-95 function, uPAR-negative CHO-K1 cells were stably transfected with cDNAs coding for uPAR D2 and D3 regions exposing (uPARD2D3) or lacking (uPAR∆D2D3) the 84-95 sequence. CHO-K1/D2D3 cells were able to cross matrigel, mesothelial and endothelial monolayers more efficiently than CHO-K1/∆D2D3 cells, which behave as CHO-K1 control cells. When orthotopically implanted in nude mice, tumor nodules generated by CHO-K1/D2D3 cells spreading to peritoneal cavity were more numerous as compared to CHO-K1/∆D2D3 cells. Ovarian tumor size and intra-tumoral microvessel density were significantly reduced in the absence of uPAR84-95. Our results indicate that cell associated uPAR promotes growth and abdominal dissemination of ovarian cancer cells mainly through its uPAR84-95 sequence.

  10. MicroRNA-297 promotes cardiomyocyte hypertrophy via targeting sigma-1 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Qinxue; Zhao, Mingyue; Chen, Li; Wang, Yu; Wu, Siyuan; Wu, Wenchao; Liu, Xiaojing

    2017-04-15

    Sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) is a ligand-regulated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone involved in cardiac hypertrophy, but it is not known whether Sig-1R is regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs). According to bioinformatic analysis, miR-297 was suggested as a potential target miRNA for Sig-1R. Therefore, we verified whether miR-297 could target Sig-1R and investigated the possible mechanisms underlying the role of miR-297 in cardiac hypertrophy. Bioinformatic analysis combined with laboratory experiments, including quantitative RT-PCR, Western blotting, and luciferase assay, were performed to identify the target miRNA of Sig-1R. Transverse aortic constriction (TAC) model and neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NCMs) stimulated with angiotensin II (AngII) were used to explore the relationship between miR-297 and Sig-1R. Additionally, the function of miR-297 in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and ER stress/unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling pathway was investigated by transfecting miR-297 mimics/inhibitor. miR-297 levels were increased in both TAC-induced hypertrophic heart tissue and AngII-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Up-regulation of miR-297 by specific mimics exacerbated AngII-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, whereas inhibition of miR-297 suppressed the process. During cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, Sig-1R expression, which was negatively regulated by miR-297 by directly targeting its 3'untranslated region (UTR), was decreased. Furthermore, attenuation of miR-297 inhibited the activation of X-box binding protein 1 (Xbp1) and activating transcriptional factor 4 (ATF4) signaling pathways in NCMs. Our data demonstrate that miR-297 promotes cardiomyocyte hypertrophy by inhibiting the expression of Sig-1R and activation of ER stress signaling, which provides a novel interpretation for cardiac hypertrophy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Promoter-dependent activity on androgen receptor N-terminal domain mutations in androgen insensitivity syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadokoro-Cuccaro, Rieko; Davies, John; Mongan, Nigel P; Bunch, Trevor; Brown, Rosalind S; Audi, Laura; Watt, Kate; McEwan, Iain J; Hughes, Ieuan A

    2014-01-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) mutations are associated with androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS). Missense mutations identified in the AR-N-terminal domain (AR-NTD) are rare, and clinical phenotypes are typically mild. We investigated 7 missense mutations and 2 insertion/deletions located in the AR-NTD. This study aimed to elucidate the pathogenic role of AR-NTD mutants in AIS and to use this knowledge to further define AR-NTD function. AR-NTD mutations (Q120E, A159T, G216R, N235K, G248V, L272F, and P380R) were introduced into AR-expression plasmids. Stably expressing cell lines were established for del57L and ins58L. Transactivation was measured using luciferase reporter constructs under the control of GRE and Pem promoters. Intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy and partial proteolysis studies were performed for mutations which showed reduced activities by using a purified AR-AF1 protein. Pem-luciferase reporter activation was reduced for A159T, N235K, and G248V but not the GRE-luciferase reporter. Protein structure analysis detected no significant change in the AR-AF1 region for these mutations. Reduced cellular expression and transactivation activity were observed for ins58L. The mutations Q120E, G216R, L272F, P380R, and del57L showed small or no detectable changes in function. Thus, clinical and experimental analyses have identified novel AR-signalling defects associated with mutations in the structurally disordered AR-NTD domain in patients with AIS.

  12. Stereotypical chronic lymphocytic leukemia B-cell receptors recognize survival promoting antigens on stromal cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mascha Binder

    Full Text Available Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL is the most common leukemia in the Western world. Survival of CLL cells depends on their close contact with stromal cells in lymphatic tissues, bone marrow and blood. This microenvironmental regulation of CLL cell survival involves the stromal secretion of chemo- and cytokines as well as the expression of adhesion molecules. Since CLL survival may also be driven by antigenic stimulation through the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR, we explored the hypothesis that these processes may be linked to each other. We tested if stromal cells could serve as an antigen reservoir for CLL cells, thus promoting CLL cell survival by stimulation through the BCR. As a proof of principle, we found that two CLL BCRs with a common stereotyped heavy chain complementarity-determining region 3 (previously characterized as "subset 1" recognize antigens highly expressed in stromal cells--vimentin and calreticulin. Both antigens are well-documented targets of autoantibodies in autoimmune disorders. We demonstrated that vimentin is displayed on the surface of viable stromal cells and that it is present and bound by the stereotyped CLL BCR in CLL-stroma co-culture supernatant. Blocking the vimentin antigen by recombinant soluble CLL BCR under CLL-stromal cell co-culture conditions reduces stroma-mediated anti-apoptotic effects by 20-45%. We therefore conclude that CLL BCR stimulation by stroma-derived antigens can contribute to the protective effect that the stroma exerts on CLL cells. This finding sheds a new light on the understanding of the pathobiology of this so far mostly incurable disease.

  13. Identification of the transcriptional promoters in the proximal regions of human microRNA genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yue-Sheng; Deng, Guang-Fei; Sun, Xun-Sha; Yi, Yong-Hong; Su, Tao; Zhao, Qi-Hua; Liao, Wei-Ping

    2011-08-01

    To identify the transcriptional promoters in the proximal regions of human microRNA (miRNA) genes, we analyzed the 5' flanking regions of intergenic miRNAs and intronic miRNAs. With the TSSG program prediction, we found that the ratio of intronic-s miRNA genes with a least one promoter was significantly lower than those of intergenic miRNA genes and intronic-a miRNA genes. More than half of the miRNA genes have only one promoter and less than 20% of the miRNA genes have more than three promoters in the 5-kb upstream regions. All potential promoters are randomly distributed within these regions. Approximately 60% of the miRNA promoters have a TATA-like box, being significantly higher than that of all human promoters. Luciferase reporter assays showed that 22 of the 30 promoters drove gene expression in HEK-293 cells, indicating a high accuracy of the promoter prediction. This study lays a foundation for future investigation into the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms of human miRNA genes.

  14. Potential transcriptional regulatory regions exist upstream of the human ezrin gene promoter in esophageal carcinoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuying Gao; Yanpeng Dai; Meijun Yin; Jing Ye; Gang Li; Jie Yu

    2011-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that the region -87/+ 134 of the human ezrin gene (VIL2) exhibited promoter activity in human esophageal carcinoma EC109 cells, and a further upstream region -1324/-890 positively regulated transcription.In this study, to identify the transcriptional regulatory regions upstream of the VIL2 promoter, we cloned VIL2 - 1541/- 706 segment containing the -1324/-890, and investigated its transcriptional regulatory properties via luciferase assays in transiently transfected cells.In EC109 cells, it was found that VIL2 -1541/-706 possessed promoter and enhancer activities.We also localized transcriptional regulatory regions by fusing 5′- or 3′-deletion segments of VIL2 -1541/-706 to a luciferase reporter.We found that there were three positive and one negative transcriptional regulatory regions ithin VIL2 -1541/-706 in EC109 cells.When these regions were separately located upstream of the luciferase gene without promoter, or located upstream of the VIL2 promoter or SV40 promoter directing the luciferase gene, only VIL2 -1297/-1186 exhibited considerable promoter and enhancer activities, which were lower than those of -1541/-706.In addition, transient expression of Sp1 increased ezrin expression and the transcriptional activation of VIL2 -1297/-1186.Other three regions,although exhibiting significantly positive or negative transcriptional regulation in deletion experiments, showed a weaker or absent regulation.These data suggested that more than one region upstream of the VIL2 promoter participated in VIL2 transcription, and the VIL2 -1297/-1186, probably as a key transcriptional regulatory region, regulated VIL2 transcription in company with other potential regulatory regions.

  15. Fluoxetine alters mu opioid receptor expression in obese Zucker rat extrahypothalamic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churruca, Itziar; Portillo, María P; Zumalabe, José María; Macarulla, María T; Sáenz Del Burgo, Laura; Zarate, Jon; Echevarría, Enrique

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this article was to describe the effects of chronic fluoxetine on mu opioid receptor expression in obese Zucker rat extrahypothalamic regions. Male obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats were administered with fluoxetine (10 mg/kg; i.p.) daily for two weeks. Brain regional immunostaining for mu opioid receptor was carried out. An increase in the numbers of neural cells immunostained for mu opioid receptor in caudatus-putamen, dentate gyrus, lateral septum, amygdala, and frontal, parietal, and piriform cortices was observed. Increased mu opioid receptor expression in the central amygdaloid nuclei suggests a decreased opioidergic tone at this level that could be involved in fluoxetine anorectic action.

  16. Promoter DNA methylation of farnesoid X receptor and pregnane X receptor modulates the intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Cabrerizo

    Full Text Available The intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP is a multifactorial liver disorder which pathogenesis involves the interplay among abnormal bile acid (BA levels, sex hormones, environmental factors, and genetic susceptibility. The dynamic nature of ICP that usually resolves soon after delivery suggests the possibility that its pathobiology is under epigenetic modulation. We explored the status of white blood peripheral cells-DNA methylation of CpG-enriched sites at the promoter of targeted genes (FXR/NR1H4, PXR/NR1I2, NR1I3, ESR1, and ABCC2 in a sample of 88 ICP patients and 173 healthy pregnant women in the third trimester of their pregnancies. CpG dinucleotides at the gene promoter of nuclear receptors subfamily 1 members and ABCC2 transporter were highly methylated during healthy pregnancy. We observed significant differences at the distal (-1890 and proximal promoter (-358 CpG sites of the FXR/NR1H4 and at the distal PXR/NR1I2 (-1224 promoter, which were consistently less methylated in ICP cases when compared with controls. In addition, we observed that methylation at FXR/NR1H4-1890 and PXR/NR1I2-1224 promoter sites was highly and positively correlated with BA profiling, particularly, conjugated BAs. Conversely, methylation level at the proximal FXR/NR1H4-358 CpG site was significantly and negatively correlated with the primary cholic and secondary deoxycholic acid. In vitro exploration showed that epiallopregnanolone sulfate, a reported FXR inhibitor, regulates the transcriptional activity of FXR/NR1H4 but seems to be not involved in the methylation changes. In conclusion, the identification of epigenetic marks in target genes provides a basis for the understanding of adverse liver-related pregnancy outcomes, including ICP.

  17. Promoter DNA methylation of farnesoid X receptor and pregnane X receptor modulates the intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrerizo, Romina; Castaño, Gustavo O; Burgueño, Adriana L; Fernández Gianotti, Tomas; Gonzalez Lopez Ledesma, María Mora; Flichman, Diego; Pirola, Carlos J; Sookoian, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    The intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is a multifactorial liver disorder which pathogenesis involves the interplay among abnormal bile acid (BA) levels, sex hormones, environmental factors, and genetic susceptibility. The dynamic nature of ICP that usually resolves soon after delivery suggests the possibility that its pathobiology is under epigenetic modulation. We explored the status of white blood peripheral cells-DNA methylation of CpG-enriched sites at the promoter of targeted genes (FXR/NR1H4, PXR/NR1I2, NR1I3, ESR1, and ABCC2) in a sample of 88 ICP patients and 173 healthy pregnant women in the third trimester of their pregnancies. CpG dinucleotides at the gene promoter of nuclear receptors subfamily 1 members and ABCC2 transporter were highly methylated during healthy pregnancy. We observed significant differences at the distal (-1890) and proximal promoter (-358) CpG sites of the FXR/NR1H4 and at the distal PXR/NR1I2 (-1224) promoter, which were consistently less methylated in ICP cases when compared with controls. In addition, we observed that methylation at FXR/NR1H4-1890 and PXR/NR1I2-1224 promoter sites was highly and positively correlated with BA profiling, particularly, conjugated BAs. Conversely, methylation level at the proximal FXR/NR1H4-358 CpG site was significantly and negatively correlated with the primary cholic and secondary deoxycholic acid. In vitro exploration showed that epiallopregnanolone sulfate, a reported FXR inhibitor, regulates the transcriptional activity of FXR/NR1H4 but seems to be not involved in the methylation changes. In conclusion, the identification of epigenetic marks in target genes provides a basis for the understanding of adverse liver-related pregnancy outcomes, including ICP.

  18. Promoter regions of Plasmodium vivax are poorly or not recognized by Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    del Portillo Hernando A

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heterologous promoter analysis in Plasmodium has revealed the existence of conserved cis regulatory elements as promoters from different species can drive expression of reporter genes in heterologous transfection assays. Here, the functional characterization of different Plasmodium vivax promoters in Plasmodium falciparum using luciferase as the reporter gene is presented. Methods Luciferase reporter plasmids harboring the upstream regions of the msp1, dhfr, and vir3 genes as well as the full-length intergenic regions of the vir23/24 and ef-1α genes of P. vivax were constructed and transiently transfected in P. falciparum. Results Only the constructs with the full-length intergenic regions of the vir23/24 and ef-1α genes were recognized by the P. falciparum transcription machinery albeit to values approximately two orders of magnitude lower than those reported by luc plasmids harbouring promoter regions from P. falciparum and Plasmodium berghei. A bioinformatics approach allowed the identification of a motif (GCATAT in the ef-1α intergenic region that is conserved in five Plasmodium species but is degenerate (GCANAN in P. vivax. Mutations of this motif in the P. berghei ef-1α promoter region decreased reporter expression indicating it is active in gene expression in Plasmodium. Conclusion Together, this data indicates that promoter regions of P. vivax are poorly or not recognized by the P. falciparum transcription machinery suggesting the existence of P. vivax-specific transcription regulatory elements.

  19. The effect of mutations in the AmpC promoter region on β-lactam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... isolate in a public sector hospital in KwaZulu-Natal, ... ampC promoter and attenuator regions of an Escherichia coli clinical isolate from a public hospital ..... Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program, Health Canada (2005).

  20. Social Media Marketing as a tool for promoting the regional investment portals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisa Yu. Fadeyeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to investigate the potential of Social Media Marketing as a tool for promoting regional investment portals in the information environment to identify the most effective ways of its implementation and to determine the level of mastering of this tool by the Russian regions. Methods general scientific methods observation comparison analysis induction deduction analogy classification. Results the analysis showed that today Social Media Marketing is an essential tool for interaction with the investment community and one of the most effective ways to promote the regional portal which allows to increase the knowledge of and loyalty to the brand to increase the targeted website traffic to increase the awareness of investors about the specific features of the portal and the regional development agenciesrsquo functioning to promptly receive information about the investment environment and to establish contacts with investors. At the same time the study of SMMactivity in the Russian regions revealed a very low level of quality of communication with investors through social networks. Scientific novelty for the first time the article investigates the significance and makes the comparative analysis of the Social Media Marketing channels with regard to investment promotion agencies as well as the results of the regional structures functioning for effective communication through social networks. Practical significance the main results of the research can be used by the regional investment agencies in order to promote their websites increase the quality of communication with investors and promote the investment attractiveness of the region as a whole. nbsp

  1. Nucleus Accumbens Shell and mPFC but not Insula Orexin-1 Receptors Promote Excessive Alcohol Drinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Lei

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Addiction to alcohol remains a major social and economic problem, in part because of the high motivation for alcohol that humans exhibit and the hazardous binge intake this promotes. Orexin-1-type receptors (OX1Rs promote reward intake under conditions of strong drives for reward, including excessive alcohol intake. While systemic modulation of OX1Rs can alter alcohol drinking, the brain regions that mediate this OX1R enhancement of excessive drinking remain unknown. Given the importance of the nucleus accumbens (NAc and anterior insular cortex (aINS in driving many addictive behaviors, including OX1Rs within these regions, we examined the importance of OX1Rs in these regions on excessive alcohol drinking in C57BL/6 mice during limited-access alcohol drinking in the dark cycle. Inhibition of OX1Rs with the widely used SB-334867 within the medial NAc Shell (mNAsh significantly reduced drinking of alcohol, with no effect on saccharin intake, and no effect on alcohol consumption when infused above the mNAsh. In contrast, intra-mNAsh infusion of the orexin-2 receptor TCS-OX2-29 had no impact on alcohol drinking. In addition, OX1R inhibition within the aINS had no effect on excessive drinking, which was surprising given the importance of aINS-NAc circuits in promoting alcohol consumption and the role for aINS OX1Rs in driving nicotine intake. However, OX1R inhibition within the mPFC did reduce alcohol drinking, indicating cortical OXR involvement in promoting intake. Also, in support of the critical role for mNAsh OX1Rs, SB within the mNAsh also significantly reduced operant alcohol self-administration in rats. Finally, orexin ex vivo enhanced firing in mNAsh neurons from alcohol-drinking mice, with no effect on evoked EPSCs or input resistance; a similar orexin increase in firing without a change in input resistance was observed in alcohol-naïve mice. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that OX1Rs within the mNAsh, but not the aINS, play a

  2. Genome-wide analysis of regions similar to promoters of histone genes

    KAUST Repository

    Chowdhary, Rajesh

    2010-05-28

    Background: The purpose of this study is to: i) develop a computational model of promoters of human histone-encoding genes (shortly histone genes), an important class of genes that participate in various critical cellular processes, ii) use the model so developed to identify regions across the human genome that have similar structure as promoters of histone genes; such regions could represent potential genomic regulatory regions, e.g. promoters, of genes that may be coregulated with histone genes, and iii/ identify in this way genes that have high likelihood of being coregulated with the histone genes.Results: We successfully developed a histone promoter model using a comprehensive collection of histone genes. Based on leave-one-out cross-validation test, the model produced good prediction accuracy (94.1% sensitivity, 92.6% specificity, and 92.8% positive predictive value). We used this model to predict across the genome a number of genes that shared similar promoter structures with the histone gene promoters. We thus hypothesize that these predicted genes could be coregulated with histone genes. This hypothesis matches well with the available gene expression, gene ontology, and pathways data. Jointly with promoters of the above-mentioned genes, we found a large number of intergenic regions with similar structure as histone promoters.Conclusions: This study represents one of the most comprehensive computational analyses conducted thus far on a genome-wide scale of promoters of human histone genes. Our analysis suggests a number of other human genes that share a high similarity of promoter structure with the histone genes and thus are highly likely to be coregulated, and consequently coexpressed, with the histone genes. We also found that there are a large number of intergenic regions across the genome with their structures similar to promoters of histone genes. These regions may be promoters of yet unidentified genes, or may represent remote control regions that

  3. DNA methylation in the Neuropeptide S Receptor 1 (NPSR1 promoter in relation to asthma and environmental factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovisa E Reinius

    Full Text Available Asthma and allergy are complex disorders influenced by both inheritance and environment, a relationship that might be further clarified by epigenetics. Neuropeptide S Receptor 1 (NPSR1 has been associated with asthma and allergy and a study suggested modulation of the genetic risk by environmental factors. We aimed to study DNA methylation in the promoter region of NPSR1 in relation to asthma and environmental exposures. Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA was used to investigate potential functional roles of both genotypes and methylation status in the NPSR1 promoter. DNA methylation was analysed using EpiTYPER in blood samples from two well-characterized cohorts; the BIOAIR study of severe asthma in adults and the Swedish birth cohort BAMSE. We observed that DNA methylation and genetic variants in the promoter influenced the binding of nuclear proteins to DNA, suggesting functional relevance. Significant, although small, differences in methylation were related to both adult severe asthma (p = 0.0001 and childhood allergic asthma (p = 0.01. Furthermore, DNA methylation was associated with exposures such as current smoking in adults for two CpG sites (p = 0.005 and 0.04, parental smoking during infancy in the children (p = 0.02 and in which month the sample was taken (p = 0.01. In summary, DNA methylation levels in the promoter of NPSR1 showed small but significant associations with asthma, both in adults and in children, and to related traits such as allergy and certain environmental exposures. Both genetic variation and the methylated state of CpG sites seem to have an effect on the binding of nuclear proteins in the regulatory region of NPSR1 suggesting complex regulation of this gene in asthma and allergy.

  4. DNA methylation in the Neuropeptide S Receptor 1 (NPSR1) promoter in relation to asthma and environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinius, Lovisa E; Gref, Anna; Sääf, Annika; Acevedo, Nathalie; Joerink, Maaike; Kupczyk, Maciej; D'Amato, Mauro; Bergström, Anna; Melén, Erik; Scheynius, Annika; Dahlén, Sven-Erik; Pershagen, Göran; Söderhäll, Cilla; Kere, Juha

    2013-01-01

    Asthma and allergy are complex disorders influenced by both inheritance and environment, a relationship that might be further clarified by epigenetics. Neuropeptide S Receptor 1 (NPSR1) has been associated with asthma and allergy and a study suggested modulation of the genetic risk by environmental factors. We aimed to study DNA methylation in the promoter region of NPSR1 in relation to asthma and environmental exposures. Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA) was used to investigate potential functional roles of both genotypes and methylation status in the NPSR1 promoter. DNA methylation was analysed using EpiTYPER in blood samples from two well-characterized cohorts; the BIOAIR study of severe asthma in adults and the Swedish birth cohort BAMSE. We observed that DNA methylation and genetic variants in the promoter influenced the binding of nuclear proteins to DNA, suggesting functional relevance. Significant, although small, differences in methylation were related to both adult severe asthma (p = 0.0001) and childhood allergic asthma (p = 0.01). Furthermore, DNA methylation was associated with exposures such as current smoking in adults for two CpG sites (p = 0.005 and 0.04), parental smoking during infancy in the children (p = 0.02) and in which month the sample was taken (p = 0.01). In summary, DNA methylation levels in the promoter of NPSR1 showed small but significant associations with asthma, both in adults and in children, and to related traits such as allergy and certain environmental exposures. Both genetic variation and the methylated state of CpG sites seem to have an effect on the binding of nuclear proteins in the regulatory region of NPSR1 suggesting complex regulation of this gene in asthma and allergy.

  5. GABA agonist promoted formation of low affinity GABA receptors on cerebellar granule cells is restricted to early development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belhage, B; Hansen, G H; Schousboe, A;

    1988-01-01

    The ability of the GABA receptor agonist 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol (THIP) to promote formation of low affinity GABA receptors on cerebellar granule cells was tested using primary cultures of these neurons. Granule cells were exposed to THIP (150 microM) for 6 hr after......, respectively, 4, 7, 10 and 14 days in culture. It was found that THIP treatment of 4- and 7-day-old cultures led to formation of low affinity GABA receptors, whereas such receptors could not be detected after THIP treatment in the older cultures (10 and 14 days) in spite of the fact that these cultured granule...... cells expressed a high density of high affinity GABA receptors. It is concluded that the ability of THIP to promote formation of low affinity GABA receptors on cerebellar granule cells is restricted to an early developmental period....

  6. Methylation of BRCA1 promoter region is associated with unfavorable prognosis in women with early-stage breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Nicholas C; Huang, Ya-Fang; Yokoyama, Kazunari K; Chu, Pei-Yi; Chen, Fang-Ming; Hou, Ming-Feng

    2013-01-01

    BRCA1-associated breast cancers are associated with particular features such as early onset, poor histological differentiation, and hormone receptor negativity. Previous studies conducted in Taiwanese population showed that the mutation of BRCA1 gene does not play a significant role in the occurrence of breast cancer. The present study explored methylation of BRCA1 promoter and its relationship to clinical features and outcome in Taiwanese breast cancer patients. Tumor specimens from a cohort of 139 early-stage breast cancer patients were obtained during surgery before adjuvant treatment for DNA extraction. Methylation of BRCA1 promoter region was determined by methylation-specific PCR and the results were related to clinical features and outcome of patients using statistical analysis. Methylation of the BRCA1 promoter was detected in 78 (56%) of the 139 tumors. Chi-square analysis indicated that BRCA1 promoter methylation correlated significantly with triple-negative (ER-/PR-/HER2-) status of breast cancer patients (p = 0.041). The Kaplan-Meier method showed that BRCA1 promoter methylation was significantly associated with poor overall survival (p = 0.026) and disease-free survival (p = 0.001). Multivariate analysis which incorporated variables of patients' age, tumor size, grade, and lymph node metastasis revealed that BRCA1 promoter methylation was associated with overall survival (p = 0.027; hazard ratio, 16.38) and disease-free survival (p = 0.003; hazard ratio, 12.19) [corrected].Our findings underscore the clinical relevance of the methylation of BRCA1 promoter in Taiwanese patients with early-stage breast cancer.

  7. Promotion of cancer cell invasiveness and metastasis emergence caused by olfactory receptor stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guenhaël Sanz

    Full Text Available Olfactory receptors (ORs are expressed in the olfactory epithelium, where they detect odorants, but also in other tissues with additional functions. Some ORs are even overexpressed in tumor cells. In this study, we identified ORs expressed in enterochromaffin tumor cells by RT-PCR, showing that single cells can co-express several ORs. Some of the receptors identified were already reported in other tumors, but they are orphan (without known ligand, as it is the case for most of the hundreds of human ORs. Thus, genes coding for human ORs with known ligands were transfected into these cells, expressing functional heterologous ORs. The in vitro stimulation of these cells by the corresponding OR odorant agonists promoted cell invasion of collagen gels. Using LNCaP prostate cancer cells, the stimulation of the PSGR (Prostate Specific G protein-coupled Receptor, an endogenously overexpressed OR, by β-ionone, its odorant agonist, resulted in the same phenotypic change. We also showed the involvement of a PI3 kinase γ dependent signaling pathway in this promotion of tumor cell invasiveness triggered by OR stimulation. Finally, after subcutaneous inoculation of LNCaP cells into NSG immunodeficient mice, the in vivo stimulation of these cells by the PSGR agonist β-ionone significantly enhanced metastasis emergence and spreading.

  8. Adenosine in the tuberomammillary nucleus inhibits the histaminergic system via A1 receptors and promotes non-rapid eye movement sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Yo; Huang, Zhi-Li; Fredholm, Bertil B; Urade, Yoshihiro; Hayaishi, Osamu

    2008-12-16

    Adenosine has been proposed to promote sleep through A(1) receptors (A(1)R's) and/or A(2A) receptors in the brain. We previously reported that A(2A) receptors mediate the sleep-promoting effect of prostaglandin D(2), an endogenous sleep-inducing substance, and that activation of these receptors induces sleep and blockade of them by caffeine results in wakefulness. On the other hand, A(1)R has been suggested to increase sleep by inhibition of the cholinergic region of the basal forebrain. However, the role and target sites of A(1)R in sleep-wake regulation remained controversial. In this study, immunohistochemistry revealed that A(1)R was expressed in histaminergic neurons of the rat tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN). In vivo microdialysis showed that the histamine release in the frontal cortex was decreased by microinjection into the TMN of N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), an A(1)R agonist, adenosine or coformycin, an inhibitor of adenosine deaminase, which catabolizes adenosine to inosine. Bilateral injection of CPA into the rat TMN significantly increased the amount and the delta power density of non-rapid eye movement (non-REM; NREM) sleep but did not affect REM sleep. CPA-promoted sleep was observed in WT mice but not in KO mice for A(1)R or histamine H(1) receptor, indicating that the NREM sleep promoted by A(1)R-specific agonist depended on the histaminergic system. Furthermore, the bilateral injection of adenosine or coformycin into the rat TMN increased NREM sleep, which was completely abolished by coadministration of 1,3-dimethyl-8-cyclopenthylxanthine, a selective A(1)R antagonist. These results indicate that endogenous adenosine in the TMN suppresses the histaminergic system via A(1)R to promote NREM sleep.

  9. How to promote the regional cooperation in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, Masayuki [International Affairs and Safeguards Division, Atomic Energy Bureau, Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-12-01

    The Tenth International Conference for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia was held in Tokyo on March 10, 1999. Representatives participated from Australia, China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam as well as IAEA as an observer. The countries reflected on the positive achievements of the past ten years and affirmed the major goals for the future, the major theme of the meeting being the evolution of the framework. Some typical cooperative activities have result in: (a) new varieties of plants with greater productivity under a range of environmental conditions (b) development and adoptions of improved analytical procedures to track air pollution in major cities where the identification of the major sources will facilitate remediation measures (c) coordinated trials for radiation therapy of cervical cancer and the development of rigorous protocols (d) training of staff in research reactor operation and in the use of research reactors for the study of new materials. The participating countries have committed to reviewing the six existing sub-categories, namely (1) utilization of research reactors, (2,3) application of radiation and radioisotope in the agriculture and the medical fields, (4) public acceptance of nuclear energy, (5) radioactive waste management, and (6) nuclear safety culture. To share knowledge on human resources development within the region and to consider measures for the further development of human resources in relevant fields, a seminar for human resources development, sponsored by Japan, will be held in Japan. The conference will be renamed as (Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia) beginning with the next conference. The Forum for Nuclear Cooperation in Asia will be held in Japan and in a participating country other than Japan in alternating years. To enhance the regional nuclear cooperation activities under this framework, each participating country will register a Coordinator and Project Leaders to facilitate

  10. AT2 receptor non-peptide agonist C21 promotes natriuresis in obese Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Quaisar; Hussain, Tahir

    2012-06-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that angiotensin II type 2 (AT(2)) receptors have a role in natriuresis in obese Zucker rats (OZR). In the present study, we investigated the role of a novel, non-peptide agonist, C21, in natriuresis via AT(2) receptor activation in OZR. Infusion of C21 (1 and 5 μg kg(-1) min(-1)) into rats under anesthesia caused a dose-dependent increase in urine flow (UF) and urinary Na volume (U(Na)V). These effects of C21 were blocked by pre-infusion of the AT(2) receptor antagonist, PD123319, (50 μg kg(-1) min(-1)), suggesting involvement of the AT(2) receptor. Infusion of C21 (5 μg kg(-1) min(-1)) significantly increased the fractional excretion of sodium without changing the glomerular filtration rate or blood pressure, suggesting a tubular effect. Similarly, C21 infusion increased the fractional excretion of lithium, suggesting a proximal tubular effect. Furthermore, we tested the effect of C21 on natriuresis after blocking two main, distal-nephron Na transporters, the epithelial Na channels (ENaC), with amiloride (AM, 3 mg kg(-1) body wt), and the NaCl cotransporters (NCC), with bendroflumethiazide (BFTZ, 7 mg kg(-1) body wt). Infusion of AM + BFTZ caused significant increases in both diuresis and natriuresis, which were further increased by infusion of C21 (5 μg kg(-1) min(-1)). Natriuresis in response to C21 was associated with increases in urinary NO and cGMP levels. The data indicate that the AT(2) receptor agonist, C21, promotes natriuresis via AT(2) receptor activation and that this effect is potentially based in the proximal tubules and linked to the nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway. The natriuretic response to C21 may have therapeutic significance by improving kidney function in obesity.

  11. Identification of a nuclear protein interacting with a novel site on rat androgen receptor promoter after transcription factor NFkB is displaced from adjacent site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Ghazala; Supakar, Prakash C

    2003-06-01

    Sequence-specific DNA-protein interactions mediate the regulation of rat androgen receptor (rAR) gene expression. Previously, DNase I footprinting revealed that nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB) binds to region -574 to -554 on rAR promoter and represses its expression. In this study, we demonstrate that when NFkB protein is removed from its site by competitor DNA in DNase I footprinting reaction, a new DNase I protected region is formed overlapping adjacently (-594 to -561). This indicates that another nuclear protein (named here as FRN, factor repressed by NFkB) binds to rAR promoter only after NFkB protein is displaced. By competitive electrophoretic mobility shift assay and mutation analysis, we confirmed the formation of FRN-DNA complex. FRN interacts with a novel sequence on rAR promoter and may play a role in regulation of rAR gene expression in concert with NFkB.

  12. Hypermethylation of Syk gene in promoter region associated with oncogenesis and metastasis of gastric carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shui Wang; Yong-Bin Ding; Guo-Yu Chen; Jian-Guo Xia; Zhen-Yan Wu

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the rrelationship between methylation of Syk (spleen tyrosine kinase) gene in promoter region and oncogenesis, metastasis of gastric carcinoma. The relation between silencing of the Syk gene and methylation of Syk promoter region was also studied.METHODS: By using methylation-specific PCR (MSP)technique, the methylation of Syk promoter region in specimens from 61 gastric cancer patients (tumor tissues and adjacent normal tissues) was detected. Meanwhile, RTPCR was used to analyse syk expression exclusively.RESULTS: The expression of the Syk gene was detected in all normal gastric tissues. Syk expression in gastric carcinoma was lower in 14 out of 61 gastric cancer samples than in adjacent normal tissues (x2=72.3, P<0.05). No methylation of Syk promoter was found in adjacent normal tissues, hypermethylation of Syk gene in promoter was detected 21 cases in 61 gastric carcinoma patients. The rate of methylation of Syk promoter in gastric carcinoma was higher than that in adjacent normal tissues (x2=25.1,P<0.05). In 31 patients with lymph node metastasis, 17 were found with Syk promoter methylation. A significant difference was noted between two groups (x2=11.4, P<0.05).CONCLUSION: Hypermethylation leads to silencing of the Syk gene in human gastric carcinoma. Methylation of Syk promoter is correlated to oncogenesis and metastasis of gastric carcinoma. Syk is considered to be a potential tumor suppressor and anti-metastasis gene in human gastric cancer.

  13. Cloning and characterizing of the ovine MX1 gene promoter/enhancer region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assiri, A M; Ott, T L

    2007-01-01

    Ovine MX1 (MX1) is expressed in the uterus during the estrous cycle and is strongly up-regulated during early pregnancy in the uterus and peripheral blood leukocytes. In this study we cloned the MX1 gene promoter/enhancer, and tested its response to interferon tau (IFN-tau). To address the role of IFN tau in regulating MX1 expression, serial deletion mutants were prepared along with a clone that contained a full-length promoter including the two proximal ISREs but lacking an intronic ISRE site. Promoter deletions showed the two proximal ISRE sites, but not the intronic ISRE site, were required for maximal response to IFN tau. Interestingly, MX1 promoter deletion mutants revealed the presence of distal positive (-920 to -715) and negative (-715 to -437) regulatory regions. Identifying positive and negative regulatory regions in MX1 promoter will help define the complex regulation of MX1 during early pregnancy in ruminants.

  14. A novel fibroblast growth factor receptor family member promotes neuronal outgrowth and synaptic plasticity in aplysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollak, Daniela D; Minh, Bui Quang; Cicvaric, Ana; Monje, Francisco J

    2014-11-01

    Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) Receptors (FGFRs) regulate essential biological processes, including embryogenesis, angiogenesis, cellular growth and memory-related long-term synaptic plasticity. Whereas canonical FGFRs depend exclusively on extracellular Immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domains for ligand binding, other receptor types, including members of the tropomyosin-receptor-kinase (Trk) family, use either Ig-like or Leucine-Rich Repeat (LRR) motifs, or both. Little is known, however, about the evolutionary events leading to the differential incorporation of LRR domains into Ig-containing tyrosine kinase receptors. Moreover, although FGFRs have been identified in many vertebrate species, few reports describe their existence in invertebrates. Information about the biological relevance of invertebrate FGFRs and evolutionary divergences between them and their vertebrate counterparts is therefore limited. Here, we characterized ApLRRTK, a neuronal cell-surface protein recently identified in Aplysia. We unveiled ApLRRTK as the first member of the FGFRs family deprived of Ig-like domains that instead contains extracellular LRR domains. We describe that ApLRRTK exhibits properties typical of canonical vertebrate FGFRs, including promotion of FGF activity, enhancement of neuritic outgrowth and signaling via MAPK and the transcription factor CREB. ApLRRTK also enhanced the synaptic efficiency of neurons known to mediate in vivo memory-related defensive behaviors. These data reveal a novel molecular regulator of neuronal function in invertebrates, provide the first evolutionary linkage between LRR proteins and FGFRs and unveil an unprecedented mechanism of FGFR gene diversification in primeval central nervous systems.

  15. Functional diversity of Robo receptor immunoglobulin domains promotes distinct axon guidance decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Timothy A; Bashaw, Greg J

    2010-03-23

    Recognition molecules of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily control axon guidance in the developing nervous system. Ig-like domains are among the most widely represented protein domains in the human genome, and the number of Ig superfamily proteins is strongly correlated with cellular complexity. In Drosophila, three Roundabout (Robo) Ig superfamily receptors respond to their common Slit ligand to regulate axon guidance at the midline: Robo and Robo2 mediate midline repulsion, Robo2 and Robo3 control longitudinal pathway selection, and Robo2 can promote midline crossing. How these closely related receptors mediate distinct guidance functions is not understood. We report that the differential functions of Robo2 and Robo3 are specified by their ectodomains and do not reflect differences in cytoplasmic signaling. Functional modularity of Robo2's ectodomain facilitates multiple guidance decisions: Ig1 and Ig3 of Robo2 confer lateral positioning activity, whereas Ig2 confers promidline crossing activity. Robo2's distinct functions are not dependent on greater Slit affinity but are instead due in part to differences in multimerization and receptor-ligand stoichiometry conferred by Robo2's Ig domains. Together, our findings suggest that diverse responses to the Slit guidance cue are imparted by intrinsic structural differences encoded in the extracellular Ig domains of the Robo receptors.

  16. Transcription activation by the bacteriophage Mu Mor protein: analysis of promoter mutations in Pm identifies a new region required for promoter function.

    OpenAIRE

    Artsimovitch, I; Howe, M M

    1996-01-01

    Middle transcription of bacteriophage Mu requires Escherichia coli RNA polymerase holoenzyme and a Mu-encoded protein, Mor. Consistent with these requirements, the middle promoter, Pm, has a recognizable -10 region but lacks a -35 region. Mutagenesis of this promoter (from -70 to +10) was performed using mutagenic oligonucleotide-directed PCR. The resulting fragments were cloned into a promoter-lacZfusion vector and analyzed for promoter activity by assaying beta-galactosidase production. Sin...

  17. 7 CFR 1150.153 - Qualified State or regional dairy product promotion, research or nutrition education programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Qualified State or regional dairy product promotion... § 1150.153 Qualified State or regional dairy product promotion, research or nutrition education programs. (a) Any organization which conducts a State or regional dairy product promotion, research...

  18. Immunomodulator CD200 promotes neurotrophic activity by interacting with and activating the fibroblast growth factor receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pankratova, Stanislava; Bjornsdottir, Halla; Christensen, Claus;

    2016-01-01

    in the suppression of microglia activation. We for the first time demonstrated that CD200 can interact with and transduce signaling through activation of the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR), thereby inducing neuritogenesis and promoting neuronal survival in primary neurons. CD200-induced FGFR...... phosphorylation was abrogated by CD200R, whereas FGF2-induced FGFR activation was inhibited by CD200. We also identified a sequence motif located in the first Ig-like module of CD200, likely representing the minimal CD200 binding site for FGFR. The FGFR binding motif overlaps with the CD200R binding site......, suggesting that they can compete for CD200 binding in cells that express both receptors. We propose that CD200 in neurons functions as a ligand of FGFR....

  19. Nanoparticle-induced unfolding of fibrinogen promotes Mac-1 receptor activation and inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhou J.; Liang, Mingtao; Monteiro, Michael; Toth, Istvan; Minchin, Rodney F.

    2011-01-01

    The chemical composition, size, shape and surface characteristics of nanoparticles affect the way proteins bind to these particles, and this in turn influences the way in which nanoparticles interact with cells and tissues. Nanomaterials bound with proteins can result in physiological and pathological changes, including macrophage uptake, blood coagulation, protein aggregation and complement activation, but the mechanisms that lead to these changes remain poorly understood. Here, we show that negatively charged poly(acrylic acid)-conjugated gold nanoparticles bind to and induce unfolding of fibrinogen, which promotes interaction with the integrin receptor, Mac-1. Activation of this receptor increases the NF-κB signalling pathway, resulting in the release of inflammatory cytokines. However, not all nanoparticles that bind to fibrinogen demonstrated this effect. Our results show that the binding of certain nanoparticles to fibrinogen in plasma offers an alternative mechanism to the more commonly described role of oxidative stress in the inflammatory response to nanomaterials.

  20. Epigenetic transgenerational actions of vinclozolin on promoter regions of the sperm epigenome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Guerrero-Bosagna

    Full Text Available Previous observations have demonstrated that embryonic exposure to the endocrine disruptor vinclozolin during gonadal sex determination promotes transgenerational adult onset disease such as male infertility, kidney disease, prostate disease, immune abnormalities and tumor development. The current study investigates genome-wide promoter DNA methylation alterations in the sperm of F3 generation rats whose F0 generation mother was exposed to vinclozolin. A methylated DNA immunoprecipitation with methyl-cytosine antibody followed by a promoter tilling microarray (MeDIP-Chip procedure was used to identify 52 different regions with statistically significant altered methylation in the sperm promoter epigenome. Mass spectrometry bisulfite analysis was used to map the CpG DNA methylation and 16 differential DNA methylation regions were confirmed, while the remainder could not be analyzed due to bisulfite technical limitations. Analysis of these validated regions identified a consensus DNA sequence (motif that associated with 75% of the promoters. Interestingly, only 16.8% of a random set of 125 promoters contained this motif. One candidate promoter (Fam111a was found to be due to a copy number variation (CNV and not a methylation change, suggesting initial alterations in the germline epigenome may promote genetic abnormalities such as induced CNV in later generations. This study identifies differential DNA methylation sites in promoter regions three generations after the initial exposure and identifies common genome features present in these regions. In addition to primary epimutations, a potential indirect genetic abnormality was identified, and both are postulated to be involved in the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance observed. This study confirms that an environmental agent has the ability to induce epigenetic transgenerational changes in the sperm epigenome.

  1. Functional characterization of genetic polymorphisms identified in the promoter region of the bovine PEPS gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Zhihua; Zheng, Xue; Huang, Jinming; Qi, Chao; Zhang, Yan; Li, Jianbin; Zhong, Jifeng; Wang, Changfa

    2012-06-01

    Peptidase S (PEPS) is a metallopeptidase that cleaves N-terminal residues from proteins and peptides. PEPS is used as a cell maintenance enzyme with critical roles in peptide turnover. The promoter region located upstream of the initiation site plays an important role in regulating gene expression. Polymorphism in the promoter region can alter gene expression and lead to biological changes. In the current study, polymorphisms in the promoter region of the PEPS gene were investigated. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism and DNA sequencing methods were used to screen sequence variations in the promoter region of DNA samples from 743 Chinese Holstein cattle. Two polymorphisms (g. -534 T>C and g. -2545 G>A) were identified and eight haplotypes were classified by haplotype analysis. The two genetic polymorphisms and haplotypes were associated with fat percentage and somatic cell score in Chinese Holstein cattle. The results of real-time PCR showed that cow kidneys exhibit the highest PEPS expression level. Moreover, bioinformatics analysis predicted that the single-nucleotide polymorphism g. -534 T>C is located in the core promoter region and in the transcription factor binding sites. The promoter activities of the polymorphism of -543 T>C were measured by luciferase assay in the human kidney epithelial cell line 293T. Transcriptional activity is significantly lower in cell lines transfected with the reporter construct containing 2.5 kb upstream fragments with -543 C than in those with wild-type -543 T. The results indicated that genetic variation at locus -543 influences PEPS promoter activity. The genetic variation in the promoter region of PEPS gene may regulate PEPS gene transcription and might have consequences at a regulatory level.

  2. Promoting ICT Entrepreneurship in the Campania Region of Italy: A Network of Academic Incubators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corti, Eugenio; Torello, Rita Ilenia

    2004-01-01

    The government of the Campania region in southern Italy has established a technology transfer centre for the information and communications technology (ICT) sector. The Regional Centre for ICT Competencies (RCICT) promotes the transfer of ICT to local small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and encourages the creation of new knowledge-based…

  3. Polymorphism in the oxytocin promoter region in patients with lactase non-persistence is not related to symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simrén Magnus

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxytocin and the oxytocin receptor have been demonstrated in the gastrointestinal (GI tract and have been shown to exert physiological effects on gut motility. The role for oxytocin in the pathophysiology of GI complaints is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine genetic variations or polymorphism of oxytocin (OXT and its receptor (OXTR genes in patients with GI complaints without visible organic abnormalities. Methods Genetic variants in the OXT promoter region, and in the OXTR gene in DNA samples from 131 rigorously evaluated patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS, 408 homozygous subjects referred for lactase (LCT-13910 C>T, rs4988235 genotyping, and 299 asymptomatic blood donors were compared. One polymorphism related to the OXT gene (rs6133010 A>G and 4 related to the OXTR gene (rs1465386 G>T, rs3806675 G>A, rs968389 A>G, rs1042778 G>T were selected for genotyping using Applied Biosystems 7900 HT allele discrimination assays. Results There were no statistically significant differences in the genotype or allele frequencies in any of the SNPs when IBS patients were compared to healthy controls. Among subjects referred for lactase genotyping, the rs6133010 A>G OXT promoter A/G genotype tended to be more common in the 154 non-persistent (27.3% subjects than in the 254 lactase persistant (18.1% subjects and in the healthy controls (19.4% (p = 0.08. When direct comparing, the A/G genotype was less common in the OXT promoter region in controls (p = 0.09 and in subjects with lactase persistence (p = 0.03 compared to subjects with lactase non-persistence. When healthy controls were viewed according to their own LCT-13910 genotypes, the C/C lactase non-persistent controls had a higher frequency for the OXT promoter A/G genotype than LCT-13910 T/T lactase persistent controls (41.2% vs 13.1%. No significant differences in frequencies of the investigated OXTR SNPs were noted in this study. Conclusion The results suggest

  4. Endogenous activation of adenosine A1 receptors promotes post-ischemic electrocortical burst suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilie, A; Ciocan, D; Constantinescu, A O

    2009-01-01

    . Several lines of evidence suggest that BS reflects an impairment of neocortical connectivity. Here we tested in vivo whether synaptic depression by adenosine A1 receptor (A1R) activation contributes to BS patterns following GCI. Male Wistar rats were subjected to 1, 5 or 10 min of GCI using a "four...... of post-ischemic BS patterns following brief ischemic episodes. It is likely that synaptic depression by post-ischemic A1R activation functionally disrupts the connectivity within the cortical networks to an extent that promotes BS patterns....

  5. Identification of functional DNA variants in the constitutive promoter region of MDM2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalonde, Marie-Eve; Ouimet, Manon; Larivière, Mathieu; Kritikou, Ekaterini A; Sinnett, Daniel

    2012-09-01

    Although mutations in the oncoprotein murine double minute 2 (MDM2) are rare, MDM2 gene overexpression has been observed in several human tumors. Given that even modest changes in MDM2 levels might influence the p53 tumor suppressor signaling pathway, we postulated that sequence variation in the promoter region of MDM2 could lead to disregulated expression and variation in gene dosage. Two promoters have been reported for MDM2; an internal promoter (P2), which is located near the end of intron 1 and is p53-responsive, and an upstream constitutive promoter (P1), which is p53-independent. Both promoter regions contain DNA variants that could influence the expression levels of MDM2, including the well-studied single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) SNP309, which is located in the promoter P2; i.e., upstream of exon 2. In this report, we screened the promoter P1 for DNA variants and assessed the functional impact of the corresponding SNPs. Using the dbSNP database and genotyping validation in individuals of European descent, we identified three common SNPs (-1494 G > A; indel 40 bp; and -182 C > G). Three major promoter haplotypes were inferred by using these three promoter SNPs together with rs2279744 (SNP309). Following subcloning into a gene reporter system, we found that two of the haplotypes significantly influenced MDM2 promoter activity in a haplotype-specific manner. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments indicated that the 40 bp insertion/deletion variation is causing the observed allelic promoter activity. This study suggests that part of the variability in the MDM2 expression levels could be explained by allelic p53-independent P1 promoter activity.

  6. The Shh receptor Boc promotes progression of early medulloblastoma to advanced tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mille, Frédéric; Tamayo-Orrego, Lukas; Lévesque, Martin; Remke, Marc; Korshunov, Andrey; Cardin, Julie; Bouchard, Nicolas; Izzi, Luisa; Kool, Marcel; Northcott, Paul A; Taylor, Michael D; Pfister, Stefan M; Charron, Frédéric

    2014-10-13

    During cerebellar development, Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling drives the proliferation of granule cell precursors (GCPs). Aberrant activation of Shh signaling causes overproliferation of GCPs, leading to medulloblastoma. Although the Shh-binding protein Boc associates with the Shh receptor Ptch1 to mediate Shh signaling, whether Boc plays a role in medulloblastoma is unknown. Here, we show that BOC is upregulated in medulloblastomas and induces GCP proliferation. Conversely, Boc inactivation reduces proliferation and progression of early medulloblastomas to advanced tumors. Mechanistically, we find that Boc, through elevated Shh signaling, promotes high levels of DNA damage, an effect mediated by CyclinD1. High DNA damage in the presence of Boc increases the incidence of Ptch1 loss of heterozygosity, an important event in the progression from early to advanced medulloblastoma. Together, our results indicate that DNA damage promoted by Boc leads to the demise of its own coreceptor, Ptch1, and consequently medulloblastoma progression.

  7. Cloning and characterizing of the murine IRF-3 gene promoter region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hua-Guo; Liu, Lifei; Gao, Shan; Jin, Rui; Ren, Wei; Zhou, Guo-Ping

    2016-08-01

    The interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3) plays essential roles in inflammation and immune response. Here, we cloned the nucleotide sequence of the 5'-flanking region of the murine IRF-3 gene (mIRF-3) and characterized the molecular mechanisms controlling the mIRF-3 transcriptional activity in NIH3T3 cells. Analyses of a series of 5' deletion constructs demonstrated that a 301 bp region (-255/+46) of the mIRF-3 gene is sufficient for full promoter activity. This region contains IK1, Egr2, Cmyb, E2F1 and YY1 putative transcription factor binding sites. Mutation of Egr2 or YY1 site led to 52-68 % decrease of the mIRF-3 promoter activity, and double Egr2 and YY1 mutation reduced the promoter activity to 20 % of the wild-type promoter activity. Furthermore, knockingdown of endogenous Egr2 or YY1 by a siRNA strategy markedly inhibited the mIRF-3 promoter activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that Egr2 and YY1 interact with the mIRF-3 promoter in vivo. These results suggested that the basal promoter activity of the mIRF-3 gene is regulated by transcription factors Egr2 and YY1 in NIH3T3 cells.

  8. G-2548A LEPTIN PROMOTER AND Q223R LEPTIN RECEPTOR POLYMORPHISMS IN OBESE MEXICAN SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Carrillo-Vazquez Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptin interaction with its receptor in the hypothalamus stimulates a specific signaling cascade that results in the synthesis of anorexigenic and orexigenic peptides in order to regulate food intake and energy expenditure. Many polymorphisms in leptin (lep and leptin receptor (lepr genes have been associated with body weight. In particular, G-2548A in the lep promoter and Q223R in lepr variants have been associated with obesity in several populations, although no linkage has been evidenced in others. Here, we examined the genetic associations of these polymorphisms with Body Mass Index (BMI and serum leptin levels in adult Mexican people. A set of 160 subjects was recruited at the Acupuncture Clinic of the National School of Medicine and Homeopathy of the National Polytechnic Institute (Mexico and classified according to BMI, gender and age. Blood samples were obtained to extract genomic DNA and determine genetic variants by PCR-RFLP. Leptin was quantified by ELISA assays. Analysis of association and determination of Odd Ratio (OR were performed using SPSS software. G-2548A in lep gene promoter and Q223R in lepr gene polymorphisms were not found associated with BMI in the whole study population. However, GG genotype in lep gene promoter was related to an increased leptin concentration (p≤0.05 and suggested as a protective factor for obesity in Mexican women. Leptin levels were higher in postmenopausal women, confirming the link between the hormonal system and body weight control. In contrast, no association was found between lepr gene polymorphism and serum leptin level. Our results suggest a possible association between G-2548A polymorphism in lep gene promoter, BMI and leptin levels in Mexican women. Further analysis of a larger population is required to confirm the biological relevance of this polymorphism for obesity in the Mexican population.

  9. Prostaglandin E2 promotes proliferation of skeletal muscle myoblasts via EP4 receptor activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Chenglin; Zhao, Ruonan; Vallejo, Julian; Igwe, Orisa; Bonewald, Lynda; Wetmore, Lori; Brotto, Marco

    2015-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that conditioned media (CM) from osteocytes enhances myogenic differentiation of myoblasts, suggesting that signaling from bone may be important for skeletal muscle myogenesis. The effect of CM was closely mimicked by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a bioactive lipid mediator in various physiological or pathological conditions. PGE2 is secreted at high levels by osteocytes and such secretion is further enhanced under loading conditions. Although four types of receptors, EP1 to EP4, mediate PGE2 signaling, it is unknown whether these receptors play a role in myogenesis. Therefore, in this study, the expression of EPs in mouse primary myoblasts was characterized, followed by examination of their roles in myoblast proliferation by treating myoblasts with PGE2 or specific agonists. All four PGE2 receptor mRNAs were detectable by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), but only PGE2 and EP4 agonist CAY 10598 significantly enhance myoblast proliferation. EP1/EP3 agonist 17-phenyl trinor PGE2 (17-PT PGE2) and EP2 agonist butaprost did not have any significant effects. Moreover, treatment with EP4 antagonist L161,982 dose-dependently inhibited myoblast proliferation. These results were confirmed by cell cycle analysis and the gene expression of cell cycle regulators. Concomitant with the inhibition of myoblast proliferation, treatment with L161,982 significantly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Cotreatment with antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) or sodium ascorbate (SA) successfully reversed the inhibition of myoblast proliferation and ROS overproduction caused by L161,982. Therefore, PGE2 signaling via the EP4 receptor regulates myogenesis by promoting myoblast proliferation and blocking this receptor results in increased ROS production in myoblasts. PMID:25785867

  10. The adiponectin receptor homologs in C. elegans promote energy utilization and homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Svensson

    Full Text Available Adiponectin is an adipokine with insulin-sensitising actions in vertebrates. Its receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, are PAQR-type proteins with 7-transmembrane domains and topologies reversed that of GPCR's, i.e. their C-termini are extracellular. We identified three adiponectin receptor homologs in the nematode C. elegans, named paqr-1, paqr-2 and paqr-3. These are differently expressed in the intestine (the main fat-storing tissue, hypodermis, muscles, neurons and secretory tissues, from which they could exert systemic effects. Analysis of mutants revealed that paqr-1 and -2 are novel metabolic regulators in C. elegans and that they act redundantly but independently from paqr-3. paqr-2 is the most important of the three paqr genes: mutants grow poorly, fail to adapt to growth at low temperature, and have a very high fat content with an abnormal enrichment in long (C20 poly-unsaturated fatty acids when combined with the paqr-1 mutation. paqr-2 mutants are also synthetic lethal with mutations in nhr-49, sbp-1 and fat-6, which are C. elegans homologs of nuclear hormone receptors, SREBP and FAT-6 (a Δ9 desaturase, respectively. Like paqr-2, paqr-1 is also synthetic lethal with sbp-1. Mutations in aak-2, the C. elegans homolog of AMPK, or nhr-80, another nuclear hormone receptor gene, suppress the growth phenotype of paqr-2 mutants, probably because they restore the balance between energy expenditure and storage. We conclude that paqr-1 and paqr-2 are receptors that regulate fatty acid metabolism and cold adaptation in C. elegans, that their main function is to promote energy utilization rather than storage, and that PAQR class proteins have regulated metabolism in metazoans for at least 700 million years.

  11. cAMP receptor protein (CRP) downregulates Klebsiella pneumoniae nif promoters in Escherichia coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In enteric bacteria, in response to the PTS system, the cAMP receptor protein (CRP) mediates the glucose effect, via regulating s70-dependent catabolic genes at transcriptional level. In this study, it is observed that the nitrogen fixation capacity of Klebsiella pneumoniae varies strongly when cells are grown on different carbohydrates, and this carbon effect occurs at the level of nif gene expression. Here we show that CRP can repress s54-dependent nif promoters (nifB, nifE, nifF, nifH, nifJ, nifLA and nifU), in a cAMP dependent fashion, in closed related E. coli background. Sequence analysis of these nif promoters indicates that there is no direct correlation between the fold of CRP-cAMP-mediated inhibition and the upstream cis elements at the promoters. In addition, the crp gene of K. pneumoniae has been isolated and sequenced, which is structural and functional highly homologous to that of E. coli. This suggests that CRP-cAMP-mediated inhibition on the nif promoters could be the reason for carbon effect on nitrogen fixation and thus has its physiological significance. A novel regulatory linkage between carbon metabolism and nitrogen fixation is proposed.

  12. AP-2{alpha} suppresses skeletal myoblast proliferation and represses fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 promoter activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Darrion L. [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Chicago Medical School, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, 3333 Green Bay Road, North Chicago, IL 60064 (United States); DiMario, Joseph X., E-mail: joseph.dimario@rosalindfranklin.edu [Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Chicago Medical School, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, 3333 Green Bay Road, North Chicago, IL 60064 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Skeletal muscle development is partly characterized by myoblast proliferation and subsequent differentiation into postmitotic muscle fibers. Developmental regulation of expression of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) gene is required for normal myoblast proliferation and muscle formation. As a result, FGFR1 promoter activity is controlled by multiple transcriptional regulatory proteins during both proliferation and differentiation of myogenic cells. The transcription factor AP-2{alpha} is present in nuclei of skeletal muscle cells and suppresses myoblast proliferation in vitro. Since FGFR1 gene expression is tightly linked to myoblast proliferation versus differentiation, the FGFR1 promoter was examined for candidate AP-2{alpha} binding sites. Mutagenesis studies indicated that a candidate binding site located at - 1035 bp functioned as a repressor cis-regulatory element. Furthermore, mutation of this site alleviated AP-2{alpha}-mediated repression of FGFR1 promoter activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that AP-2{alpha} interacted with the FGFR1 promoter in both proliferating myoblasts and differentiated myotubes. In total, these results indicate that AP-2{alpha} is a transcriptional repressor of FGFR1 gene expression during skeletal myogenesis.

  13. Identification of Conserved Regulatory Elements in Mammalian Promoter Regions: A Case Study Using the PCK1 Promoter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    George E. Liu; Matthew T. Weirauch; Curtis P. Van Tassell; Robert W. Li; Tad S. Sonstegard; Lakshmi K. Matukumalli; Erin E. Connor; Richard W. Hanson; Jianqi Yang

    2008-01-01

    A systematic phylogenetic footprinting approach was performed to identify conserved transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) in mammalian promoter regions using human, mouse and rat sequence alignments. We found that the score distributions of most binding site models did not follow the Gaussian distribution required by many statistical methods. Therefore, we performed an empirical test to establish the optimal threshold for each model. We gauged our computational predictions by comparing with previously known TFBSs in the PCK1 gene promoter of the cytosolic isoform of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, and achieved a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of approximately 32%. Almost all known sites overlapped with predicted sites, and several new putative TFBSs were also identified. We validated a predicted SP1 binding site in the control of PCK1 transcription using gel shift and reporter assays. Finally, we applied our computational approach to the prediction of putative TFBSs within the promoter regions of all available RefSeq genes. Our full set of TFBS predictions is freely available at http://bfgl.anri.barc.usda.gov/tfbsConsSites.

  14. Molecular characterization of three NPY receptors (Y2, Y5 and Y7) in chickens: Gene structure, tissue expression, promoter identification, and functional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chen; Zhang, Jiannan; Gao, Shunyu; Meng, Fengyan; Bu, Guixian; Li, Juan; Wang, Yajun

    2016-09-15

    Six neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptors are suggested to mediate the biological actions of NPY, peptide YY (PYY), and pancreatic polypeptide (PP), such as food intake in birds, however, information regarding the structure and signaling of avian NPY receptors are rather limited. In this study, we investigated the gene structure, tissue expression and signaling property of three NPY receptors (cY2, cY5 and cY7) in chickens. The results showed that 1) cY2, cY5 and cY7 contain novel non-coding exons upstream of their start codon and alternative mRNA splicing in their 5'-UTR results in the formation of multiple transcript variants; 2) cY2, cY5 and cY7 transcripts were detected to be widely expressed in adult chicken tissues including various brain regions by RT-PCR, and their expression is controlled by a promoter(s) near exon 1, which display promoter activity in DF-1 cells as demonstrated by Dual-luciferase reporter assay; 3) cY2, cY5 and cY7 expressed in HEK293 cells were preferentially (or potently) activated by cNPY1-36 and cPYY1-37, but not by cPP1-36, and their activation led to the inhibition of cAMP/PKA signaling pathway and activation of MAPK/ERK signaling pathway, monitored by the cell-based luciferase reporter systems or western blots, indicating that the three NPY receptors are functional and capable of transmitting signals effectively. On the whole, our data establishes a molecular basis to elucidate the actions of three functional NPY receptors (cY2, cY5 and cY7) and their ligands in birds, which helps to uncover the conserved roles of these ligand-receptor pairs in vertebrates.

  15. Identification of novel chicken estrogen receptor-alpha messenger ribonucleic acid isoforms generated by alternative splicing and promoter usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, C; Flouriot, G; Sonntag-Buck, V; Nestor, P; Gannon, F

    1998-11-01

    Using the rapid amplification of complementary DNA ends (RACE) methodology we have identified three new chicken estrogen receptor-alpha (cER alpha) messenger RNA (mRNA) variants in addition to the previously described form (isoform A). Whereas one of the new variants (isoform B) presents a 5'-extremity contiguous to the 5'-end of isoform A, the two other forms (isoforms C and D) are generated by alternative splicing of upstream exons (C and D) to a common site situated 70 nucleotides upstream of the translation start site in the previously assigned exon 1 (A). The 3'-end of exon 1C has been located at position -1334 upstream of the transcription start site of the A isoform (+1). Whereas the genomic location of exon 1D is unknown, 700 bp 5' to this exon were isolated by genomic walking, and their sequence was determined. The transcription start sites of the cER alpha mRNA isoforms were defined. In transfection experiments, the regions immediately upstream of the A-D cER alpha mRNA isoforms were shown to possess cell-specific promoter activities. Three of these promoters were down-regulated in the presence of estradiol and ER alpha protein. It is concluded, therefore, that the expression of the four different cER alpha mRNA isoforms is under the control of four different promoters. Finally, RT-PCR, S1 nuclease mapping, and primer extension analysis of these different cER alpha mRNA isoforms revealed a differential pattern of expression of the cER alpha gene in chicken tissues. Together, the results suggest that alternative 5'-splicing and promoter usage may be mechanisms used to modulate the levels of expression of the chicken ER alpha gene in a tissue-specific and/or developmental stage-specific manner.

  16. The CytR repressor antagonizes cyclic AMP-cyclic AMP receptor protein activation of the deoCp2 promoter of Escherichia coli K-12

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard-Andersen, L; Martinussen, J; Møllegaard, N E

    1990-01-01

    We have investigated the regulation of the Escherichia coli deoCp2 promoter by the CytR repressor and the cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP) complexed to cAMP. Promoter regions controlled by these two proteins characteristically contain tandem cAMP-CRP binding sites. Here we show that (i) C...... are required for efficient CytR repression of deoCp2. Models for the action of CytR are discussed in light of these findings.......We have investigated the regulation of the Escherichia coli deoCp2 promoter by the CytR repressor and the cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP) complexed to cAMP. Promoter regions controlled by these two proteins characteristically contain tandem cAMP-CRP binding sites. Here we show that (i) Cyt......R selectively regulated cAMP-CRP-dependent initiations, although transcription started from the same site in deoCp2 in the absence or presence of cAMP-CRP; (ii) deletion of the uppermost cAMP-CRP target (CRP-2) resulted in loss of CytR regulation, but had only a minor effect on positive control by the c...

  17. Progesterone receptor B promoter hypermethylation in human placenta after labor onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yanyan; Cui, Hong; Liu, Sishi; Zheng, Dongming; Liu, Caixia

    2015-03-01

    To determine the methylation status of progesterone receptor B (PR-B) promoter and how PR-B regulates progesterone action in placenta during human pregnancy. Placentas were obtained from the pregnancy women at term who underwent cesarean delivery and vaginal delivery. The methylation status of the PR-B promoter was analyzed using the methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and bisulfite sequencing PCR. And the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression of the PR-B and DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) were determined by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot. Compared with the cesarean group, the placentas of vaginal delivery group had greater levels of PR-B DNA methylation, and the PR-B, DNMT1, DNMT3a, and DNMT3b mRNA and protein expression were significantly decreased. Progesterone receptor B methylation occurs with high frequency after labor onset and may play an important epigenetic mechanism of labor-related PR-B negative expression, thereby mediating the biological process of functional progesterone withdrawal at term for parturition. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Cloning and Analysis of the Promoter Region of Rat uPA Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan LIU; Jin-wen XIONG; Li-gang CHEN; Yong-hong TIAN; Cheng-liang XIONG

    2007-01-01

    Objective To clone and analyze the promoter sequence of rat urokinase plasminogen activator protein gene.Methods The genomic DNA was extracted from rat testicular tissue. According to urokinase plasminogen activator, the gene sense primer and antisense primer of uPA gene were designed and synthesized, then Touch-Down PCR were performed. After proper purification, the PCR product was sequenced, analyzed with the promoter prediction software and compared with the DNA sequence of rattuas urokinase plasminogen activator.Results The cloned uPA gene was about 1 572 bp in length, which contained a full open-reading frame with 21 bp in length exons, and the upper region of transcriptional start was 1 551 bp in length which was eucaryon transcriptional control area.The 5' UTR had a promoter region including a non-responsive TATA-box. Not only the GC-box binding region was found in this gene, but also active protein 1 (AP1) and SP1 were seen in other regions.Conclusion A 1 572 bp uPA gene fragment (GenBank accession No. X65651) was obtained from rat genomic DNA library, containing eucaryon transcriptional control area with a promoter region, non-conspicuous TATA-box, GC-box and an extron. A non-responsive TATA-box is located at the upper -30 region.

  19. The orphan nuclear receptor Rev-Erbalpha is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma target gene and promotes PPARgamma-induced adipocyte differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fontaine, Coralie; Dubois, Guillaume; Duguay, Yannick;

    2003-01-01

    Rev-Erbalpha (NR1D1) is an orphan nuclear receptor encoded on the opposite strand of the thyroid receptor alpha gene. Rev-Erbalpha mRNA is induced during adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells, and its expression is abundant in rat adipose tissue. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma...... (PPARgamma) (NR1C3) is a nuclear receptor controlling adipocyte differentiation and insulin sensitivity. Here we show that Rev-Erbalpha expression is induced by PPARgamma activation with rosiglitazone in rat epididymal and perirenal adipose tissues in vivo as well as in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in vitro...... for this nuclear receptor as a promoter of adipocyte differentiation....

  20. Cancer cell-selective promoter recognition accompanies antitumor effect by glucocorticoid receptor-targeted gold nanoparticle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sau, Samaresh; Agarwalla, Pritha; Mukherjee, Sudip; Bag, Indira; Sreedhar, Bojja; Pal-Bhadra, Manika; Patra, Chitta Ranjan; Banerjee, Rajkumar

    2014-05-01

    Nanoparticles, such as gold nanoparticles (GNP), upon convenient modifications perform multi tasks catering to many biomedical applications. However, GNP or any other type of nanoparticles is yet to achieve the feat of intracellular regulation of endogenous genes of choice such as through manipulation of a gene-promoter in a chromosome. As for gene modulation and delivery, GNP (or other nanoparticles) showed only limited gene therapy potential, which relied on the delivery of `exogenous' genes invoking gene knockdown or replacement. Practically, there are no instances for the nanoparticle-mediated promoter regulation of `endogenous' genes, more so, as a cancer selective phenomenon. In this regard, we report the development of a simple, easily modifiable GNP-formulation, which promoted/up-regulated the expression of a specific category of `endogenous' genes, the glucocorticoid responsive genes. This genetic up-regulation was induced in only cancer cells by modified GNP-mediated transcriptional activation of its cytoplasmic receptor, glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Normal cells and their GR remained primarily unperturbed by this GNP-formulation. The most potent gene up-regulating GNP-formulation down-regulated a cancer-specific proliferative signal, phospho-Akt in cancer cells, which accompanied retardation of tumor growth in the murine melanoma model. We show that GR-targeted GNPs may find potential use in the targeting and modulation of genetic information in cancer towards developing novel anticancer therapeutics.Nanoparticles, such as gold nanoparticles (GNP), upon convenient modifications perform multi tasks catering to many biomedical applications. However, GNP or any other type of nanoparticles is yet to achieve the feat of intracellular regulation of endogenous genes of choice such as through manipulation of a gene-promoter in a chromosome. As for gene modulation and delivery, GNP (or other nanoparticles) showed only limited gene therapy potential, which relied

  1. Transcription factor AP1 binds the functional region of the promoter and regulates gene expression of human PPARdelta in LoVo cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaogang; Yang, Xudong; Han, Yan; Lu, Shemin

    2013-12-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ gene (PPARδ) is correlated with carcinogenesis of colorectal cancer, but the regulation of its gene transcription remains unclear. We herein report that AP1 binds the promoter and regulates PPARδ gene expression. With a luciferase reporter system, we identified a functional promoter region of 30 bp of PPARδ gene by deletion and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA). Using site-directed mutagenesis and decoy analyses, we demonstrated that AP1 bound the functional transcriptional factor binding site in a region extending from -176 to -73 of the PPARδ promoter, which was confirmed using EMSA and supershift assays. Consequently, inhibition of the AP1 binding site led to decreased PPARδ mRNA. Our study demonstrated that AP1 is the transcriptional factor that contributes to PPARδ expression in LoVo cells.

  2. The CXCL12/CXCR4 axis promotes ligand-independent activation of the androgen receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasina, Sathish; Macoska, Jill A

    2012-04-01

    The molecular mechanisms responsible for the transition of some prostate cancers from androgen ligand-dependent to androgen ligand-independent are incompletely established. Molecules that are ligands for G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been implicated in ligand-independent androgen receptor (AR) activation. The purpose of this study was to examine whether CXCL12, the ligand for the GPCR, CXCR4, might mediate prostate cancer cell proliferation through AR-dependent mechanisms involving functional transactivation of the AR in the absence of androgen. The results of these studies showed that activation of the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis promoted: The nuclear accumulation of both wild-type and mutant AR in several prostate epithelial cell lines; AR-dependent proliferative responses; nuclear accumulation of the AR co-regulator SRC-1 protein; SRC-1:AR protein:protein association; co-localization of AR and SRC-1 on the promoters of AR-regulated genes; AR- and SRC-1 dependent transcription of AR-regulated genes; AR-dependent secretion of the AR-regulated PSA protein; P13K-dependent phosphorylation of AR; MAPK-dependent phosphorylation of SRC-1, and both MAPK- and P13K-dependent secretion of the PSA protein, in the absence of androgen. Taken together, these studies identify CXCL12 as a novel, non-steroidal growth factor that promotes the growth of prostate epithelial cells through AR-dependent mechanisms in the absence of steroid hormones. These findings support the development of novel therapeutics targeting the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis as an ancillary to those targeting the androgen/AR axis to effectively treat castration resistant/recurrent prostate tumors.

  3. Does FDI promote regional development? Evidence from local and regional productivity spillovers in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilis MONASTIRIOTIS

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the productivity spillovers of FDI have concentrated on the nationalsectoral level. As a result, little is known about the impact of FDI on absolute and relative regional economic performance. In this paper we examine this issue by relying on a unique dataset of over 20,000 Greek firms for the period 2002-2006 covering all sectors of economic activity. We examine the spatial distribution of foreign-owned firms in the country and analyse the effect that their presence – at the local, regional and national levels – has on the productivity of domestic firms. We find strong evidence suggesting that foreignowned firms self-select into regions and sectors of high productivity. Net of this selection effect, the impact of foreign presence on domestic productivity is negative – although at the very local level some positive spillover effects are identifiable. The bulk of the effects concentrate in non-manufacturing activities, high-tech sectors, and medium-sized high-productivity firms. Importantly, this effect is not constant across space however. Productivity spillovers tend to be negative in the regions hosting the main urban areas in the country but positive in smaller and more peripheral regions. In this way, despite the tendency of FDI to concentrate in a limited number of areas within the country – those of the highest level of development – the externalities that FDI activity generates to the local economies appear to be of a rather equilibrating character.

  4. Endomorphins: novel endogenous mu-opiate receptor agonists in regions of high mu-opiate receptor density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadina, J E; Martin-Schild, S; Gerall, A A; Kastin, A J; Hackler, L; Ge, L J; Zhang, X

    1999-01-01

    Endomorphin-1 (Tyr-Pro-Trp-Phe-NH2, EM-1) and endomorphin-2 (Tyr-Pro-Phe-Phe-NH2, EM-2) are peptides recently isolated from brain that show the highest affinity and selectivity for the mu (morphine) opiate receptor of all the known endogenous opioids. The endomorphins have potent analgesic and gastrointestinal effects. At the cellular level, they activate G-proteins (35S-GTP gamma-S binding) and inhibit calcium currents. Support for their role as endogenous ligands for the mu-opiate receptor includes their localization by radioimmunoassay and immunocytochemistry in central nervous system regions of high mu receptor density. Intense EM-2 immunoreactivity is present in the terminal regions of primary afferent neurons in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and in the medulla near high densities of mu receptors. Chemical (capsaicin) and surgical (rhizotomy) disruption of nociceptive primary afferent neurons depletes the immunoreactivity, implicating the primary afferents as the source of EM-2. Thus, EM-2 is well-positioned to serve as an endogenous modulator of pain in its earliest stages of perception. In contrast to EM-2, which is more prevalent in the spinal cord and lower brainstem, EM-1 is more widely and densely distributed throughout the brain than EM-2. The distribution is consistent with a role for the peptides in the modulation of diverse functions, including autonomic, neuroendocrine, and reward functions as well as modulation of responses to pain and stress.

  5. Differences in 5-HT2A and mGlu2 Receptor Expression Levels and Repressive Epigenetic Modifications at the 5-HT2A Promoter Region in the Roman Low- (RLA-I) and High- (RHA-I) Avoidance Rat Strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomsgaard, Luna; Moreno, Jose L; de la Fuente Revenga, Mario

    2017-01-01

    The serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) and metabotropic glutamate 2 (mGlu2) receptors regulate each other and are associated with schizophrenia. The Roman high- (RHA-I) and the Roman low- (RLA-I) avoidance rat strains present well-differentiated behavioral profiles, with the RHA-I strain emerging as a putative...... genetic rat model of schizophrenia-related features. The RHA-I strain shows increased 5-HT2A and decreased mGlu2 receptor binding levels in prefrontal cortex (PFC). Here, we looked for differences in gene expression and transcriptional regulation of these receptors. The striatum (STR) was included......-specific regulation of the 5-HT2A receptor in the RHA-I rats probably due to absence of mGlu2 receptor that may result in differential regulation of downstream pathways....

  6. Integrating Regional Development, Promoting Local Cooperation Reflections on the China-UK Regional Leaders Exchange Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu; Chang

    2016-01-01

    The first China-UK Regional Leaders Meeting was held March21-24 in the United Kingdom,both in London and the industrial city of Sheffield.The event was jointly organized by the CPAFFC and the British Department for Communities and Local Government.The Chinese delegation,comprising government

  7. Region-selective effects of neuroinflammation and antioxidant treatment on peripheral benzodiazepine receptors and NMDA receptors in the rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biegon, A.; Alvarado, M.; Budinger, T.F.; Grossman, R.; Hensley, K.; West, M.S.; Kotake, Y.; Ono, M.; Floyd, R.A.

    2001-12-10

    Following induction of acute neuroinflammation by intracisternal injection of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) in rats, quantitative autoradiography was used to assess the regional level of microglial activation and glutamate (NMDA) receptor binding. The possible protective action of the antioxidant phenyl-tert-butyl nitrone in this model was tested by administering the drug in the drinking water for 6 days starting 24 hours after endotoxin injection. Animals were killed 7 days post-injection and consecutive cryostat brain sections labeled with [3H]PK11195 as a marker of activated microglia and [125I]iodoMK801 as a marker of the open-channel, activated state of NMDA receptors. Lipopolysaccharide increased [3H]PK11195 binding in the brain, with the largest increases (2-3 fold) in temporal and entorhinal cortex, hippocampus, and substantia innominata. A significant (>50 percent) decrease in [125I]iodoMK801 binding was found in the same brain regions. Phenyl-tert-butyl nitrone treatment resulted in a partial inhibition ({approx}25 percent decrease) of the lipopolysaccharide-induced increase in [3H]PK11195 binding but completely reversed the lipopolysaccharide-induced decrease in [125I]iodoMK80 binding in the entorhinal cortex, hippocampus, and substantia innominata. Loss of NMDA receptor function in cortical and hippocampal regions may contribute to the cognitive deficits observed in diseases with a neuroinflammatory component, such as meningitis or Alzheimer's disease.

  8. Liver Tumor Promotion by 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin Is Dependent on the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor and TNF/IL-1 Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Gregory D.; Nukaya, Manabu; Moran, Susan M.; Glover, Edward; Weinberg, Samuel; Balbo, Silvia; Hecht, Stephen S.; Pitot, Henry C.; Drinkwater, Norman R.; Bradfield, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    We set out to better understand the signal transduction pathways that mediate liver tumor promotion by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxn (“dioxin”). To this end, we first employed congenic mice homozygous for either the Ahrb1 or Ahrd alleles (encoding an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) with high or low binding affinity for dioxin, respectively) and demonstrated that hepatocellular tumor promotion in response to dioxin segregated with the Ahr locus. Once we had genetic evidence for the importance of AHR signaling, we then asked if tumor promotion by dioxin was influenced by “interleukin-1 (IL-1)-like” inflammatory cytokines. The importance of this question arose from our earlier observation that aspects of the acute hepatocellular toxicity of dioxin are dependent upon IL1-like cytokine signaling. To address this issue, we employed a triple knock-out (TKO) mouse model with null alleles at the loci encoding the three relevant receptors for tumor necrosis factors α and β and IL-1α and IL-1β (i.e., null alleles at the Tnfrsf1a, Tnfrsf1b, and Il-1r1 loci). The observation that TKO mice were resistant to the tumor promoting effects of dioxin in liver suggests that inflammatory cytokines play an important step in dioxin mediated liver tumor promotion in the mouse. Collectively, these data support the idea that the mechanism of dioxin acute hepatotoxicity and its activity as a promoter in a mouse two stage liver cancer model may be similar, i.e., tumor promotion by dioxin, like acute hepatotoxicity, are mediated by the linked action of two receptor systems, the AHR and the receptors for the “IL-1-like” cytokines. PMID:24718703

  9. α2-containing GABAA receptors expressed in hippocampal region CA3 control fast network oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heistek, Tim S; Ruiperez-Alonso, Marta; Timmerman, A Jaap; Brussaard, Arjen B; Mansvelder, Huibert D

    2013-02-15

    GABA(A) receptors are critically involved in hippocampal oscillations. GABA(A) receptor α1 and α2 subunits are differentially expressed throughout the hippocampal circuitry and thereby may have distinct contributions to oscillations. It is unknown which GABA(A) receptor α subunit controls hippocampal oscillations and where these receptors are expressed. To address these questions we used transgenic mice expressing GABA(A) receptor α1 and/or α2 subunits with point mutations (H101R) that render these receptors insensitive to allosteric modulation at the benzodiazepine binding site, and tested how increased or decreased function of α subunits affects hippocampal oscillations. Positive allosteric modulation by zolpidem prolonged decay kinetics of hippocampal GABAergic synaptic transmission and reduced the frequency of cholinergically induced oscillations. Allosteric modulation of GABAergic receptors in CA3 altered oscillation frequency in CA1, while modulation of GABA receptors in CA1 did not affect oscillations. In mice having a point mutation (H101R) at the GABA(A) receptor α2 subunit, zolpidem effects on cholinergically induced oscillations were strongly reduced compared to wild-type animals, while zolpidem modulation was still present in mice with the H101R mutation at the α1 subunit. Furthermore, genetic knockout of α2 subunits strongly reduced oscillations, whereas knockout of α1 subunits had no effect. Allosteric modulation of GABAergic receptors was strongly reduced in unitary connections between fast spiking interneurons and pyramidal neurons in CA3 of α2H101R mice, but not of α1H101R mice, suggesting that fast spiking interneuron to pyramidal neuron synapses in CA3 contain α2 subunits. These findings suggest that α2-containing GABA(A) receptors expressed in the CA3 region provide the inhibition that controls hippocampal rhythm during cholinergically induced oscillations.

  10. Receptor for hyaluronan mediated motility (RHAMM/HMMR) is a novel target for promoting subcutaneous adipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, S B; Tolg, C; Peart, T; Symonette, C; Veiseh, M; Umoh, J U; Holdsworth, D W; McCarthy, J B; Luyt, L G; Bissell, M J; Yazdani, A; Turley, E A

    2017-03-01

    Hyaluronan, CD44 and the Receptor for Hyaluronan-Mediated Motility (RHAMM, gene name HMMR) regulate stem cell differentiation including mesenchymal progenitor differentiation. Here, we show that CD44 expression is required for subcutaneous adipogenesis, whereas RHAMM expression suppresses this process. We designed RHAMM function blocking peptides to promote subcutaneous adipogenesis as a clinical and tissue engineering tool. Adipogenic RHAMM peptides were identified by screening for their ability to promote adipogenesis in culture assays using rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, mouse pre-adipocyte cell lines and primary human subcutaneous pre-adipocytes. Oil red O uptake into fat droplets and adiponectin production were used as biomarkers of adipogenesis. Positive peptides were formulated in either collagen I or hyaluronan (Orthovisc) gels then assessed for their adipogenic potential in vivo following injection into dorsal rat skin and mammary fat pads. Fat content was quantified and characterized using micro CT imaging, morphometry, histology, RT-PCR and ELISA analyses of adipogenic gene expression. Injection of screened peptides increased dorsal back subcutaneous fat pad area (208.3 ± 10.4 mm(2)versus control 84.11 ± 4.2 mm(2); p 5 weeks as detected by micro CT imaging and perilipin 1 mRNA expression. RHAMM expression suppresses while blocking peptides promote expression of PPARγ, C/EBP and their target genes. Blocking RHAMM function by peptide injection or topical application is a novel and minimally invasive method for potentially promoting subcutaneous adipogenesis in lipodystrophic diseases and a complementary tool to subcutaneous fat augmentation techniques.

  11. A hybrid neural network system for prediction and recognition of promoter regions in human genome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chuan-bo; LI Tao

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a high specificity and sensitivity algorithm called PromPredictor for recognizing promoter regions in the human genome. PromPredictor extracts compositional features and CpG islands information from genomic sequence,feeding these features as input for a hybrid neural network system (HNN) and then applies the HNN for prediction. It combines a novel promoter recognition model, coding theory, feature selection and dimensionality reduction with machine learning algorithm.Evaluation on Human chromosome 22 was ~66% in sensitivity and ~48% in specificity. Comparison with two other systems revealed that our method had superior sensitivity and specificity in predicting promoter regions. PromPredictor is written in MATLAB and requires Matlab to run. PromPredictor is freely available at http://www.whtelecom.com/Prompredictor.htm.

  12. Involvement of promoter methylation in the regulation of Pregnane X receptor in colon cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otsuka Koki

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnane X receptor (PXR is a key transcription factor that regulates drug metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome P450 (CYP 3A4, and plays important roles in intestinal first-pass metabolism. Although there is a large inter-individual heterogeneity with intestinal CYP3A4 expression and activity, the mechanism driving these differences is not sufficiently explained by genetic variability of PXR or CYP3A4. We examined whether epigenetic mechanisms are involved in the regulation of PXR/CYP3A4 pathways in colon cancer cells. Methods mRNA levels of PXR, CYP3A4 and vitamin D receptor (VDR were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR on 6 colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2, HT29, HCT116, SW48, LS180, and LoVo. DNA methylation status was also examined by bisulfite sequencing of the 6 cell lines and 18 colorectal cancer tissue samples. DNA methylation was reversed by the treatment of these cell lines with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC. Results The 6 colon cancer cell lines were classified into two groups (high or low expression cells based on the basal level of PXR/CYP3A4 mRNA. DNA methylation of the CpG-rich sequence of the PXR promoter was more densely detected in the low expression cells (Caco-2, HT29, HCT116, and SW48 than in the high expression cells (LS180 and LoVo. This methylation was reversed by treatment with 5-aza-dC, in association with re-expression of PXR and CYP3A4 mRNA, but not VDR mRNA. Therefore, PXR transcription was silenced by promoter methylation in the low expression cells, which most likely led to downregulation of CYP3A4 transactivation. Moreover, a lower level of PXR promoter methylation was observed in colorectal cancer tissues compared with adjacent normal mucosa, suggesting upregulation of the PXR/CYP3A4 mRNAs during carcinogenesis. Conclusions PXR promoter methylation is involved in the regulation of intestinal PXR and CYP3A4 mRNA expression and might be associated with the inter-individual variability

  13. The system of Regional Contact Offices for promoting GMES services and the use of Space Technologies in European Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrara, Paola; Antoninetti, Massimo; Bacai, Hina; Basoni, Anna; Bosc, Christelle; Clave, Magali; Cornacchia, Carmela; L'Astorina, Alba; Monbet, Philippe; Mueller, Bastian; Nicolau, Sonia; Pergola, Nicola; Rampini, Anna; Tramutoli, Valerio; Schumacher, Volker; Wells, Alan; Zepeda Juarez, Jesus; Zolotikova, Svetlana

    2013-04-01

    which have significant impact on the economy, environment and the quality of life of the citizens To this aim since 2011 the system of Regional Contact Offices (RCOs) was promoted by the EU FP7 DORIS_Net (Downsteam Observatory organized by Regions Active in Space - Network, http://www.doris-net.eu/) project as the regional link to the services provided by the European GMES programme. Since then a first nucleus of 12 pilot European Regions were working together establishing 6 first RCOs around Europe. This paper will present RCOs network goals, achievements and perspectives as well as its planned actions devoted to improve quality of Space Technology products from one side, to promote awareness and use of them by potential end-users (and particularly LRAs), from the other side.

  14. Identification and characterization of a liver stage-specific promoter region of the malaria parasite Plasmodium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Helm

    Full Text Available During the blood meal of a Plasmodium-infected mosquito, 10 to 100 parasites are inoculated into the skin and a proportion of these migrate via the bloodstream to the liver where they infect hepatocytes. The Plasmodium liver stage, despite its clinical silence, represents a highly promising target for antimalarial drug and vaccine approaches. Successfully invaded parasites undergo a massive proliferation in hepatocytes, producing thousands of merozoites that are transported into a blood vessel to infect red blood cells. To successfully develop from the liver stage into infective merozoites, a tight regulation of gene expression is needed. Although this is a very interesting aspect in the biology of Plasmodium, little is known about gene regulation in Plasmodium parasites in general and in the liver stage in particular. We have functionally analyzed a novel promoter region of the rodent parasite Plasmodium berghei that is exclusively active during the liver stage of the parasite. To prove stage-specific activity of the promoter, GFP and luciferase reporter assays have been successfully established, allowing both qualitative and accurate quantitative analysis. To further characterize the promoter region, the transcription start site was mapped by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (5'-RACE. Using promoter truncation experiments and site-directed mutagenesis within potential transcription factor binding sites, we suggest that the minimal promoter contains more than one binding site for the recently identified parasite-specific ApiAP2 transcription factors. The identification of a liver stage-specific promoter in P. berghei confirms that the parasite is able to tightly regulate gene expression during its life cycle. The identified promoter region might now be used to study the biology of the Plasmodium liver stage, which has thus far proven problematic on a molecular level. Stage-specific expression of dominant-negative mutant proteins and

  15. The pentapeptide RM-131 promotes food intake and adiposity in wildtype mice but not in mice lacking the ghrelin receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin eFischer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal peptide hormone ghrelin is the endogenous ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR, a.k.a. ghrelin receptor, GHR. Currently, ghrelin is the only circulating peripheral hormone with the ability to promote a positive energy balance by stimulating food intake while decreasing energy expenditure and body fat utilization, as defined in rodents. Based on these and additional, beneficial effects on metabolism, the endogenous ghrelin system is considered an attractive target to treat diverse pathological conditions including those associated with eating/wasting disorders and cachexia. As the pharmacological potential of ghrelin is hampered by its relatively short half-life, ghrelin analogs with enhanced pharmacokinetics offer the potential to sustainably improve metabolism. One of these ghrelin analogs is the pentapeptide RM-131, which promotes food intake and adiposity with higher potency as compared to native ghrelin in rodents. Whereas the effect of RM-131 on energy metabolism is solidly confirmed in rodents, it remains elusive whether RM-131 exerts its effect solely via the ghrelin receptor. Accordingly, we assessed the receptor specificity of RM-131 to promote food intake and adiposity in mice lacking the GHR. Our data show that in wildtype mice RM-131 potently promotes weight gain and adiposity through stimulation of food intake. However, RM-131 fails to affect food intake and body weight in mice lacking the GHR, underlining that the anabolic effects of RM-131 are mediated via the ghrelin receptor in mice.

  16. Analysis of the sexual development-promoting region of Schizophyllum commune TRP1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Kikuo; Kinoshita, Hideki; Tazuke, Kazuyuki; Maki, Yoshinori; Yoshiura, Yumi; Yakushi, Toshiharu; Shibai, Hiroshiro; Kurosawa, Shin-Ichi

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to elucidate the mechanism of sexual development of basidiomycetous mushrooms from mating to fruit body formation. Sequencing analysis showed the TRP1 gene of basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune encoded an enzyme with three catalytic regions of GAT (glutamine amidotransferase), IGPS (indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthase), and PRAI (5-phosphoribosyl anthranilate isomerase); among these three regions, the trp1 mutant (Trp(-)) had a missense mutation (L→F) of a 338th amino acid residue of the TRP1 protein within the IGPS region. To investigate the function of IGPS region related to sexual development, dikaryons with high, usual, and no expression of the IGPS region of TRP1 gene were made. The dikaryotic mycelia with high expression of the IGPS formed mature fruit bodies earlier than those with usual and no expression of the IGPS. These results showed that the IGPS region in TRP1 gene promoted sexual development of S. commune.

  17. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor downregulates MYCN expression and promotes cell differentiation of neuroblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Yi Wu

    Full Text Available Neuroblastoma (NB is the most common malignant disease of infancy. MYCN amplification is a prognostic factor for NB and is a sign of highly malignant disease and poor patient prognosis. In this study, we aimed to investigate novel MYCN-related genes and assess how they affect NB cell behavior. The different gene expression found in 10 MYCN amplification NB tumors and 10 tumors with normal MYCN copy number were analyzed using tissue oligonucleotide microarrays. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis was subsequently performed to identify the potential genes involved in MYCN regulation pathways. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR, a receptor for dioxin-like compounds, was found to be inversely correlated with MYCN expression in NB tissues. This correlation was confirmed in a further 14 human NB samples. Moreover, AHR expression in NB tumors was found to correlate highly with histological grade of differentiation. In vitro studies revealed that AHR overexpression in NB cells induced spontaneous cell differentiation. In addition, it was found that ectopic expression of AHR suppressed MYCN promoter activity resulting in downregulation of MYCN expression. The suppression effect of AHR on the transcription of MYCN was compensated for by E2F1 overexpression, indicating that E2F1 is involved in the AHR-regulating MYCN pathway. Furthermore, AHR shRNA promotes the expression of E2F1 and MYCN in NB cells. These findings suggest that AHR is one of the upstream regulators of MYCN. Through the modulation of E2F1, AHR regulates MYCN gene expression, which may in turn affect NB differentiation.

  18. Genetic Polymorphism of 1019C/G (rs6295) Promoter of Serotonin 1A Receptor and Catechol-O-Methyltransferase in Panic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiguro, Shin; Aoki, Akiko; Ueda, Mikito; Hayashi, Yuki; Akiyama, Kazufumi; Kato, Kazuko; Shimoda, Kazutaka

    2017-01-01

    Objective Family and twin studies have suggested genetic liability for panic disorder (PD) and therefore we sought to determine the role of noradrenergic and serotonergic candidate genes for susceptibility for PD in a Japanese population. Methods In this age- and gender-matched case-control study involving 119 PD patients and 119 healthy controls, we examined the genotype distributions and allele frequencies of the serotonin transporter gene linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), −1019C/G (rs6295) promoter polymorphism of the serotonin receptor 1A (5-HT1A), and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene polymorphism (rs4680) and their association with PD. Results No significant differences were evident in the allele frequencies or genotype distributions of the COMT (rs4680), 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms or the −1019C/G (rs6295) promoter polymorphism of 5-HT1A between PD patients and controls. Although there were no significant associations of these polymorphisms with in subgroups of PD patients differentiated by gender or in subgroup comorbid with agoraphobia (AP), significant difference was observed in genotype distributions of the −1019C/G (rs6295) promoter polymorphism of 5-HT1A between PD patients without AP and controls (p=0.047). Conclusion In this association study, the 1019C/G (rs6295) promoter polymorphism of the 5-HT1A receptor G/G genotype was associated with PD without AP in a Japanese population. PMID:28096880

  19. Multiple ING1 and ING2 genes in Xenopus laevis and evidence for differential association of thyroid hormone receptors and ING proteins to their promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Mary J; Helbing, Caren C

    2008-03-01

    ING (INhibitor of Growth) tumor suppressor proteins are epigenetic factors involved in numerous cellular processes including apoptosis in species ranging from yeast to humans. We recently isolated ING1 and ING2 transcript variants in Xenopus laevis and showed that these transcripts were differentially regulated by thyroid hormone (TH) during postembryonic development. However, no information exists regarding ING gene structure and how it relates to these differential responses to TH. To further investigate the regulation of ING genes by TH, we isolated ING1 and ING2 gene sequences and demonstrated that there are at least duplicate genes for each. The relationship between transcript variants and their responsiveness to TH were examined through promoter sequence and chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses on tail homogenates. Both TH receptors (TRs) differentially associated with ING1 and ING2 promoter regions with increased recruitment in the presence of TH. This occurred irrespective of gene transcript level response to this hormone. However, differential recruitment of RNA polymerase II corresponded well to transcript levels. ING proteins consistently associated with their own gene promoters except in the region generating the TH-inducible xING1b5 transcript. In this case, a substantial recruitment of TRbeta in the absence ING proteins occurred. These data establish the TH-dependent recruitment of transcription factors to ING promoter regions and suggest that differential TR recruitment in response to TH may not be a sufficient indicator for modulating the expression of ING in the tail.

  20. Chemokine Receptor Ccr6 Deficiency Alters Hepatic Inflammatory Cell Recruitment and Promotes Liver Inflammation and Fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Affò

    Full Text Available Chronic liver diseases are characterized by a sustained inflammatory response in which chemokines and chemokine-receptors orchestrate inflammatory cell recruitment. In this study we investigated the role of the chemokine receptor CCR6 in acute and chronic liver injury. In the absence of liver injury Ccr6-/- mice presented a higher number of hepatic macrophages and increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and M1 markers Tnf-α, Il6 and Mcp1. Inflammation and cell recruitment were increased after carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury in Ccr6-/- mice. Moreover, chronic liver injury by carbon tetrachloride in Ccr6-/- mice was associated with enhanced inflammation and fibrosis, altered macrophage recruitment, enhanced CD4+ cells and a reduction in Th17 (CD4+IL17+ and mature dendritic (MHCII+CD11c+ cells recruitment. Clodronate depletion of macrophages in Ccr6-/- mice resulted in a reduction of hepatic pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrogenic markers in the absence and after liver injury. Finally, increased CCR6 hepatic expression in patients with alcoholic hepatitis was found to correlate with liver expression of CCL20 and severity of liver disease. In conclusion, CCR6 deficiency affects hepatic inflammatory cell recruitment resulting in the promotion of hepatic inflammation and fibrosis.

  1. Chemokine Receptor Ccr6 Deficiency Alters Hepatic Inflammatory Cell Recruitment and Promotes Liver Inflammation and Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affò, Silvia; Rodrigo-Torres, Daniel; Blaya, Delia; Morales-Ibanez, Oriol; Coll, Mar; Millán, Cristina; Altamirano, José; Arroyo, Vicente; Caballería, Joan; Bataller, Ramón; Ginès, Pere; Sancho-Bru, Pau

    2015-01-01

    Chronic liver diseases are characterized by a sustained inflammatory response in which chemokines and chemokine-receptors orchestrate inflammatory cell recruitment. In this study we investigated the role of the chemokine receptor CCR6 in acute and chronic liver injury. In the absence of liver injury Ccr6-/- mice presented a higher number of hepatic macrophages and increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and M1 markers Tnf-α, Il6 and Mcp1. Inflammation and cell recruitment were increased after carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury in Ccr6-/- mice. Moreover, chronic liver injury by carbon tetrachloride in Ccr6-/- mice was associated with enhanced inflammation and fibrosis, altered macrophage recruitment, enhanced CD4+ cells and a reduction in Th17 (CD4+IL17+) and mature dendritic (MHCII+CD11c+) cells recruitment. Clodronate depletion of macrophages in Ccr6-/- mice resulted in a reduction of hepatic pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrogenic markers in the absence and after liver injury. Finally, increased CCR6 hepatic expression in patients with alcoholic hepatitis was found to correlate with liver expression of CCL20 and severity of liver disease. In conclusion, CCR6 deficiency affects hepatic inflammatory cell recruitment resulting in the promotion of hepatic inflammation and fibrosis.

  2. The chemokine receptor CCR7 promotes mammary tumorigenesis through amplification of stem-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, S T; Ingman, W V; Poltavets, V; Faulkner, J W; Whitfield, R J; McColl, S R; Kochetkova, M

    2016-01-07

    The chemokine receptor CCR7 is widely implicated in breast cancer pathobiology. Although recent reports correlated high CCR7 levels with more advanced tumor grade and poor prognosis, limited in vivo data are available regarding its specific function in mammary gland neoplasia and the underlying mechanisms involved. To address these questions we generated a bigenic mouse model of breast cancer combined with CCR7 deletion, which revealed that CCR7 ablation results in a considerable delay in tumor onset as well as significantly reduced tumor burden. Importantly, CCR7 was found to exert its function by regulating mammary cancer stem-like cells in both murine and human tumors. In vivo experiments showed that loss of CCR7 activity either through deletion or pharmacological antagonism significantly decreased functional pools of stem-like cells in mouse primary mammary tumors, providing a mechanistic explanation for the tumor-promoting role of this chemokine receptor. These data characterize the oncogenic properties of CCR7 in mammary epithelial neoplasia and point to a new route for therapeutic intervention to target evasive cancer stem cells.

  3. Histamine-HisCl1 receptor axis regulates wake-promoting signals in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangkyun Oh

    Full Text Available Histamine and its two receptors, histamine-gated chloride channel subunit 1 (HisCl1 and ora transientless (Ort, are known to control photoreception and temperature sensing in Drosophila. However, histamine signaling in the context of neural circuitry for sleep-wake behaviors has not yet been examined in detail. Here, we obtained mutant flies with compromised or enhanced histamine signaling and tested their baseline sleep. Hypomorphic mutations in histidine decarboxylase (HDC, an enzyme catalyzing the conversion from histidine to histamine, caused an increase in sleep duration. Interestingly, hisCl1 mutants but not ort mutants showed long-sleep phenotypes similar to those in hdc mutants. Increased sleep duration in hisCl1 mutants was rescued by overexpressing hisCl1 in circadian pacemaker neurons expressing a neuropeptide pigment dispersing factor (PDF. Consistently, RNA interference (RNAi-mediated depletion of hisCl1 in PDF neurons was sufficient to mimic hisCl1 mutant phenotypes, suggesting that PDF neurons are crucial for sleep regulation by the histamine-HisCl1 signaling. Finally, either hisCl1 mutation or genetic ablation of PDF neurons dampened wake-promoting effects of elevated histamine signaling via direct histamine administration. Taken together, these data clearly demonstrate that the histamine-HisCl1 receptor axis can activate and maintain the wake state in Drosophila and that wake-activating signals may travel via the PDF neurons.

  4. Chemokine Receptor Ccr6 Deficiency Alters Hepatic Inflammatory Cell Recruitment and Promotes Liver Inflammation and Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaya, Delia; Morales-Ibanez, Oriol; Coll, Mar; Millán, Cristina; Altamirano, José; Arroyo, Vicente; Caballería, Joan; Bataller, Ramón; Ginès, Pere; Sancho-Bru, Pau

    2015-01-01

    Chronic liver diseases are characterized by a sustained inflammatory response in which chemokines and chemokine-receptors orchestrate inflammatory cell recruitment. In this study we investigated the role of the chemokine receptor CCR6 in acute and chronic liver injury. In the absence of liver injury Ccr6-/- mice presented a higher number of hepatic macrophages and increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and M1 markers Tnf-α, Il6 and Mcp1. Inflammation and cell recruitment were increased after carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury in Ccr6-/- mice. Moreover, chronic liver injury by carbon tetrachloride in Ccr6-/- mice was associated with enhanced inflammation and fibrosis, altered macrophage recruitment, enhanced CD4+ cells and a reduction in Th17 (CD4+IL17+) and mature dendritic (MHCII+CD11c+) cells recruitment. Clodronate depletion of macrophages in Ccr6-/- mice resulted in a reduction of hepatic pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrogenic markers in the absence and after liver injury. Finally, increased CCR6 hepatic expression in patients with alcoholic hepatitis was found to correlate with liver expression of CCL20 and severity of liver disease. In conclusion, CCR6 deficiency affects hepatic inflammatory cell recruitment resulting in the promotion of hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. PMID:26691857

  5. Ritonavir binds to and downregulates estrogen receptors: Molecular mechanism of promoting early atherosclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Jin [Ministry of Education Laboratory of Combinatorial Biosynthesis and Drug Discovery, School of Pharmaceutical Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Ying [Department of Pathophysiology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Su, Ke [Department of Nephrology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430060 (China); Liu, Min [Ministry of Education Laboratory of Combinatorial Biosynthesis and Drug Discovery, School of Pharmaceutical Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hu, Peng-Chao [Department of Pathophysiology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Ma, Tian; Li, Jia-Xi [Ministry of Education Laboratory of Combinatorial Biosynthesis and Drug Discovery, School of Pharmaceutical Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wei, Lei [Department of Pathophysiology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Zheng, Zhongliang, E-mail: biochem@whu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Yang, Fang, E-mail: fang-yang@whu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2014-10-01

    Estrogenic actions are closely related to cardiovascular disease. Ritonavir (RTV), a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitor, induces atherosclerosis in an estrogen-related manner. However, how RTV induce pathological phenotypes through estrogen pathway remains unclear. In this study, we found that RTV increases thickness of coronary artery walls of Sprague Dawley rats and plasma free fatty acids (FFA) levels. In addition, RTV could induce foam cell formation, downregulate both estrogen receptor α (ERα) and ERβ expression, upregulate G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) expression, and all of them could be partially blocked by 17β-estradiol (E2), suggesting RTV acts as an antagonist for E2. Computational modeling shows a similar interaction with ERα between RTV and 2-aryl indoles, which are highly subtype-selective ligands for ERα. We also found that RTV directly bound to ERα and selectively inhibited the nuclear localization of ERα, and residue Leu536 in the hydrophobic core of ligand binding domain (LBD) was essential for the interaction with RTV. In addition, RTV did not change the secondary structure of ERα-LBD like E2, which explained how ERα lost the capacity of nuclear translocation under the treatment of RTV. All of the evidences suggest that ritonavir acts as an antagonist for 17β-estradiol in regulating α subtype estrogen receptor function and early events of atherosclerosis. - Graphical abstract: RTV directly binds to ERα and Leu536 in the hydrophobic core of ligand binding domain is essential for the interaction. - Highlights: • RTV increases the thickness of rat coronary artery wall and foam cell formation. • RTV downregulates the expression of ERα and ERβ. • RTV inhibits ERα promoter activity. • RTV directly binds to ERα and the key amino acid is Leu536. • RTV inhibits the nuclear translocation of ERα and GPER.

  6. Investigation of G-quadruplex formation in the FGFR2 promoter region and its transcriptional regulation by liensinine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lulu; Tan, Wei; Zhou, Jiang; Xu, Ming; Yuan, Gu

    2017-04-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) is overexpressed in breast cancer tissues and cells, and has been shown to be a susceptibility factor for breast cancer. In this study, we found that the G-rich sequences in the FGFR2 promoter region can form G-quadruplexes, which could be the target and inhibitor of the FGFR2 gene. Initially, the formation of G-quadruplexes was confirmed by ESI-MS and CD, and DMS footprinting experiments gave the folding pattern of the G-quadruplexes. After luciferase reporter assays revealed that the G-quadruplex could inhibit the activity of the FGFR2 promoter, MS and SPR showed binding affinity and selectivity of the ligand. Then cell culture experiments and ChIP assay showed the bioactivity of the ligand. We found that three G-rich sequences (S1-S3) in the FGFR2 promoter region can form G-quadruplex structures. And a natural alkaloid, liensinine, was found to bind to the S1 G-quadruplex with relative high affinity and selectivity. Cell culture experiments showed that liensinine inhibits FGFR2 activity at both the transcriptional and translational levels. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay (ChIP) results showed that liensinine blocks the binding of E2F1 at the transcription factor binding site (TFBS) in the S1 sequence, which is the mechanism through which liensinine inhibits the FGFR2 gene. A natural alkaloid was discovered to selectively bind to the S1 G-quadruplex with relative high affinity, and therefore inhibited FGFR2 transcription and translation. Our discovery offers a useful strategy to inhibit FGFR2 transcription, i.e., targeting the G-quadruplex with a natural alkaloid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Systematic screening for mutations in the promoter and the coding region of the 5-HT{sub 1A} gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmann, J.; Shimron-Abarbanell, D.; Cichon, S. [Univ. of Bonn (Germany)] [and others

    1995-10-09

    In the present study we sought to identify genetic variation in the 5-HT{sub 1A} receptor gene which through alteration of protein function or level of expression might contribute to the genetic predisposition to neuropsychiatric diseases. Genomic DNA samples from 159 unrelated subjects (including 45 schizophrenic, 46 bipolar affective, and 43 patients with Tourette`s syndrome, as well as 25 healthy controls) were investigated by single-strand conformation analysis. Overlapping PCR (polymerase chain reaction) fragments covered the whole coding sequence as well as the 5{prime} untranslated region of the 5-HT{sub 1A} gene. The region upstream to the coding sequence we investigated contains a functional promoter. We found two rare nucleotide sequence variants. Both mutations are located in the coding region of the gene: a coding mutation (A{yields}G) in nucleotide position 82 which leads to an amino acid exchange (Ile{yields}Val) in position 28 of the receptor protein and a silent mutation (C{yields}T) in nucleotide position 549. The occurrence of the Ile-28-Val substitution was studied in an extended sample of patients (n = 352) and controls (n = 210) but was found in similar frequencies in all groups. Thus, this mutation is unlikely to play a significant role in the genetic predisposition to the diseases investigated. In conclusion, our study does not provide evidence that the 5-HT{sub 1A} gene plays either a major or a minor role in the genetic predisposition to schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder, or Tourette`s syndrome. 29 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Targeting the unique methylation pattern of androgen receptor (AR) promoter in prostate stem/progenitor cells with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-AZA) leads to suppressed prostate tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jing; Lee, Soo Ok; Liang, Liang; Luo, Jie; Huang, Chiung-Kuei; Li, Lei; Niu, Yuanjie; Chang, Chawnshang

    2012-11-16

    Androgen receptor (AR) expression surveys found that normal prostate/prostate cancer (PCa) stem/progenitor cells, but not embryonic or mesenchymal stem cells, expressed little AR with high methylation in the AR promoter. Mechanism dissection revealed that the differential methylation pattern in the AR promoter could be due to differential expression of methyltransferases and binding of methylation binding protein to the AR promoter region. The low expression of AR in normal prostate/PCa stem/progenitor cells was reversed after adding 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, a demethylating agent, which could then lead to decreased stemness and drive cells into a more differentiated status, suggesting that the methylation in the AR promoter of prostate stem/progenitor cells is critical not only in maintaining the stemness but also critical in protection of cells from differentiation. Furthermore, induced AR expression, via alteration of its methylation pattern, led to suppression of the self-renewal/proliferation of prostate stem/progenitor cells and PCa tumorigenesis in both in vitro assays and in vivo orthotopic xenografted mouse studies. Taken together, these data prove the unique methylation pattern of AR promoter in normal prostate/PCa stem/progenitor cells and the influence of AR on their renewal/proliferation and differentiation. Targeting PCa stem/progenitor cells with alteration of methylated AR promoter status might provide a new potential therapeutic approach to battle PCa because the PCa stem/progenitor cells have high tumorigenicity.

  9. CCR6, the sole receptor for the chemokine CCL20, promotes spontaneous intestinal tumorigenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bisweswar Nandi

    Full Text Available Interactions between the inflammatory chemokine CCL20 and its receptor CCR6 have been associated with colorectal cancer growth and metastasis, however, a causal role for CCL20 signaling through CCR6 in promoting intestinal carcinogenesis has not been demonstrated in vivo. In this study, we aimed to determine the role of CCL20-CCR6 interactions in spontaneous intestinal tumorigenesis. CCR6-deficient mice were crossed with mice heterozygous for a mutation in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC gene (APCMIN/+ mice to generate APCMIN/+ mice with CCR6 knocked out (CCR6KO-APCMIN/+ mice. CCR6KO-APCMIN/+ mice had diminished spontaneous intestinal tumorigenesis. CCR6KO-APCMIN/+ also had normal sized spleens as compared to the enlarged spleens found in APCMIN/+ mice. Decreased macrophage infiltration into intestinal adenomas and non-tumor epithelium was observed in CCR6KO-APCMIN/+ as compared to APCMIN/+ mice. CCL20 signaling through CCR6 caused increased production of CCL20 by colorectal cancer cell lines. Furthermore, CCL20 had a direct mitogenic effect on colorectal cancer cells. Thus, interactions between CCL20 and CCR6 promote intestinal carcinogenesis. Our results suggest that the intestinal tumorigenesis driven by CCL20-CCR6 interactions may be driven by macrophage recruitment into the intestine as well as proliferation of neoplastic epithelial cells. This interaction could be targeted for the treatment or prevention of malignancy.

  10. NR2D-containing NMDA receptors mediate tissue plasminogen activator-promoted neuronal excitotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, A; Montagne, A; Cassé, F; Launay, S; Maubert, E; Ali, C; Vivien, D

    2010-05-01

    Although the molecular bases of its actions remain debated, tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is a paradoxical brain protease, as it favours some learning/memory processes, but increases excitotoxic neuronal death. Here, we show that, in cultured cortical neurons, tPA selectively promotes NR2D-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-dependent activation. We show that tPA-mediated signalling and neurotoxicity through the NMDAR are blocked by co-application of an NR2D antagonist (phenanthrene derivative (2S(*), 3R(*))-1-(phenanthrene-2-carbonyl)piperazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid, PPDA) or knockdown of neuronal NR2D expression. In sharp contrast with cortical neurons, hippocampal neurons do not exhibit NR2D both in vitro and in vivo and are consequently resistant to tPA-promoted NMDAR-mediated neurotoxicity. Moreover, we have shown that activation of synaptic NMDAR prevents further tPA-dependent NMDAR-mediated neurotoxicity and sensitivity to PPDA. This study shows that the earlier described pro-neurotoxic effect of tPA is mediated by NR2D-containing NMDAR-dependent extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation, a deleterious effect prevented by synaptic pre-activation.

  11. The VLDL receptor promotes lipotoxicity and increases mortality in mice following an acute myocardial infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perman, Jeanna C.; Boström, Pontus; Lindbom, Malin; Lidberg, Ulf; StÅhlman, Marcus; Hägg, Daniel; Lindskog, Henrik; Scharin Täng, Margareta; Omerovic, Elmir; Mattsson Hultén, Lillemor; Jeppsson, Anders; Petursson, Petur; Herlitz, Johan; Olivecrona, Gunilla; Strickland, Dudley K.; Ekroos, Kim; Olofsson, Sven-Olof; Borén, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Impaired cardiac function is associated with myocardial triglyceride accumulation, but it is not clear how the lipids accumulate or whether this accumulation is detrimental. Here we show that hypoxia/ischemia-induced accumulation of lipids in HL-1 cardiomyocytes and mouse hearts is dependent on expression of the VLDL receptor (VLDLR). Hypoxia-induced VLDLR expression in HL-1 cells was dependent on HIF-1α through its interaction with a hypoxia-responsive element in the Vldlr promoter, and VLDLR promoted the endocytosis of lipoproteins. Furthermore, VLDLR expression was higher in ischemic compared with nonischemic left ventricles from human hearts and was correlated with the total lipid droplet area in the cardiomyocytes. Importantly, Vldlr–/– mice showed improved survival and decreased infarct area following an induced myocardial infarction. ER stress, which leads to apoptosis, is known to be involved in ischemic heart disease. We found that ischemia-induced ER stress and apoptosis in mouse hearts were reduced in Vldlr–/– mice and in mice treated with antibodies specific for VLDLR. These findings suggest that VLDLR-induced lipid accumulation in the ischemic heart worsens survival by increasing ER stress and apoptosis. PMID:21670500

  12. SMARCAL1 Negatively Regulates C-Myc Transcription By Altering The Conformation Of The Promoter Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Tapan; Bansal, Ritu; Haokip, Dominic Thangminlen; Goel, Isha; Muthuswami, Rohini

    2015-12-09

    SMARCAL1, a member of the SWI2/SNF2 protein family, stabilizes replication forks during DNA damage. In this manuscript, we provide the first evidence that SMARCAL1 is also a transcriptional co-regulator modulating the expression of c-Myc, a transcription factor that regulates 10-15% genes in the human genome. BRG1, SMARCAL1 and RNAPII were found localized onto the c-myc promoter. When HeLa cells were serum starved, the occupancy of SMARCAL1 on the c-myc promoter increased while that of BRG1 and RNAPII decreased correlating with repression of c-myc transcription. Using Active DNA-dependent ATPase A Domain (ADAAD), the bovine homolog of SMARCAL1, we show that the protein can hydrolyze ATP using a specific region upstream of the CT element of the c-myc promoter as a DNA effector. The energy, thereby, released is harnessed to alter the conformation of the promoter DNA. We propose that SMARCAL1 negatively regulates c-myc transcription by altering the conformation of its promoter region during differentiation.

  13. Characterisation of the promoter region of the human DNA-repair gene Rad51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselbach, L; Haase, S; Fischer, D; Kolberg, H C; Stürzbecher, H W

    2005-01-01

    Regulatory elements of the 5'-flanking region of the DNA-repair gene Rad51 were analysed to characterise pathological alterations of Rad51 mRNA expression during tumour development. Various fragments of the Rad51 promoter were cloned into the pGL3 reporter vector and the respective promoter activity was determined by luciferase assays in transfected U2-OS cells. Transcription factor binding was identified using Protein/DNA arrays. The region encompassing base pairs -204 to -58 was identified as crucial for Rad51 gene transcription. Down regulator sequences are present upstream (-305 to -204) and downstream (-48 and +204) of this core promoter element. Promoter activity is significantly enhanced by substituting G at the polymorphic positions +135 and +172 for C and T, respectively. Transcription factors Ets1/PEA3, E2F1, p53, EGR1, and Stat5 were identified as relevant for regulating expression of Rad51. We identified three separate cis-sequence elements within the Rad51 transcriptional promoter, one ensuring basal levels of expression and two elements limiting expression to relatively low levels. The characterisation of transcription factor binding might help to explain high-level expression of Rad51 in a variety of solid tumours. The polymorphic sites appear important for the increased risk of breast and/or ovarian cancer for BRCA2 mutation carriers.

  14. Short ultraconserved promoter regions delineate a class of preferentially expressed alternatively spliced transcripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rödelsperger, Christian; Köhler, Sebastian; Schulz, Marcel H; Manke, Thomas; Bauer, Sebastian; Robinson, Peter N

    2009-11-01

    Ultraconservation has been variously defined to describe sequences that have remained identical or nearly so over long periods of evolution to a degree that is higher than expected for sequences under typical constraints associated with protein-coding sequences, splice sites, or transcription factor binding sites. Most intergenic ultraconserved elements (UCE) appear to be tissue-specific enhancers, whereas another class of intragenic UCEs is involved in regulation of gene expression by means of alternative splicing. In this study we define a set of 2827 short ultraconserved promoter regions (SUPR) in 5 kb upstream regions of 1268 human protein-coding genes using a definition of 98% identity for at least 30 bp in 7 mammalian species. Our analysis shows that SUPRs are enriched in genes playing a role in regulation and development. Many of the genes having a SUPR-containing promoter have additional alternative promoters that do not contain SUPRs. Comparison of such promoters by CAGE tag, EST, and Solexa read analysis revealed that SUPR-associated transcripts show a significantly higher mean expression than transcripts associated with non-SUPR-containing promoters. The same was true for the comparison between all SUPR-associated and non-SUPR-associated transcripts on a genome-wide basis. SUPR-associated genes show a highly significant tendency to occur in regions that are also enriched for intergenic short ultraconserved elements (SUE) in the vicinity of developmental genes. A number of predicted transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) are overrepresented in SUPRs and SUEs, including those for transcription factors of the homeodomain family, but in contrast to SUEs, SUPRs are also enriched in core-promoter motifs. These observations suggest that SUPRs delineate a distinct class of ultraconserved sequences.

  15. Transcriptional inhibition of the bacteriophage T7 early promoter region by oligonucleotide triple helix formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, C; Samuel, M; Broitman, S L

    1992-12-30

    We have identified a purine-rich triplex binding sequence overlapping a -35 transcriptional early promoter region of the bacteriophage T7. Triplex-forming oligonucleotide designed to bind this target was annealed to T7 templates and introduced into in vitro transcription systems under conditions favoring specific initiation from this promoter. These templates demonstrated significant transcriptional inhibition relative to naked genomic templates and templates mixed with non-triplex-forming oligonucleotide. It is suggested that triplex formation along this target interferes with transcriptional initiation, and this mechanism may hold potential to disrupt bacteriophage T7 early transcription in vivo.

  16. Cbln family proteins promote synapse formation by regulating distinct neurexin signaling pathways in various brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Keiko; Yuzaki, Michisuke

    2011-04-01

    Cbln1 (a.k.a. precerebellin) is a unique bidirectional synaptic organizer that plays an essential role in the formation and maintenance of excitatory synapses between granule cells and Purkinje cells in the mouse cerebellum. Cbln1 secreted from cerebellar granule cells directly induces presynaptic differentiation and indirectly serves as a postsynaptic organizer by binding to its receptor, the δ2 glutamate receptor. However, it remains unclear how Cbln1 binds to the presynaptic sites and interacts with other synaptic organizers. Furthermore, although Cbln1 and its family members Cbln2 and Cbln4 are expressed in brain regions other than the cerebellum, it is unknown whether they regulate synapse formation in these brain regions. In this study, we showed that Cbln1 and Cbln2, but not Cbln4, specifically bound to its presynaptic receptor -α and β isoforms of neurexin carrying the splice site 4 insert [NRXs(S4+)] - and induced synaptogenesis in cerebellar, hippocampal and cortical neurons in vitro. Cbln1 competed with synaptogenesis mediated by neuroligin 1, which lacks the splice sites A and B, but not leucine-rich repeat transmembrane protein 2, possibly by sharing the presynaptic receptor NRXs(S4+). However, unlike neurexins/neuroligins or neurexins/leucine-rich repeat transmembrane proteins, the interaction between NRX1β(S4+) and Cbln1 was insensitive to extracellular Ca(2+) concentrations. These findings revealed the unique and general roles of Cbln family proteins in mediating the formation and maintenance of synapses not only in the cerebellum but also in various other brain regions.

  17. Regional Cooperation Efforts in the Mekong River Basin: Mitigating river-related security threats and promoting regional development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Schmeier

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of international rivers is often perceived as leading to conflicts or even water wars. However, as the development of the Mekong River shows, cooperation has not only prevailed in the last decades, but River Basin Organizations (RBOs, established to mitigate river-related conflicts and/or develop the river basin, have also contributed to the emergence of more general cooperation structures, mainly by creating spill-over effects in other issue-areas, bringing cooperation to policy fields beyond the river itself. This article assesses the contribution of the Mekong River Commission (MRC and the Greater Mekong Sub-Region (GMS to the sustainable development of the Mekong Region as well as to the promotion of regional cooperation in mainland South-East Asia in general. --- Die Entwicklung grenzüberschreitender Flüsse wird oft mit Konflikten oder gar Kriegen um Wasser assoziiert. Wie jedoch die Entwicklung im Mekong-Becken zeigt, waren die vergangenen Jahrzehnte nicht nur von Kooperation gezeichnet, sondern Flussbeckenorganisationen konnten außerdem dazu beitragen, weitreichendere Kooperationsstrukturen zu entwickeln, die sich auf andere Politikfelder ausdehnen. Dieser Artikel beschäftigt sich mit dem Beitrag der Mekong River Commission (MRC und der Greater Mekong Sub-Region (GMS zur nachhaltigen Entwicklung in der Mekong Region sowie zur Förderung allgemeiner regionaler Kooperation im Festländischen Südostasien.

  18. Regional differences in gene expression and promoter usage in aged human brains

    KAUST Repository

    Pardo, Luba M.

    2013-02-19

    To characterize the promoterome of caudate and putamen regions (striatum), frontal and temporal cortices, and hippocampi from aged human brains, we used high-throughput cap analysis of gene expression to profile the transcription start sites and to quantify the differences in gene expression across the 5 brain regions. We also analyzed the extent to which methylation influenced the observed expression profiles. We sequenced more than 71 million cap analysis of gene expression tags corresponding to 70,202 promoter regions and 16,888 genes. More than 7000 transcripts were differentially expressed, mainly because of differential alternative promoter usage. Unexpectedly, 7% of differentially expressed genes were neurodevelopmental transcription factors. Functional pathway analysis on the differentially expressed genes revealed an overrepresentation of several signaling pathways (e.g., fibroblast growth factor and wnt signaling) in hippocampus and striatum. We also found that although 73% of methylation signals mapped within genes, the influence of methylation on the expression profile was small. Our study underscores alternative promoter usage as an important mechanism for determining the regional differences in gene expression at old age.

  19. CB1 cannabinoid receptor enrichment in the ependymal region of the adult human spinal cord

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz Paniagua-Torija; Angel Arevalo-Martin; Isidro Ferrer; Eduardo Molina-Holgado; Daniel Garcia-Ovejero

    2015-01-01

    Cannabinoids are involved in the regulation of neural stem cell biology and their receptors are expressed in the neurogenic niches of adult rodents. In the spinal cord of rats and mice, neural stem cells can be found in the ependymal region, surrounding the central canal, but there is evidence that this region is largely different in adult humans: lacks a patent canal and presents perivascular pseudorosettes, typically found in low grade ependymomas. Using Laser Capture Microdissection, Taqma...

  20. Brand Products of Regional Cuisine in the Promotion of Tourism in Roztocze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekier-Jaworska Ewa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. There has been a trend over the last few years of using specialties of regional cuisine as an independent tourist attraction. The creation of local brands is an important element in the promotion of a given region and it also influences the development of culinary tourism. The aim of the studies conducted was to identify regional dishes - a choice of dishes that could be described as 'brand dishes' and the use of those dishes as tourist attractions in Roztocze. Material and methods. Studies were conducted on a group of students studying tourism and recreation at State Higher School of Vocational Education (PWSZ in Zamość using a questionnaire. Results. The questionnaire provided an assessment of the levels of knowledge of regional cuisine among Polish and Ukrainian students, identified the most characteristic dishes and selected brand products, and helped to arrive at a suitable method of promotion. Conclusions. Nationality, family customs and selection of local restaurants highly influence knowledge of regional cuisine. Interviewees decided that the most outstanding products from Roztocze were Zwierzyniec beer, and Biłgoraj pie. Regional products should be used as a tourist attraction in Roztocze.

  1. Characterization of the promoter region of biosynthetic enzyme genes involved in berberine biosynthesis in Coptis japonica

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    Yasuyuki Yamada

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of alkaloids is rather specific to certain plant species. However, berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid, is relatively broadly distributed in the plant kingdom. Thus, berberine biosynthesis has been intensively investigated, especially using Coptis japonica cell cultures. Almost all biosynthetic enzyme genes have already been characterized at the molecular level. Particularly, two transcription factors (TFs, a plant-specific WRKY-type transcription factor, CjWRKY1, and a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH transcription factor, CjbHLH1, were shown to comprehensively regulate berberine biosynthesis in C. japonica cells. In this study, we characterized the promoter region of some biosynthetic enzyme genes and associated cis-acting elements involved in the transcriptional regulation via two TFs. The promoter regions of three berberine biosynthetic enzyme genes (CYP80B2, 4’OMT and CYP719A1 were isolated, and their promoter activities were dissected by a transient assay involving the sequentially truncated promoter::luciferase (LUC reporter constructs. Furthermore, transactivation activities of CjWRKY1 were determined using the truncated promoter::LUC reporter constructs or constructs with mutated cis-elements. These results suggest the involvement of a putative W-box in the regulation of biosynthetic enzyme genes. Direct binding of CjWRKY1 to the W-box DNA sequence was also confirmed by an electrophoresis mobility shift assay (EMSA and by a chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assay. In addition, CjbHLH1 also activated transcription from truncated 4’OMT and CYP719A1 promoters independently of CjWRKY1, suggesting the involvement of a putative E-box. Unexpected transcriptional activation of biosynthetic enzyme genes via a non-W-box sequence and by CjWRKY1 as well as the possible involvement of a GCC-box in berberine biosynthesis in C. japonica are discussed.

  2. [Nucleotide sequence of HLA-DQA1 promoter region (QAP) in a lung cancer patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, C; Zhou, W; Song, C

    1996-06-01

    The HLA-DQA1 allele and nucleotide sequence of HLA-DQA1 promoter region (QAP) in a patient with IDDM complicated lung cancer have been identified by PCR/SSCP, PCR/SSCP and PCR/sequencing. The results showed that: (1) All of the lung cancer patient and his family members carried HLA-DQA1* 0301/0501 alleles. (2) a single base substitution G-->A at position -155 and deletion CAA at position -161 to -163 occurred in the patient. These results suggest that the mutation of HLA-DQA1 promoter region may modulate HLA-DQA1 gene expression by trans-acting factors binding to variant cis-acting elements and may be responsible for pathogenesis of lung cancer.

  3. The International, Regional and Local Interaction in the Promotion of Cultural Tourism in Mozambique

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    Elisa Magnani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the tourist promotion of the cultural and natural heritage in Mozambique, one of Africa’s poorest countries, whose strategy for the reduction of poverty highlights the role of tourism in supporting territorial development and implementing the Millennium/Sustainable Development Goals, the United Nation plan to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure prosperity for all. The country has produced a national strategy for the development of tourism that is based on the integration at the national level of international and regional policies implemented through the territorial action of several subjects working at the local level. Among them, regional and international Ngos, that play an important role in promoting actions aimed at capacity-building, advocacy, empowerment. This strategy makes of Mozambique a very interesting example of the rescaling process in tourism development that guides the political agenda of both the international tourist organizations and the national governments.

  4. Structure, variation and expression analysis of glutenin gene promoters from Triticum aestivum cultivar Chinese Spring shows the distal region of promoter 1Bx7 is key regulatory sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Zhang, Xue; Zhao, Ying; Chen, Fanguo; Xia, Guangmin

    2013-09-25

    In this study, ten glutenin gene promoters were isolated from model wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Chinese Spring) using a genomic PCR strategy with gene-specific primers. Six belonged to high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) gene promoters, and four to low-molecular-weight glutenin subunit (LMW-GS). Sequence lengths varied from 1361 to 2,554 bp. We show that the glutenin gene promoter motifs are conserved in diverse sequences in this study, with HMW-GS and LMW-GS gene promoters characterized by distinct conserved motif combinations. Our findings show that HMW-GS promoters contain more functional motifs in the distal region of the glutenin gene promoter (> -700 bp) compared with LMW-GS. The y-type HMW-GS gene promoters possess unique motifs including RY repeat and as-2 box compared to the x-type. We also identified important motifs in the distal region of HMW-GS gene promoters including the 5'-UTR Py-rich stretch motif and the as-2 box motif. We found that cis-acting elements in the distal region of promoter 1Bx7 enhanced the expression of HMW-GS gene 1Bx7. Taken together, these data support efforts in designing molecular breeding strategies aiming to improve wheat quality. Our results offer insight into the regulatory mechanisms of glutenin gene expression.

  5. P2Y₁ receptor-dependent diacylglycerol signaling microdomains in β cells promote insulin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuttke, Anne; Idevall-Hagren, Olof; Tengholm, Anders

    2013-04-01

    Diacylglycerol (DAG) controls numerous cell functions by regulating the localization of C1-domain-containing proteins, including protein kinase C (PKC), but little is known about the spatiotemporal dynamics of the lipid. Here, we explored plasma membrane DAG dynamics in pancreatic β cells and determined whether DAG signaling is involved in secretagogue-induced pulsatile release of insulin. Single MIN6 cells, primary mouse β cells, and human β cells within intact islets were transfected with translocation biosensors for DAG, PKC activity, or insulin secretion and imaged with total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. Muscarinic receptor stimulation triggered stable, homogenous DAG elevations, whereas glucose induced short-lived (7.1 ± 0.4 s) but high-amplitude elevations (up to 109 ± 10% fluorescence increase) in spatially confined membrane regions. The spiking was mimicked by membrane depolarization and suppressed after inhibition of exocytosis or of purinergic P2Y₁, but not P2X receptors, reflecting involvement of autocrine purinoceptor activation after exocytotic release of ATP. Each DAG spike caused local PKC activation with resulting dissociation of its substrate protein MARCKS from the plasma membrane. Inhibition of spiking reduced glucose-induced pulsatile insulin secretion. Thus, stimulus-specific DAG signaling patterns appear in the plasma membrane, including distinct microdomains, which have implications for the kinetic control of exocytosis and other membrane-associated processes.

  6. Genome-wide function of H2B ubiquitylation in promoter and genic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batta, Kiran; Zhang, Zhenhai; Yen, Kuangyu; Goffman, David B; Pugh, B Franklin

    2011-11-01

    Nucleosomal organization in and around genes may contribute substantially to transcriptional regulation. The contribution of histone modifications to genome-wide nucleosomal organization has not been systematically evaluated. In the present study, we examine the role of H2BK123 ubiquitylation, a key regulator of several histone modifications, on nucleosomal organization at promoter, genic, and transcription termination regions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using high-resolution MNase chromatin immunoprecipitation and sequencing (ChIP-seq), we map nucleosome positioning and occupancy in mutants of the H2BK123 ubiquitylation pathway. We found that H2B ubiquitylation-mediated nucleosome formation and/or stability inhibits the assembly of the transcription machinery at normally quiescent promoters, whereas ubiquitylation within highly active gene bodies promotes transcription elongation. This regulation does not proceed through ubiquitylation-regulated histone marks at H3K4, K36, and K79. Our findings suggest that mechanistically similar functions of H2B ubiquitylation (nucleosome assembly) elicit different functional outcomes on genes depending on its positional context in promoters (repressive) versus transcribed regions (activating).

  7. Determination of the promoter region of an early vaccinia virus gene encoding thymidine kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, J P; Moss, B

    1987-05-01

    Nine recombinant vaccinia viruses that contain overlapping segments of the putative promoter region of the vaccinia virus thymidine kinase (TK) gene linked to DNA coding for the prokaryotic enzyme chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) were constructed. In each case, the RNA start site and 5 bp of DNA downstream were retained. No significant difference in CAT expression occurred as the deletion was extended from 352 to 32 bp before the RNA start site. Deletion of a further 10 bp, however, led to complete cessation of early promoter activity. Primer extension analysis of the 5' ends of the transcripts verified that the natural TK RNA start site was still used when only 32 bp of upstream DNA remained. Loss of early promoter activity was previously found when deletions were extended from 31 to 24 bp before the RNA start site of another vaccinia gene that is expressed constitutively throughout infection (M.A. Cochran, C. Puckett, and B. Moss, 1985, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82, 19-23). Sequence similarities in the promoter regions of these two genes were noted.

  8. Expression of PGE2 EP3 receptor subtypes in the mouse preoptic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilache, Ana Maria; Andersson, Josefin; Nilsberth, Camilla

    2007-08-23

    Inflammatory-induced fever is dependent on prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) binding to its EP(3) receptor in the thermoregulatory region of the hypothalamus, but it is not known which EP(3) receptor isoform(s) that is/are involved. We identified the EP(3) receptor expression in the mouse preoptic region by in situ hybridization and isolated the corresponding area by laser capture microdissection. Real-time RT-PCR analysis of microdissected tissue revealed a predominant expression of the EP(3alpha) isoform, but there was also considerable expression of EP(3gamma), corresponding to approximately 15% of total EP(3) receptor expression, whereas EP(3beta) was sparsely expressed. This distribution was not changed by immune challenge induced by peripheral administration of LPS, indicating that EP(3) receptor splicing and distribution is not activity dependent. Considering that EP(3alpha) and EP(3gamma) are associated with inhibitory and stimulatory G-proteins, respectively, the present data demonstrate that the PGE(2) response of the target neurons is intricately regulated.

  9. Upregulation of orexin receptor in paraventricular nucleus promotes sympathetic outflow in obese Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jing-Jing; Yuan, Fang; Zhang, Yi; Li, De-Pei

    2015-12-01

    Sympathetic vasomotor tone is elevated in obesity-related hypertension. Orexin importantly regulates energy metabolism and autonomic function. We hypothesized that alteration of orexin receptor in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus leads to elevated sympathetic vasomotor tone in obesity. We used in vivo measurement of sympathetic vasomotor tone and microinjection into brain nucleus, whole-cell patch clamp recording in brain slices, and immunocytochemical staining in obese Zucker rats (OZRs) and lean Zucker rats (LZRs). Microinjection of orexin 1 receptor (OX1R) antagonist SB334867 into the PVN reduced basal arterial blood pressure (ABP) and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) in anesthetized OZRs but not in LZRs. Microinjection of orexin A into the PVN produced greater increases in ABP and RSNA in OZRs than in LZRs. Western blot analysis revealed that OX1R expression levels in the PVN were significantly increased in OZRs compared with LZRs. OX1R immunoreactivity was positive in retrogradely labeled PVN-spinal neurons. The basal firing rate of labeled PVN-spinal neurons was higher in OZRs than in LZRs. SB334867 decreased the basal firing activity of PVN-spinal neurons in OZRs but had no effect in LZRs. Orexin A induced a greater increase in the firing rate of PVN-spinal neurons in OZRs than in LZRs. In addition, orexin A induced larger currents in PVN-spinal neurons in OZRs than in LZRs. These data suggest that upregulation of OX1R in the PVN promotes hyperactivity of PVN presympathetic neurons and elevated sympathetic outflow in obesity.

  10. Scenario Planning as a Tool to Promote Innovation in Regional Development Context

    OpenAIRE

    Edgar, Boo; Abouzeedan, Adli; Hedner, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Scenario planning is a tool that can be used to project and promote innovation activities in organizations. The more disruptive the innovation is, the more beneficial effects will be expected to come out of utilizing a scenario planning process. This planning approach may be considered when discussing innovation in relation to regional development as well as in respect to the introduction of novel and potentially radical innovations. In this paper, we discuss the utilization of scenario plann...

  11. Phenotype of mutations in the promoter region of the β-globin gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropero, Paloma; Erquiaga, Sara; Arrizabalaga, Beatriz; Pérez, Germán; de la Iglesia, Silvia; Torrejón, María José; Gil, Celia; Elena, Cela; Tenorio, María; Nieto, Jorge M; de la Fuente-Gonzalo, Félix; Villegas, Ana; González Fernández, Fernando-Ataúlfo; Martínez, Rafael

    2017-10-01

    β(+)-Thalassaemia is characterised by reduced production of β chains, which decrease can be caused by mutations in the promoter region (CACCC or TATA box), and is classified as mild or silent depending on the extent of β-globin chain reduction. In both cases, homozygotes or compound heterozygotes for these mutations usually have thalassaemia intermedia. Frequently the diagnosis is made in adulthood or even in old age. A total of 37 alterations in the promoter region have been described so far. In this report we describe the mutations found in the promoter region of the β-globin gene in a single hospital in Madrid. Between 1998 and 2015, more than 9000 blood samples were analysed for full blood count and underwent haemoglobin electrophoresis and high performance liquid chromatography. Genetic analysis of the β and Gγ-globin genes was carried out by automatic sequencing and, in the case of α genes, by multiplex PCR. 35 samples showed mutation in the promoter region of the β-globin gene, with a total of six different mutations identified: one in the distal CACCC box, two in the proximal CACCC box, three in the ATA box. Any alterations in the proximal CACCC and TATA boxes lead to a moderate decrease in synthesis of the β-globin chain, which has been demonstrated in cases of thalassaemia intermedia that have presented in the second decade of life with a moderate clinical course. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. Evolution of an adaptive behavior and its sensory receptors promotes eye regression in blind cavefish

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    Yoshizawa Masato

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background How and why animals lose eyesight during adaptation to the dark and food-limited cave environment has puzzled biologists since the time of Darwin. More recently, several different adaptive hypotheses have been proposed to explain eye degeneration based on studies in the teleost Astyanax mexicanus, which consists of blind cave-dwelling (cavefish and sighted surface-dwelling (surface fish forms. One of these hypotheses is that eye regression is the result of indirect selection for constructive characters that are negatively linked to eye development through the pleiotropic effects of Sonic Hedgehog (SHH signaling. However, subsequent genetic analyses suggested that other mechanisms also contribute to eye regression in Astyanax cavefish. Here, we introduce a new approach to this problem by investigating the phenotypic and genetic relationships between a suite of non-visual constructive traits and eye regression. Results Using quantitative genetic analysis of crosses between surface fish, the Pachón cavefish population and their hybrid progeny, we show that the adaptive vibration attraction behavior (VAB and its sensory receptors, superficial neuromasts (SN specifically found within the cavefish eye orbit (EO, are genetically correlated with reduced eye size. The quantitative trait loci (QTL for these three traits form two clusters of congruent or overlapping QTL on Astyanax linkage groups (LG 2 and 17, but not at the shh locus on LG 13. Ablation of EO SN in cavefish demonstrated a major role for these sensory receptors in VAB expression. Furthermore, experimental induction of eye regression in surface fish via shh overexpression showed that the absence of eyes was insufficient to promote the appearance of VAB or EO SN. Conclusions We conclude that natural selection for the enhancement of VAB and EO SN indirectly promotes eye regression in the Pachón cavefish population through an antagonistic relationship involving genetic

  13. Association of polymorphisms in the promoter region of turkey prolactin with egg performance

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    Fathi Mehrangiz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The induction and regulation of broodiness is of the most important role of prolactin in avian species. In this study, the association between prolactin promoter region alleles and reproductive traits in Fars native turkey was investigated. These traits consisted of mean egg weight (MEW, number of egg (EN and egg mass, during the first laying period. In total, 115 laying turkeys, randomly selected from the flock of the Breeding Center for Fars Native turkey, and DNA was purificated from blood samples, 231 bp of prolactin promoter region was amplified and Genotype of Samples was determinate by PCR-SSCP technique were genotyped. Two alleles D and I were identified. Based on the results obtained, the frequency of D and I alleles were 0.67 and 0.33, respectively. Frequencies of DD, II and ID genotypes were 0.385, 0.044 and 0.571, respectively. The association analysis between the polymorphism PRL gene promoter region and egg performance was carried out. Significant relationship was found between genotypes with egg production (P<0.01. Individuals with II genotype produced higher egg production than DD and ID genotype. The results of current study showed that using information of genes related to egg production could be used to improve the performance of native turkey of East Azerbaijan province.

  14. Discovery and Evaluation of Polymorphisms in the and Promoter Regions for Risk of Korean Lung Cancer

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    Jae Sook Sung

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available AKT is a signal transduction protein that plays a central role in the tumorigenesis. There are 3 mammalian isoforms of this serine/threonine protein kinase-AKT1, AKT2, and AKT3-showing a broad tissue distribution. We first discovered 2 novel polymorphisms (AKT2 -9826 C/G and AKT3 -811 A/G, and we confirmed 6 known polymorphisms (AKT2 -9473 C/T, AKT2 -9151 C/T, AKT2 -9025 C/T, AKT2 -8618G/A, AKT3 -675 A/-, and AKT3 -244 C/T of the AKT2 and AKT3 promoter region in 24 blood samples of Korean lung cancer patients using direct sequencing. To evaluate the role of AKT2 and AKT3 polymorphisms in the risk of Korean lung cancer, genotypes of the AKT2 and AKT3 polymorphisms (AKT2 -9826 C/G, AKT2 -9473 C/T, AKT2 -9151 C/T, AKT2 -9025 C/T, AKT2 -8618G/A, and AKT3 -675 A/- were determined in 360 lung cancer patients and 360 normal controls. Statistical analyses revealed that the genotypes and haplotypes in the AKT2 and AKT3 promoter regions were not significantly associated with the risk of lung cancer in the Korean population. These results suggest that polymorphisms of the AKT2 and AKT3 promoter regions do not contribute to the genetic susceptibility to lung cancer in the Korean population.

  15. The CytR repressor antagonizes cyclic AMP-cyclic AMP receptor protein activation of the deoCp2 promoter of Escherichia coli K-12

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard-Andersen, Lotte; Martinussen, J; Møllegaard, N E

    1990-01-01

    We have investigated the regulation of the Escherichia coli deoCp2 promoter by the CytR repressor and the cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP) complexed to cAMP. Promoter regions controlled by these two proteins characteristically contain tandem cAMP-CRP binding sites. Here we show that (i) Cyt......R selectively regulated cAMP-CRP-dependent initiations, although transcription started from the same site in deoCp2 in the absence or presence of cAMP-CRP; (ii) deletion of the uppermost cAMP-CRP target (CRP-2) resulted in loss of CytR regulation, but had only a minor effect on positive control by the c...... are required for efficient CytR repression of deoCp2. Models for the action of CytR are discussed in light of these findings....

  16. Pregnane X receptor activation and silencing promote steatosis of human hepatic cells by distinct lipogenic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitter, Andreas; Rümmele, Petra; Klein, Kathrin; Kandel, Benjamin A; Rieger, Jessica K; Nüssler, Andreas K; Zanger, Ulrich M; Trauner, Michael; Schwab, Matthias; Burk, Oliver

    2015-11-01

    In addition to its well-characterized role in the regulation of drug metabolism and transport by xenobiotics, pregnane X receptor (PXR) critically impacts on lipid homeostasis. In mice, both ligand-dependent activation and knockout of PXR were previously shown to promote hepatic steatosis. To elucidate the respective pathways in human liver, we generated clones of human hepatoma HepG2 cells exhibiting different PXR protein levels, and analyzed effects of PXR activation and knockdown on steatosis and expression of lipogenic genes. Ligand-dependent activation as well as knockdown of PXR resulted in increased steatosis in HepG2 cells. Activation of PXR induced the sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) 1-dependent lipogenic pathway via PXR-dependent induction of SREBP1a, which was confirmed in primary human hepatocytes. Inhibiting SREBP1 activity by blocking the cleavage-dependent maturation of SREBP1 protein impaired the induction of lipogenic SREBP1 target genes and triglyceride accumulation by PXR activation. On the other hand, PXR knockdown resulted in up-regulation of aldo-keto reductase (AKR) 1B10, which enhanced the acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC)-catalyzed reaction step of de novo lipogenesis. In a cohort of human liver samples histologically classified for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, AKR1B10, SREBP1a and SREBP1 lipogenic target genes proved to be up-regulated in steatohepatitis, while PXR protein was reduced. In summary, our data suggest that activation and knockdown of PXR in human hepatic cells promote de novo lipogenesis and steatosis by induction of the SREBP1 pathway and AKR1B10-mediated increase of ACC activity, respectively, thus providing mechanistic explanations for a putative dual role of PXR in the pathogenesis of steatohepatitis.

  17. Thromboxane A(2 receptor stimulation promotes closure of the rat ductus arteriosus through enhancing neointima formation.

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    Tomohiro Yokota

    Full Text Available Ductus arteriosus (DA closure follows constriction and remodeling of the entire vessel wall. Patent ductus arteriosus occurs when the DA does not close after birth, and this condition is currently treated using cyclooxygenase inhibitors. However, the efficacy of cyclooxygenase inhibitors is often limited. Our previous study demonstrated that low-dose thromboxane A2 receptor (TP stimulation constricted the DA with minimal adverse effects in rat neonates. However, its effect on DA remodeling remains unknown. In this study, we focused on the impact of the exogenous TP stimulation on the DA remodeling, especially intimal thickening. Using DA explants from rat fetuses at embryonic day 19 as a ex vivo model and primary cultured rat DA smooth muscle cells from embryonic day 21 as a in vitro model, we evaluated the effect of TP stimulation on the DA remodeling. The selective TP agonists U46619 and I-BOP promoted neointima formation in the ex vivo DA explants, and TP stimulation increased DA SMC migration in a dose-dependent manner. Both effects were inhibited by the selective TP antagonist SQ29548 or the siRNA against TP. TP stimulation also increased DA SMC proliferation in the presence of 10% fetal bovine serum. LC/MS/MS analysis revealed that TP stimulation increased secretion of several extracellular matrix proteins that may contribute to an increase in neointima formation. In conclusion, we uncovered that exogenous administration of TP agonist promotes neointima formation through the induction of migration and proliferation of DA SMC, which could contribute to DA closure and also to its vasoconstrictive action.

  18. Deregulation of NR2E3, an orphan nuclear receptor, by benzo(a)pyrene-induced oxidative stress is associated with histone modification status change of the estrogen receptor gene promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Tilak; Kim, Dasom; Johnson, Abby; Choubey, Divaker; Kim, Kyounghyun

    2015-09-17

    We previously reported that NR2E3, an orphan nuclear receptor, plays an important role in maintaining the basal expression of estrogen receptor α (ER) and that the NR2E3 level is highly correlated with the relapse-free survival of breast cancer patients. Here, we investigated the role of NR2E3 in benzo(a)pyrene (BaP)-mediated cell injury. BaP treatment reduced NR2E3 homo-dimer formation and expression and subsequently decreased ER expression. The chromatin immunoprecipitation assay results showed that the treatment of MCF-7 breast cancer cells and the mouse liver with BaP released NR2E3 from the ER promoter to transform the transcriptionally active histone modification status into a repressive state. NR2E3 depletion in MCF-7 cells also induced a similar inactive epigenetic status in the ER promoter region, indicating that NR2E3 is an essential epigenetic player that maintains basal ER expression. Interestingly, these negative effects of BaP on the expression levels of NR2E3 and ER were rescued by antioxidant treatment. Collectively, our study provides novel evidence to show that BaP-induced oxidative stress decreases ER expression, in part by regulating NR2E3 function, which modulates the epigenetic status of the ER promoter. NR2E3 is likely an essential epigenetic player that maintains basal ER expression to protect cells from BaP-induced oxidative injury.

  19. High fructose consumption induces DNA methylation at PPARα and CPT1A promoter regions in the rat liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohashi, Koji [Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Fujita Health University School of Health Sciences, Toyoake (Japan); Munetsuna, Eiji [Department of Biochemistry, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake (Japan); Yamada, Hiroya, E-mail: hyamada@fujita-hu.ac.jp [Department of Hygiene, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake (Japan); Ando, Yoshitaka [Department of Joint Research Laboratory of Clinical Medicine, Fujita Health University Hospital, Toyoake (Japan); Yamazaki, Mirai; Taromaru, Nao; Nagura, Ayuri; Ishikawa, Hiroaki [Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Fujita Health University School of Health Sciences, Toyoake (Japan); Suzuki, Koji [Department of Public Health, Fujita Health University School of Health Sciences, Toyoake (Japan); Teradaira, Ryoji [Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Fujita Health University School of Health Sciences, Toyoake (Japan); Hashimoto, Shuji [Department of Hygiene, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake (Japan)

    2015-12-04

    DNA methylation status is affected by environmental factors, including nutrition. Fructose consumption is considered a risk factor for the conditions that make up metabolic syndrome such as dyslipidemia. However, the pathogenetic mechanism by which fructose consumption leads to metabolic syndrome is unclear. Based on observations that epigenetic modifications are closely related to induction of metabolic syndrome, we hypothesized that fructose-induced metabolic syndrome is caused by epigenetic alterations. Male SD rats were designated to receive water or 20% fructose solution for 14 weeks. mRNA levels for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A) was analyzed using Real-time PCR. Restriction digestion and real-time PCR (qAMP) was used for the analysis of DNA methylation status. Hepatic lipid accumulation was also observed by fructose intake. Fructose feeding also significantly decreased mRNA levels for PPARα and CPT1A. qAMP analysis demonstrated the hypermethylation of promoter regions of PPARα and CTP1A genes. Fructose-mediated attenuated gene expression may be mediated by alterations of DNA methylation status, and pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome induced by fructose relates to DNA methylation status. - Highlights: • No general consensus has been reached regarding the molecular mechanisms of the pathogenesis of fructose-induced diseases. • Significant increase in hepatic total methylation level was observed after fructose-supplemented feeding. • Fructose feeding significantly decreased mRNA levels for PPARα and CPT1A. • qAMP analysis demonstrated the hypermethylation of promoter regions of PPARα and CTP1A genes. • Fructose-mediated attenuated gene expression may be mediated by alterations of DNA methylation status in rat liver.

  20. Molecular characterization of the haptoglobin.hemoglobin receptor CD163. Ligand binding properties of the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domain region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mette; Møller, Holger J; Nielsen, Marianne Jensby

    2004-01-01

    CD163 is the macrophage receptor for endocytosis of haptoglobin.hemoglobin complexes. The extracellular region consisting of nine scavenger receptor cysteine rich (SRCR) domains also circulates in plasma as a soluble protein. By ligand binding analysis of a broad spectrum of soluble CD163...

  1. Increased receptor density of α2 adrenoceptors and GABAA α5 receptors in limbic brain regions in the domoic acid rat model of epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Majken; Lillethorup, Thea Pinholt; Wegener, Gregers

    , fresh frozen and cut into 20 µM thick slices. Autoradiography was performed using tracers of the α5 subtype of the GABAA receptor ([11C]Ro15-4513) and the α2 adrenoceptors ([3H]RX821002) to determine the binding in limbic brain regions. Results: The binding of postsynaptic GABA receptors...

  2. α7 Nicotinic Receptor Promotes the Neuroprotective Functions of Astrocytes against Oxaliplatin Neurotoxicity

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    Lorenzo Di Cesare Mannelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuropathies are characterized by a complex response of the central nervous system to injuries. Glial cells are recruited to maintain neuronal homeostasis but dysregulated activation leads to pain signaling amplification and reduces the glial neuroprotective power. Recently, we highlighted the property of α7 nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor (nAChR agonists to relieve pain and induce neuroprotection simultaneously with a strong increase in astrocyte density. Aimed to study the role of α7 nAChR in the neuron-glia cross-talk, we treated primary rat neurons and astrocytes with the neurotoxic anticancer drug oxaliplatin evaluating the effect of the α7 nAChR agonist PNU-282987 (PNU. Oxaliplatin (1 μM, 48 h reduced cell viability and increased caspase-3 activity of neuron monocultures without damaging astrocytes. In cocultures, astrocytes were not able to protect neurons by oxaliplatin even if glial cell metabolism was stimulated (pyruvate increase. On the contrary, the coculture incubation with 10 μM PNU improved neuron viability and inhibited apoptosis. In the absence of astrocytes, the protection disappeared. Furthermore, PNU promoted the release of the anti-inflammatory cytokine TGF-β1 and the expression of the glutamate-detoxifying enzyme glutamine synthetase. The α7 nAChR stimulation protects neurons from oxaliplatin toxicity through an astrocyte-mediated mechanism. α7 nAChR is suggested for recovering the homeostatic role of astrocytes.

  3. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor controls cyclin O to promote epithelial multiciliogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Matteo; Crotta, Stefania; Dingwell, Kevin S.; Hirst, Elizabeth M. A.; Gialitakis, Manolis; Ahlfors, Helena; Smith, James C.; Stockinger, Brigitta; Wack, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Epithelia function as barriers against environmental insults and express the transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). However, AhR function in these tissues is unknown. Here we show that AhR regulates multiciliogenesis in both murine airway epithelia and in Xenopus laevis epidermis. In air-exposed airway epithelia, induction of factors required for multiciliogenesis, including cyclin O (Ccno) and Multicilin (Mcidas), is AhR dependent, and air exposure induces AhR binding to the Ccno promoter. Submersion and hypoxic conditions impede AhR-dependent Ccno induction. This is mediated by the persistence of Notch signalling, as Notch blockade renders multiciliogenesis and Ccno induction by AhR independent from air exposure. In contrast to Ccno induction, air exposure does not induce the canonical AhR target cytochrome P450 1a1 (Cyp1a1). Inversely, exposure to AhR ligands induces Cyp1a1 but not Ccno and impeded ciliogenesis. These data indicate that AhR involvement in detoxification of environmental pollutants may impede its physiological role, resulting in respiratory pathology. PMID:27554288

  4. The GABA(A) receptor RDL acts in peptidergic PDF neurons to promote sleep in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Brian Y; Kilman, Valerie L; Keath, J Russel; Pitman, Jena L; Allada, Ravi

    2009-03-10

    Sleep is regulated by a circadian clock that times sleep and wake to specific times of day and a homeostat that drives sleep as a function of prior wakefulness. To analyze the role of the circadian clock, we have used the fruit fly Drosophila. Flies display the core behavioral features of sleep, including relative immobility, elevated arousal thresholds, and homeostatic regulation. We assessed sleep-wake modulation by a core set of circadian pacemaker neurons that express the neuropeptide PDF. We find that disruption of PDF function increases sleep during the late night in light:dark and the first subjective day of constant darkness. Flies deploy genetic and neurotransmitter pathways to regulate sleep that are similar to those of their mammalian counterparts, including GABA. We find that RNA interference-mediated knockdown of the GABA(A) receptor gene, Resistant to dieldrin (Rdl), in PDF neurons reduces sleep, consistent with a role for GABA in inhibiting PDF neuron function. Patch-clamp electrophysiology reveals GABA-activated picrotoxin-sensitive chloride currents on PDF+ neurons. In addition, RDL is detectable most strongly on the large subset of PDF+ pacemaker neurons. These results suggest that GABAergic inhibition of arousal-promoting PDF neurons is an important mode of sleep-wake regulation in vivo.

  5. Structural Basis of Natural Promoter Recognition by a Unique Nuclear Receptor, HNF4[alpha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Peng; Rha, Geun Bae; Melikishvili, Manana; Wu, Guangteng; Adkins, Brandon C.; Fried, Michael G.; Chi, Young-In (Kentucky)

    2010-11-09

    HNF4{alpha} (hepatocyte nuclear factor 4{alpha}) plays an essential role in the development and function of vertebrate organs, including hepatocytes and pancreatic {beta}-cells by regulating expression of multiple genes involved in organ development, nutrient transport, and diverse metabolic pathways. As such, HNF4{alpha} is a culprit gene product for a monogenic and dominantly inherited form of diabetes, known as maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY). As a unique member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, HNF4{alpha} recognizes target genes containing two hexanucleotide direct repeat DNA-response elements separated by one base pair (DR1) by exclusively forming a cooperative homodimer. We describe here the 2.0 {angstrom} crystal structure of human HNF4{alpha} DNA binding domain in complex with a high affinity promoter element of another MODY gene, HNF1{alpha}, which reveals the molecular basis of unique target gene selection/recognition, DNA binding cooperativity, and dysfunction caused by diabetes-causing mutations. The predicted effects of MODY mutations have been tested by a set of biochemical and functional studies, which show that, in contrast to other MODY gene products, the subtle disruption of HNF4{alpha} molecular function can cause significant effects in afflicted MODY patients.

  6. Mineralocorticoid receptor degradation is promoted by Hsp90 inhibition and the ubiquitin-protein ligase CHIP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faresse, Nourdine; Ruffieux-Daidie, Dorothée; Salamin, Mélanie; Gomez-Sanchez, Celso E; Staub, Olivier

    2010-12-01

    The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) plays a crucial role in the regulation of Na(+) balance and blood pressure, as evidenced by gain of function mutations in the MR of hypertensive families. In the kidney, aldosterone binds to the MR, induces its nuclear translocation, and promotes a transcriptional program leading to increased transepithelial Na(+) transport via the epithelial Na(+) channel. In the unliganded state, MR is localized in the cytosol and part of a multiprotein complex, including heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), which keeps it ligand-binding competent. 17-Allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) is a benzoquinone ansamycin antibiotic that binds to Hsp90 and alters its function. We investigated whether 17-AAG affects the stability and transcriptional activity of MR and consequently Na(+) reabsorption by renal cells. 17-AAG treatment lead to reduction of MR protein level in epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo, thereby interfering with aldosterone-dependent transcription. Moreover, 17-AAG inhibited aldosterone-induced Na(+) transport, possibly by interfering with MR availability for the ligand. Finally, we identified the ubiquitin-protein ligase, COOH terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein, as a novel partner of the cytosolic MR, which is responsible for its polyubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation in presence of 17-AAG. In conclusion, 17-AAG may represent a novel pharmacological tool to interfere with Na(+) reabsorption and hypertension.

  7. Activated scavenger receptor A promotes glial internalization of aβ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Zhang

    Full Text Available Beta-amyloid (Aβ aggregates have a pivotal role in pathological processing of Alzheimer's disease (AD. The clearance of Aβ monomer or aggregates is a causal strategy for AD treatment. Microglia and astrocytes are the main macrophages that exert critical neuroprotective roles in the brain. They may effectively clear the toxic accumulation of Aβ at the initial stage of AD, however, their functions are attenuated because of glial overactivation. In this study, we first showed that heptapeptide XD4 activates the class A scavenger receptor (SR-A on the glia by increasing the binding of Aβ to SR-A, thereby promoting glial phagocytosis of Aβ oligomer in microglia and astrocytes and triggering intracellular mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling cascades. Moreover, XD4 enhances the internalization of Aβ monomers to microglia and astrocytes through macropinocytosis or SR-A-mediated phagocytosis. Furthermore, XD4 significantly inhibits Aβ oligomer-induced cytotoxicity to glial cells and decreases the production of proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-1β, in vitro and in vivo. Our findings may provide a novel strategy for AD treatment by activating SR-A.

  8. A developmental timing switch promotes axon outgrowth independent of known guidance receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Olsson-Carter

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available To form functional neuronal connections, axon outgrowth and guidance must be tightly regulated across space as well as time. While a number of genes and pathways have been shown to control spatial features of axon development, very little is known about the in vivo mechanisms that direct the timing of axon initiation and elongation. The Caenorhabditis elegans hermaphrodite specific motor neurons (HSNs extend a single axon ventrally and then anteriorly during the L4 larval stage. Here we show the lin-4 microRNA promotes HSN axon initiation after cell cycle withdrawal. Axons fail to form in lin-4 mutants, while they grow prematurely in lin-4-overexpressing animals. lin-4 is required to down-regulate two inhibitors of HSN differentiation--the transcriptional regulator LIN-14 and the "stemness" factor LIN-28--and it likely does so through a cell-autonomous mechanism. This developmental switch depends neither on the UNC-40/DCC and SAX-3/Robo receptors nor on the direction of axon growth, demonstrating that it acts independently of ventral guidance signals to control the timing of HSN axon elongation.

  9. G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 promotes flaviviridae entry and replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Le Sommer

    Full Text Available Flaviviruses cause a wide range of severe diseases ranging from encephalitis to hemorrhagic fever. Discovery of host factors that regulate the fate of flaviviruses in infected cells could provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of infection and therefore facilitate the development of anti-flaviviral drugs. We performed genome-scale siRNA screens to discover human host factors required for yellow fever virus (YFV propagation. Using a 2 × 2 siRNA pool screening format and a duplicate of the screen, we identified a high confidence list of YFV host factors. To find commonalities between flaviviruses, these candidates were compared to host factors previously identified for West Nile virus (WNV and dengue virus (DENV. This comparison highlighted a potential requirement for the G protein-coupled receptor kinase family, GRKs, for flaviviral infection. The YFV host candidate GRK2 (also known as ADRBK1 was validated both in siRNA-mediated knockdown HuH-7 cells and in GRK(-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Additionally, we showed that GRK2 was required for efficient propagation of DENV and Hepatitis C virus (HCV indicating that GRK2 requirement is conserved throughout the Flaviviridae. Finally, we found that GRK2 participates in multiple distinct steps of the flavivirus life cycle by promoting both entry and RNA synthesis. Together, our findings identified GRK2 as a novel regulator of flavivirus infection and suggest that inhibition of GRK2 function may constitute a new approach for treatment of flavivirus associated diseases.

  10. G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 promotes flaviviridae entry and replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Sommer, Caroline; Barrows, Nicholas J; Bradrick, Shelton S; Pearson, James L; Garcia-Blanco, Mariano A

    2012-01-01

    Flaviviruses cause a wide range of severe diseases ranging from encephalitis to hemorrhagic fever. Discovery of host factors that regulate the fate of flaviviruses in infected cells could provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of infection and therefore facilitate the development of anti-flaviviral drugs. We performed genome-scale siRNA screens to discover human host factors required for yellow fever virus (YFV) propagation. Using a 2 × 2 siRNA pool screening format and a duplicate of the screen, we identified a high confidence list of YFV host factors. To find commonalities between flaviviruses, these candidates were compared to host factors previously identified for West Nile virus (WNV) and dengue virus (DENV). This comparison highlighted a potential requirement for the G protein-coupled receptor kinase family, GRKs, for flaviviral infection. The YFV host candidate GRK2 (also known as ADRBK1) was validated both in siRNA-mediated knockdown HuH-7 cells and in GRK(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Additionally, we showed that GRK2 was required for efficient propagation of DENV and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) indicating that GRK2 requirement is conserved throughout the Flaviviridae. Finally, we found that GRK2 participates in multiple distinct steps of the flavivirus life cycle by promoting both entry and RNA synthesis. Together, our findings identified GRK2 as a novel regulator of flavivirus infection and suggest that inhibition of GRK2 function may constitute a new approach for treatment of flavivirus associated diseases.

  11. E17110 promotes reverse cholesterol transport with liver X receptor β agonist activity in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Liver X receptor (LXR plays an important role in reverse cholesterol transport (RCT, and activation of LXR could reduce atherosclerosis. In the present study we used a cell-based screening method to identify new potential LXRβ agonists. A novel benzofuran-2-carboxylate derivative was identified with LXRβ agonist activity: E17110 showed a significant activation effect on LXRβ with an EC50 value of 0.72 μmol/L. E17110 also increased the expression of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1 and G1 (ABCG1 in RAW264.7 macrophages. Moreover, E17110 significantly reduced cellular lipid accumulation and promoted cholesterol efflux in RAW264.7 macrophages. Interestingly, we found that the key amino acids in the LXRβ ligand-binding domain had distinct interactions with E17110 as compared to TO901317. These results suggest that E17110 was identified as a novel compound with LXRβ agonist activity in vitro via screening, and could be developed as a potential anti-atherosclerotic lead compound.

  12. Serotonin receptor agonist quipazine promotes proliferation and apoptosis of human hepatocyte strain of L-02 strain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Liu; Zhi-Yong Zhang

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Liver disease is commonly seen in the clinic and its pathological characteristic is combined hepatocellular death and apoptosis. Promoting hepatocyte regeneration is one of the main methods of treating liver disease. Serotonin (5-HT) is an important compound which participates in various life process, and 95% of it is carried by platelets in the blood. A recent ifnding showed that platelet-derived serotonin is the key factor in liver regeneration, which fails without serotonin. This study aimed to investigate the effects of quipazine, a selective 5-HT receptor agonist, on proliferation and apoptosis in the human hepatocyte strain L-02. METHODS:L-02 cells were cultured in medium with 5-HT and quipazine, and samples were collected at 24, 48, and 72 hours. The methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) method was used to test viability, lfow cytometry to assess the cell cycle, the Annexin-V/PI method to evaluate apoptosis, and immunohistochemistry to detect proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). RESULTS:Compared with the control group, the viability of L-02 cells was improved in the 10, 50, and 250 μg/ml quipazine groups (P0.05); and no difference in the percentage of apoptotic cells was found between the 50μg/ml quipazine and control groups (P>0.05).CONCLUSION:Quipazine improves proliferation of a human hepatocyte strainin vitro, and this is not based on the inhibition of apoptosis.

  13. Dmp1 Promoter-Driven Diphtheria Toxin Receptor Transgene Expression Directs Unforeseen Effects in Multiple Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Al-Jazzar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mice harbouring a dentin matrix protein 1 (Dmp1 promoter-driven human diphtheria toxin (DT receptor (HDTR transgene (Tg have recently been used to attain targeted ablation of osteocytes by diphtheria toxin (DT treatment in order to define osteocyte function. Use of these Tg mice has asserted mechano- and novel paracrine regulatory osteocyte functions. To explore osteocyte roles fully, we sought to confirm the selectivity of DT effects in these transgenic mice. However, our findings revealed incomplete DT-induced osteocyte ablation, prevalent HDTR misexpression, as well as more prominent histopathological DT-induced changes in multiple organs in Tg than in wild-type (WT littermate mice. Mechanistic evidence for DT action, via prominent regulation of phosphorylation status of elongation factor-2 (EF-2, was also found in many non-skeletal tissues in Tg mice; indicative of direct “off-target” DT action. Finally, very rapid deterioration in health and welfare status in response to DT treatment was observed in these Tg when compared to WT control mice. Together, these data lead us to conclude that alternative models for osteocyte ablation should be sought and caution be exercised when drawing conclusions from experiments using these Tg mice alone.

  14. Alu retrotransposons promote differentiation of human carcinoma cells through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Hernández, Antonio; González-Rico, Francisco J.; Román, Angel C.; Rico-Leo, Eva; Alvarez-Barrientos, Alberto; Sánchez, Laura; Macia, Ángela; Heras, Sara R.; García-Pérez, José L.; Merino, Jaime M.; Fernández-Salguero, Pedro M.

    2016-01-01

    Cell differentiation is a central process in development and in cancer growth and dissemination. OCT4 (POU5F1) and NANOG are essential for cell stemness and pluripotency; yet, the mechanisms that regulate their expression remain largely unknown. Repetitive elements account for almost half of the Human Genome; still, their role in gene regulation is poorly understood. Here, we show that the dioxin receptor (AHR) leads to differentiation of human carcinoma cells through the transcriptional upregulation of Alu retrotransposons, whose RNA transcripts can repress pluripotency genes. Despite the genome-wide presence of Alu elements, we provide evidences that those located at the NANOG and OCT4 promoters bind AHR, are transcribed by RNA polymerase-III and repress NANOG and OCT4 in differentiated cells. OCT4 and NANOG repression likely involves processing of Alu-derived transcripts through the miRNA machinery involving the Microprocessor and RISC. Consistently, stable AHR knockdown led to basal undifferentiation, impaired Alus transcription and blockade of OCT4 and NANOG repression. We suggest that transcripts produced from AHR-regulated Alu retrotransposons may control the expression of stemness genes OCT4 and NANOG during differentiation of carcinoma cells. The control of discrete Alu elements by specific transcription factors may have a dynamic role in genome regulation under physiological and diseased conditions. PMID:26883630

  15. Governmental promotion of the Information Society in the Spanish Region of Valencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Feliu-García, Ph.D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional spheres are considered essential in the governmental promotion of the Information Society at the international level. The regional initiatives in Spain aim to strengthen and complement the initiatives promoted at the national level. This article analyses ICT penetration in the Valencian Community from 1996 to 2008. The objective is to identify which of the actions carried out by the Valencian Regional Government have had a positive effect on its society.The methodology employed in this study is benchmarking. The selection of indicators is based on the policies evaluation model proposed in the Plan Avanza (Spain’s national Information Society strategy. Data were collected from official statistical sources (like Spain’s National Statistics Institute, INE. Three statistical tests were applied to verify the hypotheses (Pearson’s r2, Chi-square and Student’s t.The results indicate that it is not possible to affirm that the actions implemented by the Valencian Regional Government have had a more positive effect on its society than those implemented by the Spanish Central Government. A reason for this may lie in the specific objectives of the political strategy implemented by the Valencian Government, which has focused primarily on e-Government and does not include enough projects centred on the implementation of new technologies in the private sector. Moreover, the integration of new technologies in everyday life is placed in a second level of importance despite citizens are central actors in the international agenda.

  16. CB1 cannabinoid receptor enrichment in the ependymal region of the adult human spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua-Torija, Beatriz; Arevalo-Martin, Angel; Ferrer, Isidro; Molina-Holgado, Eduardo; Garcia-Ovejero, Daniel

    2015-12-04

    Cannabinoids are involved in the regulation of neural stem cell biology and their receptors are expressed in the neurogenic niches of adult rodents. In the spinal cord of rats and mice, neural stem cells can be found in the ependymal region, surrounding the central canal, but there is evidence that this region is largely different in adult humans: lacks a patent canal and presents perivascular pseudorosettes, typically found in low grade ependymomas. Using Laser Capture Microdissection, Taqman gene expression assays and immunohistochemistry, we have studied the expression of endocannabinoid system components (receptors and enzymes) at the human spinal cord ependymal region. We observe that ependymal region is enriched in CB1 cannabinoid receptor, due to high CB1 expression in GFAP+ astrocytic domains. However, in human spinal cord levels that retain central canal patency we found ependymal cells with high CB1 expression, equivalent to the CB1(HIGH) cell subpopulation described in rodents. Our results support the existence of ependymal CB1(HIGH) cells across species, and may encourage further studies on this subpopulation, although only in cases when central canal is patent. In the adult human ependyma, which usually shows central canal absence, CB1 may play a different role by modulating astrocyte functions.

  17. Methylation of Promoter Regions of Genes of the Human Intrauterine Renin Angiotensin System and Their Expression

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    Shane D. Sykes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The intrauterine renin angiotensin system (RAS is implicated in placentation and labour onset. Here we investigate whether promoter methylation of RAS genes changes with gestation or labour and if it affects gene expression. Early gestation amnion and placenta were studied, as were term amnion, decidua, and placenta collected before labour (at elective caesarean section or after spontaneous labour and delivery. The expression and degree of methylation of the prorenin receptor (ATP6AP2, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE, angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1, and two proteases that can activate prorenin (kallikrein, KLK1, and cathepsin D, CTSD were measured by qPCR and a DNA methylation array. There was no effect of gestation or labour on the methylation of RAS genes and CTSD. Amnion and decidua displayed strong correlations between the percent hypermethylation of RAS genes and CTSD, suggestive of global methylation. There were no correlations between the degree of methylation and mRNA abundance of any genes studied. KLK1 was the most methylated gene and the proportion of hypermethylated KLK1 alleles was lower in placenta than decidua. The presence of intermediate methylated alleles of KLK1 in early gestation placenta and in amnion after labour suggests that KLK1 methylation is uniquely dynamic in these tissues.

  18. ATRX promotes gene expression by facilitating transcriptional elongation through guanine-rich coding regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Michael A; Kernohan, Kristin D; Jiang, Yan; Bérubé, Nathalie G

    2015-04-01

    ATRX is a chromatin remodeling protein involved in deposition of the histone variant H3.3 at telomeres and pericentromeric heterochromatin. It also influences the expression level of specific genes; however, deposition of H3.3 at transcribed genes is currently thought to occur independently of ATRX. We focused on a set of genes, including the autism susceptibility gene Neuroligin 4 (Nlgn4), that exhibit decreased expression in ATRX-null cells to investigate the mechanisms used by ATRX to promote gene transcription. Overall TERRA levels, as well as DNA methylation and histone modifications at ATRX target genes are not altered and thus cannot explain transcriptional dysregulation. We found that ATRX does not associate with the promoter of these genes, but rather binds within regions of the gene body corresponding to high H3.3 occupancy. These intragenic regions consist of guanine-rich DNA sequences predicted to form non-B DNA structures called G-quadruplexes during transcriptional elongation. We demonstrate that ATRX deficiency corresponds to reduced H3.3 incorporation and stalling of RNA polymerase II at these G-rich intragenic sites. These findings suggest that ATRX promotes the incorporation of histone H3.3 at particular transcribed genes and facilitates transcriptional elongation through G-rich sequences. The inability to transcribe genes such as Nlgn4 could cause deficits in neuronal connectivity and cognition associated with ATRX mutations in humans.

  19. Deletion of G-protein-coupled receptor 55 promotes obesity by reducing physical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) is the best-characterized cannabinoid receptor, and CB1 antagonists are used in clinical trials to treat obesity. Because of the wide range of CB1 functions, the side effects of CB1 antagonists pose serious concerns. G-protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) is an atypical c...

  20. NTS adenosine A2a receptors inhibit the cardiopulmonary chemoreflex control of regional sympathetic outputs via a GABAergic mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minic, Zeljka; O'Leary, Donal S; Scislo, Tadeusz J

    2015-07-01

    Adenosine is a powerful central neuromodulator acting via opposing A1 (inhibitor) and A2a (activator) receptors. However, in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), both adenosine receptor subtypes attenuate cardiopulmonary chemoreflex (CCR) sympathoinhibition of renal, adrenal, and lumbar sympathetic nerve activity and attenuate reflex decreases in arterial pressure and heart rate. Adenosine A1 receptors inhibit glutamatergic transmission in the CCR pathway, whereas adenosine A2a receptors most likely facilitate release of an unknown inhibitory neurotransmitter, which, in turn, inhibits the CCR. We hypothesized that adenosine A2a receptors inhibit the CCR via facilitation of GABA release in the NTS. In urethane-chloralose-anesthetized rats (n = 51), we compared regional sympathetic responses evoked by stimulation of the CCR with right atrial injections of the 5-HT3 receptor agonist phenylbiguanide (1-8 μg/kg) before and after selective stimulation of NTS adenosine A2a receptors [microinjections into the NTS of CGS-21680 (20 pmol/50 nl)] preceded by blockade of GABAA or GABAB receptors in the NTS [bicuculline (10 pmol/100 nl) or SCH-50911 (1 nmol/100 nl)]. Blockade of GABAA receptors virtually abolished adenosine A2a receptor-mediated inhibition of the CCR. GABAB receptors had much weaker but significant effects. These effects were similar for the different sympathetic outputs. We conclude that stimulation of NTS adenosine A2a receptors inhibits CCR-evoked hemodynamic and regional sympathetic reflex responses via a GABA-ergic mechanism.

  1. Histone H4 Lys 20 methyltransferase SET8 promotes androgen receptor-mediated transcription activation in prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Lushuai [Laboratory of Genome Variations and Precision Bio-Medicine, Beijing Institute of Genomics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li, Yanyan; Du, Fengxia [Laboratory of Genome Variations and Precision Bio-Medicine, Beijing Institute of Genomics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Han, Xiao [Laboratory of Genome Variations and Precision Bio-Medicine, Beijing Institute of Genomics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li, Xiaohua [Laboratory of Genome Variations and Precision Bio-Medicine, Beijing Institute of Genomics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Niu, Yuanjie [Chawnshang Chang Sex Hormone Research Center, Tianjin Institute of Urology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070 (China); Ren, Shancheng, E-mail: renshancheng@gmail.com [Department of Urology, Shanghai Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Sun, Yingli, E-mail: sunyl@big.ac.cn [Laboratory of Genome Variations and Precision Bio-Medicine, Beijing Institute of Genomics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Dihydrotestosterone stimulates H4K20me1 enrichment at the PSA promoter. • SET8 promotes AR-mediated transcription activation. • SET8 interacts with AR and promotes cell proliferation. - Abstract: Histone methylation status in different lysine residues has an important role in transcription regulation. The effect of H4K20 monomethylation (H4K20me1) on androgen receptor (AR)-mediated gene transcription remains unclear. Here we show that AR agonist stimulates the enrichment of H4K20me1 and SET8 at the promoter of AR target gene PSA in an AR dependent manner. Furthermore, SET8 is crucial for the transcription activation of PSA. Co-immunoprecipitation analyses demonstrate that SET8 interacts with AR. Therefore, we conclude that SET8 is involved in AR-mediated transcription activation, possibly through its interaction with AR and H4K20me1 modification.

  2. A novel signaling pathway of tissue kallikrein in promoting keratinocyte migration: Activation of proteinase-activated receptor 1 and epidermal growth factor receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Lin; Chao, Lee [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical University of South Carolina, 173 Ashley Avenue, Charleston, SC 29425-2211 (United States); Chao, Julie, E-mail: chaoj@musc.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical University of South Carolina, 173 Ashley Avenue, Charleston, SC 29425-2211 (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Biological functions of tissue kallikrein (TK, KLK1) are mainly mediated by kinin generation and subsequent kinin B2 receptor activation. In this study, we investigated the potential role of TK and its signaling pathways in cultured human keratinocyte migration and in a rat skin wound healing model. Herein, we show that TK promoted cell migration and proliferation in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Inactive TK or kinin had no significant effect on cell migration. Interestingly, cell migration induced by active TK was not blocked by icatibant or L-NAME, indicating an event independent of kinin B2 receptor and nitric oxide formation. TK's stimulatory effect on cell migration was inhibited by small interfering RNA for proteinase-activated receptor 1 (PAR{sub 1}), and by PAR{sub 1} inhibitor. TK-induced migration was associated with increased phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), which was blocked by inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC), Src, EGFR and ERK. TK-induced cell migration and EGFR phosphorylation were blocked by metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor, heparin, and antibodies against EGFR external domain, heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) and amphiregulin (AR). Local application of TK promoted skin wound healing in rats, whereas icatibant and EGFR inhibitor blocked TK's effect. Skin wound healing was further delayed by aprotinin and neutralizing TK antibody. This study demonstrates a novel role of TK in skin wound healing and uncovers new signaling pathways mediated by TK in promoting keratinocyte migration through activation of the PAR{sub 1}-PKC-Src-MMP pathway and HB-EGF/AR shedding-dependent EGFR transactivation.

  3. ECRbase: Database of Evolutionary Conserved Regions, Promoters, and Transcription Factor Binding Sites in Vertebrate Genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loots, G; Ovcharenko, I

    2006-08-08

    Evolutionary conservation of DNA sequences provides a tool for the identification of functional elements in genomes. We have created a database of evolutionary conserved regions (ECRs) in vertebrate genomes entitled ECRbase that is constructed from a collection of pairwise vertebrate genome alignments produced by the ECR Browser database. ECRbase features a database of syntenic blocks that recapitulate the evolution of rearrangements in vertebrates and a collection of promoters in all vertebrate genomes presented in the database. The database also contains a collection of annotated transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) in all ECRs and promoter elements. ECRbase currently includes human, rhesus macaque, dog, opossum, rat, mouse, chicken, frog, zebrafish, and two pufferfish genomes. It is freely accessible at http://ECRbase.dcode.org.

  4. Membrane glycoprotein M6A promotes μ-opioid receptor endocytosis and facilitates receptor sorting into the recycling pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-Jian Liang; Dai-Fei Wu; Ralf Stumm; Volker H(o)llt; Thomas Koch

    2008-01-01

    The interaction of μ-opioid receptor (MOPr) with the neuronal membrane glycoprotein M6a is known to facilitate MOPr endocytosis in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. To further study the role of M6a in the post-endocytotic sorting of MOPr, we investigated the agonist-induced co-internalization of MOPr and M6a and protein targeting after internalization in HEK293 cells that co-expressed HA-tagged MOPr and Myc-tagged M6a. We found that M6a, MOPr, and Rab 11, a marker for recycling endosomes, co-localized in endocytotic vesicles, indicating that MOPr and M6a are primarily targeted to recycling endosomes after endocytosis. Furthermore, co-expression of M6a augmented the post-endocytotic sorting of δ-opioid receptors into the recycling pathway, indicating that M6a might have a more general role in opioid receptor post-ndocytotic sorting. The enhanced post-endocytotic sorting of MOPr into the recycling pathway was accompanied by a decrease in agonist-induced receptor down-regulation of M6a in co-expressing cells. We tested the physiological relevance of these findings in primary cultures of cortical neurons and found that co-expression of M6a markedly increased the translocation of MOPrs from the plasma membrane to intracellular vesicles at steady state and significantly enhanced both constitutive and agonist-induced receptor endocytosis. In conclusion, our results strongly indicate that M6a modulates MOPr endocytosis and post-endocytotic sorting and has an important role in receptor regulation.

  5. PPAR-α and glucocorticoid receptor synergize to promote erythroid progenitor self-renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsiang-Ying; Gao, Xiaofei; Barrasa, M Inmaculada; Li, Hu; Elmes, Russell R; Peters, Luanne L; Lodish, Harvey F

    2015-06-25

    Many acute and chronic anaemias, including haemolysis, sepsis and genetic bone marrow failure diseases such as Diamond-Blackfan anaemia, are not treatable with erythropoietin (Epo), because the colony-forming unit erythroid progenitors (CFU-Es) that respond to Epo are either too few in number or are not sensitive enough to Epo to maintain sufficient red blood cell production. Treatment of these anaemias requires a drug that acts at an earlier stage of red cell formation and enhances the formation of Epo-sensitive CFU-E progenitors. Recently, we showed that glucocorticoids specifically stimulate self-renewal of an early erythroid progenitor, burst-forming unit erythroid (BFU-E), and increase the production of terminally differentiated erythroid cells. Here we show that activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α) by the PPAR-α agonists GW7647 and fenofibrate synergizes with the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) to promote BFU-E self-renewal. Over time these agonists greatly increase production of mature red blood cells in cultures of both mouse fetal liver BFU-Es and mobilized human adult CD34(+) peripheral blood progenitors, with a new and effective culture system being used for the human cells that generates normal enucleated reticulocytes. Although Ppara(-/-) mice show no haematological difference from wild-type mice in both normal and phenylhydrazine (PHZ)-induced stress erythropoiesis, PPAR-α agonists facilitate recovery of wild-type but not Ppara(-/-) mice from PHZ-induced acute haemolytic anaemia. We also show that PPAR-α alleviates anaemia in a mouse model of chronic anaemia. Finally, both in control and corticosteroid-treated BFU-E cells, PPAR-α co-occupies many chromatin sites with GR; when activated by PPAR-α agonists, additional PPAR-α is recruited to GR-adjacent sites and presumably facilitates GR-dependent BFU-E self-renewal. Our discovery of the role of PPAR-α agonists in stimulating self-renewal of early erythroid

  6. PPARα and glucocorticoid receptor synergize to promote erythroid progenitor self-renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsiang-Ying; Gao, Xiaofei; Barrasa, M. Inmaculada; Li, Hu; Elmes, Russell R.; Peters, Luanne L.; Lodish, Harvey F.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Many acute and chronic anemias, including hemolysis, sepsis, and genetic bone marrow failure diseases such as Diamond-Blackfan Anemia (DBA), are not treatable with erythropoietin (Epo), because the colony-forming unit erythroid progenitors (CFU-Es) that respond to Epo are either too few in number or are not sensitive enough to Epo to maintain sufficient red blood cell production 1,2,3–5,6,7,8,9. Treatment of these anemias requires a drug that acts at an earlier stage of red cell formation and enhances the formation of Epo-sensitive CFU-E progenitors. Recently we showed that glucocorticoids specifically stimulate self-renewal of the early erythroid progenitor, the burst-forming unit erythroid (BFU-E), and increase the production of terminally differentiated erythroid cells 10,11. Here we demonstrate that activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) by PPARα agonists, GW7647 and fenofibrate, synergizes with glucocorticoid receptor (GR) to promote BFU-E self-renewal. Over time these agonists greatly increase production of mature red blood cells in cultures both of mouse fetal liver BFU-Es and of mobilized human adult CD34+ peripheral blood progenitors, the latter employing a new and effective culture system that generates normal enucleated reticulocytes. While PPARα−/− mice show no hematological difference from wild-type mice in both normal and phenylhydrazine (PHZ)-induced stress erythropoiesis, PPARα agonists facilitate recovery of wild-type mice, but not PPARα−/− mice, from PHZ-induced acute hemolytic anemia. We also showed that PPARα alleviates anemia in a mouse model of chronic anemia. Finally, both in control and corticosteroid-treated BFU-E cells PPARα co-occupies many chromatin sites with GR; when activated by PPARα agonists, additional PPARα is recruited to GR-adjacent sites and presumably facilitates GR-dependent BFU-E self-renewal. Our discovery of the role of PPARα agonists in stimulating self

  7. Brain regional differences in CB1 receptor adaptation and regulation of transcription

    OpenAIRE

    Lazenka, M.F.; Selley, D.E.; Sim-Selley, L J

    2012-01-01

    Cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1Rs) are expressed throughout the brain and mediate the central effects of cannabinoids, including Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive constituent of marijuana. Repeated THC administration produces tolerance to cannabinoid-mediated effects, although the magnitude of tolerance varies by effect. Consistent with this observation, CB1R desensitization and downregulation, as well induction of immediate early genes (IEGs), varies by brain region. Zif268...

  8. Influence of an educational strategy to promote the use of regional food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Cavalcante Martins

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of family members of preschool children about regional food, through a survey before and after an educational intervention. Methods: this is a pre-experimental one-group pretest–posttest study, with 62 family members of preschool children. One month before and after the conduction of an educational activity using the flipchart “regional food promoting food security”, one applied the survey. Results: it was found that after the educational strategy, there was an increase in the classification “appropriate” in each survey area about regional food, and the variation of knowledge (17.7%-77.4%, attitude (21%-72.6% and practice (14.5%-64.5%, consequently, an improvement of 59.7% in knowledge, 51.6% in attitude and 50% in practice. Conclusion: the use of educational technology had a positive influence on the knowledge, attitudes and practice of family members, contributing thus to the health promotion of children and their family members.

  9. Frequency of SNP -336A/G in the promoter region of CD209 in a population from northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, P N; Ferreira-Fernandes, H; de Oliveira, J S; Pereira, A C T C; Pinto, G R; Ferreira, G P

    2015-08-14

    Dendritic cells (DCs) mediate the initiation of the immune response against a variety of pathogens. The DC-SIGN receptor is encoded by the gene CD209 and is expressed on the surface of DCs. It binds to mannose-rich carbohydrates and enables the recognition of bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses. SNP -336A/G in the promoter region of CD209 influences the expression of the DC-SIGN receptor. Several studies have associated this SNP with an increased susceptibility to infectious diseases and the development of more severe forms of disease. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of SNP -336A/G in a population from northeastern Brazil. We analyzed 181 individuals from the general population of Parnaíba, Piauí, Brazil, of which 37% were men and 63% were women. SNP -336A/G was detected by polymerase chain reaction and treatment with the restriction enzyme MscI and visualized by electrophoresis on an 8% polyacrylamide gel stained with silver nitrate. Of the individuals analyzed, 116 (64.1%) were homozygous AA, 57 (31.5%) were heterozygous (AG), and 8 (4.4%) were homozygous GG. The allele frequency of -336G was 20.2%. Genotype frequencies were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to describe the frequency of the CD209 SNP -336A/G in a population in the State of Piauí. Further studies are needed to determine the relationship between this SNP and the vulnerability of this population to major infectious diseases.

  10. The Ewing sarcoma protein (EWS) binds directly to the proximal elements of the macrophage-specific promoter of the CSF-1 receptor (csf1r) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, David A; Sasmono, Tedjo; Himes, S Roy; Sharma, Sudarshana M; Bronisz, Agnieszka; Constantin, Myrna; Ostrowski, Michael C; Ross, Ian L

    2008-05-15

    Many macrophage-specific promoters lack classical transcriptional start site elements such as TATA boxes and Sp1 sites. One example is the CSF-1 receptor (CSF-1R, CD115, c-fms), which is used as a model of the transcriptional regulation of macrophage genes. To understand the molecular basis of start site recognition in this gene, we identified cellular proteins binding specifically to the transcriptional start site (TSS) region. The mouse and human csf1r TSS were identified using cap analysis gene expression (CAGE) data. Conserved elements flanking the TSS cluster were analyzed using EMSAs to identify discrete DNA-binding factors in primary bone marrow macrophages as candidate transcriptional regulators. Two complexes were identified that bind in a highly sequence-specific manner to the mouse and human TSS proximal region and also to high-affinity sites recognized by myeloid zinc finger protein 1 (Mzf1). The murine proteins were purified by DNA affinity isolation from the RAW264.7 macrophage cell line and identified by mass spectrometry as EWS and FUS/TLS, closely related DNA and RNA-binding proteins. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments in bone marrow macrophages confirmed that EWS, but not FUS/TLS, was present in vivo on the CSF-1R proximal promoter in unstimulated primary macrophages. Transfection assays suggest that EWS does not act as a conventional transcriptional activator or repressor. We hypothesize that EWS contributes to start site recognition in TATA-less mammalian promoters.

  11. The effect of diet-induced insulin resistance on DNA methylation of the androgen receptor promoter in the penile cavernosal smooth muscle of mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Wook Kim; Mi-Mi Oh; Cheol-Yong Yoon; Jae-Hyun Bae; Je-Jong Kim; Du-Geon Moon

    2013-01-01

    Population studies have suggested an association between diabetes and the symptoms of testosterone deficiency.Recently,the expression of the androgen receptor (AR) has been shown to be decreased in diabetic patients.Furthermore,diabetes has been shown to induce global methylation.In this study,we used an animal model to investigate whether diabetes results in increased methylation of the AR promoter and whether these changes are associated with the decreased expression of AR in penile cavernosal smooth muscle tissue.Twenty C57BL/6J mice were divided into two groups,receiving either high-(mature diabetic) or low-(mature control) caloric meals for 14 weeks.Another 10 mice were killed at 1 week (young control).Animals in the mature diabetic group showed decreased testosterone levels,although this was not statistically significant.In both control groups,no significant methylation was observed in the AR promoter region CpG island (-85 to +339).In the mature diabetic group,significant methylation was observed at + 185 and +200 of the AR promoter.These changes were associated with increased homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and decreased corpus cavernosal tissue mass and expression of AR mRNA and protein.We conclude that in these animals,insulin resistance increased the methvlation of the GC-rich regions of the AR oromoter,leading to decreased AR exnression.

  12. PARP1 Differentially Interacts with Promoter region of DUX4 Gene in FSHD Myoblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vishakha; Pandey, Sachchida Nand; Khawaja, Hunain; Brown, Kristy J; Hathout, Yetrib; Chen, Yi-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Objective The goal of the study is to identity proteins, which interact with the promoter region of double homeobox protein 4 (DUX4) gene known to be causative for the autosomal dominant disorder Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy (FSHD). Methods We performed a DNA pull down assay coupled with mass spectrometry analysis to identify proteins that interact with a DUX4 promoter probe in Rhabdomyosarcomca (RD) cells. We selected the top ranked protein poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) from our mass spectrometry data for further ChIP-qPCR validation using patients' myoblasts. We then treated FSHD myoblasts with PARP1 inhibitors to investigate the role of PARP1 in the FSHD myoblasts. Results In our mass spectrometry analysis, PARP1 was found to be the top ranked protein interacting preferentially with the DUX4 promoter probe in RD cells. We further validated this interaction by immunoblotting in RD cells (2-fold enrichment compared to proteins pulled down by a control probe, pfisetin (0.5 mM), a polyphenol compound with PARP1 inhibitory property, for 24 h also suppressed the expression of DUX4 (44.8 fold, p<0.01) and ZSCAN4 (2.2 fold, p<0.05) in the FSHD myoblasts. We further showed that DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), a gene regulated by PARP1 was also enriched at the DUX4 promoter in RD cells through immunoblotting (2-fold, p<0.01) and immortalized FSHD myoblasts (42-fold, p<0.01) but not control myoblasts through ChIP qPCR. Conclusion Our results showed that PARP1 and DNMT1 interacted with DUX4 promoter and may be involved in modulating DUX4 expression in FSHD. PMID:27722032

  13. Altered promoter recycling rates contribute to dominant-negative activity of human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma mutations associated with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Leff, Todd

    2007-04-01

    The transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) plays an important role in regulating lipid and glucose metabolism and improves insulin sensitivity in diabetic patients when activated by thiazolidinedione drugs. Several loss-of-function mutations in PPARgamma have been identified that cause lipodystrophy and diabetes in humans. Because affected individuals are heterozygotes and have one normal PPARgamma allele, it is of interest to know whether these mutations act in a dominant-negative fashion to inhibit the activity of the wild-type (WT) receptor. Here we compare the molecular phenotypes of two previously identified PPARgamma mutations: P467L, reported to be dominant negative; and F388L, reported to be devoid of dominant-negative activity. We developed a competitive chromatin immunoprecipitation assay to measure the relative ability of mutant PPARgamma to compete with WT receptor for binding to a PPAR regulatory element (PPRE)-containing promoter. By determining the ratio of mutant and WT receptors bound to a PPRE over time, we estimated the relative promoter turnover rate of each receptor. This assay demonstrated that PPARgamma bearing the P467L had a reduced promoter turnover rate compared with the F388L receptor, and over time out-competed the WT receptor for promoter binding sites. We propose that the P467L receptor is dominant negative because in a cell containing both WT and mutant receptors, the majority of the PPAR-regulated promoters will be occupied by the transcriptionally defective mutant receptor. In contrast, the F388L mutation lacks dominant-negative activity because its more rapid promoter turnover rate prevented it from out-competing the WT receptor for promoter binding sites.

  14. Cholinergic excitation in mouse primary vs. associative cortex: region-specific magnitude and receptor balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Michael K; Bailey, Craig D C; Lambe, Evelyn K

    2014-08-01

    Cholinergic stimulation of the cerebral cortex is essential for tasks requiring attention; however, there is still some debate over which cortical regions are required for such tasks. There is extensive cholinergic innervation of both primary and associative cortices, and transient release of acetylcholine (ACh) is detected in deep layers of the relevant primary and/or associative cortex, depending on the nature of the attention task. Here, we investigated the electrophysiological effects of ACh in layer VI, the deepest layer, of the primary somatosensory cortex, the primary motor cortex, and the associative medial prefrontal cortex. Layer VI pyramidal neurons are a major source of top-down modulation of attention, and we found that the strength and homogeneity of their direct cholinergic excitation was region-specific. On average, neurons in the primary cortical regions showed weaker responses to ACh, mediated by a balance of contributions from both nicotinic and muscarinic ACh receptors. Conversely, neurons in the associative medial prefrontal cortex showed significantly stronger excitation by ACh, mediated predominantly by nicotinic receptors. The greatest diversity of responses to ACh was found in the primary somatosensory cortex, with only a subset of neurons showing nicotinic excitation. In a mouse model with attention deficits only under demanding conditions, cholinergic excitation was preserved in primary cortical regions but not in the associative medial prefrontal cortex. These findings demonstrate that the effect of ACh is not uniform throughout the cortex, and suggest that its ability to enhance attention performance may involve different cellular mechanisms across cortical regions.

  15. Study on the Polymorphisms of Porcine Myostatin Gene in Promoter Region by PCR-RFLPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiu-qin; LIU Di

    2005-01-01

    In order to further study functions of the porcine myostatin gene, we analyzed the polymorphisms of porcine myostatin gene in promoter region among different breeds including Yorkshire, Landrace, Duroc, Junmu, Min pig and Sanjiang white pig by PCR-RFLPs. The allele T dominated in the imported lean-type pig breeds such as Yorkshire, Landrace and Duroc. No allele A was detected in Junmu and Sanjiang white pig, and the frequencies of three genotypes were about equal in Min pig. The result using X2 analysis showed that the distribution of three genotypes was related to pig breeds.

  16. Interferon gamma response region in the promoter of the human DPA gene.

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    The interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) response region of the human class II major histocompatibility complex gene, DPA, has been localized to a 52-base-pair (bp) DNA fragment in the proximal promotor at -107 to -55 bp after transfection into HeLa cells of a series of 5', 3', and gap deletion mutants linked to a reporter gene, human growth hormone, as well as of synthetic oligonucleotides fused to the heterologous promoter thymidine kinase. The 52-mer sequence contains the X and Y box elements cons...

  17. Lin28 promotes growth of prostate cancer cells and activates the androgen receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummala, Ramakumar; Nadiminty, Nagalakshmi; Lou, Wei; Zhu, Yezi; Gandour-Edwards, Regina; Chen, Hong-Wu; Evans, Christopher P; Gao, Allen C

    2013-07-01

    Prostate cancer (CaP) progresses to a castration-resistant state assisted by multifold molecular changes, most of which involve activation of the androgen receptor (AR). Having previously demonstrated the importance of the Lin28/let-7/Myc axis in CaP, we tested the hypothesis that Lin28 is overexpressed in CaP and that it activates AR and promotes growth of CaP cells. We analyzed human clinical CaP samples for the expression of Lin28 by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, and IHC. Growth characteristics of CaP cell lines transiently and stably expressing Lin28 were examined. The clonogenic ability of CaP cells expressing Lin28 was determined by colony formation and soft agar assays. Increase in expression of AR and subsequent increase in transcription of AR-target genes were analyzed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, luciferase assays, and ELISA. LNCaP cells stably expressing Lin28 were injected into nude mice, and tumorigenesis was monitored. We found that Lin28 is overexpressed in clinical CaP compared to benign prostates. Overexpression of Lin28 enhanced, while down-regulation reduced, growth of CaP cells. Lin28 enhanced the ability of CaP cells to form colonies in anchorage-dependent and anchorage-independent conditions. LNCaP cells stably expressing Lin28 exhibited significantly higher tumorigenic ability in vivo. Lin28 induced expression of the AR and its target genes such as PSA and NKX3.1. Collectively, our findings demonstrate a novel role for Lin28 in CaP development and activation of the AR axis. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The p75 neurotrophin receptor promotes Aβ-induced neuritic dystrophy in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Juliet; Rajadas, Jayakumar; Nguyen, Thuy-Vi V.; Yang, Tao; LeMieux, Melburne C.; Griend, Lilith Vander; Ishikawa, Chihiro; Massa, Stephen M.; Wyss-Coray, Tony; Longo, Frank M.

    2009-01-01

    Oligomeric forms of amyloid-β(1–42) (Aβ) are thought to play a causal role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) has been implicated in Aβ-induced neurodegeneration. To further define the functions of p75NTR in AD, we examined the interaction of oligomeric Aβ with p75NTR, and the effects of that interaction on neurite integrity in neuron cultures and in a chronic AD mouse model. Atomic force microscopy was used to ascertain the aggregated state of Aβ, and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) analysis revealed that Aβ oligomers interact with the extracellular domain of p75NTR. In vitro studies of Aβ-induced death in neuron cultures isolated from wildtype and p75NTR −/− mice, in which the p75NTR extracellular domain is deleted, showed reduced sensitivity of mutant cells to Aβ-induced cell death. Interestingly, Aβ-induced neuritic dystrophy and activation of c-Jun, a known mediator of Aβ-induced deleterious signaling, were completely prevented in p75NTR −/− neuron cultures. Thy1-hAPPLond/Swe X p75NTR−/− mice exhibited significantly diminished hippocampal neuritic dystrophy and complete reversal of basal forebrain cholinergic neurite degeneration relative to those expressing wild type p75NTR. Aβ levels were not affected, suggesting that removal of p75NTR extracellular domain reduced the ability of excess Aβ to promote neuritic degeneration. These findings indicate that while p75NTR likely does not mediate all Aβ effects, it does play a significant role in enabling Aβ-induced neurodegeneration in vitro and in vivo, establishing p75NTR as an important therapeutic target for AD. PMID:19710315

  19. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 promotes progression and correlates to poor prognosis in cholangiocarcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yun-Fei [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University (China); Yang, Xiao-Qing [Department of Pathology, Shandong University (China); Lu, Xiao-Fei [Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Jinan Central Hospital (China); Guo, Sen; Liu, Yi; Iqbal, Mohammad; Ning, Shang-Lei; Yang, Hui [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University (China); Suo, Ning [Department of Anatomy, Shandong University (China); Chen, Yu-Xin, E-mail: yxu8@bidmc.harvard.edu [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University (China)

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • FGFR4 is significantly related with N stage in IHCC, with T stage and TNM stage in PHCC. • FGFR4 is an independent prognostic factor in IHCC and PHCC. • FGFR4 promotes proliferation, invasion and EMT in cholangiocarinoma cell lines. • Inhibitor AP24354 can decrease proliferation, invasion and induce apoptosis of CCA. - Abstract: Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) is related to poor prognosis of several cancers, but the correlation between FGFR4 expression and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) has not been well elucidated. We investigated the expression of FGFR4 in 83 intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (IHCCs), 75 perihilar cholangiocarcinomas (PHCCs) and 41 distal cholangiocarcinomas (DCCs) by immunohistochemistry (IHC), and subsequently evaluated association of FGFR4 with clinicopathologic parameters and survival rate. The rate of FGFR4 higher expression was 61.4% (51/83) in IHCCs, 53.3% (40/75) in PHCCs and 56.1% (23/41) in DCCs. FGFR4 expression was significantly related to poor prognosis of IHCC (P = 0.002) and PHCC (P = 0.019) with univariate analysis, and also identified as an independent prognostic factor in IHCC (P = 0.045) and PHCC (P = 0.049) with multivariate analysis. Additionally, with functional assays in vitro, we found FGFR4 can induce proliferation, invasion and epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) of CCA cell lines with FGF19 stimulation. Moreover, FGFR4 inhibitor AP24354 can suppress proliferation, invasion and induce apoptosis of CCA cells. In conclusion, FGFR4 expression can be identified as a significant independent prognostic biomarker of IHCC and PHCC. FGFR4 played a pivotal role in proliferation, invasion and EMT of CCA. FGFR4 inhibitor can suppress proliferation, invasion and induce apoptosis of CCA, indicating that FGFR4 may act as a potential therapeutic target.

  20. DNA Methyltransferase 3B Gene Promoter and Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist Polymorphisms in Childhood Immune Thrombocytopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Pesmatzoglou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP is one of the most common blood diseases as well as the commonest acquired bleeding disorder in childhood. Although the etiology of ITP is unclear, in the pathogenesis of the disease, both environmental and genetic factors including polymorphisms of TNF-a, IL-10, and IL-4 genes have been suggested to be involved. In this study, we investigated the rs2424913 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP (C46359T in DNA methyltransferase 3B (DNMT3B gene promoter and the VNTR polymorphism of IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1 Ra intron-2 in 32 children (17 boys with the diagnosis of ITP and 64 healthy individuals. No significant differences were found in the genotype distribution of DNMT3B polymorphism between the children with ITP and the control group, whereas the frequency of allele T appeared significantly increased in children with ITP (P = 0.03, OR = 2, 95% CI: 1.06–3.94. In case of IL-1 Ra polymorphism, children with ITP had a significantly higher frequency of genotype I/II, compared to control group (P = 0.043, OR = 2.60, 95% CI: 1.02–6.50. Moreover, genotype I/I as well as allele I was overrepresented in the control group, suggesting that allele I may have a decreased risk for development of ITP. Our findings suggest that rs2424913 DNMT3B SNP as well as IL-1 Ra VNTR polymorphism may contribute to the susceptibility to ITP.

  1. EP4 Receptor-Associated Protein in Microglia Promotes Inflammation in the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikawa, Risako; Higuchi, Sei; Nakatsuji, Masato; Yasui, Mika; Ikedo, Taichi; Nagata, Manabu; Yokode, Masayuki; Minami, Manabu

    2016-08-01

    Microglial cells play a key role in neuronal damage in neurodegenerative disorders. Overactivated microglia induce detrimental neurotoxic effects through the excess production of proinflammatory cytokines. However, the mechanisms of microglial activation are poorly understood. We focused on prostaglandin E2 type 4 receptor-associated protein (EPRAP), which suppresses macrophage activation. We demonstrated that EPRAP exists in microglia in the brain. Furthermore, EPRAP-deficient mice displayed less microglial accumulation, and intraperitoneal administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) led to reduced expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 mRNA in the brains of EPRAP-deficient mice. Consistently, EPRAP-deficient microglia showed a marked decrease in the production of tumor necrosis factor-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 induced by LPS treatment compared with wild-type controls. In addition, EPRAP deficiency decreased microglial activation and neuronal cell death induced by intraventricular injection of kainic acid. EPRAP deficiency impaired the LPS-induced phosphorylation of c-jun N-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in microglia. The phosphorylation levels of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4-which phosphorylates c-jun N-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-were also decreased in EPRAP-deficient microglia after LPS stimulation. Although EPRAP in macrophages plays a role in the attenuation of inflammation, EPRAP promotes proinflammatory activation of microglia through mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4-mediated signaling and may be key to the deteriorating neuronal damage brought on by brain inflammation. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Androgen Receptor Promotes Ligand-Independent Prostate Cancer Progression through c-Myc Upregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lina; Schwartzman, Jacob; Gibbs, Angela; Lisac, Robert; Kleinschmidt, Richard; Wilmot, Beth; Bottomly, Daniel; Coleman, Ilsa; Nelson, Peter; McWeeney, Shannon; Alumkal, Joshi

    2013-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) is the principal therapeutic target in prostate cancer. For the past 70 years, androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been the major therapeutic focus. However, some patients do not benefit, and those tumors that do initially respond to ADT eventually progress. One recently described mechanism of such an effect is growth and survival-promoting effects of the AR that are exerted independently of the AR ligands, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. However, specific ligand-independent AR target genes that account for this effect were not well characterized. We show here that c-Myc, which is a key mediator of ligand-independent prostate cancer growth, is a key ligand-independent AR target gene. Using microarray analysis, we found that c-Myc and AR expression levels strongly correlated with each other in tumors from patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) progressing despite ADT. We confirmed that AR directly regulates c-Myc transcription in a ligand-independent manner, that AR and c-Myc suppression reduces ligand-independent prostate cancer cell growth, and that ectopic expression of c-Myc attenuates the anti-growth effects of AR suppression. Importantly, treatment with the bromodomain inhibitor JQ1 suppressed c-Myc function and suppressed ligand-independent prostate cancer cell survival. Our results define a new link between two critical proteins in prostate cancer – AR and c-Myc – and demonstrate the potential of AR and c-Myc-directed therapies to improve prostate cancer control. PMID:23704919

  3. Specific epidermal growth factor receptor autophosphorylation sites promote mouse colon epithelial cell chemotaxis and restitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaoka, Toshimitsu; Frey, Mark R; Dise, Rebecca S; Bernard, Jessica K; Polk, D Brent

    2011-08-01

    Upon ligand binding, epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (R) autophosphorylates on COOH-terminal tyrosines, generating docking sites for signaling partners that stimulate proliferation, restitution, and chemotaxis. Specificity for individual EGFR tyrosines in cellular responses has been hypothesized but not well documented. Here we tested the requirement for particular tyrosines, and associated downstream pathways, in mouse colon epithelial cell chemotactic migration. We compared these requirements to those for the phenotypically distinct restitution (wound healing) migration. Wild-type, Y992/1173F, Y1045F, Y1068F, and Y1086F EGFR constructs were expressed in EGFR(-/-) cells; EGF-induced chemotaxis or restitution were determined by Boyden chamber or modified scratch wound assay, respectively. Pharmacological inhibitors of p38, phospholipase C (PLC), Src, MEK, JNK/SAPK, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase), and protein kinase C (PKC) were used to block EGF-stimulated signaling. Pathway activation was determined by immunoblot analysis. Unlike wild-type EGFR, Y992/1173F and Y1086F EGFR did not stimulate colon epithelial cell chemotaxis toward EGF; Y1045F and Y1068F EGFR partially stimulated chemotaxis. Only wild-type EGFR promoted colonocyte restitution. Inhibition of p38, PLC, and Src, or Grb2 knockdown, blocked chemotaxis; JNK, PI 3-kinase, and PKC inhibitors or c-Cbl knockdown blocked restitution but not chemotaxis. All four EGFR mutants stimulated downstream signaling in response to EGF, but Y992/1173F EGFR was partially defective in PLCγ activation whereas both Y1068F and Y1086F EGFR failed to activate Src. We conclude that specific EGFR tyrosines play key roles in determining cellular responses to ligand. Chemotaxis and restitution, which have different migration phenotypes and physiological consequences, have overlapping but not identical EGFR signaling requirements.

  4. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor inhibition promotes hematolymphoid development from human pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelos, Mathew G; Ruh, Paige N; Webber, Beau R; Blum, Robert H; Ryan, Caitlin D; Bendzick, Laura; Shim, Seonhui; Yingst, Ashley M; Tufa, Dejene M; Verneris, Michael R; Kaufman, Dan S

    2017-06-29

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) plays an important physiological role in hematopoiesis. AHR is highly expressed in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) and inhibition of AHR results in a marked expansion of human umbilical cord blood-derived HSPCs following cytokine stimulation. It is unknown whether AHR also contributes earlier in human hematopoietic development. To model hematopoiesis, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) were allowed to differentiate in defined conditions in the presence of the AHR antagonist StemReginin-1 (SR-1) or the AHR agonist 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). We demonstrate a significant increase in CD34(+)CD31(+) hematoendothelial cells in SR-1-treated hESCs, as well as a twofold expansion of CD34(+)CD45(+) hematopoietic progenitor cells. Hematopoietic progenitor cells were also significantly increased by SR-1 as quantified by standard hematopoietic colony-forming assays. Using a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9)-engineered hESC-RUNX1c-tdTomato reporter cell line with AHR deletion, we further demonstrate a marked enhancement of hematopoietic differentiation relative to wild-type hESCs. We also evaluated whether AHR antagonism could promote innate lymphoid cell differentiation from hESCs. SR-1 increased conventional natural killer (cNK) cell differentiation, whereas TCDD treatment blocked cNK development and supported group 3 innate lymphoid cell (ILC3) differentiation. Collectively, these results demonstrate that AHR regulates early human hematolymphoid cell development and may be targeted to enhance production of specific cell populations derived from human pluripotent stem cells. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  5. HRas signal transduction promotes hepatitis C virus cell entry by triggering assembly of the host tetraspanin receptor complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zona, Laetitia; Lupberger, Joachim; Sidahmed-Adrar, Nazha; Thumann, Christine; Harris, Helen J; Barnes, Amy; Florentin, Jonathan; Tawar, Rajiv G; Xiao, Fei; Turek, Marine; Durand, Sarah C; Duong, François H T; Heim, Markus H; Cosset, François-Loïc; Hirsch, Ivan; Samuel, Didier; Brino, Laurent; Zeisel, Mirjam B; Le Naour, François; McKeating, Jane A; Baumert, Thomas F

    2013-03-13

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry is dependent on coreceptor complex formation between the tetraspanin superfamily member CD81 and the tight junction protein claudin-1 (CLDN1) on the host cell membrane. The receptor tyrosine kinase EGFR acts as a cofactor for HCV entry by promoting CD81-CLDN1 complex formation via unknown mechanisms. We identify the GTPase HRas, activated downstream of EGFR signaling, as a key host signal transducer for EGFR-mediated HCV entry. Proteomic analysis revealed that HRas associates with tetraspanin CD81, CLDN1, and the previously unrecognized HCV entry cofactors integrin β1 and Ras-related protein Rap2B in hepatocyte membranes. HRas signaling is required for lateral membrane diffusion of CD81, which enables tetraspanin receptor complex assembly. HRas was also found to be relevant for entry of other viruses, including influenza. Our data demonstrate that viruses exploit HRas signaling for cellular entry by compartmentalization of entry factors and receptor trafficking.

  6. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) Extract Modulates CHOP/GADD153 to Promote Androgen Receptor Degradation and Decreases Xenograft Tumor Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Petiwala, Sakina M.; Saba Berhe; Gongbo Li; Puthenveetil, Angela G.; Ozair Rahman; Larisa Nonn; Johnson, Jeremy J.

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet has long been attributed to preventing or delaying the onset of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and various solid organ cancers. In this particular study, a rosemary extract standardized to carnosic acid was evaluated for its potential in disrupting the endoplasmic reticulum machinery to decrease the viability of prostate cancer cells and promote degradation of the androgen receptor. Two human prostate cancer cell lines, 22Rv1 and LNCaP, and prostate epithelial cells p...

  7. Notch receptor expression in neurogenic regions of the adult zebrafish brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa de Oliveira-Carlos

    Full Text Available The adult zebrash brain has a remarkable constitutive neurogenic capacity. The regulation and maintenance of its adult neurogenic niches are poorly understood. In mammals, Notch signaling is involved in stem cell maintenance both in embryonic and adult CNS. To better understand how Notch signaling is involved in stem cell maintenance during adult neurogenesis in zebrafish we analysed Notch receptor expression in five neurogenic zones of the adult zebrafish brain. Combining proliferation and glial markers we identified several subsets of Notch receptor expressing cells. We found that 90 [Formula: see text] of proliferating radial glia express notch1a, notch1b and notch3. In contrast, the proliferating non-glial populations of the dorsal telencephalon and hypothalamus rarely express notch3 and about half express notch1a/1b. In the non-proliferating radial glia notch3 is the predominant receptor throughout the brain. In the ventral telencephalon and in the mitotic area of the optic tectum, where cells have neuroepithelial properties, notch1a/1b/3 are expressed in most proliferating cells. However, in the cerebellar niche, although progenitors also have neuroepithelial properties, only notch1a/1b are expressed in a high number of PCNA [Formula: see text] cells. In this region notch3 expression is mostly in Bergmann glia and at low levels in few PCNA [Formula: see text] cells. Additionally, we found that in the proliferation zone of the ventral telencephalon, Notch receptors display an apical high to basal low gradient of expression. Notch receptors are also expressed in subpopulations of oligodendrocytes, neurons and endothelial cells. We suggest that the partial regional heterogeneity observed for Notch expression in progenitor cells might be related to the cellular diversity present in each of these neurogenic niches.

  8. Cargo binding promotes KDEL receptor clustering at the mammalian cell surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Björn; Shaebani, M Reza; Rammo, Domenik; Bubel, Tobias; Santen, Ludger; Schmitt, Manfred J

    2016-06-29

    Transmembrane receptor clustering is a ubiquitous phenomenon in pro- and eukaryotic cells to physically sense receptor/ligand interactions and subsequently translate an exogenous signal into a cellular response. Despite that receptor cluster formation has been described for a wide variety of receptors, ranging from chemotactic receptors in bacteria to growth factor and neurotransmitter receptors in mammalian cells, a mechanistic understanding of the underlying molecular processes is still puzzling. In an attempt to fill this gap we followed a combined experimental and theoretical approach by dissecting and modulating cargo binding, internalization and cellular response mediated by KDEL receptors (KDELRs) at the mammalian cell surface after interaction with a model cargo/ligand. Using a fluorescent variant of ricin toxin A chain as KDELR-ligand (eGFP-RTA(H/KDEL)), we demonstrate that cargo binding induces dose-dependent receptor cluster formation at and subsequent internalization from the membrane which is associated and counteracted by anterograde and microtubule-assisted receptor transport to preferred docking sites at the plasma membrane. By means of analytical arguments and extensive numerical simulations we show that cargo-synchronized receptor transport from and to the membrane is causative for KDELR/cargo cluster formation at the mammalian cell surface.

  9. Severe hemorrhage attenuates cardiopulmonary chemoreflex control of regional sympathetic outputs via NTS adenosine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minic, Zeljka; Li, Cailian; O'Leary, Donal S; Scislo, Tadeusz J

    2014-09-15

    Selective stimulation of inhibitory A1 and facilitatory A2a adenosine receptor subtypes located in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) powerfully inhibits cardiopulmonary chemoreflex (CCR) control of regional sympathetic outputs via different mechanisms: direct inhibition of glutamate release and facilitation of an inhibitory neurotransmitter release, respectively. However, it remains unknown whether adenosine naturally released into the NTS has similar inhibitory effects on the CCR as the exogenous agonists do. Our previous study showed that adenosine is released into the NTS during severe hemorrhage and contributes to reciprocal changes of renal (decreases) and adrenal (increases) sympathetic nerve activity observed in this setting. Both A1 and A2a adenosine receptors are involved. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that, during severe hemorrhage, CCR control of the two sympathetic outputs is attenuated by adenosine naturally released into the NTS. We compared renal and adrenal sympathoinhibitory responses evoked by right atrial injections of 5HT3 receptor agonist phenylbiguanide (2-8 μg/kg) under control conditions, during hemorrhage, and during hemorrhage preceded by blockade of NTS adenosine receptors with bilateral microinjections of 8-(p-sulfophenyl) theophylline (1 nmol/100 nl) in urethane/chloralose anesthetized rats. CCR-mediated inhibition of renal and adrenal sympathetic activity was significantly attenuated during severe hemorrhage despite reciprocal changes in the baseline activity levels, and this attenuation was removed by bilateral blockade of adenosine receptors in the caudal NTS. This confirmed that adenosine endogenously released into the NTS has a similar modulatory effect on integration of cardiovascular reflexes as stimulation of NTS adenosine receptors with exogenous agonists.

  10. The variant hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 activates the P1 promoter of the human alpha-folate receptor gene in ovarian carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassetti, Antonella; Mangiarotti, Fabio; Mazzi, Mimma; Sforzini, Sabrina; Miotti, Silvia; Galmozzi, Enrico; Elwood, Patrick C; Canevari, Silvana

    2003-02-01

    The alpha folate receptor (alpha FR) is a membrane glycoprotein that binds folates, and mediates their uptake and that of antifolate drugs. alpha FR is absent on ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) but is detectable during early transforming events in this epithelium, with increasing expression levels in association with tumor progression. Analysis of transcriptional regulation of the alpha FR gene have revealed two promoter regions, P1 and P4, flanking exons 1 and 4, respectively, and a requirement for three SP1 sites and an INR element for optimal P4 activity. Here, we focused on the P1 transcription regulation in ovarian carcinoma cells. RNase protection assay indicated that the 5'-untranslated region is heterogeneous because of different start sites and alternative splicing of exon 3. A core region of the P1 promoter was sufficient for maximal promoter activity in ovarian carcinoma cell lines but not in OSE cells or in alpha FR-nonexpressing cell lines. Deletion and mutation analysis of this core promoter identified a cis-regulatory element at position +27 to +33 of the untranslated exon 1, which is responsible for maximum P1 activity. This element formed an abundant DNA-protein complex with nuclear proteins from ovarian cancer cells but not from other cell lines or OSE cells. Competition experiments and supershift assays demonstrated binding of the P1 cis-regulatory element by a transcription factor involved in embryonic development, the variant hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 (vHNF1). Analysis of RNA from various cell lines and surgical specimens confirmed that vHNF1 is expressed in ovarian carcinomas. Thus, vHNF1 regulates tissue-specific transcription in ovarian carcinoma.

  11. Activation of purinergic receptors (P2) in the renal medulla promotes endothelin-dependent natriuresis in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohar, Eman Y; Speed, Joshua S; Kasztan, Malgorzata; Jin, Chunhua; Pollock, David M

    2016-08-01

    Renal endothelin-1 (ET-1) and purinergic signaling systems regulate Na(+) reabsorption in the renal medulla. A link between the renal ET-1 and purinergic systems was demonstrated in vitro, however, the in vivo interaction between these systems has not been defined. To test whether renal medullary activation of purinergic (P2) receptors promotes ET-dependent natriuresis, we determined the effect of increased medullary NaCl loading on Na(+) excretion and inner medullary ET-1 mRNA expression in anesthetized adult male Sprague-Dawley rats in the presence and absence of purinergic receptor antagonism. Isosmotic saline (NaCl; 284 mosmol/kgH2O) was infused into the medullary interstitium (500 μl/h) during a 30-min baseline urine collection period, followed by isosmotic or hyperosmotic saline (1,800 mosmol/kgH2O) for two further 30-min urine collection periods. Na(+) excretion was significantly increased during intramedullary infusion of hyperosmotic saline. Compared with isosmotic saline, hyperosmotic saline infused into the renal medulla caused significant increases in inner medullary ET-1 mRNA expression. Renal intramedullary infusion of the P2 receptor antagonist suramin inhibited the increase in Na(+) excretion and inner medullary ET-1 mRNA expression induced by NaCl loading in the renal medulla. Activation of medullary P2Y2/4 receptors by infusion of UTP increased urinary Na(+) excretion. Combined ETA and ETB receptor blockade abolished the natriuretic response to intramedullary infusion of UTP. These data demonstrate that activation of medullary P2 receptors promotes ET-dependent natriuresis in male rats, suggesting that the renal ET-1 and purinergic signaling systems interact to efficiently facilitate excretion of a NaCl load.

  12. Prorenin/Renin Receptor Blockade Promotes a Healthy Fat Distribution in Obese Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Paul; Blais, Carolane; Nguyen, Thi M.-D.; Schiller, Peter W.; Gutkowska, Jolanta; Lavoie, Julie L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Administration of the handle region peptide (HRP), a (pro)renin receptor blocker, decreases body weight gain and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in high-fat/high-carbohydrate (HF/HC) diet-fed mice. The objective of this study was to elucidate potential mechanisms implicated in these observations. Methods Mice were given a normal or a HF/HC diet along with saline or HRP for 10 weeks. Results In HF/HC-fed mice, HRP increased the expression of several enzymes implicated in lipogenesis and lipolysis in subcutaneous fat (SCF) while the expression of the enzyme implicated in the last step of lipogenesis decreased in VAT. A reduction was also observed in circulating free fatty acids in these animals which was accompanied by normalized adipocyte size in VAT and increased adipocyte size in SCF. “Beiging“ is the evolution of a white adipose tissue toward a brown-like phenotype characterized by an increased mitochondrial density and small lipid droplets. HRP increased the expression of’ “beiging” markers in SCF of HF/HC diet-fed mice. Conclusions HRP treatment may favor healthy fat storage in SCF by activating a triglyceride/free fatty acid cycling and “beiging,” which could explain the body weight and fat mass reduction. PMID:27458124

  13. Statistically Significant Strings are Related to Regulatory Elements in the Promoter Regions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, R; Hu, Rui; Wang, Bin

    2000-01-01

    Finding out statistically significant words in DNA and protein sequences forms the basis for many genetic studies. By applying the maximal entropy principle, we give one systematic way to study the nonrandom occurrence of words in DNA or protein sequences. Through comparison with experimental results, it was shown that patterns of regulatory binding sites in Saccharomyces cerevisiae(yeast) genomes tend to occur significantly in the promoter regions. We studied two correlated gene family of yeast. The method successfully extracts the binding sites varified by experiments in each family. Many putative regulatory sites in the upstream regions are proposed. The study also suggested that some regulatory sites are a ctive in both directions, while others show directional preference.

  14. Promotion of Social Entrepreneurship Through Public Services in the Madrid Region: Succesful Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Teresa Fernández Fernández

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the promotion of social entrepreneurship through the delivery of services in public business incubators in the Madrid region. The research is innovative since the implication of the public sector in boosting social entrepreneurship is quite new in Spain. Methodology starts with a literature revision of the factors conforming social entrepreneurship and focuses on networking. Then, social entrepreneurship presence and its promotion is analyzed both in the practices and services provided by the Madrid Development Agency in its “Madrid Emprende” incubation program and also through a survey addressed to the 113 firms hosted in its network of business incubators. Results of the survey show that social entrepreneurship is present as the main purpose of their activity in a majority of the firms, in their social products and services, in their social legal form supported by the public network and in some forms of public-private partnership promoted by the Madrid Business Incubators Network. Services provided by the public network show the quality, the added value and the know-how of the practices of the public program and have an impact in the efficient performance of the firms regarding social entrepreneurship and in the public-private alliances established for some social purposes.

  15. Mutations in the promoter region of the aldolase B gene that cause hereditary fructose intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffee, Erin M; Tolan, Dean R

    2010-12-01

    Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) is a potentially fatal inherited metabolic disease caused by a deficiency of aldolase B activity in the liver and kidney. Over 40 disease-causing mutations are known in the protein-coding region of ALDOB. Mutations upstream of the protein-coding portion of ALDOB are reported here for the first time. DNA sequence analysis of 61 HFI patients revealed single base mutations in the promoter, intronic enhancer, and the first exon, which is entirely untranslated. One mutation, g.-132G>A, is located within the promoter at an evolutionarily conserved nucleotide within a transcription factor-binding site. A second mutation, IVS1+1G>C, is at the donor splice site of the first exon. In vitro electrophoretic mobility shift assays show a decrease in nuclear extract-protein binding at the g.-132G>A mutant site. The promoter mutation results in decreased transcription using luciferase reporter plasmids. Analysis of cDNA from cells transfected with plasmids harboring the IVS1+1G>C mutation results in aberrant splicing leading to complete retention of the first intron (~5 kb). The IVS1+1G>C splicing mutation results in loss of luciferase activity from a reporter plasmid. These novel mutations in ALDOB represent 2% of alleles in American HFI patients, with IVS1+1G>C representing a significantly higher allele frequency (6%) among HFI patients of Hispanic and African-American ethnicity.

  16. Characterization and Impact of TERT Promoter Region Mutations on Clinical Outcome in Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casuscelli, Jozefina; Becerra, Maria F; Manley, Brandon J; Zabor, Emily C; Reznik, Ed; Redzematovic, Almedina; Arcila, Maria E; Tennenbaum, Daniel M; Ghanaat, Mazyar; Kashan, Mahyar; Stief, Christian G; Carlo, Maria; Voss, Martin H; Feldman, Darren R; Motzer, Robert J; Chen, Yingbei; Reuter, Victor E; Coleman, Jonathan A; Russo, Paul; Hsieh, James J; Hakimi, Abraham Ari

    2017-09-23

    Mutations in the promoter region of the TERT gene have been detected in a variety of cancers. These mutations can potentially lead to unlimited cell divisions and result in poor clinical prognosis. To determine the role and relevance of TERT promoter region mutations in both clear cell (ccRCC) and non-clear cell (nccRCC) renal cell carcinoma using ultra-deep and whole-genome sequencing methods on primary tumor samples. DNA from 281 kidney tumors (147 ccRCC and 134 nccRCC) was sequenced between 2013 and 2015, and clinical outcomes for these patients from a single institution were retrospectively analyzed. Differences in patient characteristics and mutational status were tested using Fisher's exact test for categorical variables and the Wilcoxon rank sum test for continuous variables. Survival times were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and differences were tested using the log-rank test. TERT mutations occurred in 12.2% of ccRCC and 10.4% of nccRCC cases. In >80% of the cases, mutations were located at C228T and were found to co-occur only rarely with other relevant RCC driver genes. The median follow-up among survivors overall was 2.5 yr (range 0.1-18.3). TERT promoter mutations were significantly associated with cancer-specific survival in ccRCC (hazard ratio 2.68, 95% confidence interval 1.19-6.01; p=0.013). In nccRCC, TERT mutations were significantly associated with larger tumors and metastatic development. Assessment of further relevant clinical associations was precluded in the nccRCC group by the heterogeneous and small sample size. Our data suggests that TERT mutational status reflects a distinct pathogenesis with an aggressive disease course in RCC. Stratifying patients with this unique tumorigenesis that leads to poor clinical outcomes could be a putative target for novel therapeutics. We show a previously unrecognized frequency of TERT promoter mutations in both clear cell and non-clear cell renal cell carcinoma. TERT promoter mutations were

  17. ephrin ligands and Eph receptors show regionally restricted expression in the developing palate and tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Machado Xavier

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Eph family receptor-interacting (ephrin ligands and erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular carcinoma (Eph receptors constitute the largest known family of receptor tyrosine kinases. Ephrin ligands and their receptors form an important cell communication system with widespread roles in normal physiology and disease pathogenesis. In order to investigate potential roles of the ephrin-Eph system during palatogenesis and tongue development, we have characterized the cellular mRNA expression of family members EphrinA1-A3, EphA1–A8 and EphrinB2, EphB1, EphB4 during murine embryogenesis between embryonic day 13.5–16.5 using radioactive in situ hybridization. With the exception of EphA6 and ephrinA3, all genes were regionally expressed during the process of palatogenesis, with restricted and often overlapping domains. Transcripts were identified in the palate epithelium, localized at the tip of the palatal shelves, in the mesenchyme and also confined to the medial epithelium seam. Numerous Eph transcripts were also identified during tongue development. In particular, EphA1 and EphA2 demonstrated a highly restricted and specific expression in the tongue epithelium at all stages examined, whereas EphA3 was strongly expressed in the lateral tongue mesenchyme. These results suggest regulatory roles for ephrin-EphA signaling in development of the murine palate and tongue.

  18. Functional distribution of nicotinic receptors in CA3 region of the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grybko, Michael; Sharma, Geeta; Vijayaraghavan, Sukumar

    2010-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) modulation of a number of parameters of synaptic signaling in the brain has been demonstrated. It is likely that effects of nicotine are due to its ability to modulate network excitability as a whole. A pre-requisite to understanding the effects of nicotine on network properties is the elucidation of functional receptors. We have examined the distribution of functional nAChRs in the dentate gyrus granule cells and the CA3 region of the mammalian hippocampus using calcium imaging from acute slices. Our results demonstrate the presence of functional nAChRs containing the alpha7 subunit (alpha7-nAChRs) on mossy fiber boutons, CA3 pyramidal cells, and on astrocytes. In addition, both CA3 interneurons and granule cells show nicotinic signals. Our study suggests that functional nicotinic receptors are widespread in their distribution and that calcium imaging might be an effective technique to examine locations of these receptors in the mammalian brain.

  19. 3-methylcholanthrene induces differential recruitment of aryl hydrocarbon receptor to human promoters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pansoy, Andrea; Ahmed, Shaimaa; Valen, Eivind;

    2010-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated protein that mediates the toxic actions of polycyclic aromatic and halogenated compounds. Identifying genes directly regulated by AHR is important in understanding the pathways regulated by this receptor. Here we used chromatin immunopreci......The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated protein that mediates the toxic actions of polycyclic aromatic and halogenated compounds. Identifying genes directly regulated by AHR is important in understanding the pathways regulated by this receptor. Here we used chromatin...

  20. Role of ELA region in auto-activation of mutant KIT receptor: a molecular dynamics simulation insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, Rituraj

    2014-01-01

    KIT receptor is the prime target in gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GISTs) therapy. Second generation inhibitor, Sunitinib, binds to an inactivated conformation of KIT receptor and stabilizes it in order to prevent tumor formation. Here, we investigated the dynamic behavior of wild type and mutant D816H KIT receptor, and emphasized the extended A-loop (EAL) region (805-850) by conducting molecular dynamics simulation (∼100 ns). We analyzed different properties such as root mean square cutoff or deviation, root mean square fluctuation, radius of gyration, solvent-accessible surface area, hydrogen bonding network analysis, and essential dynamics. Apart from this, clustering and cross-correlation matrix approach was used to explore the conformational space of the wild type and mutant EAL region of KIT receptor. Molecular dynamics analysis indicated that mutation (D816H) was able to alter intramolecular hydrogen bonding pattern and affected the structural flexibility of EAL region. Moreover, flexible secondary elements, specially, coil and turns were dominated in EAL region of mutant KIT receptor during simulation. This phenomenon increased the movement of EAL region which in turn helped in shifting the equilibrium towards the active kinase conformation. Our atomic investigation of mutant KIT receptor which emphasized on EAL region provided a better insight into the understanding of Sunitinib resistance mechanism of KIT receptor and would help to discover new therapeutics for KIT-based resistant tumor cells in GIST therapy.

  1. Functional characterization of the cardiac ryanodine receptor pore-forming region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Euden

    Full Text Available Ryanodine receptors are homotetrameric intracellular calcium release channels. The efficiency of these channels is underpinned by exceptional rates of cation translocation through the open channel and this is achieved at the expense of the high degree of selectivity characteristic of many other types of channel. Crystallization of prokaryotic potassium channels has provided insights into the structures and mechanisms responsible for ion selection and movement in these channels, however no equivalent structural detail is currently available for ryanodine receptors. Nevertheless both molecular modeling and cryo-electron microscopy have identified the probable pore-forming region (PFR of the ryanodine receptor (RyR and suggest that this region contains structural elements equivalent to those of the PFRs of potassium-selective channels. The aim of the current study was to establish if the isolated putative cardiac RyR (RyR2 PFR could form a functional ion channel. We have expressed and purified the RyR2 PFR and shown that function is retained following reconstitution into planar phospholipid bilayers. Our data provide the first direct experimental evidence to support the proposal that the conduction pathway of RyR2 is formed by structural elements equivalent to those of the potassium channel PFR.

  2. The deubiquitinating enzyme USP8 promotes trafficking and degradation of the chemokine receptor 4 at the sorting endosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Ilana; Higginbotham, Katherine M; Dise, Rebecca S; Sierra, Maria I; Nash, Piers D

    2010-11-26

    Reversible ubiquitination orchestrated by the opposition of ubiquitin ligases and deubiquitinating enzymes mediates endocytic trafficking of cell surface receptors for lysosomal degradation. Ubiquitin-specific protease 8 (USP8) has previously been implicated in endocytosis of several receptors by virtue of their deubiquitination. The present study explores an indirect role for USP8 in cargo trafficking through its regulation of the chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4). Contrary to the effects of USP8 loss on enhanced green fluorescent protein, we find that USP8 depletion stabilizes CXCR4 on the cell surface and attenuates receptor degradation without affecting its ubiquitination status. In the presence of ligand, diminished CXCR4 turnover is accompanied by receptor accumulation on enlarged early endosomes and leads to enhancement of phospho-ERK signaling. Perturbation in CXCR4 trafficking, resulting from USP8 inactivation, occurs at the ESCRT-0 checkpoint, and catalytic mutation of USP8 specifically targeted to the ESCRT-0 complex impairs the spatial and temporal organization of the sorting endosome. USP8 functionally opposes the ubiquitin ligase AIP4 with respect to ESCRT-0 ubiquitination, thereby promoting trafficking of CXCR4. Collectively, our findings demonstrate a functional cooperation between USP8, AIP4, and the ESCRT-0 machinery at the early sorting phase of CXCR4 and underscore the versatility of USP8 in shaping trafficking events at the early-to-late endosome transition.

  3. The chromatin-remodeling complex WINAC targets a nuclear receptor to promoters and is impaired in Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Hirochika; Fujiki, Ryoji; Yoshimura, Kimihiro; Mezaki, Yoshihiro; Uematsu, Yoshikatsu; Matsui, Daisuke; Ogawa, Satoko; Unno, Kiyoe; Okubo, Mataichi; Tokita, Akifumi; Nakagawa, Takeya; Ito, Takashi; Ishimi, Yukio; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Matsumoto, Toshio; Yanagisawa, Junn; Kato, Shigeaki

    2003-06-27

    We identified a human multiprotein complex (WINAC) that directly interacts with the vitamin D receptor (VDR) through the Williams syndrome transcription factor (WSTF). WINAC has ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling activity and contains both SWI/SNF components and DNA replication-related factors. The latter might explain a WINAC requirement for normal S phase progression. WINAC mediates the recruitment of unliganded VDR to VDR target sites in promoters, while subsequent binding of coregulators requires ligand binding. This recruitment order exemplifies that an interaction of a sequence-specific regulator with a chromatin-remodeling complex can organize nucleosomal arrays at specific local sites in order to make promoters accessible for coregulators. Furthermore, overexpression of WSTF could restore the impaired recruitment of VDR to vitamin D regulated promoters in fibroblasts from Williams syndrome patients. This suggests that WINAC dysfunction contributes to Williams syndrome, which could therefore be considered, at least in part, a chromatin-remodeling factor disease.

  4. Pharmacological activation of cannabinoid 2 receptor attenuates inflammation, fibrogenesis, and promotes re-epithelialization during skin wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin-Lin; Zhao, Rui; Li, Jiao-Yong; Li, Shan-Shan; Liu, Min; Wang, Meng; Zhang, Meng-Zhou; Dong, Wen-Wen; Jiang, Shu-Kun; Zhang, Miao; Tian, Zhi-Ling; Liu, Chang-Sheng; Guan, Da-Wei

    2016-09-05

    Previous studies showed that cannabinoid 2 (CB2) receptor is expressed in multiple effector cells during skin wound healing. Meanwhile, its functional involvement in inflammation, fibrosis, and cell proliferation in other organs and skin diseases implied CB2 receptor might also regulate skin wound healing. To verify this hypothesis, mice excisional wounds were created and treated with highly selective CB2 receptor agonist GP1a (1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-6-methyl- N-piperidin-1-yl-4H-indeno[1,2-c]pyrazole-3-carboxamide) and antagonist AM630 ([6-iodo-2- methyl-1-(2-morpholin-4-ylethyl)indol-3-yl]-(4-methoxyphenyl)methanone) respectively. The inflammatory infiltration, cytokine expression, fibrogenesis, and wound re-epithelialization were analyzed. After CB2 receptor activation, neutrophil and macrophage infiltrations were reduced, and expressions of monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1, Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A were decreased. Keratinocyte proliferation and migration were enhanced. Wound re-epithelialization was accelerated. Fibroblast accumulation and fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transformation were attenuated, and expression of pro-collagen I was decreased. Furthermore, HaCaT cells in vitro were treated with GP1a or AM630, which revealed that CB2 receptor activation promoted keratinocyte migration by inducing the epithelial to mesenchymal transition. These results, taken together, indicate that activating CB2 receptor could ameliorate wound healing by reducing inflammation, accelerating re-epithelialization, and attenuating scar formation. Thus, CB2 receptor agonist might be a novel perspective for skin wound therapy.

  5. [Relationship between EGFR Promoter Region Methylation and Secondary Resistance Which may be Induced by Gefitinib].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qilong; Li, Min; Hu, Chengping

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays the secondary resistance of gefitinib in the treatment of lung adenocarcinoma is an outstanding problem. This research is to explore whether the gefitinib secondary resistance can be induced by gefitinib, to explore whether epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) promotor methylation correlate with the gefitinib-resistance in PC9/GR cell lines and to find a new therapeutic target to overcome the gefitinib secondary resistance in lung adenocarcinoma. In vitro cultivation of lung adenocarcinoma PC9 cell lines, apply gefitinib on lung adenocarcinoma PC9 cell lines, and improve drug concentration. MTT for test of gefitinib resistance index in PC9 cell and PC9/GR cell. Bisulfite sequencing polymerase chain reaction (BSP) and Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for detection of EGFR promoter methylation status and mRNA expression. In vitro cultivation of lung adenocarcinoma PC9 cell lines, apply 1 μmol/L 5-Aza-dc on lung adenocarcinoma PC9/GR cell lines for 72 h. MTT method for test of gefitinib resistance index in PC9/GR cell. After improving the gefitinib concentration, MTT results showed that half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of PC9 cell lines increase from (0.01 ± 0.002) μmol/L to (3.95 ± 0.23) μmol/L (Pchange: PC9: 59%; PC9/GR: 74% (Presistant to gefitinib, and the gefitinib-resistant cell line PC9/GR could be built. EGFR gene promoter methylation may be one of the mechanisms for the secondary resistance to gefitinib.

  6. Growth and gene expression are predominantly controlled by distinct regions of the human IL-4 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J J; McReynolds, L J; Keegan, A; Wang, L H; Garfein, E; Rothman, P; Nelms, K; Paul, W E

    1996-02-01

    IL-4 causes hematopoietic cells to proliferate and express a series of genes, including CD23. We examined whether IL-4-mediated growth, as measured by 4PS phosphorylation, and gene induction were similarly controlled. Studies of M12.4.1 cells expressing human IL-4R truncation mutants indicated that the region between amino acids 557-657 is necessary for full gene expression, which correlated with Stat6 DNA binding activity. This region was not required for 4PS phosphorylation. Tyrosine-to-phenylalanine mutations in the interval between amino acids 557-657 revealed that as long as one tyrosine remained unmutated, CD23 was fully induced. When all three tyrosines were mutated, the receptor was unable to induce CD23. The results indicate that growth regulation and gene expression are principally controlled by distinct regions of IL-4R.

  7. Promotion of Wound Healing by an Agonist of Adenosine A2A Receptor Is Dependent on Tissue Plasminogen Activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesinos, M Carmen; Desai-Merchant, Avani; Cronstein, Bruce N

    2015-12-01

    Impaired wound healing, as it occurs in diabetes mellitus or long-term corticoid treatment, is commonly associated with disability, diminished quality of life, and high economic costs. Selective agonists of the A2A receptor subtype of adenosine, an endogenous regulator of inflammation, promote tissue repair in animal models, both healthy and with impaired healing. Plasmin-mediated proteolysis of fibrin and other matrix proteins is essential for cell migration at sites of injury. Since adenosine A2A receptor activation increases plasminogen activator release from macrophages and mast cells, we studied the effect of a selective agonist, CGS-21680, on full-thickness excisional wound closure in wild-type, urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA)-deficient, and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)-deficient mice. Wound closure was impaired in tPA- and uPA-deficient mice as compared with wild-type mice, and topical application of CGS-21680 significantly increased the rate at which wounds closed in wild-type mice and uPA-deficient mice, but not in tPA-deficient mice. Immunostaining of tissue sections showed that tPA was present in endothelial cells and histiocytes by day 3 post-wound and also by day 6. In contrast, uPA was more prominent in these cell types only by day 6 post-wound. Our results confirm that plasminogen activation contributes to wound repair and are consistent with the hypothesis that adenosine A2A receptor activation promotes wound closure by a mechanism that depends upon tPA, but not uPA. Moreover, our results suggest that topical adenosine A2A receptor agonists may be useful in promotion of wound closure in patients with impaired wound healing.

  8. Regional Differences in Correlates of Daily Walking among Middle Age and Older Australian Rural Adults: Implications for Health Promotion

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Rural Australians are less physically active than their metropolitan counterparts, and yet very little is known of the candidate intervention targets for promoting physical activity in rural populations. As rural regions are economically, socially and environmentally diverse, drivers of regular physical activity are likely to vary between regions. This study explored the region-specific correlates of daily walking among middle age and older adults in rural regions with contrasting dominant pr...

  9. GABAA receptor subtypes in the mouse brain: Regional mapping and diazepam receptor occupancy by in vivo [(18)F]flumazenil PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller Herde, Adrienne; Benke, Dietmar; Ralvenius, William T; Mu, Linjing; Schibli, Roger; Zeilhofer, Hanns Ulrich; Krämer, Stefanie D

    2017-02-10

    Classical benzodiazepines, which are widely used as sedatives, anxiolytics and anticonvulsants, exert their therapeutic effects through interactions with heteropentameric GABAA receptors composed of two α, two β and one γ2 subunit. Their high affinity binding site is located at the interface between the γ2 and the adjacent α subunit. The α-subunit gene family consists of six members and receptors can be homomeric or mixed with respect to the α-subunits. Previous work has suggested that benzodiazepine binding site ligands with selectivity for individual GABAA receptor subtypes, as defined by the benzodiazepine-binding α subunit, may have fewer side effects and may even be effective in diseases, such as schizophrenia, autism or chronic pain, that do not respond well to classical benzodiazepines. The distributions of the individual α subunits across the CNS have been extensively characterized. However, as GABAA receptors may contain two different α subunits, the distribution of the subunits does not necessarily reflect the distribution of receptor subtypes with respect to benzodiazepine pharmacology. In the present study, we have used in vivo [(18)F]flumazenil PET and in vitro [(3)H]flumazenil autoradiography in combination with GABAA receptor point-mutated mice to characterize the distribution of the two most prevalent GABAA receptor subtypes (α1 and α2) throughout the mouse brain. The results were in agreement with published in vitro data. High levels of α2-containing receptors were found in brain regions of the neuronal network of anxiety. The α1/α2 subunit combinations were predictable from the individual subunit levels. In additional experiments, we explored in vivo [(18)F]flumazenil PET to determine the degree of receptor occupancy at GABAA receptor subtypes following oral administration of diazepam. The dose to occupy 50% of sensitive receptors, independent of the receptor subtype(s), was 1-2mg/kg, in agreement with published data from ex vivo

  10. GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors promote glutamate synapse development in hippocampal interneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsch, Wolfgang; Li, Zhijun; Wieland, Sebastian; Senkov, Oleg; Herb, Anne; Göngrich, Christina; Monyer, Hannah

    2014-11-26

    In postnatal development, GluN2B-containing NMDARs are critical for the functional maturation of glutamatergic synapses. GluN2B-containing NMDARs prevail until the second postnatal week when GluN2A subunits are progressively added, conferring mature properties to NMDARs. In cortical principal neurons, deletion of GluN2B results in an increase in functional AMPAR synapses, suggesting that GluN2B-containing NMDARs set a brake on glutamate synapse maturation. The function of GluN2B in the maturation of glutamatergic inputs to cortical interneurons is not known. To examine the function of GluN2B in interneurons, we generated mutant mice with conditional deletion of GluN2B in interneurons (GluN2B(ΔGAD67)). In GluN2B(ΔGAD67) mice interneurons distributed normally in cortical brain regions. After the second postnatal week, GluN2B(ΔGAD67) mice developed hippocampal seizures and died shortly thereafter. Before the onset of seizures, GluN2B-deficient hippocampal interneurons received fewer glutamatergic synaptic inputs than littermate controls, indicating that GluN2B-containing NMDARs positively regulate the maturation of glutamatergic input synapses in interneurons. These findings suggest that GluN2B-containing NMDARs keep the circuit activity under control by promoting the maturation of excitatory synapses in interneurons.

  11. Mutations in the ligand-binding domain of the androgen receptor gene cluster in two regions of the gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhaul, M J; Marcelli, M; Zoppi, S; Wilson, C M; Griffin, J E; Wilson, J D

    1992-11-01

    We have analyzed the nucleotide sequence of the androgen receptor from 22 unrelated subjects with substitution mutations of the hormone-binding domain. Eleven had the phenotype of complete testicular feminization, four had incomplete testicular feminization, and seven had Reifenstein syndrome. The underlying functional defect in cultured skin fibroblasts included individuals with absent, qualitative, or quantitative defects in ligand binding. 19 of the 21 substitution mutations (90%) cluster in two regions that account for approximately 35% of the hormone-binding domain, namely, between amino acids 726 and 772 and between amino acids 826 and 864. The fact that one of these regions is homologous to a region of the human thyroid hormone receptor (hTR-beta) which is a known cluster site for mutations that cause thyroid hormone resistance implies that this localization of mutations is not a coincidence. These regions of the androgen receptor may be of particular importance for the formation and function of the hormone-receptor complex.

  12. Early vertebrate chromosome duplications and the evolution of the neuropeptide Y receptor gene regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenner Sydney

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the many gene families that expanded in early vertebrate evolution is the neuropeptide (NPY receptor family of G-protein coupled receptors. Earlier work by our lab suggested that several of the NPY receptor genes found in extant vertebrates resulted from two genome duplications before the origin of jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes and one additional genome duplication in the actinopterygian lineage, based on their location on chromosomes sharing several gene families. In this study we have investigated, in five vertebrate genomes, 45 gene families with members close to the NPY receptor genes in the compact genomes of the teleost fishes Tetraodon nigroviridis and Takifugu rubripes. These correspond to Homo sapiens chromosomes 4, 5, 8 and 10. Results Chromosome regions with conserved synteny were identified and confirmed by phylogenetic analyses in H. sapiens, M. musculus, D. rerio, T. rubripes and T. nigroviridis. 26 gene families, including the NPY receptor genes, (plus 3 described recently by other labs showed a tree topology consistent with duplications in early vertebrate evolution and in the actinopterygian lineage, thereby supporting expansion through block duplications. Eight gene families had complications that precluded analysis (such as short sequence length or variable number of repeated domains and another eight families did not support block duplications (because the paralogs in these families seem to have originated in another time window than the proposed genome duplication events. RT-PCR carried out with several tissues in T. rubripes revealed that all five NPY receptors were expressed in the brain and subtypes Y2, Y4 and Y8 were also expressed in peripheral organs. Conclusion We conclude that the phylogenetic analyses and chromosomal locations of these gene families support duplications of large blocks of genes or even entire chromosomes. Thus, these results are consistent with two early vertebrate

  13. Oxytocin receptors in brain cortical regions are reduced in haploinsufficient (+/-) reeler mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wensheng; Pappas, George D; Carter, C Sue

    2005-06-01

    Both oxytocin (OT) and reelin are particularly significant during development and the absence of either may interfere with normal brain development. In addition, reelin is critical to the development of the GABAergic system and GABA modulates the release of OT. Availability of the reelin haploinsufficient (+/-) reeler mouse (HRM) provides a model for examining the role of reelin in the development of the OT system and especially in the expression of the OT receptor (OTR). In this study we used immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization in HRM versus wild-type (+/-) mice (WTM) to quantify OTR abundance in regions of the brain cortex. Our findings reveal that the oxytocin receptor (OTR), measured either by immunohistochemistry or in situ hybridization, is significantly lower in HRM. Areas showing significant deficits included the piriform cortex, neocortex, retrosplenial cortex and certain regions of the hippocampus. Both reelin and OT play a role in regulating affect and mood. Down-regulation of reelin has been strongly correlated with schizophrenia and it is proposed that HRM may serve as a model for neural deficits seen in both schizophrenia and autism. We report that HRM show regionally specific reductions in OTRs, especially in cortical areas, which previously have been implicated in social memory and cognitive functions. These findings offer support for the more general hypothesis that down-regulation of reelin, of either genetic or epigenetic origin, through associated reductions in the OTRs, contributes to the deficiencies in social behavior that are characteristic of both schizophrenia and autism.

  14. Effects of 4 multitargeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors on regional hemodynamics in conscious, freely moving rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Joanne J.; Fretwell, Laurice V.; Woolard, Jeanette

    2017-01-01

    VEGF inhibitors, including receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors, are used as adjunct therapies in a number of cancer treatments. An emerging issue with these drugs is that most cause hypertension. To gain insight into the physiological mechanisms involved, we evaluated their regional hemodynamic effects in conscious rats. Male Sprague Dawley rats (350–450 g) were chronically implanted with pulsed Doppler flow probes (renal and mesenteric arteries, and the descending abdominal aorta) and catheters (jugular vein, peritoneal cavity, and distal abdominal aorta). Regional hemodynamics were measured over 4 d, before and after daily administration of cediranib (3 and 6 mg/kg, 3 and 6 mg/kg/h for 1 h, i.v.), sorafenib (10 and 20 mg/kg, 10 and 20 mg kg/h for 1 h, i.v.), pazopanib (30 and100 mg/kg, i.p.), or vandetanib (12.5 and 25 mg/kg, i.p.). All drugs evoked significant increases (P phentolamine and propranolol (each 1 mg/kg/h), suggesting a need for new strategies to overcome them.—Carter, J. J., Fretwell, L. V., Woolard, J. Effects of 4 multitargeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors on regional hemodynamics in conscious, freely moving rats. PMID:27986807

  15. The role of COMESA in promoting intra-regional agricultural trade: Case study of Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azharia Abdelbagi Elbushra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available African countries have created many regional trade agreements with the economic objectives of reducing trade barriers and encouraging economic growth. The COMESA is an example of regional integration singed on 1993 by 19 African countries including Sudan. COMESA represents a chance for member countries to enhance their economic and social relations through increasing intra-trade. The objective of this paper is to assess the role of COMESA in promoting intra-regional agricultural trade between Sudan and COMESA countries. A multi-market model with Armington non-linear specification was applied. The paper results showed that there is a great potential for Sudan to increase its agricultural exports to other COMESA countries. The domestic agricultural markets are expected to be hampered by imports surge and increase in competition, while the producers of agricultural export commodities will be better off. In order to compete and benefit from potential in the COMESA markets, the paper recommended improving efficiency in the Sudanese agricultural sector through increasing productivity, lowering cost of production, enhancing marketing services, attaining economies of scale and attracting foreign investment.

  16. Characterisation of the promoter region of the zebrafish six7 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drivenes, O; Seo, H C; Fjose, A

    2000-04-25

    The Drosophila homeobox gene sine oculis and its murine homologue Six3 have both been shown to have regulatory functions in eye and brain development. In zebrafish, three Six3-related genes with conserved expression during early eye and head formation have been identified. One of these, six7, is first expressed at the gastrula stage in the involuting axial mesoderm, and later in the overlying neuroectoderm from which the forebrain and optic primordium develop. To elucidate the mechanisms regulating six7 expression, we isolated a 2.7-kb fragment of the 5'-flanking region. Three sequentially deleted fragments of this upstream region were used to produce GFP reporter constructs for analysis of tissue-specific expression in zebrafish embryos. The results show that a 625-bp upstream fragment is sufficient to direct strong expression of the reporter during gastrulation and early neurulation. The proximal part of the promoter contains binding sites for various constitutive transcription factors and an additional upstream element that was shown to be critical in directing expression to the anterior region of the zebrafish brain.

  17. Structural comparison of phospholipase-A2-binding regions in phospholipase-A2 receptors from various mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashino, K; Ishizaki, J; Kishino, J; Ohara, O; Arita, H

    1994-10-01

    We determined the nucleotide sequence of a mouse cDNA encoding the receptor for pancreatic group I phospholipase A2 (PLA2-I). Interspecies structural comparison of the mouse receptor with bovine PLA2-I receptor, whose structure had been clarified, revealed that the fourth carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD)-like domain (CRD-like 4) was the most conserved among the domains in the PLA2-I receptor, suggesting the functional importance of CRD-like 4. A transient expression experiment with a truncated form of the receptor consisting of three CRD-like domains, from the third to the fifth, demonstrated that the PLA2-I-binding site of the receptor is constituted from these three CRD-like domains, supporting the functional indispensability of CRD-like 4 in the receptor. Since the PLA2-I-binding region was thus assigned to be CRD-like domains 3-5, we further analyzed the structures of the PLA2-I-binding regions in the PLA2-I receptors from the rat, rabbit and human. Furthermore, the obtained PLA2-I receptor cDNA fragments from these animals made it possible to examine the tissue expression patterns of this receptor in various mammals. The results, together with the results of the genomic structural analysis of this gene, indicated that a PLA2 receptor recently characterized by Lambeau et al. [Lambeau, G., Ancian, P., Barhanin, J. & Lazdunski, M. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 1575-1578] is a rabbit counterpart of the PLA2-I receptor although these two PLA2 receptors have distinctive PLA2-binding specificities.

  18. A Molecular Brake in the Kinase Hinge Region Regulates the Activity of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen,H.; Ma, J.; Li, W.; Eliseenkova, A.; Xu, C.; Neubert, T.; Miller, W.; Mohammadi, M.

    2007-01-01

    Activating mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) cause cancer and skeletal disorders. Comparison of the crystal structures of unphosphorylated and phosphorylated wild-type FGFR2 kinase domains with those of seven unphosphorylated pathogenic mutants reveals an autoinhibitory 'molecular brake' mediated by a triad of residues in the kinase hinge region of all FGFRs. Structural analysis shows that many other RTKs, including PDGFRs, VEGFRs, KIT, CSF1R, FLT3, TEK, and TIE, are also subject to regulation by this brake. Pathogenic mutations activate FGFRs and other RTKs by disengaging the brake either directly or indirectly.

  19. Helicobacter pylori cagA Promoter Region Sequences Influence CagA Expression and Interleukin 8 Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Rui M; Pinto-Ribeiro, Ines; Wen, Xiaogang; Marcos-Pinto, Ricardo; Dinis-Ribeiro, Mário; Carneiro, Fátima; Figueiredo, Ceu

    2016-02-15

    Heterogeneity at the Helicobacter pylori cagA gene promoter region has been linked to variation in CagA expression and gastric histopathology. Here, we characterized the cagA promoter and expression in 46 H. pylori strains from Portugal. Our results confirm the relationship between cagA promoter region variation and protein expression originally observed in strains from Colombia. We observed that individuals with intestinal metaplasia were all infected with H. pylori strains containing a specific cagA motif. Additionally, we provided novel functional evidence that strain-specific sequences in the cagA promoter region and CagA expression levels influence interleukin 8 secretion by the host gastric epithelial cells.

  20. Genotype and allele frequencies of heme oxygenase-1 promoter region in a Greek cohort

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eleni P. Katana; Lemonia G. Skoura; Zacharias G Scouras; Michail A. Daniilidis

    2011-01-01

    Background Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an enzyme,which catabolizes heme into carbon monoxide,biliverdin and free iron.The induction of this enzyme is an important cytoprotective mechanism,which occurs as an adaptive and beneficial response to a wide variety of oxidant stimuli.HO-1 inducibility is mainly modulated by a (GT)n polymorphism in the promoter region,and has been shown that short (S) repeats are associated with greater up-regulation of HO-1,compared with long (L) repeats.Methods In the present study,250 healthy Greek individuals have been screened in order to estimate the frequencies of (GT)n alleles in the HO-1 gene.Results Nineteen different alleles,ranging from 17 to 39 repeats,with (GT)23 and (GT)30 being the most common ones,were identified.Conclusion The possible role of this polymorphism in disease states is discussed.

  1. Promoter-region hypermethylation and expression downregulation of Yy1 (Yin yang 1) in preneoplastic liver lesions in a thioacetamide rat hepatocarcinogenesis model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Hajime [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Pathogenetic Veterinary Science, United Graduate School of Veterinary Sciences, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu-shi, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Ogawa, Takashi; Wang, Liyun [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Kimura, Masayuki; Tanaka, Takeshi; Morita, Reiko [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Pathogenetic Veterinary Science, United Graduate School of Veterinary Sciences, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu-shi, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Yoshida, Toshinori [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Shibutani, Makoto, E-mail: mshibuta@cc.tuat.ac.jp [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan)

    2014-11-01

    Thioacetamide (TAA) has been used to develop a rodent model for hepatocarcinogenesis. To determine the genes with epigenetic modifications in early hepatocarcinogenesis, we did a genome-wide scan for hypermethylated promoter regions using CpG island microarrays in TAA-promoted rat liver tissue. Eight genes were selected based on the microarray profile; of these, Yy1 and Wdr45b were confirmed to be hypermethylated by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and pyrosequencing and downregulated by real-time reverse transcription PCR. Non-neoplastic liver cells had nuclear Yy1 immunoreactivity, while preneoplastic foci with glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P) immunoreactivity had decreased Yy1 immunoreactivity. The incidence of these foci was proportional to the dose of TAA administered. Co-expression analysis of gene products downstream of Yy1 revealed increased nuclear phospho-c-Myc{sup +} foci as well as nuclear and cytoplasmic p21{sup Cip1+} foci in Yy1{sup −} or GST-P{sup +} foci in response to TAA-promotion dose. Although the absolute number of cells was low, the incidence of death receptor 5{sup −} foci was increased in Yy1{sup −} foci in proportion to the TAA dose. Yy1{sup −}/GST-P{sup +} foci revealed a higher number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-immunoreactive cells than Yy1{sup +}/GST-P{sup +} foci, while cleaved caspase-3{sup +} cells were unchanged between Yy1{sup –}/GST-P{sup +} and Yy1{sup +}/GST-P{sup +} foci. In the case of Wdr45b, most GST-P{sup +} foci were Wdr45b{sup –} and were not increased by TAA promotion. These results suggest involvement of Yy1 in the epigenetic gene regulation at the early stages of TAA promoted cell proliferation and concomitant cell cycle arrest in preneoplastic lesions. - Highlights: • Epigenetically downregulated genes were searched in TAA-promnoted rat livers. • Yy1 and Wdr45b showed promoter-region hypermethylation and mRNA downregulation. • TAA promoted

  2. [Social participation and health promotion: a case study in the region of Paranapiacaba and Parque Andreense].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Elaine Cristina da; Pelicioni, Maria Cecília Focesi

    2013-02-01

    Community participation is considered a key condition for communities to assume control of their health within the scope of health promotion. This study sought to identify and analyze the perceptions of residents of the watershed areas of Santo André/São Paulo with respect to the actions of health education and environmental education developed by the public authorities of the city, and how the local community participates in these processes. Data collection was conducted via structured and semi-structured interviews with civil servants and local residents. The methodology of content analysis proposed by Bardin was used for data interpretation. The main results showed that the health measures developed in the region studied are still predominantly viewed from the standpoint of prevention and not as an educational process able to support and achieve some of the goals of health promotion, such as the development of personal skills and support for community action. Data analysis showed the importance of intersectorial activity and conducting emancipatory educational measures as a key factor for participative procedures and the empowerment of the population.

  3. Nucleoporin translocated promoter region (Tpr) associates with dynein complex, preventing chromosome lagging formation during mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Hiroshi; Funasaka, Tatsuyoshi; Hashizume, Chieko; Wong, Richard W

    2010-04-01

    Gain or loss of whole chromosomes is often observed in cancer cells and is thought to be due to aberrant chromosome segregation during mitosis. Proper chromosome segregation depends on a faithful interaction between spindle microtubules and kinetochores. Several components of the nuclear pore complex/nucleoporins play critical roles in orchestrating the rapid remodeling events that occur during mitosis. Our recent studies revealed that the nucleoporin, Rae1, plays critical roles in maintaining spindle bipolarity. Here, we show association of another nucleoporin, termed Tpr (translocated promoter region), with the molecular motors dynein and dynactin, which both orchestrate with the spindle checkpoints Mad1 and Mad2 during cell division. Overexpression of Tpr enhanced multinucleated cell formation. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of Tpr caused a severe lagging chromosome phenotype and disrupted spindle checkpoint proteins expression and localization. Next, we performed a series of rescue and dominant negative experiments to confirm that Tpr orchestrates proper chromosome segregation through interaction with dynein light chain. Our data indicate that Tpr functions as a spatial and temporal regulator of spindle checkpoints, ensuring the efficient recruitment of checkpoint proteins to the molecular motor dynein to promote proper anaphase formation.

  4. Methylation of the claudin 1 promoter is associated with loss of expression in estrogen receptor positive breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francescopaolo Di Cello

    Full Text Available Downregulation of the tight junction protein claudin 1 is a frequent event in breast cancer and is associated with recurrence, metastasis, and reduced survival, suggesting a tumor suppressor role for this protein. Tumor suppressor genes are often epigenetically silenced in cancer. Downregulation of claudin 1 via DNA promoter methylation may thus be an important determinant in breast cancer development and progression. To investigate if silencing of claudin 1 has an epigenetic etiology in breast cancer we compared gene expression and methylation data from 217 breast cancer samples and 40 matched normal samples available through the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA. Moreover, we analyzed claudin 1 expression and methylation in 26 breast cancer cell lines. We found that methylation of the claudin 1 promoter CpG island is relatively frequent in estrogen receptor positive (ER+ breast cancer and is associated with low claudin 1 expression. In contrast, the claudin 1 promoter was not methylated in most of the ER-breast cancers samples and some of these tumors overexpress claudin 1. In addition, we observed that the demethylating agents, azacitidine and decitabine can upregulate claudin 1 expression in breast cancer cell lines that have a methylated claudin 1 promoter. Taken together, our results indicate that DNA promoter methylation is causally associated with downregulation of claudin 1 in a subgroup of breast cancer that includes mostly ER+ tumors, and suggest that epigenetic therapy to restore claudin 1 expression might represent a viable therapeutic strategy in this subtype of breast cancer.

  5. Promoting discovery and access to real time observations produced by regional coastal ocean observing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D. M.; Snowden, D. P.; Bochenek, R.; Bickel, A.

    2015-12-01

    In the U.S. coastal waters, a network of eleven regional coastal ocean observing systems support real-time coastal and ocean observing. The platforms supported and variables acquired are diverse, ranging from current sensing high frequency (HF) radar to autonomous gliders. The system incorporates data produced by other networks and experimental systems, further increasing the breadth of the collection. Strategies promoted by the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) ensure these data are not lost at sea. Every data set deserves a description. ISO and FGDC compliant metadata enables catalog interoperability and record-sharing. Extensive use of netCDF with the Climate and Forecast convention (identifying both metadata and a structured format) is shown to be a powerful strategy to promote discovery, interoperability, and re-use of the data. To integrate specialized data which are often obscure, quality control protocols are being developed to homogenize the QC and make these data more integrate-able. Data Assembly Centers have been established to integrate some specialized streams including gliders, animal telemetry, and HF radar. Subsets of data that are ingested into the National Data Buoy Center are also routed to the Global Telecommunications System (GTS) of the World Meteorological Organization to assure wide international distribution. From the GTS, data are assimilated into now-cast and forecast models, fed to other observing systems, and used to support observation-based decision making such as forecasts, warnings, and alerts. For a few years apps were a popular way to deliver these real-time data streams to phones and tablets. Responsive and adaptive web sites are an emerging flexible strategy to provide access to the regional coastal ocean observations.

  6. Absence of mutation at the 5'-upstream promoter region of the TPM4 gene from cardiac mutant axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denz, Christopher R; Zhang, Chi; Jia, Pingping; Du, Jianfeng; Huang, Xupei; Dube, Syamalima; Thomas, Anish; Poiesz, Bernard J; Dube, Dipak K

    2011-09-01

    Tropomyosins are a family of actin-binding proteins that show cell-specific diversity by a combination of multiple genes and alternative RNA splicing. Of the 4 different tropomyosin genes, TPM4 plays a pivotal role in myofibrillogenesis as well as cardiac contractility in amphibians. In this study, we amplified and sequenced the upstream regulatory region of the TPM4 gene from both normal and mutant axolotl hearts. To identify the cis-elements that are essential for the expression of the TPM4, we created various deletion mutants of the TPM4 promoter DNA, inserted the deleted segments into PGL3 vector, and performed promoter-reporter assay using luciferase as the reporter gene. Comparison of sequences of the promoter region of the TPM4 gene from normal and mutant axolotl revealed no mutations in the promoter sequence of the mutant TPM4 gene. CArG box elements that are generally involved in controlling the expression of several other muscle-specific gene promoters were not found in the upstream regulatory region of the TPM4 gene. In deletion experiments, loss of activity of the reporter gene was noted upon deletion which was then restored upon further deletion suggesting the presence of both positive and negative cis-elements in the upstream regulatory region of the TPM4 gene. We believe that this is the first axolotl promoter that has ever been cloned and studied with clear evidence that it functions in mammalian cell lines. Although striated muscle-specific cis-acting elements are absent from the promoter region of TPM4 gene, our results suggest the presence of positive and negative cis-elements in the promoter region, which in conjunction with positive and negative trans-elements may be involved in regulating the expression of TPM4 gene in a tissue-specific manner.

  7. Allelic polymorphisms in the repeat and promoter regions of the interleukin-4 gene and malaria severity in Ghanaian children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyan, B A; Goka, B; Cvetkovic, J T

    2004-01-01

    Immunoglobulin E has been associated with severe malaria suggesting a regulatory role for interleukin (IL)-4 and/or IgE in the pathogenesis of severe malaria. We have investigated possible associations between polymorphisms in the IL-4 repeat region (intron 3) and promoter regions (IL-4 +33CT and...

  8. PGE2 Promotes Apoptosis Induced by Cytokine Deprivation through EP3 Receptor and Induces Bim in Mouse Mast Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovarova, Martina; Koller, Beverly H.

    2014-01-01

    Increased mast cell numbers are observed at sites of allergic inflammation and restoration of normal mast cell numbers is critical to the resolution of these responses. Early studies showed that cytokines protect mast cells from apoptosis, suggesting a simple model in which diminished cytokine levels during resolution leads to cell death. The report that prostaglandins can contribute both to recruitment and to the resolution of inflammation together with the demonstration that mast cells express all four PGE2 receptors raises the question of whether a single PGE2 receptor mediates the ability of PGE2 to regulate mast cell survival and apoptosis. We report here that PGE2 through the EP3 receptor promotes cell death of mast cells initiated by cytokine withdrawal. Furthermore, the ability of PGE2 to limit reconstitution of tissues with cultured mast cells is lost in cell lacking the EP3 receptor. Apoptosis is accompanied by higher dissipation of mitochondrial potential (ΔΨm), increased caspase-3 activation, chromatin condensation, and low molecular weight DNA cleavage. PGE2 augmented cell death is dependent on an increase in intracellular calcium release, calmodulin dependent kinase II and MAPK activation. Synergy between the EP3 pathway and the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathway results in increased Bim expression and higher sensitivity of mast cells to cytokine deprivation. This supports a model in which PGE2 can contribute to the resolution of inflammation in part by augmenting the removal of inflammatory cells in this case, mast cells. PMID:25054560

  9. Stimulation of NTS A1 adenosine receptors differentially resets baroreflex control of regional sympathetic outputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scislo, Tadeusz J; Ichinose, Tomoko K; O'Leary, Donal S

    2008-01-01

    Previously we showed that pressor and differential regional sympathoexcitatory responses (adrenal > renal >/= lumbar) evoked by stimulation of A(1) adenosine receptors located in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) were attenuated/abolished by baroreceptor denervation or blockade of glutamatergic transmission in the NTS, suggesting A(1) receptor-elicited inhibition of glutamatergic transmission in baroreflex pathways. Therefore we tested the hypothesis that stimulation of NTS A(1) adenosine receptors differentially inhibits/resets baroreflex responses of preganglionic adrenal (pre-ASNA), renal (RSNA), and lumbar (LSNA) sympathetic nerve activity. In urethane-chloralose-anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 65) we compared baroreflex-response curves (iv nitroprusside and phenylephrine) evoked before and after bilateral microinjections into the NTS of A(1) adenosine receptor agonist (N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine, CPA; 0.033-330 pmol/50 nl). CPA evoked typical dose-dependent pressor and differential sympathoexcitatory responses and similarly shifted baroreflex curves for pre-ASNA, RSNA, and LSNA toward higher mean arterial pressure (MAP) in a dose-dependent manner; the maximal shifts were 52.6 +/- 2.8, 48.0 +/- 3.6, and 56.8 +/- 6.7 mmHg for pre-ASNA, RSNA, and LSNA, respectively. These shifts were not a result of simple baroreceptor resetting because they were two to three times greater than respective increases in baseline MAP evoked by CPA. Baroreflex curves for pre-ASNA were additionally shifted upward: the maximal increases of upper and lower plateaus were 41.8 +/- 16.4% and 45.3 +/- 8.7%, respectively. Maximal gain (%/mmHg) measured before vs. after CPA increased for pre-ASNA (3.0 +/- 0.6 vs. 4.9 +/- 1.3), decreased for RSNA (4.1 +/- 0.6 vs. 2.3 +/- 0.3), and remained unaltered for LSNA (2.1 +/- 0.2 vs. 2.0 +/- 0.1). Vehicle control did not alter the baroreflex curves. We conclude that the activation of NTS A(1) adenosine receptors differentially inhibits

  10. Promoter region sequence differences in the A and G gamma globin genes of Brazilian sickle cell anemia patients

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    C.G. Barbosa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Fetal hemoglobin (HbF, encoded by the HBG2 and HBG1 genes, is the best-known genetic modulator of sickle cell anemia, varying dramatically in concentration in the blood of these patients. This variation is partially associated with polymorphisms located in the promoter region of the HBG2 and HBG1 genes. In order to explore known and unknown polymorphisms in these genes, the sequences of their promoter regions were screened in sickle cell anemia patients and correlated with both their HbF levels and their βS-globin haplotypes. Additionally, the sequences were compared with genes from 2 healthy groups, a reference one (N = 104 and an Afro-descendant one (N = 98, to identify polymorphisms linked to the ethnic background.The reference group was composed by healthy individuals from the general population. Four polymorphisms were identified in the promoter region of HBG2 and 8 in the promoter region of HBG1 among the studied groups. Four novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP located at positions -324, -317, -309 and -307 were identified in the reference group. A deletion located between -396 and -391 in the HBG2 promoter region and the SNP -271 C→T in the HBG1 promoter region were associated with the Central African Republic βS-globin haplotype. In contrast, the -369 C→G and 309 A→G SNPs in the HBG2 promoter region were correlated to the Benin haplotype. The polymorphisms -396_-391 del HBG2, -369 SNP HBG2 and -271 SNP HBG1 correlated with HbF levels. Hence, we suggest an important role of HBG2 and HBG1 gene polymorphisms on the HbF synthesis.

  11. Promoter region sequence differences in the A and G gamma globin genes of Brazilian sickle cell anemia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, C G; Goncalves-Santos, N J; Souza-Ribeiro, S B; Moura-Neto, J P; Takahashi, D; Silva, D O; Hurtado-Guerrero, A F; Reis, M G; Goncalves, M S

    2010-08-01

    Fetal hemoglobin (HbF), encoded by the HBG2 and HBG1 genes, is the best-known genetic modulator of sickle cell anemia, varying dramatically in concentration in the blood of these patients. This variation is partially associated with polymorphisms located in the promoter region of the HBG2 and HBG1 genes. In order to explore known and unknown polymorphisms in these genes, the sequences of their promoter regions were screened in sickle cell anemia patients and correlated with both their HbF levels and their betaS-globin haplotypes. Additionally, the sequences were compared with genes from 2 healthy groups, a reference one (N = 104) and an Afro-descendant one (N = 98), to identify polymorphisms linked to the ethnic background.The reference group was composed by healthy individuals from the general population. Four polymorphisms were identified in the promoter region of HBG2 and 8 in the promoter region of HBG1 among the studied groups. Four novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) located at positions -324, -317, -309 and -307 were identified in the reference group. A deletion located between -396 and -391 in the HBG2 promoter region and the SNP -271 C-->T in the HBG1 promoter region were associated with the Central African Republic betaS-globin haplotype. In contrast, the -369 C-->G and 309 A-->G SNPs in the HBG2 promoter region were correlated to the Benin haplotype. The polymorphisms -396_-391 del HBG2, -369 SNP HBG2 and -271 SNP HBG1 correlated with HbF levels. Hence, we suggest an important role of HBG2 and HBG1 gene polymorphisms on the HbF synthesis.

  12. CDK11{sup p58} represses vitamin D receptor-mediated transcriptional activation through promoting its ubiquitin-proteasome degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi, Yayun; Hong, Yi; Zong, Hongliang; Wang, Yanlin; Zou, Weiying; Yang, Junwu; Kong, Xiangfei; Yun, Xiaojing [Gene Research Center, Shanghai Medical College and Institutes of Biomedical, Shanghai 200032 (China); Gu, Jianxin, E-mail: jxgu@shmu.edu.cn [Gene Research Center, Shanghai Medical College and Institutes of Biomedical, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2009-08-28

    Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily and regulates transcription of target genes. In this study, we identified CDK11{sup p58} as a novel protein involved in the regulation of VDR. CDK11{sup p58}, a member of the large family of p34cdc2-related kinases, is associated with cell cycle progression, tumorigenesis, and apoptotic signaling. Our study demonstrated that CDK11{sup p58} interacted with VDR and repressed VDR-dependent transcriptional activation. Furthermore, overexpression of CDK11{sup p58} decreased the stability of VDR through promoting its ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated degradation. Taken together, these results suggest that CDK11{sup p58} is involved in the negative regulation of VDR.

  13. Toll-like receptor 4 promoter polymorphisms: common TLR4 variants may protect against severe urinary tract infection.

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    Bryndís Ragnarsdóttir

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Polymorphisms affecting Toll-like receptor (TLR structure appear to be rare, as would be expected due to their essential coordinator role in innate immunity. Here, we assess variation in TLR4 expression, rather than structure, as a mechanism to diversify innate immune responses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We sequenced the TLR4 promoter (4,3 kb in Swedish blood donors. Since TLR4 plays a vital role in susceptibility to urinary tract infection (UTI, promoter sequences were obtained from children with mild or severe disease. We performed a case-control study of pediatric patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU or those prone to recurrent acute pyelonephritis (APN. Promoter activity of the single SNPs or multiple allelic changes corresponding to the genotype patterns (GPs was tested. We then conducted a replication study in an independent cohort of adult patients with a history of childhood APN. Last, in vivo effects of the different GPs were examined after therapeutic intravesical inoculation of 19 patients with Escherichia coli 83972. We identified in total eight TLR4 promoter sequence variants in the Swedish control population, forming 19 haplotypes and 29 genotype patterns, some with effects on promoter activity. Compared to symptomatic patients and healthy controls, ABU patients had fewer genotype patterns, and their promoter sequence variants reduced TLR4 expression in response to infection. The ABU associated GPs also reduced innate immune responses in patients who were subjected to therapeutic urinary E. coli tract inoculation. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that genetic variation in the TLR4 promoter may be an essential, largely overlooked mechanism to influence TLR4 expression and UTI susceptibility.

  14. Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor Class A Repeats Are O-Glycosylated in Linker Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Nis Borbye; Wang, Shengjun; Narimatsu, Yoshiki;

    2014-01-01

    , which in wild-type CHO cells is glycosylated with the typical sialylated core 1 structure. The glycosites in linker regions of LDLR class A repeats are conserved in LDLR from man to Xenopus and found in other homologous receptors. O-Glycosylation is controlled by a large family of polypeptide GalNAc...... transferases. Probing into which isoform(s) contributed to glycosylation of the linker regions of the LDLR class A repeats by in vitro enzyme assays suggested a major role of GalNAc-T11. This was supported by expression of LDLR in HEK293 cells, where knock-out of the GalNAc-T11 isoform resulted in the loss...

  15. Agonist-promoted desensitization and phosphorylation of. cap alpha. /sub 1/-adrenergic receptors coupled to stimulation of phosphatidylinositol metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leeb-Lundberg, L.M.F.; Cotecchia, S.; Caron, M.G.; Lefkowitz, R.J.

    1986-03-05

    In the DDT/sub 1/ MF-2 hamster vas deferens smooth muscle cell line the ..cap alpha../sub 1/-adrenergic receptor (..cap alpha../sub 1/-AR) agonist norepinephrine (NE) promotes rapid attenuation of ..cap alpha../sub 1/-AR-mediated phosphatidylinositol (PI) metabolism which is paralleled by rapid phosphorylation of the ..cap alpha../sub 1/-AR. Cells were labeled by incubation with /sup 32/P/sub i/. Coincubation with NE (100 ..mu..M) significantly increases the rate of /sup 32/P-labeling of both PI and phosphatidic acid. Pretreatment of cells with 100 ..mu..M NE (in the presence of 1 ..mu..M propranolol to prevent ..beta..-AR interactions) results in a drastic attenuation of the NE response on PI metabolism. ..cap alpha../sub 1/-AR from labeled cells can be solubilized and purified by affinity chromatography on Affigel-A55414 and wheat germ agglutinin agarose chromatography. SDS-PAGE of purified ..cap alpha../sub 1/-AR shows a NE-promoted increase in phosphorylation of the M/sub r/ 80K ligand binding peptide. Stoichiometry of phosphorylation increases from approx. 1 mol phosphate/mol ..cap alpha../sub 1/-AR in the basal condition to approx. 2.5 after NE treatment. Both desensitization and phosphorylation are rapid being maximal within 10-20 min of agonist exposure. These results together with previous findings that phorbol esters promote rapid ..cap alpha../sub 1/-AR uncoupling and phosphorylation suggest that receptor phosphorylation is an important mechanism of regulation of ..cap alpha../sub 1/-AR receptor responsiveness.

  16. NMDA receptor binding is reduced within mesocorticolimbic regions following chronic inhalation of toluene in adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Alec Lindsay Ward; Pooters, Tine; Gibbs, Sarah; Giles, Emma; Qama, Ashleigh; Lawrence, Andrew John; Duncan, Jhodie Rubina

    2015-10-22

    The purposeful inhalation of volatile solvents, such as toluene, to induce self-intoxication is prevalent, particularly within adolescent populations. Chronic misuse results in cognitive and neurobiological impairments, as well as an increased risk for addictive behaviours in adulthood. Toluene-induced neuroadaptations within mesocorticolimbic circuitry are thought, in part, to mediate some of the adverse outcomes of toluene misuse, however our understanding of the neuroadaptive processes remains equivocal. An understanding of these processes is particularly important relative to exposure that occurs during adolescence and at concentrations that reflect various patterns of use. Therefore, we exposed male adolescent Wistar rats (postnatal day [PN] 27) to either air or low or high concentrations of inhaled toluene in a chronic and intermittent fashion (CIT, 3,000 or 10,000ppm) for 1 h/day, 3-5 times per week for 4 weeks to model different patterns of human inhalant abuse. Brains were subsequently analysed using autoradiography, qPCR and immunohistochemistry 3 days following the exposure period to investigate toluene-induced neuroadaptations within mesocorticolimbic circuitry. In CIT-exposed rats binding to N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors containing the GluN2B subunit, as determined using [(3)H]-ifenprodil, was decreased in a concentration-related manner in the caudal cingulate cortex, dorsal striatum and accumbens; however, this was not associated with changes in GluN2B protein expression. There were no differences in [(3)H]-epibatidine binding to heteromeric neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptors. Relative expression of mRNA transcripts encoding NMDA, nACh, γ-aminobutyric acid type-A (GABAA) and dopamine receptor subunits was unchanged in all regions assessed following CIT. Our data suggest that adolescent CIT exposure impacts NMDA receptors within regions of corticostriatal circuitry, possibly via post-translational mechanisms. Dysfunctional

  17. Avr4 promotes Cf-4 receptor-like protein association with the BAK1/SERK3 receptor-like kinase to initiate receptor endocytosis and plant immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Jelle; Liebrand, Thomas; Bi, Guozhi; Evrard, Alexandre; Bye, Ruby R.; Mbengue, Malick; Kuhn, Hannah; Joosten, Matthieu H.A.J.; Robatzek, Silke

    2016-01-01

    The first layer of plant immunity is activated by cell surface receptor-like kinases (RLKs) and proteins (RLPs) that detect infectious pathogens. Constitutive interaction with the SUPPRESSOR OF BIR1 (SOBIR1) RLK contributes to RLP stability and kinase activity. As RLK activation requires

  18. Avr4 promotes Cf-4 receptor-like protein association with the BAK1/SERK3 receptor-like kinase to initiate receptor endocytosis and plant immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Jelle; Liebrand, Thomas; Bi, Guozhi; Evrard, Alexandre; Bye, Ruby R.; Mbengue, Malick; Kuhn, Hannah; Joosten, Matthieu H.A.J.; Robatzek, Silke

    2016-01-01

    The first layer of plant immunity is activated by cell surface receptor-like kinases (RLKs) and proteins (RLPs) that detect infectious pathogens. Constitutive interaction with the SUPPRESSOR OF BIR1 (SOBIR1) RLK contributes to RLP stability and kinase activity. As RLK activation requires transpho

  19. Characterization of the human Activin-A receptor type II-like kinase 1 (ACVRL1 promoter and its regulation by Sp1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botella Luisa M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK1 is a Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β receptor type I, mainly expressed in endothelial cells that plays a pivotal role in vascular remodelling and angiogenesis. Mutations in the ALK1 gene (ACVRL1 give rise to Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia, a dominant autosomal vascular dysplasia caused by a haploinsufficiency mechanism. In spite of its patho-physiological relevance, little is known about the transcriptional regulation of ACVRL1. Here, we have studied the different origins of ACVRL1 transcription, we have analyzed in silico its 5'-proximal promoter sequence and we have characterized the role of Sp1 in the transcriptional regulation of ACVRL1. Results We have performed a 5'Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (5'RACE of ACVRL1 transcripts, finding two new transcriptional origins, upstream of the one previously described, that give rise to a new exon undiscovered to date. The 5'-proximal promoter region of ACVRL1 (-1,035/+210 was analyzed in silico, finding that it lacks TATA/CAAT boxes, but contains a remarkably high number of GC-rich Sp1 consensus sites. In cells lacking Sp1, ACVRL1 promoter reporters did not present any significant transcriptional activity, whereas increasing concentrations of Sp1 triggered a dose-dependent stimulation of its transcription. Moreover, silencing Sp1 in HEK293T cells resulted in a marked decrease of ACVRL1 transcriptional activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated multiple Sp1 binding sites along the proximal promoter region of ACVRL1 in endothelial cells. Furthermore, demethylation of CpG islands, led to an increase in ACVRL1 transcription, whereas in vitro hypermethylation resulted in the abolishment of Sp1-dependent transcriptional activation of ACVRL1. Conclusions Our results describe two new transcriptional start sites in ACVRL1 gene, and indicate that Sp1 is a key regulator of ACVRL1 transcription, providing new insights into

  20. Early postnatal handling alters glucocorticoid receptor concentrations in selected brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaney, Michael J; Aitken, David H; Bodnoff, Shari R; Iny, Linda J; Tatarewicz, Joseph E; Sapolsky, Robert M

    2013-10-01

    Norway rat pups were either handled (H) or undisturbed (nonhandled, NH) in the period between birth and weaning on Day 21. Following weaning, half of the animals in each group were housed socially (Soc), and half were housed in isolation (Isol). At 120-150 days of age, all animals were sacrificed, and the following regions were dissected and frozen at -70 °C until the time of assay: frontal cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus, amygdala, septum, and pituitary. [3H]Dexamethasone (3H Dex) binding in each region was examined by an in vitro, cytosol, receptor assay. 3H Dex binding was significantly higher in the hippocampus of both H-Soc and H-Isol than in NH groups. In the frontal cortex, 3H Dex binding was higher in the H-Soc animals than in the H-Isol and NH-Isol animals. There were no significant handling or housing effects found in the amygdala, hypothalamus, septum, or pituitary. Thus, early postnatal handling appears to influence the development of the glucocorticoid receptor system in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. These results are discussed as providing a possible mechanism for some of the previously reported effects of early handling on the development of the pituitary-adrenal response to stress. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  1. Relationship between EGFR Promoter Region Methylation and Secondary Resistance Which may be Induced by Gefitinib

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    Qilong WANG

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Nowadays the secondary resistance of gefitinib in the treatment of lung adenocarcinoma is an outstanding problem. This research is to explore whether the gefitinib secondary resistance can be induced by gefitinib, to explore whether epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR promotor methylation correlate with the gefitinib-resistance in PC9/GR cell lines and to find a new therapeutic target to overcome the gefitinib secondary resistance in lung adenocarcinoma. Methods In vitro cultivation of lung adenocarcinoma PC9 cell lines, apply gefitinib on lung adenocarcinoma PC9 cell lines, and improve drug concentration. MTT for test of gefitinib resistance index in PC9 cell and PC9/GR cell. Bisulfite sequencing polymerase chain reaction (BSP and Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR for detection of EGFR promoter methylation status and mRNA expression. In vitro cultivation of lung adenocarcinoma PC9 cell lines, apply 1 μmol/L 5-Aza-dc on lung adenocarcinoma PC9/GR cell lines for 72 h. MTT method for test of gefitinib resistance index in PC9/GR cell. Results After improving the gefitinib concentration, MTT results showed that half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 of PC9 cell lines increase from (0.01±0.002 μmol/L to (3.95±0.23 μmol/L (P<0.05. BSP results showed that abnormal methylation sites compared the degree of methylation change: PC9: 59%; PC9/GR: 74% (P<0.05. RT-PCR results showed in PC9/GR cell lines, EGFR mRNA expression quantity increased (P<0.05. After applying 5-Aza-dc on PC9 cell lines, IC50 of PC9/GR decrease from (3.87±0.034 μmol/L to (2.55±0.14 μmol/L. Conclusion The PC9 cell line which is induced by improving gefitinib concentration will be resistant to gefitinib, and the gefitinib-resistant cell line PC9/GR could be built. EGFR gene promoter methylation may be one of the mechanisms for the secondary resistance to gefitinib.

  2. Genomic variation in the MMP-1 promoter influences estrogen receptor mediated activity in a mechanically activated environment: potential implications for microgravity risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, John; Myers, Ken; Lu, Ting; Hart, David

    Background: Mechanotransduction, the conversion of mechanical forces (tensile, compression, shear etc.) into cellular signals is a significant response mechanism in bone that contributes to the balance between formation and resorption and helps maintain bone density. In microgravity the lack of mechanical signals can lead to a loss of bone density, however the signaling pathways responsible are not well understood. For women, sex-specific hormones are also important in maintaining bone density since estrogen deficiency is a major factor in the etiology of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Estrogen Receptors (ERs) are present in human connective tissue cells such as osteoblasts and may play a role in mechanotransduction responses. The two ER isoforms, alpha (ER-α) and beta (ER-β) differentially regulate expression of matrixmetalloproteinases (MMPs) which degrade extracellular matrix components found in connective tissues. Mechanical stimulation is known to affect the expression of MMP-1, a collagenase involved in the bone resorption process. The MMP-1 promoter region contains a single nucleotide polymorphism of an additional guanine (G) at position -1607 bp which creates a binding site for a member of the Ets family of mammalian transcription factors. The 2G allele is known to be present in 45-70% of healthy populations and has been associated with higher MMP-1 expression. The 2G allele has been linked to higher risk of several types of cancer but a link to osteoporosis or microgravity induced bone loss has not been explored. The purpose of the present study was to conduct a case-study to determine whether small genetic variations can influence cellular and tissue responses to mechanical loading. Specifically we examined the potential of the 1G/2G -1607 MMP-1 promoter SNP to alter the interplay between mechanical shear stress and estrogen receptors in controlling MMP-1 expression. Methods: Rabbit synovial cells (HIG-82) were used as an in vitro model system to

  3. Glutamate promotes SSB protein-protein Interactions via intrinsically disordered regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Alexander G; Shinn, Min Kyung; Weiland, Elizabeth A; Lohman, Timothy M

    2017-09-01

    E. coli single strand (ss) DNA binding protein (SSB) is an essential protein that binds to ssDNA intermediates formed during genome maintenance. SSB homotetramers bind ssDNA in several modes that differ in occluded site size and cooperativity. High "unlimited" cooperativity is associated with the 35 site size ((SSB)35) mode at low [NaCl], whereas the 65 site size ((SSB)65) mode formed at higher [NaCl] (> 200mM), where ssDNA wraps completely around the tetramer, displays "limited" cooperativity forming dimers of tetramers. It was previously thought that high cooperativity was associated only with the (SSB)35 binding mode. However, we show here that highly cooperative binding also occurs in the (SSB)65/(SSB)56 binding modes at physiological salt concentrations containing either glutamate or acetate. Highly cooperative binding requires the 56 amino acid intrinsically disordered C-terminal linker (IDL) that connects the DNA binding domain with the 9 amino acid C-terminal acidic tip that is involved in SSB binding to other proteins involved in genome maintenance. These results suggest that high cooperativity involves interactions between IDL regions from different SSB tetramers. Glutamate, which is preferentially excluded from protein surfaces, may generally promote interactions between intrinsically disordered regions of proteins. Since glutamate is the major monovalent anion in E. coli, these results suggest that SSB likely binds to ssDNA with high cooperativity in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Identification of a single-nucleotide insertion in the promoter region affecting the sodC promoter activity in Brucella neotomae.

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    Dina A Moustafa

    Full Text Available Brucella neotomae is not known to be associated with clinical disease in any host species. Previous research suggested that B. neotomae might not express detectable levels of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD, a periplasmic enzyme known to be involved in protecting Brucella from oxidative bactericidal effects of host phagocytes. This study was undertaken to investigate the genetic basis for the disparity in SOD expression in B. neotomae. Our Western blot and SOD enzyme assay analyses indicated that B. neotomae does express SOD, but at a substantially reduced level. Nucleotide sequence analysis of region upstream to the sodC gene identified a single-nucleotide insertion in the potential promoter region. The same single-nucleotide insertion was also detected in the sodC promoter of B. suis strain Thomsen, belonging to biovar 2 in which SOD expression was undetectable previously. Examination of the sodC promoter activities using translational fusion constructs with E. coli β-galactosidase demonstrated that the B. neotomae and B. suis biovar 2 promoters were very weak in driving gene expression. Site-directed mutation studies indicated that the insertion of A in the B. neotomae sodC promoter reduced the promoter activity. Increasing the level of SOD expression in B. neotomae through complementation with B. abortus sodC gene did not alter the bacterial survival in J774A.1 macrophage-like cells and in tissues of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. These results for the first time demonstrate the occurrence of a single-nucleotide polymorphism affecting promoter function and gene expression in Brucella.

  5. Altered Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 4 Stability Promotes Prostate Cancer Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianghua Wang

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR-4 is expressed at significant levels in almost all human prostate cancers, and expression of its ligands is ubiquitous. A common polymorphism of FGFR-4 in which arginine (Arg388 replaces glycine (Gly388 at amino acid 388 is associated with progression in human prostate cancer. We show that the FGFR-4 Arg388 polymorphism, which is present in most prostate cancer patients, results in increased receptor stability and sustained receptor activation. In patients bearing the FGFR-4 Gly388 variant, expression of Huntingtin-interacting protein 1 (HIP1, which occurs in more than half of human prostate cancers, also results in FGFR-4 stabilization. This is associated with enhanced proliferation and anchorage-independent growth in vitro. Our findings indicate that increased receptor stability and sustained FGFR-4 signaling occur in most human prostate cancers due to either the presence of a common genetic polymorphism or the expression of a protein that stabilizes FGFR-4. Both of these alterations are associated with clinical progression in patients with prostate cancer. Thus, FGFR-4 signaling and receptor turnover are important potential therapeutic targets in prostate cancer.

  6. Amisulpride promotes cognitive flexibility in rats: the role of 5-HT7 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikiforuk, Agnieszka; Popik, Piotr

    2013-07-01

    The antagonism of 5-HT7 receptors may contribute to the antidepressant and procognitive actions of the atypical antipsychotic drug, amisulpride. It has been previously demonstrated that the selective 5-HT7 receptor antagonist reversed restraint stress-induced cognitive impairments in a rat model of frontal-dependent attentional set-shifting task (ASST). Therefore, the first aim of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of amisulpride against stress-evoked cognitive inflexibility. The second goal was to elucidate whether the pro-cognitive effect of amisulpride could be due to the compound's action at 5-HT7 receptors. Rats repeatedly exposed (1 h daily for 7 days) to restraint stress demonstrated impaired performance on the extra-dimensional (ED) set-shifting stage of the ASST. Amisulpride (3 mg/kg) given to stressed rats 30 min before testing reversed this restraint-induced cognitive inflexibility and improved ED performance of the unstressed control group. The 5-HT7 receptor agonist, AS19 (10 mg/kg), abolished the pro-cognitive efficacy of amisulpride (3 mg/kg). The present study suggests that the antagonism of 5-HT7 receptors may contribute to the mechanisms underlining the pro-cognitive action of amisulpride. These results may have therapeutic implications in frontal-like deficits associated with stress-related disorders.

  7. DDR2 receptor promotes MMP-2-mediated proliferation and invasion by hepatic stellate cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaso, E; Ikeda, K; Eng, F J; Xu, L; Wang, L H; Lin, H C; Friedman, S L

    2001-11-01

    Type I collagen provokes activation of hepatic stellate cells during liver injury through mechanisms that have been unclear. Here, we tested the role of the discoidin domain tyrosine kinase receptor 2 (DDR2), which signals in response to type I collagen, in this pathway. DDR2 mRNA and protein are induced in stellate cells activated by primary culture or in vivo during liver injury. The receptor becomes tyrosine phosphorylated in response to either endogenous or exogenous type I collagen, whereas its expression is downregulated during cellular quiescence induced by growth on Matrigel. We developed stellate cell lines stably overexpressing either wild-type DDR2, a constitutively active chimeric DDR2 receptor (Fc-DDR2), a truncated receptor expressing the extracellular domain, or a kinase-dead DDR2 Cells overexpressing DDR2 showed enhanced proliferation and invasion through Matrigel, activities that were directly related to increased expression of active matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2). These data show that DDR2 is induced during stellate cell activation and implicate the phosphorylated receptor as a mediator of MMP-2 release and growth stimulation in response to type I collagen. Moreover, type I collagen-dependent upregulation of DDR2 expression establishes a positive feedback loop in activated stellate cells, leading to further proliferation and enhanced invasive activity.

  8. Molecular cloning of rhamnose-binding lectin gene and its promoter region from snakehead Channa argus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, W Z; Shang, N; Guo, Q L

    2010-09-01

    Lectins are sugar-binding proteins that mediate pathogen recognition and cell-cell interactions. A rhamnose-binding lectin (RBL) gene and its promoter region have been cloned and characterized from snakehead Channa argus. From the transcription initiation site, snakehead rhamnose-binding lectin (SHL) gene extends 2,382 bp to the end of the 3' untranslated region (UTR), and contains nine exons and eight introns. The open reading frame (ORF) of the SHL transcript has 675 bp which encodes 224 amino acids. The molecular structure of SHL is composed of two tandem repeat carbohydrate recognition domains (CRD) with 35% internal identity. Analysis of the gene organization of SHL indicates that the ancestral gene of RBL may diverge and evolve by exon shuffling and gene duplication, producing new forms to play their own roles in various organisms. The characteristics of SHL gene 5' flanking region are the presence of consensus nuclear factor of interleukin 6 (NF-IL6) and IFN-gamma activation (GAS) sites. The results provide indirect evidence that up-regulation of SHL expression may be induced in response to inflammatory stimuli, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma). The transcript of SHL mRNA was expressed in the head kidney, posterior kidney, spleen, liver, intestine, heart, muscle, and ovary. No tissue-specific expressive pattern is different from reported STLs, WCLs, and PFLs, suggesting that different types of RBLs exist in species-specific fish that have evolved and adapted to their surroundings.

  9. Public health and health promotion capacity at national and regional level: a review of conceptual frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Aluttis

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of capacity building for public health has gained much attention during the last decade. National as well as international organizations increasingly focus their efforts on capacity building to improve performance in the health sector. During the past two decades, a variety of conceptual frameworks have been developed which describe relevant dimensions for public health capacity. Notably, these frameworks differ in design and conceptualization. This paper therefore reviews the existing conceptual frameworks and integrates them into one framework, which contains the most relevant dimensions for public health capacity at the country or regional level. A comprehensive literature search was performed to identify frameworks addressing public health capacity building at the national or regional level. We content-analysed these frameworks to identify the core dimensions of public health capacity. The dimensions were subsequently synthesized into a set of thematic areas to construct a conceptual framework which describes the most relevant dimensions for capacities at the national or regional level. The systematic review resulted in the identification of seven core domains for public health capacity: resources, organizational structures, workforce, partnerships, leadership and governance, knowledge development and country specific context. Accordingly, these dimensions were used to construct a framework, which describes these core domains more in detail. Our research shows that although there is no generally agreed upon model of public health capacity, a number of key domains for public health and health promotion capacity are consistently recurring in existing frameworks, regardless of their geographical location or thematic area. As only little work on the core concepts of public health capacities has yet taken place, this study adds value to the discourse by identifying these consistencies across existing frameworks and by synthesising

  10. Modulation of thyroid hormone receptor transactivation by the early region 1A (E1A-like inhibitor of differentiation 1 (EID1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Vargas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Transcriptional activation (TA mediated by the effect of thyroid hormones on target genes requires co-activator proteins such as the early region 1A (E1A associated 300 kDa binding protein (p300 and the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB binding protein (CBP, known as the p300/CBP complex, which acetylate histones 3 and 4 to allow transcriptional machinery access to the target gene promoter. Little is known on the role of p300 in thyroid hormone receptor (TR mediated TA but the E1A-like inhibitor of differentiation 1 (EID1, an inhibitor of p300 histone acetyltransferase (HAT, is a functional homolog of E1A and may inhibit myogenic differentiation factor D (MyoD transcriptional activity and reduces muscle cell differentiation. We evaluated the influence of EID1 on TR-mediated transcriptional activity using transfection and mammalian two-hybrid studies to show that EID1 may partially reduces TA activity of the TR receptor, probably due to p300 blockage since EID1 mutants cannot reduce TR-mediated TA. The EID1 does not affect the function of p160 co-activator proteins (160 kDa proteins of steroid receptor co-activators and is functionally independent of co-repressor proteins or TR binding. Summarizing, EID1 reduces TR-mediated transcriptional activity by blocking p300 and may play an important role in thyroid receptor activity in muscle and other tissues.

  11. Selection for Unequal Densities of Sigma70 Promoter-like Signalsin Different Regions of Large Bacterial Genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huerta, Araceli M.; Francino, M. Pilar; Morett, Enrique; Collado-Vides, Julio

    2006-03-01

    The evolutionary processes operating in the DNA regions that participate in the regulation of gene expression are poorly understood. In Escherichia coli, we have established a sequence pattern that distinguishes regulatory from nonregulatory regions. The density of promoter-like sequences, that are recognizable by RNA polymerase and may function as potential promoters, is high within regulatory regions, in contrast to coding regions and regions located between convergently-transcribed genes. Moreover, functional promoter sites identified experimentally are often found in the subregions of highest density of promoter-like signals, even when individual sites with higher binding affinity for RNA polymerase exist elsewhere within the regulatory region. In order to investigate the generality of this pattern, we have used position weight matrices describing the -35 and -10 promoter boxes of E. coli to search for these motifs in 43 additional genomes belonging to most established bacterial phyla, after specific calibration of the matrices according to the base composition of the noncoding regions of each genome. We have found that all bacterial species analyzed contain similar promoter-like motifs, and that, in most cases, these motifs follow the same genomic distribution observed in E. coli. Differential densities between regulatory and nonregulatory regions are detectable in most bacterial genomes, with the exception of those that have experienced evolutionary extreme genome reduction. Thus, the phylogenetic distribution of this pattern mirrors that of genes and other genomic features that require weak selection to be effective in order to persist. On this basis, we suggest that the loss of differential densities in the reduced genomes of host-restricted pathogens and symbionts is the outcome of a process of genome degradation resulting from the decreased efficiency of purifying selection in highly structured small populations. This implies that the differential

  12. Structure and Function of the Intracellular Region of the Plexin-B1 Transmembrane Receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, Yufeng; Hota, Prasanta K.; Penachioni, Junia Y.; Hamaneh, Mehdi B.; Kim, SoonJeung; Alviani, Rebecca S.; Shen, Limin; He, Hao; Tempel, Wolfram; Tamagnone, Luca; Park, Hee-Won; Buck, Matthias; (Torino); (Toronto); (Case Western U.-Med)

    2010-02-11

    Members of the plexin family are unique transmembrane receptors in that they interact directly with Rho family small GTPases; moreover, they contain a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) domain for R-Ras, which is crucial for plexin-mediated regulation of cell motility. However, the functional role and structural basis of the interactions between the different intracellular domains of plexins remained unclear. Here we present the 2.4 {angstrom} crystal structure of the complete intracellular region of human plexin-B1. The structure is monomeric and reveals that the GAP domain is folded into one structure from two segments, separated by the Rho GTPase binding domain (RBD). The RBD is not dimerized, as observed previously. Instead, binding of a conserved loop region appears to compete with dimerization and anchors the RBD to the GAP domain. Cell-based assays on mutant proteins confirm the functional importance of this coupling loop. Molecular modeling based on structural homology to p120{sup GAP} {center_dot}H-Ras suggests that Ras GTPases can bind to the plexin GAP region. Experimentally, we show that the monomeric intracellular plexin-B1 binds R-Ras but not H-Ras. These findings suggest that the monomeric form of the intracellular region is primed for GAP activity and extend a model for plexin activation.

  13. The evolution of vertebrate somatostatin receptors and their gene regions involves extensive chromosomal rearrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ocampo Daza Daniel

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Somatostatin and its related neuroendocrine peptides have a wide variety of physiological functions that are mediated by five somatostatin receptors with gene names SSTR1-5 in mammals. To resolve their evolution in vertebrates we have investigated the SSTR genes and a large number of adjacent gene families by phylogeny and conserved synteny analyses in a broad range of vertebrate species. Results We find that the SSTRs form two families that belong to distinct paralogons. We observe not only chromosomal similarities reflecting the paralogy relationships between the SSTR-bearing chromosome regions, but also extensive rearrangements between these regions in teleost fish genomes, including fusions and translocations followed by reshuffling through intrachromosomal rearrangements. These events obscure the paralogy relationships but are still tractable thanks to the many genomes now available. We have identified a previously unrecognized SSTR subtype, SSTR6, previously misidentified as either SSTR1 or SSTR4. Conclusions Two ancestral SSTR-bearing chromosome regions were duplicated in the two basal vertebrate tetraploidizations (2R. One of these ancestral SSTR genes generated SSTR2, -3 and -5, the other gave rise to SSTR1, -4 and -6. Subsequently SSTR6 was lost in tetrapods and SSTR4 in teleosts. Our study shows that extensive chromosomal rearrangements have taken place between related chromosome regions in teleosts, but that these events can be resolved by investigating several distantly related species.

  14. Alpha-synuclein promotes clathrin-mediated endocytosis of NMDA receptors in dopaminergic cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shun Yu; Furong Cheng; Xin Li; Yaohua Li; Tao Wang; Guangwei Liu; Andrius Baskys

    2012-01-01

    Loss of dopaminergic i a compensatory increase in nput to the striatum associated with Parkinson' s disease brings about glutamate release onto the dopaminergic cell bodies in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc)[1] Glutamate over-activation of NMDA receptors on these cells can cause excitotoxicity and contribute to their further loss. NMDA receptor-mediated neuronal death is reduced by group I mGluR-mediated up-regulation of endocytosis protein RAB5B[2.3] Among proteins shown to interact with RAB5 proteins is a-synuclein

  15. MicroRNAs and Androgen Receptor 3′ Untranslated Region: A Missing Link in Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikand, Kavleen; Barik, Sailen; Shukla, Girish C.

    2012-01-01

    The ligand-activated transcription factor, androgen receptor (AR) plays a central role in the development and progression of prostate cancer. Prostate cancer initiates as an androgen-dependent disease and further accumulation of multiple sequential genetic and epigenetic alterations transform it into an aggressive, castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). The molecular basis of the transition from androgen-dependent prostate cancer to CRPC remains unclear. However, it is apparent that AR plays a pivotal role in this alteration. The recent discovery that microRNAs (miRNAs) can target the function of AR suggests a functional role of these non-coding RNAs in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer. miRNAs usually function by targeting the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of a mRNA by base-pairing interactions and modulate translation either by destabilizing the message or by repression of protein synthesis in actively translating ribosomes. Here, we discuss the potential molecular pathways through which AR targeting miRNAs may promote CRPC. Modulation of AR expression by miRNAs presents a novel therapeutic option for prostate cancer, albeit it will likely be used in combination with the existing therapies. PMID:22468168

  16. The inhibition of the human cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase gene (CYP7A1) promoter by fibrates in cultured cells is mediated via the liver x receptor α and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α heterodimer

    OpenAIRE

    Gbaguidi, G. Franck; Agellon, Luis B.

    2004-01-01

    In previous work, we showed that the binding of the liver x receptor α:peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (LXRα:PPARα) heterodimer to the murine Cyp7a1 gene promoter antagonizes the stimulatory effect of their respective ligands. In this study, we determined if LXRα:PPARα can also regulate human CYP7A1 gene promoter activity. Co-expression of LXRα and PPARα in McArdle RH7777 hepatoma cells decreased the activity of the human CYP7A1 gene promoter in response to fibrates and 25-hydrox...

  17. Lower methylation of glucocorticoid receptor gene promoter 1F in peripheral blood of veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehuda, Rachel; Flory, Janine D; Bierer, Linda M; Henn-Haase, Clare; Lehrner, Amy; Desarnaud, Frank; Makotkine, Iouri; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P; Marmar, Charles R; Meaney, Michael J

    2015-02-15

    Enhanced glucocorticoid receptor (GR) sensitivity is present in people with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but the molecular mechanisms of GR sensitivity are not understood. Epigenetic factors have emerged as one potential mechanism that account for how trauma exposure leads to sustained PTSD symptoms given that PTSD develops in only a subset of trauma survivors. Cytosine methylation of a relevant promoter of the GR gene (NR3C1-1F promoter) and three functional neuroendocrine markers of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function were examined in a sample of 122 combat veterans. Lower NR3C1-1F promoter methylation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was observed in combat veterans with PTSD compared with combat-exposed veterans who did not develop PTSD. NR3C1-1F promoter methylation was also associated with three functional measures of glucocorticoid activity that have been associated with PTSD in combat veterans: PBMCs' lysozyme inhibition on the lysozyme suppression test, plasma cortisol decline on the low-dose (.50 mg) dexamethasone suppression test, and 24-hour urinary cortisol excretion. Finally, NR3C1-1F promoter methylation was inversely correlated with clinical markers and symptoms associated with PTSD. Alterations in NR3C1-1F promoter methylation may reflect enduring changes resulting from combat exposure that lead to functional neuroendocrine alterations. Because epigenetic measures are thought to reflect enduring effects of environmental exposures, they may be useful in distinguishing combat-exposed veterans who do or do not develop PTSD. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Diphenylarsinic acid, a chemical warfare-related neurotoxicant, promotes liver carcinogenesis via activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling and consequent induction of oxidative DAN damage in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Min; Yamada, Takanori; Yamano, Shotaro; Kato, Minoru; Kakehashi, Anna; Fujioka, Masaki; Tago, Yoshiyuki; Kitano, Mistuaki; Wanibuchi, Hideki, E-mail: wani@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp

    2013-11-15

    Diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA), a chemical warfare-related neurotoxic organic arsenical, is present in the groundwater and soil in some regions of Japan due to illegal dumping after World War II. Inorganic arsenic is carcinogenic in humans and its organic arsenic metabolites are carcinogenic in animal studies, raising serious concerns about the carcinogenicity of DPAA. However, the carcinogenic potential of DPAA has not yet been evaluated. In the present study we found that DPAA significantly enhanced the development of diethylnitrosamine-induced preneoplastic lesions in the liver in a medium-term rat liver carcinogenesis assay. Evaluation of the expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in the liver revealed that DPAA induced the expression of CYP1B1, but not any other CYP1, CYP2, or CYP3 enzymes, suggesting that CYP1B1 might be the enzyme responsible for the metabolic activation of DPAA. We also found increased oxidative DNA damage, possibly due to elevated CYP1B1 expression. Induction of CYP1B1 has generally been linked with the activation of AhR, and we found that DPAA activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Importantly, the promotion effect of DPAA was observed only at a dose that activated the AhR, suggesting that activation of AhR and consequent induction of AhR target genes and oxidative DNA damage plays a vital role in the promotion effects of DPAA. The present study provides, for the first time, evidence regarding the carcinogenicity of DPAA and indicates the necessity of comprehensive evaluation of its carcinogenic potential using long-term carcinogenicity studies. - Highlights: • DPAA, an environmental neurotoxicant, promotes liver carcinogenesis in rats. • DPAA is an activator of AhR signaling pathway. • DPAA promoted oxidative DNA damage in rat livers. • AhR target gene CYP 1B1 might be involved in the metabolism of DPAA.

  19. Brain regional differences in CB1 receptor adaptation and regulation of transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazenka, M F; Selley, D E; Sim-Selley, L J

    2013-03-19

    Cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1Rs) are expressed throughout the brain and mediate the central effects of cannabinoids, including Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive constituent of marijuana. Repeated THC administration produces tolerance to cannabinoid-mediated effects, although the magnitude of tolerance varies by effect. Consistent with this observation, CB1R desensitization and downregulation, as well as induction of immediate early genes (IEGs), vary by brain region. Zif268 and c-Fos are induced in the forebrain after acute THC administration. Phosphorylation of the cAMP response-element binding protein (CREB) is increased in a region-specific manner after THC administration. Results differ between acute versus repeated THC injection, and suggest that tolerance to IEG activation might develop in some regions. Repeated THC treatment produces CB1R desensitization and downregulation in the brain, although less adaption occurs in the striatum as compared to regions such as the hippocampus. Repeated THC treatment also induces expression of ΔFosB, a very stable isoform of FosB, in the striatum. Transgenic expression of ∆FosB in the striatum enhances the rewarding effects of several drugs, but its role in THC-mediated effects is not known. The inverse regional relationship between CB1R desensitization and ∆FosB induction suggests that these adaptations might inhibit each other, although this possibility has not been investigated. The differential regional expression of individual IEGs by acute or repeated THC administration suggests that regulation of target genes and effects on CB1R signaling will contribute to the behavioral effects of THC.

  20. High diversity due to balancing selection in the promoter region of the Medea gene in Arabidopsis lyrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Akira; Fujimoto, Ryo; Charlesworth, Deborah

    2007-11-06

    Molecular imprinting is the differential expression and/or silencing of alleles according to their parent of origin [1, 2]. Conflicts between parents, or parents and offspring, should cause "arms races," with accelerated evolution of the genes involved in imprinting. This should be detectable in the evolution of imprinting genes' protein sequences and in the promoter regions of imprinted genes. Previous studies, however, found no evidence of more amino acid substitutions in imprinting genes [1, 3]. We have analyzed sequence diversity of the Arabidopsis lyrata Medea (MEA) gene and divergence from the A. thaliana sequence, including the first study of the promoter region. In A. thaliana, MEA is imprinted, with paternal alleles silenced in endosperm cells [4, 5], and also functions in the imprinting machinery [4, 6]; MEA protein binding at the MEA promoter region indicates self-regulated imprinting [7-9]. We find the same paternal MEA allele silencing in A. lyrata endosperm but no evidence for adaptive evolution in the coding region, whereas the 5' flanking region displays high diversity, with distinct haplotypes, suggesting balancing selection in the promoter region.

  1. DNA methylation in a sea lamprey vasotocin receptor gene promoter correlates with tissue- and life-stage-specific mRNA expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayasich, Sally A; Bemis, Lynne T; Clarke, Benjamin L

    2016-12-01

    The jawless vertebrate sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) genome has a different structure from both invertebrates and jawed vertebrates featuring high guanine-cytosine (GC) content. This raises the question of whether DNA methylation of cytosine-guanine (CpG) dinucleotides could function to regulate lamprey gene transcription. We previously characterized a lamprey arginine vasotocin (AVT) receptor gene (Pm807) possessing characteristics of both arginine vasopressin (AVP) V1A and oxytocin (OXT) receptor genes of jawed vertebrates. Lamprey Pm807 mRNA is highly expressed in adult heart and larval liver but not expressed in adult liver. Using high-resolution melt (HRM) PCR on bisulfite-converted DNA, we pinpointed a region with tissue-specific differences in DNA melt characteristics, indicating differences in methylation level. Sequencing revealed a pattern of methylation at specific CpGs at consistently higher levels in adult heart and larval liver than adult liver. These CpGs are associated with putative transcription factor binding sequences organized similarly to functional OXTR promoters in mammals, suggesting functional similarity in lamprey gene transcription regulation.

  2. The cytomegalovirus-encoded chemokine receptor US28 promotes intestinal neoplasia in transgenic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, G.; Maussang, D.; Muniz, L.R.; Noriega, V.M.; Fraile-Ramos, A.; Barker, N.; Marchesi, F.; Thirunarayanan, N.; Vischer, H.F.; Qin, L.; Mayer, L.; Harpaz, N.; Leurs, R.; Furtado, G.C.; Clevers, H.; Tortorella, D.; Smit, M.J.; Lira, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    US28 is a constitutively active chemokine receptor encoded by CMV (also referred to as human herpesvirus 5), a highly prevalent human virus that infects a broad spectrum of cells, including intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). To study the role of US28 in vivo, we created transgenic mice (VS28 mice)

  3. Methylation of the Glucocorticoid Receptor Gene Promoter in Preschoolers: Links with Internalizing Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parade, Stephanie H.; Ridout, Kathryn K.; Seifer, Ronald; Armstrong, David A.; Marsit, Carmen J.; McWilliams, Melissa A.; Tyrka, Audrey R.

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that early adversity is linked to methylation of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene, "NR3C1," which is a key regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Yet no prior work has considered the contribution of methylation of "NR3C1" to emerging behavior problems and psychopathology in…

  4. The calcium-sensing receptor promotes urinary acidification to prevent nephrolithiasis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renkema, K.Y.; Velic, A.; Dijkman, H.B.; Verkaart, S.A.J.; Kemp, J.W.C.M. van der; Nowik, M.; Timmermans, K.; Doucet, A.; Wagner, C.A.; Bindels, R.J.M.; Hoenderop, J.G.J.

    2009-01-01

    Hypercalciuria increases the risk for urolithiasis, but renal adaptive mechanisms reduce this risk. For example, transient receptor potential vanilloid 5 knockout (TPRV5(-/-)) mice lack kidney stones despite urinary calcium (Ca(2+)) wasting and hyperphosphaturia, perhaps as a result of their signifi

  5. Progesterone receptor membrane component 1 deficiency attenuates growth while promoting chemosensitivity of human endometrial xenograft tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Friel (Anne M.); L. Zhang (Ling); C.A. Pru (Cindy A.); N.C. Clark (Nicole C.); M.L. McCallum (Melissa L.); L.J. Blok (Leen); T. Shioda (Toshi); J.J. Peluso (John J.); B.R. Rueda (Bo R.); J.K. Pru (James K.)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractEndometrial cancer is the leading gynecologic cancer in women in the United States with 52,630 women predicted to be diagnosed with the disease in 2014. The objective of this study was to determine if progesterone (P4) receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1) influenced endometrial cancer

  6. High-throughput identification of promoters and screening of highly active promoter-5'-UTR DNA region with different characteristics from Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieping Wang

    Full Text Available In bacteria, both promoters and 5'-untranslated regions (5'-UTRs of mRNAs play vital regulatory roles in gene expression. In this study, we identified 1203 active promoter candidates in Bacillus thuringiensis through analysis of the genome-wide TSSs based on the transcriptome data. There were 11 types of σ-factor and 34 types of transcription factor binding sites found in 723 and 1097 active promoter candidates, respectively. Moreover, within the 1203 transcriptional units (TUs, most (52% of the 5'-UTRs were 10-50 nucleotides in length, 12.8% of the TUs had a long 5'-UTR greater than 100 nucleotides in length, and 16.3% of the TUs were leaderless. We then selected 20 active promoter candidates combined with the corresponding 5'-UTR DNA regions to screen the highly active promoter-5'-UTR DNA region complexes with different characteristics. Our results demonstrate that among the 20 selected complexes, six were able to exert their functions throughout the life cycle, six were specifically induced during the early-stationary phase, and four were specifically activated during the mid-stationary phase. We found a direct corresponding relationship between σ-factor-recognized consensus sequences and complex activity features: the great majority of complexes acting throughout the life cycle possess σ(A-like consensus sequences; the maximum activities of the σ(F-, σ(E-, σ(G-, and σ(K-dependent complexes appeared at 10, 14, 16, and 22 h under our experimental conditions, respectively. In particular, complex Phj3 exhibited the strongest activity. Several lines of evidence showed that complex Phj3 possessed three independent promoter regions located at -251∼-98, -113∼-31, and -54∼+14, and that the 5'-UTR +1∼+118 DNA region might be particularly beneficial to both the stability and translation of its downstream mRNA. Moreover, Phj3 successfully overexpressed the active β-galactosidase and turbo-RFP, indicating that Phj3 could be a proper

  7. Orexin receptor antagonists differ from standard sleep drugs by promoting sleep at doses that do not disrupt cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uslaner, Jason M; Tye, Spencer J; Eddins, Donnie M; Wang, Xiaohai; Fox, Steven V; Savitz, Alan T; Binns, Jacquelyn; Cannon, Christopher E; Garson, Susan L; Yao, Lihang; Hodgson, Robert; Stevens, Joanne; Bowlby, Mark R; Tannenbaum, Pamela L; Brunner, Joseph; Mcdonald, Terrence P; Gotter, Anthony L; Kuduk, Scott D; Coleman, Paul J; Winrow, Christopher J; Renger, John J

    2013-04-03

    Current treatments for insomnia, such as zolpidem (Ambien) and eszopiclone (Lunesta), are γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA)-positive allosteric modulators that carry a number of side effects including the potential to disrupt cognition. In an effort to develop better tolerated medicines, we have identified dual orexin 1 and 2 receptor antagonists (DORAs), which promote sleep in preclinical animal models and humans. We compare the effects of orally administered eszopiclone, zolpidem, and diazepam to the dual orexin receptor antagonist DORA-22 on sleep and the novel object recognition test in rat, and on sleep and two cognition tests (delayed match to sample and serial choice reaction time) in the rhesus monkey. Each compound's minimal dose that promoted sleep versus the minimal dose that exerted deficits in these cognitive tests was determined, and a therapeutic margin was established. We found that DORA-22 has a wider therapeutic margin for sleep versus cognitive impairment in rat and rhesus monkey compared to the other compounds tested. These data were further supported with the demonstration of a wider therapeutic margin for DORA-22 compared to the other compounds on sleep versus the expression of hippocampal activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein (Arc), an immediate-early gene product involved in synaptic plasticity. These findings suggest that DORAs might provide an effective treatment for insomnia with a greater therapeutic margin for sleep versus cognitive disturbances compared to the GABAA-positive allosteric modulators currently in use.

  8. Berberine promotes the development of atherosclerosis and foam cell formation by inducing scavenger receptor A expression in macrophage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke Li; Wenqi Yao; Xiudan Zheng; Kan Liao

    2009-01-01

    Berberine is identified to lower the serum cholesterol level in human and hamster through the induction of low density lipoproteins (LDL) receptor in hepatic cells. To evaluate its potential in preventing atherosclerosis, the effect of berberine on atherosclerosis development in apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE-/-) mice was investigated, in apoE-/-mice, berberine induced in vivo foam cell formation and promoted atherosclerosis development. The foam cell for-mation induced by berberine was also observed in mouse RAW264.7 cells, as well as in mouse and human primary macrophages. By inducing scavenger receptor A (SR-A) expression in macrophages, berberine increased the uptake of modified LDL (DiO-Ac-LDL). Berberine-induced SR-A expression was also observed in macrophage foam cells in vivo and in the cells at atherosclerotic lesion. Analysis in RAW264.7 cells indicated that berberine induced SR-A ex-pression by suppressing PTEN expression, which led to sustained Akt activation. Our results suggest that to evaluate the potential of a cholesterol-reducing compound in alleviating atherosclerosis, its effect on the cells involved in ath-erosclerosis development, such as macrophages, should also be considered. Promotion of foam cell formation could counter-balance the beneficial effect of lowering serum cholesterol.

  9. Activated c-Kit receptor in the heart promotes cardiac repair and regeneration after injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Siena, S; Gimmelli, R; Nori, S L; Barbagallo, F; Campolo, F; Dolci, S; Rossi, P; Venneri, M A; Giannetta, E; Gianfrilli, D; Feigenbaum, L; Lenzi, A; Naro, F; Cianflone, E; Mancuso, T; Torella, D; Isidori, A M; Pellegrini, M

    2016-01-01

    The role of endogenous c-Kit receptor activation on cardiac cell homeostasis and repair remains largely unexplored. Transgenic mice carrying an activating point mutation (TgD814Y) in the kinase domain of the c-Kit gene were generated. c-KitTgD814Y receptor was expressed in the heart during embryonic development and postnatal life, in a similar timing and expression pattern to that of the endogenous gene, but not in the hematopoietic compartment allowing the study of a cardiac-specific phenotype. c-KitTgD814Y mutation produced a constitutive active c-Kit receptor in cardiac tissue and cells from transgenic mice as demonstrated by the increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and AKT, which are the main downstream molecular effectors of c-Kit receptor signaling. In adult transgenic hearts, cardiac morphology, size and total c-Kit+ cardiac cell number was not different compared with wt mice. However, when c-KitTgD814Y mice were subjected to transmural necrotic heart damage by cryoinjury (CI), all transgenic survived, compared with half of wt mice. In the sub-acute phase after CI, transgenic and wt mice showed similar heart damage. However, 9 days after CI, transgenic mice exhibited an increased number of c-Kit+CD31+ endothelial progenitor cells surrounding the necrotic area. At later follow-up, a consistent reduction of fibrotic area, increased capillary density and increased cardiomyocyte replenishment rate (as established by BrdU incorporation) were observed in transgenic compared with wt mice. Consistently, CD45−c-Kit+ cardiac stem cells isolated from transgenic c-KitTgD814Y mice showed an enhanced endothelial and cardiomyocyte differentiation potential compared with cells isolated from the wt. Constitutive activation of c-Kit receptor in mice is associated with an increased cardiac myogenic and vasculogenic reparative potential after injury, with a significant improvement of survival. PMID:27468693

  10. Disruption of histone modification and CARM1 recruitment by arsenic represses transcription at glucocorticoid receptor-regulated promoters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona D Barr

    Full Text Available Chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs found in the environment is one of the most significant and widespread environmental health risks in the U.S. and throughout the world. It is associated with a broad range of health effects from cancer to diabetes as well as reproductive and developmental anomalies. This diversity of diseases can also result from disruption of metabolic and other cellular processes regulated by steroid hormone receptors via aberrant transcriptional regulation. Significantly, exposure to iAs inhibits steroid hormone-mediated gene activation. iAs exposure is associated with disease, but is also used therapeutically to treat specific cancers complicating an understanding of iAs action. Transcriptional activation by steroid hormone receptors is accompanied by changes in histone and non-histone protein post-translational modification (PTM that result from the enzymatic activity of coactivator and corepressor proteins such as GRIP1 and CARM1. This study addresses how iAs represses steroid receptor-regulated gene transcription. PTMs on histones H3 and H4 at the glucocorticoid receptor (GR-activated mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV promoter were identified by chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis following exposure to steroid hormone+/-iAs. Histone H3K18 and H3R17 amino acid residues had significantly different patterns of PTMs after treatment with iAs. Promoter interaction of the coactivator CARM1 was disrupted, but the interaction of GRIP1, a p160 coactivator through which CARM1 interacts with a promoter, was intact. Over-expression of CARM1 was able to fully restore and GRIP1 partially restored iAs-repressed transcription indicating that these coactivators are functionally associated with iAs-mediated transcriptional repression. Both are essential for robust transcription at steroid hormone regulated genes and both are associated with disease when inappropriately expressed. We postulate that iAs effects on CARM1 and GRIP1

  11. Identification of two glucocorticoid response elements in the promoter region of the ubiquitous isoform of glutamine synthetase in gulf toadfish, Opsanus beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbaugh, Andrew J; Walsh, Patrick J

    2009-10-01

    Unlike most teleosts, gulf toadfish have the capacity to switch from ammoniotely to ureotely as the predominate means of nitrogen excretion during periods of stress. The switch to ureotely is a result of increased glutamine synthetase (GS) mRNA expression/enzyme activity in the liver and muscle, which is initiated by cortisol. Cortisol typically affects gene expression through the action of cortisol-activated transcription factors, such as glucocorticoid receptors, which bind to glucocorticoid response elements (GRE) in the upstream regulatory region of genes. The purpose of the present study was to identify the GRE responsible for increased GS gene expression during crowding/confinement in gulf toadfish using an in vivo luciferase reporter assay. Upstream promoter regions for both the ubiquitous and gill GS isoforms were amplified by PCR. Additionally, an intron was amplified from the ubiquitous GS isoform that suggested the possibility of two discreet transcripts for the mitochondrial and cytoplasmic proteins. When tested via in vivo reporter assays, both the cytoplasmic and mitochondrial ubiquitous GS promoters showed increased luciferase activity during crowding vs. noncrowded controls; the gill GS promoter showed no effects in response to crowding. In silico analysis of the mitochondrial and cytoplasmic ubiquitous GS promoter constructs showed an overlapping section of 565 bp containing two potential GREs. Mutation of either site alone had no effect on luciferase activity vs. wild-type controls. However, when both sites were mutated a significant decrease in luciferase activity was observed. We conclude that two functional GREs combine to confer cortisol-inducible GS expression in the liver of gulf toadfish.

  12. Genetic Variants in the STMN1 Transcriptional Regulatory Region Affect Promoter Activity and Fear Behavior in English Springer Spaniels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Ding

    Full Text Available Stathmin 1 (STMN1 is a neuronal growth-associated protein that is involved in microtubule dynamics and plays an important role in synaptic outgrowth and plasticity. Given that STMN1 affects fear behavior, we hypothesized that genetic variations in the STMN1 transcriptional regulatory region affect gene transcription activity and control fear behavior. In this study, two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, g. -327 A>G and g. -125 C>T, were identified in 317 English Springer Spaniels. A bioinformatics analysis revealed that both were loci located in the canine STMN1 putative promoter region and affected transcription factor binding. A statistical analysis revealed that the TT genotype at g.-125 C>T produced a significantly greater fear level than that of the CC genotype (P < 0.05. Furthermore, the H4H4 (GTGT haplotype combination was significantly associated with canine fear behavior (P < 0.01. Using serially truncated constructs of the STMN1 promoters and the luciferase reporter, we found that a 395 bp (-312 nt to +83 nt fragment constituted the core promoter region. The luciferase assay also revealed that the H4 (GT haplotype promoter had higher activity than that of other haplotypes. Overall, our results suggest that the two SNPs in the canine STMN1 promoter region could affect canine fear behavior by altering STMN1 transcriptional activity.

  13. Analysis of the essential DNA region for OsEBP-89 promoter in response to methyl jasmonic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In rice, the characterization of OsEBP-89 is inducible by various stress- or hormone-stimuli, including ethylene, abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonate acid (JA), drought and cold. Here, we report the investigation of essential DNA region within OsEBP-89 promoter for methyl jasmonic acid (MeJA) induction. PLACE analysis indicates that this promoter sequence contains multiple potential elements in response to various stimuli. First, we fused this promoter with GUS gene and analyzed its expression under MeJA treatment through Agrobacterium infiltration mediating transient expression in tobacco leaves. Our results revealed that this chimeric gene could be inducible by MeJA in tobacco leaves. To further de- termine the crucial sequences responsible for MeJA induction, we generated a series of deletion pro- moters which were fused with GUS reporter gene respectively. The results of transient expression of GUS gene driven by these mutant promoters show that the essential region for MeJA induction is po- sitioned in the region between -1200 and -800 in OsEBP-89 promoter containing a G-box (?1127), which is distinct from the essential region containing ERE (?562) for ACC induction. In all, our finding is helpful in understanding the molecular mechanism of OsEBP-89 expression under different stimuli.

  14. AvrPtoB targets the LysM receptor kinase CERK1 to promote bacterial virulence on plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez-Ibanez, Selena; Hann, Dagmar R; Ntoukakis, Vardis; Petutschnig, Elena; Lipka, Volker; Rathjen, John P

    2009-03-10

    Plant innate immunity relies on a set of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that respond to ligands known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). To overcome such immunity, phytopathogenic bacteria deliver virulence molecules called effector proteins into the plant cell that collectively promote pathogenesis. The vast majority of PRRs controlling PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) and the mechanisms used by specific effectors to suppress these pathways are mostly unknown. Here, we show that the Arabidopsis LysM receptor kinase CERK1, which is critical for chitin elicitor signaling and resistance to fungal pathogens, plays an essential role in restricting bacterial growth on plants. This is supported by the fact that CERK1 is a target of the bacterial type III effector protein AvrPtoB, which blocks all defense responses through this receptor. AvrPtoB ubiquitinates the CERK1 kinase domain in vitro and targets CERK1 for degradation in vivo. We show that CERK1 is a determinant of bacterial immunity, but its contribution is overcome by bacteria expressing AvrPtoB. Our results reveal a new pathway for plant immunity against bacteria and a role for AvrPtoB E3-ligase activity in suppressing PTI.

  15. AMPA receptor activation promotes non-amyloidogenic amyloid precursor protein processing and suppresses neuronal amyloid-β production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E Hoey

    Full Text Available Soluble oligomeric amyloid β peptide (Aβ generated from processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP plays a central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's Disease (AD and through actions at glutamatergic synapses affects excitability and plasticity. The physiological control of APP processing is not fully understood but stimulation of synaptic NMDA receptors (NMDAR can suppress Aβ levels through an ERK-dependent increase in α-secretase activity. AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPAR couple to ERK phosphorylation independently of NMDAR activation raising the possibility that stimulation of AMPAR might similarly promote non-amyloidogenic APP processing. We have tested this hypothesis by investigating whether AMPAR directly regulate APP processing in cultured mouse cortical neurons, by analyzing APP C-terminal fragments (CTFs, soluble APP (sAPP, Aβ levels, and cleavage of an APP-GAL4 reporter protein. We report that direct stimulation of AMPAR increases non-amyloidogenic α-secretase-mediated APP processing and inhibits Aβ production. Processing was blocked by the matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor TAPI-1 but was only partially dependent on Ca(2+ influx and ERK activity. AMPAR can therefore, be added to the repertoire of receptors that couple to non-amyloidogenic APP processing at glutamatergic synapses and thus pharmacological targeting of AMPAR could potentially influence the development and progression of Aβ pathology in AD.

  16. Geoheritage promotion of Thonon-les-Bains (Fr) region by the development of a geotourism product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanguin, Pauline

    2014-05-01

    Since 2012, the Chablais region (only in France) has acquired the Geopark label. This Geopark contributes to sustainable economic development of the region through geotourism. Moreover, the three Chablais (figure 1) are concerned by an Interreg IV program since 2009 (program of cooperation between European countries). The main objective of this program is to enhance the heritage resources (nature, culture and lifestyle of the region) (www.interreg-francesuisse.org). Therefore, the geotourism offer in this area just waiting to expand. The geodidactics models like the simplification of the scientific content are essential for geoheritage promotion, because this content must be available to a wide audience, allowing thereby the geoheritage recognition. The geotourism permits to apply different models (Cayla et al. 2010, Sellier, 2009) through a wide range of geotourism products, like guide, educational panels, thematic hikes and recently developed, new medias (website, smartphone applications). A geotourism product is based on four areas of questioning and was developed by Martin et al. (2010): (1) site (choice of sites to be valued), (2) public (a family public, good example of heterogeneous public), (3) contents (reasoning on geodidactics models) and (4) support (smartphone application). These four areas are very fundamental before the creation of any geotourism product. These reflexions aim to obtain a mediation product that integrates into geotourism offer of a region and contributes to its development and meets public expectations. New media, such as digital media - smartphone, tablets, website - become geotourism products more and more attractive. In addition, the necessary technologies to develop new media help to integrate a high interactivity potential with the public and thus get their attention. The architecture of this geotourism product is based on the new application developed by the Institute of Geography and sustainability, and the Bureau Relief. One

  17. Evaluation of methylation pattern in promoter region of E-cadherin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-03-07

    Mar 7, 2011 ... promoter methylation in CDH1 gene inactivation in breast cancer, the CpG methylation status of E- cadherin promoter ... The data indicate that CDH1 promoter methylation might be a potential ... Complex genetic and epigenetic alterations affect the ... DNA methylation is the covalent addition of a methyl.

  18. Calycosin promotes angiogenesis involving estrogen receptor and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathway in zebrafish and HUVEC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yan Tang

    as raloxifene and tamoxifen, by displaying selective potency and affinity to estrogen receptors ERalpha and ERbeta. Our results further indicated that calycosin promotes angiogenesis via activation of MAPK with the involvement of ERK1/2 and ER. Together, this study revealed, for the first time, that calycosin acts as a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM to promote angiogenesis, at least in part through VEGF-VEGFR2 and MAPK signaling pathways.

  19. Binding site of hepatitis B virus preS1 region to the asialoglycoprotein receptor of human liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Zhe-zhu; LI Mei-hua; WANG Yu-shu; CAI Ying-ji; JIN He-kui; ZHU Wei

    2002-01-01

    @@ The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major pathogen of chronic inflammatory liver disease and liver cirrhosis and is known to be infected to the hepatocytes via HBV specific receptors[1]. However, the specific receptor for HBV has not yet been identified. The HBV envelops consist of three related proteins, called major-(S region), middle-(S + preS2) and large protein (S + preS2 + preS1).

  20. Gel shift analysis of the empA promoter region in Vibrio anguillarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denkin Steven M

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The induction of metalloprotease encoded by empA in Vibrio anguillarum occurs at high cell density in salmon intestinal mucus. Previously we have shown that there are significant differences in empA expression in two strains of V. anguillarum, M93Sm and NB10. It is hypothesized that differences in empA regulation are due to differences in binding of regulatory elements. Results Two strains of V. anguillarum, M93Sm and NB10, were examined and compared for the presence of DNA regulatory proteins that bind to and control the empA promoter region. Gel mobility shift assays, using a digoxigenin (DIG-labeled oligomer containing a lux box-like element and the promoter for empA, were done to demonstrate the presence of a DNA-binding protein. Protein extracts from NB10 cells incubated in Luria Bertani broth + 2% NaCl (LB20, nine salts solution + 200 μg/ml mucus (NSSM, 3M (marine minimal medium, or NSS resulted in a gel mobility shift. No gel mobility shift was seen when protein extracts from either LB20- or NSSM-grown M93Sm cells were mixed with the DIG-labeled empA oligomer. The azocasein assay detected protease activity in all incubation conditions for NB10 culture supernatants. In contrast, protease activity was detected in M93Sm culture supernatants only when incubated in NSSM. Since the luxR homologue in V. anguillarum, vanT, has been cloned, sequenced, and shown to be required for protease activity, we wanted to determine if vanT mutants of NB10 exhibit the same gel shift observed in the wild-type. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to create vanT mutants in V. anguillarum M93Sm and NB10 to test whether VanT is involved with the gel mobility shift. Both vanT mutants, M02 and NB02, did not produce protease activity in any conditions. However, protein extracts from NB02 incubated in each condition still exhibited a gel shift when mixed with the DIG-labeled empA oligomer. Conclusions The data demonstrate that protein extracts of V

  1. Structural mapping of divergent regions in the type 1 ryanodine receptor using fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalingam, Mohana; Girgenrath, Tanya; Svensson, Bengt; Thomas, David D; Cornea, Razvan L; Fessenden, James D

    2014-09-02

    Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) release Ca(2+) to initiate striated muscle contraction. Three highly divergent regions (DRs) in the RyR protein sequence (DR1, DR2, and DR3) may confer isoform-specific functional properties to the RyRs. We used cell-based fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements to localize these DRs to the cryoelectron microscopic (cryo-EM) map of the skeletal muscle RyR isoform (RyR1). FRET donors were targeted to RyR1 using five different FKBP12.6 variants labeled with Alexa Fluor 488. FRET was then measured to the FRET acceptors, Cy3NTA or Cy5NTA, targeted to decahistidine tags introduced within the DRs. DR2 and DR3 were localized to separate positions within the "clamp" region of the RyR1 cryo-EM map, which is presumed to interface with Cav1.1. DR1 was localized to the "handle" region, near the regulatory calmodulin-binding site on the RyR. These localizations provide insights into the roles of DRs in RyR allosteric regulation during excitation contraction coupling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Heterologous expression of Translocated promoter region protein, Tpr, identified as a transcription factor from Rattus norvegicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Shivani; Yadav, Sunita Kumari; Dixit, Aparna

    2011-05-01

    Our earlier studies have demonstrated that the 35 kDa isoform of Translocated promoter region protein (Tpr) of Rattus norvegicus was able to augment c-jun transcription efficiently. Identification of direct targets that may in part downregulate c-jun transcription might prove to be an ideal target to curtail the proliferation of normal cells under pathophysiological conditions. In order to evaluate its potential as a pharmaceutical target, the protein must be produced and purified in sufficiently high yields. In the present study, we report the high level expression of Tpr protein of R. norvegicus employing heterologous host, Escherichia coli, to permit its structural characterization in great detail. We here demonstrate that the Tpr protein was expressed in soluble form and approximately 90 mg/L of the purified protein at the shake flask level could be achieved to near homogeneity using single step-metal chelate affinity chromatography. The amino acid sequence of the protein was confirmed by mass spectroscopic analysis. The highly unstable and disordered Tpr protein was imparted structural and functional stability by the addition of glycerol and it has been shown that the natively unfolded Tpr protein retains DNA binding ability under these conditions only. Thus, the present study emphasizes the significance of an efficient prokaryotic system, which results in a high level soluble expression of a DNA binding protein of eukaryotic origin. Thus, the present strategy employed for purification of the R. norvegicus Tpr protein bypasses the need for the tedious expression strategies associated with the eukaryotic expression systems.

  3. Association of polymorphism in the promoter of the melatonin receptor 1A gene with schizophrenia and with insomnia symptoms in schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hae Jeong; Park, Jin Kyung; Kim, Su Kang; Cho, Ah-Rang; Kim, Jong Woo; Yim, Sung-Vin; Chung, Joo-Ho

    2011-10-01

    Schizophrenia patients commonly have sleep disturbances. In this study, we investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter region of the melatonin receptor genes (MTNR1A and MTNR1B) were associated with schizophrenia and with sleep problems such as insomnia and hypersomnia in schizophrenia patients. We genotyped two promoter SNPs [rs2119882 (-184T/C) of MTNR1A and rs4753426 (-1193C/T) of MTNR1B] using direct sequencing in 289 schizophrenia patients and 505 control subjects. We found that rs2119882 of MTNR1A was associated with schizophrenia in recessive model [CC vs. TT/TC, p = 0.013, odds ratio (OR) = 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.12-2.55]. Interestingly, in an analysis of clinical phenotypes, we found that rs2119882 of MTNR1A was also associated with insomnia symptoms of schizophrenia (recessive model, p = 0.010, OR = 2.24, 95% CI = 1.21-4.14), but not with hypersomnia symptoms as determined using the Operational Criteria checklist. However, rs4753426 of MTNR1B was not associated with either schizophrenia or clinical phenotypes. Our results suggest that MTNR1A may be a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia and may be associated with insomnia symptoms exhibited in schizophrenia patients.

  4. miR-150 promotes human breast cancer growth and malignant behavior by targeting the pro-apoptotic purinergic P2X7 receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songyin Huang

    Full Text Available The P2X7 receptor regulates cell growth through mediation of apoptosis. Low level expression of P2X7 has been linked to cancer development because tumor cells harboring a defective P2X7 mechanism can escape P2X7 pro-apoptotic control. microRNAs (miRNAs function as negative regulators of post-transcriptional gene expression, playing major roles in cellular differentiation, proliferation, and metastasis. In this study, we found that miR-150 was over-expressed in breast cancer cell lines and tissues. In these breast cancer cell lines, blocking the action of miR-150 with inhibitors leads to cell death, while ectopic expression of the miR-150 results in increased cell proliferation. We deploy a microRNA sponge strategy to inhibit miR-150 in vitro, and the result demonstrates that the 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR of P2X7 receptor contains a highly conserved miR-150-binding motif and its direct interaction with miR-150 down-regulates endogenous P2X7 protein levels. Furthermore, our findings demonstrate that miR-150 over-expression promotes growth, clonogenicity and reduces apoptosis in breast cancer cells. Meanwhile, these findings can be decapitated in nude mice with breast cancer xenografts. Finally, these observations strengthen our working hypothesis that up-regulation of miR-150 in breast cancer is inversely associated with P2X7 receptor expression level. Together, these findings establish miR-150 as a novel regulator of P2X7 and a potential therapeutic target for breast cancer.

  5. Potential effectiveness of strategies to promote oral health in primary health care: comparative study among Brazilian capitals and regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Antonio Dercy; Moysés, Samuel Jorge; Kusma, Solena Ziemer; Moysés, Simone Tetu

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the potential effectiveness of strategies of Oral Health Promotion (OHP), which are carried out by teams in primary health care (PHC) in Brazilian capitals and regions. A sample of 1,848 dentists were interviewed (1,819 valid responses) working in the PHC of 26 capitals and the Federal District. The Effectiveness of the Assessment Tool for the Promotion of Oral Health Strategies was used. It is composed of 23 indicators grouped into three dimensions: oral health, health public policies, and human and social development. The answers were arranged in a Likert scale (1-5), and the final score obtained for each sample unit can range from 23 to 115. Higher score values indicate greater potential for the strategy to promote oral health. Statistically significant differences were identified among the analyzed geopopulation units considering the study object. The Southeast and South regions had better performance for the OHP strategies in comparison to the other regions of Brazil (p ≤ 0.01). The OHP strategies identified in the study were heterogeneous, with better results favoring the Southeast regions, with disadvantages for people living in capitals from the Central-North-Northeast of Brazil. Efforts should be undertaken aiming to qualify the PHC teams, especially for those in disadvantageous regions. Therefore, an alignment of PSB strategies to the principles and values of health promotion is required, addressed to the social health determinants (SHDs) and in order to fight the inequalities in oral health.

  6. TGF-α/HA complex promotes tympanic membrane keratinocyte migration and proliferation via ErbB1 receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei Teh, Bing, E-mail: bing.teh@earscience.org.au [Ear Sciences Centre, School of Surgery, The University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA (Australia); Ear Science Institute Australia, Subiaco, WA (Australia); Department of Otolaryngology, Head, Neck and Skull Base Surgery, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, WA (Australia); Redmond, Sharon L. [Ear Sciences Centre, School of Surgery, The University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA (Australia); Ear Science Institute Australia, Subiaco, WA (Australia); Shen, Yi [Ear Sciences Centre, School of Surgery, The University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA (Australia); Ear Science Institute Australia, Subiaco, WA (Australia); Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck, Ningbo Lihuili Hospital (Ningbo Medical Centre), Ningbo, Zhejiang (China); Atlas, Marcus D. [Ear Sciences Centre, School of Surgery, The University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA (Australia); Ear Science Institute Australia, Subiaco, WA (Australia); Department of Otolaryngology, Head, Neck and Skull Base Surgery, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, WA (Australia); Marano, Robert J.; Dilley, Rodney J. [Ear Sciences Centre, School of Surgery, The University of Western Australia, Nedlands, WA (Australia); Ear Science Institute Australia, Subiaco, WA (Australia)

    2013-04-01

    Tympanic membrane perforations are common and represent a management challenge to clinicians. Current treatments for chronic perforations involve a graft surgery and require general anaesthesia, including associated costs and morbidities. Bioactive molecules (e.g. growth factors, cytokines) play an important role in promoting TM wound healing following perforation and the use of growth factors as a topical treatment for tympanic membrane perforations has been suggested as an alternative to surgery. However, the choice of bioactive molecules best suited to promote wound healing has yet to be identified. We investigated the effects of hyaluronic acid, vitronectin, TGF-α, IL-24 and their combinations on migration, proliferation and adhesion of cultured human tympanic membrane-derived keratinocytes (hTM), in addition to their possible mechanisms of action. We found that TGF-α, TGF-α/HA and TGF-α/IL-24 promoted wound healing by significantly increasing both migration and proliferation. TGF-α and/or HA treated cells showed comparable cell–cell adhesion whilst maintaining an epithelial cell phenotype. With the use of receptor binding inhibitors for ErbB1 (AG1478) and CD44 (BRIC235), we revealed that the activation of ErbB1 is required for TGF-α/HA-mediated migration and proliferation. These results suggest factors that may be incorporated into a tissue-engineered membrane or directly as topical treatment for tympanic membrane perforations and hence reduce the need for a surgery. - Highlights: ► TGF-α, TGF-α/HA and TGF-α/IL-24 improved hTM keratinocyte migration and proliferation. ► TGF-α and/or HA maintained epithelial cell phenotype. ► TGF-α/HA-mediated migration and proliferation requires activation of ErbB1 receptor.

  7. Suicide, stress and serotonin receptor 1A promoter polymorphism -1019C>G in Slovenian suicide victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videtic, Alja; Zupanc, Tomaz; Pregelj, Peter; Balazic, Joze; Tomori, Martina; Komel, Radovan

    2009-06-01

    Implication of serotonergic system in suicide and suicide attempts has been discussed for several years. One of the most abundant serotonin receptors in the mammalian brain is the receptor 1A (5-HT1A); studies of its polymorphisms and suicide have provided very inconsistent results so far. The suggestion that the G allele depresses HTR1A autoreceptor expression, and therefore reduces serotonergic neurotransmission that might predispose to depression and suicide, made the promoter polymorphism -1019C>G a very promising candidate gene. In our study we analyzed promoter polymorphism -1019C>G on 323 suicide victims and 190 controls (all of Slovenian origin), taking into account sex, suicide method, and in case of suicide victims also stressful life events. Differences in the distributions of genotype and allele frequencies were not statistically significant between suicide victims and control group, and the same was found for distributions according to sex and suicide method. For 62 suicide victims information about stressful life events in the month prior to the suicide and in childhood was provided. For analysis we combined CG/GG genotypes and compared them to the CC genotype. More stressful life events in the month prior to the suicide were reported for the subgroup with CC genotype (mean number of events = 2.53; SD = 1.50) in comparison to subgroup with CG/GG genotypes (mean number of events = 1.58; SD = 1.32; P suicide victims with CC or CG/GG genotypes did not differ regarding numbers of reported stressful life events in childhood (P > 0.05). Our study provides no evidence for the implication of HTR1A promoter polymorphism in suicide in general, but it suggests further studies that would take into account the interconnected network of suicide completion, genetic background and stress, beside other risk factors.

  8. Chemerin, a novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) target gene that promotes mesenchymal stem cell adipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muruganandan, Shanmugam; Parlee, Sebastian D; Rourke, Jillian L; Ernst, Matthew C; Goralski, Kerry B; Sinal, Christopher J

    2011-07-08

    Chemerin is an adipocyte-secreted protein that regulates adipogenesis and the metabolic function of mature adipocytes via activation of chemokine-like receptor 1 (CMKLR1). Herein we report the interaction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and chemerin in the context of adipogenesis. Knockdown of chemerin or CMKLR1 expression or antibody neutralization of secreted chemerin protein arrested adipogenic clonal expansion of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) by inducing a loss of G(2)/M cyclins (cyclin A2/B2) but not the G(1)/S cyclin D2. Forced expression of PPARγ in BMSCs did not completely rescue this loss of clonal expansion and adipogenesis following chemerin or CMKLR1 knockdown. However, forced expression and/or activation of PPARγ in BMSCs as well as non-adipogenic cell types such as NIH-3T3 embryonic fibroblasts and MCA38 colon carcinoma cells significantly induced chemerin expression and secretion. Sequence analysis revealed a putative PPARγ response element (PPRE) sequence within the chemerin promoter. This PPRE was able to confer PPARγ responsiveness on a heterologous promoter, and mutation of this sequence abolished activation of the chemerin promoter by PPARγ. Chromatin immunoprecipitation confirmed the direct association of PPARγ with this PPRE. Treatment of mice with rosiglitazone elevated chemerin mRNA levels in adipose tissue and bone marrow coincident with an increase in circulating chemerin levels. Together, these findings support a fundamental role for chemerin/CMKLR1 signaling in clonal expansion during adipocyte differentiation as well as a role for PPARγ in regulating chemerin expression.

  9. Oxidative stress and inflammation modulate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors with regional discrepancy in diabetic heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ting-I; Kao, Yu-Hsun; Chen, Yao-Chang; Pan, Nan-Hung; Chen, Yi-Jen

    2010-08-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) play a pivotal role in myocardial lipid and glucose homeostasis. We investigated the effects of diabetes on PPAR isoforms in different cardiac regions and explored whether proinflammatory cytokines or oxidative stress modulate PPARs in diabetic hearts. Male Wistar rats were separated into control, diabetes and ascorbate-treated diabetes groups. Real-time PCR and Western blot analysis were performed on PPAR isoforms, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-6, from left and right atria and ventricles. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate [NAD(P)H] oxidase activity was quantified through photometric measurements. In control hearts, PPAR-alpha was most expressed, and PPAR-gamma least expressed in mRNA and protein levels. Diabetes decreased the protein and mRNA levels of PPAR-alpha and PPAR-delta. Ascorbate attenuated the diabetes-induced down-regulations of PPAR-alpha and PPAR-delta proteins in all cardiac regions and down-regulation of PPAR-alpha mRNA in the left atrium. In PPAR-gamma, the protein and mRNA levels were increased in diabetic atria and ventricles, which were decreased by ascorbate. Moreover, diabetes increased the TNF-alpha and IL-6 protein levels, and NAD(P)H oxidase activities in atria and ventricles. Ascorbate attenuated the increase of TNF-alpha, IL-6 protein levels and NAD(P)H oxidase activity in the atria, but only attenuated the increase of NAD(P)H oxidase activities in the ventricles. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor isoforms are differentially expressed in the atria and ventricles. Diabetes can modulate PPARs through increased inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress, which are attenuated by ascorbate treatment.

  10. “Fear or Love Thy Neighbour”? The EU Framework for Promoting Regional Cooperation in the South Caucasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelli Babayan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Building on the model of the enlargement policy, the European Union (EU designed the European Neighbourhood Policy and the Eastern Partnership to further promote its norms and principles. One of the goals of its new policies has been to foster regional cooperation among partner countries and their neighbours. This article specifies the EU’s framework for promoting regional cooperation through the aforementioned policies and discusses its potential impact on the example of the South Caucasus republics of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia. The South Caucasus has not only been an arena of intraregional conflicts, but has also often been troubled by disputes between its neighbours. This article argues that, due to a lack of proactive and consistent engagement, the EU’s framework risks leaving regional conflicts in the current state of stagnation and without advancement in regional cooperation.

  11. Regional Differences in Correlates of Daily Walking among Middle Age and Older Australian Rural Adults: Implications for Health Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Dollman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rural Australians are less physically active than their metropolitan counterparts, and yet very little is known of the candidate intervention targets for promoting physical activity in rural populations. As rural regions are economically, socially and environmentally diverse, drivers of regular physical activity are likely to vary between regions. This study explored the region-specific correlates of daily walking among middle age and older adults in rural regions with contrasting dominant primary industries. Participants were recruited through print and electronic media, primary care settings and community organisations. Pedometers were worn by 153 adults for at least four days, including a weekend day. A questionnaire identified potential intra-personal, social and environmental correlates of physical activity, according to a social ecological framework. Regression modelling identified independent correlates of daily walking separately in the two study regions. In one region, there were independent correlates of walking from all levels of the social ecological framework. In the other region, significant correlates of daily walking were almost all demographic (age, education and marital status. Participants living alone were less likely to be physically active regardless of region. This study highlights the importance of considering region-specific factors when designing strategies for promoting regular walking among rural adults.

  12. Regional Differences in Correlates of Daily Walking among Middle Age and Older Australian Rural Adults: Implications for Health Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollman, James; Hull, Melissa; Lewis, Nicole; Carroll, Suzanne; Zarnowiecki, Dorota

    2016-01-08

    Rural Australians are less physically active than their metropolitan counterparts, and yet very little is known of the candidate intervention targets for promoting physical activity in rural populations. As rural regions are economically, socially and environmentally diverse, drivers of regular physical activity are likely to vary between regions. This study explored the region-specific correlates of daily walking among middle age and older adults in rural regions with contrasting dominant primary industries. Participants were recruited through print and electronic media, primary care settings and community organisations. Pedometers were worn by 153 adults for at least four days, including a weekend day. A questionnaire identified potential intra-personal, social and environmental correlates of physical activity, according to a social ecological framework. Regression modelling identified independent correlates of daily walking separately in the two study regions. In one region, there were independent correlates of walking from all levels of the social ecological framework. In the other region, significant correlates of daily walking were almost all demographic (age, education and marital status). Participants living alone were less likely to be physically active regardless of region. This study highlights the importance of considering region-specific factors when designing strategies for promoting regular walking among rural adults.

  13. A new agonist of the erythropoietin receptor, Epobis, induces neurite outgrowth and promotes neuronal survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pankratova, Stanislava; Gu, Bing; Kiryushko, Darya

    2012-01-01

    study shows that the Epobis peptide specifically binds to EPOR and induces neurite outgrowth from primary neurons in an EPOR-expression dependent manner. Furthermore, Epobis promoted the survival of hippocampal and cerebellar neuronal cultures after kainate treatment and KCl deprivation, respectively...

  14. Deletional analysis of functional regions of complementary sense promoter from cotton leaf curl virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Complementary sense promoter from cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) is a novel plant promoter for genetic engineering that could drive high-level foreign gene expression in plant. To determine the optimal promoter sequence for gene expression, CLCuV promoter was deleted from its 5' end to form promoter fragments with five different lengths, and chimeric gus genes were constructed using the promoter deletion. These vectors were delivered into Agrobacterium and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Xanthi) plants which were transformed by leaf discs method. GUS activity of transgenic plants was measured. The results showed that GUS activities with the promoter deleted to -287 and -271 from the translation initiation site were respectively about five and three times that of full-length promoter. There exists a cis-element which is important for the expressing activity in phloem from -271 to -176. Deletion from -176 to -141 resulted in a 20-30-fold reduction in GUS activity in leaves with weak activity in leaves and stems and losing GUS activity in roots. The functional domains of complementary sense gene promoter of CLCuV were firstly analyzed and compared. It was found that the promoter activity with the deletion of negative cis-elements was much stronger than that of full-length promoter and was about twelve times on average that of CaMV 35S promoter, suggesting that the promoter has great application potential. Results also provide novel clues for understanding the mechanisms of geminivirus gene regulation and interaction between virus and plant.

  15. Hepatic global DNA and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha promoter methylation are altered in peripartal dairy cows fed rumen-protected methionine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, J S; Jacometo, C B; Zhou, Z; Luchini, D; Cardoso, F C; Loor, J J

    2016-01-01

    The availability of Met in metabolizable protein (MP) of a wide range of diets for dairy cows is low. During late pregnancy and early lactation, in particular, suboptimal Met in MP limits its use for mammary and liver metabolism and also for the synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine, which is essential for many biological processes, including DNA methylation. The latter is an epigenetic modification involved in the regulation of gene expression, hence, tissue function. Thirty-nine Holstein cows were fed throughout the peripartal period (-21 d to 30 d in milk) a basal control (CON) diet (n=14) with no Met supplementation, CON plus MetaSmart (MS; Adisseo NA, Alpharetta, GA; n=12), or CON plus Smartamine M (SM; Adisseo NA; n=13). The total mixed ration dry matter for the close-up and lactation diets was measured weekly, then the Met supplements were adjusted daily and top-dressed over the total mixed ration at a rate of 0.19 (MS) or 0.07% (SM) on a dry matter basis. Liver tissue was collected on -10, 7, and 21 d for global DNA and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) promoter region-specific methylation. Several PPARα target and putative target genes associated with carnitine synthesis and uptake, fatty acid metabolism, hepatokines, and carbohydrate metabolism were also studied. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) with the preplanned contrast CON versus SM + MS. Global hepatic DNA methylation on d 21 postpartum was lower in Met-supplemented cows than CON. However, of 2 primers used encompassing 4 to 12 CpG sites in the promoter region of bovine PPARA, greater methylation occurred in the region encompassing -1,538 to -1,418 from the transcription start site in cows supplemented with Met. Overall expression of PPARA was greater in Met-supplemented cows than CON. Concomitantly, PPARA-target genes, such as ANGPTL4, FGF21, and PCK1, were also upregulated overall by Met supplementation. The upregulation of PPAR

  16. A Proximal Promoter Region of Arabidopsis DREB2C Confers Tissue-specific Expression under Heat Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huan Chen; Jihyun Je; Chieun Song; Jung Eun Hwang; Chae Oh Lim

    2012-01-01

    The dehydration-responsive element-binding factor 2C (DREB2C) is a member of the CBF/DREB subfamily of proteins,which contains a single APETALA2/Ethylene responsive element-binding factor (AP2/ERF)domain.To identify the expression pattern of the DREB2C gene,which contains multiple transcription cis-regulatory elements in its promoter,an approximately 1.4 kb upstream DREB2C sequence was fused to the β-glucuronidase reporter gene (GUS) and the recombinant p1244 construct was transformed into Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.The promoter of the gene directed prominent GUS activity in the vasculature in diverse young dividing tissues.Upon applying heat stress (HS),GUS staining was also enhanced in the vasculature of the growing tissues.Analysis of a series of 5'-deletions of the DREB2C promoter revealed that a proximal upstream sequence sufficient for the tissue-specific spatial and temporal induction of GUS expression by HS is localized in the promoter region between -204 and -34 bps relative to the transcriptional start site.Furthermore,electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) demonstrated that nuclear protein binding activities specific to a -120 to -32 bp promoter fragment increased after HS.These results indicate that the TATA-proximal region and some latent trans-acting factors may cooperate in HS-induced activation of the Arabidopsis DREB2C promoter.

  17. Activation of the HSV-TK promoter in control reporter vector pBLCAT5 by liganded nuclear retinoid receptor RXRα

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikčević Gordana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Widely used reporter vector systems for studying the putative regulatory DNA elements usually contain basal promoters from pathogenic mammalian viruses. It is a common assumption that reliable results can be achieved only if the viral promoter activity is unaffected by transacting factors or any experimental treatment. Here we report that liganded nuclear retinoid receptor RXRa stimulates the HSV-TK promoter in control reporter vector pBLCAT5. Thus, TK driven reporter vectors should be employed only after thorough testing of the regulation of this promoter under experimental stimuli for a particular research purpose in order to avoid unreliable interpretation of the assay results.

  18. Promoted neuronal differentiation after activation of alpha4/beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in undifferentiated neural progenitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Takarada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neural progenitor is a generic term used for undifferentiated cell populations of neural stem, neuronal progenitor and glial progenitor cells with abilities for proliferation and differentiation. We have shown functional expression of ionotropic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA and gamma-aminobutyrate type-A receptors endowed to positively and negatively regulate subsequent neuronal differentiation in undifferentiated neural progenitors, respectively. In this study, we attempted to evaluate the possible functional expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR by undifferentiated neural progenitors prepared from neocortex of embryonic rodent brains. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed mRNA expression of particular nAChR subunits in undifferentiated rat and mouse progenitors prepared before and after the culture with epidermal growth factor under floating conditions. Sustained exposure to nicotine significantly inhibited the formation of neurospheres composed of clustered proliferating cells and 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide reduction activity at a concentration range of 1 µM to 1 mM without affecting cell survival. In these rodent progenitors previously exposed to nicotine, marked promotion was invariably seen for subsequent differentiation into cells immunoreactive for a neuronal marker protein following the culture of dispersed cells under adherent conditions. Both effects of nicotine were significantly prevented by the heteromeric α4β2 nAChR subtype antagonists dihydro-β-erythroidine and 4-(5-ethoxy-3-pyridinyl-N-methyl-(3E-3-buten-1-amine, but not by the homomeric α7 nAChR subtype antagonist methyllycaconitine, in murine progenitors. Sustained exposure to nicotine preferentially increased the expression of Math1 among different basic helix-loop-helix proneural genes examined. In undifferentiated progenitors from embryonic mice

  19. Gene Expression in Archaea: Studies of Transcriptional Promoters, Messenger RNA Processing, and Five Prime Untranslated Regions in "Methanocaldococcus Jannashchii"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian

    2009-01-01

    Gene expression in Archaea is less understood than those in Bacteria and Eucarya. In general, three steps are involved in gene expression--transcription, RNA processing, and translation. To expand our knowledge of these processes in Archaea, I have studied transcriptional promoters, messenger RNA processing, and 5'-untranslated regions in…

  20. Gene Expression in Archaea: Studies of Transcriptional Promoters, Messenger RNA Processing, and Five Prime Untranslated Regions in "Methanocaldococcus Jannashchii"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian

    2009-01-01

    Gene expression in Archaea is less understood than those in Bacteria and Eucarya. In general, three steps are involved in gene expression--transcription, RNA processing, and translation. To expand our knowledge of these processes in Archaea, I have studied transcriptional promoters, messenger RNA processing, and 5'-untranslated regions in…

  1. TdaA Regulates Tropodithietic Acid Synthesis by Binding to the tdaC Promoter Region ▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Geng, Haifeng; Belas, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Silicibacter sp. TM1040, a member of the marine Roseobacter clade, produces the antibiotic and quorum signaling molecule tropodithietic acid (TDA), encoded by tdaABCDEF. Here, we showed that an LysR-type transcriptional regulator, TdaA, is a positive regulator of tdaCDE gene expression and binds to the tdaC promoter region.

  2. LINGO-1 receptor promotes neuronal apoptosis by inhibiting WNK3 kinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaohuan; Xu, Xiaohui; Xiang, Zhenghua; Yu, Zhongwang; Feng, Jifeng; He, Cheng

    2013-04-26

    LINGO-1 is a functional component of the Nogo receptor 1 · p75(NTR) · LINGO-1 and Nogo receptor 1 · TAJ (TNFRSF19/TROY)·LINGO-1 signaling complexes. It has recently been shown that LINGO-1 antagonists significantly improve neuronal survival after neural injury. However, the mechanism by which LINGO-1 signaling influences susceptibility to apoptosis remains unknown. In an effort to better understand how LINGO-1 regulates these signaling pathways, we used an established model of serum deprivation (SD) to induce neuronal apoptosis. We demonstrate that treatment either with a construct containing the intracellular domain of LINGO-1 or with Nogo66, a LINGO-1 receptor complex agonist, resulted in an enhanced rate of apoptosis in primary cultured cortical neurons under SD. Reducing the expression levels of the serine/threonine kinase WNK3 using shRNA or inhibiting its kinase activity had similar effects on the survival of serum-deprived neurons. Consistent with these observations, we found that LINGO-1 and WNK3 co-localized and co-precipitated in cultured cortical neurons and brain tissue. Significantly, this co-association was enhanced by Nogo66 treatment. Binding of WNK3 to the intracellular domain of LINGO-1 led to a reduction in WNK3 kinase activity, as did Nogo66 stimulation. Moreover, in vitro and in vivo evidence indicates that endogenous WNK3 suppresses SD-induced neuronal apoptosis in a kinase-dependent manner, as the expression of either a WNK3 RNAi construct or a kinase-dead N-terminal fragment of WNK3 led to increased apoptosis. Taken together, our results show that LINGO-1 potentiates neuronal apoptosis, likely by inhibiting WNK3 kinase activity.

  3. Alternate estrogen receptors promote invasion of inflammatory breast cancer cells via non-genomic signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazufumi Ohshiro

    Full Text Available Although Inflammatory Breast Cancer (IBC is a rare and an aggressive type of locally advanced breast cancer with a generally worst prognosis, little work has been done in identifying the status of non-genomic signaling in the invasiveness of IBC. The present study was performed to explore the status of non-genomic signaling as affected by various estrogenic and anti-estrogenic agents in IBC cell lines SUM149 and SUM190. We have identified the presence of estrogen receptor α (ERα variant, ERα36 in SUM149 and SUM190 cells. This variant as well as ERβ was present in a substantial concentration in IBC cells. The treatment with estradiol (E2, anti-estrogenic agents 4-hydroxytamoxifen and ICI 182780, ERβ specific ligand DPN and GPR30 agonist G1 led to a rapid activation of p-ERK1/2, suggesting the involvement of ERα36, ERβ and GPR30 in the non-genomic signaling pathway in these cells. We also found a substantial increase in the cell migration and invasiveness of SUM149 cells upon the treatment with these ligands. Both basal and ligand-induced migration and invasiveness of SUM149 cells were drastically reduced in the presence of MEK inhibitor U0126, implicating that the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 by MEK is involved in the observed motility and invasiveness of IBC cells. We also provide evidence for the upregulation of p-ERK1/2 through immunostaining in IBC patient samples. These findings suggest a role of non-genomic signaling through the activation of p-ERK1/2 in the hormonal dependence of IBC by a combination of estrogen receptors. These findings only explain the failure of traditional anti-estrogen therapies in ER-positive IBC which induces the non-genomic signaling, but also opens newer avenues for design of modified therapies targeting these estrogen receptors.

  4. P2Y6 Receptor Activation Promotes Inflammation and Tissue Remodeling in Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Müller

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is a disease with a poor prognosis and very few available treatment options. The involvement of the purinergic receptor subtypes P2Y2 and P2X7 in fibrotic lung disease has been demonstrated recently. In this study, we investigated the role of P2Y6 receptors in the pathogenesis of IPF in humans and in the animal model of bleomycin-induced lung injury. P2Y6R expression was upregulated in lung structural cells but not in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL cells derived from IPF patients as well as in animals following bleomycin administration. Furthermore, BAL fluid levels of the P2Y6R agonist uridine-5′-diphosphate were elevated in animals with bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Inflammation and fibrosis following bleomycin administration were reduced in P2Y6R-deficient compared to wild-type animals confirming the pathophysiological relevance of P2Y6R subtypes for fibrotic lung diseases. Experiments with bone marrow chimeras revealed the importance of P2Y6R expression on lung structural cells for pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis. Similar effects were obtained when animals were treated with the P2Y6R antagonist MRS2578. In vitro studies demonstrated that proliferation and secretion of the pro-inflammatory/pro-fibrotic cytokine IL-6 by lung fibroblasts are P2Y6R-mediated processes. In summary, our results clearly demonstrate the involvement of P2Y6R subtypes in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. Thus, blocking pulmonary P2Y6 receptors might be a new target for the treatment of IPF.

  5. Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms, dietary promotion of insulin resistance, and colon and rectal cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Murtaugh, Maureen A.; Sweeney, Carol; Ma, Khe-ni; Potter, John D.; Caan, Bette J.; Wolff, Roger K.; Slattery, Martha L

    2006-01-01

    Biomarkers of individual susceptibility: field studies. Biomarker: vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms Effect studied: colon and rectal cancer risk. Tissue/biological material/sample size: colon, rectum. Method of analysis: genotyping of the VDR gene Study design: case-control studyStudy size: colon cancer (1,698 cases and 1,861 controls); rectal cancer (752 cases and 960 controls) Impact on outcome (including dose-response): The lowest colon cancer risk was observed with the Ff/ff Fo...

  6. Public Health and Health Promotion Capacity at National and Regional Level: A Review of Conceptual Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluttis, Christoph; den Broucke, Stephan Van; Chiotan, Cristina; Costongs, Caroline; Michelsen, Kai; Brand, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    The concept of capacity building for public health has gained much attention during the last decade. National as well as international organizations increasingly focus their efforts on capacity building to improve performance in the health sector. During the past two decades, a variety of conceptual frameworks have been developed which describe relevant dimensions for public health capacity. Notably, these frameworks differ in design and conceptualization. This paper therefore reviews the existing conceptual frameworks and integrates them into one framework, which contains the most relevant dimensions for public health capacity at the country- or regional level. A comprehensive literature search was performed to identify frameworks addressing public health capacity building at the national or regional level. We content-analysed these frameworks to identify the core dimensions of public health capacity. The dimensions were subsequently synthesized into a set of thematic areas to construct a conceptual framework which describes the most relevant dimensions for capacities at the national- or regional level. The systematic review resulted in the identification of seven core domains for public health capacity: resources, organizational structures, workforce, partnerships, leadership and governance, knowledge development and country specific context. Accordingly, these dimensions were used to construct a framework, which describes these core domains more in detail. Our research shows that although there is no generally agreedupon model of public health capacity, a number of key domains for public health and health promotion capacity are consistently recurring in existing frameworks, regardless of their geographical location or thematic area. As only little work on the core concepts of public health capacities has yet taken place, this study adds value to the discourse by identifying these consistencies across existing frameworks and by synthesising them into a new

  7. Public health and health promotion capacity at national and regional level: a review of conceptual frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluttis, Christoph; den Broucke, Stephan Van; Chiotan, Cristina; Costongs, Caroline; Michelsen, Kai; Brand, Helmut

    2014-03-26

    The concept of capacity building for public health has gained much attention during the last decade. National as well as international organizations increasingly focus their efforts on capacity building to improve performance in the health sector. During the past two decades, a variety of conceptual frameworks have been developed which describe relevant dimensions for public health capacity. Notably, these frameworks differ in design and conceptualization. This paper therefore reviews the existing conceptual frameworks and integrates them into one framework, which contains the most relevant dimensions for public health capacity at the country- or regional level. A comprehensive literature search was performed to identify frameworks addressing public health capacity building at the national or regional level. We content-analysed these frameworks to identify the core dimensions of public health capacity. The dimensions were subsequently synthesized into a set of thematic areas to construct a conceptual framework which describes the most relevant dimensions for capacities at the national- or regional level. The systematic review resulted in the identification of seven core domains for public health capacity: resources, organizational structures, workforce, partnerships, leadership and governance, knowledge development and country specific context. Accordingly, these dimensions were used to construct a framework, which describes these core domains more in detail. Our research shows that although there is no generally agreedupon model of public health capacity, a number of key domains for public health and health promotion capacity are consistently recurring in existing frameworks, regardless of their geographical location or thematic area. As only little work on the core concepts of public health capacities has yet taken place, this study adds value to the discourse by identifying these consistencies across existing frameworks and by synthesising them into a new

  8. Interleukin 10.G microsatellite in the promoter region of the interleukin-10 gene in severe sepsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Background The highly polymorphic interleukin 10.G (IL10.G) microsatellite located in the promoter region of the interleukin-10 (IL-10) gene exerts a positive transcriptional regulatory effect on IL-10 gene expression and correlates with the in vitro IL-10 secretion. This study was conducted to investigate whether IL10.G microsatellite is associated with the incidence and /or the outcome of severe sepsis.Methods One hundred and fifteen patients with severe sepsis who had been treated at the intensive care unit of the university hospital were studied. One hundred and forty-one healthy individuals served as controls. IL10.G microsatellite genotyping was performed with the following two methods: fluorescent based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques and silver staining of the amplified DNA fragment in polyacrylamide gel. Alleles were defined according to the size of the amplified DNA product.Results Ten alleles and 36 genotypes were detected both in the patients with severe sepsis and in the healthy controls. Allele IL10.G9 and allele IL10.G13 were the commonest alleles with the frequencies of 32.6% and 21.3% respectively in the patients with severe sepsis, and 34% and 27% respectively in the healthy controls. The allele frequencies of IL10.G microsatellite were neither different between the patients with severe sepsis and the healthy controls (P > 0.05), nor between survivors and non-survivors (P > 0.05). However, the frequency of one common allele IL10.G13 was slightly lower in the patients with severe sepsis than in the healthy controls (21.3% vs 27%, P > 0.05), and the frequency of allele IL10.G9 was slightly higher in the non-survivors than in the survivors (37.1% vs 28.1%, P > 0.05).Conclusion IL10.G microsatellite may neither contribute to the susceptibility to severe sepsis nor to the fatal outcome of severe sepsis.

  9. Expression pattern and core region analysis of AtMPK3 promoter in response to environmental stresses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The protein kinase AtMPK3,a component of the MAP kinase cascade,plays an important role in stress signal transduction in plant cells. To clarify how AtMPK3 is regulated at the transcriptional level in response to various environmental factors, the 1016-bp promoter sequence upstream of the transcription start site of the AtMPK3 gene was isolated. Analyses of the promoter sequence using plant promoter databases revealed that the AtMPK3 promoter contains many potential cis-acting elements involved in environmental stress responses. We constructed four deletion mutants of the AtMPK3 promoter, and introduced the intact and truncated promoter sequences fused to the β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene into Arabidopsis. GUS histochemical staining and quantitative fluorometric GUS assays were performed to visualize and compare the expression patterns in response to different environmental stimuli. The region between-188 and-62 upstream of the transcription start site was identified as the essential DNA sequence of the AtMPK3 promoter for responses to drought, high salinity, low temperature, and wounding. These results advance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling AtMPK3 expression in response to different environmental stimuli.

  10. Amygdala kindling increases fear responses and decreases glucocorticoid receptor mRNA expression in hippocampal regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalynchuk, Lisa E; Meaney, Michael J

    2003-12-01

    Amygdala kindling dramatically increases fearful behavior in rats. Because kindling-induced fear increases in magnitude as rats receive more stimulations, kindling provides an excellent model for studying the nature and neural mechanisms of fear sensitization. In the present experiment, we studied whether the development of kindling-induced fear is related to changes in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mRNA expression in various brain regions. Rats received 20, 60 or 100 amygdala kindling stimulations or 100 sham stimulations. One day after the final stimulation, their fearful behavior was assessed in an unfamiliar open field. Then, the rats were sacrificed and their brains were processed for in situ hybridization of GR mRNA expression. We found that compared with the sham-stimulated rats, the rats that received 60 or 100 kindling stimulations were significantly more fearful in the open field and also had significantly less GR mRNA expression in the dentate gyrus and CA1 subfield of the hippocampus. Importantly, the changes in fearful behavior were significantly correlated with the changes in GR mRNA expression. These results suggest that alterations in GR mRNA expression in hippocampal regions may play a role in the development of kindling-induced fear.

  11. Characterization of nuclear localization signals and cytoplasmic retention region in the nuclear receptor CAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Yuichiro; Suzuki, Motoyoshi; Nakahama, Takayuki; Inouye, Yoshio

    2005-09-10

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) is a ligand/activator-dependent transactivation factor that resides in the cytoplasm and forms part of an as yet unidentified protein complex. Upon stimulation, CAR translocates into the nucleus where it modulates the transactivation of target genes. However, CAR exogenously expressed in rat liver RL-34 cells is located in the nucleus even in the absence of activators. By transiently transfecting RL-34 cells with various mutated rat CAR segments, we identified two nuclear localization signals: a basic amino acid-rich sequence (RRARQARRR) between amino acids 100 and 108; and an assembly of noncontiguous residues widely spread over amino acid residues 111 to 320 within the ligand binding domain. A C-terminal leucine-rich segment corresponding to a previously reported murine xenochemical response signal was not found to exhibit nuclear import activity in cultured cells. Using rat primary hepatocytes transfected with various CAR segments, we identified the region required for the cytoplasmic retention of CAR. Based on these results, the intracellular localization of CAR would be determined by the combined effects of nuclear localization signals, the xenochemical response signal, and the cytoplasmic retention region.

  12. The EGF Receptor Promotes the Malignant Potential of Glioma by Regulating Amino Acid Transport System xc(-).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchihashi, Kenji; Okazaki, Shogo; Ohmura, Mitsuyo; Ishikawa, Miyuki; Sampetrean, Oltea; Onishi, Nobuyuki; Wakimoto, Hiroaki; Yoshikawa, Momoko; Seishima, Ryo; Iwasaki, Yoshimi; Morikawa, Takayuki; Abe, Shinya; Takao, Ayumi; Shimizu, Misato; Masuko, Takashi; Nagane, Motoo; Furnari, Frank B; Akiyama, Tetsu; Suematsu, Makoto; Baba, Eishi; Akashi, Koichi; Saya, Hideyuki; Nagano, Osamu

    2016-05-15

    Extracellular free amino acids contribute to the interaction between a tumor and its microenvironment through effects on cellular metabolism and malignant behavior. System xc(-) is composed of xCT and CD98hc subunits and functions as a plasma membrane antiporter for the uptake of extracellular cystine in exchange for intracellular glutamate. Here, we show that the EGFR interacts with xCT and thereby promotes its cell surface expression and function in human glioma cells. EGFR-expressing glioma cells manifested both enhanced antioxidant capacity as a result of increased cystine uptake, as well as increased glutamate, which promotes matrix invasion. Imaging mass spectrometry also revealed that brain tumors formed in mice by human glioma cells stably overexpressing EGFR contained higher levels of reduced glutathione compared with those formed by parental cells. Targeted inhibition of xCT suppressed the EGFR-dependent enhancement of antioxidant capacity in glioma cells, as well as tumor growth and invasiveness. Our findings establish a new functional role for EGFR in promoting the malignant potential of glioma cells through interaction with xCT at the cell surface. Cancer Res; 76(10); 2954-63. ©2016 AACR.

  13. PICK1 promotes caveolin-dependent degradation of TGF-β typeⅠreceptor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing Zhao; Qiang Wang; Jun Du; Shiwen Luo; Jun Xia; Ye-Guang Chen

    2012-01-01

    Protein that interacts with C kinase 1 (PICK1) is a critical mediator of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) trafficking in neural synapses.However,its ubiquitous expression suggests that it may have other non-neural functions.Here we show that PICK1 antagonizes transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β)signaling by targeting TGF-β type Ⅰ receptor (TβRI) for degradation.Biochemical analyses reveal that PICK1 directly interacts with the C-terminus of TβRI via its PDZ domain and acts as a scaffold protein to enhance the interaction between TβRI and caveolin-1,leading to enhanced lipid raft/caveolae localization.Therefore,PICK1 increases caveolin-mediated endocytosis,ubiquitination and degradation of TβRI.Moreover,a negative correlation between PICK1 expression and TβRI or phospho-Smad2 levels is observed in human breast tumors,indicating that PICK1 may participate in breast cancer development through inhibition of TGF-β signaling.Our findings reveal a non-neural function of PICK1 as an important negative regulator of TGF-β signaling.

  14. Pregnane X-receptor promotes stem cell-mediated colon cancer relapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillet, Fanny; Finetti, Pascal; Bertucci, François; Gironella, Meritxell; Lozano, Juan José; Beucher, Bertrand; Giraud, Julie; Garambois, Véronique; Vincent, Charles; Brown, Daniel; Caillo, Ludovic; Kantar, Jovana; Pelegrin, André; Prudhomme, Michel; Ripoche, Jérémie; Bourgaux, Jean François; Ginestier, Christophe; Castells, Antoni; Hollande, Frédéric; Pannequin, Julie; Pascussi, Jean Marc

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer lethality usually results from post-treatment relapse in the majority of stage II-IV patients, due to the enhanced resistance of Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs). Here, we show that the nuclear receptor Pregnane X Receptor (PXR, NR1I2), behaves as a key driver of CSC-mediated tumor recurrence. First, PXR is specifically expressed in CSCs, where it drives the expression of genes involved in self-renewal and chemoresistance. Clinically, high levels of PXR correlate with poor recurrence-free survival in a cohort of >200 stage II/III colorectal cancer patients treated with chemotherapy, for whom finding biomarkers of treatment outcome is an urgent clinical need. shRNA silencing of PXR increased the chemo-sensitivity of human colon CSCs, reduced their self-renewal and tumor-initiating potential, and drastically delayed tumor recurrence in mice following chemotherapy. This study uncovers PXR as a key factor for CSC self-renewal and chemoresistance and targeting PXR thus represents a promising strategy to minimize colorectal cancer relapse by selectively sensitizing CSCs to chemotherapy. PMID:27448961

  15. Pregnane X-receptor promotes stem cell-mediated colon cancer relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planque, Chris; Rajabi, Fatemeh; Grillet, Fanny; Finetti, Pascal; Bertucci, François; Gironella, Meritxell; Lozano, Juan José; Beucher, Bertrand; Giraud, Julie; Garambois, Véronique; Vincent, Charles; Brown, Daniel; Caillo, Ludovic; Kantar, Jovana; Pelegrin, André; Prudhomme, Michel; Ripoche, Jérémie; Bourgaux, Jean François; Ginestier, Christophe; Castells, Antoni; Hollande, Frédéric; Pannequin, Julie; Pascussi, Jean Marc

    2016-08-30

    Colorectal cancer lethality usually results from post-treatment relapse in the majority of stage II-IV patients, due to the enhanced resistance of Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs). Here, we show that the nuclear receptor Pregnane X Receptor (PXR, NR1I2), behaves as a key driver of CSC-mediated tumor recurrence. First, PXR is specifically expressed in CSCs, where it drives the expression of genes involved in self-renewal and chemoresistance. Clinically, high levels of PXR correlate with poor recurrence-free survival in a cohort of >200 stage II/III colorectal cancer patients treated with chemotherapy, for whom finding biomarkers of treatment outcome is an urgent clinical need. shRNA silencing of PXR increased the chemo-sensitivity of human colon CSCs, reduced their self-renewal and tumor-initiating potential, and drastically delayed tumor recurrence in mice following chemotherapy. This study uncovers PXR as a key factor for CSC self-renewal and chemoresistance and targeting PXR thus represents a promising strategy to minimize colorectal cancer relapse by selectively sensitizing CSCs to chemotherapy.

  16. Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 3 promotes leukocyte rolling by mobilizing endothelial P-selectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaum, Claudia; Bannenberg, Sarah; Keul, Petra; Gräler, Markus H; Gonçalves-de-Albuquerque, Cassiano F; Korhonen, Hanna; von Wnuck Lipinski, Karin; Heusch, Gerd; de Castro Faria Neto, Hugo C; Rohwedder, Ina; Göthert, Joachim R; Prasad, Vysakh Pushpa; Haufe, Günter; Lange-Sperandio, Baerbel; Offermanns, Stefan; Sperandio, Markus; Levkau, Bodo

    2015-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) participates in inflammation; however, its role in leukocyte rolling is still unclear. Here we use intravital microscopy in inflamed mouse cremaster muscle venules and human endothelial cells to show that S1P contributes to P-selectin-dependent leukocyte rolling through endothelial S1P receptor 3 (S1P3) and Gαq, PLCβ and Ca(2+). Intra-arterial S1P administration increases leukocyte rolling, while S1P3 deficiency or inhibition dramatically reduces it. Mast cells involved in triggering rolling also release S1P that mobilizes P-selectin through S1P3. Histamine and epinephrine require S1P3 for full-scale effect accomplishing it by stimulating sphingosine kinase 1 (Sphk1). In a counter-regulatory manner, S1P1 inhibits cAMP-stimulated Sphk1 and blocks rolling as observed in endothelial-specific S1P1(-/-) mice. In agreement with a dominant pro-rolling effect of S1P3, FTY720 inhibits rolling in control and S1P1(-/-) but not in S1P3(-/-) mice. Our findings identify S1P as a direct and indirect contributor to leukocyte rolling and characterize the receptors mediating its action.

  17. Toll-Like Receptor 9 Promotes Cardiac Inflammation and Heart Failure during Polymicrobial Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Lohner

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Aim was to elucidate the role of toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9 in cardiac inflammation and septic heart failure in a murine model of polymicrobial sepsis. Methods. Sepsis was induced via colon ascendens stent peritonitis (CASP in C57BL/6 wild-type (WT and TLR9-deficient (TLR9-D mice. Bacterial load in the peritoneal cavity and cardiac expression of inflammatory mediators were determined at 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 h. Eighteen hours after CASP cardiac function was monitored in vivo. Sarcomere length of isolated cardiomyocytes was measured at 0.5 to 10 Hz after incubation with heat-inactivated bacteria. Results. CASP led to continuous release of bacteria into the peritoneal cavity, an increase of cytokines, and differential regulation of receptors of innate immunity in the heart. Eighteen hours after CASP WT mice developed septic heart failure characterised by reduction of end-systolic pressure, stroke volume, cardiac output, and parameters of contractility. This coincided with reduced cardiomyocyte sarcomere shortening. TLR9 deficiency resulted in significant reduction of cardiac inflammation and a sustained heart function. This was consistent with reduced mortality in TLR9-D compared to WT mice. Conclusions. In polymicrobial sepsis TLR9 signalling is pivotal to cardiac inflammation and septic heart failure.

  18. Differences in signal activation by LH and hCG are mediated by the LH/CG receptor`s extracellular hinge region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eGrzesik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The human lutropin/choriogonadotropin receptor (LHCGR can be activated by binding two slightly different gonadotropic glycoprotein hormones, choriogonadotropin (CG - secreted by the placenta, and lutropin (LH - produced by the pituitary. They induce different signaling profiles at the LHCGR. This cannot be explained by binding to the receptor's leucine-rich repeat domain (LRRD, as this binding is similar for the two hormones. We therefore speculate that there are previously unknown differences in the hormone/receptor interaction at the extracellular hinge region, which might help to understand functional differences between the two hormones. We have therefore performed a detailed study of the binding and action of LH and CG at the LHCGR hinge region. We focused on a primate-specific additional exon in the hinge region, which is located between LRRD and the serpentine domain. The segment of the hinge region encoded by exon10 was previously reported to be only relevant to hLH signaling, as the exon10-deletion receptor exhibits decreased hLH signaling, but unchanged hCG signaling. We designed an advanced homology model of the hormone/LHCGR complex, followed by experimental characterization of relevant fragments in the hinge region. In addition, we examined predictions of a helical exon10-encoded conformation by block-wise polyalanine (helix supporting mutations. These helix preserving modifications showed no effect on hormone induced signaling. However, introduction of a structure-disturbing double-proline mutant LHCGR-Q303P/E305P within the exon10-helix has, in contrast to exon10 deletion, no impact on hLH, but only on hCG signaling. This opposite effect on signaling by hLH and hCG can be explained by distinct sites of hormone interaction in the hinge region s. In conclusion, our analysis provides details of the differences between hLH- and hCG-induced signaling that are mainly determined in the L2-beta loop of the hormones and in the hinge region

  19. Construction of chimeric antibodies: cloning of immunoglobulin genes including their promoter regions by PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocikat, R; Kütemeier, G; Harloff, C

    1992-03-01

    In the production of recombinant antibodies, it is necessary to have an immunoglobulin gene promoter for driving the expression of the antibody genes. Here we describe a simple PCR method that allows cloning of the immunoglobulin genes together with their own promoters despite the fact that the sequence of the upstream part of the gene is unknown.

  20. Tumor-promoting macrophages induce the expression of the macrophage-specific receptor CD163 in malignant cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maniecki, Maciej Bogdan; Etzerodt, Anders; Ulhøi, Benedicte Parm

    2012-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) represent a distinct malignancy-promoting phenotype suggested to play a key role in tumor formation and metastasis. We aimed to investigate the expression of the monocyte/macrophage-restricted receptor CD163 in bladder tumor biopsies and assess the potential...... mechanism inducing the CD163 expression in tumor cells. A high CD163 mRNA expression (n = 87) was significantly associated with a poor 13-year overall survival (log-rank test, χ(2) = 8.931; p = 0.0028). Moreover, CD163 mRNA expression was significantly increased in muscle invasive (T2-T4), p = 0.......017, and aggressive (grade III/IV) cancers (p = 0.015). The expression strongly correlated with local expression of IL-6 (r = 0.72; p CD163 expression in vitro. CD163 immunostaining (n = 46) confirmed the association between dense TAM infiltration...

  1. Distinct regions within the GluN2C subunit regulate the surface delivery of NMDA receptors

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    Katarina eLichnerova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors mediate fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the mammalian central nervous system. The activation of NMDA receptors plays a key role in brain development, synaptic plasticity, and memory formation, and is a major contributor to many neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we investigated the mechanisms that underlie the trafficking of GluN1/GluN2C receptors. Using an approach combining molecular biology, microscopy, and electrophysiology in mammalian cell lines and cultured cerebellar granule cells, we found that the surface delivery of GluN2C-containing receptors is reduced compared to GluN2A- and GluN2B-containing receptors. Furthermore, we identified three distinct regions within the N-terminus, M3 transmembrane domain, and C-terminus of GluN2C subunits that are required for proper intracellular processing and surface delivery of NMDA receptors. These results shed new light on the regulation of NMDA receptor trafficking, and these findings can be exploited to develop new strategies for treating some forms of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  2. Toll-like receptor 2/6-dependent stimulation of mesenchymal stem cells promotes angiogenesis by paracrine factors

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    H Kokemüller

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Reconstruction of critical size bone defects represents a major challenge in orthopaedic surgery. Insufficient angiogenesis is a limiting factor for engraftment of large-scale tissue transplants. Transplantation or stimulation of local mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs represents a potential solution to enhance angiogenesis. We recently identified angiogenic properties for the Toll-like receptor (TLR 2/6 agonist MALP-2 and now investigated if MALP-2 could be used to stimulate MSCs in order to promote angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo.Human MSCs from the bone marrow of healthy subjects were isolated, cultured and expanded in vitro and were shown to be positive for mesenchymal stem cells markers as well as for the MALP-2 receptors TLR2 and TLR6. MALP-2 directly enhanced migration but not proliferation of human MSCs. Conditioned medium from MALP-2 stimulated MSCs significantly increased proliferation, migration and tube formation of endothelial cells. Analysis of the conditioned medium from MSCs revealed that MALP-2 stimulation enhanced the secretion of several chemokines and growth factors including vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF. Finally, we studied MALP-2 effects on MSCs in a sheep model of tissue engineering in vivo. Therefore, MSCs were isolated from the iliac crest of black head sheep and co-cultivated with MALP-2 ex vivo. Implantation of autologous MSCs within a scaffold cylinder into the M. latissimus dorsi significantly enhanced vessel density of these constructs after 6 months.We here present the first evidence that TLR2/6-dependent stimulation of MSCs promotes angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo offering a novel strategy for therapeutic angiogenesis, e.g., for tissue engineering of bone.

  3. Salicylic acid receptors activate jasmonic acid signalling through a non-canonical pathway to promote effector-triggered immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lijing; Sonbol, Fathi-Mohamed; Huot, Bethany; Gu, Yangnan; Withers, John; Mwimba, Musoki; Yao, Jian; He, Sheng Yang; Dong, Xinnian

    2016-01-01

    It is an apparent conundrum how plants evolved effector-triggered immunity (ETI), involving programmed cell death (PCD), as a major defence mechanism against biotrophic pathogens, because ETI-associated PCD could leave them vulnerable to necrotrophic pathogens that thrive on dead host cells. Interestingly, during ETI, the normally antagonistic defence hormones, salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) associated with defence against biotrophs and necrotrophs respectively, both accumulate to high levels. In this study, we made the surprising finding that JA is a positive regulator of RPS2-mediated ETI. Early induction of JA-responsive genes and de novo JA synthesis following SA accumulation is activated through the SA receptors NPR3 and NPR4, instead of the JA receptor COI1. We provide evidence that NPR3 and NPR4 may mediate this effect by promoting degradation of the JA transcriptional repressor JAZs. This unique interplay between SA and JA offers a possible explanation of how plants can mount defence against a biotrophic pathogen without becoming vulnerable to necrotrophic pathogens. PMID:27725643

  4. Gamma-aminobutyric acid promotes human hepatocellular carcinoma growth through overexpressed gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor α3 subunit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expression pattern of gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA) receptors in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and indicate the relationship among gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), gamrna-aminobutyric acid A receptor α3 subunit (GABRA3) and HCC.METHODS: HCC cell line Chang, HepG2, normal liver cell line L-02 and 8 samples of HCC tissues and paired non-cancerous tissues were analyzed with semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the expression of GABAA receptors. HepG2 cells were treated with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) at serial concentrations (0, 1, 10, 20, 40 and 60 μmol/L), and their proliferating abilities were analyzed with the 3-(4, 5-methylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, cell doubling time test, colon formation assay, cell cycle analysis and tumor planted in nude mice. Small interfering RNA was used for knocking down the endogenous GABRA3 in HepG2. oliferating abilities of these cells treated with or without GABA were analyzed.RESULTS: We identified the overexpression of GABRA3 in HCC cells. Knockdown of endogenous GABRA3 expression in HepG2 attenuated HCC cell growth, suggesting its role in HCC cell viability. We determined the in vitro and in vivo effect of GABA in the proliferation of GABRA3-positive cell lines, and found that GABA increased HCC growth in a dose-dependent manner. Notably, the addition of GABA into the cell culture medium promoted the proliferation of GABRA3-expressing HepG2 cells, but not GABRA3-knockdown HepG2 cells. This means that GABA stimulates HepG2 cell growth through GABRA3. CONCLUSION: GABA and GABRA3 play important roles in HCC development and progression and can be a promising molecular target for the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for HCC.

  5. The adiponectin receptor homologs in C. elegans promote energy utilization and homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Emma; Olsen, Louise Cathrine Braun; Mörck, Catarina;

    2011-01-01

    in the nematode C. elegans, named paqr-1, paqr-2 and paqr-3. These are differently expressed in the intestine (the main fat-storing tissue), hypodermis, muscles, neurons and secretory tissues, from which they could exert systemic effects. Analysis of mutants revealed that paqr-1 and -2 are novel metabolic...... regulators in C. elegans and that they act redundantly but independently from paqr-3. paqr-2 is the most important of the three paqr genes: mutants grow poorly, fail to adapt to growth at low temperature, and have a very high fat content with an abnormal enrichment in long (C20) poly-unsaturated fatty acids...... when combined with the paqr-1 mutation. paqr-2 mutants are also synthetic lethal with mutations in nhr-49, sbp-1 and fat-6, which are C. elegans homologs of nuclear hormone receptors, SREBP and FAT-6 (a Δ9 desaturase), respectively. Like paqr-2, paqr-1 is also synthetic lethal with sbp-1. Mutations...

  6. Pharmacologic inhibition of ghrelin receptor signaling is insulin sparing and promotes insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Kenneth A; Govek, Elizabeth K; Nolan, Anna; McDonagh, Thomas; Charoenthongtrakul, Soratree; Giuliana, Derek J; Morgan, Kristen; Hixon, Jeffrey; Zhou, Chaoseng; Kelder, Bruce; Kopchick, John J; Saunders, Jeffrey O; Navia, Manuel A; Curtis, Rory; DiStefano, Peter S; Geddes, Brad J

    2011-10-01

    Ghrelin influences a variety of metabolic functions through a direct action at its receptor, the GhrR (GhrR-1a). Ghrelin knockout (KO) and GhrR KO mice are resistant to the negative effects of high-fat diet (HFD) feeding. We have generated several classes of small-molecule GhrR antagonists and evaluated whether pharmacologic blockade of ghrelin signaling can recapitulate the phenotype of ghrelin/GhrR KO mice. Antagonist treatment blocked ghrelin-induced and spontaneous food intake; however, the effects on spontaneous feeding were absent in GhrR KO mice, suggesting target-specific effects of the antagonists. Oral administration of antagonists to HFD-fed mice improved insulin sensitivity in both glucose tolerance and glycemic clamp tests. The insulin sensitivity observed was characterized by improved glucose disposal with dramatically decreased insulin secretion. It is noteworthy that these results mimic those obtained in similar tests of HFD-fed GhrR KO mice. HFD-fed mice treated for 56 days with antagonist experienced a transient decrease in food intake but a sustained body weight decrease resulting from decreased white adipose, but not lean tissue. They also had improved glucose disposal and a striking reduction in the amount of insulin needed to achieve this. These mice had reduced hepatic steatosis, improved liver function, and no evidence of systemic toxicity relative to controls. Furthermore, GhrR KO mice placed on low- or high-fat diets had lifespans similar to the wild type, emphasizing the long-term safety of ghrelin receptor blockade. We have therefore demonstrated that chronic pharmacologic blockade of the GhrR is an effective and safe strategy for treating metabolic syndrome.

  7. Helicobacter hepaticus infection promotes hepatitis and preneoplastic foci in farnesoid X receptor (FXR deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alton G Swennes

    Full Text Available Farnesoid X receptor (FXR is a nuclear receptor that regulates bile acid metabolism and transport. Mice lacking expression of FXR (FXR KO have a high incidence of foci of cellular alterations (FCA and liver tumors. Here, we report that Helicobacter hepaticus infection is necessary for the development of increased hepatitis scores and FCA in previously Helicobacter-free FXR KO mice. FXR KO and wild-type (WT mice were sham-treated or orally inoculated with H. hepaticus. At 12 months post-infection, mice were euthanized and liver pathology, gene expression, and the cecal microbiome were analyzed. H. hepaticus induced significant increases hepatitis scores and FCA numbers in FXR KO mice (P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively. H. hepaticus altered the beta diversity of cecal microbiome in both WT and FXR KO mice compared to uninfected mice (P<0.05. Significant upregulation of β-catenin, Rela, Slc10a1, Tlr2, Nos2, Vdr, and Cyp3a11 was observed in all FXR KO mice compared to controls (P<0.05. Importantly, H. hepaticus and FXR deficiency were necessary to significantly upregulate Cyp2b10 (P<0.01. FXR deficiency was also a potent modulator of the cecal microbiota, as observed by a strong decrease in alpha diversity. A significant decrease in Firmicutes, particularly members of the order Clostridiales, was observed in FXR KO mice (P<0.05 and FDR<5%, ANOVA. While FXR deficiency strongly affects expression of genes related to immunity and bile acid metabolism, as well as the composition of the microbiome; however, its deficiency was not able to produce significant histopathological changes in the absence of H. hepaticus infection.

  8. Toll like Receptor 2 engagement on CD4(+) T cells promotes TH9 differentiation and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Ahmad Faisal; Reba, Scott M; Li, Qing; Boom, W Henry; Rojas, Roxana E

    2017-09-01

    We have recently demonstrated that mycobacterial ligands engage Toll like receptor 2 (TLR2) on CD4(+) T cells and up-regulate T-cell receptor (TCR) triggered Th1 responses in vitro and in vivo. To better understand the role of T-cell expressed TLR2 on CD4(+) T-cell differentiation and function, we conducted a gene expression analysis of murine naïve CD4(+) T-cells stimulated in the presence or absence of TLR2 co-stimulation. Unexpectedly, naïve CD4(+) T-cells co-stimulated via TLR2 showed a significant up-regulation of Il9 mRNA compared to cells co-stimulated via CD28. Under TH9 differentiation, we observed up-regulation of TH9 differentiation, evidenced by increases in both percent of IL-9 secreting cells and IL-9 in culture supernatants in the presence of TLR2 agonist both in polyclonal and Ag85B cognate peptide specific stimulations. Under non-polarizing conditions, TLR2 engagement on CD4(+) T-cells had minimal effect on IL-9 secretion and TH9 differentiation, likely due to a prominent effect of TLR2 signaling on IFN-γ secretion and TH1 differentiation. We also report that, TLR2 signaling in CD4(+) T cells increased expression of transcription factors BATF and PU.1, known to positively regulate TH9 differentiation. These results reveal a novel role of T-cell expressed TLR2 in enhancing the differentiation and function of TH9 T cells. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Deletional analysis of functional regions of complementary sense promoter from cotton leaf curl virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢迎秋; 刘玉乐; 朱祯

    2000-01-01

    Complementary sense promoter from cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) is a novel plant promoter for genetic engineering that could drive high-level foreign gene expression in plant. To determine the optimal promoter sequence for gene expression, CLCuV promoter was deleted from its 5’ end to form promoter fragments with five different lengths, and chimeric gus genes were constructed using the promoterdeletion. These vectors were delivered into Agrobacterium and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L cv. Xanthi) plants which were transformed by leaf discs method. GUS activity of transgenic plants was measured. The results showed that GUS activities with the promoter deleted to -287 and -271 from the translation initiation site were respectively about five and three times that of full-length promoter. There exists a c/s-element which is important for the expressing activity in phloem from -271 to -176. Deletion from -176 to -141 resulted in a 20-30-fold reduction in GUS activity in leaves with weak activity in leaves and

  10. Binding of the Lactococcal Drug Dependent Transcriptional Regulator LmrR to Its Ligands and Responsive Promoter Regions.

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    Jan Pieter van der Berg

    Full Text Available The heterodimeric ABC transporter LmrCD from Lactococcus lactis is able to extrude several different toxic compounds from the cell, fulfilling a role in the intrinsic and induced drug resistance. The expression of the lmrCD genes is regulated by the multi-drug binding repressor LmrR, which also binds to its own promoter to autoregulate its own expression. Previously, we reported the crystal structure of LmrR in the presence and absence of the drugs Hoechst 33342 and daunomycin. Analysis of the mechanism how drugs control the repressor activity of LmrR is impeded by the fact that these drugs also bind to DNA. Here we identified, using X-ray crystallography and fluorescence, that riboflavin binds into the drug binding cavity of LmrR, adopting a similar binding mode as Hoechst 33342 and daunomycin. Microscale thermophoresis was employed to quantify the binding affinity of LmrR to its responsive promoter regions and to evaluate the cognate site of LmrR in the lmrCD promoter region. Riboflavin reduces the binding affinity of LmrR for the promoter regions. Our results support a model wherein drug binding to LmrR relieves the LmrR dependent repression of the lmrCD genes.

  11. Septin 9 promoter region methylation in free circulating DNA-potential role in noninvasive diagnosis of lung cancer: preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powrózek, Tomasz; Krawczyk, Paweł; Kucharczyk, Tomasz; Milanowski, Janusz

    2014-04-01

    Currently, there are no sensitive diagnostic tests that could allow early detection of lung cancer. Among some cancer patients, epigenetic changes in the nature of methylation of different gene promoter regions are observed, which affect expression of suppressor genes such as septin 9 (SEPT9). Due to the ability of detecting these changes in free circulating DNA in peripheral blood, such genes may become ideal markers in early and noninvasive diagnostics of cancer. Methylation of SEPT9 promoter region in plasma DNA is observed frequently in colorectal cancer patients. The aim of the study was to define the frequency of SEPT9 promoter methylation in lung cancer patients and evaluation of usefulness of this marker in early diagnostic of lung cancer. Plasma samples were obtained from 70 untreated patients with different lung cancer pathological diagnosis and disease stage and from 100 healthy individuals. DNA was isolated from peripheral blood plasma and was then subjected to bisulfitation, purification and elution using Abbott mSEPT9 Detection Kit. Methylation level was assessed by real-time PCR with the use of specific SEPT9 promoter methylation probe. Each sample was assayed in the presence of positive and negative control. SEPT9 promoter methylation was detected in 31 (44.3% of the whole studied group) of lung cancer patients finding the result positive when methylation was detected in 1 out of 3 repetitions of each test sample determinations. The marker was present in patients with different pathological diagnosis and disease stage. Analysis of SEPT9 promoter region methylation may be useful in early diagnosis of lung cancer.

  12. Regional rearrangements in chromosome 15q21 cause formation of cryptic promoters for the CYP19 (aromatase) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demura, Masashi; Martin, Regina M; Shozu, Makio; Sebastian, Siby; Takayama, Kazuto; Hsu, Wei-Tong; Schultz, Roger A; Neely, Kirk; Bryant, Michael; Mendonca, Berenice B; Hanaki, Keiichi; Kanzaki, Susumu; Rhoads, David B; Misra, Madhusmita; Bulun, Serdar E

    2007-11-01

    Production of appropriate quantities of estrogen in various tissues is essential for human physiology. A single gene (CYP19), regulated via tissue-specific promoters, encodes the enzyme aromatase, which catalyzes the key step in estrogen biosynthesis. Aromatase excess syndrome is inherited as autosomal dominant and characterized by high systemic estrogen levels, short stature, prepubertal gynecomastia and testicular failure in males, and premature breast development and uterine pathology in females. The underlying genetic mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we characterize five distinct heterozygous rearrangements responsible for aromatase excess syndrome in three unrelated families and two individuals (nine patients). The constitutively active promoter of one of five ubiquitously expressed genes located within the 11.2 Mb region telomeric to the CYP19 gene in chromosome 15q21 cryptically upregulated aromatase expression in several tissues. Four distinct inversions reversed the transcriptional direction of the promoter of a gene (CGNL1, TMOD3, MAPK6 or TLN2), placing it upstream of the CYP19 coding region in the opposite strand, whereas a deletion moved the promoter of a fifth gene (DMXL2), normally transcribed from the same strand, closer to CYP19. The proximal breakpoints of inversions were located 17-185 kb upstream of the CYP19 coding region. Sequences at the breakpoints suggested that the inversions were caused by intrachromosomal nonhomologous recombination. Splicing the untranslated exon downstream of each promoter onto the identical junction upstream of the translation initiation site created CYP19 mRNA encoding functional aromatase protein. Taken together, small rearrangements may create cryptic promoters that direct inappropriate transcription of CYP19 or other critical genes.

  13. Regional variation in aortic AT1b receptor mRNA abundance is associated with contractility but unrelated to atherosclerosis and aortic aneurysms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Poduri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Angiotensin II (AngII, the main bioactive peptide of the renin angiotensin system, exerts most of its biological actions through stimulation of AngII type 1 (AT1 receptors. This receptor is expressed as 2 structurally similar subtypes in rodents, termed AT1a and AT1b. Although AT1a receptors have been studied comprehensively, roles of AT1b receptors in the aorta have not been defined. METHODOLOGY/RESULTS: We initially compared the regional distribution of AT1b receptor mRNA with AT1a receptor mRNA in the aorta. mRNA abundance of both subtypes increased from the proximal to the distal aorta, with the greatest abundance in the infra-renal region. Corresponding to the high mRNA abundance for both receptors, only aortic rings from the infra-renal aorta contracted in response to AngII stimulation. Despite the presence of both receptor transcripts, deletion of AT1b receptors, but not AT1a receptors, diminished AngII-induced contractility. To determine whether absence of AT1b receptors influenced aortic pathologies, we bred AT1b receptor deficient mice into an LDL receptor deficient background. Mice were fed a diet enriched in saturated fat and infused with AngII (1,000 ng/kg/min. Parameters that could influence development of aortic pathologies, including systolic blood pressure and plasma cholesterol concentrations, were not impacted by AT1b receptor deficiency. Absence of AT1b receptors also had no effect on size of aortic atherosclerotic lesions and aortic aneurysms in both the ascending and abdominal regions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Regional abundance of AT1b receptor mRNA coincided with AngII-induced regional contractility, but it was not associated with AngII-induced aortic pathologies.

  14. A peptide derived from the CD loop-D helix region of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) induces neuronal differentiation and survival by binding to the leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) receptor and common cytokine receptor chain gp130

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathje, Mette; Pankratova, Stanislava; Nielsen, Janne;

    2011-01-01

    been suggested to be important for the cytokine interaction with LIFR. We designed a peptide, termed cintrofin, that encompasses this region. Surface plasmon resonance analysis demonstrated that cintrofin bound to LIFR and gp130, but not to CNTFRa, with apparent K(D) values of 35nM and 1.1n......M, respectively. Cintrofin promoted the survival of cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs), in which cell death was induced either by potassium withdrawal or H(2)O(2) treatment. Cintrofin induced neurite outgrowth from CGNs, and this effect was inhibited by specific antibodies against both gp130 and LIFR, indicating...... and LIF had no neuritogenic effect but were able to inhibit cintrofin-induced neuronal differentiation, indicating that cintrofin and cytokines compete for the same receptors. In addition, cintrofin induced the phosphorylation of STAT3, Akt, and ERK, indicating that it exerts cell signaling properties...

  15. The brand of regional products as a tool to promote rural development (on the basis of opolskie voivodeship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Kauf

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years a growing interest in regional products could be observed. Products which names point to the place of their origin are bought willingly. Regional products are frequently rediscovered, often found by accident to be finally found with a great efforts in the shops. The specific qualities of the regional products, and especially those of traditional food products, decide about their originality and authenticity. It also proves the fact that they are bought more willingly than mass products. The research on the behaviour of the consumers on the regional products market in Opole area shows that these products are bought willingly. They also create a chance to show and promote the region they are from.

  16. Cysteine dioxygenase type 1 promotes adipogenesis via interaction with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Peng; Chen, Yi; Ji, Ning; Lin, Yunfeng; Yuan, Quan; Ye, Ling; Chen, Qianming, E-mail: qmchen@scu.edu.cn

    2015-02-27

    Mammalian cysteine dioxygenase type 1 (CDO1) is an essential enzyme for taurine biosynthesis and the biodegradation of toxic cysteine. As previously suggested, Cdo1 may be a marker of liposarcoma progression and adipogenic differentiation, but the role of Cdo1 in adipogenesis has yet been reported. In this study, we found that the expression of Cdo1 is dramatically elevated during adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes and mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (mBMSCs). Conversely, knockdown of Cdo1 inhibited expression of adipogenic specific genes and lipid droplet formation in 3T3-L1 cells and mBMSCs. Mechanistically, we found Cdo1 interacted with Pparγ in response to adipogenic stimulus. Further, depletion of Cdo1 reduced the recruitment of Pparγ to the promoters of C/EBPα and Fabp4. Collectively, our finding indicates that Cdo1 may be a co-activator of Pparγ in adipogenesis, and may contribute to the development of disease associated with excessive adipose tissue. - Highlights: • Cdo1expression is highly up-regulated during adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 and mBMSCs. • Depletion of Cdo1 inhibited expression of adipogenic specific genes and lipid droplet formation. • Cdo1interacts with Pparγ during adipogenesis. • Knockdown of Cdo1 inhibited Pparγ binding to the promoters of C/EBPα and Fabp4.

  17. Regulation of prolactin receptor (PRLR) gene expression in insulin-producing cells. Prolactin and growth hormone activate one of the rat prlr gene promoters via STAT5a and STAT5b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galsgaard, E D; Møldrup, Annette; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    1999-01-01

    Expression of the prolactin receptor (PRLR) gene is increased in pancreatic islets during pregnancy and in vitro in insulin-producing cells by growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL). The 5'-region of the rat PRLR gene contains at least three alternative first exons that are expressed tissue......-specifically because of differential promoter usage. We show by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis that both exon 1A- and exon 1C-containing PRLR transcripts are expressed in rat islets and that human (h)GH, ovine (o)PRL, and bovine (b)GH increase exon 1A expression 6.5 +/- 0. 8-fold, 6.8 +/- 0...

  18. Activin type IB receptor signaling in prostate cancer cells promotes lymph node metastasis in a xenograft model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomura, Masatoshi, E-mail: nomura@med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Medicine and Bioregulatory Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Tanaka, Kimitaka; Wang, Lixiang; Goto, Yutaka; Mukasa, Chizu; Ashida, Kenji; Takayanagi, Ryoichi [Department of Medicine and Bioregulatory Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

    2013-01-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ActRIB signaling induces Snail and S100A4 expressions in prostate cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The prostate cancer cell lines expressing an active form of ActRIB were established. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ActRIB signaling promotes EMT and lymph node metastasis in xenograft model. -- Abstract: Activin, a member of the transforming growth factor-{beta} family, has been known to be a growth and differentiating factor. Despite its pluripotent effects, the roles of activin signaling in prostate cancer pathogenesis are still unclear. In this study, we established several cell lines that express a constitutive active form of activin type IB receptor (ActRIBCA) in human prostate cancer cells, ALVA41 (ALVA-ActRIBCA). There was no apparent change in the proliferation of ALVA-ActRIBCA cells in vitro; however, their migratory ability was significantly enhanced. In a xenograft model, histological analysis revealed that the expression of Snail, a cell-adhesion-suppressing transcription factor, was dramatically increased in ALVA-ActRIBCA tumors, indicating epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). Finally, mice bearing ALVA-ActRIBCA cells developed multiple lymph node metastases. In this study, we demonstrated that ActRIBCA signaling can promote cell migration in prostate cancer cells via a network of signaling molecules that work together to trigger the process of EMT, and thereby aid in the aggressiveness and progression of prostate cancers.

  19. The Receptor Guanylyl Cyclase Type D (GC-D) Ligand Uroguanylin Promotes the Acquisition of Food Preferences in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Rodents rely on olfactory stimuli to communicate information between conspecifics that is critical for health and survival. For example, rodents that detect a food odor simultaneously with the social odor carbon disulfide (CS2) will acquire a preference for that food. Disruption of the chemosensory transduction cascade in CS2-sensitive olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) that express the receptor guanylyl cyclase type D (GC-D; GC-D+ OSNs) will prevent mice from acquiring these preferences. GC-D+ OSNs also respond to the natriuretic peptide uroguanylin, which is excreted into urine and feces. We analyzed if uroguanylin could also act as a social stimulus to promote the acquisition of food preferences. We found that feces of mice that had eaten odored food, but not unodored food, promoted a strong preference for that food in mice exposed to the feces. Olfactory exploration of uroguanylin presented with a food odor similarly produced a preference that was absent when mice were exposed to the food odor alone. Finally, the acquisition of this preference was dependent on GC-D+ OSNs, as mice lacking GC-D (Gucy2d − /− mice) showed no preference for the demonstrated food. Together with our previous findings, these results demonstrate that the diverse activators of GC-D+ OSNs elicit a common behavioral result and suggest that this specialized olfactory subsystem acts as a labeled line for a type of associative olfactory learning. PMID:23564012

  20. Histone acetylation characterizes chromatin presetting by NF1 and Oct1 and enhances glucocorticoid receptor binding to the MMTV promoter

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    Astrand, Carolina, E-mail: ca340@cam.ac.uk [Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Belikov, Sergey, E-mail: Sergey.Belikov@ki.se [Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Wrange, Orjan, E-mail: Orjan.Wrange@ki.se [Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-09-10

    Transcription from the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) promoter is induced by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). This switch was reconstituted in Xenopus oocytes. Previously, we showed that Nuclear Factor 1 (NF1) and Octamer Transcription Factor 1 (Oct1) bind constitutively to the MMTV promoter and thereby induce translational nucleosome positioning representing an intermediary, i.e. preset, state of nucleosome organization. Here we further characterize this NF1 and Oct1 induced preset chromatin in relation to the inactive and the hormone-activated state. The preset chromatin exhibits increased histone acetylation but does not cause dissociation of histone H1 as oppose to the hormone-activated state. Furthermore, upon hormone induction the preset MMTV chromatin displays an enhanced and prolonged GR binding capacity and transcription during an intrinsic and time-dependent silencing of the injected template. The silencing process correlates with a reduced histone acetylation. However, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, trichostatin A (TSA), does not counteract silencing in spite of its distinct stimulation of GR-DNA binding. The latter indicates the importance of histone acetylation to maintain DNA access for inducible factor binding. We discuss how constitutively bound factors such as NF1 and Oct1 may participate in the maintenance of tissue specificity of hormone responsive genes.

  1. Human recombinant erythropoietin does not promote cancer growth in presence of functional receptors expressed in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belda-Iniesta, Cristóbal; Perona, Rosario; Carpeño, Javier de Castro; Cejas, Paloma; Casado, Enrique; Manguan-García, Cristina; Ibanez de Caceres, Inmaculada; Sanchez-Perez, Isabel; Andreu, Francisco Bernabeu; Ferreira, Javier Alves; Aguilera, Alfredo; de la Peña, Javier; Perez-Sánchez, Elia; Madero, Rosario; Feliu, Jaime; Sereno, María; González-Barón, Manuel

    2007-10-01

    Human recombinant erythropoietin (hrEPO) therapy might be associated with tumor progression and death. This effect has been suggested to be secondary to rhEPO binding to its receptor (EPOR) expressed on cancer cells. However, there are several concerns about EPOR functionality when expressed on cancer cells. In this paper we have provided evidence that EPOR expressed in cancer cells could be implicated in proliferation events because a transfection of EPOR siRNA to EPOR-expressing bladder cancer cells resulted in a marked reduction in cell growth. However, these cell lines do not grow in the presence of hrEPO. Furthermore, bladder cancer patients that expressed EPOR in tumor samples had a reduced survival in absence of rhEPO treatment. Therefore, EPOR is implicated in bladder cancer growth but this effect appears to be independent from rhEPO supplementation. Reports which suggest that rhEPO promotes cancer growth due to the expression of EPOR in cancer cells must be observed with caution since in the presence of functional EPOR rhEPO does not promote growth.

  2. Sympathetic nervous system promotes hepatocarcinogenesis by modulating inflammation through activation of alpha1-adrenergic receptors of Kupffer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Hong-Bo; Wen, Xu-Dong; Chen, Xue-Jiao; Wu, Lin; Wu, Li-Li; Zhang, Liang; Yang, Da-Peng; Zhang, Xia; Bie, Ping; Qian, Cheng; Xia, Feng

    2017-01-01

    The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is known to play a significant role in tumor initiation and metastasis. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) frequently occurs in cirrhotic livers after chronic inflammation, and the SNS is hyperactive in advanced liver cirrhosis. However, it remains unclear whether the SNS promotes hepatocarcinogenesis by modulating chronic liver inflammation. In this study, a retrospective pathological analysis and quantification of sympathetic nerve fiber densities (tyrosine hydroxylase, TH(+)) in HCC patients, and diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats were performed. Our data showed that high density of sympathetic nerve fibers and α1-adrenergic receptors (ARs) of Kupffer cells (KCs) were associated with a poor prognosis of HCC. Sympathetic denervation or blocking of α1-ARs decreased DEN-induced HCC incidence and tumor development. In addition, synergistic effects of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) in hepatocarcinogenesis were observed. The suppression of the SNS reduced IL-6 and TGF-β expression, which suppressed hepatocarcinogenesis, and KCs play a key role in this process. After the ablation of KCs, IL-6 and TGF-β expression and the development of HCC were inhibited. This study demonstrates that sympathetic innervation is crucial for hepatocarcinogenesis and that the SNS promotes hepatocarcinogenesis by activating α1-ARs of KCs to boost the activation of KCs and to maintain the inflammatory microenvironment. These results indicate that sympathetic denervation or α1-ARs blockage may represent novel treatment approaches for HCC.

  3. Expression of toll-like receptor 2 in glomerular endothelial cells and promotion of diabetic nephropathy by Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiko Sawa

    Full Text Available The toll-like receptor (TLR has been suggested as a candidate cause for diabetic nephropathy. Recently, we have reported the TLR4 expression in diabetic mouse glomerular endothelium. The study here investigates the effects of the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (LPS which is a ligand for TLR2 and TLR4 in diabetic nephropathy. In laser-scanning microscopy of glomeruli of streptozotocin- and a high fat diet feed-induced type I and type II diabetic mice, TLR2 localized on the glomerular endothelium and proximal tubule epithelium. The TLR2 mRNA was detected in diabetic mouse glomeruli by in situ hybridization and in real-time PCR of the renal cortex, the TLR2 mRNA amounts were larger in diabetic mice than in non-diabetic mice. All diabetic mice subjected to repeated LPS administrations died within the survival period of all of the diabetic mice not administered LPS and of all of the non-diabetic LPS-administered mice. The LPS administration promoted the production of urinary protein, the accumulation of type I collagen in the glomeruli, and the increases in IL-6, TNF-α, and TGF-β in the renal cortex of the glomeruli of the diabetic mice. It is thought that blood TLR ligands like Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS induce the glomerular endothelium to produce cytokines which aid glomerulosclerosis. Periodontitis may promote diabetic nephropathy.

  4. The N-terminal region of the dopamine D2 receptor, a rhodopsin-like GPCR, regulates correct integration into the plasma membrane and endocytic routes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, DI; Min, C; Jung, KS; Cheong, SY; Zheng, M; Cheong, SJ; Oak, MH; Cheong, JH; Lee, BK; Kim, KM

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Functional roles of the N-terminal region of rhodopsin-like GPCR family remain unclear. Using dopamine D2 and D3 receptors as a model system, we probed the roles of the N-terminal region in the signalling, intracellular trafficking of receptor proteins, and explored the critical factors that determine the functionality of the N-terminal region. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The N-terminal region of the D2 receptor was gradually shortened or switched with that of the D3 receptor or a non-specific sequence (FLAG), or potential N-terminal glycosylation sites were mutated. Effects of these manipulations on surface expression, internalization, post-endocytic behaviours and signalling were determined. KEY RESULTS Shortening the N-terminal region of the D2 receptor enhanced receptor internalization and impaired surface expression and signalling; ligand binding, desensitization and down-regulation were not affected but their association with a particular microdomain, caveolae, was disrupted. Replacement of critical residues within the N-terminal region with the FLAG epitope failed to restore surface expression but partially restored the altered internalization and signalling. When the N-terminal regions were switched between D2 and D3 receptors, cell surface expression pattern of each receptor was switched. Mutations of potential N-terminal glycosylation sites inhibited surface expression but enhanced internalization of D2 receptors. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Shortening of N-terminus or mutation of glycosylation sites located within the N-terminus enhanced receptor internalization but impaired the surface expression of D2 receptors. The N-terminal region of the D2 receptor, in a sequence-specific manner, controls the receptor's conformation and integration into the plasma membrane, which determine its subcellular localization, intracellular trafficking and signalling properties. PMID:22117524

  5. Quadruplex forming promoter region of c-myc oncogene as a potential target for a telomerase inhibitory plant alkaloid, chelerythrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Saptaparni; Dasgupta, Dipak

    2015-03-27

    Guanine rich sequences present in the promoter region of oncogenes could fold into G-quadruplexes and modulate transcription. Equilibrium between folding and unfolding of the quadruplexes in these regions play important role in disease processes. We have studied the effect of a putative anticancer agent chelerythrine on G-rich NHE III1 present in the promoter region of c-myc oncogene. We have demonstrated the ability of chelerythrine, a telomerase inhibitor, to block the hybridization of Pu27 with its complementary strand via folding it into a quadruplex structure. Calorimetry shows that the association of Pu27 with chelerythrine is primarily enthalpy driven with high binding affinity (∼10(5) M(-1)). The association does not lead to any major structural perturbation of Pu27. The resulting 2:1 complex has enhanced stability as compared to free Pu27. Another notable feature is that the presence of molecular crowding agent like ficoll 70 does not change the mode of recognition though the binding affinity decreases. We suggest that the anticancer activity of chelerythrine could be ascribed to its ability to stabilize the quadruplex structure in the c-myc promoter region thereby downregulating its transcription. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A promoter melting region in the primary sigma factor of Bacillus subtilis. Identification of functionally important aromatic amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Y L; Helmann, J D

    1994-02-04

    Sigma factor (sigma) is a dissociable subunit of bacterial RNA polymerase that determines promoter recognition. It has been proposed that a cluster of highly conserved aromatic amino acids in bacterial sigma factors (region 2.3) defines a melting motif that functions in strand-separation during open complex formation. We demonstrate that many alterations in region 2.3 of the Bacillus subtilis sigma A protein specifically impair open complex formation. The region 2.3 mutations can be grouped in three classes: (1) mutations that do not significantly affect promoter recognition or melting; (2) mutations that lead to cold-sensitive transcription of linear templates; and (3) mutations that lead to little activity on linear templates but retain activity at high temperatures on supercoiled templates. RNA polymerase holoenzymes containing sigma factor melting mutants (classes 2 and 3) form predominantly closed complexes at 40 degrees C and are defective for RNA synthesis when initiation is rate-limiting. The melting defect of these mutant sigma factors is suppressed by template supercoiling, but further enhanced by inclusion of the auxiliary RNA polymerase subunit delta. Consequently, in the presence of the delta polypeptide, the mutant holoenzymes display cold-sensitive transcription on supercoiled templates: conditions which mimic the in vivo situation. A subset of these mutations also affects promoter selectivity, suggesting that region 2.3 may participate in both -10 recognition and DNA melting.

  7. New PAH gene promoter KLF1 and 3'-region C/EBPalpha motifs influence transcription in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen, Kristel; Stankovic, Biljana; Kotur, Nikola; Djordjevic, Maja; Zukic, Branka; Nikcevic, Gordana; Ugrin, Milena; Spasovski, Vesna; Srzentic, Sanja; Pavlovic, Sonja; Stojiljkovic, Maja

    2017-02-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a metabolic disease caused by mutations in the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene. Although the PAH genotype remains the main determinant of PKU phenotype severity, genotype-phenotype inconsistencies have been reported. In this study, we focused on unanalysed sequences in non-coding PAH gene regions to assess their possible influence on the PKU phenotype. We transiently transfected HepG2 cells with various chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) reporter constructs which included PAH gene non-coding regions. Selected non-coding regions were indicated by in silico prediction to contain transcription factor binding sites. Furthermore, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and supershift assays were performed to identify which transcriptional factors were engaged in the interaction. We found novel KLF1 motif in the PAH promoter, which decreases CAT activity by 50 % in comparison to basal transcription in vitro. The cytosine at the c.-170 promoter position creates an additional binding site for the protein complex involving KLF1 transcription factor. Moreover, we assessed for the first time the role of a multivariant variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) region located in the 3'-region of the PAH gene. We found that the VNTR3, VNTR7 and VNTR8 constructs had approximately 60 % of CAT activity. The regulation is mediated by the C/EBPalpha transcription factor, present in protein complex binding to VNTR3. Our study highlighted two novel promoter KLF1 and 3'-region C/EBPalpha motifs in the PAH gene which decrease transcription in vitro and, thus, could be considered as PAH expression modifiers. New transcription motifs in non-coding regions will contribute to better understanding of the PKU phenotype complexity and may become important for the optimisation of PKU treatment.

  8. Kinase domain insert containing receptor promoter controlled suicide gene system selectively kills human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Yu Yang; Zong-Hai Huang; Li-Jun Lin; Zhou Li; Jing-Long Yu; Hui-Juan Song; Yong Qian; Xiao-Yan Che

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the selective killing of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by a double suicide gene under the regulation of a kinase domain insert containing receptor (KDR) promoter and mediated by an adenoviral gene vector.METHODS: Human KDR promoter was cloned by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and two recombinant adenoviral plasmids pAdKDR-CdglyTK, pAdCMV-CDglyTK were constructed according to a two-step transformation protocol. These two newly constructed plasmids were then transfected into 293 packaging cells to grow adenovirus, which were further multiplied and purified.HUVECs and LoVo cells were infected with either of the two resultant recombinant adenoviruses (AdKDR-CDglyTK and AdCMV-CDglyTK) respectively, and the infection rates were estimated by detection of green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression. Infected cells were cultured in culture media containing different concentrations of 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) and ganciclovir (GCV), and the killing effects were measured.RESULTS: The two recombinant adenoviral plasmids pAdKDR-CdglyTK, pAdCMV-CDglyTK were successfully constructed and transfected into 293 cells. The resultant recombinant adenoviruses infected cells caused similar infection rates; and the infected cells exhibited different sensitivity to the prodrugs: HUVECs infected with AdCMV-CDglyTK and LoVo cells infected with AdCMVCDglyTK were highly sensitive to the prodrugs, and HUVECs infected with AdKDR-CDglyTK were similarly sensitive but significantly more sensitive than the LoVo cells infected with AdKDR-CdglyTK (P<0.001).CONCLJSION: Selective killing of HUVECs may be achieved by gene transfer of double suicide gene under the regulation of the KDR promoter. This finding may provide an optional way to target gene therapy of malignant tumors by abrogation of tumor blood vessels.

  9. Non-genomic estrogen/estrogen receptor α promotes cellular malignancy of immature ovarian teratoma in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Yao-Ching; Chang, Wei-Chun; Chen, Lu-Min; Chang, Ying-Yi; Wu, Ling-Yu; Chung, Wei-Min; Lin, Tze-Yi; Chen, Liang-Chi; Ma, Wen-Lung

    2014-06-01

    Malignant immature ovarian teratomas (IOTs) most often occur in women of reproductive age. It is unclear, however, what roles estrogenic signaling plays in the development of IOT. In this study, we examined whether estrogen receptors (ERα and β) promote the cellular malignancy of IOT. Estradiol (E2), PPT (propylpyrazole), and DPN (diarylpropionitrile) (ERα- and β-specific agonists, respectively), as well as ERα- or ERβ-specific short hairpin (sh)RNA were applied to PA-1 cells, a well-characterized IOT cell line. Cellular tumorigenic characteristics, for example, cell migration/invasion, expression of the cancer stem/progenitor cell marker CD133, and evidence for epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) were examined. In PA-1 cells that expressed ERα and ERβ, we found that ERα promoted cell migration and invasion. We also found that E2/ERα signaling altered cell behavior through non-classical transactivation function. Our data show non-genomic E2/ERα activations of focal adhesion kinase-Ras homolog gene family member A (FAK-RhoA) and ERK governed cell mobility capacity. Moreover, E2/ERα signaling induces EMT and overexpression of CD133 through upregulation micro-RNA 21 (miR21; IOT stem/progenitor promoter), and ERK phosphorylations. Furthermore, E2/ERα signaling triggers a positive feedback regulatory loop within miR21 and ERK. At last, expression levels of ERα, CD133, and EMT markers in IOT tissue samples were examined by immunohistochemistry. We found that cytosolic ERα was co-expressed with CD133 and mesenchymal cell markers but not epithelial cell markers. In conclusion, estrogenic signals exert malignant transformation capacity of cancer cells, exclusively through non-genomic regulation in female germ cell tumors.

  10. Structural characterization of the main immunogenic region of the Torpedo acetylcholine receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morell, Stuart W; Trinh, Vu B; Gudipati, Eswari; Friend, Alexander; Page, Nelson A; Agius, Mark A; Richman, David P; Fairclough, Robert H

    2014-03-01

    To develop antigen-specific immunotherapies for autoimmune diseases, knowledge of the molecular structure of targeted immunological hotspots will guide the production of reagents to inhibit and halt production of antigen specific attack agents. To this end we have identified three noncontiguous segments of the Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) α-subunit that contribute to the conformationally sensitive immunological hotspot on the AChR termed the main immunogenic region (MIR): α(1-12), α(65-79), and α(110-115). This region is the target of greater than 50% of the anti-AChR Abs in serum from patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) and animals with experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG). Many monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) raised in one species against an electric organ AChR cross react with the neuromuscular AChR MIR in several species. Probing the Torpedo AChR α-subunit with mAb 132A, a disease inducing anti-MIR mAb raised against the Torpedo AChR, we have determined that two of the three MIR segments, α(1-12) and α(65-79), form a complex providing the signature components recognized by mAb 132A. These two segments straddle a third, α(110-115), that seems not to contribute specific side chains for 132A recognition, but is necessary for optimum antibody binding. This third segment appears to form a foundation upon which the three-dimensional 132A epitope is anchored. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Disease Mutations in the Ryanodine Receptor Central Region: Crystal Structures of a Phosphorylation Hot Spot Domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuchi, Zhiguang; Lau, Kelvin; Van Petegem, Filip (UBC)

    2015-02-09

    Ryanodine Receptors (RyRs) are huge Ca{sup 2+} release channels in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane and form targets for phosphorylation and disease mutations. We present crystal structures of a domain in three RyR isoforms, containing the Ser2843 (RyR1) and Ser2808/Ser2814 (RyR2) phosphorylation sites. The RyR1 domain is the target for 11 disease mutations. Several of these are clustered near the phosphorylation sites, suggesting that phosphorylation and disease mutations may affect the same interface. The L2867G mutation causes a drastic thermal destabilization and aggregation at room temperature. Crystal structures for other disease mutants show that they affect surface properties and intradomain salt bridges. In vitro phosphorylation experiments show that up to five residues in one long loop of RyR2 can be phosphorylated by PKA or CaMKII. Docking into cryo-electron microscopy maps suggests a putative location in the clamp region, implying that mutations and phosphorylation may affect the allosteric motions within this area.

  12. PHLDA1 Promotes Lung Contusion by Regulating the Toll-Like Receptor 2 Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohua Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Lung contusion is a potentially lethal injury. Pleckstrin homology-like domain family A, member-1 (PHLDA1 is known to play crucial roles in cell proliferation and apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the biological role of PHLDA1 in lung contusion. Methods: The expression levels of PHLDA1 and TLR2 were detected by real time PCR and western. The cytokines were determined by ELISA. The inflammatory factors were detected by flow cytometry. The lung injury was determined by HE staining. Results: PHLDA1 gene and protein expression levels were up-regulated in a mouse lung-contusion model, together with increased neutrophil and macrophage contents. Down-regulation of PHLDA1 by interfering RNA (siPHLDA1 mice decreased lung injury and neutrophil infiltration. Inflammatory factors, including interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, mouse homolog of human growth-regulated oncogene-α (KC, tumor necrosis factor-α, CC chemokine ligand (CCL 2, and CCL12 were also decreased in siPHLDA1 mice. Expression levels of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2 were increased in the lung-contusion mouse model, but were decreased when PHLDA1 was down-regulated. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that PHLDA1 plays a critical role in the development of progressive lung contusion and subsequent inflammation. This information furthers our understanding of the pathogenesis of lung contusion, and suggests that PHLDA1 blockade may represent a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of this injury.

  13. HSP90 promotes Burkitt lymphoma cell survival by maintaining tonic B-cell receptor signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Roland; Pan, Kuan-Ting; Doebele, Carmen; Comoglio, Federico; Tomska, Katarzyna; Bohnenberger, Hanibal; Young, Ryan M; Jacobs, Laura; Keller, Ulrich; Bönig, Halvard; Engelke, Michael; Rosenwald, Andreas; Urlaub, Henning; Staudt, Louis M; Serve, Hubert; Zenz, Thorsten; Oellerich, Thomas

    2017-02-02

    Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is an aggressive B-cell neoplasm that is currently treated by intensive chemotherapy in combination with anti-CD20 antibodies. Because of their toxicity, current treatment regimens are often not suitable for elderly patients or for patients in developing countries where BL is endemic. Targeted therapies for BL are therefore needed. In this study, we performed a compound screen in 17 BL cell lines to identify small molecule inhibitors affecting cell survival. We found that inhibitors of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) induced apoptosis in BL cells in vitro at concentrations that did not affect normal B cells. By global proteomic and phosphoproteomic profiling, we show that, in BL, HSP90 inhibition compromises the activity of the pivotal B-cell antigen receptor (BCR)-proximal effector spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK), which we identified as an HSP90 client protein. Consistently, expression of constitutively active TEL-SYK counteracted the apoptotic effect of HSP90 inhibition. Together, our results demonstrate that HSP90 inhibition impairs BL cell survival by interfering with tonic BCR signaling, thus providing a molecular rationale for the use of HSP90 inhibitors in the treatment of BL.

  14. Loss of Sigma-1 Receptor Chaperone Promotes Astrocytosis and Enhances the Nrf2 Antioxidant Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Tzu-Yu; Hung, Denise T; Su, Tsung-Ping; Tsai, Shang-Yi A

    2017-01-01

    Sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) functions as a chaperon that interacts with multiple proteins and lipids and is implicated in neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases. Here, we used Sig-1R KO mice to examine brain expression profiles of astrocytes and ubiquitinated proteins, which are both hallmarks of central nervous system (CNS) pathologies. Our results showed that Sig-1R KO induces increased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression in primary neuron-glia cultures and in the whole brain of fetus mice with concomitantly increased accumulations of ubiquitinated proteins. Astrogliosis was also observed in the neuron-glia culture. Upon proteasome or autophagy inhibitor treatments, the pronounced ubiquitinated proteins were further increased in Sig-1R KO neurons, indicating that the Sig-1R regulates both protein degradation and quality control systems. We found that Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2), which functions to overcome the stress condition, was enhanced in the Sig-1R KO systems especially when cells were under stressful conditions. Mutation or deficiency of Sig-1Rs has been observed in neurodegenerative models. Our study identifies the critical roles of Sig-1R in CNS homeostasis and supports the idea that functional complementation pathways are triggered in the Sig-1R KO pathology.

  15. The export receptor Crm1 forms a dimer to promote nuclear export of HIV RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, David S; Cheng, Yifan; Frankel, Alan D

    2014-12-08

    The HIV Rev protein routes viral RNAs containing the Rev Response Element (RRE) through the Crm1 nuclear export pathway to the cytoplasm where viral proteins are expressed and genomic RNA is delivered to assembling virions. The RRE assembles a Rev oligomer that displays nuclear export sequences (NESs) for recognition by the Crm1-Ran(GTP) nuclear receptor complex. Here we provide the first view of an assembled HIV-host nuclear export complex using single-particle electron microscopy. Unexpectedly, Crm1 forms a dimer with an extensive interface that enhances association with Rev-RRE and poises NES binding sites to interact with a Rev oligomer. The interface between Crm1 monomers explains differences between Crm1 orthologs that alter nuclear export and determine cellular tropism for viral replication. The arrangement of the export complex identifies a novel binding surface to possibly target an HIV inhibitor and may point to a broader role for Crm1 dimerization in regulating host gene expression.

  16. Acanthamoeba protease activity promotes allergic airway inflammation via protease-activated receptor 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mi Kyung; Cho, Min Kyoung; Kang, Shin Ae; Park, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Dong-Hee; Yu, Hak Sun

    2014-01-01

    Acanthamoeba is a free-living amoeba commonly present in the environment and often found in human airway cavities. Acanthamoeba possesses strong proteases that can elicit allergic airway inflammation. To our knowledge, the aeroallergenicity of Acanthamoeba has not been reported. We repeatedly inoculated mice with Acanthamoeba trophozoites or excretory-secretory (ES) proteins intra-nasally and evaluated symptoms and airway immune responses. Acanthamoeba trophozoites or ES proteins elicited immune responses in mice that resembled allergic airway inflammation. ES proteins had strong protease activity and activated the expression of several chemokine genes (CCL11, CCL17, CCL22, TSLP, and IL-25) in mouse lung epithelial cells. The serine protease inhibitor phenyl-methane-sulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) inhibited ES protein activity. ES proteins also stimulated dendritic cells and enhanced the differentiation of naive T cells into IL-4-secreting T cells. After repeated inoculation of the protease-activated receptor 2 knockout mouse with ES proteins, airway inflammation and Th2 immune responses were markedly reduced, but not to basal levels. Furthermore, asthma patients had higher Acanthamoeba-specific IgE titers than healthy controls and we found Acanthamoeba specific antigen from house dust in typical living room. Our findings suggest that Acanthamoeba elicits allergic airway symptoms in mice via a protease allergen. In addition, it is possible that Acanthamoeba may be one of the triggers human airway allergic disease.

  17. Acanthamoeba protease activity promotes allergic airway inflammation via protease-activated receptor 2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Kyung Park

    Full Text Available Acanthamoeba is a free-living amoeba commonly present in the environment and often found in human airway cavities. Acanthamoeba possesses strong proteases that can elicit allergic airway inflammation. To our knowledge, the aeroallergenicity of Acanthamoeba has not been reported. We repeatedly inoculated mice with Acanthamoeba trophozoites or excretory-secretory (ES proteins intra-nasally and evaluated symptoms and airway immune responses. Acanthamoeba trophozoites or ES proteins elicited immune responses in mice that resembled allergic airway inflammation. ES proteins had strong protease activity and activated the expression of several chemokine genes (CCL11, CCL17, CCL22, TSLP, and IL-25 in mouse lung epithelial cells. The serine protease inhibitor phenyl-methane-sulfonyl fluoride (PMSF inhibited ES protein activity. ES proteins also stimulated dendritic cells and enhanced the differentiation of naive T cells into IL-4-secreting T cells. After repeated inoculation of the protease-activated receptor 2 knockout mouse with ES proteins, airway inflammation and Th2 immune responses were markedly reduced, but not to basal levels. Furthermore, asthma patients had higher Acanthamoeba-specific IgE titers than healthy controls and we found Acanthamoeba specific antigen from house dust in typical living room. Our findings suggest that Acanthamoeba elicits allergic airway symptoms in mice via a protease allergen. In addition, it is possible that Acanthamoeba may be one of the triggers human airway allergic disease.

  18. KPNA7, a nuclear transport receptor, promotes malignant properties of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurila, Eeva; Vuorinen, Elisa [Institute of Biomedical Technology, FIN-33014 University of Tampere and BioMediTech, Biokatu 6, 33520 Tampere (Finland); Fimlab Laboratories, Biokatu 4, 33520 Tampere (Finland); Savinainen, Kimmo; Rauhala, Hanna [Institute of Biomedical Technology, FIN-33014 University of Tampere and BioMediTech, Biokatu 6, 33520 Tampere (Finland); Kallioniemi, Anne, E-mail: anne.kallioniemi@uta.fi [Institute of Biomedical Technology, FIN-33014 University of Tampere and BioMediTech, Biokatu 6, 33520 Tampere (Finland); Fimlab Laboratories, Biokatu 4, 33520 Tampere (Finland)

    2014-03-10

    Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive malignancy and one of the leading causes of cancer deaths. The high mortality rate is mostly due to the lack of appropriate tools for early detection of the disease and a shortage of effective therapies. We have previously shown that karyopherin alpha 7 (KPNA7), the newest member of the alpha karyopherin family of nuclear import receptors, is frequently amplified and overexpressed in pancreatic cancer. Here, we report that KPNA7 expression is absent in practically all normal human adult tissues but elevated in several pancreatic cancer cell lines. Inhibition of KPNA7 expression in AsPC-1 and Hs700T pancreatic cancer cells led to a reduction in cell growth and decreased anchorage independent growth, as well as increased autophagy. The cell growth effects were accompanied by an induction of the cell cycle regulator p21 and a G1 arrest of the cell cycle. Interestingly, the p21 induction was caused by increased mRNA synthesis and not defective nuclear transport. These data strongly demonstrate that KPNA7 silencing inhibits the malignant properties of pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and thereby provide the first evidence on the functional role for KPNA7 in human cancer. - Highlights: • KPNA7 expression is elevated in several pancreatic cancer cell lines. • KPNA7 silencing in high expressing cancer cells leads to growth inhibition. • The cell growth reduction is associated with p21 induction and G1 arrest. • KPNA7 silencing is also accompanied with increased autophagy.

  19. Activation of NTS A(1) adenosine receptors inhibits regional sympathetic responses evoked by activation of cardiopulmonary chemoreflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinose, Tomoko K; Minic, Zeljka; Li, Cailian; O'Leary, Donal S; Scislo, Tadeusz J

    2012-09-01

    Previously we have shown that adenosine operating via the A(1) receptor subtype may inhibit glutamatergic transmission in the baroreflex arc within the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and differentially increase renal (RSNA), preganglionic adrenal (pre-ASNA), and lumbar (LSNA) sympathetic nerve activity (ASNA>RSNA≥LSNA). Since the cardiopulmonary chemoreflex and the arterial baroreflex are mediated via similar medullary pathways, and glutamate is a primary transmitter in both pathways, it is likely that adenosine operating via A(1) receptors in the NTS may differentially inhibit regional sympathetic responses evoked by activation of cardiopulmonary chemoreceptors. Therefore, in urethane-chloralose-anesthetized rats (n = 37) we compared regional sympathoinhibition evoked by the cardiopulmonary chemoreflex (activated with right atrial injections of serotonin 5HT(3) receptor agonist phenylbiguanide, PBG, 1-8 μg/kg) before and after selective stimulation of NTS A(1) adenosine receptors [microinjections of N(6)-cyclopentyl adenosine (CPA), 0.033-330 pmol/50 nl]. Activation of cardiopulmonary chemoreceptors evoked differential, dose-dependent sympathoinhibition (RSNA>ASNA>LSNA), and decreases in arterial pressure and heart rate. These differential sympathetic responses were uniformly attenuated in dose-dependent manner by microinjections of CPA into the NTS. Volume control (n = 11) and blockade of adenosine receptor subtypes in the NTS via 8-(p-sulfophenyl)theophylline (8-SPT, 1 nmol in 100 nl) (n = 9) did not affect the reflex responses. We conclude that activation of NTS A(1) adenosine receptors uniformly inhibits neural and cardiovascular cardiopulmonary chemoreflex responses. A(1) adenosine receptors have no tonic modulatory effect on this reflex under normal conditions. However, when adenosine is released into the NTS (i.e., during stress or severe hypotension/ischemia), it may serve as negative feedback regulator for depressor and sympathoinhibitory reflexes

  20. Hypermethylation of the DPYD promoter region is not a major predictor of severe toxicity in 5-fluorouracil based chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aebi Stefan

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The activity of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD, the key enzyme of pyrimidine catabolism, is thought to be an important determinant for the occurrence of severe toxic reactions to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU, which is one of the most commonly prescribed chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of solid cancers. Genetic variation in the DPD gene (DPYD has been proposed as a main factor for variation in DPD activity in the population. However, only a small proportion of severe toxicities in 5-FU based chemotherapy can be explained with such rare deleterious DPYD mutations resulting in severe enzyme deficiencies. Recently, hypermethylation of the DPYD promoter region has been proposed as an alternative mechanism for DPD deficiency and thus as a major cause of severe 5-FU toxicity. Methods Here, the prognostic significance of this epigenetic marker with respect to severe 5-FU toxicity was assessed in 27 cancer patients receiving 5-FU based chemotherapy, including 17 patients experiencing severe toxic side effects following drug administration, none of which were carriers of a known deleterious DPYD mutation, and ten control patients. The methylation status of the DPYD promoter region in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was evaluated by analysing for each patient between 19 and 30 different clones of a PCR-amplified 209 base pair fragment of the bisulfite-modified DPYD promoter region. The fragments were sequenced to detect bisulfite-induced, methylation-dependent sequence differences. Results No evidence of DPYD promoter methylation was observed in any of the investigated patient samples, whereas in a control experiment, as little as 10% methylated genomic DNA could be detected. Conclusion Our results indicate that DYPD promoter hypermethylation is not of major importance as a prognostic factor for severe toxicity in 5-FU based chemotherapy.

  1. Characterization of the Promoter Regions of Two Sheep Keratin-Associated Protein Genes for Hair Cortex-Specific Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhichao; Liu, Guangbin; Li, Xinyun; Huang, Ji; Xiao, Yujing; Du, Xiaoyong; Yu, Mei

    2016-01-01

    The keratin-associated proteins (KAPs) are the structural proteins of hair fibers and are thought to play an important role in determining the physical properties of hair fibers. These proteins are activated in a striking sequential and spatial pattern in the keratinocytes of hair fibers. Thus, it is important to elucidate the mechanism that underlies the specific transcriptional activity of these genes. In this study, sheep KRTAP 3-3 and KRTAP11-1 genes were found to be highly expressed in wool follicles in a tissue-specific manner. Subsequently, the promoter regions of the two genes that contained the 5' flanking/5' untranslated regions and the coding regions were cloned. Using an in vivo transgenic approach, we found that the promoter regions from the two genes exhibited transcriptional activity in hair fibers. A much stronger and more uniformly expressed green fluorescent signal was observed in the KRTAP11-1-ZsGreen1 transgenic mice. In situ hybridization revealed the symmetrical expression of sheep KRTAP11-1 in the entire wool cortex. Consistently, immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that the pattern of ZsGreen1 expression in the hair cortex of transgenic mice matches that of the endogenous KRTAP11-1 gene, indicating that the cloned promoter region contains elements that are sufficient to govern the wool cortex-specific transcription of KRTAP11-1. Furthermore, regulatory regions in the 5' upstream sequence of the sheep KRTAP11-1 gene that may regulate the observed hair keratinocyte specificity were identified using in vivo reporter assays.

  2. Monocyte Activation by Necrotic Cells Is Promoted by Mitochondrial Proteins and Formyl Peptide Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouser, Elliott D.; Shao, Guohong; Julian, Mark W.; Macre, Jennifer E.; Shadel, Gerald S.; Tridandapani, Susheela; Huang, Qin; Wewers, Mark D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Necrotic cells evoke potent innate immune responses through unclear mechanisms. The mitochondrial fraction of the cell retains constituents of its bacterial ancestors, including N-formyl peptides, which are potentially immunogenic. Thus, we hypothesized that the mitochondrial fraction of the cell, particularly N-formyl peptides, contributes significantly to the activation of monocytes by necrotic cells. Design Human peripheral blood monocytes were incubated with necrotic cell fractions and mitochondrial proteins in order to investigate their potential for immune cell activation. Setting University medical center research laboratory. Subjects Healthy human adults served as blood donors. Measurements and Main Results Human blood monocyte activation was measured after treatment with cytosolic, nuclear and mitochondrial fractions of necrotic HepG2 cells or necrotic HepG2 cells depleted of N-formyl peptides [Rho(0) cells]. The specific role of the high affinity formyl peptide receptor (FPR) was then tested using specific pharmacological inhibitors and RNA-silencing. The capacity of mitochondrial N-formyl peptides to activate monocytes was confirmed using a synthetic peptide conforming to the N-terminus of mitochondrial NADH subunit 6. The results demonstrated that mitochondrial cell fractions most potently activated monocytes, and IL-8 was selectively released at low protein concentrations. Mitochondria from Rho(0) cells induced minimal monocyte IL-8 release, and specific pharmacological inhibitors and RNA-silencing confirmed that FPR contributes significantly to monocyte IL-8 responses to both necrotic cells and mitochondrial proteins. N-formyl peptides alone did not induce monocyte IL-8 release; whereas, the combination of mitochondrial N-formyl peptides and mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) dramatically increased IL-8 release from monocytes. Likewise, HMGB1, the nuclear homologue of TFAM, did not induce monocyte IL-8 release unless combined with

  3. Cathepsin S Cleavage of Protease-Activated Receptor-2 on Endothelial Cells Promotes Microvascular Diabetes Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Vr, Santhosh; Darisipudi, Murthy N; Steiger, Stefanie; Devarapu, Satish Kumar; Tato, Maia; Kukarni, Onkar P; Mulay, Shrikant R; Thomasova, Dana; Popper, Bastian; Demleitner, Jana; Zuchtriegel, Gabriele; Reichel, Christoph; Cohen, Clemens D; Lindenmeyer, Maja T; Liapis, Helen; Moll, Solange; Reid, Emma; Stitt, Alan W; Schott, Brigitte; Gruner, Sabine; Haap, Wolfgang; Ebeling, Martin; Hartmann, Guido; Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2016-06-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is a central pathomechanism in diabetes-associated complications. We hypothesized a pathogenic role in this dysfunction of cathepsin S (Cat-S), a cysteine protease that degrades elastic fibers and activates the protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) on endothelial cells. We found that injection of mice with recombinant Cat-S induced albuminuria and glomerular endothelial cell injury in a PAR2-dependent manner. In vivo microscopy confirmed a role for intrinsic Cat-S/PAR2 in ischemia-induced microvascular permeability. In vitro transcriptome analysis and experiments using siRNA or specific Cat-S and PAR2 antagonists revealed that Cat-S specifically impaired the integrity and barrier function of glomerular endothelial cells selectively through PAR2. In human and mouse type 2 diabetic nephropathy, only CD68(+) intrarenal monocytes expressed Cat-S mRNA, whereas Cat-S protein was present along endothelial cells and inside proximal tubular epithelial cells also. In contrast, the cysteine protease inhibitor cystatin C was expressed only in tubules. Delayed treatment of type 2 diabetic db/db mice with Cat-S or PAR2 inhibitors attenuated albuminuria and glomerulosclerosis (indicators of diabetic nephropathy) and attenuated albumin leakage into the retina and other structural markers of diabetic retinopathy. These data identify Cat-S as a monocyte/macrophage-derived circulating PAR2 agonist and mediator of endothelial dysfunction-related microvascular diabetes complications. Thus, Cat-S or PAR2 inhibition might be a novel strategy to prevent microvascular disease in diabetes and other diseases.

  4. Differential role of nitric oxide in regional sympathetic responses to stimulation of NTS A2a adenosine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scislo, Tadeusz J; Tan, Nobusuke; O'Leary, Donal S

    2005-02-01

    Our previous studies showed that preganglionic adrenal (pre-ASNA), renal (RSNA), lumbar, and postganglionic adrenal sympathetic nerve activities (post-ASNA) are inhibited after stimulation of arterial baroreceptors, nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), and glutamatergic and P2x receptors and are activated after stimulation of adenosine A1 receptors. However, stimulation of adenosine A2a receptors inhibited RSNA and post-ASNA, whereas it activated pre-ASNA. Because the effects evoked by NTS A2a receptors may be mediated via activation of nitric oxide (NO) mechanisms in NTS neurons, we tested the hypothesis that NO synthase (NOS) inhibitors would attenuate regional sympathetic responses to NTS A2a receptor stimulation, whereas NO donors would evoke contrasting responses from pre-ASNA versus RSNA and post-ASNA. Therefore, in chloralose/urethane-anesthetized rats, we compared hemodynamic and regional sympathetic responses to microinjections of selective A2a receptor agonist (CGS-21680, 20 pmol/50 nl) after pretreatment with NOS inhibitors Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (10 nmol/100 nl) and 1-[2-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]imidazole (100 pmol/100 nl) versus pretreatment with vehicle (100 nl). In addition, responses to microinjections into the NTS of different NO donors [40 and 400 pmol/50 nl sodium nitroprusside (SNP); 0.5 and 5 nmol/50 nl 3,3-bis(aminoethyl)-1-hydroxy-2-oxo-1-triazene (DETA NONOate, also known as NOC-18), and 2 nmol/50 nl 3-(2-hydroxy-2-nitroso-1-propylhydrazino)-1-propanamine (PAPA NONOate, also known as NOC-15)], the NO precursor L-arginine (10-50 nmol/50 nl), and sodium glutamate (500 pmol/50 nl) were evaluated. SNP, DETA NONOate, and PAPA NONOate activated pre-ASNA and inhibited RSNA and post-ASNA, whereas l-arginine and glutamate microinjected into the same site of the NTS inhibited all these sympathetic outputs. Decreases in heart rate and depressor or biphasic responses accompanied the neural responses. Pretreatment with NOS inhibitors

  5. Induced Pib Expression and Resistance to Magnaporthe grisea are Compromised by Cytosine Demethylation at Critical Promoter Regions in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Xia, Qiong; Kou, Hongping; Wang, Dan; Lin, Xiuyun; Wu, Ying; Xu, Chunming; Xing, Shaochen; Liu, Bao

    2011-10-01

    Pib is a well-characterized rice blast-resistance gene belonging to the nucleotide binding site (NBS) and leucine-rich repeat (LRR) superfamily. Expression of Pib was low under non-challenged conditions, but strongly induced by the blast-causing fungal pathogen Magnaporthe grisea, thereby conferring resistance to the pathogen. It is generally established that cytosine methylation of the promoter-region often plays a repressive role in modulating expression of the gene in question. We report here that two critical regions of the Pib promoter were heavily CG cytosine-methylated in both cultivars studied. Surprisingly, induced expression of Pib by M. grisea infection did not entail its promoter demethylation, and partial demethylation by 5-azacytidine-treatment actually reduced Pib expression relative to wild-type plants. Accordingly, the blast disease-resistance was compromised in the 5'-azaC-treated plants relative to wild-type. In contrast, the disease susceptibility was not affected by the 5'-azaC treatment in another two rice cultivars that did not contain the Pib gene, ruling out effects of other R genes and non-specific genotoxic effects by the drug-treatment as a cause for the compromised Pib-conditioned blast-resistance. Taken together, our results suggest that promoter DNA methylation plays a novel enhancing role in conditioning high-level of induced expression of the Pib gene in times of M. grisea infection, and its conferred resistance to the pathogen.

  6. Association between DNA Methylation of the BDNF Promoter Region and Clinical Presentation in Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyuki Nagata

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: In the present study, we examined whether DNA methylation of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF promoter is associated with the manifestation and clinical presentation of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Methods: Of 20 patients with AD and 20 age-matched normal controls (NCs, the DNA methylation of the BDNF promoter (measured using peripheral blood samples was completely analyzed in 12 patients with AD and 6 NCs. The resulting methylation levels were compared statistically. Next, we investigated the correlation between the DNA methylation levels and the clinical presentation of AD. Results: The total methylation ratio (in % of the 20 CpG sites was significantly higher in the AD patients (5.08 ± 5.52% than in the NCs (2.09 ± 0.81%; p Conclusion: These results suggest that the DNA methylation of the BDNF promoter may significantly influence the manifestation of AD and might be associated with its neurocognitive presentation.

  7. Progesterone promotes focal adhesion formation and migration in breast cancer cells through induction of protease-activated receptor-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Jorge; Aranda, Evelyn; Henriquez, Soledad; Quezada, Marisol; Espinoza, Estefanía; Bravo, Maria Loreto; Oliva, Bárbara; Lange, Soledad; Villalon, Manuel; Jones, Marius; Brosens, Jan J; Kato, Sumie; Cuello, Mauricio A; Knutson, Todd P; Lange, Carol A; Leyton, Lisette; Owen, Gareth I

    2012-08-01

    Progesterone and progestins have been demonstrated to enhance breast cancer cell migration, although the mechanisms are still not fully understood. The protease-activated receptors (PARs) are a family of membrane receptors that are activated by serine proteases in the blood coagulation cascade. PAR1 (F2R) has been reported to be involved in cancer cell migration and overexpressed in breast cancer. We herein demonstrate that PAR1 mRNA and protein are upregulated by progesterone treatment of the breast cancer cell lines ZR-75 and T47D. This regulation is dependent on the progesterone receptor (PR) but does not require PR phosphorylation at serine 294 or the PR proline-rich region mPRO. The increase in PAR1 mRNA was transient, being present at 3  h and returning to basal levels at 18  h. The addition of a PAR1-activating peptide (aPAR1) to cells treated with progesterone resulted in an increase in focal adhesion (FA) formation as measured by the cellular levels of phosphorylated FA kinase. The combined but not individual treatment of progesterone and aPAR1 also markedly increased stress fiber formation and the migratory capacity of breast cancer cells. In agreement with in vitro findings, data mining from the Oncomine platform revealed that PAR1 expression was significantly upregulated in PR-positive breast tumors. Our observation that PAR1 expression and signal transduction are modulated by progesterone provides new insight into how the progestin component in hormone therapies increases the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women.

  8. Genetic Dissection of the Light-Inducible carQRS Promoter Region of Myxococcus xanthus

    OpenAIRE

    Whitworth, David E.; Bryan, Samantha J.; Berry, Andrew E.; McGowan, Simon J.; Hodgson, David A

    2004-01-01

    In Myxococcus xanthus photoprotective carotenoids are produced in response to illumination due to regulated expression of carotenoid biosynthesis genes at two loci. Induction of the carotenogenesis regulon is dependent on expression of the carQRS operon. The first gene product of the operon, CarQ, is a sigma factor belonging to the ECF family and is responsible for light-dependent initiation of transcription at the carQRS promoter. We defined the minimal carQRS promoter as a 145-bp fragment o...

  9. Surveillance, health promotion and control of Chagas disease in the Amazon Region--Medical attention in the Brazilian Amazon Region: a proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coura, José Rodrigues; Junqueira, Angela C V

    2015-11-01

    We refer to Oswaldo Cruz's reports dating from 1913 about the necessities of a healthcare system for the Brazilian Amazon Region and about the journey of Carlos Chagas to 27 locations in this region and the measures that would need to be adopted. We discuss the risks of endemicity of Chagas disease in the Amazon Region. We recommend that epidemiological surveillance of Chagas disease in the Brazilian Amazon Region and Pan-Amazon region should be implemented through continuous monitoring of the human population that lives in the area, their housing, the environment and the presence of triatomines. The monitoring should be performed with periodic seroepidemiological surveys, semi-annual visits to homes by health agents and the training of malaria microscopists and healthcare technicians to identify Trypanosoma cruzi from patients' samples and T. cruzi infection rates among the triatomines caught. We recommend health promotion and control of Chagas disease through public health policies, especially through sanitary education regarding the risk factors for Chagas disease. Finally, we propose a healthcare system through base hospitals, intermediate-level units in the areas of the Brazilian Amazon Region and air transportation, considering the distances to be covered for medical care.

  10. Surveillance, health promotion and control of Chagas disease in the Amazon Region - Medical attention in the Brazilian Amazon Region: a proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coura, José Rodrigues; Junqueira, Angela CV

    2015-01-01

    We refer to Oswaldo Cruz's reports dating from 1913 about the necessities of a healthcare system for the Brazilian Amazon Region and about the journey of Carlos Chagas to 27 locations in this region and the measures that would need to be adopted. We discuss the risks of endemicity of Chagas disease in the Amazon Region. We recommend that epidemiological surveillance of Chagas disease in the Brazilian Amazon Region and Pan-Amazon region should be implemented through continuous monitoring of the human population that lives in the area, their housing, the environment and the presence of triatomines. The monitoring should be performed with periodic seroepidemiological surveys, semi-annual visits to homes by health agents and the training of malaria microscopists and healthcare technicians to identify Trypanosoma cruzi from patients' samples and T. cruzi infection rates among the triatomines caught. We recommend health promotion and control of Chagas disease through public health policies, especially through sanitary education regarding the risk factors for Chagas disease. Finally, we propose a healthcare system through base hospitals, intermediate-level units in the areas of the Brazilian Amazon Region and air transportation, considering the distances to be covered for medical care. PMID:26560976

  11. Expressing activity of promoter elements of large intergenic region from cotton leaf curl virus in host plant*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) is a type of single-stranded DNAvirus, belonging to geminivirus of subgroup III. In order to determine the function of CLCuV large intergenic region (LIR), total DNA of CLCuV-infected cotton leaves was used as template, and fragment of LIR was obtained by PCR and inserted into clone vector. The fragment of LIR was fused with gus reporter gene and nos terminator in the orientation of transcription of virion sense and complementary sense respectively, and the plant expression vectors were constructed. GUS activity of Agrobacterium-mediated transgenic tobacco was measured. The result indicated that LIR showed strong promoter activity in complementary sense gene orientation. Average GUS activity of the complementary sense promoter was 5-6 times that of CaMV 35S promoter, and the highest GUS activity of individual plant was ten times of that of CaMV 35S promoter. Histochemical localization confirmed its activity in both mesophyll and vascular tissues. Activity of virion sense of LIR was rather low. Thus LIR isolated from CLCuV could be used as a novel strong promoter in plant genetic manipulation.

  12. [Methylation of FHIT gene promoter region in DNA from plasma of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes and demethylating effect of decitabine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yin-Fen; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Xiu-Qun; Hu, Ming-Qiu; Dai, Dan; Zhang, Xue-Zhong; Xu, Yan-Li

    2012-10-01

    This study was aimed to detect the methylation status of FHIT gene promoter region in the DNA from plasma of patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and to investigate the demethylating effect of decitabine. Methylation-specific PCR method was used to detect the methylation status of FHIT gene promoter region in the DNA from plasma of 4 patients with MDS before and after treatment with decitabine plus semis CAG therapy (among them, 1 case of newly diagnosed MDS, 3 cases progressed into acute leukemia). The results indicated that 3 cases were found to have an increased methylation in the promoter region. After treatment with decitabine plus semis CAG, increased methylation was reversed in 2 cases. In 4 cases, 2 cases displayed clinical response. It is concluded that FHIT gene hypermethylation is associated with MDS pathogenesis. Decitabine has demethylating effect on the FHIT gene hypermethylation of plasma from MDS patients. Detecting the methylation status of FHIT gene in DNA from plasma may play a role in MDS auxiliary diagnosis or prognosis.

  13. Improved heterologous protein expression in the chloroplast of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii through promoter and 5' untranslated region optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasala, Beth A; Muto, Machiko; Sullivan, Joseph; Mayfield, Stephen P

    2011-08-01

    Microalgae have the potential to be a valuable biotechnological platform for the production of recombinant proteins. However, because of the complex regulatory network that tightly controls chloroplast gene expression, heterologous protein accumulation in a wild-type, photosynthetic-competent algal chloroplast remains low. High levels of heterologous protein accumulation have been achieved using the psbA promoter/5' untranslated region (UTR), but only in a psbA-deficient genetic background, because of psbA/D1-dependent auto-attenuation. Here, we examine the effect of fusing the strong 16S rRNA promoter to the 5' UTR of the psbA and atpA genes on transgene expression in the chloroplast of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We show that fusion of the 16S promoter had little impact on protein accumulation from the psbA 5' UTR in a psbA-deficient genetic background. Furthermore, the 16S/psbA promoter/UTR fusion was silenced in the presence of wild-type levels of D1 protein, confirming that the psbA 5' UTR is the primary target for D1-dependent auto-repression. However, fusion of the 16S promoter to the atpA 5' UTR significantly boosts mRNA levels and supports high levels of heterologous protein accumulation in photosynthetic-competent cells. The 16S/atpA promoter/UTR drove LUXCT protein accumulation to levels close to that of psbA in a psbA- background, and drove expression of a human therapeutic protein to levels only twofold lower than the psbA 5' UTR. The 16S/atpA promoter/UTR combination should have utility for heterologous protein production when expression from a photosynthetic-competent microalgal strain is required.

  14. Diphenylarsinic acid, a chemical warfare-related neurotoxicant, promotes liver carcinogenesis via activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling and consequent induction of oxidative DNA damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Min; Yamada, Takanori; Yamano, Shotaro; Kato, Minoru; Kakehashi, Anna; Fujioka, Masaki; Tago, Yoshiyuki; Kitano, Mistuaki; Wanibuchi, Hideki

    2013-11-15

    Diphenylarsinic acid (DPAA), a chemical warfare-related neurotoxic organic arsenical, is present in the groundwater and soil in some regions of Japan due to illegal dumping after World War II. Inorganic arsenic is carcinogenic in humans and its organic arsenic metabolites are carcinogenic in animal studies, raising serious concerns about the carcinogenicity of DPAA. However, the carcinogenic potential of DPAA has not yet been evaluated. In the present study we found that DPAA significantly enhanced the development of diethylnitrosamine-induced preneoplastic lesions in the liver in a medium-term rat liver carcinogenesis assay. Evaluation of the expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in the liver revealed that DPAA induced the expression of CYP1B1, but not any other CYP1, CYP2, or CYP3 enzymes, suggesting that CYP1B1 might be the enzyme responsible for the metabolic activation of DPAA. We also found increased oxidative DNA damage, possibly due to elevated CYP1B1 expression. Induction of CYP1B1 has generally been linked with the activation of AhR, and we found that DPAA activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Importantly, the promotion effect of DPAA was observed only at a dose that activated the AhR, suggesting that activation of AhR and consequent induction of AhR target genes and oxidative DNA damage plays a vital role in the promotion effects of DPAA. The present study provides, for the first time, evidence regarding the carcinogenicity of DPAA and indicates the necessity of comprehensive evaluation of its carcinogenic potential using long-term carcinogenicity studies.

  15. GPR116, an adhesion G-protein-coupled receptor, promotes breast cancer metastasis via the Gαq-p63RhoGEF-Rho GTPase pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaolong; Jin, Rongrong; Qu, Guojun; Wang, Xiu; Li, Zhenxi; Yuan, Zengjin; Zhao, Chen; Siwko, Stefan; Shi, Tieliu; Wang, Ping; Xiao, Jianru; Liu, Mingyao; Luo, Jian

    2013-10-15

    Adhesion G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), which contain adhesion domains in their extracellular region, have been found to play important roles in cell adhesion, motility, embryonic development, and immune response. Because most adhesion molecules with adhesion domains have vital roles in cancer metastasis, we speculated that adhesion GPCRs are potentially involved in cancer metastasis. In this study, we identified GPR116 as a novel regulator of breast cancer metastasis through expression and functional screening of the adhesion GPCR family. We found that knockdown of GPR116 in highly metastatic (MDA-MB-231) breast cancer cells suppressed cell migration and invasion. Conversely, ectopic GPR116 expression in poorly metastatic (MCF-7 and Hs578T) cells promoted cell invasion. We further showed that knockdown of GPR116 inhibited breast cancer cell metastasis in two mammary tumor metastasis mouse models. Moreover, GPR116 modulated the formation of lamellipodia and actin stress fibers in cells in a RhoA- and Rac1-dependent manner. At a molecular level, GPR116 regulated cell motility and morphology through the Gαq-p63RhoGEF-RhoA/Rac1 pathway. The biologic significance of GPR116 in breast cancer is substantiated in human patient samples, where GPR116 expression is significantly correlated with breast tumor progression, recurrence, and poor prognosis. These findings show that GPR116 is crucial for the metastasis of breast cancer and support GPR116 as a potential prognostic marker and drug target against metastatic human breast cancer. ©2013 AACR.

  16. Loss of discoidin domain receptor 2 promotes hepatic fibrosis after chronic carbon tetrachloride through altered paracrine interactions between hepatic stellate cells and liver-associated macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaso, Elvira; Arteta, Beatriz; Benedicto, Aitor; Crende, Olatz; Friedman, Scott L

    2011-12-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) interact with fibrillar collagen through the discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2) in acute hepatic injury, generating increased fibrosis. However, the contribution of DDR2 signaling to chronic liver fibrosis in vivo is unclear, despite its relevance to chronic human liver disease. We administered carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) to DDR2(+/+) and DDR2(-/-) mice twice weekly, and liver tissues and isolated HSCs were analyzed. In contrast to changes seen in acute injury, after chronic CCl(4) administration, DDR2(-/-) livers had increased collagen deposition, gelatinolytic activity, and HSC density. Increased basal gene expression of osteopontin, transforming growth factor-β1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and IL-10 and reduced basal gene expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2, matrix metalloproteinase-13, and collagen type I in quiescent DDR2(-/-) HSCs were amplified further after chronic CCl(4). In concordance, DDR2(-/-) HSCs isolated from chronically injured livers had enhanced in vitro migration and proliferation, but less extracellular matrix degradative activity. Macrophages from chronic CCl(4)-treated DDR2(-/-) livers showed stronger chemoattractive activity toward DDR2(-/-) HSCs than DDR2(+/+) macrophages, increased extracellular matrix degradation, and higher cytokine mRNA expression. In conclusion, loss of DDR2 promotes chronic liver fibrosis after CCl(4) injury. The fibrogenic sinusoidal milieu generated in chronic DDR2(-/-) livers recruits more HSCs to injured regions, which enhances fibrosis. Together, these findings suggest that DDR2 normally orchestrates gene programs and paracrine interactions between HSCs and macrophages that together attenuate chronic hepatic fibrosis.

  17. Markov models of the apo-MDM2 lid region reveal diffuse yet two-state binding dynamics and receptor poses for computational docking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sudipto; Pantelopulos, George A.; Voelz, Vincent A.

    2016-08-01

    MDM2 is a negative regulator of p53 activity and an important target for cancer therapeutics. The N-terminal lid region of MDM2 modulates interactions with p53 via competition for its binding cleft, exchanging slowly between docked and undocked conformations in the absence of p53. To better understand these dynamics, we constructed Markov State Models (MSMs) from large collections of unbiased simulation trajectories of apo-MDM2, and find strong evidence for diffuse, yet two-state folding and binding of the N-terminal region to the p53 receptor site. The MSM also identifies holo-like receptor conformations highly suitable for computational docking, despite initiating trajectories from closed-cleft receptor structures unsuitable for docking. Fixed-anchor docking studies using a test set of high-affinity small molecules and peptides show simulated receptor ensembles achieve docking successes comparable to cross-docking studies using crystal structures of receptors bound by alternative ligands. For p53, the best-scoring receptor structures have the N-terminal region lid region bound in a helical conformation mimicking the bound structure of p53, suggesting lid region association induces receptor conformations suitable for binding. These results suggest that MD + MSM approaches can sample binding-competent receptor conformations suitable for computational peptidomimetic design, and that inclusion of disordered regions may be essential to capturing the correct receptor dynamics.

  18. Methylation at the CpG island shore region upregulates Nr3c1 promoter activity after early-life stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockmühl, Yvonne; Patchev, Alexandre V; Madejska, Arleta; Hoffmann, Anke; Sousa, Joao C; Sousa, Nuno; Holsboer, Florian; Almeida, Osborne F X; Spengler, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    Early-life stress (ELS) induces long-lasting changes in gene expression conferring an increased risk for the development of stress-related mental disorders. Glucocorticoid receptors (GR) mediate the negative feedback actions of glucocorticoids (GC) in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary and therefore play a key role in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the endocrine response to stress. We here show that ELS programs the expression of the GR gene (Nr3c1) by site-specific hypermethylation at the CpG island (CGI) shore in hypothalamic neurons that produce corticotropin-releasing hormone (Crh), thus preventing Crh upregulation under conditions of chronic stress. CpGs mapping to the Nr3c1 CGI shore region are dynamically regulated by ELS and underpin methylation-sensitive control of this region's insulation-like function via Ying Yang 1 (YY1) binding. Our results provide new insight into how a genomic element integrates experience-dependent epigenetic programming of the composite proximal Nr3c1 promoter, and assigns an insulating role to the CGI shore.

  19. Hypoxia and prostaglandin E receptor 4 signalling pathways synergise to promote endometrial adenocarcinoma cell proliferation and tumour growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob D Catalano

    Full Text Available The prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase (PTGS pathway is a potent driver of tumour development in humans by enhancing the biosynthesis and signalling of prostaglandin (PG E(2. PTGS2 expression and PGE(2 biosynthesis is elevated in endometrial adenocarcinoma, however the mechanism whereby PTGS and PGE(2 regulate endometrial tumour growth is unknown. Here we investigated (a the expression profile of the PGE synthase enzymes (PTGES, PTGES-2, PTGES-3 and PGE receptors (PTGER1-4 in endometrial adenocarcinomas compared with normal endometrium and (b the role of PTGER4 in endometrial tumorigenesis in vivo. We found elevated expression of PTGES2 and PTGER4 and suppression of PTGER1 and PTGER3 in endometrial adenocarcinomas compared with normal endometrium. Using WT Ishikawa endometrial adenocarcinoma cells and Ishikawa cells stably transfected with the full length PTGER4 cDNA (PTGER4 cells xenografted in the dorsal flanks of nude mice, we show that PTGER4 rapidly and significantly enhances tumour growth rate. Coincident with enhanced PTGER4-mediated tumour growth we found elevated expression of PTGS2 in PTGER4 xenografts compared with WT xenografts. Furthermore we found that the augmented growth rate of the PTGER4 xenografts was not due to enhanced angiogenesis, but regulated by an increased proliferation index and hypoxia. In vitro, we found that PGE(2 and hypoxia independently induce expression of PTGER4 indicating two independent pathways regulating prostanoid receptor expression. Finally we have shown that PGE(2 and hypoxia synergise to promote cellular proliferation of endometrial adenocarcinoma cells.

  20. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis extract modulates CHOP/GADD153 to promote androgen receptor degradation and decreases xenograft tumor growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakina M Petiwala

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean diet has long been attributed to preventing or delaying the onset of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and various solid organ cancers. In this particular study, a rosemary extract standardized to carnosic acid was evaluated for its potential in disrupting the endoplasmic reticulum machinery to decrease the viability of prostate cancer cells and promote degradation of the androgen receptor. Two human prostate cancer cell lines, 22Rv1 and LNCaP, and prostate epithelial cells procured from two different patients undergoing radical prostatectomy were treated with standardized rosemary extract and evaluated by flow cytometry, MTT, BrdU, Western blot and fluorescent microscopy. A significant modulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress proteins was observed in cancer cells while normal prostate epithelial cells did not undergo endoplasmic reticulum stress. This biphasic response suggests that standardized rosemary extract may preferentially target cancer cells as opposed to "normal" cells. Furthermore, we observed standardized rosemary extract to decrease androgen receptor expression that appears to be regulated by the expression of CHOP/GADD153. Using a xenograft tumor model we observed standardized rosemary extract when given orally to significantly suppress tumor growth by 46% compared to mice not receiving standardized rosemary extract. In the last several years regulatory governing bodies (e.g. European Union have approved standardized rosemary extracts as food preservatives. These results are especially significant as it is becoming more likely that individuals will be receiving standardized rosemary extracts that are a part of a natural preservative system in various food preparations. Taken a step further, it is possible that the potential benefits that are often associated with a "Mediterranean Diet" in the future may begin to extend beyond the Mediterranean diet as more of the population is consuming standardized rosemary

  1. Activation of Toll-like receptor 2 on microglia promotes cell uptake of Alzheimer disease-associated amyloid beta peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Keqiang; Iribarren, Pablo; Hu, Jinyue; Chen, Jianhong; Gong, Wanghua; Cho, Edward H; Lockett, Stephen; Dunlop, Nancy M; Wang, Ji Ming

    2006-02-10

    The human G-protein-coupled formyl peptide receptor-like 1 (FPRL1) and its mouse homologue mFPR2 mediate the chemotactic activity of a variety of polypeptides associated with inflammation and bacterial infection, including the 42-amino acid form of amyloid beta peptide (Abeta42), a pathogenic factor in Alzheimer disease. Because mFPR2 was inducible in mouse microglial cells by proinflammatory stimulants, such as bacterial lipopolysaccharide, a ligand for the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), we investigated the role of TLR2 in the regulation of mFPR2. We found that a TLR2 agonist, peptidoglycan (PGN) derived from Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, induced considerable mFpr2 mRNA expression in a mouse microglial cell line and primary microglial cells. This was associated with a markedly increased chemotaxis of the cells in response to mFPR2 agonist peptides. In addition, activation of TLR2 markedly enhanced mFPR2-mediated uptake of Abeta42 by microglia. Studies of the mechanistic basis showed that PGN activates MAPK and IkappaBalpha, and the effect of PGN on induction of mFPR2 was dependent on signaling pathways via ERK1/2 and p38 MAPKs. The use of TLR2 on microglial cells by PGN was supported by the fact that N9 cells transfected with short interfering RNA targeting mouse TLR2 failed to show increased expression of functional mFPR2 after stimulation with PGN. Our results demonstrated a potentially important role for TLR2 in microglial cells of promoting cell responses to chemoattractants produced in lesions of inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases in the brain.

  2. Transient receptor