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Sample records for receptor mediated innate

  1. Origin of Toll-like receptor-mediated innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanzok, Stefan M; Hoa, Ngo T; Bonizzoni, Mariangela; Luna, Coralia; Huang, Yaming; Malacrida, Anna R; Zheng, Liangbiao

    2004-04-01

    Toll-related receptors (TLR) have been found in four animal phyla: Nematoda, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, and Chordata. No TLR has been identified thus far in acoelomates. TLR genes play a pivotal role in the innate immunity in both fruit fly and mammals. The prevailing view is that TLR-mediated immunity is ancient. The two pseudocoelomate TLRs, one each from Caenorhabditis elegans and Strongyloides stercoralis, were distinct from the coelomate ones. Further, the only TLR gene (Tol-1) in Ca. elegans did not appear to play a role in innate immunity. We argue that TLR-mediated innate immunity developed only in the coelomates, after they split from pseudocoelomates and acoelomates. We hypothesize that the function of TLR-mediated immunity is to prevent microbial infection in the body cavity present only in the coelomates. Phylogenetic analysis showed that almost all arthropod TLRs form a separate cluster from the mammalian counterparts. We further hypothesize that TLR-mediated immunity developed independently in the protostomia and deuterostomia coelomates.

  2. Of pheromones and kairomones: what receptors mediate innate emotional responses?

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    Fortes-Marco, Lluis; Lanuza, Enrique; Martinez-Garcia, Fernando

    2013-09-01

    Some chemicals elicit innate emotionally laden behavioral responses. Pheromones mediate sexual attraction, parental care or agonistic confrontation, whereas predators' kairomones elicit defensive behaviors in their preys. This essay explores the hypothesis that the detection of these semiochemicals relies on highly specific olfactory and/or vomeronasal receptors. The V1R, V2R, and formyl-peptide vomeronasal receptors bind their ligands in highly specific and sensitive way, thus being good candidates for pheromone- or kairomone-detectors (e.g., secreted and excreted proteins, peptides and lipophilic volatiles). The olfactory epithelium also expresses specific receptors, for example trace amine-associated receptors (TAAR) and guanylyl cyclase receptors (GC-D and other types), some of which bind kairomones and putative pheromones. However, most of the olfactory neurons express canonical olfactory receptors (ORs) that bind many ligands with different affinity, being not suitable for mediating responses to pheromones and kairomones. In this respect, trimethylthiazoline (TMT) is considered a fox-derived kairomone for mice and rats, but it seems to be detected by canonical ORs. Therefore, we have reassessed the kairomonal nature of TMT by analyzing the behavioral responses of outbred (CD1) and inbred mice (C57BL/J6) to TMT. Our results confirm that both mouse strains avoid TMT, which increases immobility in C57BL/J6, but not CD1 mice. However, mice of both strains sniff at TMT throughout the test and show no trace of TMT-induced contextual conditioning (immobility or avoidance). This suggests that TMT is not a kairomone but, similar to a loud noise, in high concentrations it induces aversion and stress as unspecific responses to a strong olfactory stimulation. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Adaptive and innate immune reactions regulating mast cell activation: from receptor-mediated signaling to responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tkaczyk, Christine; Jensen, Bettina M; Iwaki, Shoko

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we have described studies that have demonstrated that mast cells can be activated as a consequence of adaptive and innate immune reactions and that these responses can be modified by ligands for other receptors expressed on the surface of mast cells. These various stimuli...... differentially activate multiple signaling pathways within the mast cells required for the generation and/or release of inflammatory mediators. Thus, the composition of the suite of mediators released and the physiologic ramifications of these responses are dependent on the stimuli and the microenvironment...

  4. The Innate Immune Receptor CD14 Mediates Lymphocyte Migration in EAE

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    Ramona Halmer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple sclerosis is the most common autoimmune disease of the central nervous system in young adults and histopathologically characterized by inflammation, demyelination and gliosis. It is considered as a CD4+ T cell-mediated disease, but also a disease-promoting role of the innate immune system has been proposed, based e.g. on the observation that innate immune receptors modulate disease severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Recent studies of our group provided first evidence for a key role of the innate immune LPS receptor (CD14 in pathophysiology of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. CD14-deficient experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice showed increased clinical symptoms and enhanced infiltration of monocytes and neutrophils in brain and spinal cord. Methods: In the current study, we further investigated the causes of the disease aggravation by CD14-deficiency and examined T cell activation, also focusing on the costimulatory molecules CTLA-4 and CD28, and T cell migration capacity over the blood brain barrier by FACS analysis, in vitro adhesion and transmigration assays. Results: In the results, we observed a significantly increased migration of CD14-deficient lymphocytes across an endothelial monolayer. In contrast, we did not see any differences in expression levels of TCR/CTLA-4 or TCR/CD28 and lymphocyte adhesion to endothelial cells from CD14-deficient compared to wildtype mice. Conclusion: The results demonstrate an important role of CD14 in migration of lymphocytes, and strengthen the importance of innate immune receptors in adaptive immune disorders, such as multiple sclerosis.

  5. Xenobiotic Receptor-Mediated Regulation of Intestinal Barrier Function and Innate Immunity

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    Harmit S. Ranhotra

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The molecular basis for the regulation of the intestinal barrier is a very fertile research area. A growing body of knowledge supports the targeting of various components of intestinal barrier function as means to treat a variety of diseases, including the inflammatory bowel diseases. Herein, we will summarize the current state of knowledge of key xenobiotic receptor regulators of barrier function, highlighting recent advances, such that the field and its future are succinctly reviewed. We posit that these receptors confer an additional dimension of host-microbe interaction in the gut, by sensing and responding to metabolites released from the symbiotic microbiota, in innate immunity and also in host drug metabolism. The scientific evidence for involvement of the receptors and its molecular basis for the control of barrier function and innate immunity regulation would serve as a rationale towards development of non-toxic probes and ligands as drugs.

  6. Key Role of the Scavenger Receptor MARCO in Mediating Adenovirus Infection and Subsequent Innate Responses of Macrophages.

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    Maler, Mareike D; Nielsen, Peter J; Stichling, Nicole; Cohen, Idan; Ruzsics, Zsolt; Wood, Connor; Engelhard, Peggy; Suomalainen, Maarit; Gyory, Ildiko; Huber, Michael; Müller-Quernheim, Joachim; Schamel, Wolfgang W A; Gordon, Siamon; Jakob, Thilo; Martin, Stefan F; Jahnen-Dechent, Willi; Greber, Urs F; Freudenberg, Marina A; Fejer, György

    2017-08-01

    The scavenger receptor MARCO is expressed in several subsets of naive tissue-resident macrophages and has been shown to participate in the recognition of various bacterial pathogens. However, the role of MARCO in antiviral defense is largely unexplored. Here, we investigated whether MARCO might be involved in the innate sensing of infection with adenovirus and recombinant adenoviral vectors by macrophages, which elicit vigorous immune responses in vivo Using cells derived from mice, we show that adenovirus infection is significantly more efficient in MARCO-positive alveolar macrophages (AMs) and in AM-like primary macrophage lines (Max Planck Institute cells) than in MARCO-negative bone marrow-derived macrophages. Using antibodies blocking ligand binding to MARCO, as well as gene-deficient and MARCO-transfected cells, we show that MARCO mediates the rapid adenovirus transduction of macrophages. By enhancing adenovirus infection, MARCO contributes to efficient innate virus recognition through the cytoplasmic DNA sensor cGAS. This leads to strong proinflammatory responses, including the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6), alpha/beta interferon, and mature IL-1α. These findings contribute to the understanding of viral pathogenesis in macrophages and may open new possibilities for the development of tools to influence the outcome of infection with adenovirus or adenovirus vectors. IMPORTANCE Macrophages play crucial roles in inflammation and defense against infection. Several macrophage subtypes have been identified with differing abilities to respond to infection with both natural adenoviruses and recombinant adenoviral vectors. Adenoviruses are important respiratory pathogens that elicit vigorous innate responses in vitro and in vivo The cell surface receptors mediating macrophage type-specific adenovirus sensing are largely unknown. The scavenger receptor MARCO is expressed on some subsets of naive tissue-resident macrophages, including lung alveolar macrophages

  7. Gut feelings of safety: tolerance to the microbiota mediated by innate immune receptors.

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    Swiatczak, Bartlomiej; Cohen, Irun R

    2015-10-01

    To enable microbial colonization of the gut mucosa, the intestinal immune system must not only react to danger signals but also recognize cues that indicate safety. Recognition of safety, paradoxically, is mediated by the same environmental sensors that are involved in signaling danger. Indeed, in addition to their well-established role in inducing inflammation in response to stress signals, pattern recognition receptors and a variety of metabolic sensors also promote gut-microbiota symbiosis by responding to "microbial symbiosis factors", "resolution-associated molecular patterns", markers of energy extraction and other signals indicating the absence of pathogenic infection and tissue damage. Here we focus on how the paradoxical roles of immune receptors and other environmental sensors define the microbiota signature of an individual. © 2015 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Key Role of the Scavenger Receptor MARCO in Mediating Adenovirus Infection and Subsequent Innate Responses of Macrophages

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    Mareike D. Maler

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The scavenger receptor MARCO is expressed in several subsets of naive tissue-resident macrophages and has been shown to participate in the recognition of various bacterial pathogens. However, the role of MARCO in antiviral defense is largely unexplored. Here, we investigated whether MARCO might be involved in the innate sensing of infection with adenovirus and recombinant adenoviral vectors by macrophages, which elicit vigorous immune responses in vivo. Using cells derived from mice, we show that adenovirus infection is significantly more efficient in MARCO-positive alveolar macrophages (AMs and in AM-like primary macrophage lines (Max Planck Institute cells than in MARCO-negative bone marrow-derived macrophages. Using antibodies blocking ligand binding to MARCO, as well as gene-deficient and MARCO-transfected cells, we show that MARCO mediates the rapid adenovirus transduction of macrophages. By enhancing adenovirus infection, MARCO contributes to efficient innate virus recognition through the cytoplasmic DNA sensor cGAS. This leads to strong proinflammatory responses, including the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6, alpha/beta interferon, and mature IL-1α. These findings contribute to the understanding of viral pathogenesis in macrophages and may open new possibilities for the development of tools to influence the outcome of infection with adenovirus or adenovirus vectors.

  9. Activation of innate antiviral immune response via double-stranded RNA-dependent RLR receptor-mediated necroptosis.

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    Wang, Wei; Wang, Wei-Hua; Azadzoi, Kazem M; Su, Ning; Dai, Peng; Sun, Jianbin; Wang, Qin; Liang, Ping; Zhang, Wentao; Lei, Xiaoying; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Jing-Hua

    2016-03-03

    Viruses induce double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) in the host cells. The mammalian system has developed dsRNA-dependent recognition receptors such as RLRs that recognize the long stretches of dsRNA as PAMPs to activate interferon-mediated antiviral pathways and apoptosis in severe infection. Here we report an efficient antiviral immune response through dsRNA-dependent RLR receptor-mediated necroptosis against infections from different classes of viruses. We demonstrated that virus-infected A549 cells were efficiently killed in the presence of a chimeric RLR receptor, dsCARE. It measurably suppressed the interferon antiviral pathway but promoted IL-1β production. Canonical cell death analysis by morphologic assessment, phosphatidylserine exposure, caspase cleavage and chemical inhibition excluded the involvement of apoptosis and consistently suggested RLR receptor-mediated necroptosis as the underlying mechanism of infected cell death. The necroptotic pathway was augmented by the formation of RIP1-RIP3 necrosome, recruitment of MLKL protein and the activation of cathepsin D. Contributing roles of RIP1 and RIP3 were confirmed by gene knockdown. Furthermore, the necroptosis inhibitor necrostatin-1 but not the pan-caspase inhibitor zVAD impeded dsCARE-dependent infected cell death. Our data provides compelling evidence that the chimeric RLR receptor shifts the common interferon antiviral responses of infected cells to necroptosis and leads to rapid death of the virus-infected cells. This mechanism could be targeted as an efficient antiviral strategy.

  10. Anoctamin 6 mediates effects essential for innate immunity downstream of P2X7 receptors in macrophages

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    Ousingsawat, Jiraporn; Wanitchakool, Podchanart; Kmit, Arthur; Romao, Ana M.; Jantarajit, Walailak; Schreiber, Rainer; Kunzelmann, Karl

    2015-02-01

    Purinergic P2X7 receptors (P2X7R) are fundamental to innate immune response. In macrophages, transient stimulation of P2X7R activates several transport mechanisms and induces the scrambling of phospholipids with subsequent membrane blebbing and apoptosis. These processes support phagocytosis and subsequent killing of phagocytosed bacteria. Here we demonstrate that the stimulation of P2X7 receptors activates anoctamin 6 (ANO6, TMEM16F), a protein that functions as Ca2+ dependent phospholipid scramblase and Ca2+-activated Cl- channel. Inhibition or knockdown of ANO6 attenuates ATP-induced cell shrinkage, cell migration and phospholipid scrambling. In mouse macrophages, Ano6 produces large ion currents by stimulation of P2X7 receptors and contributes to ATP-induced membrane blebbing and apoptosis, which is largely reduced in macrophages from Ano6-/- mice. ANO6 supports bacterial phagocytosis and killing by mouse and human THP-1 macrophages. Our data demonstrate that anoctamin 6 is an essential component of the immune defense by macrophages.

  11. Pattern Recognition Receptors in Innate Immunity, Host Defense, and Immunopathology

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    Suresh, Rahul; Mosser, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Infection by pathogenic microbes initiates a set of complex interactions between the pathogen and the host mediated by pattern recognition receptors. Innate immune responses play direct roles in host defense during the early stages of infection, and they also exert a profound influence on the generation of the adaptive immune responses that ensue.…

  12. The Role of Innate Immune System Receptors in Epilepsy Research.

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    Cordero-Arreola, Jessica; West, Rachel M; Mendoza-Torreblanca, Julieta; Mendez-Hernandez, Edna; Salas-Pacheco, Jose; Menendez-Gonzalez, Manuel; Freire, Rafael C; Machado, Sergio; Murillo-Rodriguez, Eric; Nardi, Antonio E; Arias-Carrion, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most complex neurological disorders and its study requires a broad knowledge of neurology and neuroscience. It comprises a diverse group of neurological disorders that share the central feature of spontaneous recurrent seizures, and are often accompanied by cognitive deficits and mood disorder. This condition is one of the most common neurological disorders. Until recently, alterations of neuronal activities had been the focus of epilepsy research. This neurocentric emphasis did not address issues that arise in more complex models of epileptogenesis. An important factor in epilepsy that is not regulated directly by neurons is inflammation and the immune response of the brain. Recent evidence obtained in rodent epilepsy models supports the role of immune responses in the initiation and maintenance of epilepsy. Recognition of exogenous pathogens by the innate immune system is mediated by some pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptors leading to cell activation and cytokine production. Currently, these receptors have been the focus of epilepsy studies looking to determine whether the innate immune activation is neuroprotective or neurotoxic for the brain. Here, we present the evidence in the literature of the involvement of key innate immune receptors in the development of epilepsy. We address some of the contradictory findings in these studies and also mention possible avenues for research into epilepsy treatments that target these receptors. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Plasmodium yoelii blood-stage primes macrophage-mediated innate immune response through modulation of toll-like receptor signalling

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    Fu Yong

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toll-like receptors (TLRs signalling is reported to be primed by the infection of human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. However, little is known about the regulation of macrophages TLR signalling by the infection of lethal or non-lethal strain of rodent malaria parasites. Methods BALB/c mice were infected with non-lethal strain Plasmodium yoelii 17XNL or lethal strain P. yoelii 17XL. Peritoneal macrophages were isolated to study its immune response to pRBC lysate, and TLRs (TLR2, TLR4, and TLR9 agonists, and the expression of TLRs and intracellular signalling molecules were also investigated by flow cytometry and semi-quantitive RT-PCR. Results The reactivity of peritoneal macrophages from the mice infected with lethal strain P. y 17XL or non-lethal strain P. y 17XNL were enhanced to pRBC lysate, and TLR2, TLR4, and TLR9 agonists at one, three and five days post-infection. Of all the tested TLRs, only TLR2 was up-regulated on peritoneal macrophages of mice infected with either strain. However, transcription of intracellular signalling molecules MyD88, IRAK-1, and TRAF-6 was significantly up-regulated in peritoneal macrophages from mice infected either with P. yoelii 17XL or P. yoelii 17XNL at one, three and five days post-infection. However, the enhanced TLRs response of macrophage from P. yoelii 17XNL-infected mice persisted for a much longer time than that from P. yoelii 17XL-infected mice. Conclusion Both P. yoelii 17XL and 17XNL strains could enhance the response of peritoneal macrophages to pRBC lysate and TLR agonists, through up-regulating the expression of TLR2 and intracellular signalling molecules MyD88, IRAK-1, and TRAF-6. In addition, prolonged high response of macrophage from P. yoelii 17XNL-infected mice might be associated with the more efficiently controlling of P. yoelii 17XNL growth in mice at early stage.

  14. DMPD: Translational mini-review series on Toll-like receptors: networks regulated byToll-like receptors mediate innate and adaptive immunity. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17223959 Translational mini-review series on Toll-like receptors: networks regulate...ol. 2007 Feb;147(2):199-207. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Translational mini-review series on Toll-like receptors: network... immunity. PubmedID 17223959 Title Translational mini-review series on Toll-like receptors: networks regulat

  15. Toll-like receptors and their crosstalk with other innate receptors in infection and immunity.

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    Kawai, Taro; Akira, Shizuo

    2011-05-27

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that play a central role in host cell recognition and responses to microbial pathogens. TLR-mediated recognition of components derived from a wide range of pathogens and their role in the subsequent initiation of innate immune responses is widely accepted; however, the recent discovery of non-TLR PRRs, such as C-type lectin receptors, NOD-like receptors, and RIG-I-like receptors, suggests that many aspects of innate immunity are more sophisticated and complex. In this review, we will focus on the role played by TLRs in mounting protective immune responses against infection and their crosstalk with other PRRs with respect to pathogen recognition. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Activation of the Innate Immune Receptors: Guardians of the Micro Galaxy : Activation and Functions of the Innate Immune Receptors.

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    De Nardo, Dominic

    2017-01-01

    The families of innate immune receptors are the frontline responders to danger. These superheroes of the host immune systems populate innate immune cells, surveying the extracellular environment and the intracellular endolysosomal compartments and cytosol for exogenous and endogenous danger signals. As a collective the innate immune receptors recognise a wide array of stimuli, and in response they initiate specific signalling pathways leading to activation of transcriptional or proteolytic pathways and the production of inflammatory molecules to destroy foreign pathogens and/or resolve tissue injury. In this review, I will give an overview of the innate immune system and the activation and effector functions of the families of receptors it comprises. Current key concepts will be described throughout, including innate immune memory, formation of innate immune receptor signalosomes, inflammasome formation and pyroptosis, methods of extrinsic cell communication and examples of receptor cooperation. Finally, several open questions and future directions in the field of innate immunity will be presented and discussed.

  17. Innate recognition of bacteria in human milk is mediated by a milk-derived highly expressed pattern recognition receptor, soluble CD14.

    OpenAIRE

    Lab?ta, MO; Vidal, K; Nores, JE; Arias, M; Vita, N; Morgan, BP; Guillemot, JC; Loyaux, D; Ferrara, P; Schmid, D; Affolter, M; Borysiewicz, LK; Donnet-Hughes, A; Schiffrin, EJ

    2000-01-01

    Little is known about innate immunity to bacteria after birth in the hitherto sterile fetal intestine. Breast-feeding has long been associated with a lower incidence of gastrointestinal infections and inflammatory and allergic diseases. We found in human breast milk a 48-kD polypeptide, which we confirmed by mass spectrometry and sequencing to be a soluble form of the bacterial pattern recognition receptor CD14 (sCD14). Milk sCD14 (m-sCD14) concentrations were up to 20-fold higher than serum ...

  18. Innate Recognition of Bacteria in Human Milk Is Mediated by a Milk-Derived Highly Expressed Pattern Recognition Receptor, Soluble Cd14

    OpenAIRE

    Labéta, Mario O.; Vidal, Karine; Nores, Julia E. Rey; Arias, Mauricio; Vita, Natalio; Morgan, B. Paul; Guillemot, Jean Claude; Loyaux, Denis; Ferrara, Pascual; Schmid, Daniel; Affolter, Michael; Borysiewicz, Leszek K.; Donnet-Hughes, Anne; Schiffrin, Eduardo J.

    2000-01-01

    Little is known about innate immunity to bacteria after birth in the hitherto sterile fetal intestine. Breast-feeding has long been associated with a lower incidence of gastrointestinal infections and inflammatory and allergic diseases. We found in human breast milk a 48-kD polypeptide, which we confirmed by mass spectrometry and sequencing to be a soluble form of the bacterial pattern recognition receptor CD14 (sCD14). Milk sCD14 (m-sCD14) concentrations were up to 20-fold higher than serum ...

  19. Characteristic and functional analysis of toll-like receptors (TLRs in the lophotrocozoan, Crassostrea gigas, reveals ancient origin of TLR-mediated innate immunity.

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    Yang Zhang

    Full Text Available The evolution of TLR-mediated innate immunity is a fundamental question in immunology. Here, we report the characterization and functional analysis of four TLR members in the lophotrochozoans Crassostreagigas (CgTLRs. All CgTLRs bear a conserved domain organization and have a close relationship with TLRs in ancient non-vertebrate chordates. In HEK293 cells, every CgTLR could constitutively activate NF-κB responsive reporter, but none of the PAMPs tested could stimulate CgTLR-activated NF-κB induction. Subcellular localization showed that CgTLR members have similar and dual distribution on late endosomes and plasma membranes. Moreover, CgTLRs and CgMyD88 mRNA show a consistent response to multiple PAMP challenges in oyster hemocytes. As CgTLR-mediated NF-κB activation is dependent on CgMyD88, we designed a blocking peptide for CgTLR signaling that would inhibit CgTLR-CgMyD88 dependent NF-κB activation. This was used to demonstrate that a Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection-induced enhancement of degranulation and increase of cytokines TNF mRNA in hemocytes, could be inhibited by blocking CgTLR signaling. In summary, our study characterized the primitive TLRs in the lophotrocozoan C. gigas and demonstrated a fundamental role of TLR signaling in infection-induced hemocyte activation. This provides further evidence for an ancient origin of TLR-mediated innate immunity.

  20. Retinoic acid-inducible gene-I-like receptor (RLR)-mediated antiviral innate immune responses in the lower respiratory tract: Roles of TRAF3 and TRAF5.

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    Chiba, Yuki; Matsumiya, Tomoh; Satoh, Tsugumi; Hayakari, Ryo; Furudate, Ken; Xing, Fei; Yoshida, Hidemi; Tanji, Kunikazu; Mizukami, Hiroki; Imaizumi, Tadaatsu; Ito, Etsuro

    2015-11-13

    Upon viral infection, the cytoplasmic viral sensor retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) recognizes viral RNA to activate antiviral signaling to induce type I interferon (IFN). RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) activate antiviral signaling in a tissue-specific manner. The molecular mechanism underlying antiviral signaling in the respiratory system remains unclear. We studied antiviral signaling in the lower respiratory tract (LRT), which is the site of many harmful viral infections. Epithelial cells of the LRT can be roughly divided into two groups: bronchial epithelial cells (BECs) and pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells (AECs). These two cell types exhibit different phenotypes; therefore, we hypothesized that these cells may play different roles in antiviral innate immunity. We found that BECs exhibited higher antiviral activity than AECs. TNF receptor-associated factor 3 (TRAF3) has been shown to be a crucial molecule in RLR signaling. The expression levels of TRAF3 and TRAF5, which have conserved domains that are nearly identical, in the LRT were examined. We found that the bronchus exhibited the highest expression levels of TRAF3 and TRAF5 in the LRT. These findings suggest the importance of the bronchus in antiviral innate immunity in the LRT and indicate that TRAF3 and TRAF5 may contribute to RLR signaling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Mitochondria-Endoplasmic Reticulum Contact Sites Mediate Innate Immune Responses.

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    Misawa, Takuma; Takahama, Michihiro; Saitoh, Tatsuya

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are fundamental organelles that coordinate high-order cell functions. Mitochondria are centers of energy production, whereas the ER is responsible for folding, transport, and degradation of proteins. In addition to their specific functions, mitochondria and ER actively communicate with each other to promote a variety of cellular events, such as material transfer and signal transduction. Recent studies have shown the critical involvement of these organelles in regulation of the innate immune system, which functions in host defense. The innate immune system utilizes a wide range of germ-line-encoded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and induces inflammatory and antiviral responses. Contact sites between mitochondria and the ER function in assembly of the NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3)-inflammasome to promote the inflammatory response. The NLRP3-inflammasome is a protein complex composed of the receptor NLRP3 on the ER side and the adaptor apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD on the mitochondrial side; it induces caspase-1-dependent maturation of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18. Furthermore, ER-mitochondria contact sites function in initiation and mediation of signal transduction pathways downstream of intracellular PRRs, such as retinoic acid-inducible gene I-like receptor and cyclic GMP-AMP synthase, to promote the antiviral response. Therefore, ER-mitochondria contact sites, also known as mitochondria-associated membranes, play key roles in regulation of innate immune responses.

  2. Novel positive regulatory role for the SPL6 transcription factor in the N TIR-NB-LRR receptor-mediated plant innate immunity.

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    Meenu S Padmanabhan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Following the recognition of pathogen-encoded effectors, plant TIR-NB-LRR immune receptors induce defense signaling by a largely unknown mechanism. We identify a novel and conserved role for the SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN (SBP-domain transcription factor SPL6 in enabling the activation of the defense transcriptome following its association with a nuclear-localized immune receptor. During an active immune response, the Nicotiana TIR-NB-LRR N immune receptor associates with NbSPL6 within distinct nuclear compartments. NbSPL6 is essential for the N-mediated resistance to Tobacco mosaic virus. Similarly, the presumed Arabidopsis ortholog AtSPL6 is required for the resistance mediated by the TIR-NB-LRR RPS4 against Pseudomonas syringae carrying the avrRps4 effector. Transcriptome analysis indicates that AtSPL6 positively regulates a subset of defense genes. A pathogen-activated nuclear-localized TIR-NB-LRR like N can therefore regulate defense genes through SPL6 in a mechanism analogous to the induction of MHC genes by mammalian immune receptors like CIITA and NLRC5.

  3. Regulation of Innate Lymphoid Cells by Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor

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    Shiyang Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With striking similarity to their adaptive T helper cell counterparts, innate lymphoid cells (ILCs represent an emerging family of cell types that express signature transcription factors, including T-bet+ Eomes+ natural killer cells, T-bet+ Eomes− group 1 ILCs, GATA3+ group 2 ILCs, RORγt+ group 3 ILCs, and newly identified Id3+ regulatory ILC. ILCs are abundantly present in barrier tissues of the host (e.g., the lung, gut, and skin at the interface of host–environment interactions. Active research has been conducted to elucidate molecular mechanisms underlying the development and function of ILCs. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr is a ligand-dependent transcription factor, best known to mediate the effects of xenobiotic environmental toxins and endogenous microbial and dietary metabolites. Here, we review recent progresses regarding Ahr function in ILCs. We focus on the Ahr-mediated cross talk between ILCs and other immune/non-immune cells in host tissues especially in the gut. We discuss the molecular mechanisms of the action of Ahr expression and activity in regulation of ILCs in immunity and inflammation, and the interaction between Ahr and other pathways/transcription factors in ILC development and function with their implication in disease.

  4. Adenoviruses types, cell receptors and local innate cytokines in adenovirus infection.

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    Chen, Rong-Fu; Lee, Chun-Yi

    2014-01-01

    Adenovirus is a common infectious pathogen in both children and adults. It is a significant cause of morbidity in immunocompetent people living in crowded living conditions and of mortality in immunocompromised hosts. It has more recently become a popular vehicle for gene therapy applications. The host response to wild-type infection and gene therapy vector exposure involves both virus entry receptor and the innate immune systems. Cell-mediated recognition of viruses via capsid components has received significant attention, principally thought to be regulated by the coxsackievirus-adenovirus receptor (CAR), CD46, integrins and heparin sulfate-containing proteoglycans. Antiviral innate immune responses are initiated by the infected cell, which activates the interferon response to block viral replication, while simultaneously releasing chemokines to attract neutrophils and NK cells. This review discusses the innate immune response primarily during wild-type adenovirus infection because this serves as the basis for understanding the response during both natural infection and exposure to adenovirus vectors.

  5. Lanosterol Modulates TLR4-Mediated Innate Immune Responses in Macrophages

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    Elisa Araldi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages perform critical functions in both innate immunity and cholesterol metabolism. Here, we report that activation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 in macrophages causes lanosterol, the first sterol intermediate in the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway, to accumulate. This effect is due to type I interferon (IFN-dependent histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1 transcriptional repression of lanosterol-14α-demethylase, the gene product of Cyp51A1. Lanosterol accumulation in macrophages, because of either treatment with ketoconazole or induced conditional disruption of Cyp51A1 in mouse macrophages in vitro, decreases IFNβ-mediated signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT1-STAT2 activation and IFNβ-stimulated gene expression. These effects translate into increased survival to endotoxemic shock by reducing cytokine secretion. In addition, lanosterol accumulation increases membrane fluidity and ROS production, thus potentiating phagocytosis and the ability to kill bacteria. This improves resistance of mice to Listeria monocytogenes infection by increasing bacterial clearance in the spleen and liver. Overall, our data indicate that lanosterol is an endogenous selective regulator of macrophage immunity.

  6. Adenovirus Vector-Derived VA-RNA-Mediated Innate Immune Responses

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    Hiroyuki Mizuguchi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The major limitation of the clinical use of replication-incompetent adenovirus (Ad vectors is the interference by innate immune responses, including induction of inflammatory cytokines and interferons (IFN, following in vivo application of Ad vectors. Ad vector-induced production of inflammatory cytokines and IFNs also results in severe organ damage and efficient induction of acquired immune responses against Ad proteins and transgene products. Ad vector-induced innate immune responses are triggered by the recognition of Ad components by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs. In order to reduce the side effects by Ad vector-induced innate immune responses and to develop safer Ad vectors, it is crucial to clarify which PRRs and which Ad components are involved in Ad vector-induced innate immune responses. Our group previously demonstrated that myeloid differentiating factor 88 (MyD88 and toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9 play crucial roles in the Ad vector-induced inflammatory cytokine production in mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. Furthermore, our group recently found that virus associated-RNAs (VA-RNAs, which are about 160 nucleotide-long non-coding small RNAs encoded in the Ad genome, are involved in IFN production through the IFN-β promoter stimulator-1 (IPS-1-mediated signaling pathway following Ad vector transduction. The aim of this review is to highlight the Ad vector-induced innate immune responses following transduction, especially VA-RNA-mediated innate immune responses. Our findings on the mechanism of Ad vector-induced innate immune responses should make an important contribution to the development of safer Ad vectors, such as an Ad vector lacking expression of VA-RNAs.

  7. Expanding the universe of cytokines and pattern recognition receptors: galectins and glycans in innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerliani, Juan P; Stowell, Sean R; Mascanfroni, Iván D; Arthur, Connie M; Cummings, Richard D; Rabinovich, Gabriel A

    2011-02-01

    Effective immunity relies on the recognition of pathogens and tumors by innate immune cells through diverse pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that lead to initiation of signaling processes and secretion of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Galectins, a family of endogenous lectins widely expressed in infected and neoplastic tissues have emerged as part of the portfolio of soluble mediators and pattern recognition receptors responsible for eliciting and controlling innate immunity. These highly conserved glycan-binding proteins can control immune cell processes through binding to specific glycan structures on pathogens and tumors or by acting intracellularly via modulation of selective signaling pathways. Recent findings demonstrate that various galectin family members influence the fate and physiology of different innate immune cells including polymorphonuclear neutrophils, mast cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells. Moreover, several pathogens may actually utilize galectins as a mechanism of host invasion. In this review, we aim to highlight and integrate recent discoveries that have led to our current understanding of the role of galectins in host-pathogen interactions and innate immunity. Challenges for the future will embrace the rational manipulation of galectin-glycan interactions to instruct and shape innate immunity during microbial infections, inflammation, and cancer.

  8. Mast cell in innate immunity mediated by proinflammatory and antiinflammatory IL-1 family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robuffo, I; Toniato, E; Tettamanti, L; Mastrangelo, F; Ronconi, G; Frydas, I; Caraffa, Al; Kritas, S K; Conti, P

    2017-01-01

    Innate immunity consists of physical and chemical barriers which provide the early defense against infections. Innate immunity orchestrates the defense of the host with cellular and biochemical proteins. Mast cells (MCs) are involved in innate and adaptive immunity and are the first line of defense which generates multiple inflammatory cytokines/chemokines in response to numerous antigens. MC-activated antigen receptor Fc-RI provokes a number of important biochemical pathways with secretion of numerous vasoactive, chemoattractant and inflammatory compounds which participate in allergic and inflammatory diseases. MCs can also be activated by Th1 cytokines and generate pre-formed and de novo inflammatory mediators, including TNF. IL-37 is an anti-inflammatory cytokine which binds IL-18R-alpha chain and reduces the production of inflammatory IL-1 family members. IL-37 down-regulates innate immunity by inhibiting macrophage response and its accumulation and reduces the cytokines that mediate inflammatory diseases. Here, we discuss the relationship between MCs, innate immunity, and pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines.

  9. Viral Inhibition of PRR-Mediated Innate Immune Response: Learning from KSHV Evasion Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Ra; Choi, Un Yung; Hwang, Sung-Woo; Kim, Stephanie; Jung, Jae U

    2016-11-30

    The innate immune system has evolved to detect and destroy invading pathogens before they can establish systemic infection. To successfully eradicate pathogens, including viruses, host innate immunity is activated through diverse pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) which detect conserved viral signatures and trigger the production of type I interferon (IFN) and pro-inflammatory cytokines to mediate viral clearance. Viral persistence requires that viruses co-opt cellular pathways and activities for their benefit. In particular, due to the potent antiviral activities of IFN and cytokines, viruses have developed various strategies to meticulously modulate intracellular innate immune sensing mechanisms to facilitate efficient viral replication and persistence. In this review, we highlight recent advances in the study of viral immune evasion strategies with a specific focus on how Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) effectively targets host PRR signaling pathways.

  10. Decreased Fc receptor expression on innate immune cells is associated with impaired antibody-mediated cellular phagocytic activity in chronically HIV-1 infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugast, Anne-Sophie; Tonelli, Andrew; Berger, Christoph T; Ackerman, Margaret E; Sciaranghella, Gaia; Liu, Qingquan; Sips, Magdalena; Toth, Ildiko; Piechocka-Trocha, Alicja; Ghebremichael, Musie; Alter, Galit

    2011-07-05

    In addition to neutralization, antibodies mediate other antiviral activities including antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP), antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), as well as complement deposition. While it is established that progressive HIV infection is associated with reduced ADCC and ADCP, the underlying mechanism for this loss of function is unknown. Here we report considerable changes in FcR expression over the course of HIV infection on both mDCs and monocytes, including elevated FcγRI expression in acute HIV infection and reduced expression of FcγRII and FcγRIIIa in chronic HIV infection. Furthermore, selective blockade of FcγRII alone was associated with a loss in ADCP activity, suggesting that FcγRII plays a central role in modulating ADCP. Overall, HIV infection is associated with a number of changes in FcR expression on phagocytic cells that are associated with changes in their ability to respond to antibody-opsonized targets, potentially contributing to a failure in viral clearance in progressive HIV-1 infection. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Decreased Fc-Receptor expression on innate immune cells is associated with impaired antibody mediated cellular phagocytic activity in chronically HIV-1 infected individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugast, Anne-Sophie; Tonelli, Andrew; Berger, Christoph T.; Ackerman, Margaret E.; Sciaranghella, Gaia; Liu, Qingquan; Sips, Magdalena; Toth, Ildiko; Piechocka-Trocha, Alicja; Ghebremichael, Musie; Alter, Galit

    2011-01-01

    In addition to neutralization, antibodies mediate other antiviral activities including antibody-dependent cellular-phagocytosis (ADCP), antibody dependent cellular-cytotoxicity (ADCC), as well as complement deposition. While it is established that progressive HIV infection is associated with reduced ADCC and ADCP, the underlying mechanism for this loss of function is unknown. Here we report considerable changes in FcR expression over the course of HIV infection on both mDCs and monocytes, including elevated FcγRI expression in acute HIV infection and reduced expression of FcγRII and FcγRIIIa in chronic HIV infection. Furthermore, selective blockade of FcγRII alone was associated with a loss in ADCP activity, suggesting that FcγRII plays a central role in modulating ADCP. Overall, HIV infection is associated with a number of changes in FcR expression on phagocytic cells that are associated with changes in their ability to respond to antibody-opsonized targets, potentially contributing to a failure in viral clearance in progressive HIV-1 infection. PMID:21565376

  12. SAP-Dependent and -Independent Regulation of Innate T Cell Development Involving SLAMF Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Calisto, Jaime; Wang, Ninghai; Wang, Guoxing; Yigit, Burcu; Engel, Pablo; Terhorst, Cox

    2014-01-01

    Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein (SAP) plays an essential role in the immune system mediating the function of several members of the SLAM family (SLAMF) of receptors, whose expression is essential for T, NK, and B-cell responses. Additionally, the expression of SAP in double-positive thymocytes is mandatory for natural killer T (NKT) cells and, in mouse, for innate CD8(+) T cell development. To date, only two members of the SLAMF of receptors, Slamf1 and Slamf6, have been shown to positively cooperate during NKT cell differentiation in mouse. However, it is less clear whether other members of this family may also participate in the development of these innate T cells. Here, we show that Slamf[1 + 6](-/-) and Slamf[1 + 5 + 6](-/-) B6 mice have ~70% reduction of NKT cells compared to wild-type B6 mice. Unexpectedly, the proportion of innate CD8(+) T cells slightly increased in the Slamf[1 + 5 + 6](-/-) , but not in the Slamf[1 + 6](-/-) strain, suggesting that Slamf5 may function as a negative regulator of innate CD8(+) T cell development. Accordingly, Slamf5(-/-) B6 mice showed an exclusive expansion of innate CD8(+) T cells, but not NKT cells. Interestingly, the SAP-independent Slamf7(-/-) strain showed an expansion of both splenic innate CD8(+) T cells and thymic NKT cells. On the other hand, and similar to what was recently shown in Slamf3(-/-) BALB/c mice, the proportions of thymic promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF(hi)) NKT cells and innate CD8(+) T cells significantly increased in the SAP-independent Slamf8(-/-) BALB/c strain. In summary, these results show that NKT and innate CD8(+) T cell development can be regulated in a SAP-dependent and -independent fashion by SLAMF receptors, in which Slamf1, Slamf6, and Slamf8 affect development of NKT cells, and that Slamf5, Slamf7, and Slamf8 affect the development of innate CD8(+) T cells.

  13. TLR4 links podocytes with the innate immune system to mediate glomerular injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banas, Miriam C; Banas, Bernhard; Hudkins, Kelly L

    2008-01-01

    profile of chemokines. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that TLR4 is constitutively expressed by podocytes and is upregulated in MPGN, where it may mediate glomerular injury by modulating expression of chemokines; therefore, TLR4 may link podocytes with the innate immune system to mediate MPGN triggered......Toll-like receptors (TLR) classically recognize pathogen-associated danger signals but are also activated via endogenous ligands. For evaluation of their role in inflammatory kidney disease, the function of TLR was analyzed in two mouse models of cryoglobulinemic membranoproliferative...... by the deposition of immune complexes....

  14. DMPD: IRAK1: a critical signaling mediator of innate immunity. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17890055 IRAK1: a critical signaling mediator of innate immunity. Gottipati S, Rao ...NL, Fung-Leung WP. Cell Signal. 2008 Feb;20(2):269-76. Epub 2007 Aug 23. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show IRAK1: a critical sign...aling mediator of innate immunity. PubmedID 17890055 Title IRAK1: a critical signaling

  15. Targeting the innate repair receptor to treat neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Dahan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The innate repair receptor (IRR is a heteromer of the erythropoietin receptor and the β-common (CD131 receptor, which simultaneously activates anti-inflammatory and tissue repair pathways. Experimental data suggest that after peripheral nerve injury, the IRR is upregulated in the spinal cord and modulates the neurogenic inflammatory response. The recently introduced selective IRR agonist ARA290 is an 11-amino acid peptide initially tested in animal models of neuropathy. After sciatic nerve injury, ARA290 produced a rapid and long-term relief of mechanical and cold allodynia in normal mice, but not in animals with a β-common receptor knockout phenotype. In humans, ARA290 has been evaluated in patients with small fiber neuropathy associated with sarcoidosis or type 2 diabetes (T2D mellitus. In patients with sarcoidosis, ARA290 significantly improved neuropathic and autonomic symptoms, as well as quality of life as assessed by the small fiber neuropathy screening list questionnaire. In addition, ARA290 treatment for 28 days initiated a regrowth of small nerve fibers in the cornea, but not in the epidermis. In patients with T2D, the results were similar to those observed in patients with sarcoidosis along with an improved metabolic profile. In both populations, ARA290 lacked significant adverse effects. These experimental and clinical studies show that ARA290 effectively reprograms a proinflammatory, tissue-damaging milieu into one of healing and tissue repair. Further clinical trials with long-term treatment and follow-up are needed to assess the full potential of IRR activation by ARA290 as a disease-modifying therapy in neuropathy of various etiologies.

  16. The 3 major types of innate and adaptive cell-mediated effector immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annunziato, Francesco; Romagnani, Chiara; Romagnani, Sergio

    2015-03-01

    The immune system has tailored its effector functions to optimally respond to distinct species of microbes. Based on emerging knowledge on the different effector T-cell and innate lymphoid cell (ILC) lineages, it is clear that the innate and adaptive immune systems converge into 3 major kinds of cell-mediated effector immunity, which we propose to categorize as type 1, type 2, and type 3. Type 1 immunity consists of T-bet(+) IFN-γ-producing group 1 ILCs (ILC1 and natural killer cells), CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells (TC1), and CD4(+) TH1 cells, which protect against intracellular microbes through activation of mononuclear phagocytes. Type 2 immunity consists of GATA-3(+) ILC2s, TC2 cells, and TH2 cells producing IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, which induce mast cell, basophil, and eosinophil activation, as well as IgE antibody production, thus protecting against helminthes and venoms. Type 3 immunity is mediated by retinoic acid-related orphan receptor γt(+) ILC3s, TC17 cells, and TH17 cells producing IL-17, IL-22, or both, which activate mononuclear phagocytes but also recruit neutrophils and induce epithelial antimicrobial responses, thus protecting against extracellular bacteria and fungi. On the other hand, type 1 and 3 immunity mediate autoimmune diseases, whereas type 2 responses can cause allergic diseases. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. 4T1 Murine Mammary Carcinoma Cells Enhance Macrophage-Mediated Innate Inflammatory Responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Madera

    Full Text Available Tumor progression and the immune response are intricately linked. While it is known that cancers alter macrophage inflammatory responses to promote tumor progression, little is known regarding how cancers affect macrophage-dependent innate host defense. In this study, murine bone-marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM were exposed to murine carcinoma-conditioned media prior to assessment of the macrophage inflammatory response. BMDMs exposed to 4T1 mammary carcinoma-conditioned medium demonstrated enhanced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-6, and CCL2 in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS while production of interleukin-10 remained unchanged. The increased LPS-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines was transient and correlated with enhanced cytokine production in response to other Toll-like receptor agonists, including peptidoglycan and flagellin. In addition, 4T1-conditioned BMDMs exhibited strengthened LPS-induced nitric oxide production and enhanced phagocytosis of Escherichia coli. 4T1-mediated augmentation of macrophage responses to LPS was partially dependent on the NFκB pathway, macrophage-colony stimulating factor, and actin polymerization, as well as the presence of 4T1-secreted extracellular vesicles. Furthermore, peritoneal macrophages obtained from 4T1 tumor-bearing mice displayed enhanced pro-inflammatory cytokine production in response to LPS. These results suggest that uptake of 4T1-secreted factors and actin-mediated ingestion of 4T1-secreted exosomes by macrophages cause a transient enhancement of innate inflammatory responses. Mammary carcinoma-mediated regulation of innate immunity may have significant implications for our understanding of host defense and cancer progression.

  18. Another Armament in Gut Immunity: Lymphotoxin-Mediated Crosstalk between Innate Lymphoid and Dendritic Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spits, H.

    2011-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are novel players in innate immunity. Tumanov et al. (Tumanov et al., 2011) demonstrate that crosstalk between ILCs and dendritic cells involving membrane-bound lymphotoxin in ILCs and its receptor is critical for protection against colitogenic bacteria

  19. Toll-like receptors are part of the innate immune defense system of sponges (demospongiae: Porifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, Matthias; Korzhev, Michael; Perovic-Ottstadt, Sanja; Luthringer, Bérengère; Brandt, David; Klein, Stefanie; Müller, Werner E G

    2007-03-01

    During evolution and with the emergence of multicellular animals, the need arose to ward off foreign organisms that threaten the integrity of the animal body. Among many different receptors that participate in the recognition of microbial invaders, toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an essential role in mediating the innate immune response. After binding distinct microbial components, TLRs activate intracellular signaling cascades that result in an induced expression of diverse antimicrobial molecules. Because sponges (phylum Porifera) are filter feeders, they are abundantly exposed to microorganisms that represent a potential threat. Here, we describe the identification, cloning, and deduced protein sequence from 3 major elements of the poriferan innate response (to bacterial lipopeptides): the TLR, the IL-1 receptor-associated kinase-4-like protein (IRAK-4l), and a novel effector caspase from the demosponge Suberites domuncula. Each molecule shares significant sequence similarity with its homologues in higher Metazoa. Sequence homologies were found in particular within the family-specific domains toll/interleukin-1 receptor/resistance (TLR family), Ser/Thr/Tyr kinase domain (IRAK family), and CASc (caspase family). In addition, in situ hybridization and immunohistological analyses revealed an abundance of SDTLR (TLR) transcripts in epithelial layers of the sponge surface (exopinacoderm and endopinacoderm). Furthermore, it is shown that both SDTLR and SDIRAK-4 like (IRAK) are expressed constitutively, regardless of treatment with synthetic triacyl lipopeptide Pam(3)Cys-Ser-(Lys)(4). In contrast, SDCASL (caspase) expression is highly Pam(3)Cys-Ser-(Lys)(4) inducible. However, blocking of the lipopeptide with recombinant TLR prior to its application completely prevented the induced expression of this poriferan caspase. These results underscore that the phylogenetically oldest extant metazoan phylum is provided already with the signaling pathways of the antimicrobial

  20. Role of Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells in the Activation of Innate Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Matveyeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The innate immune system plays a key role in triggering a systemic inflammatory response (SIR. The triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM-1, which is located on neutrophils and monocytes, is involved in SIR, by regulating the effector mechanisms of innate immunity. Hyperproduction of proinflammatory cytokines is a pathogenetic component of the hyperergic phase of acute systemic inflammation. The simultaneous activation of Toll-like receptors and TREM-1 increases the production of cytokines manifold. This is compensatory and adaptive, however, resulting in damage to organs and tissues during excessive production of cytokines. Key words: triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells, Toll-like receptors, cytokines, inflammation.

  1. Subversion of innate immunity by periodontopathic bacteria via exploitation of complement receptor-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajishengallis, George; Wang, Min; Liang, Shuang; Shakhatreh, Muhamad-Ali K; James, Deanna; Nishiyama, So-ichiro; Yoshimura, Fuminobu; Demuth, Donald R

    2008-01-01

    The capacity of certain pathogens to exploit innate immune receptors enables them to undermine immune clearance and persist in their host, often causing disease. Here we review subversive interactions of Porphyromonas gingivalis, a major periodontal pathogen, with the complement receptor-3 (CR3; CD11b/CD18) in monocytes/macrophages. Through its cell surface fimbriae, P. gingivalis stimulates Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2) inside-out signaling which induces the high-affinity conformation of CR3. Although this activates CR3-dependent monocyte adhesion and transendothelial migration, P. gingivalis has co-opted this TLR2 proadhesive pathway for CR3 binding and intracellular entry. In CR3-deficient macrophages, the internalization of P. gingivalis is reduced twofold but its ability to survive intracellularly is reduced 1,000-fold, indicating that CR3 is exploited by the pathogen as a relatively safe portal of entry. The interaction of P. gingivalis fimbriae with CR3 additionally inhibits production of bioactive (p70) interleukin-12, which mediates immune clearance. In vivo blockade of CR3 leads to reduced persistence of P. gingivalis in the mouse host and diminished ability to cause periodontal bone loss, the hallmark of periodontal disease. Strikingly, the ability of P. gingivalis to interact with and exploit CR3 depends upon quantitatively minor components (FimCDE) of its fimbrial structure, which predominantly consists of polymerized fimbrillin (FimA). Indeed, isogenic mutants lacking FimCDE but expressing FimA are dramatically less persistent and virulent than the wildtype organism both in vitro and in vivo. This model of immune evasion through CR3 exploitation by P. gingivalis supports the concept that pathogens evolved to manipulate innate immune function for promoting their adaptive fitness.

  2. PPARγ and the Innate Immune System Mediate the Resolution of Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Croasdell

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The resolution of inflammation is an active and dynamic process, mediated in large part by the innate immune system. Resolution represents not only an increase in anti-inflammatory actions, but also a paradigm shift in immune cell function to restore homeostasis. PPARγ, a ligand activated transcription factor, has long been studied for its anti-inflammatory actions, but an emerging body of literature is investigating the role of PPARγ and its ligands (including thiazolidinediones, prostaglandins, and oleanolic acids in all phases of resolution. PPARγ can shift production from pro- to anti-inflammatory mediators by neutrophils, platelets, and macrophages. PPARγ and its ligands further modulate platelet and neutrophil function, decreasing trafficking, promoting neutrophil apoptosis, and preventing platelet-leukocyte interactions. PPARγ alters macrophage trafficking, increases efferocytosis and phagocytosis, and promotes alternative M2 macrophage activation. There are also roles for this receptor in the adaptive immune response, particularly regarding B cells. These effects contribute towards the attenuation of multiple disease states, including COPD, colitis, Alzheimer’s disease, and obesity in animal models. Finally, novel specialized proresolving mediators—eicosanoids with critical roles in resolution—may act through PPARγ modulation to promote resolution, providing another exciting area of therapeutic potential for this receptor.

  3. Retinal photoreceptor expresses toll-like receptors (TLRs and elicits innate responses following TLR ligand and bacterial challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan Kumar Singh

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptors (TLRs play an important role in host defense against microbial pathogens. Our previous studies have shown that TLRs are expressed on various retinal cells (Microglia and Müller glia and orchestrate retinal innate responses in bacterial endophthalmitis. In this study, we used a well-characterized mouse cone photoreceptor cell line (661W; and demonstrated that these cells express all known TLRs. Although the stimulation of 661W cells with TLR ligands (Pam3Cys, PolyI:C, LPS, Flagellin, Poly DT, and ODN did not alter TLR expression, downstream TLR-signaling pathways (NF-κB, p38, and ERK are activated. Moreover, TLR-activated 661W cells secreted significant amounts of inflammatory mediators (IL-6, IL-1β, MIP-2, and KC in their culture supernatant, as assessed by ELISA. A similar trend was observed in 661W cells challenged with live bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus. Interestingly, the neutralization of TLR2, a major receptor for S. aureus recognition, did not significantly attenuate bacterial-induced inflammatory mediators, suggesting the existence of TLR2-independent mechanisms in photoreceptor cells. Together, these results indicate that photoreceptors constitutively express functional TLRs and possess the ability to initiate innate responses following pathogen challenge, implicating their role in retinal innate immunity.

  4. Axl Mediates ZIKA Virus Entry in Human Glial Cells and Modulates Innate Immune Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meertens, Laurent; Labeau, Athena; Dejarnac, Ophelie; Cipriani, Sara; Sinigaglia, Laura; Bonnet-Madin, Lucie; Le Charpentier, Tifenn; Hafirassou, Mohamed Lamine; Zamborlini, Alessia; Cao-Lormeau, Van-Mai; Coulpier, Muriel; Missé, Dorothée; Jouvenet, Nolwenn; Tabibiazar, Ray; Gressens, Pierre; Schwartz, Olivier; Amara, Ali

    2017-01-10

    ZIKA virus (ZIKV) is an emerging pathogen responsible for neurological disorders and congenital microcephaly. However, the molecular basis for ZIKV neurotropism remains poorly understood. Here, we show that Axl is expressed in human microglia and astrocytes in the developing brain and that it mediates ZIKV infection of glial cells. Axl-mediated ZIKV entry requires the Axl ligand Gas6, which bridges ZIKV particles to glial cells. Following binding, ZIKV is internalized through clathrin-mediated endocytosis and traffics to Rab5+ endosomes to establish productive infection. During entry, the ZIKV/Gas6 complex activates Axl kinase activity, which downmodulates interferon signaling and facilitates infection. ZIKV infection of human glial cells is inhibited by MYD1, an engineered Axl decoy receptor, and by the Axl kinase inhibitor R428. Our results highlight the dual role of Axl during ZIKV infection of glial cells: promoting viral entry and modulating innate immune responses. Therefore, inhibiting Axl function may represent a potential target for future antiviral therapies. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Axl Mediates ZIKA Virus Entry in Human Glial Cells and Modulates Innate Immune Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Meertens

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ZIKA virus (ZIKV is an emerging pathogen responsible for neurological disorders and congenital microcephaly. However, the molecular basis for ZIKV neurotropism remains poorly understood. Here, we show that Axl is expressed in human microglia and astrocytes in the developing brain and that it mediates ZIKV infection of glial cells. Axl-mediated ZIKV entry requires the Axl ligand Gas6, which bridges ZIKV particles to glial cells. Following binding, ZIKV is internalized through clathrin-mediated endocytosis and traffics to Rab5+ endosomes to establish productive infection. During entry, the ZIKV/Gas6 complex activates Axl kinase activity, which downmodulates interferon signaling and facilitates infection. ZIKV infection of human glial cells is inhibited by MYD1, an engineered Axl decoy receptor, and by the Axl kinase inhibitor R428. Our results highlight the dual role of Axl during ZIKV infection of glial cells: promoting viral entry and modulating innate immune responses. Therefore, inhibiting Axl function may represent a potential target for future antiviral therapies.

  6. Expression of the innate defense receptor S5D-SRCRB in the urogenital tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miro-Julia, C.; Escoda-Ferran, C.; Carrasco, E.

    2014-01-01

    S5D-SRCRB is a novel mouse secretory glycoprotein belonging to the ancient and highly conserved scavenger receptor cysteine-rich superfamily of protein receptors. Available evidence indicates that S5D-SRCRB interacts with conserved microbial cell wall components, as well as with some endogenous...... component of the urogenital tract involved in innate immune functions....

  7. DMPD: Toll-like receptors are key participants in innate immune responses. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18064347 Toll-like receptors are key participants in innate immune responses. Aranc...Epub 2007 Nov 21. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Toll-like receptors are key participants in innate immu...ne responses. PubmedID 18064347 Title Toll-like receptors are key participants in

  8. DMPD: Innate immunity and toll-like receptors: clinical implications of basic scienceresearch. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15069387 Innate immunity and toll-like receptors: clinical implications of basic science...te immunity and toll-like receptors: clinical implications of basic scienceresearch. PubmedID 15069387 Title... Innate immunity and toll-like receptors: clinical implications of basic sciencer

  9. Divergent Roles of Interferon-γ and Innate Lymphoid Cells in Innate and Adaptive Immune Cell-Mediated Intestinal Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasseit, Jennifer; Kwong Chung, Cheong K. C.; Noti, Mario; Zysset, Daniel; Hoheisel-Dickgreber, Nina; Genitsch, Vera; Corazza, Nadia; Mueller, Christoph

    2018-01-01

    Aberrant interferon gamma (IFNγ) expression is associated with the pathogenesis of numerous autoimmune- and inflammatory disorders, including inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). However, the requirement of IFNγ for the pathogenesis of chronic intestinal inflammation remains controversial. The aim of this study was thus to investigate the role of IFNγ in experimental mouse models of innate and adaptive immune cell-mediated intestinal inflammation using genetically and microbiota-stabilized hosts. While we find that IFNγ drives acute intestinal inflammation in the anti-CD40 colitis model in an innate lymphoid cell (ILC)-dependent manner, IFNγ secreted by both transferred CD4 T cells and/or cells of the lymphopenic Rag1−/− recipient mice was dispensable for CD4 T cell-mediated colitis. In the absence of IFNγ, intestinal inflammation in CD4 T cell recipient mice was associated with enhanced IL17 responses; consequently, targeting IL17 signaling in IFNγ-deficient mice reduced T cell-mediated colitis. Intriguingly, in contrast to the anti-CD40 model of colitis, depletion of ILC in the Rag1−/− recipients of colitogenic CD4 T cells did not prevent induction of colonic inflammation. Together, our findings demonstrate that IFNγ represents an essential, or a redundant, pro-inflammatory cytokine for the induction of intestinal inflammation, depending on the experimental mouse model used and on the nature of the critical disease inducing immune cell populations involved. PMID:29416538

  10. Interleukin-7 receptor blockade suppresses adaptive and innate inflammatory responses in experimental colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willis Cynthia R

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interleukin-7 (IL-7 acts primarily on T cells to promote their differentiation, survival, and homeostasis. Under disease conditions, IL-7 mediates inflammation through several mechanisms and cell types. In humans, IL-7 and its receptor (IL-7R are increased in diseases characterized by inflammation such as atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, multiple sclerosis, and inflammatory bowel disease. In mice, overexpression of IL-7 results in chronic colitis, and T-cell adoptive transfer studies suggest that memory T cells expressing high amounts of IL-7R drive colitis and are maintained and expanded with IL-7. The studies presented here were undertaken to better understand the contribution of IL-7R in inflammatory bowel disease in which colitis was induced with a bacterial trigger rather than with adoptive transfer. Methods We examined the contribution of IL-7R on inflammation and disease development in two models of experimental colitis: Helicobacter bilis (Hb-induced colitis in immune-sufficient Mdr1a−/− mice and in T- and B-cell-deficient Rag2−/− mice. We used pharmacological blockade of IL-7R to understand the mechanisms involved in IL-7R-mediated inflammatory bowel disease by analyzing immune cell profiles, circulating and colon proteins, and colon gene expression. Results Treatment of mice with an anti-IL-7R antibody was effective in reducing colitis in Hb-infected Mdr1a−/− mice by reducing T-cell numbers as well as T-cell function. Down regulation of the innate immune response was also detected in Hb-infected Mdr1a−/− mice treated with an anti-IL-7R antibody. In Rag2−/− mice where colitis was triggered by Hb-infection, treatment with an anti-IL-7R antibody controlled innate inflammatory responses by reducing macrophage and dendritic cell numbers and their activity. Conclusions Results from our studies showed that inhibition of IL-7R successfully ameliorated inflammation and disease development

  11. Innate Immune Evasion Mediated by Flaviviridae Non-Structural Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shun; Wu, Zhen; Wang, Mingshu; Cheng, Anchun

    2017-10-07

    Flaviviridae-caused diseases are a critical, emerging public health problem worldwide. Flaviviridae infections usually cause severe, acute or chronic diseases, such as liver damage and liver cancer resulting from a hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and high fever and shock caused by yellow fever. Many researchers worldwide are investigating the mechanisms by which Flaviviridae cause severe diseases. Flaviviridae can interfere with the host's innate immunity to achieve their purpose of proliferation. For instance, dengue virus (DENV) NS2A, NS2B3, NS4A, NS4B and NS5; HCV NS2, NS3, NS3/4A, NS4B and NS5A; and West Nile virus (WNV) NS1 and NS4B proteins are involved in immune evasion. This review discusses the interplay between viral non-structural Flaviviridae proteins and relevant host proteins, which leads to the suppression of the host's innate antiviral immunity.

  12. Antimicrobial Peptides as Mediators of Innate Immunity in Teleosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara A. Katzenback

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs have been identified throughout the metazoa suggesting their evolutionarily conserved nature and their presence in teleosts is no exception. AMPs are short (18–46 amino acids, usually cationic, amphipathic peptides. While AMPs are diverse in amino acid sequence, with no two AMPs being identical, they collectively appear to have conserved functions in the innate immunity of animals towards the pathogens they encounter in their environment. Fish AMPs are upregulated in response to pathogens and appear to have direct broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity towards both human and fish pathogens. However, an emerging role for AMPs as immunomodulatory molecules has become apparent—the ability of AMPs to activate the innate immune system sheds light onto the multifaceted capacity of these small peptides to combat pathogens through direct and indirect means. Herein, this review focuses on the role of teleost AMPs as modulators of the innate immune system and their regulation in response to pathogens or other exogenous molecules. The capacity to regulate AMP expression by exogenous factors may prove useful in modulating AMP expression in fish to prevent disease, particularly in aquaculture settings where crowded conditions and environmental stress pre-dispose these fish to infection.

  13. DMPD: Innate recognition of lipopolysaccharide by Toll-like receptor 4-MD-2. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15051069 Innate recognition of lipopolysaccharide by Toll-like receptor 4-MD-2. Miyake K. Trends Microbiol...de by Toll-like receptor 4-MD-2. Authors Miyake K. Publication Trends Microbiol.

  14. Stimulation of the innate immune system of carp: role of Toll-like receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pietretti, D.

    2013-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs), named after the Toll gene identified in fruit flies, are a family of evolutionary conserved proteins that play a key role in the innate immune system. TLRs are found inside or on the surface of immune cells of virtually all-living animals and recognize integral parts

  15. Houttuynia cordata modulates oral innate immune mediators: potential role of herbal plant on oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satthakarn, S; Chung, W O; Promsong, A; Nittayananta, W

    2015-05-01

    Epithelial cells play an active role in oral innate immunity by producing various immune mediators. Houttuynia cordata Thunb (H. cordata), a herbal plant found in Asia, possesses many activities. However, its impacts on oral innate immunity have never been reported. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of H. cordata extract on the expression of innate immune mediators produced by oral epithelial cells. Primary gingival epithelial cells (GECs) were treated with various concentrations of the extract for 18 h. The gene expression of hBD2, SLPI, cytokines, and chemokines was measured using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. The secreted proteins in the culture supernatants were detected by ELISA or Luminex assay. Cytotoxicity of the extract was assessed using CellTiter-Blue Assay. H. cordata significantly induced the expression of hBD2, SLPI, IL-8, and CCL20 in a dose-dependent manner without cytotoxicity. The secreted hBD2 and SLPI proteins were modulated, and the levels of IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, and IFN-γ were significantly induced by the extract. Our data indicated that H. cordata can modulate oral innate immune mediators. These findings may lead to the development of new topical agents from H. cordata for the prevention and treatment of immune-mediated oral diseases. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Targeting innate receptors with MIS416 reshapes Th responses and suppresses CNS disease in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis.

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    Madeleine White

    Full Text Available Modification of the innate immune cell environment has recently been recognized as a viable treatment strategy for reducing autoimmune disease pathology. MIS416 is a microparticulate immune response modifier that targets myeloid cells, activating cytosolic receptors NOD2 and TLR9, and has completed a phase 1b/2a trial for the treatment of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. Using a mouse model of multiple sclerosis, we are investigating the pathways by which activation of TLR9 and NOD2 may modify the innate immune environment and the subsequent T cell-mediated autoimmune responses. We have found that MIS416 has profound effects on the Th subset balance by depressing antigen-specific Th1, Th17, and Th2 development. These effects coincided with an expansion of specific myeloid subpopulations and increased levels of MIS416-stimulated IFN-γ by splenocytes. Additionally, systemic IFN-γ serum levels were enhanced and correlated strongly with disease reduction, and the protective effect of MIS416 was abrogated in IFN-γ-deficient animals. Finally, treatment of secondary progressive MS patients with MIS416 similarly elevated the levels of IFN-γ and IFN-γ-associated proteins in the serum. Together, these studies demonstrate that administration of MIS416, which targets innate cells, reshapes autoimmune T cell responses and leads to a significant reduction in CNS inflammation and disease.

  17. Pattern Recognition Receptors and the Innate Immune Response to Viral Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A. Fitzgerald

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The innate immune response to viral pathogens is critical in order to mobilize protective immunity. Cells of the innate immune system detect viral infection largely through germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs present either on the cell surface or within distinct intracellular compartments. These include the Toll-like receptors (TLRs, the retinoic acid-inducble gene I-like receptors (RLRs, the nucleotide oligomerization domain-like receptors (NLRs, also called NACHT, LRR and PYD domain proteins and cytosolic DNA sensors. While in certain cases viral proteins are the trigger of these receptors, the predominant viral activators are nucleic acids. The presence of viral sensing PRRs in multiple cellular compartments allows innate cells to recognize and quickly respond to a broad range of viruses, which replicate in different cellular compartments. Here, we review the role of PRRs and associated signaling pathways in detecting viral pathogens in order to evoke production of interferons and cytokines. By highlighting recent progress in these areas, we hope to convey a greater understanding of how viruses activate PRR signaling and how this interaction shapes the anti-viral immune response.

  18. FC GAMMA RECEPTORS IN RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS INFECTIONS: IMPLICATIONS FOR INNATE IMMUNITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jans, Jop; Vissers, Marloes; Heldens, Jacco G.M.; de Jonge, Marien I.; Levy, Ofer; Ferwerda, Gerben

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Respiratory syncytial virus infections are a major burden in infants less than 3 months of age. Newborns and infants express a distinct immune system that is largely dependent on innate immunity and passive immunity from maternal antibodies. Antibodies can regulate immune responses against viruses through interaction with Fc gamma receptors leading to enhancement or neutralization of viral infections. The mechanisms underlying the immunomodulatory effect of Fc gamma receptors on viral infections have yet to be elucidated in infants. Herein, we will discuss current knowledge of the effects of antibodies and Fc gamma receptors on infant innate immunity to RSV. A better understanding of the pathogenesis of RSV infections in young infants may provide insight into novel therapeutic strategies like vaccination. PMID:24227634

  19. Receptor-like kinase complexes in plant innate immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiaan eGreeff

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Receptor-like kinases (RLKs are surface localized, transmembrane receptors comprising a large family of well-studied kinases. RLKs signal through their transmembrane and juxtamembrane domains with the aid of various interacting partners and downstream components. The N-terminal extracellular domain defines ligand specificity, and RLK families are sub-classed according to this domain. The most studied of these subfamilies include those with 1 leucine rich repeat (LRR domains, 2 LysM domains (LYM and 3 the Catharanthus roseus RLK1-like (CrRLK1L domain. These proteins recognize distinct ligands of microbial origin or ligands derived from intracellular protein/carbohydrate signals. For example, the pattern recognition receptor (PRR AtFLS2 recognizes flg22 from flagellin, and the PRR AtEFR recognizes elf18 from elongation factor (EF-Tu. Upon binding of their cognate ligands, the aforementioned RLKs activate generic immune responses termed pattern triggered immunity (PTI. RLKs can form complexes with other family members and engage a variety of intracellular signaling components and regulatory pathways upon stimulation. This review focuses on interesting new data about how these receptors form protein complexes to exert their function.

  20. Innate immune receptors in carp: recognition of protozoan parasites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro, C.M.S.

    2010-01-01

    This PhD thesis reports on pattern recognition receptors involved in the immune responses of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to two protozoan parasites Trypanoplasma borreli and Trypanosoma carassii. The immune responses of carp are fundamentally different when comparing these two extracellular blood

  1. An Overview of Pathogen Recognition Receptors for Innate Immunity in Dental Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hyun Jang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs are a class of germ line-encoded receptors that recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs. The activation of PRRs is crucial for the initiation of innate immunity, which plays a key role in first-line defense until more specific adaptive immunity is developed. PRRs differ in the signaling cascades and host responses activated by their engagement and in their tissue distribution. Currently identified PRR families are the Toll-like receptors (TLRs, the C-type lectin receptors (CLRs, the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors (NLRs, the retinoic acid-inducible gene-I-like receptors (RLRs, and the AIM2-like receptor (ALR. The environment of the dental pulp is substantially different from that of other tissues of the body. Dental pulp resides in a low compliance root canal system that limits the expansion of pulpal tissues during inflammatory processes. An understanding of the PRRs in dental pulp is important for immunomodulation and hence for developing therapeutic targets in the field of endodontics. Here we comprehensively review recent finding on the PRRs and the mechanisms by which innate immunity is activated. We focus on the PRRs expressed on dental pulp and periapical tissues and their role in dental pulp inflammation.

  2. DAMP-Mediated Innate Immune Failure and Pneumonia after Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AMP , CD39, Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), Trauma Patients, Acute Lung Injury, Pneumonia, Oligonucleotides, CyTOF, Computational Modeling, Signal...experimental and clinical/translational studies to define interactions between purinergic signaling mediators (ATP, AMP , Ado, inosine) with oxygen, oxidative...genetic deletion (Figure 1A) • Increase in ATP and ADP hydrolysis and decrease in AMP hydrolysis in peritoneal cells from CLP septic mice (Figure 1B

  3. Antiviral Protection via RdRP-Mediated Stable Activation of Innate Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Meghan M; Morrison, James H; Zoecklein, Laurie J; Rinkoski, Tommy A; Watzlawik, Jens O; Papke, Louisa M; Warrington, Arthur E; Bieber, Allan J; Matchett, William E; Turkowski, Kari L; Poeschla, Eric M; Rodriguez, Moses

    2015-12-01

    For many emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, definitive solutions via sterilizing adaptive immunity may require years or decades to develop, if they are even possible. The innate immune system offers alternative mechanisms that do not require antigen-specific recognition or a priori knowledge of the causative agent. However, it is unclear whether effective stable innate immune system activation can be achieved without triggering harmful autoimmunity or other chronic inflammatory sequelae. Here, we show that transgenic expression of a picornavirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP), in the absence of other viral proteins, can profoundly reconfigure mammalian innate antiviral immunity by exposing the normally membrane-sequestered RdRP activity to sustained innate immune detection. RdRP-transgenic mice have life-long, quantitatively dramatic upregulation of 80 interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) and show profound resistance to normally lethal viral challenge. Multiple crosses with defined knockout mice (Rag1, Mda5, Mavs, Ifnar1, Ifngr1, and Tlr3) established that the mechanism operates via MDA5 and MAVS and is fully independent of the adaptive immune system. Human cell models recapitulated the key features with striking fidelity, with the RdRP inducing an analogous ISG network and a strict block to HIV-1 infection. This RdRP-mediated antiviral mechanism does not depend on secondary structure within the RdRP mRNA but operates at the protein level and requires RdRP catalysis. Importantly, despite lifelong massive ISG elevations, RdRP mice are entirely healthy, with normal longevity. Our data reveal that a powerfully augmented MDA5-mediated activation state can be a well-tolerated mammalian innate immune system configuration. These results provide a foundation for augmenting innate immunity to achieve broad-spectrum antiviral protection.

  4. LKB1 mediates the development of conventional and innate T cells via AMP-dependent kinase autonomous pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marouan Zarrouk

    Full Text Available The present study has examined the role of the serine/threonine kinase LKB1 in the survival and differentiation of CD4/8 double positive thymocytes. LKB1-null DPs can respond to signals from the mature α/β T-cell-antigen receptor and initiate positive selection. However, in the absence of LKB1, thymocytes fail to mature to conventional single positive cells causing severe lymphopenia in the peripheral lymphoid tissues. LKB1 thus appears to be dispensable for positive selection but important for the maturation of positively selected thymocytes. LKB1 also strikingly prevented the development of invariant Vα14 NKT cells and innate TCR αβ gut lymphocytes. Previous studies with gain of function mutants have suggested that the role of LKB1 in T cell development is mediated by its substrate the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK. The present study now analyses the impact of AMPK deletion in DP thymocytes and shows that the role of LKB1 during the development of both conventional and innate T cells is mediated by AMPK-independent pathways.

  5. Toll-like receptor 11-initiated innate immune response in male mouse germ cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiaoyuan; Zhu, Weiwei; Liu, Zhenghui; Yan, Keqin; Zhao, Shutao; Han, Daishu

    2014-02-01

    Toxoplasma gondii and uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) may infect the testis and impair testicular function. Mechanisms underlying testicular innate immune response to these two pathogens remain to be clarified. The present study examined the function of TLR11, which can be recognized by T. gondii-derived profilin and UPEC, in initiating innate immune response in male mouse germ cells. TLR11 is predominantly expressed in spermatids. Profilin and UPEC induced the expressions of different inflammatory cytokine profiles in the germ cells. In particular, profilin induced the expressions of macrophage chemotactic protein 1 (MCP1), interleukin 12 (IL12), and interferon gamma (IFNG) through nuclear factor KB (NFKB) activation. UPEC induced the expressions of MCP1, IL12, and IFNG, as well as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFA), IL6, and IFNB, through the activation of NFKB, IFN regulatory factor 3, and mitogen-activated protein kinases. Evidence showed that profilin induced the innate response in male germ cells through TLR11 signaling, and UPEC triggered the response through TLR11 and other TLR-signaling pathways. We also provided evidence that local injection of profilin or UPEC induces the innate immune response in the germ cells. Data describe TLR11-mediated innate immune function of male germ cells in response to T. gondii profilin and UPEC stimulations. This system may play a role in testicular defense against T. gondii and UPEC infections in mice.

  6. Delicate regulation of the cGAS-MITA-mediated innate immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei-Wei; Shu, Hong-Bing

    2018-02-19

    Although it has long been demonstrated that cytosolic DNA is a potent immune stimulant, it is only in recent years that the molecular mechanisms of DNA-stimulated innate immune responses have emerged. Studies have established critical roles for the DNA sensor cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) and the adapter protein MITA/STING in the innate immune response to cytosolic DNA or DNA viruses. Although the regulation of cGAS-MITA/STING-mediated signaling remains to be fully investigated, understanding the processes involved may help to explain the mechanisms of innate immune signaling events and perhaps autoinflammatory diseases and to provide potential therapeutic targets for drug intervention. In this review, we summarize recent progress on the regulation of the cGAS-MITA/STING-mediated innate immune response to DNA viruses at the organelle-trafficking, post-translational and transcriptional levels.Cellular & Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 19 February 2018; doi:10.1038/cmi.2016.51.

  7. A tetrapod-like repertoire of innate immune receptors and effectors for coelacanths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudinot, Pierre; Zou, Jun; Ota, Tatsuya; Buonocore, Francesco; Scapigliati, Giuseppe; Canapa, Adriana; Cannon, John; Litman, Gary; Hansen, John D.

    2014-01-01

    The recent availability of both robust transcriptome and genome resources for coelacanth (Latimeria chalumnae) has led to unique discoveries for coelacanth immunity such as the lack of IgM, a central component of adaptive immunity. This study was designed to more precisely address the origins and evolution of gene families involved in the initial recognition and response to microbial pathogens, which effect innate immunity. Several multigene families involved in innate immunity are addressed, including: Toll-like receptors (TLRs), retinoic acid inducible gene 1 (RIG1)-like receptors (RLRs), the nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat containing proteins (NLRs), diverse immunoglobulin domain-containing proteins (DICP) and modular domain immune-type receptors (MDIRs). Our analyses also include the tripartite motif-containing proteins (TRIM), which are involved in pathogen recognition as well as the positive regulation of antiviral immunity. Finally, this study addressed some of the downstream effectors of the antimicrobial response including IL-1 family members, type I and II interferons (IFN) and IFN-stimulated effectors (ISGs). Collectively, the genes and gene families in coelacanth that effect innate immune functions share characteristics both in content, structure and arrangement with those found in tetrapods but not in teleosts. The findings support the sister group relationship of coelacanth fish with tetrapods.

  8. Regulation of C-Type Lectin Receptor-Mediated Antifungal Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Tang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Of all the pathogen recognition receptor families, C-type lectin receptor (CLR-induced intracellular signal cascades are indispensable for the initiation and regulation of antifungal immunity. Ongoing experiments over the last decade have elicited diverse CLR functions and novel regulatory mechanisms of CLR-mediated-signaling pathways. In this review, we highlight novel insights in antifungal innate and adaptive-protective immunity mediated by CLRs and discuss the potential therapeutic strategies against fungal infection based on targeting the mediators in the host immune system.

  9. Episodic positive selection in the evolution of avian toll-like receptor innate immunity genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grueber, Catherine E; Wallis, Graham P; Jamieson, Ian G

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of conserved pattern-recognition molecules responsible for initiating innate and acquired immune responses. Because they play a key role in host defence, these genes have received increasing interest in the evolutionary and population genetics literature, as their variation represents a potential target of adaptive evolution. However, the role of pathogen-mediated selection (i.e. episodic positive selection) in the evolution of these genes remains poorly known and has not been examined outside of mammals. A recent increase in the number of bird species for which TLR sequences are available has enabled us to examine the selective processes that have influenced evolution of the 10 known avian TLR genes. Specifically, we tested for episodic positive selection to identify codons that experience purifying selection for the majority of their evolution, interspersed with bursts of positive selection that may occur only in restricted lineages. We included up to 23 species per gene (mean = 16.0) and observed that, although purifying selection was evident, an average of 4.5% of codons experienced episodic positive selection across all loci. For four genes in which sequence coverage traversed both the extracellular leucine-rich repeat region (LRR) and transmembrane/intracellular domains of the proteins, increased positive selection was observed at the extracellular domain, consistent with theoretical predictions. Our results provide evidence that episodic positive selection has played an important role in the evolution of most avian TLRs, consistent with the role of these loci in pathogen recognition and a mechanism of host-pathogen coevolution.

  10. Oxidation-specific epitopes are danger-associated molecular patterns recognized by pattern recognition receptors of innate immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Yury I; Choi, Soo-Ho; Wiesner, Philipp

    2011-01-01

    , such as oxidized phospholipids and oxidized cholesteryl esters, and mediate a variety of immune responses, from expression of proinflammatory genes to excessive intracellular lipoprotein accumulation to atheroprotective humoral immunity. These insights may lead to improved understanding of inflammation......Oxidation reactions are vital parts of metabolism and signal transduction. However, they also produce reactive oxygen species, which damage lipids, proteins and DNA, generating "oxidation-specific" epitopes. In this review, we discuss the hypothesis that such common oxidation-specific epitopes...... are a major target of innate immunity, recognized by a variety of "pattern recognition receptors" (PRRs). By analogy with microbial "pathogen-associated molecular patterns" (PAMPs), we postulate that host-derived, oxidation-specific epitopes can be considered to represent "danger (or damage...

  11. Interferon-Mediated Innate Immune Responses against Malaria Parasite Liver Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Miller

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito-transmitted malaria parasites infect hepatocytes and asymptomatically replicate as liver stages. Using RNA sequencing, we show that a rodent malaria liver-stage infection stimulates a robust innate immune response including type I interferon (IFN and IFNγ pathways. Liver-stage infection is suppressed by these infection-engendered innate responses. This suppression was abrogated in mice deficient in IFNγ, the type I IFN α/β receptor (IFNAR, and interferon regulatory factor 3. Natural killer and CD49b+CD3+ natural killer T (NKT cells increased in the liver after a primary infection, and CD1d-restricted NKT cells, which secrete IFNγ, were critical in reducing liver-stage burden of a secondary infection. Lack of IFNAR signaling abrogated the increase in NKT cell numbers in the liver, showing a link between type I IFN signaling, cell recruitment, and subsequent parasite elimination. Our findings demonstrate innate immune sensing of malaria parasite liver-stage infection and that the ensuing innate responses can eliminate the parasite.

  12. Graft-versus-host disease: regulation by microbe-associated molecules and innate immune receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penack, Olaf; Holler, Ernst; van den Brink, Marcel R M

    2010-03-11

    Acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains the major obstacle to a more favorable therapeutic outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). GVHD is characterized by tissue damage in gut, liver, and skin, caused by donor T cells that are critical for antitumor and antimicrobial immunity after HSCT. One obstacle in combating GVHD used to be the lack of understanding the molecular mechanisms that are involved in the initiation phase of this syndrome. Recent research has demonstrated that interactions between microbial-associated molecules (pathogen-associated molecular patterns [PAMPs]) and innate immune receptors (pathogen recognition receptors [PRRs]), such as NOD-like receptors (NLRs) and Toll-like receptors (TLRs), control adaptive immune responses in inflammatory disorders. Polymorphisms of the genes encoding NOD2 and TLR4 are associated with a higher incidence of GVHD in HSC transplant recipients. Interestingly, NOD2 regulates GVHD through its inhibitory effect on antigen-presenting cell (APC) function. These insights identify important mechanisms regarding the induction of GVHD through the interplay of microbial molecules and innate immunity, thus opening a new area for future therapeutic approaches. This review covers current knowledge of the role of PAMPs and PRRs in the control of adaptive immune responses during inflammatory diseases, particularly GVHD.

  13. Innate immunity related pathogen recognition receptors and chronic hepatitis B infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosratabadi, Reza; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Zare-Bidaki, Mohammad; Shahrokhi, Vahid Mohammadi; Arababadi, Mohammad Kazemi

    2017-10-01

    Innate immunity consists of several kinds of pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs), which participate in the recognition of pathogens and consequently activation of innate immune system against pathogens. Recently, several investigations reported that PRRs may also play key roles in the induction/stimulation of immune system related complications in microbial infections. Hepatitis B virus (HBV), as the main cause of viral hepatitis in human, can induce several clinical forms of hepatitis B and also might be associated with hepatic complications such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Based on the important roles of PRRs in the eradication of microbial infections including viral infections and their related complications, it appears that the molecules may be a main part of immune responses against viral infections including HBV and participate in the HBV related complications. Thus, this review article has brought together information regarding the roles of PRRs in immunity against HBV and its complications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Interleukin-21 receptor signalling is important for innate immune protection against HSV-2 infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sine K Kratholm

    Full Text Available Interleukin (IL -21 is produced by Natural Killer T (NKT cells and CD4(+ T cells and is produced in response to virus infections, where IL-21 has been shown to be essential in adaptive immune responses. Cells from the innate immune system such as Natural Killer (NK cells and macrophages are also important in immune protection against virus. These cells express the IL-21 receptor (IL-21R and respond to IL-21 with increased cytotoxicity and cytokine production. Currently, however it is not known whether IL-21 plays a significant role in innate immune responses to virus infections. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of IL-21 and IL-21R in the innate immune response to a virus infection. We used C57BL/6 wild type (WT and IL-21R knock out (KO mice in a murine vaginal Herpes Simplex Virus type 2 (HSV-2 infection model to show that IL-21 - IL-21R signalling is indeed important in innate immune responses against HSV-2. We found that the IL-21R was expressed in the vaginal epithelium in uninfected (u.i WT mice, and expression increased early after HSV-2 infection. IL-21R KO mice exhibited increased vaginal viral titers on day 2 and 3 post infection (p.i. and subsequently developed significantly higher disease scores and a lower survival rate compared to WT mice. In addition, WT mice infected with HSV-2 receiving intra-vaginal pre-treatment with murine recombinant IL-21 (mIL-21 had decreased vaginal viral titers on day 2 p.i., significantly lower disease scores, and a higher survival rate compared to infected untreated WT controls. Collectively our data demonstrate the novel finding that the IL-21R plays a critical role in regulating innate immune responses against HSV-2 infection.

  15. HIF-mediated innate immune responses: cell signaling and therapeutic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harris AJ

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Alison J Harris, AA Roger Thompson, Moira KB Whyte, Sarah R Walmsley Academic Unit of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Infection and Immunity, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK Abstract: Leukocytes recruited to infected, damaged, or inflamed tissues during an immune response must adapt to oxygen levels much lower than those in the circulation. Hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs are key mediators of cellular responses to hypoxia and, as in other cell types, HIFs are critical for the upregulation of glycolysis, which enables innate immune cells to produce adenosine triphosphate anaerobically. An increasing body of evidence demonstrates that hypoxia also regulates many other innate immunological functions, including cell migration, apoptosis, phagocytosis of pathogens, antigen presentation and production of cytokines, chemokines, and angiogenic and antimicrobial factors. Many of these functions are mediated by HIFs, which are not only stabilized posttranslationally by hypoxia, but also transcriptionally upregulated by inflammatory signals. Here, we review the role of HIFs in the responses of innate immune cells to hypoxia, both in vitro and in vivo, with a particular focus on myeloid cells, on which the majority of studies have so far been carried out. Keywords: hypoxia, neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages

  16. Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 2 (TRPM2) ion channel is required for innate immunity against Listeria monocytogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Heather; Heizer, Justin W.; Li, Yuan; Chapman, Kathryn; Ogden, Carol Anne; Andreasen, Karl; Shapland, Ellen; Kucera, Gary; Mogan, Jennifer; Humann, Jessica; Lenz, Laurel L.; Morrison, Alastair D.; Perraud, Anne-Laure

    2011-01-01

    The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is inherent to immune responses. ROS are crucially involved in host defense against pathogens by promoting bacterial killing, but also as signaling agents coordinating the production of cytokines. Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 2 (TRPM2) is a Ca2+-permeable channel gated via binding of ADP-ribose, a metabolite formed under conditions of cellular exposure to ROS. Here, we show that TRPM2-deficient mice are extremely susceptible to infection with Listeria monocytogenes (Lm), exhibiting an inefficient innate immune response. In a comparison with IFNγR-deficient mice, TRPM2−/− mice shared similar features of uncontrolled bacterial replication and reduced levels of inducible (i)NOS-expressing monocytes, but had intact IFNγ responsiveness. In contrast, we found that levels of cytokines IL-12 and IFNγ were diminished in TRPM2−/− mice following Lm infection, which correlated with their reduced innate activation. Moreover, TRPM2−/− mice displayed a higher degree of susceptibility than IL-12–unresponsive mice, and supplementation with recombinant IFNγ was sufficient to reverse the unrestrained bacterial growth and ultimately the lethal phenotype of Lm-infected TRPM2−/− mice. The severity of listeriosis we observed in TRPM2−/− mice has not been reported for any other ion channel. These findings establish an unsuspected role for ADP-ribose and ROS-mediated cation flux for innate immunity, opening up unique possibilities for immunomodulatory intervention through TRPM2. PMID:21709234

  17. ZDHHC11 modulates innate immune response to DNA virus by mediating MITA-IRF3 association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Zhou, Qian; Zhong, Li; Lin, Heng; Hu, Ming-Ming; Zhou, Yan; Shu, Hong-Bing; Li, Shu

    2018-02-12

    MITA is a central adaptor in innate immune responses to DNA viruses. The mechanisms responsible for recruitment of downstream kinase TBK1 and the transcription factor IRF3 to MITA remains enigmatic. Here we identified ZDHHC11, a member of DHHC palmitoyl transferase family, as a positive regulator of DNA virus-triggered signaling. Overexpression of ZDHHC11 activated the IFN-β promoter, while ZDHHC11-deficiency specifically impaired DNA virus HSV-1-induced transcription of downstream antiviral genes. Zdhhc11 -/- mice exhibited lower serum cytokine levels and higher lethality after HSV-1 infection. Mechanistically, ZDHHC11 facilitated the optimal recruitment of IRF3 to MITA. Our findings support an important role for ZDHHC11 in mediating MITA-dependent innate immune responses against DNA viruses.Cellular and Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 12 February 2018; doi:10.1038/cmi.2017.146.

  18. MITA/STING: a central and multifaceted mediator in innate immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Yong; Shu, Hong-Bing; Wang, Yan-Yi

    2014-12-01

    The recognition of nucleic acids is a general strategy used by the host to detect invading pathogens. Many studies have established that MITA/STING is a central component in the innate immune response to cytosolic DNA and RNA derived from pathogens. MITA can act both as a direct sensor of cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs) and as an adaptor for the recruitment of downstream signaling components. In both roles, MITA is part of signaling cascades that orchestrate innate immune defenses against various pathogens, including viruses, bacteria and parasites. Here, we highlight recent studies that have uncovered the molecular mechanisms of MITA-mediated signal transduction and regulation, and discuss some notable issues that remain elusive. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Innate immunity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    various types of pathogen recognition receptors on epithelial cells and resident cells of the innate immune system, especially macrophages, initiate a localised inflammatory response characterised by an early influx of blood neutrophils.1,2. A comparison of the major characteristics of innate and adaptive immune responses ...

  20. The role of pattern recognition receptors in the innate recognition of Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Nan-Xin; Wang, Yan; Hu, Dan-Dan; Yan, Lan; Jiang, Yuan-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans is both a commensal microorganism in healthy individuals and a major fungal pathogen causing high mortality in immunocompromised patients. Yeast-hypha morphological transition is a well known virulence trait of C. albicans. Host innate immunity to C. albicans critically requires pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). In this review, we summarize the PRRs involved in the recognition of C. albicans in epithelial cells, endothelial cells, and phagocytic cells separately. We figure out the differential recognition of yeasts and hyphae, the findings on PRR-deficient mice, and the discoveries on human PRR-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). PMID:25714264

  1. The Pathology of Orthopedic Implant Failure Is Mediated by Innate Immune System Cytokines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgraeber, Stefan; Jäger, Marcus; Jacobs, Joshua J.; Hallab, Nadim James

    2014-01-01

    All of the over 1 million total joint replacements implanted in the US each year are expected to eventually fail after 15–25 years of use, due to slow progressive subtle inflammation at the bone implant interface. This inflammatory disease state is caused by implant debris acting, primarily, on innate immune cells, that is, macrophages. This slow progressive pathological bone loss or “aseptic loosening” is a potentially life-threatening condition due to the serious complications in older people (>75 yrs) of total joint replacement revision surgery. In some people implant debris (particles and ions from metals) can influence the adaptive immune system as well, giving rise to the concept of metal sensitivity. However, a consensus of studies agrees that the dominant form of this response is due to innate reactivity by macrophages to implant debris where both danger (DAMP) and pathogen (PAMP) signalling elicit cytokine-based inflammatory responses. This paper discusses implant debris induced release of the cytokines and chemokines due to activation of the innate (and the adaptive) immune system and the subsequent formation of osteolysis. Different mechanisms of implant-debris reactivity related to the innate immune system are detailed, for example, danger signalling (e.g., IL-1β, IL-18, IL-33, etc.), toll-like receptor activation (e.g., IL-6, TNF-α, etc.), apoptosis (e.g., caspases 3–9), bone catabolism (e.g., TRAP5b), and hypoxia responses (Hif1-α). Cytokine-based clinical and basic science studies are in progress to provide diagnosis and therapeutic intervention strategies. PMID:24891761

  2. The Pathology of Orthopedic Implant Failure Is Mediated by Innate Immune System Cytokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Landgraeber

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available All of the over 1 million total joint replacements implanted in the US each year are expected to eventually fail after 15–25 years of use, due to slow progressive subtle inflammation at the bone implant interface. This inflammatory disease state is caused by implant debris acting, primarily, on innate immune cells, that is, macrophages. This slow progressive pathological bone loss or “aseptic loosening” is a potentially life-threatening condition due to the serious complications in older people (>75 yrs of total joint replacement revision surgery. In some people implant debris (particles and ions from metals can influence the adaptive immune system as well, giving rise to the concept of metal sensitivity. However, a consensus of studies agrees that the dominant form of this response is due to innate reactivity by macrophages to implant debris where both danger (DAMP and pathogen (PAMP signalling elicit cytokine-based inflammatory responses. This paper discusses implant debris induced release of the cytokines and chemokines due to activation of the innate (and the adaptive immune system and the subsequent formation of osteolysis. Different mechanisms of implant-debris reactivity related to the innate immune system are detailed, for example, danger signalling (e.g., IL-1β, IL-18, IL-33, etc., toll-like receptor activation (e.g., IL-6, TNF-α, etc., apoptosis (e.g., caspases 3–9, bone catabolism (e.g., TRAP5b, and hypoxia responses (Hif1-α. Cytokine-based clinical and basic science studies are in progress to provide diagnosis and therapeutic intervention strategies.

  3. Neutrophil-Mediated Regulation of Innate and Adaptive Immunity: The Role of Myeloperoxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Odobasic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils are no longer seen as leukocytes with a sole function of being the essential first responders in the removal of pathogens at sites of infection. Being armed with numerous pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators, these phagocytes can also contribute to the development of various autoimmune diseases and can positively or negatively regulate the generation of adaptive immune responses. In this review, we will discuss how myeloperoxidase, the most abundant neutrophil granule protein, plays a key role in the various functions of neutrophils in innate and adaptive immunity.

  4. Activating transcription factor 4 underlies the pathogenesis of arsenic trioxide-mediated impairment of macrophage innate immune functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Ritesh K.; Li, Changzhao; Wang, Yong; Weng, Zhiping; Elmets, Craig A.; Harrod, Kevin S.; Deshane, Jessy S.; Athar, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Chronic arsenic exposure to humans is considered immunosuppressive with augmented susceptibility to several infectious diseases. The exact molecular mechanisms, however, remain unknown. Earlier, we showed the involvement of unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling in arsenic-mediated impairment of macrophage functions. Here, we show that activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), a UPR transcription factor, regulates arsenic trioxide (ATO)-mediated dysregulation of macrophage functions. In ATO-treated ATF4 +/+ wild-type mice, a significant down-regulation of CD11b expression was associated with the reduced phagocytic functions of peritoneal and lung macrophages. This severe immuno-toxicity phenotype was not observed in ATO-treated ATF4 +/− heterozygous mice. To confirm these observations, we demonstrated in Raw 264.7 cells that ATF4 knock-down rescues ATO-mediated impairment of macrophage functions including cytokine production, bacterial engulfment and clearance of engulfed bacteria. Sustained activation of ATF4 by ATO in macrophages induces apoptosis, while diminution of ATF4 expression protects against ATO-induced apoptotic cell death. Raw 264.7 cells treated with ATO also manifest dysregulated Ca ++ homeostasis. ATO induces Ca ++ -dependent calpain-1 and caspase-12 expression which together regulated macrophage apoptosis. Additionally, apoptosis was also induced by mitochondria-regulated pathway. Restoring ATO-impaired Ca ++ homeostasis in ER/mitochondria by treatments with the inhibitors of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) and voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) attenuate innate immune functions of macrophages. These studies identify a novel role for ATF4 in underlying pathogenesis of macrophage dysregulation and immuno-toxicity of arsenic. - Highlights: • ATF4 regulates arsenic-mediated impairment in macrophage functions. • Arsenic-mediated alterations in pulmonary macrophage are diminished in ATF4 +/− mice. • Changes in macrophage

  5. Unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling regulates arsenic trioxide-mediated macrophage innate immune function disruption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, Ritesh K.; Li, Changzhao; Chaudhary, Sandeep C. [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Ballestas, Mary E. [Department of Pediatrics Infectious Disease, Children' s of Alabama, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL (United States); Elmets, Craig A. [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Robbins, David J. [Department of Surgery, Molecular Oncology Program, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami (United States); Matalon, Sadis [Department of Anesthesiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Deshane, Jessy S. [Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Afaq, Farrukh [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Bickers, David R. [Department of Dermatology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York (United States); Athar, Mohammad, E-mail: mathar@uab.edu [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Arsenic exposure is known to disrupt innate immune functions in humans and in experimental animals. In this study, we provide a mechanism by which arsenic trioxide (ATO) disrupts macrophage functions. ATO treatment of murine macrophage cells diminished internalization of FITC-labeled latex beads, impaired clearance of phagocytosed fluorescent bacteria and reduced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These impairments in macrophage functions are associated with ATO-induced unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling pathway characterized by the enhancement in proteins such as GRP78, p-PERK, p-eIF2α, ATF4 and CHOP. The expression of these proteins is altered both at transcriptional and translational levels. Pretreatment with chemical chaperon, 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA) attenuated the ATO-induced activation in UPR signaling and afforded protection against ATO-induced disruption of macrophage functions. This treatment also reduced ATO-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Interestingly, treatment with antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) prior to ATO exposure, not only reduced ROS production and UPR signaling but also improved macrophage functions. These data demonstrate that UPR signaling and ROS generation are interdependent and are involved in the arsenic-induced pathobiology of macrophage. These data also provide a novel strategy to block the ATO-dependent impairment in innate immune responses. - Highlights: • Inorganic arsenic to humans and experimental animals disrupt innate immune responses. • The mechanism underlying arsenic impaired macrophage functions involves UPR signaling. • Chemical chaperon attenuates arsenic-mediated macrophage function impairment. • Antioxidant, NAC blocks impairment in arsenic-treated macrophage functions.

  6. Unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling regulates arsenic trioxide-mediated macrophage innate immune function disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Ritesh K.; Li, Changzhao; Chaudhary, Sandeep C.; Ballestas, Mary E.; Elmets, Craig A.; Robbins, David J.; Matalon, Sadis; Deshane, Jessy S.; Afaq, Farrukh; Bickers, David R.; Athar, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic exposure is known to disrupt innate immune functions in humans and in experimental animals. In this study, we provide a mechanism by which arsenic trioxide (ATO) disrupts macrophage functions. ATO treatment of murine macrophage cells diminished internalization of FITC-labeled latex beads, impaired clearance of phagocytosed fluorescent bacteria and reduced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These impairments in macrophage functions are associated with ATO-induced unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling pathway characterized by the enhancement in proteins such as GRP78, p-PERK, p-eIF2α, ATF4 and CHOP. The expression of these proteins is altered both at transcriptional and translational levels. Pretreatment with chemical chaperon, 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA) attenuated the ATO-induced activation in UPR signaling and afforded protection against ATO-induced disruption of macrophage functions. This treatment also reduced ATO-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Interestingly, treatment with antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) prior to ATO exposure, not only reduced ROS production and UPR signaling but also improved macrophage functions. These data demonstrate that UPR signaling and ROS generation are interdependent and are involved in the arsenic-induced pathobiology of macrophage. These data also provide a novel strategy to block the ATO-dependent impairment in innate immune responses. - Highlights: • Inorganic arsenic to humans and experimental animals disrupt innate immune responses. • The mechanism underlying arsenic impaired macrophage functions involves UPR signaling. • Chemical chaperon attenuates arsenic-mediated macrophage function impairment. • Antioxidant, NAC blocks impairment in arsenic-treated macrophage functions

  7. Tachykinin receptors mediating airway marcomolecular secretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentry, S.E. (Univ. of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Three tachykinin receptor types, termed NK1, NK2, and NK3, can be distinguished by the relative potency of various peptides in eliciting tissue responses. Airway macromolecular secretion is stimulated by the tachykinin substance P (SP). The purposes of this study were to determine the tachykinin receptor subtype responsible for this stimulation, and to examine the possible involvement of other neurotransmitters in mediating this effect. Ferret tracheal explants maintained in organ culture were labeled with {sup 3}H-glucosamine, a precursor of high molecular weight glycoconjugates (HMWG) which are released by airway secretory cells. Secretion of labeled HMWG then was determined in the absence and presence of the tachykinins SP, neurokinin A (NKA), neurokinin B (NKB), physalaemin (PHY), and eledoisin (ELE). To evaluate the possible contribution of other mediators, tachykinin stimulation was examined in the presence of several receptor blockers.

  8. Type 3 innate lymphoid cell depletion is mediated by TLRs in lymphoid tissues of simian immunodeficiency virus–infected macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huanbin; Wang, Xiaolei; Lackner, Andrew A.; Veazey, Ronald S.

    2015-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) type 3, also known as lymphoid tissue inducer cells, plays a major role in both the development and remodeling of organized lymphoid tissues and the maintenance of adaptive immune responses. HIV/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection causes breakdown of intestinal barriers resulting in microbial translocation, leading to systemic immune activation and disease progression. However, the effects of HIV/SIV infection on ILC3 are unknown. Here, we analyzed ILC3 from mucosal and systemic lymphoid tissues in chronically SIV-infected macaques and uninfected controls. ILC3 cells were defined and identified in macaque lymphoid tissues as non-T, non-B (lineage-negative), c-Kit+IL-7Rα+ (CD117+CD127+) cells. These ILC3 cells highly expressed CD90 (∼63%) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor and produced IL-17 (∼63%), IL-22 (∼36%), and TNF-α (∼72%) but did not coexpress CD4 or NK cell markers. The intestinal ILC3 cell loss correlated with the reduction of total CD4+ T cells and T helper (Th)17 and Th22 cells in the gut during SIV infection (P lymphoid tissues in SIV-infected macaques, further contributing to the HIV-induced impairment of gut-associated lymphoid tissue structure and function, especially in mucosal tissues.—Xu, H., Wang, X., Lackner, A. A., Veazey, R. S. Type 3 innate lymphoid cell depletion is mediated by TLRs in lymphoid tissues of simian immunodeficiency virus–infected macaques. PMID:26283536

  9. The cells that mediate innate immune memory and their functional significance in inflammatory and infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Clair M; Mills, Kingston H G

    2016-08-01

    Immunological memory mediated by antigen-specific T and B cells is the foundation of adaptive immunity and is fundamental to the heightened and rapid protective immune response induced by vaccination or following re-infection with the same pathogen. While the innate immune system has classically been considered to be non-specific and devoid of memory, it now appears that it can be trained following exposure to microbes or their products and that this may confer a form of memory on innate immune cells. The evidence for immunological memory outside of T and B cells has been best established for natural killer (NK) cells, where it has been known for decades that NK cells have heighten responses following immunological re-challenge. Furthermore, recent studies have demonstrated that monocyte/macrophages, and probably dendritic cells, can be re-programmed through epigenetic modification, following exposure to pathogens or their products, resulting in heighted responses following a second stimulation. Unlike antigen-specific memory of the adaptive immune system, the second stimulation does not have to be with the same pathogen or antigen. Indirect evidence for this comes from reports on the non-specific beneficial effect of certain live vaccines, such as Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) against unrelated childhood infectious diseases. It also appears that certain pathogen or pathogen-derived molecules can prime immune cells, especially macrophages, to secrete more anti-inflammatory and less pro-inflammatory cyokines, thus opening up the possibility of exploiting innate immune training as a new therapeutic approach for inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Inflammatory monocytes mediate early and organ-specific innate defense during systemic candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Lisa Y; Kasahara, Shinji; Kumasaka, Debra K; Knoblaugh, Sue E; Jhingran, Anupam; Hohl, Tobias M

    2014-01-01

    Candida albicans is a commensal fungus that can cause systemic disease in patients with breaches in mucosal integrity, indwelling catheters, and defects in phagocyte function. Although circulating human and murine monocytes bind C. albicans and promote inflammation, it remains unclear whether C-C chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2)- and Ly6C-expressing inflammatory monocytes exert a protective or a deleterious function during systemic infection. During murine systemic candidiasis, interruption of CCR2-dependent inflammatory monocyte trafficking into infected kidneys impaired fungal clearance and decreased murine survival. Depletion of CCR2-expressing cells led to uncontrolled fungal growth in the kidneys and brain and demonstrated an essential antifungal role for inflammatory monocytes and their tissue-resident derivatives in the first 48 hours postinfection. Adoptive transfer of purified inflammatory monocytes in depleted hosts reversed the defect in fungal clearance to a substantial extent, indicating a compartmentally and temporally restricted protective function that can be transferred to enhance systemic innate antifungal immunity.

  11. The innate immune system, toll-like receptors and dermal wound healing: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portou, M J; Baker, D; Abraham, D; Tsui, J

    2015-08-01

    Wound healing is a complex physiological process comprised of discrete but inter-related and overlapping stages, requiring exact timing and regulation to successfully progress, yet occurs spontaneously in response to injury. It is characterised by four phases, coagulation, inflammation, proliferation and remodelling. Each phase is predominated by particular cell types, cytokines and chemokines. The innate immune system represents the first line of defence against invading microorganisms. It is entirely encoded with the genome, and comprised of a cellular response with specificity provided by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) such as toll-like receptors (TLRs). TLRs are activated by exogenous microbial pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), initiating an immune response through the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and further specialist immune cell recruitment. TLRs are also activated by endogenous molecular patterns termed damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). These ligands, usually shielded from the immune system, act as alarm signals alerting the immune system to damage and facilitate the normal wound healing process. TLRs are expressed by cells essential to wound healing such as keratinocytes and fibroblasts, however the specific role of TLRs in this process remains controversial. This article reviews the current knowledge on the potential role of TLRs in dermal wound healing where inflammation arising from pathogenic activation of these receptors appears to play a role in chronic ulceration associated with diabetes, scar hypertrophy and skin fibrosis. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. CLEC5A is a critical receptor in innate immunity against Listeria infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Szu-Ting; Li, Fei-Ju; Hsu, Tzy-Yun; Liang, Shu-Mei; Yeh, Yi-Chen; Liao, Wen-Yu; Chou, Teh-Ying; Chen, Nien-Jun; Hsiao, Michael; Yang, Wen-Bin; Hsieh, Shie-Liang

    2017-08-21

    The C-type lectin member 5A (CLEC5A) is a pattern recognition receptor for members of the Flavivirus family and has critical functions in response to dengue virus and Japanese encephalitis virus. Here we show that CLEC5A is involved in neutrophil extracellular trap formation and the production of reactive oxygen species and proinflammatory cytokines in response to Listeria monocytogenes. Inoculation of Clec5a -/- mice with L. monocytogenes causes rapid bacterial spreading, increased bacterial loads in the blood and liver, and severe liver necrosis. In these mice, IL-1β, IL-17A, and TNF expression is inhibited, CCL2 is induced, and large numbers of CD11b + Ly6C hi CCR2 hi CX3CR1 low inflammatory monocytes infiltrate the liver. By day 5 of infection, these mice also have fewer IL-17A + γδ T cells, severe liver necrosis and a higher chance of fatality. Thus, CLEC5A has a pivotal function in the activation of multiple aspects of innate immunity against bacterial invasion.The lectin receptor CLEC5A is a pattern recognition receptor that has been shown to detect dengue and Japanese encephalitis virus. Here the authors show that CLEC5A is needed for optimal ROS production, NET formation and other immune responses to Listeria monocytogenes in mice.

  13. Interleukin-4 Receptor Alpha: From Innate to Adaptive Immunity in Murine Models of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Hurdayal

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The interleukin (IL-4 receptor alpha (IL-4Rα, ubiquitously expressed on both innate and adaptive immune cells, controls the signaling of archetypal type 2 immune regulators; IL-4 and IL-13, which elicit their signaling action by the type 1 IL-4Rα/gamma common and/or the type 2 IL-4Rα/IL-13Rα complexes. Global gene-deficient mouse models targeting IL-4, IL-13, or the IL-4Rα chain, followed by the development of conditional mice and generation of important cell-type-specific IL-4Rα-deficient mouse models, were indeed critical to gaining in-depth understanding of detrimental T helper (Th 2 mechanisms in type 1-controlled diseases. A primary example being cutaneous leishmaniasis, which is caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania major, among others. The disease is characterized by localized self-healing cutaneous lesions and necrosis for which, currently, not a single vaccine has made it to a stage that can be considered effective. The spectrum of human leishmaniasis belongs to the top 10 infectious diseases according to the World Health Organization. As such, 350 million humans are at risk of infection and disease, with an incidence of 1.5–2 million new cases being reported annually. A major aim of our research is to identify correlates of host protection and evasion, which may aid in vaccine design and therapeutic interventions. In this review, we focus on the immune-regulatory role of the IL-4Rα chain from innate immune responses to the development of beneficial type 1 and detrimental type 2 adaptive immune responses during cutaneous Leishmania infection. We discuss the cell-specific requirements of the IL-4Rα chain on crucial innate immune cells during L. major infection, including, IL-4Rα-responsive skin keratinocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils, as well as dendritic cells (DCs. The latter, contributing to one of the paradigm shifts with respect to the role of IL-4 instructing DCs in vivo, to promote Th1 responses against L

  14. Genotype-specific regulation of oral innate immunity by T2R38 taste receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Sucheol; Coldwell, Susan; Drury, Jeanie L; Arroyo, Fabiola; Phi, Tran; Saadat, Sanaz; Kwong, Danny; Chung, Whasun Oh

    2015-12-01

    The bitter taste receptor T2R38 has been shown to regulate mucosal innate immune responses in the upper airway epithelium. Furthermore, SNPs in T2R38 influence the sensitivity to 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) and are associated with caries risk/protection. However, no study has been reported on the role of T2R38 in the innate immune responses to oral bacteria. We hypothesize that T2R38 regulates oral innate immunity and that this regulation is genotype-specific. Primary gingival epithelial cells carrying three common genotypes, PAV/PAV (PROP super-taster), AVI/PAV (intermediate) and AVI/AVI (non-taster) were stimulated with cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans, periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis or non-pathogen Fusobacterium nucleatum. QRT-PCR analyzed T2R38 mRNA, and T2R38-specific siRNA and ELISA were utilized to evaluate induction of hBD-2 (antimicrobial peptide), IL-1α and IL-8 in various donor-lines. Experiments were set up in duplicate and repeated three times. T2R38 mRNA induction in response to S. mutans was highest in PAV/PAV (4.3-fold above the unstimulated controls; pPAV/PAV, hBD-2 secretion in response to S. mutans was decreased by 77% when T2R38 was silenced. IL-1α secretion was higher in PAV/PAV compared to AVI/PAV or AVI/AVI with S. mutans stimulation, but it was reduced by half when T2R38 was silenced (pPAV/PAV and AVI/PAV remained close to that of the controls. Secretion levels of IL-1α and IL-8 decreased in AVI/AVI in response to P. gingivalis when T2R38 was silenced (pPAV/PAV. Our data suggest that the regulation of gingival innate immunity by T2R38 is genotype-dependent and that the ability to induce a high level of hBD-2 by PAV/PAV carriers may be a reason for protection against caries in this group. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. First line of defense: Innate cell-mediated control of pulmonary Aspergillosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa eEspinosa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mycotic infections and their effect on the human condition have been widely overlooked and poorly surveilled by many health organizations even though mortality rates have increased in recent years. The increased usage of immunosuppressive and myeloablative therapies for the treatment of malignant as well as non-malignant diseases has contributed significantly to the increased incidence of fungal infections. Invasive fungal infections have been found to be responsible for at least 1.5 million deaths worldwide. About 90% of these deaths can be attributed to Cryptococcus, Candida, Aspergillus, and Pneumocystis. A better understanding of how the host immune system contains fungal infection is likely to facilitate the development of much needed novel antifungal therapies. Innate cells are responsible for the rapid recognition and containment of fungal infections and have been found to play essential roles in defense against multiple fungal pathogens. In this review we summarize our current understanding of host-fungi interactions with a focus on mechanisms of innate cell-mediated recognition and control of pulmonary aspergillosis.

  16. Expression of the innate defense receptor S5D-SRCRB in the urogenital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miró-Julià, C; Escoda-Ferran, C; Carrasco, E; Moeller, J B; Vadekaer, D F; Gao, X; Paragas, N; Oliver, J; Holmskov, U; Al-Awqati, Q; Lozano, F

    2014-04-01

    S5D-SRCRB is a novel mouse secretory glycoprotein belonging to the ancient and highly conserved scavenger receptor cysteine-rich superfamily of protein receptors. Available evidence indicates that S5D-SRCRB interacts with conserved microbial cell wall components, as well as with some endogenous proteins, and presents a restricted tissue expression pattern. This study further analyzes the expression of S5D-SRCRB along the mouse urogenital tract. Immunohistochemical staining for S5D-SRCRB was observed in spermatocytes from seminiferous tubules and in the epithelial surface from urethra and bladder, as well as in kidney tubules, mainly from medulla and papilla. Double stainings showed that S5D-SRCRB is expressed in both principal (P) and intercalated (IC) cells from renal collecting ducts (CD). By using an in vitro cell model of IC cell differentiation, preferential expression of S5D-SRCRB was observed in the apical border of terminally differentiated IC. Colocalization of S5D-SRCRB with galectin-3 (Gal-3) was also observed in kidney and bladder, but not in testis, supporting concurrent biochemical studies demonstrating the carbohydrate-dependent interaction of Gal-3 and S5D-SRCRB. Furthermore, upregulation of S5D-SRCRB expression was observed in in vitro and in vivo models of bacterial aggression, reinforcing the emerging view that CD, and specially IC, are important players in innate defense of the urinary tract against infection. Taken together, the results indicate that S5D-SRCRB is an integral component of the urogenital tract involved in innate immune functions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Cyclosporine A Impairs Nucleotide Binding Oligomerization Domain (Nod1)-Mediated Innate Antibacterial Renal Defenses in Mice and Human Transplant Recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourneur, Emilie; Ben Mkaddem, Sanae; Chassin, Cécilia; Bens, Marcelle; Goujon, Jean-Michel; Charles, Nicolas; Pellefigues, Christophe; Aloulou, Meryem; Hertig, Alexandre; Monteiro, Renato C.; Girardin, Stephen E.; Philpott, Dana J.; Rondeau, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Acute pyelonephritis (APN), which is mainly caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), is the most common bacterial complication in renal transplant recipients receiving immunosuppressive treatment. However, it remains unclear how immunosuppressive drugs, such as the calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporine A (CsA), decrease renal resistance to UPEC. Here, we investigated the effects of CsA in host defense against UPEC in an experimental model of APN. We show that CsA-treated mice exhibit impaired production of the chemoattractant chemokines CXCL2 and CXCL1, decreased intrarenal recruitment of neutrophils, and greater susceptibility to UPEC than vehicle-treated mice. Strikingly, renal expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4) and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 1 (Nod1), neutrophil migration capacity, and phagocytic killing of E. coli were significantly reduced in CsA-treated mice. CsA inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced, Tlr4-mediated production of CXCL2 by epithelial collecting duct cells. In addition, CsA markedly inhibited Nod1 expression in neutrophils, macrophages, and renal dendritic cells. CsA, acting through inhibition of the nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFATs), also markedly downregulated Nod1 in neutrophils and macrophages. Silencing the NFATc1 isoform mRNA, similar to CsA, downregulated Nod1 expression in macrophages, and administration of the 11R-VIVIT peptide inhibitor of NFATs to mice also reduced neutrophil bacterial phagocytosis and renal resistance to UPEC. Conversely, synthetic Nod1 stimulating agonists given to CsA-treated mice significantly increased renal resistance to UPEC. Renal transplant recipients receiving CsA exhibited similar decrease in NOD1 expression and neutrophil phagocytosis of E. coli. The findings suggest that such mechanism of NFATc1-dependent inhibition of Nod1-mediated innate immune response together with the decrease in Tlr4-mediated production of chemoattractant chemokines caused by CsA may

  18. Cyclosporine A impairs nucleotide binding oligomerization domain (Nod1-mediated innate antibacterial renal defenses in mice and human transplant recipients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Tourneur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute pyelonephritis (APN, which is mainly caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC, is the most common bacterial complication in renal transplant recipients receiving immunosuppressive treatment. However, it remains unclear how immunosuppressive drugs, such as the calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporine A (CsA, decrease renal resistance to UPEC. Here, we investigated the effects of CsA in host defense against UPEC in an experimental model of APN. We show that CsA-treated mice exhibit impaired production of the chemoattractant chemokines CXCL2 and CXCL1, decreased intrarenal recruitment of neutrophils, and greater susceptibility to UPEC than vehicle-treated mice. Strikingly, renal expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4 and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 1 (Nod1, neutrophil migration capacity, and phagocytic killing of E. coli were significantly reduced in CsA-treated mice. CsA inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced, Tlr4-mediated production of CXCL2 by epithelial collecting duct cells. In addition, CsA markedly inhibited Nod1 expression in neutrophils, macrophages, and renal dendritic cells. CsA, acting through inhibition of the nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFATs, also markedly downregulated Nod1 in neutrophils and macrophages. Silencing the NFATc1 isoform mRNA, similar to CsA, downregulated Nod1 expression in macrophages, and administration of the 11R-VIVIT peptide inhibitor of NFATs to mice also reduced neutrophil bacterial phagocytosis and renal resistance to UPEC. Conversely, synthetic Nod1 stimulating agonists given to CsA-treated mice significantly increased renal resistance to UPEC. Renal transplant recipients receiving CsA exhibited similar decrease in NOD1 expression and neutrophil phagocytosis of E. coli. The findings suggest that such mechanism of NFATc1-dependent inhibition of Nod1-mediated innate immune response together with the decrease in Tlr4-mediated production of chemoattractant chemokines caused by Cs

  19. CD36 is essential for regulation of the host innate response to Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin-mediated dermonecrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castleman, Moriah J.; Febbraio, Maria; Hall, Pamela R.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the primary cause of skin and skin structure infections (SSSI) in the USA. Alpha-hemolysin (Hla), a pore-forming toxin secreted by S. aureus and a major contributor to tissue necrosis, prompts recruitment of neutrophils critical for host defense against S. aureus infections. However, the failure to clear apoptotic neutrophils can result in damage to host tissues, suggesting that mechanisms of neutrophil clearance are essential to limiting Hla-mediated dermonecrosis. We hypothesized that CD36, a scavenger receptor which facilitates recognition of apoptosing cells, would play a significant role in regulating Hla-mediated inflammation and tissue injury during S. aureus SSSI. Here we show that CD36 on macrophages negatively regulates dermonecrosis caused by Hla-producing S. aureus. This regulation is independent of bacterial burden, as CD36 also limits dermonecrosis caused by intoxication with sterile bacterial supernatant or purified Hla. Dermonecrotic lesions of supernatant intoxicated CD36−/− mice are significantly larger, with increased neutrophil accumulation and IL-1β expression, compared to CD36+/+ (wild-type) mice. Neutrophil depletion of CD36−/− mice prevents this phenotype, demonstrating the contribution of neutrophils to tissue injury in this model. Furthermore, administration of CD36+/+, but not CD36−/−, macrophages near the site of intoxication reduces dermonecrosis, IL-1β production and neutrophil accumulation to levels seen in wild-type mice. This therapeutic effect is reversed by inhibiting actin polymerization in the CD36+/+ macrophages, supporting a mechanism of action whereby CD36-dependent macrophage phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils regulates Hla-mediated dermonecrosis. Together, these data demonstrate that CD36 is essential for controlling the host innate response to S. aureus skin infection. PMID:26223653

  20. A haptoglobin-hemoglobin receptor conveys innate immunity to Trypanosoma brucei in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhollebeke, Benoit; De Muylder, Géraldine; Nielsen, Marianne J

    2008-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei is lysed by apolipoprotein L-I, a component of human high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles that are also characterized by the presence of haptoglobin-related protein. We report that this process is mediated by a parasite glycoprotein receptor, which...... binds the haptoglobin-hemoglobin complex with high affinity for the uptake and incorporation of heme into intracellular hemoproteins. In mice, this receptor was required for optimal parasite growth and the resistance of parasites to the oxidative burst by host macrophages. In humans, the trypanosome...

  1. THE ROLE OF ALLELIC POLYMORPHISM OF RECEPTOR GENES OF INNATE IMMUNITY IN THE PERSISTENCE OF HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS

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    O. P. Gumilevskaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The  development of a stable  immunoresistance against human papillomavirus occurs  largely due  to the reactions of the innate immune system, mediated through Toll-like receptors.  It is known, that  allelic  polymorphism of the  Toll-like receptors genes, associated with  single  nucleotide polymorphisms can influence on the sensitivity of reception and lead to disruption of pathogen recognition and,  thus  lead  to reduced susceptibility of the body to infectious agents. The aim of the study was to find  the association of polymorphisms T-1237S, A2848G of TLR 9 gene, Phe-412 Leu of TLR 3 gene and С-819 Т, G-1082 A of IL-10 gene  with  persistence of human papillomavirus infection of high oncogenic types.  There were examined 194 women aged  18–42 years  with  the  presence of HPV types  16 and  18. The material for laboratory  studies were  scraped from  the  mucosa of the  urogenital tract  and peripheral blood  of patients. Depending on the  presence of virus women were divided into two groups:  98 patients with persistent human papillomavirus infection and  96  women without it. As the result  after investigation some  significant differences in the distribution of variants of polymorphic loci (A2848G  TLR 9, (Phe412  Leu  TLR 3 and  (G-1082A  IL-10 were identified.

  2. Epstein-Barr virus lytic infection promotes activation of Toll-like receptor 8 innate immune response in systemic sclerosis monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Antonella; Peruzzi, Giovanna; Lacconi, Valentina; Lenna, Stefania; Quarta, Silvia; Rosato, Edoardo; Vestri, Anna Rita; York, Michael; Dreyfus, David H; Faggioni, Alberto; Morrone, Stefania; Trojanowska, Maria; Farina, G Alessandra

    2017-02-28

    Monocytes/macrophages are activated in several autoimmune diseases, including systemic sclerosis (scleroderma; SSc), with increased expression of interferon (IFN)-regulatory genes and inflammatory cytokines, suggesting dysregulation of the innate immune response in autoimmunity. In this study, we investigated whether the lytic form of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection (infectious EBV) is present in scleroderma monocytes and contributes to their activation in SSc. Monocytes were isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) depleted of the CD19+ cell fraction, using CD14/CD16 negative-depletion. Circulating monocytes from SSc and healthy donors (HDs) were infected with EBV. Gene expression of innate immune mediators were evaluated in EBV-infected monocytes from SSc and HDs. Involvement of Toll-like receptor (TLR)8 in viral-mediated TLR8 response was investigated by comparing the TLR8 expression induced by infectious EBV to the expression stimulated by CL075/TLR8/agonist-ligand in the presence of TLR8 inhibitor in THP-1 cells. Infectious EBV strongly induced TLR8 expression in infected SSc and HD monocytes in vitro. Markers of activated monocytes, such as IFN-regulated genes and chemokines, were upregulated in SSc- and HD-EBV-infected monocytes. Inhibiting TLR8 expression reduced virally induced TLR8 in THP-1 infected cells, demonstrating that innate immune activation by infectious EBV is partially dependent on TLR8. Viral mRNA and proteins were detected in freshly isolated SSc monocytes. Microarray analysis substantiated the evidence of an increased IFN signature and altered level of TLR8 expression in SSc monocytes carrying infectious EBV compared to HD monocytes. This study provides the first evidence of infectious EBV in monocytes from patients with SSc and links EBV to the activation of TLR8 and IFN innate immune response in freshly isolated SSc monocytes. This study provides the first evidence of EBV replication activating the TLR8 molecular pathway

  3. Innate Immune Effectors in Mycobacterial Infection

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    Hiroyuki Saiga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis, which is caused by infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb, remains one of the major bacterial infections worldwide. Host defense against Mtb is mediated by a combination of innate and adaptive immune responses. In the last 15 years, the mechanisms for activation of innate immunity have been elucidated. Toll-like receptors (TLRs have been revealed to be critical for the recognition of pathogenic microorganisms including mycobacteria. Subsequent studies further revealed that NOD-like receptors and C-type lectin receptors are responsible for the TLR-independent recognition of mycobacteria. Several molecules, such as active vitamin D3, secretary leukocyte protease inhibitor, and lipocalin 2, all of which are induced by TLR stimulation, have been shown to direct innate immune responses to mycobacteria. In addition, Irgm1-dependent autophagy has recently been demonstrated to eliminate intracellular mycobacteria. Thus, our understanding of the mechanisms for the innate immune response to mycobacteria is developing.

  4. Early Innate Immunity to Bacterial Infection in the Lung Is Regulated Systemically by the Commensal Microbiota via Nod-Like Receptor Ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The commensal microbiota is a major regulator of the immune system. The majority of commensal bacteria inhabit the gastrointestinal tract and are known to regulate local mucosal defenses against intestinal pathogens. There is growing appreciation that the commensal microbiota also regulates immune responses at extraintestinal sites. Currently, however, it is unclear how this influences host defenses against bacterial infection outside the intestine. Microbiota depletion caused significant defects in the early innate response to lung infection by the major human pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae. After microbiota depletion, early clearance of K. pneumoniae was impaired, and this could be rescued by administration of bacterial Nod-like receptor (NLR) ligands (the NOD1 ligand MurNAcTriDAP and NOD2 ligand muramyl dipeptide [MDP]) but not bacterial Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands. Importantly, NLR ligands from the gastrointestinal, but not upper respiratory, tract rescued host defenses in the lung. Defects in early innate immunity were found to be due to reduced reactive oxygen species-mediated killing of bacteria by alveolar macrophages. These data show that bacterial signals from the intestine have a profound influence on establishing the levels of antibacterial defenses in distal tissues. PMID:25135683

  5. BRCA1 Regulates IFI16 Mediated Nuclear Innate Sensing of Herpes Viral DNA and Subsequent Induction of the Innate Inflammasome and Interferon-β Responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipanjan Dutta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The innate immune system pattern recognition receptors (PRR are the first line of host defenses recognizing the various pathogen- or danger-associated molecular patterns and eliciting defenses by regulating the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-18 or interferon β (IFN-β. NOD-like receptors (NLRs and AIM2-like receptors (ALRs are cytoplasmic inflammasome sensors of foreign molecules, including DNA. IFI16, a sequence-independent nuclear innate sensor ALR, recognizes episomal dsDNA genomes of herpes viruses such as KSHV, EBV, and HSV-1 in the infected cell nuclei, forms an inflammasome complex with ASC and procaspase1, and relocates into the cytoplasm leading into Caspase-1 and IL-1β generation. IFI16 also induces IFN-β during HSV-1 infection via the cytoplasmic STING-TBK1-IRF3 pathway. Thus far, whether IFI16 recognizes foreign DNA directly or utilizes other host protein(s is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that BRCA1, a DNA damage repair sensor and transcription regulator, is in complex with IFI16 in the host cell nucleus, and their association increases in the presence of nuclear viral genomes during de novo KSHV, EBV and HSV-1 infection, and in latent KSHV or EBV infection, but not by DNA damage responses (DDR induced by bleomycin and vaccinia virus cytoplasmic dsDNA. BRCA1 is a constituent of the triggered IFI16-inflammasome and is translocated into the cytoplasm after genome recognition along with the IFI16-inflammasome. The absence of BRCA1 abrogated IFI16-viral genome association, inflammasome assembly, IFI16 cytoplasmic localization, and Caspase-1 and IL-1β production. The absence of BRCA1 also abolished the cytoplasmic IFI16-STING interaction, downstream IRF3 phosphorylation, nuclear translocation of pIRF3 and IFN-β production during de novo KSHV and HSV-1 infection. These findings highlight that BRCA1 plays a hitherto unidentified innate immunomodulatory role by facilitating nuclear foreign DNA sensing by

  6. TRIM65-catalized ubiquitination is essential for MDA5-mediated antiviral innate immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Tengchuan

    2017-01-01

    MDA5 plays a critical role in antiviral innate immunity by functioning as a cytoplasmic double-stranded RNA sensor that can activate type I interferon signaling pathways, but the mechanism for the activation of MDA5 is poorly understood. Here, we show that TRIM65 specifically interacts with MDA5 and promotes K63-linked ubiquitination of MDA5 at lysine 743, which is critical for MDA5 oligomerization and activation. Trim65 deficiency abolishes MDA5 agonist or encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV)–induced interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) activation and type I interferon production but has no effect on retinoic acid–inducible I (RIG-I), Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), or cyclic GMP-AMP synthase signaling pathways. Importantly, Trim65−/− mice are more susceptible to EMCV infection than controls and cannot produce type I interferon in vivo. Collectively, our results identify TRIM65 as an essential component for the MDA5 signaling pathway and provide physiological evidence showing that ubiquitination is important for MDA5 oligomerization and activation. PMID:28031478

  7. Structural basis of RNA recognition and activation by innate immune receptor RIG-I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Fuguo; Ramanathan, Anand; Miller, Matthew T.; Tang, Guo-Qing; Gale, Jr., Michael; Patel, Smita S.; Marcotrigiano, Joseph (Rutgers); (RWJ-Med); (UW-MED)

    2012-05-29

    Retinoic-acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I; also known as DDX58) is a cytoplasmic pathogen recognition receptor that recognizes pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) motifs to differentiate between viral and cellular RNAs. RIG-I is activated by blunt-ended double-stranded (ds)RNA with or without a 5'-triphosphate (ppp), by single-stranded RNA marked by a 5'-ppp and by polyuridine sequences. Upon binding to such PAMP motifs, RIG-I initiates a signalling cascade that induces innate immune defences and inflammatory cytokines to establish an antiviral state. The RIG-I pathway is highly regulated and aberrant signalling leads to apoptosis, altered cell differentiation, inflammation, autoimmune diseases and cancer. The helicase and repressor domains (RD) of RIG-I recognize dsRNA and 5'-ppp RNA to activate the two amino-terminal caspase recruitment domains (CARDs) for signalling. Here, to understand the synergy between the helicase and the RD for RNA binding, and the contribution of ATP hydrolysis to RIG-I activation, we determined the structure of human RIG-I helicase-RD in complex with dsRNA and an ATP analogue. The helicase-RD organizes into a ring around dsRNA, capping one end, while contacting both strands using previously uncharacterized motifs to recognize dsRNA. Small-angle X-ray scattering, limited proteolysis and differential scanning fluorimetry indicate that RIG-I is in an extended and flexible conformation that compacts upon binding RNA. These results provide a detailed view of the role of helicase in dsRNA recognition, the synergy between the RD and the helicase for RNA binding and the organization of full-length RIG-I bound to dsRNA, and provide evidence of a conformational change upon RNA binding. The RIG-I helicase-RD structure is consistent with dsRNA translocation without unwinding and cooperative binding to RNA. The structure yields unprecedented insight into innate immunity and has a broader impact on other areas of biology, including

  8. Neutrophil and Alveolar Macrophage-Mediated Innate Immune Control of Legionella pneumophila Lung Infection via TNF and ROS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Ziltener

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Legionella pneumophila is a facultative intracellular bacterium that lives in aquatic environments where it parasitizes amoeba. However, upon inhalation of contaminated aerosols it can infect and replicate in human alveolar macrophages, which can result in Legionnaires' disease, a severe form of pneumonia. Upon experimental airway infection of mice, L. pneumophila is rapidly controlled by innate immune mechanisms. Here we identified, on a cell-type specific level, the key innate effector functions responsible for rapid control of infection. In addition to the well-characterized NLRC4-NAIP5 flagellin recognition pathway, tumor necrosis factor (TNF and reactive oxygen species (ROS are also essential for effective innate immune control of L. pneumophila. While ROS are essential for the bactericidal activity of neutrophils, alveolar macrophages (AM rely on neutrophil and monocyte-derived TNF signaling via TNFR1 to restrict bacterial replication. This TNF-mediated antibacterial mechanism depends on the acidification of lysosomes and their fusion with L. pneumophila containing vacuoles (LCVs, as well as caspases with a minor contribution from cysteine-type cathepsins or calpains, and is independent of NLRC4, caspase-1, caspase-11 and NOX2. This study highlights the differential utilization of innate effector pathways to curtail intracellular bacterial replication in specific host cells upon L. pneumophila airway infection.

  9. Neutrophil and Alveolar Macrophage-Mediated Innate Immune Control of Legionella pneumophila Lung Infection via TNF and ROS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziltener, Pascal; Reinheckel, Thomas; Oxenius, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila is a facultative intracellular bacterium that lives in aquatic environments where it parasitizes amoeba. However, upon inhalation of contaminated aerosols it can infect and replicate in human alveolar macrophages, which can result in Legionnaires’ disease, a severe form of pneumonia. Upon experimental airway infection of mice, L. pneumophila is rapidly controlled by innate immune mechanisms. Here we identified, on a cell-type specific level, the key innate effector functions responsible for rapid control of infection. In addition to the well-characterized NLRC4-NAIP5 flagellin recognition pathway, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are also essential for effective innate immune control of L. pneumophila. While ROS are essential for the bactericidal activity of neutrophils, alveolar macrophages (AM) rely on neutrophil and monocyte-derived TNF signaling via TNFR1 to restrict bacterial replication. This TNF-mediated antibacterial mechanism depends on the acidification of lysosomes and their fusion with L. pneumophila containing vacuoles (LCVs), as well as caspases with a minor contribution from cysteine-type cathepsins or calpains, and is independent of NLRC4, caspase-1, caspase-11 and NOX2. This study highlights the differential utilization of innate effector pathways to curtail intracellular bacterial replication in specific host cells upon L. pneumophila airway infection. PMID:27105352

  10. Poly(I:C)-Encapsulating Nanoparticles Enhance Innate Immune Responses to the Tuberculosis Vaccine Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) via Synergistic Activation of Innate Immune Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speth, Martin T; Repnik, Urska; Müller, Elisabeth; Spanier, Julia; Kalinke, Ulrich; Corthay, Alexandre; Griffiths, Gareth

    2017-11-06

    The attenuated live vaccine strain bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is currently the only available vaccine against tuberculosis (TB), but is largely ineffective against adult pulmonary TB, the most common disease form. This is in part due to BCG's ability to interfere with the host innate immune response, a feature that might be targeted to enhance the potency of this vaccine. Here, we investigated the ability of chitosan-based nanoparticles (pIC-NPs) containing polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)), an inducer of innate immunity via Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), to enhance the immunogenicity of BCG in mouse bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM) in vitro. Incorporation of poly(I:C) into NPs protected it against degradation by ribonucleases and increased its uptake by mouse BMDM. Whereas soluble poly(I:C) was ineffective, pIC-NPs strongly enhanced the proinflammatory immune response of BCG-infected macrophages in a synergistic fashion, as evident by increased production of cytokines and induction of nitric oxide synthesis. Using macrophages from mice deficient in key signaling molecules involved in the pathogen recognition response, we identified combined activation of MyD88- and TRIF-dependent TLR signaling pathways to be essential for the synergistic effect between BCG and NP. Moreover, synergy was strongly dependent on the order of the two stimuli, with TLR activation by BCG functioning as the priming event for the subsequent pIC-NP stimulus, which acted through an auto-/paracrine type I interferon (IFN) feedback loop. Our results provide a foundation for a promising new approach to enhance BCG-vaccine immunogenicity by costimulation with NPs. They also contribute to a molecular understanding of the observed synergistic interaction between the pIC-NPs and BCG vaccine.

  11. The G protein-coupled receptor FSHR-1 is required for the Caenorhabditis elegans innate immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Jennifer R; Kim, Dennis H; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2009-02-24

    Innate immunity is an ancient defense system used by both vertebrates and invertebrates. Previously characterized innate immune responses in plants and animals are triggered by detection of pathogens using specific receptors, which typically use a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain to bind molecular patterns associated with infection. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans uses defense pathways conserved with vertebrates; however, the mechanism by which C. elegans detects pathogens is unknown. We screened all LRR-containing transmembrane receptors in C. elegans and identified the G protein-coupled receptor FSHR-1 as an important component of the C. elegans immune response to Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial pathogens. FSHR-1 acts in the C. elegans intestine, the primary site of exposure to ingested pathogens. FSHR-1 signals in parallel to the known p38 MAPK pathway but converges to regulate the transcriptional induction of an overlapping but nonidentical set of antimicrobial effectors. FSHR-1 may act generally to boost the nematode immune response, or it may function as a pathogen receptor.

  12. Coordinated Role of Toll-Like Receptor-3 and Retinoic Acid-Inducible Gene-I in the Innate Response of Bovine Endometrial Cells to Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa C. Carneiro

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Bovine herpesvirus-4 (BoHV-4 and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV infect the uterus of cattle, often resulting in reduced fertility, or abortion of the fetus, respectively. Here, exposure of primary bovine endometrial cells to BoHV-4 or BVDV modulated the production of inflammatory mediators. Viral pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs are detected via pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs. However, the relative contribution of specific PRRs to innate immunity, during viral infection of the uterus, is unclear. Endometrial epithelial and stromal cells constitutively express the PRR Toll-like receptor (TLR-3, but, the status of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I, a sensor of cytosolic nucleic acids, is unknown. Primary endometrial epithelial and stromal cells had low expression of RIG-I, which was increased in stromal cells after 12 h transfection with the TLR3 ligand Poly(I:C, a synthetic analog of double-stranded RNA. Furthermore, short interfering RNA targeting TLR3, or interferon (IFN regulatory transcription factor 3, an inducer of type I IFN transcription, reduced Poly(I:C-induced RIG-I protein expression and reduced inflammatory mediator secretion from stromal cells. We conclude that antiviral defense of endometrial stromal cells requires coordinated recognition of PAMPs, initially via TLR3 and later via inducible RIG-I.

  13. Oviposition site-selection by Bactrocera dorsalis is mediated through an innate recognition template tuned to γ-octalactone.

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    Kamala Jayanthi Pagadala Damodaram

    Full Text Available Innate recognition templates (IRTs in insects are developed through many years of evolution. Here we investigated olfactory cues mediating oviposition behavior in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, and their role in triggering an IRT for oviposition site recognition. Behavioral assays with electrophysiologically active compounds from a preferred host, mango, revealed that one of the volatiles tested, γ-octalactone, had a powerful effect in eliciting oviposition by gravid B. dorsalis females. Electrophysiological responses were obtained and flies clearly differentiated between treated and untreated substrates over a wide range of concentrations of γ-octalactone. It triggered an innate response in flies, overriding inputs from other modalities required for oviposition site evaluation. A complex blend of mango volatiles not containing γ-octalactone elicited low levels of oviposition, whereas γ-octalactone alone elicited more oviposition response. Naïve flies with different rearing histories showed similar responses to γ-octalactone. Taken together, these results indicate that oviposition site selection in B. dorsalis is mediated through an IRT tuned to γ-octalactone. Our study provides empirical data on a cue underpinning innate behavior and may also find use in control operations against this invasive horticultural pest.

  14. Decidualization Mediated by Steroid Hormones Modulates the Innate Immunity in Response to Group B Streptococcal Infection in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Leyva, Violeta; Zaga-Clavellina, Veronica; Espejel-Nuñez, Aurora; Vega-Sanchez, Rodrigo; Flores-Pliego, Arturo; Reyes-Muñoz, Enrique; Giono-Cerezo, Silvia; Nava-Salazar, Sonia; Espino Y Sosa, Salvador; Estrada-Gutierrez, Guadalupe

    2017-01-01

    Decidual cells play a role in the modulation of the innate immune response to protect pregnancy against infection. Steroid hormones regulate the innate immune response in different tissues, and they are involved in several biological processes like decidualization. The aim of this study was to assess if steroid hormones modulate the innate immunity in endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) and decidual stromal cells (DSCs) in response to group B streptococcus (GBS) infection in vitro. Primary cultures of ESC were differentiated into DSC using 36 nM estradiol + 300 nM progesterone, and both were infected with GBS overnight. Concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, IL-10, and TGF-β), chemokines (IL-8 and GCP-2), and human β-defensins (HBD-1, HBD-2, and HBD-3) were measured in the culture supernatants. DSCs showed a significant increase in IL-6 (p infection, while these changes were not observed in infected ESCs. IL-8 and GCP-2 increased after GBS infection, regardless of decidualization. β-Defensins 1-3 decreased (p infection, and hormone decidualization preserved the secretion of these antimicrobial peptides. Decidualization mediated by steroid hormones balance the pro- and anti-inflammatory response at the maternal-fetal interface under infection conditions. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Recognition of Viral RNA by Pattern Recognition Receptors in the Induction of Innate Immunity and Excessive Inflammation During Respiratory Viral Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Masaaki; Tsukamoto, Hirotake; Kouwaki, Takahisa; Seya, Tsukasa; Oshiumi, Hiroyuki

    The innate immune system is the first line of defense against virus infection that triggers the expression of type I interferon (IFN) and proinflammatory cytokines. Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns, resulting in the induction of innate immune responses. Viral RNA in endosomes is recognized by Toll-like receptors, and cytoplasmic viral RNA is recognized by RIG-I-like receptors. The host innate immune response is critical for protection against virus infection. However, it has been postulated that an excessive inflammatory response in the lung caused by the innate immune response is harmful to the host and is a cause of lethality during influenza A virus infection. Although the deletion of genes encoding PRRs or proinflammatory cytokines does not improve the mortality of mice infected with influenza A virus, a partial block of the innate immune response is successful in decreasing the mortality rate of mice without a loss of protection against virus infection. In addition, morbidity and mortality rates are influenced by other factors. For example, secondary bacterial infection increases the mortality rate in patients with influenza A virus and in animal models of the disease, and environmental factors, such as cigarette smoke and fine particles, also affect the innate immune response. In this review, we summarize recent findings related to the role of PRRs in innate immune response during respiratory viral infection.

  16. Innate immunity and adjuvants

    OpenAIRE

    Akira, Shizuo

    2011-01-01

    Innate immunity was for a long time considered to be non-specific because the major function of this system is to digest pathogens and present antigens to the cells involved in acquired immunity. However, recent studies have shown that innate immunity is not non-specific, but is instead sufficiently specific to discriminate self from pathogens through evolutionarily conserved receptors, designated Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Indeed, innate immunity has a crucial role in early host defence aga...

  17. Chitin receptor CERK1 links salt stress and chitin-triggered innate immunity in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Catherine; Liang, Yan; Stacey, Gary

    2017-03-01

    In nature, plants need to respond to multiple environmental stresses that require the involvement and fine-tuning of different stress signaling pathways. Cross-tolerance, in which plants pre-treated with chitin (a fungal microbe-associated molecular pattern) have improved salt tolerance, was observed in Arabidopsis, but is not well understood. Here, we show a unique link between chitin and salt signaling mediated by the chitin receptor CHITIN ELICITOR RECEPTOR KINASE 1 (CERK1). Transcriptome analysis revealed that salt stress-induced genes are highly correlated with chitin-induced genes, although this was not observed with other microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) or with other abiotic stresses. The cerk1 mutant was more susceptible to NaCl than was the wild type. cerk1 plants had an irregular increase of cytosolic calcium ([Ca 2+ ] cyt ) after NaCl treatment. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) and co-immunoprecipitation experiments indicated that CERK1 physically interacts with ANNEXIN 1 (ANN1), which was reported to form a calcium-permeable channel that contributes to the NaCl-induced [Ca 2+ ] cyt signal. In turn, ann1 mutants showed elevated chitin-induced rapid responses. In short, molecular components previously shown to function in chitin or salt signaling physically interact and intimately link the downstream responses to fungal attack and salt stress. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. PKA/KIN-1 mediates innate immune responses to bacterial pathogens in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yi; Liu, Fang; Zhao, Pei-Ji; Zou, Cheng-Gang; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2017-11-01

    The genetically tractable organism Caenorhabditis elegans is a powerful model animal for the study of host innate immunity. Although the intestine and the epidermis of C. elegans that is in contact with pathogens are likely to function as sites for the immune function, recent studies indicate that the nervous system could control innate immunity in C. elegans. In this report, we demonstrated that protein kinase A (PKA)/KIN-1 in the neurons contributes to resistance against Salmonella enterica infection in C. elegans. Microarray analysis revealed that PKA/KIN-1 regulates the expression of a set of antimicrobial effectors in the non-neuron tissues, which are required for innate immune responses to S. enterica. Furthermore, PKA/KIN-1 regulated the expression of lysosomal genes during S. enterica infection. Our results suggest that the lysosomal signaling molecules are involved in autophagy by controlling autophagic flux, rather than formation of autophagosomes. As autophagy is crucial for host defense against S. enterica infection in a metazoan, the lysosomal pathway also acts as a downstream effector of the PKA/KIN-1 signaling for innate immunity. Our data indicate that the PKA pathway contributes to innate immunity in C. elegans by signaling from the nervous system to periphery tissues to protect the host against pathogens.

  19. Activation of the Innate Immune System by Treponema denticola Periplasmic Flagella through Toll-Like Receptor 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruby, John; Martin, Michael; Passineau, Michael J; Godovikova, Valentina; Fenno, J Christopher; Wu, Hui

    2018-01-01

    Treponema denticola is an indigenous oral spirochete that inhabits the gingival sulcus or periodontal pocket. Increased numbers of oral treponemes within this environment are associated with localized periodontal inflammation, and they are also part of an anaerobic polymicrobial consortium responsible for endodontic infections. Previous studies have indicated that T. denticola stimulates the innate immune system through Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2); however, the pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) responsible for T. denticola activation of the innate immune system are currently not well defined. In this study, we investigated the role played by T. denticola periplasmic flagella (PF), unique motility organelles of spirochetes, in stimulating an innate immune response. Wild-type T. denticola stimulated the production of the cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-10, and IL-12 by monocytes from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, while its isogenic nonmotile mutant lacking PF resulted in significantly diminished cytokine stimulation. In addition, highly purified PF were able to dose dependently stimulate cytokine TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-12 production in human monocytes. Wild-type T. denticola and the purified PF triggered activation of NF-κB through TLR2, as determined using a variety of TLR-transfected human embryonic 293 cell lines, while the PF-deficient mutants lacked the ability to stimulate, and the complemented PF-positive T. denticola strain restored the activation. These findings suggest that T. denticola stimulates the innate immune system in a TLR2-dependent fashion and that PF are a key bacterial component involved in this process. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  20. Fc gamma receptors in respiratory syncytial virus infections: implications for innate immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jans, J.; Vissers, M.E.P.; Heldens, J.G.; Jonge, M.I. de; Levy, O.; Ferwerda, G.

    2014-01-01

    RSV infections are a major burden in infants less than 3 months of age. Newborns and infants express a distinct immune system that is largely dependent on innate immunity and passive immunity from maternal antibodies. Antibodies can regulate immune responses against viruses through interaction with

  1. Anaesthetic Impairment of Immune Function Is Mediated via GABAA Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Daniel W.; Thompson, Andrew J.; Corletto, Federico; Reckless, Jill; Loke, Justin C. T.; Lapaque, Nicolas; Grant, Andrew J.; Mastroeni, Pietro; Grainger, David J.; Padgett, Claire L.; O'Brien, John A.; Miller, Nigel G. A.; Trowsdale, John

    2011-01-01

    Background GABAA receptors are members of the Cys-loop family of neurotransmitter receptors, proteins which are responsible for fast synaptic transmission, and are the site of action of wide range of drugs [1]. Recent work has shown that Cys-loop receptors are present on immune cells, but their physiological roles and the effects of drugs that modify their function in the innate immune system are currently unclear [2]. We are interested in how and why anaesthetics increase infections in intensive care patients; a serious problem as more than 50% of patients with severe sepsis will die [3]–[6]. As many anaesthetics act via GABAA receptors [7], the aim of this study was to determine if these receptors are present on immune cells, and could play a role in immunocompromising patients. Principal Findings We demonstrate, using RT-PCR, that monocytes express GABAA receptors constructed of α1, α4, β2, γ1 and/or δ subunits. Whole cell patch clamp electrophysiological studies show that GABA can activate these receptors, resulting in the opening of a chloride-selective channel; activation is inhibited by the GABAA receptor antagonists bicuculline and picrotoxin, but not enhanced by the positive modulator diazepam. The anaesthetic drugs propofol and thiopental, which can act via GABAA receptors, impaired monocyte function in classic immunological chemotaxis and phagocytosis assays, an effect reversed by bicuculline and picrotoxin. Significance Our results show that functional GABAA receptors are present on monocytes with properties similar to CNS GABAA receptors. The functional data provide a possible explanation as to why chronic propofol and thiopental administration can increase the risk of infection in critically ill patients: their action on GABAA receptors inhibits normal monocyte behaviour. The data also suggest a potential solution: monocyte GABAA receptors are insensitive to diazepam, thus the use of benzodiazepines as an alternative anesthetising agent may be

  2. Gut immune dysfunction through impaired innate pattern recognition receptor expression and gut microbiota dysbiosis in chronic SIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavan, T W; Gaulke, C A; Santos Rocha, C; Sankaran-Walters, S; Hirao, L A; Raffatellu, M; Jiang, G; Bäumler, A J; Goulart, L R; Dandekar, S

    2016-05-01

    HIV targets the gut mucosa early in infection, causing immune and epithelial barrier dysfunction and disease progression. However, gut mucosal sensing and innate immune signaling through mucosal pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) during HIV infection and disease progression are not well defined. Using the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaque model of AIDS, we found a robust increase in PRRs and inflammatory cytokine gene expression during the acute SIV infection in both peripheral blood and gut mucosa, coinciding with viral replication. PRR expression remained elevated in peripheral blood following the transition to chronic SIV infection. In contrast, massive dampening of PRR expression was detected in the gut mucosa, despite the presence of detectable viral loads. Exceptionally, expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and TLR8 was downmodulated and diverged from expression patterns for most other TLRs in the gut. Decreased mucosal PRR expression was associated with increased abundance of several pathogenic bacterial taxa, including Pasteurellaceae members, Aggregatibacter and Actinobacillus, and Mycoplasmataceae family. Early antiretroviral therapy led to viral suppression but only partial maintenance of gut PRRs and cytokine gene expression. In summary, SIV infection dampens mucosal innate immunity through PRR dysregulation and may promote immune activation, gut microbiota changes, and ineffective viral clearance.

  3. CYLD Limits Lys63- and Met1-Linked Ubiquitin at Receptor Complexes to Regulate Innate Immune Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matous Hrdinka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Innate immune signaling relies on the deposition of non-degradative polyubiquitin at receptor-signaling complexes, but how these ubiquitin modifications are regulated by deubiquitinases remains incompletely understood. Met1-linked ubiquitin (Met1-Ub is assembled by the linear ubiquitin assembly complex (LUBAC, and this is counteracted by the Met1-Ub-specific deubiquitinase OTULIN, which binds to the catalytic LUBAC subunit HOIP. In this study, we report that HOIP also interacts with the deubiquitinase CYLD but that CYLD does not regulate ubiquitination of LUBAC components. Instead, CYLD limits extension of Lys63-Ub and Met1-Ub conjugated to RIPK2 to restrict signaling and cytokine production. Accordingly, Met1-Ub and Lys63-Ub were individually required for productive NOD2 signaling. Our study thus suggests that LUBAC, through its associated deubiquitinases, coordinates the deposition of not only Met1-Ub but also Lys63-Ub to ensure an appropriate response to innate immune receptor activation.

  4. Innate immunity against molecular mimicry: Examining galectin-mediated antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Connie M; Patel, Seema R; Mener, Amanda; Kamili, Nourine A; Fasano, Ross M; Meyer, Erin; Winkler, Annie M; Sola-Visner, Martha; Josephson, Cassandra D; Stowell, Sean R

    2015-12-01

    Adaptive immunity provides the unique ability to respond to a nearly infinite range of antigenic determinants. Given the inherent plasticity of the adaptive immune system, a series of tolerance mechanisms exist to reduce reactivity toward self. While this reduces the probability of autoimmunity, it also creates an important gap in adaptive immunity: the ability to recognize microbes that look like self. As a variety of microbes decorate themselves in self-like carbohydrate antigens and tolerance reduces the ability of adaptive immunity to react with self-like structures, protection against molecular mimicry likely resides within the innate arm of immunity. In this review, we will explore the potential consequences of microbial molecular mimicry, including factors within innate immunity that appear to specifically target microbes expressing self-like antigens, and therefore provide protection against molecular mimicry. © 2015 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  5. A mosquito lipoxin/lipocalin complex mediates innate immune priming in Anopheles gambiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Jose Luis; de Almeida Oliveira, Giselle; Calvo, Eric; Dalli, Jesmond; Colas, Romain A; Serhan, Charles N; Ribeiro, Jose M; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

    2015-06-23

    Exposure of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes to Plasmodium infection enhances the ability of their immune system to respond to subsequent infections. However, the molecular mechanism that allows the insect innate immune system to 'remember' a previous encounter with a pathogen has not been established. Challenged mosquitoes constitutively release a soluble haemocyte differentiation factor into their haemolymph that, when transferred into Naive mosquitoes, also induces priming. Here we show that this factor consists of a Lipoxin/Lipocalin complex. We demonstrate that innate immune priming in mosquitoes involves a persistent increase in expression of Evokin (a lipid carrier of the lipocalin family), and in their ability to convert arachidonic acid to lipoxins, predominantly Lipoxin A4. Plasmodium ookinete midgut invasion triggers immune priming by inducing the release of a mosquito lipoxin/lipocalin complex.

  6. The macrophage scavenger receptor CD163 functions as an innate immune sensor for bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fabriek, Babs O.; van Bruggen, Robin; Deng, Dong Mei; Ligtenberg, Antoon J. M.; Nazmi, Kamran; Schornagel, Karin; Vloet, Rianka P. M.; Dijkstra, Christine D.; van den Berg, Timo K.

    2009-01-01

    The plasma membrane glycoprotein receptor CD163 is a member of the scavenger receptor cystein-rich (SRCR) superfamily class B that is highly expressed on resident tissue macrophages in vivo. Previously, the molecule has been shown to act as a receptor for hemoglobin-haptoglobin complexes and to

  7. The Pathology of Orthopedic Implant Failure Is Mediated by Innate Immune System Cytokines

    OpenAIRE

    Landgraeber, Stefan; Jäger, Marcus; Jacobs, Joshua J.; Hallab, Nadim James

    2014-01-01

    All of the over 1 million total joint replacements implanted in the US each year are expected to eventually fail after 15–25 years of use, due to slow progressive subtle inflammation at the bone implant interface. This inflammatory disease state is caused by implant debris acting, primarily, on innate immune cells, that is, macrophages. This slow progressive pathological bone loss or “aseptic loosening” is a potentially life-threatening condition due to the serious complications in older peop...

  8. Suppression of Thyroid Hormone Receptor-Mediated Transcription ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We therefore examined the effect of methamidophos on thyroid hormone receptor (TR)-mediated gene expression using transient transfection-based reporter gene assay. Our results shows that methamidophos (10-6 M) suppressed thyroid hormone (TH)-induced TR-mediated transcription. We further examined the effects ...

  9. HDAC6 controls innate immune and autophagy responses to TLR-mediated signalling by the intracellular bacteria Listeria monocytogenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Moreno-Gonzalo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence on HDAC6 function underlines its role as a key protein in the innate immune response to viral infection. However, whether HDAC6 regulates innate immunity during bacterial infection remains unexplored. To assess the role of HDAC6 in the regulation of defence mechanisms against intracellular bacteria, we used the Listeria monocytogenes (Lm infection model. Our data show that Hdac6-/- bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs have a higher bacterial load than Hdac6+/+ cells, correlating with weaker induction of IFN-related genes, pro-inflammatory cytokines and nitrite production after bacterial infection. Hdac6-/- BMDCs have a weakened phosphorylation of MAPK signalling in response to Lm infection, suggesting altered Toll-like receptor signalling (TLR. Compared with Hdac6+/+ counterparts, Hdac6-/- GM-CSF-derived and FLT3L-derived dendritic cells show weaker pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion in response to various TLR agonists. Moreover, HDAC6 associates with the TLR-adaptor molecule Myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88, and the absence of HDAC6 seems to diminish the NF-κB induction after TLR stimuli. Hdac6-/- mice display low serum levels of inflammatory cytokine IL-6 and correspondingly an increased survival to a systemic infection with Lm. The impaired bacterial clearance in the absence of HDAC6 appears to be caused by a defect in autophagy. Hence, Hdac6-/- BMDCs accumulate higher levels of the autophagy marker p62 and show defective phagosome-lysosome fusion. These data underline the important function of HDAC6 in dendritic cells not only in bacterial autophagy, but also in the proper activation of TLR signalling. These results thus demonstrate an important regulatory role for HDAC6 in the innate immune response to intracellular bacterial infection.

  10. Tomato Prenylated RAB Acceptor Protein 1 Modulates Trafficking and Degradation of the Pattern Recognition Receptor LeEIX2, Affecting the Innate Immune Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, Lorena; Leibman-Markus, Meirav; Schuster, Silvia; Bar, Maya; Meltz, Tal; Avni, Adi

    2018-01-01

    Plants recognize microbial/pathogen associated molecular patterns (MAMP/PAMP) through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) triggering an immune response against pathogen progression. MAMP/PAMP triggered immune response requires PRR endocytosis and trafficking for proper deployment. LeEIX2 is a well-known Solanum lycopersicum RLP-PRR, able to recognize and respond to the fungal MAMP/PAMP ethylene-inducing xylanase (EIX), and its function is highly dependent on intracellular trafficking. Identifying protein machinery components regulating LeEIX2 intracellular trafficking is crucial to our understanding of LeEIX2 mediated immune responses. In this work, we identified a novel trafficking protein, SlPRA1A, a predicted regulator of RAB, as an interactor of LeEIX2. Overexpression of SlPRA1A strongly decreases LeEIX2 endosomal localization, as well as LeEIX2 protein levels. Accordingly, the innate immune responses to EIX are markedly reduced by SlPRA1A overexpression, presumably due to a decreased LeEIX2 availability. Studies into the role of SlPRA1A in LeEIX2 trafficking revealed that LeEIX2 localization in multivesicular bodies/late endosomes is augmented by SlPRA1A. Furthermore, inhibiting vacuolar function prevents the LeEIX2 protein level reduction mediated by SlPRA1A, suggesting that SlPRA1A may redirect LeEIX2 trafficking to the vacuole for degradation. Interestingly, SlPRA1A overexpression reduces the amount of several RLP-PRRs, but does not affect the protein level of receptor-like kinase PRRs, suggesting a specific role of SlPRA1A in RLP-PRR trafficking and degradation.

  11. Kidney and innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying-Hui; Zhang, Yu-Gen

    2017-03-01

    Innate immune system is an important modulator of the inflammatory response during infection and tissue injury/repair. The kidney as a vital organ with high energy demand plays a key role in regulating the disease related metabolic process. Increasing research interest has focused on the immune pathogenesis of many kidney diseases. However, innate immune cells such as dendritic cells, macrophages, NK cells and a few innate lymphocytes, as well as the complement system are essential for renal immune homeostasis and ensure a coordinated balance between tissue injury and regeneration. The innate immune response provides the first line of host defense initiated by several classes of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), such as membrane-bound Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs), together with inflammasomes responsible for early innate immune response. Although the innate immune system is well studied, the research on the detailed relationship between innate immunity and kidney is still very limited. In this review, we will focus on the innate immune sensing system in renal immune homeostasis, as well as the corresponding pathogenesis of many kidney diseases. The pivotal roles of innate immunity in renal injury and regeneration with special emphasis on kidney disease related immunoregulatory mechanism are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Stronger Dopamine D1 Receptor-Mediated Neurotransmission in Dyskinesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré, Daniel; Muñoz, Ana; Moreno, Estefanía; Reyes-Resina, Irene; Canet-Pons, Júlia; Dopeso-Reyes, Iria G; Rico, Alberto J; Lluís, Carme; Mallol, Josefa; Navarro, Gemma; Canela, Enric I; Cortés, Antonio; Labandeira-García, José L; Casadó, Vicent; Lanciego, José L; Franco, Rafael

    2015-12-01

    Radioligand binding assays to rat striatal dopamine D1 receptors showed that brain lateralization of the dopaminergic system were not due to changes in expression but in agonist affinity. D1 receptor-mediated striatal imbalance resulted from a significantly higher agonist affinity in the left striatum. D1 receptors heteromerize with dopamine D3 receptors, which are considered therapeutic targets for dyskinesia in parkinsonian patients. Expression of both D3 and D1-D3 receptor heteromers were increased in samples from 6-hydroxy-dopamine-hemilesioned rats rendered dyskinetic by treatment with 3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl-L-alanine (L-DOPA). Similar findings were obtained using striatal samples from primates. Radioligand binding studies in the presence of a D3 agonist led in dyskinetic, but not in lesioned or L-DOPA-treated rats, to a higher dopamine sensitivity. Upon D3-receptor activation, the affinity of agonists for binding to the right striatal D1 receptor increased. Excess dopamine coming from L-DOPA medication likely activates D3 receptors thus making right and left striatal D1 receptors equally responsive to dopamine. These results show that dyskinesia occurs concurrently with a right/left striatal balance in D1 receptor-mediated neurotransmission.

  13. The macrophage scavenger receptor CD163 functions as an innate immune sensor for bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fabriek, B.O.; van Bruggen, R.; Deng, D.M.; Ligtenberg, A.J.M.; Nazmi, K.; Schornagel, K.; Vloet, R.P.M.; Dijkstra, C.D.; van den Berg, T.K.

    2009-01-01

    The plasma membrane glycoprotein re- ceptor CD163 is a member of the scaven- ger receptor cystein-rich (SRCR) super- family class B that is highly expressed on resident tissue macrophages in vivo. Pre- viously, the molecule has been shown to act as a receptor for hemoglobin- haptoglobin complexes

  14. Nitric oxide-mediated maintenance of redox homeostasis contributes to NPR1-dependent plant innate immunity triggered by lipopolysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Aizhen; Nie, Shengjun; Xing, Da

    2012-10-01

    The perception of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) by plant cells can lead to nitric oxide (NO) production and defense gene induction. However, the signaling cascades underlying these cellular responses have not yet been resolved. This work investigated the biosynthetic origin of NO and the role of NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 (NPR1) to gain insight into the mechanism involved in LPS-induced resistance of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Analysis of inhibitors and mutants showed that LPS-induced NO synthesis was mainly mediated by an arginine-utilizing source of NO generation. Furthermore, LPS-induced NO caused transcript accumulation of alternative oxidase genes and increased antioxidant enzyme activity, which enhanced antioxidant capacity and modulated redox state. We also analyzed the subcellular localization of NPR1 to identify the mechanism for protein-modulated plant innate immunity triggered by LPS. LPS-activated defense responses, including callose deposition and defense-related gene expression, were found to be regulated through an NPR1-dependent pathway. In summary, a significant NO synthesis induced by LPS contributes to the LPS-induced defense responses by up-regulation of defense genes and modulation of cellular redox state. Moreover, NPR1 plays an important role in LPS-triggered plant innate immunity.

  15. The evolutionarily conserved mediator subunit MDT-15/MED15 links protective innate immune responses and xenobiotic detoxification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Read Pukkila-Worley

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Metazoans protect themselves from environmental toxins and virulent pathogens through detoxification and immune responses. We previously identified a small molecule xenobiotic toxin that extends survival of Caenorhabditis elegans infected with human bacterial pathogens by activating the conserved p38 MAP kinase PMK-1 host defense pathway. Here we investigate the cellular mechanisms that couple activation of a detoxification response to innate immunity. From an RNAi screen of 1,420 genes expressed in the C. elegans intestine, we identified the conserved Mediator subunit MDT-15/MED15 and 28 other gene inactivations that abrogate the induction of PMK-1-dependent immune effectors by this small molecule. We demonstrate that MDT-15/MED15 is required for the xenobiotic-induced expression of p38 MAP kinase PMK-1-dependent immune genes and protection from Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. We also show that MDT-15 controls the induction of detoxification genes and functions to protect the host from bacteria-derived phenazine toxins. These data define a central role for MDT-15/MED15 in the coordination of xenobiotic detoxification and innate immune responses.

  16. The evolutionarily conserved mediator subunit MDT-15/MED15 links protective innate immune responses and xenobiotic detoxification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukkila-Worley, Read; Feinbaum, Rhonda L; McEwan, Deborah L; Conery, Annie L; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2014-05-01

    Metazoans protect themselves from environmental toxins and virulent pathogens through detoxification and immune responses. We previously identified a small molecule xenobiotic toxin that extends survival of Caenorhabditis elegans infected with human bacterial pathogens by activating the conserved p38 MAP kinase PMK-1 host defense pathway. Here we investigate the cellular mechanisms that couple activation of a detoxification response to innate immunity. From an RNAi screen of 1,420 genes expressed in the C. elegans intestine, we identified the conserved Mediator subunit MDT-15/MED15 and 28 other gene inactivations that abrogate the induction of PMK-1-dependent immune effectors by this small molecule. We demonstrate that MDT-15/MED15 is required for the xenobiotic-induced expression of p38 MAP kinase PMK-1-dependent immune genes and protection from Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. We also show that MDT-15 controls the induction of detoxification genes and functions to protect the host from bacteria-derived phenazine toxins. These data define a central role for MDT-15/MED15 in the coordination of xenobiotic detoxification and innate immune responses.

  17. Innate Immunity and Saliva in Candida albicans–mediated Oral Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatori, O.; Puri, S.; Tati, S.; Edgerton, M.

    2016-01-01

    The oral cavity is a unique niche where Candida albicans infections occur in immunocompetent as well as immunosuppressed individuals. Here we critically review the significance of human innate immune response in preventing oral candidiasis. One important line of defense against oropharyngeal candidiasis is the oral microbiota that prevents infection by competing for space and nutrients as well as by secreting antagonistic molecules and triggering local inflammatory responses. C. albicans is able to induce mucosal defenses through activation of immune cells and production of cytokines. Also, saliva contains various proteins that affect C. albicans growth positively by promoting mucosal adherence and negatively through immune exclusion and direct fungicidal activity. We further discuss the role of saliva in unifying host innate immune defenses against C. albicans as a communicating medium and how C. albicans overgrowth in the oral cavity may be a result of aberrations ranging from microbial dysbiosis and salivary dysfunction to epithelial damage. Last we underscore select oral diseases in which C. albicans is a contributory microorganism in immune-competent individuals. PMID:26747422

  18. Multiple sclerosis and polymorphisms of innate pattern recognition receptors TLR1-10, NOD1-2, DDX58, and IFIH1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevold, Christian; Oturai, Annette Bang; Sørensen, Per Soelberg

    2009-01-01

    Genetic factors are critical in multiple sclerosis (MS), and it is conceivable that the pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system are of pathogenic importance. We therefore developed two novel assays capable of analyzing 42 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the human genes encoding...

  19. Molecular Mechanisms of Dopamine Receptor Mediated Neuroprotection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sealfon, Stuart

    2000-01-01

    ... of the cellular changes characteristic of this process. Evidence from our laboratory and others suggest that activation of dopamine receptors can oppose the induction of apoptosis in dopamine neurons...

  20. Receptor targeting of hemoglobin mediated by the haptoglobins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Marianne Jensby; Moestrup, Søren Kragh

    2009-01-01

    Haptoglobin, the haptoglobin-hemoglobin receptor CD163, and the heme oxygenase-1 are proteins with a well-established function in the clearance and metabolism of "free" hemoglobin released during intravascular hemolysis. This scavenging system counteracts the potentially harmful oxidative and NO......-scavenging effects associated with "free" hemoglobin, and, furthermore, elicits an anti-inflammatory response. In the late primate evolution, haptoglobin variants with distinct functions have arisen, including haptoglobin polymers and the haptoglobin-related protein. The latter associates with a subspecies of high......-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles playing a crucial role in the innate immunity against certain trypanosome parasites. Recent studies have elucidated this fairly sophisticated immune defense mechanism that takes advantage of a trypanosomal haptoglobin-hemoglobin receptor evolved to supply the parasite with heme...

  1. Toll-like Receptors 4 and 5 Cooperatively Initiate the Innate Immune Responses to Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Infection in Mouse Epididymal Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lijing; Chen, Qiaoyuan; Zhu, Weiwei; Wu, Han; Wang, Qing; Shi, Lili; Zhao, Xiang; Han, Daishu

    2016-03-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) may cause epididymitis and impair male fertility. The mechanisms underlying the innate immune responses to UPEC infection in the epididymis are not fully understood. This study showed that UPEC induced innate immune responses in mouse epididymal epithelial cells (EECs) through the activation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and TLR5. Infection with UPEC significantly induced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, in EECs through the activation of nuclear factor kappa B. Moreover, UPEC induced the production of type 1 interferons by EECs through the activation of interferon regulatory factor 3. The UPEC-induced innate immune responses were significantly reduced in the EECs of Tlr4 or Tlr5 knockout mice. The innate immune responses were further reduced in Tlr4 and Tlr5 double-knockout EECs. Furthermore, we demonstrated that TLR4 and TLR5 cooperatively initiated the epididymal innate immune responses to UPEC infection in vivo. The results provide novel insights into the mechanisms underlying the epididymal innate immune responses to UPEC infection. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  2. Autoimmunity in Arabidopsis acd11 Is Mediated by Epigenetic Regulation of an Immune Receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palma, K.; Thorgrimsen, S.; Malinovsky, F.G.

    2010-01-01

    Certain pathogens deliver effectors into plant cells to modify host protein targets and thereby suppress immunity. These target modifications can be detected by intracellular immune receptors, or Resistance (R) proteins, that trigger strong immune responses including localized host cell death....... The accelerated cell death 11 (acd11) "lesion mimic" mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana exhibits autoimmune phenotypes such as constitutive defense responses and cell death without pathogen perception. ACD11 encodes a putative sphingosine transfer protein, but its precise role during these processes is unknown......, and that cell death in other lesion mimic mutants may also be caused by inappropriate activation of R genes. Moreover, SDG8 is required for basal and R protein-mediated pathogen resistance in Arabidopsis, revealing the importance of chromatin remodeling as a key process in plant innate immunity....

  3. Estrogen mediates innate and adaptive immune alterations to influenza infection in pregnant mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Pazos

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is a leading risk factor for severe complications during an influenza virus infection. Women infected during their second and third trimesters are at increased risk for severe cardiopulmonary complications, premature delivery, and death. Here, we establish a murine model of aerosolized influenza infection during pregnancy. We find significantly altered innate antiviral responses in pregnant mice, including decreased levels of IFN-β, IL-1α, and IFN-γ at early time points of infection. We also find reduced cytotoxic T cell activity and delayed viral clearance. We further demonstrate that pregnancy levels of the estrogen 17-β-estradiol are able to induce key anti-inflammatory phenotypes in immune responses to the virus independently of other hormones or pregnancy-related stressors. We conclude that elevated estrogen levels result in an attenuated anti-viral immune response, and that pregnancy-associated morbidities occur in the context of this anti-inflammatory phenotype.

  4. Estrogen mediates innate and adaptive immune alterations to influenza infection in pregnant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Michael A; Kraus, Thomas A; Muñoz-Fontela, César; Moran, Thomas M

    2012-01-01

    Pregnancy is a leading risk factor for severe complications during an influenza virus infection. Women infected during their second and third trimesters are at increased risk for severe cardiopulmonary complications, premature delivery, and death. Here, we establish a murine model of aerosolized influenza infection during pregnancy. We find significantly altered innate antiviral responses in pregnant mice, including decreased levels of IFN-β, IL-1α, and IFN-γ at early time points of infection. We also find reduced cytotoxic T cell activity and delayed viral clearance. We further demonstrate that pregnancy levels of the estrogen 17-β-estradiol are able to induce key anti-inflammatory phenotypes in immune responses to the virus independently of other hormones or pregnancy-related stressors. We conclude that elevated estrogen levels result in an attenuated anti-viral immune response, and that pregnancy-associated morbidities occur in the context of this anti-inflammatory phenotype.

  5. Innate immune evasion mediated by the Ambystoma tigrinum virus eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2alpha homologue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jancovich, James K; Jacobs, Bertram L

    2011-05-01

    Ranaviruses (family Iridoviridae, genus Ranavirus) are large, double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses whose replication is restricted to ectothermic vertebrates. Many highly pathogenic members of the genus Ranavirus encode a homologue of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α). Data in a heterologous vaccinia virus system suggest that the Ambystoma tigrinum virus (ATV) eIF2α homologue (vIF2αH; open reading frame [ORF] 57R) is involved in evading the host innate immune response by degrading the interferon-inducible, dsRNA-activated protein kinase, PKR. To test this hypothesis directly, the ATV vIF2αH gene (ORF 57R) was deleted by homologous recombination, and a selectable marker was inserted in its place. The ATVΔ57R virus has a small plaque phenotype and is 8-fold more sensitive to interferon than wild-type ATV (wtATV). Infection of fish cells with the ATVΔ57R virus leads to eIF2α phosphorylation, in contrast to infection with wtATV, which actively inhibits eIF2α phosphorylation. The inability of ATVΔ57R to prevent phosphorylation of eIF2α correlates with degradation of fish PKZ, an interferon-inducible enzyme that is closely related to mammalian PKR. In addition, salamanders infected with ATVΔ57R displayed an increased time to death compared to that of wtATV-infected salamanders. Therefore, in a biologically relevant system, the ATV vIF2αH gene acts as an innate immune evasion factor, thereby enhancing virus pathogenesis.

  6. Müller Glia in Retinal Innate Immunity: A perspective on their roles in endophthalmitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Ashok; Pandey, Rajeev K; Miller, Lindsay J; Singh, Pawan K; Kanwar, Mamta

    2013-01-01

    Müller cells are the predominant glial cell type in the retina and have a unique anatomy, with processes that span the entire retinal thickness. Although extensive morphological and physiological studies of Müller glia have been performed, much less is known about their role in retinal innate immunity, specifically in infectious endophthalmitis. They were found to express Toll-like receptors (TLRs), a major family of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that mediate innate responses and provi...

  7. Relations between immune and mediator receptors of mouse lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ado, A.D.; Alekseeva, T.A.; Kravchenko, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper examines the action of the specific muscarinic antogonist tritium-quinuclidinyl benzilate (tritium-QNB) on immune rosette formation in mice. It is shown that since the specific muscarini antagonist tritium-QNB inhibits immune rosette formation, this process must be regarded as interconnected with muscarinic receptors of lymphocytes. Interaction of immune (antigen-binding) and mediator receptors, however, is an important factor maintaining immune homeostasis at a certain level

  8. Emerging Concepts in Innate Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelka, Karin; De Nardo, Dominic

    2018-01-01

    This review introduces recent concepts in innate immunity highlighting some of the latest exciting findings. These include: the discovery of the initiator of pyroptosis, Gasdermin D, and mechanisms of inflammatory caspases in innate immune signaling; the formation of oligomeric signalosomes downstream of innate immune receptors; mechanisms that shape innate immune responses, such as cellular homeostasis, cell metabolism, and pathogen viability; rapid methods of cell-to-cell communication; the interplay between the host and its microbiome and the concept of innate immunological memory. Furthermore, we discuss open questions and illustrate how technological advances, such as CRISPR/Cas9, may provide important answers for outstanding questions in the field of innate immunity.

  9. Epstein-Barr virus large tegument protein BPLF1 contributes to innate immune evasion through interference with toll-like receptor signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel van Gent

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Viral infection triggers an early host response through activation of pattern recognition receptors, including Toll-like receptors (TLR. TLR signaling cascades induce production of type I interferons and proinflammatory cytokines involved in establishing an anti-viral state as well as in orchestrating ensuing adaptive immunity. To allow infection, replication, and persistence, (herpesviruses employ ingenious strategies to evade host immunity. The human gamma-herpesvirus Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is a large, enveloped DNA virus persistently carried by more than 90% of adults worldwide. It is the causative agent of infectious mononucleosis and is associated with several malignant tumors. EBV activates TLRs, including TLR2, TLR3, and TLR9. Interestingly, both the expression of and signaling by TLRs is attenuated during productive EBV infection. Ubiquitination plays an important role in regulating TLR signaling and is controlled by ubiquitin ligases and deubiquitinases (DUBs. The EBV genome encodes three proteins reported to exert in vitro deubiquitinase activity. Using active site-directed probes, we show that one of these putative DUBs, the conserved herpesvirus large tegument protein BPLF1, acts as a functional DUB in EBV-producing B cells. The BPLF1 enzyme is expressed during the late phase of lytic EBV infection and is incorporated into viral particles. The N-terminal part of the large BPLF1 protein contains the catalytic site for DUB activity and suppresses TLR-mediated activation of NF-κB at, or downstream of, the TRAF6 signaling intermediate. A catalytically inactive mutant of this EBV protein did not reduce NF-κB activation, indicating that DUB activity is essential for attenuating TLR signal transduction. Our combined results show that EBV employs deubiquitination of signaling intermediates in the TLR cascade as a mechanism to counteract innate anti-viral immunity of infected hosts.

  10. A rice lectin receptor-like kinase that is involved in innate immune responses also contributes to seed germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaoyan; Wu, Yan; Guo, Jianping; Du, Bo; Chen, Rongzhi; Zhu, Lili; He, Guangcun

    2013-01-01

    Seed germination and innate immunity both have significant effects on plant life spans because they control the plant's entry into the ecosystem and provide defenses against various external stresses, respectively. Much ecological evidence has shown that seeds with high vigor are generally more tolerant of various environmental stimuli in the field than those with low vigor. However, there is little genetic evidence linking germination and immunity in plants. Here, we show that the rice lectin receptor-like kinase OslecRK contributes to both seed germination and plant innate immunity. We demonstrate that knocking down the OslecRK gene depresses the expression of α–amylase genes, reducing seed viability and thereby decreasing the rate of seed germination. Moreover, it also inhibits the expression of defense genes, and so reduces the resistance of rice plants to fungal and bacterial pathogens as well as herbivorous insects. Yeast two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that OslecRK interacts with an actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF) in vivo via its kinase domain. Moreover, the rice adf mutant exhibited a reduced seed germination rate due to the suppression of α–amylase gene expression. This mutant also exhibited depressed immune responses and reduced resistance to biotic stresses. Our results thus provide direct genetic evidence for a common physiological pathway connecting germination and immunity in plants. They also partially explain the common observation that high-vigor seeds often perform well in the field. The dual effects of OslecRK may be indicative of progressive adaptive evolution in rice. PMID:24033867

  11. Viral double-strand RNA-binding proteins can enhance innate immune signaling by toll-like Receptor 3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Lai

    Full Text Available Toll-like Receptor 3 (TLR3 detects double-stranded (ds RNAs to activate innate immune responses. While poly(I:C is an excellent agonist for TLR3 in several cell lines and in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, viral dsRNAs tend to be poor agonists, leading to the hypothesis that additional factor(s are likely required to allow TLR3 to respond to viral dsRNAs. TLR3 signaling was examined in a lung epithelial cell line by quantifying cytokine production and in human embryonic kidney cells by quantifying luciferase reporter levels. Recombinant 1b hepatitis C virus polymerase was found to enhance TLR3 signaling in the lung epithelial BEAS-2B cells when added to the media along with either poly(I:C or viral dsRNAs. The polymerase from the genotype 2a JFH-1 HCV was a poor enhancer of TLR3 signaling until it was mutated to favor a conformation that could bind better to a partially duplexed RNA. The 1b polymerase also co-localizes with TLR3 in endosomes. RNA-binding capsid proteins (CPs from two positive-strand RNA viruses and the hepadenavirus hepatitis B virus (HBV were also potent enhancers of TLR3 signaling by poly(I:C or viral dsRNAs. A truncated version of the HBV CP that lacked an arginine-rich RNA-binding domain was unable to enhance TLR3 signaling. These results demonstrate that several viral RNA-binding proteins can enhance the dsRNA-dependent innate immune response initiated by TLR3.

  12. Toll-like receptor 2 has a prominent but nonessential role in innate immunity to Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerrett, Shawn J; Braff, Marissa H; Liggitt, H Denny; Rubens, Craig E

    2017-11-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important cause of acute bacterial pneumonia. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) recognizes multiple components of the bacterial cell wall and activates innate immune responses to gram-positive bacteria. We hypothesized that TLR2 would have an important role in pulmonary host defense against S. aureus TLR null (TLR2 -/- ) mice and wild type (WT) C57BL/6 controls were challenged with aerosolized S. aureus at a range of inocula for kinetic studies of cytokine and antimicrobial peptide expression, lung inflammation, bacterial killing by alveolar macrophages, and bacterial clearance. Survival was measured after intranasal infection. Pulmonary induction of most pro-inflammatory cytokines was significantly blunted in TLR2 -/- mice 4 and 24 h after infection in comparison with WT controls. Bronchoalveolar concentrations of cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide also were reduced in TLR2 -/- mice. Lung inflammation, measured by enumeration of bronchoalveolar neutrophils and scoring of histological sections, was significantly blunted in TLR2 -/- mice. Phagocytosis of S. aureus by alveolar macrophages in vivo after low-dose infection was unimpaired, but viability of ingested bacteria was significantly greater in TLR2 -/- mice. Bacterial clearance from the lungs was slightly impaired in TLR2 -/- mice after low-dose infection only; bacterial elimination from the lungs was slightly accelerated in the TLR2 -/- mice after high-dose infection. Survival after high-dose intranasal challenge was 50-60% in both groups. TLR2 has a significant role in early innate immune responses to S. aureus in the lungs but is not required for bacterial clearance and survival from S. aureus pneumonia. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  13. Burn-induced alterations in toll-like receptor-mediated responses by bronchoalveolar lavage cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppeltz, Richard F; Rani, Meenakshi; Zhang, Qiong; Schwacha, Martin G

    2011-09-01

    Burn is associated with profound inflammation and activation of the innate immune system in multiple organ beds, including the lung. Similarly, toll-like receptors (TLR) are associated with innate immune activation. Nonetheless, it is unclear what impact burn has on TLR-induced inflammatory responses in the lung. Male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to burn (3rd degree, 25% TBSA) or sham procedure and 1, 3 or 7 days thereafter, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was collected and cells were isolated and cultured in vitro with specific TLR agonists as follows: Zymosan (TLR-2), LPS (TLR-4) and CpG-ODN (TLR-9). Supernatants were collected 48 h later and assayed for inflammatory cytokine levels (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, TNF-α, KC, MCP-1, MIP-1α, MIP-1β and RANTES) by Bioplex. BAL fluid from sham and burn mice did not contain detectable cytokine levels. BAL cells, irrespective of injury, were responsive to TLR-2 and TLR-4 activation. Seven days after burn, TLR-2 and TLR-4 mediated responses by BAL cells were enhanced as evidenced by increased production of IL-6, IL-17, TNF-α, MCP-1, MIP-1β and RANTES. Burn-induced changes in TLR-2 and TLR-4 reactivity may contribute to the development of post-burn complications, such as acute lung injury (ALI) and adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Human Innate Immunity to Toxoplasma gondii Is Mediated by Host Caspase-1 and ASC and Parasite GRA15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gov, Lanny; Karimzadeh, Alborz; Ueno, Norikiyo; Lodoen, Melissa B.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT   Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) functions as a key regulator of inflammation and innate immunity. The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii actively infects human blood monocytes and induces the production of IL-1β; however, the host and parasite factors that mediate IL-1β production during T. gondii infection are poorly understood. We report that T. gondii induces IL-1β transcript, processing/cleavage, and release from infected primary human monocytes and THP-1 cells. Treating monocytes with the caspase-1 inhibitor Ac-YVAD-CMK reduced IL-1β release, suggesting a role for the inflammasome in T. gondii-induced IL-1β production. This was confirmed by performing short hairpin RNA (shRNA) knockdown of caspase-1 and of the inflammasome adaptor protein ASC. IL-1β induction required active parasite invasion of monocytes, since heat-killed or mycalolide B-treated parasites did not induce IL-1β. Among the type I, II, and III strains of T. gondii, the type II strain induced substantially more IL-1β mRNA and protein release than did the type I and III strains. Since IL-1β transcript is known to be induced downstream of NF-κB signaling, we investigated a role for the GRA15 protein, which induces sustained NF-κB signaling in a parasite strain-specific manner. By infecting human monocytes with a GRA15-knockout type II strain and a type I strain stably expressing type II GRA15, we determined that GRA15 is responsible for IL-1β induction during T. gondii infection of human monocytes. This research defines a pathway driving human innate immunity by describing a role for the classical inflammasome components caspase-1 and ASC and the parasite GRA15 protein in T. gondii-induced IL-1β production. PMID:23839215

  15. Innate immune receptors for cross-presentation: The expanding role of NLRs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corridoni, Daniele; Simmons, Alison

    2017-11-29

    A critical role of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) is to influence adaptive immune responses by regulating antigen presentation. Engagement of PRRs in dendritic cells (DCs) increases MHC class I antigen presentation and CD8 + T-cell activation by cross-presented peptides but the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects are not completely understood. Studies looking at the role of PRRs in cross-presentation have been largely limited to TLRs but the role of other PRRs such as cytosolic nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like (NOD-like) receptors remains particularly enigmatic. Here we discuss recent evidence of the role of PRRs on cross-presentation and consider how cytosolic NLR-associated pathways, such as NOD2, may integrate these signals resulting in effective adaptive CD8 + T cells responses. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Signaling pathways required for macrophage scavenger receptor-mediated phagocytosis: analysis by scanning cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winkler Aaron R

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scavenger receptors are important components of the innate immune system in the lung, allowing alveolar macrophages to bind and phagocytose numerous unopsonized targets. Mice with genetic deletions of scavenger receptors, such as SR-A and MARCO, are susceptible to infection or inflammation from inhaled pathogens or dusts. However, the signaling pathways required for scavenger receptor-mediated phagocytosis of unopsonized particles have not been characterized. Methods We developed a scanning cytometry-based high-throughput assay of macrophage phagocytosis that quantitates bound and internalized unopsonized latex beads. This assay allowed the testing of a panel of signaling inhibitors which have previously been shown to target opsonin-dependent phagocytosis for their effect on unopsonized bead uptake by human in vitro-derived alveolar macrophage-like cells. The non-selective scavenger receptor inhibitor poly(I and the actin destabilizer cytochalasin D were used to validate the assay and caused near complete abrogation of bead binding and internalization, respectively. Results Microtubule destabilization using nocodazole dramatically inhibited bead internalization. Internalization was also significantly reduced by inhibitors of tyrosine kinases (genistein and herbimycin A, protein kinase C (staurosporine, chelerythrine chloride and Gö 6976, phosphoinositide-3 kinase (LY294002 and wortmannin, and the JNK and ERK pathways. In contrast, inhibition of phospholipase C by U-73122 had no effect. Conclusion These data indicate the utility of scanning cytometry for the analysis of phagocytosis and that phagocytosis of unopsonized particles has both shared and distinct features when compared to opsonin-mediated phagocytosis.

  17. The receptor for advanced glycation end products in ventilator-induced lung injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Maria T.; Aslami, Hamid; Tuinman, Pieter Roel; Tuip-de Boer, Anita M.; Jongsma, Geartsje; van der Sluijs, Koenraad F.; Choi, Goda; Wolthuis, Esther K.; Roelofs, Joris J. T. H.; Bresser, Paul; Schultz, Marcus J.; van der Poll, Tom; Wieland, Catharina W.

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation (MV) can cause ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). The innate immune response mediates this iatrogenic inflammatory condition. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a multiligand receptor that can amplify immune and inflammatory responses. We

  18. The receptor for advanced glycation end products in ventilator-induced lung injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Maria T; Aslami, Hamid; Tuinman, Pieter Roel; Tuip-de Boer, Anita M; Jongsma, Geartsje; van der Sluijs, Koenraad F; Choi, Goda; Wolthuis, Esther K; Roelofs, Joris Jth; Bresser, Paul; Schultz, Marcus J; van der Poll, Tom; Wieland, Catharina W

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mechanical ventilation (MV) can cause ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). The innate immune response mediates this iatrogenic inflammatory condition. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a multiligand receptor that can amplify immune and inflammatory responses.

  19. Complement receptor mediates enhanced flavivirus replication in macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    Evidence is presented that M phi complement receptors (CR3) mediate IgM- dependent enhancement of flavivirus replication in the presence of complement. Enhancement is blocked by pretreatment of macrophages with monoclonal antibody Ml/70, which inhibits CR3 binding, but not by pretreatment with monoclonal antibody 2.4G2, which inhibits FcR binding.

  20. Targeting Toll-like receptor 4 prevents cobalt-mediated inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Helen; Mawdesley, Amy Elizabeth; Holland, James Patrick; Kirby, John Andrew; Deehan, David John; Tyson-Capper, Alison Jane

    2016-02-16

    Cobalt-chrome alloy is a widely used biomaterial in joint replacements, dental implants and spinal rods. Although it is an effective and biocompatible material, adverse reactions to metal debris (ARMD) have arisen in a minority of patients, particularly in those with metal-on-metal bearing hip replacements. There is currently no treatment for ARMD and once progressive, early revision surgery of the implant is necessary. Therapeutic agents to prevent, halt or reverse ARMD would therefore be advantageous. Cobalt ions activate Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), an innate immune receptor responsible for inflammatory responses to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) resulting in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. We hypothesised that anti-TLR4 neutralising antibodies, reported to inhibit TLR4-mediated inflammation, could prevent the inflammatory response to cobalt ions in an in vitro macrophage cell culture model. This study shows that a monoclonal anti-TLR4 antibody inhibited cobalt-mediated increases in pro-inflammatory IL8, CCL20 and IL1A expression, as well as IL-8 secretion. In contrast, a polyclonal antibody did not prevent the effect of cobalt ions on either IL-8 or IL1A expression, although it did have a small effect on the CCL20 response. Interestingly, both antibodies inhibited cobalt-mediated neutrophil migration although the greater effect was observed with the monoclonal antibody. In summary our data shows that a monoclonal anti-TLR4 antibody can inhibit cobalt-mediated inflammatory responses while a polyclonal antibody only inhibits the effect of specific cytokines. Anti-TLR4 antibodies have therapeutic potential in ARMD although careful antibody design is required to ensure that the LPS response is preserved.

  1. Taste Receptors Mediate Sinonasal Immunity and Respiratory Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Jennifer E; Cohen, Noam A

    2017-02-17

    The bitter taste receptor T2R38 has been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), where the receptor functions to enhance upper respiratory innate immunity through a triad of beneficial immune responses. Individuals with a functional version of T2R38 are tasters for the bitter compound phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and exhibit an anti-microbial response in the upper airway to certain invading pathogens, while those individuals with a non-functional version of the receptor are PTC non-tasters and lack this beneficial response. The clinical ramifications are significant, with the non-taster genotype being an independent risk factor for CRS requiring surgery, poor quality-of-life (QOL) improvements post-operatively, and decreased rhinologic QOL in patients with cystic fibrosis. Furthermore, indirect evidence suggests that non-tasters also have a larger burden of biofilm formation. This new data may influence the clinical management of patients with infectious conditions affecting the upper respiratory tract and possibly at other mucosal sites throughout the body.

  2. The Leucine-Rich Repeat Receptor-Like Kinase BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE1-ASSOCIATED KINASE1 and the Cytochrome P450 PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT3 Contribute to Innate Immunity to Aphids in Arabidopsis1[C][W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, David C.; Drurey, Claire; Zipfel, Cyril; Hogenhout, Saskia A.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) against microbial pathogens has been recently demonstrated. However, it is currently unclear if this layer of immunity mediated by surface-localized pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) also plays a role in basal resistance to insects, such as aphids. Here, we show that PTI is an important component of plant innate immunity to insects. Extract of the green peach aphid (GPA; Myzus persicae) triggers responses characteristic of PTI in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Two separate eliciting GPA-derived fractions trigger induced resistance to GPA that is dependent on the leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE1-ASSOCIATED KINASE1 (BAK1)/SOMATIC-EMBRYOGENESIS RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE3, which is a key regulator of several leucine-rich repeat-containing PRRs. BAK1 is required for GPA elicitor-mediated induction of reactive oxygen species and callose deposition. Arabidopsis bak1 mutant plants are also compromised in immunity to the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum), for which Arabidopsis is normally a nonhost. Aphid-derived elicitors induce expression of PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT3 (PAD3), a key cytochrome P450 involved in the biosynthesis of camalexin, which is a major Arabidopsis phytoalexin that is toxic to GPA. PAD3 is also required for induced resistance to GPA, independently of BAK1 and reactive oxygen species production. Our results reveal that plant innate immunity to insects may involve early perception of elicitors by cell surface-localized PRRs, leading to subsequent downstream immune signaling. PMID:24586042

  3. NOD1 cooperates with TLR2 to enhance T cell receptor-mediated activation in CD8 T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blandine C Mercier

    Full Text Available Pattern recognition receptors (PRR, like Toll-like receptors (TLR and NOD-like receptors (NLR, are involved in the detection of microbial infections and tissue damage by cells of the innate immune system. Recently, we and others have demonstrated that TLR2 can additionally function as a costimulatory receptor on CD8 T cells. Here, we establish that the intracytosolic receptor NOD1 is expressed and functional in CD8 T cells. We show that C12-iEDAP, a synthetic ligand for NOD1, has a direct impact on both murine and human CD8 T cells, increasing proliferation and effector functions of cells activated via their T cell receptor (TCR. This effect is dependent on the adaptor molecule RIP2 and is associated with an increased activation of the NF-κB, JNK and p38 signaling pathways. Furthermore, we demonstrate that NOD1 stimulation can cooperate with TLR2 engagement on CD8 T cells to enhance TCR-mediated activation. Altogether our results indicate that NOD1 might function as an alternative costimulatory receptor in CD8 T cells. Our study provides new insights into the function of NLR in T cells and extends to NOD1 the recent concept that PRR stimulation can directly control T cell functions.

  4. Induction of aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated and estrogen receptor-mediated activities, and modulation of cell proliferation by dinaphthofurans

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vondráček, Jan; Chramostová, Kateřina; Plíšková, M.; Bláha, L.; Brack, W.; Kozubík, Alois; Machala, M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 9 (2004), s. 2214-2220 ISSN 0730-7268 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA525/03/1527 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated activity * estrogenicity * intercellular communication inhibition Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.121, year: 2004

  5. Type 3 innate lymphoid cell depletion is mediated by TLRs in lymphoid tissues of simian immunodeficiency virus-infected macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huanbin; Wang, Xiaolei; Lackner, Andrew A; Veazey, Ronald S

    2015-12-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) type 3, also known as lymphoid tissue inducer cells, plays a major role in both the development and remodeling of organized lymphoid tissues and the maintenance of adaptive immune responses. HIV/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection causes breakdown of intestinal barriers resulting in microbial translocation, leading to systemic immune activation and disease progression. However, the effects of HIV/SIV infection on ILC3 are unknown. Here, we analyzed ILC3 from mucosal and systemic lymphoid tissues in chronically SIV-infected macaques and uninfected controls. ILC3 cells were defined and identified in macaque lymphoid tissues as non-T, non-B (lineage-negative), c-Kit(+)IL-7Rα(+) (CD117(+)CD127(+)) cells. These ILC3 cells highly expressed CD90 (∼ 63%) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor and produced IL-17 (∼ 63%), IL-22 (∼ 36%), and TNF-α (∼ 72%) but did not coexpress CD4 or NK cell markers. The intestinal ILC3 cell loss correlated with the reduction of total CD4(+) T cells and T helper (Th)17 and Th22 cells in the gut during SIV infection (P lymphoid tissues in SIV-infected macaques, further contributing to the HIV-induced impairment of gut-associated lymphoid tissue structure and function, especially in mucosal tissues. © FASEB.

  6. Age-dependent maturation of Toll-like receptor-mediated cytokine responses in Gambian infants.

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    Sarah Burl

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The global burden of neonatal and infant mortality due to infection is staggering, particularly in resource-poor settings. Early childhood vaccination is one of the major interventions that can reduce this burden, but there are specific limitations to inducing effective immunity in early life, including impaired neonatal leukocyte production of Th1-polarizing cytokines to many stimuli. Characterizing the ontogeny of Toll-like receptor (TLR-mediated innate immune responses in infants may shed light on susceptibility to infection in this vulnerable age group, and provide insights into TLR agonists as candidate adjuvants for improved neonatal vaccines. As little is known about the leukocyte responses of infants in resource-poor settings, we characterized production of Th1-, Th2-, and anti-inflammatory-cytokines in response to agonists of TLRs 1-9 in whole blood from 120 Gambian infants ranging from newborns (cord blood to 12 months of age. Most of the TLR agonists induced TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 in cord blood. The greatest TNFα responses were observed for TLR4, -5, and -8 agonists, the highest being the thiazoloquinoline CLO75 (TLR7/8 that also uniquely induced cord blood IFNγ production. For most agonists, TLR-mediated TNFα and IFNγ responses increased from birth to 1 month of age. TLR8 agonists also induced the greatest production of the Th1-polarizing cytokines TNFα and IFNγ throughout the first year of life, although the relative responses to the single TLR8 agonist and the combined TLR7/8 agonist changed with age. In contrast, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 responses to most agonists were robust at birth and remained stable through 12 months of age. These observations provide fresh insights into the ontogeny of innate immunity in African children, and may inform development of age-specific adjuvanted vaccine formulations important for global health.

  7. Innate and intrinsic antiviral immunity in skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Tatsuyoshi; Ogawa, Youichi; Aoki, Rui; Shimada, Shinji

    2014-09-01

    As the body's most exposed interface with the environment, the skin is constantly challenged by potentially pathogenic microbes, including viruses. To sense the invading viruses, various types of cells resident in the skin express many different pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) such as C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), Toll-like receptors (TLRs), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs), retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs) and cytosolic DNA sensors, that can detect the pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) of the viruses. The detection of viral PAMPs initiates two major innate immune signaling cascades: the first involves the activation of the downstream transcription factors, such as interferon regulatory factors (IRFs), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and activator protein 1 (AP-1), which cooperate to induce the transcription of type I interferons and pro-inflammatory cytokines. The second signaling pathway involves the caspase-1-mediated processing of IL-1β and IL-18 through the formation of an inflammasome complex. Cutaneous innate immunity including the production of the innate cytokines constitutes the first line of host defence that limits the virus dissemination from the skin, and also plays an important role in the activation of adaptive immune response, which represents the second line of defence. More recently, the third immunity "intrinsic immunity" has emerged, that provides an immediate and direct antiviral defense mediated by host intrinsic restriction factors. This review focuses on the recent advances regarding the antiviral immune systems, highlighting the innate and intrinsic immunity against the viral infections in the skin, and describes how viral components are recognized by cutaneous immune systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Metabotropic glutamate receptor-mediated signaling in neuroglia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loane, David J.; Stoica, Bogdan A.; Faden, Alan I.

    2011-01-01

    Metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors, which include eight subtypes that have been classified into three groups (I–III) based upon sequence homology, signal transduction mechanism and pharmacological profile. Although most studied with regard to neuronal function and modulation, mGlu receptors are also expressed by neuroglia-including astrocytes, microglia and oligodendrocytes. Activation of mGlu receptors on neuroglia under both physiologic and pathophysiologic conditions mediates numerous actions that are essential for intrinsic glial cell function, as well as for glial–neuronal interactions. Astrocyte mGlu receptors play important physiological roles in regulating neurotransmission and maintaining neuronal homeostasis. However, mGlu receptors on astrocytes and microglia also serve to modulate cell death and neurological function in a variety of pathophysiological conditions such as acute and chronic neurodegenerative disorders. The latter effects are complex and bi-directional, depending on which mGlu receptor sub-types are activated. PMID:22662309

  9. Type 2 innate lymphoid cells-new members of the "type 2 franchise" that mediate allergic airway inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjösberg, Jenny; Spits, Hergen

    2012-05-01

    Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are members of an ILC family, which contains NK cells and Rorγt(+) ILCs, the latter including lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells and ILCs producing IL-17 and IL-22. ILC2s are dedicated to the production of IL-5 and IL-13 and, as such, ILC2s provide an early and important source of type 2 cytokines critical for helminth expulsion in the gut. Several studies have also demonstrated a role for ILC2s in airway inflammation. In this issue of the European Journal of Immunology, Klein Wolterink et al. [Eur. J. Immunol. 2012. 42: 1106-1116] show that ILC2s are instrumental in several models of experimental asthma where they significantly contribute to production of IL-5 and IL-13, key cytokines in airway inflammation. This study sheds light over the relative contribution of ILC2s versus T helper type 2 cells (Th2) in type 2 mediated allergen-specific inflammation in the airways as discussed in this commentary. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Fcγ receptor-mediated inflammation inhibits axon regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Zhang

    Full Text Available Anti-glycan/ganglioside antibodies are the most common immune effectors found in patients with Guillain-Barré Syndrome, which is a peripheral autoimmune neuropathy. We previously reported that disease-relevant anti-glycan autoantibodies inhibited axon regeneration, which echo the clinical association of these antibodies and poor recovery in Guillain-Barré Syndrome. However, the specific molecular and cellular elements involved in this antibody-mediated inhibition of axon regeneration are not previously defined. This study examined the role of Fcγ receptors and macrophages in the antibody-mediated inhibition of axon regeneration. A well characterized antibody passive transfer sciatic nerve crush and transplant models were used to study the anti-ganglioside antibody-mediated inhibition of axon regeneration in wild type and various mutant and transgenic mice with altered expression of specific Fcγ receptors and macrophage/microglia populations. Outcome measures included behavior, electrophysiology, morphometry, immunocytochemistry, quantitative real-time PCR, and western blotting. We demonstrate that the presence of autoantibodies, directed against neuronal/axonal cell surface gangliosides, in the injured mammalian peripheral nerves switch the proregenerative inflammatory environment to growth inhibitory milieu by engaging specific activating Fcγ receptors on recruited monocyte-derived macrophages to cause severe inhibition of axon regeneration. Our data demonstrate that the antibody orchestrated Fcγ receptor-mediated switch in inflammation is one mechanism underlying inhibition of axon regeneration. These findings have clinical implications for nerve repair and recovery in antibody-mediated immune neuropathies. Our results add to the complexity of axon regeneration in injured peripheral and central nervous systems as adverse effects of B cells and autoantibodies on neural injury and repair are increasingly recognized.

  11. Cell-autonomous stress responses in innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Julien; Blander, J Magarian

    2017-01-01

    The innate immune response of phagocytes to microbes has long been known to depend on the core signaling cascades downstream of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which lead to expression and production of inflammatory cytokines that counteract infection and induce adaptive immunity. Cell-autonomous responses have recently emerged as important mechanisms of innate immunity. Either IFN-inducible or constitutive, these processes aim to guarantee cell homeostasis but have also been shown to modulate innate immune response to microbes and production of inflammatory cytokines. Among these constitutive cell-autonomous responses, autophagy is prominent and its role in innate immunity has been well characterized. Other stress responses, such as metabolic stress, the ER stress/unfolded protein response, mitochondrial stress, or the DNA damage response, seem to also be involved in innate immunity, although the precise mechanisms by which they regulate the innate immune response are not yet defined. Of importance, these distinct constitutive cell-autonomous responses appear to be interconnected and can also be modulated by microbes and PRRs, which add further complexity to the interplay between innate immune signaling and cell-autonomous responses in the mediation of an efficient innate immune response. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  12. Short-Course Toll-Like Receptor 9 Agonist Treatment Impacts Innate Immunity and Plasma Viremia in Individuals With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vibholm, Line; Schleimann, Mariane H; Højen, Jesper F; Benfield, Thomas; Offersen, Rasmus; Rasmussen, Katrine; Olesen, Rikke; Dige, Anders; Agnholt, Jørgen; Grau, Judith; Buzon, Maria; Wittig, Burghardt; Lichterfeld, Mathias; Petersen, Andreas Munk; Deng, Xutao; Abdel-Mohsen, Mohamed; Pillai, Satish K; Rutsaert, Sofie; Trypsteen, Wim; De Spiegelaere, Ward; Vandekerchove, Linos; Østergaard, Lars; Rasmussen, Thomas A; Denton, Paul W; Tolstrup, Martin; Søgaard, Ole S

    2017-06-15

    Treatment with latency reversing agents (LRAs) enhances human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transcription in vivo but leads to only modest reductions in the size of the reservoir, possibly due to insufficient immune-mediated elimination of infected cells. We hypothesized that a single drug molecule-a novel Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) agonist, MGN1703-could function as an enhancer of innate immunity and an LRA in vivo. We conducted a single-arm, open-label study in which 15 virologically suppressed HIV-1-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy received 60 mg MGN1703 subcutaneously twice weekly for 4 weeks. We characterized plasmacytoid dendritic cell, natural killer (NK), and T-cell activation using flow cytometry on baseline and after 4 weeks of treatment. HIV-1 transcription was quantified by measuring plasma HIV-1 RNA during MGN1703 administration. In accordance with the cell type-specific expression of TLR9, MGN1703 treatment led to pronounced activation of plasmacytoid dendritic cells and substantial increases in plasma interferon-α2 levels (P immune responses. In 6 of 15 participants, plasma HIV-1 RNA increased from 1500 copies/mL (range, 21-1571 copies/mL) during treatment. TLR9 agonist treatment in HIV infection has a dual potential by increasing HIV-1 transcription and enhancing cytotoxic NK cell activation, both of which are key outcomes in HIV-1 eradication therapy. NCT02443935. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Histamine Receptor 2 is Required to Suppress Innate Immune Responses to Bacterial Ligands in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolinska, Sylwia; Groeger, David; Perez, Noelia Rodriguez; Schiavi, Elisa; Ferstl, Ruth; Frei, Remo; Konieczna, Patrycja; Akdis, Cezmi A; Jutel, Marek; OʼMahony, Liam

    2016-07-01

    Histamine is a key immunoregulatory mediator in immediate-type hypersensitivity reactions and chronic inflammatory responses, in particular histamine suppresses proinflammatory responses to bacterial ligands, through histamine receptor 2 (H2R). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of histamine and H2R on bacteria-induced inflammatory responses in patients with IBD. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were obtained from patients with Crohn's disease, patients with ulcerative colitis, and healthy controls. PBMC histamine receptor expression was evaluated by flow cytometry. Cytokine secretion following Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2, TLR-4, TLR-5, or TLR-9 stimulation in the presence or absence of histamine or famotidine (H2R antagonist) was quantified. Biopsy histamine receptor gene expression was evaluated using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The in vivo role of H2R was evaluated in the T-cell transfer murine colitis model. The percentage of circulating H2R monocytes was significantly reduced in patients with IBD. Histamine effectively suppressed TLR-induced cytokine secretion from healthy volunteer PBMCs but not for PBMCs from patients with IBD. Famotidine reversed this suppressive effect. H1R, H2R, and H4R gene expression was increased in inflamed gastrointestinal mucosa compared with noninflamed mucosa from the same patient and expression levels correlated with proinflammatory cytokine gene expression. Mice receiving lymphocytes from H2R donors, or treated with famotidine, displayed more severe weight loss, higher disease scores and increased numbers of mucosal IFN-γ and IL-17 T cells. Patients with IBD display dysregulated expression of histamine receptors, with diminished anti-inflammatory effects associated with H2R signaling. Deliberate manipulation of H2R signaling may suppress excessive TLR responses to bacteria within the gut.

  14. Functional motifs responsible for human metapneumovirus M2-2-mediated innate immune evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Deng, Xiaoling; Deng, Junfang; Zhou, Jiehua; Ren, Yuping; Liu, Shengxuan; Prusak, Deborah J; Wood, Thomas G; Bao, Xiaoyong

    2016-12-01

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a major cause of lower respiratory infection in young children. Repeated infections occur throughout life, but its immune evasion mechanisms are largely unknown. We recently found that hMPV M2-2 protein elicits immune evasion by targeting mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS), an antiviral signaling molecule. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying such inhibition are not known. Our mutagenesis studies revealed that PDZ-binding motifs, 29-DEMI-32 and 39-KEALSDGI-46, located in an immune inhibitory region of M2-2, are responsible for M2-2-mediated immune evasion. We also found both motifs prevent TRAF5 and TRAF6, the MAVS downstream adaptors, to be recruited to MAVS, while the motif 39-KEALSDGI-46 also blocks TRAF3 migrating to MAVS. In parallel, these TRAFs are important in activating transcription factors NF-kB and/or IRF-3 by hMPV. Our findings collectively demonstrate that M2-2 uses its PDZ motifs to launch the hMPV immune evasion through blocking the interaction of MAVS and its downstream TRAFs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cell-Surface Receptors Transactivation Mediated by G Protein-Coupled Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Fabio; Guerra, Germano; Parisi, Melania; De Marinis, Marta; Tafuri, Domenico; Cinelli, Mariapia; Ammendola, Rosario

    2014-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are seven transmembrane-spanning proteins belonging to a large family of cell-surface receptors involved in many intracellular signaling cascades. Despite GPCRs lack intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity, tyrosine phosphorylation of a tyrosine kinase receptor (RTK) occurs in response to binding of specific agonists of several such receptors, triggering intracellular mitogenic cascades. This suggests that the notion that GPCRs are associated with the regulation of post-mitotic cell functions is no longer believable. Crosstalk between GPCR and RTK may occur by different molecular mechanism such as the activation of metalloproteases, which can induce the metalloprotease-dependent release of RTK ligands, or in a ligand-independent manner involving membrane associated non-receptor tyrosine kinases, such as c-Src. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are also implicated as signaling intermediates in RTKs transactivation. Intracellular concentration of ROS increases transiently in cells stimulated with GPCR agonists and their deliberated and regulated generation is mainly catalyzed by enzymes that belong to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase family. Oxidation and/or reduction of cysteine sulfhydryl groups of phosphatases tightly controls the activity of RTKs and ROS-mediated inhibition of cellular phosphatases results in an equilibrium shift from the non-phosphorylated to the phosphorylated state of RTKs. Many GPCR agonists activate phospholipase C, which catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bis-phosphate to produce inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate and diacylglicerol. The consequent mobilization of Ca2+ from endoplasmic reticulum leads to the activation of protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms. PKCα mediates feedback inhibition of RTK transactivation during GPCR stimulation. Recent data have expanded the coverage of transactivation to include Serine/Threonine kinase receptors and Toll-like receptors. Herein, we

  16. Purinergic Receptors: Key Mediators of HIV-1 infection and inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talia H Swartz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 causes a chronic infection that afflicts more than 38 million individuals worldwide. While the infection can be suppressed with potent anti-retroviral therapies, individuals infected with HIV have elevated levels of inflammation as indicated by increased T cell activation, soluble biomarkers, and associated morbidity and mortality. A single mechanism linking HIV pathogenesis to this inflammation has yet to be identified. Purinergic receptors are known to mediate inflammation and have been shown to be required for HIV-1 infection at the level of HIV-1 membrane fusion. Here we review the literature on the role of purinergic receptors in HIV-1 infection and associated inflammation and describe a role for these receptors as potential therapeutic targets.

  17. Receptor-mediated endocytosis of insect lipoprotein : insight into LDL receptor functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoof, Dennis van

    2004-01-01

    The extracellular transport of water-insoluble lipids through the aqueous circulatory system of animals is mediated by lipoproteins. The lipoprotein of insects, lipophorin (Lp), is homologous to that of mammalian low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Moreover, an endocytic receptor for Lp has been

  18. The p36 Isoform of Murine Cytomegalovirus m152 Protein Suffices for Mediating Innate and Adaptive Immune Evasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Annette; Renzaho, Angeliqué; Reddehase, Matthias J.; Lemmermann, Niels A. W.

    2013-01-01

    The MHC-class I (MHC-I)-like viral (MHC-Iv) m152 gene product of murine cytomegalovirus (mCMV) was the first immune evasion molecule described for a member of the β-subfamily of herpesviruses as a paradigm for analogous functions of human cytomegalovirus proteins. Notably, by interacting with classical MHC-I molecules and with MHC-I-like RAE1 family ligands of the activatory natural killer (NK) cell receptor NKG2D, it inhibits presentation of antigenic peptides to CD8 T cells and the NKG2D-dependent activation of NK cells, respectively, thus simultaneously interfering with adaptive and innate immune recognition of infected cells. Although the m152 gene product exists in differentially glycosylated isoforms whose individual contributions to immune evasion are unknown, it has entered the scientific literature as m152/gp40, based on the quantitatively most prominent isoform but with no functional justification. By construction of a recombinant mCMV in which all three N-glycosylation sites are mutated (N61Q, N208Q, and N241Q), we show here that N-linked glycosylation is not essential for functional interaction of the m152 immune evasion protein with either MHC-I or RAE1. These data add an important functional detail to recent structural analysis of the m152/RAE1γ complex that has revealed N-glycosylations at positions Asn61 and Asn208 of m152 distant from the m152/RAE1γ interface. PMID:24351798

  19. The p36 isoform of murine cytomegalovirus m152 protein suffices for mediating innate and adaptive immune evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Annette; Renzaho, Angeliqué; Reddehase, Matthias J; Lemmermann, Niels A W

    2013-12-16

    The MHC-class I (MHC-I)-like viral (MHC-Iv) m152 gene product of murine cytomegalovirus (mCMV) was the first immune evasion molecule described for a member of the β-subfamily of herpesviruses as a paradigm for analogous functions of human cytomegalovirus proteins. Notably, by interacting with classical MHC-I molecules and with MHC-I-like RAE1 family ligands of the activatory natural killer (NK) cell receptor NKG2D, it inhibits presentation of antigenic peptides to CD8 T cells and the NKG2D-dependent activation of NK cells, respectively, thus simultaneously interfering with adaptive and innate immune recognition of infected cells. Although the m152 gene product exists in differentially glycosylated isoforms whose individual contributions to immune evasion are unknown, it has entered the scientific literature as m152/gp40, based on the quantitatively most prominent isoform but with no functional justification. By construction of a recombinant mCMV in which all three N-glycosylation sites are mutated (N61Q, N208Q, and N241Q), we show here that N-linked glycosylation is not essential for functional interaction of the m152 immune evasion protein with either MHC-I or RAE1. These data add an important functional detail to recent structural analysis of the m152/RAE1g complex that has revealed N-glycosylations at positions Asn61 and Asn208 of m152 distant from the m152/RAE1g interface.

  20. Differential effects of interleukin-17 receptor signaling on innate and adaptive immunity during central nervous system bacterial infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidlak Debbie

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although IL-17A (commonly referred to as IL-17 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of central nervous system (CNS autoimmune disease, its role during CNS bacterial infections remains unclear. To evaluate the broader impact of IL-17 family members in the context of CNS infection, we utilized IL-17 receptor (IL-17R knockout (KO mice that lack the ability to respond to IL-17, IL-17F and IL-17E (IL-25. In this article, we demonstrate that IL-17R signaling regulates bacterial clearance as well as natural killer T (NKT cell and gamma-delta (γδ T cell infiltrates during Staphylococcus aureus-induced brain abscess formation. Specifically, when compared with wild-type (WT animals, IL-17R KO mice exhibited elevated bacterial burdens at days 7 and 14 following S. aureus infection. Additionally, IL-17R KO animals displayed elevated neutrophil chemokine production, revealing the ability to compensate for the lack of IL-17R activity. Despite these differences, innate immune cell recruitment into brain abscesses was similar in IL-17R KO and WT mice, whereas IL-17R signaling exerted a greater influence on adaptive immune cell recruitment. In particular, γδ T cell influx was increased in IL-17R KO mice at day 7 post-infection. In addition, NK1.1high infiltrates were absent in brain abscesses of IL-17R KO animals and, surprisingly, were rarely detected in the livers of uninfected IL-17R KO mice. Although IL-17 is a key regulator of neutrophils in other infection models, our data implicate an important role for IL-17R signaling in regulating adaptive immunity during CNS bacterial infection.

  1. DC-SIGN activation mediates the differential effects of SAP and CRP on the innate immune system and inhibits fibrosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Nehemiah; Pilling, Darrell; Gomer, Richard H

    2015-07-07

    Fibrosis is caused by scar tissue formation in internal organs and is associated with 45% of deaths in the United States. Two closely related human serum proteins, serum amyloid P (SAP) and C-reactive protein (CRP), strongly affect fibrosis. In multiple animal models, and in Phase 1 and Phase 2 clinical trials, SAP affects several aspects of the innate immune system to reduce fibrosis, whereas CRP appears to potentiate fibrosis. However, SAP and CRP bind the same Fcγ receptors (FcγR) with similar affinities, and why SAP and CRP have opposing effects is unknown. Here, we report that SAP but not CRP binds the receptor DC-SIGN (SIGN-R1) to affect the innate immune system, and that FcγR are not necessary for SAP function. A polycyclic aminothiazole DC-SIGN ligand and anti-DC-SIGN antibodies mimic SAP effects in vitro. In mice, the aminothiazole reduces neutrophil accumulation in a model of acute lung inflammation and, at 0.001 mg/kg, alleviates pulmonary fibrosis by increasing levels of the immunosuppressant IL-10. DC-SIGN (SIGN-R1) is present on mouse lung epithelial cells, and SAP and the aminothiazole potentiate IL-10 production from these cells. Our data suggest that SAP activates DC-SIGN to regulate the innate immune system differently from CRP, and that DC-SIGN is a target for antifibrotics.

  2. DC-SIGN activation mediates the differential effects of SAP and CRP on the innate immune system and inhibits fibrosis in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Nehemiah; Pilling, Darrell; Gomer, Richard H.

    2015-01-01

    Fibrosis is caused by scar tissue formation in internal organs and is associated with 45% of deaths in the United States. Two closely related human serum proteins, serum amyloid P (SAP) and C-reactive protein (CRP), strongly affect fibrosis. In multiple animal models, and in Phase 1 and Phase 2 clinical trials, SAP affects several aspects of the innate immune system to reduce fibrosis, whereas CRP appears to potentiate fibrosis. However, SAP and CRP bind the same Fcγ receptors (FcγR) with similar affinities, and why SAP and CRP have opposing effects is unknown. Here, we report that SAP but not CRP binds the receptor DC-SIGN (SIGN-R1) to affect the innate immune system, and that FcγR are not necessary for SAP function. A polycyclic aminothiazole DC-SIGN ligand and anti–DC-SIGN antibodies mimic SAP effects in vitro. In mice, the aminothiazole reduces neutrophil accumulation in a model of acute lung inflammation and, at 0.001 mg/kg, alleviates pulmonary fibrosis by increasing levels of the immunosuppressant IL-10. DC-SIGN (SIGN-R1) is present on mouse lung epithelial cells, and SAP and the aminothiazole potentiate IL-10 production from these cells. Our data suggest that SAP activates DC-SIGN to regulate the innate immune system differently from CRP, and that DC-SIGN is a target for antifibrotics. PMID:26106150

  3. PGE2 Modulates GABAA Receptors via an EP1 Receptor-Mediated Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Yang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aims: PGE2 is one of the most abundant prostanoids in mammalian tissues, but its effect on neuronal receptors has not been well investigated. This study examines the effect of PGE2 on GABAA receptor currents in rat cerebellar granule neurons. Methods: GABAA currents were recorded using a patch-clamp technique. Cell surface and total protein of GABAA β1/2/3 subunits was carried out by Western blot analysis. Results: Upon incubation of neurons with PGE2 (1 µM for 60 minutes, GABAA currents were significantly potentiated. This PGE2-driven effect could be blocked by PKC or CaMKII inhibitors as well as EP1 receptor antagonist, and mimicked by PMA or EP1 receptor agonist. Furthermore, Western blot data showed that PGE2 did not increase the total expression level of GABAA receptors, but significantly increased surface levels of GABAA β1/2/3 subunits after 1 h of treatment. Consistently, both PKC and CaMKII inhibitors were able to reduce PGE2-induced increases in cell surface expression of GABAA receptors. Conclusion: Activation of either the PKC or CaMKII pathways by EP1 receptors mediates the PGE2-induced increase in GABAA currents. This suggests that upregulation of postsynaptic GABAA receptors by PGE2 may have profound effects on cerebellar functioning under physiological and pathological conditions.

  4. Rare coding variants in PLCG2, ABI3, and TREM2 implicate microglial-mediated innate immunity in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Rebecca; van der Lee, Sven J; Naj, Adam C; Bellenguez, Céline; Badarinarayan, Nandini; Jakobsdottir, Johanna; Kunkle, Brian W; Boland, Anne; Raybould, Rachel; Bis, Joshua C; Martin, Eden R; Grenier-Boley, Benjamin; Heilmann-Heimbach, Stefanie; Chouraki, Vincent; Kuzma, Amanda B; Sleegers, Kristel; Vronskaya, Maria; Ruiz, Agustin; Graham, Robert R; Olaso, Robert; Hoffmann, Per; Grove, Megan L; Vardarajan, Badri N; Hiltunen, Mikko; Nöthen, Markus M; White, Charles C; Hamilton-Nelson, Kara L; Epelbaum, Jacques; Maier, Wolfgang; Choi, Seung-Hoan; Beecham, Gary W; Dulary, Cécile; Herms, Stefan; Smith, Albert V; Funk, Cory C; Derbois, Céline; Forstner, Andreas J; Ahmad, Shahzad; Li, Hongdong; Bacq, Delphine; Harold, Denise; Satizabal, Claudia L; Valladares, Otto; Squassina, Alessio; Thomas, Rhodri; Brody, Jennifer A; Qu, Liming; Sánchez-Juan, Pascual; Morgan, Taniesha; Wolters, Frank J; Zhao, Yi; Garcia, Florentino Sanchez; Denning, Nicola; Fornage, Myriam; Malamon, John; Naranjo, Maria Candida Deniz; Majounie, Elisa; Mosley, Thomas H; Dombroski, Beth; Wallon, David; Lupton, Michelle K; Dupuis, Josée; Whitehead, Patrice; Fratiglioni, Laura; Medway, Christopher; Jian, Xueqiu; Mukherjee, Shubhabrata; Keller, Lina; Brown, Kristelle; Lin, Honghuang; Cantwell, Laura B; Panza, Francesco; McGuinness, Bernadette; Moreno-Grau, Sonia; Burgess, Jeremy D; Solfrizzi, Vincenzo; Proitsi, Petra; Adams, Hieab H; Allen, Mariet; Seripa, Davide; Pastor, Pau; Cupples, L Adrienne; Price, Nathan D; Hannequin, Didier; Frank-García, Ana; Levy, Daniel; Chakrabarty, Paramita; Caffarra, Paolo; Giegling, Ina; Beiser, Alexa S; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Hampel, Harald; Garcia, Melissa E; Wang, Xue; Lannfelt, Lars; Mecocci, Patrizia; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Crane, Paul K; Pasquier, Florence; Boccardi, Virginia; Henández, Isabel; Barber, Robert C; Scherer, Martin; Tarraga, Lluis; Adams, Perrie M; Leber, Markus; Chen, Yuning; Albert, Marilyn S; Riedel-Heller, Steffi; Emilsson, Valur; Beekly, Duane; Braae, Anne; Schmidt, Reinhold; Blacker, Deborah; Masullo, Carlo; Schmidt, Helena; Doody, Rachelle S; Spalletta, Gianfranco; Longstreth, W T; Fairchild, Thomas J; Bossù, Paola; Lopez, Oscar L; Frosch, Matthew P; Sacchinelli, Eleonora; Ghetti, Bernardino; Yang, Qiong; Huebinger, Ryan M; Jessen, Frank; Li, Shuo; Kamboh, M Ilyas; Morris, John; Sotolongo-Grau, Oscar; Katz, Mindy J; Corcoran, Chris; Dunstan, Melanie; Braddel, Amy; Thomas, Charlene; Meggy, Alun; Marshall, Rachel; Gerrish, Amy; Chapman, Jade; Aguilar, Miquel; Taylor, Sarah; Hill, Matt; Fairén, Mònica Díez; Hodges, Angela; Vellas, Bruno; Soininen, Hilkka; Kloszewska, Iwona; Daniilidou, Makrina; Uphill, James; Patel, Yogen; Hughes, Joseph T; Lord, Jenny; Turton, James; Hartmann, Annette M; Cecchetti, Roberta; Fenoglio, Chiara; Serpente, Maria; Arcaro, Marina; Caltagirone, Carlo; Orfei, Maria Donata; Ciaramella, Antonio; Pichler, Sabrina; Mayhaus, Manuel; Gu, Wei; Lleó, Alberto; Fortea, Juan; Blesa, Rafael; Barber, Imelda S; Brookes, Keeley; Cupidi, Chiara; Maletta, Raffaele Giovanni; Carrell, David; Sorbi, Sandro; Moebus, Susanne; Urbano, Maria; Pilotto, Alberto; Kornhuber, Johannes; Bosco, Paolo; Todd, Stephen; Craig, David; Johnston, Janet; Gill, Michael; Lawlor, Brian; Lynch, Aoibhinn; Fox, Nick C; Hardy, John; Albin, Roger L; Apostolova, Liana G; Arnold, Steven E; Asthana, Sanjay; Atwood, Craig S; Baldwin, Clinton T; Barnes, Lisa L; Barral, Sandra; Beach, Thomas G; Becker, James T; Bigio, Eileen H; Bird, Thomas D; Boeve, Bradley F; Bowen, James D; Boxer, Adam; Burke, James R; Burns, Jeffrey M; Buxbaum, Joseph D; Cairns, Nigel J; Cao, Chuanhai; Carlson, Chris S; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Carney, Regina M; Carrasquillo, Minerva M; Carroll, Steven L; Diaz, Carolina Ceballos; Chui, Helena C; Clark, David G; Cribbs, David H; Crocco, Elizabeth A; DeCarli, Charles; Dick, Malcolm; Duara, Ranjan; Evans, Denis A; Faber, Kelley M; Fallon, Kenneth B; Fardo, David W; Farlow, Martin R; Ferris, Steven; Foroud, Tatiana M; Galasko, Douglas R; Gearing, Marla; Geschwind, Daniel H; Gilbert, John R; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Green, Robert C; Growdon, John H; Hamilton, Ronald L; Harrell, Lindy E; Honig, Lawrence S; Huentelman, Matthew J; Hulette, Christine M; Hyman, Bradley T; Jarvik, Gail P; Abner, Erin; Jin, Lee-Way; Jun, Gyungah; Karydas, Anna; Kaye, Jeffrey A; Kim, Ronald; Kowall, Neil W; Kramer, Joel H; LaFerla, Frank M; Lah, James J; Leverenz, James B; Levey, Allan I; Li, Ge; Lieberman, Andrew P; Lunetta, Kathryn L; Lyketsos, Constantine G; Marson, Daniel C; Martiniuk, Frank; Mash, Deborah C; Masliah, Eliezer; McCormick, Wayne C; McCurry, Susan M; McDavid, Andrew N; McKee, Ann C; Mesulam, Marsel; Miller, Bruce L; Miller, Carol A; Miller, Joshua W; Morris, John C; Murrell, Jill R; Myers, Amanda J; O'Bryant, Sid; Olichney, John M; Pankratz, Vernon S; Parisi, Joseph E; Paulson, Henry L; Perry, William; Peskind, Elaine; Pierce, Aimee; Poon, Wayne W; Potter, Huntington; Quinn, Joseph F; Raj, Ashok; Raskind, Murray; Reisberg, Barry; Reitz, Christiane; Ringman, John M; Roberson, Erik D; Rogaeva, Ekaterina; Rosen, Howard J; Rosenberg, Roger N; Sager, Mark A; Saykin, Andrew J; Schneider, Julie A; Schneider, Lon S; Seeley, William W; Smith, Amanda G; Sonnen, Joshua A; Spina, Salvatore; Stern, Robert A; Swerdlow, Russell H; Tanzi, Rudolph E; Thornton-Wells, Tricia A; Trojanowski, John Q; Troncoso, Juan C; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M; Van Eldik, Linda J; Vinters, Harry V; Vonsattel, Jean Paul; Weintraub, Sandra; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen A; Wilhelmsen, Kirk C; Williamson, Jennifer; Wingo, Thomas S; Woltjer, Randall L; Wright, Clinton B; Yu, Chang-En; Yu, Lei; Garzia, Fabienne; Golamaully, Feroze; Septier, Gislain; Engelborghs, Sebastien; Vandenberghe, Rik; De Deyn, Peter P; Fernadez, Carmen Muñoz; Benito, Yoland Aladro; Thonberg, Hakan; Forsell, Charlotte; Lilius, Lena; Kinhult-Stählbom, Anne; Kilander, Lena; Brundin, RoseMarie; Concari, Letizia; Helisalmi, Seppo; Koivisto, Anne Maria; Haapasalo, Annakaisa; Dermecourt, Vincent; Fievet, Nathalie; Hanon, Olivier; Dufouil, Carole; Brice, Alexis; Ritchie, Karen; Dubois, Bruno; Himali, Jayanadra J; Keene, C Dirk; Tschanz, JoAnn; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Kukull, Walter A; Norton, Maria; Aspelund, Thor; Larson, Eric B; Munger, Ron; Rotter, Jerome I; Lipton, Richard B; Bullido, María J; Hofman, Albert; Montine, Thomas J; Coto, Eliecer; Boerwinkle, Eric; Petersen, Ronald C; Alvarez, Victoria; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Reiman, Eric M; Gallo, Maura; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Reisch, Joan S; Bruni, Amalia Cecilia; Royall, Donald R; Dichgans, Martin; Sano, Mary; Galimberti, Daniela; St George-Hyslop, Peter; Scarpini, Elio; Tsuang, Debby W; Mancuso, Michelangelo; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo; Winslow, Ashley R; Daniele, Antonio; Wu, Chuang-Kuo; Peters, Oliver; Nacmias, Benedetta; Riemenschneider, Matthias; Heun, Reinhard; Brayne, Carol; Rubinsztein, David C; Bras, Jose; Guerreiro, Rita; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Shaw, Christopher E; Collinge, John; Mann, David; Tsolaki, Magda; Clarimón, Jordi; Sussams, Rebecca; Lovestone, Simon; O'Donovan, Michael C; Owen, Michael J; Behrens, Timothy W; Mead, Simon; Goate, Alison M; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Holmes, Clive; Cruchaga, Carlos; Ingelsson, Martin; Bennett, David A; Powell, John; Golde, Todd E; Graff, Caroline; De Jager, Philip L; Morgan, Kevin; Ertekin-Taner, Nilufer; Combarros, Onofre; Psaty, Bruce M; Passmore, Peter; Younkin, Steven G; Berr, Claudine; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Rujescu, Dan; Dickson, Dennis W; Dartigues, Jean-François; DeStefano, Anita L; Ortega-Cubero, Sara; Hakonarson, Hakon; Campion, Dominique; Boada, Merce; Kauwe, John Keoni; Farrer, Lindsay A; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; Ikram, M Arfan; Jones, Lesley; Haines, Jonathan L; Tzourio, Christophe; Launer, Lenore J; Escott-Price, Valentina; Mayeux, Richard; Deleuze, Jean-François; Amin, Najaf; Holmans, Peter A; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Amouyel, Philippe; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Ramirez, Alfredo; Wang, Li-San; Lambert, Jean-Charles; Seshadri, Sudha; Williams, Julie; Schellenberg, Gerard D

    2017-09-01

    We identified rare coding variants associated with Alzheimer's disease in a three-stage case-control study of 85,133 subjects. In stage 1, we genotyped 34,174 samples using a whole-exome microarray. In stage 2, we tested associated variants (P < 1 × 10 -4 ) in 35,962 independent samples using de novo genotyping and imputed genotypes. In stage 3, we used an additional 14,997 samples to test the most significant stage 2 associations (P < 5 × 10 -8 ) using imputed genotypes. We observed three new genome-wide significant nonsynonymous variants associated with Alzheimer's disease: a protective variant in PLCG2 (rs72824905: p.Pro522Arg, P = 5.38 × 10 -10 , odds ratio (OR) = 0.68, minor allele frequency (MAF) cases = 0.0059, MAF controls = 0.0093), a risk variant in ABI3 (rs616338: p.Ser209Phe, P = 4.56 × 10 -10 , OR = 1.43, MAF cases = 0.011, MAF controls = 0.008), and a new genome-wide significant variant in TREM2 (rs143332484: p.Arg62His, P = 1.55 × 10 -14 , OR = 1.67, MAF cases = 0.0143, MAF controls = 0.0089), a known susceptibility gene for Alzheimer's disease. These protein-altering changes are in genes highly expressed in microglia and highlight an immune-related protein-protein interaction network enriched for previously identified risk genes in Alzheimer's disease. These genetic findings provide additional evidence that the microglia-mediated innate immune response contributes directly to the development of Alzheimer's disease.

  5. Muller glia in retinal innate immunity: a perspective on their roles in endophthalmitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashok; Pandey, Rajeev K; Miller, Lindsay J; Singh, Pawan K; Kanwar, Mamta

    2013-01-01

    Muller cells are the predominant glial cell type in the retina and have a unique anatomy, with processes that span the entire retinal thickness. Although extensive morphological and physiological studies of Muller glia have been performed, much less is known about their role in retinal innate immunity, specifically in infectious endophthalmitis. They were found to express toll-like receptors (TLRs), a major family of pattern recognition receptors that mediate innate responses and provide an important mechanism by which Muller glia are able to sense both pathogen- and host-derived ligands in the vitreous and the retina. An increasing body of evidence suggests that TLR-signaling mediates beneficial effects in the retina via production of proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines, antimicrobial peptides, and neuroprotective growth factors to restore tissue homeostasis. In this review, we discussed retinal innate immunity in general with emphasis on the role of Muller glia in initiating retinal innate defense.

  6. Cannabinoids and Innate Immunity: Taking a Toll on Neuroinflammation

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    Eric J. Downer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The biologically active components of cannabis have therapeutic potential in neuroinflammatory disorders due to their anti-inflammatory propensity. Cannabinoids influence immune function in both the peripheral and the central nervous system (CNS, and the components of the cannabinoid system, the cannabinoid receptors and their endogenous ligands (endocannabinoids, have been detected on immune cells as well as in brain glia. Neuroinflammation is the complex innate immune response of neural tissue to control infection and eliminate pathogens, and Toll-like receptors (TLRs, a major family of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs that mediate innate immunity, have emerged as players in the neuroinflammatory processes underpinning various CNS diseases. This review will highlight evidence that cannabinoids interact with the immune system by impacting TLR-mediated signaling events, which may provide cues for devising novel therapeutic approaches for cannabinoid ligands.

  7. Inhibition of toll-like receptor 3-4 with ethanolic extract of propolis on innate immunity in diabetes mellitus mice (Mus musculus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pristiwanto, Bambang; Soewondo, A.; Sumitro, Sutiman B.; Rifa'i, Muhaimin

    2017-05-01

    One of the most significant problems today is to treat the effects of metabolic diseases, such as diabetes. Thus, this study evaluated the ability of an ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) to reduce inflammation in diabetes treatment. The used mice with STZ-induced diabetes mellitus (SID) and the expression of Toll-Like Receptor 3-4 was analyzed in their innate immunity cells. The SID mice had a higher TLR 3-4 expression compared with the healthy control group. Treatment of EEP in SID using three different doses significantly decreased the number of B cells with TLR 3-4 expression. This suggesting that EEP treatment decreases TLR3 & TLR4 expression on innate immunity (especially B cells) from over expression in SID which can affect the acute inflammatory and aggravate the diabetes condition. Even relatively low doses of propolis extract can decrease TLR3 and TLR4 expressed by B cell.

  8. Activation of type 4 dopaminergic receptors in the prelimbic area of medial prefrontal cortex is necessary for the expression of innate fear behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Macarena D; Keller, Victor N; Fuentealba, José A; Gysling, Katia

    2017-05-01

    The prelimbic area (PL) of the medial Prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is involved in the acquisition and expression of conditioned and innate fear. Both types of fear share several neuronal pathways. It has been documented that dopamine (DA) plays an important role in the regulation of aversive memories in the mPFC. The exposure to an aversive stimulus, such as the smell of a predator odor or the exposure to footshock stress is accompanied by an increase in mPFC DA release. Evidence suggests that the type 4 dopaminergic receptor (D4R) is the molecular target through which DA modulates fear expression. In fact, the mPFC is the brain region with the highest expression of D4R; however, the role of D4R in the expression of innate fear has not been fully elucidated. Therefore, the principal objective of this work was to evaluate the participation of mPFC D4R in the expression of innate fear. Rats were exposed to the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and to the cat odor paradigm after the intra PL injection of L-745,870, selective D4R antagonist, to measure the expression of fear-related behaviors. Intra PL injection of L-745,870 increased the time spent in the EPM open arms and decreased freezing behavior in the cat odor paradigm. Our results also showed that D4R is expressed in GABAergic and pyramidal neurons in the PL region of PFC. Thus, D4R antagonism in the PL decreases the expression of innate fear-behavior indicating that the activation of D4R in the PL is necessary for the expression of innate fear-behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Patterns of oligonucleotide sequences in viral and host cell RNA identify mediators of the host innate immune system.

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    Benjamin D Greenbaum

    Full Text Available The innate immune response provides a first line of defense against pathogens by targeting generic differential features that are present in foreign organisms but not in the host. These innate responses generate selection forces acting both in pathogens and hosts that further determine their co-evolution. Here we analyze the nucleic acid sequence fingerprints of these selection forces acting in parallel on both host innate immune genes and ssRNA viral genomes. We do this by identifying dinucleotide biases in the coding regions of innate immune response genes in plasmacytoid dendritic cells, and then use this signal to identify other significant host innate immune genes. The persistence of these biases in the orthologous groups of genes in humans and chickens is also examined. We then compare the significant motifs in highly expressed genes of the innate immune system to those in ssRNA viruses and study the evolution of these motifs in the H1N1 influenza genome. We argue that the significant under-represented motif pattern of CpG in an AU context--which is found in both the ssRNA viruses and innate genes, and has decreased throughout the history of H1N1 influenza replication in humans--is immunostimulatory and has been selected against during the co-evolution of viruses and host innate immune genes. This shows how differences in host immune biology can drive the evolution of viruses that jump into species with different immune priorities than the original host.

  10. The immunobiology of Campylobacter jejuni: Innate immunity and autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phongsisay, Vongsavanh

    2016-04-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Campylobacter jejuni causes gastroenteritis and Guillain-Barré syndrome in humans. Recent advances in the immunobiology of C. jejuni have been made. This review summarizes C. jejuni-binding innate receptors and highlights the role of innate immunity in autoimmune diseases. This human pathogen produces a variety of glycoconjugates, including human ganglioside-like determinants and multiple activators of Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Furthermore, C. jejuni targets MyD88, NLRP3 inflammasome, TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF), sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectins (Siglecs), macrophage galactose-type lectin (MGL), and immunoglobulin-like receptors (TREM2, LMIR5/CD300b). The roles of these innate receptors and signaling molecules have been extensively studied. MyD88-mediated TLR activation or inflammasome-dependent IL-1β secretion is essential for autoimmune induction. TRIF mediates the production of type I interferons that promote humoral immune responses and immunoglobulin class-switching. Siglec-1 and Siglec-7 interact directly with gangliosides. Siglec-1 activation enhances phagocytosis and inflammatory responses. MGL internalizes GalNAc-containing glycoconjugates. TREM2 is well-known for its role in phagocytosis. LMIR5 recognizes C. jejuni components and endogenous sulfoglycolipids. Several lines of evidence from animal models of autoimmune diseases suggest that simultaneous activation of innate immunity in the presence of autoreactive lymphocytes or antigen mimicry may link C. jejuni to immunopathology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Regulation of Aeroallergen Immunity by the Innate Immune System: Laboratory Evidence for a New Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Horner, Anthony A.

    2009-01-01

    Over the last decade, it has become increasingly clear that innate responses to microbes are mediated largely by toll-like receptors (TLRs), which recognize a diverse family of molecules produced by viruses, bacteria and fungi. This article will present evidence that TLRs also play a dominant role in innate responses to non-infectious immunostimulatory materials present in house dust extracts (HDEs) and the living environments they represent. However, our investigations challenge the commonly...

  12. [Innate immunity and transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponticelli, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Innate immunity is the first barrier against pathogen infection and has also the important function of activating the adaptive immunity. The receptors of innate immunity, such as toll-like receptors and other receptors, recognize as danger signals the molecular patterns of pathogens as well as those of endogenous molecules released by dying cells. The information is transmitted to adapter proteins that, through a chain of kinases that translate the signal to transcription factors regulating inflammatory genes. In the inflammatory milieu dendritic cells become mature, intercept the antigen and migrate to lymphoid organs where they present the antigen to naïve T cells. Complement also exerts an important role of bridge between innate and adaptive immunity. In donor-deceased kidney transplantation, the innate immunity is triggered in the donor by brain death and is aggravated by the cold ischemia and even more by reperfusion. Once activated, innate immunity produces a local inflammatory environment leading to dendritic cell maturation and complement activation. Dendritic cells present the alloantigen to T cells and induce their differentiation towards effector Th1 and Th17 while inhibiting Th2 and T regulatory cells. A main goal of the current research in transplantation is to obtain an immunological tolerance. Experimental studies showed the possibility of inducing operative tolerance in murine models and even in primates with the infusion of regulatory dendritic cells. However, there are no data with this technique in clinical transplantation.

  13. DMPD: Modulation of Toll-interleukin 1 receptor mediated signaling. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15662540 Modulation of Toll-interleukin 1 receptor mediated signaling. Li X, Qin J.... J Mol Med. 2005 Apr;83(4):258-66. Epub 2005 Jan 21. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Modulation of Toll-i...nterleukin 1 receptor mediated signaling. PubmedID 15662540 Title Modulation of Toll-interleukin 1 receptor

  14. Innate immune functions of microglia isolated from human glioma patients

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    Grimm Elizabeth

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Innate immunity is considered the first line of host defense and microglia presumably play a critical role in mediating potent innate immune responses to traumatic and infectious challenges in the human brain. Fundamental impairments of the adaptive immune system in glioma patients have been investigated; however, it is unknown whether microglia are capable of innate immunity and subsequent adaptive anti-tumor immune responses within the immunosuppressive tumor micro-environment of human glioma patients. We therefore undertook a novel characterization of the innate immune phenotype and function of freshly isolated human glioma-infiltrating microglia (GIM. Methods GIM were isolated by sequential Percoll purification from patient tumors immediately after surgical resection. Flow cytometry, phagocytosis and tumor cytotoxicity assays were used to analyze the phenotype and function of these cells. Results GIM expressed significant levels of Toll-like receptors (TLRs, however they do not secrete any of the cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α critical in developing effective innate immune responses. Similar to innate macrophage functions, GIM can mediate phagocytosis and non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity. However, they were statistically less able to mediate tumor cytotoxicity compared to microglia isolated from normal brain. In addition, the expression of Fas ligand (FasL was low to absent, indicating that apoptosis of the incoming lymphocyte population may not be a predominant mode of immunosuppression by microglia. Conclusion We show for the first time that despite the immunosuppressive environment of human gliomas, GIM are capable of innate immune responses such as phagocytosis, cytotoxicity and TLR expression but yet are not competent in secreting key cytokines. Further understanding of these innate immune functions could play a critical role in understanding and developing effective immunotherapies to malignant human gliomas.

  15. Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis and Brain Delivery of Therapeutic Biologics

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    Guangqing Xiao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transport of macromolecules across the blood-brain-barrier (BBB requires both specific and nonspecific interactions between macromolecules and proteins/receptors expressed on the luminal and/or the abluminal surfaces of the brain capillary endothelial cells. Endocytosis and transcytosis play important roles in the distribution of macromolecules. Due to the tight junction of BBB, brain delivery of traditional therapeutic proteins with large molecular weight is generally not possible. There are multiple pathways through which macromolecules can be taken up into cells through both specific and nonspecific interactions with proteins/receptors on the cell surface. This review is focused on the current knowledge of receptor-mediated endocytosis/transcytosis and brain delivery using the Angiopep-2-conjugated system and the molecular Trojan horses. In addition, the role of neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn in regulating the efflux of Immunoglobulin G (IgG from brain to blood, and approaches to improve the pharmacokinetics of therapeutic biologics by generating Fc fusion proteins, and increasing the pH dependent binding affinity between Fc and FcRn, are discussed.

  16. Lactobacillus reuteri Surface Mucus Adhesins Upregulate Inflammatory Responses Through Interactions With Innate C-Type Lectin Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bene, Krisztián P; Kavanaugh, Devon W; Leclaire, Charlotte; Gunning, Allan P; MacKenzie, Donald A; Wittmann, Alexandra; Young, Ian D; Kawasaki, Norihito; Rajnavolgyi, Eva; Juge, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    The vertebrate gut symbiont Lactobacillus reuteri exhibits strain-specific adhesion and health-promoting properties. Here, we investigated the role of the mucus adhesins, CmbA and MUB, upon interaction of L. reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 and ATCC 53608 strains with human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs). We showed that mucus adhesins increased the capacity of L. reuteri strains to interact with moDCs and promoted phagocytosis. Our data also indicated that mucus adhesins mediate anti- and pro-inflammatory effects by the induction of interleukin-10 (IL-10), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-12 cytokines. L. reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 and ATCC 53608 were exclusively able to induce moDC-mediated Th1 and Th17 immune responses. We further showed that purified MUB activates moDCs and induces Th1 polarized immune responses associated with increased IFNγ production. MUB appeared to mediate these effects via binding to C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), as shown using cell reporter assays. Blocking moDCs with antibodies against DC-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) or Dectin-2 did not affect the uptake of the MUB-expressing strain, but reduced the production of TNF-α and IL-6 by moDCs significantly, in line with the Th1 polarizing capacity of moDCs. The direct interaction between MUB and CLRs was further confirmed by atomic force spectroscopy. Taken together these data suggest that mucus adhesins expressed at the cell surface of L. reuteri strains may exert immunoregulatory effects in the gut through modulating the Th1-promoting capacity of DCs upon interaction with C-type lectins.

  17. Microglia P2Y13 Receptors Prevent Astrocyte Proliferation Mediated by P2Y1 Receptors

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    Clara Quintas

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral inflammation is a common feature of several neurodegenerative diseases that requires a fine interplay between astrocytes and microglia to acquire appropriate phenotypes for an efficient response to neuronal damage. During brain inflammation, ATP is massively released into the extracellular medium and converted into ADP. Both nucleotides acting on P2 receptors, modulate astrogliosis through mechanisms involving microglia-astrocytes communication. In previous studies, primary cultures of astrocytes and co-cultures of astrocytes and microglia were used to investigate the influence of microglia on astroglial proliferation induced by ADPβS, a stable ADP analog. In astrocyte cultures, ADPβS increased cell proliferation through activation of P2Y1 and P2Y12 receptors, an effect abolished in co-cultures (of astrocytes with ∼12.5% microglia. The possibility that the loss of the ADPβS-mediated effect could have been caused by a microglia-induced degradation of ADPβS or by a preferential microglial localization of P2Y1 or P2Y12 receptors was excluded. Since ADPβS also activates P2Y13 receptors, the contribution of microglial P2Y13 receptors to prevent the proliferative effect of ADPβS in co-cultures was investigated. The results obtained indicate that P2Y13 receptors are low expressed in astrocytes and mainly expressed in microglia. Furthermore, in co-cultures, ADPβS induced astroglial proliferation in the presence of the selective P2Y13 antagonist MRS 2211 (3 μM and of the selective P2Y12 antagonist AR-C66096 (0.1 μM, suggesting that activation of microglial P2Y12 and P2Y13 receptors may induce the release of messengers that inhibit astroglial proliferation mediated by P2Y1,12 receptors. In this microglia-astrocyte paracrine communication, P2Y12 receptors exert opposite effects in astroglial proliferation as a result of its cellular localization: cooperating in astrocytes with P2Y1 receptors to directly stimulate proliferation and in

  18. Lack of Proinflammatory Cytokine Interleukin-6 or Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-1 Results in a Failure of the Innate Immune Response after Bacterial Meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Lea-Jessica; Tauber, Simone C; Merres, Julika; Kress, Eugenia; Stope, Matthias B; Jansen, Sandra; Pufe, Thomas; Brandenburg, Lars-Ove

    2016-01-01

    The most frequent pathogen that causes bacterial meningitis is the Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae. By entering the brain, host cells will be activated and proinflammatory cytokines like interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) are released. The goal of the current study was to examine the interaction between IL-6 and TNFR1 as receptor for TNF-α and the innate immune response in vivo in a model of Streptococcus pneumoniae-induced meningitis. For the experiments IL-6(-/-), TNFR1(-/-), and TNFR1-IL-6(-/-) KO mice were used. Our results revealed higher mortality rates and bacterial burden after infection in TNFR1(-/-), IL-6(-/-), and TNFR1-IL-6(-/-) mice and a decreased immune response including lower neutrophil infiltration in the meninges of TNFR1(-/-) and TNFR1-IL-6(-/-) mice in contrast to IL-6(-/-) and wild type mice. Furthermore, the increased mortality of TNFR1(-/-) and TNFR1-IL-6(-/-) mice correlated with decreased glial cell activation compared to IL-6(-/-) or wild type mice after pneumococcal meningitis. Altogether, the results show the importance of TNFR1 and IL-6 in the regulation of the innate immune response. The lack of TNFR1 and IL-6 results in higher mortality by weakened immune defence, whereas the lack of TNFR1 results in more severe impairment of the innate immune response than the lack of IL-6 alone.

  19. Funiculosin variants and phosphorylated derivatives promote innate immune responses via the Toll-like receptor 4/myeloid differentiation factor-2 complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Naoki; Mizote, Keisuke; Honda, Hiroe; Saeki, Akinori; Watanabe, Yasuharu; Yamaguchi-Miyamoto, Tomomi; Fukui, Ryutaro; Tanimura, Natsuko; Motoi, Yuji; Akashi-Takamura, Sachiko; Kato, Tatsuhisa; Fujishita, Shigeto; Kimura, Takahito; Ohto, Umeharu; Shimizu, Toshiyuki; Hirokawa, Takatsugu; Miyake, Kensuke; Fukase, Koichi; Fujimoto, Yukari; Nagai, Yoshinori; Takatsu, Kiyoshi

    2017-09-15

    The Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/myeloid differentiation factor-2 (MD-2) complex is essential for LPS recognition and induces innate immune responses against Gram-negative bacteria. As activation of TLR4/MD-2 is also critical for the induction of adaptive immune responses, TLR4/MD-2 agonists have been developed as vaccine adjuvants, but their efficacy has not yet been ascertained. Here, we demonstrate that a funiculosin (FNC) variant, FNC-RED, and FNC-RED and FNC derivatives are agonists for both murine and human TLR4/MD-2. FNC-RED induced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation via murine TLR4/MD-2, whereas FNC had no TLR4/MD-2 stimulatory activity. Biacore analysis revealed that FNC-RED binds to murine TLR4/MD-2 but not murine radioprotective 105 (RP105)/myeloid differentiation factor-1 (MD-1), another LPS sensor. FNC-RED induced CD14-independent expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines and co-stimulatory molecules in murine macrophages and dendritic cells. In contrast, FNC-RED stimulation was reduced in CD14-dependent LPS responses, including dimerization and internalization of TLR4/MD-2 and IFN-β expression. FNC-RED-induced IL-12p40 production from murine dendritic cells was dependent on NF-κB but not MAPK pathway. In addition, fetal bovine serum augmented lipid A-induced NF-κB activation but blocked FNC-RED-mediated responses. Two synthetic phosphate group-containing FNC-RED and FNC derivatives, FNC-RED-P01 and FNC-P01, respectively, activated human TLR4/MD-2, unlike FNC-RED. Finally, computational analysis revealed that this species-specific activation by FNC-RED and FNC-RED-P01 resulted from differences in electrostatic surface potentials between murine and human TLR4/MD-2. We conclude that FNC-RED and its synthetic derivative represent a novel category of murine and human TLR4/MD-2 agonist. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Duox2-induced innate immune responses in the respiratory epithelium and intranasal delivery of Duox2 DNA using polymer that mediates immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Yung Jin; Kim, Hyun Jik

    2018-03-30

    Respiratory mucosa especially nasal epithelium is well known as the first-line barrier of air-borne pathogens. High levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are detected in in vitro cultured human epithelial cells and in vivo lung. With identification of NADPH oxidase (Nox) system of respiratory epithelium, the antimicrobial role of ROS has been studied. Duox2 is the most abundant Nox isoform and produces the regulated amount of ROS in respiratory epithelium. Duox2-derived ROS are involved in antiviral innate immune responses but more studies are needed to verify the mechanism. In respiratory epithelium, Duox2-derived ROS is critical for recognition of virus through families retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5) at the early stage of antiviral innate immune responses. Various secreted interferons (IFNs) play essential roles for antiviral host defense by downstream cell signaling, and transcription of IFN-stimulated genes is started to suppress viral replication. Type I and type III IFNs are verified more responsible for influenza A virus (IAV) infection in respiratory epithelium and Duox2 is required to regulate IFN-related immune responses. Transient overexpression of Duox2 using cationic polymer polyethylenimine (PEI) induces secretion of type I and type III IFNs and significantly attenuated IAV replication in respiratory epithelium. Here, we discuss Duox2-mediated antiviral innate immune responses and the role of Duox2 as a mucosal vaccine to resist respiratory viral infection.

  1. Protease activated receptors (PARS) mediation in gyroxin biological activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Jose Alberto Alves da

    2009-01-01

    Gyroxin is a serine protease enzyme from the South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus) venom; it is only partially characterized and has multiple activities. Gyroxin induces blood coagulation, blood pressure decrease and a neurotoxic behavior named barrel rotation. The mechanisms involved in this neurotoxic activity are not known. Whereas gyroxin is a member of enzymes with high potential to become a new drug with clinical applications such as thrombin, batroxobin, ancrod, tripsyn and kalicrein, it is important to find out how gyroxin works. The analysis on agarose gel electrophoresis and circular dichroism confirmed the molecules' integrity and purity. The gyroxin intravenous administration in mice proved its neurotoxicity (barrel rotation). In vivo studies employing intravital microscopy proved that gyroxin induces vasodilation with the participation of protease activated receptors (PARs), nitric oxide and Na+K+ATPase. The leukocytes' adherence and rolling counting indicated that gyroxin has no pro inflammatory activity. Gyroxin induced platelet aggregation, which was blocked by inhibitors of PAR1 and PAR4 receptors (SCH 79797 and tcY-NH 2 , respectively). Finally, it was proved that the gyroxin temporarily alter the permeability of the blood brain barrier (BBB). Our study has shown that both the protease-activated receptors and nitric oxide are mediators involved in the biological activities of gyroxin. (author)

  2. Ovariectomy and subsequent treatment with estrogen receptor agonists tune the innate immune system of the hippocampus in middle-aged female rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklós Sárvári

    Full Text Available The innate immune system including microglia has a major contribution to maintenance of the physiological functions of the hippocampus by permanent monitoring of the neural milieu and elimination of tissue-damaging threats. The hippocampus is vulnerable to age-related changes ranging from gene expression to network connectivity. The risk of hippocampal deterioration increases with the decline of gonadal hormone supply. To explore the impact of hormone milieu on the function of the innate immune system in middle-aged female rats, we compared mRNA expression in the hippocampus after gonadal hormone withdrawal, with or without subsequent estrogen replacement using estradiol and isotype-selective estrogen receptor (ER agonists. Targeted profiling assessed the status of the innate immune system (macrophage-associated receptors, complement, inhibitory neuronal ligands, local estradiol synthesis (P450 aromatase and estrogen reception (ER. Results established upregulation of macrophage-associated (Cd45, Iba1, Cd68, Cd11b, Cd18, Fcgr1a, Fcgr2b and complement (C3, factor B, properdin genes in response to ovariectomy. Ovariectomy upregulated Cd22 and downregulated semaphorin3A (Sema3a expression, indicating altered neuronal regulation of microglia. Ovariectomy also led to downregulation of aromatase and upregulation of ERα gene. Of note, analogous changes were observed in the hippocampus of postmenopausal women. In ovariectomized rats, estradiol replacement attenuated Iba1, Cd11b, Fcgr1a, C3, increased mannose receptor Mrc1, Cd163 and reversed Sema3a expression. In contrast, reduced expression of aromatase was not reversed by estradiol. While the effects of ERα agonist closely resembled those of estradiol, ERβ agonist was also capable of attenuating the expression of several macrophage-associated and complement genes. These data together indicate that the innate immune system of the aging hippocampus is highly responsive to the gonadal hormone milieu

  3. Involvement of prelimbic medial prefrontal cortex in panic-like elaborated defensive behaviour and innate fear-induced antinociception elicited by GABAA receptor blockade in the dorsomedial and ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei: role of the endocannabinoid CB1 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Renato Leonardo de; Salgado-Rohner, Carlos José; Hallak, Jaime Eduardo Cecílio; Crippa, José Alexandre de Souza; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2013-09-01

    It has been shown that GABAA receptor blockade in the dorsomedial and ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei (DMH and VMH, respectively) induces elaborated defensive behavioural responses accompanied by antinociception, which has been utilized as an experimental model of panic attack. Furthermore, the prelimbic (PL) division of the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) has been related to emotional reactions and the processing of nociceptive information. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible involvement of the PL cortex and the participation of local cannabinoid CB1 receptors in the elaboration of panic-like reactions and in innate fear-induced antinociception. Elaborated fear-induced responses were analysed during a 10-min period in an open-field test arena. Microinjection of the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline into the DMH/VMH evoked panic-like behaviour and fear-induced antinociception, which was decreased by microinjection of the non-selective synaptic contact blocker cobalt chloride in the PL cortex. Moreover, microinjection of AM251 (25, 100 or 400 pmol), an endocannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist, into the PL cortex also attenuated the defensive behavioural responses and the antinociception that follows innate fear behaviour elaborated by DMH/VMH. These data suggest that the PL cortex plays an important role in the organization of elaborated forward escape behaviour and that this cortical area is also involved in the elaboration of innate fear-induced antinociception. Additionally, CB1 receptors in the PL cortex modulate both panic-like behaviours and fear-induced antinociception elicited by disinhibition of the DMH/VMH through microinjection of bicuculline.

  4. Early Endometriosis in Females Is Directed by Immune-Mediated Estrogen Receptor α and IL-6 Cross-Talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Katherine A; Thomas, Seddon Y; Hamilton, Katherine J; Young, Steven L; Cook, Donald N; Korach, Kenneth S

    2018-01-01

    Endometriosis is a gynecological disease that negatively affects the health of 1 in 10 women. Although more information is known about late stage disease, the early initiation of endometriosis and lesion development is poorly understood. Herein, we use a uterine tissue transfer mouse model of endometriosis to examine early disease development and its dependence on estradiol (E2) and estrogen receptor (ER) α within 72 hours of disease initiation. Using wild-type and ERα knockout mice as hosts or donors, we find substantial infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages into the peritoneal cavity. Examining cell infiltration, lesion gene expression, and peritoneal fluid, we find that E2/ERα plays a minor role in early lesion development. Immune-mediated signaling predominates E2-mediated signaling, but 48 hours after the initiation of disease, a blunted interleukin (IL)-6-mediated response is found in developing lesions lacking ERα. Our data provide evidence that the early initiation of endometriosis is predominantly dependent on the immune system, whereas E2/ERα/IL-6-mediated cross-talk plays a partial role. These findings suggest there are two phases of endometriosis-an immune-dependent phase and a hormone-dependent phase, and that targeting the innate immune system could prevent lesion attachment in this susceptible population of women.

  5. Ligand Receptor-Mediated Regulation of Growth in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruta, Miyoshi; Sussman, Michael R

    2017-01-01

    Growth and development of multicellular organisms are coordinately regulated by various signaling pathways involving the communication of inter- and intracellular components. To form the appropriate body patterns, cellular growth and development are modulated by either stimulating or inhibiting these pathways. Hormones and second messengers help to mediate the initiation and/or interaction of the various signaling pathways in all complex multicellular eukaryotes. In plants, hormones include small organic molecules, as well as larger peptides and small proteins, which, as in animals, act as ligands and interact with receptor proteins to trigger rapid biochemical changes and induce the intracellular transcriptional and long-term physiological responses. During the past two decades, the availability of genetic and genomic resources in the model plant species, Arabidopsis thaliana, has greatly helped in the discovery of plant hormone receptors and the components of signal transduction pathways and mechanisms used by these immobile but highly complex organisms. Recently, it has been shown that two of the most important plant hormones, auxin and abscisic acid (ABA), act through signaling pathways that have not yet been recognized in animals. For example, auxins stimulate cell elongation by bringing negatively acting transcriptional repressor proteins to the proteasome to be degraded, thus unleashing the gene expression program required for increasing cell size. The "dormancy" inducing hormone, ABA, binds to soluble receptor proteins and inhibits a specific class of protein phosphatases (PP2C), which activates phosphorylation signaling leading to transcriptional changes needed for the desiccation of the seeds prior to entering dormancy. While these two hormone receptors have no known animal counterparts, there are also many similarities between animal and plant signaling pathways. For example, in plants, the largest single gene family in the genome is the protein kinase

  6. A novel soluble immune-type receptor (SITR in teleost fish: carp SITR is involved in the nitric oxide-mediated response to a protozoan parasite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla M S Ribeiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The innate immune system relies upon a wide range of germ-line encoded receptors including a large number of immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF receptors. Different Ig-like immune receptor families have been reported in mammals, birds, amphibians and fish. Most innate immune receptors of the IgSF are type I transmembrane proteins containing one or more extracellular Ig-like domains and their regulation of effector functions is mediated intracellularly by distinct stimulatory or inhibitory pathways.Carp SITR was found in a substracted cDNA repertoire from carp macrophages, enriched for genes up-regulated in response to the protozoan parasite Trypanoplasma borreli. Carp SITR is a type I protein with two extracellular Ig domains in a unique organisation of a N-proximal V/C2 (or I- type and a C-proximal V-type Ig domain, devoid of a transmembrane domain or any intracytoplasmic signalling motif. The carp SITR C-proximal V-type Ig domain, in particular, has a close sequence similarity and conserved structural characteristics to the mammalian CD300 molecules. By generating an anti-SITR antibody we could show that SITR protein expression was restricted to cells of the myeloid lineage. Carp SITR is abundantly expressed in macrophages and is secreted upon in vitro stimulation with the protozoan parasite T. borreli. Secretion of SITR protein during in vivo T. borreli infection suggests a role for this IgSF receptor in the host response to this protozoan parasite. Overexpression of carp SITR in mouse macrophages and knock-down of SITR protein expression in carp macrophages, using morpholino antisense technology, provided evidence for the involvement of carp SITR in the parasite-induced NO production.We report the structural and functional characterization of a novel soluble immune-type receptor (SITR in a teleost fish and propose a role for carp SITR in the NO-mediated response to a protozoan parasite.

  7. IFN-α-producing PDCA-1+ Siglec-H- B cells mediate innate immune defense by activating NK cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yan; Han, Yanmei; Chen, Zhubo; Xu, Sheng; Cao, Xuetao

    2011-03-01

    B cells have multiple functions in adaptive immunity, including antibody production, antigen presentation and regulation of T-cell responses. Recent evidences indicate that B cells have more subsets than previously thought and may have non-classical functions, such as involvement in innate immunity and immune regulation; however, how B cells respond to microbial infection and elicit innate defense remain unclear. In this study, we identified a new subset of PDCA-1(+) Siglec-H(-) CD19(+) B cells in mice during the early period of bacterial infection with Listeria monocytogenes. PDCA-1(+) Siglec-H(-) CD19(+) B cells secreted large amounts of IFN-α and thus facilitated IFN-γ production and cytotoxicity function of natural killer (NK) cells via IFN-α. B-cell-deficient Btk(-/-) mice were incapable of producing PDCA-1(+) CD19(+) B cells, and were more sensitive to L. monocytogenes infection. Adoptive transfer of PDCA-1(+) CD19(+) B cells to Btk(-/-) mice normalized their resistance to L. monocytogenes infection. Furthermore, we found that macrophages were essential for the inducible generation of PDCA-1(+) Siglec-H(-) CD19(+) B cells via CD40-CD40L ligation. Therefore, we have identified a new subset of PDCA-1(+) Siglec-H(-) CD19(+) B cells, which enhances innate immune responses against bacterial infection by activating NK cells via secretion of IFN-α. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Mefloquine neurotoxicity is mediated by non-receptor tyrosine kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milatovic, Dejan; Jenkins, Jerry W; Hood, Jonathan E; Yu, Yingchun; Rongzhu, Lu; Aschner, Michael

    2011-10-01

    Among several available antimalarial drugs, mefloquine has proven to be effective against drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum and remains the drug of choice for both therapy and chemoprophylaxis. However, mefloquine is known to cause adverse neurological and/or psychiatric symptoms, which offset its therapeutic advantage. The exact mechanisms leading to the adverse neurological effects of mefloquine are poorly defined. Alterations in neurotransmitter release and calcium homeostasis, the inhibition of cholinesterases and the interaction with adenosine A(2A) receptors have been hypothesized to play prominent roles in mediating the deleterious effects of this drug. Our recent data have established that mefloquine can also trigger oxidative damage and subsequent neurodegeneration in rat cortical primary neurons. Furthermore, we have utilized a system biology-centered approach and have constructed a pathway model of cellular responses to mefloquine, identifying non-receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2) as a critical target in mediating mefloquine neurotoxicity. In this study, we sought to establish an experimental validation of Pyk2 using gene-silencing techniques (siRNA). We have examined whether the downregulation of Pyk2 in primary rat cortical neurons alters mefloquine neurotoxicity by evaluating cell viability, apoptosis and oxidative stress. Results from our study have confirmed that mefloquine neurotoxicity is associated with apoptotic response and oxidative injury, and we have demonstrated that mefloquine affects primary rat cortical neurons, at least in part, via Pyk2. The implication of these findings may prove beneficial in suppressing the neurological side effects of mefloquine and developing effective therapeutic modalities to offset its adverse effects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative Geometrical Analysis of Leucine-Rich Repeat Structures in the Nod-Like and Toll-Like Receptors in Vertebrate Innate Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norio Matsushima

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The NOD-like receptors (NLRs and Toll-like receptors (TLRs are pattern recognition receptors that are involved in the innate, pathogen pattern recognition system. The TLR and NLR receptors contain leucine-rich repeats (LRRs that are responsible for ligand interactions. In LRRs short β-strands stack parallel and then the LRRs form a super helical arrangement of repeating structural units (called a coil of solenoids. The structures of the LRR domains of NLRC4, NLRP1, and NLRX1 in NLRs and of TLR1-5, TLR6, TLR8, TLR9 in TLRs have been determined. Here we report nine geometrical parameters that characterize the LRR domains; these include four helical parameters from HELFIT analysis. These nine parameters characterize well the LRR structures in NLRs and TLRs; the LRRs of NLR adopts a right-handed helix. In contrast, the TLR LRRs adopt either a left-handed helix or are nearly flat; RP105 and CD14 also adopt a left-handed helix. This geometrical analysis subdivides TLRs into four groups consisting of TLR3/TLR8/TLR9, TLR1/TLR2/TRR6, TLR4, and TLR5; these correspond to the phylogenetic tree based on amino acid sequences. In the TLRs an ascending lateral surface that consists of loops connecting the β-strand at the C-terminal side is involved in protein, protein/ligand interactions, but not the descending lateral surface on the opposite side.

  10. Convergence of the innate and adaptive immunity during human aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branca Isabel Pereira

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with profound changes in the human immune system, a phenomenon referred to as immunosenescence. This complex immune remodeling affects the adaptive immune system and the CD8+ T cell compartment in particular, leading to the accumulation of terminally differentiated T cells, which can rapidly exert their effector functions at the expenses of a limited proliferative potential. In this review we will discuss evidence suggesting that senescent αβCD8+ T cells acquire the hallmarks of innate-like T cells and use recently acquired NK cell receptors as an alternative mechanism to mediate rapid effector functions. These cells concomitantly lose expression of co-stimulatory receptors and exhibit decreased TCR signaling suggesting a functional shift away from antigen specific activation. The convergence of innate and adaptive features in senescent T cells challenges the classic division between innate and adaptive immune systems. Innate-like T cells are particularly important for stress and tumor surveillance and we propose a new role for these cells in aging, where the acquisition of innate-like functions may represent a beneficial adaptation to an increased burden of malignancy with age, although it may also pose a higher risk of autoimmune disorders.

  11. LYK4, a Lysin Motif Receptor-Like Kinase, Is Important for Chitin Signaling and Plant Innate Immunity in Arabidopsis1[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jinrong; Tanaka, Kiwamu; Zhang, Xue-Cheng; Son, Geon Hui; Brechenmacher, Laurent; Nguyen, Tran Hong Nha; Stacey, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Chitin is commonly found in fungal cell walls and is one of the well-studied microbe/pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Previous studies showed that lysin motif (LysM)-containing proteins are essential for plant recognition of chitin, leading to the activation of plant innate immunity. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the LYK1/CERK1 (for LysM-containing receptor-like kinase1/chitin elicitor receptor kinase1) was shown to be essential for chitin recognition, whereas in rice (Oryza sativa), the LysM-containing protein, CEBiP (for chitin elicitor-binding protein), was shown to be involved in chitin recognition. Unlike LYK1/CERK1, CEBiP lacks an intracellular kinase domain. Arabidopsis possesses three CEBiP-like genes. Our data show that mutations in these genes, either singly or in combination, did not compromise the response to chitin treatment. Arabidopsis also contains five LYK genes. Analysis of mutations in LYK2, -3, -4, or -5 showed that LYK4 is also involved in chitin signaling. The lyk4 mutants showed reduced induction of chitin-responsive genes and diminished chitin-induced cytosolic calcium elevation as well as enhanced susceptibility to both the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 and the fungal pathogen Alternaria brassicicola, although these phenotypes were not as dramatic as that seen in the lyk1/cerk1 mutants. Similar to LYK1/CERK1, the LYK4 protein was also localized to the plasma membrane. Therefore, LYK4 may play a role in the chitin recognition receptor complex to assist chitin signal transduction and plant innate immunity. PMID:22744984

  12. CB1 receptor-mediated respiratory depression by endocannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iring, András; Hricisák, László; Benyó, Zoltán

    2017-06-01

    Endocannabinoids (ECs) are bioactive lipid mediators acting on two distinct cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2), which are ubiquitously expressed in many tissues including the respiratory system. Despite numerous experimental data showing that cannabinomimetics influence respiration, the role of endogenously produced ECs in respiratory control has not been verified yet. Pulse oximetry was used in the present study to directly measure changes in respiratory parameters during elevation of EC levels. The cannabinoid reuptake inhibitor AM-404 (10mgkg -1 , i.v.), but not its vehicle, induced a transient reduction of respiratory rate with a concomitant depression of arterial oxygen saturation and increase in breath distension in wild-type mice. In contrast, CB1 knock-out mice showed no alteration in any of these parameters upon administration of AM-404. Our results imply that the EC system has an important role in the physiological control of respiration by modulating the respiratory rate and consequently influencing arterial oxygen saturation. Furthermore, this mechanism is entirely dependent on CB1 receptors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Discoidin Domain Receptor 1 Mediates Myosin-Dependent Collagen Contraction

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    Nuno M. Coelho

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1 is a tyrosine kinase collagen adhesion receptor that mediates cell migration through association with non-muscle myosin IIA (NMIIA. Because DDR1 is implicated in cancer fibrosis, we hypothesized that DDR1 interacts with NMIIA to enable collagen compaction by traction forces. Mechanical splinting of rat dermal wounds increased DDR1 expression and collagen alignment. In periodontal ligament of DDR1 knockout mice, collagen mechanical reorganization was reduced >30%. Similarly, cultured cells with DDR1 knockdown or expressing kinase-deficient DDR1d showed 50% reduction of aligned collagen. Tractional remodeling of collagen was dependent on DDR1 clustering, activation, and interaction of the DDR1 C-terminal kinase domain with NMIIA filaments. Collagen remodeling by traction forces, DDR1 tyrosine phosphorylation, and myosin light chain phosphorylation were increased on stiff versus soft substrates. Thus, DDR1 clustering, activation, and interaction with NMIIA filaments enhance the collagen tractional remodeling that is important for collagen compaction in fibrosis.

  14. Adaptation in the innate immune system and heterologous innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stefan F

    2014-11-01

    The innate immune system recognizes deviation from homeostasis caused by infectious or non-infectious assaults. The threshold for its activation seems to be established by a calibration process that includes sensing of microbial molecular patterns from commensal bacteria and of endogenous signals. It is becoming increasingly clear that adaptive features, a hallmark of the adaptive immune system, can also be identified in the innate immune system. Such adaptations can result in the manifestation of a primed state of immune and tissue cells with a decreased activation threshold. This keeps the system poised to react quickly. Moreover, the fact that the innate immune system recognizes a wide variety of danger signals via pattern recognition receptors that often activate the same signaling pathways allows for heterologous innate immune stimulation. This implies that, for example, the innate immune response to an infection can be modified by co-infections or other innate stimuli. This "design feature" of the innate immune system has many implications for our understanding of individual susceptibility to diseases or responsiveness to therapies and vaccinations. In this article, adaptive features of the innate immune system as well as heterologous innate immunity and their implications are discussed.

  15. Somatostatin receptor-mediated imaging and therapy: basic science, current knowledge, limitations and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breeman, W.A.P.; Jong, M. de; Kwekkeboom, D.J.; Valkema, R.; Bakker, W.H.; Kooij, P.P.M.; Visser, T.J.; Krenning, E.P.

    2001-01-01

    In vivo somatostatin receptor-mediated scintigraphy has proven to be a valuable method for the visualisation of neuroendocrine tumours and their metastases. A new application is the use of radiolabelled analogues for somatostatin receptor-mediated therapy. This paper presents a review on the basic science, historical background and current knowledge of somatostatin receptor subtypes and their expression in neuroendocrine tumours. New somatostatin analogues, new chelators, ''new'' radionuclides and combinations thereof are also discussed. Due attention is given to limitations and future perspectives of somatostatin receptor-mediated imaging and therapy. (orig.)

  16. Lack of Proinflammatory Cytokine Interleukin-6 or Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-1 Results in a Failure of the Innate Immune Response after Bacterial Meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea-Jessica Albrecht

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The most frequent pathogen that causes bacterial meningitis is the Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae. By entering the brain, host cells will be activated and proinflammatory cytokines like interleukin-6 (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α are released. The goal of the current study was to examine the interaction between IL-6 and TNFR1 as receptor for TNF-α and the innate immune response in vivo in a model of Streptococcus pneumoniae-induced meningitis. For the experiments IL-6−/−, TNFR1−/−, and TNFR1-IL-6−/− KO mice were used. Our results revealed higher mortality rates and bacterial burden after infection in TNFR1−/−, IL-6−/−, and TNFR1-IL-6−/− mice and a decreased immune response including lower neutrophil infiltration in the meninges of TNFR1−/− and TNFR1-IL-6−/− mice in contrast to IL-6−/− and wild type mice. Furthermore, the increased mortality of TNFR1−/− and TNFR1-IL-6−/− mice correlated with decreased glial cell activation compared to IL-6−/− or wild type mice after pneumococcal meningitis. Altogether, the results show the importance of TNFR1 and IL-6 in the regulation of the innate immune response. The lack of TNFR1 and IL-6 results in higher mortality by weakened immune defence, whereas the lack of TNFR1 results in more severe impairment of the innate immune response than the lack of IL-6 alone.

  17. Toll-Like Receptor Pathway as Mediator of Bisphosphonate Effects in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-01

    receptors TLR4, TLR5 and TLR9 on the gastric epithelium in Helicobacter pylori infection. Clin Exp Immunol 136, 521-526. 10. Leifer, C.A., Kennedy...AD Award Number: W81XWH-04-1-0600 TITLE: Toll -Like Receptor Pathway’as Mediator of Bisphosphonate Effects in Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...2004 - 14 Jun 2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Toll -Like Receptor Pathway as Mediator of Bisphosphonate Effects in Breast Cancer 5b

  18. Inhibition of Toll-like receptor 2-mediated interleukin-8 production in Cystic Fibrosis airway epithelial cells via the alpha7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Greene, Catherine M

    2010-01-01

    Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is an inherited disorder characterised by chronic inflammation of the airways. The lung manifestations of CF include colonization with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus leading to neutrophil-dominated airway inflammation and tissue damage. Inflammation in the CF lung is initiated by microbial components which activate the innate immune response via Toll-like receptors (TLRs), increasing airway epithelial cell production of proinflammatory mediators such as the neutrophil chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8). Thus modulation of TLR function represents a therapeutic approach for CF. Nicotine is a naturally occurring plant alkaloid. Although it is negatively associated with cigarette smoking and cardiovascular damage, nicotine also has anti-inflammatory properties. Here we investigate the inhibitory capacity of nicotine against TLR2- and TLR4-induced IL-8 production by CFTE29o- airway epithelial cells, determine the role of alpha7-nAChR (nicotinic acetylcholine receptor) in these events, and provide data to support the potential use of safe nicotine analogues as anti-inflammatories for CF.

  19. Spontaneous atopic dermatitis is mediated by innate immunity, with the secondary lung inflammation of the atopic march requiring adaptive immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Sean P; Moran, Tara; Floudas, Achilleas; Wurlod, Felicity; Kaszlikowska, Agnieszka; Salimi, Maryam; Quinn, Emma M; Oliphant, Christopher J; Núñez, Gabriel; McManus, Ross; Hams, Emily; Irvine, Alan D; McKenzie, Andrew N J; Ogg, Graham S; Fallon, Padraic G

    2016-02-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an inflammatory skin condition that can occur in early life, predisposing to asthma development in a phenomenon known as the atopic march. Although genetic and environmental factors are known to contribute to AD and asthma, the mechanisms underlying the atopic march remain poorly understood. Filaggrin loss-of-function mutations are a major genetic predisposer for the development of AD and progression to AD-associated asthma. We sought to experimentally address whether filaggrin mutations in mice lead to the development of spontaneous eczematous inflammation and address the aberrant immunologic milieu arising in a mouse model of filaggrin deficiency. Filaggrin mutant mice were generated on the proallergic BALB/c background, creating a novel model for the assessment of spontaneous AD-like inflammation. Independently recruited AD case collections were analyzed to define associations between filaggrin mutations and immunologic phenotypes. Filaggrin-deficient mice on a BALB/c background had profound spontaneous AD-like inflammation with progression to compromised pulmonary function with age, reflecting the atopic march in patients with AD. Strikingly, skin inflammation occurs independently of adaptive immunity and is associated with cutaneous expansion of IL-5-producing type 2 innate lymphoid cells. Furthermore, subjects with filaggrin mutations have an increased frequency of type 2 innate lymphoid cells in the skin in comparison with control subjects. This study provides new insights into our understanding of the atopic march, with innate immunity initiating dermatitis and the adaptive immunity required for subsequent development of compromised lung function. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Structural basis for m7G recognition and 2'-O-methyl discrimination in capped RNAs by the innate immune receptor RIG-I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devarkar, Swapnil C.; Wang, Chen; Miller, Matthew T.; Ramanathan, Anand; Jiang, Fuguo; Khan, Abdul G.; Patel, Smita S.; Marcotrigiano, Joseph

    2016-01-05

    The cytosolic innate immune receptor Retinoic Acid Inducible Gene-I (RIG-I) is the principal detector of pathogenic RNAs carrying a 5'-triphosphate (5'ppp). Self RNAs like mRNAs evade recognition by RIG-I due to posttranscriptional modifications like 5'-end capping with 7-methyl guanosine (m7G) and 2'-O-methylation of 5'-end nucleotides. Viruses have also evolved mechanisms to mimic these modifications, which in part is believed to aid in immune evasion. Currently, it is unclear how these modifications modulate RIG-I recognition. This paper provides structural and mechanistic insights into the roles of the m7G cap and 2'-O-methylation in RIG-I evasion. We show that RIG-I accommodates the m7G base while maintaining the 5'ppp contacts and can recognize Cap-0 RNAs but not Cap-1.

  1. Regulation of Toll-like receptor 4-mediated immune responses through Pasteurella multocida toxin-induced G protein signalling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hildebrand Dagmar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipopolysaccharide (LPS-triggered Toll-like receptor (TLR 4-signalling belongs to the key innate defence mechanisms upon infection with Gram-negative bacteria and triggers the subsequent activation of adaptive immunity. There is an active crosstalk between TLR4-mediated and other signalling cascades to secure an effective immune response, but also to prevent excessive inflammation. Many pathogens induce signalling cascades via secreted factors that interfere with TLR signalling to modify and presumably escape the host response. In this context heterotrimeric G proteins and their coupled receptors have been recognized as major cellular targets. Toxigenic strains of Gram-negative Pasteurella multocida produce a toxin (PMT that constitutively activates the heterotrimeric G proteins Gαq, Gα13 and Gαi independently of G protein-coupled receptors through deamidation. PMT is known to induce signalling events involved in cell proliferation, cell survival and cytoskeleton rearrangement. Results Here we show that the activation of heterotrimeric G proteins through PMT suppresses LPS-stimulated IL-12p40 production and eventually impairs the T cell-activating ability of LPS-treated monocytes. This inhibition of TLR4-induced IL-12p40 expression is mediated by Gαi-triggered signalling as well as by Gβγ-dependent activation of PI3kinase and JNK. Taken together we propose the following model: LPS stimulates TLR4-mediated activation of the NFĸB-pathway and thereby the production of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-12p40. PMT inhibits the production of IL-12p40 by Gαi-mediated inhibition of adenylate cyclase and cAMP accumulation and by Gβγ-mediated activation of PI3kinase and JNK activation. Conclusions On the basis of the experiments with PMT this study gives an example of a pathogen-induced interaction between G protein-mediated and TLR4-triggered signalling and illustrates how a bacterial toxin is able to interfere with the host’s immune

  2. Identification and Validation of Ifit1 as an Important Innate Immune Bottleneck

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    McDermott, Jason E.; Vartanian, Keri B.; Mitchell, Hugh D.; Stevens, S.L.; Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Stenzel-Poore, Mary

    2012-06-20

    The innate immune system plays important roles in a number of disparate processes. Foremost, innate immunity is a first responder to invasion by pathogens and triggers early defensive responses and recruits the adaptive immune system. The innate immune system also responds to endogenous damage signals that arise from tissue injury. Recently it has been found that innate immunity plays an important role in neuroprotection against ischemic stroke through the activation of the primary innate immune receptors, Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Using several large-scale transcriptomic data sets from mouse and mouse macrophage studies we identified targets predicted to be important in controlling innate immune processes initiated by TLR activation. Targets were identified as genes with high betweenness centrality, so-called bottlenecks, in networks inferred from statistical associations between gene expression patterns. A small set of putative bottlenecks were identified in each of the data sets investigated including interferon-stimulated genes (Ifit1, Ifi47, Tgtp and Oasl2) as well as genes uncharacterized in immune responses (Axud1 and Ppp1r15a). We further validated one of these targets, Ifit1, in mouse macrophages by showing that silencing it suppresses induction of predicted downstream genes by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated TLR4 activation through an unknown direct or indirect mechanism. Our study demonstrates the utility of network analysis for identification of interesting targets related to innate immune function, and highlights that Ifit1 can exert a positive regulatory effect on downstream genes.

  3. HIV-1 infection of macrophages is dependent on evasion of innate immune cellular activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Jhen; Chain, Benjamin M; Miller, Robert F; Webb, Benjamin L J; Barclay, Wendy; Towers, Greg J; Katz, David R; Noursadeghi, Mahdad

    2009-11-13

    The cellular innate immune response to HIV-1 is poorly characterized. In view of HIV-1 tropism for macrophages, which can be activated via pattern recognition receptors to trigger antimicrobial defences, we investigated innate immune responses to HIV-1 by monocyte-derived macrophages. In a model of productive HIV-1 infection, cellular innate immune responses to HIV-1 were investigated, at the level of transcription factor activation, specific gene expression and genome-wide transcriptional profiling. In addition, the viral determinants of macrophage responses and the physiological effect of innate immune cellular activation on HIV-1 replication were assessed. Productive HIV-1 infection did not activate nuclear factor-kappaB and interferon regulatory factor 3 transcription factors or interferon gene expression (IFN) and caused remarkably small changes to the host-cell transcriptome, with no evidence of inflammatory or IFN signatures. Evasion of IFN induction was not dependent on HIV-1 envelope-mediated cellular entry, inhibition by accessory proteins or reverse transcription of ssRNA that may reduce innate immune cellular activation by viral RNA. Furthermore, IFNbeta priming did not sensitize responses to HIV-1. Importantly, exogenous IFNbeta or stimulation with the RNA analogue poly I:C to simulate innate immune activation invoked HIV-1 restriction. We conclude that macrophages lack functional pattern recognition receptors for this virus and that HIV-1 tropism for macrophages helps to establish a foothold in the host without triggering innate immune cellular activation, which would otherwise block viral infection effectively.

  4. Innate Immunity Stimulation via Toll-Like Receptor 9 Ameliorates Vascular Amyloid Pathology in Tg-SwDI Mice with Associated Cognitive Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtzova, Henrieta; Do, Eileen; Dhakal, Shleshma; Sun, Yanjie; Liu, Shan; Mehta, Pankaj D; Wisniewski, Thomas

    2017-01-25

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the presence of parenchymal amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques, cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) and neurofibrillary tangles. Currently there are no effective treatments for AD. Immunotherapeutic approaches under development are hampered by complications related to ineffectual clearance of CAA. Genome-wide association studies have demonstrated the importance of microglia in AD pathogenesis. Microglia are the primary innate immune cells of the brain. Depending on their activation state and environment, microglia can be beneficial or detrimental. In our prior work, we showed that stimulation of innate immunity with Toll-like receptor 9 agonist, class B CpG (cytosine-phosphate-guanine) oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs), can reduce amyloid and tau pathologies without causing toxicity in Tg2576 and 3xTg-AD mouse models. However, these transgenic mice have relatively little CAA. In the current study, we evaluated the therapeutic profile of CpG ODN in a triple transgenic mouse model, Tg-SwDI, with abundant vascular amyloid, in association with low levels of parenchymal amyloid deposits. Peripheral administration of CpG ODN, both before and after the development of CAA, negated short-term memory deficits, as assessed by object-recognition tests, and was effective at improving spatial and working memory evaluated using a radial arm maze. These findings were associated with significant reductions of CAA pathology lacking adverse effects. Together, our extensive evidence suggests that this innovative immunomodulation may be a safe approach to ameliorate all hallmarks of AD pathology, supporting the potential clinical applicability of CpG ODN. Recent genetic studies have underscored the emerging role of microglia in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Microglia lose their amyloid-β-clearing capabilities with age and as AD progresses. Therefore, the ability to modulate microglia profiles offers a promising therapeutic avenue for reducing AD

  5. Native and aspirin-triggered lipoxins control innate immunity by inducing proteasomal degradation of TRAF6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Fabiana S; Esper, Lísia; Dias, Alexandra; Madan, Rajat; Gu, YuanYuan; Hildeman, David; Serhan, Charles N; Karp, Christopher L; Aliberti, Júlio

    2008-05-12

    Innate immune signaling is critical for the development of protective immunity. Such signaling is, perforce, tightly controlled. Lipoxins (LXs) are eicosanoid mediators that play key counterregulatory roles during infection. The molecular mechanisms underlying LX-mediated control of innate immune signaling are of interest. In this study, we show that LX and aspirin (ASA)-triggered LX (ATL) inhibit innate immune signaling by inducing suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) 2-dependent ubiquitinylation and proteasome-mediated degradation of TNF receptor-associated factor (TRAF) 2 and TRAF6, which are adaptor molecules that couple TNF and interleukin-1 receptor/Toll-like receptor family members to intracellular signaling events. LX-mediated degradation of TRAF6 inhibits proinflammatory cytokine production by dendritic cells. This restraint of innate immune signaling can be ablated by inhibition of proteasome function. In vivo, this leads to dysregulated immune responses, accompanied by increased mortality during infection. Proteasomal degradation of TRAF6 is a central mechanism underlying LX-driven immune counterregulation, and a hitherto unappreciated mechanism of action of ASA. These findings suggest a new molecular target for drug development for diseases marked by dysregulated inflammatory responses.

  6. Innate antiviral immune signaling, viral evasion and modulation by HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Arjun; Gale, Michael

    2014-03-20

    The intracellular innate antiviral response in human cells is an essential component of immunity against virus infection. As obligate intracellular parasites, all viruses must evade the actions of the host cell's innate immune response in order to replicate and persist. Innate immunity is induced when pathogen recognition receptors of the host cell sense viral products including nucleic acid as "non-self". This process induces downstream signaling through adaptor proteins to activate latent transcription factors that drive the expression of genes encoding antiviral and immune modulatory effector proteins that restrict virus replication and regulate adaptive immunity. The interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) are transcription factors that play major roles in innate immunity. In particular, IRF3 is activated in response to infection by a range of viruses including RNA viruses, DNA viruses and retroviruses. Among these viruses, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) remains a major global health problem mediating chronic infection in millions of people wherein recent studies show that viral persistence is linked with the ability of the virus to dysregulate and evade the innate immune response. In this review, we discuss viral pathogen sensing, innate immune signaling pathways and effectors that respond to viral infection, the role of IRF3 in these processes and how it is regulated by pathogenic viruses. We present a contemporary overview of the interplay between HIV-1 and innate immunity, with a focus on understanding how innate immune control impacts infection outcome and disease. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. The growth-defense pivot: Crisis management in plants mediated by LRR-RK surface receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkhadir, Youssef; Yang, Li; Hetzel, Jonathan; Dangl, Jeffery L.; Chory, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Plants must adapt to their environment and require mechanisms for sensing their surroundings and responding appropriately. An expanded family of greater than 200 leucine-rich repeat receptor kinases (LRR-RKs) transduces fluctuating and often contradictory signals from the environment into changes in nuclear gene expression. Two LRR-RKs, BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1 (BRI1), a steroid receptor, and FLAGELLIN-SENSITIVE 2 (FLS2), an innate immune receptor that recognizes bacterial flagellin, act cooperatively to partition necessary growth-defense tradeoffs. BRI1 and FLS2 share common signaling components and slightly different activation mechanisms. BRI1 and FLS2 are paradigms for understanding signaling mechanisms of LRR-containing receptors in plants. PMID:25089011

  8. Group 3 innate lymphoid cells mediate intestinal selection of commensal bacteria-specific CD4+ T cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepworth, Matthew R.; Fung, Thomas C.; Masur, Samuel H.; Kelsen, Judith R.; McConnell, Fiona M.; Dubrot, Juan; Withers, David R.; Hugues, Stephanie; Farrar, Michael A.; Reith, Walter; Eberl, Gerard; Baldassano, Robert N.; Laufer, Terri M.; Elson, Charles O.; Sonnenberg, Gregory F.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory CD4+ T cell responses to self or commensal bacteria underlie the pathogenesis of autoimmunity and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), respectively. While selection of self-specific T cells in the thymus limits responses to tissue antigens, the mechanisms that control selection of commensal bacteria-specific T cells remain poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that group 3 innate lymphoid cell (ILC3)-intrinsic expression of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) is regulated similarly to thymic epithelial cells, and that MHCII+ ILC3s directly induce cell death of activated commensal bacteria-specific T cells. Further, MHCII on human colonic ILC3s was reduced in pediatric IBD patients. Collectively, these results define a selection pathway for commensal bacteria-specific CD4+ T cells in the intestine, and suggest that this process is dysregulated in human IBD. PMID:25908663

  9. Toll-like receptor activation enhances cell-mediated immunity induced by an antibody vaccine targeting human dendritic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berger Marc A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Previously, we have successfully targeted the mannose receptor (MR expressed on monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs using a fully human MR-specific antibody, B11, as a vehicle to deliver whole protein tumor antigens such as the human chorionic gonadotropin hormone (hCGβ. Since MRs play a role in bridging innate immunity with adaptive immunity we have explored several toll-like receptor (TLR-specific ligands that may synergize with MR targeting and be applicable as adjuvants in the clinic. We demonstrate that antigen-specific helper and cytolytic T cells from both healthy donors and cancer patients were effectively primed with B11-hCGβ-treated autologous DCs when a combination of one or several TLR ligands is used. Specifically, concomitant signaling of DCs via TLR3 with dsRNA (poly I:C and DC TLR 7/8 with Resiquimod (R-848, respectively, elicited efficient antigen presentation-mediated by MR-targeting. We demonstrate that MR and TLRs contribute towards maturation and activation of DCs by a mechanism that may be driven by a combination of adjuvant and antibody vaccines that specifically deliver antigenic targets to DCs.

  10. Anaesthetic impairment of immune function is mediated via GABA(A receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W Wheeler

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available GABA(A receptors are members of the Cys-loop family of neurotransmitter receptors, proteins which are responsible for fast synaptic transmission, and are the site of action of wide range of drugs. Recent work has shown that Cys-loop receptors are present on immune cells, but their physiological roles and the effects of drugs that modify their function in the innate immune system are currently unclear. We are interested in how and why anaesthetics increase infections in intensive care patients; a serious problem as more than 50% of patients with severe sepsis will die. As many anaesthetics act via GABA(A receptors, the aim of this study was to determine if these receptors are present on immune cells, and could play a role in immunocompromising patients.We demonstrate, using RT-PCR, that monocytes express GABA(A receptors constructed of α1, α4, β2, γ1 and/or δ subunits. Whole cell patch clamp electrophysiological studies show that GABA can activate these receptors, resulting in the opening of a chloride-selective channel; activation is inhibited by the GABA(A receptor antagonists bicuculline and picrotoxin, but not enhanced by the positive modulator diazepam. The anaesthetic drugs propofol and thiopental, which can act via GABA(A receptors, impaired monocyte function in classic immunological chemotaxis and phagocytosis assays, an effect reversed by bicuculline and picrotoxin.Our results show that functional GABA(A receptors are present on monocytes with properties similar to CNS GABA(A receptors. The functional data provide a possible explanation as to why chronic propofol and thiopental administration can increase the risk of infection in critically ill patients: their action on GABA(A receptors inhibits normal monocyte behaviour. The data also suggest a potential solution: monocyte GABA(A receptors are insensitive to diazepam, thus the use of benzodiazepines as an alternative anesthetising agent may be advantageous where infection is a life

  11. Anaesthetic impairment of immune function is mediated via GABA(A) receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Daniel W; Thompson, Andrew J; Corletto, Federico; Reckless, Jill; Loke, Justin C T; Lapaque, Nicolas; Grant, Andrew J; Mastroeni, Pietro; Grainger, David J; Padgett, Claire L; O'Brien, John A; Miller, Nigel G A; Trowsdale, John; Lummis, Sarah C R; Menon, David K; Beech, John S

    2011-02-24

    GABA(A) receptors are members of the Cys-loop family of neurotransmitter receptors, proteins which are responsible for fast synaptic transmission, and are the site of action of wide range of drugs. Recent work has shown that Cys-loop receptors are present on immune cells, but their physiological roles and the effects of drugs that modify their function in the innate immune system are currently unclear. We are interested in how and why anaesthetics increase infections in intensive care patients; a serious problem as more than 50% of patients with severe sepsis will die. As many anaesthetics act via GABA(A) receptors, the aim of this study was to determine if these receptors are present on immune cells, and could play a role in immunocompromising patients. We demonstrate, using RT-PCR, that monocytes express GABA(A) receptors constructed of α1, α4, β2, γ1 and/or δ subunits. Whole cell patch clamp electrophysiological studies show that GABA can activate these receptors, resulting in the opening of a chloride-selective channel; activation is inhibited by the GABA(A) receptor antagonists bicuculline and picrotoxin, but not enhanced by the positive modulator diazepam. The anaesthetic drugs propofol and thiopental, which can act via GABA(A) receptors, impaired monocyte function in classic immunological chemotaxis and phagocytosis assays, an effect reversed by bicuculline and picrotoxin. Our results show that functional GABA(A) receptors are present on monocytes with properties similar to CNS GABA(A) receptors. The functional data provide a possible explanation as to why chronic propofol and thiopental administration can increase the risk of infection in critically ill patients: their action on GABA(A) receptors inhibits normal monocyte behaviour. The data also suggest a potential solution: monocyte GABA(A) receptors are insensitive to diazepam, thus the use of benzodiazepines as an alternative anesthetising agent may be advantageous where infection is a life

  12. DMPD: Toll-like receptors and the host defense against microbial pathogens: bringingspecificity to the innate-immune system. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gingspecificity to the innate-immune system. Netea MG, van der Graaf C, Van der Meer JW, Kullberg BJ. J Leuk... the host defense against microbial pathogens: bringingspecificity to the innate-immune system... bringingspecificity to the innate-immune system. Authors Netea MG, van der Graaf C, Van der Meer JW, Kullbe

  13. Heme on innate immunity and inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabianno Ferreira Dutra

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Heme is an essential molecule expressed ubiquitously all through our tissues. Heme plays major functions in cellular physiology and metabolism as the prostetic group of diverse proteins. Once released from cells and from hemeproteins free heme causes oxidative damage and inflammation, thus acting as a prototypic damage-associated molecular pattern. In this context, free heme is a critical component of the pathological process of sterile and infectious hemolytic conditions including malaria, hemolytic anemias, ischemia-reperfusion and hemorrhage. The plasma scavanger proteins hemopexin and albumin reduce heme toxicity and are responsible for transporting free heme to intracellular compartments where it is catabolized by heme-oxygenase enzymes. Upon hemolysis or severe cellular damage the serum capacity to scavange heme may saturate and increase free heme to sufficient amounts to cause tissue damage in various organs. The mechanism by which heme causes reactive oxygen generation, activation of cells of the innate immune system and cell death are not fully understood. Although heme can directly promote lipid peroxidation by its iron atom, heme can also induce ROS generation and production of inflammatory mediators through the activation of selective signaling pathways. Heme activates innate immune cells such as macrophages and neutrophils through activation of innate immune receptors. The importance of these events has been demonstrated in infectious and non-infectious diseases models. In this review we will discuss the mechanisms behind heme-induced citotoxicity and inflammation and the consequences of these events on different tissues and diseases.

  14. The Measles Virus Receptor SLAMF1 Can Mediate Particle Endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves-Carneiro, Daniel; McKeating, Jane A; Bailey, Dalan

    2017-04-01

    The signaling lymphocyte activation molecule F1 (SLAMF1) is both a microbial sensor and entry receptor for measles virus (MeV). Herein, we describe a new role for SLAMF1 to mediate MeV endocytosis that is in contrast with the alternative, and generally accepted, model that MeV genome enters cells only after fusion at the cell surface. We demonstrated that MeV engagement of SLAMF1 induces dramatic but transient morphological changes, most prominently in the formation of membrane blebs, which were shown to colocalize with incoming viral particles, and rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton in infected cells. MeV infection was dependent on these dynamic cytoskeletal changes as well as fluid uptake through a macropinocytosis-like pathway as chemical inhibition of these processes inhibited entry. Moreover, we identified a role for the RhoA-ROCK-myosin II signaling axis in this MeV internalization process, highlighting a novel role for this recently characterized pathway in virus entry. Our study shows that MeV can hijack a microbial sensor normally involved in bacterial phagocytosis to drive endocytosis using a complex pathway that shares features with canonical viral macropinocytosis, phagocytosis, and mechanotransduction. This uptake pathway is specific to SLAMF1-positive cells and occurs within 60 min of viral attachment. Measles virus remains a significant cause of mortality in human populations, and this research sheds new light on the very first steps of infection of this important pathogen. IMPORTANCE Measles is a significant disease in humans and is estimated to have killed over 200 million people since records began. According to current World Health Organization statistics, it still kills over 100,000 people a year, mostly children in the developing world. The causative agent, measles virus, is a small enveloped RNA virus that infects a broad range of cells during infection. In particular, immune cells are infected via interactions between glycoproteins found

  15. NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity depends on the coactivation of synaptic and extrasynaptic receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X; Hollern, D; Liao, J; Andrechek, E; Wang, H

    2013-01-01

    N-methyl-𝒟-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) overactivation is linked to neurodegeneration. The current prevailing theory suggests that synaptic and extrasynaptic NMDAR (syn- and ex-NMDAR) impose counteracting effects on cell fate, and neuronal cell death is mainly mediated by the activation of ex-NMDAR. However, several lines of evidence implicate the limitation of this theory. Here, we demonstrate that activation of NMDAR bi-directionally regulated cell fate through stimulating pro-survival or pro-death signaling. While low-dose NMDA preferentially activated syn-NMDAR and stimulated the extracellular signal-regulated kinase ½–cAMP responsive element-binding protein–brain-derived neurotrophic factor pro-survival signaling, higher doses progressively activated increasing amount of ex-NMDAR along with syn-NMDAR and triggered cell death program. Interestingly, the activation of syn- or ex-NMDAR alone did not cause measurable cell death. Consistently, activation of syn- or ex-NMDAR alone stimulated pro-survival but not pro-death signaling. Next, we found that memantine, which was previously identified as an ex-NMDAR blocker, inhibited intracellular signaling mediated by syn- or ex-NMDAR. Simultaneous blockade of syn- and ex-NMDAR by memantine dose-dependently attenuated NMDAR-mediated death. Moreover, long- but not short-term treatment with high-dose NMDA or oxygen–glucose deprivation triggered cell death and suppressed pro-survival signaling. These data implicate that activation of syn- or ex-NMDAR alone is not neurotoxic. The degree of excitotoxicity depends on the magnitude and duration of syn- and ex-NMDAR coactivation. Finally, genome-wide examination demonstrated that the activation of syn- and ex-NMDAR lead to significant overlapping rather than counteracting transcriptional responses. PMID:23538441

  16. Activation of 5-HT2A/C receptor reduces glycine receptor-mediated currents in cultured auditory cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Bin; Hu, Lingli; Liu, Chunhua; Guo, Yiping; Wang, Haitao

    2016-02-01

    Glycine receptors (GlyRs) permeable to chloride only mediate tonic inhibition in the cerebral cortex where glycinergic projection is completely absent. The functional modulation of GlyRs was largely studied in subcortical brain regions with glycinergic transmissions, but the function of cortical GlyRs was rarely addressed. Serotonin could broadly modulate many ion channels through activating 5-HT2 receptor, but whether cortical GlyRs are subjected to serotonergic modulation remains unexplored. The present study adopted patch clamp recordings to examine functional regulation of strychnine-sensitive GlyRs currents in cultured cortical neurons by DOI (2,5-Dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine), a 5-HT2A/C receptor agonist. DOI caused a concentration-dependent reduction of GlyR currents with unchanged reversal potential. This reduction was blocked by the selective receptor antagonists (ritanserin and risperidone) and G protein inhibitor (GDP-β-s) demonstrated that the reducing effect of DOI on GlyR current required the activation of 5-HT2A/C receptors. Strychnine-sensitive tonic currents revealed the inhibitory tone mediated by nonsynaptic GlyRs, and DOI similarly reduced the tonic inhibition. The impaired microtube-dependent trafficking or clustering of GlyRs was thought to be involved in that nocodazole as a microtube depolymerizing drug largely blocked the inhibition mediated by 5-HT2A/C receptors. Our results suggested that activation of 5-HT2A/C receptors might suppress cortical tonic inhibition mediated by GlyRs, and the findings would provide important insight into serotonergic modulation of tonic inhibition mediated by GlyRs, and possibly facilitate to develop the therapeutic treatment of neurological diseases such as tinnitus through regulating cortical GlyRs.

  17. Effects of Air Pollutants on Innate Immunity: The Role of Toll-like receptors and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interactions between exposure to ambient air pollutants and respiratory pathogens have been shown to modify respiratory immune responses. Emerging data suggest key roles for toll-like receptor (TLR) and NOD-like receptor (NLR) signaling in pathogen-induced immune responses. Simil...

  18. Sodium methyldithiocarbamate inhibits MAP kinase activation through toll-like receptor 4, alters cytokine production by mouse peritoneal macrophages, and suppresses innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruett, Stephen B; Zheng, Qiang; Schwab, Carlton; Fan, Ruping

    2005-09-01

    Sodium methyldithiocarbamate (SMD; trade name, Metam Sodium) is an abundantly used soil fumigant that can cause adverse health effects in humans, including some immunological manifestations. The mechanisms by which SMD acts, and its targets within the immune system are not fully understood. Initial experiments demonstrated that SMD administered by oral gavage substantially decreased IL-12 production and increased IL-10 production induced by lipopolysaccharide in mice. The present study was conducted to further characterize these effects and to evaluate our working hypothesis that the mechanism for these effects involves alteration in signaling through toll-like receptor 4 and that this would suppress innate immunity to infection. SMD decreased the activation of MAP kinases and AP-1 but not NF-kappaB in peritoneal macrophages. The expression of mRNA for IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-18, IFN-gamma, IL-12 p35, IL-12 p40, and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) was inhibited by SMD, whereas mRNA for IL-10 was increased. SMD increased the IL-10 concentration in the peritoneal cavity and serum and decreased the concentration of IL-12 p40 in the serum, peritoneal cavity, and intracellularly in peritoneal cells (which are >80% macrophages). Similar effects on LPS-induced cytokine production were observed following dermal administration of SMD. The major breakdown product of SMD, methylisothiocyanate (MITC), caused similar effects on cytokine production at dosages as low as 17 mg/kg, a dosage relevant to human exposure levels associated with agricultural use of SMD. Treatment of mice with SMD decreased survival following challenge with non-pathogenic Escherichia coli within 24-48 h, demonstrating suppression of innate immunity.

  19. Targeting intracellular signaling pathways at the interface of T lymphocyte and innate immunity in immune-mediated inflammatory diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krausz, S.

    2013-01-01

    Synoviale macrofagen (afweercellen in gewrichtskapsels) van patiënten met reumatoïde artritis brengen een actieve vorm van een angiogenetische receptor (Tie2) tot expressie. Dat blijkt uit onderzoek van Sarah Krausz. Angiogenesis (bloedvatnieuwvorming) speelt een essentiële rol bij het in stand

  20. Structural and functional insights into 5'-ppp RNA pattern recognition by the innate immune receptor RIG-I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanli; Ludwig, Janos; Schuberth, Christine; Goldeck, Marion; Schlee, Martin; Li, Haitao; Juranek, Stefan; Sheng, Gang; Micura, Ronald; Tuschl, Thomas; Hartmann, Gunther; Patel, Dinshaw J

    2010-07-01

    RIG-I is a cytosolic helicase that senses 5'-ppp RNA contained in negative-strand RNA viruses and triggers innate antiviral immune responses. Calorimetric binding studies established that the RIG-I C-terminal regulatory domain (CTD) binds to blunt-end double-stranded 5'-ppp RNA a factor of 17 more tightly than to its single-stranded counterpart. Here we report on the crystal structure of RIG-I CTD bound to both blunt ends of a self-complementary 5'-ppp dsRNA 12-mer, with interactions involving 5'-pp clearly visible in the complex. The structure, supported by mutation studies, defines how a lysine-rich basic cleft within the RIG-I CTD sequesters the observable 5'-pp of the bound RNA, with a stacked phenylalanine capping the terminal base pair. Key intermolecular interactions observed in the crystalline state are retained in the complex of 5'-ppp dsRNA 24-mer and full-length RIG-I under in vivo conditions, as evaluated from the impact of binding pocket RIG-I mutations and 2'-OCH(3) RNA modifications on the interferon response.

  1. Inhibition of pattern recognition receptor-mediated inflammation by bioactive phytochemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerging evidence reveals that pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs), Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain proteins (NODs) mediate both infection-induced and sterile inflammation by recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and endogenous molecules...

  2. DEPENDENCE OF PPAR LIGAND-INDUCED MAPK SIGNALING ON EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR TRANSACTIVATION HEPARIN-BINDING EGF CLEAVAGE MEDIATES ZINC-INDUCED EGF RECEPTOR PHOSPHORYLATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear hormone receptors that function as ligand-activated transcription factors regulating lipid metabolism and homeostasis. In addition to their ability to regulate PPAR-mediated gene transcription, PPARalpha and gamma li...

  3. Reclassifying Anaphylaxis to Neuromuscular Blocking Agents Based on the Presumed Patho-Mechanism: IgE-Mediated, Pharmacological Adverse Reaction or “Innate Hypersensitivity”?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Spoerl

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 60% of perioperative anaphylactic reactions are thought to be immunoglobulin IgE mediated, whereas 40% are thought to be non-IgE mediated hypersensitivity reactions (both considered non-dose-related type B adverse drug reactions. In both cases, symptoms are elicited by mast cell degranulation. Also, pharmacological reactions to drugs (type A, dose-related may sometimes mimic symptoms triggered by mast cell degranulation. In case of hypotension, bronchospasm, or urticarial rash due to mast cell degranulation, identification of the responsible mechanism is complicated. However, determination of the type of the underlying adverse drug reaction is of paramount interest for the decision of whether the culprit drug may be re-administered. Neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBA are among the most frequent cause of perioperative anaphylaxis. Recently, it has been shown that NMBA may activate mast cells independently from IgE antibodies via the human Mas-related G-protein-coupled receptor member X2 (MRGPRX2. In light of this new insight into the patho-mechanism of pseudo-allergic adverse drug reactions, in which as drug-receptor interaction results in anaphylaxis like symptoms, we critically reviewed the literature on NMBA-induced perioperative anaphylaxis. We challenge the dogma that NMBA mainly cause IgE-mediated anaphylaxis via an IgE-mediated mechanism, which is based on studies that consider positive skin test to be specific for IgE-mediated hypersensitivity. Finally, we discuss the question whether MRGPRX2 mediated pseudo-allergic reactions should be re-classified as type A adverse reactions.

  4. Reclassifying Anaphylaxis to Neuromuscular Blocking Agents Based on the Presumed Patho-Mechanism: IgE-Mediated, Pharmacological Adverse Reaction or "Innate Hypersensitivity"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoerl, David; Nigolian, Haig; Czarnetzki, Christoph; Harr, Thomas

    2017-06-07

    Approximately 60% of perioperative anaphylactic reactions are thought to be immunoglobulin IgE mediated, whereas 40% are thought to be non-IgE mediated hypersensitivity reactions (both considered non-dose-related type B adverse drug reactions). In both cases, symptoms are elicited by mast cell degranulation. Also, pharmacological reactions to drugs (type A, dose-related) may sometimes mimic symptoms triggered by mast cell degranulation. In case of hypotension, bronchospasm, or urticarial rash due to mast cell degranulation, identification of the responsible mechanism is complicated. However, determination of the type of the underlying adverse drug reaction is of paramount interest for the decision of whether the culprit drug may be re-administered. Neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBA) are among the most frequent cause of perioperative anaphylaxis. Recently, it has been shown that NMBA may activate mast cells independently from IgE antibodies via the human Mas-related G-protein-coupled receptor member X2 (MRGPRX2). In light of this new insight into the patho-mechanism of pseudo-allergic adverse drug reactions, in which as drug-receptor interaction results in anaphylaxis like symptoms, we critically reviewed the literature on NMBA-induced perioperative anaphylaxis. We challenge the dogma that NMBA mainly cause IgE-mediated anaphylaxis via an IgE-mediated mechanism, which is based on studies that consider positive skin test to be specific for IgE-mediated hypersensitivity. Finally, we discuss the question whether MRGPRX2 mediated pseudo-allergic reactions should be re-classified as type A adverse reactions.

  5. THIP, a hypnotic and antinociceptive drug, enhances a tonic GABAA receptor mediated conductance in mouse neocortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drasbek, Kim Ryun; Jensen, Kimmo

    2006-01-01

    THIP (4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol) is a selective GABA(A) receptor agonist with a preference for delta-subunit containing GABA(A) receptors. THIP is currently being tested in human trials for its hypnotic effects, displaying advantageous tolerance and addiction properties. Sinc...... suggest that THIP activates an extrasynaptic GABA(A) receptor-mediated conductance in the neocortex, which may alter the cortical network activity....

  6. Secretory phospholipase A2-mediated neuronal cell death involves glutamate ionotropic receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolko, Miriam; de Turco, Elena B; Diemer, Nils Henrik

    2002-01-01

    To define the significance of glutamate ionotropic receptors in sPLA -mediated neuronal cell death we used the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 and the AMPA receptor antagonist PNQX. In primary neuronal cell cultures both MK-801 and PNQX inhibited sPLA - and glutamate-induced neuronal death. [ H...... neuronal cell death. We conclude that glutamatergic synaptic activity modulates sPLA -induced neuronal cell death....

  7. Mincle, an Innate Immune Receptor, Is Expressed in Urothelial Cancer Cells of Papillomavirus-Associated Urothelial Tumors of Cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sante Roperto

    Full Text Available Mincle, macrophage-inducible C-type lectin, is a member of C-type lectin receptors. It plays an important role in anti-mycobacterial and anti-fungal immunity. Furthermore it senses dead cells through its primary ligand SAP130.We examined ten urothelial tumors of the urinary bladder of cattle. Eight of them expressed E5 cDNA of bovine papillomaviruses type 2 (BPV-2 and type 13 (BPV-13 that belong to Deltapapillomavirus genus. Two of them were not examined for detection of E5 cDNA. Mincle expression appeared to occur in urothelial neoplastic cells only. No mincle expression was detected in urothelial cells from healthy cattle. Mincle expression was characterized by a membranous pattern in papillary urothelial cancers; isolated and/or clustered urothelial cells showing a strong cytoplasmic immunoreactivity were primarily seen in invasive urothelial cancers.This is the first study about the expression of mincle in veterinary oncology and the first report which describes the expression of functional mincle receptor in neoplastic cells in medical literature. As it has been shown that urothelial cancer cells have the ability to function as antigen-presenting cells (APCs, it is conceivable that mincle expression is involved in the presentation of cancer cell antigens to cells of the immune system. Furthermore, since expression of mincle contributes to the control of Mycobacterium bovis BCG infection, this study has exciting clinical implications in comparative medicine keeping in mind that Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG immunotherapy is currently the most effective treatment of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer in man. Mincle expression in urothelial tumor cells warrants further study to better understand the role, if any, of this receptor in bladder cancer. Future studies will provide insights in the role of mincle receptor of urothelial cancer cells in antitumor immunotherapy.

  8. More than complementing Tolls: Complement–Toll-like receptor synergy and crosstalk in innate immunity and inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Hajishengallis, George; Lambris, John D.

    2016-01-01

    Complement and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play key roles in the host immune response and are swiftly activated by infection or other types of immunological stress. This review focuses on the capacity of complement and TLRs to engage in signaling crosstalk, ostensibly to coordinate immune and inflammatory responses through synergistic or antagonistic (regulatory) interactions. However, over-activation or dysregulation of either system may lead – often synergistically – to exaggerated inflammat...

  9. Melanocortin MC(4) receptor-mediated feeding and grooming in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mul, Joram D; Spruijt, Berry M; Brakkee, Jan H; Adan, Roger A H

    2013-11-05

    Decades ago it was recognized that the pharmacological profile of melanocortin ligands that stimulated grooming behavior in rats was strikingly similar to that of Xenopus laevis melanophore pigment dispersion. After cloning of the melanocortin MC1 receptor, expressed in melanocytes, and the melanocortin MC4 receptor, expressed mainly in brain, the pharmacological profiles of these receptors appeared to be very similar and it was demonstrated that these receptors mediate melanocortin-induced pigmentation and grooming respectively. Grooming is a low priority behavior that is concerned with care of body surface. Activation of central melanocortin MC4 receptors is also associated with meal termination, and continued postprandial stimulation of melanocortin MC4 receptors may stimulate natural postprandial grooming behavior as part of the behavioral satiety sequence. Indeed, melanocortins fail to suppress food intake or induce grooming behavior in melanocortin MC4 receptor-deficient rats. This review will focus on how melanocortins affect grooming behavior through the melanocortin MC4 receptor, and how melanocortin MC4 receptors mediate feeding behavior. This review also illustrates how melanocortins were the most likely candidates to mediate grooming and feeding based on the natural behaviors they induced. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Tyrosine-610 in the Receptor Kinase BAK1 Does Not Play a Major Role in Brassinosteroid Signaling or Innate Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayata Singh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The plasma membrane-localized BRI1-ASSOCIATED KINASE1 (BAK1 functions as a co-receptor with several receptor kinases including the brassinosteroid (BR receptor BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE 1 (BRI1, which is involved in growth, and the receptors for bacterial flagellin and EF-Tu, FLAGELLIN-SENSING 2 (FLS2 and EF-TU RECEPTOR (EFR, respectively, which are involved in immunity. BAK1 is a dual specificity protein kinase that can autophosphorylate on serine, threonine and tyrosine residues. It was previously reported that phosphorylation of Tyr-610 in the carboxy-terminal domain of BAK1 is required for its function in BR signaling and immunity. However, the functional role of Tyr-610 in vivo has recently come under scrutiny. Therefore, we have generated new BAK1 (Y610F transgenic plants for functional studies. We first produced transgenic Arabidopsis lines expressing BAK1 (Y610F-Flag in the homozygous bak1-4 bkk1-1 double null background. In a complementary approach, we expressed untagged BAK1 and BAK1 (Y610F in the bak1-4 null mutant. Neither BAK1 (Y610F transgenic line had any obvious growth phenotype when compared to wild-type BAK1 expressed in the same background. In addition, the BAK1 (Y610F-Flag plants responded similarly to plants expressing BAK1-Flag in terms of brassinolide (BL inhibition of root elongation, and there were only minor changes in gene expression between the two transgenic lines as monitored by microarray analysis and quantitative real-time PCR. In terms of plant immunity, there were no significant differences between plants expressing BAK1 (Y610F-Flag and BAK1-Flag in the growth of the non-pathogenic hrpA- mutant of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Furthermore, untagged BAK1 (Y610F transgenic plants were as responsive as plants expressing BAK1 (in the bak1-4 background and wild-type Col-0 plants toward treatment with the EF-Tu- and flagellin-derived peptide epitopes elf18- and flg22, respectively, as measured by reactive

  11. Glucocorticoids Sensitize the Innate Immune System through Regulation of the NLRP3 Inflammasome*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busillo, John M.; Azzam, Kathleen M.; Cidlowski, John A.

    2011-01-01

    Glucocorticoids have long been recognized as powerful anti-inflammatory compounds that are one of the most widely prescribed classes of drugs in the world. However, their role in the regulation of innate immunity is not well understood. We sought to examine the effects of glucocorticoids on the NOD-like receptors (NLRs), a central component of the inflammasome and innate immunity. Surprisingly, we show that glucocorticoids induce both NLRP3 messenger RNA and protein, which is a critical component of the inflammasome. The glucocorticoid-dependent induction of NLRP3 sensitizes the cells to extracellular ATP and significantly enhances the ATP-mediated release of proinflammatory molecules, including mature IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6. This effect was specific for glucocorticoids and dependent on the glucocorticoid receptor. These studies demonstrate a novel role for glucocorticoids in sensitizing the initial inflammatory response by the innate immune system. PMID:21940629

  12. Glutamate mediates the function of melanocortin receptor 4 on sim1 neurons in body weight regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) is a well-established mediator of body weight homeostasis. However, the neurotransmitter(s) that mediate MC4R function remain largely unknown; as a result, little is known about the second-order neurons of the MC4R neural pathway. Single-minded 1 (Sim1)-expressing ...

  13. Cannabinoid Receptor Activation Modifies NMDA Receptor Mediated Release of Intracellular Calcium: Implications for Endocannabinoid Control of Hippocampal Neural Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Robert E.; Miller, Frances; Palchik, Guillermo; Deadwyler, Sam A.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic activation or inhibition of cannabinoid receptors (CB1) leads to continuous suppression of neuronal plasticity in hippocampus and other brain regions, suggesting that endocannabinoids may have a functional role in synaptic processes that produce state-dependent transient modulation of hippocampal cell activity. In support of this, it has previously been shown in vitro that cannabinoid CB1 receptors modulate second messenger systems in hippocampal neurons that can modulate intracellular ion channels, including channels which release calcium from intracellular stores. Here we demonstrate in hippocampal slices a similar endocannabinoid action on excitatory glutamatergic synapses via modulation of NMDA-receptor mediated intracellular calcium levels in confocal imaged neurons. Calcium entry through glutamatergic NMDA-mediated ion channels increases intracellular calcium concentrations via modulation of release from ryanodine-sensitive channels in endoplasmic reticulum. The studies reported here show that NMDA-elicited increases in Calcium Green fluorescence are enhanced by CB1 receptor antagonists (i.e. rimonabant), and inhibited by CB1 agonists (i.e. WIN 55,212-2). Suppression of endocannabinoid breakdown by either reuptake inhibition (AM404) or fatty-acid amide hydrolase inhibition (URB597) produced suppression of NMDA elicited calcium increases comparable to WIN 55,212-2, while enhancement of calcium release provoked by endocannabinoid receptor antagonists (Rimonabant) was shown to depend on the blockade of CB1 receptor mediated de-phosphorylation of Ryanodine receptors. Such CB1 receptor modulation of NMDA elicited increases in intracellular calcium may account for the respective disruption and enhancement by CB1 agents of trial-specific hippocampal neuron ensemble firing patterns during performance of a short-term memory task, reported previously from this laboratory. PMID:21288475

  14. Progesterone receptors (PR) mediate STAT actions: PR and prolactin receptor signaling crosstalk in breast cancer models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leehy, Katherine A; Truong, Thu H; Mauro, Laura J; Lange, Carol A

    2018-02-01

    Estrogen is the major mitogenic stimulus of mammary gland development during puberty wherein ER signaling acts to induce abundant PR expression. PR signaling, in contrast, is the primary driver of mammary epithelial cell proliferation in adulthood. The high circulating levels of progesterone during pregnancy signal through PR, inducing expression of the prolactin receptor (PRLR). Cooperation between PR and prolactin (PRL) signaling, via regulation of downstream components in the PRL signaling pathway including JAKs and STATs, facilitates the alveolar morphogenesis observed during pregnancy. Indeed, these pathways are fully integrated via activation of shared signaling pathways (i.e. JAKs, MAPKs) as well as by the convergence of PRs and STATs at target genes relevant to both mammary gland biology and breast cancer progression (i.e. proliferation, stem cell outgrowth, tissue cell type heterogeneity). Thus, rather than a single mediator such as ER, transcription factor cascades (ER>PR>STATs) are responsible for rapid proliferative and developmental programming in the normal mammary gland. It is not surprising that these same mediators typify uncontrolled proliferation in a majority of breast cancers, where ER and PR are most often co-expressed and may cooperate to drive malignant tumor progression. This review will primarily focus on the integration of PR and PRL signaling in breast cancer models and the importance of this cross-talk in cancer progression in the context of mammographic density. Components of these PR/PRL signaling pathways could offer alternative drug targets and logical complements to anti-ER or anti-estrogen-based endocrine therapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The impact of HLA class I-specific killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors on antibody-dependent natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity and organ allograft rejection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Rajalingam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells of the innate immune system are cytotoxic lymphocytes that play important roles following transplantation of solid organs and hematopoietic stem cells. Recognition of self HLA class I molecules by inhibitory killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR is involved in the calibration of NK cell effector capacities during a developmental stage, allowing the subsequent recognition and elimination of target cells with decreased expression of self HLA class I (due to virus infection or tumor transformation or HLA class I disparities (in the setting of allogeneic transplantation. NK cells expressing an inhibitory KIR binding self HLA can be activated when confronted with allografts lacking a ligand for the inhibitory receptor. Following the response of the adaptive immune system, NK cells can further destroy allograft endothelium by antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC, triggered through cross-linking of the CD16 Fc receptor by donor-specific antibodies bound to allograft. Upon recognizing allogeneic target cells, NK cells also secrete cytokines and chemokines that drive maturation of dendritic cells to promote cellular and humoral adaptive immune responses against the allograft. The cumulative activating and inhibitory signals generated by ligation of the receptors regulates mature NK cell killing of target cells and their production of cytokines and chemokines. This review summarizes the role of NK cells in allograft rejection and proposes mechanistic concepts that indicate a prominent role for KIR-HLA interactions in facilitating NK cells for Fc receptor-mediated ADCC effector function involved in antibody-mediated rejection of solid organ transplants.

  16. The p36 Isoform of Murine Cytomegalovirus m152 Protein Suffices for Mediating Innate and Adaptive Immune Evasion

    OpenAIRE

    Fink, Annette; Renzaho, Angeliqué; Reddehase, Matthias J.; Lemmermann, Niels A. W.

    2013-01-01

    The MHC-class I (MHC-I)-like viral (MHC-Iv) m152 gene product of murine cytomegalovirus (mCMV) was the first immune evasion molecule described for a member of the β-subfamily of herpesviruses as a paradigm for analogous functions of human cytomegalovirus proteins. Notably, by interacting with classical MHC-I molecules and with MHC-I-like RAE1 family ligands of the activatory natural killer (NK) cell receptor NKG2D, it inhibits presentation of antigenic peptides to CD8 T cells and the NKG2D-d...

  17. Receptor tyrosine phosphatase R-PTP-kappa mediates homophilic binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sap, J; Jiang, Y P; Friedlander, D

    1994-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine phosphatases (R-PTPases) feature PTPase domains in the context of a receptor-like transmembrane topology. The R-PTPase R-PTP-kappa displays an extracellular domain composed of fibronectin type III motifs, a single immunoglobulin domain, as well as a recently defined MAM domain (Y...

  18. Toll-Like Receptor-2 Mediates Diet and/or Pathogen Associated Atherosclerosis: Proteomic Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Madan, Monika; Amar, Salomon

    2008-01-01

    Accumulating evidence implicates a fundamental link between the immune system and atherosclerosis. Toll-like receptors are principal sensors of the innate immune system. Here we report an assessment of the role of the TLR2 pathway in atherosclerosis associated with a high-fat diet and/or bacteria in ApoE(+/-) mice.To explore the role of TLR2 in inflammation- and infection-associated atherosclerosis, 10 week-old ApoE(+/-)-TLR2(+/+), ApoE(+/-)-TLR2(+/-) and ApoE(+/-)-TLR2(-/-) mice were fed eit...

  19. Enavatuzumab, a Humanized Anti-TWEAK Receptor Monoclonal Antibody, Exerts Antitumor Activity through Attracting and Activating Innate Immune Effector Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiming Ye

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Enavatuzumab is a humanized IgG1 anti-TWEAK receptor monoclonal antibody that was evaluated in a phase I clinical study for the treatment of solid malignancies. The current study was to determine whether and how myeloid effector cells were involved in postulated mechanisms for its potent antitumor activity in xenograft models. The initial evidence for a role of effector cells was obtained in a subset of tumor xenograft mouse models whose response to enavatuzumab relied on the binding of Fc of the antibody to Fcγ receptor. The involvement of effector cells was further confirmed by immunohistochemistry, which revealed strong infiltration of CD45+ effector cells into tumor xenografts in responding models, but minimal infiltration in nonresponders. Consistent with the xenograft studies, human effector cells preferentially migrated toward in vivo-responsive tumor cells treated by enavatuzumab in vitro, with the majority of migratory cells being monocytes. Conditioned media from enavatuzumab-treated tumor cells contained elevated levels of chemokines, which might be responsible for enavatuzumab-triggered effector cell migration. These preclinical studies demonstrate that enavatuzumab can exert its potent antitumor activity by actively recruiting and activating myeloid effectors to kill tumor cells. Enavatuzumab-induced chemokines warrant further evaluation in clinical studies as potential biomarkers for such activity.

  20. Complement-mediated solubilization of immune complexes and their interaction with complement C3 receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ivan; Baatrup, Gunnar; Jepsen, H H

    1985-01-01

    Some of the molecular events in the complement (C)-mediated solubilization of immune complexes (IC) have been clarified in recent years. The solubilization is primarily mediated by alternative C pathway proteins whereas factors in the classical pathway accelerate the process. Components of the me......Some of the molecular events in the complement (C)-mediated solubilization of immune complexes (IC) have been clarified in recent years. The solubilization is primarily mediated by alternative C pathway proteins whereas factors in the classical pathway accelerate the process. Components...... of the cellular localization, expression and structure of the C3 receptors, especially the C3b (CR1) receptor, has been considerably extended in the last few years, whereas our understanding of the physiological role of these receptors is still fragmentary. However, it is becoming increasingly evident...

  1. Self-consuming innate immunity in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofius, Daniel; Mundy, John; Petersen, Morten

    2009-01-01

    . However, it has been unclear by which molecular mechanisms plants execute PCD during innate immune responses. We recently examined HR PCD in autophagy-deficient Arabidopsis knockout mutants (atg) and find that PCD conditioned by one class of plant innate immune receptors is suppressed in atg mutants...

  2. Resilience of the intestinal microbiota following pathogenic bacterial infection is independent of innate immunity mediated by NOD1 or NOD2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Susan J; Geddes, Kaoru; Maisonneuve, Charles; Streutker, Catherine J; Philpott, Dana J

    2016-01-01

    The innate immune receptors, NOD1 and NOD2, are key regulators of intestinal homeostasis. NOD2 deficiency is linked to increased risk for Crohn's disease, a type of inflammatory bowel disease characterized by chronic inflammatory pathology and dysbiosis within resident microbial communities. However, the relationship between NOD protein-regulated immune functions and dysbiosis remains unclear. We hypothesized that the relationship between NOD1 or NOD2 deficiency and altered community structure during chronic disease may arise via NOD-dependent impairment of community resilience over time. Using the Salmonella ΔaroA model of chronic colitis with littermate mice to control for environmental influences on the microbiota, we show that NOD proteins exert a relatively minor impact on the chronic inflammatory environment and do not significantly contribute to bacterial abundance or community resilience following infection. Rather, temporal shifts in relative abundance of targeted bacterial groups correlated with inflammatory phenotype driven by presence of the pathogen and the ensuing complex immune response. Copyright © 2016 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Interactions between the microbiota and innate and innate-like lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinides, Michael G

    2018-03-01

    The microbiota, which consists of commensal bacteria, fungi, and viruses, limits the colonization of pathogens at barrier tissues and promotes immune homeostasis. The latter is accomplished through the induction and regulation of both innate and adaptive immune responses. Innate lymphocytes, which include the type-1 innate lymphoid cell (ILC1), NK cell, type-2 innate lymphoid cell (ILC2), type-3 innate lymphoid cell (ILC3), and lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cell populations, and innate-like lymphocytes, such as NKT cells, mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells, and γδ T cells, are uniquely capable of responding to the microbiota due to their tissue localization and rapid primary responses. In turn, through their effector functions, these lymphocyte populations modulate the composition of the microbiota and maintain the segregation of commensals. This review will focus on how innate and innate-like lymphocytes mediate the crosstalk with the microbiome. ©2017 Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  4. Nicotine impairs cyclooxygenase-2-dependent kinin-receptor-mediated murine airway relaxations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yuan, E-mail: yuan.xu@ki.se; Cardell, Lars-Olaf

    2014-02-15

    Introduction: Cigarette smoke induces local inflammation and airway hyperreactivity. In asthmatics, it worsens the symptoms and increases the risk for exacerbation. The present study investigates the effects of nicotine on airway relaxations in isolated murine tracheal segments. Methods: Segments were cultured for 24 h in the presence of vehicle, nicotine (10 μM) and/or dexamethasone (1 μM). Airway relaxations were assessed in myographs after pre-contraction with carbachol (1 μM). Kinin receptors, cyclooxygenase (COX) and inflammatory mediator expressions were assessed by real-time PCR and confocal-microscopy-based immunohistochemistry. Results: The organ culture procedure markedly increased bradykinin- (selective B{sub 2} receptor agonist) and des-Arg{sup 9}-bradykinin- (selective B{sub 1} receptor agonist) induced relaxations, and slightly increased relaxation induced by isoprenaline, but not that induced by PGE{sub 2}. The kinin receptor mediated relaxations were epithelium-, COX-2- and EP2-receptor-dependent and accompanied by drastically enhanced mRNA levels of kinin receptors, as well as inflammatory mediators MCP-1 and iNOS. Increase in COX-2 and mPGES-1 was verified both at mRNA and protein levels. Nicotine selectively suppressed the organ-culture-enhanced relaxations induced by des-Arg{sup 9}-bradykinin and bradykinin, at the same time reducing mPGES-1 mRNA and protein expressions. α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor inhibitors α-bungarotoxin and MG624 both blocked the nicotine effects on kinin B{sub 2} receptors, but not those on B{sub 1}. Dexamethasone completely abolished kinin-induced relaxations. Conclusion: It is tempting to conclude that a local inflammatory process per se could have a bronchoprotective component by increasing COX-2 mediated airway relaxations and that nicotine could impede this safety mechanism. Dexamethasone further reduced airway inflammation together with relaxations. This might contribute to the steroid resistance seen in

  5. Nicotine impairs cyclooxygenase-2-dependent kinin-receptor-mediated murine airway relaxations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yuan; Cardell, Lars-Olaf

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Cigarette smoke induces local inflammation and airway hyperreactivity. In asthmatics, it worsens the symptoms and increases the risk for exacerbation. The present study investigates the effects of nicotine on airway relaxations in isolated murine tracheal segments. Methods: Segments were cultured for 24 h in the presence of vehicle, nicotine (10 μM) and/or dexamethasone (1 μM). Airway relaxations were assessed in myographs after pre-contraction with carbachol (1 μM). Kinin receptors, cyclooxygenase (COX) and inflammatory mediator expressions were assessed by real-time PCR and confocal-microscopy-based immunohistochemistry. Results: The organ culture procedure markedly increased bradykinin- (selective B 2 receptor agonist) and des-Arg 9 -bradykinin- (selective B 1 receptor agonist) induced relaxations, and slightly increased relaxation induced by isoprenaline, but not that induced by PGE 2 . The kinin receptor mediated relaxations were epithelium-, COX-2- and EP2-receptor-dependent and accompanied by drastically enhanced mRNA levels of kinin receptors, as well as inflammatory mediators MCP-1 and iNOS. Increase in COX-2 and mPGES-1 was verified both at mRNA and protein levels. Nicotine selectively suppressed the organ-culture-enhanced relaxations induced by des-Arg 9 -bradykinin and bradykinin, at the same time reducing mPGES-1 mRNA and protein expressions. α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor inhibitors α-bungarotoxin and MG624 both blocked the nicotine effects on kinin B 2 receptors, but not those on B 1 . Dexamethasone completely abolished kinin-induced relaxations. Conclusion: It is tempting to conclude that a local inflammatory process per se could have a bronchoprotective component by increasing COX-2 mediated airway relaxations and that nicotine could impede this safety mechanism. Dexamethasone further reduced airway inflammation together with relaxations. This might contribute to the steroid resistance seen in some patients with asthma

  6. The Role of Cgrp-Receptor Component Protein (Rcp in Cgrp-Mediated Signal Transduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Prado

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP-receptor component protein (RCP is a 17-kDa intracellular peripheral membrane protein required for signal transduction at CGRP receptors. To determine the role of RCP in CGRP-mediated signal transduction, RCP was depleted from NIH3T3 cells using antisense strategy. Loss of RCP protein correlated with loss of cAMP production by CGRP in the antisense cells. In contrast, loss of RCP had no effect on CGRP-mediated binding; therefore RCP is not acting as a chaperone for the CGRP receptor. Instead, RCP is a novel signal transduction molecule that couples the CGRP receptor to the cellular signal transduction machinery. RCP thus represents a prototype for a new class of signal transduction proteins that are required for regulation of G protein-coupled receptors.

  7. Cellular mechanisms of the 5-HT7 receptor-mediated signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria eGuseva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT is an important neurotransmitter regulating a wide range of physiological and pathological functions via activation of heterogeneously expressed 5-HT receptors. The 5-HT7 receptor is one of the most recently described members of the 5-HT receptor family. Functionally, 5-HT7 receptor is associated with a number of physiological and pathological responses, including serotonin-induced phase shifting of the circadian rhythm, control of memory as well as locomotor and exploratory activity. A large body of evidence indicates involvement of the 5-HT7 receptor in anxiety and depression, and recent studies suggest that 5-HT7 receptor can be highly relevant for the treatment of major depressive disorders. The 5-HT7 receptor is coupled to the stimulatory Gs-protein, and receptor stimulation results in activation of adenylyl cyclase (AC leading to a rise of cAMP concentration. In addition, this receptor is coupled to the G12-protein to activate small GTPases of the Rho family. This review focuses on molecular mechanisms responsible for the 5-HT7 receptor-mediated signaling. We provide detailed overview of signaling cascades controlled and regulated by the 5-HT7 receptor and discuss the functional impact of 5-HT7 receptor for the regulation of different cellular and subcellular processes.

  8. Microbial Metalloproteinases Mediate Sensing of Invading Pathogens and Activate Innate Immune Responses in the Lepidopteran Model Host Galleria mellonella▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altincicek, Boran; Linder, Monica; Linder, Dietmar; Preissner, Klaus T.; Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Thermolysin-like metalloproteinases such as aureolysin, pseudolysin, and bacillolysin represent virulence factors of diverse bacterial pathogens. Recently, we discovered that injection of thermolysin into larvae of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella, mediated strong immune responses. Thermolysin-mediated proteolysis of hemolymph proteins yielded a variety of small-sized (thermolysin, as described for bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS), that results in subsequent prophenoloxidase activation leading to melanization, an elementary immune defense reaction of insects. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR analyses of the expression of immune-related genes encoding the inducible metalloproteinase inhibitor, gallerimycin, and lysozyme demonstrated increased transcriptional rates after challenge with purified protfrags similar to rates after challenge with LPS. Additionally, we determined the induction of a similar spectrum of immune-responsive proteins that were secreted into the hemolymph by using comparative proteomic analyses of hemolymph proteins from untreated larvae and from larvae that were challenged with either protfrags or LPS. Since G. mellonella was recently established as a valuable pathogenicity model for Cryptococcus neoformans infection, the present results add to our understanding of the mechanisms of immune responses in G. mellonella. The obtained results support the proposed danger model, which suggests that the immune system senses endogenous alarm signals during infection besides recognition of microbial pattern molecules. PMID:17074843

  9. More than complementing Tolls: Complement–Toll-like receptor synergy and crosstalk in innate immunity and inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajishengallis, George; Lambris, John D.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Complement and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play key roles in the host immune response and are swiftly activated by infection or other types of immunological stress. This review focuses on the capacity of complement and TLRs to engage in signaling crosstalk, ostensibly to coordinate immune and inflammatory responses through synergistic or antagonistic (regulatory) interactions. However, over-activation or dysregulation of either system may lead – often synergistically – to exaggerated inflammation and host tissue injury. Intriguingly, moreover, certain pathogens can manipulate complement-TLR crosstalk pathways in ways that undermine host immunity and favor their persistence. In the setting of polymicrobial inflammatory disease, subversion of complement-TLR crosstalk by keystone pathogens can promote dysbiosis. Knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying complement-TLR crosstalk pathways can, therefore, be used productively for tailored therapeutic approaches, such as, to enhance host immunity, mitigate destructive inflammation, or counteract microbial subversion of the host response. PMID:27782328

  10. Low molecular weight hyaluronan mediated CD44 dependent induction of IL-6 and chemokines in human dermal fibroblasts potentiates innate immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vistejnova, Lucie; Safrankova, Barbora; Nesporova, Kristina; Slavkovsky, Rastislav; Hermannova, Martina; Hosek, Petr; Velebny, Vladimir; Kubala, Lukas

    2014-12-01

    Complex regulation of the wound healing process involves multiple interactions among stromal tissue cells, inflammatory cells, and the extracellular matrix. Low molecular weight hyaluronan (LMW HA) derived from the degradation of high molecular weight hyaluronan (HMW HA) is suggested to activate cells involved in wound healing through interaction with HA receptors. In particular, receptor CD44 is suggested to mediate cell response to HA of different MW, being the main cell surface HA receptor in stromal tissue and immune cells. However, the response of dermal fibroblasts, the key players in granulation tissue formation within the wound healing process, to LMW HA and their importance for the activation of immune cells is unclear. In this study we show that LMW HA (4.3kDa) induced pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 and chemokines IL-8, CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL6 and CCL8 gene expression in normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF) that was further confirmed by increased levels of IL-6 and IL-8 in cell culture supernatants. Conversely, NHDF treated by HMW HA revealed a tendency to decrease the gene expression of these cytokine and chemokines when compared to untreated control. The blockage of CD44 expression by siRNA resulted in the attenuation of IL-6 and chemokines expression in LMW HA treated NHDF suggesting the involvement of CD44 in LMW HA mediated NHDF activation. The importance of pro-inflammatory mediators produced by LMW HA triggered NHDF was evaluated by significant activation of blood leukocytes exhibited as increased production of IL-6 and TNF-α. Conclusively, we demonstrated a pro-inflammatory response of dermal fibroblasts to LMW HA that was transferred to leukocytes indicating the significance of LMW HA in the inflammatory process development during the wound healing process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. MHCII-Mediated Dialog between Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells and CD4+ T Cells Potentiates Type 2 Immunity and Promotes Parasitic Helminth Expulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliphant, Christopher J.; Hwang, You Yi; Walker, Jennifer A.; Salimi, Maryam; Wong, See Heng; Brewer, James M.; Englezakis, Alexandros; Barlow, Jillian L.; Hams, Emily; Scanlon, Seth T.; Ogg, Graham S.; Fallon, Padraic G.; McKenzie, Andrew N.J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) release interleukin-13 (IL-13) during protective immunity to helminth infection and detrimentally during allergy and asthma. Using two mouse models to deplete ILC2s in vivo, we demonstrate that T helper 2 (Th2) cell responses are impaired in the absence of ILC2s. We show that MHCII-expressing ILC2s interact with antigen-specific T cells to instigate a dialog in which IL-2 production from T cells promotes ILC2 proliferation and IL-13 production. Deletion of MHCII renders IL-13-expressing ILC2s incapable of efficiently inducing Nippostrongylus brasiliensis expulsion. Thus, during transition to adaptive T cell-mediated immunity, the ILC2 and T cell crosstalk contributes to their mutual maintenance, expansion and cytokine production. This interaction appears to augment dendritic-cell-induced T cell activation and identifies a previously unappreciated pathway in the regulation of type-2 immunity. PMID:25088770

  12. Innate Immune Molecule Surfactant Protein D Attenuates Sepsis-induced Acute Pancreatic Injury through Modulating Apoptosis and NF-κB-mediated Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiyong; Shi, Qiao; Liu, Jiao; Abdel-Razek, Osama; Xu, Yongan; Cooney, Robert N; Wang, Guirong

    2015-12-04

    Sepsis causes multiple-organ dysfunction including pancreatic injury, thus resulting in high mortality. Innate immune molecule surfactant protein D (SP-D) plays a critical role in host defense and regulating inflammation of infectious diseases. In this study we investigated SP-D functions in the acute pancreatic injury (API) with C57BL/6 Wild-type (WT) and SP-D knockout (KO) mice in cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model. Our results confirm SP-D expression in pancreatic islets and intercalated ducts and are the first to explore the role of pancreatic SP-D in sepsis. CLP decreased pancreatic SP-D levels and caused severe pancreatic injury with higher serum amylase 24 h after CLP. Apoptosis and neutrophil infiltration were increased in the pancreas of septic KO mice (p < 0.05, vs septic WT mice), with lower Bcl-2 and higher caspase-3 levels in septic KO mice (p < 0.05). Molecular analysis revealed increased NF-κB-p65 and phosphorylated IκB-α levels along with higher serum levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in septic KO mice compared to septic WT mice (p < 0.01). Furthermore, in vitro islet cultures stimulated with LPS produced higher TNF-α and IL-6 (p < 0.05) from KO mice compared to WT mice. Collectively, these results demonstrate SP-D plays protective roles by inhibiting apoptosis and modulating NF-κB-mediated inflammation in CLP-induced API.

  13. Hypothyroidism Affects D2 Receptor-mediated Breathing without altering D2 Receptor Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Schlenker, Evelyn H.; Rio, Rodrigo Del; Schultz, Harold D.

    2014-01-01

    Bromocriptine depressed ventilation in air and D2 receptor expression in the nucleus tractus solitaries (NTS) in male hypothyroid hamsters. Here we postulated that in age- matched hypothyroid female hamsters, the pattern of D2 receptor modulation of breathing and D2 receptor expression would differ from those reported in hypothyroid males. In females hypothyroidism did not affect D2 receptor protein levels in the NTS, carotid bodies or striatum. Bromocriptine, but not carmoxirole (a periphera...

  14. G Protein-Coupled Receptors: Extranuclear Mediators for the Non-Genomic Actions of Steroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Steroids hormones possess two distinct actions, a delayed genomic effect and a rapid non-genomic effect. Rapid steroid-triggered signaling is mediated by specific receptors localized most often to the plasma membrane. The nature of these receptors is of great interest and accumulated data suggest that G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs are appealing candidates. Increasing evidence regarding the interaction between steroids and specific membrane proteins, as well as the involvement of G protein and corresponding downstream signaling, have led to identification of physiologically relevant GPCRs as steroid extranuclear receptors. Examples include G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30 for estrogen, membrane progestin receptor for progesterone, G protein-coupled receptor family C group 6 member A (GPRC6A and zinc transporter member 9 (ZIP9 for androgen, and trace amine associated receptor 1 (TAAR1 for thyroid hormone. These receptor-mediated biological effects have been extended to reproductive development, cardiovascular function, neuroendocrinology and cancer pathophysiology. However, although great progress have been achieved, there are still important questions that need to be answered, including the identities of GPCRs responsible for the remaining steroids (e.g., glucocorticoid, the structural basis of steroids and GPCRs’ interaction and the integration of extranuclear and nuclear signaling to the final physiological function. Here, we reviewed the several significant developments in this field and highlighted a hypothesis that attempts to explain the general interaction between steroids and GPCRs.

  15. NPY/Y₁ receptor-mediated vasoconstrictory and proliferative effects in pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crnkovic, S; Egemnazarov, B; Jain, P; Seay, U; Gattinger, N; Marsh, L M; Bálint, Z; Kovacs, G; Ghanim, B; Klepetko, W; Schermuly, R T; Weissmann, N; Olschewski, A; Kwapiszewska, G

    2014-08-01

    Pulmonary arteries (PAs) are innervated, but little is known about the role of neuronal axis in pulmonary hypertension (PH). Here, we have examined the role of the neuropeptide Y (NPY) and its Y₁ receptor in PH pathogenesis. NPY was localized by immunofluorescence. Expression of NPY and Y₁ receptor were determined by quantitative PCR. Cellular response to NPY stimulation was assessed by Western blotting, thymidine incorporation and calcium imaging. Wire myography and isolated perfused mouse lung were applied to study pulmonary vasoactive effects of NPY. Selective receptor antagonists were used to assess the contribution of receptor subtypes in mediating NPY effects. Samples from PH patients showed increased NPYergic innervation within the PA wall and higher Y₁ receptor expression, compared with donors. However, NPY levels were unchanged in both PA and serum. In the chronic hypoxic mouse model, Y₁ receptor were up-regulated, while expression of both NPY and Y₁ receptor was increased in the lungs of monocrotaline and SU5416-hypoxia rats. On a functional level, NPY acutely increased intracellular calcium levels and enhanced vasoconstriction of lung vessels preconstricted with adrenaline. Furthermore, NPY stimulated proliferation of human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells and activated p38 and PKD pathways. Correspondingly, higher phosphorylation of PKD was observed in remodelled vessels from PH patients. The selective Y₁ receptor antagonist, BIBO 3304, concentration-dependently inhibited vasoconstrictive and proliferative effects of NPY. NPY and Y₁ receptor are possible mediators of both vasoconstriction and pulmonary vascular remodelling in PH. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  16. MAP kinase cascades in Arabidopsis innate immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Magnus Wohlfahrt; Roux, Milena Edna; Petersen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Plant mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades generally transduce extracellular stimuli into cellular responses. These stimuli include the perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by host transmembrane pattern recognition receptors which trigger MAPK-dependent innate ...

  17. Histamine induces human lung fibroblast-mediated collagen gel contraction via histamine H1 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, Masafumi; Saito, Akira; Yamauchi, Yasuhiro; Mikami, Yu; Sakamoto, Makiko; Jo, Taisuke; Nakajima, Jun; Takizawa, Hajime; Nagase, Takahide; Kohyama, Tadashi

    2014-06-01

    Airway remodeling is implicated in irreversible airflow limitation of refractory asthma, which includes increased smooth muscle mass and subepithelial fibrosis. Activated fibroblasts acquire contractile phenotype to participate in tissue contraction and structural alteration of extracellular matrices. Histamine is a potent mediator of allergic inflammation, substantially involved in asthmatic pathophysiology. We hypothesized that histamine might play a role in airway remodeling, and investigated its effect on fibroblast-mediated collagen gel contraction. Fibroblast-mediated collagen gel contraction was studied. Histamine's regulation of collagen gel contraction was characterized by using specific histamine-receptor antagonists, an IP3 receptor antagonist and a PKC inhibitor. Histamine induced contraction of collagen gels embedded with human lung fibroblasts, in a time-dependent manner, and at the concentration more than 10(-6) M, both in four primary cultured adult lung fibroblasts and three fetal lung fibroblast cell lines. This effect was attenuated by H1 receptor antagonist, whereas those for H2 to H4 receptors failed to show an inhibitory effect. Furthermore, IP3 receptor-mediated Ca(2+) mobilization was implicated in histamine's action on collagen gel contraction. Our results suggest that histamine is involved in airway remodeling through its action on lung fibroblasts, and antihistamine drugs, especially H1 receptor antagonists, might be potentially beneficial for a subset of asthmatic patients.

  18. G-protein mediates voltage regulation of agonist binding to muscarinic receptors: effects on receptor-Na/sup +/ channel interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen-Armon, M.; Garty, H.; Sokolovsky, M.

    1988-01-12

    The authors previous experiments in membranes prepared from rat heart and brain led them to suggest that the binding of agonist to the muscarinic receptors and to the Na/sup +/ channels is a coupled event mediated by guanine nucleotide binding protein(s) (G-protein(s)). These in vitro findings prompted us to employ synaptoneurosomes from brain stem tissue to examine (i) the binding properties of (/sup 3/H) acetylcholine at resting potential and under depolarization conditions in the absence and presence of pertussis toxin; (ii) the binding of (/sup 3/H)batrachotoxin to Na/sup +/ channel(s) in the presence of the muscarinic agonists; and (iii) muscarinically induced /sup 22/Na/sup +/ uptake in the presence and absence of tetrodotoxin, which blocks Na/sup +/ channels. The findings indicate that agonist binding to muscarinic receptors is voltage dependent, that this process is mediated by G-protein(s), and that muscarinic agonists induce opening of Na/sup +/channels. The latter process persists even after pertussis toxin treatment, indicating that it is not likely to be mediated by pertussis toxin sensitive G-protein(s). The system with its three interacting components-receptor, G-protein, and Na/sup +/ channel-is such that at resting potential the muscarinic receptor induces opening of Na/sup +/ channels; this property may provide a possible physiological mechanism for the depolarization stimulus necessary for autoexcitation or repetitive firing in heart or brain tissues.

  19. G-protein mediates voltage regulation of agonist binding to muscarinic receptors: effects on receptor-Na+ channel interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen-Armon, M.; Garty, H.; Sokolovsky, M.

    1988-01-01

    The authors previous experiments in membranes prepared from rat heart and brain led them to suggest that the binding of agonist to the muscarinic receptors and to the Na + channels is a coupled event mediated by guanine nucleotide binding protein(s) [G-protein(s)]. These in vitro findings prompted us to employ synaptoneurosomes from brain stem tissue to examine (i) the binding properties of [ 3 H] acetylcholine at resting potential and under depolarization conditions in the absence and presence of pertussis toxin; (ii) the binding of [ 3 H]batrachotoxin to Na + channel(s) in the presence of the muscarinic agonists; and (iii) muscarinically induced 22 Na + uptake in the presence and absence of tetrodotoxin, which blocks Na + channels. The findings indicate that agonist binding to muscarinic receptors is voltage dependent, that this process is mediated by G-protein(s), and that muscarinic agonists induce opening of Na + channels. The latter process persists even after pertussis toxin treatment, indicating that it is not likely to be mediated by pertussis toxin sensitive G-protein(s). The system with its three interacting components-receptor, G-protein, and Na + channel-is such that at resting potential the muscarinic receptor induces opening of Na + channels; this property may provide a possible physiological mechanism for the depolarization stimulus necessary for autoexcitation or repetitive firing in heart or brain tissues

  20. More than complementing Tolls: complement-Toll-like receptor synergy and crosstalk in innate immunity and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajishengallis, George; Lambris, John D

    2016-11-01

    Complement and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play key roles in the host immune response and are swiftly activated by infection or other types of immunological stress. This review focuses on the capacity of complement and TLRs to engage in signaling crosstalk, ostensibly to coordinate immune and inflammatory responses through synergistic or antagonistic (regulatory) interactions. However, overactivation or dysregulation of either system may lead-often synergistically-to exaggerated inflammation and host tissue injury. Intriguingly, moreover, certain pathogens can manipulate complement-TLR crosstalk pathways in ways that undermine host immunity and favor their persistence. In the setting of polymicrobial inflammatory disease, subversion of complement-TLR crosstalk by keystone pathogens can promote dysbiosis. Knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying complement-TLR crosstalk pathways can, therefore, be used productively for tailored therapeutic approaches, such as, to enhance host immunity, mitigate destructive inflammation, or counteract microbial subversion of the host response. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Innate immunity in the nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramaglia, V.; Baas, F.

    2009-01-01

    The complement (C) system plays a central role in innate immunity and bridges innate and adaptive immune responses. A fine balance of C activation and regulation mediates the elimination of invading pathogens and the protection of the host from excessive C deposition on healthy tissues. If this

  2. An intracellular traffic jam: Fc receptor-mediated transport of immunoglobulin G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesar, Devin B; Björkman, Pamela J

    2010-04-01

    Recent advances in imaging techniques along with more powerful in vitro and in vivo models of receptor-mediated ligand transport are facilitating advances in our understanding of how cells efficiently direct receptors and their cargo to target destinations within the cytoplasm and at the plasma membrane. Specifically, light and 3D electron microscopy studies examining the trafficking behavior of the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn), a transport receptor for immunoglobulin G (IgG), have given us new insights into the dynamic interplay between the structural components of the cytosolic trafficking machinery, its protein regulators, and the receptors it directs to various locations within the cell. These studies build upon previous biochemical characterizations of FcRn transport and are allowing us to begin formulation of a more complete model for the intracellular trafficking of receptor-ligand complexes.

  3. Investigating the Regulation of Estrogen Receptor-Mediated Transcription

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thackray, Varykina

    2002-01-01

    ...-mediated regulation of specific target genes are still lacking. We have developed an estrogen responsive system in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster in order to explore the functional interactions between ER and other cellular proteins...

  4. Investigating the Regulation of Estrogen Receptor-Mediated Transcription

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thackray, Varykina

    2001-01-01

    ...-mediated regulation of specific target genes are still lacking. We have developed an estrogen responsive system in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster in order to explore the functional interactions between ER and other cellular proteins...

  5. Nuclear receptor mediated mechanisms of macrophage cholesterol metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Zsuzsanna S; Czimmerer, Zsolt; Nagy, Laszlo

    2013-04-10

    Macrophages comprise a family of multi-faceted phagocytic effector cells that differentiate "in situ" from circulating monocytes to exert various functions including clearance of foreign pathogens as well as debris derived from host cells. Macrophages also possess the ability to engulf and metabolize lipids and this way connect lipid metabolism and inflammation. The molecular link between these processes is provided by certain members of the nuclear receptor family. For instance, peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPAR) and liver X receptors (LXR) are able to sense the dynamically changing lipid environment and translate it to gene expression changes in order to modulate the cellular phenotype. Atherosclerosis embodies both sides of this coin: it is a disease in which macrophages with altered cholesterol metabolism keep the arteries in a chronically inflamed state. A large body of publications has accumulated during the past few decades describing the role of nuclear receptors in the regulation of macrophage cholesterol homeostasis, their contribution to the formation of atherosclerotic plaques and their crosstalk with inflammatory pathways. This review will summarize the most recent findings from this field narrowly focusing on the contribution of various nuclear receptors to macrophage cholesterol metabolism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Innate immune interferon responses to human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Rose; Towers, Greg; Noursadeghi, Mahdad

    2012-07-01

    Type I interferon (IFN) responses represent the canonical host innate immune response to viruses, which serves to upregulate expression of antiviral restriction factors and augment adaptive immune defences. There is clear evidence for type I IFN activity in both acute and chronic HIV-1 infection in vivo, and plasmacytoid dendritic cells have been identified as one important source for these responses, through innate immune detection of viral RNA by Toll-like receptor 7. In addition, new insights into the molecular mechanisms that trigger induction of type I IFNs suggest innate immune receptors for viral DNA may also mediate these responses. It is widely recognised that HIV-1 restriction factors share the characteristic of IFN-inducible expression, and that the virus has evolved to counteract these antiviral mechanisms. However, in some target cells, such as macrophages, IFN can still effectively restrict virus. In this context, HIV-1 shows the ability to evade innate immune recognition and thereby avoid induction of type I IFN in order to successfully establish productive infection. The relative importance of evasion of innate immune detection and evasion of IFN-inducible restriction in the natural history of HIV-1 infection is not known, and the data suggest that type I IFN responses may play a role in both viral control and in the immunopathogenesis of progressive disease. Further study of the relationship between HIV-1 infection and type I IFN responses is required to unravel these issues and inform the development of novel therapeutics or vaccine strategies. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Recall features and allorecognition in innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Hirofumi; Minami, Koichiro; Quante, Markus; Nian, Yeqi; Heinbokel, Timm; Azuma, Haruhito; Khal, Abdala El; Tullius, Stefan G

    2018-01-01

    Alloimmunity traditionally distinguishes short-lived, rapid and nonspecific innate immune responses from adaptive immune responses that are characterized by a highly specific response initiated in a delayed fashion. Key players of innate immunity such as natural killer (NK) cells and macrophages present the first-line defence of immunity. The concept of unspecific responses in innate immunity has recently been challenged. The discovery of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) has demonstrated that innate immune cells respond in a semi-specific fashion through the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) representing conserved molecular structures shared by large groups of microorganisms. Although immunological memory has generally been considered as exclusive to adaptive immunity, recent studies have demonstrated that innate immune cells have the potential to acquire memory. Here, we discuss allospecific features of innate immunity and their relevance in transplantation. © 2017 Steunstichting ESOT.

  8. Regulated internalization of NMDA receptors drives PKD1-mediated suppression of the activity of residual cell-surface NMDA receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiao-Qian; Qiao, Haifa; Groveman, Bradley R; Feng, Shuang; Pflueger, Melissa; Xin, Wen-Kuan; Ali, Mohammad K; Lin, Shuang-Xiu; Xu, Jindong; Duclot, Florian; Kabbaj, Mohamed; Wang, Wei; Ding, Xin-Sheng; Santiago-Sim, Teresa; Jiang, Xing-Hong; Salter, Michael W; Yu, Xian-Min

    2015-11-19

    Constitutive and regulated internalization of cell surface proteins has been extensively investigated. The regulated internalization has been characterized as a principal mechanism for removing cell-surface receptors from the plasma membrane, and signaling to downstream targets of receptors. However, so far it is still not known whether the functional properties of remaining (non-internalized) receptor/channels may be regulated by internalization of the same class of receptor/channels. The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is a principal subtype of glutamate-gated ion channel and plays key roles in neuronal plasticity and memory functions. NMDARs are well-known to undergo two types of regulated internalization - homologous and heterologous, which can be induced by high NMDA/glycine and DHPG, respectively. In the present work, we investigated effects of regulated NMDAR internalization on the activity of residual cell-surface NMDARs and neuronal functions. In electrophysiological experiments we discovered that the regulated internalization of NMDARs not only reduced the number of cell surface NMDARs but also caused an inhibition of the activity of remaining (non-internalized) surface NMDARs. In biochemical experiments we identified that this functional inhibition of remaining surface NMDARs was mediated by increased serine phosphorylation of surface NMDARs, resulting from the activation of protein kinase D1 (PKD1). Knockdown of PKD1 did not affect NMDAR internalization but prevented the phosphorylation and inhibition of remaining surface NMDARs and NMDAR-mediated synaptic functions. These data demonstrate a novel concept that regulated internalization of cell surface NMDARs not only reduces the number of NMDARs on the cell surface but also causes an inhibition of the activity of remaining surface NMDARs through intracellular signaling pathway(s). Furthermore, modulating the activity of remaining surface receptors may be an effective approach for treating receptor

  9. Testin, a novel binding partner of the calcium-sensing receptor, enhances receptor-mediated Rho-kinase signalling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magno, Aaron L.; Ingley, Evan; Brown, Suzanne J.; Conigrave, Arthur D.; Ratajczak, Thomas; Ward, Bryan K.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A yeast two-hybrid screen revealed testin bound to the calcium-sensing receptor. → The second zinc finger of LIM domain 1 of testin is critical for interaction. → Testin bound to a region of the receptor tail important for cell signalling. → Testin and receptor interaction was confirmed in mammalian (HEK293) cells. → Overexpression of testin enhanced receptor-mediated Rho signalling in HEK293 cells. -- Abstract: The calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) plays an integral role in calcium homeostasis and the regulation of other cellular functions including cell proliferation and cytoskeletal organisation. The multifunctional nature of the CaR is manifested through ligand-dependent stimulation of different signalling pathways that are also regulated by partner binding proteins. Following a yeast two-hybrid library screen using the intracellular tail of the CaR as bait, we identified several novel binding partners including the focal adhesion protein, testin. Testin has not previously been shown to interact with cell surface receptors. The sites of interaction between the CaR and testin were mapped to the membrane proximal region of the receptor tail and the second zinc-finger of LIM domain 1 of testin, the integrity of which was found to be critical for the CaR-testin interaction. The CaR-testin association was confirmed in HEK293 cells by coimmunoprecipitation and confocal microscopy studies. Ectopic expression of testin in HEK293 cells stably expressing the CaR enhanced CaR-stimulated Rho activity but had no effect on CaR-stimulated ERK signalling. These results suggest an interplay between the CaR and testin in the regulation of CaR-mediated Rho signalling with possible effects on the cytoskeleton.

  10. Osteopontin Bridging Innate and Adaptive Immunity in Autoimmune Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raineri, Davide; Boggio, Elena; Favero, Francesco; Soluri, Maria Felicia

    2016-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) regulates the immune response at multiple levels. Physiologically, it regulates the host response to infections by driving T helper (Th) polarization and acting on both innate and adaptive immunity; pathologically, it contributes to the development of immune-mediated and inflammatory diseases. In some cases, the mechanisms of these effects have been described, but many aspects of the OPN function remain elusive. This is in part ascribable to the fact that OPN is a complex molecule with several posttranslational modifications and it may act as either an immobilized protein of the extracellular matrix or a soluble cytokine or an intracytoplasmic molecule by binding to a wide variety of molecules including crystals of calcium phosphate, several cell surface receptors, and intracytoplasmic molecules. This review describes the OPN structure, isoforms, and functions and its role in regulating the crosstalk between innate and adaptive immunity in autoimmune diseases. PMID:28097158

  11. Innate immune evasion strategies of DNA and RNA viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beachboard, Dia C; Horner, Stacy M

    2016-08-01

    Upon infection, both DNA and RNA viruses can be sensed by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in the cytoplasm or the nucleus to activate antiviral innate immunity. Sensing of viral products leads to the activation of a signaling cascade that ultimately results in transcriptional activation of type I and III interferons, as well as other antiviral genes that together mediate viral clearance and inhibit viral spread. Therefore, in order for viruses to replicate and spread efficiently, they must inhibit the host signaling pathways that induce the innate antiviral immune response. In this review, we will highlight recent advances in the understanding of the mechanisms by which viruses evade PRR detection, intermediate signaling molecule activation, transcription factor activation, and the actions of antiviral proteins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. MAP Kinase Cascades in Plant Innate Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Wohlfahrt Rasmussen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Plant mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK cascades generally transduce extracellular stimuli into cellular responses. These stimuli include the perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs by host transmembrane pattern recognition receptors (PRRs which trigger MAPK-dependent innate immune responses. In the model Arabidopsis, molecular genetic evidence implicates a number of MAPK cascade components in PAMP signaling, and in responses to immunity-related phytohormones such as ethylene, jasmonate and salicylate. In a few cases, cascade components have been directly linked to the transcription of target genes or to the regulation of phytohormone synthesis. Thus MAPKs are obvious targets for bacterial effector proteins and are likely guardees of resistance (R proteins, which mediate defense signaling in response to the action of effectors, or effector-triggered immunity (ETI. This mini-review discusses recent progress in this field with a focus on the Arabidopsis MAPKs MPK3, 4, 6 and 11 in their apparent pathways.

  13. Dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton mediates receptor cross talk: An emerging concept in tuning receptor signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Pieta K.; Batista, Facundo D.

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence implicates the actin cytoskeleton in the control of receptor signaling. This may be of particular importance in the context of immune receptors, such as the B cell receptor, where dysregulated signaling can result in autoimmunity and malignancy. Here, we discuss the role of the actin cytoskeleton in controlling receptor compartmentalization, dynamics, and clustering as a means to regulate receptor signaling through controlling the interactions with protein partners. We propose that the actin cytoskeleton is a point of integration for receptor cross talk through modulation of protein dynamics and clustering. We discuss the implication of this cross talk via the cytoskeleton for both ligand-induced and low-level constitutive (tonic) signaling necessary for immune cell survival. PMID:26833785

  14. Innate immune cell response upon Candida albicans infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yulin; Zhang, Lulu; Xu, Zheng; Zhang, Jinyu; Jiang, Yuan-ying; Cao, Yongbing; Yan, Tianhua

    2016-01-01

    abstract Candida albicans is a polymorphic fungus which is the predominant cause of superficial and deep tissue fungal infections. This microorganism has developed efficient strategies to invade the host and evade host defense systems. However, the host immune system will be prepared for defense against the microbe by recognition of receptors, activation of signal transduction pathways and cooperation of immune cells. As a consequence, C. albicans could either be eliminated by immune cells rapidly or disseminate hematogenously, leading to life-threatening systemic infections. The interplay between Candida albicans and the host is complex, requiring recognition of the invaded pathogens, activation of intricate pathways and collaboration of various immune cells. In this review, we will focus on the effects of innate immunity that emphasize the first line protection of host defense against invaded C. albicans including the basis of receptor-mediated recognition and the mechanisms of cell-mediated immunity. PMID:27078171

  15. Fas receptor-mediated apoptosis : a clinical application?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, T; de Vries, EGE; de Jong, S

    Fas is a membrane protein belonging to the death receptor family. Cross-linking of Fas by its ligand, FasL, or agonistic anti-Fas antibodies, induces apoptosis of cells expressing Fas on the membrane by triggering a cascade of caspases. Since many different tumours express Fas on their membrane,

  16. Experimental Cannabinoid 2 Receptor-Mediated Immune Modulation in Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sardinha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is a complex condition that results from a dysregulated immune system in response to a systemic infection. Current treatments lack effectiveness in reducing the incidence and mortality associated with this disease. The endocannabinoid system offers great promise in managing sepsis pathogenesis due to its unique characteristics. The present study explored the effect of modulating the CB2 receptor pathway in an acute sepsis mouse model. Endotoxemia was induced by intravenous injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS in mice and intestinal microcirculation was assessed through intravital microscopy. We found that HU308 (CB2 receptor agonist reduced the number of adherent leukocytes in submucosal venules but did not restore muscular and mucosal villi FCD in endotoxemic mice. AM630 (CB2 receptor antagonist maintained the level of adherent leukocytes induced by LPS but further reduced muscular and mucosal villi FCD. URB597 (FAAH inhibitor and JZL184 (MAGL inhibitor both reduced the number of adherent leukocytes in submucosal venules but did not restore the mucosal villi FCD. Using various compounds we have shown different mechanisms of activating CB2 receptors to reduce leukocyte endothelial interactions in order to prevent further inflammatory damage during sepsis.

  17. Androgen Receptor-Mediated Escape Mechanism from Androgen Ablation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-31

    except that no salmon sperm DNA was used as blocking reagent. The immunoprecipitated DNA and un- enriched input DNA were treated with RNase A and purified...A, Wang Y, Suzuki K, Mirosevich J, et al. (2005) Foxa1 and Foxa2 interact with the androgen receptor to regulate prostate and epididymal genes

  18. Receptor-mediated uptake of Legionella pneumophila by Acanthamoeba castellanii and Naegleria lovaniensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declerck, P; Behets, J; De Keersmaecker, B; Ollevier, F

    2007-12-01

    Investigation of the attachment and uptake of Legionella pneumophila by Acanthamoeba castellanii and Naegleria lovaniensis, as these are two critical steps in the subsequent bacterial survival in both amoeba hosts. Initially, the mode of Legionella uptake was examined using inhibitors of microfilament-dependent and receptor-mediated uptake phagocytosis. Secondly, the minimum saccharide structure to interfere with L. pneumophila uptake was determined by means of selected saccharides. Bacterial attachment and uptake by each of the amoeba species occurred through a receptor-mediated endocytosis, which required de novo synthesis of host proteins. Legionella pneumophila showed a high affinity to the alpha1-3D-mannobiose domain of the mannose-binding receptor located on A. castellanii. In contrast, L. pneumophila bacteria had a high affinity for the GalNAcbeta1-4Gal domain of the N-acetyl-D-galactosamine receptor of N. lovaniensis. Our data pointed to a remarkable adaptation of L. pneumophila to invade different amoeba hosts, as the uptake by both amoeba species is mediated by two different receptor families. The fact that L. pneumophila is taken up by two different amoeba species using different receptor families adds further complexity to the host-parasite interaction process, as 14 amoeba species are known to be appropriate Legionella hosts.

  19. Innate immunity in the pathogenesis of psoriasis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sweeney, Cheryl M

    2011-12-01

    Psoriasis is a common, immune-mediated inflammatory skin disorder. T helper(h)1 and Th17 lymphocytes contribute to the pathogenesis of psoriasis through the release of inflammatory cytokines that promote further recruitment of immune cells, keratinocyte proliferation and sustained inflammation. The innate immune system is the first line of defence against infection and plays a crucial role in the initiation of the adaptive immune response. The presence of innate immune cells and their products in psoriatic skin plaques suggests a role for innate immunity in this disease. In addition, the innate immune system can direct the development of pathogenic Th cells in psoriasis. In this article, we will summarise the role of the innate immune system in psoriasis with particular emphasis on the role of cytokines, signalling pathways and cells of the innate immune system.

  20. AT2 receptors mediate tonic renal medullary vasoconstriction in renovascular hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Duke, Lisa M; Widdop, Robert E; Kett, Michelle M; Evans, Roger G

    2005-01-01

    Renal medullary blood flow is relatively insensitive to angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced vasoconstriction, due partly to AT1-mediated release of nitric oxide and/or prostaglandins. AT2-receptor activation appears to blunt AT1-mediated vasodilatation within the medullary circulation. This could affect long-term efficacy of antihypertensive pharmacotherapies targeting the renin/angiotensin system, particularly in Ang II-dependent forms of hypertension.We tested the effects of AT1- and AT2-recept...

  1. Subversion of innate immune signaling through molecular mimicry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Tsan Sam

    2010-09-01

    Innate immune signaling is mediated by a number of membrane-anchored or cytosolic receptor or sensor molecules. Several receptor families utilize conserved signaling domains such as the Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain and Pyrin domain (PYD) to link microbe recognition to induction of proinflammatory cytokines and interferons. Recent studies have identified a number of bacterial and viral TIR domains and PYD domains that directly target the signaling function of their host homologues. Emerging biochemical and structural studies of these microbial TIR and PYD domains suggest that they are mimics of their host counterparts at the sequence and structure levels. Unraveling the mechanisms of such molecular mimicry is crucial to our understanding and clinical intervention of infectious diseases and inflammatory disorders.

  2. Rare coding variants in PLCG2, ABI3 and TREM2 implicate microglial-mediated innate immunity in Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Rebecca; van der Lee, Sven J.; Naj, Adam C.; Bellenguez, Céline; Badarinarayan, Nandini; Jakobsdottir, Johanna; Kunkle, Brian W.; Boland, Anne; Raybould, Rachel; Bis, Joshua C.; Martin, Eden R.; Grenier-Boley, Benjamin; Heilmann-Heimbach, Stefanie; Chouraki, Vincent; Kuzma, Amanda B.; Sleegers, Kristel; Vronskaya, Maria; Ruiz, Agustin; Graham, Robert R.; Olaso, Robert; Hoffmann, Per; Grove, Megan L.; Vardarajan, Badri N.; Hiltunen, Mikko; Nöthen, Markus M.; White, Charles C.; Hamilton-Nelson, Kara L.; Epelbaum, Jacques; Maier, Wolfgang; Choi, Seung-Hoan; Beecham, Gary W.; Dulary, Cécile; Herms, Stefan; Smith, Albert V.; Funk, Cory C.; Derbois, Céline; Forstner, Andreas J.; Ahmad, Shahzad; Li, Hongdong; Bacq, Delphine; Harold, Denise; Satizabal, Claudia L.; Valladares, Otto; Squassina, Alessio; Thomas, Rhodri; Brody, Jennifer A.; Qu, Liming; Sanchez-Juan, Pascual; Morgan, Taniesha; Wolters, Frank J.; Zhao, Yi; Garcia, Florentino Sanchez; Denning, Nicola; Fornage, Myriam; Malamon, John; Naranjo, Maria Candida Deniz; Majounie, Elisa; Mosley, Thomas H.; Dombroski, Beth; Wallon, David; Lupton, Michelle K; Dupuis, Josée; Whitehead, Patrice; Fratiglioni, Laura; Medway, Christopher; Jian, Xueqiu; Mukherjee, Shubhabrata; Keller, Lina; Brown, Kristelle; Lin, Honghuang; Cantwell, Laura B.; Panza, Francesco; McGuinness, Bernadette; Moreno-Grau, Sonia; Burgess, Jeremy D.; Solfrizzi, Vincenzo; Proitsi, Petra; Adams, Hieab H.; Allen, Mariet; Seripa, Davide; Pastor, Pau; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Price, Nathan D; Hannequin, Didier; Frank-García, Ana; Levy, Daniel; Chakrabarty, Paramita; Caffarra, Paolo; Giegling, Ina; Beiser, Alexa S.; Giedraitis, Vimantas; Hampel, Harald; Garcia, Melissa E.; Wang, Xue; Lannfelt, Lars; Mecocci, Patrizia; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Crane, Paul K.; Pasquier, Florence; Boccardi, Virginia; Henández, Isabel; Barber, Robert C.; Scherer, Martin; Tarraga, Lluis; Adams, Perrie M.; Leber, Markus; Chen, Yuning; Albert, Marilyn S.; Riedel-Heller, Steffi; Emilsson, Valur; Beekly, Duane; Braae, Anne; Schmidt, Reinhold; Blacker, Deborah; Masullo, Carlo; Schmidt, Helena; Doody, Rachelle S.; Spalletta, Gianfranco; Longstreth, WT; Fairchild, Thomas J.; Bossù, Paola; Lopez, Oscar L.; Frosch, Matthew P.; Sacchinelli, Eleonora; Ghetti, Bernardino; Sánchez-Juan, Pascual; Yang, Qiong; Huebinger, Ryan M.; Jessen, Frank; Li, Shuo; Kamboh, M. Ilyas; Morris, John; Sotolongo-Grau, Oscar; Katz, Mindy J.; Corcoran, Chris; Himali, Jayanadra J.; Keene, C. Dirk; Tschanz, JoAnn; Fitzpatrick, Annette L.; Kukull, Walter A.; Norton, Maria; Aspelund, Thor; Larson, Eric B.; Munger, Ron; Rotter, Jerome I.; Lipton, Richard B.; Bullido, María J; Hofman, Albert; Montine, Thomas J.; Coto, Eliecer; Boerwinkle, Eric; Petersen, Ronald C.; Alvarez, Victoria; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Reiman, Eric M.; Gallo, Maura; O’Donnell, Christopher J.; Reisch, Joan S.; Bruni, Amalia Cecilia; Royall, Donald R.; Dichgans, Martin; Sano, Mary; Galimberti, Daniela; St George-Hyslop, Peter; Scarpini, Elio; Tsuang, Debby W.; Mancuso, Michelangelo; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo; Winslow, Ashley R.; Daniele, Antonio; Wu, Chuang-Kuo; Peters, Oliver; Nacmias, Benedetta; Riemenschneider, Matthias; Heun, Reinhard; Brayne, Carol; Rubinsztein, David C; Bras, Jose; Guerreiro, Rita; Hardy, John; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Shaw, Christopher E; Collinge, John; Mann, David; Tsolaki, Magda; Clarimón, Jordi; Sussams, Rebecca; Lovestone, Simon; O’Donovan, Michael C; Owen, Michael J; Behrens, Timothy W.; Mead, Simon; Goate, Alison M.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Holmes, Clive; Cruchaga, Carlos; Ingelsson, Martin; Bennett, David A.; Powell, John; Golde, Todd E.; Graff, Caroline; De Jager, Philip L.; Morgan, Kevin; Ertekin-Taner, Nilufer; Combarros, Onofre; Psaty, Bruce M.; Passmore, Peter; Younkin, Steven G; Berr, Claudine; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Rujescu, Dan; Dickson, Dennis W.; Dartigues, Jean-Francois; DeStefano, Anita L.; Ortega-Cubero, Sara; Hakonarson, Hakon; Campion, Dominique; Boada, Merce; Kauwe, John “Keoni”; Farrer, Lindsay A.; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; Ikram, M. Arfan; Jones, Lesley; Haines, Johnathan; Tzourio, Christophe; Launer, Lenore J.; Escott-Price, Valentina; Mayeux, Richard; Deleuze, Jean-François; Amin, Najaf; Holmans, Peter A; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Amouyel, Philippe; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Ramirez, Alfredo; Wang, Li-San; Lambert, Jean-Charles; Seshadri, Sudha; Williams, Julie; Schellenberg, Gerard D.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction We identified rare coding variants associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in a 3-stage case-control study of 85,133 subjects. In stage 1, 34,174 samples were genotyped using a whole-exome microarray. In stage 2, we tested associated variants (P<1×10-4) in 35,962 independent samples using de novo genotyping and imputed genotypes. In stage 3, an additional 14,997 samples were used to test the most significant stage 2 associations (P<5×10-8) using imputed genotypes. We observed 3 novel genome-wide significant (GWS) AD associated non-synonymous variants; a protective variant in PLCG2 (rs72824905/p.P522R, P=5.38×10-10, OR=0.68, MAFcases=0.0059, MAFcontrols=0.0093), a risk variant in ABI3 (rs616338/p.S209F, P=4.56×10-10, OR=1.43, MAFcases=0.011, MAFcontrols=0.008), and a novel GWS variant in TREM2 (rs143332484/p.R62H, P=1.55×10-14, OR=1.67, MAFcases=0.0143, MAFcontrols=0.0089), a known AD susceptibility gene. These protein-coding changes are in genes highly expressed in microglia and highlight an immune-related protein-protein interaction network enriched for previously identified AD risk genes. These genetic findings provide additional evidence that the microglia-mediated innate immune response contributes directly to AD development. PMID:28714976

  3. Dynamics of Receptor-Mediated Nanoparticle Internalization into Endothelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Rodriguez, David; Barakat, Abdul I.

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles offer a promising medical tool for targeted drug delivery, for example to treat inflamed endothelial cells during the development of atherosclerosis. To inform the design of such therapeutic strategies, we develop a computational model of nanoparticle internalization into endothelial cells, where internalization is driven by receptor-ligand binding and limited by the deformation of the cell membrane and cytoplasm. We specifically consider the case of nanoparticles targeted against ICAM-1 receptors, of relevance for treating atherosclerosis. The model computes the kinetics of the internalization process, the dynamics of binding, and the distribution of stresses exerted between the nanoparticle and the cell membrane. The model predicts the existence of an optimal nanoparticle size for fastest internalization, consistent with experimental observations, as well as the role of bond characteristics, local cell mechanical properties, and external forces in the nanoparticle internalization process. PMID:25901833

  4. Outline of therapeutic interventions with muscarinic receptor-mediated transmission

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jakubík, Jan; Šantrůčková, Eva; Randáková, Alena; Janíčková, Helena; Zimčík, Pavel; Rudajev, Vladimír; Michal, Pavel; El-Fakahany, E. E.; Doležal, Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 63, Suppl.1 (2014), S177-S189 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/09/0681; GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/12/0259; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E10060 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : cholinergic transmission * muscarinic receptors * therapy * Alzheimer 's disease, * schizophrenia Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.293, year: 2014

  5. Neuroprotective effects of daphnetin against NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Le; Yang, Qi; Zhang, Kun; Li, Yu-Jiao; Wu, Yu-Mei; Liu, Shui-Bing; Zheng, Lian-He; Zhao, Ming-Gao

    2014-09-15

    The accumulation of glutamate can excessively activate the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and cause excitotoxicity. Daphnetin (Dap), a coumarin derivative, is a protein kinase inhibitor that exhibits antioxidant and neuroprotective properties. However, little is known about the neuroprotective effects of Dap on glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. We evaluated the neuroprotective activities in the primary cultured cortical neurons against NMDA-induced excitotoxicity. Pretreatment with Dap significantly prevented NMDA-induced neuronal cell loss. Dap significantly inhibited the neuronal apoptosis by regulating balance of Bcl-2 and Bax expression. Furthermore, pretreatment of Dap reversed the up-regulation of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors and inhibited the intracellular Ca2+ overload induced by NMDA exposure. In addition, Dap prevented cerebral ischemic injury in mice induced via a 2 h middle cerebral artery occlusion and a 24 h reperfusion in vivo. The findings suggest that Dap prevents the excitotoxicity through inhibiting the NR2B-containing NMDA receptors and the subsequent calcium overload in cultured cortical neurons.

  6. Distinct phosphotyrosines on a growth factor receptor bind to specific molecules that mediate different signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantl, W J; Escobedo, J A; Martin, G A; Turck, C W; del Rosario, M; McCormick, F; Williams, L T

    1992-05-01

    The receptor for platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) binds two proteins containing SH2 domains, GTPase activating protein (GAP) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase). The sites on the receptor that mediate this interaction were identified by using phosphotyrosine-containing peptides representing receptor sequences to block specifically binding of either PI3-kinase or GAP. These results suggested that PI3-kinase binds two phosphotyrosine residues, each located in a 5 aa motif with an essential methionine at the fourth position C-terminal to the tyrosine. Point mutations at these sites caused a selective elimination of PI3-kinase binding and loss of PDGF-stimulated DNA synthesis. Mutation of the binding site for GAP prevented the receptor from associating with or phosphorylating GAP, but had no effect on PI3-kinase binding and little effect on DNA synthesis. Therefore, GAP and PI3-kinase interact with the receptor by binding to different phosphotyrosine-containing sequence motifs.

  7. SNX27 mediates retromer tubule entry and endosome-to-plasma membrane trafficking of signalling receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temkin, Paul; Lauffer, Ben; Jäger, Stefanie; Cimermancic, Peter; Krogan, Nevan J; von Zastrow, Mark

    2011-06-01

    Endocytic sorting of signalling receptors between recycling and degradative pathways is a key cellular process controlling the surface complement of receptors and, accordingly, the cell's ability to respond to specific extracellular stimuli. The β2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR) is a prototypical seven-transmembrane signalling receptor that recycles rapidly and efficiently to the plasma membrane after ligand-induced endocytosis. β2AR recycling is dependent on the receptor's carboxy-terminal PDZ ligand and Rab4. This active sorting process is required for functional resensitization of β2AR-mediated signalling. Here we show that sequence-directed sorting occurs at the level of entry into retromer tubules and that retromer tubules are associated with Rab4. Furthermore, we show that sorting nexin 27 (SNX27) serves as an essential adaptor protein linking β2ARs to the retromer tubule. SNX27 does not seem to directly interact with the retromer core complex, but does interact with the retromer-associated Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein and SCAR homologue (WASH) complex. The present results identify a role for retromer in endocytic trafficking of signalling receptors, in regulating a receptor-linked signalling pathway, and in mediating direct endosome-to-plasma membrane traffic.

  8. The interplay between the innate immune system and the microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaiss, Christoph A; Levy, Maayan; Suez, Jotham; Elinav, Eran

    2014-02-01

    The human gastrointestinal tract harbors one of the highest densities of microorganisms on earth, called the microbiota. In fact, the number of microbial cells in the intestine outnumbers the amount of human cells of the entire organism by a factor of 10. As such, a human being is more and more perceived as a super-organism consisting of a eukaryotic and a prokaryotic part. The compartment mediating the communication between both parts is the innate immune system and its various microbe-sensing pattern-recognition receptors. Co-evolution of the microbiota with the innate immune system has resulted in elaborate interdependency and feedback mechanisms by which both systems control mutual homeostasis. Here, we review the most important innate immune-microbiota interdependencies known to date. While microbial sensing by pattern-recognition receptors is required for stable microbial composition, the presence of the microbiota, in turn, is necessary for proper development and function of the immune system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. SAP is required for the development of innate phenotype in H2-M3-restricted CD8+ T cells1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bediako, Yaw; Bian, Yao; Zhang, Hong; Cho, Hoonsik; Stein, Paul L.; Wang, Chyung-Ru

    2012-01-01

    H2-M3-restricted T cells have a pre-activated surface phenotype, rapidly expand and produce cytokines upon stimulation and as such, are classified as innate T cells. Unlike most innate T cells, M3-restricted T cells also express CD8αβ co-receptors and a diverse TCR repertoire: hallmarks of conventional MHC Ia-restricted CD8+ T cells. Although iNKT cells are also innate lymphocytes, they are selected exclusively on hematopoietic cells (HC), while M3-restricted T cells can be selected on either hematopoietic or thymic epithelial cells (TEC). Moreover, their phenotypes differ depending on what cells mediate their selection. Though there is a clear correlation between selection on HC and development of innate phenotype, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. SAP is required for the development of iNKT cells and mediates signals from SLAM receptors that are exclusively expressed on HC. Based on their dual selection pathway, M3-restricted T cells present a unique model for studying the development of innate T cell phenotype. Using both polyclonal and transgenic mouse models we demonstrate that while M3-restricted T cells are capable of developing in the absence of SAP, SAP is required for HC-mediated selection, development of pre-activated phenotype and heightened effector functions of M3-restricted T cells. These findings are significant because they directly demonstrate the need for SAP in HC-mediated acquisition of innate T cell phenotype and suggest that due to their SAP-dependent HC-mediated selection, M3-restricted T cells develop a pre-activated phenotype and an intrinsic ability to proliferate faster upon stimulation, allowing for an important role in the early response to infection. PMID:23041566

  10. Nuclear receptor corepressor-dependent repression of peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor delta-mediated transactivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsdam, Anne-M; Nielsen, Curt A F; Neve, Søren

    2002-01-01

    delta-RXR alpha heterodimer bound to an acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO)-type peroxisome-proliferator response element recruited a glutathione S-transferase-NCoR fusion protein in a ligand-independent manner. Contrasting with most other nuclear receptors, PPAR delta was found to interact equally well......The nuclear receptor corepressor (NCoR) was isolated as a peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) delta interacting protein using the yeast two-hybrid system. NCoR interacted strongly with the ligand-binding domain of PPAR delta, whereas interactions with the ligand-binding domains...

  11. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors mediate donepezil-induced oligodendrocyte differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Osamu; Arai, Masaaki; Dateki, Minori; Ogata, Toru; Uchida, Ryuji; Tomoda, Hiroshi; Takishima, Kunio

    2015-12-01

    Oligodendrocytes are the myelin-forming cells of the central nervous system (CNS). Failure of myelin development and oligodendrocyte loss results in serious human disorders, including multiple sclerosis. Here, we show that donepezil, an acetlycholinesterase inhibitor developed for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, can stimulate oligodendrocyte differentiation and maturation of neural stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cells without affecting proliferation or cell viability. Transcripts for essential myelin-associated genes, such as PLP, MAG, MBP, CNPase, and MOG, in addition to transcription factors that regulate oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination, were rapidly increased after treatment with donepezil. Furthermore, luciferase assays confirmed that both MAG and MBP promoters display increased activity upon donepezil-induced oligodendrocytes differentiation, suggesting that donepezil increases myelin gene expression mainly through enhanced transcription. We also found that the increase in the number of oligodendrocytes observed following donepezil treatment was significantly inhibited by the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonist mecamylamine, but not by the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist scopolamine. Moreover, donepezil-induced myelin-related gene expression was suppressed by mecamylamine at both the mRNA and protein level. These results suggest that donepezil stimulates oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelin-related gene expression via nAChRs in neural stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. We show that donepezil, a drug for the treatment of Alzheimer disease, can stimulate oligodendrocyte differentiation and maturation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Transcripts for essential myelin-associated genes, such as PLP, MAG, MBP, CNPase and MOG in addition to transcripton factors that regulate oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination were rapidly increased after treatment with donepezil

  12. REST mediates androgen receptor actions on gene repression and predicts early recurrence of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Charlotte; Ceder, Jens; Iglesias Gato, Diego

    2014-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) is a key regulator of prostate tumorgenesis through actions that are not fully understood. We identified the repressor element (RE)-1 silencing transcription factor (REST) as a mediator of AR actions on gene repression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that AR binds...

  13. MicroRNA-219 modulates NMDA receptor-mediated neurobehavioral dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocerha, Jannet; Faghihi, Mohammad Ali; Lopez-Toledano, Miguel A

    2009-01-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors are regulators of fast neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity in the brain. Disruption of NMDA-mediated glutamate signaling has been linked to behavioral deficits displayed in psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. Recently, noncoding RNA m...

  14. Spare receptors for beta-adrenoceptor-mediated positive inotropic effects of catecholamines in the human heart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, L.; Deighton, N. M.; Bals, S.; Söhlmann, W.; Zerkowski, H. R.; Michel, M. C.; Brodde, O. E.

    1992-01-01

    We studied whether the human heart has spare receptors for beta-adrenoceptor-mediated positive inotropic effects. Thus, we assessed in right atria and left papillary muscles of patients with different degrees of heart failure under identical experimental conditions affinity (pKI values from

  15. Scavenger receptor-mediated endocytosis by sinusoidal cells in rat bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geoffroy, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    Endocytosis of serum albumin by sinusoidal endothelial cells in rat bone marrow was investigated initially at the ultrastructural level with subsequent biochemical investigation of the specificity mediating this event. Bovine serum albumin adsorbed to 20nm colloidal gold particles (AuBSA) was chosen as the electron microscopic probe. Morphological data strongly suggested that a receptor was involved in uptake of AuBSA. Confirmation of receptor involvement in the uptake of AuBSA by marrow sinusoidal endothelial cells was achieved utilizing an in situ isolated hind limb perfusion protocol in conjunction with unlabeled, radiolabeled, and radio-/colloidal gold labeled probes. The major findings of competition and saturation experiments were: (1) endocytosis of AuBSA was mediated by a receptor for modified/treated serum albumin; (2) endocytosis of formaldehyde-treated serum albumin was mediated by a binding site which may be the same or closely related to the site responsible for the uptake of AuBSA; and (3) endocytosis of native untreated albumin was not mediated by receptor and probably represents fluid-phase pinocitosis

  16. Hypersensitivity Induced by Activation of Spinal Cord PAR2 Receptors Is Partially Mediated by TRPV1 Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrozkova, Petra; Spicarova, Diana; Palecek, Jiri

    2016-01-01

    Protease-activated receptors 2 (PAR2) and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptors in the peripheral nerve endings are implicated in the development of increased sensitivity to mechanical and thermal stimuli, especially during inflammatory states. Both PAR2 and TRPV1 receptors are co-expressed in nociceptive dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons on their peripheral endings and also on presynaptic endings in the spinal cord dorsal horn. However, the modulation of nociceptive synaptic transmission in the superficial dorsal horn after activation of PAR2 and their functional coupling with TRPV1 is not clear. To investigate the role of spinal PAR2 activation on nociceptive modulation, intrathecal drug application was used in behavioural experiments and patch-clamp recordings of spontaneous, miniature and dorsal root stimulation-evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs, mEPSCs, eEPSCs) were performed on superficial dorsal horn neurons in acute rat spinal cord slices. Intrathecal application of PAR2 activating peptide SLIGKV-NH2 induced thermal hyperalgesia, which was prevented by pretreatment with TRPV1 antagonist SB 366791 and was reduced by protein kinases inhibitor staurosporine. Patch-clamp experiments revealed robust decrease of mEPSC frequency (62.8 ± 4.9%), increase of sEPSC frequency (127.0 ± 5.9%) and eEPSC amplitude (126.9 ± 12.0%) in dorsal horn neurons after acute SLIGKV-NH2 application. All these EPSC changes, induced by PAR2 activation, were prevented by SB 366791 and staurosporine pretreatment. Our results demonstrate an important role of spinal PAR2 receptors in modulation of nociceptive transmission in the spinal cord dorsal horn at least partially mediated by activation of presynaptic TRPV1 receptors. The functional coupling between the PAR2 and TRPV1 receptors on the central branches of DRG neurons may be important especially during different pathological states when it may enhance pain perception.

  17. Glucocorticoid receptor, but not mineralocorticoid receptor, mediates cortisol regulation of epidermal ionocyte development and ion transport in zebrafish (danio rerio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Abad Cruz

    Full Text Available Cortisol is the major endogenous glucocorticoid (GC both in human and fish, mediated by corticosteroid receptors. Due to the absence of aldosterone production in teleost fish, cortisol is also traditionally accepted to function as mineralocorticoid (MC; but whether it acts through the glucocorticoid receptor (GR or the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR remains a subject of debate. Here, we used loss-of-function and rescue assays to determine whether cortisol affects zebrafish epidermal ionocyte development and function via the GR and/or the MR. GR knockdown morphants displayed a significant decrease in the major ionocytes, namely Na(+-K(+-ATPase-rich cells (NaRCs and H(+-ATPase-rich cells (HRCs, as well as other cells, including epidermal stem cells (ESCs, keratinocytes, and mucus cells; conversely, cell numbers were unaffected in MR knockdown morphants. In agreement, GR morphants, but not MR morphants, exhibited decreased NaRC-mediated Ca(2+ uptake and HRC-mediated H(+ secretion. Rescue via GR capped mRNA injection or exogenous cortisol incubation normalized the number of epidermal ionocytes in GR morphants. We also provide evidence for GR localization in epidermal cells. At the transcript level, GR mRNA is ubiquitously expressed in gill sections and present in both NaRCs and HRCs, supporting the knockdown and functional assay results in embryo. Altogether, we have provided solid molecular evidence that GR is indeed present on ionocytes, where it mediates the effects of cortisol on ionocyte development and function. Hence, cortisol-GR axis performs the roles of both GC and MC in zebrafish skin and gills.

  18. Intercellular communication for innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tan A; Pang, Ken C; Masters, Seth L

    2017-06-01

    An effective innate immune response relies on the detection of pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by various host pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that result in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Viruses and bacteria have co-evolved with the immune system and developed multiple strategies to usurp or circumvent host machinery and blunt the innate immune response in infected cells. Recently, it has become apparent that infected or dying cells can transmit PAMPs and host PRR signalling proteins to uninfected bystander cells to thereby bypass pathogen evasion strategies, and potentiate innate immune signalling. This bystander activation of innate immunity represents an alternative method by which the host can control infections via cell-to-cell communication. In this review, we discuss what is currently known about the intercellular transfer of pathogen- or host-derived RNA, DNA and proteins from infected cells to neighbouring cells and how this impacts on host innate immunity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hypothyroidism affects D2 receptor-mediated breathing without altering D2 receptor expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Evelyn H; Del Rio, Rodrigo; Schultz, Harold D

    2014-03-01

    Bromocriptine depressed ventilation in air and D2 receptor expression in the nucleus tractus solitaries (NTS) in male hypothyroid hamsters. Here we postulated that in age-matched hypothyroid female hamsters, the pattern of D2 receptor modulation of breathing and D2 receptor expression would differ from those reported in hypothyroid males. In females hypothyroidism did not affect D2 receptor protein levels in the NTS, carotid bodies or striatum. Bromocriptine, but not carmoxirole (a peripheral D2 receptor agonist), increased oxygen consumption and body temperature in awake air-exposed hypothyroid female hamsters and stimulated their ventilation before and following exposure to hypoxia. Carmoxirole depressed frequency of breathing in euthyroid hamsters prior to, during and following hypoxia exposures and stimulated it in the hypothyroid hamsters following hypoxia. Although hypothyroidism did not affect expression of D2 receptors, it influenced central D2 modulation of breathing in a disparate manner relative to euthyroid hamsters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Receptor binding and cell-mediated metabolism of [125I]monoiodoglucagon by isolated canine hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagopian, W.A.; Tager, H.S.

    1984-01-01

    A reverse-phase HPLC method has been developed to purify 125 I-labeled products resulting from the chloramine-T-based iodination of glucagon. In addition the products [( 125 I)iodoTyr 10 13 ]glucagon, [( 125 I)iodoTyr 13 ]glucagon, and [( 125 I)iodoTyr 10 ]glucagon) have been used to study the receptor binding of glucagon and the cell-mediated metabolism of the hormone by isolated canine hepatocytes. It was concluded that (a) not withstanding apparent differences in affinities exhibited by the three peptides, the interactions with the glucagon receptor are functionally equivalent, and (b) the cell-mediated metabolism of receptor-bound glucagon involves the formation of hormone-derived peptides in which the biologically important NH 2 -terminal region of the hormone has been modified by limited proteolytic cleavage

  1. Retinoid-X-receptors (α/β in melanocytes modulate innate immune responses and differentially regulate cell survival following UV irradiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Coleman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the molecular mechanisms of ultraviolet (UV induced melanoma formation is becoming crucial with more reported cases each year. Expression of type II nuclear receptor Retinoid-X-Receptor α (RXRα is lost during melanoma progression in humans. Here, we observed that in mice with melanocyte-specific ablation of RXRα and RXRβ, melanocytes attract fewer IFN-γ secreting immune cells than in wild-type mice following acute UVR exposure, via altered expression of several chemoattractive and chemorepulsive chemokines/cytokines. Reduced IFN-γ in the microenvironment alters UVR-induced apoptosis, and due to this, the survival of surrounding dermal fibroblasts is significantly decreased in mice lacking RXRα/β. Interestingly, post-UVR survival of the melanocytes themselves is enhanced in the absence of RXRα/β. Loss of RXRs α/β specifically in the melanocytes results in an endogenous shift in homeostasis of pro- and anti-apoptotic genes in these cells and enhances their survival compared to the wild type melanocytes. Therefore, RXRs modulate post-UVR survival of dermal fibroblasts in a "non-cell autonomous" manner, underscoring their role in immune surveillance, while independently mediating post-UVR melanocyte survival in a "cell autonomous" manner. Our results emphasize a novel immunomodulatory role of melanocytes in controlling survival of neighboring cell types besides controlling their own, and identifies RXRs as potential targets for therapy against UV induced melanoma.

  2. Müller Glia in Retinal Innate Immunity: A perspective on their roles in endophthalmitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashok; Pandey, Rajeev K; Miller, Lindsay J; Singh, Pawan K; Kanwar, Mamta

    2013-01-01

    Müller cells are the predominant glial cell type in the retina and have a unique anatomy, with processes that span the entire retinal thickness. Although extensive morphological and physiological studies of Müller glia have been performed, much less is known about their role in retinal innate immunity, specifically in infectious endophthalmitis. They were found to express Toll-like receptors (TLRs), a major family of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that mediate innate responses and provide an important mechanism by which Müller glia are able to sense both pathogen- and host-derived ligands in the vitreous and the retina. An increasing body of evidence suggests that TLR-signaling mediates beneficial effects in the retina via production of pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines, antimicrobial peptides and neuroprotective growth factors to restore tissue homeostasis. In this review, we discussed retinal innate immunity in general with emphasis on the role of Müller glia in initiating retinal innate defense. PMID:23582059

  3. Vascular endothelin ET(B) receptor-mediated contraction requires phosphorylation of ERK1/2 proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Guogang; Jamali, Roya; Cao, Yong-Xiao

    2006-01-01

    In cardiovascular diseases, endothelin type B (ET(B)) receptors in arterial smooth muscle cells are upregulated. The present study revealed that organ culture of rat mesenteric artery segments enhanced endothelin ET(B) receptor-mediated contraction paralleled with increase in the receptor mRNA an...

  4. Dual disease resistance mediated by the immune receptor Cf-2 in tomato requires a common virulence target of a fungus and a nematode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lozano, J.; Wilbers, R.H.P.; Gawronski, P.; Boshoven, J.C.; Finkers-Tomczak, A.M.; Cordewener, J.H.G.; America, A.H.P.; Overmars, H.A.; Klooster, van t J.W.; Baranowski, L.; Sobczak, M.; Ilyas, M.; Hoorn, van der R.A.L.; Schots, A.; Wit, de P.J.G.M.; Bakker, J.; Goverse, A.; Smant, G.

    2012-01-01

    Plants lack the seemingly unlimited receptor diversity of a somatic adaptive immune system as found in vertebrates and rely on only a relatively small set of innate immune receptors to resist a myriad of pathogens. Here, we show that disease-resistant tomato plants use an efficient mechanism to

  5. Muscarinic receptor binding and muscarinic receptor-mediated inhibition of adenylate cyclase in rat brain myelin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larocca, J.N.; Ledeen, R.W.; Dvorkin, B.; Makman, M.H.

    1987-01-01

    High-affinity muscarinic cholinergic receptors were detected in myelin purified from rat brain stem with use of the radioligands 3 H-N-methylscopolamine ( 3 H-NMS), 3 H-quinuclidinyl benzilate ( 3 H-QNB), and 3 H-pirenzepine. 3 H-NMS binding was also present in myelin isolated from corpus callosum. In contrast, several other receptor types, including alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenergic receptors, present in the starting brain stem, were not detected in myelin. Based on Bmax values from Scatchard analyses, 3 H-pirenzepine, a putative M1 selective ligand, bound to about 25% of the sites in myelin labeled by 3 H-NMS, a nonselective ligand that binds to both M1 and M2 receptor subtypes. Agonist affinity for 3 H-NMS binding sites in myelin was markedly decreased by Gpp(NH)p, indicating that a major portion of these receptors may be linked to a second messenger system via a guanine-nucleotide regulatory protein. Purified myelin also contained adenylate cyclase activity; this activity was stimulated several fold by forskolin and to small but significant extents by prostaglandin E1 and the beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol. Myelin adenylate cyclase activity was inhibited by carbachol and other muscarinic agonists; this inhibition was blocked by the antagonist atropine. Levels in myelin of muscarinic receptors were 20-25% and those of forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase 10% of the values for total particulate fraction of whole brain stem. These levels in myelin are appreciably greater than would be predicted on the basis of contamination. Also, additional receptors and adenylate cyclase, added by mixing nonmyelin tissue with whole brain stem, were quantitatively removed during the purification procedure

  6. Muscarinic receptor binding and muscarinic receptor-mediated inhibition of adenylate cyclase in rat brain myelin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larocca, J.N.; Ledeen, R.W.; Dvorkin, B.; Makman, M.H.

    1987-12-01

    High-affinity muscarinic cholinergic receptors were detected in myelin purified from rat brain stem with use of the radioligands /sup 3/H-N-methylscopolamine (/sup 3/H-NMS), /sup 3/H-quinuclidinyl benzilate (/sup 3/H-QNB), and /sup 3/H-pirenzepine. /sup 3/H-NMS binding was also present in myelin isolated from corpus callosum. In contrast, several other receptor types, including alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenergic receptors, present in the starting brain stem, were not detected in myelin. Based on Bmax values from Scatchard analyses, /sup 3/H-pirenzepine, a putative M1 selective ligand, bound to about 25% of the sites in myelin labeled by /sup 3/H-NMS, a nonselective ligand that binds to both M1 and M2 receptor subtypes. Agonist affinity for /sup 3/H-NMS binding sites in myelin was markedly decreased by Gpp(NH)p, indicating that a major portion of these receptors may be linked to a second messenger system via a guanine-nucleotide regulatory protein. Purified myelin also contained adenylate cyclase activity; this activity was stimulated several fold by forskolin and to small but significant extents by prostaglandin E1 and the beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol. Myelin adenylate cyclase activity was inhibited by carbachol and other muscarinic agonists; this inhibition was blocked by the antagonist atropine. Levels in myelin of muscarinic receptors were 20-25% and those of forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase 10% of the values for total particulate fraction of whole brain stem. These levels in myelin are appreciably greater than would be predicted on the basis of contamination. Also, additional receptors and adenylate cyclase, added by mixing nonmyelin tissue with whole brain stem, were quantitatively removed during the purification procedure.

  7. Alcohol, aging, and innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boule, Lisbeth A; Kovacs, Elizabeth J

    2017-07-01

    The global population is aging: in 2010, 8% of the population was older than 65 y, and that is expected to double to 16% by 2050. With advanced age comes a heightened prevalence of chronic diseases. Moreover, elderly humans fair worse after acute diseases, namely infection, leading to higher rates of infection-mediated mortality. Advanced age alters many aspects of both the innate and adaptive immune systems, leading to impaired responses to primary infection and poor development of immunologic memory. An often overlooked, yet increasingly common, behavior in older individuals is alcohol consumption. In fact, it has been estimated that >40% of older adults consume alcohol, and evidence reveals that >10% of this group is drinking more than the recommended limit by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol consumption, at any level, alters host immune responses, including changes in the number, phenotype, and function of innate and adaptive immune cells. Thus, understanding the effect of alcohol ingestion on the immune system of older individuals, who are already less capable of combating infection, merits further study. However, there is currently almost nothing known about how drinking alters innate immunity in older subjects, despite innate immune cells being critical for host defense, resolution of inflammation, and maintenance of immune homeostasis. Here, we review the effects of aging and alcohol consumption on innate immune cells independently and highlight the few studies that have examined the effects of alcohol ingestion in aged individuals. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  8. Defensins in innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Le; Lu, Wuyuan

    2014-01-01

    Defensins are a major family of antimicrobial peptides expressed predominantly in neutrophils and epithelial cells, and play important roles in innate immune defense against infectious pathogens. Their biological functions in and beyond innate immunity, structure and activity relationships, mechanisms of action, and therapeutic potential continue to be interesting research topics. This review examines recent progress in our understanding of alpha and theta-defensins - the two structural classes composed of members of myeloid origin. A novel mode of antibacterial action is described for human enteric alpha-defensin 6, which forms structured nanonets to entrap bacterial pathogens and protect against bacterial invasion of the intestinal epithelium. The functional multiplicity and mechanistic complexity of defensins under different experimental conditions contribute to a debate over the role of enteric alpha-defensins in mucosal immunity against HIV-1 infection. Contrary to common belief, hydrophobicity rather than cationicity plays a dominant functional role in the action of human alpha-defensins; hydrophobicity-mediated high-order assembly endows human alpha-defensins with an extraordinary ability to acquire structural diversity and functional versatility. Growing evidence suggests that theta-defensins offer the best opportunity for therapeutic development as a novel class of broadly active anti-infective and anti-inflammatory agents. Defensins are the 'Swiss army knife' in innate immunity against microbial pathogens. Their modes of action are often reminiscent of the story of 'The Blind Men and the Elephant'. The functional diversity and mechanistic complexity, as well as therapeutic potential of defensins, will continue to attract attention to this important family of antimicrobial peptides.

  9. Dissecting Bacterial Cell Wall Entry and Signaling in Eukaryotic Cells: an Actin-Dependent Pathway Parallels Platelet-Activating Factor Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Lip Nam; Gao, Geli; Tuomanen, Elaine I

    2017-01-03

    The Gram-positive bacterial cell wall (CW) peptidoglycan-teichoic acid complex is released into the host environment during bacterial metabolism or death. It is a highly inflammatory Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) ligand, and previous in vivo studies have demonstrated its ability to recapitulate pathological features of pneumonia and meningitis. We report that an actin-dependent pathway is involved in the internalization of the CW by epithelial and endothelial cells, in addition to the previously described platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFr)-dependent uptake pathway. Unlike the PAFr-dependent pathway, which is mediated by clathrin and dynamin and does not lead to signaling, the alternative pathway is sensitive to 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl) amiloride (EIPA) and engenders Rac1, Cdc42, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling. Upon internalization by this macropinocytosis-like pathway, CW is trafficked to lysosomes. Intracellular CW trafficking is more complex than previously recognized and suggests multiple points of interaction with and without innate immune signaling. Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major human pathogen infecting the respiratory tract and brain. It is an established model organism for understanding how infection injures the host. During infection or bacterial growth, bacteria shed their cell wall (CW) into the host environment and trigger inflammation. A previous study has shown that CW enters and crosses cell barriers by interacting with a receptor on the surfaces of host cells, termed platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFr). In the present study, by using cells that are depleted of PAFr, we identified a second pathway with features of macropinocytosis, which is a receptor-independent fluid uptake mechanism by cells. Each pathway contributes approximately the same amount of cell wall trafficking, but the PAFr pathway is silent, while the new pathway appears to contribute to the host inflammatory response to CW insult. Copyright © 2017

  10. Evidence that 5-hydroxytryptamine3 receptors mediate cytotoxic drug and radiation-evoked emesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miner, W.D.; Sanger, G.J.; Turner, D.H.

    1987-01-01

    The involvement of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) 5-HT 3 receptors in the mechanisms of severe emesis evoked by cytotoxic drugs or by total body irradiation have been studied in ferrets. Anti-emetic compounds tested were domperidone (a dopamine antagonist), metoclopramide (a gastric motility stimulant and dopamine antagonist at conventional doses, a 5-HT 3 receptor antagonist at higher doses) and BRL 24924 (a potent gastric motility stimulant and a 5-HT 3 receptor antagonist). Domperidone or metoclopramide prevented apomorphine-evoked emesis, whereas BRL 24924 did not. Similar doses of domperidone did not prevent emesis evoked by cis-platin or by total body irradiation, whereas metoclopramide or BRL 24924 greatly reduced or prevented these types of emesis. Metoclopramide and BRL 24924 also prevented emesis evoked by a combination of doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide. These results are discussed in terms of a fundamental role for 5-HT 3 receptors in the mechanisms mediating severely emetogenic cancer treatment therapies. (author)

  11. Mitochondria as Molecular Platforms Integrating Multiple Innate Immune Signalings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monlun, Marie; Hyernard, Caroline; Blanco, Patrick; Lartigue, Lydia; Faustin, Benjamin

    2017-01-06

    The immune system of vertebrates confers protective mechanisms to the host through the sensing of stress-induced agents expressed during infection or cell stress. Among them, the first line of host defense composed of the innate immune sensing of these agents by pattern recognition receptors enables downstream adaptive immunity to be primed, mediating the body's appropriate response to clear infection and tissue damage. Mitochondria are «bacteria within» that allowed the emergence of functional eukaryotic cells by positioning themselves as the cell powerhouse and an initiator of cell death programs. It is striking to consider that such ancestral bacteria, which had to evade host defense at some point to develop evolutionary endosymbiosis, have become instrumental for the modern eukaryotic cell in alerting the immune system against various insults including infection by other pathogens. Mitochondria have indeed become critical regulators of innate immune responses to both pathogens and cell stress. They host numerous modulators, which play a direct role into the assembly of innate sensing machineries that trigger host immune response in both sterile and non-sterile conditions. Several lines of evidence indicate the existence of a complex molecular interplay between mechanisms involved in inflammation and metabolism. Mitochondrial function seems to participate in innate immunity at various stages as diverse as the transcriptional regulation of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and their maturation by inflammasomes. Here, we review the mechanisms by which mitochondria orchestrate innate immune responses at different levels by promoting a cellular metabolic reprogramming and the cytosolic immune signaling cascades. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Bile acid-induced arrhythmia is mediated by muscarinic M2 receptors in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti H Sheikh Abdul Kadir

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP is a common disease affecting up to 5% of pregnancies and which can cause fetal arrhythmia and sudden intrauterine death. We previously demonstrated that bile acid taurocholate (TC, which is raised in the bloodstream of ICP, can acutely alter the rate and rhythm of contraction and induce abnormal calcium destabilization in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCM. Apart from their hepatic functions bile acids are ubiquitous signalling molecules with diverse systemic effects mediated by either the nuclear receptor FXR or by a recently discovered G-protein coupled receptor TGR5. We aim to investigate the mechanism of bile-acid induced arrhythmogenic effects in an in-vitro model of the fetal heart. METHODS AND RESULTS: Levels of bile acid transporters and nuclear receptor FXR were studied by quantitative real time PCR, western blot and immunostaining, which showed low levels of expression. We did not observe functional involvement of the canonical receptors FXR and TGR5. Instead, we found that TC binds to the muscarinic M(2 receptor in NRCM and serves as a partial agonist of this receptor in terms of inhibitory effect on intracellular cAMP and negative chronotropic response. Pharmacological inhibition and siRNA-knockdown of the M(2 receptor completely abolished the negative effect of TC on contraction, calcium transient amplitude and synchronisation in NRCM clusters. CONCLUSION: We conclude that in NRCM the TC-induced arrhythmia is mediated by the partial agonism at the M(2 receptor. This mechanism might serve as a promising new therapeutic target for fetal arrhythmia.

  13. β-Arrestin Mediates β1-Adrenergic Receptor-Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Interaction and Downstream Signaling*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, Douglas G.; Kim, Il-Man; Patel, Priyesh A.; Violin, Jonathan D.; Rockman, Howard A.

    2009-01-01

    β1-Adrenergic receptor (β1AR) stimulation confers cardioprotection via β-arrestin-de pend ent transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs), however, the precise mechanism for this salutary process is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that the β1AR and EGFR form a complex that differentially directs intracellular signaling pathways. β1AR stimulation and EGF ligand can each induce equivalent EGFR phos pho ryl a tion, internalization, and downstream activation of ERK1/2, but only EGF ligand causes translocation of activated ERK to the nucleus, whereas β1AR-stimulated/EGFR-transactivated ERK is restricted to the cytoplasm. β1AR and EGFR are shown to interact as a receptor complex both in cell culture and endogenously in human heart, an interaction that is selective and undergoes dynamic regulation by ligand stimulation. Although catecholamine stimulation mediates the retention of β1AR-EGFR interaction throughout receptor internalization, direct EGF ligand stimulation initiates the internalization of EGFR alone. Continued interaction of β1AR with EGFR following activation is dependent upon C-terminal tail GRK phos pho ryl a tion sites of the β1AR and recruitment of β-arrestin. These data reveal a new signaling paradigm in which β-arrestin is required for the maintenance of a β1AR-EGFR interaction that can direct cytosolic targeting of ERK in response to catecholamine stimulation. PMID:19509284

  14. P2X receptor-mediated ATP purinergic signaling in health and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang LH

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Lin-Hua JiangSchool of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, United KingdomAbstract: Purinergic P2X receptors are plasma membrane proteins present in a wide range of mammalian cells where they act as a cellular sensor, enabling cells to detect and respond to extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP, an important signaling molecule. P2X receptors function as ligand-gated Ca2+-permeable cationic channels that open upon ATP binding to elevate intracellular Ca2+ concentrations and cause membrane depolarization. In response to sustained activation, P2X receptors induce formation of a pore permeable to large molecules. P2X receptors also interact with distinct functional proteins and membrane lipids to form specialized signaling complexes. Studies have provided compelling evidence to show that such P2X receptor-mediated ATP-signaling mechanisms determine and regulate a growing number and diversity of important physiological processes, including neurotransmission, muscle contraction, and cytokine release. There is accumulating evidence to support strong causative relationships of altered receptor expression and function with chronic pain, inflammatory diseases, cancers, and other pathologies or diseases. Numerous high throughput screening drug discovery programs and preclinical studies have thus far demonstrated the proof of concepts that the P2X receptors are druggable targets and selective receptor antagonism is a promising therapeutics approach. This review will discuss the recent progress in understanding the mammalian P2X receptors with respect to the ATP-signaling mechanisms, physiological and pathophysiological roles, and development and preclinical studies of receptor antagonists.Keywords: extracellular ATP, ion channel, large pore, signaling complex, chronic pain, inflammatory diseases

  15. AMPA receptors mediate passive avoidance deficits induced by sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubiela, Francisco Paulino; Queiroz, Claudio Marcos; Moreira, Karin Di Monteiro; Nobrega, Jose N; Sita, Luciane Valéria; Tufik, Sergio; Hipolide, Debora Cristina

    2013-11-15

    The present study addressed the effects of sleep deprivation (SD) on AMPA receptor (AMPAR) binding in brain regions associated with learning and memory, and investigated whether treatment with drugs acting on AMPAR could prevent passive avoidance deficits in sleep deprived animals. [(3)H]AMPA binding and GluR1 in situ hybridization signals were quantified in different brain regions of male Wistar rats either immediately after 96 h of sleep deprivation or after 24h of sleep recovery following 96 h of sleep deprivation. Another group of animals were sleep deprived and then treated with either the AMPAR potentiator, aniracetam (25, 50 and 100mg/kg, acute administration) or the AMPAR antagonist GYKI-52466 (5 and 10mg/kg, acute and chronic administration) before passive avoidance training. Task performance was evaluated 2h and 24h after training. A significant reduction in [(3)H]AMPA binding was found in the hippocampal formation of SD animals, while no alterations were observed in GluR1 mRNA levels. The highest dose of aniracetam (100mg/kg) reverted SD-induced impairment of passive avoidance performance in both retention tests, whereas GYKI-52466 treatment had no effect. Pharmacological enhancement of AMPAR function may revert hippocampal-dependent learning impairments produced after SD. We argue that such effects might be associated with reduced AMPAR binding in the hippocampus of sleep deprived animals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Cytokine-mediated downregulation of vasopressin V(1A) receptors during acute endotoxemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, Michael; Hobbhahn, Jonny; Taeger, Kai; Kurtz, Armin

    2002-04-01

    The reduced pressure response to vasopressin during acute sepsis has directed our interest to the regulation of vasopressin V(1A) receptors. Rats were injected with lipopolysaccharide for induction of experimental gram-negative sepsis. V(1A) receptor gene expression was downregulated in the liver, lung, kidney, and heart during endotoxemia. Inasmuch as the concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interferon-gamma were highly increased during sepsis, the influence of these cytokines on V(1A) receptor expression was investigated in primary cultures of hepatocytes and in the aortic vascular smooth muscle cell line A7r5. V(1A) receptor expression was downregulated by the cytokines in a nitric oxide-independent manner. Blood pressure dose-response studies after injection of endotoxin showed a diminished responsiveness to the selective V(1) receptor agonist Phe(2),Ile(3),Orn(8)-vasopressin. Our data show that sepsis causes a downregulation of V(1A) receptors and suggest that this effect is likely mediated by proinflammatory cytokines. We propose that this downregulation of V(1A) receptors contributes to the attenuated responsiveness of blood pressure in response to vasopressin and, therefore, contributes to the circulatory failure in septic shock.

  17. Antimetastatic gene expression profiles mediated by retinoic acid receptor beta 2 in MDA-MB-435 breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallden, Brett; Emond, Mary; Swift, Mari E; Disis, Mary L; Swisshelm, Karen

    2005-01-01

    The retinoic acid receptor beta 2 (RARβ2) gene modulates proliferation and survival of cultured human breast cancer cells. Previously we showed that ectopic expression of RARβ2 in a mouse xenograft model prevented metastasis, even in the absence of the ligand, all-trans retinoic acid. We investigated both cultured cells and xenograft tumors in order to delineate the gene expression profiles responsible for an antimetastatic phenotype. RNA from MDA-MB-435 human breast cancer cells transduced with RARβ2 or empty retroviral vector (LXSN) was analyzed using Agilent Human 1A Oligo microarrays. The one hundred probes with the greatest differential intensity (p < 0.004, jointly) were determined by selecting the top median log ratios from eight-paired microarrays. Validation of differences in expression was done using Northern blot analysis and quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). We determined expression of selected genes in xenograft tumors. RARβ2 cells exhibit gene profiles with overrepresentation of genes from Xq28 (p = 2 × 10 -8 ), a cytogenetic region that contains a large portion of the cancer/testis antigen gene family. Other functions or factors impacted by the presence of exogenous RARβ2 include mediators of the immune response and transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. Thirteen of fifteen (87%) of the genes evaluated in xenograft tumors were consistent with differences we found in the cell cultures (p = 0.007). Antimetastatic RARβ2 signalling, direct or indirect, results in an elevation of expression for genes such as tumor-cell antigens (CTAG1 and CTAG2), those involved in innate immune response (e.g., RIG-I/DDX58), and tumor suppressor functions (e.g., TYRP1). Genes whose expression is diminished by RARβ2 signalling include cell adhesion functions (e.g, CD164) nutritional or metabolic processes (e.g., FABP6), and the transcription factor, JUN

  18. Pulmonary contusion primes systemic innate immunity responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoth, J Jason; Martin, R S; Yoza, Barbara K; Wells, Jonathan D; Meredith, J W; McCall, Charles E

    2009-07-01

    Traumatic injury may result in an exaggerated response to subsequent immune stimuli such as nosocomial infection. This "second hit" phenomenon and molecular mechanism(s) of immune priming by traumatic lung injury, specifically, pulmonary contusion, remain unknown. We used an animal model of pulmonary contusion to determine whether the injury resulted in priming of the innate immune response and to test the hypothesis that resuscitation fluids could attenuate the primed response to a second hit. Male, 8 to 9 weeks, C57/BL6 mice with a pulmonary contusion were challenged by a second hit of intratracheal administration of the Toll-like receptor 4 agonist, lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 50 microg) 24 hours after injury (injury + LPS). Other experimental groups were injury + vehicle or LPS alone. A separate group was injured and resuscitated by 4 cc/kg of hypertonic saline (HTS) or Lactated Ringer's (LR) resuscitation before LPS challenge. Mice were killed 4 hours after LPS challenge and blood, bronchoalveolar lavage, and tissue were isolated and analyzed. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance with Bonferroni multiple comparison posttest for significant differences (*p < or = 0.05). Injury + LPS showed immune priming observed by lung injury histology and increased bronchoalveolar lavage neutrophilia, lung myeloperoxidase and serum IL-6, CXCL1, and MIP-2 levels when compared with injury + vehicle or LPS alone. After injury, resuscitation with HTS, but not Lactated Ringer's was more effective in attenuating the primed response to a second hit. Pulmonary contusion primes innate immunity for an exaggerated response to a second hit with the Toll-like receptor 4 agonist, LPS. We observed synergistic increases in inflammatory mediator expression in the blood and a more severe lung injury in injured animals challenged with LPS. This priming effect was reduced when HTS was used to resuscitate the animal after lung contusion.

  19. Innate immunity in CKD-associated vascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zewinger, Stephen; Schumann, Timo; Fliser, Danilo; Speer, Thimoteus

    2016-11-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular events. Therefore, the activation of the innate immune system plays an important role. In contrast to the adaptive immunity, unspecific recognition of conserved endogenous and exogenous structures by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) represents a key feature of the innate immunity. Of these PRRs, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) as well as the inflammasome complex have been documented to be involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). They are not only expressed in leukocytes but also in a variety of cell types such as endothelial cells or fibroblasts. While activation of TLRs on the cell surface leads to nuclear factor κB-dependent expression of pro-inflammatory mediators, the inflammasome is a cytosolic multimeric protein complex, which cleaves cytokines such as interleukin-1β into their biologically active forms. Several endogenous ligands for these PRRs have been identified as contributing to the development of a CKD-specific pro-inflammatory microenvironment. Notably, activation of TLRs as well as the inflammasome is associated with arterial hypertension, formation of atherosclerotic vascular lesions and vascular calcification. However, detailed molecular mechanisms on how the innate immune system contributes to CKD-associated CVDs are as yet poorly understood. Currently, several agents modulating the activation of the innate immune system are the focus of cardiovascular research. Large clinical studies will provide further information on the therapeutic applicability of these substances to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the general population. Further trials including patients with CKD will be necessary to assess their effects on CKD-associated CVD. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  20. GABAA receptor-mediated modulation of neuronal activity propagation upon tetanic stimulation in rat hippocampal slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Takashi; Tominaga, Yoko

    2010-10-01

    Tetanic stimulation (100 Hz), which can induce long-term potentiation in synaptic connections in the hippocampal CA1 region, causes γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)(A) receptor-mediated long-lasting depolarization of postsynaptic neurons. However, it is not clear how this stimulation modulates neuronal activity propagation. We studied tetanic burst-induced neuronal responses in the hippocampal CA1 region by using optical-recording methods employing a voltage-sensitive dye and focused on GABA(A) receptor-mediated modulation. We observed that burst stimulation induced long-lasting depolarization and progressive decrease in individual excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs). Both these effects were suppressed by picrotoxin, a GABA(A) receptor antagonist. Under whole-cell voltage-clamp conditions, we observed a long-lasting inhibitory current (IPSC) and a prominent progressive decrease in the amplitude of the excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC). Further, picrotoxin inhibited the IPSC and the progressive decrease in EPSC. The optically recorded long-lasting depolarization and progressive decrease of EPSPs were strongly dependent on the distance between the recording electrode and the stimulation site. Optical recordings performed across a wide swatch of CA1 revealed that the decrease in activity propagation was followed by facilitation of propagation after recovery and that this facilitation also depended on GABA(A) receptors. Intense activation of GABA(A) receptors is a key factor shaping the spatiotemporal patterns of high-frequency stimulation-induced responses in the CA1 region.

  1. Postnatal aniracetam treatment improves prenatal ethanol induced attenuation of AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayawardhane, Nayana; Shonesy, Brian C; Vaglenova, Julia; Vaithianathan, Thirumalini; Carpenter, Mark; Breese, Charles R; Dityatev, Alexander; Suppiramaniam, Vishnu

    2007-06-01

    Aniracetam is a nootropic compound and an allosteric modulator of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) which mediate synaptic mechanisms of learning and memory. Here we analyzed impairments in AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission caused by moderate prenatal ethanol exposure and investigated the effects of postnatal aniracetam treatment on these abnormalities. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged with ethanol or isocaloric sucrose throughout pregnancy, and subsequently the offspring were treated with aniracetam on postnatal days (PND) 18 to 27. Hippocampal slices prepared from these pups on PND 28 to 34 were used for the whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of AMPAR-mediated spontaneous and miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents in CA1 pyramidal cells. Our results indicate that moderate ethanol exposure during pregnancy results in impaired hippocampal AMPAR-mediated neurotransmission, and critically timed aniracetam treatment can abrogate this deficiency. These results highlight the possibility that aniracetam treatment can restore synaptic transmission and ameliorate cognitive deficits associated with the fetal alcohol syndrome.

  2. Asunaprevir Evokes Hepatocytes Innate Immunity to Restrict the Replication of Hepatitis C and Dengue Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Lun Tsai

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Type I Interferon-mediated innate immunity against Flaviviridae, such as Hepatitis C virus (HCV and Dengue virus (DENV, involves TLR3, RIG-I-like receptor (RLR and JAK-STAT signal pathways. Asunaprevir is a newly developed HCV protease inhibitor for HCV treatment. Whether, asunaprevir activates innate immunity to restrict viral infection is unclear. Thus, this study investigates the effect of asunaprevir on innate immunity and its influence on HCV and DENV infection. Huh 7.5.1, Hep-G2 cells, JFH-1 infection model, and DENV-2 infection were used for the analysis. The activity of asunaprevir-regulated innate immunity signal pathway was assessed with IFN-β promoter or IFN-stimulated responsive element (ISRE reporter assays and immunoblotting of key signal proteins. siRNA-mediated MAVS and TRIF knockdown of cells was performed to assess the effect of asunaprevir-regulated innate immunity against HCV and DENV. Asunaprevir treatment activated ISRE and IFN-β promoter-luciferase activities and signaling proteins in the JAK-STAT, MAVS, and TRIF pathways in Huh 7.5.1 cells. Asunaprevir-mediated signaling activation was decreased in MAVS-knockdown cells. Importantly, both RNA and protein levels of DENV-2 NS3 were decreased in asunaprevir-treated Huh 7.5.1 and HepG2 cells. In MAVS-knockdown cells, the restrictive effect of asunaprevir on HCV and DENV was attenuated. Our findings reveal an unexpected activity of asunaprevir, the activation of MAVS dependent innate immunity to restrict HCV and DENV infection.

  3. Asunaprevir Evokes Hepatocytes Innate Immunity to Restrict the Replication of Hepatitis C and Dengue Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wei-Lun; Cheng, Jin-Shiung; Shu, Chih-Wen; Lai, Kwok-Hung; Chan, Hoi-Hung; Wu, Chun-Ching; Wu, Jing-Mei; Hsu, Ping-I; Chung, Raymond T; Chang, Tsung-Hsien

    2017-01-01

    Type I Interferon-mediated innate immunity against Flaviviridae , such as Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and Dengue virus (DENV), involves TLR3, RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) and JAK-STAT signal pathways. Asunaprevir is a newly developed HCV protease inhibitor for HCV treatment. Whether, asunaprevir activates innate immunity to restrict viral infection is unclear. Thus, this study investigates the effect of asunaprevir on innate immunity and its influence on HCV and DENV infection. Huh 7.5.1, Hep-G2 cells, JFH-1 infection model, and DENV-2 infection were used for the analysis. The activity of asunaprevir-regulated innate immunity signal pathway was assessed with IFN-β promoter or IFN-stimulated responsive element (ISRE) reporter assays and immunoblotting of key signal proteins. siRNA-mediated MAVS and TRIF knockdown of cells was performed to assess the effect of asunaprevir-regulated innate immunity against HCV and DENV. Asunaprevir treatment activated ISRE and IFN-β promoter-luciferase activities and signaling proteins in the JAK-STAT, MAVS, and TRIF pathways in Huh 7.5.1 cells. Asunaprevir-mediated signaling activation was decreased in MAVS-knockdown cells. Importantly, both RNA and protein levels of DENV-2 NS3 were decreased in asunaprevir-treated Huh 7.5.1 and HepG2 cells. In MAVS-knockdown cells, the restrictive effect of asunaprevir on HCV and DENV was attenuated. Our findings reveal an unexpected activity of asunaprevir, the activation of MAVS dependent innate immunity to restrict HCV and DENV infection.

  4. Renal uptake of myoglobin is mediated by the endocytic receptors megalin and cubilin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gburek, Jakub; Birn, Henrik; Verroust, Pierre J

    2003-01-01

    2 microM). Receptor-associated protein as well as antibodies directed against megalin and cubilin markedly inhibited the uptake of fluorescent-labeled myoglobin by cultured yolk sac BN-16 cells. The significance of megalin- and cubilin-mediated endocytosis for myoglobin uptake in vivo...... and cubilin are involved in renal reabsorption of myoglobin. Both receptors were captured from solubilized renal brush-border membranes by affinity chromatography using myoglobin-Sepharose. Myoglobin bound to purified megalin and cubilin with Kd values of 2.0 and 3 microM, respectively, as evaluated...

  5. The binding of NCAM to FGFR1 induces a specific cellular response mediated by receptor trafficking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francavilla, Chiara; Cattaneo, Paola; Berezin, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) associates with fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor-1 (FGFR1). However, the biological significance of this interaction remains largely elusive. In this study, we show that NCAM induces a specific, FGFR1-mediated cellular response that is remarkably...... in a specific cellular response. Besides introducing a further level of complexity in the regulation of FGFR1 function, our findings highlight the link of FGFR recycling with sustained signaling and cell migration and the critical role of these events in dictating the cellular response evoked by receptor...

  6. Innate immunity in vertebrates: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera Romo, Mario; Pérez-Martínez, Dayana; Castillo Ferrer, Camila

    2016-06-01

    Innate immunity is a semi-specific and widely distributed form of immunity, which represents the first line of defence against pathogens. This type of immunity is critical to maintain homeostasis and prevent microbe invasion, eliminating a great variety of pathogens and contributing with the activation of the adaptive immune response. The components of innate immunity include physical and chemical barriers, humoral and cell-mediated components, which are present in all jawed vertebrates. The understanding of innate defence mechanisms in non-mammalian vertebrates is the key to comprehend the general picture of vertebrate innate immunity and its evolutionary history. This is also essential for the identification of new molecules with applications in immunopharmacology and immunotherapy. In this review, we describe and discuss the main elements of vertebrate innate immunity, presenting core findings in this field and identifying areas that need further investigation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. P2X1 stimulation promotes thrombin receptor-mediated platelet aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhardt, J A; Toomey, J R; Douglas, S A; Johns, D G

    2006-04-01

    P2X1 receptors are ATP-gated channel demonstrated to be involved in multiple platelet responses, although in vitro analysis has been complicated by the effects of rapid desensitization. To further investigate potential roles of P2X1 receptors in platelet activation, the current study employed methods which maximally preserved P2X1 functionality. In preliminary in vivo studies, P2X1-deficiency reduced thrombus formation following the laser-induced, but not FeCl3-induced injury. Given the multiple potential mechanisms involved in thrombus formation in vivo, including tissue-factor/thrombin generation pathways, subsequent studies were designed to investigate the effects of P2X1 inhibition or stimulation on platelet activation in vitro; specifically, the interaction of P2X1 with thrombin receptor stimulation. Aggregation initiated by low/threshold levels of a protease-activated receptor (PAR)4 agonist was reduced in P2X1-deficient murine platelets, and inhibition of P2X1 in wild-type platelets similarly reduced PAR4-mediated aggregation. In human platelets, aggregation to low/threshold stimulation of PAR1 was inhibited with the P2X1 antagonist MRS2159. In addition, P2X1 stimulation primed human platelet responses, such that subsequent sub-threshold PAR1 responses were converted into significant aggregation. Selective ADP receptor inhibitors attenuated P2X1-mediated priming, suggesting that the synergy between P2X1 and sub-threshold PAR1 stimulation was in part because of enhanced granular release of ADP. Overall, the present study defines a novel interaction between platelet P2X1 and thrombin receptors, with P2X1 functioning to amplify aggregation responses at low levels of thrombin receptor stimulation.

  8. Safety Pharmacology assessment of drugs with biased 5-HT(2B) receptor agonism mediating cardiac valvulopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavero, Icilio; Guillon, Jean-Michel

    2014-01-01

    The rhythmic opening and tightly closing of cardiac valve leaflets are cardiac cyclic events imposing to blood a unidirectional course along the vascular tree. Drugs with 5-HT2B agonism properties can seriously compromise this biological function critical for hemodynamic efficiency as their intrinsic pro-fibrotic effects can, with time, make valvular coaptation blood regurgitant. Cardiac valve anatomy, physiology and pathology as well as 5-HT2B receptor properties (coupling, effects mediated, biased agonism) are briefly exposed. Approaches to unveil 5-HT2B receptor liability of drug candidates are detailed. In silico computational models can rapidly probe molecules for chemical signatures associated with 5-HT2B receptor affinity. In vitro radioligand competition assays allow quantifying receptor binding capacity (Ki, IC50), the pharmacological nature (agonism, antagonism) of which can be ascertained from cytosolic second messenger (inositol phosphates, Ca(++), MAPK2) changes. Potencies calculated from the latter data may exhibit variability as they are dependent upon the readout measured and the experimental conditions (e.g., receptor density level of cell material expressing human 5-HT2B receptors). The in vivo valvulopathy effects of 5-HT2B receptor agonists can be assessed by echocardiographic measurements and valve histology in rats chronically treated with the candidate drug. Finally, safety margins derived from from nonclinical and clinical data are evaluated in terms of the readout, usefulness and scientific reliability. The Safety Pharmacology toolbox for detecting possible 5-HT2B receptor agonism liabilities of candidate drugs requires meticulous optimization and validation of all its (in silico, in vitro and in vivo) components to perfect its human predictability power. In particular, since 5-HT2B receptor agonism is biased in nature, the most predictive readout(s) of valvular liability should be identified and prioritized in keeping with best scientific

  9. Gastrin-Releasing Peptide Receptor Mediates Activation of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Lung Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sufi Mary Thomas

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR are expressed in several cancers including non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC. Here we demonstrate the activation of EGFR by the GRPR ligand, gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP, in NSCLC cells. GRP induced rapid activation of p44/42 MAPK in lung cancer cells through EGFR. GRP-mediated activation of MAPK in NSCLC cells was abrogated by pretreatment with the anti-EGFR-neutralizing antibody, C225. Pretreatment of NSCLC cells with neutralizing antibodies to the EGFR ligands, TGF-α or HB-EGF, also decreased GRP-mediated MAPK activation. On matrix metalloproteinase (MMP inhibition, GRP failed to activate MAPK in NSCLC cells. EGF and GRP both stimulated NSCLC proliferation, and inhibition of either EGFR or GRPR resulted in cell death. Combining a GRPR antagonist with the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, gefitinib, resulted in additive cytotoxic effects. Additive effects were seen at gefitinib concentrations from 1 to 18μM, encompassing the ID50 values of both gefitinib-sensitive and gefitinib-resistant NSCLC cell lines. Because a major effect of GRPR appears to be promoting the release of EGFR ligand, this study suggests that a greater inhibition of cell proliferation may occur by abrogating EGFR ligand release in consort with inhibition of EGFR.

  10. Interaction between Cannabinoid System and Toll-Like Receptors Controls Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen L. McCoy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of the endocannabinoid system consisting of cannabinoid receptors, endogenous ligands, and biosynthetic and metabolizing enzymes, interest has been renewed in investigating the promise of cannabinoids as therapeutic agents. Abundant evidence indicates that cannabinoids modulate immune responses. An inflammatory response is triggered when innate immune cells receive a danger signal provided by pathogen- or damage-associated molecular patterns engaging pattern-recognition receptors. Toll-like receptor family members are prominent pattern-recognition receptors expressed on innate immune cells. Cannabinoids suppress Toll-like receptor-mediated inflammatory responses. However, the relationship between the endocannabinoid system and innate immune system may not be one-sided. Innate immune cells express cannabinoid receptors and produce endogenous cannabinoids. Hence, innate immune cells may play a role in regulating endocannabinoid homeostasis, and, in turn, the endocannabinoid system modulates local inflammatory responses. Studies designed to probe the interaction between the innate immune system and the endocannabinoid system may identify new potential molecular targets in developing therapeutic strategies for chronic inflammatory diseases. This review discusses the endocannabinoid system and Toll-like receptor family and evaluates the interaction between them.

  11. Dissecting Bacterial Cell Wall Entry and Signaling in Eukaryotic Cells: an Actin-Dependent Pathway Parallels Platelet-Activating Factor Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lip Nam Loh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gram-positive bacterial cell wall (CW peptidoglycan-teichoic acid complex is released into the host environment during bacterial metabolism or death. It is a highly inflammatory Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2 ligand, and previous in vivo studies have demonstrated its ability to recapitulate pathological features of pneumonia and meningitis. We report that an actin-dependent pathway is involved in the internalization of the CW by epithelial and endothelial cells, in addition to the previously described platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFr-dependent uptake pathway. Unlike the PAFr-dependent pathway, which is mediated by clathrin and dynamin and does not lead to signaling, the alternative pathway is sensitive to 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl amiloride (EIPA and engenders Rac1, Cdc42, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K signaling. Upon internalization by this macropinocytosis-like pathway, CW is trafficked to lysosomes. Intracellular CW trafficking is more complex than previously recognized and suggests multiple points of interaction with and without innate immune signaling.

  12. DC-SIGN and Toll-like receptor 4 mediate oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced inflammatory responses in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ke; Liu, Xinhe; Liu, Yan; Wang, Xinqiong; Cao, Lijuan; Zhang, Xiaojie; Xu, Chundi; Shen, Weifeng; Zhou, Tong

    2017-06-12

    The regulation of inflammatory responses by innate immune receptors is recognized as a crucial step in the development of atherosclerosis, although the precise molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. This study focused on illustrating the roles of dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN)- and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-regulated inflammatory responses in macrophages. We found that DC-SIGN expression levels were increased in macrophages of atherosclerotic plaques. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) significantly enhanced DC-SIGN protein expression levels after a short-term exposure. Knockdown of DC-SIGN decreased expression and secretion of interleukin 1-β (IL1-β), monocyte chemo-attractant protein 1 (MCP-1), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). Immunofluorescence studies demonstrated that DC-SIGN and TLR4 co-localized in regions of the plaques. Moreover, DC-SIGN was co-expressed with TLR4 on the plasma membrane after oxLDL stimulation. The presence of an endogenous interaction and the results of the in vitro pull-down assays revealed that DC-SIGN binds directly with TLR4. We also present evidence that DC-SIGN mediates TLR4-regulated NFκB activation but not activation of p38 and JNK. Our results suggest an essential role of DC-SIGN/TLR4 signaling in macrophages in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.

  13. GRK2 protein-mediated transphosphorylation contributes to loss of function of μ-opioid receptors induced by neuropeptide FF (NPFF2) receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulédous, Lionel; Froment, Carine; Dauvillier, Stéphanie; Burlet-Schiltz, Odile; Zajac, Jean-Marie; Mollereau, Catherine

    2012-04-13

    Neuropeptide FF (NPFF) interacts with specific receptors to modulate opioid functions in the central nervous system. On dissociated neurons and neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) transfected with NPFF receptors, NPFF acts as a functional antagonist of μ-opioid (MOP) receptors by attenuating the opioid-induced inhibition of calcium conductance. In the SH-SY5Y model, MOP and NPFF(2) receptors have been shown to heteromerize. To understand the molecular mechanism involved in the anti-opioid activity of NPFF, we have investigated the phosphorylation status of the MOP receptor using phospho-specific antibody and mass spectrometry. Similarly to direct opioid receptor stimulation, activation of the NPFF(2) receptor by [D-Tyr-1-(NMe)Phe-3]NPFF (1DMe), an analog of NPFF, induced the phosphorylation of Ser-377 of the human MOP receptor. This heterologous phosphorylation was unaffected by inhibition of second messenger-dependent kinases and, contrarily to homologous phosphorylation, was prevented by inactivation of G(i/o) proteins by pertussis toxin. Using siRNA knockdown we could demonstrate that 1DMe-induced Ser-377 cross-phosphorylation and MOP receptor loss of function were mediated by the G protein receptor kinase GRK2. In addition, mass spectrometric analysis revealed that the phosphorylation pattern of MOP receptors was qualitatively similar after treatment with the MOP agonist Tyr-D-Ala-Gly (NMe)-Phe-Gly-ol (DAMGO) or after treatment with the NPFF agonist 1DMe, but the level of multiple phosphorylation was more intense after DAMGO. Finally, NPFF(2) receptor activation was sufficient to recruit β-arrestin2 to the MOP receptor but not to induce its internalization. These data show that NPFF-induced heterologous desensitization of MOP receptor signaling is mediated by GRK2 and could involve transphosphorylation within the heteromeric receptor complex.

  14. Receptor-mediated uptake of low density lipoprotein stimulates bile acid synthesis by cultured rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junker, L.H.; Davis, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    The cellular mechanisms responsible for the lipoprotein-mediated stimulation of bile acid synthesis in cultured rat hepatocytes were investigated. Adding 280 micrograms/ml of cholesterol in the form of human or rat low density lipoprotein (LDL) to the culture medium increased bile acid synthesis by 1.8- and 1.6-fold, respectively. As a result of the uptake of LDL, the synthesis of [14C]cholesterol from [2-14C]acetate was decreased and cellular cholesteryl ester mass was increased. Further studies demonstrated that rat apoE-free LDL and apoE-rich high density lipoprotein (HDL) both stimulated bile acid synthesis 1.5-fold, as well as inhibited the formation of [14C]cholesterol from [2-14C]acetate. Reductive methylation of LDL blocked the inhibition of cholesterol synthesis, as well as the stimulation of bile acid synthesis, suggesting that these processes require receptor-mediated uptake. To identify the receptors responsible, competitive binding studies using 125I-labeled apoE-free LDL and 125I-labeled apoE-rich HDL were performed. Both apoE-free LDL and apoE-rich HDL displayed an equal ability to compete for binding of the other, suggesting that a receptor or a group of receptors that recognizes both apolipoproteins is involved. Additional studies show that hepatocytes from cholestyramine-treated rats displayed 2.2- and 3.4-fold increases in the binding of apoE-free LDL and apoE-rich HDL, respectively. These data show for the first time that receptor-mediated uptake of LDL by the liver is intimately linked to processes activating bile acid synthesis

  15. AT(2) receptors mediate tonic renal medullary vasoconstriction in renovascular hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Lisa M; Widdop, Robert E; Kett, Michelle M; Evans, Roger G

    2005-02-01

    1. Renal medullary blood flow is relatively insensitive to angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced vasoconstriction, due partly to AT(1)-mediated release of nitric oxide and/or prostaglandins. AT(2)-receptor activation appears to blunt AT(1)-mediated vasodilatation within the medullary circulation. This could affect long-term efficacy of antihypertensive pharmacotherapies targeting the renin/angiotensin system, particularly in Ang II-dependent forms of hypertension. 2. We tested the effects of AT(1)- and AT(2)-receptor blockade on basal cortical and medullary laser Doppler flux (CLDF and MLDF), and on responses to renal arterial infusion of Ang II, in rats with 2 kidney, 1 clip (2K1C) hypertension and sham-operated controls. Studies were carried out in thiobutabarbital (175 mg kg(-1), i.p.) anaesthetised rats, 4 weeks after clipping, or sham surgery (n=6 in each of eight groups). 3. Candesartan (10 microg kg(-1) h(-1), intravenous (i.v.)) reduced mean arterial pressure ( approximately 17%) and increased CLDF ( approximately 24%), similarly in both sham and 2K1C rats, but did not significantly affect MLDF. PD123319 (1 mg kg(-1) h(-1), i.v.) increased basal MLDF (19%) in 2K1C but not sham rats, without significantly affecting other variables. 4. In sham rats, renal arterial infusion of Ang II (1-100 ng kg(-1) min(-1)) dose dependently decreased CLDF (up to 44%), but did not significantly affect MLDF. These effects were markedly blunted in 2K1C rats. After PD123319, Ang II dose dependently increased MLDF (up to 38%) in sham but not 2K1C rats. Candesartan abolished all effects of Ang II, including those seen after PD123319. 5. Our data indicate that AT(1) receptors mediate medullary vasodilatation, which is opposed by AT(2)-receptor activation. In 2K1C hypertension, AT(2)-receptor activation tonically constricts the medullary circulation.

  16. The Role of PPAR Receptors and Leukotriene B4 Receptors in Mediating the Effects of LY293111 in Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Adrian

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is a devastating disease in which current therapies are inadequate. Separate lines of research have identified the 5-lipoxygenase/leukotriene B4 receptor pathway and the PPAR pathway as potential targets for prevention or treatment of this disease. LY293111 was originally designed as a potent leukotriene B4 receptor antagonist for treatment of inflammatory conditions. LY293111 was also known to have inhibitory effects on 5-lipoxygenase, which is upstream of the production of leukotrienes. LY293111 was shown to have potent anticancer effects in pancreatic cancer and several other solid malignancies, where it caused cell cycle arrest and marked apoptosis. Subsequently, it came to light that LY293111 exhibited PPAR agonist activity in addition to its effects on the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. This raises the question of which of the two targets is of greatest importance with regard to the anticancer effects of this agent. The evidence to date is not conclusive, but suggests that the effects of LY293111 may be mediated by both LTB4 receptors and PPAR.

  17. Direct involvement of σ-1 receptors in the dopamine D1 receptor-mediated effects of cocaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Gemma; Moreno, Estefanía; Aymerich, Marisol; Marcellino, Daniel; McCormick, Peter J.; Mallol, Josefa; Cortés, Antoni; Casadó, Vicent; Canela, Enric I.; Ortiz, Jordi; Fuxe, Kjell; Lluís, Carmen; Ferré, Sergi; Franco, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that cocaine blocks the dopamine transporter. This mechanism should lead to a general increase in dopaminergic neurotransmission, and yet dopamine D1 receptors (D1Rs) play a more significant role in the behavioral effects of cocaine than the other dopamine receptor subtypes. Cocaine also binds to σ-1 receptors, the physiological role of which is largely unknown. In the present study, D1R and σ1R were found to heteromerize in transfected cells, where cocaine robustly potentiated D1R-mediated adenylyl cyclase activation, induced MAPK activation per se and counteracted MAPK activation induced by D1R stimulation in a dopamine transporter-independent and σ1R-dependent manner. Some of these effects were also demonstrated in murine striatal slices and were absent in σ1R KO mice, providing evidence for the existence of σ1R-D1R heteromers in the brain. Therefore, these results provide a molecular explanation for which D1R plays a more significant role in the behavioral effects of cocaine, through σ1R-D1R heteromerization, and provide a unique perspective toward understanding the molecular basis of cocaine addiction. PMID:20956312

  18. Glutamate AMPA/kainate receptors, not GABA(A) receptors, mediate estradiol-induced sex differences in the hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Brigitte J; Schwarz, Jaclyn M; Mong, Jessica A; McCarthy, Margaret M

    2007-02-15

    Sex differences in brain morphology underlie physiological and behavioral differences between males and females. During the critical perinatal period for sexual differentiation in the rat, gonadal steroids act in a regionally specific manner to alter neuronal morphology. Using Golgi-Cox impregnation, we examined several parameters of neuronal morphology in postnatal day 2 (PN2) rats. We found that in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMN) and in areas just dorsal and just lateral to the VMN that there was a sex difference in total dendritic spine number (males greater) that was abolished by treating female neonates with exogenous testosterone. Dendritic branching was similarly sexually differentiated and hormonally modulated in the VMN and dorsal to the VMN. We then used spinophilin, a protein that positively correlates with the amount of dendritic spines, to investigate the mechanisms underlying these sex differences. Estradiol, which mediates most aspects of masculinization and is the aromatized product of testosterone, increased spinophilin levels in female PN2 rats to that of males. Muscimol, an agonist at GABA(A) receptors, did not affect spinophilin protein levels in either male or female neonates. Kainic acid, an agonist at glutamatergic AMPA/kainate receptors, mimicked the effect of estradiol in females. Antagonizing AMPA/kainate receptors with NBQX prevented the estradiol-induced increase in spinophilin in females but did not affect spinophilin level in males. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Inflammatory Mediators and Insulin Resistance in Obesity: Role of Nuclear Receptor Signaling in Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Fuentes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Visceral obesity is coupled to a general low-grade chronic inflammatory state characterized by macrophage activation and inflammatory cytokine production, leading to insulin resistance (IR. The balance between proinflammatory M1 and antiinflammatory M2 macrophage phenotypes within visceral adipose tissue appears to be crucially involved in the development of obesity-associated IR and consequent metabolic abnormalities. The ligand-dependent transcription factors peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs have recently been implicated in the determination of the M1/M2 phenotype. Liver X receptors (LXRs, which form another subgroup of the nuclear receptor superfamily, are also important regulators of proinflammatory cytokine production in macrophages. Disregulation of macrophage-mediated inflammation by PPARs and LXRs therefore underlies the development of IR. This review summarizes the role of PPAR and LXR signaling in macrophages and current knowledge about the impact of these actions in the manifestation of IR and obesity comorbidities such as liver steatosis and diabetic osteopenia.

  20. Bicarbonate Contributes to GABAA Receptor-Mediated Neuronal Excitation in Surgically-Resected Human Hypothalamic Hamartomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do-Young, Kim; Fenoglio, Kristina A.; Kerrigan, John F.; Rho, Jong M.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY The role of bicarbonate (HCO3-) in GABAA receptor-mediated depolarization of human hypothalamic hamartoma (HH) neurons was investigated using cellular electrophysiological and calcium imaging techniques. Activation of GABAA receptors with muscimol (30 μM) provoked neuronal excitation in over 70% of large (18-22 μM) HH neurons in HCO3- buffer. Subsequent perfusion of HCO3--free HEPES buffer produced partial suppression of muscimol-induced excitation. Additionally, 53% of large HH neurons under HCO3--free conditions exhibited reduced intracellular calcium accumulation by muscimol. These results suggest that HCO3- efflux through GABAA receptors on a subpopulation of large HH neurons may contribute to membrane depolarization and subsequent activation of L-type calcium channels. PMID:19022626

  1. Differences between lutropin-mediated and choriogonadotropin-mediated receptor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzesik, Paul; Teichmann, Anke; Furkert, Jens; Rutz, Claudia; Wiesner, Burkhard; Kleinau, Gunnar; Schülein, Ralf; Gromoll, Jörg; Krause, Gerd

    2014-03-01

    The human lutropin/choriogonadotropin receptor (hLHR) for the gonadotropic hormones human luteinizing hormone (hLH; lutropin) and human choriogonadotropin (hCG) is crucial for normal sexual development and fertility. We aimed to unravel differences between the two hLHR hormones in molecular activation mechanisms at hLHR. We utilized a specific hLHR variant that lacks exon 10 (hLHR-delExon10), which maintains full cAMP signaling by hCG, but decreases hLH-induced receptor signaling, resulting in a pathogenic phenotype. Exon 10 encodes 27 amino acids within the hinge region, which is an extracellular segment that is important for signaling and hormone interaction. Initially, we assumed that the lack of exon 10 might disturb intermolecular trans-activation of hLH, a mechanism that has been reported for hCG at hLHR. Coexpression of signaling-deficient hLHR and binding-deficient hLHR can be used to examine the mechanisms of receptor signaling, in particular intermolecular cooperation and intramolecular cis-activation. Therefore, hLHR-delExon10 was combined with the hLHR Lys605→Glu mutant, in which signaling is abolished, and the hLHR mutant Cys131→Arg, in which binding is deficient. We found that hCG signaling was partially rescued, indicating trans-activation. However, the hLH signal could not be restored via forced trans-activation with any construct. Fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy detected oligomerization in all combinations, indicating that these functional differences cannot be explained by monomerization of hLHR-delExon10. Thus, our data demonstrate not only that the different behavior of hLH at hLHR-delExon10 is unlikely to be related to modified intermolecular receptor activation, but also that hLH may exclusively stimulate the targeted hLHR by cis-activation, whereas hCG is also capable of inducing trans-activation. © 2014 FEBS.

  2. Structural Basis for Receptor-Mediated Selective Autophagy of Aminopeptidase I Aggregates

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    Akinori Yamasaki

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Selective autophagy mediates the degradation of various cargoes, including protein aggregates and organelles, thereby contributing to cellular homeostasis. Cargo receptors ensure selectivity by tethering specific cargo to lipidated Atg8 at the isolation membrane. However, little is known about the structural requirements underlying receptor-mediated cargo recognition. Here, we report structural, biochemical, and cell biological analysis of the major selective cargo protein in budding yeast, aminopeptidase I (Ape1, and its complex with the receptor Atg19. The Ape1 propeptide has a trimeric coiled-coil structure, which tethers dodecameric Ape1 bodies together to form large aggregates. Atg19 disassembles the propeptide trimer and forms a 2:1 heterotrimer, which not only blankets the Ape1 aggregates but also regulates their size. These receptor activities may promote elongation of the isolation membrane along the aggregate surface, enabling sequestration of the cargo with high specificity.

  3. Inhibition of leukemia cell proliferation by receptor-mediated uptake of c-myb antisense oligodeoxynucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citro, G; Perrotti, D; Cucco, C; D'Agnano, I; Sacchi, A; Zupi, G; Calabretta, B

    1992-01-01

    Exposure of human leukemia HL-60 cells to an oligodeoxynucleotide complementary to an 18-base sequence (codons 2-7) of c-myb-encoded mRNA has previously been shown to result in inhibition of cell proliferation. Because HL-60 cells express high levels of transferrin receptor we adapted a DNA delivery system based on receptor-mediated endocytosis to introduce myb oligomers complexed with a transferrin-polylysine conjugate into those cells. A DNA.RNA duplex resistant to S1 nuclease digestion was detected as early as 12 hr after culture of HL-60 cells in the presence of the myb antisense/transferrin-polylysine complex. Exposure of HL-60 cells to the myb antisense/transferrin-polylysine complex resulted in rapid and profound inhibition of proliferation and loss of cell viability much more pronounced than that occurring in cells exposed to free myb antisense oligodeoxynucleotides. The transferrin-polylysine/myb sense complex or the transferrin-polylysine conjugate alone had no effect on HL-60 cell proliferation and viability. These findings indicate that myb synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides enter efficiently into HL-60 by transferrin receptor-mediated endocytosis and exert a profound biological effect. Such a delivery system could exploit other ligand-receptor interactions for the selective delivery of oncogene-targeted antisense oligodeoxynucleotides. Images PMID:1495997

  4. Hormonally-mediated Epigenetic Changes to Steroid Receptors in the Developing Brain: Implications for Sexual Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Bridget M.; Schwarz, Jaclyn M.; McCarthy, Margaret M.

    2010-01-01

    The establishment of sex-specific neural morphology, which underlies sex-specific behaviors, occurs during a perinatal sensitive window in which brief exposure to gonadal steroid hormones produces permanent masculinization of the brain. In the rodent, estradiol derived from testicular androgens is a principle organizational hormone. The mechanism by which transient estradiol exposure induces permanent differences in neuronal anatomy has been widely investigated, but remains elusive. Epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation, allow environmental influences to alter long-term gene expression patterns and therefore may be a potential mediator of estradiol-induced organization of the neonatal brain. Here we review data that demonstrate sex and estradiol-induced differences in DNA methylation on the estrogen receptor α (ERα), estrogen receptor β (ERβ), and progesterone receptor (PR) promoters in sexually dimorphic brain regions across development. Contrary to the overarching view of DNA methylation as a permanent modification directly tied to gene expression, these data demonstrate that methylation patterns on steroid hormone receptors change across the life span and do not necessarily predict expression. Although further exploration into the mechanism and significance of estradiol-induced alterations in DNA methylation patterns in the neonatal brain is necessary, these results provide preliminary evidence that epigenetic alterations can occur in response to early hormone exposure and may mediate estradiol-induced organization of sex differences in the neonatal brain. PMID:20800064

  5. Enhanced NMDA receptor-mediated intracellular calcium signaling in magnocellular neurosecretory neurons in heart failure rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Javier E; Potapenko, Evgeniy S

    2013-08-15

    An enhanced glutamate excitatory function within the hypothalamic supraoptic and paraventricluar nuclei is known to contribute to increased neurosecretory and presympathetic neuronal activity, and hence, neurohumoral activation, during heart failure (HF). Still, the precise mechanisms underlying enhanced glutamate-driven neuronal activity in HF remain to be elucidated. Here, we performed simultaneous electrophysiology and fast confocal Ca²⁺ imaging to determine whether altered N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated changes in intracellular Ca²⁺ levels (NMDA-ΔCa²⁺) occurred in hypothalamic magnocellular neurosecretory cells (MNCs) in HF rats. We found that activation of NMDA receptors resulted in a larger ΔCa²⁺ in MNCs from HF when compared with sham rats. The enhanced NMDA-ΔCa²⁺ was neither dependent on the magnitude of the NMDA-mediated current (voltage clamp) nor on the degree of membrane depolarization or firing activity evoked by NMDA (current clamp). Differently from NMDA receptor activation, firing activity evoked by direct membrane depolarization resulted in similar changes in intracellular Ca²⁺ in sham and HF rats. Taken together, our results support a relatively selective alteration of intracellular Ca²⁺ homeostasis and signaling following activation of NMDA receptors in MNCs during HF. The downstream functional consequences of such altered ΔCa²⁺ signaling during HF are discussed.

  6. Innate cell communication kick-starts pathogen-specific immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Amariliz; Siracusa, Mark C; Yap, George S; Gause, William C

    2016-04-01

    Innate cells are responsible for the rapid recognition of infection and mediate essential mechanisms of pathogen elimination, and also facilitate adaptive immune responses. We review here the numerous intricate interactions among innate cells that initiate protective immunity. The efficient eradication of pathogens depends on the coordinated actions of multiple cells, including innate cells and epithelial cells. Rather than acting as isolated effector cells, innate cells are in constant communication with other responding cells of the immune system, locally and distally. These interactions are critically important for the efficient control of primary infections as well for the development of 'trained' innate cells that facilitate the rapid elimination of homologous or heterologous infections.

  7. Metabotropic GABAB receptors mediate GABA inhibition of acetylcholine release in the rat neuromuscular junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malomouzh, Artem I; Petrov, Konstantin A; Nurullin, Leniz F; Nikolsky, Evgeny E

    2015-12-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an amino acid which acts as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Here, we studied the effects of GABA on non-quantal, spontaneous, and evoked quantal acetylcholine (ACh) release from motor nerve endings. We found that while the application of 10 μM of GABA had no effect on spontaneous quantal ACh release, as detected by the frequency of miniature endplate potentials, GABA reduced the non-quantal ACh release by 57%, as determined by the H-effect value. Finally, the evoked quantal ACh release, estimated by calculating the quantal content of full-sized endplate potentials (EPPs), was reduced by 34%. GABA's inhibitory effect remained unchanged after pre-incubation with picrotoxin, an ionotropic GABAA receptor blocker, but was attenuated following application of the GABAB receptor blocker CGP 55845, which itself had no effect on ACh release. An inhibitor of phospholipase C, U73122, completely prevented the GABA-induced decrease in ACh release. Immunofluorescence demonstrated the presence of both subunits of the GABAB receptor (GABAB R1 and GABAB R2) in the neuromuscular junction. These findings suggest that metabotropic GABAB receptors are expressed in the mammalian neuromuscular synapse and their activation results in a phospholipase C-mediated reduction in the intensity of non-quantal and evoked quantal ACh release. We investigated the effect of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on neuromuscular transmission. GABA reduced the non-quantal and evoked quantal release of acetylcholine. These effects are mediated by GABAB receptors and are implemented via phospholipase C (PLC) activation. Our findings suggest that in the mammalian neuromuscular synapse, metabotropic GABAB receptors are expressed and their activation results in a reduction in the intensity of acetylcholine release. © 2015 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  8. Multiple receptor subtypes mediate the effects of serotonin on rat subfornical organ neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrogin, K. E.; Johnson, A. K.; Schmid, H. A.

    1998-01-01

    The subfornical organ (SFO) receives significant serotonergic innervation. However, few reports have examined the functional effects of serotonin on SFO neurons. This study characterized the effects of serotonin on spontaneously firing SFO neurons in the rat brain slice. Of 31 neurons tested, 80% responded to serotonin (1-100 microM) with either an increase (n = 15) or decrease (n = 10) in spontaneous activity. Responses to serotonin were dose dependent and persisted after synaptic blockade. Excitatory responses could also be mimicked by the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2A/2C receptor agonist 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI; 1-10 microM) and could be blocked by the 5-HT2A/2C-receptor antagonist LY-53,857 (10 microM). LY-53,857 unmasked inhibitory responses to serotonin in 56% of serotonin-excited cells tested. Serotonin-inhibited cells were also inhibited by the 5-HT1A-receptor agonist 8-hydroxy-2(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT; 1-10 microM; n = 7). The data indicate that SFO neurons are responsive to serotonin via postsynaptic activation of multiple receptor subtypes. The results suggest that excitatory responses to serotonin are mediated by 5-HT2A or 5-HT2C receptors and that inhibitory responses may be mediated by 5-HT1A receptors. In addition, similar percentages of serotonin-excited and -inhibited cells were also sensitive to ANG II. As such the functional relationship between serotonin and ANG II in the SFO remains unclear.

  9. G-protein-coupled receptors mediate 14-3-3 signal transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua; Eishingdrelo, Alex; Kongsamut, Sathapana; Eishingdrelo, Haifeng

    2016-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-interacting proteins likely participate in regulating GPCR signaling by eliciting specific signal transduction cascades, inducing cross-talk with other pathways, and fine tuning the signal. However, except for G-proteins and β-arrestins, other GPCR-interacting proteins are poorly characterized. 14-3-3 proteins are signal adaptors, and their participation in GPCR signaling is not well understood or recognized. Here we demonstrate that GPCR-mediated 14-3-3 signaling is ligand-regulated and is likely to be a more general phenomenon than suggested by the previous reports of 14-3-3 involvement with a few GPCRs. For the first time, we can pharmacologically characterize GPCR/14-3-3 signaling. We have shown that GPCR-mediated 14-3-3 signaling is phosphorylation-dependent, and that the GPCR/14-3-3 interaction likely occurs later than receptor desensitization and internalization. GPCR-mediated 14-3-3 signaling can be β-arrestin-independent, and individual agonists can have different potencies on 14-3-3 and β-arrestin signaling. GPCRs can also mediate the interaction between 14-3-3 and Raf-1. Our work opens up a new broad realm of previously unappreciated GPCR signal transduction. Linking GPCRs to 14-3-3 signal transduction creates the potential for the development of new research directions and provides a new signaling pathway for drug discovery.

  10. Innate immune recognition of double-stranded RNA triggers increased expression of NKG2D ligands after virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteso, Gloria; Guerra, Susana; Valés-Gómez, Mar; Reyburn, Hugh T

    2017-12-15

    Self/non-self-discrimination by the innate immune system relies on germline-encoded, non-rearranging receptors expressed by innate immune cells recognizing conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns. The natural killer group 2D (NKG2D) receptor is a potent immune-activating receptor that binds human genome-encoded ligands, whose expression is negligible in normal tissues, but increased in stress and disease conditions for reasons that are incompletely understood. Here it is not clear how the immune system reconciles receptor binding of self-proteins with self/non-self-discrimination to avoid autoreactivity. We now report that increased expression of NKG2D ligands after virus infection depends on interferon response factors activated by the detection of viral double-stranded RNA by pattern-recognition receptors (RIG-I/MDA-5) and that NKG2D ligand up-regulation can be blocked by the expression of viral dsRNA-binding proteins. Thus, innate immunity-mediated recognition of viral nucleic acids triggers the infected cell to release interferon for NK cell recruitment and to express NKG2D ligands to become more visible to the immune system. Finally, the observation that NKG2D-ligand induction is a consequence of signaling by pattern-recognition receptors that have been selected over evolutionary time to be highly pathogen-specific explains how the risks of autoreactivity in this system are minimized. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Silver Nanoparticle-Directed Mast Cell Degranulation Is Mediated through Calcium and PI3K Signaling Independent of the High Affinity IgE Receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser B Alsaleh

    Full Text Available Engineered nanomaterial (ENM-mediated toxicity often involves triggering immune responses. Mast cells can regulate both innate and adaptive immune responses and are key effectors in allergic diseases and inflammation. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs are one of the most prevalent nanomaterials used in consumer products due to their antimicrobial properties. We have previously shown that AgNPs induce mast cell degranulation that was dependent on nanoparticle physicochemical properties. Furthermore, we identified a role for scavenger receptor B1 (SR-B1 in AgNP-mediated mast cell degranulation. However, it is completely unknown how SR-B1 mediates mast cell degranulation and the intracellular signaling pathways involved. In the current study, we hypothesized that SR-B1 interaction with AgNPs directs mast cell degranulation through activation of signal transduction pathways that culminate in an increase in intracellular calcium signal leading to mast cell degranulation. For these studies, we utilized bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMC isolated from C57Bl/6 mice and RBL-2H3 cells (rat basophilic leukemia cell line. Our data support our hypothesis and show that AgNP-directed mast cell degranulation involves activation of PI3K, PLCγ and an increase in intracellular calcium levels. Moreover, we found that influx of extracellular calcium is required for the cells to degranulate in response to AgNP exposure and is mediated at least partially via the CRAC channels. Taken together, our results provide new insights into AgNP-induced mast cell activation that are key for designing novel ENMs that are devoid of immune system activation.

  12. DMPD: Toll-like receptors: from the discovery of NFkappaB to new insights intotranscriptional regulations in innate immunity. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 16930560 Toll-like receptors: from the discovery of NFkappaB to new insights intotr...2-13. Epub 2006 Aug 22. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Toll-like receptors: from the discovery of NFkappaB to new insight...6930560 Title Toll-like receptors: from the discovery of NFkappaB to new insights intotranscriptional regula

  13. Insight into Phosphatidylinositol-Dependent Membrane Localization of the Innate Immune Adaptor Protein Toll/Interleukin 1 Receptor Domain-Containing Adaptor Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Mahesh Chandra; Choi, Sangdun

    2018-01-01

    The toll/interleukin 1 receptor (TIR) domain-containing adaptor protein (TIRAP) plays an important role in the toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, TLR4, TLR7, and TLR9 signaling pathways. TIRAP anchors to phosphatidylinositol (PI) 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) on the plasma membrane and PI (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3) on the endosomal membrane and assists in recruitment of the myeloid differentiation primary response 88 protein to activated TLRs. To date, the structure and mechanism of TIRAP’s membrane association are only partially understood. Here, we modeled an all-residue TIRAP dimer using homology modeling, threading, and protein–protein docking strategies. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed that PIP2 creates a stable microdomain in a dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer, providing TIRAP with its physiologically relevant orientation. Computed binding free energy values suggest that the affinity of PI-binding domain (PBD) for PIP2 is stronger than that of TIRAP as a whole for PIP2 and that the short PI-binding motif (PBM) contributes to the affinity between PBD and PIP2. Four PIP2 molecules can be accommodated by distinct lysine-rich surfaces on the dimeric PBM. Along with the known PI-binding residues (K15, K16, K31, and K32), additional positively charged residues (K34, K35, and R36) showed strong affinity toward PIP2. Lysine-to-alanine mutations at the PI-binding residues abolished TIRAP’s affinity for PIP2; however, K34, K35, and R36 consistently interacted with PIP2 headgroups through hydrogen bond (H-bond) and electrostatic interactions. TIRAP exhibited a PIP2-analogous intermolecular contact and binding affinity toward PIP3, aided by an H-bond network involving K34, K35, and R36. The present study extends our understanding of TIRAP’s membrane association, which could be helpful in designing peptide decoys to block TLR2-, TLR4-, TLR7-, and TLR9-mediated autoimmune diseases. PMID:29434596

  14. Insight into Phosphatidylinositol-Dependent Membrane Localization of the Innate Immune Adaptor Protein Toll/Interleukin 1 Receptor Domain-Containing Adaptor Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Chandra Patra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The toll/interleukin 1 receptor (TIR domain-containing adaptor protein (TIRAP plays an important role in the toll-like receptor (TLR 2, TLR4, TLR7, and TLR9 signaling pathways. TIRAP anchors to phosphatidylinositol (PI 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2 on the plasma membrane and PI (3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3 on the endosomal membrane and assists in recruitment of the myeloid differentiation primary response 88 protein to activated TLRs. To date, the structure and mechanism of TIRAP’s membrane association are only partially understood. Here, we modeled an all-residue TIRAP dimer using homology modeling, threading, and protein–protein docking strategies. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed that PIP2 creates a stable microdomain in a dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer, providing TIRAP with its physiologically relevant orientation. Computed binding free energy values suggest that the affinity of PI-binding domain (PBD for PIP2 is stronger than that of TIRAP as a whole for PIP2 and that the short PI-binding motif (PBM contributes to the affinity between PBD and PIP2. Four PIP2 molecules can be accommodated by distinct lysine-rich surfaces on the dimeric PBM. Along with the known PI-binding residues (K15, K16, K31, and K32, additional positively charged residues (K34, K35, and R36 showed strong affinity toward PIP2. Lysine-to-alanine mutations at the PI-binding residues abolished TIRAP’s affinity for PIP2; however, K34, K35, and R36 consistently interacted with PIP2 headgroups through hydrogen bond (H-bond and electrostatic interactions. TIRAP exhibited a PIP2-analogous intermolecular contact and binding affinity toward PIP3, aided by an H-bond network involving K34, K35, and R36. The present study extends our understanding of TIRAP’s membrane association, which could be helpful in designing peptide decoys to block TLR2-, TLR4-, TLR7-, and TLR9-mediated autoimmune diseases.

  15. Serotonin(2) receptors mediate respiratory recovery after cervical spinal cord hemisection in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, S Y; Basura, G J; Goshgarian, H G

    2001-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to specifically investigate the involvement of serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT(2))] receptors in 5-HT-mediated respiratory recovery after cervical hemisection. Experiments were conducted on C(2) spinal cord-hemisected, anesthetized (chloral hydrate, 400 mg/kg ip), vagotomized, pancuronium- paralyzed, and artificially ventilated female Sprague-Dawley rats in which CO(2) levels were monitored and maintained. Twenty-four hours after spinal hemisection, the ipsilateral phrenic nerve displayed no respiratory-related activity indicative of a functionally complete hemisection. Intravenous administration of the 5-HT(2A/2C)-receptor agonist (+/-)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine hydrochloride (DOI) induced respiratory-related activity in the phrenic nerve ipsilateral to hemisection under conditions in which CO(2) was maintained at constant levels and augmented the activity induced under conditions of hypercapnia. The effects of DOI were found to be dose dependent, and the recovery of activity could be maintained for up to 2 h after a single injection. DOI-induced recovery was attenuated by the 5-HT(2)-receptor antagonist ketanserin but not with the 5-HT(2C)-receptor antagonist RS-102221, suggesting that 5-HT(2A) and not necessarily 5-HT(2C) receptors may be involved in the induction of respiratory recovery after cervical spinal cord injury.

  16. Death Receptor-Mediated Cell Death and Proinflammatory Signaling in Nonalcoholic SteatohepatitisSummary

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    Petra Hirsova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is becoming a public health problem worldwide. A subset of patients develop an inflammatory disease, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH, characterized by steatosis, hepatocellular death, macrophage and neutrophil accumulation, and varying stages of fibrosis. Hepatocyte cell death triggers the cellular inflammatory response, therefore reducing cell death may be salutary in the steatohepatitis disease process. Recently, a better understanding of hepatocyte apoptosis in NASH has been obtained and new information regarding other cell death modes such as necroptosis and pyroptosis has been reported. Hepatocyte lipotoxicity is often triggered by death receptors. In addition to causing apoptosis, death receptors have been shown to mediate proinflammatory signaling, suggesting that apoptosis in this context is not an immunologically silent process. Here, we review recent developments in our understanding of hepatocyte cell death by death receptors and its mechanistic link to inflammation in NASH. We emphasize how proapoptotic signaling by death receptors may induce the release of proinflammatory extracellular vesicles, thereby recruiting and activating macrophages and promoting the steatohepatitis process. Potential therapeutic strategies are discussed based on this evolving information. Keywords: Apoptosis, Caspase Inhibitor, Cell Death, Death Receptors, Exosomes, Extracellular Vesicles, Fibrosis, Inflammation, Inflammasome, Microvesicles, Necroptosis, Pyroptosis

  17. Multivalent ligand-receptor-mediated interaction of small filled vesicles with a cellular membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanov, Vladimir P.

    2017-07-01

    The ligand-receptor-mediated contacts of small sub-100-nm-sized lipid vesicles (or nanoparticles) with the cellular membrane are of interest in the contexts of cell-to-cell communication, endocytosis of membrane-coated virions, and drug (RNA) delivery. In all these cases, the interior of vesicles is filled by biologically relevant content. Despite the diversity of such systems, the corresponding ligand-receptor interaction possesses universal features. One of them is that the vesicle-membrane contacts can be accompanied by the redistribution of ligands and receptors between the contact and contact-free regions. In particular, the concentrations of ligands and receptors may become appreciably higher in the contact regions and their composition may there be different compared to that in the suspended state in the solution. A statistical model presented herein describes the corresponding distribution of various ligands and receptors and allows one to calculate the related change of the free energy with variation of the vesicle-engulfment extent. The results obtained are used to clarify the necessary conditions for the vesicle-assisted pathway of drug delivery.

  18. Post-Translational Modification Control of Innate Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Qian, Cheng; Cao, Xuetao

    2016-07-19

    A coordinated balance between the positive and negative regulation of pattern-recognition receptor (PRR)-initiated innate inflammatory responses is required to ensure the most favorable outcome for the host. Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of innate sensors and downstream signaling molecules influence their activity and function by inducing their covalent linkage to new functional groups. PTMs including phosphorylation and polyubiquitination have been shown to potently regulate innate inflammatory responses through the activation, cellular translocation, and interaction of innate receptors, adaptors, and downstream signaling molecules in response to infectious and dangerous signals. Other PTMs such as methylation, acetylation, SUMOylation, and succinylation are increasingly implicated in the regulation of innate immunity and inflammation. In this review, we focus on the roles of PTMs in controlling PRR-triggered innate immunity and inflammatory responses. The emerging roles of PTMs in the pathogenesis and potential treatment of infectious and inflammatory immune diseases are also discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Receptor-mediated enhancement of beta adrenergic drug activity by ascorbate in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick F Dillon

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: Previous in vitro research demonstrated that ascorbate enhances potency and duration of activity of agonists binding to alpha 1 adrenergic and histamine receptors. OBJECTIVES: Extending this work to beta 2 adrenergic systems in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: Ultraviolet spectroscopy was used to study ascorbate binding to adrenergic receptor preparations and peptides. Force transduction studies on acetylcholine-contracted trachealis preparations from pigs and guinea pigs measured the effect of ascorbate on relaxation due to submaximal doses of beta adrenergic agonists. The effect of inhaled albuterol with and without ascorbate was tested on horses with heaves and sheep with carbachol-induced bronchoconstriction. MEASUREMENTS: Binding constants for ascorbate binding to beta adrenergic receptor were derived from concentration-dependent spectral shifts. Dose- dependence curves were obtained for the relaxation of pre-contracted trachealis preparations due to beta agonists in the presence and absence of varied ascorbate. Tachyphylaxis and fade were also measured. Dose response curves were determined for the effect of albuterol plus-and-minus ascorbate on airway resistance in horses and sheep. MAIN RESULTS: Ascorbate binds to the beta 2 adrenergic receptor at physiological concentrations. The receptor recycles dehydroascorbate. Physiological and supra-physiological concentrations of ascorbate enhance submaximal epinephrine and isoproterenol relaxation of trachealis, producing a 3-10-fold increase in sensitivity, preventing tachyphylaxis, and reversing fade. In vivo, ascorbate improves albuterol's effect on heaves and produces a 10-fold enhancement of albuterol activity in "asthmatic" sheep. CONCLUSIONS: Ascorbate enhances beta-adrenergic activity via a novel receptor-mediated mechanism; increases potency and duration of beta adrenergic agonists effective in asthma and COPD; prevents tachyphylaxis; and reverses fade. These novel effects are

  20. Two novel type II receptors mediate BMP signalling and are required to establish left-right asymmetry in zebrafish.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monteiro, R.; van Dinther, M.; Bakkers, J.; Wilkinson, R.; Patient, R.; ten Dijke, P.; Mummery, C.L.

    2008-01-01

    Ligands of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) superfamily, like Nodal and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), are pivotal to establish left-right (LR) asymmetry in vertebrates. However, the receptors mediating this process are unknown. Here we identified two new type II receptors for BMPs

  1. Muscarinic receptors mediate cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity in type 2 diabetes mellitus rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Tetsuya; Ishizuka, Osamu; Ogawa, Teruyuki; Yamagishi, Takahiro; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Minagawa, Tomonori; Nakazawa, Masaki; Gautam, Sudha Silwal; Nishizawa, Osamu

    2014-10-01

    This study determined if muscarinic receptors could mediate the cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity induced in type 2 diabetes mellitus rats. Ten-week-old female Goto-Kakizaki diabetic rats (n = 12) and Wister Kyoto non-diabetic rats (n = 12) were maintained on a high-fat diet for 4 weeks. Cystometric investigations of the unanesthetized rats were carried out at room temperature (27 ± 2°C) for 20 min. They were intravenously administered imidafenacin (0.3 mg/kg, n = 6) or vehicle (n = 6). After 5 min, the rats were transferred to a low temperature (4 ± 2°C) for 40 min where the cystometry was continued. The rats were then returned to room temperature for the final cystometric measurements. Afterwards, expressions of bladder muscarinic receptor M3 and M2 messenger ribonucleic acids and proteins were assessed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. In non-diabetic Wister Kyoto rats, imidafenacin did not reduce cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity. In diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats, just after transfer to a low temperature, the cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity in imidafenacin-treated rats was reduced compared with vehicle-treated rats. Within the urinary bladders, the ratio of M3 to M2 receptor messenger ribonucleic acid in the diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats was significantly higher than that of the non-diabetic Wister Kyoto rats. The proportion of muscarinic M3 receptor-positive area within the detrusor in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats was also significantly higher than that in non-diabetic Wister Kyoto rats. Imidafenacin partially inhibits cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats. In this animal model, muscarinic M3 receptors partially mediate cold stress-induced detrusor overactivity. © 2014 The Japanese Urological Association.

  2. Characterization of GABA/sub A/ receptor-mediated 36chloride uptake in rat brain synaptoneurosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luu, M.D.; Morrow, A.L.; Paul, S.M.; Schwartz, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor-mediated 36 chloride ( 36 Cl - ) uptake was measured in synaptoneurosomes from rat brain. GABA and GABA agonists stimulated 36 Cl - uptake in a concentration-dependent manner with the following order of potency: Muscimol>GABA>piperidine-4-sulfonic acid (P4S)>4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo-[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol (THIP)=3-aminopropanesulfonic acid (3APS)>>taurine. Both P4S and 3APS behaved as partial agonists, while the GABA/sub B/ agonist, baclofen, was ineffective. The response to muscimol was inhibited by bicuculline and picrotoxin in a mixed competitive/non-competitive manner. Other inhibitors of GABA receptor-opened channels or non-neuronal anion channels such as penicillin, picrate, furosemide and disulfonic acid stilbenes also inhibited the response to muscimol. A regional variation in muscimol-stimulated 36 Cl - uptake was observed; the largest responses were observed in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum and hippocampus, moderate responses were obtained in the striatum and hypothalamus and the smallest response was observed in the pons-medulla. GABA receptor-mediated 36 Cl - uptake was also dependent on the anion present in the media. The muscinol response varied in media containing the following anions: Br - >Cl - ≥NO 3 - >I - ≥SCN - >>C 3 H 5 OO - ≥ClO 4 - >F - , consistent with the relative anion permeability through GABA receptor-gated anion channels and the enhancement of convulsant binding to the GABA receptor-gated Cl - channel. 43 references, 4 figures, 3 tables

  3. Purinergic receptor antagonists inhibit odorant-mediated CREB phosphorylation in sustentacular cells of mouse olfactory epithelium.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dooley, Ruth

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Extracellular nucleotides have long been known to play neuromodulatory roles and to be involved in intercellular signalling. In the olfactory system, ATP is released by olfactory neurons, and exogenous ATP can evoke an increase in intracellular calcium concentration in sustentacular cells, the nonneuronal supporting cells of the olfactory epithelium. Here we investigate the hypothesis that olfactory neurons communicate with sustentacular cells via extracellular ATP and purinergic receptor activation. RESULTS: Here we show that exposure of mice to a mixture of odorants induced a significant increase in the levels of the transcription factor CREB phosphorylated at Ser-133 in the nuclei of both olfactory sensory neurons and sustentacular cells. This activation was dependent on adenylyl cyclase III-mediated olfactory signaling and on activation of P2Y purinergic receptors on sustentacular cells. Purinergic receptor antagonists inhibited odorant-dependent CREB phosphorylation specifically in the nuclei of the sustentacular cells. CONCLUSION: Our results point to a possible role for extracellular nucleotides in mediating intercellular communication between the neurons and sustentacular cells of the olfactory epithelium in response to odorant exposure. Maintenance of extracellular ionic gradients and metabolism of noxious chemicals by sustentacular cells may therefore be regulated in an odorant-dependent manner by olfactory sensory neurons.

  4. Mannose Receptor Mediates the Immune Response to Ganoderma atrum Polysaccharides in Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Juan; Tang, Xiao-Fang; Shuai, Xiao-Xue; Jiang, Cheng-Jia; Liu, Xiang; Wang, Le-Feng; Yao, Yu-Fei; Nie, Shao-Ping; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2017-01-18

    The ability of mannose receptor (MR) to recognize the carbohydrate structures is well-established. Here, we reported that MR was crucial for the immune response to a Ganoderma atrum polysaccharide (PSG-1), as evidenced by elevation of MR in association with increase of phagocytosis and concentrations of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in normal macrophages. Elevation of MR triggered by PSG-1 also led to control lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-triggered inflammatory response via the increase of interleukin-10 (IL-10) and inhibition of phagocytosis and IL-1β. Anti-MR antibody partly attenuated PSG-1-mediated anti-inflammatory responses, while it could not affect TNF-α secretion, suggesting that another receptor was involved in PSG-1-triggered immunomodulatory effects. MR and toll-like receptor (TLR)4 coordinated the influences on the TLR4-mediated signaling cascade by the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway in LPS-stimulated macrophages subjected to PSG-1. Collectively, immune response to PSG-1 required recognition by MR in macrophages. The NF-κB pathway served as a central role for the coordination of MR and TLR4 to elicit immune response to PSG-1.

  5. Tissue plasminogen activator inhibits NMDA-receptor-mediated increases in calcium levels in cultured hippocampal neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel D Robinson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available NMDA receptors (NMDARs play a critical role in neurotransmission, acting as essential mediators of many forms of synaptic plasticity, and also modulating aspects of development, synaptic transmission and cell death. NMDAR-induced responses are dependent on a range of factors including subunit composition and receptor location. Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA is a serine protease that has been reported to interact with NMDARs and modulate NMDAR activity. In this study we report that tPA inhibits NMDAR-mediated changes in intracellular calcium levels in cultures of primary hippocampal neurons stimulated by low (5 μM but not high (50 μM concentrations of NMDA. tPA also inhibited changes in calcium levels stimulated by presynaptic release of glutamate following treatment with bicucculine/4-AP. Inhibition was dependent on the proteolytic activity of tPA but was unaffected by α2-antiplasmin, an inhibitor of the tPA substrate plasmin, and RAP, a pan-ligand blocker of the low-density lipoprotein receptor, two proteins previously reported to modulate NMDAR activity. These findings suggest that tPA can modulate changes in intracellular calcium levels in a subset of NMDARs expressed in cultured embryonic hippocampal neurons through a mechanism that involves the proteolytic activity of tPA and synaptic NMDARs.

  6. Purinergic receptor antagonists inhibit odorant-mediated CREB phosphorylation in sustentacular cells of mouse olfactory epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatt Hanns

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extracellular nucleotides have long been known to play neuromodulatory roles and to be involved in intercellular signalling. In the olfactory system, ATP is released by olfactory neurons, and exogenous ATP can evoke an increase in intracellular calcium concentration in sustentacular cells, the nonneuronal supporting cells of the olfactory epithelium. Here we investigate the hypothesis that olfactory neurons communicate with sustentacular cells via extracellular ATP and purinergic receptor activation. Results Here we show that exposure of mice to a mixture of odorants induced a significant increase in the levels of the transcription factor CREB phosphorylated at Ser-133 in the nuclei of both olfactory sensory neurons and sustentacular cells. This activation was dependent on adenylyl cyclase III-mediated olfactory signaling and on activation of P2Y purinergic receptors on sustentacular cells. Purinergic receptor antagonists inhibited odorant-dependent CREB phosphorylation specifically in the nuclei of the sustentacular cells. Conclusion Our results point to a possible role for extracellular nucleotides in mediating intercellular communication between the neurons and sustentacular cells of the olfactory epithelium in response to odorant exposure. Maintenance of extracellular ionic gradients and metabolism of noxious chemicals by sustentacular cells may therefore be regulated in an odorant-dependent manner by olfactory sensory neurons.

  7. SR-B1 Is a Silica Receptor that Mediates Canonical Inflammasome Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misato Tsugita

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhalation of silica dust is associated with fibrosis and lung cancer, which are triggered by macrophage inflammatory responses; however, how macrophages recognize silica remains largely unknown. Here, we identify by functional expression cloning the class B scavenger receptor SR-B1 as a silica receptor. Through an extracellular α-helix, both mouse and human SR-B1 specifically recognized amorphous and crystalline silica, but not titanium dioxide nanoparticles, latex nanoparticles, or monosodium urate crystals, although all particles exhibited negative surface potentials. Genetic deletion of SR-B1 and masking of SR-B1 by monoclonal antibodies showed that SR-B1-mediated recognition of silica is associated with caspase-1-mediated inflammatory responses in mouse macrophages and human peripheral blood monocytes. Furthermore, SR-B1 was involved in silica-induced pulmonary inflammation in mice. These results indicate that SR-B1 is a silica receptor associated with canonical inflammasome activation.

  8. Purinergic receptor antagonists inhibit odorant-mediated CREB phosphorylation in sustentacular cells of mouse olfactory epithelium

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dooley, Ruth

    2011-08-22

    Abstract Background Extracellular nucleotides have long been known to play neuromodulatory roles and to be involved in intercellular signalling. In the olfactory system, ATP is released by olfactory neurons, and exogenous ATP can evoke an increase in intracellular calcium concentration in sustentacular cells, the nonneuronal supporting cells of the olfactory epithelium. Here we investigate the hypothesis that olfactory neurons communicate with sustentacular cells via extracellular ATP and purinergic receptor activation. Results Here we show that exposure of mice to a mixture of odorants induced a significant increase in the levels of the transcription factor CREB phosphorylated at Ser-133 in the nuclei of both olfactory sensory neurons and sustentacular cells. This activation was dependent on adenylyl cyclase III-mediated olfactory signaling and on activation of P2Y purinergic receptors on sustentacular cells. Purinergic receptor antagonists inhibited odorant-dependent CREB phosphorylation specifically in the nuclei of the sustentacular cells. Conclusion Our results point to a possible role for extracellular nucleotides in mediating intercellular communication between the neurons and sustentacular cells of the olfactory epithelium in response to odorant exposure. Maintenance of extracellular ionic gradients and metabolism of noxious chemicals by sustentacular cells may therefore be regulated in an odorant-dependent manner by olfactory sensory neurons.

  9. Comparative study on transcriptional activity of 17 parabens mediated by estrogen receptor α and β and androgen receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yoko; Kojima, Hiroyuki; Takeuchi, Shinji; Uramaru, Naoto; Ohta, Shigeru; Kitamura, Shigeyuki

    2013-07-01

    The structure-activity relationships of parabens which are widely used as preservatives for transcriptional activities mediated by human estrogen receptor α (hERα), hERβ and androgen receptor (hAR) were investigated. Fourteen of 17 parabens exhibited hERα and/or hERβ agonistic activity at concentrations of ≤ 1 × 10(-5)M, whereas none of the 17 parabens showed AR agonistic or antagonistic activity. Among 12 parabens with linear alkyl chains ranging in length from C₁ to C₁₂, heptylparaben (C₇) and pentylparaben (C₅) showed the most potent ERα and ERβ agonistic activity in the order of 10(-7)M and 10(-8)M, respectively, and the activities decreased in a stepwise manner as the alkyl chain was shortened to C₁ or lengthened to C₁₂. Most parabens showing estrogenic activity exhibited ERβ-agonistic activity at lower concentrations than those inducing ERα-agonistic activity. The estrogenic activity of butylparaben was markedly decreased by incubation with rat liver microsomes, and the decrease of activity was blocked by a carboxylesterase inhibitor. These results indicate that parabens are selective agonists for ERβ over ERα; their interactions with ERα/β are dependent on the size and bulkiness of the alkyl groups; and they are metabolized by carboxylesterases, leading to attenuation of their estrogenic activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Differences in innate cytokine responses between European and African children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labuda, Lucja A; de Jong, Sanne E; Meurs, Lynn; Amoah, Abena S; Mbow, Moustapha; Ateba-Ngoa, Ulysse; van der Ham, Alwin J; Knulst, André C; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; Adegnika, Ayola A

    2014-01-01

    Although differences in immunological responses between populations have been found in terms of vaccine efficacy, immune responses to infections and prevalence of chronic inflammatory diseases, the mechanisms responsible for these differences are not well understood. Therefore, innate cytokine responses mediated by various classes of pattern-recognition receptors including Toll-like receptors (TLR), C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) and nucleotide-binding oligomerisation domain-like receptors (NLRs) were compared between Dutch (European), semi-urban and rural Gabonese (African) children. Whole blood was stimulated for 24 hours and the pro-inflammatory tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and the anti-inflammatory/regulatory interleukin-10 (IL-10) cytokines in culture supernatant were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Gabonese children had a lower pro-inflammatory response to poly(I:C) (TLR3 ligand), but a higher pro-inflammatory response to FSL-1 (TLR2/6 ligand), Pam3 (TLR2/1 ligand) and LPS (TLR4 ligand) compared to Dutch children. Anti-inflammatory responses to Pam3 were also higher in Gabonese children. Non-TLR ligands did not induce substantial cytokine production on their own. Interaction between various TLR and non-TLR receptors was further assessed, but no differences were found between the three populations. In conclusion, using a field applicable assay, significant differences were observed in cytokine responses between European and African children to TLR ligands, but not to non-TLR ligands.

  11. Differences in innate cytokine responses between European and African children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucja A Labuda

    Full Text Available Although differences in immunological responses between populations have been found in terms of vaccine efficacy, immune responses to infections and prevalence of chronic inflammatory diseases, the mechanisms responsible for these differences are not well understood. Therefore, innate cytokine responses mediated by various classes of pattern-recognition receptors including Toll-like receptors (TLR, C-type lectin receptors (CLRs and nucleotide-binding oligomerisation domain-like receptors (NLRs were compared between Dutch (European, semi-urban and rural Gabonese (African children. Whole blood was stimulated for 24 hours and the pro-inflammatory tumor necrosis factor (TNF and the anti-inflammatory/regulatory interleukin-10 (IL-10 cytokines in culture supernatant were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Gabonese children had a lower pro-inflammatory response to poly(I:C (TLR3 ligand, but a higher pro-inflammatory response to FSL-1 (TLR2/6 ligand, Pam3 (TLR2/1 ligand and LPS (TLR4 ligand compared to Dutch children. Anti-inflammatory responses to Pam3 were also higher in Gabonese children. Non-TLR ligands did not induce substantial cytokine production on their own. Interaction between various TLR and non-TLR receptors was further assessed, but no differences were found between the three populations. In conclusion, using a field applicable assay, significant differences were observed in cytokine responses between European and African children to TLR ligands, but not to non-TLR ligands.

  12. Innate immunity to Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Kiyoura

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is not a pathogen in healthy individuals, but can cause severe systemic candidiasis in immunocompromised patients. C. albicans has various virulence factors and activates the innate immune system. Specifically, C. albicans induces proinflammatory cytokine production in various cell types via many receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs and C-type lectin receptors (CLRs. This microorganism also promotes phagocytosis via CLRs on macrophages. In a previous study, we found that C. albicans induces the production of galectin-3, which is a known CLR that kills C. albicans. This review indicates that the use of mouthwash containing an antimicrobial peptide or protein might be a useful new oral care method for the prevention of oral candidiasis.

  13. Innate Interferons Regulate CNS Inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieu, Ruthe; Khorooshi, Reza M. H.; Mariboe, Anne

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) whose pathology is characterised by demyelination and axonal damage. This results from interplay between CNS-resident glia, infiltrating leukocytes and a plethora of cytokines and chemokines. Currently......, there is no cure for MS, however a standard first-line therapy is recombinant interferon (IFN)-beta. IFN-beta belongs to the family of type I IFNs, which also include IFN-alpha. These engage to one common receptor, IFNAR. Type I IFNs can be induced by several innate immune receptors, including toll-like receptors...... mass homeostasis. Whether RANK-signaling is capable of inducing type I IFNs within the CNS has not yet been studied. Preliminary data from IFN-beta-luciferase reporter mice already show that RANK-signaling by intrathecally applied RANKL can induce CNS-endogenous IFN-beta. Experiments in IFN...

  14. Killing of intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis by receptor-mediated drug delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, S.; Basu, S.K.

    1991-01-01

    p-Aminosalicylic acid (PAS) conjugated to maleylated bovine serum albumin (MBSA) was taken up efficiently through high-affinity MBSA-binding sites on macrophages. Binding of the radiolabeled conjugate to cultured mouse peritoneal macrophages at 4 degrees C was competed for by MBSA but not by PAS. At 37 degrees C, the radiolabeled conjugate was rapidly degraded by the macrophages, leading to release of acid-soluble degradation products in the medium. The drug conjugate was nearly 100 times as effective as free PAS in killing the intracellular mycobacteria in mouse peritoneal macrophages infected in culture with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The killing of intracellular mycobacteria mediated by the drug conjugate was effectively prevented by simultaneous addition of excess MBSA (100 micrograms/ml) or chloroquine (3 microM) to the medium, whereas these agents did not affect the microbicidal action of free PAS. These results suggest that (i) uptake of the PAS-MBSA conjugate was mediated by cell surface receptors on macrophages which recognize MBSA and (ii) lysosomal hydrolysis of the internalized conjugate resulted in intracellular release of a pharmacologically active form of the drug, which led to selective killing of the M. tuberculosis harbored by mouse macrophages infected in culture. This receptor-mediated modality of delivering drugs to macrophages could contribute to greater therapeutic efficacy and minimization of toxic side effects in the management of tuberculosis and other intracellular mycobacterial infections

  15. Calmodulin physically interacts with the erythropoietin receptor and enhances Jak2-mediated signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakihana, Kazuhiko; Yamamoto, Masahide; Iiyama, Mitsuko; Miura, Osamu

    2005-01-01

    Stimulation of the erythropoietin receptor (EpoR) induces a transient increase in intracellular Ca 2+ level as well as activation of the Jak2 tyrosine kinase to stimulate various downstream signaling pathways. Here, we demonstrate that the universal Ca 2+ receptor calmodulin (CaM) binds EpoR in a Ca 2+ -dependent manner in vitro. Binding studies using various EpoR mutants in hematopoietic cells showed that CaM binds the membrane-proximal 65-amino-acid cytoplasmic region (amino acids 258-312) of EpoR that is critical for activation of Jak2-mediated EpoR signaling. Structurally unrelated CaM antagonists, W-13 and CMZ, inhibited activation of Jak2-mediated EpoR signaling pathways, whereas W-12, a W-13 analog, did not show any significant inhibitory effect. Moreover, overexpression of CaM augmented Epo-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the EpoR. W-13, but not W-12, also inhibited Epo-induced proliferation and survival. Together, these results indicate that CaM binds to the membrane-proximal EpoR cytoplasmic region and plays an essential role in activation of Jak2-mediated EpoR signaling

  16. Sweet Taste Receptors Mediated ROS-NLRP3 Inflammasome Signaling Activation: Implications for Diabetic Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luping Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies demonstrated that ROS-NLRP3 inflammasome signaling activation was involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN. Recent research has shown that sweet taste receptors (STRs are important sentinels of innate immunity. Whether high glucose primes ROS-NLRP3 inflammasome signaling via STRs is unclear. In this study, diabetic mouse model was induced by streptozotocin (STZ in vivo; mouse glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs and human proximal tubular cells were stimulated by high glucose (10, 20, and 30 mmol/L in vitro; STR inhibitor lactisole was used as an intervention reagent to evaluate the role and mechanism of the STRs in the pathogenesis of DN. Our results showed that the expression of STRs and associated signaling components (Gα-gustducin, PLCβ2, and TRPM5 was obviously downregulated under the condition of diabetes in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, lactisole significantly mitigated the production of intracellular ROS and reversed the high glucose-induced decrease of Ca2+ and the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome signaling in vitro (p<0.05. These combined results support the hypothesis that STRs could be involved in the activation of ROS-NLRP3 inflammasome signaling in the pathogenesis of DN, suggesting that STRs may act as new therapeutic targets of DN.

  17. Pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokine production by reovirus treated melanoma cells is PKR/NF-κB mediated and supports innate and adaptive anti-tumour immune priming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coffey Matt

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As well as inducing direct oncolysis, reovirus treatment of melanoma is associated with activation of innate and adaptive anti-tumour immune responses. Results Here we characterise the effects of conditioned media from reovirus-infected, dying human melanoma cells (reoTCM, in the absence of live virus, to address the immune bystander potential of reovirus therapy. In addition to RANTES, IL-8, MIP-1α and MIP-1β, reovirus-infected melanoma cells secreted eotaxin, IP-10 and the type 1 interferon IFN-β. To address the mechanisms responsible for the inflammatory composition of reoTCM, we show that IL-8 and IFN-β secretion by reovirus-infected melanoma cells was associated with activation of NF-κB and decreased by pre-treatment with small molecule inhibitors of NF-κB and PKR; specific siRNA-mediated knockdown further confirmed a role for PKR. This pro-inflammatory milieu induced a chemotactic response in isolated natural killer (NK cells, dendritic cells (DC and anti-melanoma cytotoxic T cells (CTL. Following culture in reoTCM, NK cells upregulated CD69 expression and acquired greater lytic potential against tumour targets. Furthermore, melanoma cell-loaded DC cultured in reoTCM were more effective at priming adaptive anti-tumour immunity. Conclusions These data demonstrate that the PKR- and NF-κB-dependent induction of pro-inflammatory molecules that accompanies reovirus-mediated killing can recruit and activate innate and adaptive effector cells, thus potentially altering the tumour microenvironment to support bystander immune-mediated therapy as well as direct viral oncolysis.

  18. Innate immunity in Sjögren's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiripolsky, Jeremy; McCabe, Liam G; Kramer, Jill M

    2017-09-01

    Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disease of exocrine tissue that primarily affects women. Although patients typically experience xerostomia and xerophthalmia, numerous systemic disease manifestations are seen. Innate immune hyperactivity is integral to many autoimmune diseases, including SS. Results from SS mouse models suggest that innate immune dysregulation drives disease and this is a seminal event in SS pathogenesis. Findings in SS patients corroborate those in mouse models, as innate immune cells and pathways are dysregulated both in exocrine tissue and in peripheral blood. We will review the role of the innate immune system in SS pathogenesis. We will discuss the etiology of SS with an emphasis on innate immune dysfunction. Moreover, we will review the innate cells that mediate inflammation in SS, the pathways implicated in disease, and the potential mechanisms governing their dysregulation. Finally, we will discuss emerging therapeutic approaches to target dysregulated innate immune signaling in SS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. NMDA receptors mediate neuron-to-glia signaling in mouse cortical astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalo, Ulyana; Pankratov, Yuri; Kirchhoff, Frank; North, R Alan; Verkhratsky, Alexei

    2006-03-08

    Chemical transmission between neurons and glial cells is an important element of integration in the CNS. Here, we describe currents activated by NMDA in cortical astrocytes, identified in transgenic mice that express enhanced green fluorescent protein under control of the human glial fibrillary acidic protein promoter. Astrocytes were studied by whole-cell voltage clamp either in slices or after gentle nonenzymatic mechanical dissociation. Acutely isolated astrocytes showed a three-component response to glutamate. The initial rapid component was blocked by 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6-nitro-2,3-dioxo-benzo[f]quinoxaline-7-sulfonamide (NBQX), which is an antagonist of AMPA receptors (IC50, 2 microM), and the NMDA receptor antagonist D-AP-5 blocked the later sustained component (IC50, 0.6 microM). The third component of glutamate application response was sensitive to D,L-threo-beta-benzyloxyaspartate, a glutamate transporter blocker. Fast application of NMDA evoked concentration-dependent inward currents (EC50, 0.3 microM); these showed use-dependent block by (+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo [a,d] cyclohepten-5,10-imine maleate (MK-801). These NMDA-evoked currents were linearly dependent on membrane potential and were not affected by extracellular magnesium at concentrations up to 10 mM. Electrical stimulation of axons in layer IV-VI induced a complex inward current in astrocytes situated in the cortical layer II, part of which was sensitive to MK-801 at holding potential -80 mV and was not affected by the AMPA glutamate receptor antagonist NBQX. The fast miniature spontaneous currents were observed in cortical astrocytes in slices as well. These currents exhibited both AMPA and NMDA receptor-mediated components. We conclude that cortical astrocytes express functional NMDA receptors that are devoid of Mg2+ block, and these receptors are involved in neuronal-glial signal transmission.

  20. The PA and HA gene-mediated high viral load and intense innate immune response in the brain contribute to the high pathogenicity of H5N1 avian influenza virus in mallard ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiao; Hu, Zenglei; Mo, Yiqun; Wu, Qiwen; Cui, Zhu; Duan, Zhiqiang; Huang, Junqing; Chen, Hongzhi; Chen, Yuxin; Gu, Min; Wang, Xiaoquan; Hu, Shunlin; Liu, Huimou; Liu, Wenbo; Liu, Xiaowen; Liu, Xiufan

    2013-10-01

    Most highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses cause only mild clinical signs in ducks, serving as an important natural reservoir of influenza A viruses. However, we isolated two H5N1 viruses that are genetically similar but differ greatly in virulence in ducks. A/Chicken/Jiangsu/k0402/2010 (CK10) is highly pathogenic, whereas A/Goose/Jiangsu/k0403/2010 (GS10) is low pathogenic. To determine the genetic basis for the high virulence of CK10 in ducks, we generated a series of single-gene reassortants between CK10 and GS10 and tested their virulence in ducks. Expression of the CK10 PA or hemagglutinin (HA) gene in the GS10 context resulted in increased virulence and virus replication. Conversely, inclusion of the GS10 PA or HA gene in the CK10 background attenuated the virulence and virus replication. Moreover, the PA gene had a greater contribution. We further determined that residues 101G and 237E in the PA gene contribute to the high virulence of CK10. Mutations at these two positions produced changes in virulence, virus replication, and polymerase activity of CK10 or GS10. Position 237 plays a greater role in determining these phenotypes. Moreover, the K237E mutation in the GS10 PA gene increased PA nuclear accumulation. Mutant GS10 viruses carrying the CK10 HA gene or the PA101G or PA237E mutation induced an enhanced innate immune response. A sustained innate response was detected in the brain rather than in the lung and spleen. Our results suggest that the PA and HA gene-mediated high virus replication and the intense innate immune response in the brain contribute to the high virulence of H5N1 virus in ducks.

  1. Transmembrane α-Helix 2 and 7 Are Important for Small Molecule-Mediated Activation of the GLP-1 Receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underwood, Christina Rye; Møller Knudsen, Sanne; Schjellerup Wulff, Birgitte

    2011-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) activates the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R), which belongs to family B of the G-protein-coupled receptors. We previously identified a selective small molecule ligand, compound 2, that acted as a full agonist and allosteric modulator of GLP-1R. In this study......, the structurally related small molecule, compound 3, stimulated cAMP production from GLP-1R, but not from the homologous glucagon receptor (GluR). The receptor selectivity encouraged a chimeric receptor approach to identify domains important for compound 3-mediated activation of GLP-1R. A subsegment of the GLP-1R...... transmembrane domain containing TM2 to TM5 was sufficient to transfer compound 3 responsiveness to GluR. Therefore, divergent residues in this subsegment of GLP-1R and GluR are responsible for the receptor selectivity of compound 3. Functional analyses of other chimeric receptors suggested that the existence...

  2. Evidence that 5-hydroxytryptamine/sub 3/ receptors mediate cytotoxic drug and radiation-evoked emesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miner, W.D.; Sanger, G.J.; Turner, D.H.

    1987-08-01

    The involvement of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) 5-HT/sub 3/ receptors in the mechanisms of severe emesis evoked by cytotoxic drugs or by total body irradiation have been studied in ferrets. Anti-emetic compounds tested were domperidone (a dopamine antagonist), metoclopramide (a gastric motility stimulant and dopamine antagonist at conventional doses, a 5-HT/sub 3/ receptor antagonist at higher doses) and BRL 24924 (a potent gastric motility stimulant and a 5-HT/sub 3/ receptor antagonist). Domperidone or metoclopramide prevented apomorphine-evoked emesis, whereas BRL 24924 did not. Similar doses of domperidone did not prevent emesis evoked by cis-platin or by total body irradiation, whereas metoclopramide or BRL 24924 greatly reduced or prevented these types of emesis. Metoclopramide and BRL 24924 also prevented emesis evoked by a combination of doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide. These results are discussed in terms of a fundamental role for 5-HT/sub 3/ receptors in the mechanisms mediating severely emetogenic cancer treatment therapies.

  3. A new Kupffer cell receptor mediating plasma clearance of carcinoembryonic antigen by the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, C A; Thomas, P; Broitman, S A; Zamcheck, N

    1982-01-01

    Native human carcinoembryonic antigen is rapidly removed from the circulation by the rat liver Kupffer cell after intravenous injection. The molecule is subsequently transferred to the hepatocyte in an immunologically identifiable form. Carcinoembryonic antigen has a circulatory half-life of 3.7 (+/- 0.8) min, and cellular entry is by receptor-mediated endocytosis. Non-specific fluid pinocytosis and phagocytosis can be excluded as possible mechanisms by the kinetics of clearance and failure of colloidal carbon to inhibit uptake. Substances with known affinity for the hepatic receptors for mannose, N-acetylglucosamine, fucose and galactose all fail to inhibit carcinoembryonic antigen clearance. After two cycles of the Smith degradation, carcinoembryonic antigen is still able to inhibit clearance of the native molecule. Receptor specificity is apparently not dependent on those non-reducing terminal sugars of the native molecule. Performic acid-oxidized carcinoembryonic antigen also inhibits clearance of carcinoembryonic antigen in vivo. Receptor binding is not dependent on tertiary protein conformation. Non-specific cross-reacting antigen, a glycoprotein structurally similar to carcinoembryonic antigen, is cleared by the same mechanism. PMID:6896821

  4. Electroacupuncture Potentiates Cannabinoid Receptor-Mediated Descending Inhibitory Control in a Mouse Model of Knee Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Cui Yuan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Knee osteoarthritis (KOA is a highly prevalent, chronic joint disorder, which can lead to chronic pain. Although electroacupuncture (EA is effective in relieving chronic pain in the clinic, the involved mechanisms remain unclear. Reduced diffuse noxius inhibitory controls (DNIC function is associated with chronic pain and may be related to the action of endocannabinoids. In the present study, we determined whether EA may potentiate cannabinoid receptor-mediated descending inhibitory control and inhibit chronic pain in a mouse model of KOA. We found that the optimized parameters of EA inhibiting chronic pain were the low frequency and high intensity (2 Hz + 1 mA. EA reversed the reduced expression of CB1 receptors and the 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG level in the midbrain in chronic pain. Microinjection of the CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 into the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG can reversed the EA effect on pain hypersensitivity and DNIC function. In addition, CB1 receptors on GABAergic but not glutamatergic neurons are involved in the EA effect on DNIC function and descending inhibitory control of 5-HT in the medulla, thus inhibiting chronic pain. Our data suggest that endocannabinoid (2-AG-CB1R-GABA-5-HT may be a novel signaling pathway involved in the effect of EA improving DNIC function and inhibiting chronic pain.

  5. Innate immunological function of TH2 cells in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Th2 cells produce IL-13 when stimulated by papain or house dust mites (HDM) and induce eosinophilic inflammation. This innate response of cells of the adaptive immune system is dependent on IL-33-, not T cell receptor-, based stimulation. While type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are the dominant ...

  6. Receptor-mediated photo-cytotoxicity: synthesis of a photoactivatable psoralen derivative conjugated to insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparro, F P; Knobler, R M; Yemul, S S; Bisaccia, E; Edelson, R L

    1986-12-15

    4'-Aminomethyl-4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen has been chemically conjugated to insulin using a carbodiimide derivative. The psoralen moiety retains its photochemical reactivity as evidenced by its ability to crosslink DNA after exposure to long wavelength ultraviolet light (UVA, 320-400 nm). This chimeric molecule has been used to selectively kill a population of lymphocytes whose expression of insulin receptors has been stimulated with phytohemagglutinin. Insulin carries the psoralen into the cell via receptor-mediated endocytosis, where it is subsequently activated by exposure to UVA light. The UVA induced activity of AMT-insulin can be blocked by the presence of native insulin. The viability of unstimulated lymphocytes was not affected by AMT-insulin and UVA light. The hybrid insulin-psoralen molecule may be a prototype for a family of phototoxic drugs which can be selectively delivered to subsets of lymphocytes.

  7. Prolactin mediates neuroprotection against excitotoxicity in primary cell cultures of hippocampal neurons via its receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Castañeda, E; Grattan, D R; Pasantes-Morales, H; Pérez-Domínguez, M; Cabrera-Reyes, E A; Morales, T; Cerbón, M

    2016-04-01

    Recently it has been reported that prolactin (PRL) exerts a neuroprotective effect against excitotoxicity in hippocampus in the rat in vivo models. However, the exact mechanism by which PRL mediates this effect is not completely understood. The aim of our study was to assess whether prolactin exerts neuroprotection against excitotoxicity in an in vitro model using primary cell cultures of hippocampal neurons, and to determine whether this effect is mediated via the prolactin receptor (PRLR). Primary cell cultures of rat hippocampal neurons were used in all experiments, gene expression was evaluated by RT-qPCR, and protein expression was assessed by Western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry. Cell viability was assessed by using the MTT method. The results demonstrated that PRL treatment of neurons from primary cultures did not modify cell viability, but that it exerted a neuroprotective effect, with cells treated with PRL showing a significant increase of viability after glutamate (Glu)--induced excitotoxicity as compared with neurons treated with Glu alone. Cultured neurons expressed mRNA for both PRL and its receptor (PRLR), and both PRL and PRLR expression levels changed after the excitotoxic insult. Interestingly, the PRLR protein was detected as two main isoforms of 100 and 40 kDa as compared with that expressed in hypothalamic cells, which was present only as a 30 kDa variant. On the other hand, PRL was not detected in neuron cultures, either by western blot or by immunohistochemistry. Neuroprotection induced by PRL was significantly blocked by specific oligonucleotides against PRLR, thus suggesting that the PRL role is mediated by its receptor expressed in these neurons. The overall results indicated that PRL induces neuroprotection in neurons from primary cell cultures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Med1 subunit of the mediator complex in nuclear receptor-regulated energy metabolism, liver regeneration, and hepatocarcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yuzhi; Viswakarma, Navin; Reddy, Janardan K

    2014-01-01

    Several nuclear receptors regulate diverse metabolic functions that impact on critical biological processes, such as development, differentiation, cellular regeneration, and neoplastic conversion. In the liver, some members of the nuclear receptor family, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), farnesoid X receptor (FXR), liver X receptor (LXR), pregnane X receptor (PXR), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and others, regulate energy homeostasis, the formation and excretion of bile acids, and detoxification of xenobiotics. Excess energy burning resulting from increases in fatty acid oxidation systems in liver generates reactive oxygen species, and the resulting oxidative damage influences liver regeneration and liver tumor development. These nuclear receptors are important sensors of exogenous activators as well as receptor-specific endogenous ligands. In this regard, gene knockout mouse models revealed that some lipid-metabolizing enzymes generate PPARα-activating ligands, while others such as ACOX1 (fatty acyl-CoA oxidase1) inactivate these endogenous PPARα activators. In the absence of ACOX1, the unmetabolized ACOX1 substrates cause sustained activation of PPARα, and the resulting increase in energy burning leads to hepatocarcinogenesis. Ligand-activated nuclear receptors recruit the multisubunit Mediator complex for RNA polymerase II-dependent gene transcription. Evidence indicates that the Med1 subunit of the Mediator is essential for PPARα, PPARγ, CAR, and GR signaling in liver. Med1 null hepatocytes fail to respond to PPARα activators in that these cells do not show induction of peroxisome proliferation and increases in fatty acid oxidation enzymes. Med1-deficient hepatocytes show no increase in cell proliferation and do not give rise to liver tumors. Identification of nuclear receptor-specific coactivators and Mediator subunits should further our understanding of the complexities of metabolic

  9. Aeromonas salmonicida Infection Only Moderately Regulates Expression of Factors Contributing to Toll-Like Receptor Signaling but Massively Activates the Cellular and Humoral Branches of Innate Immunity in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Brietzke

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptors (TLRs are known to detect a defined spectrum of microbial structures. However, the knowledge about the specificity of teleost Tlr factors for distinct pathogens is limited so far. We measured baseline expression profiles of 18 tlr genes and associated signaling factors in four immune-relevant tissues of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Intraperitoneal injection of a lethal dose of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida induced highly increased levels of cytokine mRNAs during a 72-hour postinfection (hpi period. In contrast, only the fish-specific tlr22a2 and the downstream factor irak1 featured clearly increased transcript levels, while the mRNA concentrations of many other tlr genes decreased. Flow cytometry quantified cell trafficking after infection indicating a dramatic influx of myeloid cells into the peritoneum and a belated low level immigration of lymphoid cells. T and B lymphocytes were differentiated with RT-qPCR revealing that B lymphocytes emigrated from and T lymphocytes immigrated into head kidney. In conclusion, no specific TLR can be singled out as a dominant receptor for A. salmonicida. The recruitment of cellular factors of innate immunity rather than induced expression of pathogen receptors is hence of key importance for mounting a first immune defense against invading A. salmonicida.

  10. Purinergic receptor X7 mediates leptin induced GLUT4 function in stellate cells in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrashekaran, Varun; Das, Suvarthi; Seth, Ratanesh Kumar; Dattaroy, Diptadip; Alhasson, Firas; Michelotti, Gregory; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash; Diehl, Anna Mae; Chatterjee, Saurabh

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic oxidative stress via CYP2E1 can act as a second hit in NASH progression. Our previous studies have shown that oxidative stress in NASH causes higher leptin levels and induces purinergic receptor X7 (P2X7r). We tested the hypothesis that higher circulating leptin due to CYP2E1-mediated oxidative stress induces P2X7r. P2X7r in turn activates stellate cells and causes increased proliferation via modulating Glut4, the glucose transporter, and increased intracellular glucose. Using a hig...

  11. Estrogen receptor-mediated transcriptional activity of genistein in the mouse testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montani, C; Penza, M; Jeremic, M; Rando, G; Ciana, P; Maggi, A; La Sala, G; De Felici, M; Di Lorenzo, D

    2009-04-01

    Here we show that genistein, through an estrogen receptor-mediated action, modulates gene expression in the mouse testis throughout development. Genistein passed from the lactating mother to the suckling offspring at levels sufficient to activate gene expression in the testis of the pups. Testis are already responsive to genistein as well as to estradiol at day 14.5 of fetal development. Activation of luciferase correlates with an activation of cell proliferation. In conclusion, our results show that genistein affects reproductive organs of male mice at all developmental ages.

  12. AT2 receptors mediate tonic renal medullary vasoconstriction in renovascular hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Lisa M; Widdop, Robert E; Kett, Michelle M; Evans, Roger G

    2005-01-01

    Renal medullary blood flow is relatively insensitive to angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced vasoconstriction, due partly to AT1-mediated release of nitric oxide and/or prostaglandins. AT2-receptor activation appears to blunt AT1-mediated vasodilatation within the medullary circulation. This could affect long-term efficacy of antihypertensive pharmacotherapies targeting the renin/angiotensin system, particularly in Ang II-dependent forms of hypertension. We tested the effects of AT1- and AT2-receptor blockade on basal cortical and medullary laser Doppler flux (CLDF and MLDF), and on responses to renal arterial infusion of Ang II, in rats with 2 kidney, 1 clip (2K1C) hypertension and sham-operated controls. Studies were carried out in thiobutabarbital (175 mg kg−1, i.p.) anaesthetised rats, 4 weeks after clipping, or sham surgery (n=6 in each of eight groups). Candesartan (10 μg kg−1 h−1, intravenous (i.v.)) reduced mean arterial pressure (∼17%) and increased CLDF (∼24%), similarly in both sham and 2K1C rats, but did not significantly affect MLDF. PD123319 (1 mg kg−1 h−1, i.v.) increased basal MLDF (19%) in 2K1C but not sham rats, without significantly affecting other variables. In sham rats, renal arterial infusion of Ang II (1–100 ng kg−1 min−1) dose dependently decreased CLDF (up to 44%), but did not significantly affect MLDF. These effects were markedly blunted in 2K1C rats. After PD123319, Ang II dose dependently increased MLDF (up to 38%) in sham but not 2K1C rats. Candesartan abolished all effects of Ang II, including those seen after PD123319. Our data indicate that AT1 receptors mediate medullary vasodilatation, which is opposed by AT2-receptor activation. In 2K1C hypertension, AT2-receptor activation tonically constricts the medullary circulation. PMID:15678096

  13. p19ARF is a critical mediator of both cellular senescence and an innate immune response associated with MYC inactivation in mouse model of acute leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetil, Alper; Anchang, Benedict; Gouw, Arvin M.; Adam, Stacey J.; Zabuawala, Tahera; Parameswaran, Ramya; van Riggelen, Jan; Plevritis, Sylvia; Felsher, Dean W.

    2015-01-01

    MYC-induced T-ALL exhibit oncogene addiction. Addiction to MYC is a consequence of both cell-autonomous mechanisms, such as proliferative arrest, cellular senescence, and apoptosis, as well as non-cell autonomous mechanisms, such as shutdown of angiogenesis, and recruitment of immune effectors. Here, we show, using transgenic mouse models of MYC-induced T-ALL, that the loss of either p19ARF or p53 abrogates the ability of MYC inactivation to induce sustained tumor regression. Loss of p53 or p19ARF, influenced the ability of MYC inactivation to elicit the shutdown of angiogenesis; however the loss of p19ARF, but not p53, impeded cellular senescence, as measured by SA-beta-galactosidase staining, increased expression of p16INK4A, and specific histone modifications. Moreover, comparative gene expression analysis suggested that a multitude of genes involved in the innate immune response were expressed in p19ARF wild-type, but not null, tumors upon MYC inactivation. Indeed, the loss of p19ARF, but not p53, impeded the in situ recruitment of macrophages to the tumor microenvironment. Finally, p19ARF null-associated gene signature prognosticated relapse-free survival in human patients with ALL. Therefore, p19ARF appears to be important to regulating cellular senescence and innate immune response that may contribute to the therapeutic response of ALL. PMID:25784651

  14. CD8+ T Cell Response to Gammaherpesvirus Infection Mediates Inflammation and Fibrosis in Interferon Gamma Receptor-Deficient Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigid M O'Flaherty

    Full Text Available Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF, one of the most severe interstitial lung diseases, is a progressive fibrotic disorder of unknown etiology. However, there is growing appreciation for the role of viral infection in disease induction and/or progression. A small animal model of multi-organ fibrosis, which involves murine gammaherpesvirus (MHV68 infection of interferon gamma receptor deficient (IFNγR-/- mice, has been utilized to model the association of gammaherpesvirus infections and lung fibrosis. Notably, several MHV68 mutants which fail to induce fibrosis have been identified. Our current study aimed to better define the role of the unique MHV68 gene, M1, in development of pulmonary fibrosis. We have previously shown that the M1 gene encodes a secreted protein which possesses superantigen-like function to drive the expansion and activation of Vβ4+ CD8+ T cells. Here we show that M1-dependent fibrosis is correlated with heightened levels of inflammation in the lung. We observe an M1-dependent cellular infiltrate of innate immune cells with most striking differences at 28 days-post infection. Furthermore, in the absence of M1 protein expression we observed reduced CD8+ T cells and MHV68 epitope specific CD8+ T cells to the lungs-despite equivalent levels of viral replication between M1 null and wild type MHV68. Notably, backcrossing the IFNγR-/- onto the Balb/c background, which has previously been shown to exhibit weak MHV68-driven Vβ4+ CD8+ T cell expansion, eliminated MHV68-induced fibrosis-further implicating the activated Vβ4+ CD8+ T cell population in the induction of fibrosis. We further addressed the role that CD8+ T cells play in the induction of fibrosis by depleting CD8+ T cells, which protected the mice from fibrotic disease. Taken together these findings are consistent with the hypothesized role of Vβ4+ CD8+ T cells as mediators of fibrotic disease in IFNγR-/- mice.

  15. The metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 mediates sensitivity to the sedative properties of ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Chris; Marks, Michael J; Larson, Colin; Johnson, Thomas E

    2010-09-01

    Inbred long-sleep and short-sleep mice (ILS and ISS) were selectively bred for differential sensitivity to the sedative effects of ethanol. Lines of mice derived from these progenitors have been used to identify several quantitative trait loci (QTLs) mediating loss of the righting reflex due to ethanol (LORE). This study investigated the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5) as a candidate gene underlying Lore7, a QTL mediating differential LORE sensitivity. We used knockout mice, a quantitative complementation test, pharmacological antagonism of mGluR5, real-time quantitative PCR, radioligand binding, DNA sequencing, and bioinformatics to examine the role of mGluR5 in ethanol-induced sedation. mGluR5 knockout mice had a significantly longer LORE duration than wildtype controls. Administration of the mGluR5 antagonist 2-methyl-6-(phenylethyl)-pyridine (MPEP) had differential effects on LORE in ILS and ISS mice. A quantitative complementation test also supported mGluR5 mediating LORE. Two intronic single-nucleotide polymorphisms in mGluR5 were highly correlated with LORE in recombinant inbred mice derived from a cross between ILS and ISS (LXS RIs). Differences in mGluR5 mRNA level and receptor density were observed between ILS and ISS in distinct brain regions. Finally, data from WebQTL showed that mGluR5 expression was highly correlated with several LORE phenotypes in the LXS RIs. Altogether, this data provides convincing evidence that mGluR5 mediates differential sensitivity to the sedative effects of ethanol. Studies from the human literature have also identified mGluR5 as a potential candidate gene for ethanol sensitivity.

  16. Multifunctional pH-Responsive Folate Receptor Mediated Polymer Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xiaoqing; Yang, Xiaoye; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Chen; Sun, Deqing; Zhai, Guangxi

    2016-07-01

    Multifunctional pH-responsive folate receptor mediated targeted polymer nanoparticles (TPNps) were developed for docetaxel (DTX) delivery based on poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(propylene glycol)-block-poly(ethylene glycol)poly (β-amino ester) (P123-PAE) and poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(propylene glycol)-block-poly(ethylene glycol)-folate (P123-FA) copolymers. The DTX was loaded into the TPNps with a decent drug loading content of 15.02 ± 0.14 wt%. In vitro drug release results showed that the DTX was released from the TPNps at a pH-dependent manner. Tetrazolium dye (MTT) assay revealed that the bland polymer nanoparticles displayed almost nontoxicity at 200 μg/mL concentration. However, the DTX-loaded TPNps showed high anti-tumor activity at low IC50 (0.72 μg/mL) for MCF-7 cells following 48 h incubation. Cellular uptake experiments revealed that the TPNps had higher degree of cellular uptake than nontargeted polymer nanoparticles, indicating that the nanoparticles were internalized into the cells via FA receptor-mediated endocytosis. Moreover, the cellular uptake pathways for the FA grafted polymer were involved in energy-dependent, clathrin-mediated and caveolae-mediated endocytosis. The cell killing effect and cellular uptake of the DTX-TPNps by the MCF-7 cells were all enhanced by about two folds at pH 5.5 when compared with pH 7.4. The TPNps also significantly prolonged the in vivo retention time for the DTX. These results suggest that the biocompatible pH responsive folate-modified polymer nanoparticles present a promising safe nanosystem for intracellular targeted delivery of DTX.

  17. Acquired and innate immunity to polyaromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusuf, Nabiha; Timares, Laura; Seibert, Megan D.; Xu Hui; Elmets, Craig A.

    2007-01-01

    Polyaromatic hydrocarbons are ubiquitous environmental pollutants that are potent mutagens and carcinogens. Researchers have taken advantage of these properties to investigate the mechanisms by which chemicals cause cancer of the skin and other organs. When applied to the skin of mice, several carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons have also been shown to interact with the immune system, stimulating immune responses and resulting in the development of antigen-specific T-cell-mediated immunity. Development of cell-mediated immunity is strain-specific and is governed by Ah receptor genes and by genes located within the major histocompatibility complex. CD8 + T cells are effector cells in the response, whereas CD4 + T cells down-regulate immunity. Development of an immune response appears to have a protective effect since strains of mice that develop a cell-mediated immune response to carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons are less likely to develop tumors when subjected to a polyaromatic hydrocarbon skin carcinogenesis protocol than mice that fail to develop an immune response. With respect to innate immunity, TLR4-deficient C3H/HeJ mice are more susceptible to polyaromatic hydrogen skin tumorigenesis than C3H/HeN mice in which TLR4 is normal. These findings support the hypothesis that immune responses, through their interactions with chemical carcinogens, play an active role in the prevention of chemical skin carcinogenesis during the earliest stages. Efforts to augment immune responses to the chemicals that cause tumors may be a productive approach to the prevention of tumors caused by these agents

  18. Innate host defense against intracellular pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaart, Michiel van der

    2013-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the recognition of pathogenic bacteria and the defense mechanisms that are activated during the innate immune response to infection. Detection of pathogens, such as bacteria, viruses, and parasites, depends on receptors that bind to evolutionary conserved structures on their

  19. NK-cell-dependent killing of colon carcinoma cells is mediated by natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCRs) and stimulated by parvovirus infection of target cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, Rauf; Rommelaere, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Investigating how the immune system functions during malignancies is crucial to developing novel therapeutic strategies. Natural killer (NK) cells, an important component of the innate immune system, play a vital role in immune defense against tumors and virus-infected cells. The poor survival rate in colon cancer makes it particularly important to develop novel therapeutic strategies. Oncolytic viruses, in addition to lysing tumor cells, may have the potential to augment antitumor immune responses. In the present study, we investigate the role of NK cells and how parvovirus H-1PV can modulate NK-cell mediated immune responses against colon carcinoma. Human NK cells were isolated from the blood of healthy donors. The cytotoxicity and antibody-mediated inhibition of NK cells were measured in chromium release assays. Phenotypic assessment of colon cancer and dendritic cells was done by FACS. The statistical significance of the results was calculated with Student’s t test (*p <0.05; **, p < 0.01; ***, p < 0.001). We show that IL-2-activated human NK cells can effectively kill colon carcinoma cells. Killing of colon carcinoma cells by NK cells was further enhanced upon infection of the former cells with parvovirus H-1PV. H-1PV has potent oncolytic activity against various tumors, yet its direct killing effect on colon carcinoma cells is limited. The cytotoxicity of NK cells towards colon carcinoma cells, both mock- and H-1PV-infected, was found to be mostly mediated by a combination of natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCRs), namely NKp30, 44, and 46. Colon carcinoma cells displayed low to moderate expression of NK cell ligands, and this expression was modulated upon H-1PV infection. Lysates of H-1PV-infected colon carcinoma cells were found to increase MHC class II expression on dendritic cells. Altogether, these data suggest that IL-2-activated NK cells actively kill colon carcinoma cells and that this killing is mediated by several natural cytotoxicity receptors

  20. Reduced adenosine A2a receptor-mediated efferent arteriolar vasodilation contributes to diabetes-induced glomerular hyperfiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Patrik; Hansell, Peter; Palm, Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is associated with increased risk for development of kidney disease, and an increased glomerular filtration rate is an early indication of altered kidney function. Here we determine whether reduced adenosine A2a receptor-mediated vasodilation of the efferent arteriole contributes to the increased glomerular filtration rate in diabetes. The glomerular filtration rate, renal blood flow, and proximal tubular stop flow pressure were investigated in control and streptozotocin-diabetic rats during baseline and after administration of the adenosine A2a receptor antagonist ZM241385 or the adenosine A2a receptor agonist CGS21680. The diabetes-induced glomerular hyperfiltration was reduced by 24% following A2a receptor stimulation but was unaffected by A2a receptor inhibition. Contrarily, glomerular filtration rate in controls increased by 22% after A2a receptor inhibition and was unaffected by A2a stimulation. The increased glomerular filtration rate after A2a receptor inhibition in controls and decreased glomerular filtration rate after A2a receptor activation in diabetics were caused by increased and decreased stop flow pressure, respectively. None of the interventions affected renal blood flow. Thus, the normal adenosine A2a receptor-mediated tonic vasodilation of efferent arterioles is abolished in the diabetic kidney. This causes increased efferent arteriolar resistance resulting in increased filtration fraction and hyperfiltration.

  1. Dopamine Receptor Mediation of the Exploratory/Hyperactivity Effects of Modafinil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jared W; Kooistra, Klaas; Geyer, Mark A

    2011-01-01

    Modafinil (2-((diphenylmethyl)sulfinyl)acetamide) is described as an atypical stimulant and is a putative cognition enhancer for schizophrenia, but the precise mechanisms of action remain unclear. Receptor knockout (KO) mice offer an opportunity to identify receptors that contribute to a drug-induced effect. Here we examined the effects of modafinil on exploration in C57BL/6J mice, in dopamine drd1, drd2, drd3, and drd4 wild-type (WT), heterozygous (HT), and KO mice, and in 129/SJ mice pretreated with the drd1 antagonist SCH23390 using a cross-species test paradigm based on the behavioral pattern monitor. Modafinil increased activity, specific exploration (rearing), and the smoothness of locomotor paths (reduced spatial d) in C57BL/6J and 129/SJ mice (increased holepoking was also observed in these mice). These behavioral profiles are similar to that produced by the dopamine transporter inhibitor GBR12909. Modafinil was ineffective at increasing activity in male drd1 KOs, rearing in female drd1 KOs, or reducing spatial d in all drd1 KOs, but produced similar effects in drd1 WT and HT mice as in C57BL/6J mice. Neither dopamine drd2 nor drd3 mutants attenuated modafinil-induced effects. Drd4 mutants exhibited a genotype dose-dependent attenuation of modafinil-induced increases in specific exploration. Furthermore, the drd1 KO effects were largely supported by the SCH23390 study. Thus, the dopamine drd1 receptor appears to exert a primary role in modafinil-induced effects on spontaneous exploration, whereas the dopamine drd4 receptor appears to be important for specific exploration. The modafinil-induced alterations in exploratory behavior may reflect increased synaptic dopamine and secondary actions mediated by dopamine drd1 and drd4 receptors. PMID:21412225

  2. Calcium sensing receptor as a novel mediator of adipose tissue dysfunction: mechanisms and potential clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Bravo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is currently a serious worldwide public health problem, reaching pandemic levels. For decades, dietary and behavioral approaches have failed to prevent this disease from expanding, and health authorities are challenged by the elevated prevalence of co-morbid conditions. Understanding how obesity-associated diseases develop from a basic science approach is recognized as an urgent task to face this growing problem. White adipose tissue is an active endocrine organ, with a crucial influence on whole-body homeostasis. White adipose tissue dysfunction plays a key role linking obesity with its associated diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and some cancers. Among the regulators of white adipose tissue physiology, the calcium-sensing receptor has arisen as a potential mediator of white adipose tissue dysfunction. Expression of the receptor has been described in human preadipocytes, adipocytes, and the human adipose cell lines LS14 and SW872. The evidence suggests that calcium-sensing receptor activation in the visceral (i.e. unhealthy white adipose tissue is associated with an increased proliferation of adipose progenitor cells and elevated adipocyte differentiation. In addition, exposure of adipose cells to calcium-sensing receptor activators in vitro elevates proinflammatory cytokine expression and secretion. An increased proinflammatory environment in white adipose tissue plays a key role in the development of white adipose tissue dysfunction that leads to peripheral organ fat deposition and insulin resistance, among other consequences. We propose that calcium-sensing receptor may be one relevant therapeutic target in the struggle to confront the health consequences of the current worldwide obesity pandemic.

  3. The role of endogenous epidermal growth factor receptor ligands in mediating corneal epithelial homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Joanne L; Phelps, Eric D; Doll, Mark A; Schaal, Shlomit; Ceresa, Brian P

    2014-05-01

    To provide a comprehensive study of the biological role and therapeutic potential of six endogenous epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligands in corneal epithelial homeostasis. Kinetic analysis and dose response curves were performed by using in vitro and in vivo wound-healing assays. Biochemical assays were used to determine receptor expression and activity. Human tears were collected and quantitatively analyzed by multianalyte profiling for endogenous EGFR ligands. Epidermal growth factor receptor ligands improved wound closure and activated EGFR, but betacellulin (BTC) was the most efficacious promoter of wound healing in vitro. In contrast, only epidermal growth factor (EGF) promoted wound healing in vivo. Human tears from 25 healthy individuals showed EGFR ligands at these average concentrations: EGF at 2053 ± 312.4 pg/mL, BTC at 207 ± 39.4 pg/mL, heparin-binding EGF at 44 ± 5.8 pg/mL, amphiregulin at 509 ± 28.8 pg/mL, transforming growth factor-α at 84 ± 19 pg/mL, and epiregulin at 52 ± 15 pg/mL. Under unwounded conditions, only EGF was present at concentrations near the ligand's Kd for the receptor, indicating it is the primary mediator of corneal epithelial homeostasis. Other ligands were present but at concentrations 11- to 7500-fold less their Kd, preventing significant ligand binding. Further, the high levels of EGF and its predicted binding preclude receptor occupancy by exogenous ligand and can explain the discrepancy between the in vitro and in vivo data. Therefore, therapeutic use of EGFR ligands may be unpredictable and impractical.

  4. The Arabidopsis flagellin receptor FLS2 mediates the perception of Xanthomonas Ax21 secreted peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danna, Cristian H; Millet, Yves A; Koller, Teresa; Han, Sang-Wook; Bent, Andrew F; Ronald, Pamela C; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2011-05-31

    Detection of microbes by plants relies in part on an array of pattern-recognition receptors that recognize conserved microbial signatures, so-called "microbe-associated molecular patterns." The Arabidopsis thaliana receptor-like kinase FLS2 is the pattern-recognition receptor for bacterial flagellin. Similarly to FLS2, the rice transmembrane protein XA21 is the receptor for the sulfated form of the Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae secreted protein Ax21. Here we show that Ax21-derived peptides activate Arabidopsis immunity, triggering responses similar to those elicited by flagellin, including an oxidative burst, induction of defense-response genes, and enhanced resistance to bacterial pathogens. To identify Arabidopsis Xa21 functional homologs, we used a reverse genetics approach to screen T-DNA insertion mutants corresponding to all 47 of the Arabidopsis genes encoding non-RD kinases belonging to the interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK) family. Surprisingly, among all of these mutant lines, only fls2 mutants exhibited a significant loss of response to Ax21-derived peptides. Ax21 peptides also failed to activate defense-related responses in an fls2-24 mutant that does not bind Flg22. Moreover, a Flg22Δ2 variant of Flg22 that binds to FLS2 but does not activate FLS2-mediated signaling suppressed Ax21-derived peptide signaling, indicating mutually exclusive perception of Flg22 or Ax21 peptides by FLS2. The data indicate that FLS2 functions beyond flagellin perception to detect other microbe-associated molecular patterns.

  5. Tachykinin-induced contraction of the guinea-pig isolated oesophageal mucosa is mediated by NK2 receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Karen P; Thai, Binh; Coupar, Ian M

    2000-01-01

    The tachykinin receptor present in the guinea-pig oesophageal mucosa that mediates contractile responses of the muscularis mucosae has been characterized, using functional in vitro experiments. The NK1 receptor-selective agonist, [Sar9(O2)Met11]SP and the NK3 receptor-selective agonists, [MePhe7]-NKB and senktide, produced no response at submicromolar concentrations. The NK2 receptor-selective agonists, [Nle10]-NKA(4–10), and GR 64,349 produced concentration-dependent contractile effects with pD2 values of 8.20±0.16 and 8.30±0.15, respectively. The concentration-response curve to the non-selective agonist, NKA (pD2=8.13±0.04) was shifted significantly rightwards only by the NK2 receptor-selective antagonist, GR 159,897 and was unaffected by the NK1 receptor-selective antagonist, SR 140,333 and the NK3 receptor-selective antagonist, SB 222,200. The NK2 receptor-selective antagonist, GR 159,897, exhibited an apparent competitive antagonism against the NK2 receptor-selective agonist, GR 64,349 (apparent pKB value=9.29±0.16) and against the non-selective agonist, NKA (apparent pKB value=8.71±0.19). The NK2 receptor-selective antagonist, SR 48,968 exhibited a non-competitive antagonism against the NK2 receptor-selective agonist, [Nle10]-NKA(4–10). The pKB value was 10.84±0.19. It is concluded that the guinea-pig isolated oesophageal mucosa is a useful preparation for studying the effects of NK2 receptor-selective agonists and antagonists as the contractile responses to various tachykinins are mediated solely by NK2 receptors. PMID:11090121

  6. The Mycobacterium avium subsp. Paratuberculosis protein MAP1305 modulates dendritic cell-mediated T cell proliferation through Toll-like receptor-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su Jung; Noh, Kyung Tae; Kang, Tae Heung; Han, Hee Dong; Shin, Sung Jae; Soh, Byoung Yul; Park, Jung Hee; Shin, Yong Kyoo; Kim, Han Wool; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Park, Won Sun; Jung, In Duk; Park, Yeong-Min

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we show that Mycobacterium avium subsp. Paratuberculosis MAP1305 induces the maturation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs), a representative antigen presenting cell (APC). MAP1305 protein induces DC maturation and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (Interleukin (IL)-6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-1β) through Toll like receptor-4 (TLR-4) signaling by directly binding with TLR4. MAP1305 activates the phosphorylation of MAPKs, such as ERK, p38MAPK, and JNK, which is essential for DC maturation. Furthermore, MAP1305-treated DCs transform naïve T cells to polarized CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, thus indicating a key role for this protein in the Th1 polarization of the resulting immune response. Taken together, M. avium subsp. Paratuberculosis MAP1305 is important for the regulation of innate immune response through DC-mediated proliferation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. [BMB Reports 2014; 47(2): 115-120] PMID:24393523

  7. Endothelial nuclear lamina is not required for glucocorticoid receptor nuclear import but does affect receptor-mediated transcription activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayebosadri, Arman

    2013-01-01

    The lamina serves to maintain the nuclear structure and stiffness while acting as a scaffold for heterochromatin and many transcriptional proteins. Its role in endothelial mechanotransduction, specifically how nuclear mechanics impact gene regulation under shear stress, is not fully understood. In this study, we successfully silenced lamin A/C in bovine aortic endothelial cells to determine its role in both glucocorticoid receptor (GR) nuclear translocation and glucocorticoid response element (GRE) transcriptional activation in response to dexamethasone and shear stress. Nuclear translocation of GR, an anti-inflammatory nuclear receptor, in response to dexamethasone or shear stress (5, 10, and 25 dyn/cm2) was observed via time-lapse cell imaging and quantified using a Bayesian image analysis algorithm. Transcriptional activity of the GRE promoter was assessed using a dual-luciferase reporter plasmid. We found no dependence on nuclear lamina for GR translocation from the cytoplasm into the nucleus. However, the absence of lamin A/C led to significantly increased expression of luciferase under dexamethasone and shear stress induction as well as changes in histone protein function. PCR results for NF-κB inhibitor alpha (NF-κBIA) and dual specificity phosphatase 1 (DUSP1) genes further supported our luciferase data with increased expression in the absence of lamin. Our results suggest that absence of lamin A/C does not hinder passage of GR into the nucleus, but nuclear lamina is important to properly regulate GRE transcription. Nuclear lamina, rather than histone deacetylase (HDAC), is a more significant mediator of shear stress-induced transcriptional activity, while dexamethasone-initiated transcription is more HDAC dependent. Our findings provide more insights into the molecular pathways involved in nuclear mechanotransduction. PMID:23703529

  8. Amygdala EphB2 Signaling Regulates Glutamatergic Neuron Maturation and Innate Fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao-Na; Liu, Xian-Dong; Zhuang, Hanyi; Henkemeyer, Mark; Yang, Jing-Yu; Xu, Nan-Jie

    2016-09-28

    The amygdala serves as emotional center to mediate innate fear behaviors that are reflected through neuronal responses to environmental aversive cues. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the initial neuron responses is poorly understood. In this study, we monitored the innate defensive responses to aversive stimuli of either elevated plus maze or predator odor in juvenile mice and found that glutamatergic neurons were activated in amygdala. Loss of EphB2, a receptor tyrosine kinase expressed in amygdala neurons, suppressed the reactions and led to defects in spine morphogenesis and fear behaviors. We further found a coupling of spinogenesis with these threat cues induced neuron activation in developing amygdala that was controlled by EphB2. A constitutively active form of EphB2 was sufficient to rescue the behavioral and morphological defects caused by ablation of ephrin-B3, a brain-enriched ligand to EphB2. These data suggest that kinase-dependent EphB2 intracellular signaling plays a major role for innate fear responses during the critical developing period, in which spinogenesis in amygdala glutamatergic neurons was involved. Generation of innate fear responses to threat as an evolutionally conserved brain feature relies on development of functional neural circuit in amygdala, but the molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. We here identify that EphB2 receptor tyrosine kinase, which is specifically expressed in glutamatergic neurons, is required for the innate fear responses in the neonatal brain. We further reveal that EphB2 mediates coordination of spinogenesis and neuron activation in amygdala during the critical period for the innate fear. EphB2 catalytic activity plays a major role for the behavior upon EphB-ephrin-B3 binding and transnucleus neuronal connections. Our work thus indicates an essential synaptic molecular signaling within amygdala that controls synapse development and helps bring about innate fear emotions in the postnatal

  9. Receptor-mediated endocytosis of lysozyme in renal proximal tubules of the frog Rana temporaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Seliverstova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of protein reabsorption in the kidney of lower vertebrates remains insufficiently investigated in spite of raising interest to the amphibian and fish kidneys as a useful model for physiological and pathophysiological examinations. In the present study, we examined the renal tubular uptake and the internalization rote of lysozyme after its intravenous injection in the wintering frog Rana temporaria using immunohisto- and immunocytochemistry and specific markers for some endocytic compartments. The distinct expression of megalin and cubilin in the proximal tubule cells of lysozyme-injected frogs was revealed whereas kidney tissue of control animals showed no positive immunoreactivity. Lysozyme was detected in the apical endocytic compartment of the tubular cells and colocalized with clathrin 10 min after injection. After 20 min, lysozyme was located in the subapical compartment negative to clathrin (endosomes, and intracellular trafficking of lysozyme was coincided with the distribution of megalin and cubilin. However, internalized protein was retained in the endosomes and did not reach lysosomes within 30 min after treatment that may indicate the inhibition of intracellular trafficking in hibernating frogs. For the first time, we provided the evidence that lysozyme is filtered through the glomeruli and absorbed by receptor-mediated clathrin-dependent endocytosis in the frog proximal tubule cells. Thus, the protein uptake in the amphibian mesonephros is mediated by megalin and cubilin that confirms a critical role of endocytic receptors in the renal reabsorption of proteins in amphibians as in mammals.

  10. Cutting edge: killer Ig-like receptors mediate "missing self" recognition in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bergen, Jeroen; Thompson, Allan; Retière, Christelle; Trowsdale, John; Koning, Frits

    2009-03-01

    Although it is well established that human NK cells are able to detect the absence of autologous HLA class I in vitro by virtue of inhibitory killer Ig-like receptors (KIR), direct evidence that KIR can mediate "missing self" recognition in vivo is lacking. To test this, we generated mice transgenic for a human KIR B-haplotype and HLA-Cw3 on a C57BL/6 background. NK cells in these mice expressed multiple KIR in a stochastic manner, including the HLA-Cw3-specific inhibitory receptor KIR2DL2. KIR and HLA transgenic mice rejected wild-type C57BL/6 spleen cells upon i.v. injection. This rejection was dependent on the presence of the KIR transgene in the host and on the absence of HLA-Cw3 from the injected target cells. Hence, the KIR transgene mediated "missing self" recognition in vivo. We anticipate that this KIR and HLA transgenic mouse will help shed light on KIR and HLA effects in disease and transplantation.

  11. Mutational analysis of the Ve1 immune receptor that mediates Verticillium resistance in tomato.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Zhang

    Full Text Available Pathogenic Verticillium species are economically important plant pathogens that cause vascular wilt diseases in hundreds of plant species. The Ve1 gene of tomato confers resistance against race 1 strains of Verticillium dahliae and V. albo-atrum. Ve1 encodes an extracellular leucine-rich repeat (eLRR receptor-like protein (RLP that serves as a cell surface receptor for recognition of the recently identified secreted Verticillium effector Ave1. To investigate recognition of Ave1 by Ve1, alanine scanning was performed on the solvent exposed β-strand/β-turn residues across the eLRR domain of Ve1. In addition, alanine scanning was also employed to functionally characterize motifs that putatively mediate protein-protein interactions and endocytosis in the transmembrane domain and the cytoplasmic tail of the Ve1 protein. Functionality of the mutant proteins was assessed by screening for the occurrence of a hypersensitive response upon co-expression with Ave1 upon Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transient expression (agroinfiltration. In order to confirm the agroinfiltration results, constructs encoding Ve1 mutants were transformed into Arabidopsis and the transgenes were challenged with race 1 Verticillium. Our analyses identified several regions of the Ve1 protein that are required for functionality.

  12. Mutational analysis of the Ve1 immune receptor that mediates Verticillium resistance in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhao; Song, Yin; Liu, Chun-Ming; Thomma, Bart P H J

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenic Verticillium species are economically important plant pathogens that cause vascular wilt diseases in hundreds of plant species. The Ve1 gene of tomato confers resistance against race 1 strains of Verticillium dahliae and V. albo-atrum. Ve1 encodes an extracellular leucine-rich repeat (eLRR) receptor-like protein (RLP) that serves as a cell surface receptor for recognition of the recently identified secreted Verticillium effector Ave1. To investigate recognition of Ave1 by Ve1, alanine scanning was performed on the solvent exposed β-strand/β-turn residues across the eLRR domain of Ve1. In addition, alanine scanning was also employed to functionally characterize motifs that putatively mediate protein-protein interactions and endocytosis in the transmembrane domain and the cytoplasmic tail of the Ve1 protein. Functionality of the mutant proteins was assessed by screening for the occurrence of a hypersensitive response upon co-expression with Ave1 upon Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transient expression (agroinfiltration). In order to confirm the agroinfiltration results, constructs encoding Ve1 mutants were transformed into Arabidopsis and the transgenes were challenged with race 1 Verticillium. Our analyses identified several regions of the Ve1 protein that are required for functionality.

  13. Innate Immune Sensing and Response to Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulendran, Bali; Maddur, Mohan S.

    2015-01-01

    Influenza viruses pose a substantial threat to human and animal health worldwide. Recent studies in mouse models have revealed an indispensable role for the innate immune system in defense against influenza virus. Recognition of the virus by innate immune receptors in a multitude of cell types activates intricate signaling networks, functioning to restrict viral replication. Downstream effector mechanisms include activation of innate immune cells and, induction and regulation of adaptive immunity. However, uncontrolled innate responses are associated with exaggerated disease, especially in pandemic influenza virus infection. Despite advances in the understanding of innate response to influenza in the mouse model, there is a large knowledge gap in humans, particularly in immunocom-promised groups such as infants and the elderly. We propose here, the need for further studies in humans to decipher the role of innate immunity to influenza virus, particularly at the site of infection. These studies will complement the existing work in mice and facilitate the quest to design improved vaccines and therapeutic strategies against influenza. PMID:25078919

  14. Peptides in receptor-mediated radiotherapy : from design to the clinical application in cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eLOZZA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Short peptides can show high affinity for specific receptors overexpressed on tumor cells. Some of these are already used in cancerology as diagnostic tools and others are in clinical trials for therapeutic applications. Therefore, peptides exhibit great potential as a diagnostic tool but also as an alternative or an additional antitumoral approach upon the covalent attachment of a therapeutic moiety such as a radionuclide or a cytotoxic drug. The chemistry offers flexibility to graft onto the targeting peptide either fluorine or iodine directly, or metallic radionuclides through appropriate chelating agent. Since short peptides are straightforward to synthesize, there is an opportunity to further improve existing peptides or to design new ones for clinical applications. However, several considerations have to be taken into account to optimize the recognition properties of the targeting peptide to its receptor, to improve its stability in the biological fluids and its residence in the body, or to increase its overall therapeutic effect. In this review, we highlight the different aspects which need to be considered for the development of an efficient peptide receptor-mediated radionuclide therapy in different neoplasms.

  15. Structural insight into antibody-mediated antagonism of the Glucagon-like peptide-1 Receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hennen, Stephanie; Kodra, János T; Soroka, Vladyslav

    2016-01-01

    The Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is a member of the class B G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family and a well-established target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The N-terminal extracellular domain (ECD) of GLP-1R is important for GLP-1 binding and the crystal structure...... of the GLP-1/ECD complex was reported previously. The first structure of a class B GPCR transmembrane (TM) domain was solved recently, but the full length receptor structure is still not well understood. Here we describe the molecular details of antibody-mediated antagonism of the GLP-1R using both in vitro...... pharmacology and x-ray crystallography. We showed that the antibody Fab fragment (Fab 3F52) blocked the GLP-1 binding site of the ECD directly and thereby acts as a competitive antagonist of native GLP-1. Interestingly, Fab 3F52 also blocked a short peptide agonist believed to engage primarily...

  16. The Melanocortin 3 Receptor: A Novel Mediator of Exercise-Induced Inflammation Reduction in Postmenopausal Women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara M. Henagan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether resistance exercise training-induced reductions in inflammation are mediated via melanocortin 3 receptor expression in obese (BMI 32.7±3.7 women (65.6±2.8 yrs randomized to either a control (=11 or resistance training group (=12. The resistance trained group performed resistance training 3 days/week for 12 weeks. Resting blood samples were collected before and after the training intervention in both resistance trained and control groups. Resistance training upregulated melanocortin 3 receptor mRNA by 16-fold (=.035 and decreased monocyte count, without changing leukocyte number, body composition, or body weight. Resistance trained individuals exhibited increased sensitivity to inflammatory stimuli, whereas control individuals exhibited no change. While there was no change in whole blood tumor necrosis factor alpha mRNA between the groups, whole blood interleukin 10 mRNA was higher in the resistance trained group following the intervention period. In summary, it appears that resistance training may modulate melanocortin 3 receptor expression, providing a possible mechanism for the anti-inflammatory effects of exercise training.

  17. Assessing the transport of receptor-mediated drug-delivery devices across cellular monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Erik; Lowman, Anthony M

    2014-01-01

    Receptor-mediated endocytosis (RME) has been extensively studied as a method for augmenting the transport of therapeutic devices across monolayers. These devices range from simple ligand-therapeutic conjugates to complex ligand-nanocarrier systems. However, characterizing the uptake of these carriers typically relies on their comparisons to the native therapeutic, which provides no understanding of the ligand or cellular performance. To better understand the potential of the RME pathway, a model for monolayer transport was designed based on the endocytosis cycle of transferrin, a ligand often used in RME drug-delivery devices. This model established the correlation between apical receptor concentration and transport capability. Experimental studies confirmed this relationship, demonstrating an upper transport limit independent of the applied dose. This contrasts with the dose-proportional pathways that native therapeutics rely on for transport. Thus, the direct comparison of these two transport mechanisms can produce misleading results that change with arbitrarily chosen doses. Furthermore, transport potential was hindered by repeated use of the RME cycle. Future studies should base the success of this technology not on the performance of the therapeutic itself, but on the capabilities of the cell. Using receptor-binding studies, we were able to demonstrate how these capabilities can be predicted and potentially adopted for high-throughput screening methods.

  18. Quantitative imaging of lineage-specific Toll-like receptor-mediated signaling in monocytes and dendritic cells from small samples of human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Feng; Montgomery, Ruth R

    2012-04-16

    Individual variations in immune status determine responses to infection and contribute to disease severity and outcome. Aging is associated with an increased susceptibility to viral and bacterial infections and decreased responsiveness to vaccines with a well-documented decline in humoral as well as cell-mediated immune responses. We have recently assessed the effects of aging on Toll-like receptors (TLRs), key components of the innate immune system that detect microbial infection and trigger antimicrobial host defense responses. In a large cohort of healthy human donors, we showed that peripheral blood monocytes from the elderly have decreased expression and function of certain TLRs and similar reduced TLR levels and signaling responses in dendritic cells (DCs), antigen-presenting cells that are pivotal in the linkage between innate and adaptive immunity. We have shown dysregulation of TLR3 in macrophages and lower production of IFN by DCs from elderly donors in response to infection with West Nile virus. Paramount to our understanding of immunosenescence and to therapeutic intervention is a detailed understanding of specific cell types responding and the mechanism(s) of signal transduction. Traditional studies of immune responses through imaging of primary cells and surveying cell markers by FACS or immunoblot have advanced our understanding significantly, however, these studies are generally limited technically by the small sample volume available from patients and the inability to conduct complex laboratory techniques on multiple human samples. ImageStream combines quantitative flow cytometry with simultaneous high-resolution digital imaging and thus facilitates investigation in multiple cell populations contemporaneously for an efficient capture of patient susceptibility. Here we demonstrate the use of ImageStream in DCs to assess TLR7/8 activation-mediated increases in phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of a key transcription factor, NF-κB, which

  19. Cobaltous chloride and hypoxia inhibit aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated responses in breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Shaheen; Liu Shengxi; Stoner, Matthew; Safe, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is expressed in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive ZR-75 breast cancer cells. Treatment with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induces CYP1A1 protein and mRNA levels and also activates inhibitory AhR-ERα crosstalk associated with hormone-induced reporter gene expression. In ZR-75 cells grown under hypoxia, induction of these AhR-mediated responses by TCDD was significantly inhibited. This was not accompanied by decreased nuclear AhR levels or decreased interaction of the AhR complex with the CYP1A1 gene promoter as determined in a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Hypoxia-induced loss of Ah-responsiveness was not associated with induction of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α or other factors that sequester the AhR nuclear translocation (Arnt) protein, and overexpression of Arnt under hypoxia did not restore Ah-responsiveness. The p65 subunit of NFκB which inhibits AhR-mediated transactivation was not induced by hypoxia and was primarily cytosolic in ZR-75 cells grown under hypoxic and normoxic conditions. In ZR-75 cells maintained under hypoxic conditions for 24 h, BRCA1 (an enhancer of AhR-mediated transactivation in breast cancer cells) was significantly decreased and this contributed to loss of Ah-responsiveness. In cells grown under hypoxia for 6 h, BRCA1 was not decreased, but induction of CYP1A1 by TCDD was significantly decreased. Cotreatment of ZR-75 cells with TCDD plus the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide for 6 h enhanced CYP1A1 expression in cells grown under hypoxia and normoxia. These results suggest that hypoxia rapidly induces protein(s) that inhibit Ah-responsiveness and these may be similar to constitutively expressed inhibitors of Ah-responsiveness (under normoxia) that are also inhibited by cycloheximide

  20. Regulative effect of anandamide-mediated cannabinoid receptor in rats with visceral hypersensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-qin HE

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the role of anandamide(ANA-mediated cannabinoid receptor 1(CB1 on the acquisition of visceral hypersensitivity in rats, and explore its underlying mechanism. Methods  The visceral hypersensitivity non-noxious/noxious colorectal distension (NNCRD/NCRD model of rat was reproduced by ovalbumin (OVA sensitization combined with NNCRD/NCRD. Fifty-four rats were randomly divided into control group (n=7, saline+CRD group (n=7, OVA+CRD+dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO group (n=8, OVA+CRD+different concentrations of ANA (0.5, 5.0, 10.0mg/kg groups (8 each, and OVA+CRD+ANA+AM251 group (n=8. The expression and quantitative assessment of CB1 were monitored by immunoflurorescence and laser scanning confocal analysis. The visceral sensitivity was evaluated by the area under curve (AUC of myoelectrical activity of abdominal wall muscle. Results  By NCRD at 80mmHg, the density of CB1 immunofluorescence intensity was significantly higher in L4–L6 of the spinal cord of the rats in saline+CRD group compared with that in control group (P 0.05. By NCRD at 80mmHg, the VMR-AUC increased obviously in OVA+CRD+DMSO group as compared with that of saline+CRD group, but it decreased significantly in OVA+CRD+high concentration ANA group (P < 0.05. When AM251 was intravenously given, VMR-AUC increased significantly in OVA+CRD+ANA+AM251 group compared with that in OVA+CRD+different concentrations of ANA groups (P < 0.05. Conclusions Intravenous administration of ANA may mitigate the visceral nociception induced by basic OVAsensitization combined with NCRD stimulation in CB1-mediated manner. It indicated that anandamide-mediated CB1 cannabinoid receptor may regulate the development and maintenance of visceral hypersensitivity.

  1. The role of MAPK in CD4{sup +} T cells toll-like receptor 9-mediated signaling following HHV-6 infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi, Jing [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029, Jiangsu Province (China); Wang, Fang [Department of Laboratory Medicine, the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, 300 Guangzhou Road, Nanjing 210029, Jiangsu Province (China); Li, Lingyun [Department of Developmental Genetics, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029, Jiangsu Province (China); Feng, Dongju [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029, Jiangsu Province (China); Qin, Jian [College of Foreign Languages, Hehai University, Nanjing 210029, Jiangsu Province (China); Xie, Fangyi; Zhou, Feng; Chen, Yun; Wang, Jinfeng [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029, Jiangsu Province (China); Yao, Kun, E-mail: yaokun@njmu.edu.cn [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2012-01-05

    Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) is an important immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory virus that primarily infects immune cells (mainly CD4{sup +} T cells) and strongly suppresses the proliferation of infected cells. Toll-like receptors are pattern-recognition receptors essential for the development of an appropriate innate immune defense against infection. To understand the role of CD4{sup +} T cells in the innate response to HHV-6 infection and the involvement of TLRs, we used an in vitro infection model and observed that the infection of CD4{sup +} T cells resulted in the activation of JNK/SAPK via up-regulation of toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). Associated with JNK activation, annexin V-PI staining indicated that HHV-6A was a strong inducer of apoptosis. Apoptotic response associated cytokines, IL-6 and TNF-{alpha} also induced by HHV-6A infection.

  2. Activation of Opioid μ-Receptors, but not δ- or κ-Receptors, Switches Pulmonary C-Fiber-Mediated Rapid Shallow Breathing into An Apnea in Anesthetized Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenxiong; Zhang, Cancan; Zhou, Moxi; Xu, Fadi

    2012-01-01

    Rapid shallow breathing (RSB) is mainly mediated by bronchopulmonary C-fibers (PCFs). We asked whether this RSB could be modulated by opioid. In anesthetized rats right atrial bolus injection of phenylbiguanide (PBG) to evoke RSB was repeated after: 1) intravenously giving fentanyl (μ-receptor agonist), DPDPE (δ-receptor agonist), or U-50488H (κ-receptor agonist); 2) fentanyl (iv) following naloxone methiodide, a peripheral opioid receptor antagonist; 3) bilateral microinjection of fentanyl into the nodose ganglia; 4) fentanyl (iv) with pre-blocking histamine H1 and H2 receptors by diphenhydramine and ranitidine. Systemic fentanyl challenge, but not DPDPE or U-50488H, switched the PBG-induced RSB to a long lasting apnea. This switch was blocked by naloxone methiodide rather than diphenhydramine and ranitidine. After microinjecting fentanyl into the nodose ganglia, PBG also produced an apnea. Our results suggest that activating μ-receptors is capable of turning the PCF-mediated RSB into an apnea, at least partly, via facilitating PCFs’ activity and this switching effect appears independent of the released histamine. PMID:22796630

  3. Reclassifying Anaphylaxis to Neuromuscular Blocking Agents Based on the Presumed Patho-Mechanism: IgE-Mediated, Pharmacological Adverse Reaction or ?Innate Hypersensitivity??

    OpenAIRE

    Spoerl, David; Nigolian, Haig; Czarnetzki, Christoph; Harr, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Approximately 60% of perioperative anaphylactic reactions are thought to be immunoglobulin IgE mediated, whereas 40% are thought to be non-IgE mediated hypersensitivity reactions (both considered non-dose-related type B adverse drug reactions). In both cases, symptoms are elicited by mast cell degranulation. Also, pharmacological reactions to drugs (type A, dose-related) may sometimes mimic symptoms triggered by mast cell degranulation. In case of hypotension, bronchospasm, or urticarial rash...

  4. Inhibition of LPS binding to MD-2 co-receptor for suppressing TLR4-mediated expression of inflammatory cytokine by 1-dehydro-10-gingerdione from dietary ginger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sun Hong; Kyeong, Min Sik; Hwang, Yuri [College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Shi Yong [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Sang-Bae [College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Youngsoo, E-mail: youngsoo@chungbuk.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 1-Dehydro-10-gingerdione (1D10G) from ginger inhibits LPS binding to MD-2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 1D10G suppresses MyD88- or TRIF-dependent signaling in LPS-activated macrophages. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 1D10G down-regulates the expression of NF-{kappa}B-, AP1- or IRF3-target genes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MD-2 is a molecular target in the anti-inflammatory action of 1D10G. -- Abstract: Myeloid differentiation protein 2 (MD-2) is a co-receptor of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) for innate immunity. Here, we delineated a new mechanism of 1-dehydro-10-gingerdione (1D10G), one of pungent isolates from ginger (Zingiber officinale), in the suppression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced gene expression of inflammatory cytokines. 1D10G inhibited LPS binding to MD-2 with higher affinity than gingerol and shogaol from dietary ginger. Moreover, 1D10G down-regulated TLR4-mediated expression of nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) or activating protein 1 (AP1)-target genes such as tumor necrosis factor {alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) and interleukin-1{beta}, as well as those of interferon (IFN) regulatory factor 3 (IRF3)-target IFN-{beta} gene and IFN-{gamma} inducible protein 10 (IP-10) in LPS-activated macrophages. Taken together, MD-2 is a molecular target in the anti-inflammatory action of 1D10G.

  5. Vacuolar Sorting Receptor-Mediated Trafficking of Soluble Vacuolar Proteins in Plant Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyangju Kang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Vacuoles are one of the most prominent organelles in plant cells, and they play various important roles, such as degradation of waste materials, storage of ions and metabolites, and maintaining turgor. During the past two decades, numerous advances have been made in understanding how proteins are specifically delivered to the vacuole. One of the most crucial steps in this process is specific sorting of soluble vacuolar proteins. Vacuolar sorting receptors (VSRs, which are type I membrane proteins, are involved in the sorting and packaging of soluble vacuolar proteins into transport vesicles with the help of various accessory proteins. To date, large amounts of data have led to the development of two different models describing VSR-mediated vacuolar trafficking that are radically different in multiple ways, particularly regarding the location of cargo binding to, and release from, the VSR and the types of carriers utilized. In this review, we summarize current literature aimed at elucidating VSR-mediated vacuolar trafficking and compare the two models with respect to the sorting signals of vacuolar proteins, as well as the molecular machinery involved in VSR-mediated vacuolar trafficking and its action mechanisms.

  6. MDMA-Induced Dissociative State not Mediated by the 5-HT2A Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew J. Puxty

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that a single dose of MDMA induce a dissociative state, by elevating feelings of depersonalization and derealization. Typically, it is assumed that action on the 5-HT2A receptor is the mechanism underlying these psychedelic experiences. In addition, other studies have shown associations between dissociative states and biological parameters (heart rate, cortisol, which are elevated by MDMA. In order to investigate the role of the 5-HT2 receptor in the MDMA-induced dissociative state and the association with biological parameters, a placebo-controlled within-subject study was conducted including a single oral dose of MDMA (75 mg, combined with placebo or a single oral dose of the 5-HT2 receptor blocker ketanserin (40 mg. Twenty healthy recreational MDMA users filled out a dissociative states scale (CADSS 90 min after treatments, which was preceded and followed by assessment of a number of biological parameters (cortisol levels, heart rate, MDMA blood concentrations. Findings showed that MDMA induced a dissociative state but this effect was not counteracted by pre-treatment with ketanserin. Heart rate was the only biological parameter that correlated with the MDMA-induced dissociative state, but an absence of correlation between these measures when participants were pretreated with ketanserin suggests an absence of directional effects of heart rate on dissociative state. It is suggested that the 5-HT2 receptor does not mediate the dissociative effects caused by a single dose of MDMA. Further research is needed to determine the exact neurobiology underlying this effect and whether these effects contribute to the therapeutic potential of MDMA.

  7. CB1 receptor mediates the effects of glucocorticoids on AMPK activity in the hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scerif, Miski; Füzesi, Tamás; Thomas, Julia D; Kola, Blerina; Grossman, Ashley B; Fekete, Csaba; Korbonits, Márta

    2013-10-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a regulator of cellular and systemic energy homeostasis, can be influenced by several hormones. Tissue-specific alteration of AMPK activity by glucocorticoids may explain the increase in appetite, the accumulation of lipids in adipose tissues, and the detrimental cardiac effects of Cushing's syndrome. Endocannabinoids are known to mediate the effects of various hormones and to influence AMPK activity. Cannabinoids have central orexigenic and direct peripheral metabolic effects via the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1). In our preliminary experiments, WT mice received implants of a corticosterone-containing pellet to establish a mouse model of Cushing's syndrome. Subsequently, WT and Cb1 (Cnr1)-knockout (CB1-KO) littermates were treated with corticosterone and AMPK activity in the hypothalamus, various adipose tissues, liver and cardiac tissue was measured. Corticosterone-treated CB1-KO mice showed a lack of weight gain and of increase in hypothalamic and hepatic AMPK activity. In adipose tissues, baseline AMPK activity was higher in CB1-KO mice, but a glucocorticoid-induced drop was observed, similar to that observed in WT mice. Cardiac AMPK levels were reduced in CB1-KO mice, but while WT mice showed significantly reduced AMPK activity following glucocorticoid treatment, CB1-KO mice showed a paradoxical increase. Our findings indicate the importance of the CB1 receptor in the central orexigenic effect of glucocorticoid-induced activation of hypothalamic AMPK activity. In the periphery adipose tissues, changes may occur independently of the CB1 receptor, but the receptor appears to alter the responsiveness of the liver and myocardial tissues to glucocorticoids. In conclusion, our data suggest that an intact cannabinoid pathway is required for the full metabolic effects of chronic glucocorticoid excess.

  8. Distinctive Modulation of Dopamine Release in the Nucleus Accumbens Shell Mediated by Dopamine and Acetylcholine Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jung Hoon; Adrover, Martin F; Alvarez, Veronica A

    2017-11-15

    Nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell shows unique dopamine (DA) signals in vivo and plays a unique role in DA-dependent behaviors such as reward-motivated learning and the response to drugs of abuse. A disynaptic mechanism for DA release was reported and shown to require synchronized firing of cholinergic interneurons (CINs) and activation of nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (nAChRs) in DA neuron (DAN) axons. The properties of this disynaptic mechanism of DA transmission are not well understood in the NAc shell. In this study, in vitro fast-scan cyclic voltammetry was used to examine the modulation of DA transmission evoked by CINs firing in the shell of mice and compared with other striatal regions. We found that DA signals in the shell displayed significant degree of summation in response to train stimulation of CINs, contrary to core and dorsal striatum. The summation was amplified by a D2-like receptor antagonist and experiments with mice with targeted deletion of D2 receptors to DANs or CINs revealed that D2 receptors in CINs mediate a fast inhibition observed within 100 ms of the first pulse, whereas D2 autoreceptors in DAN terminals are engaged in a slower inhibition that peaks at ∼500 ms. ACh also contributes to the use-dependent inhibition of DA release through muscarinic receptors only in the shell, where higher activity of acetylcholinesterase minimizes nAChR desensitization and promotes summation. These findings show that DA signals are modulated differentially by endogenous DA and ACh in the shell, which may underlie the unique features of shell DA signals in vivo SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The present study reports that dopamine (DA) release evoked by activation of cholinergic interneurons displays a high degree of summation in the shell and shows unique modulation by endogenous DA and acetylcholine. Desensitization of nicotinic receptors, which is a prevailing mechanism for use-dependent inhibition in the nucleus accumbens core and dorsal striatum, is

  9. Analysis of the Human Mucosal Response to Cholera Reveals Sustained Activation of Innate Immune Signaling Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourque, Daniel L; Bhuiyan, Taufiqur Rahman; Genereux, Diane P; Rashu, Rasheduzzaman; Ellis, Crystal N; Chowdhury, Fahima; Khan, Ashraful I; Alam, Nur Haq; Paul, Anik; Hossain, Lazina; Mayo-Smith, Leslie M; Charles, Richelle C; Weil, Ana A; LaRocque, Regina C; Calderwood, Stephen B; Ryan, Edward T; Karlsson, Elinor K; Qadri, Firdausi; Harris, Jason B

    2018-02-01

    To better understand the innate immune response to Vibrio cholerae infection, we tracked gene expression in the duodenal mucosa of 11 Bangladeshi adults with cholera, using biopsy specimens obtained immediately after rehydration and 30 and 180 days later. We identified differentially expressed genes and performed an analysis to predict differentially regulated pathways and upstream regulators. During acute cholera, there was a broad increase in the expression of genes associated with innate immunity, including activation of the NF-κB, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated signaling pathways, which, unexpectedly, persisted even 30 days after infection. Focusing on early differences in gene expression, we identified 37 genes that were differentially expressed on days 2 and 30 across the 11 participants. These genes included the endosomal Toll-like receptor gene TLR8 , which was expressed in lamina propria cells. Underscoring a potential role for endosomal TLR-mediated signaling in vivo , our pathway analysis found that interferon regulatory factor 7 and beta 1 and alpha 2 interferons were among the top upstream regulators activated during cholera. Among the innate immune effectors, we found that the gene for DUOX2, an NADPH oxidase involved in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis, was upregulated in intestinal epithelial cells during cholera. Notably, the observed increases in DUOX2 and TLR8 expression were also modeled in vitro when Caco-2 or THP-1 cells, respectively, were stimulated with live V. cholerae but not with heat-killed organisms or cholera toxin alone. These previously unidentified features of the innate immune response to V. cholerae extend our understanding of the mucosal immune signaling pathways and effectors activated in vivo following cholera. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  10. Interplay between Human Cytomegalovirus and Intrinsic/Innate Host Responses: A Complex Bidirectional Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, Giada; Cerboni, Cristina; Santoni, Angela; Landini, Maria Paola; Landolfo, Santo; Gatti, Deborah; Gribaudo, Giorgio; Varani, Stefania

    2012-01-01

    The interaction between human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and its host is a complex process that begins with viral attachment and entry into host cells, culminating in the development of a specific adaptive response that clears the acute infection but fails to eradicate HCMV. We review the viral and cellular partners that mediate early host responses to HCMV with regard to the interaction between structural components of virions (viral glycoproteins) and cellular receptors (attachment/entry receptors, toll-like receptors, and other nucleic acid sensors) or intrinsic factors (PML, hDaxx, Sp100, viperin, interferon inducible protein 16), the reactions of innate immune cells (antigen presenting cells and natural killer cells), the numerous mechanisms of viral immunoevasion, and the potential exploitation of events that are associated with early phases of virus-host interplay as a therapeutic strategy. PMID:22701276

  11. Adenosine A2A receptor-dependent proliferation of pulmonary endothelial cells is mediated through calcium mobilization, PI3-kinase and ERK1/2 pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Aftab; Schaack, Jerome B.; White, Carl W.; Ahmad, Shama

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •A 2A receptor-induced pulmonary endothelial growth is mediated by PI3K and ERK1/2. •Cytosolic calcium mobilization is also critical for pulmonary endothelial growth. •Effectors of A 2A receptor, like tyrosine kinases and cAMP increase PI3K/Akt signaling. •Activation of A 2A receptor can contribute to vascular remodeling. -- Abstract: Hypoxia and HIF-2α-dependent A 2A receptor expression and activation increase proliferation of human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HLMVECs). This study was undertaken to investigate the signaling mechanisms that mediate the proliferative effects of A 2A receptor. A 2A receptor-mediated proliferation of HLMVECs was inhibited by intracellular calcium chelation, and by specific inhibitors of ERK1/2 and PI3-kinase (PI3K). The adenosine A 2A receptor agonist CGS21680 caused intracellular calcium mobilization in controls and, to a greater extent, in A 2A receptor-overexpressing HLMVECs. Adenoviral-mediated A 2A receptor overexpression as well as receptor activation by CGS21680 caused increased PI3K activity and Akt phosphorylation. Cells overexpressing A 2A receptor also manifested enhanced ERK1/2 phosphorylation upon CGS21680 treatment. A 2A receptor activation also caused enhanced cAMP production. Likewise, treatment with 8Br-cAMP increased PI3K activity. Hence A 2A receptor-mediated cAMP production and PI3K and Akt phosphorylation are potential mediators of the A 2A -mediated proliferative response of HLMVECs. Cytosolic calcium mobilization and ERK1/2 phosphorylation are other critical effectors of HLMVEC proliferation and growth. These studies underscore the importance of adenosine A 2A receptor in activation of survival and proliferative pathways in pulmonary endothelial cells that are mediated through PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 pathways

  12. Viral cell death inhibitor MC159 enhances innate immunity against vaccinia virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challa, Sreerupa; Woelfel, Melissa; Guildford, Melissa; Moquin, David; Chan, Francis Ka-Ming

    2010-10-01

    Viral inhibitors of host programmed cell death (PCD) are widely believed to promote viral replication by preventing or delaying host cell death. Viral FLIPs (Fas-linked ICE-like protease [FLICE; caspase-8]-like inhibitor proteins) are potent inhibitors of death receptor-induced apoptosis and programmed necrosis. Surprisingly, transgenic expression of the viral FLIP MC159 from molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) in mice enhanced rather than inhibited the innate immune control of vaccinia virus (VV) replication. This effect of MC159 was specifically manifested in peripheral tissues such as the visceral fat pad, but not in the spleen. VV-infected MC159 transgenic mice mounted an enhanced innate inflammatory reaction characterized by increased expression of the chemokine CCL-2/MCP-1 and infiltration of γδ T cells into peripheral tissues. Radiation chimeras revealed that MC159 expression in the parenchyma, but not in the hematopoietic compartment, is responsible for the enhanced innate inflammatory responses. The increased inflammation in peripheral tissues was not due to resistance of lymphocytes to cell death. Rather, we found that MC159 facilitated Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)- and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced NF-κB activation. The increased NF-κB responses were mediated in part through increased binding of RIP1 to TNFRSF1A-associated via death domain (TRADD), two crucial signal adaptors for NF-κB activation. These results show that MC159 is a dual-function immune modulator that regulates host cell death as well as NF-κB responses by innate immune signaling receptors.

  13. Viral Cell Death Inhibitor MC159 Enhances Innate Immunity against Vaccinia Virus Infection▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challa, Sreerupa; Woelfel, Melissa; Guildford, Melissa; Moquin, David; Chan, Francis Ka-Ming

    2010-01-01

    Viral inhibitors of host programmed cell death (PCD) are widely believed to promote viral replication by preventing or delaying host cell death. Viral FLIPs (Fas-linked ICE-like protease [FLICE; caspase-8]-like inhibitor proteins) are potent inhibitors of death receptor-induced apoptosis and programmed necrosis. Surprisingly, transgenic expression of the viral FLIP MC159 from molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) in mice enhanced rather than inhibited the innate immune control of vaccinia virus (VV) replication. This effect of MC159 was specifically manifested in peripheral tissues such as the visceral fat pad, but not in the spleen. VV-infected MC159 transgenic mice mounted an enhanced innate inflammatory reaction characterized by increased expression of the chemokine CCL-2/MCP-1 and infiltration of γδ T cells into peripheral tissues. Radiation chimeras revealed that MC159 expression in the parenchyma, but not in the hematopoietic compartment, is responsible for the enhanced innate inflammatory responses. The increased inflammation in peripheral tissues was not due to resistance of lymphocytes to cell death. Rather, we found that MC159 facilitated Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)- and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced NF-κB activation. The increased NF-κB responses were mediated in part through increased binding of RIP1 to TNFRSF1A-associated via death domain (TRADD), two crucial signal adaptors for NF-κB activation. These results show that MC159 is a dual-function immune modulator that regulates host cell death as well as NF-κB responses by innate immune signaling receptors. PMID:20702623

  14. Mast cells as effector cells of innate immunity and regulators of adaptive immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardamone, Chiara; Parente, Roberta; Feo, Giulia De; Triggiani, Massimo

    2016-10-01

    Mast cells are widely distributed in human organs and tissues and they are particularly abundant at major body interfaces with the external environment such as the skin, the lung and the gastrointestinal tract. Moreover, mast cells are located around blood vessels and are highly represented within central and peripheral lymphoid organs. The strategic distribution of mast cells closely reflects the primary role of these cells in providing first-line defense against environmental dangers, in regulating local and systemic inflammatory reactions and in shaping innate and adaptive immune responses. Human mast cells have pleiotropic and multivalent functions that make them highly versatile cells able to rapidly adapt responses to microenvironmental changes. They express a wide variety of surface receptors including immunoglobulin receptors, pathogen-associated molecular pattern receptors and danger signal receptors. The abundance of these receptors makes mast cells unique and effective surveillance cells able to detect promptly aggression by viral, bacterial and parasitic agents. In addition, mast cells express multiple receptors for cytokines and chemokines that confer them the capacity of being recruited and activated at sites of inflammation. Once activated by immunological or nonimmunological stimuli mast cells secrete a wide spectrum of preformed (early) and de novo synthesized (late) mediators. Preformed mediators are stored within granules and are rapidly released in the extracellular environment to provide a fast vascular response that promotes inflammation and local recruitment of other innate immunity cells such as neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils and monocyte/macrophages. Later on, delayed release of multiple cytokines and chemokines from mast cells further induce modulation of cells of adaptive immunity and regulates tissue injury and, eventually, resolution of inflammation. Finally, mast cells express several costimulatory and inhibitory surface molecules

  15. Long-term in vitro and in vivo effects of γ-irradiated BCG on innate and adaptive immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arts, Rob J W; Blok, Bastiaan A; Aaby, Peter; Joosten, Leo A B; de Jong, Dirk; van der Meer, Jos W M; Benn, Christine Stabell; van Crevel, Reinout; Netea, Mihai G

    2015-12-01

    BCG vaccination is associated with a reduced mortality from nonmycobacterial infections. This is likely to be mediated by a combination of innate-immune memory ("trained immunity") and heterologous effects on adaptive immunity. As such, BCG could be used to boost host immunity but not in immunocompromised hosts, as it is a live, attenuated vaccine. Therefore, we assessed whether killed γBCG has similar potentiating effects. In an in vitro model of trained immunity, human monocytes were incubated with γBCG for 24 h and restimulated after 6 d. Cytokine production and the role of pattern recognition receptors and histone methylation markers were assessed. The in vivo effects of γBCG vaccination were studied in a proof-of-principle trial in 15 healthy volunteers. γBCG induced trained immunity in vitro via the NOD2 receptor pathway and up-regulation of H3K4me3 histone methylation. However, these effects were less strong than those induced by live BCG. γBCG vaccination in volunteers had only minimal effects on innate immunity, whereas a significant increase in heterologous Th1/Th17 immunity was observed. Our results indicate that γBCG induces long-term training of innate immunity in vitro. In vivo, γBCG induces mainly heterologous effects on the adaptive-immune system, whereas effects on innate cytokine production are limited. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  16. Shc adaptor proteins are key transducers of mitogenic signaling mediated by the G protein-coupled thrombin receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Y; Grall, D; Salcini, A E

    1996-01-01

    of the thrombin receptor in growth-responsive CCL39 fibroblasts. Shc phosphorylation by thrombin or the thrombin receptor agonist peptide is maximal by 15 min and persists for > or = 2 h. Following thrombin stimulation, phosphorylated Shc is recruited to Grb2 complexes. One or more pertussis toxin......-insensitive proteins appear to mediate this effect, since (i) pertussis toxin pre-treatment of cells does not blunt the action of thrombin and (ii) Shc phosphorylation on tyrosine can be stimulated by the muscarinic m1 receptor. Shc phosphorylation does not appear to involve protein kinase C, since the addition of 4...

  17. A new IRAK-M-mediated mechanism implicated in the anti-inflammatory effect of nicotine via α7 nicotinic receptors in human macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C Maldifassi

    Full Text Available Nicotine stimulation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR powerfully inhibits pro-inflammatory cytokine production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated macrophages and in experimental models of endotoxemia. A signaling pathway downstream from the α7 nAChRs, which involves the collaboration of JAK2/STAT3 and NF-κB to interfere with signaling by Toll-like receptors (TLRs, has been implicated in this anti-inflammatory effect of nicotine. Here, we identifiy an alternative mechanism involving interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase M (IRAK-M, a negative regulator of innate TLR-mediated immune responses. Our data show that nicotine up-regulates IRAK-M expression at the mRNA and protein level in human macrophages, and that this effect is secondary to α7 nAChR activation. By using selective inhibitors of different signaling molecules downstream from the receptor, we provide evidence that activation of STAT3, via either JAK2 and/or PI3K, through a single (JAK2/PI3K/STAT3 or two convergent cascades (JAK2/STAT3 and PI3K/STAT3, is necessary for nicotine-induced IRAK-M expression. Moreover, down-regulation of this expression by small interfering RNAs specific to the IRAK-M gene significantly reverses the anti-inflammatory effect of nicotine on LPS-induced TNF-α production. Interestingly, macrophages pre-exposed to nicotine exhibit higher IRAK-M levels and reduced TNF-α response to an additional LPS challenge, a behavior reminiscent of the 'endotoxin tolerant' phenotype identified in monocytes either pre-exposed to LPS or from immunocompromised septic patients. Since nicotine is a major component of tobacco smoke and increased IRAK-M expression has been considered one of the molecular determinants for the induction of the tolerant phenotype, our findings showing IRAK-M overexpression could partially explain the known influence of smoking on the onset and progression of inflammatory and infectious diseases.

  18. Interleukin-36γ and IL-36 receptor signaling mediate impaired host immunity and lung injury in cytotoxic Pseudomonas aeruginosa pulmonary infection: Role of prostaglandin E2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyagi, Tetsuji; Newstead, Michael W; Zeng, Xianying; Nanjo, Yuta; Peters-Golden, Marc; Kaku, Mitsuo; Standiford, Theodore J

    2017-11-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative pathogen that can lead to severe infection associated with lung injury and high mortality. The interleukin (IL)-36 cytokines (IL-36α, IL-36β and IL-36γ) are newly described IL-1 like family cytokines that promote inflammatory response via binding to the IL-36 receptor (IL-36R). Here we investigated the functional role of IL-36 cytokines in the modulating of innate immune response against P. aeruginosa pulmonary infection. The intratracheal administration of flagellated cytotoxic P. aeruginosa (ATCC 19660) upregulated IL-36α and IL-36γ, but not IL-36β, in the lungs. IL-36α and IL-36γ were expressed in pulmonary macrophages (PMs) and alveolar epithelial cells in response to P. aeruginosa in vitro. Mortality after bacterial challenge in IL-36 receptor deficient (IL-36R-/-) mice and IL-36γ deficient (IL-36γ-/-) mice, but not IL-36α deficient mice, was significantly lower than that of wild type mice. Decreased mortality in IL-36R-/- mice and IL-36γ-/- mice was associated with reduction in bacterial burden in the alveolar space, bacterial dissemination, production of inflammatory cytokines and lung injury, without changes in lung leukocyte influx. Interestingly, IL-36γ enhanced the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) during P. aeruginosa infection in vivo and in vitro. Treatment of PMs with recombinant IL-36γ resulted in impaired bacterial killing via PGE2 and its receptor; EP2. P. aeruginosa infected EP2 deficient mice or WT mice treated with a COX-2-specific inhibitor showed decreased bacterial burden and dissemination, but no change in lung injury. Finally, we observed an increase in IL-36γ, but not IL-36α, in the airspace and plasma of patients with P. aeruginosa-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome. Thus, IL-36γ and its receptor signal not only impaired bacterial clearance in a possible PGE2 dependent fashion but also mediated lung injury during P. aeruginosa infection.

  19. Enzyme induction and histopathology elucidate aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated versus non-aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated effects of Aroclor 1268 in American mink (Neovison vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folland, William R; Newsted, John L; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Fuchsman, Phyllis C; Bradley, Patrick W; Kern, John; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Zwiernik, Matthew J

    2016-03-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations reported in preferred prey and blubber of bottlenose dolphins from the Turtle-Brunswick River estuary (Georgia, USA) suggest the potential for adverse effects. However, PCBs in Turtle-Brunswick River estuary dolphins are primarily derived from Aroclor 1268, and predicting toxic effects of Aroclor 1268 is uncertain because of the mixture's unique composition and associated physiochemical characteristics. These differences suggest that toxicity benchmarks for other PCB mixtures may not be relevant to dolphins exposed to Aroclor 1268. American mink (Neovison vison) were used as a surrogate model for cetaceans to characterize mechanisms of action associated with Aroclor 1268 exposure. Mink share similarities in phylogeny and life history with cetaceans and are characteristically sensitive to PCBs, making them an attractive surrogate species for marine mammals in ecotoxicity studies. Adult female mink and a subsequent F1 generation were exposed to Aroclor 1268 through diet, and effects on enzyme induction, histopathology, thyroid hormone regulation, hematology, organ weights, and body condition index were compared to a negative control and a 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126)-positive control. Aroclor 1268 dietary exposure concentrations ranged from 1.8 µg/g wet weight to 29 µg/g wet weight. Anemia, hypothyroidism, and hepatomegaly were observed in mink exposed to Aroclor 1268 beyond various dietary thresholds. Cytochrome P450 induction and squamous epithelial proliferation jaw lesions were low in Aroclor 1268 treatments relative to the positive control. Differences in enzyme induction and the development of squamous epithelial proliferation jaw lesions between Aroclor 1268 treatments and the positive control, coupled with effects observed in Aroclor 1268 treatments not observed in the positive control, indicate that mechanisms additional to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated pathway are associated with

  20. The overexpressed human 46-kDa mannose 6-phosphate receptor mediates endocytosis and sorting of β-glucuronidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, H.; Grubb, J.H.; Sly, W.S.

    1990-01-01

    The authors studied the function of the human small (46-kDa) mannose 6-phosphate receptor (SMPR) in transfected mouse L cells that do not express the larger insulin-like growth factor II/mannose 6-phosphate receptor. Cells overexpressing human SMPR were studied for enzyme binding to cell surface receptors, for binding to intracellular receptors in permeabilized cells, and for receptor-mediated endocytosis of recombinant human β-glucuronidase. Specific binding to human SMPR in permeabilized cells showed a pH optimum between pH 6.0 and pH 6.5. Binding was significant in the present of EDTA but was enhanced by added divalent cations. Up to 2.3% of the total functional receptor could be detected on the cell surface by enzyme binding. They present experiments showing that at very high levels of overexpression, and at pH 6.5, human SMPR mediated the endocytosis of β-glucuronidase. At pH 7.5, the rate of endocytosis was only 14% the rate seen at pH 6.5. Cells overexpressing human SMPR also showed reduced secretion of newly synthesized β-glucuronidase when compared to cells transfected with vector only, suggesting that overexpressed human SMPR can participate in sorting of newly synthesized β-glucuronidase and partially correct the sorting defect in mouse L cells that do not express the insulin-like growth factor II/mannose 6-phosphate receptor

  1. Astrocytes protect neurons against methylmercury via ATP/P2Y(1) receptor-mediated pathways in astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Yusuke; Shinozaki, Youichi; Fujishita, Kayoko; Shibata, Keisuke; Imura, Yoshio; Morizawa, Yosuke; Gachet, Christian; Koizumi, Schuichi

    2013-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a well known environmental pollutant that induces serious neuronal damage. Although MeHg readily crosses the blood-brain barrier, and should affect both neurons and glial cells, how it affects glia or neuron-to-glia interactions has received only limited attention. Here, we report that MeHg triggers ATP/P2Y1 receptor signals in astrocytes, thereby protecting neurons against MeHg via interleukin-6 (IL-6)-mediated pathways. MeHg increased several mRNAs in astrocytes, among which IL-6 was the highest. For this, ATP/P2Y1 receptor-mediated mechanisms were required because the IL-6 production was (i) inhibited by a P2Y1 receptor antagonist, MRS2179, (ii) abolished in astrocytes obtained from P2Y1 receptor-knockout mice, and (iii) mimicked by exogenously applied ATP. In addition, (iv) MeHg released ATP by exocytosis from astrocytes. As for the intracellular mechanisms responsible for IL-6 production, p38 MAP kinase was involved. MeHg-treated astrocyte-conditioned medium (ACM) showed neuro-protective effects against MeHg, which was blocked by anti-IL-6 antibody and was mimicked by the application of recombinant IL-6. As for the mechanism of neuro-protection by IL-6, an adenosine A1 receptor-mediated pathway in neurons seems to be involved. Taken together, when astrocytes sense MeHg, they release ATP that autostimulates P2Y1 receptors to upregulate IL-6, thereby leading to A1 receptor-mediated neuro-protection against MeHg.

  2. Stress-induced decrease of uterine blood flow in sheep is mediated by alpha 1-adrenergic