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Sample records for receiving tritiated water

  1. Evaluation of neonatal squirrel monkeys receiving tritiated water throughout gestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.C.L.; Krebs, J.S.; Sasmore, D.P.; Mitoma, C.

    1980-01-01

    Pregnant squirrel monkeys received tritiated water (HTO) in the drinking water throughout gestation at levels ranging from 16 to 1000 times the permissible level for human consumption (0.003 μCi/ml), resulting in mean body water HTO levels ranging from 0.05 to 3.1 μCi/ml. There were no discernible effects of HTO administration on the newborn progeny in terms of body weight, body dimensions, selected organ weights (brain, heart, adrenal, kidney, liver, spleen), hematologic patterns, and histology of selected organs and tissues (adrenal, kidney, liver, lung, brain, pancreas, jejunum, pituitary, spleen, testes, thymus, skin) other than ovaries. The number of primary oocytes in female progeny decreased markedly with increasing levels of HTO in maternal drinking water. Quantitative analysis of neonate ovaries, testes, brain tissue, and retinal tissue is in progress. No effects of HTO administration on maternal body weight, gestation time, or maintenance of pregnancy to full term were observed. Body weights of HTO-treated inseminated females that did not deliver were less than control weights, but the lack of dose dependence implies that this effect may have been associated with a stimulus characteristic of the HTO administration rather than with irradiation

  2. Evaluation of neonate squirrel monkeys receiving tritiated water throughout gestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.C.L.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of receiving tritiated water (HTO) throughout gestation on the developing primate was assessed by administering HTO to adult female squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) as the only source of drinking water beginning with the day of insemination and continuing throughout pregnancy. For the control (tap water) and six experimental groups, the mean urinary tritium concentrations in females delivering full-term progeny were <0.004, 0.05, 0.16, 0.33, 0.75, 1.61, and 3.09 microcuries/ml. Positive bioassays for pregnancy were observed in about half of 277 inseminated females. Among pregnant females, the full-term delivery rate was 36%, the abortion rate was 7%, and the resorption rate was 58% with no discernible effect of HTO administration on any of these parameters. The 46 full-term progeny were evaluated within 2 days of birth. No effects of HTO administration were observed in terms of gestation period (median 153 days, range 141-158 days), sex distribution, body weight, body dimensions, selected organ weights, histology (except gonads), or hematologic pattern. The number of primary oocytes in female progeny decreased markedly within increasing concentrations of tritium. Specific quantification of this effect and evaluation of the neonate testes is in progress

  3. Tritium retention in the femoral bone marrow and spleens of mice receiving single intravenous injections of tritiated water and tritiated thymidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshima, Hisamasa; Matsushita, Satoru; Fukutsu, Kumiko; Kashima, Masatoshi

    1987-01-01

    To derive parameters necessary for evaluating the possible hazards of tritium, retention of tritium in total and TCA-insoluble fractions of the femoral marrow and spleen of mice were observed after single intravenous injections of tritiated water and tritiated thymidine. Retention curves of tritium in TCA-insoluble fractions of the femoral marrow and spleen were resolved fairly well into two exponential components. After injecting tritiated thymidine, most of the activity was detected in the TCA-insoluble fraction. Tritium in this fraction decreased with half-times of 2.2 days in the femoral marrow and 3.6 days in the spleen as the first component, and 23.9 days and 30.5 days, respectively, as the second component. After tritiated water injections, the tritium incorporated into the TCA-insoluble fraction was quite small. Most of the activity was considered to be in the TCA-soluble fraction. Tritium in this fraction was estimated to decrease with half-times of 2.6 days in the femoral marrow and 2.3 days in the spleen as the first component, and 8.0 days and 8.2 days, respectively, as the second component. It is concluded that the retention curves of tritium in the bone marrow are similar to those in the spleen for tritiated water, but not for tritiated thymidine. (author)

  4. Conversion of tritium gas to tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papagiannakopoulos, P.J.; Easterly, C.E.

    1979-05-01

    The mechanisms of conversion of tritium gas to tritiated water (HTO) have been examined for several tritium gaseous mixtures. The physical and chemical processes involved in the self-radiolysis of such mixtures have been analyzed and the kinetics involved in the formation of HTO has been presented. It has been determined that the formation of the H and/or OH free radicals, as intermediate species, are of significance in the formation of HTO. Therefore, the problem of reducing the rate of formation of tritiated water in a mixture of gaseous tritium with atmospheric components is one of finding an effective scavenger for the H and/or OH free radicals

  5. Diffusion of tritiated water in coastal areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, M.; Kasai, A.; Imai, T.; Amano, H.; Yanase, N.

    1980-01-01

    The diffusion of tritiated water discharged by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute at shore line has been investigated. In continuous discharge, the concentration of tritiated water in samples taken at a point downstream fluctuates largely. To reveal the cause, dye diffusion experiments were made in the coastal area. The shapes of dye cloud were photographed by a remote-control camera suspended from a captive balloon as color pictures. The movement of dye is so complex that a three-dimensional model must be employed to assess the diffusion in coastal areas

  6. Review of tritiated water concentration technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Hongbin

    2014-01-01

    In order to cooperate with the construction of the spent fuel reprocessing plant in China, the research and application status of tritiated water concentration technology at home and abroad were summarized. Some suggestions for the technology research route in China were put forward. (author)

  7. Studies on carcinogenic effect of tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Shuai; Wang Hui; Li Maohe; Lin Suqin

    1994-09-01

    Studies on carcinogenic effect of tritiated water is introduced in two parts. The first part is an in vitro study in which CHL-1 cells were exposed to tritiated water (9.25 x 10 5 ∼ 3.5 x 10 6 Bq/ml) for 24 ∼ 96 h and the accumulated dose was from 0.055 to 0.88 Gy. In order to estimate RBE of tritium for malignant transformation in CHL-1 cells, the induction of malignant transformation in CHL-1 cells by exposure to gamma rays of 137 Cs was tested. Based on the transformation rates, the RBE of tritium for malignant transformation in CHL-1 cells was estimated to be 1.6. The second part is an in vivo study. In the study, rats were fed with tritiated water (2.22 x 10 5 and 1.11 x 10 5 Bq/ml) for 1.5 a. Rats in control group were fed with tap water. Results showed that in the statistics, the differences in the total tumor incidence and malignant tumor incidence between high and low dose rate groups and control groups were remarkably significant

  8. Tritium content in some organs and the DNA of rat liver cells following short term administration of tritiated food, tritiated protein or tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochalska, M.; Szot, Z.

    1979-01-01

    Male Wistar rats were given equivalent doses of various tritium compounds, namely tritiated food (TF), tritiated protein (TP) or tritiated water (TW) for 5 days. On the 6th day of the experiment tritium radioactivity of dry tissues and the DNA of liver cells was determined. DNA of liver cells of animals given TP contained 13-23 times more tritium than that of rats receiving TW. Incorporation of tritium from TF into the examined tissues was found to be higher than that from TP or TW, with the exception of the brain which revealed the highest tritium content after TP. Tritium concentration in lungs, small intestine, muscle, skin and femur of animals given TF or TP did not differ significantly. (author)

  9. Forest Irrigation of Tritiated Water: A Proven Tritiated Water Management Tool - 13357

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prater, Phil; Blount, Gerald; Kmetz, Thomas; Vangelas, Karen [Savannah River National Laboratory, Bldg. 773-42A, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Tritium releases from the Old Radioactive Waste Burial Ground (ORWBG) at the SRS in South Carolina has impacted groundwater and surface water. Tritiated groundwater plumes discharge into Fourmile Branch which is a small tributary of the Savannah River, a regional water resource. Taking advantage of the groundwater flow paths and the local topography a water collection and irrigation system was constructed and has been used at the SRS for over a decade to reduce these tritiated water releases to Fourmile Branch. The tritiated water is transferred to the atmosphere by evaporation from the pond surface, and after irrigation, wetted surface evaporation and evapotranspiration through the forest vegetation. Over the last decade SRS has irrigated over 120,000,000 gallons of tritiated water, which diverted over 6000 curies away from Fourmile Branch and the Savannah River. The system has been effective in reducing the flux of tritiated groundwater by approximately 70%. Mass balance studies of tritium in the forest soils before operations and over the last decade indicate that approximately 90% of the tritiated water that is irrigated is transferred to the atmosphere. Dose studies indicate that exposure to site workers and offsite maximally exposed individual is very low, approximately 6 mrem/year and 0.004 mrem/year, respectively. To consistently meet the flux reduction goal of tritium into Fourmile Branch optimization activities are proposed. These efforts will increase irrigation capacity and area. An additional 17 acres are proposed for an expansion of the area to be irrigated and a planting of approximately 40 acres of pine forest plantations is underway to expand irrigation capacity. Co-mingled with the tritiated groundwater are low concentrations of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (cVOCs), and 1,4-dioxane. Research studies and SRS field data indicate the forest irrigation system may have an added benefit of reducing the mass of these co-contaminants via

  10. Self-Radiolysis of Tritiated Water: Experimental Study and Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinze, Sylver; Stolz, Thibaut; Ducret, Didier; Colson, Jean-Claude

    2005-01-01

    Radioactive decay of tritium contained in tritiated water leads to the production of gaseous helium and, through self-radiolysis, to the formation of molecular hydrogen and oxygen. For safety management of tritiated water storage, it is essential to be able to predict pressure increase resulting from this phenomenon. The present study aims to identify the mechanisms that take place in self-radiolysis of chemically pure liquid tritiated water. The evolution of the concentration of hydrogen and oxygen in the gas phase of closed vessels containing tritiated water has been followed experimentally. Simulation of pure water radiolysis has been carried out using data from the literature. In order to fit experimental results, simulation should take into account gas phase recombination reaction between hydrogen and oxygen. A simplified system has been extracted from the complete chemical system used to simulate radiolysis. This system allows identifying the basic mechanisms that are responsible for tritiated water self-radiolysis

  11. Production of highly tritiated water for tritium exposure studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muirhead, C.; Pilatzke, K.; Tripple, A.; Philippi, N.; McCrimmon, K.; Castillo, I.; Boniface, H.; Suppiah, S.

    2015-01-01

    Tritium Facility staff at Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) have successfully prepared highly tritiated water for use in radiation resistance of PEM (Proton Exchange Membrane-based)electrolyser membrane. The goal of System A was to convert a known amount of elemental tritium (HT) into tritiated water vapour using a copper(II) oxide bed, and to condense the tritiated water vapour into a known amount of chilled heavy water (D 2 O). The conversion and capture of tritium using this system is close to 100%. The goal of System B was to transfer tritiated water from the containment vessel to an exposure vessel (experiment) in a controlled and safe manner. System B is based on the pushing of D 2 0 with low-pressure argon carrier gas to a calibrated volume and then to the exposure vessel. A method for delivering a known and controlled amount of tritiated water has been successfully demonstrated at CRL. Using both systems Tritium Facility staff have made and distributed highly tritiated water in a safe and controlled manner. This paper focuses on how the tritiated water was produced and dispensed to the experiment

  12. Inhalation hazard from open containers of tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalbert, R.A.; Killian, C.B.

    1979-01-01

    Experiments to measure the concentration of tritiated water vapour in the vicinity of open containers of tritiated water under ordinary laboratory conditions are described. Results of air sampling around three containers with different open neck areas are summarized in a table which lists the ratio of air to water tritium concentrations per unit neck area. The health physics implications of these results for a person handling tritiated water on an open bench are calculated and compared with those of an accidental spill involving the hands or forearms. (author)

  13. Exchange reaction between tritiated hydrogen and water vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Koichi; Takano, Kenichi; Watanabe, Tamaki.

    1979-01-01

    Exchange reaction of tritiated hydrogen to water vapor under the condition of tritium gas concentration between 1 μCi/l and 1 mCi/l was studied. Tritium gas with hydrogen gas of 5 Torr and water of 20 mg were enclosed in a Pyrex glass ampule with volume of about 100 ml. The mixed gas with water vapor was heated with electric furnace. The heating time was between 2 and 100 hr, and the temperature was 776, 725, 675, 621, and 570.5 0 K. After heating, tritiated water was trapped with liquid nitrogen, and counted with a liquid scintillation counter. The radioactive concentration of initial tritiated hydrogen was measured with a calibrated ionization chamber. The main results obtained are as follows; 1) the concentration of produced tritiated water is well proportioned to that of initial tritiated hydrogen, 2) the activation energy of exchange reaction from tritiated hydrogen to tritiated water is 26.2 kcal/mol and that of inverse reaction is 27.4 kcal/mol, 3) the reaction rate at room temperature which calculated with activation energy is 1.04 x 10 -13 day -1 , and then exchange reaction at room temperature is negligible. (author)

  14. Guidelines on the medical management of tritiated water overexposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Medical Advisers to the Atomic Energy Control Board provide advice to occupational and family physicians treating overexposed workers. GMA-7 provides information and guidance to medical practitioners on the medical management of individuals who have been overexposed to tritiated water. Various treatment principles are presented with special emphasis on techniques for facilitating removal of tritiated water from the body so as to reduce the total radiation dose. Risks and biological effects from exposures to tritiated water and various radiation protection precautions are also discussed. 32 refs., 1 tab.

  15. Guidelines on the medical management of tritiated water overexposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The Medical Advisers to the Atomic Energy Control Board provide advice to occupational and family physicians treating overexposed workers. GMA-7 provides information and guidance to medical practitioners on the medical management of individuals who have been overexposed to tritiated water. Various treatment principles are presented with special emphasis on techniques for facilitating removal of tritiated water from the body so as to reduce the total radiation dose. Risks and biological effects from exposures to tritiated water and various radiation protection precautions are also discussed. 32 refs., 1 tab

  16. Metabolism of tritiated water in foetuses and newborn mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujeno, Y.; Takimoto, K.

    1982-01-01

    The compartment models of transplacental transfer of tritiated water injected into pregnant females, to foetuses and of lacteal transfer of tritiated water injected into nursing females, to sackling newborn mice were presented, respectively. There are many assumptions in the models and they do not fit the experimental data well. However, some of the differences between the models and experimental data can be qualitatively explained by physiological reasoning. The changes in the kidney functions of pregnant women are also the important factors which have to be considered to analyze the dynamics. The present dynamics analyses with mice can contribute to the understanding of the dynamics of tritiated water in humans. (Namekawa, K.)

  17. Guidelines on the medical management of tritiated water overexposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    The Medical Advisers to the Atomic Energy Control Board provide advice to occupational and family physicians treating overexposed workers. GMA-7 provides information and guidance to medical practitioners on the medical management of individuals who have been overexposed to tritiated water. Various treatment principles are presented with special emphasis on techniques for facilitating removal of tritiated water from the body so as to reduce the total radiation dose. Risks and biological effects from exposures to tritiated water and various radiation protection precautions are also discussed. 32 refs., 1 tab

  18. Detritiation of Tritiated Effluent Gas and Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Do Hee; Kim, Kwang Rag; Paek, Seung Woo; Lee, Min Soo; Yim, Sung Paal; Chung Hong Suk

    2007-06-01

    In a demonstration scale equipment for treatment of tritium in off-gas, Pt/SDBC as oxidation catalyst and Zeolite 13X as adsorbent was charged in the beds, respectively. It was confirmed from the performance test that decontamination factor of the equipment showed more than 100 under the flow rate of off-gas of 90 l/hr and at the temperature of 65 ∼ 80 .deg. C. A small scale CECE process has been developed combining LPCE catalytic column with SPE (solid polymer electrolyte) electrolysis. The catalytic column was a trickle-bed type packed with the mixture of 1 wt% Pt/SDBC catalyst and 4 mm Dixon wire-mesh ring. The experimental results of the CECE process proved that the decontamination factor of 13 ∼ 20 under the operating conditions of the water of the 4 l/day and the effluent hydrogen gas of 16.2 mol/h. A design code of CECE process also developed which will be applied the tritium industry. An experimental method for the reduction of tritiated organic waste by using catalytic oxidation was tested in a heated catalytic reactor of 0.5 wt% Pd/Al 2 O 3 . The simulated organic liquid was converted to water over 99%. A gas chromatographic column material was developed for the separation of mixed hydrogen isotopes. 17 wt% Pd-Pt on alumina showed 90% separation efficiency at 77 % yield for the separation of 29.2 % D 2 -H 2 gas mixture

  19. Detritiation of Tritiated Effluent Gas and Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Do Hee; Kim, Kwang Rag; Paek, Seung Woo; Lee, Min Soo; Yim, Sung Paal; Chung Hong Suk

    2007-06-15

    In a demonstration scale equipment for treatment of tritium in off-gas, Pt/SDBC as oxidation catalyst and Zeolite 13X as adsorbent was charged in the beds, respectively. It was confirmed from the performance test that decontamination factor of the equipment showed more than 100 under the flow rate of off-gas of 90 l/hr and at the temperature of 65 {approx} 80 .deg. C. A small scale CECE process has been developed combining LPCE catalytic column with SPE (solid polymer electrolyte) electrolysis. The catalytic column was a trickle-bed type packed with the mixture of 1 wt% Pt/SDBC catalyst and 4 mm Dixon wire-mesh ring. The experimental results of the CECE process proved that the decontamination factor of 13 {approx} 20 under the operating conditions of the water of the 4 l/day and the effluent hydrogen gas of 16.2 mol/h. A design code of CECE process also developed which will be applied the tritium industry. An experimental method for the reduction of tritiated organic waste by using catalytic oxidation was tested in a heated catalytic reactor of 0.5 wt% Pd/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The simulated organic liquid was converted to water over 99%. A gas chromatographic column material was developed for the separation of mixed hydrogen isotopes. 17 wt% Pd-Pt on alumina showed 90% separation efficiency at 77 % yield for the separation of 29.2 % D{sub 2}-H{sub 2} gas mixture.

  20. Percolation behavior of tritiated water into a soil packed bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, T.; Katayama, K.; Uehara, K.; Fukada, S. [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan); Takeishi, T. [Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, Motooka Nishi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    A large amount of cooling water is used in a D-T fusion reactor. The cooling water will contain tritium with high concentration because tritium can permeate metal walls at high temperature easily. A development of tritium handling technology for confining tritiated water in the fusion facility is an important issue. In addition, it is also important to understand tritium behavior in environment assuming severe accidents. In this study, percolation experiments of tritiated water in soil packed bed were carried out and tritium behavior in soil was discussed. Six soil samples were collected in Hakozaki campus of Kyushu University. These particle densities were of the same degree as that of general soils and moisture contents were related to BET surface area. For two soil samples used in the percolation experiment of tritiated water, saturated hydraulic conductivity agreed well with the estimating value by Creager. Tritium retention ratio in the soil packed bed was larger than water retention. This is considered to be due to an effect of tritium sorption on the surface of soil particles. The isotope exchange capacity estimated by assuming that H/T ratio of supplied tritiated water and H/T ratio of surface water of soil particle was equal was comparable to that on cement paste and mortar which were obtained by exposure of tritiated water vapor. (authors)

  1. Percolation behavior of tritiated water into a soil packed bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, T.; Katayama, K.; Uehara, K.; Fukada, S.; Takeishi, T.

    2015-01-01

    A large amount of cooling water is used in a D-T fusion reactor. The cooling water will contain tritium with high concentration because tritium can permeate metal walls at high temperature easily. A development of tritium handling technology for confining tritiated water in the fusion facility is an important issue. In addition, it is also important to understand tritium behavior in environment assuming severe accidents. In this study, percolation experiments of tritiated water in soil packed bed were carried out and tritium behavior in soil was discussed. Six soil samples were collected in Hakozaki campus of Kyushu University. These particle densities were of the same degree as that of general soils and moisture contents were related to BET surface area. For two soil samples used in the percolation experiment of tritiated water, saturated hydraulic conductivity agreed well with the estimating value by Creager. Tritium retention ratio in the soil packed bed was larger than water retention. This is considered to be due to an effect of tritium sorption on the surface of soil particles. The isotope exchange capacity estimated by assuming that H/T ratio of supplied tritiated water and H/T ratio of surface water of soil particle was equal was comparable to that on cement paste and mortar which were obtained by exposure of tritiated water vapor. (authors)

  2. Retention of tritium in rats after ingestion of tritiated food or tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radwan, I.; Pietrzak-Flis, Z.

    1985-01-01

    Biological half-lives of tritium and the values of tritium fractions eliminated with particular half-lives were determined in the body water and in the liver, kidneys, lungs, small intestine and brain tissues of two groups of rats chronically exposed to tritiated food or tritiated water (HTO). The animals were exposed from conception till the 71-st day of life. They were killed at time intervals up to 50 days after cessation of tritium exposure and then tritium in the body water and non-exchangeable tritium (NET) in the tissues were determined. The retention curves obtained from these data indicate the existence of two biological half-lives for the body water tritium as well as for NET. It was found that after the exposure to tritiated food the second biological half-lives (T b2 ) were longer than after the HTO exposure, while the fractions of tritium eliminated with T b2 were smaller. However, these differences have only small influence on the values of time integral Q of deposited non-exchangeable tritium in the tissues of both groups of rats. 11 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs. (author)

  3. Behaviour of fluoropolymers in presence of tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubueanu, Gh.; Postolache, C.; Tuta, C.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. One of the most used methods for tritium recovery from tritiated water relies on combined electrolysis with catalytic isotope exchange techniques. The electrolytic cell converts the tritiated water or tritiated heavy water into a hydrogen, deuterium and tritium mixture. The mixture is purified and then tritium is recovered by catalytic isotopic separation techniques. Tritium presence in the system induces an intense radiation field especially at aqueous solution interface. This can generate significant structural modifications with potentially negative effects. In this paper work it is followed the study of radiolytic phenomena in Pt/C/PTFE isotopic exchange catalyst, NAFION membranes and VITON fluoroelastomer in presence of tritiated water with high radioactive concentration. Radiolytical processes were analyzed by: Exposure of fluoropolymers samples immersed in H 2 O at gamma radiation field (60-Co source) in vacuum, at liq. Nitrogen temperature and at ambient temperature respectively; Immersing of NAFION, Pt/C/PTFE catalyst and VITON samples in tritiated water with high activity (3.7 and 37 TBq/L) for different time period. In both cases the samples were characterized by FT IR ATR, and fluoride ions emission from polymeric matrix. Experimental results were correlated with quantum-chemical simulations.

  4. Design of an electrolysis cell for highly tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahier, A.; Baetsle, L.; Buggeman, A.; Cornelissen, R.; Goossens, W.

    1985-01-01

    Within the framework of the European fusion technology programme, SCK/CEN has started the development of a 100 ml per day electrolyser for decomposing the highly tritiated water that will be formed when tritium is extracted from the breeder or when the plasma exhaust is purified. Safety and reliability of this electrolytic system will have to be guaranteed for at least 10 4 working hours. Three different cell configurations are being studied one of which is most promising because of its low tritiated water inventory (about 12 ml), its low working temperature ( 0 C) and other advantages such as avoiding any recirculation of radioactive streams

  5. Uptake of tritiated lysine by fresh water alga, Scenedesmus obliquus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogate, S.S.; Krishnamoorthy, T.M.

    1983-01-01

    Tritium uptake by fresh water alga. S.obliquus was studied using tritium labelled lysine, and a sequential solvent extraction procedure was used to study the distribution of tritium in different organic constituents of the algal cells. The accumulation of tritium in the algal cells was found to be 3-4 orders of magnitude more than that obtained for tritiated water. (author)

  6. Genetic and somatic effects in animals maintained on tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carsten, A.L.; Brooks, A.; Commerford, S.L.; Cronkite, E.P.

    1981-01-01

    The possible genetic (dominant lethal mutations (DLM) and cytogenetic changes in the regenerating liver) and somatic (hematopoietic stem cell changes, growth and nonspecific life time shortening) effects in mice maintained on tritiated water (HTO) over two generations was investigated. Results to date are summarized

  7. Evaluation of tritiated water retention capacity of fusion reactor concrete building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numata, S.; Fujii, Y.; Okamoto, M.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper the diffusion of tritiated water vapor into concrete walls is studied to evaluate tritiated water retention capacity of a fusion reactor concrete building. Using a model of the tritiated water diffusion determined form experimental results, depth profiles of tritiated water in concrete are calculated in the case of being exposed to air containing tritiated water vapor during the normal operational condition of a fusion reactor. A 0.5-m-thick concrete is sufficient for reactor hall walls from a viewpoint of the tritium containment

  8. Wax solidification of drying agents containing tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishikawa, M.; Kido, H.

    1984-01-01

    It is necessary to immobilize the tritium not to give any impact on the environmental biosphere because tritium may give profound effects in the metabolic pathway. One of the most probable methods of immobilizing tritium would be incorporation of tritiated water in solid forms. Any drying or dehydration technique would be effective in a tritium cleanup system for off-gas streams containing tritium or tritiated water. Commonly used drying agents such as activated alumina, silica gel, molecular sieves and calcium sulfate are of value for removal of water vapour from air or other gases. For long term tritium storage, however, these adsorptive materials should be enveloped to prevent contact with water or water vapour because the rate of leaching, evaporation or diffusion of tritium from these porous materials is so large. The beeswax solidification method of the packed bed of drying agents adsorbing tritiated water is developed in this study, where the wax solidification procedure is performed by pouring the melt of wax into the void space of the packed bed of the drying agents and successive gradual cooling. The observed values of diffusivity or permeability of tritium in the wax solidified materials are about one-thousandth of those obtained for the cement block. Effect of coating on the rate of leaching is also discussed

  9. A miniature discriminating monitor for tritiated water vapour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, R.A.H.; Ravazzani, A.; Pacenti, P. [European Commission, JRC, Institute for Advanced Material, Ispra, Vatican City State, Holy See (Italy); Campi, F. [Nuclear Engineering Dept., Polytechnic of Milan (Italy)

    1998-07-01

    In detecting tritium in air (or other gas) for worker safety, it is important to discriminate between tritiated water vapour and elemental tritium, because the first is much more easily absorbed in the lungs. We haveinvented (patent pending) an innovative discriminating monitor which works better than existing designs, and is much smaller. The air (or other sample gas) passes over a large surface area of solid scintillator, which is surface-treated to make it hygroscopic. Tritiated water vapour in the air exchanges continuously, rapidly and reversibly with the water in the thin hygroscopic layer; which is of the order of 1 micron thick. The beta-emissions from tritium in the hygroscopic layer hit the solid scintillator, causing flashes of light that are detected by a photomultiplier. The new discriminating monitor for tritiated species in air offers superior performance to existing discriminating monitors, and is much smaller. It is planned to develop a portable version which could serve as a personal tritium monitor. (authors)

  10. Studies on tritium (tritiated water) mutagenicity and teratogenicity in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagova, A.Kh.

    1979-01-01

    Single parental exposures to a range of tritium (tritiated water) activities, injecterd intraperitoneally, were used to study induction of genetic damage and effects on prenatal development in rats. In the male, treatment of postmeiotic stages of spermatogenesis was found to produce genetic damage, as judged by the dominant lethality test, at activity levels of the order of 1.0 microcurie/g body weight and above; when treating spermatogonia, no genetic damage was detected by this test. In the female, induced dominant lethality was observed after exposing oocytes in growing follicles to a tritium activity level of 10 microcurie/g b.w. Cytogenetic analysis of spermatocytes in meiosis disclosed increased frequency of reciprocal translocations after exposure of premeiotic cells (spermatogonia) to activities above 7 microcurie/g b.w., the effect tending to rise with increase in activity aministered per gram of body weight. Maternal treatment during early pregnancy was shown to raise prenatal death rate only at activities above 0.1 microcurie/g b.w; with such low activities, no discernible effects on postnatal development were noted, judging by postnatal death rate and increase in offspring body weight with time. In conclusion, experimental evidence was obthained that a tritiated water activity level of 0.1 microcurie per gram body weight (which is one order of magnitude above the annual limit of intake of tritiated water for members of the public) appears to produce no mutagenic effect and exert no influence upon the embryo

  11. Mathematical simulation of water distillation column for decreasing volume of tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Masahiro; Naruse, Yuji

    1981-12-01

    Water distillation is an attractive method for decreasing volume of the tritiated water produced by operation of tritium facilities. The tritiated water is continuously fed to a column and it is separated into two streams. The top stream is discarded to the environment after addition of sufficient amount of uncontaminated water. The bottom stream is further treated for solidification and capsulation. The tridiagonal matrix method proved to provide surprisingly rapid convergences of the calculations. The concentration of deuterium naturally contained in the tritiated water is higher than the tritium concentration, but it was verified that presence of HDO can be ignored in the calculation. (author)

  12. Comparative stochastic effects from low level exposure of mice to tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mewissen, D.J.; Ugarte, A.S.; Rust, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    A total of 1,133 C57 Black/6M mick of both sexes were randomly assigned to 5 experimental groups. In the first group, mice received a single injection of tritiated water (HTO) at weaning time. In the second group, weaned mice were exposed to tritated drinking water for the entire lifespan. In the third group the female parent received one single injection of HTO following delivery. In the fourth group, the female parent and her progeny were exposed to tritiated drinking water for the entire lifespan. In the fifth group, dams were exposed to tritiated drinking water from the beginning of pregnancy for the entire lifespan. (Drinking HTO 1 μCi/ml; single dose of HTO 1 μCi). Data from experimental groups were statistically evaluated vis a vis extensive control groups (+- 1,000 control mice of either sex). All mice were autopsied as moribund or soon after death and tissues were microscopically examined. A significantly increased incidence of reticulum cell sarcomas was observed in female offspring from dams in the third and fifth groups. A significantly increased incidence of hepatic tumors was observed in male offspring in the fourth group. Mean survival times did not significantly differ within experimental groups but were significantly different from controls

  13. Tritiated Water Interaction with Stainless Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glen R. Longhurst

    2007-01-01

    Experiments conducted to study tritium permeation of stainless steel at ambient and elevated temperatures revealed that HT converts relatively quickly to HTO. Further, the HTO partial pressure contributes essentially equally with elemental tritium gas in driving permeation through the stainless steel. Such permeation appears to be due to dissociation of the water molecule on the hot stainless steel surface. There is an equilibrium concentration of HTO vapor above adsorbed gas on the walls of the experimental apparatus evident from freezing transients. The uptake process of tritium from the carrier gas involves both surface adsorption and isotopic exchange with surface bound water

  14. Radiation dose to mouse liver cells from ingestion of tritiated food or water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, K.; Okumura, Y.; Sakamoto, K.

    1990-01-01

    Tritium incorporated into tissues and DNA of mice was studied after daily ingestion of tritiated food or tritiated water. The tritiated food used was a commercial preparation mixed with brine shrimp that had been reared in tritiated sea water. After ingestion of tritiated food or water for up to 22 d, the specific activity of 3H in tissues was measured as tissue-free-water 3H, tissue-bound 3H, and DNA-bound 3H. Carbon-14 glucose was added to food and drinking water to compare the 3H intake from food with that from water. The specific activity of 3H in tissues was then corrected by the specific activity of 14C in tissues to determine the 3H incorporation from the same amount of ingested food and water. DNA-bound 3H after the ingestion of tritiated food was 4.6 times higher than that of tritiated water, while tissue-bound 3H was 2.2 times higher. The radiation dose to liver from 3H incorporated through food was twofold higher than from tritiated water, which was mainly from the high incorporation of 3H into DNA. Our results demonstrated that the dose calculation based on tissue-free-water 3H alone would under-estimate the radiation exposure of the human population exposed to tritiated food

  15. Model for tritiated water transport in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeriu, D.; Paunescu, N.

    1999-01-01

    Chemical forms of tritium released from nuclear facilities are mostly water (HTO) and hydrogen (HT, TT). Elemental tritium is inert in vegetation and superior animals, but the microorganisms from soil oxidize HT to HTO. After an atmospheric HT emission, in short time an equivalent quantity of HTO is re-emitted from soil. In the vicinity of a tritium source the spatial and temporary distribution of HTO is dependent on the chemical form of tritium releases. During routine tritium releases (continuously and constant releases), the local distribution of tritium reaches equilibrium, and specific activities of tritium in environmental compartments are almost equal. The situation is very different after an accidental emission. Having in view, harmful effects of tritium when it is incorporated into the body several models were developed for environmental tritium transport and dose assessment. The tritium transport into the soil is an important part of the environmental tritium behavior, but, unfortunately, in spite of the importance of this problem the corresponding modeling is unsatisfactory. The aim of this paper was the improvement of the TRICAIAP model, and the application of the model to BIOMOVS scenario. The BIOMOVS scenario predicts HTO concentrations in soil during 30 days, after one hour atmospheric HTO emission. The most important conclusions of the paper are: the principal carrier of tritium into the soil is water; the transfer processes are the reactions of water in soil and the diffusion due to concentration gradient; atmosphere-soil transport is dependent of surface characteristics (granulation, humidity, roughness, etc.); the conversion rate of HT to HTO is not well known and is dependent on active microorganism concentration in soil and on soil humidity. More experimental data are needed to decrease the uncertainty of transfer parameter, for the definition of the influence of vegetation, etc. (authors)

  16. The metabolisme of tritiated water in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeanmaire, Lucien; Vernois, Yvette; Bullier, Denise; Gros, Roger.

    1977-07-01

    The metabolism of tritiated water was studied in the rat during 580 days. The results on urinary and fecal excretion, total activity retention in 25 tissues or organs, cumulated activities from the 4th to the 582nd day are presented and discussed. They are in agreement with other similar studies, if compared over the same length of experimentation. The activity retained by the spinal cord is twice that retained in the brain considered as the organ whose long half-lived component is the most active. The use of such data for the study of tritium-labelled compounds is illustrated by two examples [fr

  17. Calculation of committed dose equivalent from intake of tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, D.V.

    1978-08-01

    A new computerized method of calculating the committed dose equivalent from the intake of tritiated water at Harwell is described in this report. The computer program has been designed to deal with a variety of intake patterns and urine sampling schemes, as well as to produce committed dose equivalents corresponding to any periods for which individual monitoring for external radiation is undertaken. Details of retrospective doses are added semi-automatically to the Radiation Dose Records and committed dose equivalents are retained on a separate file. (author)

  18. Conversion of tritium gas to tritiated water in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, Hiroshi; Kato, Shohei

    1985-01-01

    The literature on conversion of tritium gas to tritiated water in various environments is reviewed. The conversion mechanisms and the conversion rates are as follows. 1. In the oxidation with oxygen and the isotopic exchange with water, tritium β-rays and metal catalyst are effective. The oxidation rate is ∼ 0.02 %/day at initial tritium concentration ≤ 10 -2 Ci/l and ∼ 2 %/day at 1 Ci/l. In the presence of oxygen and water, it is not clear whether the exchange reaction occurs or not because of the small amount of data. 2. For biological conversion, soil microorganisms contribute significantly. The conversion rate is greater than 10 %/hr. The tritium gas deposition velocity, which includes the uptake rate of tritium gas by soil and the conversion rate, ranges from 0.0025 to 0.11 cm/sec and is influenced by temperature and moisture of the soil. 3. Tritium gas is converted to the tritiated water through the reaction with hydroxyl radical produced by sunlight in the atmosphere. (author)

  19. Radioecology of tritiated water in subarctic soils and vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salonen, L.; Miettinen, J.K.

    1982-01-01

    The residence times of tritium in various types of soils and plants have been determined in southern and northern Finland. The experiments were conducted in forest and agricultural environments where tritiated water was applied to the soil surface in the form of a single fall of rain. After that the movement and loss of tritiated water from the unsaturated zone was followed over a 2-4-year period in some forest areas. Uptake and loss of tritium in the tissue-free water and organic compounds of some native plants was studied in each area. The results indicated that in the subarctic area the half-residence times of tritium in soils and plants were greatly dependent on the climatic conditions at the time of the labelling and during the short growing seasons and also on the rate of water movement in the soil. In the experiments started during the best growing season the half-residence times in soil and plants do not differ from those determined in more temperate latitudes. (author)

  20. Tritiated water metabolism during dehydration and rehydration in the camel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etzion, Z.; Meyerstein, N.; Yagil, R.

    1984-01-01

    The metabolism of tritiated water in the camel was compared in two 10-day periods, one when water was readily available and the second during dehydration. There was a radically depressed metabolism after 2 days of dehydration. Two other experiments examined the absorption rate of drinking water. In one experiment drinking water was labeled with tritium, and in the second experiment dilution of tritium-labeled blood was examined. In both experiments there was a rapid uptake and dilution of the blood, which continued for 4 h. Following this only slight changes were observed up to 24 h after drinking. The results are in accord with other data showing changes in erythrocyte shape 4 h after rapid rehydration. It is concluded that there is a rapid absorption of water in the rehydrating camel

  1. The use of tritiated water in evaluating animal production parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertshaw, D.

    1988-01-01

    Tritiated water (TOH) provides a means of measuring a number of parameters of importance not only to the applied animal physiologist but to those involved in assessing animal productivity. For the examination of animal-environment interactions, TOH is an invaluable tool for assessing total body water, water turnover rate and hence water requirements of different types of animals kept under a variety of climatic and other conditions. It can also be useful for measuring water losses, e.g. through evaporation, and hence is a tool for assessing thermal stress. For animal productivity studies, TOH is useful for assessing such parameters as carcass composition, the intake of forages, supplements and milk. Each of these aspects is described as are the assumptions which have to be made when using TOH for the measurements concerned. (author). 11 refs, 1 tab

  2. Solid oxide electrolysis cell for decomposition of tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, S.; Ohno, H.; Yoshida, H.; Katsuta, H.; Naruse, Y.

    1986-01-01

    The decomposition of tritiated water vapor by means of solid oxide electrolysis cells has been proposed for the application to the D-T fusion reactor system. This method is essentially free from problems such as large tritium inventory, radiation damage, and generation of solid waste, so it is expected to be a promising one. Electrolysis of water vapor in an argon carrier was performed using a tube-type stabilized zirconia cell with porous platinum electrodes over the temperature range 500-950 0 C. High conversion ratios from water to hydrogen, of up to 99.9%, were achieved. The characteristics of the cell were deduced from the Nernst equation and the conversion ratios expressed as a function of the IR-free voltage. Experimental results agreed with the equation. The isotope effect in electrolysis is also discussed and experiments with heavy water were carried out. The obtained separation factor was slightly higher than the theoretical value. (author)

  3. Solid oxide electrolysis cell for decomposition of tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, S.; Katsuta, H.; Naruse, Y.; Ohno, H.; Yoshida, H.

    1984-01-01

    The decomposition of tritiated water vapor with solid oxide electrolysis cell was proposed for the application to the D-T fusion reactor system. This method is essentially free from problems such as large tritium inventory, radiation damage, and generation of solid waste, so it is expected to be a promising one. Electrolysis of water vapor in argon carrier was performed using tube-type stabilized zirconia cell with porous platinum electrodes in the temperature range of 500 0 C to 950 0 C. High conversion ratio from water to hydrogen up to 99.9% was achieved. The characteristics of the cell is deduced from the Nernst's equation and conversion ratio is described as the function of the open circuit voltage. Experimental results agreed with the equation. Isotope effect in electrolysis is also discussed and experiments with heavy water were carried out. Obtained separation factor was slightly higher than the theoretical value

  4. Conversion of tritiated hydrogen to tritiated water on heated metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, R.S.

    1993-05-01

    The conversion of tritium to tritiated water on metal surfaces was studied under conditions relevant to releases into a fusion reactor hall (metal temperatures between 473 K and 623 K, air or inert gas atmospheres). The rate constant of oxidation per unit geometric surface area was found to be about a factor of ten higher than the rate constant per unit gas adsorption surface area for H 2 to H 2 O conversion on metal oxides in excess oxygen, probably because of the roughness of the metal surfaces on a gas adsorption scale. Surface roughness and oxides were found to have a major influence on the reaction rate. The reaction exhibited a first-order dependence on Q 2 concentration. Changing the dew point of the atmosphere did not affect the rate significantly, and rate constants for most metals were independent of whether the atmosphere was argon or air. Coatings of hydrocarbon and silicone polymers did not significantly affect the reaction rate on carbon steel and ferrous metals and brass all had about the same conversion rate constant. Aluminum alloy gave about three times lower and copper in Ar gave ten times higher conversion rate constants. Based on these data, an accident scenario involving exposure of 1000 m 2 of stainless steel at 573 K to a 10 4 m 3 room would cause conversion of ca. 0.1% of the Q 2 present to Q 2 O in 24 hours, while air ingress to the torus without leakage of the tritium into the room would cause 1.2% conversion in that time. The rate values are only accurate within a multiplicative factor of three, so they should be applied cautiously in model calculations. (author). 27 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs

  5. Evaluation of cement composites for tritiated water fixation, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Hiroshi; Sakuma, Youichi; Okamoto, Tadashi; Utsunomiya, Toru; Moriya, Toshio; Shimbo, Takashi; Higuchi, Masanori.

    1985-01-01

    The integrity of a waste package of tritiated waste is one of the most important parameters in proceeding safety assessments of tritiated waste disposal systems. Of the many terms governing the integrity of a waste package, the one that is directly connected with safety assessment is the leach rate of tritium from the solidified object. Experiments focusing on measurements of leach rates were therefore conducted. These experiments consisted of three stages, in the first stage experiment, types of cement and mix proportions were selected on the bases of (1) weight reduction, (2) micro-structure, (3) compressive strength, (4) ignition loss, and (5) chemical analysis. And two mix proportions each, for normal portland cement and special cement, were chosen for further testing. In the second stage, as a preliminary experiment for measuring the leach rate of tritium, the leach rate of deuterium was studied by measuring densities of immersed liquid. The examination of the relations between the leach rates and the beforementioned properties ((1) to (4) in the first stage experiment) clearly showed that the lower leach rate were achieved with the lower water-cement ratio which represented the higher density of the cement form. In the third stage experiment, it is planned hereafter to confirm the above results by carrying out leach tests for tritium. (author)

  6. Tritium cycling in a tree spiked with tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Luvall, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    Transfer and turnover rates in forests are important to compute the residence time of tritiated water in an area following an accidental release. In this study tritium was injected in the base of 7 year old, loblolly pine (Pinus taeda, L) trees to determine the rate of transfer through the trees and the turnover in the trees independent of the soil. The results indicate the flow rates depend on the rate of water movement through the tree, which is influenced by the microclimate, and exchange of tritium with hydrogen exchange sites in the tree. The initial pulse of tritium appears to move through the tree in about four days. The descending portion of the curve can be described as a two compartment model with half-lives of 1.41 and 21.7 days. There is some evidence that a longer turnover compartment is associated with metabolically fixed tritium

  7. Genetic and somatic effects in animals maintained on tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carsten, A.L.; Commerford, S.L.; Cronkite, E.P.; Brooks, A.

    1982-01-01

    Somatic and genetic effects of the continuous ingestion of tritiated water (HTO) at concentrations of 0.3, 1.0 and 3.0 μCi/ml were investigated in mice of the Hale-Stoner-Brookhaven strain. At these levels, there was no measurable somatic effect. Although genetic effects as measured by dominant lethal mutation (DLM) assay indicated a significant effect (P>0.01) on the number of viable embryos and early deaths in the 3.0 μCi/ml HTO group and on the number of viable embryos in the 1.0 μCi/ml HTO group, no genetic effects were significantly noted in the 0.3 μCi/ml HTO group. Liver cytogenetic studies showed a significant increase in the number of abnormal cells in the 3.0 μCi/ml HTO group. A reduction in bone marrow stem cells, without an attendant reduction in total marrow cellularity, was noted in the 3.0 and 1.0 μCi/ml HTO groups. There was no significant difference in any of the DLM parameters between animals maintained on 3.0 μCi/ml of HTO and animals exposed to the equivalent 137 Cs gamma dose (22 hours/day exposure). Consideration of the relative amounts and biological half lives of tritium present in the nucleus as water, DNA and histone suggests that after transient exposure to tritiated water, nearly all significant radiation damage can be attributed to tritium present in the nucleus as water. These data suggest that hazards from tritium attendant with normal reactor operation should not at this time be considered as a deterrent to the further development of fission and/or fusion reactor technology. (Namekawa, K.)

  8. Tritium sorption behavior on the percolation of tritiated water into a soil packed bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuichi, Kazuya, E-mail: kfuruichi@aees.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Advanced Energy Engineering, Kyushu University, 6-1, Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Katayama, Kazunari; Date, Hiroyuki [Department of Advanced Energy Engineering, Kyushu University, 6-1, Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Takeishi, Toshiharu [Factory of Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Fukada, Satoshi [Department of Advanced Energy Engineering, Kyushu University, 6-1, Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • We establish the permeation model of tritiated water in the soil layer. • Saturated hydraulic conductivity of water in soil was gained by using the model. • The isotope exchange reaction coefficient was good agreement with experimental data. - Abstract: Development of tritium transport model in natural soil is an important issue from a viewpoint of safety of fusion reactors. The spill of a large amount of tritiated water to the environment is a concern accident because huge tritiated water is handled in a fusion plant. In this work, a simple tritium transport model was proposed based on the tritium transport model in porous materials. The overall mass transfer coefficient representing isotope exchange reaction between tritiated water and structural water in soil particles was obtained by numerically analyzing the result of the percolation experiment of tritiated water into the soil packed bed. Saturated hydraulic conductivity in the natural soil packed bed was obtained to be 0.033 mm/s. By using this value, the overall mass transfer capacity coefficients representing the isotope exchange reaction between tritiated water percolating through the packed bed and overall structural water on soil particles was determined to be 6.0 × 10{sup −4} 1/s. This value is much smaller than the mass transfer capacity coefficient between tritiated water vapor and water on concrete material and metals.

  9. Sorption of tritium and tritiated water on construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, R.S.; Miller, J.M.

    1991-11-01

    Sorption and desorption of tritium (HT) and tritiated water (HTO) on materials to be used in the construction of fusion facilities were studied. In ∼ 24-hour exposures in argon or room air, metal samples sorbed 8-200 μCi/m 2 of tritium from atmospheres of 5-9 Ci/m 3 HT, and non-metallic samples sorbed 60-800 μCi/m 2 from atmospheres of 14 Ci/m 3 HT. Sorption of HTO varied much more widely than HT sorption for different samples, ranging from 4 μCi/m 2 for glass to 1,300,000 μCi/m 2 for concrete samples, in 24-hour exposures to 1 Ci/m 3 HTO in room air. Time dependence of desorption in dry air showed a rapid initial process and a slower secondary process. (Author) (10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.)

  10. Separation of tritiated water using graphene oxide membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevigny, Gary J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Motkuri, Radha K. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gotthold, David W. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fifield, Leonard S. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Frost, Anthony P. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bratton, Wesley [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-06-28

    In future nuclear fuel reprocessing plants and possibly for nuclear power plants, the cleanup of tritiated water will be needed for hundreds of thousands of gallons of water with low activities of tritium. This cleanup concept utilizes graphene oxide laminar membranes (GOx) for the separation of low-concentration (10-3-10 µCi/g) tritiated water to create water that can be released to the environment and a much smaller waste stream with higher tritium concentrations. Graphene oxide membranes consist of hierarchically stacked, overlapping molecular layers and represent a new class of materials. A permeation rate test was performed with a 2-µm-thick cast Asbury membrane using mixed gas permeability testing with zero air (highly purified atmosphere) and with air humidified with either H2O or D2O to a nominal 50% relative humidity. The membrane permeability for both H2O and D2O was high with N2 and O2 at the system measurement limit. The membrane water permeation rate was compared to a Nafion® membrane and the GOx permeation was approximately twice as high at room temperature. The H2O vapor permeation rate was 5.9 × 102 cc/m2/min (1.2 × 10-6 g/min-cm2), which is typical for graphene oxide membranes. To demonstrate the feasibility of such isotopic water separation through GOX laminar membranes, an experimental setup was constructed to use pressure-driven separation by heating the isotopic water mixture at one side of the membrane to create steam while cooling the other side. Several membranes were tested and were prepared using different starting materials and by different pretreatment methods. The average separation result was 0.8 for deuterium and 0.6 for tritium. Higher or lower temperatures may also improve separation efficiency but neither has been tested yet. A rough estimate of cost compared to current technology was also included as an indication of potential viability of the process. The relative process costs were based on the rough size of facility to

  11. The measurement of water vapor permeability of glove materials using dilute tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doughty, D.H.

    1982-01-01

    As fusion technology progresses, there will be an increasing need to handle tritium and tritiated compounds. Protective clothing, especially drybox gloves, must be an effective barrier to minimize worker exposure. The water vapor permeability of glove materials and finished glove constructions is a crucial property of drybox gloves and is not sufficiently well characterized. We have built an apparatus that measures water vapor permeability of elastomers using dilute tritiated water. The technique is more sensitive than other methods currently available and allows us to make measurements on materials and under conditions previously inaccessible. In particular, we present results on laminated drybox gloves for which data is not currently available. (orig.)

  12. A suggested revision to the specific activity limit for tritiated water transported as LSA-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandakumar, A.N.

    2003-01-01

    Tritiated water of specific activity not greater than 0.8 TBq L -1 is classified as LSA-II. This paper demonstrates by some simple calculations that the dose that may result from an accident involving tritiated water of this specific activity is very low and suggests that even if the specific activity limit of tritiated water which may be transported as LSA-II is raised above 0.8 TBq kg -1 , the resulting dose in accident conditions would not be unacceptable. (author)

  13. Comparison of late effects of single x-ray exposure, chronic tritiated water ingestion, and chronic cesium-137 gamma exposure in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carsten, A.L.; Cronkite, E.P.

    1979-01-01

    There is concern over the possible late effects resulting from chronic exposure to tritiated water, a primary by-product of power reactors. We are comparing the genetic and somatic effects of tritiated water ingestion to acute x-ray or chronic cesium-137 gamma-ray exposures. Eight week old mice were maintaned on tritiated water in concentrations of 0.3, 1.0, and 3.0 μCi/ml. Identical animals received cesium-137 gamma exposures equivalent to that from the tritiated water. At 4 week intervals, animals were sacrificed and the hematopoietic stem cell content and cellularity of the bone marrow determined. For comparison of acute and chronic effects, one group of mice received a single whole-body x-ray exposure of 525 rads. The x-irradiated animals showed an immediate sharp decrease in marrow cellularity followed by gradual return to normal levels, with a lifelong reduction in number of marrow stem cells. Animals exposed to the two higher concentrations of tritiated water showed only slight reductions in marrow cellularity, with a lifelong reduction in hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow. Comparison of the external gamma exposures to chronic tritiated water ingestion indicates similar patterns. Maintenance of normal cellularity with a reduced number of stem cells in x-rayed animals was shown by tritiated thymidine cytocide to be due to the reduction in number of stem cells in the resting G/sub O/ stage. At this time it is not possible to determine whether there is a significant difference in relative biological effectiveness of tritiated water compared to cesium-137 gamma rays; however, indications are that they are similar

  14. Relative transport of water (H2O) and tritiated water (HTO) across cellulose acetate (CA) membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhakar, S.; Misra, B.M.; Ramani, M.P.S.

    1986-01-01

    The relative transport characteristics of water (H 2 O) and tritiated water (HTO) were evaluated through cellulose acetate membranes under osmosis, reverse osmosis and pervaporation. The results indicate that the relative transport is independent of the process. The anamolous observations under osmotic conditions are explained. (orig.)

  15. Tritium recovery from tritiated water with a two-stage palladium membrane reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birdsell, S.A.; Willms, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    A process to recover tritium from tritiated water has been successfully demonstrated at TSTA. The 2-stage palladium membrane reactor (PMR) is capable of recovering tritium from water without generating additional waste. This device can be used to recover tritium from the substantial amount of tritiated water that is expected to be generated in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor both from torus exhaust and auxiliary operations. A large quantity of tritiated waste water exists world wide because the predominant method of cleaning up tritiated streams is to oxidize tritium to tritiated water. The latter can be collected with high efficiency for subsequent disposal. The PMR is a combined catalytic reactor/permeator. Cold (non-tritium) water processing experiments were run in preparation for the tritiated water processing tests. Tritium was recovered from a container of molecular sieve loaded with 2,050 g (2,550 std. L) of water and 4.5 g of tritium. During this experiment, 27% (694 std. L) of the water was processed resulting in recovery of 1.2 g of tritium. The maximum water processing rate for the PMR system used was determined to be 0.5 slpm. This correlates well with the maximum processing rate determined from the smaller PMR system on the cold test bench and has resulted in valuable scale-up and design information

  16. Tritium recovery from tritiated water with a two-stage palladium membrane reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birdsell, S.A.; Willms, R.S.

    1997-04-01

    A process to recover tritium from tritiated water has been successfully demonstrated at TSTA. The 2-stage palladium membrane reactor (PMR) is capable of recovering tritium from water without generating additional waste. This device can be used to recover tritium from the substantial amount of tritiated water that is expected to be generated in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor both from torus exhaust and auxiliary operations. A large quantity of tritiated waste water exists world wide because the predominant method of cleaning up tritiated streams is to oxidize tritium to tritiated water. The latter can be collected with high efficiency for subsequent disposal. The PMR is a combined catalytic reactor/permeator. Cold (non-tritium) water processing experiments were run in preparation for the tritiated water processing tests. Tritium was recovered from a container of molecular sieve loaded with 2,050 g (2,550 std. L) of water and 4.5 g of tritium. During this experiment, 27% (694 std. L) of the water was processed resulting in recovery of 1.2 g of tritium. The maximum water processing rate for the PMR system used was determined to be 0.5 slpm. This correlates well with the maximum processing rate determined from the smaller PMR system on the cold test bench and has resulted in valuable scale-up and design information.

  17. Tritium conversion in tritiated water: study of the involved reactions: a literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballereau, P.

    1987-10-01

    According to ICRP publication 30, hazards due to molecular tritium are not significant in comparison to hazards due to the oxidated form: tritiated water. It is thus important to know the kinetics of tritium/tritiated water conversion to obtain a realistic evaluation of the risks for the environment at level of present facilities and of future nuclear fusion facilities. Laboratory experiments in static contained conditions have shown that tritiated water is produced by two mechanisms: gas phase oxidation, hydrogen isotopic exchange with water. The periods found are relatively long and difficult to specify. In terrestrial atmosphere, the two mechanisms intervening in tritiated water formation are photochemical oxidation and biochemical reactions occurring in soil and in vegetation aerial parts. The corresponding periods are of some years for the first one, of some hours for the second one [fr

  18. Distribution of tritiated compounds (tritiated thymidine and tritiated water) in the mother-fetus system and its consequences for the radiotoxic effect of tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreml, W; Fliedner, T M [Ulm Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Abt. Klinische Physiologie

    1978-01-01

    The incorporation and distribution of tritiated thymidine (/sup 3/H-TdR) and tritiated water (HTO) have been measured in newborn rats exposed to various levels of tritium by continuous infusion into pregnant rats from day 9 until term. In the animals exposed to HTO, the tritium activity was homogeneously distributed while /sup 3/H-TdR led to accumulation of DNA-bound and homogeneously distributed tritium. The incorporated activity and the specific activity of DNA from ovaries which showed a reduction of total oocyte number by approximately 50% were used to estimate the dose absorbed by the ovarian cell nuclei in both systems. From the absorbed dose a factor of 3.7 was calculated for the 'internal relative biological effectiveness' of DNA-bound tritium as compared to homogeneously distributed /sup 3/H under the restrictive assumption that the static description of the system at birth reflects the situation during the time of dynamic development of the ovaries when the toxic effect occurs. The influence of these dynamic factors of changing nuclear size and tritium incorporation during the sensitive period is weighed against the possibility that the continuous /sup 3/H-TdR infusion during pregnancy might represent a model in which DNA-bound tritium shows a higher effectiveness than homogeneously distributed tritium.

  19. Measurement of transpiration and biomass of coconut palm with tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasu, K.; Wahid, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of transpiration rate and biomass of coconut palm have been made using tritiated water as a tracer. The method of tracer injection into the coconut trunk and the extraction of tritiated water from coconut leaves are outlined. The transpiration rate of the tree selected for the study was found to be 2.2 litres/hour with a total biomass of 172 kg. (author). 8 refs., 3 tabs

  20. Dose contribution from metabolized organically bound tritium after chronic tritiated water intakes in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, A.; Lamothe, E.; Galeriu, D.

    2001-01-01

    Our earlier study of acute tritiated water intakes in humans has demonstrated that the dose contribution from metabolized organically bound tritium is less than 10% of the body water dose. To further demonstrate that the dose contribution from the organically bound tritium per unit intake of tritiated water is the same, regardless of whether the intake is acute (all at once) or chronic (spread over time), urine samples from six male radiation workers with chronic tritiated water intakes were collected and analyzed for tritium. These workers have a well-documented dose history and a well-controlled tritium bioassay database, providing assurance that their tritium intakes were in the form of tritiated water. Each month for a full calendar year, urine samples were collected from each exposed worker. The monthly concentration of tritium-in-urine for each exposed worker was no lower than 104 Bq L -1 but no higher than 105 Bq L -1 . These urine samples were analyzed for tritiated water and organically bound tritium to determine the ratio of these tritiated species in urine. The average ratio of tritiated water to organically bound tritium in urine for each exposed worker was 330-129 (range, 297-589). In calculating the dose to these workers, we assumed that, under steady-state conditions, the ratio of the specific activity of tritium ( 3 H activity per gH) in the organic matter and water fractions of urine is representative of the ratio of the specific activity of tritium in the organic matter and water fractions of soft tissue. A mathematical model was developed and used to estimate the dose increase from the metabolized organically bound tritium based on the ratio of tritiated water to organically bound tritium in urine. The resulting average dose from the organically bound tritium was 6.9-3.1% (range, 4.7-9.9%) of the body water dose for the six male workers, and agrees well with the value obtained from our acute tritiated water intakes study in humans. The observed

  1. A study of water in glass by an autoradiographic method that utilizes tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knickerbocker, S.H.; Brown, S.D.; Joshi, S.B.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter determines water concentration and spatial distribution in glass by an autoradiographic method that makes use of tritiated water as the tagged species. Describes the method and presents some typical results. Lists advantages and disadvantages associated with the method and examines other methods that might be used for the study of water in glass. Discusses dry glass preparation, the addition of tritiated water to glass, glass preparation, film selection, and film analysis. Shows tritium autoradiography to be a valuable technique for measuring the content and spatial distribution of water in inorganic glasses. Finds that the technique yields unique information, particularly in regard to spatial distribution, when compared with techniques of IR spectroscopy, SIMS, SIPS, NRRA, ESR and NMR. Points out that large areas (e.g., several square inches) of sample can be mapped in a single exposure. Notes that the spatial resolution of water in the glass network can be 10 -7 m, so very accurate diffusion profiles are obtainable

  2. Effect of chronic ingestion of tritiated water and tritium organically bound in food on growth and reproductive functions of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietrzak-Flis, Z.; Radwan, I.

    1982-01-01

    An effect of chronic ingestion of tritiated water and tritiated food on growth and reproduction of Wistar rats was evaluated. The animals were exposed during one or three successive generations. Ingestion of tritiated water at activity of 185.0 and 370.0 kBq/ml or tritiated food at activity of 144.3 kBq/g affected growth of the first generation (F 1 ) rats. In groups exposed to tritiated water the effect was transient. Exposure to tritiated food at 48.1 kBq/g or to tritiated water at the 37.0 kBq/ml affected the growth of F 2 generation rats only. A significant reduction in a relative testis tests weight was observed in a group exposed to tritiated water at activity of 370.0 kBq/ml, while sperm production was affected in all exposed groups. Ingestion of tritiated food caused higher reduction in sperm count than tritiated water. The effect of tritium on growth of rats and ability for sperm production depended on the absorbed dose and the form of ingested tritium. (author)

  3. Water flux in animals: analysis of potential errors in the tritiated water method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, K.A.; Costa, D.

    1979-03-01

    Laboratory studies indicate that tritiated water measurements of water flux are accurate to within -7 to +4% in mammals, but errors are larger in some reptiles. However, under conditions that can occur in field studies, errors may be much greater. Influx of environmental water vapor via lungs and skin can cause errors exceeding +-50% in some circumstances. If water flux rates in an animal vary through time, errors approach +-15% in extreme situations, but are near +-3% in more typical circumstances. Errors due to fractional evaporation of tritiated water may approach -9%. This error probably varies between species. Use of an inappropriate equation for calculating water flux from isotope data can cause errors exceeding +-100%. The following sources of error are either negligible or avoidable: use of isotope dilution space as a measure of body water volume, loss of nonaqueous tritium bound to excreta, binding of tritium with nonaqueous substances in the body, radiation toxicity effects, and small analytical errors in isotope measurements. Water flux rates measured with tritiated water should be within +-10% of actual flux rates in most situations.

  4. Water flux in animals: analysis of potential errors in the tritiated water method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, K.A.; Costa, D.

    1979-03-01

    Laboratory studies indicate that tritiated water measurements of water flux are accurate to within -7 to +4% in mammals, but errors are larger in some reptiles. However, under conditions that can occur in field studies, errors may be much greater. Influx of environmental water vapor via lungs and skin can cause errors exceeding +-50% in some circumstances. If water flux rates in an animal vary through time, errors approach +-15% in extreme situations, but are near +-3% in more typical circumstances. Errors due to fractional evaporation of tritiated water may approach -9%. This error probably varies between species. Use of an inappropriate equation for calculating water flux from isotope data can cause errors exceeding +-100%. The following sources of error are either negligible or avoidable: use of isotope dilution space as a measure of body water volume, loss of nonaqueous tritium bound to excreta, binding of tritium with nonaqueous substances in the body, radiation toxicity effects, and small analytical errors in isotope measurements. Water flux rates measured with tritiated water should be within +-10% of actual flux rates in most situations

  5. Tritium in organic compounds of brain of rats exposed to tritiated water or tritiated food during three successive generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major, Z.

    1987-01-01

    The study was performed on Wistar rats which were chronically exposed to tritiated water (HTO, 37.0 kBq/ml) or to tritiated food (48.1 kBq/g). The tritium exposure of the rats was started before mating and was continued up to delivery of the F 3 generation. The incorporation of organically bound tritium (OBT) was determined in whole brain and in some organic components of rats at various ages. The specific activity of OBT in whole brain and in its organic components with the exception of proteins significantly increased in the F 1 +F 2 generations of rats in comparison with F 0 females. The contribution of OBT to the total dose rate was about 6 per cent in HTO group and 9 per cent in T-food group. The contribution of lipids and proteins to the dose rate from OBT was similar in both treatment groups, being 60 and 20 per cent, respectively. 20 refs. (author)

  6. urea space versus tritiated water space as an in vivo predtctor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kock (1973) consider urea space in the ruminant to be a measure of empty body water (total body water less the water in the digestive tract) rather than total body water. The study reported in this paper evaluates the pros and cons of urea space measurement as compared to tritiated water space measurement in terms of ...

  7. Use of tritiated water for estimating body composition in grazing ewes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russel, A.J.F.; Foot, J.Z.; McFarlane, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    Tritiated water was used to estimate total body water, body composition and water turnover of non-pregnant, pregnant, non-lactating and lactating grazing sheep. Body composition was estimated from equilibrated and extrapolated values of tritiated water space. These methods both overestimated the total body water measured directly. Body fat could be predicted satisfactorily from tritiated water space within the physiological states of ewes, i.e. lactating, pregnant, etc., although for lactating ewes the error of prediction is greater. It appears inadvisable at this stage to use equations derived from all classes of ewes to estimate body fat in ewes of any one physiological state. Water turnover varied, with the physiological state being highest for lactating ewes. (author)

  8. Radiolysis of water confined in zeolites 4A: application to tritiated water storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frances, Laetitia

    2014-01-01

    Self-radiolysis of tritiated water (HTO) adsorbed in zeolites 4A shows differences compared to free-bulk water radiolysis. We studied the roles of zeolites on that. We took special care with the influence of water loading ratio. We first exposed zeolites to external irradiations, reproducing selectively the dose or the dose rate measured in the case of tritiated water storage. This strategy enables the characterising of the samples after their irradiation since they are not contaminated by tritium. Those experiments revealed the high stability of zeolites 4A. We used a second approach which consisted in studying the precise case of self-radiolysis of tritiated water, in order to obtain radiolytic yields representative of HTO storage. The comparison between the quantities of gas released when zeolites are exposed to the three different sources that we used (electrons accelerated at 10 MeV, γ released by radioactive decay of 137 Cs and β - released by radioactive decay of tritium) revealed the strong influence of the dose rate. Moreover, whatever the irradiation source, zeolites 4A first favour hydrogen release and secondarily oxygen release too. On the contrary, zeolites favour next a recombination between those radiolytic products, with a dependence on their water loading ratio. Several processes are discussed to explain such a phenomena, not noticed during the free-bulk water radiolysis. (author) [fr

  9. Tritiated water retention on maize and beans after an acute contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nulman, R.; Bravo, G.; Ortiz M, J.R.; Archundia, C.

    1977-01-01

    Although tritium is released in large quantities into environment by nuclear industries and peaceful radioisotope utilization, its behavior is not well known. The International Atomic Energy Agency is sponsoring an international study group to obtain more information about tritiated water (HTO) behavior in different ecological systems. This paper presents the studies made on corn and beans after an acute application of tritiated water during their early stages of growth on an experimental field. Sampling and radiochemical analytical methods of tritium and its behaviour on that plants during their growth cycle are outlined. It is shown that the tritiated water retention plot has at least two components, with effective half lifes of about 10 and 100 days for corn, and 8 and 40 days for beans. (author)

  10. Can tritiated water-dilution space accurately predict total body water in chukar partridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crum, B.G.; Williams, J.B.; Nagy, K.A.

    1985-01-01

    Total body water (TBW) volumes determined from the dilution space of injected tritiated water have consistently overestimated actual water volumes (determined by desiccation to constant mass) in reptiles and mammals, but results for birds are controversial. We investigated potential errors in both the dilution method and the desiccation method in an attempt to resolve this controversy. Tritiated water dilution yielded an accurate measurement of water mass in vitro. However, in vivo, this method yielded a 4.6% overestimate of the amount of water (3.1% of live body mass) in chukar partridges, apparently largely because of loss of tritium from body water to sites of dissociable hydrogens on body solids. An additional source of overestimation (approximately 2% of body mass) was loss of tritium to the solids in blood samples during distillation of blood to obtain pure water for tritium analysis. Measuring tritium activity in plasma samples avoided this problem but required measurement of, and correction for, the dry matter content in plasma. Desiccation to constant mass by lyophilization or oven-drying also overestimated the amount of water actually in the bodies of chukar partridges by 1.4% of body mass, because these values included water adsorbed onto the outside of feathers. When desiccating defeathered carcasses, oven-drying at 70 degrees C yielded TBW values identical to those obtained from lyophilization, but TBW was overestimated (0.5% of body mass) by drying at 100 degrees C due to loss of organic substances as well as water

  11. Separation of tritiated water from water using composite membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, J.; Nelson, D.

    1996-01-01

    Polymeric composite membranes are being developed to remove tritium from contaminated water at DOE sites. Industrial membrane systems are being developed that have proven to be energy efficient, and membrane technologies such as reverse-osmosis have been well developed for desalination and other industrial/municipal applications. Aromatic polyphosphazene membranes are being investigated because they have excellent radiological, thermal, and chemical stability. The FY 1996 effort is directed toward delineating a potential mechanism, providing a statistical approach to data acquisition, refining a mass balance, and designing a staged array module

  12. Ratio of tritiated water and hydrogen generated in mercury through a nuclear reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manabe, K. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)], E-mail: manabe.kentaro@jaea.go.jp; Yokoyama, S. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2008-02-15

    Tritium generated in a mercury target is a source of potential exposure of personnel at high-energy accelerator facilities. Knowledge of the chemical form of tritium is necessary to estimate the internal doses. We studied the tritium generation upon thermal neutron irradiation of a mercury target modified into liquid lithium amalgam to examine the ratio of tritiated water ([{sup 3}H]H{sub 2}O) and tritiated hydrogen ([{sup 3}H]H{sub 2}). The ratio between [{sup 3}H]H{sub 2}O and [{sup 3}H]H{sub 2} generated in lithium amalgam was 4:6 under these experimental conditions.

  13. Impact analysis and testing of tritiated heavy water transportation packages including hydrodynamic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauve, R.G.; Tulk, J.D.; Gavin, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    Ontario Hydro has recently designed a new Type B(M) Tritiated Heavy Water Transportation Package (THWTP) for the road transportation of tritiated heavy water from its operating nuclear stations to the Tritium Removal Facility in Ontario. These packages must demonstrate the ability to withstand severe shock and impact scenarios such as those prescribed by IAEA standards. The package, shown in figure 1, comprises an inner container filled with tritiated heavy water, and a 19 lb/ft 3 polyurethane foam-filled overpack. The overpack is of sandwich construction with 304L stainless steel liners and 10.5 inch thick nominal foam walls. The outer shell is 0.75 inch thick and the inner shell is 0.25 inch thick. The primary containment boundary consists of the overpack inner liner, the containment lid and outer containment seals in the lid region. The total weight of the container including the 12,000 lb. payload is 36,700 lb. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the hydrodynamic effect of the tritiated heavy water payload on the structural integrity of the THWTP during a flat end drop from a height of 9 m. The study consisted of three phases: (i) developing an analytical model to simulate the hydrodynamic effects of the heavy water payload during impact; (ii) performing an impact analysis for a 9 m flat end drop of the THWTP including fluid structure interaction; (iii) verification of the analytical models by experiment

  14. An experimental study on the carcinogenic effect of tritiated water (HTO) in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoro, Kenjiro; Yamamoto, Osamu; Kamiya, Kenji; Fujii, Yoshiaki; Numoto, Michitaka; Kinomura, Aiko

    1986-01-01

    A large-scale study of the long-term carcinogenic effect of tritiated water (HTO) has been performed in mice. This is the interime report on the results as of May 8, 1986. A total of 391 seven-week-old (C57BL/6N x C3H/He) Fl mice were intraperitoneally given 1.0 Ci/0.2 ml of HTO (3.75, 7.5, 15, or 20 mCi/mouse), in either single or fractionated manner. The incidence of leukemia was approximately five times higher in the group receiving a fractionated administration of 20 mCi than that receiving the same amount in a single manner, as was the latent period shorter. The incidence of solid tumors, unlike leukemia, was evidently higher in the group receiving a single administration of 15 mCi than that receiving 3.75 mCi four times. The latent period also tended to be short in the former group. The groups with higher amounts of HTO had slightly higher incidence of multiple primaries. The ovary was the most common site of tumor. Expression of an oncogene, N-ras, was frequently observed in the case of leukemia, fibrosarcoma, and tumors of the thyroid, ovary, and lung. (Namekawa, K.)

  15. Selected bibliography on heavy water, tritiated water and hydrogen isotopes (1981-1992)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalakrishnan, V.T.; Sutawane, U.B.; Rathi, B.N.

    1994-01-01

    A selected bibliography on heavy water, tritiated water and hydrogen isotopes is presented. This bibliography covers the period 1981-1992 and is in continuation to Division's earlier report BARC-1192 (1983). The sources of information for this compilation are Chemical Abstracts, INIS Atom Index and also some scattered search through journals and reports available in our library. No claim is made towards exhaustiveness of this bibliography even though sincere attempts have been made for a wide coverage. The bibliography is arranged under the headings: (1) production, purification, recovery, reprocessing and storage, (2) isotope exchange, 3) isotope analysis, (4) properties and (5) miscellaneous. Total number of references in the bibliography are 1762. (author)

  16. Tritium distribution in newborn mice after providing mother mice with drinking water containing tritiated thymidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, M.; Streffer, C.; Molls, M.

    1983-01-01

    Throughout gestation pregnant mice received drinking water which contained [methyl- 3 H]thymidine (18.5 kBq/ml). The newborn mice were divided into two groups. One group was nursed by their own mothers, which were further supplied with tritiated thymidine until 4 weeks after delivery (Experiment I). The other group was nursed by ''nonradioactive mothers'' which were given no tritiated thymidine (Experiment II). Tritium incorporation into the small molecular components of the acid-soluble fraction, lipid, RNA, DNA, and protein was analyzed for the newborn mice at various ages. In Experiment II, total radioactivity per gram tissue decreased initially after birth with a half life of 2.5-2.9 days in spleen, liver, intestine, stomach, thymus, lung, kidney, heart, and brain. At about 2 weeks after birth, a slower component of tritium elimination due mainly to the DNA-bound tritium appeared. Specific activity of DNA at birth was organ specific, highest in heart and lowest in thymus. Cumulative absorbed dose in various organs was estimated for the first 4 weeks after birth based upon an assumption that total and DNA-bound tritium are uniformly distributed. The result showed that organ specificity of dose accumulation is obvious for DNA-bound tritium, highest in spleen (1.15 mGy) and lowest in brain (0.13 mGy). It was also shown that the tritium supply from mother's milk is of minor importance for dose accumulation of DNA-bound tritium in the cell nuclei of organs of suckling mice

  17. Tritium distribution in newborn mice after providing mother mice with drinking water containing tritiated thymidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, M.; Streffer, C.; Molls, M.

    1983-01-01

    Throughout gestation pregnant mice received drinking water which contained [methyl- 3 H]thymidine (18.5 kBq/ml). The newborn mice were divided into two groups. One group was nursed by their own mothers, which were further supplied with tritiated thymidine until 4 weeks after delivery (Experiment I). The other group was nursed by nonradioactive mothers which were given no tritiated thymidine (Experiment II). Tritium incorporation into the small molecular components of the acid-soluble fraction, lipid, RNA, DNA, and protein was analyzed for the newborn mice at various ages. In Experiment II, total radioactivity per gram tissue decreased initially after birth with a half life of 2.5 to 2.9 days in spleen, liver, intestine, stomach, thymus, lung, kidney, heart, and brain. At about 2 weeks after birth, a slower component of tritium elimination due mainly to the DNA-bound tritium appeared. Specific activity of DNA at birth was organ specific, highest in heart and lowest in thymus. Cumulative absorbed dose in various organs was estimated for the first 4 weeks after birth based upon an assumption that total and DNA-bound tritium are uniformly distributed. The result showed that organ specificity of dose accumulation is obvious for DNA-bound tritium, highest in spleen (1.15 mGy) and lowest in brain (0.13 mGy). It was also shown that the tritium supply from mother's milk is of minor importance for dose accumulation of DNA-bound tritium in the cell nuclei of organs of suckling mice

  18. Detection of the contamination of air by tritiated water vapour around the reactor EL3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebouleux, P.; Ardellier, A.; Valero, S.

    1968-01-01

    The authors describe the apparatus used for the detection of the tritiated water vapour contamination in the air around the reactor EL 3. The apparatus consists of two air-circulation ionisation chambers; the air in one of these is dried by passage through a silica-gel column. By carrying out a differential measurement of the ionization currents, it is possible to measure the tritiated water vapour concentration. A theoretical study of the response of the chambers is carried out for two types of emission of the tritiated water vapour: continuous, or in bursts. The experimental work comprises: calibration in the measurement range employed; study of the selectivity for other active gases; study of typical accidents; the interpretation of the results in the case of discontinuous emission, taking into account the desorption from the walls of the measurement chamber, a phenomenon which is observed during the emptying process. The authors give finally actual examples of how to use the results. The apparatus built makes it possible to detect, in less than ten minutes, contamination by tritiated water vapour in the presence of other active gases, in a measurement range of between 3 and 2200 MPC, and with an accuracy of about 25 per cent. A transposition to calculations of the risk to workers should be made with the utmost caution; an envelope of this risk can be drawn up more or less accurately depending on particular cases. (authors) [fr

  19. Use of tritiated water as indicator of the water metabolism on normal and operate patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fallot, P.; Aeberhardt, A.

    1955-01-01

    Water disruptions are very frequent during the medical and surgical affections. In order to study the kinetics of the water exchanges as well as the determination of the total water of the body, we have chosen tritiated water as indicator. This work presents a rapid process, faithful and sensitive of dosage of the Tritium in the biologic liquids. This method has been applied to the survey of the intestinal absorption of water among normal subjects and during some medical and surgical affections. The exam of the experimental curves permitted to get information concerning the kinetics of water ingested as well as of data on the volume of total water of the human body and on the biologic period of the Tritium in the organism. (M.B.) [fr

  20. Recycle attuned catalytic exchange (RACE) for reliable and low inventory processing of highly tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iseli, M.; Schaub, M.; Ulrich, D.

    1992-01-01

    The detritiation of highly tritiated water by liquid phase catalytic exchange needs dilution of the feed with water to tritium concentrations suitable for catalyst and safety rules and to assure flow rates large enough for wetting the catalyst. Dilution by recycling detritiated water from within the exchange process has three advantages: the amount and concentration of the water for dilution is controlled within the exchange process, there is no additional water load to processes located downstream RACE, and the ratio of gas to liquid flow rates in the exchange column could be adjusted by using several recycles differing in amount and concentration to avoid an excessively large number of theoretical separation stages. In this paper, the flexibility of the recycle attuned catalytic exchange (RACE) and its effect on the cryogenic distillation are demonstrated for the detritiation of the highly tritiated water from a tritium breeding blanket

  1. Effect of prenatal exposure to low dose beta radiation from tritiated water on postnatal growth and neurobehavior of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Weimin; Zhou Xiangyan

    1998-01-01

    Objective: Effects of prenatal exposure to HTO (tritiated water) on postnatal growth and neurobehavior of rats were studied by determination of multiple parameters. Methods: Pregnant adult Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups, of which 3 groups were irradiated with beta-rays from tritiated water (HTO) by one single intraperitoneal injection on the 13th day of gestation. Offspring of these rats received cumulative doses of 0.000, 0.044, 0.088 and 0.264 Gy utero, respectively, and were observed for the appearance of three physiologic markers (eye opening, pinna detachment, incisor eruption), the age of acquisition of two reflexes (surface righting, negative geotaxis) and sensuous function (auditory startle), movement and coordination functions and activity (forelimb hanging, continuous corridor activity), and learning and memory (electric avoidance reflex in Y-maze, conditional reflex). Results: Results for most parameters in the 0.044 and 0.088 Gy groups were different significantly from those in the controls and for most parameters a dose-dependent effect was found. Conclusion: Offspring of rats having received prenatal low dose irradiation from HTO showed delayed growth and abnormal neurobehavior

  2. Evaluation of absorbed doses at the interface solid surfaces - tritiated water solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postolache, Cristian; Matei, Lidia

    2003-01-01

    Studies concerning the isotopic exchange H/D/T in the system elemental hydrogen -- water and in the presence of platinum metals on hydrophobic supports as catalysts were carried out at ICSI (Institute of Cryogenics and Isotope Separations) - Rm. Valcea, Romania. Due to the very low energy of β-radiation emitted by tritium, the direct measurements of dose absorbed by the isotopic exchange catalyst using classical methods is practically impossible. For this purpose an evaluation model was developed. The volume of tritiated water which can irradiate the catalyst was represented by a hemisphere with the radius equal to the maximal rate of β-radiation emitted by tritium. The catalyst surface is represented by a circle with a 0.2 μm radius and the same centre as the circle of the hemisphere secant plane. Flow rate of absorbed dose is calculated with the relation: d (1/100)(Φ·E m /m), where d = dose flow rate, in rad/s, Φ total radiation flux interacting with the catalyst surface, expressed in erg and m = catalyst weight, in grams. Total flux of available radiation, Φ, was determined as a function of three parameters: a) total flow of tritium β-radiation emitted in the hemisphere of tritiated water, dependent on the volume and radioactive concentration; b) emission coefficient in the direction of the catalyst surface; c) attenuation coefficient (due to self-absorption) of the tritium β-radiation in the tritiated water body. (authors)

  3. Relative biological effectiveness of tritiated water on cultured mammalian cells at molecular and cellular level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, S.; Sakai, K.; Nakamura, N.

    1986-01-01

    Factors that affect RBE values have been investigated in cultured cells. It was shown that: (1) Different RBE values were obtained with the same tritiated water treated cells depending upon the biological end-point; this may be related to target size. (2) The RBE value for one end-point (e.g. cell killing) in different cell types was often different. In some cells, the RBE value increased with reducing dose; in other cells, the value remained constant. (3) The RBE value for tritiated water seemed to fit a general RBE-LET relationship. These results suggest that although the RBE value might vary from 1 to 2 when cells are exposed to HTO, there are situations where the value becomes higher than 2; these are associated with low dose and low dose rate exposures in some cell types. (author)

  4. Crypt cell population kinetics in mouse jejunum under continuous beta irradiation from tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, A.L.; Gupta, M.L.; Saharan, B.R.

    1979-01-01

    The behaviour of crypt cell population in mouse jejunum under continuous beta irradiation from tritiated water (HTO) has been studied. Adult mice were maintained on tritiated drinking water of the activity of 1.25 μCi/ml, after priming injection. The crypts were studied at 1, 5, 7, 15 and 30 days after the initiation of treatment. It is observed that there is a partial recovery in proliferative activity after the first day of the treatment. Again there is a decrease in the crypt cells on the 7th day, after which this population appears to achieve a near-steady-state level at about 8% below normal at the last interval studied. Crypt cell population and mitotic figures showed a simultaneous dip and recovery, while dead cells showed inverse relationship. (orig.) [de

  5. Volatilized tritiated water vapor in the vicinity of exposed tritium contaminated groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, D.L.; Carlton, B.; Hunter, C.; McAdams, T.

    1994-01-01

    Water vapor tritium concentrations in air above a known source of tritiated water can be estimated. Estimates should account for the mechanisms of evaporation and condensation at the water surface and water species exchange, and are typically applicable under a broad range of wind, temperature and humidity conditions. An estimate of volatilized tritium water vapor was made for a known outcropping of tritium contaminated groundwater at the Savannah River Site (SRS) old F-Area effluent stream. In order to validate this estimate and the associated dose calculation, sampling equipment was fabricated, tested, and installed at the effluent stream. The estimate and the dose calculation were confirmed using data from samples collected

  6. Induction of malignant transformation in CHL-1 cells by exposure to tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Shu'ai; Wang Hui

    1992-01-01

    The induction of neoplastic transformation in CHL-1 cells by low-dose-rate exposure to tritiated water was reported. CHL-1 cells were exposed to tritiated water (9.25 x 10 5 - 3.7 x 10 6 Bq/mL) for 24-96 hours and the accumulated doses were estimated to be 0.055-0.88 Gy, respectively. Neoplastic transformation was found in all exposed cell groups. The morphological study and transplantation test was carried out for demonstration malignancy of the transformed cells and the results show that they are with the morphology and behaviour for malignant tumour cells. For CHL-1 cells exposed to various doses of tritiated water, transformation rates were found to be from 3.28% to 13.0% at dose of 0.055-0.88 Gy. In order to estimate RBE of tritium for malignant transformation in CHL-1 cells, the induction of malignant transformation in CHL-1 cells by exposure to 137 Cs gamma-rays was carried out at dose rates of 0.359 Gy/24 hr and transformation rates for irradiated CHL-1 cells were found to be from 2.59% to 13.4%. Based on these data, RBE of tritium for malignant transformation in CHL-1 cells was estimated to be 1.6

  7. Tritium incorporation in corn and bean after an accute contamination with tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, H.A.; Archundia, C.; Bravo, G.; Nulman, R.; Ortiz Magana, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    Tritium produced by natural or artificial processes is set free in the environment, generally as tritiated water, which the plants use to produce organic compounds such as proteins, fats and carbohidrates. The metabolism of tritium depends on the chemical form in which it is found, transport studies of tritium in different ecosystems, and in particular in food chains, gradually have become more important as a result of the tritium increase in the environment. In Mexico, corn and beans have been studied due to their great importance in the human food chain. The determination of tritium in organic compounds (bound tritium) requires an efficient conversion to tritiated water. For this reason, in this work we have detailed a dry oxidation method, which is a modification of the method of Schoniger, which consists of combustion in oxygen initiated by a simple electrical device using a disposable nichrome resistance, which is also used as a sample carrier. Tritium determination is done by a liquid scintillation counter with quenching correction using an internal standard. Graphs of tritium activity are shown plotted against the time between the application of tritiated water and the time of harvest. The highest activity is found about the 18th day for corn and the 16th day for beans. The calculated values for the half-lives for corn and beans are approximately 56 and 43 days respectively. (author)

  8. Studies on the fixation of tritiated water using the cement hydration, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimaki, Kenzo; Tsutsui, Tenson; Miake, Chiaki.

    1989-01-01

    In the previous paper, we have reported the results of basic experiments to fix tritiated water using the hydration of cement, and found that most tritiated water transfers to surrounding water, even if it is incorporated using the hydration of cement. In this report, we tried to apply a simple compartment model to the tritium transfer curves reported in the previous paper, which represent the phenomena that most water containing tritium is exchanging with a surrounding water, regardless of its forms, i.e., a crystalline water, free water and so on. We divided a solidified cement into three groupes with respect to the exchangeability of water, i.e., a compartment of fixed water, of compositions expect water, and of exchanging water. We developed a simple compartment model under the assumption that the water in the third compartment is exchangeable with the sorrounding water with a certain exchanging volume rate E, not altering by time. The transfer curves calculated with the model contains unknown parameter, E. By the method of least squares, varying the values of E, we could obtain most approximated transfer curves of tritium to those obtained by the previous experiments. In the result, we knew that the simple compartment model is applied to the tritium transfer curves reported in the previous paper. (author)

  9. Investigation on processing technology for tritiated water in glove box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Deli; Meng Daqiao

    2002-01-01

    A 0.5 nm molecular sieve absorption column and a hot decomposing magnesium bed was found to be one of the effective means to collect and decompose HTO in glove box atmosphere. The absorption characteristics of the 0.5 nm molecular sieve column and water decomposing characteristics of the hot Mg bed were obtained. The results showed that the column absorbs water vapour from air with efficiency up to 99.99%. Water in tested gases was between 3.4 x 10 3 to 4.2 x 10 3 μg·g -1 and the total water absorbed on the column was up to 162 g, under this condition no water was detected in output gases. Using the hot magnesium bed more than 99.9% desorption water from the column was decomposed

  10. Improving distillation method and device of tritiated water analysis for ultra high decontamination efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Hsin-Fa; Wang, Chu-Fang; Lin, Chien-Kung

    2015-01-01

    It is important that monitoring environmental tritiated water for understanding the contamination dispersion of the nuclear facilities. Tritium is a pure beta radionuclide which is usually measured by Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC). The average energy of tritum beta is only 5.658 keV that makes the LSC counting of tritium easily be interfered by the beta emitted by other radionuclides. Environmental tritiated water samples usually need to be decontaminated by distillation for reducing the interference. After Fukushima Nucleaer Accident, the highest gross beta concentration of groundwater samples obtained around Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station is over 1,000,000 Bq/l. There is a need for a distillation with ultra-high decontamination efficiency for environmental tritiated water analysis. This study is intended to improve the heating temperature control for better sub-boiling distillation control and modify the height of the container of the air cooling distillation device for better fractional distillation effect. The DF of Cs-137 of the distillation may reach 450,000 which is far better than the prior study. The average loss rate of the improved method and device is about 2.6% which is better than the bias value listed in the ASTM D4107-08. It is proven that the modified air cooling distillation device can provide an easy-handling, water-saving, low cost and effective way of purifying water samples for higher beta radionuclides contaminated water samples which need ultra-high decontamination treatment. - Highlights: • The improvements of method and device make the decontaminatin factor (DF) of Cs-137 of distillation reach over 450,000. • The decontamination factor ( DF) value may be increased about 20 times by increasing the height of the container from 7 cm to 20 cm. • The device provides an easy-handling, water-saving, low cost, stable and effective way for the distillation of triated water analysis.

  11. Steady-state leaching of tritiated water from silica gel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, H.A.; Hou, Xiaolin

    2009-01-01

    Aqueous leaching of tritium from silica gel, loaded by absorption of water vapor, makes part of reactor de-commissioning. It is found to follow the formulation of steady-state diffusion.......Aqueous leaching of tritium from silica gel, loaded by absorption of water vapor, makes part of reactor de-commissioning. It is found to follow the formulation of steady-state diffusion....

  12. Body composition and water metabolism in tropical ruminants using tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranjhan, S.K.; Kalanidhi, A.P.; Gosh, T.K.; Singh, U.B.; Saxena, K.K.

    1982-01-01

    Experiment 1. Studies were conducted on Muzaffarnagri, Muzaffarnagri x Dorset and Muzaffarnagri x Suffolk breeds of sheep to determine the water turnover rates and body composition. The native Muzaffarnagri and crossbred animals did not differ significantly in body composition. The water turnover rates were not significantly different between breeds within the same season, but a significant difference was observed between the two seasons (winter and summer). Experiment 2. Nine animals, three each of crossbred cattle (Hariana x Holstein), buffalo and crossbred sheep (Muzaffarnagri x Suffolk), were used to determine the body composition by the indirect method in the two seasons. There was a reduction in the TOH space and total body water during the summer season in cattle and buffalo as compared with the winter season. Experiment 3. Four adult Barbari goats were used to study body composition by direct (slaughter) and indirect (isotope dilution) techniques. There was a significant correlation between corrected TOH space and total body water, fat and protein. Experiment 4. Twelve animals, three each of buffalo, crossbred cattle (Hariana x Holstein), crossbred sheep (Muzaffarnagri x Suffolk) and Barbari goats, were used to determine the water requirements during the two seasons (winter and summer) by the tritiated water (TOH) dilution technique. There were significant differences (P < 0.01) in the water requirement and water turnover between seasons and between species within a season. The lowest water turnover and water requirement were found in goats, followed by sheep, crossbred cattle and buffalo when expressed as ml/kgsup(0.82).d. The metabolic water production was 10% of the total water input in the case of buffalo and crossbred cattle, but it was more in sheep and goats in both seasons

  13. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited monitoring tritiated water in air and water effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborne, R.V.; Tepley, N.W

    1978-01-01

    Current on-line methods of monitoring effluents for tritium (as tritiated water, HTO) measure concentrations in air above 250 nCi/m 3 (approx. 10 kBq/m 3 ) and in water above 1 uCi/kg (approx. 40 kBq/kg). Some of the problems encountered in such monitoring are the presence of fission and activation products in the effluents and, particularly in water monitoring, the often dirty quality of the sample. In a new design of monitor, HTO is collected directly from air by a flow of liquid scintillator (LS). For water monitoring a flow of air continuously samples the water and transports HTO to the LS. The key features of the new design are that the high detection efficiency of LS is realizable, that the rate of use of LS is only approx. 2 mm 3 /s, that the controlled evaporation and metering of air provides the low flow of HTO needed for mixing with LS, and that accurate metering of a dirty effluent is not needed. The sensitivities for detecing tritium on-line are improved by at least an order of magnitude

  14. Water excretion mechanisms of the kidney studied in the rabbit using tritiated water during the stop-flow assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, F.; Amiel, CI.; Falbriard, A.

    1960-01-01

    The pattern of water turnover in the kidney and the mechanisms of water transfer into the urine have been studied in the rabbit using tritiated water as a tracer and the stop-flow technique. The experiments have given the following results: a) During the interruption of the diuresis, the injected tritiated water is completely exchanged with the water of the renal cortex, but the tracer does not reach the deep regions of the kidney, despite the fact that the blood circulation is maintained in these regions; this suggests that the vascular loops of the vasa recta function as a mechanism of water exchange by countercurrent. b) During the osmotic polyuria following the stop-flow period, the concentration gradient of tritiated water inside the kidney diminishes progressively. The concentration of the tracer in the urine is at all time similar to that existing in the deep medulla and the renal papilla and markedly different from that of the cortex or arterial blood. This fact shows that the molecules of water in the urine excreted do not come from either the glomerular filtrate or the convoluted tubules but from the water contained in the deep regions of the kidney. Also these results indicate that the walls of the collecting ducts have a very high permeability to water diffusion. Reprint of a paper published in Revue francaise d'etudes cliniques et biologiques, Vol. IV, no. 8, p. 773-779, 1959 [fr

  15. Tritiated water vapor in the surface air at Tokyo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Hisayuki; Katsuragi, Yukio; Shigehara, Koji

    1984-01-01

    Tritium concentration in water vapor in the air near the surface and in the precipitation at Tokyo was measured during the period from 9 August to 20 November in 1974. From August to the middle of October, tritium mixing ratios in the surface air had relatively higher values except those in air masses which were associated with a typhoon. The mixing ratios of tritium in the air decreased abruptly at the middle of October, which indicates the decrease of tritium influx from aloft. These data exhibit the salient feature that variations in tritium concentration in TR are linear to the reciprocal of the content of water vapor during each period. Tritium concentrations in vapor and rain water collected simultaneously show nearly equal values. One of the reasons for the good correlation of tritium concentration between falling drops and ambient air is considered to be the result of the rapid isotopic exchange. (author)

  16. Measurement of rates of cholesterol synthesis using tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietschy, J.M.; Spady, D.K.

    1984-01-01

    Rates of sterol synthesis in various tissues commonly are assessed by assaying levels of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase on isolated microsomes or by measuring the rates of incorporation of various 14 C-labeled substrates or [ 3 H]water into cholesterol by whole cell preparations in vitro or by the tissues of the whole animal in vivo. While measurement of activities of HMG-CoA reductase or rates of incorporation of 14 C-labeled substrates into cholesterol give useful relative rates of sterol production, neither method yields absolute rates of cholesterol synthesis. The use of [ 3 H]water circumvents the problem of variable and unknown dilution of the specific activity of the precursor pool encountered when 14 C-labeled substrates are used and does yield absolute rates of cholesterol synthesis provided that the 3 H/C incorporation ratio is known for a particular tissue. In 12 different experimental situations it has been found that from 21 to 27 micrograms atoms of 3 H are incorporated into cholesterol from [ 3 H]water in different tissues of several animal species, so that the 3 H/C incorporation ratio is similar under nearly all experimental conditions and varies from 0.78 to 1.00. When administered in vivo, [ 3 H]water rapidly equilibrates with intracellular water and is incorporated into sterols within the various organs at rates that are linear with respect to time. From such data it is possible to obtain absolute rates of cholesterol synthesis in the whole animal and in the various organs of the animal. Current data suggest, therefore, that use of [ 3 H]water yields the most accurate rates of cholesterol synthesis both in vitro and in vivo

  17. Effects of tritiated water on mice liver, in relation to age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatia, A L [Rajasthan Univ., Jaipur (India). Radiation Biology Lab.

    1978-06-01

    Tritiated water was administered intraperitoneally at the dose rate of about 20 ..mu..Ci/ml of body water to different six age groups of Swiss albino mice, ranging from 1 to 6 weeks old. They were autopsied at 48 hours post-injection. The liver of 5 weeks old mice is found most vulnerable and that of 4 weeks second but lesser than 5 weeks. Histopathologically, 1, 2, 3 and 6 weeks old mice liver showed lesser degree of damage. The distinct histopathological lesions include oedema, cytoplasmic vacuolation and degranulation, hyperaemia, increase number of Kupffer's cells etc.

  18. Sampling tritiated water vapor from the atmosphere by an active system using silica gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herranz, M. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Fluid Mechanics, E.T.S.I. de Bilbao, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo, s/n 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Alegria, N., E-mail: natalia.alegria@ehu.es [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Fluid Mechanics, E.T.S.I. de Bilbao, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo, s/n 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Idoeta, R.; Legarda, F. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Fluid Mechanics, E.T.S.I. de Bilbao, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Alameda de Urquijo, s/n 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2011-11-15

    Among the different methods used to collect the tritiated water vapor (HTO) contained in the atmosphere, one of the most worldwide used is its collection using an air pump, which forces the air to pass through a dry silica gel trap. The silica gel is then distilled to remove the water collected, which is measured in a liquid scintillation counting system. In this paper, an analysis of the water collection efficiency of the silica gel has been done as a function of the temperatures involved, the dimensions of the pipe driving the air into the silica gel traps, the air volume passing through the trap and the flow rates used. Among the obtained conclusions, it can be pointed out that placing the traps inside a cooled container, the amount of silica gel needed to collect all the water contained in the air passing through these traps can be estimated using a weather forecast and a psychometric chart. To do this, and as thermal equilibrium between incoming and open air should be established, a suitable design of the sampling system is proposed. - Highlights: > To recollect the atmosphere air tritiated water vapor, an active system was used. > The system is an air pump and three traps with silica gel connected by a rubber pipe. > The silica gel retention depends on the meteorological conditions and the flow rate. > The amount of water collected and the mass of silica gel need were calculated, F.

  19. Diffusive parameters of tritiated water (HTO) and U in chalk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Descostes, M.; Gandois, O.; Frasca, B.; Radwan, J.; Juery, A.; Descostes, M.; Pili, E.

    2009-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows: The feasibility of aquifer storage and recovery systems (ASR) to counteract short and long term imbalances between freshwater supply and demand is currently investigated for the metropolitan area of Perth, Western Australia. During the planned injection of oxic excess water into a deep anoxic aquifer the water quality evolution will depend on the extent and structure of the physical and geochemical heterogeneity and reactivity of the aquifer. A detailed geochemical characterisation was undertaken to determine amount and type of sedimentary reductants within different lithological facies. The incubation of sediment samples from the target aquifer for ∼ 52 days enabled quantification of their oxygen (O 2 ) consumption and CO 2 production [1]. Data analysis, in particular the identification of key redox and acid buffering processes, was under-pinned by hydrogeochemical modelling. Results showed that the average measured reductive capacities (MRC) towards O 2 consumption increased from the sand facies, followed by the siltstone facies, and the mud-stone/shale facies. This approach identified pyrite (20 - 100%), sedimentary organic matter (SOM; 3 - 56%), siderite (3 - 28%) and Fe(II)- aluminosilicates (8 - 55%) as the main O 2 reductants. Minute amounts of carbonate acted as buffering minerals, while a bounding pH of 3 indicated acid buffering by K-feldspar dissolution. The supernatants showed elevated aqueous concentrations of Ni, Cd and Pb to be a potential risk for the quality of the recovered water. [1] Hartog, Griffioen and Van der Weijden (2002) Environmental Science and Technology 36(11), 2338-2344

  20. Radiobiological effects of tritiated water short-term exposure on V79 clonogenic cell survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siragusa, Mattia; Fredericia, Nina Pil Møntegaard; Jensen, Mikael

    2018-01-01

    We set out to improve the accuracy of absorbed dose calculations for in-vitro measurements of the Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE) of tritiated water (HTO) for the clonogenic cell survival assay, also considering the influence of the end-of-track Linear Energy Transfer (LET) of low-energy...... in suspension are usually comparable to those for adherent cells. RBEs calculated at the 10% survival fraction through the use of the average energy are almost similar to those obtained with the beta-spectrum. For adherent cells, an RBE of 1.6 was found when HTO cell survival curves were compared to acute γ...

  1. Effects of prenatal exposure to low dose beta radiation from tritiated water on postnatal growth and neurobehavior of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Weimin; Zhou Xiangyan

    1998-01-01

    Pregnant adult C57BL/6J mice were randomly assigned to 4 groups and 3 of them were irradiated with beta-rays from tritiated water (HTO) by a single intraperitoneal injection on the 12.5 th day of gestation. Their offsprings received cumulative dose of 0.036, 0.071 and 0.213 Gy, respectively. Offspring of mice were observed for postnatal growth (body weight), the appearance of four physiologic makers (eye opening, pinna detachment, testes decent, vaginal opening), the age of acquisition of two reflexes (cloff avoidance, air righting) and sensuous functions (auditory startle, pain threshold), movement and coordination functions and activity (pivoting, foot splay, continuous corridor activity), and learning and memory (electric avoidance reflex in Y-maze, conditioning reflex). It was found that results for the parameters in 0.036 or 0.071 Gy group were differed significantly from those for the controls, and for most parameters, a dose dependent effect was found

  2. Effects of low level prenatal beta-irradiation of tritiated water on postnatal behavior, learning and memory ability in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bing; Zhou Xiangyan

    1993-01-01

    Pregnant adult C57 BL/6J strain mice, randomly assigned to 1 of 4 experimental groups, were irradiated with exponentially decreasing doses of tritium beta-rays but group 1 (used as a control) by single injection of tritiated water (HTO) at their 12.5 th day of gestation. Offsprings of male, received accumulative doses of 0, 0.5, 1.10 or 0.30 Gy in uterus were trained or examined on learning and memory ability or with behavioral tests. Significant dose-response relationships for alternations in those test were found due to exposure to 0.10 Gy or above. These results indicate that exposure to HTO during the fetal period in mice results in dose-dependent alteration in postnatal behavior, learning and memory ability. 0.05-0.10 Gy exposure may represent a threshold for the experimental conditions of this research using these parameters

  3. Measurement of organ blood flow using tritiated water. II. Uterine blood flow in conscious pregnant ewes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, B.W.; Oddy, V.H.; Jones, A.W.

    1982-01-01

    Total uterine blood flow was measured with a tritiated water (TOH) diffusion method and with radioactive microspheres in six, conscious, pregnant ewes. With continuous infusion of TOH, equilibrium between the TOH concentration in utero-ovarian venous blood and arterial blood was attained within 50 min of the start of the infusion. The concentration of TOH in uterine and foetal tissue and in foetal blood water was the same as that in uterine venous water by 40 min; at this time, the concentration of TOH in the water of amniotic and allantoic fluids was 96% of that in uterine venous blood water. Estimates of total uterine blood flow obtained using TOH were highly correlated with those obtained with microspheres and the corresponding mean flow values obtained with the two techniques did not significantly differ. The percentage of the total uterine blood flow passing through arteriovenous anastomoses ranged from 1.4 to 3.3%

  4. Using residual tritiated water from Cernavoda NPP to study Danube - Black Sea Canal hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varlam, C.; Stefanescu, I.; Lazar, R.; Varlam, M.; Patrascu, V.; Bucur, C.; Bobric, E.

    2003-01-01

    By benefiting of Cernavoda NPP's location in the neighbourhood of Danube - Black Sea Canal one suggests extending the area of interest along this canal particularly to use the residual tritiated water from this CANDU type reactor as tracing means in the study of canal's hydrodynamics. This canal appears to be ideal for such a study because releases in normal operation of NPP are occasional. The tritiated water can be used for simulating the transport and dispersion of soluble pollutants because it has the same physical characteristics as the usual water. By measuring response curves produced at injecting a known amount of tracer one can developed an efficient method for estimating: the soluble pollutant velocity along the canal; attenuation rate of concentration peak as a function of time as well as the time required by the propagation front of the soluble pollutant to reach a given point along the canal. In this work the calculation of the mixture length as a function of the particular characteristics of the canal is presented as well as different experimental formulas. Also the reference level of tritium concentration in the investigated area is established for future experiments

  5. Light and ultrastructural studies on liver of Oreochromis niloticus fry grown in tritiated water during embryonic development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carino, V S; Alvendia-Casauay, A [Institute of Biology, College of Science, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines)

    1991-01-01

    Oreochromis niloticus embryos of different developmental stages were reared in tritiated water at 3.7, 0.37, 0.037, and 0 GBq/1 and harvested at day 21 stage. In general, gross morphology of liver was altered in fry reared in higher tritium concentrations and in fry reared in tritiated water at earlier stages of development. Under light microscopy, fatty infiltration of liver parenchyma, presence of unresorped yolk sac, occasional vacuolation in cytoplasm of hepatocytes, widening of sinusoids, and increased size of space of Disse were observed in liver of fry reared in tritiated water at higher concentrations. At the electron microscope level, swollen mitochondria, fragmented rough endoplasmic reticulum, and insconspicuous glycogen granules compared to control were noted in liver of treated fish. This study give basic information on how cells may be affected by irradiation at the histological, cellular, and subcellular level. (auth.). 8 figs.; 1 tab.

  6. Pharmacokinetics of tritiated water in normal and dietary-induced obese rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shum, L.Y.; Jusko, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    Tritiated water disposition was characterized in normal and dietary-induced obese rats to assess pharmacokinetic concerns in calculating water space and estimating body fat. A monoexponential decline in serum tritium activity was observed in both groups of rats, thus facilitating use of various computational methods. The volume of distribution and the total clearance of tritium in obese rats were larger than in normal rats because of the increased body weight. The values of water space (volume of distribution) estimated from moment analysis or dose divided by serum tritium activity at time zero (extrapolated) or at 2 hr were all similar. Thus, obesity does not alter the distribution equilibrium time and distribution pattern of tritium, and the conventional 2-hr single blood sampling after intravenous injection is adequate to estimate the water space of normal and obese rats

  7. Utilization of tritiated water dilution technique in determination of nitrogen partitioning in cashmere goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Linfeng; Yang Gaiqing; Liu Ping; Zhang Shijun

    2010-01-01

    In order to investigate nitrogen partitioning in local cashmere goats, six Inner Mogolia White Cashmere goats between 2 to 2.5 years old were used to determine the nitrogen partitioning in cashmere goats. The total retained nitrogen (TN) in body, distribution of body nitrgen and hair nitrogen were measured by general digestive and metabolism method combined with tritiated water dilution technique. Results showed that the combined methods were ideal for determining body nitrgen (BN) and hair nitrogen (fur nitrogen, FN) of Cashmere goats. There were obvious significance between BN and FN in different seasons. In telogen, BN and FN partitioning was 75.7% ± 0.62% and 24.3% ± 0.62%, respectively. Whereas, it changed to 66.6% ± 2.2% and 33.4% ± 2.2% in anagen. BN partitioning decreased when the season changed from telogen to anagen, while FN partitioning increased, which indicated that more nitrogen substance was partitioned to body growth in telogen, and more nitrogen substance was distribute to cashmere growth in anagen. These transformation were related to the changing of photoperiod and some hormones, such as melatonin (MT), prolactin (PRL) and IGF-I. It could be concluded that tritiated water dilution technique can be used to detect body protein content as well as BN, combining general digestive and metabolism experiment, FN partitoning can be determined. BN and FN partitoning varied with the season in cashmere goats because of hormones changing. (authors)

  8. Effect of lifetime intake of organically bound tritium and tritiated water on the oocytes of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietrzak-Flis, Z.; Wasilewska-Gomulka, M.

    1984-01-01

    Rats were continuously exposed to constant activity of tritium in drinking water (HTO group) or to tritium organically bound in food (T-food group) in the period from conception of F 1 generation through maturity. Female offspring were killed at the age of 21 and 71 days and the oocytes in their ovaries were counted. Mean dose rates absorbed in the ovaries were for the HTO groups 7.25+-0.37 and 14.73+-0.79 mGy/day and for the T-food group 4.84+-0.25 mGy/day. Reduction in the oocyte number in the ovaries of females exposed to tritiated food was bigger than in the ovaries of females exposed to tritiated water. The dependence of the survival of small oocytes on the dose rate and the corresponding total accumulated dose had an exponential character. The damaging effect of tritium was for the period from conception to 21 days of age bigger than from 21 to 71 days of age. Of all stages of oocyte development, the highest sensitivity to tritium irradiation was observed in small oocytes and oocytes with one complete layer of follicle cells. As a result, relative number of the growing and large oocytes increased. (orig.)

  9. Induction of specific-locus mutations in the mouse by tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, W.L.; Cumming, R.B.; Kelly, E.M.; Phipps, E.L.

    1978-01-01

    The results reported are the first obtained on transmtted gene mutations induced by tritium in any form in any mammal. They are, therefore, of obvious practical importance in the estimaton of the possible biological hazards of man-made tritium in the environment. Male mice were injected intraperitoneally with either 0.75 or 0.50 mCi per gram of body weight of tritiated water. They were then used in our standard specific-locus mutation test in which the treated wild-type stock of mice is mated to a stock homozygous for seven recessive marker genes. Mutations at any of the seven loci are scored in the offspring. The earlier matings provided information on the mutation frequency in germ cells irradiated in postspermatogonial stages, and the later matings gave the mutation frequency in treated spermatogonia. The spermatogonia are the important cells so far as human risks are concerned, and the mouse results for this germ-cell stage yielded a relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of approximately 2 for tritiated water compared with low-dose-rate gamma irradiation. There are various uncertainties involved in arriving at this figure, and the difference between it and l is probably not statistically significant. However, for risk estimation, it seems prudent to use the RBE value of 2, which is, after all, the best point estimate computed from the present data

  10. Surface Water Modeling Using an EPA Computer Code for Tritiated Waste Water Discharge from the heavy Water Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.F.

    1998-06-01

    Tritium releases from the D-Area Heavy Water Facilities to the Savannah River have been analyzed. The U.S. EPA WASP5 computer code was used to simulate surface water transport for tritium releases from the D-Area Drum Wash, Rework, and DW facilities. The WASP5 model was qualified with the 1993 tritium measurements at U.S. Highway 301. At the maximum tritiated waste water concentrations, the calculated tritium concentration in the Savannah River at U.S. Highway 301 due to concurrent releases from D-Area Heavy Water Facilities varies from 5.9 to 18.0 pCi/ml as a function of the operation conditions of these facilities. The calculated concentration becomes the lowest when the batch releases method for the Drum Wash Waste Tanks is adopted

  11. Dose contribution from metabolized organically bound tritium after acute tritiated water intakes in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, A.; Galeriu, D.; Richardson, R.B.

    1997-01-01

    Urine samples from eight male radiation workers who had an unplanned acute tritiated water intake were measured for tritium-in-urine up to 300 d post-exposure. During the first month or so post-exposure, these individuals increased their fluid intakes to accelerate the turnover rate of tritium in the body for dose mitigation. Their daily fluid intakes reverted to normal levels in the latter period of the study. A non-linear regressional analysis of the tritium-in-urine data showed that the average biological half-life of tritium in body water, with standard deviation, was 63 ± 1.0 d (range, 5.0-8.1 d) and 8.4 ± 2.0 d (range, 6.2-12.8 d) during the respective periods of increased fluid intake and the later period of normal fluid intake. A longer term component of tritium excretion was also observed with average biological half-life of 74 ± 18 d (range, 58-104 d), indicating the incorporation of tritium, and its retention, in the organic fractions of the body. A mathematical model was developed and used to estimate the dose increase from the metabolized organically bound tritium on the basis of the kinetics of tritium-in-urine. The model accounts for a change in the rates of urinary excretion caused by variable fluid intakes. The average dose to the body, for the eight male workers, due to the metabolized organically bound tritium was estimated to be 6.2 ± 1.3% (range, 3.5% to 8.9%) of the committed effective dose due to tritium in the body water. This value for the dose increase from organically bound tritium is in the range of the current recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, i.e., organically bound tritium incorporated into the body contributes about 10% of the dose to the body water following tritiated water intakes. (author)

  12. Measurement of capacity coefficient of inclined liquid phase catalytic exchange column for tritiated water processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamai, Hideki; Konishi, Satoshi; Yamanishi, Toshihiko; Okuno, Kenji

    1994-01-01

    Liquid phase catalytic exchange (LPCE) is effective method for enrichment and removal of tritium from tritiated water. Capacity coefficients of operating LPCE column that are essential to evaluate column performance were measured. Experiments were performed with short catalyst packed columns and effect of inclination was studied. Method for evaluation of capacity coefficients was established from measurement of isotope concentration of liquid, vapor, gas phases at the two ends of the column. The capacity coefficients were measured under various superficial gas velocities. Feasibility study of helical columns with roughened inner surface was performed with short inclined columns. The column performance was not strongly affected by the inclination. The result indicates technological feasibility of helical LPCE column, that is expected to have operation stability and reduced height

  13. Tritiated-water detection with a 2D(γ,n)1H monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winn, W.G.; Baumann, N.P.

    Tritiated process water is monitored by detecting the D 2 O component via the 2 D(γ,n) 1 H reaction. A probe containing a 1 to 7 mCi 24 Na (15 h) γ-source and six 3 He neutron detectors produces and monitors the 2 D(γ,n) 1 H reaction. A variety of probe configurations were examined for D 2 O detection sensitivity. The corresponding detection limits range from 6 to 280 μL for D 2 O droplets and 1 to 13 μL/cm for D 2 O streams, when 10-minute neutron counting with a 1 mCi γ-source is used. Results from two field applications illustrate the utility of the monitor

  14. Biological half-time of tritiated water: comparison of hyperthyroid and hypothyroid patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberstadt, P; Fernandez, M V.G.; Gonzalez, O

    1986-01-01

    The half-time values of tritiated water were explored in eleven hyperthyroid patients and in two hypothyroid ones. For reasons of comparability the numbers are expressed in days per square meter (d/m/sup 2/) of body surface. Against the estimated 5.4d/m/sup 2/ in normal subjects, the hyperthyroids reflected 3.9+-0.66 and the two determinations of hypothyroids were 6.42 and 7.13, respectively. During the study neither diagnostic nor therapeutic procedures were ever postponed. The half-time values are not representative of extreme conditions in hyper- or hypothyroids, but are sufficiently clear to indicate well-defined differences from normal people. The total exposure to radiation for the exploratory procedure was minimal, estimated at less than 12 mrem for the normal standard man.

  15. Differential effects of chronic ingestion of tritiated water on prenatal brain development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamenhof, S.

    1990-01-01

    Female rats were given tritiated drinking water (3 microCi/ml) from 30 days before mating up to and throughout pregnancy. At this low dose, the course and the outcome of pregnancy were normal. The differences between newborn body and cerebral weights of the treated rats and those of control animals were on the borderline of significance. In contrast, cerebral DNA and cerebral protein were highly significantly lower. In 30-35% of the treated population the DNA and protein values were more than 2 standard deviations (SD) below the mean values for the control population. Thus the number of the progeny of the mothers exposed to tritiated water that were considered to have outstandingly low levels of DNA and protein was 14-17 times greater than in the control group. The irradiated population also had 3-5% of severely affected individuals with cerebral DNA and protein values more than 2 SD below the mean of the experimental population. However, even in this irradiated population, a certain number of individuals did not show the effects of radiation as indicated by DNA and protein values that were not lower than the mean values of the control population. These animals may represent those individuals in which normal (control) populations would have cerebral DNA and protein levels well above the average (by 1 to 2 SD), but here, because of prenatal irradiation, were about average. If so, this lack of effect of irradiation cannot be caused by protection against radiation. However, at present, a differential repair mechanism of protection in those animals (or their mothers) that showed little or no effect of irradiation cannot be excluded

  16. Historical Doses from Tritiated Water and Tritiated Hydrogen Gas Released to the Atmosphere from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Part 5. Accidental Releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, S

    2007-08-15

    Over the course of fifty-three years, LLNL had six acute releases of tritiated hydrogen gas (HT) and one acute release of tritiated water vapor (HTO) that were too large relative to the annual releases to be included as part of the annual releases from normal operations detailed in Parts 3 and 4 of the Tritium Dose Reconstruction (TDR). Sandia National Laboratories/California (SNL/CA) had one such release of HT and one of HTO. Doses to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) for these accidents have been modeled using an equation derived from the time-dependent tritium model, UFOTRI, and parameter values based on expert judgment. All of these acute releases are described in this report. Doses that could not have been exceeded from the large HT releases of 1965 and 1970 were calculated to be 43 {micro}Sv (4.3 mrem) and 120 {micro}Sv (12 mrem) to an adult, respectively. Two published sets of dose predictions for the accidental HT release in 1970 are compared with the dose predictions of this TDR. The highest predicted dose was for an acute release of HTO in 1954. For this release, the dose that could not have been exceeded was estimated to have been 2 mSv (200 mrem), although, because of the high uncertainty about the predictions, the likely dose may have been as low as 360 {micro}Sv (36 mrem) or less. The estimated maximum exposures from the accidental releases were such that no adverse health effects would be expected. Appendix A lists all accidents and large routine puff releases that have occurred at LLNL and SNL/CA between 1953 and 2005. Appendix B describes the processes unique to tritium that must be modeled after an acute release, some of the time-dependent tritium models being used today, and the results of tests of these models.

  17. Contributions of the CEA-Valduc Centre control to the understanding of the transfers of atmospheric tritiated water into the different parts of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guetat, P.; Vichot, L.; Tognelli, A.

    2009-01-01

    After a description of the geological environment of the Valduc Centre dedicated to tritium purification and tritiated waste processing and storage, this document presents the assessment of quantities of tritiated water released by the Valduc Centre and of their evolution in the hydro-geological environment. It provides in situ macroscopically observed data on the transfer mechanisms of water into the different parts of the environment and into the food chain by means. This is made possible by the exceptional traceability of tritiated water. Finally, a comparison between computational models and experimental measurements is given

  18. Tritium gas and tritiated water vapour behaviour in the environment from releases into the atmosphere from fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velarde, Marta; Perlado, Manuel

    2001-01-01

    The diffusion of tritium from fusion reactors follows different ways according to the present chemical form, tritium gas or tritiated water vapour. The atmospheric conditions, speed and direction of the wind, rain intensity or stability class, are key factors in the dry and wet deposition. The obtained results demonstrate that the wet deposition is critical for the incorporation of the tritiated water vapour to the natural biological chain. However, the dry deposition is the factor that influences in the tritium gas form. The conversion of HT into HTO in the soil is rapid (1-7 days), and 20% of HT deposited in the soil is reemitted to the atmosphere in the form HTO, while the rest incorporates into the biological cycle. The rain factor accelerates the incorporation of tritium to the ground, the superficial waters and the underground waters

  19. Effects of prenatal exposure to low-dose β radiation from tritiated water on the neutrobehavior of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bing; Zhou Xiangyan.

    1995-01-01

    Pregnant adult C57BL/6J mice, randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups, 3 of them were irradiated with β-rays from tritiated water (HTO) by a single intraperitoneal injection on the 12.5th day of gestation. Their offspring received cumulative doses of 0, 5, 10 or 30 cGy in utero. Male pups were trained and examined using a set of behavioral tests that included avoidance acquisition and avoidance maintenance, open field test, hole-board dipping, a water maze, and a food labyrinth. Results were found for most parameters in the 10 and 30 cGy groups that differed significantly from results for the controls, indicating that the behavioral teratogenic effect of prenatal exposure to chronic β-ray radiation from HTO may be greater than the same dose of acute X- or γ-irradiation and that 10 cGy may be the lowest detectable dose level at which behavioral changes is detectable under the conditions used in this experiment. (author) 56 refs

  20. Effects of prenatal exposure to low-dose {beta} radiation from tritiated water on the neutrobehavior of mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Bing [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science; Zhou Xiangyan

    1995-06-01

    Pregnant adult C57BL/6J mice, randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups, 3 of them were irradiated with {beta}-rays from tritiated water (HTO) by a single intraperitoneal injection on the 12.5th day of gestation. Their offspring received cumulative doses of 0, 5, 10 or 30 cGy in utero. Male pups were trained and examined using a set of behavioral tests that included avoidance acquisition and avoidance maintenance, open field test, hole-board dipping, a water maze, and a food labyrinth. Results were found for most parameters in the 10 and 30 cGy groups that differed significantly from results for the controls, indicating that the behavioral teratogenic effect of prenatal exposure to chronic {beta}-ray radiation from HTO may be greater than the same dose of acute X- or {gamma}-irradiation and that 10 cGy may be the lowest detectable dose level at which behavioral changes is detectable under the conditions used in this experiment. (author) 56 refs.

  1. Demonstration on endurance of ion exchange membrane immersed in high-concentration tritiated water under the Broader Approach Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwai, Yasunori, E-mail: iwai.yasunori@jaea.go.jp; Sato, Katsumi; Kawamura, Yoshinori; Yamanishi, Toshihiko

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Endurance of Nafion ion exchange membrane immersed in 1.38 × 10{sup 12} Bq/kg of highly concentrated tritiated water was demonstrated. • Degradation of Nafion backbone structure by tritium beta was similar to that by gamma rays and electron beams at an equivalent dose. • Degradation directly by radiation was dominant at room temperature compared with that by reactions with radicals produced from water radiolysis. -- Abstract: The Nafion{sup ®} ion exchange membrane is a key material for electrolysis cells of the water detritiation system. Endurance of Nafion ion exchange membrane immersed in 1.38 × 10{sup 12} Bq/kg of highly concentrated tritiated water has been demonstrated at room temperature for up to 2 years under the Broader Approach Activities. The curves of percent elongation at break vs. dose and tensile strength vs. dose for the Nafion membranes immersed in tritiated water were well consistent with those for Nafion membranes irradiated to an equivalent dose with gamma rays and electron beams. This shows that the degradation of Nafion backbone structure by tritium beta is similar to that by gamma rays and electron beams. The results of ferric Fenton test indicated that the degradation directly by radiation was dominant at room temperature compared with that by reactions with radicals produced from water radiolysis. The curve of ion exchange capacity vs. dose for the Nafion membranes immersed in tritiated water was also well consistent with that for Nafion membranes irradiated to an equivalent dose with gamma rays and electron beams. These results showed irradiation tests with gamma rays and electron beams were alternative for predicting degradation of ion exchange membrane by tritium beta.

  2. Fixation and long-term accumulation of tritium from tritiated water in an experimental aquatic environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, J.A.; Templeton, W.L.; Olson, P.A.

    1975-01-01

    The accumulation of tritium in selected freshwater biota was studied in a 10 m diameter concrete-lined pond at the Hanford Atomic Energy Works. Tritium as tritiated water was introduced for 8 months continuously in the replacement water at a concentration of μCi per liter; and water, biota (carp, clams, crayfish, periphyton, pondweed), and sediments were sampled on a predetermined schedule. The pond was maintained on uncontaminated replacement waters for an additional 8 months to determine the rate of elimination from the ecosystem. After the first day, tissue-free-water tritium in all biota approached an equilibrium with pond water. Final concentration factors of 0.89, 0.87, 0.82, 0.92, 0.77, 0.88 were calculated for carp, clam, crayfish, snail, periphyton, and pondweed. Although highly variable, analyses of pond sediments suggested an initial rapid uptake by the loose water fraction, attaining 0.30 of the pond equilibrium level in three days. There was evidence to suggest a secondary slower rate of uptake that accounted for 0.65 of the pond equilibrium level as determined at seven months. Tissue-bond tritium initially increased rapidly in all biota sampled, but slowed with time. Equilibrium conditions were not reached. Final concentration factors for carp, clam, crayfish, snail, periphyton, and pondweed were calculated to be 0.49, 0.10, 0.53, 0.54, 0.15, and 0.62. Analyses of sediments after removal of the loose water fraction revealed little or no organically bound tritium

  3. Investigation on degradation mechanism of ion exchange membrane immersed in highly concentrated tritiated water under the Broader Approach Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwai, Yasunori, E-mail: iwai.yasunori@jaea.go.jp; Sato, Katsumi; Yamanishi, Toshihiko

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Endurance of Nafion ion exchange membrane immersed into 1.38 × 10{sup 12} Bq/kg of highly concentrated tritiated water has been demonstrated. • The formation of free hydrophobic free products by reactions between radicals on the membrane and oxygen caused the decrease in ionic conductivity. • From the {sup 19}F NMR spectrum, no distinctive degradation in the membrane structure by interaction with tritium was measured. - Abstract: The ion exchange membrane is a key material for electrolysis cells of the water detritiation system. Durability of ion exchange membrane has been demonstrated under the Broader Approach Activities. Long-term exposure of Nafion{sup ®} ion exchange membrane in 1.38 × 10{sup 12} Bq/kg of tritiated water was conducted at room temperature for up to 2 years. The ionic conductivity of Nafion{sup ®} membrane after immersed in tritiated water was changed. The change in color of membrane from colorless to yellowish was caused by reactions of radicals on the polymer and oxygen molecules in air. Infrared Fourier transform spectrum of a yellowish membrane revealed a small peak for bending vibration of C-H situated at 1437 cm{sup −1}, demonstrating the formation of hydrophobic functional group in the membrane. The hydrophilic network in Nafion{sup ®} membrane was partially obstructed by the hydrophobic free products. This caused the decrease in ionic conductivity. The peak for bending vibration was clearly eliminated in the spectrum of the membrane after treatment by acid for removal of free products. The high-resolution solid state {sup 19}F NMR spectrum of a membrane after immersed in tritiated water was similar to that of a membrane irradiated with gamma-rays. From the {sup 19}F NMR spectrum, no distinctive degradation in the membrane structure by interaction with tritium was measured.

  4. Investigation on degradation mechanism of ion exchange membrane immersed in highly concentrated tritiated water under the Broader Approach Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, Yasunori; Sato, Katsumi; Yamanishi, Toshihiko

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Endurance of Nafion ion exchange membrane immersed into 1.38 × 10 12 Bq/kg of highly concentrated tritiated water has been demonstrated. • The formation of free hydrophobic free products by reactions between radicals on the membrane and oxygen caused the decrease in ionic conductivity. • From the 19 F NMR spectrum, no distinctive degradation in the membrane structure by interaction with tritium was measured. - Abstract: The ion exchange membrane is a key material for electrolysis cells of the water detritiation system. Durability of ion exchange membrane has been demonstrated under the Broader Approach Activities. Long-term exposure of Nafion ® ion exchange membrane in 1.38 × 10 12 Bq/kg of tritiated water was conducted at room temperature for up to 2 years. The ionic conductivity of Nafion ® membrane after immersed in tritiated water was changed. The change in color of membrane from colorless to yellowish was caused by reactions of radicals on the polymer and oxygen molecules in air. Infrared Fourier transform spectrum of a yellowish membrane revealed a small peak for bending vibration of C-H situated at 1437 cm −1 , demonstrating the formation of hydrophobic functional group in the membrane. The hydrophilic network in Nafion ® membrane was partially obstructed by the hydrophobic free products. This caused the decrease in ionic conductivity. The peak for bending vibration was clearly eliminated in the spectrum of the membrane after treatment by acid for removal of free products. The high-resolution solid state 19 F NMR spectrum of a membrane after immersed in tritiated water was similar to that of a membrane irradiated with gamma-rays. From the 19 F NMR spectrum, no distinctive degradation in the membrane structure by interaction with tritium was measured

  5. Transfer of atmospheric tritiated water to foliage and fruit of crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellows, R.J.; Cataldo, D.A.; Ligotke, M.W.; Napier, B.A.

    1993-01-01

    Tritiated water (THO) released to the environment from the effluent streams of nuclear reactors may be easily assimilated by organisms through metabolic fixation following foliar interception of THO vapor. This study was initiated to characterize atmospheric THO exchange parameters in two crops agronomically important to eastern Washington, grape (Vitus vinifera) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa). Short-term exposures using atmospheric THO concentrations ranging from 458 to 1,300,900 pCi/m 3 indicated no statistically significant concentration influences on THO exchange into the leaf tissue free-water (TFW) and organically bound tritium (OBT) of the leaves of either species. Long-term exposures indicated that equilibration of the leaf TFW with atmospheric THO concentrations occurred within 24 to 48 h for both species while equilibration of grape TFW appeared to take over 20 days. The rate of THO saturation of the foliage TFW appeared to be directly related to the stomatal resistance of the leaves and fruit. Desorption rates from both leaves and fruit were greater in the light than in the dark, again correlating with stomatal resistance. More than 90% of the absorbed THO was lost from the leaf TFW pool within 24 h following cessation of exposure for both species, while loss of THO from grape TFW and OBT pools was minimal. It appeared that more than 95 to 98% of the THO found in the TFW and OBT pools of the grape fruit was of atmospheric origin and not from transport from other parts of the plant

  6. The determination of effective doses from the intake of tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    To comply with the regulatory requirements relating to the dose from exposures to tritiated water (HTO), Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) licensees currently measure tritium concentration in urine to determine whole body dose. This approach has been based on the consideration that the time-integrated tritium concentration (which is proportional to accumulated dose) in any organ from urine concentrations are always conservative. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommends that the average soft tissue dose be used to determine effective dose equivalents for HTO exposures. The ICRP also recommends that only the retention in body water be considered when committed doses from HTO exposures are calculated; this recommendation is based on the consideration that the errors introduced by neglecting the long-lived tritium component (those tritium atoms retained in organic molecules of the body cells) are small (only of the order of 10% of the committed dose equivalent to the whole body). The AECB position is presented in the following regulatory policy statement

  7. The effects of tritiated water on some developmental stages of tilapia nilotica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carino, V.S.

    1986-01-01

    Seven developmental stages of Tilapia nilotica from gastrula (11 hr) to the active feeding and free swimming stage (10-d) were reared in tritiated water of concentrations 10 -3 10 -2 and 10 -1 Ci 1 -1 . The fish were reared for different lengths of time, the first group for the period till the next developmental stage and the second group till 3 weeks of age or day 21. Treated and control specimens were compared. An over-all delay in development was noted both at the gross morphological and the histological levels in the experimental fish. Growth was stunted. Many had unresorped yolk which was observable externally in the distended abdomens and histologically within the liver. Percent survival was lower in the treated fish and this was, in general, inversely related to developmental stage and tritium concentration of the rearing water. Posthatch larvae were sluggish to inactive. The liver exhibited histological aberrations which include the presence of adipose cells in place of liver parenchyma in the more anterior liver regions. Brains of treated fish, in general were smaller. One instance of an abnormal brain growth and findings on the retinal epithelium, spleen and pancreas are described. Development of gonads and digestive tract was, in general, retarded. (Auth.) 40 refs.; 5 tabs

  8. Laboratory studies conducted for the development of a plant to concentrate the radioactive waste from tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornea, Anisia; Zamfirache, Marius; Stefanescu, Ioan; Vasut, Felicia; Soare, Amalia

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant is the biggest operational source of tritium, from Europe and one of the most important in the world. Our interest is especially focussed on tritiated water waste with low activity resulting from the maintenance operations performed on reactors with the purpose of reducing their volume and further reprocessing. The system presented in this work is based on the catalytic isotopic exchange and molecular dissociation CECE. The development of technologies in the field of isotopic separation based on the water electrolysis process was not very successful in last decades first of all because of the shortcomings of the classical electrolysers which use a KOH-type electrolyte. The main disadvantages are high KOH electrolyte hold-up and problems regarding hydrogen and oxygen purification and consequently the corrosion risk. Lately, there has been noticed a growing interest regarding the electrolysers having polymer membranes as electrolyte SPM (solid polymer membrane). Such an electrolyser is available in our institute, so the aim of our research was to use this electrolyser in a tritium concentration system from the tritiated water waste using the technology for isotopes separation-CECE. The present paper presents a conceptual design scheme for a concentration system of the tritium resulting from the tritiated water waste. (authors)

  9. Processing Tritiated Water at the Savannah River Site: A Production-Scale Demonstration of a palladium membrane reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sessions, K

    2004-01-01

    The Palladium Membrane Reactor (PMR) process was installed in the Tritium Facilities at the Savannah River Site to perform a production-scale demonstration for the recovery of tritium from tritiated water adsorbed on molecular sieve (zeolite). Unlike the current recovery process that utilizes magnesium, the PMR offers a means to process tritiated water in a more cost effective and environmentally friendly manner. The design and installation of the large-scale PMR process was part of a collaborative effort between the Savannah River Site and Los Alamos National Laboratory. The PMR process operated at the Savannah River Site between May 2001 and April 2003. During the initial phase of operation the PMR processed thirty-four kilograms of tritiated water from the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The water was processed in fifteen separate batches to yield approximately 34,400 liters (STP) of hydrogen isotopes. Each batch consisted of round-the-clock operations for approximately nine days. In April 2003 the reactor's palladium-silver membrane ruptured resulting in the shutdown of the PMR process. Reactor performance, process performance and operating experiences have been evaluated and documented. A performance comparison between PMR and current magnesium process is also documented

  10. Internal dosimetry of tritiated hydrogen gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterman, B.F.; Johnson, J.R.; Dunford, D.W.; McElroy, R.G.C.

    1985-02-01

    This document is a report on experiments to quantify the doses that may occur from the tritium gas that is converted 'in vivo' to tritiated water following the exposure to tritiated hydrogen gas contaminated air. This report also includes theoretical evaluation of the radiological hazards from the uptake through skin of tritium from tritiated hydrogen adsorbed on surfaces

  11. Laboratory studies conducted for the development of a plant to concentrate the radioactive waste from tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornea, Anisia; Zamfirache, Marius; Stefanescu, Ioan; Vasut, Felicia; Soare, Amalia

    2010-01-01

    The Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant is the biggest operational source of tritium, in Europe and one of the most important in the world. The recovery of tritium from the moderator of operating Candu reactors and from the reactors to operate, represents a good opportunity for Romania to be involved in international collaboration programs in the field of nuclear fusion. Our interest is especially focussed on tritiated waste water with low activity resulted from the maintenance work performed on reactors with the purpose of reducing their volume and their reprocessing. The system presented in this work is based on the catalytic isotopic exchange and molecular dissociation CECE (Combined Electrolysis Catalytic Exchange). It has been noticed a growing interest regarding the electrolysers having polymer membranes as electrolyte SPM (solid polymer membrane). The advantage of using polymer membranes consists in the fact that membranes are actually the electrolyte and performs in the same time hydrogen and its isotopes separation. The present paper presents a conceptual design scheme for a tritium concentration system resulted from the tritiated waste water. This conceptual design represented the basis for the development of the installation for the tritiated waste water concentration, and the experiments to be performed will represent a support for promoting this technology. For designing the system and for analysing its functionality, a theoretical model for calculating tritium separation and concentration, has been developed.

  12. Biological effects of tritiated water in low concentration of human lymphocyte chromosome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, K.; Kamada, N.; Sawaeda, S.

    1992-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the dose-response relationship of tritiated water (HTO) for chromosome aberration in the human lymphocytes, at low dose in vitro exposure ranging from 0.1-1 Gy. The Relative Biological Effectiveness values of HTO with respect to 60 Co gamma ray at a dose rate of 2 cGy/min(15 mCi/ml), at low dose range for the induction of dicentric and centric ring chromosomes were 2.7 in lymphocytes. Also lymphocytes were chronically exposed to HTO for 67 to 80 hrs at different lower dose rates (0.5 and 0.02 cGy/min). There was a 77% decrease in the yields of dicentrics and centric rings, at the dose rate of 0.02cGy/min of HTO, presenting a clear dose rate effect of HTO. The RBE value of HTO relative to 137 Cs gamma ray was 2.0 at the dose rate of 0.02cGy/min(0.15mCi/ml). This suggests that a higher dose rate of HTO exposure has a higher risk and a decrease of RBE value at low dose rate. These results provide useful information for the assessment of health risks in humans specially exposed to low concentration of HTO. (author). 6 refs., 2 figs

  13. Chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes exposed to tritiated water in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocian, E.; Ziemba-zak, B.; Rosiek, O.; Sablinski, J.

    1978-01-01

    The induction of chromosome aberrations in human peripheral blood lymphocytes by tritiated water or 180 kV X-rays in vitro was studied. Lymphocytes were exposed to various concentrations of HTO for 2 h or for 53 h. Chromosome and chromatid type aberrations were scored during the first mitotic division after stimulation with phytohaemagglutinin. For the analysis of the dose-response relationship the data were fitted by the method of least-squares to different models. After acute exposure to tritium β-rays and X-rays, the dicentrics + centric rings and terminal + interstitial deletions gave the best fit to the linear-quadratic function. However, data for these types of aberrations after 53 h exposure to HTO gave equally good fit to the linear and linear-quadratic functions. The best description of the dose-response relationship for chromatid aberrations is given by the linear model. In the system studied the RBE of tritium β-rays as compared to 180 KV X-rays was 1.17+-0.02. (Auth.)

  14. Relative biological effectiveness of tritiated water on human chromosomes of lymphocytes and bone marrow cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kimio; Sawada, Shozo; Kamada, Nanao

    1992-01-01

    One of the major toxic effluent from nuclear power industries is tritiated water (HTO), which is released into the environment in large quantities. Low dose radiation effects and dose rate effects of HTO on human lymphocytes and bone marrow cells are not well studied. The present study was performed to investigate dose-response relationship for chromosome aberration frequencies in the human lymphocytes and bone marrow cells, by HTO in-vitro exposure at low dose ranges of 0.1 to 1 Gy. Go lymphocytes and bone marrow cells were incubated for 10 - 150 minutes with HTO at 2 cGy/min. Also 60 Co γ and 137 Cs γ rays were used as controls. Dicentric chromosomes were scored in 1,000 to 2,000 cells of each experimental series. The RBE values of HTO at low dose range for the induction of dicentric chromosomes and chromatid type aberrations were 2.7 in lymphocytes and approximately 3.8 in bone marrow cells with respect to 60 Co γ ray, respectively. Also lymphocytes were chronically exposed to HTO for 24 to 72 hrs at lower dose rates (0.2 and 0.05 cGy/min). The yields of dicentrics and rings decreased with the reduction in the dose rate of HTO, presenting a clear dose rate effects of HTO. These results provide an useful information for the assessment for health risk in humans exposed to low concentration level to HTO. (author)

  15. Evaluation of the radiological risk resulting from road transportation of tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menossi, C.A.; Segado, R.; Reyes, R.

    1983-01-01

    A probability model for the evaluation of the individual radiological risk resulting from road transportation of tritiated water in 200-liter drums is presented. In order to evaluate such risk, an evaluation must be made of the probability for an individual to be involved in the consequences of a radiological transport accident, to incur a given dose and to suffer deleterious effects resulting from the dose incurred. With the purpose of quantifying the importance of accidents, a severity level classification was adopted as a function of the fraction of liquid volume spilled as a result of the accident. Considering the above-mentioned severity classification and the transported volume, the volume and the spill area are implied, while the soil characteristics are taken into account. By evaluating the spill characteristics, the average meteorological conditions in the area under analysis and the activity concentration of the transported liquid, the activity concentration values for tritium in air may be estimated, thus allowing calculation of the effective dose equivalent to be incurred by the individual who is most exposed to the consequences of an associated event. As a result of the summarized analysis above, a value of the individual risk per unit of activity concentration is obtained for tritium and for a given volume of transported liquid. 8 references

  16. Immobilization of tritiated waste-water by hydraulic cements. A survey of the state-of-the-art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannone, F.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental research programme including as one of its major items the definition of a strategy for tritiated waste management is being prepared at the JRC-Ispra. Laboratory work will be performed in ETHEL, the European Tritium Handling Experimental Laboratory under construction at Ispra. To provide background information needed for defining items and planning the execution of such activities, a survey of the state of the art and R and D performed in the field of tritiated water immobilization by hydraulic cements and ultimate packaging by multiple containment systems has been carried out. Particular attention has been focused on results of tritium leach test programmes performed at various USA laboratories in order to verify the leach resistance properties of some tritium immobilization and containment options. Problems and draw backs associated with such options are discussed. Final conclusions are presented. 49 refs

  17. Dose from organically bound tritium after an acute tritiated water intake in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivedi, A; Richardson, R B; Galeriu, D [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada). Chalk River Nuclear Labs.

    1995-10-01

    We have analyzed the urinary excretion data from eight male workers following an acute intake of tritiated water (HTO) and assessed the dose contribution from organically bound tritium (OBT) in the body. The individuals affected increased their fluid intakes during the first month or more post-exposure, to accelerate the turnover of tritium in the body water for dose mitigation purposes. The volumes of cumulative 24 h urine samples were similar to Reference Man in the latter part of the study (100-300 d post-exposure). The workers` urine samples were analyzed for total tritium up to 300 d post-exposure. The results suggest that a measurement of the tritium activity per unit mass of organic matter in urine can provide an assessment of the specific activity of tritium in the organic fraction of the soft tissue, providing an equilibrium condition exists. A mathematical model is proposed to estimate the dose increase from the retained OBT by examining the kinetics of total tritium excretion in urine. The model accounts for the variable rates of fluid intake. The influence of measurement errors and the limited duration of the study (0-300 d post-exposure) on the OBT dose contribution was assessed through statistical analysis, while the role of direct OBT excretion in urine was estimated by using metabolic models. Based on the time series of tritium concentration in urine, the average dose increase to the workers from the metabolised OBT was calculated as 6.2 {+-} 1.3% of the HTO dose. 78 refs., 36 tabs., 11 figs.

  18. Dose from organically bound tritium after an acute tritiated water intake in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, A.; Richardson, R.B.; Galeriu, D.

    1995-10-01

    We have analyzed the urinary excretion data from eight male workers following an acute intake of tritiated water (HTO) and assessed the dose contribution from organically bound tritium (OBT) in the body. The individuals affected increased their fluid intakes during the first month or more post-exposure, to accelerate the turnover of tritium in the body water for dose mitigation purposes. The volumes of cumulative 24 h urine samples were similar to Reference Man in the latter part of the study (100-300 d post-exposure). The workers' urine samples were analyzed for total tritium up to 300 d post-exposure. The results suggest that a measurement of the tritium activity per unit mass of organic matter in urine can provide an assessment of the specific activity of tritium in the organic fraction of the soft tissue, providing an equilibrium condition exists. A mathematical model is proposed to estimate the dose increase from the retained OBT by examining the kinetics of total tritium excretion in urine. The model accounts for the variable rates of fluid intake. The influence of measurement errors and the limited duration of the study (0-300 d post-exposure) on the OBT dose contribution was assessed through statistical analysis, while the role of direct OBT excretion in urine was estimated by using metabolic models. Based on the time series of tritium concentration in urine, the average dose increase to the workers from the metabolised OBT was calculated as 6.2 ± 1.3% of the HTO dose. 78 refs., 36 tabs., 11 figs

  19. Bioaccumulation of tritiated water in phytoplankton and trophic transfer of organically bound tritium to the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeschke, Benedict C.; Bradshaw, Clare

    2013-01-01

    Large releases of tritium are currently permitted in coastal areas due to assumptions that it rapidly disperses in the water and has a low toxicity due to its low energy emissions. This paper presents a laboratory experiment developed to identify previously untested scenarios where tritium may concentrate or transfer in biota relevant to Baltic coastal communities. Phytoplankton populations of Dunaliella tertiolecta and Nodularia spumigena were exposed at different growth-stages, to tritiated water (HTO; 10 MBq l −1 ). Tritiated D. tertiolecta was then fed to mussels, Mytilus edulis, regularly over a period of three weeks. Activity concentrations of phytoplankton and various tissues from the mussel were determined. Both phytoplankton species transformed HTO into organically-bound tritium (OBT) in their tissues. D. tertiolecta accumulated significantly more tritium when allowed to grow exponentially in HTO than if it had already reached the stationary growth phase; both treatments accumulated significantly more than the corresponding treatments of N. spumigena. No effect of growth phase on bioaccumulation of tritium was detectable in N. spumigena following exposure. After mussels were given 3 feeds of tritiated D. tertiolecta, significant levels of tritium were detected in the tissues. Incorporation into most mussel tissues appeared to follow a linear relationship with number of tritiated phytoplankton feeds with no equilibrium, highlighting the potential for biomagnification. Different rates of incorporation in species from a similar functional group highlight the difficulties in using a ‘representative’ species for modelling the transfer and impact of tritium. Accumulations of organic tritium into the mussel tissues from tritiated-phytoplankton demonstrate an environmentally relevant transfer pathway of tritium even when water-concentrations are reduced, adding weight to the assertion that organically bound tritium acts as a persistent organic pollutant. The

  20. Bioaccumulation of tritiated water in phytoplankton and trophic transfer of organically bound tritium to the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeschke, Benedict C; Bradshaw, Clare

    2013-01-01

    Large releases of tritium are currently permitted in coastal areas due to assumptions that it rapidly disperses in the water and has a low toxicity due to its low energy emissions. This paper presents a laboratory experiment developed to identify previously untested scenarios where tritium may concentrate or transfer in biota relevant to Baltic coastal communities. Phytoplankton populations of Dunaliella tertiolecta and Nodularia spumigena were exposed at different growth-stages, to tritiated water (HTO; 10 MBq l(-1)). Tritiated D. tertiolecta was then fed to mussels, Mytilus edulis, regularly over a period of three weeks. Activity concentrations of phytoplankton and various tissues from the mussel were determined. Both phytoplankton species transformed HTO into organically-bound tritium (OBT) in their tissues. D. tertiolecta accumulated significantly more tritium when allowed to grow exponentially in HTO than if it had already reached the stationary growth phase; both treatments accumulated significantly more than the corresponding treatments of N. spumigena. No effect of growth phase on bioaccumulation of tritium was detectable in N. spumigena following exposure. After mussels were given 3 feeds of tritiated D. tertiolecta, significant levels of tritium were detected in the tissues. Incorporation into most mussel tissues appeared to follow a linear relationship with number of tritiated phytoplankton feeds with no equilibrium, highlighting the potential for biomagnification. Different rates of incorporation in species from a similar functional group highlight the difficulties in using a 'representative' species for modelling the transfer and impact of tritium. Accumulations of organic tritium into the mussel tissues from tritiated-phytoplankton demonstrate an environmentally relevant transfer pathway of tritium even when water-concentrations are reduced, adding weight to the assertion that organically bound tritium acts as a persistent organic pollutant. The

  1. Genetic and haematopoietic effects of long-term tritiated water ingestion in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carsten, A.L.; Cronkite, E.P.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of large amounts of tritiated water (HTO) from reactors on the environment is evaluated. Randomly bred mice of the Hale-Stoner-Brookhaven strain have been maintained on HTO (3 μCi/mlitre) for extended periods. First-generation animals on HTO from four weeks of age have been evaluated for changes in growth pattern, and second-generation animals (also on HTO) for breeding efficiency, dominant lethal mutation rate and bone-marrow integrity. A total of 18831 embryos were examined. Statistical analysis of these results using either Student's ''t'' test or Kruskal and Wallis rank test indicates that there was a significant (p<0.01) reduction in viable embryos and an increase in early deaths in matings involving animals drinking HTO. Beginning at eight weeks of age and monthly thereafter, the haematopoietic stem cell content of the bone marrow was determined using the exogenous spleen colony technique. Although the total cellularity of the bone marrow remains comparable in the control and treated groups, the total number of stem cells (CFU) was reduced beginning after approximately 12-20 weeks on the tritium regime. These findings indicate a reduction in the total number of pluripotent stem cells in the marrow together with the ability of this reduced number of cells to maintain normal levels of total cellularity in the bone marrow. Thus, continuous ingestion of HTO at a concentration of 3 μCi/mlitre by mice results in: (1) Reduction in number of viable embryos present in the female at late pregnancy from matings when either the female or both parents have been on HTO; (2) Increase in number of early post-implantation deaths when both parents are on HTO; (3) Reduction in bone-marrow stem cell content after 12 weeks or longer on HTO; (4) No apparent effect on breeding efficiency (percentage of females pregnant) or body weight. These results are discussed in relation to the accumulated radiation dose

  2. The long term effects of {sup 137}Cs {gamma}-rays and tritiated water on induction on teratogenesis in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoji, Shuneki [Hiroshima Univ., Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the teratogenesis caused by {sup 137}Cs {gamma}-rays radiation and tritiated water (tritium {beta}-rays, HTO) in rats under long-term exposures. Many congenital anomalies are caused by environmental factors, and it is likely that this assessment of teratogenesis will be very important in the future. Pregnant Donryu strain rats were irradiated with {sup 137}Cs {gamma}-rays on days 9-18 of gestation. The animals were sacrificed on day 18 of gestation and the contents of each uterine horn were examined. The numbers of surviving, dead and resorbed fetuses were recorded. The surviving fetuses were examined for external and visceral malformations. Also given here is a measure of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of tritiated water (HTO) compared to that for {sup 137}Cs {gamma}-rays regarding the induction of developmental anomalies such as neurocristopathy in pregnant Donryu rats. Radiation exposures were approximately 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 Gy for both tritiated water and {sup 137}Cs {gamma}-rays. Teratogenesis was dose dependent for both radiation groups. Our studies show that {sup 137}Cs {gamma}-rays and HTO irradiation induce similar malformations of the cardiovascular, respiratory and skeletal systems in rat fetuses. However, a number of fetuses exhibiting growth retardation, general edema, persistent atrioventricular canal, eye defects, microcephaly and craniofacial defects following maternal exposure to HTO. These include hypoplasia of the pulmonary trunk (tetralogy of Fallot), DORV, ventricular septal defect, right aortic arch, coarctation of the aorta, aberrant right subclavian artery, hypoplasia of the thymus, craniofacial anomalies, hypoplasia or incomplete lungs and trachea, as well as limb and tail malformations in HTO syndrome. These results are similar to those found in human DiGeorge syndrome, which are considered pharyngeal arch syndromes related to a cephalic neutrocristopathy. A best estimation

  3. Penetration of protective gloves as a route of intake for tritiated water and 125I-labelled sodium iodine solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, S.J.; Gilmore, A.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements have been made of the rate at which tritiated water and 125 I-labelled sodium iodide solution penetrate various types of protective gloves, both isotopes being in common use in this form in universities and similar establishments. Diffusion coefficients relating to the glove materials are also determined. The health physics aspects are discussed and it is concluded that intakes by workers through intact gloves are not likely to be of major significance and can easily be minimised by the correct use and choice of glove. (author)

  4. Embryonic/fetal mortality after exposure to tritiated water in pregnant Swiss albino mice during different gestation periods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Kalpana; Saini, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    Pregnant Swiss albino mice were given a priming injection(im) of tritiated water (HTO) at the dose rate of 2.3 and 5 μCi/ml body water (74, III or 185 K Bq/ml body water) at 0,6 and 14 day post conception (d.p.c) and were subsequently maintained on tritiated drinking water ad libitum during preimplantation (0-5 d.p.c), organogenetic (6-12 d.c.p.) or fetal (14-18 d.p.c) period, respectively. On day 18 of gestation the females were sacrificed by cervical dislocation to record the implant sites per dam and embryonic/fetal mortality. Significant reduction was observed in average implant sites per dam when the females were exposed to any of the three doses during the preimplantation period due to embryonic resorption before implantation. However, the same was found to be within the normal range when mothers were exposed during the organogenetic or fetal period. Prenatal mortality (embryonic resorption/fetal death) was higher after in utero exposure to different doses during preimplantation period as compared to organogenetic period, but mortality did not occur after exposure to any of the doses during the fetal period. Occurrence of mortality was found to be dose dependent. (author). 25 refs., 1 tab

  5. Hydration of DNA by tritiated water and isotope distribution: a study by 1H, 2H, and 3H NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur-De Vre, R.; Grimee-Declerck, R.; Lejeune, P.; Bertinchamps, A.J.

    1982-01-01

    The hydration layer of DNA (0.75%) in tritiated water represents 3.5% of solvent 3 HHO. The combined effects of temperature (-6 to -40 0 C) and H 2 O/ 2 H 2 O solvent composition on the spin-lattice relaxation times of water protons and deuterons suggest selective distribution of isotopes in the hydration layer. The ''hydration isotope'' effect and the localization of tritiated water molecules in the hydration layer of DNA have important implications in describing the radiobiological effects of tritiated water because the initial molecular damage caused by 3 HHO (internal radiation source) localizes close to 3 H due to the short range and low energy of 3 H β rays

  6. The distribution of tritium among the amino acids of proteins obtained from mice exposed to tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commerford, S.L.; Carsten, A.L.; Cronkite, E.P.

    1983-01-01

    The distribution of tritium among the amino acids of serum proteins in mice chronically exposed to tritiated water was determined by ion exchange chromatography of the protein hydrolysate. The specific activity of nonexchangeable tritium in these amino acids relative to the specific activity of tritium in the tissue water of mice ranged from 0.04 for phenylalanine and threonine to 1.0 for glycine and alanine. Since tritium from tissue water can enter the nonexchangeable positions of amino acids only as the result of metabolic processing, the relative specific activity of tritium in each amino acid is an indicator of the extent of such processing. The tritium content of tyrosine and all the amino acids required in the diet for survival is quite low, except for histidine, and can be entirely accounted for by transamination or, in the case of methionine, by transmethylation. The tritium content of the other amino acids is too high to result from such minor processing and must reflect primarily the fraction synthesized de novo. The implications of these findings with respect to the radiobiological consequences of a diet containing tritiated proteins are discussed

  7. Threshold dose to developing central nerve system of rats and mice from prenatal exposure to tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xiangyan; Wang Bing; Gao Weimin; Lu Huimin

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To study the threshold dose to the developing central nerve system of rats and mice from prenatal exposure to tritiated water. methods: Pregnant adult C 57 BL/6J strain mice and Wistar strain rats were irradiated with beta-rays from HTO by a single intraperitoneal injection on the 12.5 th and 13 th days of gestation. The activities of HTO were 24.09, 48.18 and 144.54 ( x 10 4 Bq/g bw), respectively. Fifty-six parameters including postnatal growth, neutro-behavior, pathology of brain, neuropeptide contents, changes of hippocampal neurons, Ca 2+ conductance of hippocampal neurons etc were used to test the teratogenic threshold dose the lowest dose was different from that of the control). Results: Of the observed 56 parameters of rats and mice 80.4% indicated that the threshold doses for prenatal HTO exposure ranged from 0.030 Gy to 0.092 Gy, and the other 19.6% showed the threshold doses from 0.093 to 0.300 Gy. Conclusions: There exists threshold dose from the low level tritiated water irradiation of the developing central nerve system

  8. Molecular and genotoxic effects in Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to tritiated water at an elevated temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dallas, L.; Jha, A. [School of Biological Sciences, Plymouth University (United Kingdom); Bean, T.; Lyons, B. [Cefas Weymouth Laboratory (United Kingdom); Turner, A. [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Plymouth University (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    Radioactive contaminants do not occur in isolation; organisms are also exposed to fluctuations in biological, biotic and physico-chemical factors, such as competition, other contaminants, salinity and temperature. Thermal discharge from nuclear facilities is considered to be one of the most important environmental issues surrounding these establishments, second only to the release of radionuclides. Cooling water from nuclear institutions is one of the major sources of tritium ({sup 3}H) to the aquatic environment; temperature is therefore an abiotic factor of particular concern when it comes to assessing the potential detrimental impacts of {sup 3}H exposure in marine species. In this context, we used a molecular approach to elucidate the potential mechanisms behind the genotoxicity of tritiated water (HTO) to marine mussels, at 'normal' and elevated temperatures. Mussels were exposed to control seawater or 15 MBq L{sup -1} HTO at 15 and 25 deg. C for 7 days, with haemolymph and gill tissue sampling (for comet assay to detect DNA strand breaks and gene expression analysis, respectively) after 0, 1, 12, 72 and 168 h. In addition, a Cu concentration of 40 μg L{sup -1} (previously established as genotoxic under these exposure conditions) was used concurrently as a positive control (at 15 deg. C). Tissue-specific accumulation of {sup 3}H was also determined, allowing the calculation of dose rates using the ERICA tool. Comparison of DNA strand breakage (DSB) as a function of time suggested that significant levels of DSB were induced earlier in haemocytes of mussels exposed to HTO at 25 deg. C compared to 15 deg. C (72 h vs. 168 h). Alterations in transcriptional expression of key genes also suggest that the 72 h time point is critical, with gill showing reduced expression of hsp70, hsp90, mt20, p53 and rad51 during HTO exposure at the elevated temperature. In contrast, HTO exposure at 15 deg. C resulted in significant up-regulation of the same genes after 72

  9. Tritiated water uptake kinetics in tissue-free water and organically-bound fractions of tomato plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, F.S.

    1984-03-01

    The kinetics of tritiated water (HTO) vapour uptake into tissue-free water tritium (TFWT) and organically bound tritium (OBT) fractions of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., cv Vendor, were investigated under controlled growing conditions. Most uptake data fitted a first-order kinetic model, C t = C ∞ (1-e -kt ), where C t is the tritium concentration at time t, Ca the steady-state concentration and k the uptake rate constant. During atmospheric-HTO exposure with clean-water irrigation in open pots the TFWT k values were 0.024 ± 0.023 h -1 for new foliage, 0.104 ± 0.067 h -1 for old foliage and 0.042 ± to 0.136 h -1 for new green fruit. OBT uptake rate constants were 20 percent less for new foliage and 76 percent less for new green fruit. Under steady-state conditions the ratio of tritium specific activities of TWFT to atmospheric HTO were 0.43 in new foliage, 0.46 in old foliage and 0.19 in green fruit. Within the plant, OBT and TFWT ratios were 0.70 for new foliage, 0.63 for old foliage (maximum) and between 0.72 and 1.92 for green fruit. The greater than unity tritium specific activity ratios in green fruit were not attributed to tritium enrichment but rather to the translocation of foliar OBT to the growing fruit which contained lower specific activity TFWT derived from soil water

  10. Disposal of tritiated effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, K.; Bruecher, H.

    1981-06-01

    After some introductory remarks on the origin of tritium, its properties and its behaviour in a reprocessing plant three alternative methods for the disposal of tritiated effluents produced during reprocessing are described (deep well injection, in-situ solidification, deep-sea dumping) and compared with each other under various aspects. The study is based on the concept of a 1400 t/a reprocessing plant for LWR fuel, which annually produces 3000 m 3 of tritiated waste water with a tritium content of 6.5 x 10 12 Bq/m 3 as well as a residual fission product and actinide content. An assessment of the three methods under the aspects of simplicity, reliability, safety, costs, state of development and materials handling revealed advantages in favour of 'injection', followed by 'dumping' and 'in-situ solidification'. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Multi-column adsorption systems with condenser for tritiated water vapor removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotoh, Kenji; Kudo, Kazuhiko

    1996-01-01

    Two types of multi-column adsorption system are proposed as the system for removal of tritiated moisture from tritium process gases or/and handling room atmospheres. The types are of recycle use of adsorption columns, and are composed of twin or triplet columns and one condenser which is used for collecting the adsorbed moisture from columns in desorption process. The systems utilize the dry gas from a working column as the purge gas for regenerating a saturated column and appropriate an active column for recovery of the tritiated moisture passing through the condenser. Each column hence needs the additional amount of adsorbent for collecting the moisture from the condenser. In the modeling and design of an adsorption column, it is primary to estimate the necessary amount of a candidate adsorbent for its packed-bed. The performance of the proposed systems is examined here by analyzing the dependence of the necessary amount of adsorbent for their columns on process operational conditions and adsorbent moisture-adsorption characteristics. The result shows that the necessary amount is sensitive to the types of adsorption isotherm, and suggests that these systems should employ adsorbents which exhibit the Langmuir-type isotherms. (author)

  12. Database dictionary for the results of groundwater tracer tests using tritiated water, conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, B.K. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Huff, D.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.

    1997-05-01

    In 1977, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) conducted two tracer tests at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) using tritiated water to study the relative importance of bedding-plane openings on shallow groundwater flow. Through a cooperative agreement between the USGS and the US Department of Energy (DOE), the data were made available to researchers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), who organized the data into a data management format. The results of these groundwater tracer tests have been compiled into a collection of four SAS data sets. This report documents these SAS data sets, including their structure, methodology, and content. The SAS data sets include information on precipitation, tritium, water levels, and well construction for wells at or near ORNL radioactive waste burial grounds 4, 5, and 6.

  13. Radioimmunoanalysis of the immune response and tissue lipoperoxidation of rats for low doses contaminated with tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bejan, A.; Turcu, Gr.

    1996-01-01

    The paper presents the evaluation of the humoral immune response and liver and kidney lipoperoxidation on rats acutely and chronically contaminated with low doses of tritiated water (HTO). The contamination doses for both situations were 0.5 cSv, 5 cSv and 10 cSv. By humoral immune response analysis we mean the measurement, through a radioimmunoanalysis (RIA) method, of the two intrinsic parameters of an antiserum, that is, the mean antibodies concentration and the mean antibodies affinity constant. We followed the liver and kidney lipidic peroxidation through malondialdehyde (MDA) formation assayed by the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) reaction. The humoral immune response and lipoperoxidation have been compared with the response of an uncontaminated group by the Student t test. (author). 17 refs., 2 tabs

  14. Evaluation of an ambient air sampling system for tritium (as tritiated water vapor) using silica gel adsorbent columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patton, G.W.; Cooper, A.T.; Tinker, M.R.

    1995-08-01

    Ambient air samples for tritium analysis (as the tritiated water vapor [HTO] content of atmospheric moisture) are collected for the Hanford Site Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) using the solid adsorbent silica gel. The silica gel has a moisture sensitive indicator which allows for visual observation of moisture movement through a column. Despite using an established method, some silica gel columns showed a complete change in the color indicator for summertime samples suggesting that breakthrough had occurred; thus a series of tests was conducted on the sampling system in an environmental chamber. The purpose of this study was to determine the maximum practical sampling volume and overall collection efficiency for water vapor collected on silica gel columns. Another purpose was to demonstrate the use of an impinger-based system to load water vapor onto silica gel columns to provide realistic analytical spikes and blanks for the Hanford Site SESP. Breakthrough volumes (V b ) were measured and the chromatographic efficiency (expressed as the number of theoretical plates [N]) was calculated for a range of environmental conditions. Tests involved visual observations of the change in the silica gel's color indicator as a moist air stream was drawn through the column, measurement of the amount of a tritium tracer retained and then recovered from the silica gel, and gravimetric analysis for silica gel columns exposed in the environmental chamber

  15. Preparation of tritiated tunicamycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunnicutt, R.E.; Keenan, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    A relatively simple and inexpensive procedure was devised for the radiolabeling of the glycoprotein biosynthesis inhibitor, tunicamycin. The procedure is based on hydrogen exchange in alkaline solutions of tritiated water. It was noted that the antibiotic was much more alkali labile than model compounds such as uridine. The alkali stability of the inhibitor was studied to determine conditions for optimum labeling and yield. The effects of alkaline incubation on the inhibitory properties of the antibiotic were also investigated and it was found that the breakdown products are not effective inhibitors of the reaction that transfers N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate to dolichyl phosphate. The isolated radioactive tunicamycin homologs, however, retained all their inhibitory action. Incubation of tunicamycin in the presence of deuterated water and mass spectral analysis showed that under the conditions used for the tritiation of tunicamycin the major product exchanged six hydrogen atoms. The position of the tritium atoms in labeled tunicamycin was not determined. The radioactive label in these compounds was shown to be stable under physiological conditions and should be useful for investigations involving the action of these antibiotics

  16. Tritium β-radiation induction of chromosomal damage: a calibration curve for low dose, low dose rate exposures of human cells to tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, D.P.; Gale, K.L.; Lucas, J.N.

    1997-01-01

    Radiation exposures from tritium contribute to the occupational radiation exposures associated with CANDU reactors. Tritiated water is of particular interest since it is readily taken up by human cells and its elimination from the body, and, consequently, the radiation exposure of the cells, is spread over a period of days. Occupational exposures to tritiated water result in what are effectively chronic β-radiation exposures. The doses and dose rates ordinarily used in the definition of cellular responses to radiation in vitro, for use in biological dosimetry (the assessment of radiation exposures based on the observed levels of changes in the cells of exposed individuals), are usually much higher than for most occupational exposures and involve radiations other than tritium β-rays. As a result, their use in assessing the effects from tritiated water exposures may not be appropriate. We describe here an in vitro calibration curve for chronic tritium β-radiation induction of reciprocal chromosomal translocations in humn peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) for use in biodosimetry. (author)

  17. Effects of prenatal low dose beta radiation from tritiated water on rat hippocampus neurons. Electrophysiological and neuro behavioural changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Weimin; Zhou Xiangyan

    1997-01-01

    Pregnent Wistar rats were exposed to tritiated water (HTO) on day 13 of gestation so that for their offsprings, the absorbed doses were estimated to be 0.000, 0.044, 0.088 and 0.264 Gy. The influence of HTO to the morphology and number of hippocampus pyramidal neurons and the maximum electric current of Ca 2+ in neurons was observed for the in-vitro-cultured hippocampus of new-born rats and the learning and memory behaviours were assessed by the electric avoidance reflex test in a Y-maze and the condition reflex test for young rats. The results show that prenatal exposure to HTO in a cumulative dose of 0.088 Gy can cause a reduction in number of neurons in hippocampus cultured in vitro, and that the electric current of Ca 2+ tends to decline with cumulative dose increasing, with the significant decrease in offsprings prenatally exposed to HTO in dose of 0.264 Gy. The results of electric avoidance reflex test in a Y-maze and condition reflex test indicate that for young rats prenatally exposed to HTO, a cumulative dose of 0.088 Gy could induce damage in their learning and memory behaviours

  18. The estimation of annual limit on intake for tritiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Kenshi; Okumura, Yutaka

    1992-01-01

    Tritium incorporation into tissues and DNA of mice was studied after daily ingestion of tritiated food or tritiated water. The tritiated food used was a commercial preparation mixed with brine shrimp which had been reared in tritiated sea water. After ingestion of tritiated food or water for up to 22 d, the specific activity of tritium in tissues was measured as tissue-free-water tritium, tissue-bound tritium and DNA-bound tritium. In order to compare the tritium intake from food with that from water, 14 C-glucose was added to food and drinking water. The specific activity of tritium of tissues obtained was then corrected by the specific activity of 14 C in tissues in order to analyse the tritium incorporation from the same amount of ingested food and water. DNA-bound tritium after the ingestion of tritiated food was 4.6 times higher than that of tritiated water, while tissue-bound tritium was 2.2 times higher. The radiation dose to liver from tritium incorporated through food was two-fold higher than through tritiated water, which was mainly due to the high incorporation of tritium into DNA. Our results demonstrated that the dose calculation based on tissue-free-water tritium alone would underestimate the radiation exposure of the human population exposed to tritiated food. (author)

  19. Water requirement and total body water estimation as affected by species, pregnancy and lactation using tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, T.H.; El Banna, I.M.; Ayad, M.A.; Kotby, E.A.

    1978-01-01

    Radiotracer dilution technique was used to determine total body water (TBW) and the water turnover rate (WTR) estimate of water requirements in water buffaloe, Red Dannish cattle, fat tailed Osemi sheep and Camellus Dromedarius. Water buffaloes were found to have highest TBW, followed by camels, sheep and cattle in a descending order. The WTR ranking was highest for sheep followed by water buffaloe endurance to heat was found inseperable to high water usage, while in camels, an intericate water retention mechanism help animals to thrive in deserts. Fat tailled Osemi sheep and cattle failed to cope with high environmental temperature resulting in temporary dehydration. TBW was 17% and 6% higher in pregnant cattle and sheep than non-pregnant animals respectively, while there was no observed change in pregnant buffaloes. Water retention of pregnant cattle was associated with an appriciable increase in WTR, which was not noticable in buffaloe or sheep. Lactating buffaloe have had a higher TBW and WTR than lactating cattle. Milk yield per day during the period of measurement was higher in buffalo than cattle. Wallowing of buffalo in water pools during grazing, represents a behavioural adaptation for life in hot regions, aside of tendency for higher WTR with concomitant water retention

  20. Water jacket for solid particle solar receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasyluk, David T.

    2018-03-20

    A solar receiver includes: water jacket panels each having a light-receiving side and a back side with a watertight sealed plenum defined in-between; light apertures passing through the watertight sealed plenums to receive light from the light-receiving sides of the water jacket panels; a heat transfer medium gap defined between the back sides of the water jacket panels and a cylindrical back plate; and light channeling tubes optically coupled with the light apertures and extending into the heat transfer medium gap. In some embodiments ends of the light apertures at the light receiving side of the water jacket panel are welded together to define at least a portion of the light-receiving side. A cylindrical solar receiver may be constructed using a plurality of such water jacket panels arranged with their light-receiving sides facing outward.

  1. Genotoxic, cytotoxic, developmental and survival effects of tritiated water in the early life stages of the marine mollusc, Mytilus edulis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagger, Josephine A. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Devon, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Atienzar, Franck A. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Devon, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Jha, Awadhesh N. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Devon, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: ajha@plymouth.ac.uk

    2005-09-10

    Using an integrated approach linking different levels of biological organisation, the genotoxic, cytotoxic, developmental and survival impact of tritiated water (HTO) were investigated in the embryo-larvae of marine mollusc Mytilus edulis. One-hour-old embryos were exposed to a range of concentrations (0.37-370 kBq ml{sup -1}) of HTO, which delivered a dose between 0.02 and 21.41 mGy over the exposure period for different end points. Detrimental effects, if any, were monitored at different levels of biological organisation (i.e. DNA, chromosomal, cellular and individual). Genotoxic effects were assessed using molecular and cytogenetic approaches which included analysis of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), induction of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and chromosomal aberrations (Cabs). Cytotoxic effects were evaluated by determining the proliferative rate index (PRI) of the embryo-larval cells. Developmental and survival effects were also monitored every 24 h up to 72 h. Results in general indicated that HTO significantly increased cytogenetic damage, cytotoxicity, developmental abnormalities and mortality of the embryo-larvae as a function of concentration or radiation dose. The analysis of RAPD profiles also revealed qualitative effects in the HTO exposed population compared to controls. However, while the embryo-larvae showed dose or concentration dependent effects for mortality, developmental abnormalities and induction of SCEs, the dose-dependent effects were not apparent for Cabs and PRI at higher doses. The study contributes to our limited understanding of the impact of environmentally relevant radionuclides on non-human biota and emphasises the need for further investigations to elucidate potentially long term damage induced by persistent, low levels of other radionuclides on commercially and ecologically important species, in order to protect human and ecosystem health.

  2. Tritium metabolism in cow's milk after administration of tritiated water and of organically bound tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoek, J. van den

    1982-01-01

    Tritium was administered as THO and as organically bound tritium (OBT) to lactating cows. Urine and milk samples were collected and analyzed for tritium content. Plateau levels in milk water and in milk fat, lactose and casein were reached in about 20 days after feeding either THO or OBT. Comparison of the specific activity (pCi 3 H/g H) of the various milk constituents with the specific activity of the body water showed that, after administration of THO, the highest tritium incorporation occurred in lactose (0.58), followed by milk fat (0.36) and casein (0.27). Tritium incorporation in milk dry matter (0.45) is considerably higher than in most tissue components of several mammalian species after continuous ingestion of THO as reported in the literature. After feeding OBT, the highest tritium incorporation occurred in milk fat and to a lesser extent in casein. Tritium levels in lactose were surprisingly low and the reason for this is not clear. They were similar to those in milk water. Tritium levels in milk and urine water showed systematic differences during administration of OBT and after this was stopped. There was more tritium in milk water until the last day of OBT feeding and this situation was reversed after this. (author)

  3. Tritium metabolism in cow's milk after administration of tritiated water and of organically bound tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van den Hoek, J [Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen (Netherlands). Lab. voor Fysiologie der Dieren; Gerber, G; Kirchmann, R [Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire, Mol (Belgium)

    1982-01-01

    Tritium was administered as THO and as organically bound tritium (OBT) to lactating cows. Urine and milk samples were collected and analyzed for tritium content. Plateau levels in milk water and in milk fat, lactose and casein were reached in about 20 days after feeding either THO or OBT. Comparison of the specific activity (pCi/sup 3/H/g H) of the various milk constituents with the specific activity of the body water showed that, after administration of THO, the highest tritium incorporation occurred in lactose (0.58), followed by milk fat (0.36) and casein (0.27). Tritium incorporation in milk dry matter (0.45) is considerably higher than in most tissue components of several mammalian species after continuous ingestion of THO as reported in the literature. After feeding OBT, the highest tritium incorporation occurred in milk fat and to a lesser extent in casein. Tritium levels in lactose were surprisingly low and the reason for this is not clear. They were similar to those in milk water. Tritium levels in milk and urine water showed systematic differences during administration of OBT and after this was stopped. There was more tritium in milk water until the last day of OBT feeding and this situation was reversed after this.

  4. Study on the ultrastructure of brain in rats prenatally exposed to tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhiyuan; Guo Yuefen; Lai Chixiang

    1993-01-01

    At 11th day of gestation, rats were intraperitoneally injected with HTO, the activity of which were 5.55 x 10 6 Bq/mL of body water and 5.55 x 10 5 Bq/mL of body water. In these conditions, the cumulative doses for 1-day-old and 18-day-old young rats were estimated to be 1.6-1.7 Gy and 0.16-0.17 Gy, respectively. Under the above-mentioned conditions, some significant injuries in the ultrastructure of the nucleus of neutron and of the cell apparatuses in the cytoplasm of the cerebral and cerebellar cortexes can be seen on the 1-day-old and 18-day-old young rats. When young rats were 90 days old, these injuries of ultrastructure in brain cells had not be observed but it was observed that the processes of neutroglia cells replenished the crevices in injured neutropilem of the cerebral and cerebellar cortex

  5. Studies in uptake and turnover of tritiated water vapour (HTO) by vegetables. Untersuchungen zur Aufnahme und zum Umsatz von tritiiertem Wasserdampf (HTO) in Gemuesepflanzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roller, M.

    1989-02-01

    The aerial parts of vegetables were exposed to tritiated water vapour for up to three days in a plant growth chamber. The species used were Raphanus sativus L., Phaseolus vulgaris K. and Daucus carota L. (red radish, bean and carrot). The increase of specific activity of tissue free water as collected by freeze drying which was observed in the aerial parts of plants is explained by direct uptake of tritiated water vapour by the exposed part of the plant. It shows different characteristics for the several organs. No translocation of water from the laminae into other parts of the plant was observed. After combustion of dry matter tritium activity was detectable in the oxidation water for all parts of the plants. Kinetics of the specific activity of organically bound tritium in leaves can be described by a single curve. The lower - steep - part of the curve is increasing approximately with the uptake rate of HTO; this is explained by reversible binding of tritium by isotopic exchange reactions. The upper - flat - part of the curve represents tritium bound by light dependent reducing reactions of photosynthesis; it is increasing with a rate similar to the growth rate of leaves. (orig./KG).

  6. Genetic and hematopoietic effects of long-term tritiated water (HTO) ingestion in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carsten, A.L.; Cronkite, E.P.

    1975-01-01

    The positive effects seen using the somewhat insensitive dominant lethal test system and the effects seen on the blood-forming cells indicates that at least in the mouse there is a hazard in the continuous ingestion of HTO at a concentration of 3 μCCi/ml. A direct comparison of these results to the human drinking an equivalent amount of HTO is impossible due to the obvious differences in water metabolism between the two species. Until further experimentation at lower levels of ingestion are completed, it is difficult to comment concerning the significance of these results as related to current concepts of maximum permissible concentration. Studies are now underway examining the possible effects of lower concentrations of chronic HTO ingestion

  7. Response of mice liver to continuous beta-irradiation from tritiated water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatia, A L; Gupta, M L; Singh, R P [Rajasthan Univ., Jaipur (India). Radiation Biology Lab.

    1978-09-01

    The low-level toxicity of the tritium has been studied on the adult mice liver. A group of adult mice was irradiated continuously at the radioactivity of 1.25 ..mu..Ci/ml of drinking water up to 30 days and the liver was studied on 1, 5, 7, 15 and 30 days after initiation of treatment. In early intervals, a gradual increase in the degree of damage in the form of histopathological lesions like cytoplasmic vacuolation and degranulation, pycnosis, hemorrhage and lymphocytic infiltration etc. was noticed which reaches to maximum on day 7, after which it was found a bit repaired on the following interval (15 days) and on 30th day exhibited almost a near-normal hepatic architecture with a few histopathological lesions viz. edema and leukocytic infiltration.

  8. Diffusion of Tritiated Water (HTO) and 22Na+-Ions through Non-Degraded Hardened Cement Pastes - II. Modelling Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakob, A.

    2002-12-01

    In this report, the procedure and the results of an inverse modelling study on the through-diffusion of tritiated water (HTO) and 2 2Na + -ions are presented using high-porous hardened cement pastes with a water/cement ratio of 1.3 in the first stage of the cement degradation. For the analysis two alternative models were applied: 1) a diffusion model where a possible sorption of the tracer was entirely neglected, and 2) a diffusion model with linear sorption. The analysis of the through-diffusion phase allowed extracting values for the effective diffusion coefficient (D e ) and the rock-capacity factor (α). Both models could fit the breakthrough curves equally well, and also mass-balance considerations did not allow to clearly preferring one of the two competing models to the other. But blind-predictions for tracer out-diffusion using the best-fit parameter values deduced from analysing the former through-diffusion phase gave a clear indication that linear sorption had to be included in the diffusion model. The extracted K d values for HTO are in excellent agreement with values from batch sorption experiments and are of the order of 0.8. 10 -3 m 3 /kg. Those for 2 2Na + are of the order of 1.0. 10 -3 m 3 /kg and are by a factor of two larger than values from batch sorption experiments. The values for the effective diffusion coefficients for HTO are of the order of (2-3).10 -1 0 m 2 /s, and those for sodium are roughly by a factor of two smaller than values for HTO. On the one hand, the observed tracer uptake could only partially be addressed to isotope exchange; the most obvious process which could account for the remaining part of the uptaken tracer mass is diffusion into a second type of porosity, the dead-end pores. On the other hand, the results and conclusions drawn are encouraging for future investigations; therefore no major deficiency concerning the applied equipment and the modelling methodology could be detected. In the report, however, some suggestions

  9. Electrochemical impedance spectrometry using 316L steel, hastelloy, maraging, Inconel 600, Elgiloy, carbon steel, TiN and NiCr. Simulation in tritiated water. 2 volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellanger, G.

    1994-03-01

    Polarization and electrochemical impedance spectrometry curves are presented and discussed. These curves make it possible to ascertain the corrosion domains and to compare the slow and fast kinetics (voltammetry) of different stainless steel alloys. These corrosion kinetics, the actual or simulated tritiated water redox potentials, and the corrosion potentials provide a classification of the steels studied here: 316L, Hastelloy, Maraging, Inconel 600, Elgiloy, carbon steel and TiN and NiCr deposits. From the results it can be concluded that Hastelloy and Elgiloy have the best corrosion resistance. (author). 49 refs., 695 figs., tabs

  10. Estimation of tritiated water concentration in vegetables and milk around argentine nuclear power plants obtained from discharge sites and meteorological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amado, Valeria A.; Lopez, Fabio O.; Sartori, Francisco M.

    2009-01-01

    The present work shows a methodology to assess the concentration of tritiated water in vegetation and milk. Calculations are depending on the release rate and the meteorological data of the nuclear installations. Methodology is based on existing models that had been modified taking in account available data and specific conditions in the vicinity of the nuclear power plants in Argentina. The predictions of the models are compared with the measurements of tritium concentrations in sampling of vegetables and milk occurred monthly during 2007, near of the plants. (author) [es

  11. Catalytic membrane reactors for tritium recovery from tritiated water in the ITER fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosti, S.; Violante, V.; Basile, A.; Chiappetta, G.; Castelli, S.; De Francesco, M.; Scaglione, S.; Sarto, F.

    2000-01-01

    Palladium and palladium-silver permeators have been obtained by coating porous ceramic tubes with a thin metal layer. Three coating techniques have been studied and characterized: chemical electroless deposition (PdAg film thickness of 10 μm), ion sputtering (about 1 μm) and rolling of thin metal sheets (50 μm). The Pd-ceramic membranes have been used for manufacturing catalytic membrane reactors (CMR) for hydrogen and its isotopes recovering and purifying. These composite membranes and the CMR have been studied and developed for a closed-loop process with reference to the design requirements of the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER) blanket tritium recovery system in the enhanced performance phase of operation. The membranes and CMR have been tested in a pilot plant equipped with temperature, pressure and flow-rate on-line measuring and controlling devices. The conversion value for the water gas shift reaction in the CMR has been measured close to 100% (always above the equilibrium one, 80% at 350 deg. C): the effect of the membrane is very clear since the reaction is moved towards the products because of the continuous hydrogen separation. The rolled thin film membranes have separated the hydrogen from other gases with a complete selectivity and exhibited a slightly larger mass transfer resistance with respect to the electroless membranes. Preliminary tests on the sputtered membranes have also been carried out with a promising performance. Considerations on the use of different palladium alloy in order to improve the performances of the membranes in terms of permeation flux and mechanical strength, such as palladium/yttrium, are also reported

  12. Synthesis of tritiated Lomoparan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaspersen, F.M.; Schlachter, I.H.G.; Dedem, G.W.K. van

    1991-01-01

    Lomoparan (org. 10172) is a highly effective anti-thrombotic drug which is a mixture of low molecular weight glycosaminoglycuronans. Tritiated Org 10172 can be prepared through labelling of its subfractions and reconstitution of the original material. Two methods were applied: partial N-deacetylation with N 2 H 4 /HI0 3 followed by reacetylation with tritiated acetic anhydride and, more easily, reduction of end groups with NaB 3 H 4 . (UK)

  13. Conditioning of tritiated wastes. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawthorne, S.H.

    1984-01-01

    Work is continuing on the development of conditioning systems for low and intermediate level tritiated liquid and solid wastes which will prevent loss of tritium for at least 150 years. This portion of the program has concentrated on solidification and encapsulation of tritiated aqueous wastes, development of techniques, for the measurement of tritium loss in air and water, and identification and evaluation of encapsulation materials. Solidification of tritiated aqueous wastes by water extendible polyester or cements resulted in average tritium releases of approximately 1-4x10 -1 α/day with that from water extendible polyester being the lowest. The daily release rate is independent of initial tritium concentration in the waste form and can be reduced by a factor of 1000 by encapsultation of the waste within a 10 mm layer of water extendible polyester. Water extendible polyester is the preferred material for solidification and encapsulation of aqueous tritiated wastes and encapsulation of tritiated solids permitting release of only 3x10 -3 % of the original activity over 150 years. It is expected that this program which was originally scheduled for three years can now be completed in two years with complete definition of the conditioning system including the outer package

  14. Turnover of body water in relation to the hydric diet studied with tritiated water in Locusta migratoria migratorioides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buscarlet, L.A.; Proux, Jacques

    1975-01-01

    The elimination of triated water injected in a locust Locusta migratoria migratorioides is described by an exponential function of the cumulative water diet and fits a one-compartment model. This result shows that body water occupies a single pool the mass of which is kept constant by an equilibrium between the water diet and the water elimination rate [fr

  15. Capture and isotopic exchange method for water and hydrogen isotopes on zeolite catalysts up to technical scale for pre-study of processing highly tritiated water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michling, R.; Braun, A.; Cristescu, I.; Dittrich, H.; Gramlich, N.; Lohr, N. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Glugla, M.; Shu, W.; Willms, S. [ITER Organization, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2015-03-15

    Highly tritiated water (HTW) may be generated at ITER by various processes and, due to the excessive radio toxicity, the self-radiolysis and the exceedingly corrosive property of HTW, a potential hazard is associated with its storage and process. Therefore, the capture and exchange method for HTW utilizing Molecular Sieve Beds (MSB) was investigated in view of adsorption capacity, isotopic exchange performance and process parameters. For the MSB, different types of zeolite were selected. All zeolite materials were additionally coated with platinum. The following work comprised the selection of the most efficient zeolite candidate based on detailed parametric studies during the H{sub 2}/D{sub 2}O laboratory scale exchange experiments (about 25 g zeolite per bed) at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK). For the zeolite, characterization analytical techniques such as Infrared Spectroscopy, Thermogravimetry and online mass spectrometry were implemented. Followed by further investigation of the selected zeolite catalyst under full technical operation, a MSB (about 22 kg zeolite) was processed with hydrogen flow rates up to 60 mol*h{sup -1} and deuterated water loads up to 1.6 kg in view of later ITER processing of arising HTW. (authors)

  16. Production of DNA Double Strand Breaks in Human Cells due to Acute Exposure to Tritiated Water (HTO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonen, R.; German, U.; Alfassi, Z. B.; Priel, E.

    2014-01-01

    The average and maximum energies of the beta emission from 3H are 5.69 keV and 18.6 keV respectively. The average range in water (or soft tissues), around 0.5 1/4m (500 nm), is considerably less than the typical diameter of a cell (10-30 1/4m), and even of a cell nucleus (5-10 1/4m), thus the micro-location of the tritium atom may well be crucial in determining its biochemical consequences. Due to the high ionization density of the beta particles emitted by tritium (about 400 ion pairs/1/4m) possible interaction of tritium beta radiation with DNA may play a significant role. Tritiated water (HTO) is the main chemical form in which tritium is found in the environment. In the body it may be retained as organically bound tritium (OBT), binding to biological molecules or remaining as OBT with various degrees of solubility. OBT can be retained in the human body much longer than HTO and therefore the dose arising from OBT can reach 50% of the total tritium dose . Histones are major protein components of chromatin. They function as spools around which DNA winds and play an important role in the regulation of gene expression. In the absence of histones, the DNA in chromosomes would be unmanageably long, as human cells each have about 1.8 m of DNA. During mitosis, DNA is duplicated and condensed, resulting in about 120 1/4m of chromosomes. It was recently reported that the phosphorylation of histone H2AX on serine residue 139 (D 3 -H2AX) is associated with Double Strand Breaks (DSB) sites in DNA), which indicates the possibility of research based on the detection of DSBs in DNA. The phosphorylated megabase chromatin domain surrounding the DSB can be immunostained and visualized as discrete foci by fluorescence microscopy, as each DNA DSB formed produces a visible D 3 -H2AX focus. Since 1 Gy of radiation produces approximately 60 DSBs/cell, doses of a few mGy should be distinguishable from the background, and it was recently shown that the exposure to 1 mGy of X-rays induces

  17. Tritiation methods and tritium NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaiswal, D.K.; Morimoto, H.; Salijoughian, M.; Williams, P.G.

    1991-09-01

    We have used a simple process for the production of highly tritiated water and characterized the product species by 1 H and 3 H NMR spectroscopy. The water is readily manipulated and used in subsequent reactions either as T 2 O, CH 3 COOT or CF 3 COOT. Development of tritiated diimide has progressed to the point where cis-hydrogenated products at 1-20 Ci/mmole S.A. are possible. Tri-n-butyl tin tritide has been produced at >95% tritium content and well characterized by multinuclear NMR techniques. 27 refs., 3 figs

  18. Tritiated ammonia formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heung, L.K.

    1995-01-01

    When nitrogen was selected as the glovebox atmosphere for the Replacement Tritium Facility (RTF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a concern was raised as to the possibility of tritiated ammonia formation in the gloveboxes. Experimental data were produced to study the tritiated ammonia formation rate in a tritium and nitrogen mixture. A rate equation that closely simulates the experimental data was developed. This rate equation can be used to calculate the formation of tritiated ammonia from different concentrations of tritium and nitrogen. The reaction of T 2 and N 2 to form NT 3 is a slow process, particularly when the tritium concentration is low. The reaction requires weeks or months to reach radiochemical equilibrium dependent on the concentrations of the reactants. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  19. Water Fluoridation Statistics - Percent of PWS population receiving fluoridated water

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2000-2014. Water Fluoridation Statistics is a biennial report of the percentage and number of people receiving fluoridated water from 2000 through 2014, originally...

  20. Water Fluoridation Statistics - Percent of PWS population receiving fluoridated water

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2000-2014 Water Fluoridation Statistics is a biennial report of the percentage and number of people receiving fluoridated water from 2000 through 2014, originally...

  1. Improved permeation barriers for tritiated waste packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassallo, G.; Van Den Bergh, R.; Forcey, K.S.; Perujo, A.

    1994-01-01

    High-density polyethylene (HDPE) is extensively used as flexible bagging or packaging for soft tritiated waste in the tritium community because of its low permeability to the more radiotoxic form of tritium, i.e., tritiated water (HTO). However, HDPE does not represent a perfect barrier to HTO nor does it effectively hinder the permeation of elemental tritium, i.e, HT. This latter drawback is particularly important considering that the elemental form may readily convert to HTO outside of the waste package. The possible use of a multilayer film as packing material for the conditioning of tritiated waste is assessed, and its capability to hinder the permeation of elemental tritium is measured and compared with that of bare HDPE. The material investigated is readily available from the food industry. 5 refs., 1 tab

  2. Tritiated hydrogen conversion on heated metallic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionita, G.; Mihaila, V.; Purghel, L.; Rebigan, F.

    1995-01-01

    This work reports investigations on tritiated hydrogen conversion to tritiated water on heated metallic surfaces. The HT conversion process has been revealed for copper, aluminium and stainless steel W4541 surfaces in the temperature range 150 to 300 o C, in case of the static regime and in the range 250 to 400 o C for the dynamic case. The most significant catalytic activity was shown by the copper sample. Studies on this subject are used as input information for different nuclear accident scenarios implying tritium leakage

  3. Rate of Isotope Exchange Reaction Between Tritiated Water in a Gas Phase and Water on the Surface of Piping Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashio, Nobuyuki; Yamaguchi, Junya; Kobayashi, Ryusuke; Nishikawa, Masabumi

    2001-01-01

    The system effect of tritium arises from the interaction of tritium in the gas phase with water on the surface of piping materials. It has been reported that the system effect can be quantified by applying the serial reactor model to the piping system and that adsorption and isotope exchange reactions play the main roles in the trapping of tritium. The isotope exchange reaction that occurs when the chemical form of tritium in the gas phase is in the molecular form, i.e., HT or T 2 , has been named isotope exchange reaction 1, and that which occurs when tritium in the gas phase is in water form, i.e., HTO or T 2 O, has been named isotope exchange reaction 2.The rate of isotope exchange reaction 2 is experimentally quantified, and the rate is observed to be about one-third of the rate of adsorption. The trapping and release behavior of tritium from the piping surface due to isotope exchange reaction 2 is also discussed. It is certified that swamping of water vapor to process gas is effective to release tritium from the surface contaminated with tritium

  4. Contributions of the CEA-Valduc Centre control to the understanding of the transfers of atmospheric tritiated water into the different parts of the environment; Apports de la surveillance du Centre CEA-Valduc sur la connaissance des transferts de l'eau tritiee atmospherique dans les differents compartiments de l'environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guetat, P.; Vichot, L. [CEA Valduc, UMR, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France); Tognelli, A. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, 91 (France)

    2009-07-01

    After a description of the geological environment of the Valduc Centre dedicated to tritium purification and tritiated waste processing and storage, this document presents the assessment of quantities of tritiated water released by the Valduc Centre and of their evolution in the hydro-geological environment. It provides in situ macroscopically observed data on the transfer mechanisms of water into the different parts of the environment and into the food chain by means. This is made possible by the exceptional traceability of tritiated water. Finally, a comparison between computational models and experimental measurements is given

  5. A systems engineering analysis to examine the economic impact for treatment of tritiated water in the Hanford KE-Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villegas, A.; Clark, L.; Schmidt, A.

    1995-02-01

    Federal and state agencies have established a Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) to address some key environmental issues faced at the Hanford Site. Under the TPA, the Department of Energy is currently under a consent order to reduce the tritium concentration in the spent fuel storage basin for KE-Reactor from 3.0 μCi/L to 0.3 μCi/L in the KE spent fuel storage basin, starting in 1996. The 100KE and 100KW Area fuel storage basins (K-Basins) at Hanford were built in the early 1950s to receive and provide temporary storage for irradiated fuel from the now shutdown KE and KW production reactors. In 1977, the KE-Basin began to leak at a rate of 13.5 gpm (51 L/min.), but, decreased to 0.03 to 0.05 gpm (0. 13 to 0.19 L/min.) by 1980. In 1993, the leak increased to a rate of 0.42 gpm (1.6 L/min.). This engineering analysis examines the relative costs to reduce the tritium concentration KE-Basin water using a polyphosphazene polymer membrane under development at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The estimated cost of using the membrane to reduce the tritium concentration is compared to three no-treatment alternatives that include: (1) disposing of the tritium-contaminated water directly to the Columbia River, (2) disposing of the contaminated water to the soil at the on-site Effluent Treatment Facility, and (3) disposing of the contaminated water by evaporation using solar evaporation ponds

  6. Tritium in the food chain. Intercomparison of model predictions of contamination in soil, crops, milk and beef after a short exposure to tritiated water vapour in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, P.

    1996-09-01

    Future fusion reactors using tritium as fuel will contain large inventories of the gas. The possibility that a significant fraction of an inventory may accidentally escape into the atmosphere from this and other potential sources such as tritium handling facilities and some fission reactors e g, PWRs has to be recognized and its potential impact on local human populations and biota assessed. Tritium gas is relatively inert chemically and of low radiotoxicity but it is readily oxidized by soil organisms to the mixed oxide, HTO or tritiated water. In this form it is highly mobile, strongly reactive biologically and much more toxic. Models of how tritiated water vapour is transported through the biosphere to foodstuffs important to man are essential components of such an assessment and it is important to test the models for their suitability when used for this purpose. To evaluate such models, access to experimental measurements made after actual releases are needed. There have however, been very few accidental releases of tritiated water to the atmosphere and the experimental findings of those that have occurred have been used to develop the models under test. Models must nevertheless be evaluated before their predictions can be used to decide the acceptability or otherwise of designing and operating major nuclear facilities. To fulfil this need a model intercomparison study was carried out for a hypothetical release scenario. The study described in this report is a contribution to the development of model evaluation procedures in general as well as a description of the results of applying these procedures to the particular case of models of HTO transport in the biosphere which are currently in use or being developed. The study involved eight modelers using seven models in as many countries. In the scenario farmland was exposed to 1E10 Bq d/m 3 of HTO in air during 1 hour starting at midnight in one case and at 10.00 a.m. in the other, 30 days before harvest of crops

  7. Tritium in the food chain. Intercomparison of model predictions of contamination in soil, crops, milk and beef after a short exposure to tritiated water vapour in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barry, P. [PJS Barry (Canada)] [and others

    1996-09-01

    Future fusion reactors using tritium as fuel will contain large inventories of the gas. The possibility that a significant fraction of an inventory may accidentally escape into the atmosphere from this and other potential sources such as tritium handling facilities and some fission reactors e g, PWRs has to be recognized and its potential impact on local human populations and biota assessed. Tritium gas is relatively inert chemically and of low radiotoxicity but it is readily oxidized by soil organisms to the mixed oxide, HTO or tritiated water. In this form it is highly mobile, strongly reactive biologically and much more toxic. Models of how tritiated water vapour is transported through the biosphere to foodstuffs important to man are essential components of such an assessment and it is important to test the models for their suitability when used for this purpose. To evaluate such models, access to experimental measurements made after actual releases are needed. There have however, been very few accidental releases of tritiated water to the atmosphere and the experimental findings of those that have occurred have been used to develop the models under test. Models must nevertheless be evaluated before their predictions can be used to decide the acceptability or otherwise of designing and operating major nuclear facilities. To fulfil this need a model intercomparison study was carried out for a hypothetical release scenario. The study described in this report is a contribution to the development of model evaluation procedures in general as well as a description of the results of applying these procedures to the particular case of models of HTO transport in the biosphere which are currently in use or being developed. The study involved eight modelers using seven models in as many countries. In the scenario farmland was exposed to 1E10 Bq d/m{sup 3} of HTO in air during 1 hour starting at midnight in one case and at 10.00 a.m. in the other, 30 days before harvest of

  8. Gas generation by self-radiolysis of tritiated waste materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadlock, W.E.; Abell, G.C.; Steinmeyer, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    Studies simulating the effect of self-radiolysis in disposal packages containing tritiated waste materials show hydrogen to be the dominant gas-phase product. Pressure buildup and gas composition over various tritiated octane and tritiated water samples are designed to give worst case results. One effect of tritium fixation agents is to reduce pressure buildup. The results show that development of explosive gas mixtures is unlikely and that maximum pressure buildup in typical Mound Facility waste packages can be expected to be <0.25 MPa

  9. The Lack of Cytotoxic Effect and Radioadaptive Response in Splenocytes of Mice Exposed to Low Level Internal β-Particle Irradiation through Tritiated Drinking Water in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Flegal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Health effects of tritium, a β-emitter and a by-product of the nuclear industry, is a subject of significant controversy. This mouse in vivo study was undertaken to monitor biological effects of low level tritium exposure. Mice were exposed to tritiated drinking water (HTO at 10 KBq/L, 1 MBq/L and 20 MBq/L concentrations for one month. The treatment did not result in a significant increase of apoptosis in splenocytes. To examine if this low level tritium exposure alters radiosensitivity, the extracted splenocytes were challenged in vitro with 2 Gy γ-radiation, and apoptotic responses at 1 and 24 h were measured. No alterations in the radiosensitivity were detected in cells from mice exposed to tritium compared to sham-treated mice. In contrast, low dose γ-irradiation at 20 or 100 mGy, resulted in a significant increase in resistance to apoptotic cell death after 2 Gy irradiation; an indication of the radioadaptive response. Overall, our data suggest that low concentrations of tritium given to mice as HTO in drinking water do not exert cytotoxic effect in splenocytes, nor do they change cellular sensitivity to additional high dose γ-radiation. The latter may be considered as the lack of a radioadaptive response, typically observed after low dose γ-irradiation.

  10. A study of lipogenesis de novo: kinetics of tritiated water 3H incorporation in vivo into fatty acids and total lipids of the liver, plasma, adipose tissue and carcass of the male rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandemer, Gille; Pascal, Gerard; Durand, Georges

    1980-01-01

    Tritiated water 3 H, injected by intraperitoneal route into 7-week old male Rats, was incorporated into lipids synthesized de novo. The Rats were killed 0, 3, 7, 10, 15, 30, 60 and 120 min. after tracer injection. The results show that an optimal interval of about 10 min. between tracer injection and animal sacrifice was necessary to obtain a correct estimate of lipogenesis de novo by avoiding intertissue exchanges [fr

  11. Effects of the combinations of caffeine with 137Cs-gamma rays or tritiated water on the proliferation and malignant transformation CHL-1 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Shuai; Wang Shoufang

    1989-01-01

    The effects of the combinations of caffeine with 137 Cs-gamma rays or tritiated water on the proliferation and malignant transformation in vitro in CHL-1 cells were observed in experiments. At the concentrations of caffeine from 1 mmol/L to 2 mmol/L, the dose ranges of 137 Cs-gamma rays from 0.837 Gy and to 2.51 Gy and of tritium-beta radiation from 0.837 Gy to 0.528 Gy, the cell proliferation of CHL-1 cells was found to be inbigited when cells were exposed to caffeine, gamma and beta radiations, respectively, as well as when they were exposed to various combinations of caffeine with the two latters. The degree of inhibition of cell proliferation was dependent upon the concentration of caffeine and on the doses of radiation. In the transformation experiments, cell malignant transformation rates for all treated groups were higher than that for contol group and the rates for irradiated plus caffeine-treated groups were higher than those for corresponding single-agent-treated ones. After the subcutaneous injection of transformed cells into irradiated mice, tumours in size of about 2 mm 3 were found in some animals and the tumour cells were identical with in-vitro-transformed CHL-1 cells histopathologically

  12. Influence of enhanced fluid intake on reduction of committed dose after acute intake of tritiated water vapour by occupational workers at Narora Atomic Power Station, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawar, S.K.; Mitra, S.R.; Chand, Lal

    2001-01-01

    The study of acute exposure cases of male radiation workers to tritiated water vapour (HTO) in Narora Atomic Power Station, using the bi-exponential function has provided direct practical evidence that the committed dose following an HTO exposure is directly proportional to effective half-life which in turn is inversely proportional to the fluid intake. Urine samples from these workers apparently in good health, were collected and measured for tritium concentration in urine up to maximum of 163 days after the exposure. They were advised to increase their fluid intakes to accelerate the elimination of tritium for dose mitigation. Their fluid intakes reverted to normal levels in the later stage of the post exposure period. The non-linear regression analysis of the data of tritium concentration in urine showed an effective half-life of 1.5 to 3.8 days during the period of enhanced fluid intake, 3.4 to 6.9 days during the period of normal and slightly above normal fluid intake and 23.6 to 52.3 days due to elimination of metabolized organically bound tritium. This increase in elimination rate due to enhanced fluid intake directly resulted in dose mitigation of 45.1 to 76.0 percent in different subjects. (author)

  13. The influence of large deletions on the mutation frequency induced by tritiated water and X-radiation in male Drosophila melanogaster post-meiotic germ cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossett, N.G.; Byrne, B.J.; Kelley, S.J.; Tucker, A.B.; Arbour-Reily, P.; Lee, W.R.

    1994-01-01

    Tritium beta radiation ( 3 H β-radiation) in the form of tritiated water was used to induce mutations at the alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) locus in male Drosophila melanogaster post-meiotic germ cells. All 23 Adh null mutations were large deletions (>20 kb), determined by genetic complementation and Southern blot analyses. 27 Adh null mutations have been induced by 100-kVp X-rays and have been genetically and molecularly characterized. In contrast to 3 H β-radiation, 100-kVp X-rays induced a bimodal distribution of Adh null mutations, intragenic mutations, ≤250 bp, and large deletions, >100 kb. A statistically significant difference was observed between the frequency of large deletions (23/23 or 1.0) induced by 3 H β-radiation and the frequency of large deletions (19/27 or 0.7) induced by 100-kVp X-rays. However, a statistical difference was not observed between the size distribution of the large deletions induced by 3 H β-radiation and X-rays. The relative deletion frequency (RDF) induced by 3 H β-radiation and 100-kVp X-rays was (1.0/0.7=1.4). The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of these two radiation sources was 1.4, determined from the ratio of the regression coefficients of the respective 3 H β-radiation and X-ray sex-linked recessive lethal (SLRL) dose-response data. The large difference in size between the two classes of X-ray-induced Adh null mutations and the increase in mutation frequency and deletion frequency for 3 H β-radiation with respect to X-rays may indicate that the relative deletion frequency (RDF) is the molecular biological basis for the increase in the RBE for radiation sources with a mean LET value ≤10 keV/μm

  14. Low pressure tritiation of molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, T.F.; Powers, J.C.; Lively, M.O.

    1980-01-01

    A method is described of tritiating sensitive biological molecules by depositing molecules of the substance to be tritiated on a supporting substrate in an evacuated vacuum chamber near, but not in the path of, an electron beam which traverses the chamber, admitting tritium gas into the chamber, and subjecting the tritium to the electron beam. Vibrationally excited tritium gas species are generated which collide and react with the substance thus incorporating tritium atoms into the substance. (U.K.)

  15. Pd based ultrathin membranes for the tritiated water gas shift reaction in the ITER breeder recovery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosti, S.; Bettinali, L.; Violante, V.; Basile, A.; Chiappetta, M.; Criscuoli, A.; Drioli, E.; Rizzelo, C.

    1998-01-01

    A mathematical model of a catalytic membrane reactor (CMR) for the water gas shift reaction has been carried out. Based on the model, a new closed loop process for the tritium removal system for the ITER test module of helium cooled pebble bed blanket concept has been studied. A CMR is the main equipment of the proposed process. The main advantages of the closed loop process are related to the absence of secondary wastes, low tritium inventories, moderate operating temperatures and pressures, low dilution of the stream to be processed by isotopic separation. As permeating membranes in the CMR ultra-thin metallic membranes of Pd and PdAg (50-70 μm thick) have been studied. A ceramic porous tube, containing the catalyst in the lumen, has been put in the metallic tube to obtain the CMR for the water gas shifting. Experimental tests, carried out both on ultra-thin membranes and CMRs for the water gas shift reaction, confirmed the behavior studied by the theoretical model and showed a long live of the membrane. (authors)

  16. The Tritiated Water Skin Barrier Integrity Test: Considerations for Acceptance Criteria with and Without 14C-Octanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Paul A; Beatch, Kacie; Raney, Sam G; Franz, Thomas J

    2017-01-01

    A study was designed to assess barrier integrity simultaneously using separate compounds (probes) for polar and non-polar pathways through the skin, 3 H 2 O and 14 C-octanol, respectively; and to determine whether the two probe approach could better define barrier integrity. A 5-min dose of water containing 3 H 2 O and 14 C -octanol was applied to ex vivo human skin mounted in Franz diffusion cells. The receptor solution was sampled at 30 min, analyzed for 3 H and 14 C content, and the correlation between water and octanol absorption was determined by statistical tests suitable for non-normally distributed data. This study was conducted on skin from 37 donors with from 3 to 30 replicate skin sections per donor (a total of 426 sections). The correlation between 3 H 2 O and 14 C-octanol absorption was low (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.3485). The 3 H 2 O absorption cutoff used in this study to select for a normal skin barrier rejected some sections in which 14 C-octanol absorption was within normal limits and accepted others in which 14 C-octanol absorption was abnormally high. The converse was true for 3 H 2 O absorption when the 14 C-octanol-based cutoff was used. The results of the 3 H 2 O test or of similar tests that primarily assess the permeability of polar pathways through the skin may not necessarily provide information relevant to the absorption of highly lipophilic compounds. Octanol, or another molecule that more closely matches the physicochemical attributes of the test compound, may characterize properties of the skin barrier that are more relevant to compounds of low water solubility.

  17. Tritiated-water heat-tolerance index to predict the growth rate in calves in hot deserts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, T.H.

    1982-01-01

    It was the intention of this study to develop a heat-tolerance index that predicts at an early age the growth rate of calves in a hot desert area (Inshas). Twelve female Friesian calves aged 13-15 months were maintained in climatic chambers for 2 weeks at a mild climate (control), followed by 2 weeks at a hot climate (experimental). Determinations of body water content, body solids, body weight and final rectal temperature were undertaken during the second week of the control and experimental periods. Afterwards the animals were transferred to the farm and maintained outdoors; they were weighed at the end of the 4 summer months. Body water content and rectal temperature were 9.47 and 2.42%, respectively, higher in the hot climate than in the control at P 1 ) or body solids content (X 2 ) that had occurred previously during the 2-weeks heat stress in the climatic chamber by using the equation Y = 39.44 - 1.65X 1 or Y = 45.02 - 1.27X 2 . The standard errors of the regression coefficients for the two equations were 0.094 and 0.132, respectively. The standard errors of the predicted Y for the two equations were 0.207 and 0.218, respectively

  18. Study on dose-response relationship between prenatal exposure to tritiated water and the developmental retardation of brain in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhiyuan; Guo Yuefeng; Wang Mingming

    1993-01-01

    The developmental retardation of brain in rats induced by parenatal exposure to HTO had observed by measuring the contents of cerebral amino acids. The HTO was injected intraperitoneally at the 11 th day of gestation with concentration of 7.4 x 10 3 -3.7 x 10 6 Bq/ml (body water). At 18-day-old the young rats were killed and their brains were separated from skulls. The brains were used to make biochemical specimens for measuring the contents of amino acids. The results showed that the contents of amino acids increases with the dose increased and the relationship between the percentage of the increased contents of amino acids in brain and logarithm of absorbed doses (D, Gy) give a good fit to liner regression equation in range of the absorbed doses from 0.0038-1.9 Gy

  19. Studies on body composition of crossbred lambs determined by tritiated water with 50:50 roughage: concentrate ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyder Ali, Md.; Saxena, K.K.; Shukla, V.P.; Ranjhan, S.K.

    1977-01-01

    Six Muzzaffarnagri x Dorset and six Muzzaffarnagri x Suffolk crossbred lambs were fed 50 : 50 roughage : concentrate ratio having ME of 2.1 Mcal/kg of ratio until they attained 25 kg body weight. Body composition of all the lambs was determined at 25 kg body weight by direct (slaughter method) and indirect (TOH technique) methods. The average corrected TOH space expressed on percent of body weight was found to be 70.48 +- 0.82 and average total body water estimated by desiccation, expressed on percent of body weight, was observed as 69.8 +- 1.08. Body composition of Muzzaffarnagri x Suffolk and Muzzaffarnagri x Dorset crossbred lambs was determined and expressed on empty body weight. The moisture content in Muzzaffarnagri x Dorset crossbred lambs was significantly higher (p<0.05) than in Muzzaffarnagri x Suffolk crossbred lambs but fat and protein contents were not significantly different in the two processes. (author)

  20. Influence of exposure of pregnant rats to tritiated water (HTO) on swimming function and brain weight of their litters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhiyuan; Guo Yuefeng

    1986-01-01

    In order to understand the effects of HTO exposure on the development of central nervous system in rats, the influence of exposure of pregnant rat to HTO on the swimming ability of their litters was studies. Experiment was completed in 21 rats and their 237 litters. It was found that exposure of rats to HTO at activity of 0.185 MBq/ml of body water (5 μCi/ml) or 0.740 MBq/ml (20 μCi/ml), begining on the 8th day of gestation, may retard the development of swimming ability in young litters (up to 18 day of life). These findings indicate that exposure to HTO at lower doses (0.20-1.85 Gy) may resut in a retardation of the function of the development of central nervous system in rats

  1. Tritiated water exposure disrupts myofibril structure and induces mis-regulation of eye opacity and DNA repair genes in zebrafish early life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcanjo, Caroline; Armant, Olivier; Floriani, Magali; Cavalie, Isabelle; Camilleri, Virginie; Simon, Olivier; Orjollet, Daniel; Adam-Guillermin, Christelle; Gagnaire, Béatrice

    2018-04-27

    Tritium ( 3 H) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen. In the environment, the most common form of tritium is tritiated water (HTO). The present study aimed to identify early biomarkers of HTO contamination through the use of an aquatic model, the zebrafish (Danio rerio). We used the zebrafish embryo-larvae model to investigate the modes of action of HTO exposure at dose rates of 0.4 and 4 mGy/h, dose rates expected to induce deleterious effects on fish. Zebrafish were exposed to HTO from 3 hpf (hours post fertilization) to 96 hpf. The transcriptomic effects were investigated 24 h and 96 h after the beginning of the contamination, using mRNAseq. Results suggested an impact of HTO contamination, regardless of the dose rate, on genes involved in muscle contraction (tnnt2d, tnni2a.4, slc6a1a or atp2a1l) and eye opacity (crygm2d9, crygmxl1, mipb or lim2.3) after 24 h of contamination. Interestingly, an opposite differential expression was highlighted in genes playing a role in muscle contraction and eye opacity in 24 hpf embryos when comparing dose rates, suggesting an onset of DNA protective mechanisms. The expression of h2afx and ddb2 involved in DNA repair was enhanced in response to HTO exposure. The entrainment of circadian clock and the response to H 2 O 2 signalling pathways were enriched at 96 hpf at 0.4 mGy/h and in both stages after 4 mGy/h. Genes involved in ROS scavenging were differentially expressed only after 24 h of exposure for the lowest dose rate, suggesting the onset of early protective mechanisms against oxidative stress. Effects highlighted on muscle at the molecular scale were confirmed at a higher biological scale, as electron microscopy observations revealed sarcomere impairments in 96 hpf larvae for both dose rates. Together with other studies, the present work provides useful data to better understand modes of action of tritium on zebrafish embryos-larvae. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Pathways for Disposal of Commercially-Generated Tritiated Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halverson, Nancy V. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Environmental Sciences and Biotechnology

    2016-09-26

    From a waste disposal standpoint, tritium is a major challenge. Because it behaves like hydrogen, tritium exchanges readily with hydrogen in the ground water and moves easily through the ground. Land disposal sites must control the tritium activity and mobility of incoming wastes to protect human health and the environment. Consequently, disposal of tritiated low-level wastes is highly regulated and disposal options are limited. The United States has had eight operating commercial facilities licensed for low-level radioactive waste disposal, only four of which are currently receiving waste. Each of these is licensed and regulated by its state. Only two of these sites accept waste from states outside of their specified regional compact. For waste streams that cannot be disposed directly at one of the four active commercial low-level waste disposal facilities, processing facilities offer various forms of tritiated low-level waste processing and treatment, and then transport and dispose of the residuals at a disposal facility. These processing facilities may remove and recycle tritium, reduce waste volume, solidify liquid waste, remove hazardous constituents, or perform a number of additional treatments. Waste brokers also offer many low-level and mixed waste management and transportation services. These services can be especially helpful for small-quantity tritiated-waste generators, such as universities, research institutions, medical facilities, and some industries. The information contained in this report covers general capabilities and requirements for the various disposal/processing facilities and brokerage companies, but is not considered exhaustive. Typically, each facility has extensive waste acceptance criteria and will require a generator to thoroughly characterize their wastes. Then a contractual agreement between the waste generator and the disposal/processing/broker entity must be in place before waste is accepted. Costs for tritiated waste

  3. Pathways for Disposal of Commercially-Generated Tritiated Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halverson, Nancy V.

    2016-01-01

    From a waste disposal standpoint, tritium is a major challenge. Because it behaves like hydrogen, tritium exchanges readily with hydrogen in the ground water and moves easily through the ground. Land disposal sites must control the tritium activity and mobility of incoming wastes to protect human health and the environment. Consequently, disposal of tritiated low-level wastes is highly regulated and disposal options are limited. The United States has had eight operating commercial facilities licensed for low-level radioactive waste disposal, only four of which are currently receiving waste. Each of these is licensed and regulated by its state. Only two of these sites accept waste from states outside of their specified regional compact. For waste streams that cannot be disposed directly at one of the four active commercial low-level waste disposal facilities, processing facilities offer various forms of tritiated low-level waste processing and treatment, and then transport and dispose of the residuals at a disposal facility. These processing facilities may remove and recycle tritium, reduce waste volume, solidify liquid waste, remove hazardous constituents, or perform a number of additional treatments. Waste brokers also offer many low-level and mixed waste management and transportation services. These services can be especially helpful for small-quantity tritiated-waste generators, such as universities, research institutions, medical facilities, and some industries. The information contained in this report covers general capabilities and requirements for the various disposal/processing facilities and brokerage companies, but is not considered exhaustive. Typically, each facility has extensive waste acceptance criteria and will require a generator to thoroughly characterize their wastes. Then a contractual agreement between the waste generator and the disposal/processing/broker entity must be in place before waste is accepted. Costs for tritiated waste

  4. Biogenesis of tritiated and carbon-14 methane from low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, A.J.; Dobbs, S.; Doering, R.F.

    1980-01-01

    Methane bacteria were detected in leachate samples collected from commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. Significant amounts of tritiated and carbon-14 methane were generated by a mixed methanogenic culture from a leachate sample collected from the low-level radioactive waste disposal site, Maxey Flats, KY. Tritiated methane was produced by methane bacteria from synthetic media containing 2 mCi of tritium as tritiated water or tritiated acetate, and the level of tritium added to the medium had no effect on methanogenesis. Under anaerobic conditions the organic compounds containing 14 C and 3 H activity and tritiated water in the waste are metabolized by microorganisms and they produce radioactive gases which escape into the environment from the disposal sites. 4 figures, 3 tables

  5. Some effects of irradiation of mice in utero with tritiated compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, B E; Phipps, M L [Radiobiology Department, The Medical College of Bartholomew' s Hospital, London, UK

    1978-01-01

    Mice have been exposed continuously, in utero, to tritiated water (via the maternal drinking water) or to tritiated thymidine (infused continuously into the mother). In both cases the patterns of labeling and subsequent loss of tritium over an extended period have been studied. The technique of infusion in unrestrained mice and its application in the production of fully tritium-labeled offspring is described in some detail. These fully labeled mice are being used to study a number of early and late effects, in particular, gonad cell effects and carcinogenesis, following this form of internal irradiation. Some preliminary results are presented. Similar results produced by homogeneous irradiation from tritiated water are also reported.

  6. Use of tritiated water as indicator of the water metabolism on normal and operate patients; Emploi de l'eau tritiee comme indicateur du metabolisme de l'eau chez les sujets normaux et operes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallot, P; Aeberhardt, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    Water disruptions are very frequent during the medical and surgical affections. In order to study the kinetics of the water exchanges as well as the determination of the total water of the body, we have chosen tritiated water as indicator. This work presents a rapid process, faithful and sensitive of dosage of the Tritium in the biologic liquids. This method has been applied to the survey of the intestinal absorption of water among normal subjects and during some medical and surgical affections. The exam of the experimental curves permitted to get information concerning the kinetics of water ingested as well as of data on the volume of total water of the human body and on the biologic period of the Tritium in the organism. (M.B.) [French] Les perturbations hydriques sont tres frequentes au cours des affections medicales et chirurgicales. Afin d'etudier la cinetique des echanges hydriques ainsi que la determination de l'eau totale du corps, nous avons choisit l'eau tritiee comme indicateur. Ce travail presente une methode rapide, fidele et sensible de dosage du Tritium dans les liquides biologiques. Cette methode a ete appliquee a l'etude de l'absorption intestinale de l'eau chez des sujets normaux et au cours de certaines affections medicales et chirurgicales. L'examen des courbes experimentales ont permis d'obtenir des renseignements concernant la cinetique de l'eau ingeree ainsi que des donnees sur le volume d'eau totale du corps humain et sur la periode biologique du Tritium dans l'organisme. (M.B.)

  7. The electrochemical corrosion behavior of austenitic alloys, cobalt or nickel based super alloys, structurally hardened martensitic, Inconel, zircaloy, super austenitic, duplex and of Ni-Cr or NTi deposits in tritiated water. 3 volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellanger, G.

    1994-01-01

    The redox potential of 3 H 2 O, as well as the corrosion potentials in this medium are found, abnormally, in the trans-passive region. This is completely different from the behavior in the chemical industry or in the water in nuclear powers. With such behavior, there will be breakdowns of the protective oxide layers, and in the presence of chloride there will be immediate pitting. The steels that are most resistant to this behavior are the super austenitic and super Duplex. To avoid corrosion, another solution is to decompose the radiolytic products by imposing a slight reducing potential. Corrosion inhibitors, which are stable in tritiated water, can be used. (author). 69 refs., 421 figs., tabs

  8. An overview of SCK-CEN's technological research for the treatment of tritiated waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braet, J.; Bruggeman, A.; Vanderbiesen, S.

    2004-01-01

    The production of fusion energy involves the use of huge amounts of tritium, of the order of 4 x 10 19 Bq/Gwe.a. Therefore operation and dismantling of test installations and future commercial fusion reactors are not possible without the production of tritiated waste. Various categories of tritiated waste are and will be produced which require different detritiation techniques to lower the initial tritium content in the samples and to allow final waste disposal of the partly detritiated material and of all by-products generated in the processes. The current internationally adopted strategy is to convert all kinds of tritiated waste into tritiated water, which can then be treated in one water detritiation installation. Since several years SCK-CEN has been developing techniques for the treatment of tritiated waste. Amongst them technologies for the treatment of tritiated organic liquids, surface contaminated metals, contaminated concrete and most importantly water detritiation. The so-called liquid phase catalytic exchange for water detritiation requires an efficient catalyst that should furthermore be hydrophobic because of the low solubility and hence slow diffusion of hydrogen in the water layer that covers normal catalysts. In the past SCK-CEN invented and developed such a catalyst which has recently been optimized and tested in a bench scale installation. To confirm the performances of our improved catalyst for a longer period of time and in a longer column, we are now doing tests in a 2 meter high trickle bed reactor and the endurance of the catalyst is being tested at ICSI. Using a good performing catalyst, LPCE will be, in combination with electrolysis, a technically and economically sound technology for water detritiation. Other R and D focuses on the development of a system do decontaminate surface contaminated metals and concrete using superheated steam. The resulting water can in its turn be treated in a water detritiation installation. For the purpose of

  9. Effluent dispersion in natural water receivers (tracer examination)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szpilowski, S.; Owczarczyk, A.; Chmielewski, A.G.

    1993-01-01

    Tracer methods constitute very convenient means for observation and examination of effluent dispersion and dilution processes in natural water receivers. In the report there are presented methods developed and used by the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology (INCT) to measure mixing parameters in natural streams to determine distances of complete transverse mixing as well as to assess and predict dispersion of sewage in large water reservoirs. There are also presented the methods of predicting initial stage of dispersion of sewage discharged into large water reservoirs through underwater out falls and the method for determining the decomposition rates of effluent entering a natural water receiver. The methods presented can be used in analysis of pollution in a given water region, in selection of optimal sewage out fall locations as well as in prediction of effluent dilution intensity at different hydro- and meteorological conditions. (author). 27 refs, 15 figs, 2 tabs

  10. Dry decontamination for tritiated wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Zhengkun; Wu Tao; Dan Guiping; Xie Yun

    2009-01-01

    To aim at decontamination of tritiated wastes, we have developed and fabricated a dry tritium decontamination system, which is designed to reduce tritium surface contamination of various alloy by UV, ozone and heating. The result indicates that the elevation of temperature can obviously improve decontamination effect. With 3 h irradiation by 365 nm UV at 220 degree C, it has a decontamination rate of 99% to stainless steel surface. Ozone can more obviously improve decontamination effect when metal was heated. Ozone has a decontamination effect beyond 95% to stainless steel, aluminum and brass at 220 degree C. Tritium surface concentration of metal has a little increase after decontamination. (authors)

  11. Tritiation and Stability Measurements of Nitroxide for Betavoltaic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    source compounds include low beta-flux power, intrinsic isotope leakage , and beta self-absorption. The figure of merit for a tritiated compound is...graphane, fully hydrogenated graphene. Graphane is not reactive in water or air; it has theoretical higher mechanical and thermal strength than graphene...bonded to the side group of the nitroxide radical TEMPO 6-membered ring. The ester-cleaved product is detectable and is used to assess the specific

  12. Evaluation of storage conditions for tritiated thymidine as reference organically-bound tritium in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duong, T.; Trivedi, A.

    1997-01-01

    Interlaboratory intercomparison exercises have used tritiated thymidine as a reference material for organically-bound tritium (OBT) measurements in urine. We have examined the effects of storage conditions on the degradation behavior of tritium from OBT to tritiated water (HTO) in artificial and natural human urine samples. Tritiated thymidine decomposed less readily in artificial urine than natural urine samples. The degradation rate of tritiated thymidine in artificial urine, at -20 deg C, is about 10% for the first month. The rate of tritium conversion from OBT to HTO is the same at 4 deg C, but this storage temperature is less preferable, because of the danger of microbial contamination in the reference samples. The storage of the reference urine samples beyond three months after the preparation date is not recommended for quality control measurement data. (author)

  13. Life-cycle testing of receiving waters with Ceriodaphnia dubia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, A.J.; Konetsky, B.K.

    1996-12-31

    Seven-day tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia are commonly used to estimate toxicity of effluents or receiving waters but can sometimes yield {open_quotes}no toxicity{close_quotes} outcomes even if pollutants are present. We conducted two sets of full life-cycle tests with C. dubia to (1) see if tests with longer exposure periods would reveal evidence for toxicity that might not be evident from 7-day tests, and (2) determine the relative importance of water quality versus food as factors influencing C. dubia reproduction. In the first set of tests, C. dubia was reared in diluted mineral water (negative control), water from a stream impacted by coal fly-ash, or water from a retention basin containing sediments contaminated with mercury, other metals and polychlorinated biphenyls. The second set of tests used water from the retention basin only, but this water was either filtered or not filtered, and food was either added or not added, prior to testing. C. dubia survival and reproduction did not differ much among the three water types in the first set of tests, but these two parameters were strongly affected by the filtering and food-addition treatments in the second set of tests. Thus, C. dubia appeared to be relatively insensitive to general water-quality factors, but quite sensitive to food-related factors. Regression analyses showed that the predictability of life-time reproduction by C. dubia from the results of 7-day tests was very low (R{sup 2}< 0.35) in five of the six experiments. The increase in predictability as a function of test duration also differed among water types in the first set of tests, and among treatments in the second set of tests. Thus, 7-day tests with C. dubia may be used to quantify water-quality problems, but it may not be possible to reliably extrapolate the results of these tests to longer time scales.

  14. Longevity and reproduction of Ceriodaphnia dubia in receiving waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, A.J.; Konetsky, B.K.

    1998-01-01

    Seven-day tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia are commonly used to estimate toxicity of effluents or receiving waters but can sometimes yield no toxicity outcomes even if pollutants are present. The authors conducted two sets of full life-cycle tests with C. dubia to (1) determine whether tests with longer exposure periods to low concentrations of contaminants in ambient water might reveal evidence of toxicity that could not be discerned from 7-d tests and (2) determine the relative importance of water quality versus food as factors influencing C. dubia longevity and reproduction. In the first set of tests, C. dubia was reared in diluted mineral water (a negative control), water from a stream impacted by coal fly-ash, or water from a retention basin containing sediments contaminated with mercury, other metals, and polychlorinated biphenyls. The second set of tests used water from the retention basin only. Before testing, though, water in the second set of tests was either filtered or not filtered, and food was either added or not added. Ceriodaphnia dubia longevity and reproduction did not differ much among the three water types in the first set of tests, but both longevity and reproduction were strongly affected by the filtering and food-addition treatments in the second set of tests. Thus, C. dubia appeared to be relatively insensitive to general water quality factors but sensitive to food-related factors. In five of the six full life-cycle tests, lifetime reproduction by C. dubia could not be reliably predicted from reproduction data from the first 7 d of testing. The increase in predictability of lifetime reproduction of C. dubia as a function of test duration also differed among water types in the first set of tests and among treatments in the second set of tests. This, it may not be possible to reliably extrapolate the results of 7-d tests with C. dubia to longer time scales

  15. Life-cycle testing of receiving waters with Ceriodaphnia dubia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, A.J.; Beane, B.K.

    1995-01-01

    Seven-day tests with Ceriodaphnia are commonly used to estimate the toxicity of effluents or receiving waters, but may yield no toxicity outcomes even when pollutants are present (a possible type II error). The authors conducted two sets of full life-cycle tests with C. dubia to (1) see if tests with longer exposure periods revealed evidence for toxicity that might not be evident from shorter tests, and (2) determine the relative importance of water quality versus food as factors influencing C. dubia reproduction. In the first set of tests, daphnids were reared in diluted mineral water (control), water from a stream impacted by coal fly-ash, or water from a mercury-contaminated retention basin. The second set of tests used water from the retention basin only, but this water was either filtered or not filtered, and food was either added or not added. C. dubia survival and reproduction did not differ much among the three waters in the first set of tests. However, both parameters were strongly affected by the filtering and food-addition treatments in the second set of tests. Thus, C. dubia seems to be moderately insensitive to general water-quality factors, but quite sensitive to food-related parameters. Regression analysis showed that the predictability of life-time reproduction of C. dubia from 7-day test results was low in five of six cases. The increase in predictability as a function of test duration also differed among water types (first set of tests), and among treatments (second set of tests). Thus, 7-day tests with C. dubia may be used to quantify water-quality problems, but it may not be possible to reliably extrapolate the results of such tests to longer time scales

  16. Digestibility of cow's tritiated milk powder by calf and pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruwaene, R. van; Kirchmann, R.; Charles, P.; Hoek, J. van den

    1976-01-01

    Milk obtained from a lactating cow, maintained in a byre and fed on tritiated drinking water (266 μCi/1), was used in these experiments. Tritium moves into the different metabolic pathways that eventually produce milk. After administration of this continuous oral dose of tritiated water, the tritium content of the whole milk and of the dry matter reaches a plateau 10 days after the beginning of the ingestion of THO. Analysis of the radioactivity in the several milk constituents indicated that tritium was incorporated to different extents in different components. This in vivo tritiated milk powder was fed to two calves and three pigs in their rations. Daily samples of faeces were taken. For determining the digestibility and the incorporation of this milk powder the animals were slaughtered and several organs examined. The tritium activity was determined in the dry matter of the organs and the faeces. The data obtained in these experiments indicate that the milk powder is better absorbed by the calf if the digestibility coefficient is taken into consideration, but the milk powder is better incorporated in the organic matter of the muscle and liver of the pig. (author)

  17. Temporal and spatial patterns of micropollutants in urban receiving waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musolff, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.musolff@ufz.d [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Hydrogeology, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Leschik, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastian.leschik@ufz.d [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Hydrogeology, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Moeder, Monika, E-mail: monika.moeder@ufz.d [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Strauch, Gerhard, E-mail: gerhard.strauch@ufz.d [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Hydrogeology, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Reinstorf, Frido, E-mail: frido.reinstorf@hs-magdeburg.d [University of Applied Sciences Magdeburg-Stendal, Department of Water and Waste Management, Breitscheidstr. 2, 39114 Magdeburg (Germany); Schirmer, Mario, E-mail: mario.schirmer@eawag.c [Eawag, The Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Department of Water Resources and Drinking Water, Ueberlandstr. 133, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2009-11-15

    Based on a monitoring program over the course of a year, we characterize the temporal and spatial distribution of selected micropollutants in an urban watershed within the city of Leipzig, Germany. Micropollutants revealed a ubiquitous presence in untreated and treated wastewater, surface water and groundwater. The loads of 4-nonylphenol in the effluents of the municipal wastewater treatment plant followed a seasonal trend, whereas the loads of all other micropollutants were highly variable and not correlated to seasons. In the surface water, load seasonality of caffeine, galaxolide and tonalide resulted from a rapid removal with increased water temperature. The loads of 4-nonylphenol and of caffeine in the colder months increased when rainfall occurred. In the groundwater, complex spatial and temporal patterns were apparent and were related to varying input, retardation and removal processes. As a consequence, an assessment of micropollutants in urban waters should consider different micropollutants' temporal and spatial variability. - Micropollutants in urban receiving waters are characterized by variable temporal and spatial concentration and load patterns that have to be considered in risk assessments.

  18. Some effects of irradiation of mice in utero with tritiated compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, B.E.; Phipps, M.L.

    1978-01-01

    Mice have been exposed continuously, in utero, to tritiated water (via the maternal drinking water) or to tritiated thymidine (infused continuously into the mother). In both cases the patterns of labeling and subsequent loss of tritium over an extended period have been studied. The technique of infusion in unrestrained mice and its application in the production of fully tritium-labeled offspring is described in some detail. These fully labeled mice are being used to study a number of early and late effects, in particular, gonad cell effects and carcinogenesis, following this form of internal irradiation. Some preliminary results are presented. Similar results produced by homogeneous irradiation from tritiated water are also reported. (Auth.)

  19. Incorporation and distribution of tritium in rats after chronic exposure to various tritiated compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, H.

    1991-01-01

    Rats were chronically exposed to tritiated water ( 3 HHO) and several tritiated organic compounds ([ 3 H]leucine, [ 3 H]lysine, [ 3 H]glucose, [ 3 H]glucosamine, [ 3 H]thymidine and [ 3 H]uridine) dissolved in their drinking water. An analysis of tritium in wet and dry tissues of rats at the end of 22 days' chronic exposure showed that the chemical form of the ingested tritium was more important for tritium uptake in dry tissues than in wet tissues. The highest concentrations of OBT (organically bound tritium) were found in rats exposed to tritiated amino acids ([sup (3)/H]lysine and [ 3 H]leucine), 4-9 times higher than those in rats exposed to 3 HHO. The next highest concentrations were found in rats exposed to [ 3 H]uridine., The result of radiation dose estimations at the end of chronic exposure showed the contribution of OBT to total dose rate was higher in the tissues of rats exposed to tritiated organic compounds than that after exposure to 3 HHO. The differences between total dose rates from 3 HHO and those from tritiated organic compounds were within a factor of 2. (author)

  20. Formation of volatile decomposition products by self-radiolysis of tritiated thymidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiba, Kazuhiro; Mori, Hirofumi

    1997-01-01

    In order to estimate the internal exposure dose in an experiment using tritiated thymidine, the rate of volatile 3 H-decomposition of several tritiated thymidine samples was measured. The decomposition rate of (methyl- 3 H)thymidine in water was over 80% in less than one year after initial analysis. (methyl- 3 H)thymidine was decomposed into volatile and non-volatile 3 H-decomposition products. The ratio of volatile 3 H-decomposition products increased with increasing the rate of the decomposition of (methyl- 3 H) thymidine. The volatile 3 H-decomposition products consisted of two components, of which the main component was tritiated water. Internal exposure dose caused by the inhalation of such volatile 3 H-decomposition products of (methyl- 3 H) thymidine was assumed to be several μSv. (author)

  1. Excretion and intestinal absorption of tritiated glutamic acid by carp, Cyprinus Carpio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, Terushia; Kistner, G.

    1986-01-01

    Excretion and intestinal absorption of tritiated glutamic acid by carp was investigated. Approximately 80% of orally administered tritium was excreted at a half life value of 1.4 h and an observed slower excretion of 7 days for the remainder. Tritium incorporated in glutamic acid was efficiently retained at the site of absorption, i.e. intestine, liver, gill, kidney, blood and muscle. A dual marking experiment using tritiated glutamic acid and 14 C-market glutamic acid showed higher excretion of tritium by factors 2.0 to 4.9 than that of 14 C. Tritiated glutamic acid is considered to be mainly incorporated in the citric acid cycle soon after administration and the release of tritium in tritiated water through the cycle is assumed as causing the initial rapid excretion of tritium in carp. The intestinal absorption of glutamic acid was likely to depend on its concentration in the administered solution. The maximum level of absorption is estimated to be 0.1 m mol/0.5 h for one year old carp. The results obtained here would make it possible to estimate the tritium contamination of fish due to tritiated glutamic acid entering the food chain. (orig.)

  2. Treatment of tritiated exhaust gases at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutter, E.; Besserer, U. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany); Jacqmin, G. [NUKEM GmbH, Industreistr, Alzenau (Germany)

    1995-02-01

    The Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK) accomplished commissioning; tritium involving activities will start this year. The laboratory is destined mainly to investigating processing of fusion reactor fuel and to developing analytic devices for determination of tritium and tritiated species in view of control and accountancy requirements. The area for experimental work in the laboratory is about 800 m{sup 2}. The tritium infrastructure including systems for tritium storage, transfer within the laboratory and processing by cleanup and isotope separation methods has been installed on an additional 400 m{sup 2} area. All tritium processing systems (=primary systems), either of the tritium infrastructure or of the experiments, are enclosed in secondary containments which consist of gloveboxes, each of them connected to the central depressurization system, a part integrated in the central detritiation system. The atmosphere of each glovebox is cleaned in a closed cycle by local detritiation units controlled by two tritium monitors. Additionally, the TLK is equipped with a central detritiation system in which all gases discharged from the primary systems and the secondary systems are processed. All detritiation units consist of a catalyst for oxidizing gaseous tritium or tritiated hydrocarbons to water, a heat exchanger for cooling the catalyst reactor exhaust gas to room temperature, and a molecular sieve bed for adsorbing the water. Experiments with tracer amounts of tritium have shown that decontamination factors >3000 can be achieved with the TLK detritiation units. The central detritiation system was carefully tested and adjusted under normal and abnormal operation conditions. Test results and the behavior of the tritium barrier preventing tritiated exhaust gases from escaping into the atmosphere will be reported.

  3. Electrochemical impedance spectrometry using Inconel 690, zircaloy 4, 316Ti steel, 17-4-PH, UR52N et URSB8. Simulation in tritiated water. Tome 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellanger, G.

    1994-11-01

    The redox potential of 3 H 2 O, as well as the corrosion potentials in this medium are found, abnormally, in the trans-passive region. This is completely different from behavior in the chemical industry or in the water in nuclear powers. With such behavior, there will be breakdowns of the protective oxide layers, and in the presence of chloride there will be immediate pitting. Polarization and electrochemical impedance spectrometry curves are presented and discussed. These curves make it possible to ascertain the corrosion domains and to compare the kinetics of different stainless steel alloys. These corrosion kinetics and the corrosion potentials provide a classification of the steels studied here: Inconel 690, zircaloy 4, 316 Ti steel, 17-4-PH, UR52N et URSB8. From the results it can be concluded that URSB8 has the best corrosion resistance. (author). 13 refs., 522 figs., tabs

  4. Electrochemical impedance spectrometry using Inconel 690, zircaloy 4, 316Ti steel, 17-4-PH, UR52N et URSB8. Simulation in tritiated water. Tome 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellanger, G.

    1994-11-01

    The redox potential of 3 H 2 O, as well as the corrosion potentials in this medium are found, abnormally, in the trans-passive region. This is completely different from the behavior in the chemical industry or in the water in nuclear powers. With such behavior, there will be breakdowns of the protective oxide layers, and in the presence of chloride there will be immediate pitting. Polarization and electrochemical impedance spectrometry curves are presented and discussed. These curves make it possible to ascertain the corrosion domains and to compare the kinetics of different stainless alloys. These corrosion kinetics and the corrosion potentials provide a classification of the steels studied here: Inconel 690, zircaloy 4, 316 Ti steel, 17-4-PH, UR52N et URSB8. From the results it can be concluded that URSB8 has the best corrosion resistance. (author). 279 figs., tabs

  5. Study of the bipolar electrolysis of the tritiated water applied to the hydrogen isotopes separation by electrochemical permeation threw Pd-Ag alloy membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinze, S.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the study is to enrich waters of poor tritium concentration, by electrolysis in the same time of an hydrogen emission of low activity. In this framework the hydrogen electrochemical permeation threw Pd-Ag alloy membranes has been used. The first part of the study concerns the hydrogen and the deuterium diffusion threw these membranes. The activation and the thermal treatments influence have been studied. A relation between the membrane microstructure and the diffusion mechanism has been proposed. The second part of the study is devoted to the hydrogen gate mechanism determination in the membrane by impedance spectroscopy. The last part concerns the determination of the isotopic separation factor hydrogen-deuterium. Experimental results agree the calculated theoretical data. The operation of an operational membrane cell has been simulated and the process feasibility has been proved. (A.L.B.)

  6. Process of preparing tritiated porous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Shiu-Wing

    1997-01-01

    A process of preparing tritiated porous silicon in which porous silicon is equilibrated with a gaseous vapor containing HT/T.sub.2 gas in a diluent for a time sufficient for tritium in the gas phase to replace hydrogen present in the pore surfaces of the porous silicon.

  7. Storage of solid tritiated waste for which there is no management solution; L'entreposage des dechets solides trities sans filiere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fromonot, C.; Rancher, J. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, Dir. des applications militaires, 91 (France); Douche, Ch.; Guetat, Ph. [CEA Valduc, Dir. des applications militaires, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France)

    2011-02-15

    In France, radioactive waste that contains tritium, the radioactive isotope of hydrogen, is produced by the CEA as part of its research and development activities, especially for military applications. There is currently no definitive disposal solution for this waste, so it is processed and packaged and then kept in interim storage at Valduc and Marcoule. Furthermore, industrial companies and medical and pharmaceutical research laboratories use tritium - or have done so in the past - for a number of applications which have led to the production of tritiated waste, a small amount of which is still awaiting a disposal solution. Lastly, beginning in the 2020 years, the ITER power plant will also generate tritiated waste and become the largest source of its production. 6 categories of tritiated waste have been defined. Only the very lowest concentrations of tritiated waste can be dealt with by the processing and disposal solutions currently available. This means CENTRACO, where very low-level tritiated waste can be incinerated or melted, and ANDRA repositories, where the acceptance criteria are very strict, making it very uncommon for them to be used for tritiated waste. This situation is a result of the characteristics of tritium and the history of the Aube repository. The proposed solution is based on a temporary storage (50 years) of tritiated waste near the production zone that will allow a natural diminution of the radioactivity and then the packages will be moved to future storing centers of ANDRA that will be built to receive tritiated wastes

  8. Electrochemical impedance spectrometry using 316L steel, hastelloy, maraging, Inconel 600, Elgiloy, carbon steel, TiN and NiCr. Simulation in tritiated water. 2 volumes; Spectrometrie d`impedance electrochimique sur acier 316L, hastelloy, maraging inconel 600, elgiloy, acier au carbone, TiN, NiCr. Simulations en eau tritiee. 2 volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellanger, G.

    1994-03-01

    Polarization and electrochemical impedance spectrometry curves are presented and discussed. These curves make it possible to ascertain the corrosion domains and to compare the slow and fast kinetics (voltammetry) of different stainless steel alloys. These corrosion kinetics, the actual or simulated tritiated water redox potentials, and the corrosion potentials provide a classification of the steels studied here: 316L, Hastelloy, Maraging, Inconel 600, Elgiloy, carbon steel and TiN and NiCr deposits. From the results it can be concluded that Hastelloy and Elgiloy have the best corrosion resistance. (author). 49 refs., 695 figs., tabs.

  9. Tritiated uracil, tritiated thymidine, and bromodeoxyuridine induced mutations in eucaryotic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burki, H.J.; Moustacchi, E.; Cleaver, J.E.

    1979-02-01

    The induction of gene conversion at the ARG-4 locus in strain BZ34 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was examined after the cells incorporated y- 3 H uracil under optimum growth conditions for 16 hours, and then received damage at 4 0 C from tritium decays at very low dose rates of 1.4 to 27.6 tritium decays per hour. The results were compared to the results of gene conversion induced by 60 Co. The induction of resistance to 6TG in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells has been studied after incorporation of 3 H-methyl thymidine, 6- 3 H-thymidine, and bromodeoxyuridine under several experimental conditions. The induction of mutations by incorporated 6- 3 H-thymidine is about three times as effective as the induction of mutations by tritiated-methyl thymidine. These results suggest that the determination of the RBE for tritium decays in model eucaryotic systems like yeast and cultured Chinese hamster cells will be influenced by the precise experimental conditions employed. In particular, experiments with mammalian cells will be affected by hot times for mutagenesis in the cell cycle and hot positions within the DNA in the nucleus, and also by the position of tritium decay within the DNA-incorporated molecule

  10. Precipitation scavenging of tritiated water vapour (HTO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogram, G.L.

    1985-10-01

    Precipitation scavenging (or washout) is an important mechanism for the removal of HTO from the atmosphere. Methods of parameterizing the depletion of a plume of HTO released to the atmosphere are examined. Simple approaches, commonly used for atmospheric transport modelling purposes, such as the use of a constant washout coefficient or washout ratio, or the use of parameters based on equilibrium assumptions, are often not justified. It is shown that these parameters depend strongly on ambient temperature and plume dimensions, as well as rainfall rate. An approximate expression for washout ratio, as a function of these variables, is developed, and it is shown that near equilibrium washout conditions are only expected to hold at long plume travel distances. A possible method of treating scavenging by snow is also suggested

  11. Advances in the electrolysis of tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierini, G.; Spelta, B.; Maffei, S.; Modica, G.; Perez, G.; Possagno, E.

    1988-01-01

    The exhaust plasma processing plant, proposed a few years ago as an alternative to the Tritium Systems Test Assembly plant in operation at Los Alamos National Laboratory, required further research in such areas as low liquid inventory electrolytic cell and the types of separator or membrane resistant to beta radiation. Moreover, it was suggested that the value of the separation factors among H/sub 2/, D/sub 2/, and T/sub 2/ should be checked during electrolysis at high D/sub 2/O concentration in a alkaline medium by using different materials for the cathode. The results of experimental work carried out in these directions have shown the feasibility of the process, although some improvements can still be made in the optimization of the separators and in the design of the cell. The research carried out at the Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy, with support from other institutes, is described

  12. Water excretion mechanisms of the kidney studied in the rabbit using tritiated water during the stop-flow assay; Les mecanismes d'excretion de l'eau par le rein etudies a l'aide d'eau tritiee chez le lapin au cours de l'epreuve de diurese interrompue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morel, F.; Amiel, CI.; Falbriard, A. [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA, Service de Biologie (France)

    1960-07-01

    The pattern of water turnover in the kidney and the mechanisms of water transfer into the urine have been studied in the rabbit using tritiated water as a tracer and the stop-flow technique. The experiments have given the following results: a) During the interruption of the diuresis, the injected tritiated water is completely exchanged with the water of the renal cortex, but the tracer does not reach the deep regions of the kidney, despite the fact that the blood circulation is maintained in these regions; this suggests that the vascular loops of the vasa recta function as a mechanism of water exchange by countercurrent. b) During the osmotic polyuria following the stop-flow period, the concentration gradient of tritiated water inside the kidney diminishes progressively. The concentration of the tracer in the urine is at all time similar to that existing in the deep medulla and the renal papilla and markedly different from that of the cortex or arterial blood. This fact shows that the molecules of water in the urine excreted do not come from either the glomerular filtrate or the convoluted tubules but from the water contained in the deep regions of the kidney. Also these results indicate that the walls of the collecting ducts have a very high permeability to water diffusion. Reprint of a paper published in Revue francaise d'etudes cliniques et biologiques, Vol. IV, no. 8, p. 773-779, 1959 [French] Les modalites du renouvellement de l'eau dans le rein et les mecanismes de son passage dans l'urine ont ete etudies chez le lapin a l'aide d'eau tritiee, employee comme indicateur au cours de l'epreuve de 'diurese interrompue' (stop flow). Les experiences effectuees montrent que: a) pendant l'interruption de la diurese, l'eau tritiee injectee s'echange completement avec l'eau contenue dans le cortex renal, mais elle n'atteint pratiquement pas les regions profondes du rein, bien que la circulation sanguine y soit maintenue; cette observation suggere que les anses

  13. Excretion of organic and inorganic tritiated compounds in cow's milk after ingestion of tritium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Hoek, J.; Gerber, G.B.; Kirchmann, R.

    1980-01-01

    The secretion in milk of tritium as water and organic molecules (casein and lipids) was studied after giving cows tritiated water for a period of 25 days. The data indicate that after a single application, tritium is mainly excreted as tritium water of rapid turnover. After continuous application, molecules with long half life, particularly lipids, become more important and may represent somewhat more than 4% of the total. (H.K.)

  14. Synthesis of adenosine triphosphate tritiated in position 2 and 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cossery, Jean-Michel

    1986-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphate or ATP is an important molecule present at the cellular level in many fundamental biochemical mechanism, and the study of its metabolism is therefore of particular interest. In this thesis for pharmacy graduation, the author first describes the different steps of synthesis and purification leading to chloride-2-ATP, a precursor of the final tritiated molecule. Then, the author explains the tritiation of this molecule to obtain an ATP tritiated in position 2 and in position 8 [fr

  15. Potential for tumor therapy with tritiated tetracycline. Summary evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, R.C.; Wood, P.; Wood, L.L.; Mendelsohn, M.L.

    1976-01-01

    Reports of tetracycline accumulation in human and animal tumors have led a number of investigators to postulate that this drug, if radio-labeled, might have potential as a therapeutic or diagnostic agent. This paper describes attempts to investigate this potential for tritiated tetracycling. The therapeutic studies demonstrated that while a significant reduction in the growth rates of transplanted tumors could be obtained by the administration of heavy doses of TTC relative to uninjected controls, similar reductions were observed in the growth rates of tumors in animals receiving unlabeled TC. In the localization studies in rodents, the concentrations of TTC in normal tissues and tumors were compared and were correlated with the corresponding concentrations of 14 C-thymidine, a measure of proliferative activity

  16. Nutrient storage rates in a national marsh receiving waste water

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.A. Nyman

    2000-01-01

    Artificial wetlands are commonly used to improve water quality in rivers and the coastal zone. In most wetlands associated with rivers, denitrification is probably the primary process that reduces nutrient loading. Where rivers meet oceans, however, significant amounts of nutrients might be permanently buried in wetlands because of global sea-level rise and regional...

  17. Greater Vancouver's water supply receives ozone treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosby, J.; Singh, I.; Reil, D. D.; Neden, G.

    2000-10-01

    To improve the overall quality of the treated water delivered to the member municipalities of the Greater Vancouver Water District (GVWD), the GVWD implemented a phased drinking water quality improvement program. The phased treatment program is directed at attaining effective disinfection while minimizing the formation of chlorinated disinfection by-products. Accordingly, the current primary disinfection method of chlorination was reevaluated and an ozone primary disinfection without filtration was authorized. Ozonization provides increased protection against Giardia and Cryptosporidium and a decrease in the formation potential for disinfection by-products (DPBs). This paper describes the design for the ozonation facility at Coquitlam, construction of which began in 1998 and completed during the summer of 2000. The facility houses the liquid oxygen supply, ozone generation, cooling water, ozone injection, primary off-gas ozone destruct system, and provides a home for various office, electrical maintenance and diesel generating functions. The second site at Capilano is expected to start construction in the fall of 2000 and be completed late in 2002. Wit its kilometre long stainless steel ozone contactor and sidestream injector tower, the Coquitlam Ozonation Facility is the first ozone pressure injection system of its kind in North America. 1 tab., 2 figs.

  18. Quantitation of biological retinoids by high-pressure liquid chromatography: primary internal standardization using tritiated retinoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullum, M.E.; Zile, M.H.

    1986-01-01

    A single method is described for quantitation of 14 retinoids found in biological material. The method consists of reversed-phase HPLC, internal standardization, and carrier extraction procedures with three synthetic retinoids. Primary standardization of HPLC uv detector is achieved using tritiated all-trans-retinoic acid, all-trans-retinol, all-trans-retinyl palmitate, and all-trans-retinyl acetate. Extraction methods are standardized by correlating the uv absorbance of retinoids at 340 nm with radioactivity of tritiated retinoids of known specific activity. Quantitation of 10 pg of tritiated or 5 ng of nonradioactive retinoid per 0.1 g sample in a polarity range from 4-oxo-retinoic acid to retinyl stearate can be achieved in a single, 50-min chromatographic run. A single HPLC pump, a C 18 reversed-phased analytical column, a multistep three-solvent gradient, and inexpensive solvents based on methanol, water, and chloroform comprise this cost-effective chromatographic system. Our primary standardization method allows investigators employing different procedures to compare results between laboratories by standardizing the HPLC uv detector with commercially available tritiated retinoids. With this method we were able to quantitate nanomolar amounts of endogenous retinoic acids and retinyl esters, that HPLC uv only conditions usually would not detect in the circulation and liver of rats under physiological conditions

  19. Characterization of erosion dust and tritiated products inside the jet vessel after the first tritium experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charuau, J.; Belot, Y.; Cetier, P.; Drezet, L.; Grivaud, L.

    1992-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to characterize the erosion products found in the JET vessel after the first tritium experiment. These products were analyzed for carbon, beryllium, Inconel metals and tritium. All these elements were present in airborne particles or deposited dust. The tritium was found as tritiated water vapour, and also strongly associated to the suspended or deposited particles. It was more abundant in fine than in coarse particles. The particulate tritium seems to be almost entirely 'insoluble' in a water solution

  20. Electron-microscopic autoradiography of tritiated testosterone in rat testis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederik, P.M.; Molen, H.J. van der; Galjaard, H.; Klepper, D.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of a technique for autoradiography of diffusible substances has been further tested by analysing the localization of steroids in rats testes with the light- and electron-microscope. Testes of rats were perfused with tritiated testosterone (3 min) followed by 15-min perfusion with buffer containing a 100-fold excess of unlabelled testosterone. Tissue samples were frozen, freeze dried, fixed in osmium vapour and embedded in Epon. To exclude extraction of steroids, contact with water and other solvents was prevented during cutting of thin sections on an ultracryotome and further treatment for autoradiography. Light- and electron-microscopic observations indicated that the highest concentration of labelled testosterone was present within the basal parts of the Sertoli cell cytoplasm and in lipid inclusions of Sertoli cells within the seminiferous tubules. This is the first account of autoradiography of steroids at the electron-microscope level. (author)

  1. Study on the biological half-life and organ-distribution of tritiated lysine-vasopressin in Brattleboro rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laczi, F.; Laszlo, F.A.; Keri, Gy.; Teplan, I.

    1980-01-01

    The biological half-life and organ-distribution of tritiated lysine-vasopressin were determined in R-Amsterdam rats, and in homozygous and heterozygous Brattleboro rats with hereditary central diabetes insipidus. It was found that the biological half-life of the tritiated lysin-vasopressin in the Brattleboro rats did not differ significantly from that found in the R-Amsterdam rats. The highest radioactivities were observed in the neuro- and adenohypophyses and in the kidneys of both the R-Amsterdam and the Brattleboro rats. The accumulation of tritiated LVP was higher in the small intestine of the Brattleboro rats than in that of the R-Amsterdam animals. The results have led to the conclusion that the accelerated elimination of vasopressin and its pathologic organ-accumulation are probably not involved in the water metabolism disturbance of Brattleboro rats with hereditary hypothalamic diabetes insipidus. (author)

  2. Spatial and temporal distributions of toxicity in receiving waters around an oil effluent discharge site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, P.R.

    1994-01-01

    Distributions of pollutants from a point source discharge within the water column may vary in both time and space. In this study, they examined the spatial and temporal patterns of toxicity from an oil production effluent (produced water) discharge plume using sea urchin fertilization and development bioassays. Specifically, they tested the sensitivity and response patterns of sea urchin gametes and early life stages exposed to receiving waters sampled along a 1 km transact near an active produced water outfall. Fertilization success and development of larvae to the pluteus stage varied significantly with proximity to the outfall, with reduced fertilization and larval development found closer to the outfall. Although estimated toxicity in receiving water samples, based on fertilization success, was variable in time -- perhaps responding to variation in the quantity or make-up of produced water discharges -- the general spatial pattern of toxicity along the sampling transact remained relatively constant. Strong evidence that field toxicity was directly attributable to produced water effluents was provided by sampling the receiving waters while the produced water discharge was not operating. At such a time, no toxicity was found at any of the field sites. Receiving water toxicity data, along with toxicity data from the effluent itself, were used to prepare a ''map'' of effective effluent concentrations along the sampling transect

  3. Catalytic oxidation efficiencies for tritium and tritiated methane in a mature, industrial-scale decontamination system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mintz, J.M.; Gildea, P.D.

    1981-01-01

    Almost all tritium decontamination systems proposed for fusion facilities employ catalytic oxidation to water, followed by drying, to remove tritium and tritiated hydrocarbons from gas streams. One such large-scale system, the gas purification system (GPS), has been operating in the Tritium Research Laboratory (TRL) at Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA, since October 1977. A series of experiments have recently been conducted there to assesss the current operating characteristics of the GPS catalyst. The experiments used tritium and tritiated methane and covered a range of temperatures, flow rates, and concentration levels. When contrasted with 1977 data, the results indicate that no measurable degradation of catalyst function had occurred. However, some reduction in active metal surface area, as indicated by B.E.T. surface area measurements (approx. 100 → 90m 2 /g) and AES scans (approx. 1.4 → 0.9 at. % Pt), had occurred. Kinetic rate coefficients were also derived and a rough temperature dependence obtained

  4. Catalytic oxidation efficiencies for tritium and tritiated methane in a mature, industrial-scale decontamination system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mintz, J.M.; Gildea, P.D.

    1980-10-01

    Almost all tritium decontamination systems proposed for fusion facilities employ catalytic oxidation to water, followed by drying, to remove tritium and tritiated hydrocarbons from gas streams. One such large-scale system, the gas purification system (GPS), has been operating in the Tritium Research Laboratory (TRL) at Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA, since October 1977. A series of experiments have recently been conducted there to assess the current operating characteristics of the GPS catalyst. The experiments used tritium and tritiated methane and covered a range of temperatures, flow rates, and concentration levels. When contrasted with 1977 data, the results indicate that no measurable degradation of catalyst function had occurred. However, some reduction in active metal surface area, as indicated by B.E.T. surface area measurements (approx. 100 → 90 m 2 /g) and AES scans (approx. 1.4 → 0.9 at% Pt), had occurred. Kinetic rate coefficients were also derived and a rough temperature dependence obtained

  5. Radioselective tritiation of acetanilide and para-substituted acetanilides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oohashi, K.; Nakamura, T.; Aoyama, Y.

    1990-01-01

    Acetanilide and para-substituted acetanilides were tritiated by heating with HTO in the presence of RhCl 3 .3H 2 O as a catalyst in an N,N-dimethylformamide solution at 105-107 deg C for 18 h. Under such conditions, tritium introduced into the anilide molecules was found at the adjacent ortho positions to the acetamido group with virtually 100% regioselectivity. The substituent effect on the rate of tritiation was observed. (author) 13 refs

  6. Assessment of refinery effluents and receiving waters using biologically-based effect methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Within the EU it is apparent that the regulatory focus on the use of biologically-based effects methods in the assessment of refinery effluents and receiving waters has increased in the past decade. This has been reflected in a recent refinery survey which revealed an increased use of such methods for assessing the quality of refinery effluents and their receiving waters. This report provides an overview of recent techniques used for this purpose. Several case studies provided by CONCAWE member companies describe the application of biological methods to effluent discharge assessment and surface water monitoring. The case studies show that when biological methods are applied to refinery effluents and receiving waters they raise different questions compared with those obtained using physical and chemical methods. Although direct measurement of the toxicity of effluent and receiving to aquatic organisms is the most cited technique, more recent efforts include tests that also address the persistence of effluent toxicity once discharged into the receiving water. Similarly, ecological monitoring of receiving waters can identify effects of effluent inputs arising from species interactions and other secondary effects that would not always be apparent from the results of biological tests conducted on single aquatic organisms. In light of recent and proposed regulatory developments the objectives of this report are therefore to: Discuss the application of biologically-based effects methods (including ecological monitoring) to refinery discharges and receiving waters; Assess the implications of such methods for future regulation of refinery discharges; and Provide guidance on good practice that can be used by refineries and the downstream oil industry to carry out and interpret data obtained using biologically-based effects methods. While the emphasis is on the toxic effects of effluents, other properties will also be covered because of their interdependency in determining

  7. Assessment of refinery effluents and receiving waters using biologically-based effect methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-01-15

    Within the EU it is apparent that the regulatory focus on the use of biologically-based effects methods in the assessment of refinery effluents and receiving waters has increased in the past decade. This has been reflected in a recent refinery survey which revealed an increased use of such methods for assessing the quality of refinery effluents and their receiving waters. This report provides an overview of recent techniques used for this purpose. Several case studies provided by CONCAWE member companies describe the application of biological methods to effluent discharge assessment and surface water monitoring. The case studies show that when biological methods are applied to refinery effluents and receiving waters they raise different questions compared with those obtained using physical and chemical methods. Although direct measurement of the toxicity of effluent and receiving to aquatic organisms is the most cited technique, more recent efforts include tests that also address the persistence of effluent toxicity once discharged into the receiving water. Similarly, ecological monitoring of receiving waters can identify effects of effluent inputs arising from species interactions and other secondary effects that would not always be apparent from the results of biological tests conducted on single aquatic organisms. In light of recent and proposed regulatory developments the objectives of this report are therefore to: Discuss the application of biologically-based effects methods (including ecological monitoring) to refinery discharges and receiving waters; Assess the implications of such methods for future regulation of refinery discharges; and Provide guidance on good practice that can be used by refineries and the downstream oil industry to carry out and interpret data obtained using biologically-based effects methods. While the emphasis is on the toxic effects of effluents, other properties will also be covered because of their interdependency in determining

  8. Excretion of organic and inorganic tritiated compounds in cow's milk after ingestion of tritium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Hoek, J.; Gerber, G.B.; Kirchmann, R.

    1980-01-01

    The secretion of tritium in milk as water, casein and lipids was studied in cows given tritiated water to drink for 25 days. The parameters of the exponential functions describing the secretion of tritium as water, casein and lipid are determined during this 'loading phase' and also for a 'decay period' of 75 days after the tritiated water administration had been terminated. Secretion started after a short delay (0.5 day). Turnover of all three compounds was short (half time of about 5 days). Calculations of the dilution of the ingested water during metabolism showed that about 83% of the milk water secreted is found to originate from drinking water; the rest comes from water in food and from that formed in metabolism. The parameters of the decay phase indicated that the principle components of water, casein and lipids had about the same turnover rates as during the loading phase. Using the loading and decay phase data, calculations were performed to determine how much activity in each compound and in each metabolic component would be excreted after a single and after a continuous application of tritium oxide when integrated over infinite times. (UK)

  9. Encapsulation of tritiated wastes in hot laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayet, L.; Bourdinaud, P.

    1982-06-01

    From 1962 to 1976, one of the laboratories called ''Cellule 4'', was equipped to produce large quantities of tritium. The decisions taken in June 1976 to redirect the activities of the Radioisotopes Department included the suspension of the tritium activities of ''Cellule 4'' at the Saclay Nuclear Research Center. From 1976 to 1981, many CEA departments contributed to the design and implementation of a packaging procedure for tritiated wastes resulting from the dismantling of ''Cellule 4''. A classification into three groups was adopted for this purpose. (1) Packaging in a welded stainless steel container. (2) Packaging in a reinforced concrete shell lined internally with a thick coat of epoxy resin charged with sand. (3) Packaging in a reinforced concrete shell lined internally with a thin coat of epoxy resin. The dismantling operations were carried out in three phases. (1) (2 1/2 months): the T activity remained unchanged during this period and waste selection was carried out. (2) (2 1/2 months): waste dismantling and packaging of groups (2) and (3) were carried out in this phase. Activity decayed rapidly. (3) (2 months): the work performed included the loosening and cutting of the general structures [fr

  10. Incorporation and metabolism of tritium in pregnant mice and their offspring after feeding organically labelled tritiated milk powder during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruwaene, R. van; Gerber, G.B.; Kirchmann, R.; Maes, J.; Fagniart, E.

    1982-01-01

    Food mixed from equal amounts of organically labelled tritiated milk powder and normal food pellets was given to mice during pregnancy and lactation. At birth, some new-born were swapped with those from non-exposed mothers to compare separately accumulation and metabolism during pregnancy and lactation. Young mice were sacrificed at different time after birth, and tritium activity in different organs was determined. Tritium activity was also determined in maternal organs at various times during and after the 42 days feeding period. The activity per g in some tissues of the young, particularly in fat, exceeded that of the food given, probably as a result of the high activity and low metabolic dilution of the fats in the food. Young mice contaminated during lactation and pregnancy contained still detectible activity at an age of 2 months. Activity was nearly the same in mice receiving tritium only during lactation as in those receiving it also during pregnancy. Dilution was more marked due to rapid growth when tritium application was discontinued at birth. Tritium water was replaced most rapidly, organic tritium in brain turned over most slowly with and additional metabolic component of a half life in the order of 1 month. Organic tritium in liver displayed an intermediate half life. (author)

  11. Modeling and Circumventing the Effect of Sediments and Water Column on Receiver Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audet, P.

    2017-12-01

    Teleseismic P-wave receiver functions are routinely used to resolve crust and mantle structure in various geologic settings. Receiver functions are approximations to the Earth's Green's functions and are composed of various scattered phase arrivals, depending on the complexity of the underlying Earth structure. For simple structure, the dominant arrivals (converted and back-scattered P-to-S phases) are well separated in time and can be reliably used in estimating crustal velocity structure. In the presence of sedimentary layers, strong reverberations typically produce high-amplitude oscillations that contaminate the early part of the wave train and receiver functions can be difficult to interpret in terms of underlying structure. The effect of a water column also limits the interpretability of under-water receiver functions due to the additional acoustic wave propagating within the water column that can contaminate structural arrivals. We perform numerical modeling of teleseismic Green's functions and receiver functions using a reflectivity technique for a range of Earth models that include thin sedimentary layers and overlying water column. These modeling results indicate that, as expected, receiver functions are difficult to interpret in the presence of sediments, but the contaminating effect of the water column is dependent on the thickness of the water layer. To circumvent these effects and recover source-side structure, we propose using an approach based on transfer function modeling that bypasses receiver functions altogether and estimates crustal properties directly from the waveforms (Frederiksen and Delayney, 2015). Using this approach, reasonable assumptions about the properties of the sedimentary layer can be included in forward calculations of the Green's functions that are convolved with radial waveforms to predict vertical waveforms. Exploration of model space using Monte Carlo-style search and least-square waveform misfits can be performed to

  12. Ptaquiloside in Irish Bracken Ferns and Receiving Waters, with Implications for Land Managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connie O’Driscoll

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ptaquiloside, along with other natural phytotoxins, is receiving increased attention from scientists and land use managers. There is an urgent need to increase empirical evidence to understand the scale of phytotoxin mobilisation and potential to enter into the environment. In this study the risk of ptaquiloside to drinking water was assessed by quantifying ptaquiloside in the receiving waters at three drinking water abstraction sites across Ireland and in bracken fronds surrounding the abstraction sites. We also investigated the impact of different management regimes (spraying, cutting and rolling on ptaquiloside concentrations at plot-scale in six locations in Northern Ireland, UK. Ptaquiloside concentrations were determined using recent advances in the use of LC-MS for the detection and quantification of ptaquiloside. The results indicate that ptaquiloside is present in bracken stands surrounding drinking water abstractions in Ireland, and ptaquiloside concentrations were also observed in the receiving waters. Furthermore, spraying was found to be the most effective bracken management regime observed in terms of reducing ptaquiloside load. Increased awareness is vital on the implications of managing land with extensive bracken stands.

  13. Ptaquiloside in Irish Bracken Ferns and Receiving Waters, with Implications for Land Managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Driscoll, Connie; Ramwell, Carmel; Harhen, Brendan; Morrison, Liam; Clauson-Kaas, Frederik; Hansen, Hans Christian B; Campbell, Graeme; Sheahan, Jerome; Misstear, Bruce; Xiao, Liwen

    2016-04-26

    Ptaquiloside, along with other natural phytotoxins, is receiving increased attention from scientists and land use managers. There is an urgent need to increase empirical evidence to understand the scale of phytotoxin mobilisation and potential to enter into the environment. In this study the risk of ptaquiloside to drinking water was assessed by quantifying ptaquiloside in the receiving waters at three drinking water abstraction sites across Ireland and in bracken fronds surrounding the abstraction sites. We also investigated the impact of different management regimes (spraying, cutting and rolling) on ptaquiloside concentrations at plot-scale in six locations in Northern Ireland, UK. Ptaquiloside concentrations were determined using recent advances in the use of LC-MS for the detection and quantification of ptaquiloside. The results indicate that ptaquiloside is present in bracken stands surrounding drinking water abstractions in Ireland, and ptaquiloside concentrations were also observed in the receiving waters. Furthermore, spraying was found to be the most effective bracken management regime observed in terms of reducing ptaquiloside load. Increased awareness is vital on the implications of managing land with extensive bracken stands.

  14. Life cycle assessment of water supply alternatives in water-receiving areas of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Xiong, Wei; Zhang, Wenlong; Wang, Chao; Wang, Peifang

    2016-02-01

    To alleviate the water shortage in northern China, the Chinese government launched the world's largest water diversion project, the South-to-North Water Diversion Project (SNWDP), which delivers water from water-sufficient southern China to water-deficient northern China. However, an up-to-date study has not been conducted to determine whether the project is a favorable option to augment the water supply from an environmental perspective. The life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology integrated with a freshwater withdrawal category (FWI) was adopted to compare water supply alternatives in the water-receiving areas of the SNWDP, i.e., water diversion, wastewater reclamation and seawater desalination. Beijing, Tianjin, Jinan and Qingdao were studied as representative cities because they are the primary water-receiving areas of the SNWDP. The results revealed that the operation phase played the dominant role in all but one of the life cycle impact categories considered and contributed to more than 70% of their scores. For Beijing and Tianjin, receiving water through the SNWDP is the most sustainable option to augment the water supply. The result can be drawn in all of the water-receiving areas of the middle route of the SNWDP. For Jinan and Qingdao, the most sustainable option is the wastewater reclamation system. The seawater desalination system obtains the highest score of the standard impact indicators in all of the study areas, whereas it is the most favorable water supply option when considering the freshwater withdrawal impact. Although the most sustainable water supply alternative was recommended through an LCA analysis, multi-water resources should be integrated into the region's water supply from the perspective of water sustainability. The results of this study provide a useful recommendation on the management of water resources for China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Occurrence, fate and interrelation of selected antibiotics in sewage treatment plants and their receiving surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Hong; Que, Chen-Jing; Xu, Gang; Sun, Yan-Feng; Ma, Jing; Xu, Hui; Sun, Rui; Tang, Liang

    2016-10-01

    The occurrence and fate of 12 commonly used antibiotics, two fluoroquinolones (FQs), three sulfonamides (SAs), three macrolides (MLs), two β-lactams and two tetracyclines (TCs), were studied in four sewage treatment plants (STPs) and their receiving water, the Huangpu River, Shanghai. The levels of selected antibiotics in the STPs ranged from ngL(-1) to μgL(-1), while ofloxacin (OFL) was predominant (reach up to 2936.94ngL(-1)). The highest and lowest proportions were of FQs (STP 1, STP 2 and STP 3) and TCs (in four STPs) respectively in both influents and effluents. And the second-highest proportion was of FQs in STP 4 (only 2% lower than the highest). What could be inferred was that the usage of TCs were extremely low while the usage of FQs were larger than other antibiotics in our study area. The elimination of antibiotics through these STPs was incomplete and a wide range of removal efficiencies (-442.8% to 100%) during the treatment was observed. Based on the mass loadings as well as the per-capita mass loadings of target antibiotics in four STPs, OFL was considered the primary contaminant herein. In the Huangpu River, 3 antibiotics were not detected in any water samples, while the detection frequencies of 4 antibiotics were 100%. The highest concentration detected in the river was 53.91ngL(-1) of sulfapyridine (SD). The Spearman correlation analysis of antibiotics in STPs and the nearby water samples suggests that the antibiotics discharged from some STPs might influence the receiving water to some extent. Moreover, most of the hazard quotient (HQ) values in STP effluents were one order magnitude higher than those in their receiving water. However, there is no imminent significant ecotoxicological risk caused by any single compound in the effluents and receiving waters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact assessment of treated wastewater on water quality of the receiver using the Wilcoxon test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofman Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater treatment is a process which aims to reduce the concentration of pollutants in wastewater to the level allowed by current regulations. This is to protect the receivers which typically are rivers, streams, lakes. Examination of the quality of treated wastewater allows for quick elimination of possible negative effects, and the study of water receiver prevents from excessive contamination. The paper presents the results of selected physical and chemical parameters of treated wastewater from the largest on the region in north-eastern Poland city of Bialystok municipal wastewater treatment and Biała River, the receiver. The samples for research were taken 3–4 a month in 2015 from two points: before and after discharge. The impact of the wastewater treatment plant on the quality of the receiver waters was studied by using non-parametric Wilcoxon test. This test determined whether the analyzed indicators varied significantly depending on different sampling points of the river, above and below place of discharge of treated wastewater. These results prove that the treated wastewater does not affect the water quality in the Biała River.

  17. The methods of receiving coal water suspension and its use as the modifying additive in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyantuyev, S. L.; Urkhanova, L. A.; Lkhasaranov, S. A.; Stebenkova, Y. Y.; Khmelev, A. B.; Kondratenko, A. S.

    2017-01-01

    Results of research of the coal water suspension (CWS) from a cake received in the electrodigit ways in the fluid environment and gas are given in article and also the possibilities of its use as the modifying additive in concrete are considered. Use of a coal cake is perspective as it is a withdrawal of the coal and concentrating enterprises and has extremely low cost. Methods of receiving CWS and possibility of formation of carbon nanomaterials (CNM) are given in their structure. Research and the analysis of a microstructure of a surface of exemplars before electrodigit processing, their element structure, dependence of durability of a cement stone on a look and quantity of an additive of CWS is conducted. For modification of cement the carbon nanomaterials received from the following exemplars of water coal suspensions were used: foams from a cake from a scrubber of the plasma modular reactor, coal water suspension from a cake from electrodigit installation. The product which can find further application for a power engineering as fuel for combustion, and also in structural materials science, in particular, as the modifying additive in concrete allows to receive these methods.

  18. Diffusion of tritiated water (HTO) in dextran+water mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comper, W.D.; Van Damme, M.P.I.; Preston, B.N.

    1982-01-01

    The diffusion of HTO has been measured in dextran solutions using an open-ended capillary technique and a newly developed Sundeloef diffusion cell. HTO diffusion has been examined as a function of dextran concentration and molecular weight. These results, together with our previous results on the intradiffusion and mutual-diffusion coefficients of dextrans, now provide a complete set of conventional translational diffusion coefficients for both components in this binary system. Various assumptions associated with the theoretical description of polymer translational motion can now be examined. (author)

  19. Survey of tritiated oil sources and handling practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.M.

    1994-08-01

    Tritium interactions with oil sources (primarily associated with pumps) in tritium-handling facilities can lead to the incorporation of tritium in the oil and the production of tritiated hydrocarbons. This results in a source of radiological hazard and the need for special handling considerations during maintenance, decontamination, decommissioning and waste packaging and storage. The results of a general survey of tritiated-oil sources and their associated characteristics, handling practices, analysis techniques and waste treatment/storage methods are summarized here. Information was obtained from various tritium-handling laboratories, fusion devices, and CANDU plants. 38 refs., 1 fig

  20. The electrochemical corrosion behavior of austenitic alloys, cobalt or nickel based super alloys, structurally hardened martensitic, Inconel, zircaloy, super austenitic, duplex and of Ni-Cr or NTi deposits in tritiated water. 3 volumes; Comportement electrochimique a la corrosion d`alliages austenitiques, superalliages base cobalt ou nickel, martensitiques a durcissement structural, inconel, zircaloy, superaustenitiques et duplex, de depots Ni-Cr et NTi en eau tritiee. 3 volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellanger, G.

    1994-12-31

    The redox potential of {sup 3} H{sub 2}O, as well as the corrosion potentials in this medium are found, abnormally, in the trans-passive region. This is completely different from the behavior in the chemical industry or in the water in nuclear powers. With such behavior, there will be breakdowns of the protective oxide layers, and in the presence of chloride there will be immediate pitting. The steels that are most resistant to this behavior are the super austenitic and super Duplex. To avoid corrosion, another solution is to decompose the radiolytic products by imposing a slight reducing potential. Corrosion inhibitors, which are stable in tritiated water, can be used. (author). 69 refs., 421 figs., tabs.

  1. Transfer of tritium to prenatal and neonatal rats from their mothers exposed to tritiated compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, H.; Nishimura, Y.; Inaba, J. (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan))

    1994-01-01

    The transfer of tritium through the placenta or milk was investigated to estimate the radiation dose to the fetus and newborn. Female rats at gestational stages or after delivery were exposed to tritium in the form of water, thymidine and lysine by a single oral administration and radioactivity in tissues including conceptuses (placenta, fetal membrane and fetus) and in the newborn was determined at various times after administration. In all cases of the investigated triated compounds, there was no significant difference between the tritium concentration in the fetus and that in the maternal tissues, suggesting that the placenta has no effect in preventing or accelerating the placental transfer of tritium. The time course of tritium concentration and tritium content in the fetus and newborn were, however, dependent on the chemical form of tritium and on the prenatal or neonatal stages at the time of ingestion. In general, the tritium concentration and tritium content after the ingestion of [sup 3]H-lysine were higher than that after the ingestion of tritiated water or [sup 3]H-thymidine. The result of dose estimation showed that [sup 3]H-lysine gave higher prenatal and neonatal doses than tritiated water or [sup 3]H-thymidine by a factor of 1.5 to 6.0. (author).

  2. Tritium NMR in the analysis of tritiated compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaspersen, F.M.; Funke, C.W.; Vader, Jan; Wagenaars, G.N.

    1993-01-01

    An overview is given of the possibilities of 3 H NMR in the characterisation of 3 H-labelled compounds. This technique gives information on the identity of the tritiated compounds, the position of the tritium, the distribution of the label and even the radiochemical purity of the labelled products. (author)

  3. Synthesis of a tritiated herbicide with high activity: methyl thifensulfuron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastide, J.; Ortega, F.

    1993-01-01

    In order to study the binding on acetolactate synthase, a tritiated herbicide sulfonylurea (thifensulfuron methyl) of high specific activity was synthesized. By use of C 3 H 3 I for esterification of an acid group, a rapid incorporation of tritium into this compound may be achieved. (Author)

  4. Capture and retention of tritiated serotonin by the chick notochord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerard, Anne; Gerard, Hubert; Dollander, Alexis

    1978-01-01

    The 3 day old chick notochord capacity to fix tritiated serotonin is maximal in its axis and in cephalic region. Observations permitting to find, the intracellular serotonin binding sites, contribute to an explanation of the capture mechanism and suggest a special direct role of the notochord on the monoaminergic neuron cytodifferentiation [fr

  5. A light-water detritiation project at Chalk River Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boniface, H.A.; Castillo, I.; Everatt, A.E.; Ryland, D.K.

    2010-01-01

    The NRU reactor rod bays is a large, open pool of water that receives hundreds of fuel rods annually, each carrying a small amount of residual tritiated heavy water. The tritium concentration of the rod bays water has risen over the years, to a level that is of concern to the operations staff and to the environment. The proposed long-term solution is to reduce the rod bays tritium concentration by direct detritiation of the water. The Combined Electrolytic-Catalytic Exchange (CECE) process is well suited to the light-water detritiation problem. With a tritium-protium separation factor greater than five, a CECE detritiation process can easily achieve the eight orders of magnitude separation required to split a tritiated light-water feed into an essentially tritium-free effluent stream and a tritiated heavy water product suitable for recycling through a heavy water upgrader. This paper describes a CECE light-water detritiation process specifically designed to reduce the tritium concentration in the NRU rod bays to an acceptable level. The conceptual design of a 600 Mg/a detritiation process has been developed and is now at the stage of project review and the beginning of detailed design. (author)

  6. Phenomenological study and modeling of tritium trapping in tritiated waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le-Floch, Anais

    2016-01-01

    ITER (International Tokamak Experimental Reactor) is a fusion machine which should demonstrate scientific and technological feasibility of fusion energy by means of D-T fusion reaction. Therefore, most of the solid radioactive waste produced during operation and dismantling phase (around 34000 tons) will result not only from activation by 14 MeV neutrons, but also from contamination by tritium. One of the main issues in tritiated waste management is the confinement of tritium which presents a good ability to diffusion. One of the solutions is to trap the tritium directly in waste drums. In containers tritium is under gaseous form (HT and T_2), tritiated water vapor (HTO and T_2O) and organic bounded tritium species (OBT). as an hydrogen isotope, HT and T_2 trapping and conversion is possible thanks to a reaction with a mix of metal oxides MnO_2 and Ag_2O, which can be used for hydrogen hazards mitigation. an experimental study was conducted at the CEA on the study of tritium trapping by a mixture of 90% of manganese oxide and 10% of silver oxide. The tests showed that the addition of Pt and Pd catalysts did not improve the trapping capacity of the powder mixture, such as impregnation of the powder mixture when preparing the mixture, with solutions of KOH or NaOH. Crystal-chemical analysis revealed the formation of a mixed oxide in the preparation of powders, questioning the mechanisms previously established. Two new mechanisms have been proposed and a model on the trapping kinetics was presented. The results of modeling the competition between the trapping phenomenon and the diffusion of tritium through the wall of the waste package showed that the trapper decreased the value of the quantity of tritiated hydrogen degassed from the package. (author) [fr

  7. Modeling spray drift and runoff-related inputs of pesticides to receiving water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuyang; Luo, Yuzhou; Goh, Kean S

    2018-03-01

    Pesticides move to surface water via various pathways including surface runoff, spray drift and subsurface flow. Little is known about the relative contributions of surface runoff and spray drift in agricultural watersheds. This study develops a modeling framework to address the contribution of spray drift to the total loadings of pesticides in receiving water bodies. The modeling framework consists of a GIS module for identifying drift potential, the AgDRIFT model for simulating spray drift, and the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for simulating various hydrological and landscape processes including surface runoff and transport of pesticides. The modeling framework was applied on the Orestimba Creek Watershed, California. Monitoring data collected from daily samples were used for model evaluation. Pesticide mass deposition on the Orestimba Creek ranged from 0.08 to 6.09% of applied mass. Monitoring data suggests that surface runoff was the major pathway for pesticide entering water bodies, accounting for 76% of the annual loading; the rest 24% from spray drift. The results from the modeling framework showed 81 and 19%, respectively, for runoff and spray drift. Spray drift contributed over half of the mass loading during summer months. The slightly lower spray drift contribution as predicted by the modeling framework was mainly due to SWAT's under-prediction of pesticide mass loading during summer and over-prediction of the loading during winter. Although model simulations were associated with various sources of uncertainties, the overall performance of the modeling framework was satisfactory as evaluated by multiple statistics: for simulation of daily flow, the Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency Coefficient (NSE) ranged from 0.61 to 0.74 and the percent bias (PBIAS) runoff in receiving waters and the design of management practices for mitigating pesticide exposure within a watershed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Conditioning and handling of tritiated wastes at Canadian nuclear power facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krochmalnek, L.S.; Krasznai, J.P.; Carney, M.

    1987-04-01

    Ontario Hydro operates a 10,000 MW capacity nuclear power system utilizing the CANDU pressurized heavy water reactor design. The use of D 2 O as moderator and coolant results in the production of about 2400 Ci of tritium per MWe-yr. As a result, there is significant Canadian experience in the treatment, handling, transport and storage of tritiated wastes. Ontario Hydro operates its own reactor waste storage site which includes systems for volume reduction, immobilization and packaging of wastes. In addition, a facility to remove tritium from heavy water is presently being commissioned at the Darlington nuclear site. This facility will generate tritiated liquid and solid waste that will have to be properly conditioned prior to storage or disposal. The nature of these various wastes and the processes/packaging required to meet storage/disposal criteria are judged to have relevance to investigations in fusion facility waste arisings. Experience to date, planned operational procedures and ongoing R and D in this area are described

  9. Tritiated thymidine and deoxycytidine suicide of mouse hemopoietic colony forming cells (CFC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uyeki, E.M.; Wierzba, K.; Bisel, T.U.

    1981-01-01

    Significant enhancement of tritiated dCyd suicide occurred when unlabelled dThd was added to cultures of mouse monocytic colony-forming cells. Incorporation experiments supported the suicide experiments in that incorporation of tritiated dCyd into DNA was significantly increased. One hundred micromolar dCyd significantly reduced the radiotoxicity of 0.3 μCi of tritiated dThd; incorporation experiments indicated a dose-related reduction in the incorporation of tritiated dThd into DNA with the addition of 1-100 μM unlabelled dCyd. The addition of 1 μM aminopterin reversed the effect of 100 μM deoxycytidine; viz., incorporation of dThd into DNA was 90% of controls. Aminopterin had a similar effect on deoxyuridine reversal of tritiated dThd incorporation into DNA. Aminopterin had no effect on the reduction of tritiated dThd incorporation into DNA due to the addition of 100 μM unlabelled thymidine. Unlabelled ribonucleosides, Urd and Cyd, did not significantly affect the suicide pattern of tritiated dThd or dCyd when they were added to CFC cultures. Unlabelled deoxyribonucleosides, dThd or dCyd, did not significantly affect the suicide pattern of either tritiated Cyd or Urd when they were added to cultures containing tritiated ribonucleosides. Unlabelled Urd or Cyd was effective in reversing the suicide due to tritiated Urd or Cyd. (author)

  10. Theoretical prediction of thermodynamic properties of tritiated beryllium molecules and application to ITER source term

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virot, F., E-mail: francois.virot@irsn.fr; Barrachin, M.; Souvi, S.; Cantrel, L.

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Standard enthalpies of formation of BeH, BeH{sub 2}, BeOH, Be(OH){sub 2} have been calculated. • The impact of hydrogen isotopy on thermodynamic properties has been shown. • Speciation in the vacuum vessel shows that the main tritiated species is tritiated steam. • Beryllium hydroxide and hydride could exist during an accidental event. - Abstract: By quantum chemistry calculations, we have evaluated the standard enthalpies of formation of some gaseous species of the Be-O-H chemical system: BeH, BeH{sub 2}, BeOH, Be(OH){sub 2} for which the values in the referenced thermodynamic databases (NIST-JANAF [1] or COACH [2]) were, due to the lack of experimental data, estimated or reported with a large uncertainty. Comparison between post-HF, DFT approaches and available experimental data allows validation of the ability of an accurate exchange-correlation functional, VSXC, to predict the thermo-chemical properties of the beryllium species of interest. Deviation of enthalpy of formation induced by changes in hydrogen isotopy has been also calculated. From these new theoretically determinated data, we have calculated the chemical speciation in conditions simulating an accident of water ingress in the vacuum vessel of ITER.

  11. The evaluation of uptake of tritiated methane to the plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakiuchi, Hideki; Andoh A, Mariko; Amano, Hikaru

    2003-01-01

    The experiment of the exposure of tritiated methane (CH 3 T) to plants was carried. Plants were put in the airtight container that CH 3 T gas was added. The amount of light that it irradiated plants was changed, and the amounts of photosynthesis as the metabolic change activities of the plants were adjusted, and processes of assimilation to the plant of CH 3 T were evaluated under a constant temperature. The leaves in the container and the inside gas were collected in every interval, and tritium concentrations in the samples were determined. It is observed that CH 3 T concentration in the container decreased under both the light and dark conditions. On changing from dark to light condition, there was no change in the decreasing tendency of the CH 3 T concentration. These show that tritiated methane would be taken in the plants without the photosynthesis process, but through the oxidation by microorganism on plants. (author)

  12. Tritiated Dust Levitation by Beta Induced Static Charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, C.H.; Gentile, C.A.; Ciebiera, L.; Langish, S.

    2003-01-01

    Tritiated particles have been observed to spontaneously levitate under the influence of a static electric field. Tritium containing co-deposits were mechanically scraped from tiles that had been used in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) inner limiter during the deuterium-tritium campaign and were placed in a glass vial. On rubbing the plastic cap of the vial a remarkable ''fountain'' of particles was seen inside the vial. Particles from an unused tile or from a TFTR co-deposit formed during deuterium discharges did not exhibit this phenomenon. It appears that tritiated particles are more mobile than other particles and this should be considered in assessing tokamak accident scenarios and in occupational safety

  13. ETHEL's systems and facilities for safe management of tritiated wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannone, F.; Dworschak, H.; Vassallo, G.

    1992-01-01

    The European Tritium Handling Experimental Laboratory (ETHEL) is a new tritium facility at the Commission of the European Community's Joint Research Centre, Ispra Site. The laboratory, destined to handle multigram amounts of tritium for safety related R and D purposes, is foreseen to start radioactive operations in late 1992. The general operation and maintenance of laboratory systems and future experiments will generate tritiated wastes in gaseous, liquid and solid forms. The management of such wastes under safe working conditions is a stringent laboratory requirement aimed at minimizing the risk of unacceptable tritium exposures to workers and the general public. This paper describes the main systems and facilities installed in ETHEL for the safe management of tritiated wastes

  14. Biological study of a tritiated luminous paint (1962)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remy, J.; Meunier, J.; Aeberhardt, A.

    1962-01-01

    A powdered mixture of zinc sulphide and a tritiated polyester has been administered to rats by means of the oesophageal probe. The distribution of tritium in the organ, and its elimination, have been studied. It appears that from 75 to 80 per cent of the polyester has undergone sufficient degradation in the intestinal medium to be absorbed by the digestive mucous membrane and to be subjected to metabolic reactions. (authors) [fr

  15. Binding of tritiated corticosterone in brain sections of adrenalectomized rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarrieau, A.; Vial, M.; Dussaillant, M.; Rostene, W.; Philibert, P.

    1983-01-01

    A new technique which permits to study the specific binding of tritiated corticosterone in brain sections of adrenalectomized rats is described. Under these conditions, the specific binding of the glucocorticoid represents 60 to 70% of the initial binding. The apparent dissociation constant and the number of binding sites, determined by Scatchard analysis, are in the range of 10 -8 M and 100 fmoles/mg of protein respectively [fr

  16. Tissue distribution of tritiated digoxin and quabain in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klopper, J.F.; Atkins, H.L.

    1976-01-01

    Tissue concentration of tritiated digoxin in human subjects appears to be selective in that after a single dose of the radioactive tracer a myocardial concentration of digoxin on an average 24 to 30 times higher than the serum concentration is reached. In patients studied 3.5 to 84 hours after administration of tritiated digoxin, the dose in the heart was found to vary between 1.95 to 4.83 percent. Should it be possible to label digoxin or another cardiac glycoside with a suitable gamma-emitting tracer, its use as a cardiac imaging agent should thus be feasible. This study was undertaken to determine the tissue distribution in mice of tritiated digoxin at various time intervals post injection; and to determine if these values showed any correlation to the previously determined human data. A preliminary study in mice using 3 H-digitoxin revealed no selective uptake in the heart with high uptakes in the liver and gut. Since ouabain has a more rapid clinical onset of action than digoxin, its tissue distribution was included in the study and compared to that of digoxin

  17. The metabolism of tritiated oleic acid in the rat. A radiological protection study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeanmaire, Lucien; Vernois, Yvette; Nazard, Raymonde.

    1979-04-01

    The metabolism of 3 H-labelled oleic acid has been studied in the rat during 600 days. The results of urinary and fecal excretions, of the retention of the total and fixed activities in 25 tissues or organs and the cumulative activity from day 4 to 616 are discussed. Oleic acid is more widely spread than other labelled molecules studied previously both as regard excretion or retention. During the first 4 days one can grossly admit that half the activity is fixed to water and half is stored in the adipose tissues which it leaves quickly first, then more slowly with a half-life of 200 days about. For some ten tissues, the cumulative activity due to the fixed fraction exceeds the cumulative activity due to tritiated water obtained by metabolism of oleic acid [fr

  18. Potential for tumor therapy with tritiated tetracycline. Summary evaluation. [Animal tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.C.; Wood, P.; Wood, L.L.; Mendelsohn, M.L.

    1976-10-26

    Reports of tetracycline accumulation in human and animal tumors have led a number of investigators to postulate that this drug, if radio-labeled, might have potential as a therapeutic or diagnostic agent. This paper describes attempts to investigate this potential for tritiated tetracycling. The therapeutic studies demonstrated that while a significant reduction in the growth rates of transplanted tumors could be obtained by the administration of heavy doses of TTC relative to uninjected controls, similar reductions were observed in the growth rates of tumors in animals receiving unlabeled TC. In the localization studies in rodents, the concentrations of TTC in normal tissues and tumors were compared and were correlated with the corresponding concentrations of /sup 14/C-thymidine, a measure of proliferative activity.

  19. Operator decision support system for integrated wastewater management including wastewater treatment plants and receiving water bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minsoo; Kim, Yejin; Kim, Hyosoo; Piao, Wenhua; Kim, Changwon

    2016-06-01

    An operator decision support system (ODSS) is proposed to support operators of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in making appropriate decisions. This system accounts for water quality (WQ) variations in WWTP influent and effluent and in the receiving water body (RWB). The proposed system is comprised of two diagnosis modules, three prediction modules, and a scenario-based supporting module (SSM). In the diagnosis modules, the WQs of the influent and effluent WWTP and of the RWB are assessed via multivariate analysis. Three prediction modules based on the k-nearest neighbors (k-NN) method, activated sludge model no. 2d (ASM2d) model, and QUAL2E model are used to forecast WQs for 3 days in advance. To compare various operating alternatives, SSM is applied to test various predetermined operating conditions in terms of overall oxygen transfer coefficient (Kla), waste sludge flow rate (Qw), return sludge flow rate (Qr), and internal recycle flow rate (Qir). In the case of unacceptable total phosphorus (TP), SSM provides appropriate information for the chemical treatment. The constructed ODSS was tested using data collected from Geumho River, which was the RWB, and S WWTP in Daegu City, South Korea. The results demonstrate the capability of the proposed ODSS to provide WWTP operators with more objective qualitative and quantitative assessments of WWTP and RWB WQs. Moreover, the current study shows that ODSS, using data collected from the study area, can be used to identify operational alternatives through SSM at an integrated urban wastewater management level.

  20. Sediment accretion and carbon storage in constructed wetlands receiving water treated with metal-based coagulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpner, Elizabeth; Kraus, Tamara; Liang, Yan; Bachand, Sandra M.; Horwath, William R.; Bachand, Philip A.M.

    2018-01-01

    In many regions of the world, subsidence of organic rich soils threatens levee stability and freshwater supply, and continued oxidative loss of organic matter contributes to greenhouse gas production. To counter subsidence in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of northern California, we examined the feasibility of using constructed wetlands receiving drainage water treated with metal-based coagulants to accrete mineral material along with wetland biomass, while also sequestering carbon in wetland sediment. Nine field-scale wetlands were constructed which received local drainage water that was either untreated (control), or treated with polyaluminum chloride (PAC) or iron sulfate (FeSO4) coagulants. After 23 months of flooding and coagulant treatment, sediment samples were collected near the inlet, middle, and outlet of each wetland to determine vertical accretion rates, bulk density, sediment composition, and carbon sequestration rates. Wetlands treated with PAC had the highest and most spatially consistent vertical accretion rates (~6 cm year-1), while the FeSO4 wetlands had similarly high accretion rates near the inlet but rates similar to the untreated wetland (~1.5 cm year-1) at the middle and outlet sites. The composition of the newly accreted sediment in the PAC and FeSO4 treatments was high in the added metal (aluminum and iron, respectively), but the percent metal by weight was similar to native soils of California. As has been observed in other constructed wetlands, the newly accreted sediment material had lower bulk densities than the native soil material (0.04-0.10 g cm-3 versus 0.2-0.3 g cm-3), suggesting these materials will consolidate over time. Finally, this technology accelerated carbon burial, with rates in PAC treated wetland (0.63 kg C m-2 yr-1) over 2-fold greater than the untreated control (0.28 kg C m-2 yr-1). This study demonstrates the feasibility of using constructed wetlands treated with coagulants to reverse subsidence by accreting the

  1. Science to Support Management of Receiving Waters in an Event-Driven Ecosystem: From Land to River to Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart E. Bunn

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Managing receiving-water quality, ecosystem health and ecosystem service delivery is challenging in regions where extreme rainfall and runoff events occur episodically, confounding and often intensifying land-degradation impacts. We synthesize the approaches used in river, reservoir and coastal water management in the event-driven subtropics of Australia, and the scientific research underpinning them. Land-use change has placed the receiving waters of Moreton Bay, an internationally-significant coastal wetland, at risk of ecological degradation through increased nutrient and sediment loads. The event-driven climate exacerbates this issue, as the waterways and ultimately Moreton Bay receive large inputs of nutrients and sediment during events, well above those received throughout stable climatic periods. Research on the water quality and ecology of the region’s rivers and coastal waters has underpinned the development of a world-renowned monitoring program and, in combination with catchment-source tracing methods and modeling, has revealed the key mechanisms and management strategies by which receiving-water quality, ecosystem health and ecosystem services can be maintained and improved. These approaches provide a useful framework for management of water bodies in other regions driven by episodic events, or where novel stressors are involved (e.g., climate change, urbanization, to support sustained ecosystem service delivery and restoration of aquatic ecosystems.

  2. Impacts from urban water systems on receiving waters - How to account for severe wet-weather events in LCA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, Eva; Gasperi, Johnny; Gromaire, Marie-Christine; Chebbo, Ghassan; Azimi, Sam; Rocher, Vincent; Roux, Philippe; Rosenbaum, Ralph K; Sinfort, Carole

    2018-01-01

    Sewage systems are a vital part of the urban infrastructure in most cities. They provide drainage, which protects public health, prevents the flooding of property and protects the water environment around urban areas. On some occasions sewers will overflow into the water environment during heavy rain potentially causing unacceptable impacts from releases of untreated sewage into the environment. In typical Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies of urban wastewater systems (UWS), average dry-weather conditions are modelled while wet-weather flows from UWS, presenting a high temporal variability, are not currently accounted for. In this context, the loads from several storm events could be important contributors to the impact categories freshwater eutrophication and ecotoxicity. In this study we investigated the contributions of these wet-weather-induced discharges relative to average dry-weather conditions in the life cycle inventory for UWS. In collaboration with the Paris public sanitation service (SIAAP) and Observatory of Urban Pollutants (OPUR) program researchers, this work aimed at identifying and comparing contributing flows from the UWS in the Paris area by a selection of routine wastewater parameters and priority pollutants. This collected data is organized according to archetypal weather days during a reference year. Then, for each archetypal weather day and its associated flows to the receiving river waters (Seine), the parameters of pollutant loads (statistical distribution of concentrations and volumes) were determined. The resulting inventory flows (i.e. the potential loads from the UWS) were used as LCA input data to assess the associated impacts. This allowed investigating the relative importance of episodic wet-weather versus "continuous" dry-weather loads with a probabilistic approach to account for pollutant variability within the urban flows. The analysis at the scale of one year showed that storm events are significant contributors to the impacts

  3. SEAMIST trademark soil sampling for tritiated water: First year's results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallon, B.; Martins, S.A.; Houpis, J.L.; Lowry, W.; Cremer, C.D.

    1992-01-01

    SEAMIST trademark is a recently developed sampling system that enables one to measure various soil parameters by means of an inverted, removable, impermeable membrane tube inserted in a borehole. This membrane tube can have various measuring devices installed on it, such as gas ports, adsorbent pads, and electrical sensors. These membrane tubes are made of a laminated polymer. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California, has installed two of these systems to monitor tritium in soil resulting from a leak in an underground storage tank. One tube is equipped with gas ports to sample soil vapor and the other with adsorbent pads to sample soil moisture. Borehole stability was maintained using either sand-filled or air-inflated tubes. Both system implementations yielded concentrations or activities that compared well with the measured concentrations of tritium in the soil taken during borehole construction. In addition, an analysis of the data suggest that both systems prevented the vertical migration of tritium in the boreholes. Also, a neutron probe was successfully used in a blank membrane inserted in one of the boreholes to monitor the moisture in the soil without exposing the probe to the tritium. The neutron log showed excellent agreement with the soil moisture content measured in soil samples taken during borehole construction. This paper describes the two SEAMIST trademark systems used and presents sampling results and comparisons

  4. Efficiency improvement of a concentrated solar receiver for water heating system using porous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasartkaew, Boonrit

    2018-01-01

    This experimental study aims at investigating on the performance of a high temperature solar water heating system. To approach the high temperature, a porous-medium concentrated solar collector equipped with a focused solar heliostat were proposed. The proposed system comprised of two parts: a 0.7x0.7-m2 porous medium receiver, was installed on a 3-m tower, and a focused multi-flat-mirror solar heliostat with 25-m2 aperture area. The porous medium used in this study was the metal swarf or metal waste from lathing process. To know how the system efficiency could be improved by using such porous medium, the proposed system with- and without-porous medium were tested and the comparative study was performed. The experimental results show that, using porous medium for enhancing the heat transfer mechanism, the system thermal efficiency was increased about 25%. It can be concluded that the efficiency of the proposed system can be substantially improved by using the porous medium.

  5. Water quality during storm events from two constructed wetlands receiving mine drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stark, L.R.; Brooks, R.P.; Williams, F.M.; Stevens, S.E. Jr.; Davis, L.K.

    1994-01-01

    Flow rates, pH, iron concentration, and manganese concentration were measured during several storm event at two constructed wetlands receiving mine water. During a substantial rain event, flow rates at both the wetland outlets surpassed flow rates at the wetland inlets, reflecting incident rainfall and differences in wetland area at the two sites. A significant positive correlation existed between local rainfall and outflow rates at the larger wetland, but not between rainfall and inflow rates. During storm events, outlet pH, relative to inlet pH, was slightly elevated at the larger wetland, and depressed at the smaller wetland. However, over the course of one year, rainfall was uncorrelated to outlet pH in the larger wetland. A substantial rain event at the smaller wetland resulted in a temporary elevation in outlet iron concentrations, with treatment efficiency reduced to near zero. However, in the larger wetland, outlet iron concentrations were not significantly affected by storm events. 14 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  6. Tritiated hydrogen gas storage systems for a fusion plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramy, W.; Hircq, B.; Peyrat, M.; Leger, D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that USSI INGENIERIE has carried out a study financed by European Communities Commission concerning the NET/ITER project, on tritium Fuel Management and Storage systems of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. A processing block diagram for hydrogen isotopes represents all interfaces and possible links between these systems and tritiated gas mixtures flowing through the Fusion plant. Large quantities of hydrogen isotopes (up to several thousand moles of protium, deuterium and tritium) in gaseous form associated with torus fuelling and exhaust pellet injection, and neutral beam injection, must be stored and managed in such a plant

  7. Tritiated imipramine binding sites are decreased in the frontal cortex of suicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, M.; Virgilio, J.; Gershon, S.

    1982-01-01

    Binding characteristics of tritiated imipramine were determined in the frontal cortex of suicides and well-matched controls. Maximal binding was significantly lower in brains from the suicides. This finding is consistent with reports of decreased tritiated imipramine binding in the platelets of patients diagnosed as having a major affective disorder

  8. Analysis of the impact of water level fluctuations on macrophytes in Miyun Reservoir after receiving water transferred by the South-to-North Water Diversion Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, L.; Gu, H.; Lou, C. H.; Zhang, L.; Meng, Q. Y.

    2016-08-01

    As the main primary producers in aquatic ecosystems, macrophytes affect the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems, and their distribution is controlled by water depth. Miyun Reservoir in Beijing will have to experience substantial changes in water level and surface area as it begins to receive water transferred by the South-to-North Water Diversion Project, which will have an adverse impact on the macrophytes growing there. In this study, a hydrodynamic model was constructed with MIKE21 and then used in a simulation in three scenarios: dry year, normal year and wet year. The results suggest that during water diversion, the annual and interannual water level fluctuations will be too significant for them to adapt and as a result, the original macrophytes in the reservoir tend to die and disappear completely. The area of the zone suitable for macrophyte growth, or suitable growth zone (SGZ), fluctuated. Restricted by the main dam and auxiliary dam to its south, the overall suitable growth zone moved toward the northeast and northwest of the reservoir, with a northeastward movement of its centroid. The distance and path of movement varied between scenarios. After the water diversion was completed, the suitable growth zone shrunk in the three scenarios. It is predicted that the macrophyte species diversity and richness of the reservoir can recover to the levels recorded before water diversion only in dry year. These results suggest that manual interventions should be implemented after water diversion to speed up the natural recovery of aquatic plant communities in Miyun Reservoir and thereby maintain the stability of the aquatic ecosystem.

  9. Corrosion behavior of 316 L stainless steel simulated by studying the influence of the species produced in the radiolysis in tritiated aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellanger, G.

    1991-10-01

    The corrosion of 316 L stainless steel in tritiated aqueous solutions was simulated by studying the influence of species produced or present in the radiolysis in these solutions. The species studied were nitrates, fluorides, nitrites, hydrogen peroxide and components of the steel, as well as the pH. The method used was voltammetry. The corroded or passivated surfaces were examined by scanning electron microscopy and the corrosion rates were determined by measuring the electrochemical impedance. The depletion of the component elements of the stainless steel at the surface was observed by X-ray fluorescence. From our results we propose methods to limit the corrosion in an industrial tritiated water installation by controlling the pH, the oxidation-reduction potential of the water and the voltage of the installation [fr

  10. Transport, speciation, toxicity, and treatability of highway stormwater discharged to receiving waters in Louisiana : [tech summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    As centralized wastewater treatment continues to improve while increasingly replacing decentralized systems, urban : rainfall-runoff has become the leading contributor of water body impairments in the United States (USEPA, 1996). For : many water bod...

  11. Spatial and temporal variations of water quality in an artificial urban river receiving WWTP effluent in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Di; Tao, Yi; Liu, Xiaoning; Zhou, Kuiyu; Yuan, Zhenghao; Wu, Qianyuan; Zhang, Xihui

    2016-01-01

    Urban wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent as reclaimed water provides an alternative water resource for urban rivers and effluent will pose a significant influence on the water quality of rivers. The objective of this study was to investigate the spatial and temporal variations of water quality in XZ River, an artificial urban river in Shenzhen city, Guangdong Province, China, after receiving reclaimed water from WWTP effluent. The water samples were collected monthly at different sites of XZ River from April 2013 to September 2014. Multivariate statistical techniques and a box-plot were used to assess the variations of water quality and to identify the main pollution factor. The results showed the input of WWTP effluent could effectively increase dissolved oxygen, decrease turbidity, phosphorus load and organic pollution load of XZ River. However, total nitrogen and nitrate pollution loads were found to remain at higher levels after receiving reclaimed water, which might aggravate eutrophication status of XZ River. Organic pollution load exhibited the lowest value on the 750 m downstream of XZ River, while turbidity and nutrient load showed the lowest values on the 2,300 m downstream. There was a higher load of nitrogen and phosphorus pollution in the dry season and at the beginning of wet season.

  12. Interactions between physical, chemical and biological processes in aquatic systems - impacts on receiving waters with different contents of treated wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreuzinger, N.

    2000-08-01

    Two scenarios have be chosen within this PhD Thesis to describe the integrative key-significance of interactions between most relevant physical, chemical and biological processes in aquatic systems. These two case studies are used to illustrate and describe the importance of a detailed synthesis of biological, physical and chemical interactions in aquatic systems in order to provide relevant protection of water resources and to perform a sound water management. Methods are described to allow a detailed assessment of particular aspects within the complexity of the overall integration and therefore serve as a basis to determine the eventual necessity of proposed water management measures. Regarding the anthropogenic influence of treated wastewater on aquatic systems, one case study focuses on the interactions between emitted waters from a wastewater treatment plant and the resulting immission situation of its receiving water (The receiving water is quantitatively influenced by the treated wastewater by 95 %). This thesis proves that the effluent of wastewater treatment plants operated by best available technology meets the quality standards of running waters for the nutrients nitrogen and phosphorus, carbon-parameters, oxygen-regime and ecotoxicology. Within the second case study the focus is put on interactions between immissions and water usage. The general importance of biological phosphorus precipitation on the trophic situation of aquatic systems is described. Nevertheless, this generally known but within the field of applied limnology so far unrespected process of immobilization of phosphorus could be shown to represent a significant and major impact on phytoplannctotic development and eutrification. (author)

  13. The potential impact of an inter-basin water transfer project on nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorous) and chlorophyll a of the receiving water system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qinghui; Qin, Lihuan; Li, Xuyong

    2015-12-01

    Any inter-basin water transfer project would cause complex physical, chemical, hydrological and biological changes to the receiving system. The primary channel of the middle route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project has a total length of 1267 km. There is a significant difference between the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the originating and receiving drinking water conservation districts. To predict the impacts of this long-distance inter-basin water transfer project on the N&P (nitrogen and phosphorus) concentrations and eutrophication risk of the receiving system, an environmental fluid dynamics code (EFDC) model was applied. The calibrated model accurately reproduced the hydrodynamic, water quality and the entire algal bloom process. Thirteen scenarios were defined to fully understand the N&P and chlorophyll a (Chl a) variation among different hydrological years, different quantity and timing of water transfer, and different inflows of N&P concentrations. The results showed the following: (a) The water transfer project would not result in a substantial difference to the trophic state of the Miyun reservoir in any of the hydrological years. (b) The area affected by the water transfer did not involve the entire reservoir. To minimize the impact of water transfer on N&P nutrients and Chl a, water should be transferred as uniform as possible with small discharge. (c) The variation in Chl a was more sensitive to an increase in P than an increase in N for the transferred water. The increased percentages of the average Chl a concentration when water was transferred in the spring, summer and autumn were 7.76%, 16.67% and 16.45%. Our findings imply that special attention should be given to prevent P increment of the transferred water from May to October to prevent algal blooms. The results provide useful information for decision makers about the quantity and timing of water transfers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Calculation of intercepted runoff depth based on stormwater quality and environmental capacity of receiving waters for initial stormwater pollution management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hai-Qin; Liu, Yan; Gao, Xue-Long; Wang, Hong-Wu; Chen, Yi; Cai, Hui-Yi

    2017-11-01

    While point source pollutions have gradually been controlled in recent years, the non-point source pollution problem has become increasingly prominent. The receiving waters are frequently polluted by the initial stormwater from the separate stormwater system and the wastewater from sewage pipes through stormwater pipes. Consequently, calculating the intercepted runoff depth has become a problem that must be resolved immediately for initial stormwater pollution management. The accurate calculation of intercepted runoff depth provides a solid foundation for selecting the appropriate size of intercepting facilities in drainage and interception projects. This study establishes a separate stormwater system for the Yishan Building watershed of Fuzhou City using the InfoWorks Integrated Catchment Management (InfoWorks ICM), which can predict the stormwater flow velocity and the flow of discharge outlet after each rainfall. The intercepted runoff depth is calculated from the stormwater quality and environmental capacity of the receiving waters. The average intercepted runoff depth from six rainfall events is calculated as 4.1 mm based on stormwater quality. The average intercepted runoff depth from six rainfall events is calculated as 4.4 mm based on the environmental capacity of the receiving waters. The intercepted runoff depth differs when calculated from various aspects. The selection of the intercepted runoff depth depends on the goal of water quality control, the self-purification capacity of the water bodies, and other factors of the region.

  15. Optical and thermal energy discharge from tritiated solid hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnotta, F.; Mapoles, E.R.; Collins, G.W.; Souers, P.C.

    1991-01-01

    The authors are investigating mechanisms of energy storage and release in tritiated solid hydrogens, by a variety of techniques including ESR, NMR and thermal and optical emission. The nuclear decay of a triton in solid hydrogen initiates the conversion of nuclear energy into stored chemical energy by producing unpaired hydrogen atoms which are trapped within the molecular lattice. The ability to store large quantities of atoms in this manner has been demonstrated and can serve as a basis for new forms of high energy density materials. This paper presents preliminary results of a study of the optical emission from solid hydrogen containing tritium over the visible and near infrared (NIR) spectral regions. Specifically, they have studied optical emission from DT and T 2 using CCD, silicon diode and germanium diode arrays. 8 refs., 6 figs

  16. Autoradiography in fetal golden hamsters treated with tritiated diethylnitrosamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reznik-Schueller, H.M.; Hague, B.F. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Tritiated diethylnitrosamine was administered to female Syrian golden hamsters on each of the last 4 days (days 12-15) of pregnancy. The distribution of bound radioactivity was monitored by light microscopic autoradiography of fetal tracheas and livers, the placentas, and the maternal livers. In the trachea, the fetal target organ, bound radioactivity was restricted to the respiratory epithelium, where diethylnitrosamine-induced tracheal tumors arise. Mucous cells and nonciliated stem cells were identified as the principal sites of binding; other cell types within the tracheal epithelium contained only small amounts of bound radioactivity. The level of binding observed in the fetal trachea increased steadily from day 12 to day 15, which correlated well with the levels of differentiation of this tissue during this period. This observation also agrees with the previously reported observation that tumor incidence increases from 40 to 95% in Syrian golden hamsters between days 12 and 15

  17. Radiochemical plasma salicylamide assay using ring-labeled tritiated salicylamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stella, V J; Varia, S A; Riedy, M

    1979-05-01

    A rat plasma salicylamide assay was developed using ring-labeled tritiated salicylamide, synthesized by reacting salicylamide with tritium oxide in the presence of heptafluorobutyric acid. The reaction yielded /sup 3/H-salicylamide of specific activity up to 8.41 mCi/mmole, 60% yield. Plasma containing /sup 3/H-salicylamide and its metabolites was extracted with a toluene-based scintillation fluid, which was subsequently counted. Specificity for free salicylamide was demonstrated by radiochemical and standard fluorescence plasma salicylamide level-time curves. Specificity resulted from nonextraction of the salicylamide sulfate and glucuronide metabolites. Sulfatase and beta-glucuronidase treatment allowed the analysis of plasma sulfate and glucuronide conjugates as free salicylamide. This procedure should be effective for the analysis of salicylamide and its metabolites in the presence of similar phenolic compounds.

  18. Electronic and steric effects in regioselective tritiation of anilides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OOhashi, Kunio; Udo, Masato (Chiba Univ. (Japan). Coll. of Arts and Sciences)

    1992-07-01

    Acetanilide, propionanilide and isobutyranilide were tritiated at the ortho positions with very high regioselectivity by heating with HTO in the presence of RhCl[sub 3][center dot]3H[sub 2]O in N, N-dimethylformamide (DMF). In this reaction for pivalanilide the specific activity alone was determined, because attempts to establish the regioselectivity were unsuccessful. The extent of tritium incorporation decreased with increasing bulkiness of the alkyl groups. Only slight tritium was introduced by the same reaction for trifluoroacetanilide, which would probably be attributed to a strong electron-attracting property of the trifluoromethyl group. The above findings give support to the previous suggestion that the present isotope exchange reaction proceeds via an initial coordination of the nitrogen atom of anilides to the rhodium (III) chloride trihydrate catalyst. (author).

  19. Application of tritiated water as a tracer for quantitative determination of water flow distribution in an oil-field; Emploi de l'eau tritiee comme indicateur pour l'etude quantitative de la repartition des eaux dans un champ petrolifere; Primenenie nasyshchennoj tritiem vody v kachestve mechenogo atoma dlya kolichestvennogo opredeleniya raspredeleniya potoka vody v neftyanom pole; Empleo del agua tritiada como trazador en la determinacion cuantitativa de la distribucion del flujo de agua en un campo petrolifero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuyper, E; Hofstra, A [Koninklijke/Shell-Laboratorium, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Nauta, H [Koninklijke/Shell Exploratie-En Produktie-Laboratorium (Netherlands)

    1962-01-15

    In order to study the flow of water in an underground oil reservoir, tritiated water was injected in a well and, subsequently, tritium was determined in the water produced by the surrounding wells. Since the specific radioactivity of the water produced by the more remote wells appeared to be rather low, partly owing to dilution of the tritium water by the water present in the formation, enrichment methods were used, in order to increase counting sensitivity. Three methods of enrichment were examined: exchange with ethanol, conversion to toluene, and electrolysis. The latter method proved to be the most useful. The tritium was determined with a liquid scintillation counter; the scintillator consisted of a toluene-ethanol (2:1) mixture with DPO and POPOP, the water sample being dissolved in this liquid. Some statistical problems in connexion with the minimum detectable specific activity and the reduction of background are discussed briefly. (author) [French] Pour etudier la repartition des eaux dans un gisement de petrole, on a injecte de l'eau tritiee dans un puits et l'on a ensuite cherche a deceler la presence de tritium dans l'eau extraite des puits voisins. Comme la radioactivite specifique de l'eau des puits les plus eloignes semblait assez faible, en partie a cause de la dilution de l'eau tritiee par l'eau presente dans la formation, on a eu recours a diverses methodes d'enrichissement. Trois methodes ont ete examinees: echange avec l'ethanol, conversion en toluene et electrolyse. C'est cette derniere qui s'est revelee la plus utile. Le tritium a ete mesure avec un scintillometre a liquide; le scintillateur etait un melange toluene-ethanol (2:1) additionne de DPO et de POPOP, l'echantillon d'eau etant dissous dans ce liquide. Les auteurs examinent brievement quelques problemes statistiques relatifs a l'activite specifique minimum qui peut etre decelee et a la reduction du bruit de fond. (author) [Spanish] Con el proposito de estudiar el flujo de agua en un

  20. POPULATION DIVERSITY IN MODEL DRINKING WATER BIOFILMS RECEIVING CHLORINE OR MONOCHLORAMINE RESIDUAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most water utilities add monochloramine or chlorine as a residual disinfectant in potable water distribution systems (WDS) to control bacterial regrowth. While monochloramine is considered more stable than chlorine, little is known about the fate of this disinfectant or the effec...

  1. Studies on translocation of tritiated assimilates into potatoes and wheat grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, J.; Diabate, S.; Strack, S.; Raskob, W.

    1993-01-01

    Tritium released in the enviroment may be converted to organically bound tritium (OBT), mainly by photosynthesis in green leaves. Tritiated assimilates can be translocated from leaves to storage organs of crop plants. This should be considered in models calculating the dose due to the ingestion pathway. This paper describes experiments with wheat and potatoes, which have been designed to study the translocation of tritiated assimilates. Additionally, gas exchange measurements have been performed with the leaves of those plants. A model has been developed to estimate the generation of OBT and the translocation of tritiated assimilates into edible plant parts. (orig.) [de

  2. Investigation of sodium metabolism in the ruminants, in vitro and in vivo studies with 24Na isotope, after different intake of potassium and water. Part of a coordinated programme on water requirements of tropical herbivores based on measurements with tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhasz, B.

    1980-04-01

    The water and electrolyte content of the rumen which gives the 15% of the water space of the body has an important role in the regulation of the water and electrolyte metabolism of the sheep. The diuresis is very important in the standardization of the volume of the body-water space but in the ruminant the saliva secretion is also a significant-factor in the water and electrolyte metabolism of the body. In our experiments the mechanism of the regulation of the water and electrolyte metabolism was examined in two points of view. In one hand the range of the ion transport was determined in vitro in the sheep's erythrocytes of low and high K + content. On the other hand in 3 in vivo experiments the function of water and salt metabolism was examined during saline overcharge by animals supplied with different quantity of saline and water and the alterations of Na + and K + concentrations of plasma and saliva, moreover the saliva secretion and the diuresis rates were studied

  3. Ptaquiloside in irish bracken ferns and receiving waters, with implications for land managers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Driscoll, Connie; Ramwell, Carmel; Harhen, Brendan

    2016-01-01

    Ptaquiloside, along with other natural phytotoxins, is receiving increased attention from scientists and land use managers. There is an urgent need to increase empirical evidence to understand the scale of phytotoxin mobilisation and potential to enter into the environment. In this study the risk...

  4. Selected Aspects of Functioning of the Sewage Treatment Plant in Szczawnica in Terms of Receiver Water Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Wąsik

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article includes an assessment of the impact of sewage exiting from the sewage treatment plant in Szczawnica before and after the modernization of the facility, the physicochemical composition and the quality of the water of their receiver - Dunajec River. The work was carried out on the basis of analysis of samples taken from raw and purified sewage and receiver waters. The Dunajec water intake was above and below the point of sewer discharge from the WWTP. The range of contaminated indicators included 14 physicochemical parameters and two bacteriological indicators. On the basis of the research conducted, it was stated that the Szczawnica Forest Enterprise after its modernization in 2016 functioned correctly. The purified sewage on it complies with the requirements of a water permit, which translates directly into effective protection against the pollution of receiver waters. This was confirmed by the results of the Kruskal-Wallis test that showed statistically significant differences between the median values of overall nitrogen concentrations before and after the refurbishment of the facility. For the remaining pollutant indices (total suspensions, BOD5, CODCr, total phosphorus, no statistically significant differences were found between the medians. In addition, it was found that the physico-chemical composition of Dunajec waters was similar in both examined sections. The purified effluent discharged from the Szczawnica treatment plant to the Dunajec River did not contribute to deterioration of its water quality in the case of physico-chemical indicators. Based on the classification of these elements, it was determined that in the analyzed period, the Dunajec water in the section directly above and below the WWTP meets the requirements for category A1 of waters intended for the supply of the population (very good quality water. In the case of microbiological classification based on the number of bacteria of the coli group and

  5. Fecal pollution source tracking toolbox for identification, evaluation and characterization of fecal contamination in receiving urban surface waters and groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Ngoc Han; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong; Ngo, Huu Hao

    2015-12-15

    The quality of surface waters/groundwater of a geographical region can be affected by anthropogenic activities, land use patterns and fecal pollution sources from humans and animals. Therefore, the development of an efficient fecal pollution source tracking toolbox for identifying the origin of the fecal pollution sources in surface waters/groundwater is especially helpful for improving management efforts and remediation actions of water resources in a more cost-effective and efficient manner. This review summarizes the updated knowledge on the use of fecal pollution source tracking markers for detecting, evaluating and characterizing fecal pollution sources in receiving surface waters and groundwater. The suitability of using chemical markers (i.e. fecal sterols, fluorescent whitening agents, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, and artificial sweeteners) and/or microbial markers (e.g. F+RNA coliphages, enteric viruses, and host-specific anaerobic bacterial 16S rDNA genetic markers) for tracking fecal pollution sources in receiving water bodies is discussed. In addition, this review also provides a comprehensive approach, which is based on the detection ratios (DR), detection frequencies (DF), and fate of potential microbial and chemical markers. DR and DF are considered as the key criteria for selecting appropriate markers for identifying and evaluating the impacts of fecal contamination in surface waters/groundwater. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Experimental study and phenomenological modeling of the hydrolysis of tritiated sodium: influence of experimental conditions on the tritium distribution in the effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chassery, Aurelien

    2014-01-01

    Within the framework of the decommissioning of fast reactors, several processes are under investigation regarding sodium disposal. One of them rests on the implementation of the sodium-water reaction (SWR), in a controlled and progressive way, to remove residual sodium containing impurities such as sodium hydrides, sodium oxides and tritiated sodium hydrides. Such a hydrolysis releases some amount of energy and produces a liquid effluent, composed of a solution of soda, and a gaseous effluent, composed of hydrogen, steam and an inert gas. The tritium, originally into the sodium as a soluble (T - ) or precipitate form (NaT), will be distributed between the liquid and gaseous effluent, and according to two chemical forms, the tritium hydride HT and the tritiated water HTO. HTO being 10,000 times more radio-toxic than HT, a precise knowledge of the mechanisms governing the distribution of tritium is necessary in order to estimate the exhaust gas releases and design the process needed to treat the off-gas before its release into the environment. An experimental study has been carried out in order to determine precisely the phenomena involved in the hydrolysis. The influence of the experimental conditions on the tritium distribution has been tested. The results of this study leaded to a phenomenological description of the tritiated sodium hydrolysis that will help to predict the composition of the effluents, regarding tritium. (author) [fr

  7. An adaptive framework to differentiate receiving water quality impacts on a multi-scale level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumensaat, F; Tränckner, J; Helm, B; Kroll, S; Dirckx, G; Krebs, P

    2013-01-01

    The paradigm shift in recent years towards sustainable and coherent water resources management on a river basin scale has changed the subject of investigations to a multi-scale problem representing a great challenge for all actors participating in the management process. In this regard, planning engineers often face an inherent conflict to provide reliable decision support for complex questions with a minimum of effort. This trend inevitably increases the risk to base decisions upon uncertain and unverified conclusions. This paper proposes an adaptive framework for integral planning that combines several concepts (flow balancing, water quality monitoring, process modelling, multi-objective assessment) to systematically evaluate management strategies for water quality improvement. As key element, an S/P matrix is introduced to structure the differentiation of relevant 'pressures' in affected regions, i.e. 'spatial units', which helps in handling complexity. The framework is applied to a small, but typical, catchment in Flanders, Belgium. The application to the real-life case shows: (1) the proposed approach is adaptive, covers problems of different spatial and temporal scale, efficiently reduces complexity and finally leads to a transparent solution; and (2) water quality and emission-based performance evaluation must be done jointly as an emission-based performance improvement does not necessarily lead to an improved water quality status, and an assessment solely focusing on water quality criteria may mask non-compliance with emission-based standards. Recommendations derived from the theoretical analysis have been put into practice.

  8. INFLUENCE OF CARP BREEDING ON PHYSICOCHEMICAL STATE OF WATER IN FISH POND AND RECEIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodzimierz Kanownik

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of tests on quality features of feeding water and fish ponds of Mydlniki fish farm in the małopolskie province. The measurement and control points are situated in the river Rudawa before and below the farm and in four breeding ponds were measured in water: temperature, concentrations of dissolved oxygen, electrolytic conductivity, pH, total suspended solids, dissolved solids and concentrations of minerals: SO42+, Cl-, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Fe i Mn, and also biogenic compounds (PO43-, N-NH4+, N-NO2-, N-NO3-. It was found that water from the Rudawa river feeding the ponds did not meet the requirements for inland waters which are the natural environment for the cyprinids. The physicochemical state is below the well due to the high concentration of phosphate. Statistical analysis of 19 tested features revealed a positive effect of the fish ponds on water quality. Concentrations of biogenic compounds (phosphate, nitrite and nitrate nitrogen, dissolved solids, calcium and water conductivity in the fish ponds decreased on average by between 30 and 87% in comparison with the feeding watercourse.

  9. Water detritiation processing of JET purified waste water using the TRENTA facility at Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michling, R., E-mail: robert.michling@kit.edu; Bekris, N.; Cristescu, I.; Lohr, N.; Plusczyk, C.; Welte, S.; Wendel, J.

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Operation of a water detritiation facility under optimized conditions for high detritiation performances. • Improvement of operational procedures to process tritiated waste water. • Handling and reduction of tritiated waste water to achieve enriched low volume tritiated water for sufficient storage. • Demonstration of the efficient availability of the TRENTA WDS facility for technical scale operation. -- Abstract: A Water Detritiation System (WDS) is required for any Fusion machine in order to process tritiated waste water, which is accumulated in various subsystems during operation and maintenance. Regarding the European procurement packages for the ITER tritium fuel cycle, the WDS test facility TRENTA applying the Combined Electrolysis Catalytic Exchange (CECE) process was developed, installed and is currently in operation at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK). Besides the on-going R and D work for the design of ITER WDS, the current status of the TRENTA facility provides the option to utilize the WDS for processing tritiated water. Therefore, in the framework of the EFDA JET Fusion Technology Work Programme 2011, the TLK was able to offer the capability on a representative scale to process tritiated water, which was produced during normal operation at JET. The task should demonstrate the availability of the CECE process to handle and detritiate the water in terms of tritium enrichment and volume reduction. The operational program comprised the processing of purified tritiated water from JET, with a total volume of 180 l and an activity of 74 GBq. The paper will give an introduction to the TRENTA WDS facility and an overview of the operational procedure regarding tritiated water reduction. Data concerning required operation time, decontamination and enrichment performances and different operating procedures will be presented as well. Finally, a preliminary study on a technical implementation of processing the entire stock of JET

  10. Water detritiation processing of JET purified waste water using the TRENTA facility at Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michling, R.; Bekris, N.; Cristescu, I.; Lohr, N.; Plusczyk, C.; Welte, S.; Wendel, J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Operation of a water detritiation facility under optimized conditions for high detritiation performances. • Improvement of operational procedures to process tritiated waste water. • Handling and reduction of tritiated waste water to achieve enriched low volume tritiated water for sufficient storage. • Demonstration of the efficient availability of the TRENTA WDS facility for technical scale operation. -- Abstract: A Water Detritiation System (WDS) is required for any Fusion machine in order to process tritiated waste water, which is accumulated in various subsystems during operation and maintenance. Regarding the European procurement packages for the ITER tritium fuel cycle, the WDS test facility TRENTA applying the Combined Electrolysis Catalytic Exchange (CECE) process was developed, installed and is currently in operation at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK). Besides the on-going R and D work for the design of ITER WDS, the current status of the TRENTA facility provides the option to utilize the WDS for processing tritiated water. Therefore, in the framework of the EFDA JET Fusion Technology Work Programme 2011, the TLK was able to offer the capability on a representative scale to process tritiated water, which was produced during normal operation at JET. The task should demonstrate the availability of the CECE process to handle and detritiate the water in terms of tritium enrichment and volume reduction. The operational program comprised the processing of purified tritiated water from JET, with a total volume of 180 l and an activity of 74 GBq. The paper will give an introduction to the TRENTA WDS facility and an overview of the operational procedure regarding tritiated water reduction. Data concerning required operation time, decontamination and enrichment performances and different operating procedures will be presented as well. Finally, a preliminary study on a technical implementation of processing the entire stock of JET

  11. Testing the toxicity of metals, phenol, effluents, and receiving waters by root elongation in Lactuca sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Jie; Park, Jihae; Kumar Pandey, Lalit; Choi, Soyeon; Lee, Hojun; De Saeger, Jonas; Depuydt, Stephen; Han, Taejun

    2018-03-01

    Phytotoxicity tests using higher plants are among the most simple, sensitive, and cost-effective of the methods available for ecotoxicity testing. In the present study, a hydroponic-based phytotoxicity test using seeds of Lactuca sativa was used to evaluate the water quality of receiving waters and effluents near two industrial sites (Soyo and Daejon) in Korea with respect to the toxicity of 10 metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, Zn) and phenol, and of the receiving waters and effluents themselves. First, the L. sativa hydroponic bioassay was used to determine whether the receiving water or effluents were toxic; then, the responsible toxicant was identified. The results obtained with the L. sativa bioassay ranked the EC 50 toxicities of the investigated metal ions and phenol as: Cd > Ni > Cu > Zn > Hg > phenol > As > Mn > Cr > Pb > Fe. We found that Zn was the toxicant principally responsible for toxicity in Daejeon effluents. The Daejeon field effluent had a higher Zn concentration than permitted by the effluent discharge criteria of the Ministry of Environment of Korea. Our conclusion on the importance of Zn toxicity was supported by the results of the L. sativa hydroponic assay, which showed that the concentration of Zn required to inhibit root elongation in L. sativa by 50% (EC 50 ) was higher in the Daejeon field effluent than that of pure Zn. More importantly, we proved that the L. sativa hydroponic test method can be applied not only as an alternative tool for determining whether a given waste is acceptable for discharge into public water bodies, but also as an alternative method for measuring the safety of aquatic environments using EC 20 values, with respect to the water pollutants investigated (i.e., Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, Zn, and phenol). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Comparison of tritiated and iodinated tracers in the radioimmunoassay of progesterone in cow milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, R M; Redshaw, M R [Hoechst Pharmaceuticals Research Ltd., Milton Keynes (UK); Holdsworth, R [Milk Marketing Board, Worcester (UK). Veterinary Research Unit

    1980-01-01

    Progesterone levels in the milk of cows were determined by two radioimmunoassay methods. Excellent correlation (r = 0.95) was found between the method using an iodinated radioligand and that using a conventional tritiated tracer.

  13. Increasing daily water intake and fluid adherence in children receiving treatment for retentive encopresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhl, Elizabeth S; Hoodin, Flora; Rice, Jennifer; Felt, Barbara T; Rausch, Joseph R; Patton, Susana R

    2010-11-01

    To examine the efficacy of an enhanced intervention (EI) compared to standard care (SC) in increasing daily water intake and fluid goal adherence in children seeking treatment for retentive encopresis. Changes in beverage intake patterns and fluid adherence were examined by comparing 7-week diet diary data collected during participation in the EI to achieved data for families who had previously completed the SC. Compared to children in SC (n = 19), children in the EI (n = 18) demonstrated a significantly greater increase in daily water intake from baseline to the conclusion of treatment ( p ≤ .001), and were four and six times more likely to meet fluid targets in Phases 1 (Weeks 3-4) and 2 (Weeks 5-6) of fluid intervention, respectively (both p ≤ .001). Enhanced education and behavioral strategies were efficacious in increasing children's intake of water and improving fluid adherence. Future research should replicate the findings in a prospective randomized clinical trial to discern their effectiveness.

  14. Nitrogen removal and greenhouse gas emissions from constructed wetlands receiving tile drainage water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groh, Tyler A; Gentry, Lowell E; David, Mark B

    2015-05-01

    Loss of nitrate from agricultural lands to surface waters is an important issue, especially in areas that are extensively tile drained. To reduce these losses, a wide range of in-field and edge-of-field practices have been proposed, including constructed wetlands. We re-evaluated constructed wetlands established in 1994 that were previously studied for their effectiveness in removing nitrate from tile drainage water. Along with this re-evaluation, we measured the production and flux of greenhouse gases (GHGs) (CO, NO, and CH). The tile inlets and outlets of two wetlands were monitored for flow and N during the 2012 and 2013 water years. In addition, seepage rates of water and nitrate under the berm and through the riparian buffer strip were measured. Greenhouse gas emissions from the wetlands were measured using floating chambers (inundated fluxes) or static chambers (terrestrial fluxes). During this 2-yr study, the wetlands removed 56% of the total inlet nitrate load, likely through denitrification in the wetland. Some additional removal of nitrate occurred in seepage water by the riparian buffer strip along each berm (6.1% of the total inlet load, for a total nitrate removal of 62%). The dominant GHG emitted from the wetlands was CO, which represented 75 and 96% of the total GHG emissions during the two water years. The flux of NO contributed between 3.7 and 13% of the total cumulative GHG flux. Emissions of NO were 3.2 and 1.3% of the total nitrate removed from wetlands A and B, respectively. These wetlands continue to remove nitrate at rates similar to those measured after construction, with relatively little GHG gas loss. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  15. Modelling receiving water quality responses to brackishwater shrimp aquaculture farm effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy Chaudhury, R.K.; Ramana Murty, V.; Ravindran, M.

    1999-01-01

    The objective was to perform a waste load allocation and determine the extent of aquaculture that the creeks can sustain, by meeting the water quality criteria for both the creek ecosystem and pond culture. Based on these results, similar assessments may be performed for other sites supporting large scale aquaculture activities. This paper introduces the sampling program and modelling methodology of the study

  16. Phosphorus retention in a newly constructed wetland receiving agricultural tile drainage water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kynkäänniemi, Pia; Ulén, Barbro; Torstensson, Gunnar; Tonderski, Karin S

    2013-01-01

    One measure used in Sweden to mitigate eutrophication of waters is the construction of small wetlands (free water surface wetland for phosphorus retention [P wetlands]) to trap particulate phosphorus (PP) transported in ditches and streams. This study evaluated P retention dynamics in a newly constructed P wetland serving a 26-ha agricultural catchment with clay soil. Flow-proportional composite water samples were collected at the wetland inlet and outlet over 2 yr (2010-2011) and analyzed for total P (TP), dissolved P (DP), particulate P (PP), and total suspended solids (TSS). Both winters had unusually long periods of snow accumulation, and additional time-proportional water samples were frequently collected during snowmelt. Inflow TP and DP concentrations varied greatly (0.02-1.09 mg L) during the sampling period. During snowmelt in 2010, there was a daily oscillation in P concentration and water flow in line with air temperature variations. Outflow P concentrations were generally lower than inflow concentrations, with net P losses observed only in August and December 2010. On an annual basis, the wetland acted as a net P sink, with mean specific retention of 69 kg TP, 17 kg DP, and 30 t TSS ha yr, corresponding to a reduction in losses of 0.22 kg TP ha yr from the agricultural catchment. Relative retention was high (36% TP, 9% DP, and 36% TSS), indicating that small constructed wetlands (0.3% of catchment area) can substantially reduce P loads from agricultural clay soils with moderately undulating topography. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  17. Marked reduction in the number of platelet-tritiated imipramine binding sites in geriatric depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemeroff, C.B.; Knight, D.L.; Krishnan, R.R.; Slotkin, T.A.; Bissette, G.; Melville, M.L.; Blazer, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    The number (Bmax) and affinity (Kd) of platelet-tritiated imipramine binding sites was determined in young and middle-aged controls 50 years of age and younger (n = 25), elderly normal controls over 60 years of age (n = 18), patients who fulfilled DSM-III criteria for major depression who were under 50 years of age (n = 29), patients who fulfilled DSM-III criteria for major depression who were 60 years of age and older (n = 19), and patients who fulfilled both DSM-III criteria for primary degenerative dementia and National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke-Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association criteria for probable Alzheimer's disease (n = 13). Both groups of depressed patients (under 50 and over 60 years of age) exhibited significant reductions (decreases 42%) in the number of platelet-tritiated imipramine binding sites with no change in affinity, when compared with their age-matched controls. There was little overlap in Bmax values between the elderly depressed patients and their controls. The patients with probable Alzheimer's disease showed no alteration in platelet-tritiated imipramine binding. There was no statistically significant relationship between postdexamethasone plasma cortisol concentrations and tritiated imipramine binding. These results indicate that platelet-tritiated imipramine binding may have potential utility as a diagnostic adjunct in geriatric depression, and moreover that the reduction in the number of platelet-tritiated imipramine binding sites is not due to hypercortisolemia

  18. Narrow pH Range of Surface Water Bodies Receiving Pesticide Input in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundschuh, Mirco; Weyers, Arnd; Ebeling, Markus; Elsaesser, David; Schulz, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Fate and toxicity of the active ingredients (AI's) of plant protection products in surface waters is often influenced by pH. Although a general range of pH values is reported in literature, an evaluation targeting aquatic ecosystems with documented AI inputs is lacking at the larger scale. Results show 95% of European surface waters (n = 3075) with a documented history of AI exposure fall within a rather narrow pH range, between 7.0 and 8.5. Spatial and temporal variability in the data may at least be partly explained by the calcareous characteristics of parental rock material, the affiliation of the sampling site to a freshwater ecoregion, and the photosynthetic activity of macrophytes (i.e., higher pH values with photosynthesis). Nonetheless, the documented pH range fits well with the standard pH of most ecotoxicological test guidelines, confirming the fate and ecotoxicity of AIs are usually adequately addressed.

  19. Measuring Snow Liquid Water Content with Low-Cost GPS Receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Franziska; Prasch, Monika; Schmid, Lino; Schweizer, Jürg; Mauser, Wolfram

    2014-01-01

    The amount of liquid water in snow characterizes the wetness of a snowpack. Its temporal evolution plays an important role for wet-snow avalanche prediction, as well as the onset of meltwater release and water availability estimations within a river basin. However, it is still a challenge and a not yet satisfyingly solved issue to measure the liquid water content (LWC) in snow with conventional in situ and remote sensing techniques. We propose a new approach based on the attenuation of microwave radiation in the L-band emitted by the satellites of the Global Positioning System (GPS). For this purpose, we performed a continuous low-cost GPS measurement experiment at the Weissfluhjoch test site in Switzerland, during the snow melt period in 2013. As a measure of signal strength, we analyzed the carrier-to-noise power density ratio (C/N0) and developed a procedure to normalize these data. The bulk volumetric LWC was determined based on assumptions for attenuation, reflection and refraction of radiation in wet snow. The onset of melt, as well as daily melt-freeze cycles were clearly detected. The temporal evolution of the LWC was closely related to the meteorological and snow-hydrological data. Due to its non-destructive setup, its cost-efficiency and global availability, this approach has the potential to be implemented in distributed sensor networks for avalanche prediction or basin-wide melt onset measurements. PMID:25384007

  20. Measuring Snow Liquid Water Content with Low-Cost GPS Receivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Koch

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The amount of liquid water in snow characterizes the wetness of a snowpack. Its temporal evolution plays an important role for wet-snow avalanche prediction, as well as the onset of meltwater release and water availability estimations within a river basin. However, it is still a challenge and a not yet satisfyingly solved issue to measure the liquid water content (LWC in snow with conventional in situ and remote sensing techniques. We propose a new approach based on the attenuation of microwave radiation in the L-band emitted by the satellites of the Global Positioning System (GPS. For this purpose, we performed a continuous low-cost GPS measurement experiment at the Weissfluhjoch test site in Switzerland, during the snow melt period in 2013. As a measure of signal strength, we analyzed the carrier-to-noise power density ratio (C/N0 and developed a procedure to normalize these data. The bulk volumetric LWC was determined based on assumptions for attenuation, reflection and refraction of radiation in wet snow. The onset of melt, as well as daily melt-freeze cycles were clearly detected. The temporal evolution of the LWC was closely related to the meteorological and snow-hydrological data. Due to its non-destructive setup, its cost-efficiency and global availability, this approach has the potential to be implemented in distributed sensor networks for avalanche prediction or basin-wide melt onset measurements.

  1. Cost effectiveness of detritiating water with resin columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, R.H.; Williams, D.S.

    1997-10-01

    There are technologies in use for cleaning up concentrated tritiated process water. These are not cost effective for tritiated water with low concentrations of tritium. There are currently no cost-effective technologies for cleaning up low-tritium-concentration tritiated water, such as most tritiated groundwater, spent fuel storage basin water, or underground storage tank water. Resin removal of tritium from tritiated water at low concentrations (near the order of magnitude of drinking water standard maximums) is being tested on TA-SO (Los Alamos National Laboratory's Liquid Radioactive Waste Treatment Facility) waste streams. There are good theoretical and test indications that this may be a technologically effective means of removing tritium from tritiated water. Because of likely engineering design similarity, it is reasonable to anticipate that a resin column system's costs will be similar to some common commercial water treatment systems. Thus, the potential cost effectiveness of a resin treatment system offers hope for treating tritiated water at affordable costs. The TA-50 resin treatment cost projection of $18 per 1,000 gallons is within the same order of magnitude as cost data for typical commercial groundwater cleanup projects. The prospective Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) resin treatment system at $18 per 1,000 gallons appears to have a likely cost advantage of at least an order of magnitude over the competing, developmental, water detritiation technologies

  2. Assessing Receiving Water Quality Impacts due to Flow Path Alteration in Residential Catchments, using the Stormwater and Wastewater Management Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolosoff, S. E.; Duncan, J.; Endreny, T.

    2001-05-01

    The Croton water supply system, responsible for supplying approximately 10% of New York City's water, provides an opportunity for exploration into the impacts of significant terrestrial flow path alteration upon receiving water quality. Natural flow paths are altered during residential development in order to allow for construction at a given location, reductions in water table elevation in low lying areas and to provide drainage of increased overland flow volumes. Runoff conducted through an artificial drainage system, is prevented from being attenuated by the natural environment, thus the pollutant removal capacity inherent in most natural catchments is often limited to areas where flow paths are not altered by development. By contrasting the impacts of flow path alterations in two small catchments in the Croton system, with different densities of residential development, we can begin to identify appropriate limits to the re-routing of runoff in catchments draining into surface water supplies. The Stormwater and Wastewater Management Model (SWMM) will be used as a tool to predict the runoff quantity and quality generated from two small residential catchments and to simulate the potential benefits of changes to the existing drainage system design, which may improve water quality due to longer residence times.

  3. Antibiotic resistance genes in municipal wastewater treatment systems and receiving waters in Arctic Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neudorf, Kara D.; Huang, Yan Nan; Ragush, Colin M.

    2017-01-01

    Domestic wastewater discharges may adversely impact arctic ecosystems and local indigenous people, who rely on being able to hunt and harvest food from their local environment. Therefore, there is a need to develop efficient wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), which can be operated in remote...... communities under extreme climatic conditions. WWTPs have been identified as reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). The objective of this work was to quantify the presence of nine different ARG markers (int1, sul1, sul2, tet(O), erm(B), mecA, blaCTX-M, blaTEM, and qnr(S)) in two passive systems...... (waste stabilization ponds [WSPs]) and one mechanical filtration plant operating in two smaller and one large community, respectively, in Nunavut, Canada. Measurement of water quality parameters (carbonaceous oxygen demand, ammonia, total suspended solids, Escherichia coli and total coliforms) showed...

  4. A field-scale demonstration of air sparging to remediate tritiated fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, C.E.; Gillespie, D.R.; Hokett, S.L.; Donithan, J.D.

    1996-09-01

    Two pilot field-scale studies were conducted during the period of May 24 to July 22, 1996, to evaluate the potential of air sparging to remediate tritiated fluids. Previous analytical solutions to the rate of tritium removal were evaluated and compared to the experimental results. The analytical solution of Craig and Gordon that describes isotopic fractionation of an evaporating body of water appears to most accurately describe the process, versus the more limited isotopic exchange equation of Slattery and Ingraham and the mass transfer equation of Wilson and Fordham, which are accurate only at moderate to high humidities and do not describe the tritium enrichment process that would occur at low humidities. The results of the two experiments demonstrated that air sparging of tritium is a viable process in the field. Tritium removal rates of 60 percent were reported during the first experiment and 66 percent for the second experiment. Comparison to previous laboratory work revealed that rates could have been improved by starting with higher concentrations, utilizing smaller bubbles, and longer bubble path lengths. Risks associated with the pilot study were greater the closer one worked to the experiment with a maximum increase in the Lifetime Excess Total Risk per Unit Uptake of 2.4 x 10 -5 . Conduct of this experiment at locations with much higher activities of tritium would significantly increase the associated risk

  5. Evaluation of coastal waters receiving fish processing waste: Lota Bay as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada, Ramón; Rudolph, Anny; Contreras, Sergio

    2004-01-01

    Liquid wastes from the fish meal and oil processing industries produce serious environmental impacts in coastal embayments on the coasts of Chile and Peru. This article presents an analysis of an environmental monitoring program at Lota Bay, a shallow coastal indentation in central Chile (37 degrees S) exposed to industrial fishing activity. The study of the environmental impact produced by waste effluents permitted making an evaluation of the bay's capacity for seasonal recovery from this impact. Seasonal cruises were carried out during 1994 and in 1996, 1997, and 1998. Variables analyzed included salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, ammonium concentration and surface oil and grease. The hydrographic regime of Lota Bay follows a seasonal pattern, where, typical of most SE pacific embayments, waters from subsuperficial oxygen minimum zones moved into the bay. The percentages of dissolved oxygen were critical in the area of organic waste discharge. The impact of wastewater is related to the type and status of the fishery, including: (i) overloads of plant production lines, (ii) maintenance and cleaning of installations, and (iii) degree of shipboard fishing conservation. Major alterations were observed in summer, when the highest discharge of organic load occurred. In winter, an improvement in the re-aeration conditions reduced the impact. Remedial measures implemented beginning in 1997 arose from the monitoring program and had to be separated into two recovery factors including (a) internal management of plants and (b) treatment of plant effluents.

  6. Hydrodynamic modelling of the influence of stormwater and combined sewer overflows on receiving water quality: Benzo(a)pyrene and copper risks to recreational water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björklund, Karin; Bondelind, Mia; Karlsson, Anna; Karlsson, Dick; Sokolova, Ekaterina

    2018-02-01

    The risk from chemical substances in surface waters is often increased during wet weather, due to surface runoff, combined sewer overflows (CSOs) and erosion of contaminated land. There are strong incentives to improve the quality of surface waters affected by human activities, not only from ecotoxicity and ecosystem health perspectives, but also for drinking water and recreational purposes. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of urban stormwater discharges and CSOs on receiving water in the context of chemical health risks and recreational water quality. Transport of copper (Cu) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in the Göta River (Sweden) was simulated using a hydrodynamic model. Within the 16 km modelled section, 35 CSO and 16 urban stormwater point discharges, as well as the effluent from a major wastewater treatment plant, were included. Pollutant concentrations in the river were simulated for two rain events and investigated at 13 suggested bathing sites. The simulations indicate that water quality guideline values for Cu are exceeded at several sites, and that stormwater discharges generally give rise to higher Cu and BaP concentrations than CSOs. Due to the location of point discharges and the river current inhibiting lateral mixing, the north shore of the river is better suited for bathing. Peak concentrations have a short duration; increased concentrations of the pollutants may however be present for several days after a rain event. Monitoring of river water quality indicates that simulated Cu and BaP concentrations are in the same order of magnitude as measured concentrations. It is concluded that hydrodynamic modelling is a useful tool for identifying suitable bathing sites in urban surface waters and areas of concern where mitigation measures should be implemented to improve water quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Tritium water as a marker for the measurement of body water turnover rates in desert livestock, rodent and bird species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.S.; Ghosh, P.K.; Bohra, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    Tritiated water has been used for estimating body water turnover rates (BWTRs) in desert livestock, rodent and birds. BWTRs in relation to adaption of these animal species to desert environment have been discussed. (author). 5 refs., 2 tabs

  8. Preparation of a specifically tritiated locust adipokinetic hormone analog with full biological potency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muramoto, K; Ramachandran, J; Moshitzky, P; Applebaum, S W [Hormone Research Laboratory and Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA and Department of Entomology, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot, Israel

    1984-01-01

    A synthetic peptide related to locus adipokinetic hormone (AKH) and shrimp red pigment concentrating hormone (RPCH) containing a tyrosine residue in place of phenylalanine was iodinated and the 3,5-diiodotyrosyl derivative was isolated by reverse phase HPLC. Catalytic dehalogenation of the diiodo derivative in the presence of tritium yielded the tritiated AKH analog which was isolated by gel filtration on Sephadex LH-20 and reverse phase HPLC. The tritiated peptide was formed to be identical to AKH in its ability to stimulate lipid release into the hemolymph of locusts in vivo where the diiodotryrosyl derivative was inactive. The specific radioactivity of the tritiated peptide was 57.2 Ci/mmol, or 99% of the theoretical value.

  9. Radiation doses to the tissues of rat from tritiated thymidine administered by three different routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Hiroshi; Iwakura, Tetsuo; Mabuchi, Yasuo.

    1984-01-01

    Biological behaviour of tritiated thymidine were investigated in rat over 120 days after oral, intraperitoneal or intravenous administration and the absorbed doses to different tissues were estimated. The result of present study revealed that the absorbed dose from tritiated thymidine varied with the route of administration. Among the three routes of administration, intraperitoneal injection gave the highest dose to all of the tissues examined. A significant difference due to the route of administration was found in spleen and small intestine, where the doses were, respectively, 3.3 and 4.5 times higher after intraperitoneal injection than after oral ingestion. The difference was substantially dependent on the dose value from non-volatile tritium which would be incorporated into DNA. Present observation suggests that the radiation hazards of tritiated thymidine differ depending on the route of entry into the body. (author)

  10. Synthesis of tritiated sex pheromones of the processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa and the Egyptian armyworm Spodoptera littoralis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero, Angel; Feixas, Joan

    1996-01-01

    Synthesis of tritiated sex phenomones of the processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa and the Egyptian armyworm Spodoptera littoralis has been accomplished by a simple route involving tritiated sodium borohydride reduction of the corresponding aldehyde followed by acetylation of the resulting radiolabelled alcohol. The process occurs with high chemical and radiochemical yields and the compounds have been used in pheromone catabolism studies. (author)

  11. Preparation of tritiated polystyrene and its application in radio luminescent paints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravi, S.; Mathewy, K.M.; Seshadri, N.K.; Subramanian, T.K.

    2001-01-01

    Beta radiation emanating from tritiated polystyrene in close proximity with copper activated zinc sulphide phosphor will provide self-sustained light sources and are used for nocturnal illumination of watches and clocks, product advertisements, telephone numbers, exit signs etc. Phenylacetylene was partially reduced in diethyl ether medium with tritium using 5% Pd/C poisoned with quinoline to give styrene. Styrene formed was polymerised to polystyrene by subjecting it to irradiation with γ-radiation (20 mega rad dose). Copper activated zinc sulphide phosphor was coated with tritiated polystyrene to give self-sustained light sources. (author)

  12. Metabolism of tritiated D-glucose in rat erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manuel y Keenoy, B.; Malaisse-Lagae, F.; Malaisse, W.J.

    1991-01-01

    The metabolism of D-[U-14C]glucose, D-[1-14C]glucose, D-[6-14C]glucose, D-[1-3H]glucose, D-[2-3H]glucose, D-[3-3H]glucose, D-[3,4-3H]glucose, D-[5-3H]glucose, and D-[6-3H]glucose was examined in rat erythrocytes. There was a fair agreement between the rate of 3HOH production from either D-[3-3H]glucose and D-[5-3H]glucose, the decrease in the 2,3-diphosphoglycerate pool, its fractional turnover rate, the production of 14C-labeled lactate from D-[U-14C]glucose, and the total lactate output. The generation of both 3HOH and tritiated acidic metabolites from D-[3,4-3H]glucose indicated incomplete detritiation of the C4 during interconversion of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and triose phosphates. Erythrocytes unexpectedly generated 3HOH from D-[6-3H]glucose, a phenomenon possibly attributable to the detritiation of [3-3H]pyruvate in the reaction catalyzed by glutamate pyruvate transaminase. The production of 3HOH from D-[2-3H]glucose was lower than that from D-[5-3H]glucose, suggesting enzyme-to-enzyme tunneling of glycolytic intermediates in the hexokinase/phosphoglucoisomerase/phosphofructokinase sequence. The production of 3HOH from D-[1-3H]glucose largely exceeded that of 14CO2 from D-[1-14C]glucose, a situation tentatively ascribed to the generation of 3HOH in the phosphomannoisomerase reaction. It is further speculated that the adjustment in specific radioactivity of D-[1-3H]glucose-6-phosphate cannot simultaneously match the vastly different degrees of isotopic discrimination in velocity at the levels of the reactions catalyzed by either glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase or phosphoglucoisomerase. The interpretation of the present findings thus raises a number of questions, which are proposed as a scope for further investigations

  13. Hydraulic residence time and iron removal in a wetland receiving ferruginous mine water over a 4 year period from commissioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusin, F M; Jarvis, A P; Gandy, C J

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of residence time distribution (RTD) has been conducted for the UK Coal Authority's mine water treatment wetland at Lambley, Northumberland, to determine the hydraulic performance of the wetland over a period of approximately 4 years since site commissioning. The wetland RTD was evaluated in accordance with moment analysis and modelled based on a tanks-in-series (TIS) model to yield the hydraulic characteristics of system performance. Greater hydraulic performance was seen during the second site monitoring after 21 months of site operation i.e. longer hydraulic residence time to reflect overall system hydraulic efficiency, compared to wetland performance during its early operation. Further monitoring of residence time during the third year of wetland operation indicated a slight reduction in hydraulic residence time, thus a lower system hydraulic efficiency. In contrast, performance during the fourth year of wetland operation exhibited an improved overall system hydraulic efficiency, suggesting the influence of reed growth over the lifetime of such systems on hydraulic performance. Interestingly, the same pattern was found for iron (which is the primary pollutant of concern in ferruginous mine waters) removal efficiency of the wetland system from the second to fourth year of wetland operation. This may therefore, reflect the maturity of reeds for maintaining efficient flow distribution across the wetland to retain a longer residence time and significant fractions of water involved to enhance the extent of treatment received for iron attenuation. Further monitoring will be conducted to establish whether such performance is maintained, or whether efficiency decreases over time due to accumulation of dead plant material within the wetland cells.

  14. Metabolic evaluation of skin absorption of tritiated formaldehyde in hairless rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, A.

    1993-11-01

    Tritiated organics are present as trace impurities in tritium handling facilities. Tritiated formaldehyde has been detected in the atmosphere and gaseous effluents of tritium handling and storage sites. The ability of tritiated formaldehyde to diffuse through the skin is a possible route of intake. Since the metabolism of tritium through this mode of contamination is not currently established, experiments were performed in which tritiated formaldehyde was applied topically on the dorsal skin of hairless rats. These experiments demonstrated that tritium was assimilated and retained in the exposed skin as organically bound tritium (OBT). This retained OBT dominates tritium turnover in the body. OBT retention in the unexposed skin, liver, heart and kidneys was also observed. The loss of tritium from the animals showed that about 10% of the applied tritium was excreted in urine. It is assumed that the rest of the applied activity may have been lost through other excretory pathways, or may not have entered into the body. The biokinetics of tritium excretion is best described by a sum of three exponential functions. Most of the excreted tritium was in the form of OBT (90%) and results in the rapid clearing of OBT in the skin to urine and retention in other tissues. The evaluation of the dose-rate data showed that the dose-rate to exposed skin was almost a magnitude greater than the dose-rate to other organs. (author). 21 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs

  15. Radiation genetic injury and metabolic difference of tritiated thymidine in testis of young and adult mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingyue, Lun; Shoupeng, Zhu

    1990-04-01

    The radiogenetoxicological effects on the adult testis and the metabolic difference of tritiated thymidine between the testis of young and adult BALB/C mice were studied. When 0.037 MBq/g.b.w. of tritiated thymidine was given i.v. to mice, the initial burden of tritium in the adult was larger than that of tritium in the young. But the retention of tritium in testis of the young gradually become larger than that of tritium in the adult with the passing time. Tritiated thymidine which was incorporated into DNA of the male germ cell nuclei damaged the genetic materials and caused the rising of the rates of the dominant lethal and the dominant mutation which produced skeletal abnomalities in the offspring. The relationship between the dominant lethal mutation index (Y) and the injected activity of tritiated thymidine (I, MBq/g.b.w.) is described by Y = 74.13 + 80.20 I (r = 0.95). The relationship between the incidence of the dominant skeletal mutation in the offspring (B) and the injected activity is B = 0.16 + 0.079 I ( r = 0.85).

  16. Radiation genetic injury and metabolic difference of tritiated thymidine in testis of young and adult mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lun Mingyue; Zhu Shoupeng.

    1990-01-01

    The radiogenetoxicological effects on the adult testis and the metabolic difference of tritiated thymidine between the testis of young and adult BALB/C mice were studied. When 0.037 MBq/g.b.w. of tritiated thymidine was given i.v. to mice, the initial burden of tritium in the adult was larger than that of tritium in the young. But the retention of tritium in testis of the young gradually become larger than that of tritium in the adult with the passing time. Tritiated thymidine which was incorporated into DNA of the male germ cell nuclei damaged the genetic materials and caused the rising of the rates of the dominant lethal and the dominant mutation which produced skeletal abnomalities in the offspring. The relationship between the dominant lethal mutation index (Y) and the injected activity of tritiated thymidine (I, MBq/g.b.w.) is described by Y = 74.13 + 80.20 I (r = 0.95). The relationship between the incidence of the dominant skeletal mutation in the offspring (B) and the injected activity is B = 0.16 + 0.079 I ( r = 0.85)

  17. Metabolic evaluation of skin absorption of tritiated formaldehyde in hairless rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivedi, A

    1993-11-01

    Tritiated organics are present as trace impurities in tritium handling facilities. Tritiated formaldehyde has been detected in the atmosphere and gaseous effluents of tritium handling and storage sites. The ability of tritiated formaldehyde to diffuse through the skin is a possible route of intake. Since the metabolism of tritium through this mode of contamination is not currently established, experiments were performed in which tritiated formaldehyde was applied topically on the dorsal skin of hairless rats. These experiments demonstrated that tritium was assimilated and retained in the exposed skin as organically bound tritium (OBT). This retained OBT dominates tritium turnover in the body. OBT retention in the unexposed skin, liver, heart and kidneys was also observed. The loss of tritium from the animals showed that about 10% of the applied tritium was excreted in urine. It is assumed that the rest of the applied activity may have been lost through other excretory pathways, or may not have entered into the body. The biokinetics of tritium excretion is best described by a sum of three exponential functions. Most of the excreted tritium was in the form of OBT (90%) and results in the rapid clearing of OBT in the skin to urine and retention in other tissues. The evaluation of the dose-rate data showed that the dose-rate to exposed skin was almost a magnitude greater than the dose-rate to other organs. (author). 21 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs.

  18. Occurence of antibiotic compounds found in the water column and bottom sediments from a stream receiving two waste water treatment plant effluents in northern New Jersey, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibs, Jacob; Heckathorn, Heather A.; Meyer, Michael T.; Klapinski, Frank R.; Alebus, Marzooq; Lippincott, Robert

    2013-01-01

    An urban watershed in northern New Jersey was studied to determine the presence of four classes of antibiotic compounds (macrolides, fluoroquinolones, sulfonamides, and tetracyclines) and six degradates in the water column and bottom sediments upstream and downstream from the discharges of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and a drinking-water intake (DWI). Many antibiotic compounds in the four classes not removed by conventional WWTPs enter receiving waters and partition to stream sediments. Samples were collected at nine sampling locations on 2 days in September 2008. Two of the nine sampling locations were background sites upstream from two WWTP discharges on Hohokus Brook. Another background site was located upstream from a DWI on the Saddle River above the confluence with Hohokus Brook. Because there is a weir downstream of the confluence of Hohokus Brook and Saddle River, the DWI receives water from Hohokus Brook at low stream flows. Eight antibiotic compounds (azithromycin (maximum concentration 0.24 μg/L), ciprofloxacin (0.08 μg/L), enrofloxacin (0.015 μg/L), erythromycin (0.024 μg/L), ofloxacin (0.92 μg/L), sulfamethazine (0.018 μg/L), sulfamethoxazole (0.25 μg/L), and trimethoprim (0.14 μg/L)) and a degradate (erythromycin-H2O (0.84 μg/L)) were detected in the water samples from the sites downstream from the WWTP discharges. The concentrations of six of the eight detected compounds and the detected degradate compound decreased with increasing distance downstream from the WWTP discharges. Azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and trimethoprim were detected in stream-bottom sediments. The concentrations of three of the four compounds detected in sediments were highest at a sampling site located downstream from the WWTP discharges. Trimethoprim was detected in the sediments from a background site. Pseudo-partition coefficients normalized for streambed sediment organic carbon concentration were calculated for azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, and

  19. Measuring and Modeling Solute Transport in the Rootzone: Protecting the Receiving Water Environments of the Coral Atolls of Tonga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clothier, B. E.; van der Velde, M.; Green, S. R.; Gee, G. W.; Manu, V.; Menoniti, V.; Vanclooster, M.

    2005-05-01

    Intensification of agriculture on the raised coral atolls of the Tongan archipelago, notably through squash-pumpkin production, has lead to increased use of agrichemicals. Agrichemicals, both fertilisers and pesticides, pose a risk to these fragile environments. Sustainable land-management practices are needed for small-island developing states. On Tongatapu, solutes leaving the rootzone of the squash can rapidly find their way to the underlying freshwater lenses. These lenses are hydraulically linked to the internal lagoon, and the fringing reefs. We have used buried, non-suction fluxmeters to monitor both the quantity and quality of drainage leaving the rootzone of squash. Fertiliser is traditionally applied at planting. During establishment of the squash in 2003, some 350 mm of rain fell, with 70 % of this leaving the rootzone of this permeable soil as drainage. The concentration of nitrate-N in the drainage water was measured at around 50 mg-N/L. All of the initial fertiliser dressing had been lost, along with N mineralised from the plowed-in grass. Pesticides are needed in humid tropical environments to control weeds, pests and diseases. These chemicals can leach though the rootzone to contaminate receiving waters. We modeled the transport and fate of the presticides used in squash production, and we developed a Decision Support Tool (DST). Our DST can be used to select the best pesticides for local conditions, to tailor practices for minimising leaching losses below the rootzone, and to avoid the build-up of residues in the soil. This project, funded by the European Union and NZAID, took a multi-disciplinary approach through measurement and modeling protocols. Our DST enabled us to engage the wider community and stakeholders. There has been increased awareness of the impacts and risks associated with productive land management in the fragile hydrological environments of this small-island developing state.

  20. Potential accumulation of estrogenic substances in biofilms and aquatic plants collected in sewage treatment plant (STP) and receiving water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultis, T.; Kuch, B.; Kern, A.; Metzger, J.W. [Inst. for Sanitary Engineering, Water Quality and Solid Waste Management ISWA, Stuttgart Univ. (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    During the past years the estrogenic potency of natural (e.g. estrone and 17{beta}-estradiol E2) and synthetic hormones (e.g. ethinylestradiol EE2) and xenoestrogens (e.g. pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dioxins (PCDDs) and furans (PCDFs), alkylphenolic compounds or bisphenol A (BPA)) has attracted increasing scientific attention. Especially the occurrence and behaviour of these substances in waste water of sewage treatment plants (STPs) were often investigated. Andersen et al. found steroid estrogen concentrations in the effluent of a municipal STP always below the limit of quantification of 1 ng/l. However, Aerni et al. detected E2 and EE2 concentrations up to 6 ng/l and 2 ng/l, and alkylphenols, alkylphenolmonoand diethoxylates even at {mu}g/l concentrations in the effluent of a wastewater treatment plant with a significant industrial impact3. In activated and digested sewage sludge concentrations of estrone and E2 up to 37 ng/g and 49 ng/g, of the synthetic EE2 up to 17 ng/g were observed4. In river sediments the concentrations detected were lower with up to 2 ng/g estrone and 0,9 ng/g EE24. In the meantime many studies exist about raw and treated water in STPs, but there is little knowledge about the influence of estrogenic active substances on aquatic plants so far. In this study we investigated therefore the potency of estrogenic substances to accumulate in the duckweed Lemna minor from STP in comparison to the estrogenicity of duckweed from a natural pond, biofilms in drain and microsieve of the STP by the in vitro E-Screen- and LYES-assay (yeast estrogen screen-assay assisted by enzymatic digestion with lyticase). In addition, we tested the estrogenic activity of moss-like aquatic plants collected at different sites of the receiving water and analyzed the concentrations of four phenolic xenoestrogens in the effluent by GC/MS.

  1. Books Received

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Books Received. Articles in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 1 Issue 1 January 1996 pp 118-118 Books Received. Books Received · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 1 Issue 2 February 1996 pp 120-120 Books Received. Books Received.

  2. Mass transfer behavior of tritium from air to water through the water surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takata, Hiroki; Nishikawa, Masabumi; Kamimae, Kozo

    2005-01-01

    It is anticipated that a certain amount of tritiated water exists in the atmosphere of tritium handling facilities, and it is recognized that the hazardous potential of tritiated water is rather high. Then, it is important to grasp the behavior of tritiated water for preserving of the radiation safety. The mass transfer behavior of tritium from air to water through the water surface was discussed in this study. The evaporation rate of water and the condensation rate of water were experimentally examined from measurement of change of the weight of distilled water. The tritium transfer rate from the tritiated water in air to the distilled water was also experimentally examined by using a liquid scintillation counter. Experimental results about change of tritium level in a small beaker placed in the atmosphere with tritiated water showed that diffusion of tritium in water and gas flow in the atmosphere gives considerable effect on tritium transfer. The estimation method of the tritium transfer made in this study was applied to explain the data at The Japan Atomic Power Company second power station at Tsuruga and good agreement was obtained. (author)

  3. Design of a Cryogenic Distillation Column for JET Water Detritiation System for Tritium Recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parracho, A.I.; Camp, P.; Dalgliesh, P.; Hollingsworth, A.; Lefebvre, X.; Lesnoj, S.; Sacks, R.; Shaw, R.; Smith, R.; Wakeling, B.

    2015-01-01

    A Water Detritiation System (WDS) is currently being designed and manufactured to be installed in the Active Gas Handling System (AGHS) of JET, currently the largest magnetic fusion experiment in the world. JET has been designed and built to study fusion operating conditions with the plasma fuelling done by means of a deuterium-tritium gas mixture. AGHS is a plant designed and built to safely process gas mixtures and impurities containing tritium recovered from the JET torus exhaust gases. Tritium is removed from these gas mixtures and recycled. Tritium depleted gases are sent to Exhaust Detritiation System (EDS) for final tritium removal prior to discharge into the environment. In EDS, tritium and tritiated species are catalytically oxidized into water, this tritiated water is then adsorbed onto molecular sieve beds (MSB). After saturation the MSBs are heated and the water is desorbed and collected for tritium recovery. The WDS facility is designed to recover tritium from water with an average activity of 1.9 GBq/l, and is able to process water with activities of 85 GBq/l and higher. Tritiated water is filtered and supplied to the electrolyser where the water is converted into gaseous oxygen and tritiated hydrogen. The hydrogen stream is first purified by selective diffusion through membranes of palladium alloy and then is fed to two cryogenic distillation columns (CD). These operate in parallel or in series depending on the water activity. In the CD columns, hydrogen isotopes containing tritium are recovered as the bottom product and hydrogen, the top product, is safely discarded to a stack. The CD columns are foreseen to have a throughput between 200 and 300 mole/h of hydrogen isotopes vapour and they operate at approximately ≈21.2K and 105 kPa. The design of the CD columns will be presented in this work. This work has been carried out within the framework of the Contract for the Operation of the JET Facilities and has received funding from the European Union

  4. Emission of heavy metals from an urban catchment into receiving water and possibility of its limitation on the example of Lodz city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakson, Grazyna; Brzezinska, Agnieszka; Zawilski, Marek

    2018-04-14

    Heavy metals are among the priority pollutants which may have toxic effects on receiving water bodies. They are detected in most of samples of stormwater runoff, but the concentrations are very variable. This paper presents results of study on the amount of heavy metals discharged from urban catchment in Lodz (Poland) in 2011-2013. The research was carried out to identify the most important sources of their emission and to assess the threats to receiving water quality and opportunities of their limitation. The city is equipped with a combined sewerage in the center with 18 combined sewer overflows and with separate system in other parts. Stormwater and wastewater from both systems are discharged into 18 small urban rivers. There is a need of restoration of water bodies in the city. Research results indicate that the main issue is high emission of heavy metals, especially zinc and copper, contained in stormwater. Annual mass loads (g/ha/year) from separate system were 1629 for Zn and 305 for Cu. It was estimated that about 48% of the annual load of Zn, 38% of Cu, 61% of Pb, and 40% of Cd discharged into receiving water came from separate system, respectively 4% of Zn and Cu, 10% of Pb and 11% of Cd from CSOs, and the remaining part from wastewater treatment plant. Effective reduction of heavy metals loads discharged into receiving water requires knowledge of sources and emissions for each catchment. Obtained data may indicate the need to apply centralized solution or decentralized by source control.

  5. Simulation for Synthesis of Tritiated Styrene by Catalyzed Addition of Deuterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CUI Xiao-jing;KANG Yi;HU Shi-lin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Tritiated styrene plays an important role in the organic tritium lights, which could be made by selective hydrogenation of phenylacetylene. A simulated reaction of the preparation of tritiated styrene was studied by using deuterium instead of tritium and using the Lindlar catalyst instead of Pd/C catalyst to improve the conversion and selectivity of the reaction. Experiment results showed that stirring speed, temperature and the amount of deuterium were the most important factors to effect the conversion and selectivity of the reaction. The relative stronger stirring speed and higher temperature could improve the conversion rate of the reaction, but could not change the selectivity. When the excessive or less deuterium was added in the reaction, the selectivity was decreased significantly, since the over deuterium promoted the reaction toward ethylbenzene. Lindlar catalyst exhibited higher selectivity toward styrene than Pd/C.

  6. Using miniature osmotic infusion pumps to maintain tritiated thymidine exposure to cells in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neely, J.E.; Hake, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    To provide a constant level of tracer doses of tritiated thymidine to cultured cells during continuous infusion, miniature osmotic infusion pumps were used to provide replacement thymidine. By determining the loss of isotope from the media during nonreplacement, the rate of constant infusion replacement to maintain thymidine levels was calculated. The replacement rates were similar for the three cell lines examined and allowed a standard osmotic pump infusion

  7. In vitro incorporation of tritiated thymidine by the Sternberg-Reed cells in Hodgkin disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinello, M; Tkachenko, G; Gavilondo, J; Baeza, B [National Institute of Oncology and Radiology, Havana (Cuba)

    1975-01-01

    A new DNA synthesis by the Sternberg-Reed cells in Hodgkin disease was studied using tritiated thymidine and autoradiography. The results show that after incubation pulses of 30 and 60 minutes, cells with lobulated nucleus, binucleated and trinucleated cells identifiable to the diagnostic Sternberg-Reed cells could undergo a new DNA synthesis. This points to a more dynamic interpretation of this type of cell.

  8. The effect of purified sewage discharge from a sewage treatment plant on the physicochemical state of water in the receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanownik Włodzimierz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents changes in the contents of physicochemical indices of the Sudół stream water caused by a discharge of purified municipal sewage from a small mechanical-biological treatment plant with throughput of 300 m3·d−1 and a population equivalent (p.e. – 1,250 people. The discharge of purified sewage caused a worsening of the stream water quality. Most of the studied indices values increased in water below the treatment plant. Almost a 100-fold increase in ammonium nitrogen, 17-fold increase in phosphate concentrations and 12-fold raise in BOD5 concentrations were registered. Due to high values of these indices, the water physicochemical state was below good. Statistical analysis revealed a considerable effect of the purified sewage discharge on the stream water physicochemical state. A statistically significant increase in 10 indices values (BOD5, COD-Mn, EC, TDS, Cl−, Na+, K+, PO43−, N-NH4+ and N-NO2 as well as significant decline in the degree of water saturation with oxygen were noted below the sewage treatment plant. On the other hand, no statistically significant differences between the water indices values were registered between the measurement points localised 150 and 1,000 m below the purified sewage discharge. It evidences a slow process of the stream water self-purification caused by an excessive loading with pollutants originating from the purified sewage discharge.

  9. Evaluation of the radius-226 doses incorporated with the consumption waters, which is receive by the City of Havana inhabitants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomas Zerquera, J.; Prendes Alonso, M.; Fernandez Gomez, I.M.; Martinez Ricardo, N.

    2001-01-01

    Because of the relatively good solubility of radium compounds contained in the crust of the earths, frequently is this possible to find in spring waters concentration of radium 226 which may be significant. Taking in account that person consumer important volumes of waters annually, it is necessary to assess the dose to population due to the intake of radium 226 by this pathway. Samples were taking in the principal water sources in Havana City and for each samples the radium 226 concentration was determined

  10. Sedimentary records of δ{sup 13}C, δ{sup 15}N and organic matter accumulation in lakes receiving nutrient-rich mine waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widerlund, Anders, E-mail: Anders.Widerlund@ltu.se; Chlot, Sara; Öhlander, Björn

    2014-07-01

    Organic C and total N concentrations, C/N ratios, δ{sup 15}N and δ{sup 13}C values in {sup 210}Pb-dated sediment cores were used to reconstruct historical changes in organic matter (OM) accumulation in three Swedish lakes receiving nutrient-rich mine waters. Ammonium-nitrate-based explosives and sodium cyanide (NaCN) used in gold extraction were the major N sources, while lesser amounts of P originated from apatite and flotation chemicals. The software IsoSource was used to model the relative contribution of soil, terrestrial and littoral vegetation, and phytoplankton detritus in the lake sediments. In one lake the IsoSource modelling failed, suggesting the presence of additional, unknown OM sources. In two of the lakes sedimentary detritus of littoral vegetation and phytoplankton had increased by 15–20% and 20–35%, respectively, since ∼ 1950, when N- and P-rich mine waters began to reach the lakes. Today, phytoplankton is the dominating OM component in these lake sediments, which appears to be a eutrophication effect related to mining operations. Changes in the N isotopic composition of biota, lake water, and sediments related to the use of ammonium-nitrate-based explosives and NaCN were evident in the two studied systems. However, N isotope signals in the receiving waters (δ{sup 15}N ∼ + 9‰ to + 19‰) were clearly shifted from the primary signal in explosives (δ{sup 15}N–NO{sub 3} = + 3.4 ± 0.3‰; δ{sup 15}N–NH{sub 4} = − 8.0 ± 0.3‰) and NaCN (δ{sup 15}N = + 1.1 ± 0.5‰), and direct tracing of the primary N isotope signals in mining chemicals was not possible in the receiving waters. Systems where mine waters with a well known discharge history are a major point source of N with well-defined isotopic composition should, however, be suitable for further studies of processes controlling N isotope signatures and their transformation in aquatic systems receiving mine waters. - Highlights: • Historical mining-related changes in organic

  11. Evaluation of the received dose by the Ra-226 incorporation due to the consumption of ground waters in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerquera, T.J.; Prendes A, M.

    1996-01-01

    Due to the good solubility of radium compounds in the earth core, concentrations of Ra-226 in ground water may be significant. Some countries, like France and Finland, have reported Ra-226 concentrations in ground water up to 2700 and 5300 mBq/L, respectively. Due to to these reasons, the control of the concentrations of Ra-226 in water for human consumption became a practice in various countries. Sampling and analysis of Ra-226 in water from the principal springs and sources in Cuba have been organized since 1992, taking into account the volumes and primary features of each source. Radium-226 concentrations in analyzed waters are in the range of 26-144 mBq/L. These concentrations correspond to values reported in the literature for sources in other countries. Committed dose for water consumption in a year are in the order of nano Sievert. Determined concentrations are below the values established by corresponding Cuban Standard and no restriction have been recommended. (authors). 5 refs., 2 figs

  12. Diversity receiver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2005-01-01

    The invention is directed to the reception of high rate radio signals (for example DVB-T signals) while the receiver is moving at a high speed (for example in or with a car). Two or more antennas (12, 16) are closely spaced and arranged behind each other in the direction of motion (v) for receiving

  13. Copper mobilization affected by weather conditions in a stormwater detention system receiving runoff waters from vineyard soils (Champagne, France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banas, D., E-mail: damien.banas@u-psud.f [Univ. Reims Champagne-Ardenne, Lab. Eco-Toxicologie, BP 1039, F-51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Univ. Nancy, UR-AFPA, INRA, 2 Av. Foret Haye, F-54505 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Marin, B., E-mail: beatrice.marin@univ-reims.f [Univ. Reims Champagne-Ardenne, EA3795 GEGENA, 2 Esplanade Roland Garros, F-51100 Reims (France); Skraber, S., E-mail: skraber@lippmann.l [Centre de Recherche Public, Gabriel Lippmann, Department of Environment and Agro-biotechnologies (EVA), 41 rue du Brill, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg); Chopin, E.I.B., E-mail: chopin@oakland.ed [Oakland University, Department of Chemistry, Rochester, MI 48309 (United States); Zanella, A., E-mail: augusto.zanella@unipd.i [Univ. Padova, Facolta di Agraria, Viale dell' Universita 16, I-35020 Legnaro (Italy)

    2010-02-15

    Copper, a priority substance on the EU-Water Framework Directive list, is widely used to protect grapevines against fungus diseases. Many vineyards being located on steep slopes, large amounts of Cu could be discharged in downstream systems by runoff water. The efficiency of stormwater detention basins to retain copper in a vineyard catchment was estimated. Suspended solids, dissolved (Cu{sub diss}) and total Cu (Cu{sub tot}) concentrations were monitored in runoff water, upstream, into and downstream from a detention pond. Mean Cu{sub tot} concentrations in entering water was 53.6 mug/L whereas it never exceeded 2.4 mug/L in seepage. Cu{sub tot} concentrations in basin water (>100 mug/L in 24% of the samples) exceeded LC{sub 50} values for several aquatic animals. Copper was principally sequestered by reduced compounds in the basin sediments (2/3 of Cu{sub tot}). Metal sequestration was reversible since sediment resuspension resulted in Cu remobilization. Wind velocity controlled resuspension, explained 70% of Cu{sub diss} variability and could help predicting Cu mobilization. - Copper in stormwater basin is efficiently retained but can be released during windy events or after dredging.

  14. Stream water chemistry in watersheds receiving different atmospheric inputs of H+, NH4+, NO3-, and SO42-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stottlemyer, R.

    1997-01-01

    Weekly precipitation and stream water samples were collected from small watersheds in Denali National Park, Alaska, the Fraser Experimental Forest, Colorado, Isle Royale National Park, Michigan, and the Calumet watershed on the south shore of Lake Superior, Michigan. The objective was to determine if stream water chemistry at the mouth and upstream stations reflected precipitation chemistry across a range of atmospheric inputs of H+, NH4+, NO3-, and SO42-. Volume-weighted precipitation H+, NH4+, NO3-, and SO42- concentrations varied 4 to 8 fold with concentrations highest at Calumet and lowest in Denali. Stream water chemistry varied among sites, but did not reflect precipitation chemistry. The Denali watershed, Rock Creek, had the lowest precipitation NO3- and SO42- concentrations, but the highest stream water NO3and SO42- concentrations. Among sites, the ratio of mean monthly upstream NO3- concentration to precipitation NO3- concentration declined (p 90 percent inputs) across inputs ranging from 0.12 to > 6 kg N ha-1 y-1. Factors possibly accounting for the weak or non-existent signal between stream water and precipitation ion concentrations include rapid modification of meltwater and precipitation chemistry by soil processes, and the presence of unfrozen soils which permits winter mineralization and nitrification to occur.

  15. Copper mobilization affected by weather conditions in a stormwater detention system receiving runoff waters from vineyard soils (Champagne, France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banas, D.; Marin, B.; Skraber, S.; Chopin, E.I.B.; Zanella, A.

    2010-01-01

    Copper, a priority substance on the EU-Water Framework Directive list, is widely used to protect grapevines against fungus diseases. Many vineyards being located on steep slopes, large amounts of Cu could be discharged in downstream systems by runoff water. The efficiency of stormwater detention basins to retain copper in a vineyard catchment was estimated. Suspended solids, dissolved (Cu diss ) and total Cu (Cu tot ) concentrations were monitored in runoff water, upstream, into and downstream from a detention pond. Mean Cu tot concentrations in entering water was 53.6 μg/L whereas it never exceeded 2.4 μg/L in seepage. Cu tot concentrations in basin water (>100 μg/L in 24% of the samples) exceeded LC 50 values for several aquatic animals. Copper was principally sequestered by reduced compounds in the basin sediments (2/3 of Cu tot ). Metal sequestration was reversible since sediment resuspension resulted in Cu remobilization. Wind velocity controlled resuspension, explained 70% of Cu diss variability and could help predicting Cu mobilization. - Copper in stormwater basin is efficiently retained but can be released during windy events or after dredging.

  16. Metagenomic analysis of bacterial community composition and antibiotic resistance genes in a wastewater treatment plant and its receiving surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Junying; Bu, Yuanqing; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Huang, Kailong; He, Xiwei; Ye, Lin; Shan, Zhengjun; Ren, Hongqiang

    2016-10-01

    The presence of pathogenic bacteria and the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) may pose big risks to the rivers that receive the effluent from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In this study, we investigated the changes of bacterial community and ARGs along treatment processes of one WWTP, and examined the effects of the effluent discharge on the bacterial community and ARGs in the receiving river. Pyrosequencing was applied to reveal bacterial community composition including potential bacterial pathogen, and Illumina high-throughput sequencing was used for profiling ARGs. The results showed that the WWTP had good removal efficiency on potential pathogenic bacteria (especially Arcobacter butzleri) and ARGs. Moreover, the bacterial communities of downstream and upstream of the river showed no significant difference. However, the increase in the abundance of potential pathogens and ARGs at effluent outfall was observed, indicating that WWTP effluent might contribute to the dissemination of potential pathogenic bacteria and ARGs in the receiving river. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Pollution patterns and underlying relationships of benzophenone-type UV-filters in wastewater treatment plants and their receiving surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Hong; Li, Jian; Xu, Gang; Ma, Luo-Dan; Li, Jia-Jun; Li, Jin-Song; Tang, Liang

    2018-05-15

    The environmental behaviors of emerging pollutants, benzophenone-type UV filters (BP-UV filters) and their derivatives were investigated in four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), and their receiving surface waters in Shanghai. The concentration level of selected BP-UV filters in the WWTPs was detected from ngL -1 to μgL -1 . BP (621-951ngL -1 ) and BP-3 (841-1.32 × 10 3 ngL -1 ) were the most abundant and highest detection frequency individuals among the target BP-UV filters in influents, whereas BP (198-400ngL -1 ), BP-4 (93.3-288ngL -1 ) and BP-3 (146-258ngL -1 ) were predominant in effluents. BP-UV filters cannot be completely removed and the total removal efficiency varied widely (-456% to 100%) during the treatment process. It can be inferred that the usage of BP and BP-3 are higher than other BP-UV filters in the study area. The lowest and highest levels were BP-2 (ND-7.66ngL -1 ) and BP-3 (68.5-5.01 × 10 3 ng L -1 ) in the receiving surface water, respectively. Interestingly, the seasonal variation of BP-3 is larger than those of other BP-UV filters in surface water from Shanghai. There is no obvious pollution pattern of BP-UV filters in the surface water from the cosmetic factory area. The correlation analysis of BP-UV filters between WWTPs effluents and nearby downstream water samples suggested that BP-UV filters emitted from some WWTPs might be the main source of receiving surface water. Preliminary risk assessment indicated that the levels of BP-UV filters detected by the effluent posed medium to high risk to fish as well as other aquatic organisms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Photoredox-catalyzed deuteration and tritiation of pharmaceutical compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Yong Yao; Nagao, Kazunori; Hoover, Andrew J; Hesk, David; Rivera, Nelo R; Colletti, Steven L; Davies, Ian W; MacMillan, David W C

    2017-12-01

    Deuterium- and tritium-labeled pharmaceutical compounds are pivotal diagnostic tools in drug discovery research, providing vital information about the biological fate of drugs and drug metabolites. Herein we demonstrate that a photoredox-mediated hydrogen atom transfer protocol can efficiently and selectively install deuterium (D) and tritium (T) at α-amino sp 3 carbon-hydrogen bonds in a single step, using isotopically labeled water (D 2 O or T 2 O) as the source of hydrogen isotope. In this context, we also report a convenient synthesis of T 2 O from T 2 , providing access to high-specific-activity T 2 O. This protocol has been successfully applied to the high incorporation of deuterium and tritium in 18 drug molecules, which meet the requirements for use in ligand-binding assays and absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion studies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  19. Design and characterization of a low cost CubeSat multi-band optical receiver to map water ice on the lunar surface for the Lunar Flashlight mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinckier, Quentin; Crabtree, Karlton; Paine, Christopher G.; Hayne, Paul O.; Sellar, Glenn R.

    2017-08-01

    Lunar Flashlight is an innovative NASA CubeSat mission dedicated to mapping water ice in the permanently shadowed regions of the Moon, which may act as cold traps for volatiles. To this end, a multi-band reflectometer will be sent to orbit the Moon. This instrument consists of an optical receiver aligned with four lasers, each of which emits sequentially at a different wavelength in the near-infrared between 1 μm and 2 μm. The receiver measures the laser light reflected from the lunar surface; continuum/absorption band ratios are then analyzed to quantify water ice in the illuminated spot. Here, we present the current state of the optical receiver design. To optimize the optical signal-to-noise ratio, we have designed the receiver so as to maximize the laser signal collected, while minimizing the stray light reaching the detector from solarilluminated areas of the lunar surface outside the field-of-view, taking into account the complex lunar topography. Characterization plans are also discussed. This highly mass- and volume-constrained mission will demonstrate several firsts, including being one of the first CubeSats performing science measurements beyond low Earth orbit.

  20. Evaluation of Water Quality for Two St. Johns River Tributaries Receiving Septic Tank Effluent, Duval County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicklein, Shaun M.

    2004-01-01

    Tributary streamflow to the St. Johns River in Duval County is thought to be affected by septic tank leachate from residential areas adjacent to these tributaries. Water managers and the city of Jacksonville have committed to infrastructure improvements as part of a management plan to address the impairment of tributary water quality. In order to provide data to evaluate the effects of future remedial activities in selected tributaries, major ion and nutrient concentrations, fecal coliform concentrations, detection of wastewater compounds, and tracking of bacterial sources were used to document septic tank influences on the water quality of selected tributaries. The tributaries Fishing Creek and South Big Fishweir Creek were selected because they drain subdivisions identified as high priority locations for septic tank phase-out projects: the Pernecia and Murray Hill B subdivisions, respectively. Population, housing (number of residences), and septic tank densities for the Murray Hill B subdivision are greater than those for the Pernecia subdivision. Water-quality samples collected in the study basins indicate influences from ground water and septic tanks. Estimated concentrations of total nitrogen ranged from 0.33 to 2.86 milligrams per liter (mg/L), and ranged from less than laboratory reporting limit (0.02 mg/L) to 0.64 mg/L for total phosphorus. Major ion concentrations met the State of Florida Class III surface-water standards; total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Ecoregion XII nutrient criteria for rivers and streams 49 and 96 percent of the time, respectively. Organic wastewater compounds detected at study sites were categorized as detergents, antioxidants and flame retardants, manufactured polycarbonate resins, industrial solvents, and mosquito repellent. The most commonly detected compound was para-nonylphenol, a breakdown product of detergent. Results of wastewater sampling give evidence that

  1. Effect of pituitary gonadotrophins on tritiated thymidine uptake by rat ovary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Ryosuke; Mizuno, Tadayoshi; Katayama, Kazuaki; Hayashi, Kaname; Tojo, Shimpei

    1975-01-01

    The effect of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) on the follicular growth in the ovary of the hypophysectomized rat was investigated using autoradiography. The numbers of DNA-synthesizing nuclei in the granulosa cell were measured by autoradiography after flashlabelling with tritiated ( 3 H) thymidine. The frequency of 3 H-thymidine labelled nuclei in the granulosa cell enhanced in the presence of FSH. In contrast, LH had no significant effect on thymidine uptake. The result suggests that FSH stimulates follicle cell division, whereas LH does not. (orig.) [de

  2. Synthesis of high specific active tritiated Leu-enkephalin in the leucine residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, S.; Hasegawa, H.; Shinohara, Y. (Tokyo Coll. of Pharmacy (Japan))

    1989-12-01

    Leu-enkephalin labelled with tritium in the Leu residue has been prepared. Synthesis of the precursor peptide, (4,5-dehydroLeu{sup 5}-)Leu-enkephalin, was carried out by solid phase synthesis using Fmoc amino acid derivatives. The peptide was tritiated catalytically yielding {sup 3}H-Leu-enkephalin with a specific radioactivity of 4.39 TBq/mmol. The distribution of tritium label was investigated by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography with a synchronized accumulating radioisotope detector following acidic and enzymatic hydrolysis, which confirmed that the tritium label was entirely located at the Leu residue. (author).

  3. Elimination of radioactivity after intratracheal instillation of tritiated 3, 4-benzopyrene in hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pylev, L N; Roe, F J.C.; Warwick, G P

    1969-01-01

    Injection and recovery experiments of tritiated 3,4-benzopyrene (BaP) injected alone or with particulate carriers into hamsters were performed. After 21 days, asbestos or carbon black carriers had significantly increased the retention of BaP in the lung. Elimination was rapid at first (2 weeks: and little influenced by carrier; slower rate of elimination was noted after that. Carriers increased recoverable macrophages but decreased the amount of radioactivity per macrophage. Radioactivity was similar in all groups for kidney, liver, blood, feces, and urine.

  4. The mass transfers of water by diffusion and permeation through a covering of wastes disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaudoing, G.; Duding, B.; Margrita, R.; Launay, M.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the experiments described in this article is to measure the transfer conditions similarly to the reality 'in situ', for a barrier constituted of sodic bentonite. For that purpose, these experiments were realized with a possibility of distension into the material receiving the membrane. The studied samples are constituted by a film of heavy, strong, durable and supple propylene coated with a bed of particles of sodic mineral bentonite. This clay is covered with a thin film of polyester for the mechanical protection (transport, placing). The characterisation of water transfer was realized with non mineral tritiated water HTO, nH 2 0 with a specific activity of 37 GBq.m -3 (1 Ci.m -3 ) and placed in the upward cavity of the permeameter. Diffusion, permeation and permeability coefficients are determined under pressure of 0.15.10 5 Pa (1.50 meter of water) and 10 5 Pa (10 meters of water)

  5. Method of preparation of tritiated benzene for measuring in hydrology low level tritium in a liquid scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichat, L.; Sharefkin, D.; Herbert, M.

    1962-01-01

    It is given a preliminary account of the preparation of tritiated benzene by decarboxylation of calcium mellitate (calcium benzene-hexa-carboxylate) at 500 deg C by an excess of tritiated barium or calcium hydroxide yield is 64-72 pour cent based on used calcium mellitate. Benzene obtained after a single distillation is free from seriously quenching impurities. It is obtained 10-15 g benzene per batch. It remains to determine the occurrence of an isotope effect during the reaction. Various improvements and modifications are still necessary to increase the size of the sample to be treated. (authors) [fr

  6. Comparison between infants receiving traditional supplements (camel thorn, flix weed, and sugar water and exclusively breast fed infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Boskabadi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Although breast milk is considered the best nutritional option for neonates, use of traditional supplements such as sugar water, camel thorn, and flix weed in the first week of life of infants is quite common in Iran and many other countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether consuming such supplements has any impact on infant’s breastfeeding behavior. Materials and Methods: Four hundred fifty four term infants who were referred to the neonatal clinic of Ghaem hospital were enrolled and divided into two groups. Control (exclusively breastfed infants, N=243 and case (breast milk feeding plus traditional remedies such as sugar water, camel thorn, and flix weed, N=211. Spss 19.5 was used for statistical analysis. T-test and Man-Whitney tests were used. A p-value of Results: The two groups were similar in their baseline data. Regarding duration of breastfeeding and breastfeeding frequency, use of these supplements resulted in a reduction in both breastfeeding frequency and duration (p

  7. Long-term simulations of water and isoproturon dynamics in a heterogeneous soil receiving different urban waste composts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipović, Vilim; Coquet, Yves; Pot, Valérie; Romić, Davor; Benoit, Pierre; Houot, Sabine

    2016-04-01

    Implementing various compost amendments and tillage practices has a large influence on soil structure and can create heterogeneities at the plot/field scale. While tillage affects soil physical properties, compost application influences also chemical properties like pesticide sorption and degradation. A long-term field experiment called "QualiAgro" (https://www6.inra.fr/qualiagro_eng/), conducted since 1998 aims at characterizing the agronomic value of urban waste composts and their environmental impacts. A modeling study was carried out using HYDRUS-2D for the 2004-2010 period to confront the effects of two different compost types combined with the presence of heterogeneities due to tillage in terms of water and isoproturon dynamics in soil. A municipal solid waste compost (MSW) and a co-compost of sewage sludge and green wastes (SGW) have been applied to experimental plots and compared to a control plot without any compost addition (CONT). Two wick lysimeters, 5 TDR probes, and 7 tensiometers were installed per plot to monitor water and isoproturon dynamics. In the ploughed layer, four zones with differing soil structure were identified: compacted clods (Δ), non-compacted soil (Γ), interfurrows (IF), and the plough pan (PP). These different soil structural zones were implemented into HYDRUS-2D according to field observation and using measured soil hydraulic properties. Lysimeter data showed (2004 -2010 period) that the CONT plot had the largest cumulative water outflow (1388 mm) compared to the MSW plot (962 mm) and SGW plot (979 mm). HYDRUS-2D was able to describe cumulative water outflow after calibration of soil hydraulic properties, for the whole 2004-2010 period with a model efficiency value of 0.99 for all three plots. Isoproturon leaching showed had the largest cumulative value in the CONT plot (21.31 μg) while similar cumulated isoproturon leachings were measured in the SGW (0.663 μg) and MSW (0.245 μg) plots. The model was able to simulate

  8. Hydrologic and Water-Quality Responses in Shallow Ground Water Receiving Stormwater Runoff and Potential Transport of Contaminants to Lake Tahoe, California and Nevada, 2005-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jena M.; Thodal, Carl E.; Welborn, Toby L.

    2008-01-01

    Clarity of Lake Tahoe, California and Nevada has been decreasing due to inflows of sediment and nutrients associated with stormwater runoff. Detention basins are considered effective best management practices for mitigation of suspended sediment and nutrients associated with runoff, but effects of infiltrated stormwater on shallow ground water are not known. This report documents 2005-07 hydrogeologic conditions in a shallow aquifer and associated interactions between a stormwater-control system with nearby Lake Tahoe. Selected chemical qualities of stormwater, bottom sediment from a stormwater detention basin, ground water, and nearshore lake and interstitial water are characterized and coupled with results of a three-dimensional, finite-difference, mathematical model to evaluate responses of ground-water flow to stormwater-runoff accumulation in the stormwater-control system. The results of the ground-water flow model indicate mean ground-water discharge of 256 acre feet per year, contributing 27 pounds of phosphorus and 765 pounds of nitrogen to Lake Tahoe within the modeled area. Only 0.24 percent of this volume and nutrient load is attributed to stormwater infiltration from the detention basin. Settling of suspended nutrients and sediment, biological assimilation of dissolved nutrients, and sorption and detention of chemicals of potential concern in bottom sediment are the primary stormwater treatments achieved by the detention basins. Mean concentrations of unfiltered nitrogen and phosphorus in inflow stormwater samples compared to outflow samples show that 55 percent of nitrogen and 47 percent of phosphorus are trapped by the detention basin. Organic carbon, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, phosphorus, and zinc in the uppermost 0.2 foot of bottom sediment from the detention basin were all at least twice as concentrated compared to sediment collected from 1.5 feet deeper. Similarly, concentrations of 28 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds were

  9. Effect of tritiated compounds on sister-chromatid exchanges (SCE) in human lymphocytes in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Manli; Rao Yongqing; Chen Guanying; Wu Weiwei; Zhao Zilan; Shen Lei

    1990-01-01

    Human lymphocytes treated in vitro with various activities of 3 H-TdR and 3 H-UdR were cultured to understand the effects of tritium on the cell cycle and the frequency of SCE. The results of these experiments indicated that both tritiated compounds make the frequency of SCE increase and the cell cycle delay. The frequency of SCE increased markedly with activity of 3 H. With respect to delaying cell cycle, 3 H-UdR was more effective than 3 H-TdR. The average frequencies of SCE for 3 H-UdR were higher than those for 3 H-TdR. With the exception of 3.7 x 10 3 Bq/mL group and differences between other 3 H-UdR groups and corresponding 3 H-TdR group were significant (t test, p < 0.01). These results suggest that tritiated compounds may have the effect on the cell proliferating rate. The cell proliferating rate index (PRI) seems to be related with the frequency of SCE: the higher the frequency of SCE, the lower the PRI is

  10. A Low-Background Liquid-Scintlllation Counter for the Assay of Low-Specific Activity Tritiated Water; Compteur a scintillations a liquides, a faible mouvement propre, pour le dosage d'eau tritiee en faible activite specifique; ZHidkostnyj stsintillyatsionnyi schetchik s nizkim fonom dlya analiza nasyshchennoj tritiem vody s nizkoj udel'noj aktivnost'yu; Contador de centelleador liquido de reducida actividad de fondo para el analisis de agua pritiada de baja actividad especifica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyce, I S; Cameron, J F [Wantage Research Laboratory, Wantage (United Kingdom)

    1962-01-15

    In liquid-scintillation counting of tritiated water single photomultiplier counters and coincidence systems offer comparable sensitivities. To investigate low level counting a coincidence system was selected to avoid Uncertainties in the background due to single photon events arising from phosphorescence and chemiluminescenc e in the solution. With this system the background was found to be due largely to light originating in the photomultiplier photocathode. Using two photomultipliers with ''Pyrex'' photocathodes in contact in an 8 in thick iron shield experiments were conducted to determine the relative importance of the following possible courses of background : (a) Ionization and excitation of residual gas and of the semi-conductor dynode surfaces, particularly in regions where the current density is greatest. (b) Sparking, electroluminescence and field emission. (c) Positive ion feedback to the photocathode causing secondary electron emission. (d) Operation of the photocathode window itself as a phosphor for cosmic radiation, K{sup 40} beta particles or radiation from uranium daughter products. In particular it was found that contribution (c) was significantly lower than was previously supposed. Methods of minimizing these effects, including the use of quartz photocathodes, and special photomultipliers were investigated. In the finished design of counter the minimum detectable specific activity with a counting time of 30 min. is 6x10{sup 7} {mu}c/ml. (author) [French] Dans le dosage de l'eau tritiee au moyen d'un compteur a scintillations a liquides, les compteurs a photomultiplicateur unique et les ensembles a coincidences presentent une sensibilite du meme ordre. Pour faire des recherches sur la mesure des faibles activites, les auteurs ont choisi un dispositif monte en coincidence, afin d'eviter les incertitudes dans le mouvement propre causees par l'apparation de photons isoles, dus a la phosphorescence et a la chimioluminescenc e de la solution. Dans ce

  11. Emissions and dynamics of N{sub 2}O in a buffer wetland receiving water flows from a forested peatland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saari, P. [Centre for Economic Development, Jyvaskyla (Finland). Transport and the Environment], Email: paivi.saari@ely-keskus.fi; Saarnio, S. [Univ. of Eastern Finland, Joensuu (Finland). Finnish Environment Inst., Dept. of Biology; Heinonen, J.; Alm, J. [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Joensuu (Finland)

    2013-06-01

    Forestry operations can cause disturbances in nutrient cycling. Protection of watercourses by trapping the leached solids and nutrients in sedimentation ponds and buffer zones may create a new greenhouse gases (GHG) source. We measured in situ nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) fluxes in different parts of a spruce swamp buffer zone, N{sub 2}O emissions from intact peat columns after fertilization with different ammonium nitrate (NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}) levels, and the rate and volume of in vivo N{sub 2}O accumulation. N{sub 2}O-producing micro-organisms existed throughout the buffer zone. The rate of N{sub 2}O formation was highest at depths close to the prevailing water table within the buffer zone. Groundwater level and the vicinity of bypass water flows at the soil surface regulated the spatial and temporal variation in the rate of N{sub 2}O efflux in the field. Nitrogen (N) addition rapidly increased in vivo N{sub 2}O release. Microbial activity in the laboratory incubations under optimal conditions was high, but the in situ N{sub 2}O efflux in the field was low. The actual leaching of mineral N from forestry areas was low and the inorganic N concentration in the buffer zone inflow was no higher than is typical for humic brooks or lakes in Finland. The low N{sub 2}O fluxes indicated that forestry operations in the catchment did not result in significant N enrichment of the buffer zone. This study does not support the postulate that peatland buffer zones may become significant sources of N{sub 2}O. (orig.)

  12. Biological half-lives and organ distribution of tritiated 8-lysine-vasopressin and 1-deamino-8-D-arginine-vasopressin in Brattleboro rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janaky, T.; Laczi, F.; Laszlo, F.A.

    1982-01-01

    The biological half-lives and organ distribution of tritiated 8-lysine-vasopressin and 1-deamino-8-D-arginine-vasopressin were determined in R-Amsterdam rats and in homozygous and heterozygous Brattleboro rats with hereditary central diabetes insipidus. It was found that the biological half-lives of [ 3 H]LVP and [ 3 H]dDAVP in the Brattleboro rats did not differ significantly from that found in the control R-Amsterdam rats. The half-life of [ 3 H]dDAVP proved longer than that of [ 3 H]LVP in all three groups of animals. In the case of [ 3 H]LVP the highest radioactivities were observed in the neurohypophyses, adenohypophyses, and kidneys of both the R-Amsterdam and Brattleboro rats. The accumulation of tritiated material was higher in the small intestine of the Brattleboro rats than in that of the R-Amsterdam animals. In all three groups of rats, [ 3 H]dDAVP was accumulated to the greatest extent in the kidney and the small intestine. The kidney and small intestine contained less radioactivity in homozygous Brattleboro rats than in the controls. There was only a slight radioactivity accumulation in the adenohypophysis and neurohypophysis. From the results it was concluded that the decrease in the rate of enzymatic decomposition may play a role in the increased duration of antidiuretic action of dDAVP. The results have led to the conclusion that the accelerated elimination of vasopressin and its pathologic organ accumulation are probably not involved in the water metabolism disturbance of Brattleboro rats with hereditary diabetes insipidus

  13. Recent activities on water detritiation technology in JAEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwai, Yasunori, E-mail: iwai.yasunori@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Kubo, Hitoshi; Ohshima, Yusuke; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Taniuchi, Junichi [Tanaka Kikinzoku Kogyo K.K., Wadai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 300-4247 (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Water detritiation technology has been developed for the Japanese fusion DEMO plant. • Durability of an ion exchange membrane was checked with concentrated tritiated water. • Hydrophobic catalyst of SiO{sub 2} substrate has been developed for water detritiation. - Abstract: Japan Atomic Energy Agency has developed the water detritiation technology for CECE process considering the escalation in quantity and tritium concentration of tritiated water to be processed toward realization of the Japanese fusion DEMO plant. A commercial ion exchange perfluoro-membrane for concentrated tritiated water electrolyzer is durable against irradiation up to 1500 kGy in view of mechanical strength and ion exchange capacity. Concerning hydrophobic catalyst for LPCE column, a new method of manufacturing catalysts involving hydrophobic processing with an inorganic substance base has been developed. The catalyst created with this method has achieved the highest exchange efficiency, equivalent to 1.3 times the previously most powerful efficiency.

  14. Water turnover in reindeer. Some environmental implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, R.D.; Luick, J.R.; White, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    The nutritional and climatic effects on water turnover (determined using tritiated water) in reindeer are described. At low ambient temperatures (ca. -20 0 C) water turnover is related to protein and mineral intake, which is reflected in the relations of faecal and urinary water to nitrogen and ash excretion via these avenues. As ambient temperature increases, respiratory water, faecal water and urine flow increase, resulting in an increase in water turnover

  15. Safety system in a heavy water detritiation plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balteanu, O.; Stefan, I.; Retevoi, C.

    2003-01-01

    In a CANDU 6 type reactor a quantity of 55·10 15 Bq/year of tritium is generated, 95% being in the D 2 O moderator which can achieve a radioactivity of 2.5-3.5·10 12 Bq/kg. Tritium in heavy water contributes with 30-50% to the doses received by operation personnel and up to 20% to the radioactivity released in the environment. The large quantity of heavy water used in this type of reactors (500 tones) make storage very difficult, especially for environment. The extraction of tritium from tritiated heavy water of CANDU reactors solve the following problems: the radiation level in the operation area, the costs of maintenance and repair reduction due to reduction of personnel protection measures, the increase of NPP utilisation factor by shutdown time reduction for maintenance and repair, use the extracted tritium for fusion reactors and not for the last, lower costs and risk for storage heavy water waste. Heavy water detritiation methods, which currently are used in the industrial or experimental plant, are based on catalytic isotope exchange or electrolysis followed cryogenic distillation or permeation. The technology developed at Institute of Cryogenics and Isotope Separation is based upon catalytic exchange between tritiated water and deuterium, followed by cryogenic distillation of hydrogen isotopes. The nature of the fluids that are processed in detritiation requires the operation of the plant in safety conditions. The paper presents the safety system solution chose in order to solve this task, as well as a simulation of an incident and safety system response. The application software is using LabView platform that is specialised on control and factory automation applications. (author)

  16. Comparison of emerging contaminants in receiving waters downstream of a conventional wastewater treatment plant and a forest-water reuse system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest-water reuse (FWR) systems treat municipal, industrial, and agricultural wastewaters via land application to forest soils. Previous studies have shown that both large-scale conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and FWR systems do not completely remove many contam...

  17. Occurrence and fate of alkylphenols and alkylphenol ethoxylates in sewage treatment plants and impact on receiving waters along the Ter River (Catalonia, NE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Céspedes, Raquel; Lacorte, Sílvia; Ginebreda, Antonio; Barceló, Damià

    2008-05-01

    The partitioning of alkylphenols in the dissolved and particulate matter of influents, effluents, accumulation onto sludge and the impact of sewage treatment plant upon receiving waters was studied along the Ter River basin (Catalonia, NE Spain). A solid-phase extraction or pressurized liquid extraction followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed and permitted to determine target compounds with high efficiency in waters, particulate material and sludge. Nonylphenol mono- and diethoxylate, nonylphenol and octylphenol partitioned preferably upon particulate matter and sludge, whereas long chain NPE(3-15)O prevailed in the dissolved phase and was released by effluents. Within the treatment process, a net accumulation of alkylphenols in sludge was found, producing up to 148g/t/month. The removal efficiency of alkylphenols was of 37-90% and depended on the treatment. Assessment on the fate of these contaminants within STPs is discussed in terms of flow rates, biological oxygen demand and tons of sludge produced.

  18. Lack of incorporation of tritiated uridine by nuclei of mature sieve elements in Metasequoia glyptostroboides and Sequoiadendron giganteum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébant, C

    1975-01-01

    The majority of nuclei which persist in "mature" sieve elements of Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu and Chen and Sequoiadendron giganteum Buchholz fail to incorporate tritiated uridine (10 μCi/ml; 7 hours incubation of stem fragments). This is interpreted as further evidence for the degenerated condition of these nuclei.

  19. Hospital and urban effluent waters as a source of accumulation of toxic metals in the sediment receiving system of the Cauvery River, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarajan, Naresh; Laffite, Amandine; Ngelikoto, Patience; Elongo, Vicky; Prabakar, Kandasamy; Mubedi, Josué I; Piana, Pius T M; Wildi, Walter; Poté, John

    2015-09-01

    Hospital and urban effluents contain a variety of toxic and/or persistent substances in a wide range of concentrations, and most of these compounds belong to the group of emerging contaminants. The release of these substances into the aquatic ecosystem can lead to the pollution of water resources and may place aquatic organisms and human health at risk. Sediments receiving untreated and urban effluent waters from the city of Tiruchirappalli in the state of Tamil Nadu, India, are analyzed for potential environmental and human health risks. The sediment samples were collected from five hospital outlet pipes (HOP) and from the Cauvery River Basin (CRB) both of which receive untreated municipal effluent waters (Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, India). The samples were characterized for grain size, organic matter, toxic metals, and ecotoxicity. The results highlight the high concentration of toxic metals in HOP, reaching values (mg kg(-1)) of 1851 (Cr), 210 (Cu), 986 (Zn), 82 (Pb), and 17 (Hg). In contrast, the metal concentrations in sediments from CRB were lower than the values found in the HOP (except for Cu, Pb), with maximum values (mg kg(-1)) of 75 (Cr), 906 (Cu), 649 (Zn), 111 (Pb), and 0.99 (Hg). The metal concentrations in all sampling sites largely exceed the Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs) and the Probable Effect Concentration (PEC) for the Protection of Aquatic Life recommendation. The ecotoxicity test with ostracods exposed to the sediment samples presents a mortality rate ranging from 22 to 100 % (in sediments from HOP) and 18-87 % (in sediments from CRB). The results of this study show the variation of toxic metal levels as well as toxicity in sediment composition related to both the type of hospital and the sampling period. The method of elimination of hospital and urban effluents leads to the pollution of water resources and may place aquatic organisms and human health at risk.

  20. Combining low-cost GPS receivers with upGPR to derive continuously liquid water content, snow height and snow water equivalent in Alpine snow covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Franziska; Schmid, Lino; Prasch, Monika; Heilig, Achim; Eisen, Olaf; Schweizer, Jürg; Mauser, Wolfram

    2015-04-01

    The temporal evolution of Alpine snowpacks is important for assessing water supply, hydropower generation, flood predictions and avalanche forecasts. Especially in high mountain regions with an extremely varying topography, it is until now often difficult to derive continuous and non-destructive information on snow parameters. Since autumn 2012, we are running a new low-cost GPS (Global Positioning System) snow measurement experiment at the high alpine study site Weissfluhjoch (2450 m a.s.l.) in Switzerland. The globally and freely broadcasted GPS L1-band (1.57542 GHz) was continuously recorded with GPS antennas, which are installed at the ground surface underneath the snowpack. GPS raw data, containing carrier-to-noise power density ratio (C/N0) as well as elevation and azimuth angle information for each time step of 1 s, was stored and analyzed for all 32 GPS satellites. Since the dielectric permittivity of an overlying wet snowpack influences microwave radiation, the bulk volumetric liquid water content as well as daily melt-freeze cycles can be derived non-destructively from GPS signal strength losses and external snow height information. This liquid water content information is qualitatively in good accordance with meteorological and snow-hydrological data and quantitatively highly agrees with continuous data derived from an upward-looking ground-penetrating radar (upGPR) working in a similar frequency range. As a promising novelty, we combined the GPS signal strength data with upGPR travel-time information of active impulse radar rays to the snow surface and back from underneath the snow cover. This combination allows determining liquid water content, snow height and snow water equivalent from beneath the snow cover without using any other external information. The snow parameters derived by combining upGPR and GPS data are in good agreement with conventional sensors as e.g. laser distance gauges or snow pillows. As the GPS sensors are cheap, they can easily

  1. Preparation for tritiated waste management of fusion facilities: Interim storage WAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decanis, C., E-mail: christelle.decanis@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, Centre de Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Canas, D. [CEA, DEN/DADN, Centre de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Derasse, F. [CEA, DEN, Centre de Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Pamela, J. [CEA, Agence ITER-France, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Fusion devices including ITER will generate tritiated waste. • Interim storage is the reference solution offering an answer for all types of tritiated radwaste. • Interim storage is a buffer function in the process management and definition of the waste acceptance criteria (WAC) is a key milestone in the facility development cycle. • Defining WAC is a relevant way to identify ahead of time the studies to be launched and the required actions to converge on a detailed design for example material specific studies, required treatment, interfaces management, modelling and monitoring studies. - Abstract: Considering the high mobility of tritium through the package in which it is contained, the new 50-year storage concepts proposed by the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) currently provide a solution adapted to the management of waste with tritium concentrations higher than the accepted limits in the disposals. The 50-year intermediate storage corresponds to 4 tritium radioactive periods i.e., a tritium reduction by a factor 16. This paper details the approach implemented to define the waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for an interim storage facility that not only takes into account the specificity of tritium provided by the reference scheme for the management of tritiated waste in France, but also the producers’ needs, the safety analysis of the facility and Andra’s disposal requirements. This will lead to define a set of waste specifications that describe the generic criteria such as acceptable waste forms, general principles and specific issues, e.g. conditioning, radioactive content, tritium content, waste tracking system, and quality control. This approach is also a way to check in advance, during the design phase of the waste treatment chain, how the future waste could be integrated into the overall waste management routes and identify possible key points that need further investigations (design changes, selection

  2. Evaluation of pharmaceuticals and personal care products with emphasis on anthelmintics in human sanitary waste, sewage, hospital wastewater, livestock wastewater and receiving water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Won-Jin; Kim, Hee-Young; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Kwon, Jung-Hwan; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2013-03-15

    We investigated 33 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) with emphasis on anthelmintics and their metabolites in human sanitary waste treatment plants (HTPs), sewage treatment plants (STPs), hospital wastewater treatment plants (HWTPs), livestock wastewater treatment plants (LWTPs), river water and seawater. PPCPs showed the characteristic specific occurrence patterns according to wastewater sources. The LWTPs and HTPs showed higher levels (maximum 3000 times in influents) of anthelmintics than other wastewater treatment plants, indicating that livestock wastewater and human sanitary waste are one of principal sources of anthelmintics. Among anthelmintics, fenbendazole and its metabolites are relatively high in the LWTPs, while human anthelmintics such as albendazole and flubendazole are most dominant in the HTPs, STPs and HWTPs. The occurrence pattern of fenbendazole's metabolites in water was different from pharmacokinetics studies, showing the possibility of transformation mechanism other than the metabolism in animal bodies by some processes unknown to us. The river water and seawater are generally affected by the point sources, but the distribution patterns in some receiving water are slightly different from the effluent, indicating the influence of non-point sources. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Occurrence and partitioning of antibiotic compounds found in the water column and bottom sediments from a stream receiving two wastewater treatment plant effluents in Northern New Jersey, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibs, Jacob, E-mail: jgibs@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, 810 Bear Tavern Road, West Trenton, NJ 08628 (United States); Heckathorn, Heather A. [U.S. Geological Survey, 810 Bear Tavern Road, West Trenton, NJ 08628 (United States); Meyer, Michael T. [U.S. Geological Survey, 4821 Quail Crest Place, Lawrence, KS 66049 (United States); Klapinski, Frank R.; Alebus, Marzooq; Lippincott, Robert L. [New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, PO Box 413, Trenton, NJ 08625 (United States)

    2013-08-01

    An urban watershed in northern New Jersey was studied to determine the presence of four classes of antibiotic compounds (macrolides, fluoroquinolones, sulfonamides, and tetracyclines) and six degradates in the water column and bottom sediments upstream and downstream from the discharges of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and a drinking-water intake (DWI). Many antibiotic compounds in the four classes not removed by conventional WWTPs enter receiving waters and partition to stream sediments. Samples were collected at nine sampling locations on 2 days in September 2008. Two of the nine sampling locations were background sites upstream from two WWTP discharges on Hohokus Brook. Another background site was located upstream from a DWI on the Saddle River above the confluence with Hohokus Brook. Because there is a weir downstream of the confluence of Hohokus Brook and Saddle River, the DWI receives water from Hohokus Brook at low stream flows. Eight antibiotic compounds (azithromycin (maximum concentration 0.24 μg/L), ciprofloxacin (0.08 μg/L), enrofloxacin (0.015 μg/L), erythromycin (0.024 μg/L), ofloxacin (0.92 μg/L), sulfamethazine (0.018 μg/L), sulfamethoxazole (0.25 μg/L), and trimethoprim (0.14 μg/L)) and a degradate (erythromycin–H{sub 2}O (0.84 μg/L)) were detected in the water samples from the sites downstream from the WWTP discharges. The concentrations of six of the eight detected compounds and the detected degradate compound decreased with increasing distance downstream from the WWTP discharges. Azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and trimethoprim were detected in stream-bottom sediments. The concentrations of three of the four compounds detected in sediments were highest at a sampling site located downstream from the WWTP discharges. Trimethoprim was detected in the sediments from a background site. Pseudo-partition coefficients normalized for streambed sediment organic carbon concentration were calculated for azithromycin

  4. Occurrence and partitioning of antibiotic compounds found in the water column and bottom sediments from a stream receiving two wastewater treatment plant effluents in Northern New Jersey, 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibs, Jacob; Heckathorn, Heather A.; Meyer, Michael T.; Klapinski, Frank R.; Alebus, Marzooq; Lippincott, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    An urban watershed in northern New Jersey was studied to determine the presence of four classes of antibiotic compounds (macrolides, fluoroquinolones, sulfonamides, and tetracyclines) and six degradates in the water column and bottom sediments upstream and downstream from the discharges of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and a drinking-water intake (DWI). Many antibiotic compounds in the four classes not removed by conventional WWTPs enter receiving waters and partition to stream sediments. Samples were collected at nine sampling locations on 2 days in September 2008. Two of the nine sampling locations were background sites upstream from two WWTP discharges on Hohokus Brook. Another background site was located upstream from a DWI on the Saddle River above the confluence with Hohokus Brook. Because there is a weir downstream of the confluence of Hohokus Brook and Saddle River, the DWI receives water from Hohokus Brook at low stream flows. Eight antibiotic compounds (azithromycin (maximum concentration 0.24 μg/L), ciprofloxacin (0.08 μg/L), enrofloxacin (0.015 μg/L), erythromycin (0.024 μg/L), ofloxacin (0.92 μg/L), sulfamethazine (0.018 μg/L), sulfamethoxazole (0.25 μg/L), and trimethoprim (0.14 μg/L)) and a degradate (erythromycin–H 2 O (0.84 μg/L)) were detected in the water samples from the sites downstream from the WWTP discharges. The concentrations of six of the eight detected compounds and the detected degradate compound decreased with increasing distance downstream from the WWTP discharges. Azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and trimethoprim were detected in stream-bottom sediments. The concentrations of three of the four compounds detected in sediments were highest at a sampling site located downstream from the WWTP discharges. Trimethoprim was detected in the sediments from a background site. Pseudo-partition coefficients normalized for streambed sediment organic carbon concentration were calculated for azithromycin, ciprofloxacin

  5. Autoradiographic analysis of tritiated imipramine binding in the human brain post mortem: effects of suicide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross-Isseroff, R.; Israeli, M.; Biegon, A.

    1989-01-01

    In vitro quantitative autoradiography of high-affinity tritiated imipramine binding sites was performed on brains of 12 suicide victims and 12 matched controls. Region-specific differences in imipramine binding were found between the two groups. Thus, the pyramidal and molecular layers of the cornu ammoni hippocampal fields and the hilus of the dentate gyrus exhibited 80%, 60%, and 90% increases in binding in the suicide group, respectively. The postcentral cortical gyrus, insular cortex, and claustrum had 45%, 28%, and 75% decreases in binding in the suicide group, respectively. No difference in imipramine binding was observed in prefrontal cortical regions, in the basal ganglia, and in mesencephalic nuclei. No sex and postmortem delay effects on imipramine binding were found. Imipramine binding was positively correlated with age, the effect of age being most pronounced in portions of the basal ganglia and temporal cortex

  6. Incorporation of tritiated thymidine and uridine in normal and endopolyploid nuclei of differentiated tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bansal, Y.K.; Sen, Sumitra

    1987-01-01

    Rate of replication and transcription between normal and giant endopolyploid nuclei of differentiated tissue of Hordeum vulgare L. (2n=14) roots and Phlox drummondii Hook. (2n=14) and Zea mays L. (2n=20) endosperms were studied by labelling experiments with tritiated thymidine and uridine. The incorporation of thymidine and uridine was identical in both diploid and giant endopolyploid nuclei of the roots of H. vulgare. The endosperm cells of P. drummondii and Z. mays, however, exhibit markedly different labelling pattern in normal (i.e. triploid) and endopolyploid nuclei where both replication and transcription were rather high. The nutritive function of the endosperm is probably responsible for this high degree of activity. (author). 14 refs., 10 figs., 3 tables

  7. Ion-molecular reactions initiated by β-decay of tritium in tritiated compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akulov, G.P.

    1976-01-01

    Ion-molecular reactions initiated by β-decay of tritium and tritiated hydrocarbons have been systematized. The review describes the theoretical and experimental foundation of the radiochemical method of this important type of chemical interactions investigation. The reactions of the molecular ions of HeT + with methane, ethane, propane, butane and also with cycloalkanes from C 3 to C 6 are discussed. The reactions under consideration have been united into two groups: reactions involving HeT + ions and those involving carbonic ions. From the experimental results available, the conclusions have been drawn about the reactivity of these intermediate formations, about the mechanism of their interaction with organic substances, and also about the perspectives of using the radiochemical method in studies of ion-molecular reactions. The experimental results published before May 1974 are examined. The bibliography includes 162 references

  8. Bacterial incorporation of tritiated thymidine and populations of bacteriophagous fauna in the rhizosphere of wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik; Griffiths, Bryan; Christensen, Søren

    1992-01-01

    Bacterial and microfaunal populations, and bacterial productivity measured by tritiated thymidine (3HTdr) incorporation, in the rhizosphere of wheat seedlings were measured. Soil from planted pots was fractionated into rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere (bulk) soil, while unplanted soil was taken from...... pots without plants. Total bacterial counts and biovolume did not differ between fractions but viable (plate) counts were 8 times higher in the rhizosphere compared to bulk and unplanted soil. 3HTdr was incorporated at a constant rate with low variability in bulk or unplanted soil. In rhizosphere soil...... 3HTdr incorporation was lower than in bulk or unplanted soils and showed high variability. The populations of bacterial-feeding protozoa and nematodes indicated that rhizosphere bacterial activity was actually 3–4 times greater in rhizosphere than bulk soil in accordance with the results...

  9. Synthesis and distribution of tritiated N,N`-dibenzoyl-1,3-diaminopropan-2-ol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D.M.; Gallez, Bernard [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Dept. des Sciences Pharmaceutiques, Bruxelles (Belgium)

    1996-10-01

    Tritiated N,N`-dibenzoyl-1,3-diaminopropan-2-ol, a compound mimicking a diacylglycerol moiety used as a lipid drug carrier was prepared from N,N`-dibenzoyl-1,3-diaminopropan-2-ol by isotopic exchange in the presence of rhodium chloride. Preliminary preparation of the deuterated analog was made in order to assess the position of the substitution. A biodistribution study was carried out in mice after intravenous administration. Five minutes after administration, the level found in the brain was about 9% of the injected dose per g organ. This value decreases to 1 % 3 hours after administration while at the same time radioactive levels measured in the urine increased. (author).

  10. Theoretical investigation of the mechanism of tritiated methane dehydrogenation reaction using nickel-based catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Liang; Li, Jiamao; Deng, Bing; Yang, Yong; Wang, Heyi [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Li, Weiyi [School of Physics and Chemistry, Xihua University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Li, Shuo, E-mail: lishuo@cqut.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University of Technology, Chongqing 400054 (China); Tan, Zhaoyi, E-mail: tanzhaoyi@caep.cn [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Four-step dehydrogenation of CT{sub 4} catalyzed by Ni to form Ni–C by releasing T{sub 2}. • The process of Ni + CT{sub 4} → NiCT{sub 2} + T{sub 2} is more achievable than that of NiCT{sub 2} → NiC + T{sub 2}. • TNiCT → T{sub 2}NiC step is the RDS with the rate constant of k = 2.8 × 10{sup 13} exp(−313,136/RT). • The hydrogen isotope effect value of k{sub H}/k{sub T} is 2.94, and k{sub D}/k{sub T} is 1.39. • CH{sub 4} and CD{sub 4} dehydrogenations are likely to occur, accompanied by the CT{sub 4} cracking. - Abstract: The mechanism of tritiated methane dehydrogenation reaction catalyzed by nickel-based catalyst was investigated in detail by density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/[6-311++G(d, p), SDD] level. The computational results indicated that the dehydrogenation of tritiated methane is endothermic. The decomposition of tritiated methane catalyzed by Ni to form Ni-based carbon (Ni–C) after a four-step dehydrogenation companied with releasing tritium. After the first and second dehydrogenation steps, Ni + CT{sub 4} formed NiCT{sub 2}. After the third and fourth dehydrogenation steps, NiCT{sub 2} formed NiC. The first and second steps of dehydrogenation occurred on both the singlet and triplet states, and the lowest energy route is Ni + CT{sub 4} → {sup 1}COM → {sup 1}TS1 → {sup 3}IM1 → {sup 3}TS2 → {sup 3}IM2. The third and fourth steps of dehydrogenation occurred on both the singlet and quintet states, and the minimum energy reaction pathway appeared to be IM3 → {sup 1}TS4 → {sup 5}IM4 → {sup 5}TS5 → {sup 5}IM5 → {sup 5}pro + T{sub 2}. The fourth step of dehydrogenation TNiCT → T{sub 2}NiC was the rate-determining step of the entire reaction with the rate constant of k{sub 2} = 2.8 × 10{sup 13} exp(−313,136/RT) (in cm{sup 3} mol{sup −1} s{sup −1}), and its activation energy barrier was calculated to be 51.8 kcal/mol. The Ni-catalyzed CH{sub 4} and CD{sub 4} cracking

  11. P-aminobenzoic acid and tritiated cyanoborohydride for the detection of pyruvoyl residues in proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Poelje, P.D.; Snell, E.E.

    1987-01-01

    A procedure for the detection of covalently bound pyruvic acid in purified proteins or in crude extracts is described. The dialyzed sample is first treated with sodium cyanoborohydride to reduce any Schiff bases present and then incubated with p-aminobenzoic acid and sodium [ 3 H]cyanoborohydride. Derivatized proteins are visualized by fluorography following sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Gel slices containing the labeled proteins are hydrolyzed, and, after removal of polyacrylic acid, the hydrolysate is subjected to ion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography. The presence of pyruvic acid is established by the detection of a tritiated, 280-nm absorbing compound with a retention time corresponding to that of synthetic N-(p-carboxyphenyl)alanine. The procedure is capable of detecting protein-bound pyruvic acid in the picomolar range and is easily modified to screen for other covalently bound keto acids

  12. Depressed patients have decreased binding of tritiated imipramine to platelet serotonin ''transporter''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, S.M.; Rehavi, M.; Skolnick, P.; Ballenger, J.C.; Goodwin, F.K.

    1981-01-01

    The high-affinity tritiated (3H) imipramine binding sites are functionally (and perhaps structurally) associated with the presynaptic neuronal and platelet uptake sites for serotonin. Since there is an excellent correlation between the relative potencies of a series of antidepressants in displacing 3H-imipramine from binding sites in human brain and platelet, we have examined the binding of 3H-imipramine to platelets from 14 depressed patients and 28 age- and sex-matched controls. A highly significant decrease in the number of 3H-imipramine binding sites, with no significant change in the apparent affinity constants, was observed in platelets from the depressed patients compared with the controls. These results, coupled with previous studies showing a significant decrease in the maximal uptake of serotonin in platelets from depressed patients, suggest that an inherited or acquired deficiency of the serotonin transport protein or proteins may be involved in the pathogenesis of depression

  13. Total synthesis of fully tritiated Leu-enkephalin by enzymatic coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellio, F.; Lecocq, G.; Morgat, J.L.; Gueguen, P. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Service de Biochimie)

    1990-09-01

    This paper describes the total enzymatic synthesis of Leu-enkephalin (Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe-Leu) in which all residues were labelled with tritium. Carboxypeptidase Y from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the coupling enzyme. ({sup 3}H)-Tyr-NH{sub 2}, ({sup 3}H)-Gly-Oet, ({sup 3}H)-Phe-NH{sub 2} and ({sup 3}H)-Leu-NH{sub 2} were prepared with specific radioactivities ranging between 20 and 60 Ci/mmol (740 to 2220 GBq/mmol). Using a microscale procedure, we obtained a fully tritiated hormone having a specific radioactivity equal to 139 Ci/mmol (5143 GBq/mmol), in agreement with the summation of the specific radioactivities of constituting residue. The radioactive hormone had antigenic properties identical to those of native Leu-enkephalin. It also bound to rat brain opiate receptors like the parental hormone. (author).

  14. Evaluation of in-vitro cell labelling of mouse epithelia with tritiated thymidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackenzie, I.C.; Ettinger, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    Various factors affecting the epithelial labelling index recorded following in-vitro incubation of specimens of mouse skin and palatal mucosa with tritiated thymidine were examined. Isotope concentration, specimen size and the period of exposure of autoradiographs prior to development markedly influenced the labelling index recorded but, following standardization of such factors, a reproducible index could be obtained. Labelling indices comparable to those obtained by the standard in-vivo labelling method could be produced by adjustment of isotope concentration in incubation media. Comparison of labelling indices recorded for tissues labelled in-vitro by a standardized method appeared valid but the absolute values of indices so obtained and their comparison with indices resulting from in-vivo labelling methods were of doubtful significance. (author)

  15. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in south San Francisco Bay, California: 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Daniel J.; Thompson, Janet K.; Crauder, Jeff; Parcheso, Francis; Stewart, Robin; Kleckner, Amy E.; Dyke, Jessica; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Luoma, Samuel N.

    2015-01-01

    Trace-metal concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure were investigated in a mudflat 1 kilometer (km) south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant (PARWQCP) in South San Francisco Bay, Calif. This report includes the data collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists for the period January 2014 to December 2014. These append to long-term datasets extending back to 1974, and serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto’s Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. 

  16. Sorption and desorption of tritiated water vapor on piping materials of nuclear fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Satoru; Ohmori, Rumi [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-01

    Sorption and desorption of D{sub 2}O on Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, NiO, SS316 powders were studied at ambient temperature. When D{sub 2}O were contacted with samples after drying at 303K, broad peak was observed at 2100-2700cm{sup -1} on Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and NiO. Sorption and desorption rate depended on wave numbers. Isotope exchange rate with H{sub 2}O vapor was faster than dry desorption rate. By heating pretreatment, sorption amount and desorption rate for Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and NiO decreased. For SS316, broad peak was observed only after heating pretreatment at 673K. (author)

  17. Dose Estimates from Irrigation with Tritiated Water at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, P.L.

    2000-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex. It was constructed in the early 1950's to produce special nuclear materials (such as plutonium-239 and tritium) used in the production of nuclear weapons. The 310-square-mile site is located in South Carolina, about 15 miles southeast of Augusta, Georgia. The production of nuclear materials at SRS continued for more than 40 years. However, the end of the Cold War caused a downsizing of this original national defense mission. Current missions are focused on: (1) nuclear weapons stockpile stewardship which emphasizes science-based maintenance of the country's nuclear weapons stockpile; (2) nuclear materials stewardship for management of excess nuclear materials, including transportation, stabilization, storage, and safe and secure disposition; and (3) environmental stewardship involving management, treatment, and disposal of radioactive and nonradioactive wastes resulting from past, present, and future operations

  18. Transfer of tritium to foetuses and newborns from mother mice administered with tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Y.; Nakamura, S.; Takahashi, T.; Aiba, H.

    1979-01-01

    The kinetics of tritium release from the skin, liver and brain of pregnant and nursing mice or foetuses and sucking newborns were studied after single subcutaneous or intraperitoneal injections and the per oral uptake. When female mice were injected subcutaneously at various times during pregnancy, tritium in wet tissues at delivery was reduced lineally on a semi-log scale with prolongation of the exposure time in both pregnant females and foetuses. Tritium in dry tissues was not reduced for a short time before delivery. The estimated half-lives of tissues were longer in pregnant females than in non-pregnant ones. The half-lives of wet tissues were shorter in pregnant females than in foetuses but those of dry tissues were shorter in foetuses. The estimated doses in wet and dry tissues for 10 days after delivery were larger in foetuses than in pregnant females. In the oral uptake, the tritium in wet tissues of both pregnant females and foetuses increased with prolongation of the drinking period, reached a maximum after about 200 h and fell with the further prolongation of the period. The patterns of tritium release in nursing females injected intraperitoneally immediately after delivery were similar to those of normal females, and those of sucking newborns depended upon those of nursing females. The estimated doses in tissues at 300 h after delivery were larger in nursing females than in sucking newborns except for the amount in the skin. (author)

  19. General Tritium Labelling of Gentamicin C by catalytic hydrogen exchange Reaction with Tritiated Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, C.; Diaz, D.; Paz, D.

    1991-01-01

    Gentamicin C was labelled with tritium by means of a PtO2 catalyzed hydrogen exchange reaction. Under the conditions of the exchange (100 mg of gentamicin, basic form, 0,3 ml H2O-3H, and 50 mg of prereduced PtO2) the radiochemical yield was 0,24, 0,38 and 0,48 % at 120 degree celsius, for 8, 16 and 24 hours respectively. Chemical yield for purified gentamicin was about 60 %. Purification was accomplished with a cellulose column eluted with the lower phase of chloroform-methanol 17 % ammonium hydroxide (2:1:1, v/v) . Chemical purity, determined by HPLC, was 96,5 % and radiochemical one was 95. Main exchange degradation products show biological activity. (Author) 12 refs

  20. General Tritium labelling of gentamicin C by catalytic hydrogen exchange reaction with tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, C.; Diaz, D.

    1991-01-01

    Gentamicin C was labelled with tritium by means of a PtO 2 catalized hydrogen exchange reaction. Under the conditions of the exchange (100 mg of gentamicin, basic form, 0,3 ml H 2 O- 3 H, and 50 mg of prereduced PtO 2 ) the radiochemical yield was 0,24, 0,38 and 0,48 % at 120 o C, for 8, 16 and 24 hours respectively. Chemical yield for purified gentamicin was about 60 %. Purification was accoumplished with a cellulose column eluted with the lower phase of chloroform-methanol 17 % ammonium hydroxide (2:1:1, v/v). Chemical purity, determined by HPLC, was 96,5 % and radiochemical one was 95 % . Main exchange degradation products show biological activity. (Author). 12 refs

  1. Behavioral effects of chronic exposure to organically bound tritium and tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radwan, I.

    1982-01-01

    The results of developmental testing of F-1 and F-2-animals indicate that in HTO group no differences with control animals were observed, while there was delay in development of righting reflex in F-1-animals of T-food exposed rats, but the difference was not statistically significant. The comparison of data obtained for F-1 and F2-generation shows no cumulative effect of tritium irradiation in subsequent generations. The effects of HTO and organically bound tritium exposure on acute individual locomotor activity of 70 days old rats showed statistically significant hypoactivity of females of t-food group. The differences with the control animals were highest and statistically significant in first 20 minutes of their run in the maze, what suggests that tritium esposure alters the females reactivity to a novel situation. This effects may nor persists for the lifetime. The data of locomotor activity of 110 days old rats recorded in diurnal and nocturnal periods, showed no differences between HTO-group and control group and only slight but no statistically significant hypoactivity of females exposed to organically bound tritium. (orig./MG)

  2. Isotope effects in the equilibrium and non-equilibrium vaporization of tritiated water and ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgaertner, F.; Kim, M.-A.

    1990-01-01

    The vaporization isotope effect of the HTO/H 2 O system has been measured at various temperatures and pressures under equilibrium as well as non-equilibrium conditions. The isotope effect values measured in equilibrium sublimation or distillation are in good agreement with the theoretical values based on the harmonic oscillator model. In non-equilibrium vaporization at low temperatures ( 0 C), the isotope effect decreases rapidly with decreasing system pressure and becomes negligible when the system pressure is lowered more than one tenth of the equilibrium vapor pressure. At higher temperatures, the isotope effect decreases very slowly with decreasing system pressure. Discussion is extended for the application of the present results to the study of biological enrichment of tritium. (author)

  3. Micropollutants in urban receiving waters

    OpenAIRE

    Musolff, Andreas; Hunkeler, Daniel; Schirmer, Mario

    2010-01-01

    À ce jour, la moitié de la population mondiale vit à l’intérieur des villes. Cette utilisation du territoire a un énorme impact sur le bilan hydrique urbain. Non seulement la quantité de l’eau est désormais limitée mais sa qualité s’est également détériorée. Les micropolluants provenant des eaux usées domestiques et industrielles représentent une préoccupation grandissante. Malgré leur présence en faible concentration, ces micropolluants peuvent agir comme perturbateurs endocriniens et comme ...

  4. The removal of pharmaceuticals, personal care products, endocrine disruptors and illicit drugs during wastewater treatment and its impact on the quality of receiving waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara; Dinsdale, Richard M; Guwy, Alan J

    2009-02-01

    A 5-month monitoring program was undertaken in South Wales in the UK to determine the fate of 55 pharmaceuticals, personal care products, endocrine disruptors and illicit drugs (PPCPs) in two contrasting wastewater plants utilising two different wastewater treatment technologies: activated sludge and trickling filter beds. The impact of treated wastewater effluent on the quality of receiving waters was also assessed. PPCPs were found to be present at high loads reaching 10kgday(-1) in the raw sewage. Concentrations of PPCPs in raw sewage were found to correlate with their usage/consumption patterns in Wales and their metabolism. The efficiency of the removal of PPCPs was found to be strongly dependent on the technology implemented in the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). In general, the WWTP utilising trickling filter beds resulted in, on average, less than 70% removal of all 55 PPCPs studied, while the WWTP utilising activated sludge treatment gave a much higher removal efficiency of over 85%. The monitoring programme revealed that treated wastewater effluents were the main contributors to PPCPs concentrations (up to 3kg of PPCPsday(-1)) in the rivers studied. Bearing in mind that in the cases examined here the WWTP effluents were also major contributors to rivers' flows (dilution factor for the studied rivers did not exceed 23 times) the effect of WWTP effluent on the quality of river water is significant and cannot be underestimated.

  5. Occurrence and fate of alkylphenols and alkylphenol ethoxylates in sewage treatment plants and impact on receiving waters along the Ter River (Catalonia, NE Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cespedes, Raquel; Lacorte, Silvia; Ginebreda, Antonio; Barcelo, Damia

    2008-01-01

    The partitioning of alkylphenols in the dissolved and particulate matter of influents, effluents, accumulation onto sludge and the impact of sewage treatment plant upon receiving waters was studied along the Ter River basin (Catalonia, NE Spain). A solid-phase extraction or pressurized liquid extraction followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed and permitted to determine target compounds with high efficiency in waters, particulate material and sludge. Nonylphenol mono- and diethoxylate, nonylphenol and octylphenol partitioned preferably upon particulate matter and sludge, whereas long chain NPE 3-15 O prevailed in the dissolved phase and was released by effluents. Within the treatment process, a net accumulation of alkylphenols in sludge was found, producing up to 148 g/t/month. The removal efficiency of alkylphenols was of 37-90% and depended on the treatment. Assessment on the fate of these contaminants within STPs is discussed in terms of flow rates, biological oxygen demand and tons of sludge produced. - Whereas partitioning of nonylphenol upon particulate matter and enrichment in sludge has been detected, long chain NPE n Os were mainly found in the dissolved phase

  6. Mutagenic effect of tritated water on spores of Bacillus subtilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanooka, H.; Munakata, N.

    1978-01-01

    The mutagenic effect of tritiated water was observed with spores of Bacillus subtilis polA strain suspended in 50 mCi/ml of tritiated water for various intervals. Dose rate given by tritium beta particles to spore core was estimated to be 400 rad/hr from some assumptions and E. coli data computed by Bockrath et al. and Sands et al. The initial mutation rate was 4.2 x 10 -9 mutants/rad, as compared with 2.4 x 10 -9 mutants/rad for 60 Co γ rays and 3.3 x 10 -9 mutants/rad for 30-kVp x rays. The mutagenic effect of tritiated water on spores is most likely due to beta particle ionizing radiation damage

  7. Trees as indicators of subterranean water flow from a retired radioactive waste disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickard, W.H.; Kirby, L.J.

    1987-01-01

    Tree sampling helped locate a subterranean flow of tritiated water from a low-level radioactive waste disposal site that had not been detected by well water monitoring alone. Deciduous trees growing in a natural forest on the hillsides downslope from the site were sampled for the presence of tritiated water in sap of maple trees and in leaf water extracted from oak and hickory trees. Elevated concentrations of 3 H were detected in the leaf water extracted from several trees located 50 m downslope from the western boundary of the fenced exclusion zone. A 3-m-deep well drilled near these trees indicated that the source of tritiated water was a narrow zone of subterranean flow

  8. Distribution of tritium in the different organs of calves and pigs after ingestion of various tritiated feeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchmann, R.; Charles, P.; Bruwaene, R. van; Remy, J.; Koch, G.; Hoek, J. van den

    1978-01-01

    The studies reported here are related to the distribution of tritium in the organs of farm animals contaminated in various ways. Two young male calves ingested tritiated milk; the daily intake of 3 H-organic form was about 15 μCi for each calf and the total activity ingested until the sacrifice was 482 μCi. Three male pigs from the same litter and about 7 weeks old were used for each experiment of the administration of tritium under different forms. It was verified that the chemical form of 3 H present in the food is of great importance for the incorporation of 3 H in the organic matter of the animal organs. The total incorporation increases by a factor 5.6 when 3 H is ingested as tritiated milkpowder by pigs as compared to HTO and with a factor 15 for calves. When tritiated potatoes were ingested by pigs a factor 15.6 was found. The transfer of 3 H from HTO and milk feed ingested in the organic fraction of organs is lower for pig than for calf. (Auth.)

  9. Assessing potential effects of highway runoff on receiving-water quality at selected sites in Oregon with the Stochastic Empirical Loading and Dilution Model (SELDM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risley, John C.; Granato, Gregory E.

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey and the Oregon Department of Transportation began a cooperative study to demonstrate use of the Stochastic Empirical Loading and Dilution Model (SELDM) for runoff-quality analyses in Oregon. SELDM can be used to estimate stormflows, constituent concentrations, and loads from the area upstream of a stormflow discharge site, from the site of interest and in the receiving waters downstream of the discharge. SELDM also can be used to assess the potential effectiveness of best management practices (BMP) for mitigating potential effects of runoff in receiving waters. Nominally, SELDM is a highway-runoff model, but it is well suited for analysis of runoff from other land uses as well. This report provides case studies and examples to demonstrate stochastic-runoff modeling concepts and to demonstrate application of the model. Basin characteristics from six Oregon highway study sites were used to demonstrate various applications of the model. The highway catchment and upstream basin drainage areas of these study sites ranged from 3.85 to 11.83 acres and from 0.16 to 6.56 square miles, respectively. The upstream basins of two sites are urbanized, and the remaining four sites are less than 5 percent impervious. SELDM facilitates analysis by providing precipitation, pre-storm streamflow, and other variables by region or from hydrologically similar sites. In Oregon, there can be large variations in precipitation and streamflow among nearby sites. Therefore, spatially interpolated geographic information system data layers containing storm-event precipitation and pre-storm streamflow statistics specific to Oregon were created for the study using Kriging techniques. Concentrations and loads of cadmium, chloride, chromium, copper, iron, lead, nickel, phosphorus, and zinc were simulated at the six Oregon highway study sites by using statistics from sites in other areas of the country. Water‑quality datasets measured at hydrologically similar

  10. Early colonic dysplasia: comparison of differential mucin staining and tritiated thymidine labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabot, J.A.; Colacchio, T.A.

    1985-01-01

    Controversy has arisen regarding the interpretation and significance of histochemical changes in the mucin produced by the globlet cells in colonic mucosa. The shift from sulfomucin to sialomucin, which is readily identified utilizing high iron diamine-alcian blue staining techniques, has been alternately interpreted as a specific, early dysplastic and premalignant change or a nonspecific generalized response to trauma and inflammation, among others. An attempt to clarify this issue was made by comparing mucin changes identified by high iron diamine-alcian blue staining techniques with increases in DNA synthetic activity identified utilizing autoradiographic analysis of tritiated thymidine uptake. Male Holtzman rats were treated with 15 weekly subcutaneous injections of dimethylhydrazine (30 mg/kg per week) (10 rats) or placebo (10 rats). The colons were prepared and fixed, sequential sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin or high iron diamine-alcian blue, autoradiography was performed. Analyses of labeling index showed no difference in normal background crypts between the control and treatment groups nor in crypts adjacent to those displaying abnormal mucin staining. Crypts with abnormal mucin production (sialomucin dominant) had significantly higher labeling indexes when compared with those of control animals (p less than 0.005). These findings indicate that the shifts in mucin production identified with high iron diamine-alcian blue staining represent crypts with increased and abnormally distributed mitotic activity that is an early dysplastic response to the carcinogenic stimulus

  11. Protein degradation in preimplantation mouse embryos and the lethality of tritiated amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wielbold, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    The role of protein degradation in preimplantation development in the mouse was studied. Proteins of morulae and blastocysts (M and B) cultured in vitro after labeling for 1 hour (h) in 3 H-leucine exhibit a mean half-life (t 1 / 2 ) of 8.1 h. The t 1 / 2 tends to increase (9.5 h) when 10% fetal calf serum is added to the chase medium. This decrease in protein degradation in the presence of serum is associated with an increase in the percentage of B that are hatching (P 3 H-leucine in their proteins than did Day 4 embryos remaining in culture (P<0.02), while Day 4 embryos in a Day 3 uterus retained the same amount of radioactivity as did Day 4 embryos in culture. This differential effect of uterine environment was also seen when Day 4 embryos were transferred to recipients. More fetuses developed to term when the recipient was in Day 3 of PSP (50.8%) than when the recipient was in Day 4 PSP (25.9%, P<0.001), regardless of the age of the recipient. Age of the recipient does affect the percentage of transferred embryos developing to term. Thus, protein degradation may vary with the stage of embryo development and the conditions to which the embryos are exposed. However, even low levels of incorporated tritiated leucine can have lethal effects on the embryos and compromise the validity of the protein half-lives determined

  12. Tritiated 2-deoxy-D-glucose as a probe for cell membrane permeability studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walum, E.; Peterson, A.

    1982-01-01

    Tritiated 2-deoxy-D-glucose was taken up and phosphorylated by cultured cells of neuronal (NIE 115), glial (138 MG), muscle (L 6) and liver (BRL 123) origin. Upon perfusion the cells slowly released 2-deoxy-D-glucose 6-phosphate. The following values for rate constants, half-lives, and activation energies for the efflux were obtained: NIE 115: 0.0048 min -1 , 143 min, and 72 kJ mol -1 ; 138 MG: 0.0013 min -1 , 547 min, and 85 kJ mol -1 ; L 6: 0.0022 min -1 , 311 min, and 60 kJ mol -1 ; and BRL 123: 0.0013 min -1 , 528 min and 63 kJ mol -1 . When the cultures were perfused with buffer containing Triton X-100 a time- and concentration-dependent increase in the rate of efflux of 2-deoxy-D-glucose 6-phosphate was obtained. It is suggested that 2-deoxy-D-[ 3 H]glucose can be used as a probe in studies of general cell membrane permeability changes

  13. Measurement of tritium in tissue free water of pine needles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Xiaomin; Wu Zongmei

    1993-01-01

    Tissue Free Water (TFW) of pine needles is separated out through azeotropic distillation of pine needles and toluene. Recovery ratio of TFW is 90%. Tritium activity in the needles is 1.8 Bq/L(H 2 O), which is of the same level with tritiated water vapour (HTO) in atmosphere during the corresponding period

  14. Modeling the effect of soil structure on water flow and isoproturon dynamics in an agricultural field receiving repeated urban waste compost application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipović, Vilim; Coquet, Yves; Pot, Valérie; Houot, Sabine; Benoit, Pierre

    2014-11-15

    Transport processes in soils are strongly affected by heterogeneity of soil hydraulic properties. Tillage practices and compost amendments can modify soil structure and create heterogeneity at the local scale within agricultural fields. The long-term field experiment QualiAgro (INRA-Veolia partnership 1998-2013) explores the impact of heterogeneity in soil structure created by tillage practices and compost application on transport processes. A modeling study was performed to evaluate how the presence of heterogeneity due to soil tillage and compost application affects water flow and pesticide dynamics in soil during a long-term period. The study was done on a plot receiving a co-compost of green wastes and sewage sludge (SGW) applied once every 2 years since 1998. The plot was cultivated with a biannual rotation of winter wheat-maize (except 1 year of barley) and a four-furrow moldboard plow was used for tillage. In each plot, wick lysimeter outflow and TDR probe data were collected at different depths from 2004, while tensiometer measurements were also conducted during 2007/2008. Isoproturon concentration was measured in lysimeter outflow since 2004. Detailed profile description was used to locate different soil structures in the profile, which was then implemented in the HYDRUS-2D model. Four zones were identified in the plowed layer: compacted clods with no visible macropores (Δ), non-compacted soil with visible macroporosity (Γ), interfurrows created by moldboard plowing containing crop residues and applied compost (IF), and the plow pan (PP) created by plowing repeatedly to the same depth. Isoproturon retention and degradation parameters were estimated from laboratory batch sorption and incubation experiments, respectively, for each structure independently. Water retention parameters were estimated from pressure plate laboratory measurements and hydraulic conductivity parameters were obtained from field tension infiltrometer experiments. Soil hydraulic

  15. The Use of Direct Tritium Assay Techniques in Studies with Tritiated Thymidine; Application des Methodes de Dosage Direct du Tritium aux Etudes avec la Thymidine Tritiee; 041f 0440 0438 043c 0435 043d 0435 0414 ; Aplicacion de Tecnicas de Medicion Directa del Tritio a Estudios con Timidina Tritiada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon Steel, G. [Physics Department, Institute of Cancer Research, Royal Cancer Hospital, Clifton Avenue, Belmont, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    1962-02-15

    Results are described of investigations into the catabolism of tritiated thymidine in the rat, during the period of its initial localization in tissues, and into the retention of tritium-labelled cells in intestine and bone marrow up to 16 d after labelling. During the first hour after the injection of tritiated thymidine, whilst the concentration of nonvolatile tritium in most tissues rose to a saturation level, the concentration in liver fell rapidly from an initially high level. Using a device which enabled a sample of tissue water to be extracted from a cold tissue specimen, measurements were made of the specific activity of tritiated water from various organs. By one hour after injection, the tritium concentration was almost constant throughout the body water, but during the period of establishment of this equilibrium, considerable gradients of tissue water specific activity could be detected. In liver, the gradient indicated a flow of tritiated water from the liver into the blood; in spleen, testis and muscle the flow was from the blood into the tissue. Measurements of tritium retention in intestine and bone marrow after giving tritiated thymidine, indicated that in both tissues there was an initial plateau and that the subsequent decay had two prominent exponentials. In bone marrow the observation of a plateau conflicts with other published work; the plateau is not observed in animals which have received protracted irradiation. (author) [French] L'auteur decrit les resultats de recherches sur le catabolisme de la thymidine tritiee dans le rat, au cours de la periode de fixation initiale dans les tissus, et sur la retention de cellules marquees au tritium par l'intestin et la moelle osseuse dans un delai allant jusqu'a 16 jours apres le marquage. Pendant la premiere heure suivant l'injection de thymidine tritiee, alors que la concentration du tritium non volatil dans la plupart des tissus atteignait rapidement un degre de saturation, la concentration dans le

  16. 'Chaos' in superregenerative receivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commercon, Jean-Claude; Badard, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The superregenerative principle has been known since the early 1920s. The circuit is extremely simple and extremely sensitive. Today, superheterodyne receivers generally supplant superregenerative receivers in most applications because there are several undesirable characteristics: poor selectivity, reradiation, etc. Superregenerative receivers undergo a revival in recent papers for wireless systems, where low cost and very low power consumption are relevant: house/building meters (such as water, energy, gas counter), personal computer environment (keyboard, mouse), etc. Another drawback is the noise level which is higher than that of a well-designed superheterodyne receiver; without an antenna input signal, the output of the receiver hears in an earphone as a waterfall noise; this sound principally is the inherent input noise amplified and detected by the circuit; however, when the input noise is negligible with respect of an antenna input signal, we are faced to an other source of 'noise' self-generated by the superregenerative working. The main objective of this paper concerns this self-generated noise coming from an exponential growing followed by a re-injection process for which the final state is a function of the phase of the input signal

  17. Occurrence and geodatabase mapping of three contaminants of emerging concern in receiving water and at effluent from waste water treatment plants - A first overview of the situation in the Republic of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahar, Alexandre; Tiedeken, Erin Jo; Rowan, Neil J

    2018-03-01

    This constitutes the first study to address occurrence and geodatabase mapping of the anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac (DCL) and the natural (17-beta-estradiol or E2) and synthetic (17-alpha-ethynylestradiol or EE2) estrogenic hormones in Republic of Ireland receiving waters over the period 1999 to 2015. Among these data, 317 samples came from concentration studies, while 205 were from effect-based studies. Monitoring data came from 16 waste water treatment plants (WWTPs), 23 water bodies (including rivers, lakes, marine and transitional waters) and 7 from domestic locations. Out of approximately 1000 WWPTs in the Republic of Ireland, only 16 have been monitored for at least one of these compounds of emerging concern (CECs). Diclofenac is found in treated effluents from 5 WWTPs at levels at least as high as other European WWPTs, and sometime higher. Measurements of E2 and EE2 in WWPT effluents were rare and effluents were more often evaluated for total estrogens; these CECs were generally not detected using conventional analytical methods because of limits of detection being too high compared to environmental concentrations and WFD environmental quality standards. There was good agreement between occurrence of these CEC and regional drug dispensing data in Ireland. Mapping the aforementioned data onto appropriate river basin catchment management tools will inform predictive and simulated risk determinations to inform investment in infrastructure that is necessary to protect rivers and beaches and economic activities that rely on clean water. There is a pressing commensurate need to refine/develop new analytical methods with low levels of detection for future CEC intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of monoclonal antibodies and tritiated ligands for estrogen receptor assays in 241 breast cancer cytosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goussard, J.; Lechevrel, C.; Martin, P.M.; Roussel, G.

    1986-01-01

    Estrogen receptor determinations have been performed on 241 cytosols from 160 breast cancer tumors using both radioactive ligands ([ 3 H]-estradiol, [3H]R2858) and monoclonal antibodies (Abbott ER-EIA Kit) to compare the two methods and to evaluate the clinical usefulness of the new immunological, simplified assay. Intra- and interassay reproducibility of the enzyme immunoassay (EIA) method was studied during a 6-month period on 35 standard curves with 4 different batches of monoclonal antibodies. Intraassay coefficients of variation studied on duplicates were smaller than 5% in most cases and reproducibility of the curves showed coefficients of variation lower than 10% except for standard 0 and 5 fmol/ml. Pooled cytosols used as control for the dextran coated charcoal method had interassay variation coefficients between 3.8 and 11.4%. Reproducibility has been studied on clinical specimens assayed twice at two different periods with either EIA or dextran coated charcoal methods. Slopes obtained were 1.05 and 0.96, respectively. A good stability of EIA results was obtained with protein concentrations in the range 4-0.15 mg/ml cytosol. No significant effects of dithiothreitol or monothioglycerol (1 mM) on EIA and dextran coated charcoal assay were observed. Eighty breast cancer cytosols were assayed with both EIA and Scatchard analysis. The slope of the regression curve obtained was 1.04 (r = 0.963). Cytosols were assayed by EIA and by a saturating concentration of tritiated ligand (5 nM). With 153 cytosols the EIA/5 nM slope was 1.34 (r = 0.978). This slope can be compared with the slope Scatchard/5 nM obtained with 90 cytosols: 1.29 (r = 0.985). Absence of cross-reactivity of monoclonal ER antibodies with progesterone receptor was observed

  19. Assessment of tritiated activities in the radwaste generated from ITER Chinese helium cooled ceramic breeding test blanket module system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chang An, E-mail: chenchangan@caep.cn; Liu, Lingbo; Wang, Bo; Xiang, Xin; Yao, Yong; Song, Jiangfeng

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Approaches were developed for calculation/evaluation of tritium activities in the materials and components of a TBM system, with tritium permeation being considered for the first time. • Almost all tritiated materials and components were considered in CNHCCB TBM system including the TBM set, connection pipes, and the ancillary tritium handling systems. • Tritium activity data in HCCB TBM system were updated. Some of which in directly tritium contacted components are to be 2 or 4 magnitudes higher than the original neutron transmutation calculations. • The radwaste amount from both operation and decommission of HCCB TBM system was evaluated. - Abstract: Chinese Helium Cooled Ceramic Breeding Test blanket Module (CNHCCB TBM) will be tested in the ITER machine for the feasibility of in pile tritium production for a future magnetic confinement fusion reactor. The tritium inventories/retentions in the material/components were evaluated and updated mainly based on the tritium diffusion/permeation theory and the analysis of some reported data. Tritiated activities rank from less than 10 Bq g{sup −1} to 10{sup 9} Bq g{sup −1} for the different materials or components, which are generally higher than those from the previous neutron transmutation calculation. The amounts of tritiated radwaste were also estimated according to the operation, decommission, maintenance and replacement strategies, which vary from several tens of kilograms to tons in the different operation phases. The data can be used both for the tritium radiological safety evaluation and radwaste management of CNHCCB TBM set and its ancillary systems.

  20. Differential effects of axotomy on immature and mature hamster facial neurons: a tritiated-uridine autoradiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.J.; LaVelle, A.

    1987-01-01

    In this study, tritiated-uridine incorporation was autoradiographically examined following axotomy of hamster facial motor neurons (HFMN) at the critical development age of 15 days postnatal and in the adult. The postoperative times selected were 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 days. In the 15-day operative series, no changes in incorporation were observed at any of the postoperative times, except at 4 days postoperative, when there was a decrease in tritiated-uridine incorporation in the axotomized neurons relative to the controls. In the adult operative series there were no changes in incorporation at 0.5 or 1 day postoperative, relative to the controls. At 2 days postoperative in the adult, there was a transient increase in tritiated-uridine incorporation that returned to control levels by 4 days postoperative. When axotomized and control cytoplasmic/nuclear grain densities were compared, no changes were found in either operative series. These results of the time course of axotomy-induced changes in RNA synthesis in HFMN corroborate our previous findings of an age-dependent reactive sequence in HFMN and lend support to the hypothesis that the young neurons are synthesizing at peak capacity related to final growth and cannot be stimulated further by axotomy. As discussed, the transient increase in RNA levels in the adult, the lack of any changes in the rate of transfer of RNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, and the decrease in RNA levels in the 15-day neurons may be related to the presence of an unusual intranucleolar body within the nucleolus of HFMN that contains ribosomal precursors

  1. Examination of the biological half-life and organ d;stribution of tritiated lysin-vasopressin in Brattleboro rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laczi, F.; Laszlo, F.

    1980-01-01

    15 μCi tritiated lysin-vasopressin (spec. act. 3.5 Ci per mmol) was administered to control and Brattleboro rats, suffering from hereditary hypothalamic diabetes insipidus. The biological half-life and the distribution of the labelled compound in the different organs were determined. The biological half-life demonstrated no significant difference, however, the vasopressin content of the small intestine was higher in the Brattleboro rats. In the other organs no significant difference was found. It can be concluded that the hereditary diabetes insipidus is not due to faster elimination of circulating vasopressin. (L.E.)

  2. Platelet alpha 2-adrenergic receptors in major depressive disorder. Binding of tritiated clonidine before and after tricyclic antidepressant drug treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Sevilla, J.A.; Zis, A.P.; Hollingsworth, P.J.; Greden, J.F.; Smith, C.B.

    1981-01-01

    The specific binding of tritiated (3H)-clonidine, an alpha 2-adrenergic receptor agonist, to platelet membranes was measured in normal subjects and in patients with major depressive disorder. The number of platelet alpha 2-adrenergic receptors from the depressed group was significantly higher than that found in platelets obtained from the control population. Treatment with tricyclic antidepressant drugs led to significant decreases in the number of platelet alpha 2-adrenergic receptors. These results support the hypothesis that the depressive syndrome is related to an alpha 2-adrenergic receptor supersensitivity and that the clinical effectiveness of tricyclic antidepressant drugs is associated with a decrease in the number of these receptors

  3. Examination of the biological half-life and organ d; stribution of tritiated lysin-vasopressin in Brattleboro rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laczi, F; Laszlo, F [Szegedi Orvostudomanyi Egyetem Szeged (Hungary). 1. Belgyogyaszati Klinika; Keri, Gy; Teplan, I [Semmelweis Orvostudomanyi Egyetem, Budapest (Hungary)

    1980-04-01

    15 ..mu..Ci tritiated lysin-vasopressin (spec. act. 3.5 Ci per mmol) was administered to control and Brattleboro rats, suffering from hereditary hypothalamic diabetes insipidus. The biological half-life and the distribution of the labelled compound in the different organs were determined. The biological half-life demonstrated no significant difference, however, the vasopressin content of the small intestine was higher in the Brattleboro rats. In the other organs no significant difference was found. It can be concluded that the hereditary diabetes insipidus is not due to faster elimination of circulating vasopressin.

  4. Electronic warfare receivers and receiving systems

    CERN Document Server

    Poisel, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Receivers systems are considered the core of electronic warfare (EW) intercept systems. Without them, the fundamental purpose of such systems is null and void. This book considers the major elements that make up receiver systems and the receivers that go in them.This resource provides system design engineers with techniques for design and development of EW receivers for modern modulations (spread spectrum) in addition to receivers for older, common modulation formats. Each major module in these receivers is considered in detail. Design information is included as well as performance tradeoffs o

  5. Sensitivity and specificity of tritiated thymidine incorporation and ELISPOT assays in identifying antigen specific T cell immune responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacLeod Beth

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Standardization of cell-based immunologic monitoring is becoming increasingly important as methods for measuring cellular immunity become more complex. We assessed the ability of two commonly used cell-based assays, tritiated thymidine incorporation (proliferation and IFN-gamma ELISPOT, to predict T cell responses to HER-2/neu, tetanus toxoid (tt, and cytomegalovirus (CMV antigens. These antigens were determined to be low (HER-2/neu, moderate (tt, and robustly (CMV immunogenic proteins. Samples from 27 Stage II, III, and IV HER-2/neu positive breast cancer patients, vaccinated against the HER-2/neu protein and tt, were analyzed by tritiated thymidine incorporation and IFN-gamma ELISPOT for T cell response. Results Linear regression analysis indicates that both stimulation index (SI (p = 0.011 and IFN-gamma secreting precursor frequency (p Conclusion These data underscore the importance of taking into consideration the performance characteristics of assays used to measure T cell immunity. This consideration is particularly necessary when determining which method to utilize for assessing responses to immunotherapeutic manipulations in cancer patients.

  6. Validity of the tritiated thymidine method for estimating bacterial growth rates: measurement of isotope dilution during DNA synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollard, P.C.; Moriarty, D.J.W.

    1984-01-01

    The rate of tritiated thymidine incorporation into DNA was used to estimate bacterial growth rates in aquatic environments. To be accurate, the calculation of growth rates has to include a factor for the dilution of isotope before incorporation. The validity of an isotope dilution analysis to determine this factor was verified in experiments reported here with cultures of a marine bacterium growing in a chemostat. Growth rates calculated from data on chemostat dilution rates and cell density agreed well with rates calculated by tritiated thymidine incorporation into DNA and isotope dilution analysis. With sufficiently high concentrations of exogenous thymidine, de novo synthesis of deoxythymidine monophosphate was inhibited, thereby preventing the endogenous dilution of isoope. The thymidine technique was also shown to be useful for measuring growth rates of mixed suspensions of bacteria growing anaerobically. Thymidine was incorporated into the DNA of a range of marine pseudomonads that were investigated. Three species did not take up thymidine. The common marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus species did not incorporate thymidine into DNA

  7. Characterization of Escherichia coli Isolates from an Urban Lake Receiving Water from a Wastewater Treatment Plant in Mexico City: Fecal Pollution and Antibiotic Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Irma; Salinas, Eva; Martínez, Leticia; Cruz-Córdova, Ariadnna; González-Pedrajo, Bertha; Espinosa, Norma; Amábile-Cuevas, Carlos F

    2015-10-01

    The presence of enteric bacteria in water bodies is a cause of public health concerns, either by directly causing water- and food-borne diseases, or acting as reservoirs for antibiotic resistance determinants. Water is used for crop irrigation; and sediments and aquatic plants are used as fertilizing supplements and soil conditioners. In this work, the bacterial load of several micro-environments of the urban lake of Xochimilco, in Mexico City, was characterized. We found a differential distribution of enteric bacteria between the water column, sediment, and the rhizoplane of aquatic plants, with human fecal bacteria concentrating in the sediment, pointing to the need to assess such bacterial load for each micro-environment, for regulatory agricultural purposes, instead of only the one of the water, as is currently done. Resistance to tetracycline, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was common among Escherichia coli isolates, but was also differentially distributed, being again higher in sediment isolates. A distinct distribution of chloramphenicol minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) among these isolates suggests the presence of a local selective pressure favoring lower MICs than those of isolates from treated water. Fecal bacteria of human origin, living in water bodies along with their antibiotic resistance genes, could be much more common than typically considered, and pose a higher health risk, if assessments are only made on the water column of such bodies.

  8. Tritium removal from contaminated water via infrared laser multiple-photon dissociation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maienschein, J.L.; Magnotta, F.; Herman, I.P.; Aldridge, F.T.; Hsiao, P.

    1983-01-01

    Isotope separation by means of infrared-laser multiple-photon dissociation offers an efficient way to recover tritium from contaminated light or heavy water found in fission and fusion reactors. For tritium recovery from heavy water, chemical exchange of tritium into deuterated chloroform is followed by selective laser dissociation of tritiated chloroform and removal of the tritiated photoproduct, TCl. The single-step separation factor is at least 2700 and is probably greater than 5000. Here we present a description of the tritium recovery process, along with recent accomplishments in photochemical studies and engineering analysis of a recovery system

  9. Discharges of produced waters from oil and gas extraction via wastewater treatment plants are sources of disinfection by-products to receiving streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladik, Michelle; Focazio, Michael J.; Engle, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Fluids co-produced with oil and gas production (produced waters) are often brines that contain elevated concentrations of bromide. Bromide is an important precursor of several toxic disinfection by-products (DBPs) and the treatment of produced water may lead to more brominated DBPs. To determine if wastewater treatment plants that accept produced waters discharge greater amounts of brominated DBPs, water samples were collected in Pennsylvania from four sites along a large river including an upstream site, a site below a publicly owned wastewater treatment plant (POTW) outfall (does not accept produced water), a site below an oil and gas commercial wastewater treatment plant (CWT) outfall, and downstream of the POTW and CWT. Of 29 DBPs analyzed, the site at the POTW outfall had the highest number detected (six) ranging in concentration from 0.01 to 0.09 μg L− 1 with a similar mixture of DBPs that have been detected at POTW outfalls elsewhere in the United States. The DBP profile at the CWT outfall was much different, although only two DBPs, dibromochloronitromethane (DBCNM) and chloroform, were detected, DBCNM was found at relatively high concentrations (up to 8.5 μg L− 1). The water at the CWT outfall also had a mixture of inorganic and organic precursors including elevated concentrations of bromide (75 mg L− 1) and other organic DBP precursors (phenol at 15 μg L− 1). To corroborate these DBP results, samples were collected in Pennsylvania from additional POTW and CWT outfalls that accept produced waters. The additional CWT also had high concentrations of DBCNM (3.1 μg L− 1) while the POTWs that accept produced waters had elevated numbers (up to 15) and concentrations of DBPs, especially brominated and iodinated THMs (up to 12 μg L− 1 total THM concentration). Therefore, produced water brines that have been disinfected are potential sources of DBPs along with DBP precursors to streams wherever these wastewaters are discharged.

  10. Water metabolism and modification of tritium excretion in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimasa, Y.; Akita, Y.

    1982-01-01

    1. The intake and excretion of tritium were studied in rats exposed to tritiated water vapor. The metabolism of tritium was also investigated in rats given single administrations of tritiated water and in rats given daily administrations (per os or i.p.). The results were essentially in accord with those reported previously. 2. Amounts of drinking water consumed and urine excreted by rats drinking water with 0.15% saccharin were 1.5 to 2 times higher than in rats drinking tap water. The tritium activity in various tissues of rats drinking water with 0.15% saccharin decreased to about half of that of rats drinking tap water. A similar tendency was observed also in rats drinking beer. The diuretic agent sodium acetazolamide also enhanced the urinary excretion of tritium. (author)

  11. Growth Performance, Mineral Digestibility, and Blood Characteristics of Ostriches Receiving Drinking Water Supplemented with Varying Levels of Chelated Trace Mineral Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfori, Hossein; Ghasemi, Hossein Ali; Hajkhodadadi, Iman; Nazaran, Mohammad Hassan; Hafizi, Maryam

    2018-05-01

    The effects of water supplementation of chelated trace minerals (CTM, which is named Bonzaplex designed with chelate compounds technology) on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of minerals, and some blood metabolites, TM, and antioxidant enzyme values in African ostriches were investigated from 8 to 12 months of age. A total of 20 8-month-old ostriches (five birds in five replicate pens) was randomly allocated into one of the following four treatments: (1) control (basal diet + tap water), (2) low CTM (basal diet +100 mg/bird/day CTM powder in tap water), (3) medium CTM (basal diet +1 g/bird/day CTM powder in tap water), and (4) high CTM (basal diet +2 g/bird/day CTM powder in tap water). Compared with control, medium CTM improved (P water can be recommended for improving growth performance, mineral absorption, and antioxidant status of ostriches fed diets containing the recommended levels of inorganic TM.

  12. Impact of PAH [Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons] outlets from an oil refinery on the receiving water area - sediment trap fluxes and multivariate statistical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettersen, Harald; Naef, Carina; Broman, Dag

    1997-01-01

    PAH concentrations (15 compounds) in settling particulate matter (SPM) collected in the waters outside a petroleum refinery on the Swedish Baltic coast, and in samples of particulate and dissolved fractions in the wastewater from the refinery were determined. SPM concentrations varied between 550 and 4250 ng x gdw -1 and the corresponding calculated fluxes varied between 0.1 and 3.7 ng x cm -2 x day -1 . Both concentrations and fluxes did not differ significantly from background coastal or offshore locations in the Baltic. PAH profiles of the SPM samples were compared with the wastewater samples and SPM samples from background areas in the Baltic, using pattern recognition techniques. This analysis showed that the SPM samples from the petroleum refinery displayed a PAH composition similar to that found in background reference sites in the Baltic, and that the SPM samples could not be connected to the wastewater samples from the refinery. This indicates that Nynas AB is not a significant source of PAHs to the waters in its immediate surroundings, i.e. the waters in the Nynashamn area, and/or that the hydraulic residence time of the water outside the refinery is low. A budget calculation showed that the wastewater outlet from Nynas AB is only a minor contributor of the PAH load to the waters outside the refinery. (Author)

  13. Occurrence and risk assessment of four typical fluoroquinolone antibiotics in raw and treated sewage and in receiving waters in Hangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Changlun; Zhuo, Xiajun; Guo, Yun

    2011-07-13

    A sensitive liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection method, combined with one-step solid-phase extraction, was established for detecting the residual levels of the four typical fluoroquinolone antibiotics (ofloxacin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and enrofloxacin) in influent, effluent, and surface waters from Hangzhou, China. For the various environmental water matrices, the overall recoveries were from 76.8 to 122%, and no obvious interferences of matrix effect were observed. The limit of quantitation of this method was estimated to be 17 ng/L for ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin, 20 ng/L for ofloxacin, and 27 ng/L for enrofloxacin. All of the four typical fluoroquinolone antibiotics were found in the wastewaters and surface waters. The residual contents of the four typical fluoroquinolone antibiotics in influent, effluent, and surface water samples are 108-1405, 54-429, and 7.0-51.6 ng/L, respectively. The removal rates of the selected fluoroquinolone antibiotics were 69.5 (ofloxacin), 61.3 (norfloxacin), and 50% (enrofloxacin), indicating that activated sludge treatment is effective except for ciprofloxacin and necessary to remove these fluoroquinolone antibiotics in municipal sewage. The risk to the aquatic environment was estimated by a ratio of measured environmental concentration and predicted no-effect concentration. At the concentrations, these fluoroquinolone antibiotics were found in influent, effluent, and surface waters, and they should not pose a risk for the aquatic environment.

  14. Receiver Test Selection Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-12

    The DOT requests that GPS manufacturers submit receivers for test in the following TWG categories: - Aviation (non-certified), cellular, general location/navigation, high precision, timing, networks, and space-based receivers - Each receiver should b...

  15. Preparation of 'dead water' for low background liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishima, Hiroshige; Koga, Taeko; Niwa, Takeo; Kawai, Hiroshi

    1987-01-01

    'Dead water', low level tritiated water is indispensable to measure tritium concentration in environmental waters using a low background liquid scintillation counter. Water produced by combustion of natural gas, or deep sea water etc. are usually used for the above purpose. A new method of reducing tritium concentration in natural water has been introduced for preparation of 'dead water'. This method is to combine hydrogen-oxygen mixture produced by water electrolysis with hopcalite catalyzer at 700 deg C. Deep well water was electrolized up to 2/3 volume, and tritium concentration of recombined water was reduced to be about one third of that of the original one. (author)

  16. Evaluation of the effect of cooling towers on the transfer to the ground environment of the tritium from a receiving stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchmann, R.; Dupont, J.C.; Fontaine-Delcambe, P.

    1982-01-01

    The studies on the impact of the cooling towers (mechanical draught) of the Tihange-1 Nuclear Power Plant, started in 1978. The first study dealt with the evaluation of the transfer in the terrestrial environment of the tritium released in the Meuse River, upstream of the NPP. This study involved, in 1978, four campaigns of plants exposure of one month duration each, two with the cooling towers in operation and two without. In 1979, three campaigns were performed, one with the towers in operation. The results of measurement of the tritium content of the Meuse water, rainwater, water vapor in air as well as the tissue free water (TFWT) of the plants cultivated in the 9 stations have shown that there was no influence, except in one case, due to the operation of the towers, on the levels of TFWT in the exposed plants. Besides, the comparison of the ratios of the specific activities (OBT plant THO rain) does not show a significant difference between the plants, neither between the stations, with or without the towers operating. One sees nevertheless that this ratio has a value ranging from 2.7 to 7.0 which means that an organic 3 H source is available for the plant, this does not seem to be the substratum. On the other hand, the OBT contents of the foliage of trees growing on the site and of algae growing in a pond receiving the water from the Meuse are about the same as the values observed in the plants grown at the stations. On the contrary the OBT content of algae growing in the cooling towers are significantly higher (3 to 9 times), which would indicate the presence in the Meuse Water of tritiated organic molecules biologically available. (author)

  17. Biological study of a tritiated luminous paint (1962); Etude biologique d'une peinture lumineuse tritiee (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remy, J.; Meunier, J.; Aeberhardt, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    A powdered mixture of zinc sulphide and a tritiated polyester has been administered to rats by means of the oesophageal probe. The distribution of tritium in the organ, and its elimination, have been studied. It appears that from 75 to 80 per cent of the polyester has undergone sufficient degradation in the intestinal medium to be absorbed by the digestive mucous membrane and to be subjected to metabolic reactions. (authors) [French] Un melange pulverulent de sulfure de zinc et, d'un polyester tritie a ete administre a des rats a la sonde oesophagienne. La distribution du tritium dans l'organisme et son elimination ont ete etudiees. Il apparait que 75 a 80 pour cent du polyester a ete suffisamment degrade dans le milieu intestinal pour etre absorbe par les muqueuses digestives et etre l'objet de processus metaboliques. (auteurs)

  18. Biological study of a tritiated luminous paint (1962); Etude biologique d'une peinture lumineuse tritiee (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remy, J; Meunier, J; Aeberhardt, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    A powdered mixture of zinc sulphide and a tritiated polyester has been administered to rats by means of the oesophageal probe. The distribution of tritium in the organ, and its elimination, have been studied. It appears that from 75 to 80 per cent of the polyester has undergone sufficient degradation in the intestinal medium to be absorbed by the digestive mucous membrane and to be subjected to metabolic reactions. (authors) [French] Un melange pulverulent de sulfure de zinc et, d'un polyester tritie a ete administre a des rats a la sonde oesophagienne. La distribution du tritium dans l'organisme et son elimination ont ete etudiees. Il apparait que 75 a 80 pour cent du polyester a ete suffisamment degrade dans le milieu intestinal pour etre absorbe par les muqueuses digestives et etre l'objet de processus metaboliques. (auteurs)

  19. An Integrated Watershed and Receiving Water Model for Fecal Coliform Fate and Transport in Sinclair and Dyes Inlets, Puget Sound, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Area IMPLND Impervious Land Cover INFILT Interflow Inflow Parameter (related to infiltration capacity of the soil ) INSUR Manning’s N for the...Km) SCCWRP Southern California Coastal Water Research Project SCS Soil Conservation Service SGA Shellfish Growing Area SPAWAR Space and Naval...UCI User Control Input USACE U.S. Army Corps of Engineers USEPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency USGS U.S. Geological Survey xix USLE Universal

  20. Organic Wastewater Compounds, Pharmaceuticals, andColiphage in Ground Water Receiving Discharge from OnsiteWastewater Treatment Systems near La Pine, Oregon:Occurrence and Implications for Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkle, Stephen J.; Weick, Rodney J.; Johnson, Jill M.; Cahill, Jeffery D.; Smith, Steven G.; Rich, Barbara J.

    2005-01-01

    The occurrence of organic wastewater compounds (components of 'personal care products' and other common household chemicals), pharmaceuticals (human prescription and nonprescription medical drugs), and coliphage (viruses that infect coliform bacteria, and found in high concentrations in municipal wastewater) in onsite wastewater (septic tank effluent) and in a shallow, unconfined, sandy aquifer that serves as the primary source of drinking water for most residents near La Pine, Oregon, was documented. Samples from two types of observation networks provided basic occurrence data for onsite wastewater and downgradient ground water. One observation network was a group of 28 traditional and innovative (advanced treatment) onsite wastewater treatment systems and associated downgradient drainfield monitoring wells, referred to as the 'innovative systems network'. The drainfield monitoring wells were located adjacent to or under onsite wastewater treatment system drainfield lines. Another observation network, termed the 'transect network', consisted of 31 wells distributed among three transects of temporary, stainless-steel-screened, direct-push monitoring wells installed along three plumes of onsite wastewater. The transect network, by virtue of its design, also provided a basis for increased understanding of the transport of analytes in natural systems. Coliphage were frequently detected in onsite wastewater. Coliphage concentrations in onsite wastewater were highly variable, ranging from less than 1 to 3,000,000 plaque forming units per 100 milliliters. Coliphage were occasionally detected (eight occurrences) at low concentrations in samples from wells located downgradient from onsite wastewater treatment system drainfield lines. However, coliphage concentrations were below method detection limits in replicate or repeat samples collected from the eight sites. The consistent absence of coliphage detections in the replicate or repeat samples is interpreted to indicate

  1. Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring of Trace Metals and a Benthic Community Near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay, California: 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Daniel J.; Thompson, Janet K.; Dyke, Jessica; Parcheso, Francis; Luoma, Samuel N.; Hornberger, Michelle I.

    2009-01-01

    Results reported herein include trace element concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica (Cohen and Carlton, 1995)), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure for a mudflat one kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant (PARWQCP) in South San Francisco Bay. This report includes data collected for the period January 2008 to December 2008 and extends a critical long-term biogeochemical record dating back to 1974. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto's Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. In 2008, metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue were among the lowest concentrations on record and consistent with results observed since 1991. Following significant reductions in the late 1980's, silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) concentrations appeared to have stabilized. Annual mean concentrations have fluctuated modestly (2-4 fold) in a nondirectional manner. Data for other metals, including chromium, mercury, nickel, selenium, vanadium, and zinc, have been collected since 1994. Over this period, concentrations of these elements, which more likely reflect regional inputs and systemwide processes, have remained relatively constant, aside from typical seasonal variation that is common to all elements. Within years, concentrations generally reach maximum in winter months (January-March) and decline to annual minima in spring through fall. Mercury (Hg) in sediments spiked to the highest observed level in January 2008. However, sedimentary concentrations for the rest of the year and concentrations of Hg in M. petalum for the entire year were consistent with data from previous years. Average selenium (Se) concentrations in sediment were the highest on record, but there is no evidence, yet, to suggest a temporal trend of increasing sedimentary Se. Selenium in M. petalum was not elevated relative to

  2. The occurrence and distribution of pharmaceutical compounds in the effluents of a major sewage treatment plant in Northern Taiwan and the receiving coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Tien-Hsi; Nan, Fan-Hua; Chin, Tzong-Shean; Feng, Hui-Min

    2012-01-01

    The pharmaceutical residues in waste water from the largest sewage treatment plant (STP) in Northern Taiwan and in seawater around the effluent discharged area were determined. An environmental risk assessment for the marine environment was conducted based on the environment risk quotient (ERQ). The concentrations of the analyzed compounds in STP influent and effluent were generally higher than those found in coastal seawater. Relatively higher values were found at the estuarine mouth and the discharged area, suggesting that the STP effluent is a point source. The removal efficiency and half life of the analyzed compounds were 6.3–46.8% and 3–18 days, respectively. The ERQ value theoretical calculation was generally greater than 1. However, when the measured concentrations replaced the predicated concentrations, the ERQ values were considerably lower than 1. Therefore, our results call for a re-evaluation of the risks posed by pharmaceuticals to coastal marine ecosystems in Northern Taiwan.

  3. Radiating water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakker, J.; Harle, N.; Heijkers, H.; Schoene, S.

    1987-04-01

    From a nuclear power plant in operation radioactivity is continuously effusing into the environment, through the chimney, cooling waters and the loss of solid waste. In this account attention is concentrated on tritium which enters, in the form of gas and tritiated water from nuclear power plants under 'normal' operation, the aquatic environment and which, because it can not be purified from the water and because its effluences in surface waters are larger than those of other radioactive waste products, forms the largest threat for the drinking-water supply. In ch. 1 the health risks of tritium are outlined. In particular the genetic risks are insufficiently known until now. In ch. 2 the amount of tritium effluences are estimated, which appears to be many times higher than was generally accepted until now. What does this imply for the Dutch surface waters? In ch. 3 the question of the source term is discussed and in ch. 4 the source term is translated into the effects upon the aquatic environment and especially upon the drinking-water supply. In ch. 5 advisements for policies are formulated. The policy of the Dutch government until now is viewed and nuclear power is judged on the base of three starting points of radiation policy. Therein the demands are included which are inevitable in order to protect the Dutch aquatic environment from a too large radioactivity burden. 91 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 table

  4. A flexible WLAN receiver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiphorst, Roelof; Hoeksema, F.W.; Slump, Cornelis H.

    2003-01-01

    Flexible radio receivers are also called Software Defined Radios (SDRs) [1], [2]. The focus of our SDR project [3] is on designing the front end, from antenna to demodulation in bits, of a °exible, multi-standard WLAN receiver. We try to combine an instance of a (G)FSK receiver (Bluetooth) with an

  5. Improved removal of estrogenic and pharmaceutical compounds in sewage effluent by full scale granular activated carbon: impact on receiving river water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, D P; Zhou, J L; Frickers, P E; Readman, J W

    2011-01-30

    Sewage effluents are widely recognised as the main source of emerging contaminants, such as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and pharmaceuticals in surface waters. A full-scale granular activated carbon (GAC) plant has been installed as an advanced technology for the removal of these contaminants, in a major sewage treatment works (STW) in South-West England as part of the UK National Demonstration Programme for EDCs. This study presented for the first time, an assessment of the impact of a recently commissioned, post-tertiary GAC plant in the removal of emerging contaminants in a working STW. Through regular sampling followed by solid-phase extraction and analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), a significant reduction in the concentrations of steroidal estrogens was observed (>43-64%). In addition, significant reductions were observed for many of the pharmaceutical compounds such as mebeverine (84-99%), although the reduction was less dramatic for some of the more widely used pharmaceuticals analysed, including carbamazepine and propranolol (17-23%). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  7. Effect of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) on in vitro percutaneous penetration of water, hydrocortisone and nickel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankild, S; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Nielsen, Gunnar

    1995-01-01

    The dose- and time-related effect of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) on in vitro percutaneous penetration was studied using 3 radiolabeled tracer compounds with different physicochemical properties: tritiated water, hydrocortisone and nickel. Human cadaver abdominal skin from caucasian women was used...

  8. Highly Sensitive Optical Receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Kerstin

    2006-01-01

    Highly Sensitive Optical Receivers primarily treats the circuit design of optical receivers with external photodiodes. Continuous-mode and burst-mode receivers are compared. The monograph first summarizes the basics of III/V photodetectors, transistor and noise models, bit-error rate, sensitivity and analog circuit design, thus enabling readers to understand the circuits described in the main part of the book. In order to cover the topic comprehensively, detailed descriptions of receivers for optical data communication in general and, in particular, optical burst-mode receivers in deep-sub-µm CMOS are presented. Numerous detailed and elaborate illustrations facilitate better understanding.

  9. A treatment plant receiving waste water from multiple bulk drug manufacturers is a reservoir for highly multi-drug resistant integron-bearing bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachiket P Marathe

    Full Text Available The arenas and detailed mechanisms for transfer of antibiotic resistance genes between environmental bacteria and pathogens are largely unclear. Selection pressures from antibiotics in situations where environmental bacteria and human pathogens meet are expected to increase the risks for such gene transfer events. We hypothesize that waste-water treatment plants (WWTPs serving antibiotic manufacturing industries may provide such spawning grounds, given the high bacterial densities present there together with exceptionally strong and persistent selection pressures from the antibiotic-contaminated waste. Previous analyses of effluent from an Indian industrial WWTP that processes waste from bulk drug production revealed the presence of a range of drugs, including broad spectrum antibiotics at extremely high concentrations (mg/L range. In this study, we have characterized the antibiotic resistance profiles of 93 bacterial strains sampled at different stages of the treatment process from the WWTP against 39 antibiotics belonging to 12 different classes. A large majority (86% of the strains were resistant to 20 or more antibiotics. Although there were no classically-recognized human pathogens among the 93 isolated strains, opportunistic pathogens such as Ochrobactrum intermedium, Providencia rettgeri, vancomycin resistant Enterococci (VRE, Aerococcus sp. and Citrobacter freundii were found to be highly resistant. One of the O. intermedium strains (ER1 was resistant to 36 antibiotics, while P. rettgeri (OSR3 was resistant to 35 antibiotics. Class 1 and 2 integrons were detected in 74/93 (80% strains each, and 88/93 (95% strains harbored at least one type of integron. The qPCR analysis of community DNA also showed an unprecedented high prevalence of integrons, suggesting that the bacteria living under such high selective pressure have an appreciable potential for genetic exchange of resistance genes via mobile gene cassettes. The present study provides

  10. Isomerization and self-condensation reactions subsequent the. beta. -decay of tritiated naphthalene in the presence of liquid and gaseous benzene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelini, G.; Keheyan, Y.; Lilla, E.; Perez, G. (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Rome (Italy). Ist. di Chimica Nucleare)

    1990-01-01

    Tritiated napththylium ions, generated by spontaneous {beta}-decay of (1,4-{sup 3}H) naphthalene, have been allowed to react with benzene molecules in gaseous and liquid phase. The isomeric phenylnaphthalenes and fluoranthene have been found among the reaction products. The differences between the reactivity pattern of naphthylium ion in the two phases can be explained by the different efficiency of collisional stabilization of the excited reaction intermediates. (orig.).

  11. A whole-body autoradiographic study on the distribution of tritium in cynomolgus monkeys dosed with a tritiated extract of Ruscus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benard, P.; Rico, A.G.; Cousse, H.; Fauran, F.

    1985-01-01

    A metabolic study has been performed on macaca monkey treated with a tritiated Ruscus extract. There is a rather good absorption of radioactivity when the preparation is delivered orally. The percutaneous absorption is much lower. A large part of the delivered activity is excreted in feces and urine. Sapogenins are the main urinary metabolites. In the body, tritium is mainly localized in the liver, the kidney, the spleen (white pulp) and the bone marrow [fr

  12. Peptide synthesis by enzymatic catalysis: new application to the total radiosynthesis of the tritiated leucine-enkephalin hormone, using Y carboxypeptidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellio, F.

    1986-01-01

    A new method of enzymatic labelling of peptide hormones is described. The enzyme used, a protease, Y carboxypeptidase is able, in some conditions, to catalyze the formation of peptide bounds. This property has been used for the synthesis of a pentapeptide, the tritiated leucine-enkephalin, with the incorporation of every radioactive amino acid. The specific radioactivity of the labelled molecule is 139 Ci/mmole and its biological properties (receptor binding and immunoreactivity) are identical with native leucine-enkephalin properties [fr

  13. Method and device for processing aqueous effluents containing tritiated water, electrode used in that device and its fabrication process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellanger, G.; Giroux, P.

    1983-01-01

    In this process an electrolyte, such as sodium hydroxide, is added to the effluent and the solution is electrolysed to obtain gaseous tritium. The electrolytic cell includes a cathode made with a metal facilitating tritium diffusion, e.g. Pd-Ag alloy. The cathode constitutes a separation wall between the electrolysed solution and a compartment where tritium is recovered after diffusion through the cathode. Application is made for tritium recovery in effluents coming from spent fuel reprocessing [fr

  14. The effects of short term and chronic exposure to tritiated drinking water on pre- and postnatal brain development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marthens, E. van; Zamenhof, S.

    1982-01-01

    Ingestion of HTO during oocyte maturation and continued during pre-implantation time was found to depress decidual response. At birth these offspring also showed a decrease in brain cell number. When HTO was given during pregnancy only, the offspring at birth showed a similar deficit in brain cell number. Even so, we could not demonstrate a gross deficit in oocyte maturation when HTO was ingested during sexual maturity only; however, when further continued during pregnancy, the measured newborn parameters were most severely affected. In this group, cell-multiplication in the cerebrum was severely decreased, protein synthesis was decreased, and somatic growth was also highly significantly decreased. These experiments indicate that even a short-term exposure to HTO during early pregnancy (pre-implantation) alters normal development to such an extent that it is still observable at birth. During embryonic development, HTO affected the rate of actual cell division and it is apparent that the central nervous system is most vulnerable. If the exposure to HTO is prolonged, the somatic development is also severely affected. (orig./MG)

  15. Permanence of suppression of the primary immune response in rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri, sublethally exposed to tritiated water during embryognesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, J.A.; Fujihara, M.P.; Poston, T.M.; Abernethy, C.S.

    1982-01-01

    Previous experiments demonstrated that antibody synthesis in response to a challenge from the bacterium, Flexibacter columnaris, was significantly suppressed in juvenile (5 month) rainbow trout following exposure to tritium at doses as low as 4.0 rads when administered during the first 20 days of embryogenesis. In continuing studies, a secondary challenge to columnaris cells delivered to yearling (17 month) trout was used to test the hypothesis that early embryonic exposure to tritium irradiation (0, 0.04, 0.4, 4.0, and 40.0 rads) resulted in permanent injury to the primary immune process. Results indicated that under the prescribed experimental conditions, suppression of the primary immune response was permanent; that is, the degree of injury in yearling fish (17 months) equaled or exceeded that found in juvenile fish (5 months). At levels in the range of the maximum permissible concentration (MPC), tritium produced measurable, dose dependent, and irreversible suppression of immune capacity in affected fish. The threshold-free and exponential nature of the dose-response curve suggests extrapolation of effects to even lower exposures. (author)

  16. A method and apparatus for monitoring the level of tritiated water vapor in air using a solid scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campi, F.; Ossiri, A.; Terrani, S.; Edwards, R.A.H.; Pacenti, P.

    1998-01-01

    Tritium is presently used in large quantities in laboratories for technological studies, as fuel for the process of nuclear fusion, and in the manufacture of radio-luminescent items. It is also produced in fission nuclear plants, particularly in those which use D 2 O as moderator. The weak energy of beta particles produced by tritium implies that is only harmful if internalized. In nature tritium in air is mainly present under two different chemical forms: elementary and oxidized. The latter is extremely more dangerous than the former as far as radioprotection is concerned; for this reason the derived air concentration limit for the gaseous form is 25,000 times higher than the value for the oxidized one. The purpose of the work presented here is to realize an area monitor that is able to discriminate in real time between the two chemical forms. Using the properties of zeolite as an absorber and scintillator, it was possible to construct such a detector. In 1 h the instrument can reveal HTO concentrations 40 times below the derived air concentration. A concentration equal to the derived air concentration can be revealed within the first minute of counting and the performance may be further improved. Moreover, the prototype realized is able to work automatically and continuously for 5 h. The capability of discriminating the oxidized chemical form, the sensitivity, and the possibility of obtaining real time information make this instrument a good monitor in those cases where there is a real risk of tritium air contamination

  17. Suppression of the primary immune response in rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri, sublethally exposed to tritiated water during embryogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    Antibody synthesis in response to vaccination with a 0.1 cc (1.8 x 10 8 cells/cc) intraperitoneally injected heat-killed strain of Flexibacter columnaris was employed to investigate the effect of tritium irradiation (0, 0.04, 0.4, 4.0 and 40.0 rads total dose for 20 days during embryogenesis) on development of the primary immune response in 5-month rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri. Total serum protein measurements and electrophoretic separation of blood serum proteins followed by densitometric analyses were performed to assess the potential for qualitative and quantitative changes in blood serum components which conceivably accounted for suppressed immune responsiveness in tritium-irradiated fish. Data on the biological effects of tritium on early life stages in terms of hatchability, abnormality, latent mortality, and growth were also collected. A review of all experiments directed at determining the effects of early radiation exposure on the parameters of hatchability, incidence of abnormality, latent mortality and depressed growth, revealed considerable variation among similar treatments and indicated that significant effects at dose levels of 50 rads and below were not consistently demonstrated. While present experimental results demonstrated that the primary immune response in juvenile rainbow trout was significantly suppressed following embryonic exposure to tritium at essentially the 1.0 μCi/ml level, and perhaps at the 0.1 μCi/ml level, these concentrations are no less than 5 to 6 orders of magnitude above present levels for tritium in the aquatic environment

  18. Application of the neutron gamma method to a study of water seepage under a rice plantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puard, M.; Couchat, P.; Moutonnet, P.

    1980-01-01

    In order to determine the share of percolation in the pollution by pesticides (particularly Lindane) being carried down in the drainage water of rice plantations, an application of the neutron gamma method under rice cultivation in the Camargue is suggested. A preliminary laboratory study enabled a comparison to be made between deuteriated water (DHO) and tritiated water (THO) used as water tracers in the determination of the dispersive phenomena and retention in a column of saturated soil [fr

  19. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in south San Francisco Bay, California: 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyke, Jessica; Thompson, Janet K.; Cain, Daniel J.; Kleckner, Amy E.; Parcheso, Francis; Luoma, Samuel N.; Hornberger, Michelle I.

    2012-01-01

    Trace-metal concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure were investigated in a mudflat 1 kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant (PARWQCP) in South San Francisco Bay, Calif. This report includes the data collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists for the period January 2011 to December 2011. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto's Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. Following significant reductions in the late 1980s, silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) concentrations in sediment and M. petalum appear to have stabilized. Data for other metals, including chromium, mercury, nickel, selenium, and zinc, have been collected since 1994. Over this period, concentrations of these elements have remained relatively constant, aside from seasonal variation that is common to all elements. In 2011, concentrations of Ag and Cu in M. petalum varied seasonally in response to a combination of site-specific metal exposures and annual growth and reproduction, as reported previously. Seasonal patterns for other elements, including Cr, Hg, Ni, Se, and Zn, were generally similar in timing and magnitude as those for Ag and Cu. In 2011, metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue were among the lowest concentrations on record. This record suggests that regional-scale factors now largely control sedimentary and bioavailable concentrations of Ag and Cu, as well as other elements of regulatory interest, at the Palo Alto site. Analyses of the benthic community structure of a mudflat in South San Francisco Bay over a 38-year period show that changes in the community have occurred concurrent with reduced concentrations of metals in the sediment and in the tissues of the biosentinel clam, M. petalum, from the same area. Analysis of the M. petalum community

  20. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay, California: 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyke, Jessica; Cain, Daniel J.; Thompson, Janet K.; Kleckner, Amy E.; Parcheso, Francis; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Luoma, Samuel N.

    2014-01-01

    Trace-metal concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure were investigated in a mudflat 1 kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant (PARWQCP) in South San Francisco Bay, Calif. This report includes the data collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists for the period January 2013 to December 2013. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto’s Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. Following significant reductions in the late 1980s, silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) concentrations in sediment and M. petalum appear to have stabilized. Data for other metals, including chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn), have been collected since 1994. Over this period, concentrations of these elements have remained relatively constant, aside from seasonal variation that is common to all elements. In 2013, concentrations of Ag and Cu in M. petalum varied seasonally in response to a combination of site-specific metal exposures and annual growth and reproduction, as reported previously. Seasonal patterns for other elements, including Cr, Ni, Zn, Hg, and Se, were generally similar in timing and magnitude as those for Ag and Cu. In M. petalum, all observed elements showed annual maxima in January–February and minima in April, except for Zn, which was lowest in December. In sediments, annual maxima also occurred in January–February, and minima were measured in June and September. In 2013, metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue were among the lowest concentrations on record. This record suggests that regional-scale factors now largely control sedimentary and bioavailable concentrations of Ag and Cu, as well as other elements of regulatory interest, at the Palo Alto site. Analyses of the benthic community structure of a

  1. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in south San Francisco Bay, California, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyke, Jessica; Thompson, Janet K.; Cain, Daniel J.; Kleckner, Amy E.; Parcheso, Francis; Luoma, Samuel N.; Hornberger, Michelle I.

    2013-01-01

    Trace-metal concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure were investigated in a mudflat 1 kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant (PARWQCP) in South San Francisco Bay, Calif. This report includes the data collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists for the period January to December 2012. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto’s Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. Following significant reductions in the late 1980s, silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) concentrations in sediment and in M. petalum appear to have stabilized. Data for other metals, including chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn), have been collected since 1994. Over this period, concentrations of these elements have remained relatively constant, aside from seasonal variation that is common to all elements. In 2012, concentrations of Ag and Cu in M. petalum varied seasonally in response to a combination of site-specific metal exposures and annual growth and reproduction, as reported for previous time periods. Seasonal patterns for other elements, including Cr, Ni, Zn, Hg, and Se were generally similar in timing and magnitude as those for Ag and Cu. In 2012, metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue were among the lowest concentrations on record. This record suggests that regional-scale factors now largely control sedimentary and bioavailable concentrations of Ag and Cu, as well as other elements of regulatory interest, at the Palo Alto site. Analyses of the benthic community structure of a mudflat in South San Francisco Bay over a 39-year period show that changes in the community have occurred concurrent with reduced concentrations of metals in the sediment and in the tissues of the biosentinel clam, M. petalum, from the same area

  2. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in south San Francisco Bay, California; 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Daniel J.; Thompson, Janet K.; Parchaso, Francis; Pearson, Sarah; Stewart, Robin; Turner, Mathew; Barasch, David; Luoma, Samuel N.

    2017-10-30

    Trace-metal concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure were investigated in a mudflat 1 kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant (PARWQCP) in south San Francisco Bay, Calif. This report includes the data collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists for the period January 2014 to December 2016. These append to long-term datasets extending back to 1974. A major focus of the report is an integrated description of the 2016 data within the context of the longer, multi-decadal dataset. This dataset supports the City of Palo Alto’s Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994.Significant reductions in silver and copper concentrations in sediment and M. petalum occurred at the site in the 1980s following the implementation by PARWQCP of advanced wastewater treatment and source control measures. Since the 1990s, concentrations of these elements appear to have stabilized at concentrations somewhat above (silver) or near (copper) regional background concentrations Data for other metals, including chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn), have been collected since 1994. Over this period, concentrations of these elements have remained relatively constant, aside from seasonal variation that is common to all elements. In 2016, concentrations of silver and copper in M. petalum varied seasonally in response to a combination of site-specific metal exposures and annual growth and reproduction, as reported previously. Seasonal patterns for other elements, including Cr, Ni, Zn, Hg, and Se, were generally similar in timing and magnitude as those for Ag and Cu. This record suggests that legacy contamination and regional-scale factors now largely control sedimentary and bioavailable concentrations of silver and copper, as well as other elements of

  3. Delphi Accounts Receivable Module -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Delphi accounts receivable module contains the following data elements, but are not limited to customer information, cash receipts, line of accounting details, bill...

  4. Conceptual design and optimization for JET water detritiation system cryo-distillation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefebvre, X.; Hollingsworth, A.; Parracho, A.; Dalgliesh, P.; Butler, B.; Smith, R.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the Exhaust Detritiation System (EDS) of the JET Active Gas Handling System (AGHS) is to convert all Q-based species (Q 2 , Q-hydrocarbons) into Q 2 O (Q being indifferently H, D or T) which is then trapped on molecular sieve beds (MSB). Regenerating the saturated MSBs leads to the production of tritiated water which is stored in Briggs drums. An alternative disposal solution to offsite shipping, is to process the tritiated water onsite via the implementation of a Water Detritiation System (WDS) based, in part, on the combination of an electrolyser and a cryo-distillation (CD) facility. The CD system will separate a Q 2 mixture into a de-tritiated hydrogen stream for safe release and a tritiated stream for further processing on existing AGHS subsystems. A sensitivity study of the Souers' model using the simulation program ProSimPlus (edited by ProSim S.A.) has then been undertaken in order to perform an optimised dimensioning of the cryo-distillation system in terms of available cooling technologies, cost of investment, cost of operations, process performance and safety. (authors)

  5. Conceptual design and optimization for JET water detritiation system cryo-distillation facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefebvre, X.; Hollingsworth, A.; Parracho, A.; Dalgliesh, P.; Butler, B.; Smith, R. [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Center, Abingdon, Oxon (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-15

    The aim of the Exhaust Detritiation System (EDS) of the JET Active Gas Handling System (AGHS) is to convert all Q-based species (Q{sub 2}, Q-hydrocarbons) into Q{sub 2}O (Q being indifferently H, D or T) which is then trapped on molecular sieve beds (MSB). Regenerating the saturated MSBs leads to the production of tritiated water which is stored in Briggs drums. An alternative disposal solution to offsite shipping, is to process the tritiated water onsite via the implementation of a Water Detritiation System (WDS) based, in part, on the combination of an electrolyser and a cryo-distillation (CD) facility. The CD system will separate a Q{sub 2} mixture into a de-tritiated hydrogen stream for safe release and a tritiated stream for further processing on existing AGHS subsystems. A sensitivity study of the Souers' model using the simulation program ProSimPlus (edited by ProSim S.A.) has then been undertaken in order to perform an optimised dimensioning of the cryo-distillation system in terms of available cooling technologies, cost of investment, cost of operations, process performance and safety. (authors)

  6. Influences of gas stream conditions on efficiency of tritiated moisture collection with P2O5-desiccant and isotope effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotoh, Kenji; Miura, Katsuya; Kashio, Yousuke; Nishikawa, Masabumi

    1991-01-01

    A method was proposed previously for collection and measurement of tritiated moisture in gas stream using P 2 O 5 -desiccant. Influences of the gas humidity, the gas flow rate and the distance between gas nozzle and P 2 O 5 -desiccant layer surface on the moisture collection efficiency have been examined through experiments, and the isotope effect on the collection has been investigated. The collection efficiency is the ratio of collected to supplied moisture, and the moisture supplying rate is in proportion to the humidity and flow rate of feed gas. The experiments show that; the collection efficiency dose not depend on the gas humidity, but is affected by the gas flow rate and by the nozzle-layer distance. The effects of the flow rate and the nozzle position are related to the mass transfer distance from the bulk of gas stream to the desiccant layer surface in the collection cell. The moisture collecting rate is promoted by the approach of the gas stream to the layer surface. An expression of effective separation factor has been derived to explain the isotope effect on the moisture collection. Experimental data distribution of the separation factor have been reasonably simulated by the analysis. (author)

  7. Localization of tritiated vitamin A in lymph nodes of the mouse: an autoradiographic study of vitamin A-storing cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirosawa, K.; Yamada, E.

    1981-01-01

    Localization of tritiated vitamin A in lymph nodes of the mouse was investigated by the use of light- and electron-microscopic autoradiography. Young male mice were fed a diet containing 3H-vitamin A acetate for a week. Lymph nodes were removed and prepared for autoradiography. Lipid droplets in fibroblast-like cells showed high concentrations of radioactivity. These cells were distributed around lymphatic sinuses and blood vessels. The cells can, therefore, be classified as ''vitamin A-storing cells'' according to criteria proposed earlier by Yamada and Hirosawa (1976). Control animals from the same litter were maintained on ordinary laboratory food for the same period and examined by electron microscopy. Lipid-droplet-containing cells were found in the same areas as in the experimental animals but in fewer numbers. This suggests that the increased number of vitamin A-containing lipid droplets is due to hypervitaminosis A in the experimental animals. The presence of some cells containing these droplets in the control animals would imply that even under normal feeding conditions the animals ingested excess amounts of vitamin A, which was retained in lipid droplets. The stored vitamin A probably participates in metabolic processes such as the formation of glycoproteins in ground substance

  8. Tritiated 2-deoxy-D-glucose: a high-resolution marker for autoradiographic localization of brain metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, R.P. Jr.; Herkenham, M.

    1984-01-01

    The technique for autoradiographic localization of 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) uptake has become a useful method for observing alterations of functional brain activity resulting from experimental manipulation. Autoradiographic resolution is improved using tritiated ([3H]) rather than carbon-14 ([14C)]2DG, due to the lower energy and shorter path of tritium emissions. In addition, lower 2DG uptake by white matter relative to gray matter is exaggerated in the [3H]2DG autoradiographs due to the greater absorption of tritium emissions by lipids. Using [3H]2DG, it is possible to observe differential metabolic labeling in various individual nuclei or portions of nuclei that is unresolvable using [14C]2DG in the awake, normal animal. Heterogeneous patterns of 2DG uptake seen only with [3H]2DG are found in the nucleus accumbens, the anterior portion of the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala, specific nuclei of the inferior olivary complex, various hypothalamic regions, and a region straddling the border of the medial and lateral habenular nuclei. The lamination of differential 2DG uptake in the hippocampus is better localized using [3H]2DG. Autoradiographic resolution of labeled 2DG is further improved when the brain is perfused prior to frozen sectioning, due perhaps to selective fixation and retention of intracellular labeled 2-deoxy-glycogen. A series of [3H]2DG autoradiographs are presented together with views of the Nissl-stained sections that produced the autoradiographs

  9. Kinetics of the formation of a G2 block from tritiated thymidine in phytohemagglutinin-stimulated human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollack, A.; Bagwell, C.B.; Irvin, G.L.; Jensen, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    Flow cytometry (FCM) was used to monitor the radiation effects promoted by incorporated tritiated thymidine ( 3 H-TdR) on phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated human peripheral blood lymphocytes stained with propidium iodide (PI). Lymphocyte microcultures were continuously labeled or pulse-labeled for various periods of time with different 3 H-TdR concentrations. Two types of DNA histogram analyses were performed on unperturbed and 3 H]TdR perturbed lymphocytes. The data analyses consisted of statistical analyses between averaged groups of histograms (nonparametric analysis) and cell cycle analyses (parametric analysis) to determine the percentages of cells in G0 + G1, S and G2 + M. The results showed that (a) 3 H-TdR when added to proliferating lymphocytes under certain conditions (both short-term continuous and pulse-labeling) caused a highly significant increase in the proportion of tetraploid (4C) cells by FCM, (b) the increase in the proportion of 4C cells represented a block in G2 and (c) the relative increase in the percentage of 4C cells was proportional to 3 H-TdR incorporation which was proportional to labeling time and concentration. Therefore, it was concluded that short labeling times be used to minimize adverse radiation effects when 3 H-TdR is used to assay substances affecting lymphocyte proliferation or in the estimation of cell cycle time

  10. Variation in incorporation of tritiated amino acids into rhodopsin and opsin during the 12 hour light-dark cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, B.

    1981-01-01

    This is a study of the variation in incorporation of labeled amino acids into opsin and rhodopsin during the 12 hour light-dark cycle. Groups of 12 adult, light-entrained R. pipiens were injected with tritiated amino acids at selected times of the day and night. Twenty four hours later, the frogs were sacrificed and their rhodopsin purified by column chromatography. It was found that the peak incorporation of amino acids into rhodopsin occurred shortly after light onset and declined to lower levels at later hours. Light microscopic autoradiography revealed the presence of radioactive disc membranes in the rod outer segments. However there was no correlation between outer segment grain density and rhodopsin specific activity. Succeeding experiments showed that light onset, rather than the time of day, played an important role in stimulating isotope incorporation. Electro-immunoprecipitation experiments revealed a changing specific activity for inner segment opsin during the light-dark cycle. Peak levels of amino acid incorporation occurred shortly after light onset and then declined to lower levels. For all time points, opsin was found to be radioactive, indicating opsin biosynthesis occurred continually throughout the diurnal cycle

  11. Reformulating sunscreen cosmetics with better water resistance and efficacy to inhibit trans-epidermal water loss in response to global warming and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sucgang, Raymond J.; Manalili, Jenalyn; Mañago, Sarah; Janio, Jonick; Ching, Maricar; Moya, Esperanza; Cruz, Luzviminda

    2015-01-01

    Three inhouse developed skin care formulations and four commercial formulations were tried out on dermatomed porcine skins for wettability and emoliency. Surface applied skin care formulations are alleged to reduce transepidermal water loss (TEWL). Sunscreens/sunblocks absorb or reflect the sun’s ultraviolet (UV) radiation on skin exposed to sunlight and thus helps protect against sunburn. Measurements of water resistance of topical application are normally done using contact angle measurements and swimming pool immersion approaches. TEWL is measured using vapometers. None of the conventional methods directly measure TEWL and water wash out rates. In this study, the effectiveness of skin moisturizers to inhibit TEWL was tested using tritiated water as radioactive tracer on degreased porcine skins. Topical emollients were applied on the epidermises of the skins and the skins were mounted epidermis facing down. Tritiated water was dropped on the top side of the skins and tritium activity concentrations of the moisture that passed through were measured. A modified immersion method was also developed as a screening tool to identify water resistant formulations. Sunscreens labelled with tritiated water were applied on the skin surfaces. The skins were immersed in water (distilled and sea water were compared) and aliquots of the water were counted for tritium every hour for 3 hours. Hydrophobicities of the formulations were predicted by the amounts of tritium that leached out from the skins. (author)

  12. Metabolism distribution and transfer of tritium in pregnant mice after exposure to tritium water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Huimin; Zhou Xiangyan; Li Li; Zhang Zhixing

    1993-01-01

    Tritium water with three kind of different dose was singly injected intraperitoneally to pregnant mice in various time. The tritium concentration in the tissues from mother mice were measured on the 3.5 days after mother mice parturition. Dose rates in baby mice were estimated, as well as the transfer coefficient of tritium from mother mice to baby mice was calculated based on the tritium concentrations. The results of the experiment showed that tritium was almost uniformly distributed among the tissues after exposure to tritiated water at three experimental groups. However, it was found that relative concentrations of tritium in the baby mice tissues were consistently higher than that in mother mice tissues for three experimental groups. The relative concentration of tritium in the tissues was not affected by the different dose but developing on the exposure time. The results of radiation dose rates from baby mice estimation at the end of exposure showed that the higher radiation dose rates was found in the mice exposed to tritiated water during 7.5 days. The transfer coefficient of tritium from mother mice into baby mice was almost no different among the three radiation dose groups. The highest transfer coefficient was observed in mother mice exposed to tritiated baby mice was almost no different among the three radiation dose groups. The highest coefficient was observed in mother mice exposed to tritiated water during 16.5 days, however it was not found that transfer coefficient were higher in the mother mice exposed to tritiated water during 11.5 days than that of 7.5 days

  13. Handling, assessment, transport and disposal of tritiated waste materials at JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newbert, G.; Haigh, A.; Atkins, G.

    1995-01-01

    All types of JET radioactive wastes are received for disposal at the Waste Handling Facility (WHF) which features a waste sorting and sampling station, a glove box, a compactor, and packaging and transfer systems. The WHF is operated as a contamination control area with monitored tritium discharges. Two main types of tritium monitors used are liquid scintillation counters and ionization chambers, and samples of various components and materials have now been assessed for tritium. The results so far indicate a widespread of tritium levels from 2Bq/g for cold gas transfer lines to 200kBq/g for in-vessel tiles. General soft housekeeping waste is assessed by a sniffing technique which has a limit of detection corresponding to 120Bq/g. Investigation of improved methods of tritium measurement and of component detritiation was made to facilitate future waste disposal. 8 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Process engineering applied to receiving waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harremoës, Poul

    1973-01-01

    Processes in the media, which recieve waste, must be included in the sphere of interest within industry's environmental consciousness. Pollution problems are not very simple and should thus not be dealt with in too simple a fashion. Chemical engineers are very well suited to deal...

  15. Solar energy receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jacob

    1978-01-01

    An improved long-life design for solar energy receivers provides for greatly reduced thermally induced stress and permits the utilization of less expensive heat exchanger materials while maintaining receiver efficiencies in excess of 85% without undue expenditure of energy to circulate the working fluid. In one embodiment, the flow index for the receiver is first set as close as practical to a value such that the Graetz number yields the optimal heat transfer coefficient per unit of pumping energy, in this case, 6. The convective index for the receiver is then set as closely as practical to two times the flow index so as to obtain optimal efficiency per unit mass of material.

  16. Cryogenic microwave channelized receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauscher, C.; Pond, J.M.; Tait, G.B.

    1996-01-01

    The channelized receiver being presented demonstrates the use of high temperature superconductor technology in a microwave system setting where superconductor, microwave-monolithic-integrated-circuit, and hybrid-integrated-circuit components are united in one package and cooled to liquid-nitrogen temperatures. The receiver consists of a superconducting X-band four-channel demultiplexer with 100-MHz-wide channels, four commercial monolithically integrated mixers, and four custom-designed hybrid-circuit detectors containing heterostructure ramp diodes. The composite receiver unit has been integrated into the payload of the second-phase NRL high temperature superconductor space experiment (HTSSE-II). Prior to payload assembly, the response characteristics of the receiver were measured as functions of frequency, temperature, and drive levels. The article describes the circuitry, discusses the key issues related to design and implementation, and summarizes the experimental results

  17. Alexandrite Lidar Receiver

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilkerson, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    ...". The chosen vendor, Orca Photonics, In. (Redmond, WA), in close collaboration with USU personnel, built a portable, computerized lidar system that not only is suitable as a receiver for a near IR alexandrite laser, but also contains an independent Nd...

  18. Receiver Gain Modulation Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Hollis; Racette, Paul; Walker, David; Gu, Dazhen

    2011-01-01

    A receiver gain modulation circuit (RGMC) was developed that modulates the power gain of the output of a radiometer receiver with a test signal. As the radiometer receiver switches between calibration noise references, the test signal is mixed with the calibrated noise and thus produces an ensemble set of measurements from which ensemble statistical analysis can be used to extract statistical information about the test signal. The RGMC is an enabling technology of the ensemble detector. As a key component for achieving ensemble detection and analysis, the RGMC has broad aeronautical and space applications. The RGMC can be used to test and develop new calibration algorithms, for example, to detect gain anomalies, and/or correct for slow drifts that affect climate-quality measurements over an accelerated time scale. A generalized approach to analyzing radiometer system designs yields a mathematical treatment of noise reference measurements in calibration algorithms. By treating the measurements from the different noise references as ensemble samples of the receiver state, i.e. receiver gain, a quantitative description of the non-stationary properties of the underlying receiver fluctuations can be derived. Excellent agreement has been obtained between model calculations and radiometric measurements. The mathematical formulation is equivalent to modulating the gain of a stable receiver with an externally generated signal and is the basis for ensemble detection and analysis (EDA). The concept of generating ensemble data sets using an ensemble detector is similar to the ensemble data sets generated as part of ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) with exception of a key distinguishing factor. EEMD adds noise to the signal under study whereas EDA mixes the signal with calibrated noise. It is mixing with calibrated noise that permits the measurement of temporal-functional variability of uncertainty in the underlying process. The RGMC permits the evaluation of EDA by

  19. The metabolism of tritium and water in the lactating dairy cow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van den Hoek, J; ten Have, M H.J.

    1983-02-01

    Two lactating Friesian cows received tritiated water (19 nCi of tritium per ml) to drink for 25 days. Urine and milk samples were collected and analyzed for tritium content. Plateau levels in milk water, and in milk fat, lactose and casein were reached in about 18 days. Tritium concentration in milk water and urine water was about 82% that in drinking water, indicating dilution with water from food and metabolic processes, and as a result of exchange through lungs and skin. At steady state, tritium activity in milk fat, lactose and casein was about 30, 28 and 15% of that in drinking water on a weight basis; at this time, about 1.5% of the daily ingested tritium appeared in one litre of milk in both animals. Comparison of the specific activity of the various milk constituents with the specific activity of the body water showed that the highest tritium incorporation occurred in lactose (0.58), followed by milk fat (0.36) and casein (0.27). Tritium incorporation in milk dry matter (0.45) is considerably higher than in most tissue components of several mammalian species after continuous ingestion of THO as reported in the literature. Tritium levels fell rapidly in milk and urine after the administration of THO was stopped, with half-times of around 4 days for the rapid components in all milk constituents. A slow component of 44 days, 225 days and 24 days half-time was found in milk water, milk fat and casein respectively.

  20. Evidence for the preservation of technogenic tritiated organic compounds in an estuarine sedimentary environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croudace, Ian W; Warwick, Phillip E; Morris, Jenny E

    2012-06-05

    The macrotidal Severn Estuary (southwestern UK) has received a broad range of industrial discharges since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. A more recent anthropogenic input to the estuary has been technogenic tritium (specifically organically bound tritium, OBT). This was derived from a specialized industrial laboratory producing custom radiolabeled compounds for life science research and diagnostic testing from 1980 until 2008. While it was generally acknowledged that the radiological impact of the tritium discharges into the Estuary was small, public concern motivated the company and regulatory agencies to commission several research studies from 1998 to 2005 to better understand their environmental impact. This study examined OBT interaction with estuarine sediment by acquiring a broad range of geochemical and sedimentological data from a suite of sediment cores collected from the northern side of the Estuary. Two important observations are that the OBT compounds are strongly bound to the clay/silt fraction of sediment and that the down-core OBT profiles in intertidal and subtidal sediments are broadly similar to the discharge record. Geochemical and chronometric methods (Cu, Pb and Zn elemental profiles, (210)Pb, (137)Cs) provide important corroboration of the OBT record. A key additional piece of evidence that firmly authenticated the established chronology was the discovery of a previously unreported sedimentary marker layer that was generated by a major storm surge that occurred on December 13, 1981. Although this study has provided clear evidence of systematic accumulation of OBT in sedimentary sinks of the region, an estimation of its depositional inventory shows it represents only a small fraction of the total discharge. This modest retention in the principal sedimentary sinks of the Severn Estuary system reflects the particular dynamics of this highly macrotidal sediment starved estuary.

  1. Liver and water metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fallot, P.

    1959-01-01

    The causes for the disturbance of hydro-electrolytic equilibrium observed in cirrhosis patients are far from clear. Studies on the static distribution of liquid in the organism and also on anomalies in the distribution of deuterium oxide and tritiated water provide no direct explanation of the nature of the water retaining mechanism. At the period when the illness is established, endocrine factors and electrolytic perturbations contribute to maintaining or increasing oliguresis, but they cannot be held solely responsible in the initial stages of evolution. An explanation of the ascites should therefore be looked for in a non-functioning of the polygonal or Kupffer cells. The hypothesis of an insufficient rejection of water outside the lymph spaces of the liver during cirrhosis is put forward, but the experimental demonstration of such a phenomenon proves very difficult. (author) [fr

  2. Tritiated thymidine incorporation and the growth of heterotrophic bacteria in warm core rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducklow, H.W.; Hill, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    The time-course of the incorporation rate of [methyl- 3 H]thymidine ([ 3 H]TdR) was established during 6-12 h incubations of natural bacterial populations sampled from the surface layers of warm core Gulf Stream rings. Parallel estimates of changes in cell numbers were made in order to examine the relationships between TdR incorporation and population growth for oceanic bacterial populations. Their results indicate that a conversion factor of 4 x 10 18 cells produced per mole of [ 3 H]TdR incorporated yielded estimates of bacterial production which were within a factor of 2 or 3 of production estimates derived from changes in cell numbers in seawater cultures. The authors observed a significant, direct relationship between the initial rates of TdR incorporation per cell and specific growth rates and conclude that initial short term (15-45 min) assays of TdR incorporation are a valuable tool for studying bacterial production in oceanic waters. In most incubations, the rate of TdR incorporation increased more rapidly than did cell numbers. Very large conversion factor values were derived from these data. The discrepancy between growth determined from TdR incorporation rates and total bacterial numbers in seawater cultures has not been observed in previous studies of coastal, estuarine, or lacustrine bacteria, but was a consistent feature of our studies on oceanic populations

  3. Difluoromethylornithine enhanced uptake of tritiated putrescine in 9L rat brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redgate, E.S.; Grudziak, A.G.; Deutsch, M.; Boggs, S.S.

    1997-01-01

    Difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) depletes endogenous putrescine and enhances the uptake of and retention of [ 3 H] putrescine in vitro. To determine if DFMO also enhances uptake of [ 3 H] putrescine in vivo, DFMO and trace doses of [ 3 H] putrescine, dissolved in artificial CSF, were infused into growing (6-9 day) 9L brain tumors by means of osmotic pumps. When 7-day osmotic pumps were loaded with 1 μCi [ 3 H] putrescine, with or without 10 or 100 mM DFMO, pumped at 1 μl/h, the mean uptake after 3 days was 168 ± 62 cpm/mg tumor (17 rats) without DFMO, 300 ± 197 cpm/mg tumor (11 rats) with 10 mM DFMO and 1088 ± 421 cpm/mg tumor (11 rats) with 100 mM DFMO (p ≤ 0.05 vs. control). Significantly less radioactivity was detected in the contralateral brain and in nonbrain tissues (0.5 ± 0.1 to 14 ± 5 cpm/mg). To measure the extent of [ 3 H] putrescine distribution in the tumor, the same dose of drugs was delivered for a longer period of time, using 14-day pumps to allow tumors to become large enough to be divided into 1.4 mm thick transections. The mean radioactivity in the sections from eight control rats receiving [ 3 H] putrescine without DFMO were not significantly different between the sections (174 ± 61 cpm/mg tumor for sections containing the cannulas, 273 ± 61 and 259 ± 91 cpm/mg for adjacent sections). In the six rats given 100 mM DFMO there was a significant increase in mean radioactivity in the cannula containing section (2251 ± 919 cpm/mg tumor). Mean counts from adjacent sections in these rats were 97 ± 44 and 33 ± 13 cpm/mg. Values for contralateral corpus striatum and nonbrain tissues ranged from 0.7 ± 0.3 to 4.3 ± 1.5 cpm/mg tissue. When DFMO was delivered directly to the tumors while [ 3 H] putrescine was infused intraperitoneally, the uptake in the tumor slices was low (5-10 cpm/mg in different slices). These results demonstrate that infusion of DFMO directly into growing 9L brain tumors can selectively enhance the uptake of exogenous [ 3 H

  4. Solar thermal central receivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vant-Hull, L.L.

    1993-01-01

    Market issues, environmental impact, and technology issues related to the Solar Central Receiver concept are addressed. The rationale for selection of the preferred configuration and working fluid are presented as the result of a joint utility-industry analysis. A $30 million conversion of Solar One to an external molten salt receiver would provide the intermediate step to a commercial demonstration plant. The first plant in this series could produce electricity at 11.2 cents/kWhr and the seventh at 8.2 cents/kWhr, completely competitive with projected costs of new utility plants in 1992

  5. Wideband CMOS receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, Luis

    2015-01-01

    This book demonstrates how to design a wideband receiver operating in current mode, in which the noise and non-linearity are reduced, implemented in a low cost single chip, using standard CMOS technology.  The authors present a solution to remove the transimpedance amplifier (TIA) block and connect directly the mixer’s output to a passive second-order continuous-time Σ∆ analog to digital converter (ADC), which operates in current-mode. These techniques enable the reduction of area, power consumption, and cost in modern CMOS receivers.

  6. Receiver gain function: the actual NMR receiver gain

    OpenAIRE

    Mo, Huaping; Harwood, John S.; Raftery, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The observed NMR signal size depends on the receiver gain parameter. We propose a receiver gain function to characterize how much the raw FID is amplified by the receiver as a function of the receiver gain setting. Although the receiver is linear for a fixed gain setting, the actual gain of the receiver may differ from what the gain setting suggests. Nevertheless, for a given receiver, we demonstrate that the receiver gain function can be calibrated. Such a calibration enables accurate compar...

  7. Campus Projects Receiving "Earmarks."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonberger, Benjamin

    1991-01-01

    Specific campus projects that Congress has directed federal agencies to support this year at over 120 colleges and universities are listed. The agencies neither requested support nor sponsored merit-based competitions for the awards. In some cases, the institutions have a history of receiving special federal treatment. (MSE)

  8. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drink and water in food (like fruits and vegetables). 6. Of all the earth’s water, how much is ocean or seas? 97 percent of the earth’s water is ocean or seas. 7. How much of the world’s water is frozen? Of all the water on earth, about 2 percent is frozen. 8. How much ...

  9. Aspectos sanitários do cultivo da alface americana, irrigada com águas recptoras de efluentes urbanos Sanitary aspects of lectucce (Lactuca sativa L. culture irrigated with receiving waters of urban effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Augusto Biscaro

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a influência da disposição de mangueiras gotejadoras nos canteiros e a injeção ou não de cloro na água de irrigação, nas condições sanitárias do solo e da alface americana irrigada (Lactuca sativa L. com águas receptoras de efluentes urbanos. Foram realizadas análises microbiológicas de amostras de água do solo e da alface, no decorrer de todo o ciclo de cultivo. Objetivou-se determinar a possível existência de Salmonella spp. e de formas evolutivas de parasitos humanos e a quantidade de coliformes fecais, em pontos e épocas diferentes do experimento, impedindo assim o consumo da alface. Os resultados não indicaram a presença dos dois primeiros em nenhuma das amostras, mas sim de parasitos não humanos (nematóides de vida livre no solo. Em relação à quantidade de coliformes fecais (NMP ml-1, o valor encontrado na cultura atende às exigências da Secretaria de Vigilância Sanitária do Ministério da Saúde brasileiro, porém a presença dos nematóides em quantidades superiores ao permitido pela Organização Mundial de Saúde (OMS inviabiliza o seu consumo.One evaluated the influence of drip tape arrangement and the use of chloride in the irrigation water, on soil sanitary conditions and growing lettuce (Lactuca sativa L., irrigated with receiving urban waters. Water, soil and lettuce microbiological analyses were performed during crop cycle. The objective was to determine the presence of Salmonella spp., evolutive forms of human parasites and the amount of fecal coliforms in different locations and time, avoiding the lettuce consumption. Although results did not indicate the presence of Salmonella spp. and evolutive forms of human parasites in none of the samples but non human parasites (nematodes of free life in soil. Total fecal coliforms count (NMP ml-1 met is according to the Brazilian Ministry of Health, Secretary of Health Surveillance requirements. Yet, the lettuce was not good for human consumption

  10. Digital Receiver Phase Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcin, Martin; Abramovici, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The software of a commercially available digital radio receiver has been modified to make the receiver function as a two-channel low-noise phase meter. This phase meter is a prototype in the continuing development of a phase meter for a system in which radiofrequency (RF) signals in the two channels would be outputs of a spaceborne heterodyne laser interferometer for detecting gravitational waves. The frequencies of the signals could include a common Doppler-shift component of as much as 15 MHz. The phase meter is required to measure the relative phases of the signals in the two channels at a sampling rate of 10 Hz at a root power spectral density measurements in laser metrology of moving bodies. To illustrate part of the principle of operation of the phase meter, the figure includes a simplified block diagram of a basic singlechannel digital receiver. The input RF signal is first fed to the input terminal of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). To prevent aliasing errors in the ADC, the sampling rate must be at least twice the input signal frequency. The sampling rate of the ADC is governed by a sampling clock, which also drives a digital local oscillator (DLO), which is a direct digital frequency synthesizer. The DLO produces samples of sine and cosine signals at a programmed tuning frequency. The sine and cosine samples are mixed with (that is, multiplied by) the samples from the ADC, then low-pass filtered to obtain in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) signal components. A digital signal processor (DSP) computes the ratio between the Q and I components, computes the phase of the RF signal (relative to that of the DLO signal) as the arctangent of this ratio, and then averages successive such phase values over a time interval specified by the user.

  11. Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chovanec, A.; Grath, J.; Kralik, M.; Vogel, W.

    2002-01-01

    An up-date overview of the situation of the Austrian waters is given by analyzing the status of the water quality (groundwater, surface waters) and water protection measures. Maps containing information of nitrate and atrazine in groundwaters (analyses at monitoring stations), nitrate contents and biological water quality of running waters are included. Finally, pollutants (nitrate, orthophosphate, ammonium, nitrite, atrazine etc.) trends in annual mean values and median values for the whole country for the years 1992-1999 are presented in tables. Figs. 5. (nevyjel)

  12. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be found in some metal water taps, interior water pipes, or pipes connecting a house to ... reduce or eliminate lead. See resources below. 5. Children and pregnant women are especially vulnerable to the ...

  13. Advanced electrolytic cascade process for tritium recovery from irradiated heavy water moderator (Preprint No. PD-15)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragunathan, P.; Mitra, S.K.; Jain, D.K.; Nayar, M.G.; Ramani, M.P.S.

    1989-04-01

    The paper briefly describes a design study of an electrolytic cascade process plant for enrichment and recovery of tritium from irradiated heavy water moderators from Rajasthan Atomic Power Station Reactors. In direct multistage electrolysis process, tritiated heavy water from the reactor units is fed to the electrolytic cell modules arranged in the form of a cascade where it is enriched and decomposed into O 2 gas stream and D 2 /DT gas stream. The direct electrolysis of tritiated heavy water allows tritium to be concentrated in the aqueous phase. Several stages are used to achieve the necessary enrichment. The cascade plant incorporates the advanced electrolyser technology developed in Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (Bombay) using porous nickel electrodes, capable o f high current density operation at reduced energy consumption for electrolysis. (author). 3 tabs

  14. Pressure difference receiving ears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Axel; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2007-01-01

    Directional sound receivers are useful for locating sound sources, and they can also partly compensate for the signal degradations caused by noise and reverberations. Ears may become inherently directional if sound can reach both surfaces of the eardrum. Attempts to understand the physics...... of the eardrum. The mere existence of sound transmission to the inner surface does not ensure a useful directional hearing, since a proper amplitude and phase relationship must exist between the sounds acting on the two surfaces of the eardrum. The gain of the sound pathway must match the amplitude and phase...... of the sounds at the outer surfaces of the eardrums, which are determined by diffraction and by the arrival time of the sound, that is by the size and shape of the animal and by the frequency of sound. Many users of hearing aids do not obtain a satisfactory improvement of their ability to localize sound sources...

  15. Solar thermal energy receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Karl W. (Inventor); Dustin, Miles O. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A plurality of heat pipes in a shell receive concentrated solar energy and transfer the energy to a heat activated system. To provide for even distribution of the energy despite uneven impingement of solar energy on the heat pipes, absence of solar energy at times, or failure of one or more of the heat pipes, energy storage means are disposed on the heat pipes which extend through a heat pipe thermal coupling means into the heat activated device. To enhance energy transfer to the heat activated device, the heat pipe coupling cavity means may be provided with extensions into the device. For use with a Stirling engine having passages for working gas, heat transfer members may be positioned to contact the gas and the heat pipes. The shell may be divided into sections by transverse walls. To prevent cavity working fluid from collecting in the extensions, a porous body is positioned in the cavity.

  16. Enhanced configuration of a water detritiation system; impact on ITER Isotope Separation System based cryogenic distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristescu, Ion, E-mail: ion.cristescu@kit.edu

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • An enhanced configuration of ITER WDS has been developed. • The proposed configuration allows minimization of hazards due to the reduction of tritium inventory. • The load on the tritium recovery system (ITER ISS) is minimized with benefits on mitigation of the explosion hazards. - Abstract: Tritiated water is generated in the ITER systems by various sources and may contain deuterium and tritium at various concentrations. The reference process for the ITER Water Detritiation System is based on Combined Electrolysis Catalytic Exchange (CECE) configuration. During long time operation of the CECE process, the accumulation of deuterium in the electrolysis unit and consequently along the Liquid Phase Catalytic Exchange (LPCE) column is unavoidable with consequences on the overall detritiation factor of the system. Beside the deuterium issue in the process, the large amount of the tritiated water with tritium activity up to 500 Ci/kg in the electrolysis cells is a concern from the safety aspect of the plant. The enhanced configuration of a system for processing tritiated water allows mitigation of the effects due to deuterium accumulation and also reduction of tritium inventory within the electrolysis system. In addition the benefits concerning to the interface between the water detritiation system and tritium recovery based cryogenic distillation are also presented.

  17. Mass transfer in water-saturated concretes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, A.; Claisse, P.A.; Harris, A.W.; Nickerson, A.K.

    1990-01-01

    Cements and concretes are often considered as components of barriers for the containment of radioactive waste. The performance of such materials as mainly physical barriers to the transport of dissolved radionuclides depends on the mass transfer characteristics of the material. In particular the diffusion and sorption behavior of the radionuclides and the water permeability are important. These parameters also influence how the chemistry of the concrete is imposed on the repository. In addition, the transport of gas through concrete controls the way in which gases escape from the repository. Diffusion and gas transport have been measured in a variety of cementitious materials, covering both structural concretes and cementitious backfills; all possible repository construction materials. Measurements have been made using aqueous iodide, strontium and caesium ions and tritiated water as diffusants. The results show that the diffusion of tritiated water is more rapid than that of other species, whilst the transport of strontium and caesium is hindered by sorption; particularly in materials containing blast furnace slag. The transport of gas in these materials has been found to be very sensitive to the degree of water saturation and is extremely low in fully saturated structural concretes. Cementitious backfills have, nevertheless, been identified that have appreciable gas transport even when almost water saturated. The consequences of the results for the performance of cementitious barriers are discussed

  18. CERN apprentice receives award

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Another CERN apprentice has received an award for the quality of his work. Stéphane Küng (centre), at the UIG ceremony last November, presided over by Geneva State Councillor Pierre-François Unger, Head of the Department of Economics and Health. Electronics technician Stéphane Küng was honoured in November by the Social Foundation of the Union Industrielle Genevoise (UIG) as one of Geneva’s eight best apprentices in the field of mechatronics. The 20-year-old Genevan obtained his Federal apprentice’s certificate (Certificat fédéral de capacité - CFC) in June 2007, achieving excellent marks in his written tests at the Centre d’Enseignement Professionnel Technique et Artisanal (CEPTA). Like more than 200 youngsters before him, Stéphane Küng spent part of his four-year sandwich course working at CERN, where he followed many practical training courses and gained valuable hands-on experience in various technical groups and labs. "It’ always very gr...

  19. Studies on water turnover and water requirement in buffalo calves fed on different levels of energy and protein in the diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, D.N.; Kumar, N.; Dass, R.S.; Singh, U.B.

    1980-01-01

    Experiments were conducted for measuring water turnover and water requirement in buffalo calves fed on different levels of energy and protein in the diet. There was significant difference (P<0.01) in the biological half life of