WorldWideScience

Sample records for receiving tap water

  1. Nickel in tap water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Nielsen, G D; Flyvholm, Morten

    1983-01-01

    Nickel analyses of tap water from several sources in Copenhagen gave up to 490 X 10(-6) g X 1(-1) in the first 250 ml portions. Hot water gave higher values than cold water. After flushing for 5 min, low values were found. Considerable variation from time to time and from tap to tap was found...

  2. Nickel in tap water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, K E; Nielsen, G D; Flyvholm, M A; Fregert, S; Gruvberge, B

    1983-03-01

    Nickel analyses of tap water from several sources in Copenhagen gave up to 490 X 10(-6) g X 1(-1) in the first 250 ml portions. Hot water gave higher values than cold water. After flushing for 5 min, low values were found. Considerable variation from time to time and from tap to tap was found. Drinking of only the first portion in the morning might have an influence on nickel hand eczema.

  3. Radioactive substances in tap water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsuumi, Ryo; Endo, Yoshihiko; Suzuki, Akihiko; Kannotou, Yasumitu; Nakada, Masahiro; Yabuuchi, Reiko

    2014-01-01

    A 9.0 magnitude (M) earthquake with an epicenter off the Sanriku coast occurred at 14: 46 on March 11, 2011. TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F-1 NPP) was struck by the earthquake and its resulting tsunami. Consequently a critical nuclear disaster developed, as a large quantity of radioactive materials was released due to a hydrogen blast. On March 16(th), 2011, radioiodine and radioactive cesium were detected at levels of 177 Bq/kg and 58 Bq/kg, respectively, in tap water in Fukushima city (about 62km northwest of TEPCO F-1 NPP). On March 20th, radioiodine was detected in tap water at a level of 965 Bq/kg, which is over the value-index of restrictions on food and drink intake (radioiodine 300 Bq/kg (infant intake 100 Bq/kg)) designated by the Nuclear Safety Commission. Therefore, intake restriction measures were taken regarding drinking water. After that, although the all intake restrictions were lifted, in order to confirm the safety of tap water, an inspection system was established to monitor all tap water in the prefecture. This system has confirmed that there has been no detection of radioiodine or radioactive cesium in tap water in the prefecture since May 5(th), 2011. Furthermore, radioactive strontium ((89) Sr, (90)Sr) and plutonium ((238)Pu, (239)Pu+(240)Pu) in tap water and the raw water supply were measured. As a result, (89) Sr, (238)Pu, (239)Pu+(240)Pu were undetectable and although (90)Sr was detected, its committed effective dose of 0.00017 mSv was much lower than the yearly 0.1 mSv of the World Health Organization guidelines for drinking water quality. In addition, the results did not show any deviations from past inspection results.

  4. Contamination Control and Monitoring of Tap Water as Fluid in Industrial Tap Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Adelstorp, Anders

    1998-01-01

    Presentation of results and methods addressed to contamination control and monitoring of tap water as fluid in tap water hydraulic systems.......Presentation of results and methods addressed to contamination control and monitoring of tap water as fluid in tap water hydraulic systems....

  5. Sinusitis from Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Tap Water

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Wellington S. Tichenor. Associate Clinical Professor of Medicine at New York Medical College and in private practice in Manhattan, New York, discusses his investigation of sinusitis from nontuberculous mycobacteria in tap water.

  6. Sinusitis from Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Tap Water

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-12-21

    Dr. Wellington S. Tichenor. Associate Clinical Professor of Medicine at New York Medical College and in private practice in Manhattan, New York, discusses his investigation of sinusitis from nontuberculous mycobacteria in tap water.  Created: 12/21/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 12/31/2012.

  7. What's Wrong with the Tap? Examining Perceptions of Tap Water and Bottled Water at Purdue University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saylor, Amber; Prokopy, Linda Stalker; Amberg, Shannon

    2011-09-01

    The environmental impacts of bottled water prompted us to explore drinking water choices at Purdue University, located in West Lafayette, IN. A random sample of 2,045 Purdue University students, staff, and faculty was invited to participate in an online survey. The survey assessed current behaviors as well as perceived barriers and benefits to drinking tap water versus bottled water. 677 surveys were completed for a response rate of 33.1%. We then conducted qualitative interviews with a purposive sample of university undergraduates ( n = 21) to obtain contextual insights into the survey results and the beliefs of individuals with a variety of drinking water preferences. This study revealed that women drink disproportionately more bottled water then men while undergraduate students drink more than graduate students, staff and faculty. The study also uncovered a widespread belief that recycling eliminates the environmental impacts of bottled water. Important barriers to drinking tap water at Purdue include: perceived risks from tap water and the perceived safety of bottled water, preferring the taste of bottled water, and the convenience of drinking bottled water. The qualitative interviews revealed that drinking water choices can be influenced by several factors—especially whether individuals trust tap water to be clean—but involve varying levels of complexity. The implications of these results for social marketing strategies to promote tap water are discussed.

  8. Chapter 13. Industrial Application of Tap Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Adelstorp, Anders

    1997-01-01

    Design and application of modern pure tap water components and systems in industries, in particular food processing industry.......Design and application of modern pure tap water components and systems in industries, in particular food processing industry....

  9. Chapter 12. Pure Tap Water Hydraulic Systems and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Adelstorp, Anders

    1997-01-01

    Presentation of developed a modern pure tap water hydraulic components (Nessie), systems and industrial applications.......Presentation of developed a modern pure tap water hydraulic components (Nessie), systems and industrial applications....

  10. Evaluation on the Quality of Bangkok Tap Water with Other Drinking Purpose Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordach, A.; Chardwattananon, C.; Wongin, K.; Chayaput, B.; Wongpat, N.

    2018-02-01

    The concern of drinking purposed water quality in Bangkok, Nonthaburi, and Samutprakarn provinces has been a problem for over fifteen years. Metropolitan Water Works Authority (MWA) of Thailand is fully responsible for providing water supply to the mentioned areas. The objective of Drinkable Tap Water Project is to make people realize in quality of tap water. Communities, school, government agencies, hotels, hospitals, department stores, and other organizations are participating in this project. MWA have collected at least 3 samples of water from the corresponding places and the samples have to meet the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines level. This study is to evaluate water quality of tap water, storage water, filtered water, and filtered water dispenser. The water samples from 2,354 attending places are collected and analyzed. From October 2011 to September 2016, MWA analyzed 32,711 samples. The analyzed water parameters are free residual chlorine, appearance color, turbidity, pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), and pathogenic bacteria; E.coli. The results indicated that a number of tap water samples had the highest number compliance with WHO guidelines levels at 98.40%. The filtered water, filtered water dispenser, and storage water were received 96.71%, 95.63%, and 90.88%, respectively. However, the several samples fail to pass WHO guideline level because they were contaminated by E.coli. The result is that tap water has the highest score among other sources probably because tap water has chlorine for disinfection and always is monitored by professional team round-the-clock services compared to the other water sources with less maintenance or cleaning. Also, water quality reports are continuously sent to customers by mail addresses. Tap water quality data are shown on MWA websites and Facebook. All these steps of work should enhance the confidence of tap water quality.

  11. Evaluation on the Quality of Bangkok Tap Water with Other Drinking Purpose Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kordach A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The concern of drinking purposed water quality in Bangkok, Nonthaburi, and Samutprakarn provinces has been a problem for over fifteen years. Metropolitan Water Works Authority (MWA of Thailand is fully responsible for providing water supply to the mentioned areas. The objective of Drinkable Tap Water Project is to make people realize in quality of tap water. Communities, school, government agencies, hotels, hospitals, department stores, and other organizations are participating in this project. MWA have collected at least 3 samples of water from the corresponding places and the samples have to meet the World Health Organization (WHO guidelines level. This study is to evaluate water quality of tap water, storage water, filtered water, and filtered water dispenser. The water samples from 2,354 attending places are collected and analyzed. From October 2011 to September 2016, MWA analyzed 32,711 samples. The analyzed water parameters are free residual chlorine, appearance color, turbidity, pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS, and pathogenic bacteria; E.coli. The results indicated that a number of tap water samples had the highest number compliance with WHO guidelines levels at 98.40%. The filtered water, filtered water dispenser, and storage water were received 96.71%, 95.63%, and 90.88%, respectively. However, the several samples fail to pass WHO guideline level because they were contaminated by E.coli. The result is that tap water has the highest score among other sources probably because tap water has chlorine for disinfection and always is monitored by professional team round-the-clock services compared to the other water sources with less maintenance or cleaning. Also, water quality reports are continuously sent to customers by mail addresses. Tap water quality data are shown on MWA websites and Facebook. All these steps of work should enhance the confidence of tap water quality.

  12. Multiplication of Legionella pneumophila in unsterilized tap water.

    OpenAIRE

    Yee, R B; Wadowsky, R M

    1982-01-01

    Naturally occurring Legionella pneumophila, an environmental isolate which had not been grown on artificial medium, was tested for the ability to multiply in tap water. A showerhead containing L. pneumophila and non-Legionellaceae bacteria was immersed in nonsterile tap water supplying this fixture. Also L. pneumophila and non-Legionellaceae bacteria were sedimented from tap water from a surgical intensive care unit. This bacterial suspension was inoculated into tap water from our laboratory....

  13. Preheating of tap water with solar collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granum, H; Raaen, H

    1992-05-05

    In 1991 SINTEF Architecture and Building Technology won the second prize in 'The Nordic Competition for Low Energy Buildings' with a project proposal named 'LOWe'. The paper gives a description of the energy-saving features of this project, particularly the use of a solar collector for preheating of tap water. Compared with the economic profitability of other saving efforts in the project, such as good thermal insulation and efficient heat recovering system, the system for solar preheating of tap water does not seem very attractive for the time being. Loose estimates indicate a cost of close of NOK 1.00 per kWh for the produced energy in the solar collector, while the present price for electricity in Norway is about NOK 0.50 per kWh. Compared with a heat pump solution however the energy cost is not unreasonable.

  14. Tap Water Hydraulic Systems for Medium Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Adelstorp, Anders

    1998-01-01

    Presentation of new range of developed tap water hydraulic componets and applications for medium power up to 4 kW and 50 bar.......Presentation of new range of developed tap water hydraulic componets and applications for medium power up to 4 kW and 50 bar....

  15. Hydraulic Systems with Tap Water versus Bio-oils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    1997-01-01

    Deals with the advantages of using pure tap water hydraulics versus bio-oils for suiteable applications. Focus is in particular on food processing industry.......Deals with the advantages of using pure tap water hydraulics versus bio-oils for suiteable applications. Focus is in particular on food processing industry....

  16. Bottled, filtered, and tap water use in Latino and non-Latino children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Wendy L; Knochel, Miguel L; Byington, Carrie L; Young, Paul C; Hoff, Charles J; Buchi, Karen F

    2007-05-01

    To describe bottled, filtered, and tap water consumption and fluoride use among pediatric patients; to analyze differences between ethnic and socioeconomic groups; and to describe the frequency of physician-parent discussions regarding water consumption. Convenience sample survey. An urban public health clinic. Parents attending a public health clinic. The primary outcome measure was the prevalence of tap, filtered, and bottled water use. The secondary outcome measures were supplemental fluoride use and the percentage of patients reporting discussions of water consumption with their physician. A total of 216 parents (80.5% Latino and 19.5% non-Latino) completed the survey. Of the parents, 30.1% never drank tap water and 41.2% never gave it to their children. Latino parents were less likely than non-Latino parents to drink tap water (odds ratio, 0.26; 95% confidence interval, 0.10-0.67) and less likely to give tap water to their children (odds ratio, 0.32; 95% confidence interval, 0.15-0.70). More Latinos believed that tap water would make them sick (odds ratio, 5.63; 95% confidence interval, 2.17-14.54). Approximately 40% of children who never drank tap water were not receiving fluoride supplements. Of the lowest-income families (water to their children. Of the parents surveyed, 82.5% reported that their child's physician had never discussed the type of water they should use. Many Latino families avoid drinking tap water because they fear it causes illness. Unnecessary use of bottled and filtered water is costly and may result in adverse dental health outcomes. Physicians should provide guidance to families regarding the safety, low cost, and dental health benefits of drinking tap water.

  17. [The method to remove nitrite from tap water by tea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, M; Chen, L; Xian, H

    1997-03-01

    Drinking water (tap water) is polluted in pipelines by bacteria after long distance transportation. The water contains nitrite (NO2-) which is potentially harmful to human health. The nitrite concentrations range from 0.10 to 2.0 mg/L. Our experiment proved that NO2- could not be removed by boiling, but could be removed by tea. As a natural antioxidant, tea contains several antioxidants, such as ascorbic acid and catechins, which removed NO2- from tap water effectively.

  18. Multiplication of Legionella pneumophila in unsterilized tap water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, R B; Wadowsky, R M

    1982-06-01

    Naturally occurring Legionella pneumophila, an environmental isolate which had not been grown on artificial medium, was tested for the ability to multiply in tap water. A showerhead containing L. pneumophila and non-Legionellaceae bacteria was immersed in nonsterile tap water supplying this fixture. Also L. pneumophila and non-Legionellaceae bacteria were sedimented from tap water from a surgical intensive care unit. This bacterial suspension was inoculated into tap water from our laboratory. The legionellae in both suspensions multiplied in the tap water at 32, 37, and 42 degrees C. The non-Legionellaceae bacteria multiplied at 25, 32, and 37 degrees C. A water sample which was collected from the bottom of a hot water tank was found to contain L. pneumophila and non-Legionellaceae bacteria. These legionellae also multiplied when the water sample was incubated at 37 degrees C. These results indicate that L. pneumophila may multiply in warm water environments such as hot water plumbing fixtures, hot water tanks, and cooling towers.

  19. Major inorganic elements in tap water samples in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azrina, A; Khoo, H E; Idris, M A; Amin, I; Razman, M R

    2011-08-01

    Quality drinking water should be free from harmful levels of impurities such as heavy metals and other inorganic elements. Samples of tap water collected from 24 locations in Peninsular Malaysia were determined for inorganic element content. Minerals and heavy metals were analysed by spectroscopy methods, while non-metal elements were analysed using test kits. Minerals and heavy metals determined were sodium, magnesium, potassium, calcium, chromium, manganese, iron, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, cadmium and lead while the non-metal elements were fluoride, chloride, nitrate and sulphate. Most of the inorganic elements found in the samples were below the maximum permitted levels recommended by inter-national drinking water standard limits, except for iron and manganese. Iron concentration of tap water from one of the locations was higher than the standard limit. In general, tap water from different parts of Peninsular Malaysia had low concentrations of heavy metals and inorganic elements.

  20. TRIHALOMETHANE LEVELS IN HOME TAP WATER AND SEMEN QUALITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trihalomethane Levels in Home Tap Water and Semen QualityLaura Fenster, 1 Kirsten Waller, 2 Gayle Windham, 1 Tanya Henneman, 2 Meredith Anderson, 2 Pauline Mendola, 3 James W. Overstreet, 4 Shanna H. Swan51California Department of Health Services, Division of Environm...

  1. Multiplication of Legionella spp. in tap water containing Hartmannella vermiformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadowsky, R M; Wilson, T M; Kapp, N J; West, A J; Kuchta, J M; States, S J; Dowling, J N; Yee, R B

    1991-07-01

    A model was developed to study the multiplication of various Legionella spp. in tap water containing Hartmannella vermiformis. Tap water cultures prepared with the following components were suitable for the multiplication studies: Legionella spp., 10(3) CFU/ml; H. vermiformis, 10(4.4) cysts per ml; and killed Pseudomonas paucimobilis, 10(9) cells per ml. Cocultures were incubated at 37 degrees C for at least 1 week. The following legionellae multiplied in tap water cocultures in each replicate experiment: L. bozemanii (WIGA strain), L. dumoffii (NY-23 and TX-KL strains), L. micdadei (two environmental strains), and L. pneumophila (six environmental strains and one clinical isolate). Growth yield values for these strains were 0.6 to 3.5 log CFU/ml. Legionellae which did not multiply in replicate cocultures included L. anisa (one strain), L. bozemanii (MI-15 strain), L. micdadei (a clinical isolate), L. longbeachae, (one strain), and L. pneumophila (Philadelphia 1 strain). L. gormanii and an environmental isolate of L. pneumophila multiplied in only one of three experiments. None of the legionellae multiplied in tap water containing only killed P. paucimobilis. The mean growth yield (+/- standard deviation) of H. vermiformis in the cocultures was 1.2 +/- 0.1 log units/ml. H. vermiformis supports multiplication of only particular strains of legionellae, some of which are from diverse origins.

  2. [Nitrate concentrations in tap water in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitoria, Isidro; Maraver, Francisco; Sánchez-Valverde, Félix; Armijo, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    To determine nitrate concentrations in drinking water in a sample of Spanish cities. We used ion chromatography to analyze the nitrate concentrations of public drinking water in 108 Spanish municipalities with more than 50,000 inhabitants (supplying 21,290,707 potential individuals). The samples were collected between January and April 2012. The total number of samples tested was 324. The median nitrate concentration was 3.47 mg/L (range: 0.38-66.76; interquartile range: 4.51). The water from 94% of the municipalities contained less than 15 mg/L. The concentration was higher than 25mg/L in only 3 municipalities and was greater than 50mg/L in one. Nitrate levels in most public drinking water supplies in municipalities inhabited by almost half of the Spanish population are below 15 mg/L. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Macro and microelements in bottled and tap waters of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Tanja M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative analysis between bottled and tap waters as well as its comparison with current Serbian regulations, European Union Directives and World Health Organization standard are shown in this paper. Thirteen bottled waters and fourteen tap waters from the territory of Serbia were analyzed in the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR laboratory in Berlin, for the purpose of the “Geochemistry of European Bottled Water“ project conducted by EuroGeo Survey Geochemistry (EGS. Macrocomponents (main cations and anions of ground waters usually reflect on lithogeochemistry of the aquifer, while microcomponents indicate the circulation of ground water through the different lithological environment. Analyzed bottled waters could be classified as those with low mineral content (M<500 mg/L if HCO3 anion and Ca and Mg cations were the prevailing ones, or mineral (M>500 mg/L with prevailing HCO3 anion and Na cation. Waters with low mineral content were mainly from limestone and dolomite, while mineral waters mainly originated from magmatic and metamorphic rocks. Higher content of Cs, Li, Ge, Rb and F in bottled waters indicates the importance of the magmatic intrusions influence on their chemical composition. In some waters higher content of B, I, NH4, as well as of Tl and W has been observed which can be attributed to water’s circulation through different lithological complexes. Tap water was mostly obtained from groundwater (from Neogen and alluvial aquifers and karst springs with rest being those of rivers and surface accumulations. Tap waters from Central Serbia were with low mineral content, with prevailing HCO3 anion and Ca and Mg cations, while waters from Vojvodina, the northern province of Serbia, were with higher mineralization, HCO3-Na. Chemical analyses of the sampled tap waters showed good quality, with exception of waters from the cities of Senta and Zrenjanin in Vojvodina. High values of B (1170 and 895 g/L, As

  4. Radioactivity of tap water in the Republic of Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesar, D.; Maracic, M.; Franic, Z.; Kovac, J.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the paper was to establish the difference between radioactivity level measured in tap water in relation to maximum permissible concentrations determined by law in the Republic of Croatia. Tables 1 and 2 give percentages of total beta activity in tap water of several cities in Croatia and Table 3 of 137 Cs, 3 H and 90 Sr specific activities, in relation to permissible levels. On basis of these data it could be concluded that total beta activity has exponentially decreased over the past 30 years and radioactivity in tape water of Croatia has never exceeded permissible levels. Taking in account possible hazards to human health that might be caused by the presence of radioactivity in water, this kind of investigation should be continued also in the future

  5. Lithium in Tap Water and Suicide Mortality in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Terao

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Lithium has been used as a mood-stabilizing drug in people with mood disorders. Previous studies have shown that natural levels of lithium in drinking water may protect against suicide. This study evaluated the association between lithium levels in tap water and the suicide standardized mortality ratio (SMR in 40 municipalities of Aomori prefecture, which has the highest levels of suicide mortality rate in Japan. Lithium levels in the tap water supplies of each municipality were measured using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. After adjusting for confounders, a statistical trend toward significance was found for the relationship between lithium levels and the average SMR among females. These findings indicate that natural levels of lithium in drinking water might have a protective effect on the risk of suicide among females. Future research is warranted to confirm this association.

  6. Oropharyngeal Tularemia Outbreak Associated with Drinking Contaminated Tap Water, Turkey, July-September 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, Dilber; Celebi, Bekir; Isik, Mehmet Emirhan; Tutus, Celal; Ozturk, Huseyin; Temel, Fehminaz; Kizilaslan, Mecit; Zhu, Bao-Ping

    2015-12-01

    In 2013, an oropharyngeal tularemia outbreak in Turkey affected 55 persons. Drinking tap water during the likely exposure period was significantly associated with illness (attack rate 27% vs. 11% among non-tap water drinkers). Findings showed the tap water source had been contaminated by surface water, and the chlorination device malfunctioned.

  7. 40 CFR 141.86 - Monitoring requirements for lead and copper in tap water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... copper in tap water. 141.86 Section 141.86 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 141.86 Monitoring requirements for lead and copper in tap water. (a) Sample site location. (1) By the... the water system can collect the number of lead and copper tap samples required in paragraph (c) of...

  8. Perceptions of Tap Water and School Water Fountains and Association with Intake of Plain Water and Sugar-Sweetened Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onufrak, Stephen J.; Park, Sohyun; Sharkey, Joseph R.; Merlo, Caitlin; Dean, Wesley R.; Sherry, Bettylou

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little is known regarding youth perceptions of tap water and school water fountains and how these relate to water and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake. Methods: We used national 2010 YouthStyles data to assess perceptions of tap water and school water fountains and associations with water and SSB intake. Results: Nearly 1 in 5…

  9. MINERAL WATER FROM SUPERMARKET VS. TAP WATER. SOME CONSIDERATIONS RELATED TO INNOCUITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian – Nicolae POPA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available 15 Romanian brands of mineral water were purchased from hypermarket. For each of the 15 mineral waters were determined the content of nitrates, nitrites and pH. The data obtained were compared with the content of nitrates, nitrites and pH of the tap water collected in 15 locations in Bucharest, according to data released by the Apa Nova operator. The results showed that the mean of tap water pH in Bucharest, although slightly higher than the tested mineral waters pH, did not differ significantly from the mean of mineral waters pH, being situated in the alkaline domain. The mean content of nitrates in tap water in Bucharest, did not differ significantly from that of the tested mineral waters (t = 0.811. Nitrates content of tap water in Bucharest was significantly distinct less, as the pH was higher (r = 0.68**. Basically, the change in pH by one unit, lowers the amount of nitrate by 46%. Bucharest tap water nitrites content was significantly lower than that of tested mineral waters (0.005 mg/l to 0.0124; t = 2.674*. Basically, Bucharest tap water contained up to 2.5 times less nitrites than the nitrites mean of tested mineral waters.

  10. Zinc sacrificial anode behavior at elevated temperatures in sodium chloride and tap water environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, Othman Mohsen

    2005-01-01

    Zinc sacrificial anode coupled to mild steel was tested in sodium chloride and tap water environments at elevated temperatures. The anode failed to protect the mild steel specimens in tap water environment at all temperatures specified for this study. This was partly due to the high resistivity of the medium. The temperature factor did not help to activate the anode in water tap medium. In sodium chloride environment the anode demonstrated good protection for steel cathodes. In tap water environment the anode weight loss was negligible. The zinc anode suffered intergranular corrosion in sodium chloride environment and this was noticed starting at 40 degree centigrade. In tap water environment the zinc anode demonstrated interesting behavior beyond 60 degree centigrade, that could be attributed to the phenomenon of reversal of potential at elevated temperatures. It also showed shallow pitting spots in tap water environment without any sign of intergranular corrosion. Zinc anodes would suffer intergranular corrosion at high temperatures. (author)

  11. Perineal tap water burns in the elderly: at what cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Michael D E; Maitz, Peter K M; Kennedy, Peter J; Goltsman, David

    2017-11-01

    Burn injuries are expensive to treat. Burn injuries have been found to be difficult to treat in elderly patients than their younger counterparts. This is likely to result in higher financial burden on the healthcare system; however, no population-specific study has been conducted to ascertain the inpatient treatment costs of elderly patients with hot tap water burns. Six elderly patients (75-92 years) were admitted for tap water burns at Concord Hospital during 2010. All costs incurred during their hospitalization were followed prospectively, and were apportioned into 'direct' and 'indirect' costs. Direct costs encompassed directly measurable costs, such as consumables used on the ward or in theatres, and indirect costs included hospital overheads, such as bed and theatre costs. Three males and three females admitted with burns to the buttocks, legs or feet. Total burn surface area (TBSA) ranged from 9-21% (mean 12.8%). Length of stay ranged from 26-98 days (mean 46 days). One patient died, and four required surgical management or grafting. Total inpatient costs ranged from $69 782.33 to $254 652.70 per patient (mean $122 800.20, standard deviation $67 484.46). TBSA was directly correlated with length of stay (P < 0.01) and total cost (P < 0.01). Hot water burns among the elderly are associated with high treatment costs, which are proportional to the size of the burn. The cost of treating this cohort is higher than previously reported in a general Australian burn cohort. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  12. Analysis of the Difference of Radon Concentration between Water Treatment Plant and Tap water in house

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jeongil; Yoo, Donghan; Kim, Heereyoung [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    As importance for the health, measurements and analysis about radon is active recently. Especially, radon concentration measurement about underground water which people drink was been carried out by the environment organizations in Korea and has been hot-issued because of the high radon concentration in water source. In present study, the difference of radon concentration among water source, water treatment plant and tap water in house is analyzed. It makes sense that the radon concentration in water treatment plant can represent the radon concentration in the tap water. Through the above experiments, the difference of the radon concentration between water treatment plant and tap water in house is figured out. It contributes to confirm more specific basis for estimating the annual radon exposure for the public. With further experiments and analysis, it is thought that it will be used as tool to assess more qualitatively for the radon concentration in tap water. Finally, this Fundamental approach will help in making new regulations about radon.

  13. Analysis of the Difference of Radon Concentration between Water Treatment Plant and Tap water in house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Jeongil; Yoo, Donghan; Kim, Heereyoung

    2013-01-01

    As importance for the health, measurements and analysis about radon is active recently. Especially, radon concentration measurement about underground water which people drink was been carried out by the environment organizations in Korea and has been hot-issued because of the high radon concentration in water source. In present study, the difference of radon concentration among water source, water treatment plant and tap water in house is analyzed. It makes sense that the radon concentration in water treatment plant can represent the radon concentration in the tap water. Through the above experiments, the difference of the radon concentration between water treatment plant and tap water in house is figured out. It contributes to confirm more specific basis for estimating the annual radon exposure for the public. With further experiments and analysis, it is thought that it will be used as tool to assess more qualitatively for the radon concentration in tap water. Finally, this Fundamental approach will help in making new regulations about radon

  14. Analysis of UV filters in tap water and other clean waters in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Llorca, Marta; Barceló, Damià

    2012-03-01

    The present paper describes the development of a method for the simultaneous determination of five hormonally active UV filters namely benzophenone-3 (BP3), 3-(4-methylbenzylidene) camphor (4MBC), 2-ethylhexyl 4-(dimethylamino) benzoate (OD-PABA), 2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxycinnamate (EHMC) and octocrylene (OC) by means of solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-electron impact ionization-mass spectrometry. Under optimized conditions, this methodology achieved low method limits of detection (needed for clean waters, especially drinking water analysis), between 0.02 and 8.42 ng/L, and quantitative recovery rates higher than 73% in all cases. Inter- and intraday precision for all compounds were lower than 7% and 11%, respectively. The optimized methodology was applied to perform the first survey of UV absorbing compounds in tap water from the metropolitan area and the city of Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain). In addition, other types of clean water matrices (mineral bottled water, well water and tap water treated with an ion-exchange resin) were investigated as well. Results evidenced that all the UV filters investigated were detected in the water samples analyzed. The compounds most frequently found were EHMC and OC. Maximum concentrations reached in tap water were 290 (BP3), 35 (4MBC), 110 (OD-PABA), 260 (EHMC), and 170 ng/L (OC). This study constitutes the first evidence of the presence of UV filter residues in tap water in Europe.

  15. Risk Factors Associated with the Choice to Drink Bottled Water and Tap Water in Rural Saskatchewan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianne McLeod

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study investigated risk factors associated with choices to drink bottled water and tap water in rural Saskatchewan. Of 7,500 anonymous postal questionnaires mailed out, 2,065 responses were analyzed using generalized linear mixed models. Those who reported a water advisory (p < 0.001 or living in the area for £10 years (p = 0.01 were more likely to choose bottled water. Those who reported tap water was not safe to drink were more likely to choose bottled water, an effect greater for those who had no aesthetic complaints (p ≤ 0.001, while those with aesthetic complaints were more likely to choose bottled water if they believed the water was safe (p < 0.001. Respondents who treated their water and did not use a community supply were more likely to choose bottled water (p < 0.001, while those who did not treat their water were more likely to choose bottled water regardless of whether a community supply was used (p < 0.001. A similar pattern of risk factors was associated with a decreased likelihood of consuming tap water daily; however, the use of a community water supply was not significant. Understanding the factors involved in drinking water choices could inform public health education efforts regarding water management in rural areas.

  16. Lead isotopes in tap water: implications for Pb sources within a municipal water supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Zhongqi; Foland, Kenneth A.

    2005-01-01

    Residential tap waters were investigated to examine the feasibility of using isotopic ratios to identify dominant sources of water Pb in the Columbus (Ohio, USA) municipal supply system. Overall, both the concentrations, which are generally low (0.1-28 μg/L), and isotopic compositions of tap water Pb show wide variations. This contrasts with the situation for a limited number of available service lines, which exhibit only a limited Pb-isotope variation but contain Pb of two very different types with one significantly more radiogenic than the other. Most tap water samples in contact with Pb service lines have Pb-isotope ratios that are different from the pipe Pb. Furthermore, the Pb isotope compositions of sequentially drawn samples in the same residence generally are similar, but those from separate residences are different, implying dominant Pb sources from domestic plumbing. A separate pilot study at two residences without Pb service lines shows isotopic similarity between water and solders in each house, further suggesting that the major Pb sources are domestic in these cases and dominated by Pb from solder joints. Although complicated by the broad range of overall Pb-isotope variations observed and limited by sample availability, the results suggest that Pb isotopes can be used effectively to constrain the sources of Pb in tap waters, especially for individual houses where multiple source candidates can be identified

  17. The occurrence of antibiotic resistance genes in tap water - a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedlecka, Agata

    2018-02-01

    The study presents a review of the occurrence of genetic determinants of antibiotic resistance in tap water. The aim of this study was also to compare the applied methods for antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) investigations in tap water. As the concentration of ARGs in treated, drinking water is expected to be very low and may cause problems in a standard isolation procedure, the special emphasis is placed on the applied procedures of DNA extraction and their efficiency. The study presents the first attempts to obtain DNA directly from tap water. Further efforts must be put to determine the final amount of obtained DNA and the presence of chosen ARGs among the molecules.

  18. Residential tap water contamination following the Freedom Industries chemical spill: perceptions, water quality, and health impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelton, Andrew J; McMillan, LaKia; Connell, Matt; Kelley, Keven M; Gill, Jeff P; White, Kevin D; Gupta, Rahul; Dey, Rajarshi; Novy, Caroline

    2015-01-20

    During January 2014, an industrial solvent contaminated West Virginia’s Elk River and 15% of the state population’s tap water. A rapid in-home survey and water testing was conducted 2 weeks following the spill to understand resident perceptions, tap water chemical levels, and premise plumbing flushing effectiveness. Water odors were detected in all 10 homes sampled before and after premise plumbing flushing. Survey and medical data indicated flushing caused adverse health impacts. Bench-scale experiments and physiochemical property predictions showed flushing promoted chemical volatilization, and contaminants did not appreciably sorb into cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) pipe. Flushing reduced tap water 4-methylcyclohexanemethanol (4-MCHM) concentrations within some but not all homes. 4-MCHM was detected at unflushed (waters contained less 4-MCHM than the 1000 μg/L Centers for Disease Control drinking water limit, but one home exceeded the 120 μg/L drinking water limit established by independent toxicologists. Nearly all households refused to resume water use activities after flushing because of water safety concerns. Science based flushing protocols should be developed to expedite recovery, minimize health impacts, and reduce concentrations in homes when future events occur.

  19. Investigation of formaldehyde pollution of tap water and rain water using a novel visual colorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, K; Okano, M; Kuramitz, H; Hata, N; Kawakami, T; Taguchi, S

    2008-01-01

    The pollution of tap water and rain water with formaldehyde in Toyama Pref., Japan was investigated by means of a simple, rapid and cost-effective visual colorimetry developed by us. The levels of formaldehyde in three tap waters from different sources of dams on mountainside and a well-water pumped in urban area in Toyama Pref. were lower than 0.01 mg L(-1) that was the detection limit of the colorimetry. On the other hand, rain waters were seriously polluted with formaldehyde. Rain waters were sampled from three different sites (urban area, top of hill and industrial area) in Toyama Pref. from autumn to winter in 2006. The levels of formaldehyde in the rain waters ranged from 0.07 to 0.30 mg L(-1). The analytical results by the visual colorimetry were in good agreement with those obtained by GC-MS method. It was confirmed that the colorimetry is excellent for practical use for the determination of formaldehyde. It must be concerned about the pollution of rainwater with formaldehyde, when rain water is applied for tap water and miscellaneous purpose. Copyright IWA Publishing 2008.

  20. Fluoride Intake through Consumption of Tap Water and Bottled Water in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman van Oyen

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a tendency to align higher levels of fluoride in natural mineral water with the existing higher levels in tap water. Treatment of natural mineral waters could harm the preservation of their natural character. In this study fluoride intake through bottled and tap water consumption in the Belgian adult population was assessed, taking into account regional differences. A deterministic approach was used whereby consumption quantities of tap water and different brands of bottled water were linked with their respective fluoride concentrations. Data from the national food consumption survey (2004 were used and the Nusser methodology was applied to obtain usual intake estimates. Mean intake of fluoride through total water consumption in Flanders was 1.4±0.7 mg/day (97.5th percentile: 3.1 mg/day, while in the Walloon region it was on average 0.9±0.6 mg/day (97.5th percentile: 2.4 mg/day. The probability of exceeding the UL of 7 mg per day via a normal diet was estimated to be low. Consequently, there is no need to revise the existing norms, but higher fluoride concentrations should be more clearly indicated on the labels. Reliable data about total dietary fluoride intake in children, including intake of fluoride via tooth paste and food supplements, are needed.

  1. Water partnerships: IAEA regional projects for Africa TAP expertise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussaha, A.; Kastens, R.F.

    2000-01-01

    Issues of water scarcity are on the top of governmental agendas. The efforts of the IAEA's African Member States to address these issues rely upon increasingly complex requirements for analytical tools, technologies and institutional capacities. National programmes in water resources management are receiving growing attention and a large number of bilateral and multilateral development partners are actively involved in providing technical and financial support. Applications of nuclear techniques in the field of hydrology constitute important, and sometimes unique tools for obtaining critical information needed for water resources management. In most cases, isotope hydrology methodologies provide a qualitative definition or solution of the hydrological problem while in certain circumstances, quantification of hydrological parameters are enabled only by the application of these methodologies. Such information is essential for determining the long-term productive capacity of an aquifer, protecting vulnerable recharge areas from pollution, or limiting saltwater intrusion. Isotopes also provide useful data for constraining and validating groundwater models used for water management

  2. Inorganic chemical quality of European tap-water: 2. Geographical distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flem, B.; Reimann, C.; Birke, M.; Banks, D.; Filzmoser, P.; Frengstad, B.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • European scale comparison of tap water. • 579 tap water samples have been analyses for more than 60 parameters. • Chemical geographical distribution. • Water treatment processes. • Importance of geology on tap water quality. - Abstract: 579 tap water samples were collected at the European scale and analysed at a single laboratory for more than 60 parameters. This dataset is analysed here in terms of the spatial and national distribution of the analysed inorganic chemical parameters. The distribution of most parameters is controlled by various artificial and natural factors (land use, distribution network, water source and treatment, geographical location and geology). The distribution of nitrate can be interpreted in terms of land use and climate. Water treatment affects the distribution of phosphorus in tap water; especially the policy of adding phosphate to potable water in the UK to suppress plumbosolvency. The distribution of alkalinity, Ca, Mg, Sr and Li appears to reflect both water source (low in surface waters) and the geological contrast between base-poor crystalline rock terrains and carbonate rich sedimentary rock. The Scandinavian nations’ tap water shows the highest concentrations of most of the rare earth elements, probably reflecting their geological availability and mobility in low pH raw water sources. The distribution of fluoride, uranium and arsenic also appear to exhibit geological and source (groundwater versus surface water) controls. Hungary returns several high As results, which may reflect As-rich reducing groundwaters of the Pannonian basin. Much Estonian tap water reflects a very specific hydrochemical environment, namely Palaeozoic near-coastal aquifers, which yield deep, reducing or saline groundwater (possibly influenced by marine intrusion), enriched in Ba, B, Br − , Cl − , Eu, F − , I, Li, K, Mn and Na

  3. Yeasts and filamentous fungi in bottled mineral water and tap water from municipal supplies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Ueda Yamaguchi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to analyse the occurrence of yeasts and filamentous fungi in drinking water as well as to investigate their correlation with the indicator bacteria of faecal pollution. Yeasts were detected in 36.6% and 11.6% of the bottled mineral on water dispensers and tap water samples from municipal system, respectively. Twenty-one (35.0% of bottled mineral water and two (3.3% of tap water samples were positive for filamentous fungi. For bottled mineral water 12 (20.0% of 60 samples were positive for total coliform, compared with 3(5.0%out of 60 samples from tap water. The mineral water from dispensers was more contaminated than tap water. Strains belonging to the genera Candida identified to the species level were C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata and C. albicans. Thus, bottled mineral water from water dispensers and tap water could be considered a possible transmission route for filamentous fungi and yeasts, and could constitute a potential health hazard, mainly to immunocompromised indivuals.O principal objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a prevalência de leveduras e fungos filamentosos em água potável, bem como investigar suas correlações com bactérias indicadoras de contaminação fecal. Leveduras foram detectadas em 36,6% e 11,6% das amostras de água mineral de garrafão em dispensadores de água e água de torneira do sistema municipal, respectivamente. Vinte e uma (35,5% das amostras de água mineral de garrafão e duas (3,3% das amostras de água de torneira foram positivas para fungos filamentosos. Para água mineral de garrafão, 12 (20.0% das 60 amostras foram positivas para coliforme total, comparado com 3 (5.0% das 60 amostras de água de torneira. A água coletada de garrafões de água mineral dos dispensadores foi marcadamente mais contaminada que as amostras de água de torneira. Candida spp identificadas ao nível de espécie foram C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata e C. albicans. Como está sendo

  4. Evaluation of sea water chlorine demand in condenser cooling water at TAPS 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papachan, Deepa; Gupta, P.K.; Patil, D.P.; Save, C.B.; Anilkumar, K.R.

    2008-01-01

    To prevent microbiological growth in the condenser tubes, condenser cooling water chlorination is very important. For effective chlorination, chlorine dose rate and frequency of dosing has to be determined on the basis of sea water chlorine demand. TAPS 1 and 2 is located near Arabian sea and draws water from this sea for its condenser cooling. The present practice of chlorine dosing at TAPS 1 and 2, based on the analysis carried out by GE in 1969, is 2500 kg/day/CWpump and 90 kg/day/SSWpump for a contact period of 25 minutes. Normal frequency of dosing is once per 8 hour and booster dose is once in a week at the same rate for 1 hour. The criteria of effective chlorination is to get residual chlorine of 2-3 ppm at the condenser water box outlet during chlorination at water box inlet/CW pump suction header in the recommended dose rate. The other option of chlorination was continuous dosing to get 0.5 ppm residual chlorine. This option has its own limitations as it is more expensive and also that micro organisms get immune to chlorine eventually due to continuous dosing. Nevertheless higher chlorine dosing is detrimental to AI-brass condenser tubes. Therefore the second option was not adopted at TAPS 1 and 2. Tarapur Atomic Power Station-1 is in the process of replacement of condenser tubes due to frequent condenser tube failures in the recent years. It was essential to analyse the present sea water chlorine demand and re-determine the chlorine dose rate because of development of industries under Maharashtra Industrial Development Corporation (MIDC) and simultaneous population growth around this area over a period of three decades. This paper discusses the experimental observations regarding significant change in sea water chlorine demand over this period and the effect of seasonal changes on sea water chlorine demand. (author)

  5. Investigation of Natural Radioactivity in the Tap and Spring Water in Yaounde Town, Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lydie, R.M.; Hakam, O.K.; Choukri, A.; Lydie, R.M.; Hakam, O.K.; Choukri, A.

    2013-01-01

    The natural radionuclide concentrations in the tap and springs water in Yaounde town, capital of Cameroon with a population of 3.5 million inhabitants were estimated by gamma spectrometry, using both well calibrated Canberra NaI(Tl) and HPGe detector systems. Tap water samples were collected during the dry and the rainy seasons, respectively in December 2002 and July 2003 and spring water samples were collected in August 2010. The radionuclides observed with regularity belonged to the series decay naturally occurring radionuclides headed by 238 U and 232 Th as well as the non-series nuclide 40 K. Assuming an individual daily consumption of 1 litre of water, the average annual intake for these populations is 3821 Bq/y for tap water and 1161 Bq/y for spring water.

  6. Predicting consumer preferences for mineral composition of bottled and tap water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platikanov, Stefan; Hernández, Alejandra; González, Susana; Luis Cortina, Jose; Tauler, Roma; Devesa, Ricard

    2017-01-01

    The overall liking for taste of water was correlated with the mineral composition of selected bottled and tap waters. Sixty-nine untrained volunteers assessed and rated twenty-five different commercial bottled and tap waters from. Water samples were physicochemical characterised by analysing conductivity, pH, total dissolved solids (TDS) and major anions and cations: HCO 3 - , SO 4 2- , Cl - , NO 3 - , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , Na + , and K + . Residual chlorine levels were also analysed in the tap water samples. Globally, volunteers preferred waters rich in calcium bicarbonate and sulfate, rather than in sodium chloride. This study also demonstrated that it was possible to accurately predict the overall liking by a Partial Least Squares regression using either all measured physicochemical parameters or a reduced number of them. These results were in agreement with previously published results using trained panellists. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The occurrence of Aeromonas in drinking water, tap water and the Porsuk River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merih Kivanc

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of Aeromonas spp. in the Porsuk River, public drinking water and tap water in the City of Eskisehir (Turkey was monitored. Fresh water samples were collected from several sampling sites during a period of one year. Total 102 typical colonies of Aeromonas spp. were submitted to biochemical tests for species differentiation and of 60 isolates were confirmed by biochemical tests. Further identifications of isolates were carried out first with the VITEK system (BioMe˜rieux and then selected isolates from different phenotypes (VITEK types were identified using the DuPont Qualicon RiboPrinter® system. Aeromonas spp. was detected only in the samples from the Porsuk River. According to the results obtained with the VITEK system, our isolates were 13% Aeromonas hydrophila, 37% Aeromonas caviae, 35% Pseudomonas putida, and 15% Pseudomonas acidovorans. In addition Pseudomonas sp., Pseudomonas maltophila, Aeromonas salmonicida, Aeromonas hydrophila, and Aeromonas media species were determined using the RiboPrinter® system. The samples taken from the Porsuk River were found to contain very diverse Aeromonas populations that can pose a risk for the residents of the city. On the other hand, drinking water and tap water of the City are free from Aeromonas pathogens and seem to be reliable water sources for the community.

  8. Risk characterization of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in tap water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, B R; Tardiff, R G

    1997-12-01

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) can enter surface water and groundwater through wet atmospheric deposition or as a result of fuel leaks and spills. About 30% of the U.S. population lives in areas where MTBE is in regular use. Ninety-five percent of this population is unlikely to be exposed to MTBE in tap water at concentrations exceeding 2 ppb, and most will be exposed to concentrations that are much lower and may be zero. About 5% of this population may be exposed to higher levels of MTBE in tap water, resulting from fuel tank leaks and spills into surface or groundwater used for potable water supplies. This paper describes the concentration ranges found and anticipated in surface and groundwater, and estimates the distribution of doses experienced by humans using water containing MTBE to drink, prepare food, and shower/bathe. The toxic properties (including potency) of MTBE when ingested, inhaled, and in contact with the skin are summarized. Using a range of human toxic potency values derived from animal studies, margins of exposure (MOE) associated with alternative chronic exposure scenarios are estimated to range from 1700 to 140,000. Maximum concentrations of MTBE in tap water anticipated not to cause adverse health effects are determined to range from 700 to 14,000 ppb. The results of this analysis demonstrate that no health risks are likely to be associated with chronic and subchronic human exposures to MTBE in tap water. Although some individuals may be exposed to very high concentrations of MTBE in tap water immediately following a localized spill, these exposures are likely to be brief in duration due to large-scale dilution and rapid volatilization of MTBE, the institution of emergency response and remediation measures to minimize human exposures, and the low taste and odor thresholds of MTBE which ensure that its presence in tap water is readily detected at concentrations well below the threshold for human injury.

  9. Determination of four fluoroquinolone antibiotics in tap water in Guangzhou and Macao

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yiruhan; Wang Qiaojun; Mo Cehui; Li Yanwen; Gao Peng; Tai Yiping; Zhang Yan; Ruan Zhili; Xu Jiawei

    2010-01-01

    Four fluoroquinolone antibiotics (norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, lomefloxacin, and enrofloxacin) in tap water in Guangzhou and Macao were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography fluorescence detection. The results showed that all target antibiotics were detected in high rate both in Guangzhou (77.5%) and Macao (100%), ranging from 1.0 to 679.7 ng/L (SD ≤ 37.6) in Guangzhou, and from 2.0 to 37.0 ng/L (SD ≤ 2.5) in Macao. The fluoroquinolone antibiotics pollution in tap water widely distributes in Guangzhou and Macao. In addition, the effect of rainfall on concentration of fluoroquinolone antibiotics in south China was also investigated. Our result indicates that the antibiotic concentration in tap water in Guangzhou tends to obviously reduce at the beginning of rainy season, even decreases below the limit of quantification immediately. Thus, it was clarified that the heavy rain in south China has the function of reducing the fluoroquinolone antibiotics concentrations in tap water. - The antibiotics were detected in the tap water in Guangzhou and Macao using our developed method for fluoresence detection with high performance liquid chromatography

  10. Determination of four fluoroquinolone antibiotics in tap water in Guangzhou and Macao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yiruhan; Wang Qiaojun [Department of Environmental Engineering, Jinan University, Huangpudadaoxi 601, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Mo Cehui, E-mail: tchmo@jnu.edu.c [Department of Environmental Engineering, Jinan University, Huangpudadaoxi 601, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Li Yanwen; Gao Peng; Tai Yiping; Zhang Yan; Ruan Zhili; Xu Jiawei [Department of Environmental Engineering, Jinan University, Huangpudadaoxi 601, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2010-07-15

    Four fluoroquinolone antibiotics (norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, lomefloxacin, and enrofloxacin) in tap water in Guangzhou and Macao were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography fluorescence detection. The results showed that all target antibiotics were detected in high rate both in Guangzhou (77.5%) and Macao (100%), ranging from 1.0 to 679.7 ng/L (SD {<=} 37.6) in Guangzhou, and from 2.0 to 37.0 ng/L (SD {<=} 2.5) in Macao. The fluoroquinolone antibiotics pollution in tap water widely distributes in Guangzhou and Macao. In addition, the effect of rainfall on concentration of fluoroquinolone antibiotics in south China was also investigated. Our result indicates that the antibiotic concentration in tap water in Guangzhou tends to obviously reduce at the beginning of rainy season, even decreases below the limit of quantification immediately. Thus, it was clarified that the heavy rain in south China has the function of reducing the fluoroquinolone antibiotics concentrations in tap water. - The antibiotics were detected in the tap water in Guangzhou and Macao using our developed method for fluoresence detection with high performance liquid chromatography

  11. Phosphate ions as inhibiting agents for copper corrosion in chlorinated tap water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yohai, L. [División Electroquímica y Corrosión, INTEMA, CONICET, UNMdP, Juan B. Justo 4302, B7608FDQ Mar del Plata (Argentina); Schreiner, W.H. [Laboratório de Superfícies e Interfases, Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Paraná, 81531-990 Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Vázquez, M., E-mail: mvazquez@fi.mdp.edu.ar [División Electroquímica y Corrosión, INTEMA, CONICET, UNMdP, Juan B. Justo 4302, B7608FDQ Mar del Plata (Argentina); Valcarce, M.B. [División Electroquímica y Corrosión, INTEMA, CONICET, UNMdP, Juan B. Justo 4302, B7608FDQ Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2013-05-15

    PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} ions as corrosion inhibitor were investigated on copper in tap water in the presence of NaClO. The inhibitor was evaluated by electrochemical techniques and weight loss tests. Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to study the passive layer. In inhibited tap water, the passive layer is thick and compact if NaClO is present. Weight-loss tests showed the inhibition of uniform dissolution and no pitting attack. When adding NaClO, Cu{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} is incorporated to the passive film. Thus, phosphate ions are effective as inhibitors for copper in tap water, even when using high dosages of biocides. - Highlights: ► Changes in the copper corrosion after adding phosphate to tap water were analyzed. ► When NaClO and phosphates are present, Cu{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} participates of the surface film. ► In the absence of biocide the surface film contains a mixture of Cu{sub 2}O, CuO and Cu(OH){sub 2}. ► PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} is an effective inhibitor for Cu in tap water containing high NaClO dosages.

  12. Phosphate ions as inhibiting agents for copper corrosion in chlorinated tap water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yohai, L.; Schreiner, W.H.; Vázquez, M.; Valcarce, M.B.

    2013-01-01

    PO 4 3− ions as corrosion inhibitor were investigated on copper in tap water in the presence of NaClO. The inhibitor was evaluated by electrochemical techniques and weight loss tests. Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to study the passive layer. In inhibited tap water, the passive layer is thick and compact if NaClO is present. Weight-loss tests showed the inhibition of uniform dissolution and no pitting attack. When adding NaClO, Cu 3 (PO 4 ) 2 is incorporated to the passive film. Thus, phosphate ions are effective as inhibitors for copper in tap water, even when using high dosages of biocides. - Highlights: ► Changes in the copper corrosion after adding phosphate to tap water were analyzed. ► When NaClO and phosphates are present, Cu 3 (PO 4 ) 2 participates of the surface film. ► In the absence of biocide the surface film contains a mixture of Cu 2 O, CuO and Cu(OH) 2 . ► PO 4 3− is an effective inhibitor for Cu in tap water containing high NaClO dosages

  13. Levels of major and trace elements, including rare earth elements, and ²³⁸U in Croatian tap waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiket, Željka; Rožmarić, Martina; Krmpotić, Matea; Benedik, Ljudmila

    2015-05-01

    Concentrations of 46 elements, including major, trace, and rare earth elements, and (238)U in Croatian tap waters were investigated. Selected sampling locations include tap waters from various hydrogeological regions, i.e., different types of aquifers, providing insight into the range of concentrations of studied elements and (238)U activity concentrations in Croatian tap waters. Obtained concentrations were compared with the Croatian maximum contaminant levels for trace elements in water intended for human consumption, as well as WHO and EPA drinking water standards. Concentrations in all analyzed tap waters were found in accordance with Croatian regulations, except tap water from Šibenik in which manganese in concentration above maximum permissible concentration (MPC) was measured. Furthermore, in tap water from Osijek, levels of arsenic exceeded the WHO guidelines and EPA regulations. In general, investigated tap waters were found to vary considerably in concentrations of studied elements, including (238)U activity concentrations. Causes of variability were further explored using statistical methods. Composition of studied tap waters was found to be predominately influenced by hydrogeological characteristics of the aquifer, at regional and local level, the existing redox conditions, and the household plumbing system. Rare earth element data, including abundances and fractionation patterns, complemented the characterization and facilitated the interpretation of factors affecting the composition of the analyzed tap waters.

  14. Tests of some methods to remove I-131 from contaminated tap water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

    2011-01-01

    Following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, iodine-131 concentrations in tap water higher than 100 Bq L"-"1 were reported by several local governments in the Kanto Plain in March 2011. To remove iodine-131 from tap water, five methods were tested in this study, that is, (1) boiling, (2) adding charcoals from oak or bamboo, (3) activated charcoals, (4) water purifiers, and (5) reverse osmosis (RO) treatments. Boiling was shown to be not effective in removing iodine-131 from tap water; indeed even higher concentrations may result from the liquid-volume reduction accompanying this process. Adding charcoals and activated charcoal treatment could not remove iodine-131, because no reduction of iodine-131 was observed in tap water samples after these treatments. Only limited effect was found with water purifiers with first several portions; no effect was expected with further water treatment. On the other hand, the RO showed high iodine-131 removal percentage of more than 95%, although the method needs about 5-10 L water to obtain 1 L of RO treated water. (author)

  15. Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the Pra and Kakum River basins and associated tap water in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essumang, David K; Eshun, Albert; Hogarh, Jonathan N; Bentum, John K; Adjei, Joseph K; Negishi, Junya; Nakamichi, Shihori; Habibullah-Al-Mamun, Md; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2017-02-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are persistent environmental pollutants that have been detected in various media including human serum. Due to concerns regarding their bioaccumulation and possible negative health effects, an understanding of routes of human exposure is necessary. PFAAs are recalcitrant in many water treatment processes, making drinking water a potential source of human exposure. This study presents the first report on contamination from PFAAs in river and drinking water in Ghana. The targeted PFAAs were perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) with C 4-14 carbon chain and perfluoroalkane sulphonic acids (PFSAs) with C 6, 8, 10 . Five PFAA congeners - PFOA, PFOS, PFHxA, PFDA and PFPeA - were commonly detected in river and tap water. The mean concentrations of ∑PFAAs in the Kakum and Pra Rivers were 281 and 398ng/L, while tap water (supplied from the treatment of water from those rivers) contained concentrations of 197 and 200ng/L, respectively. PFOA and PFOS constituted about 99% of the ∑PFAAs. The risk quotient (RQ) attributed to drinking of tap water was estimated at 1.01 and 1.74 for PFOA and PFOS, respectively. For a country that has not produced these compounds, the RQs were unexpectedly high, raising concerns particularly about contamination from such emerging pollutants in local water sources. The study revealed limitations of local tap water treatment in getting rid of these emerging pollutants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Tapping Alternatives: The Benefits of Managing Urban Water Demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziegielewski, Benedykt; Baumann, Duane D.

    1992-01-01

    Presents the California plan for water demand management. Water conservation techniques are used to balance demand with supply. Discusses the implementation process: (1) water-use and service area analysis; (2) water-use forecasts; (3) benefit-cost analysis; (4) and development of a long-term water management plan. (17 references) (MCO)

  17. Tap Water Hydraulic Control Systems - Design and Industrial Applications. Chapter 7 in Advances in Hydraulic Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    Deals with development and design of modern tap water hydraulic components and systems, in particalar the Danfoss Nessie-family of components and systems working with pure tap water without any kind of additives. Typical industrial applications are presented and the perspectives of new industrial...... applications and the environmental benefits are in focus, in particular in the food processing industry and in fire-fighting systems.......Deals with development and design of modern tap water hydraulic components and systems, in particalar the Danfoss Nessie-family of components and systems working with pure tap water without any kind of additives. Typical industrial applications are presented and the perspectives of new industrial...

  18. Determination of calcium in Mashhad city tap water by flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashhadian, N.V.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Calcium in drinking water is one of the sources of calcium that may contribute significantly to the daily calcium intake. In this study, the samples of tap water were randomly taken from five zones of Mashhad city. Calcium concentration was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) technique. The precision of the method was evaluated. The CV% of 6 replicate determinations at 5 macro g/ml Ca was 4.2 in one day and 4.5, among 6 consecutive days. The recovery of spiked samples (98.7%) also showed that the proposed method is reliable for the determination of amounts of calcium in water samples. The mean of calcium in tap water in the city of Mashhad was 52.61+-12.91 (SD) macro g/ml. At present, the amount of calcium in Mashhad tap waters is within the national standard. However, due to the climate and environmental changes, determination of calcium in tap water of Mashhad in different seasons is recommended. (author)

  19. Assessment of the radiological quality of tap waters 2008-2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caamano, Delphine; Tracol, Raphael; Guillotin, Laetitia; Jedor, Beatrice; Davezac, Henri; Loyen, Jeanne

    2011-06-01

    After a recall of the context (radioactivity, origin of natural radioactivity in waters, exposure of population to natural radioactivity and health impact, indicators of water radiological quality, presence of uranium in water), this document reports a study which is based on the health control of water radiological quality by regional health agencies, on the analysis of natural and artificial radionuclides, on a survey on tap water radiological quality performed in 2009 by regional health agencies, and on an inventory of results related to the presence of radon in water performed by the IRSN and these agencies. The obtained results are presented and discussed in terms of factors impacting the result representativeness, of generalisation of the implementation of a health control, of tap water radiological quality. It is outlined that the uranium-related chemical risk is higher than the radiological risk

  20. Relationship between the incidence infection stones and the magnesium-calcium ratio of tap water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohri, K; Ishikawa, Y; Iguchi, M; Kurita, T; Okada, Y; Yoshida, O

    1993-01-01

    In a previous study we showed that the magnesium-calcium ratio of tap water is negatively correlated with the incidence of calcium-containing urinary stones. In this study we examined the relationship between the incidence of struvite stones, water hardness and the regional geological features on the basis of our previous study and an epidemiological study of urolithiasis performed in Japan. The magnesium-calcium ratio of tap water was found to correlate positively with the incidence of struvite stones. The tap water magnesium-calcium ratio was high in regions of basalt and sedimentary rock and was low in granite and limestone areas. The incidence of struvite stones in the regions of basalt and sedimentary rock was higher than that in the granite and limestone areas. Thus, this study suggested that the incidence of struvite stones is related to the magnesium-calcium ratio of tap water and to the regional geology, as is the case for calcium-containing stones.

  1. Existence of Insecticides in Tap Drinking Surface and Ground Water in Dakahlyia Governorate, Egypt in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RA Mandour

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The environmental degradation products of pesticides may enter drinking water and result in serious health problems. Objective: To evaluate the occurrence of insecticides in drinking surface and ground water in Dakahlyia Governorate, northern Egypt in 2011. Methods: We studied blood samples collected from 36 consecutive patients diagnosed with pesticides poisoning and 36 tap drinking water (surface and ground. Blood and water samples were analyzed for pesticides using gas chromatography-electron captured detector (GC-ECD. In addition, blood samples were analyzed for plasma pseudo-cholinesterase level (PChE and red blood cells acetyl cholinesterase activity (AChE. Results: The results confirmed the presence of high concentrations of insecticides, including organonitrogenous and organochlorine in tap drinking surface and ground water. Conclusion: Drinking water contaminated with insecticides constitutes an important health concern in Dakahlyia governorate, Egypt.

  2. The relationship of perceptions of tap water safety with intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and plain water among US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onufrak, Stephen J; Park, Sohyun; Sharkey, Joseph R; Sherry, Bettylou

    2014-01-01

    Research is limited on whether mistrust of tap water discourages plain water intake and leads to a greater intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB). The objective of the present study was to examine demographic differences in perceptions of tap water safety and determine if these perceptions are associated with intake of SSB and plain water. The study examined perceptions of tap water safety and their cross-sectional association with intake of SSB and plain water. Racial/ethnic differences in the associations of tap water perceptions with SSB and plain water intake were also examined. Nationally weighted data from the 2010 HealthStyles Survey (n 4184). US adults aged ≥18 years. Overall, 13·0 % of participants disagreed that their local tap water was safe to drink and 26·4 % of participants agreed that bottled water was safer than tap water. Both mistrust of tap water safety and favouring bottled water differed by region, age, race/ethnicity, income and education. The associations of tap water mistrust with intake of SSB and plain water were modified by race/ethnicity (P beverages should recognize the potential impact of tap water perceptions on water and SSB intake among minority populations.

  3. Water jacket for solid particle solar receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasyluk, David T.

    2018-03-20

    A solar receiver includes: water jacket panels each having a light-receiving side and a back side with a watertight sealed plenum defined in-between; light apertures passing through the watertight sealed plenums to receive light from the light-receiving sides of the water jacket panels; a heat transfer medium gap defined between the back sides of the water jacket panels and a cylindrical back plate; and light channeling tubes optically coupled with the light apertures and extending into the heat transfer medium gap. In some embodiments ends of the light apertures at the light receiving side of the water jacket panel are welded together to define at least a portion of the light-receiving side. A cylindrical solar receiver may be constructed using a plurality of such water jacket panels arranged with their light-receiving sides facing outward.

  4. Preference for tap, bottled, and recycled water: Relations to PTC taste sensitivity and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Daniel; Gauvain, Mary; Z Reisz; Arthur, Isaac; Story, S Drew

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated people's preferences for different water sources and factors that predict such preferences using a blind taste test. Water preferences of 143 participants for one name-brand bottled water, one groundwater-sourced tap water, and one indirect potable reuse (IDR) water were assessed. For predictors of water preference, we measured each participant's PTC taste sensitivity and assessed two personality traits (Neuroticism, Openness to Experience). We also explored participants' descriptions of each water source. Results indicate a preference for water treated with Reverse Osmosis (RO) (bottled and IDR water) over groundwater-sourced water, which had higher pH levels and lower concentrations of Ca and HCO 3 - . PTC taste sensitivity did not predict preferences, while Openness to Experience and Neuroticism predicted preference for IDR water. Positive relations between Openness to Experience and preferences for bottled and IDR water were moderated by gender and were stronger among females. Participants described water primarily by its taste and texture. Findings suggest that (1) tap water treated by RO is equally preferable to some bottled water, (2) personality traits may affect water preferences, and (3) prior findings of gender differences in preferences for bottled water may reflect personality characteristics. Efforts to increase acceptance for sustainable water alternatives, such as IDR, may be more successful by assuring consumers about taste and addressing personality traits that encourage or inhibit use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Occurrence and sources of bromate in chlorinated tap drinking water in Metropolitan Manila, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genuino, Homer C; Espino, Maria Pythias B

    2012-04-01

    Significant levels of potentially carcinogenic bromate were measured in chlorinated tap drinking water in Metropolitan Manila, Philippines, using an optimized ion-chromatographic method. This method can quantify bromate in water down to 4.5 μg l⁻¹ by employing a postcolumn reaction with acidic fuchsin and subsequent spectrophotometric detection. The concentration of bromate in tap drinking water samples collected from 21 locations in cities and municipalities within the 9-month study period ranged from 7 to 138 μg l⁻¹. The average bromate concentration of all tap drinking water samples was 66 μg l⁻¹ (n = 567), almost seven times greater than the current regulatory limit in the country. The levels of bromate in other water types were also determined to identify the sources of bromate found in the distribution lines and to further uncover contaminated sites. The concentration of bromate in water sourced from two rivers and two water treatment plants ranged from 15 to 80 and 12 to 101 μg l⁻¹, respectively. Rainwater did not contribute bromate in rivers but decreased bromate level by dilution. Groundwater and wastewater samples showed bromate concentrations as high as 246 and 342 μg l⁻¹, respectively. Bromate presence in tap drinking water can be linked to pollution in natural water bodies and the practice of using hypochlorite chemicals in addition to gaseous chlorine for water disinfection. This study established the levels, occurrence, and possible sources of bromate in local drinking water supplies.

  6. Physics evaluation for testino. of RAPS and TAPS fuel pins in CIRUS pressurised water loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, Benjamin; Paul, O.P.K.

    1976-01-01

    Relevant calculations carried out to assess the reactivity effect, heat generation and other parameters for testing of RAPS and TAPS fuel pins in the Cirus pressurised water loop are summarised. The Cirus neutron flux level being low, in order to simulate the RAPS design heat rating of ∫ Kdtheta = 40 w/cm, the required plutonium enrichment in mixed plutonium uranium oxide fuel pin was worked out. The results showed that a PuO 2 enrichment of 1.5 wt percent would be necessary to meet the above requirement. The analysis for the TAPS pin indicated that the desired heat flux of 115w/cm 2 cannot be obtained in the Cirus loop with either a 7 pin cluster geometry, or with a single pin with the enrichment level as used in TAPS pin. Lattice code DUMLAC and the core simulation code AECLHEX were used for these studies. (author)

  7. Tap versus bottled water consumption: The influence of social norms, affect and image on consumer choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etale, Anita; Jobin, Marilou; Siegrist, Michael

    2018-02-01

    What drives consumers to choose bottled water instead of tap water where the latter is safe, accessible, costs far less, and in spite of its environmental impacts? This research investigates the influence of hitherto unexplored psychological drivers in an attempt to generate a more holistic understanding of the phenomenon, and strategies for designing more effective consumption reduction campaigns. Using data from an internet survey of Swiss and German respondents (N = 849) we investigated the role of, social norms, affect and image on water consumption. Results suggest that these psychological factors play a role in water consumption choice. Convenience was the only contextual predictor - the inconvenience of transporting bottled water has a negative effect on its consumption, and a positive effect on tap water consumption. Although concern about the effect of bottled water on the environment was not a significant predictor of tap water consumption, we found that for some people, a link exists between environmental concern and consumption choice. Ways through which consumers may be more effectively influenced towards environmentally-friendly consumption are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Spectrophotometric determination of iron (III) in tap water using 8 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-14

    Nov 14, 2011 ... Beers law was obeyed in the range of 1 to 14 ug/ml Fe3+. The recovery was between 98.60 ... Federal and state regulations limit the iron content of drinking water to <1 ppm, though iron is easily .... weighed and dissolved in chloroform in a 100 ml volumetric flask and made up to the mark with chloroform.

  9. Assessment of drinking water quality at the tap using fluorescence spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Heibati, Masoumeh; Stedmon, Colin A; Stenroth, Karolina; Rauch, Sebastien; Toljander, Jonas; Säve-Söderbergh, Melle; Murphy, Kathleen R.

    2017-01-01

    Treated drinking water may become contaminated while travelling in the distribution system on the way to consumers. Elevated dissolved organic matter (DOM) at the tap relative to the water leaving the treatment plant is a potential indicator of contamination, and can be measured sensitively, inexpensively and potentially on-line via fluorescence and absorbance spectroscopy. Detecting elevated DOM requires potential contamination events to be distinguished from natural fluctuations in the syst...

  10. Pharmaceuticals in tap water: human health risk assessment and proposed monitoring framework in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ho Wing; Jin, Ling; Wei, Si; Tsui, Mirabelle Mei Po; Zhou, Bingsheng; Jiao, Liping; Cheung, Pak Chuen; Chun, Yiu Kan; Murphy, Margaret Burkhardt; Lam, Paul Kwan Sing

    2013-07-01

    Pharmaceuticals are known to contaminate tap water worldwide, but the relevant human health risks have not been assessed in China. We monitored 32 pharmaceuticals in Chinese tap water and evaluated the life-long human health risks of exposure in order to provide information for future prioritization and risk management. We analyzed samples (n = 113) from 13 cities and compared detected concentrations with existing or newly-derived safety levels for assessing risk quotients (RQs) at different life stages, excluding the prenatal stage. We detected 17 pharmaceuticals in 89% of samples, with most detectable concentrations (92%) at risk levels, but 4 (i.e., dimetridazole, thiamphenicol, sulfamethazine, and clarithromycin) were found to have at least one life-stage RQ ≥ 0.01, especially for the infant and child life stages, and should be considered of high priority for management. We propose an indicator-based monitoring framework for providing information for source identification, water treatment effectiveness, and water safety management in China. Chinese tap water is an additional route of human exposure to pharmaceuticals, particularly for dimetridazole, although the risk to human health is low based on current toxicity data. Pharmaceutical detection and application of the proposed monitoring framework can be used for water source protection and risk management in China and elsewhere.

  11. Legionella species diversity and dynamics from surface reservoir to tap water: from cold adaptation to thermophily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesnik, René; Brettar, Ingrid; Höfle, Manfred G

    2016-05-01

    Water samples of the Drinking Water Supply System (DWSS) of the city of Braunschweig were analysed for its Legionella species composition using genus-specific PCR amplicons and single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) fingerprint analyses based on 16S rRNA genes. These analyses comprised the whole supply chain including raw water, treatment process and large-scale storage, and a seasonal study of finished drinking water sampled monthly from cold and hot tap water. Treatment of raw water had a major impact on Legionella species by reducing their diversity and abundances. The Legionella species composition of the tap water was highly distinct from that of both source waters. In cold water, 8-14 different phylotypes of Legionella (PTLs) were observed per sample with relative abundances ranging from >1% to 53%. In hot water, L. pneumophila was present during all seasons at high relative abundances (8-40%) accompanied by 5-14 other PTLs of which 6 PTLs were in common with cold water. This thermophilic Legionella community, including L. pneumophila, was able to grow in the hot water above 50 °C. Such thermophilic Legionella populations are of general relevance for drinking water management and public health, but also for the ecology and evolution of the genus Legionella.

  12. Susceptibility of Legionella pneumophila to chlorine in tap water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchta, J M; States, S J; McNamara, A M; Wadowsky, R M; Yee, R B

    1983-11-01

    A study was conducted to compare the susceptibility of legionellae and coliforms to disinfection by chlorine. The chlorine residuals used were similar to concentrations that might be found in the distribution systems of large public potable water supplies. The effects of various chlorine concentrations, temperatures, and pH levels were considered. A number of different Legionella strains, both environmental and clinical, were tested. The results indicate that legionellae are much more resistant to chlorine than are coliform bacteria. At 21 degrees C, pH 7.6, and 0.1 mg of free chlorine residual per liter, a 99% kill of L. pneumophila was achieved within 40 min, compared with less than 1 min for Escherichia coli. The observed resistance is enhanced as conditions for disinfection become less optimal. The required contact time for the removal of L. pneumophilia was twice as long at 4 degrees C than it was at 21 degrees C. These data suggest that legionellae can survive low levels of chlorine for relatively long periods of time.

  13. Calcium contained tap water phenomena: students misconception patterns of acids-bases concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liliasari, S.; Albaiti, A.; Wahyudi, A.

    2018-05-01

    Acids and bases concept is very important and fundamental concept in learning chemistry. It is one of the chemistry subjects considered as an abstract and difficult concept to understand. The aim of this research was to explore student’s misconception pattern about acids and bases phenomena in daily life, such as calcium contained tap water. This was a qualitative research with descriptive methods. Participants were 546 undergraduate students of chemistry education and chemistry program, and graduate students of chemistry education in West Java, Indonesia. The test to explore students’ misconception about this phenomena was essay test. The results showed that there were five patterns of students’ misconception in explaining the phenomena of calcium carbonate precipitation on heating tap water. Students used irrelevant concepts in explaining this phenomena, i.e. temporary hardness, coagulation, density, and phase concepts. No students had right answer in explaining this phenomena. This research contributes to design meaningful learning and to achieve better understanding.

  14. Defensive spending on tap water substitutes: the value of reducing perceived health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Diane P; Jahan, Nowshin

    2012-03-01

    We examine factors that explain consumer spending on tap water substitutes using information from a national survey undertaken with a representative set of Canadian respondents. We develop a model to predict the percentage of households that undertake such spending for the purpose of reducing perceived health risks from tap water consumption. Using results from the model we estimate the magnitude of defensive expenditures to be over half a billion dollars (2010 US$) per year for Canada, as a whole. This is equivalent to approximately $48 per household per year or about $19 per person per year. Residents of Ontario, the province in which an Escherichia coli incident took place in 2000, have the highest willingness-to-pay of approximately $60 per household per year.

  15. Radiation induced change in the affinity of a plastic resin to chlorine contained in artificial tap water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiyoshi, Ryoko; Sawamura, Sadashi; Katayama, Meiseki

    1985-01-01

    γ-Radiation curing of a polyacetal resin was attempted in order to eliminate the unsuitable property for the joints of tap water pipes. In the case of non-irradiated resin, almost all available chlorine (AC) contained in usual tap water disappeared. γ-Irradiation of the resin showed an indirect effect on eliminating such a property; that is, a decrease in the amount of AC from artificial tap water (test solution) showed a decrease to JIS (Japan Industrial Standards) level of requirement at certain absorption doses. However, it was also found that the decrease in the amount of AC from the test solution increased with time after γ-irradiation. (author)

  16. Influence of storage conditions on aluminum concentrations in serum, dialysis fluid, urine, and tap water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, M; Ohnesorge, F K

    1990-01-01

    The influence of storage temperature, vessel type, and treatment on alterations of aluminum (Al) concentrations in serum, urine, and dialysis fluid samples was studied at three different concentrations for each sample over an 18-month period. Furthermore, the influence of acidification on Al levels in tap water, urine, and dialysis fluid samples was studied over a four-month period. Al was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. Sample storage in glass vessels was unsuitable, whereas only minor alterations of Al levels were observed with storage in polypropylene tubes, polystyrene tubes, and Monovettes. By using appropriate plastic containers, acid washing of the vessels showed no improvement. Frozen storage was superior compared with 4 degrees C, whereas storage at -80 degrees C offered no advantage compared with storage at -20 degrees C. Acidification of tap water samples was necessary to stabilize Al levels during storage. No striking effect of acidification on Al levels in urine and dialysis fluid samples was found. It is concluded that longterm storage of serum, urine, tap water, and dialysis fluid samples is possible if appropriate conditions are used.

  17. Comparing grey water versus tap water and coal ash versus perlite on growth of two plant species on green roofs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agra, Har'el; Solodar, Ariel; Bawab, Omar; Levy, Shay; Kadas, Gyongyver J; Blaustein, Leon; Greenbaum, Noam

    2018-08-15

    Green roofs provide important ecosystem services in urban areas. In Mediterranean and other semi-arid climate regions, most perennial plants on green roofs need to be irrigated during the dry season. However, the use of freshwater in such regions is scarce. Therefore, the possibility of using grey water should be examined. Coal ash, produced primarily from the burning of coal in power plants, constitutes an environmental contaminant that should be disposed. One option is to use ash as a growing substrate for plants. Here, we compare the effects of irrigating with grey- versus tap-water and using ash versus perlite as growing substrates in green roofs. The study was conducted in northern Israel in a Mediterranean climate. The design was full factorial with three factors: water-type (grey or tap-water)×substrate-type (coal ash vs perlite)×plant species (Phyla nodiflora, Convolvulus mauritanicus or no-plant). The development of plants and the quality of drainage water along the season, as well as quality of the used substrates were monitored. Both plant species developed well under all the experimental conditions with no effect of water type or substrate type. Under all treatments, both plant species enhanced electrical conductivity (EC) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the drainage water. In the summer, EC and COD reached levels that are unacceptable in water and are intended to be reused for irrigation. We conclude that irrigating with grey water and using coal ash as a growth substrate can both be implemented in green roofs. The drainage from tap water as well as from grey water can be further used for irrigating the roof, but for that, COD and EC levels must be lowered by adding a sufficient amount of tap water before reusing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment of drinking water quality at the tap using fluorescence spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heibati, Masoumeh; Stedmon, Colin A; Stenroth, Karolina

    2017-01-01

    Treated drinking water may become contaminated while travelling in the distribution system on the way to consumers. Elevated dissolved organic matter (DOM) at the tap relative to the water leaving the treatment plant is a potential indicator of contamination, and can be measured sensitively......, relationships between DOM optical properties, microbial indicator organisms and trace elements were investigated for households connected to a biologically-stable drinking water distribution system. Across the network, humic-like fluorescence intensities showed limited variation (RSD = 3.5-4.4%), with half...

  19. From Source Water to Tap Water to Spa and Swimming Pool Water: Effects of Disinfectanta and Precursors and Implications for Exposure and Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction The current study investigated the effect of different disinfection treatments on the disinfection by-products (DBPs) formed in finished drinking water vs. tap water vs. swimming pool water vs. spa waters. To this end, samples across the complete water pathway (untr...

  20. Spatial and statistical methods for correlating the interaction between groundwater contamination and tap water exposure in karst regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, I. Y.; Rivera, V. L.; Macchiavelli, R. E.; Torres Torres, N. I.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater systems in karst regions are highly vulnerable to contamination and have an enormous capacity to store and rapidly convey pollutants to potential exposure zones over long periods of time. Contaminants in karst aquifers used for drinking water purposes can, therefore, enter distributions lines and the tap water point of use. This study applies spatial and statistical analytical methods to assess potential correlations between contaminants in a karst groundwater system in northern Puerto Rico and exposure in the tap water. It focuses on chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOC) and phthalates because of their ubiquitous presence in the environment and the potential public health impacts. The work integrates historical data collected from regulatory agencies and current field measurements involving groundwater and tap water sampling and analysis. Contaminant distributions and cluster analysis is performed with Geographic Information System technology. Correlations between detection frequencies and contaminants concentration in source groundwater and tap water point of use are assessed using Pearson's Chi Square and T-Test analysis. Although results indicate that correlations are contaminant-specific, detection frequencies are generally higher for total CVOC in groundwater than tap water samples, but greater for phthalates in tap water than groundwater samples. Spatial analysis shows widespread distribution of CVOC and phthalates in both groundwater and tap water, suggesting that contamination comes from multiple sources. Spatial correlation analysis indicates that association between tap water and groundwater contamination depends on the source and type of contaminants, spatial location, and time. Full description of the correlations may, however, need to take into consideration variable anthropogenic interventions.

  1. Inorganic chemical quality of European tap-water: 1. Distribution of parameters and regulatory compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banks, David; Birke, Manfred; Flem, Belinda; Reimann, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A pan-European survey comprises >60 inorganic parameters in 579 tap water samples. • Compliance with standards for inorganic parameters is good (>99% in EU states). • Around 1% non-compliance is observed for arsenic and 0.2% for uranium. • No sample of water contained nitrate in excess of 45 mg/L. • A weak co-variation in Cu and Pb could indicate derivation from plumbing. - Abstract: 579 tap water samples were collected at the European scale and analysed in a single laboratory for more than 60 parameters. This dataset is evaluated here in terms of the statistical distribution of the analysed parameters and compliance with EU and international drinking water regulations. For most parameters a 99% (or better) degree of compliance was achieved. Among the parameters with the higher rates of non-compliance are: arsenic (1% non-compliance in EU member states, 1.6% when samples from non-EU states are also considered) and sodium (0.6%/1.0%). The decision by the WHO to raise its provisional guideline from 15 μg/L (WHO, 2004) to 30 μg/L (WHO, 2011) has reduced non-compliance for uranium from 1.0% to 0.2%. Despite the fact that tap water (i.e. presumed treated water) was collected, many observations can still be interpreted in terms of hydrogeochemical processes. The dataset demonstrates the potential value of very cost-effective, low-density sampling approaches at a continental (European) scale

  2. Impact of a silver layer on the membrane of tap water filters on the microbiological quality of filtered water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruderek Juliane

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacteria in the hospital's drinking water system represent a risk for the acquisition of a nosocomial infection in the severely immunocompromised host. Terminal tap water filters may be used to prevent nosocomial Legionnaires' disease. We present data from water samples using an improved kind of tap water filters. Methods In a blinded study on an intermediate care unit of the thoracic surgery department, a modified type of the Germlyser water filter (Aqua-Free Membrane Technology with a newly-introduced silver layer on the filtration membrane was compared to its preceding type without such a layer on 15 water outlets. We determined growth of Legionella, other pathogenic bacteria, and the total heterotrophic plate count in unfiltered water and filtered water samples after filter usage intervals of 1 through 4 weeks. Results A total of 299 water samples were tested. Twenty-nine of the 60 unfiltered water samples contained Legionella of various serogroups (baseline value. In contrast, all samples filtered by the original water filter and all but one of the water samples filtered by the modified filter type remained Legionella-free. No other pathogenic bacteria were detected in any filtered sample. The total plate count in water samples increased during use of both kinds of filters over time. However, for the first 7 days of use, there were significantly fewer water samples containing >100 CFU per mL when using the new filter device compared with the older filters or taps with no filter. No advantage was seen thereafter. Conclusion The use of this type of terminal water filter is an appropriate method to protect immunocompromised patients from water-borne pathogens such as Legionella.

  3. Evaluation of radon concentration in well and tap waters in Bursa (Turkey)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akar Tarim, U.; Gurler, O.; Akkaya, G.; Kilic, N.; Yalcin, S.; Kaynak, G.; Gundogdu, O.

    2012-01-01

    222 Rn measurements in water samples collected from 27 wells and 19 taps that were supplied from the investigated wells were conducted using the AlphaGUARD PQ 2000PRO radon gas analyser at sites across several geologic formations within the city of Bursa (Turkey). The measured radon concentrations ranged from 1.46 to 53.64 Bq l -1 for well water and from 0.91 to 12.58 Bq l -1 for tap water. Of the 27 sites sampled, only 7 had radon levels above the safe limit of 11.1 Bq l -1 recommended by the USEPA. In general, all determined concentrations were well below the 100 Bq l -1 revised reference level proposed by the European Union. These values of radon concentrations in water samples are compared with those reported from other countries. Doses resulting from the consumption of these waters were calculated. The minimum and the maximum annual mean effective doses due to 222 Rn intake through water consumption were 0.02 μSv a -1 and 1.11 μSv a -1 , respectively. (authors)

  4. Control of bacterial contamination of washbasin taps and output water using Ecasol: a one-year study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boyle, M A

    2012-04-01

    Contaminated washbasin taps and output water are an important source of bacteria that may cause nosocomial infection. A five-week pretreatment study of hot and cold water from 15 washbasin taps at Dublin Dental Hospital showed consistently heavy contamination by aerobic heterotrophic bacteria: mean bacterial counts of 482.5 [standard deviation (SD) 293] colony-forming units (cfu)\\/mL and 5022 (SD 4322) cfu\\/mL, respectively.

  5. Comparative analysis of the quality of drinking tap water in some areas of the Murmansk region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bеkreneva O. I.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the microbiological research of drinkin g tap water quality of some settlements in the Murmansk region. The samples of drinking tap water have been selected and the microbiological indicators of thermotolerant coliform bacteria, common coliform bacteria, and total microbial number have been determined; the compliance of these indicators with the requirements of sanitary norms and rules has been also established. Determination of total microbial number has been carried out by the deep method, and levels of total and thermotolerant coliform bacteria – by the membrane filtration method. It has been shown that the content of microorganisms in drinking water sources depends on the season of the year. The greatest number of microorganisms in water is observed in spring and autumn p eriods of the year and is caused by floodwater and precipitation of water into the water intake system. The greates t number of microorganisms in water samples has been recorded in the town of Sputnik. The repeated inconsistency o f water quality with the requirements of normative and technical documentation has been identified. The prev alence of acute intestinal diseases among the population and the influence of water quality on this i ndicator have been estimated. The high incidence of intestinal infections in the town of Pechenga has been revealed, a few more prosperous for this indicator are the towns of Zaozersk and Sputnik. Recommendations for improvi ng the quality of drinking water treatment have been transferred to the services of central water supply and distributed among the population. After the implementation of the recommendations, the repeated tests have been performed, and some improvement of water quality has been stated.

  6. Laser-fluorescence determination of trace uranium in hot spring water, geothermal water and tap water in Xi'an Lishan region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Wenyan; Zhou Chunlin; Han Feng; Di Yuming

    2002-01-01

    Using the Laser-Fluorescence technique, an investigation was made, adopting the standard mix method, on trace uranium concentrations in hot spring water and geothermal water from Lishan region, and in tap water from some major cities in Shanxi province. Totally 40 samples from 27 sites were investigated. Measurement showed that the tap water contains around 10 -6 g/L of uranium, whose concentrations in both hot spring water and geothermal water are 10 -5 g/L. Most of samples are at normal radioactive background level, some higher contents were determined in a few samples

  7. Chemical quality of tap water in Madrid: multicase control cancer study in Spain (MCC-Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Navarro, Pablo; Villanueva, Cristina M; García-Pérez, Javier; Boldo, Elena; Goñi-Irigoyen, Fernando; Ulibarrena, Enrique; Rantakokko, Panu; García-Esquinas, Esther; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Pollán, Marina; Aragonés, Nuria

    2017-02-01

    Chronic consumption of water, which contains contaminants, may give rise to adverse health effects. The Madrid region, covered by the population-based multicase-control (MCC-Spain) study, includes two drinking water supply areas. The different sources of the water, coupled together with the possible differences in water management, mean that there may be differences in drinking water quality. In the context of the MCC study, our aims were to describe contaminant concentrations in tap water drawn from various sampling points distributed around the region, assess these concentrations by reference to guideline values and study possible differences between the two supply areas. Tap water samples were collected from 34 sampling points in 7 towns in the Madrid region (19-29 April 2010), and 23 contaminants (metals, nitrates, disinfection by-product and Mutagen X levels) were quantified. We undertook a descriptive analysis of the contaminant concentrations in the water and compared them between the two water supply areas (Wilcoxon test). We created maps representing the distribution of the concentrations observed at water sampling points and assessed the correlations (Spearman's coefficient) between the different parameters measured. The concentrations of the contaminants were below guideline values. There were differences between the two supply areas in concentration of nitrates (p value = 0.0051) and certain disinfection by-products. While there were positive correlations (rho >0.70) among some disinfection by-products, no correlations were found in metals or nitrates. The differences in nitrate levels could be linked to differences in farming/industrial activities in the catchment areas and in disinfection by-products might be related to the existence of different treatment systems or bromine content in source waters.

  8. Removal of Fe(II) from tap water by electrocoagulation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, D.; Solanki, H. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati 781039 (India); Purkait, M.K. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati 781039 (India)], E-mail: mihir@iitg.ernet.in

    2008-06-30

    Electrocoagulation (EC) is a promising electrochemical technique for water treatment. In this work electrocoagulation (with aluminum as electrodes) was studied for iron Fe(II) removal from aqueous medium. Different concentration of Fe(II) solution in tap water was considered for the experiment. During EC process, various amorphous aluminum hydroxides complexes with high sorption capacity were formed. The removal of Fe(II) was consisted of two principal steps; (a) oxidation of Fe(II) to Fe(III) and (b) subsequent removal of Fe(III) by the freshly formed aluminum hydroxides complexes by adsorption/surface complexation followed by precipitation. Experiments were carried out with different current densities ranging from 0.01 to 0.04 A/m{sup 2}. It was observed that the removal of Fe(II) increases with current densities. Inter electrode distance was varied from 0.005 to 0.02 m and was found that least inter electrode distance is suitable in order to achieve higher Fe(II) removal. Other parameters such as conductivity, pH and salt concentration were kept constant as per tap water quality. Satisfactory iron removal of around 99.2% was obtained at the end of 35 min of operation from the initial concentration of 25 mg/L Fe(II). Iron concentration in the solution was determined using Atomic absorption spectrophotometer. By products obtained from the electrocoagulation bath were analyzed by SEM image and corresponding elemental analysis (EDAX). Cost estimation for the electrocoagulation was adopted and explained well. Up to 15 mg/L of initial Fe(II) concentration, the optimum total cost was 6.05 US$/m{sup 3}. The EC process for removing Fe(II) from tap water is expected to be adaptable for household use.

  9. Removal of Fe(II) from tap water by electrocoagulation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, D.; Solanki, H.; Purkait, M.K.

    2008-01-01

    Electrocoagulation (EC) is a promising electrochemical technique for water treatment. In this work electrocoagulation (with aluminum as electrodes) was studied for iron Fe(II) removal from aqueous medium. Different concentration of Fe(II) solution in tap water was considered for the experiment. During EC process, various amorphous aluminum hydroxides complexes with high sorption capacity were formed. The removal of Fe(II) was consisted of two principal steps; (a) oxidation of Fe(II) to Fe(III) and (b) subsequent removal of Fe(III) by the freshly formed aluminum hydroxides complexes by adsorption/surface complexation followed by precipitation. Experiments were carried out with different current densities ranging from 0.01 to 0.04 A/m 2 . It was observed that the removal of Fe(II) increases with current densities. Inter electrode distance was varied from 0.005 to 0.02 m and was found that least inter electrode distance is suitable in order to achieve higher Fe(II) removal. Other parameters such as conductivity, pH and salt concentration were kept constant as per tap water quality. Satisfactory iron removal of around 99.2% was obtained at the end of 35 min of operation from the initial concentration of 25 mg/L Fe(II). Iron concentration in the solution was determined using Atomic absorption spectrophotometer. By products obtained from the electrocoagulation bath were analyzed by SEM image and corresponding elemental analysis (EDAX). Cost estimation for the electrocoagulation was adopted and explained well. Up to 15 mg/L of initial Fe(II) concentration, the optimum total cost was 6.05 US$/m 3 . The EC process for removing Fe(II) from tap water is expected to be adaptable for household use

  10. Indoor Heating Drives Water Bacterial Growth and Community Metabolic Profile Changes in Building Tap Pipes during the Winter Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Han; Chen, Sheng-Nan; Huang, Ting-Lin; Shang, Pan-Lu; Yang, Xiao; Ma, Wei-Xing

    2015-10-27

    The growth of the bacterial community harbored in indoor drinking water taps is regulated by external environmental factors, such as indoor temperature. However, the effect of indoor heating on bacterial regrowth associated with indoor drinking water taps is poorly understood. In the present work, flow cytometry and community-level sole-carbon-source utilization techniques were combined to explore the effects of indoor heating on water bacterial cell concentrations and community carbon metabolic profiles in building tap pipes during the winter season. The results showed that the temperature of water stagnated overnight ("before") in the indoor water pipes was 15-17 °C, and the water temperature decreased to 4-6 °C after flushing for 10 min ("flushed"). The highest bacterial cell number was observed in water stagnated overnight, and was 5-11 times higher than that of flushed water. Meanwhile, a significantly higher bacterial community metabolic activity (AWCD590nm) was also found in overnight stagnation water samples. The significant "flushed" and "taps" values indicated that the AWCD590nm, and bacterial cell number varied among the taps within the flushed group (p heating periods.

  11. Growth-supporting activity for Legionella pneumophila in tap water cultures and implication of hartmannellid amoebae as growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadowsky, R M; Butler, L J; Cook, M K; Verma, S M; Paul, M A; Fields, B S; Keleti, G; Sykora, J L; Yee, R B

    1988-11-01

    Photosynthetic cyanobacteria, heterotrophic bacteria, free-living amoebae, and ciliated protozoa may support growth of Legionella pneumophila. Studies were done with two tap water cultures (WS1 and WS2) containing L. pneumophila and associated microbiota to characterize growth-supporting activity and assess the relative importance of the microbiota in supporting multiplication of L. pneumophila. The water cultures were incubated in the dark at 35 degrees C. The growth-supporting factor(s) was separated from each culture by filtration through 1-micron-pore-size membrane filters. The retentate was then suspended in sterile tap water. Multiplication of L. pneumophila occurred when both the retentate suspension and the filtrate from either culture were inoculated into sterile tap water. L. pneumophila did not multiply in tap water inoculated with only the filtrate, even though filtration did not reduce the concentration of L. pneumophila or heterotrophic bacteria in either culture. Growth-supporting activity of the retentate suspension from WS1 was inactivated at 60 degrees C but unaffected at 0, 25, and 45 degrees C after 30-min incubations. Filtration experiments indicated that the growth-supporting factor(s) in WS1 was 2 to 5 micron in diameter. Ciliated protozoa were not detected in either culture. Hartmannellid amoebae were conclusively demonstrated in WS2 but not in WS1. L. pneumophila multiplied in tap water inoculated with the amoebae (10(3)/ml) and the 1-micron filtrate of WS2. No multiplication occurred in tap water inoculated with the filtrate only. Growth-supporting activity for L. pneumophila may be present in plumbing systems; hartmannellid amoebae appear to be important determinants of multiplication of L. pneumophila in some tap water cultures.

  12. Assessment of the Extraction Methods for Monitoring Phthalate Emerging Contaminants in Groundwater and Tap Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotto, I.; Padilla, I. Y.; De Jesús, N. H.; Torres, P. M.

    2015-12-01

    Trace organic contaminants such as phthalates, among other chemicals of emerging concerns, have not historically been considered as pollutants but are being detected in water, posing a potential risk to public health and the environment. One of the most common phthalates of particular concern is di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a plasticizer normally found in plastics and consumer products, including: cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, medical devices, food packages, water bottles, and wiring cables. DEHP has been associated with preterm birth, a major cause of neonatal mortality and health complications. This study aims at monitoring the presence and concentration of DEHP and other phthalates in groundwater and tap water systems in Puerto Rico, which has one of the highest rates of preterm birth in the U.S. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) suggests a liquid-liquid extraction method that uses methylene chloride as the preferred organic solvent for the extractions. This work presents modified EPA methods that reduce the volume of sample and solvent used, lower the time of analysis, increase productivity, and decrease hazards and waste. Distribution coefficient of DEHP between methylene chloride and water are estimated and related to sample extraction efficiency. Research results indicate that DEHP is in fact distributed between water and methylene chloride with a distribution coefficient average value of 1.24. The study concludes that the sample and solvent volumes have influence on the efficiency but have not an effect on the distribution coefficient. The tests show higher extraction efficiencies for lower DEHP concentrations and higher extraction volumes. Results from the water analysis show presence of DEHP in 55% of groundwater and 44% of tap water samples, indicating a potential exposure through water.

  13. Water Fluoridation Statistics - Percent of PWS population receiving fluoridated water

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2000-2014. Water Fluoridation Statistics is a biennial report of the percentage and number of people receiving fluoridated water from 2000 through 2014, originally...

  14. Water Fluoridation Statistics - Percent of PWS population receiving fluoridated water

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2000-2014 Water Fluoridation Statistics is a biennial report of the percentage and number of people receiving fluoridated water from 2000 through 2014, originally...

  15. The occurrence of Aeromonas spp. in the bottled mineral water, well water and tap water from the municipal supplies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise de Oliveira Scoaris

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the occurrence of Aeromonas sp in the bottled mineral water, well water and tap water from the municipal supplies. Positive samples were found for Aeromonas spp. 12.7% from the mineral water, 8.3% from the artesian water and 6.5% from the tap water. The recovery of Aeromonas spp. was significantly higher in the bottled mineral and artesian water than in the tap water from municipal supplies. The occurrence of the Aeromonas spp. did not correlate significantly with the contamination indicator bacteria (i.e. total coliforms in the artesian water samples. However, a significant correlation was found between Aeromonas spp. and total coliforms in the both mineral water and tap water samples. The presence or absence of a correlation between the indicator bacteria and Aeromonas could reflect the occasional appearance of the pathogen in the drinking water and the different rates of survival and recovery of these agents compared with those fecal indicators. The finding that 41.6, 14.8 and 9.0 % of the artesian water, bottled mineral water and tap water, respectively, sampled in the current study failed to meet the Brazilian standard for total coliforms in the drinking water should therefore be of concern.A porcentagem de amostras positivas para Aeromonas foi de 12.7% para água mineral, 8.3% para água de poço artesiano e 6.5% para água do sistema público de abastecimento. O isolamento de Aeromonas spp. foi significativamente maior em água mineral e água de poço artesiano do que em água do sistema público. A ocorrência de Aeromonas spp. não teve correlação significativa com os indicadores de contaminação tradicionalmente utilizados (coliformes totais em amostras de água de poço artesiano. No entanto, esta correlação foi positiva e significativa em água mineral e água do sistema público. A presença ou ausência de correlação entre bactérias indicadoras e a presença de Aeromonas pode refletir o

  16. Evaluation of neonate squirrel monkeys receiving tritiated water throughout gestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.C.L.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of receiving tritiated water (HTO) throughout gestation on the developing primate was assessed by administering HTO to adult female squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) as the only source of drinking water beginning with the day of insemination and continuing throughout pregnancy. For the control (tap water) and six experimental groups, the mean urinary tritium concentrations in females delivering full-term progeny were <0.004, 0.05, 0.16, 0.33, 0.75, 1.61, and 3.09 microcuries/ml. Positive bioassays for pregnancy were observed in about half of 277 inseminated females. Among pregnant females, the full-term delivery rate was 36%, the abortion rate was 7%, and the resorption rate was 58% with no discernible effect of HTO administration on any of these parameters. The 46 full-term progeny were evaluated within 2 days of birth. No effects of HTO administration were observed in terms of gestation period (median 153 days, range 141-158 days), sex distribution, body weight, body dimensions, selected organ weights, histology (except gonads), or hematologic pattern. The number of primary oocytes in female progeny decreased markedly within increasing concentrations of tritium. Specific quantification of this effect and evaluation of the neonate testes is in progress

  17. In vitro bioanalysis of drinking water from source to tap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenmai, Anna Kjerstine; Lundqvist, Johan; le Godec, Théo; Ohlsson, Åsa; Tröger, Rikard; Hellman, Björn; Oskarsson, Agneta

    2018-08-01

    The presence of chemical pollutants in sources of drinking water is a key environmental problem threatening public health. Efficient removal of pollutants in drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) is needed as well as methods for assessment of the total impact of all present chemicals on water quality. In the present study we have analyzed the bioactivity of water samples from source to tap, including effects of various water treatments in a DWTP, using a battery of cell-based bioassays, covering health-relevant endpoints. Reporter gene assays were used to analyze receptor activity of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), estrogen receptor (ER), androgen receptor (AR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) and induction of oxidative stress by the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). DNA damage was determined by Comet assay. Grab water samples were concentrated by HLB or ENV solid phase extraction and the water samples assayed at a relative enrichment factor of 50. The enrichment procedure did not induce any bioactivity. No bioactivity was detected in Milli-Q water or drinking water control samples. Induction of AhR, ER and Nrf2 activities was revealed in source to tap water samples. No cytotoxicity, PPARα or AR antagonist activity, or DNA damage were observed in any of the water samples. A low AR agonist activity was detected in a few samples of surface water, but not in the samples from the DWTP. The treatment steps at the DWTP, coagulation, granulated activated carbon filtration, UV disinfection and NH 2 Cl dosing had little or no effect on the AhR, Nrf2 and ER bioactivity. However, nanofiltration and passage through the distribution network drastically decreased AhR activity, while the effect on Nrf2 activity was more modest and no apparent effect was observed on ER activity. The present results suggest that bioassays are useful tools for evaluation of the efficiency of different treatment steps in DWTPs in reducing toxic

  18. A Clonal Lineage of Fusarium oxysporum Circulates in the Tap Water of Different French Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edel-Hermann, Véronique; Sautour, Marc; Gautheron, Nadine; Laurent, Julie; Aho, Serge; Bonnin, Alain; Sixt, Nathalie; Hartemann, Philippe; Dalle, Frédéric; Steinberg, Christian

    2016-11-01

    Fusarium oxysporum is typically a soilborne fungus but can also be found in aquatic environments. In hospitals, water distribution systems may be reservoirs for the fungi responsible for nosocomial infections. F. oxysporum was previously detected in the water distribution systems of five French hospitals. Sixty-eight isolates from water representative of all hospital units that were previously sampled and characterized by translation elongation factor 1α sequence typing were subjected to microsatellite analysis and full-length ribosomal intergenic spacer (IGS) sequence typing. All but three isolates shared common microsatellite loci and a common two-locus sequence type (ST). This ST has an international geographical distribution in both the water networks of hospitals and among clinical isolates. The ST dominant in water was not detected among 300 isolates of F. oxysporum that originated from surrounding soils. Further characterization of 15 isolates by vegetative compatibility testing allowed us to conclude that a clonal lineage of F. oxysporum circulates in the tap water of the different hospitals. We demonstrated that a clonal lineage of Fusarium oxysporum inhabits the water distribution systems of several French hospitals. This clonal lineage, which appears to be particularly adapted to water networks, represents a potential risk for human infection and raises questions about its worldwide distribution. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Anions Analysis in Ground and Tap Waters by Sequential Chemical and CO2-Suppressed Ion Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen Andrew D. De Vera

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available An ion chromatographic method using conductivity detection with sequential chemical and CO2 suppression was optimized for the simultaneous determination of fluoride, chloride, bromide, nitrate,phosphate and sulfate in ground and tap water. The separation was done using an anion exchange column with an eluent of 3.2 mM Na2CO3 and 3.2 mM NaHCO3 mixture. The method was linear in the concentration range of 5 to 300 μg/L with correlation coefficients greater than 0.99 for the six inorganic anions. The method was also shown to be applicable in trace anions analysis as given by the low method detection limits (MDL. The MDL was 1μg/L for both fluoride and chloride. Bromide, nitrate, phosphate and sulfate had MDLs of 7 μg/L, 10 μg/L, 9 μg/L and 2 μg/L, respectively. Good precision was obtained as shown in the relative standard deviation of 0.1 to 12% for peak area and 0.1 to 0.3% for retention time. The sensitivity of the method improved with the addition of CO2 suppressor to chemical suppression as shown in the lower background conductivity and detection limits. The recoveries of the anions spiked in water at 300 μg/L level ranged from 100 to 104%. The method was demonstrated to be sensitive, accurate and precise for trace analysis of the six anions and was applied in the anions analysis in ground and tap waters in Malolos, Bulacan. The water samples were found to contain high concentrations of chloride of up to 476 mg/L followed by sulfate (38 mg/L, bromide (1 mg/L, phosphate (0.4 mg/L, fluoride (0.2 mg/L and nitrate (0.1 mg/L.

  20. Content of 226Ra in tap and mineral waters of the Republic of Croatia and possible health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marovic, G.; Sencar, J.

    1996-01-01

    The paper describes the study of the content of 222 Ra in drinking water of Croatia: tap water from the public supply system of several major urban centres and bottled mineral water from two mineral water springs. 222 Ra was determined by alpha-spectrometric measurement after radiochemical separation. The study showed that 222 Ra concentrations for investigated categories of waters are below the levels at which any unacceptable dose due to ingestion would arise. (author)

  1. Pseudo-outbreak of Cupriavidus pauculus infection at an outpatient clinic related to rinsing culturette swabs in tap water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balada-Llasat, Joan-Miquel; Elkins, Camille; Swyers, Lettie; Bannerman, Tammy; Pancholi, Preeti

    2010-07-01

    Cupriavidus pauculus is a water microorganism rarely isolated from clinical specimens. We describe a pseudo-outbreak in which multiple strains that were associated with moistening of culturette swabs with tap water were isolated from a single clinic before collecting the patient specimen.

  2. Assessment of drinking water quality at the tap using fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heibati, Masoumeh; Stedmon, Colin A; Stenroth, Karolina; Rauch, Sebastien; Toljander, Jonas; Säve-Söderbergh, Melle; Murphy, Kathleen R

    2017-11-15

    Treated drinking water may become contaminated while travelling in the distribution system on the way to consumers. Elevated dissolved organic matter (DOM) at the tap relative to the water leaving the treatment plant is a potential indicator of contamination, and can be measured sensitively, inexpensively and potentially on-line via fluorescence and absorbance spectroscopy. Detecting elevated DOM requires potential contamination events to be distinguished from natural fluctuations in the system, but how much natural variation to expect in a stable distribution system is unknown. In this study, relationships between DOM optical properties, microbial indicator organisms and trace elements were investigated for households connected to a biologically-stable drinking water distribution system. Across the network, humic-like fluorescence intensities showed limited variation (RSD = 3.5-4.4%), with half of measured variation explained by interactions with copper. After accounting for quenching by copper, fluorescence provided a very stable background signal (RSD infiltration of soil water would be detectable. Smaller infiltrations would be detectable in the case of contamination by sewage with a strong tryptophan-like fluorescence signal. These findings indicate that DOM fluorescence is a sensitive indicator of water quality changes in drinking water networks, as long as potential interferents are taken into account. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Observation of Isotope Ratios (δ2H, δ18O, 87Sr/86Sr) of Tap Water in Urban Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, C. J.; Tipple, B. J.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Urban environments are centers for rapidly growing populations. In order to meet the culinary water needs of these areas, municipal water departments use water from multiple locations and/or sources, often piped differentially to different locations within a municipality. This practice creates isotopically distinct locations within an urban area and therefore provides insight to urban water management practices. In our study we selected urban locations in the Salt Lake Valley, UT (SLV) and San Francisco Bay Area, CA (SFB) where we hypothesized geographically distinct water isotopic ratio differences existed. Within the SLV, municipal waters come from the same mountainous region, but are derived from different geologically distinct watersheds. In contrast, SFB waters are derived from regionally distinct water sources. We hypothesized that the isotope ratios of tap waters would differ based upon known municipal sources. To test this, tap water samples were collected throughout the urban regions in SLV and SFB and analyzed for δ2H, δ18O and 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios. Seasonal collections were also made to assess if isotope ratios differed throughout the year. Within SLV and SFB, different regions were characterized by distinct paired δ18O and 87Sr/86Sr values. These different realms also agreed with known differences in municipal water supplies within the general geographic region. Waters from different cities within Marin County showed isotopic differences, consistent with water derived from different local reservoirs. Seasonal variation was observed in paired δ18O and 87Sr/86Sr values of tap water for some locations within SLV and SFB, indicating management decisions to shift from one water source to another depending on demand and available resources. Our study revealed that the δ18O and 87Sr/86Sr values of tap waters in an urban region can exhibit significant differences despite close spatial proximity if districts differ in their use of local versus

  4. [One-time effects of drinking mineral water and tap water enriched with silver nanoparticles on the biochemical markers of liver condition and metabolic parameters in healthy rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimenko, N V; Frolkov, V K; Kozlova, V V; Kaisinova, A S; Chalaya, E N

    2017-12-05

     The objective of the present research was to study the influence of tap water enriched with silver nanoparticles (NP) as well as that of «Krasnoarmeysky» and «Essentuki №17» mineral waters after their single administration through the oral gavage to the rats on the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids, the biochemical markers of the liver condition, and the endocrine profile in the healthy animals.  The laboratory animals (130 male Wistar rats) were allocated to thirteen groups comprised of 10 rats each as follows: 1st group (n=10) intact animals, 2nd group (5 minutes after the administration of silver NP (n=10), 3rd group (15 minutes after the of silver NP), 4th group (60 minutes after the administration of silver NP), 5th group (n=10) (5 minutes after the introduction of the «Krasnoarmeysky» mineral water), 6th group (n=10) (15 min after the introduction of the «Krasnoarmeysky» mineral water), 7th group (n=10), (60 minutes after the introduction of the «Krasnoarmeysky» mineral water) 8th group (n=10) (5 minutes after the introduction of the «Essentuki № 17» mineral water), 9th group (n=10) (15 min after the introduction of the «Essentuki № 7» mineral water) , 10th group (n=10) (60 minutes after the introduction of the «Essentuki №17» mineral water), 11th group (n=10) (5 minutes after administration of tap water (control),12th group (n=10) (15 minutes after administration of tap water (control), and 13th (n=10) group 60 minutes after administration of tap water (control).  The study has demonstrated that the tap water enriched with silver nanoparticles similar to the mineral waters caused stress reactions that are inferior to those induced by «Essentuki №17» mineral water in terms of the magnitude; however, the effect provoked by the tap water was of longer duration. Moreover, the tap water enriched with silver nanoparticles stimulates prooxidant reactions, and inhibit the activity of antioxidant protection. Silver nanoparticles

  5. Estimation of the consumption of cold tap water for microbiological risk assessment: An overview of studies and statistical analysis of data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mons, M.N.; Wielen, J.M.L. van der; Blokker, E.J.M.; Sinclair, M.I.; Hulshof, K.F.A.M.; Dangendorf, F.; Hunter, P.R.; Medema, G.J.

    2007-01-01

    The volume of cold tap water consumed is an essential element in quantitative microbial risk assessment. This paper presents a review of tap water consumption studies. Study designs were evaluated and statistical distributions were fitted to water consumption data from The Netherlands, Great

  6. Persistence of antibiotic resistance genes and bacterial community changes in drinking water treatment system: From drinking water source to tap water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hao-Chang; Liu, You-Sheng; Pan, Chang-Gui; Chen, Jun; He, Liang-Ying; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2018-03-01

    As emerging contaminants, antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) have become a public concern. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence and diversity of ARGs, and variation in the composition of bacterial communities in source water, drinking water treatment plants, and tap water in the Pearl River Delta region, South China. Various ARGs were present in the different types of water. Among the 27 target ARGs, floR and sul1 dominated in source water from three large rivers in the region. Pearson correlation analysis suggested that sul1, sul2, floR, and cmlA could be potential indicators for ARGs in water samples. The total abundance of the detected ARGs in tap water was much lower than that in source water. Sand filtration and sedimentation in drinking water treatment plants could effectively remove ARGs; in contrast, granular activated carbon filtration increased the abundance of ARGs. It was found that Pseudomonas may be involved in the proliferation and dissemination of ARGs in the studied drinking water treatment system. Bacteria and ARGs were still present in tap water after treatment, though they were significantly reduced. More research is needed to optimize the water treatment process for ARG removal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Biofilm formation in an experimental water distribution system: the contamination of non-touch sensor taps and the implication for healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ginny; Stevenson, David; Thompson, Katy-Anne; Parks, Simon; Ngabo, Didier; Bennett, Allan M; Walker, Jimmy T

    2015-01-01

    Hospital tap water is a recognised source of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. U.K. guidance documents recommend measures to control/minimise the risk of P. aeruginosa in augmented care units but these are based on limited scientific evidence. An experimental water distribution system was designed to investigate colonisation of hospital tap components. P. aeruginosa was injected into 27 individual tap 'assemblies'. Taps were subsequently flushed twice daily and contamination levels monitored over two years. Tap assemblies were systematically dismantled and assessed microbiologically and the effect of removing potentially contaminated components was determined. P. aeruginosa was repeatedly recovered from the tap water at levels above the augmented care alert level. The organism was recovered from all dismantled solenoid valves with colonisation of the ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) diaphragm confirmed by microscopy. Removing the solenoid valves reduced P. aeruginosa counts in the water to below detectable levels. This effect was immediate and sustained, implicating the solenoid diaphragm as the primary contamination source.

  8. Health improvement of domestic hot tap water supply Gusev, Kaliningrad Region, Russia. Make-up water tank project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aagaard, Joergen

    1998-07-01

    This report describes the project `Health Improvement of Domestic Hot Tap Water Supply, Gusev, Kaliningrad, Russia`, which was carried out in the autumn of 1996 and financed by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency, the Danish Energy Agency and Gusev Municipality. The project proposal and application outlined the following objectives: Erection of system so that hot tap water, which is tapped directly from the district heating system, obtains an acceptable quality in health terms; Complete training and education, so that the plant can be operated and maintained by the power station`s staff and rehabilitation projects within supply of domestic water and district heating can be promoted to the greatest possible extent; Systems for heat treatment of make-up water were implemented in less than three months; The project was carried out in close Danish-Russian co-operation from the beginning of engineering to the commissioning and resulted in transfer and demonstration of know-how and technology; Information was recorded on the existing domestic water and heat supply systems as well as on the treatment of sewage, and recommendations for rehabilitation projects were made. Previously, when the temperature in the district heating system was relatively high, a heat treatment apparently took place in the district heating system. However, due to the current poor economic situation there are no means with which to buy the fuel quantities necessary to maintain the previously normal district heating temperature. In the new concept the cold make-up water is heated to >80 deg. C as required by the health authorities before it is led to the district heating return system and subsequently heated to the actual supply temperature of 50-60 deg. C. The energy consumption in the two concepts is approximately the same. A 1,000 m{sup 3} tank with heating coils was erected between the make-up water system and the district heating system. The tank should equalise the daily capacity

  9. Rate of Legionella pneumophila colonization in hospital hot water network after time flow taps installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totaro, M; Valentini, P; Costa, A L; Giorgi, S; Casini, B; Baggiani, A

    2018-01-01

    In hospital water systems legionellae may be resistant to disinfectants in pipework, which is a problem particularly in areas where there is low flow or stagnation of water. We evaluated legionella colonization of a water network of an Italian hospital after time flow taps (TFTs) installation in proximity to dead legs. The water volume flushed was 64 L/day from May 2016, and 192 L/day from December 2016. Before TFTs installation, Legionella pneumophila sg2-14 was detected in all points (4 × 10 4  ± 3.1 × 10 4  cfu/L). All sites remained positive (2.9 × 10 4  ± 1.9 × 10 4  cfu/L) through November 2016. From December 2016 legionella persisted in one point only (2 × 10 2 to 6.8 × 10 3  cfu/L). TFTs with chemical disinfection may reduce legionella colonization associated with dead legs. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Quantifying tap-to-household water quality deterioration in urban communities in Vellore, India: The impact of spatial assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcon Falconi, Tania M; Kulinkina, Alexandra V; Mohan, Venkata Raghava; Francis, Mark R; Kattula, Deepthi; Sarkar, Rajiv; Ward, Honorine; Kang, Gagandeep; Balraj, Vinohar; Naumova, Elena N

    2017-01-01

    Municipal water sources in India have been found to be highly contaminated, with further water quality deterioration occurring during household storage. Quantifying water quality deterioration requires knowledge about the exact source tap and length of water storage at the household, which is not usually known. This study presents a methodology to link source and household stored water, and explores the effects of spatial assumptions on the association between tap-to-household water quality deterioration and enteric infections in two semi-urban slums of Vellore, India. To determine a possible water source for each household sample, we paired household and tap samples collected on the same day using three spatial approaches implemented in GIS: minimum Euclidean distance; minimum network distance; and inverse network-distance weighted average. Logistic and Poisson regression models were used to determine associations between water quality deterioration and household-level characteristics, and between diarrheal cases and water quality deterioration. On average, 60% of households had higher fecal coliform concentrations in household samples than at source taps. Only the weighted average approach detected a higher risk of water quality deterioration for households that do not purify water and that have animals in the home (RR=1.50 [1.03, 2.18], p=0.033); and showed that households with water quality deterioration were more likely to report diarrheal cases (OR=3.08 [1.21, 8.18], p=0.02). Studies to assess contamination between source and household are rare due to methodological challenges and high costs associated with collecting paired samples. Our study demonstrated it is possible to derive useful spatial links between samples post hoc; and that the pairing approach affects the conclusions related to associations between enteric infections and water quality deterioration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. A simple optode based imaging technique to measure O2 distribution and dynamics in tap water biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staal, Marc Jaap; Prest, E.; Vrouwenvelder, H.

    2011-01-01

    window. The method is based on sequential imaging of the O2 dependent luminescence intensity, which are subsequently normalized with luminescent intensity images recorded under anoxic conditions. We present 2-dimensional O2 distribution images at the base of a tap water biofilm measured with the new...... is depleted during incubation....

  12. Thermodynamic and structural studies of mixed monolayers: Mutual mixing of DPPC and DPPG with DoTAP at the air-water interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panda, Amiya Kumar; Vasilev, Krasimir; Orgeig, Sandra; Prestidge, Clive A.

    2010-01-01

    Phospholipid monomolecular films at the air-water interface are useful model membranes to understand miscibility among various components. Surface pressure (π)-area (A) isotherms of pure and mixed monolayers of dioleoyltrimethylammonium propane (DoTAP)-dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and DoTAP-dipalmitoyphosphatidylglycerol (DPPG) were constructed using a surface balance. DPPC and DPPG produced isotherms as expected and reported earlier. DoTAP, an unsaturated lipid, demonstrated a continuous π-A isotherm. Associative interactions were identified in DPPC-DoTAP mixtures compared to the pure components, while DPPG-DoTAP mixtures showed repulsive interaction up to an equimolar ratio. Compression moduli of the monolayers revealed that DPPC-DoTAP mixtures had increasing stability with increasing surface pressure, but addition of DoTAP to DPPG showed instability at low and intermediate concentrations. In both cases increased stability was returned at higher X DoTAP values and surface pressures. Lipid monolayer film thickness values, determined on a gold coated glass substrate by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy (SPR), indicated a systematic change in height profile for DPPC-DoTAP mixtures with increasing X DoTAP . However, DPPG-DoTAP mixed monolayer systems demonstrated a biphasic response. The SPR data were in excellent agreement with our interpretation of the structure of solid supported lipid monolayers.

  13. Thermodynamic and structural studies of mixed monolayers: Mutual mixing of DPPC and DPPG with DoTAP at the air-water interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panda, Amiya Kumar, E-mail: akpanda1@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, University of North Bengal, Darjeeling-734 013, West Bengal (India); Vasilev, Krasimir [Mawson Institute for Advanced Manufacturing, Mawson Lakes, University of South Australia, SA-5095 (Australia); Orgeig, Sandra [Sansom Institute for Health Research and School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA 5000 (Australia); Prestidge, Clive A. [Ian Wark Research Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia)

    2010-05-10

    Phospholipid monomolecular films at the air-water interface are useful model membranes to understand miscibility among various components. Surface pressure ({pi})-area (A) isotherms of pure and mixed monolayers of dioleoyltrimethylammonium propane (DoTAP)-dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and DoTAP-dipalmitoyphosphatidylglycerol (DPPG) were constructed using a surface balance. DPPC and DPPG produced isotherms as expected and reported earlier. DoTAP, an unsaturated lipid, demonstrated a continuous {pi}-A isotherm. Associative interactions were identified in DPPC-DoTAP mixtures compared to the pure components, while DPPG-DoTAP mixtures showed repulsive interaction up to an equimolar ratio. Compression moduli of the monolayers revealed that DPPC-DoTAP mixtures had increasing stability with increasing surface pressure, but addition of DoTAP to DPPG showed instability at low and intermediate concentrations. In both cases increased stability was returned at higher X{sub DoTAP} values and surface pressures. Lipid monolayer film thickness values, determined on a gold coated glass substrate by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy (SPR), indicated a systematic change in height profile for DPPC-DoTAP mixtures with increasing X{sub DoTAP}. However, DPPG-DoTAP mixed monolayer systems demonstrated a biphasic response. The SPR data were in excellent agreement with our interpretation of the structure of solid supported lipid monolayers.

  14. The impact of the hot tap water load pattern in the industrial hall on the energy yield from solar collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidorów-Kaprawyl, Natalia; Dudkiewicz, Edyta

    2017-11-01

    The systems using solar energy, popular in Poland, can be used to supply hot water for the installation used by employees of industrial halls. In manufacturing plants, employing a large number of people, the demand for hot water is practically constant throughout the year and is characterized by periodic use at the end of each work shift. Dynamics of the hot water consumption depends on the number of shifts as well as working days and holidays. Additionally the maximum hot tap water demand occurs in the whole period of installation operation. In polish climatic conditions the solar collectors' systems have the largest capacity in the summer, while in winter they need to be assisted. Beside that the supply of renewable energy is uneven and depends on weather conditions. In the paper the one-hour step analysis concerning the dependence of the load pattern of the hot tap water preparation system on the energy yield from solar collectors had been performed.

  15. Pollution by Nonylphenol in river, tap water, and aquatic in an acid rain-plagued city in southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Yu; Jie, Zhou; Ya, Luo; Xuesong, Yang; Jing, Yang; Yu, Yang; Jiaqi, Yang; Jie, Xu

    2017-06-01

    Nonylphenol (NP) has provoked much environmental concern because of their weak estrogenic activities; however, few data are available on the environmental levels of the chemical in China. Environmental or river samples were assayed for NP by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique. The concentration for NP measured in Xiangjiang River, ranging from 0.174 to 3.411 μg/L with a mean value of 1.73 μg/L, was lower than the Water Quality Criteria for NP of the US (6.6 μg/L); however, the NP concentration was maintained at a higher level compare to the developed countries and other civil cities. NP concentration in downstream water was markedly higher than that both in midstream and upstream water. Tissue accumulation of NP was observed in aquatics. A ratio of mean concentration of NP in aquatic (chlamys farreri and hemiculter leucisculus) to that in river water was 241 and 1087, respectively. The presence of NP in tap water in two urban districts of Zunyi was common with a detectable rate reached 100.0%. Mean NP concentration in terminal tap water in Huichuan district was six times as high as Honghuagang district, which was above Standards for the Drinking Water Quality for Phenols of China (2 μg/L). The pollution of NP in Xiangjiang River, tap water, and aquatic in Zunyi belongs to moderate or severe level in the world.

  16. Contamination of Tap Water with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Legionella pneumophila, and Escherichia coli in Guilan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Ahmadi Jalali Moghadam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: River and underground waters are main sources of tap water in Guilan, Iran. Overlandwastes move into rivers during periods of heavy or extended rain that is very common in the area.Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Legionella pneumophila, and Escherichia coli are main human pathogenswith water source. This study is designed to determine the load of these bacteria in main water suppliesof the area.Methods: Samples were collected directly into sterile containers, concentrated by centrifuge,inoculated in enrichment medium and incubated for 3-4 days. DNA was extracted by using commercialkit. Several rounds of PCR was performed to search P. aeroginosa, integron I, Metallo-β-lactamasesgene, L. pneumophila, mip gene, and E. coli.Results: About 92.0% of the samples showed bacterial contamination as revealed by PCR with primersof 16S rRNAgene, 9.5% of the samples had L. pneumophila, and 11,1% had Pseudomonas aeruginosa,but Escherichia coli was not detected. We found the mip gene in 66.6% of the samples with L.pneumophila. Metallo-β-lactamasesgene was found in 11.1% of all samples. We also found Integrin 1in 28.5% of the samples with P. aeruginosa.Conclusion: This study indicates that in spite of chlorination, total bacterial contamination of potwaters in the area is high and contamination with L. pneumophila and P. aeroginosa is considerable. Itmight be related to the biofilm formation and the growth of water microflora. It seems that free residualchlorine is ineffective. We suggest a more effective decontamination procedure based on moderntechnology.

  17. Tapping Into Water: Key Considerations for Achieving Excellence in School Drinking Water Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Kenneth; Hampton, Karla E.; Grumbach, Jacob M.; Braff-Guajardo, Ellen; Brindis, Claire D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined free drinking water access in schools. Methods. We conducted cross-sectional interviews with administrators from 240 California public schools from May to November 2011 to examine the proportion of schools that met excellent water access criteria (i.e., location, density, type, maintenance, and appeal of water sources), school-level characteristics associated with excellent water access, and barriers to improvements. Results. No schools met all criteria for excellent water access. High schools and middle schools had lower fountain:student ratios than elementary schools (odds ratio [OR] = 0.06; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.02, 0.20; OR = 0.30, 95% CI = 0.12, 0.70). Rural schools were more likely to offer a nonfountain water source than city schools (OR = 5.0; 95% CI = 1.74, 14.70). Newer schools were more likely to maintain water sources than older schools (OR = 0.98; 95% CI = 0.97, 1.00). Schools that offered free water in food service areas increased from pre- to postimplementation of California’s school water policy (72%–83%; P water included cost of programs and other pressing concerns. Conclusions. Awareness of the benefits related to school drinking water provision and funding may help communities achieve excellence in drinking water access. PMID:24832141

  18. Health risk assessment of trihalomethanes from tap water in Karachi, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karim, Z.; Mumtaz, M.; Kamal, T.

    2011-01-01

    Risk assessment study of trihalomethanes (THMs) through different exposure pathways is based on the results of THMs concentration in tap water samples collected from various locations of Karachi city. The lifetime cancer risk and hazard index of each THM species were used to estimate the health risk from THM exposure through oral ingestion and dermal absorption. Exposure to CHCl/sub 3/ either through ingestion or dermal contact was found to be the most important pathway for cancer risks from THMs. It was also found that the residents of Karachi have a higher risk of cancer through oral ingestion than through the dermal absorption. The mean hazard index value of Total trihalomethanes (TTHMs) through oral ingestion and dermal absorption was calculated to be 8.84 X 10/sup -2/ and 4.39 X 10/sup -3/, respectively. The results of hazard index were found lower than unity, which did not indicate the non-cancer effects of THMs. On the basis of cancer risk analysis, it is expected that approximately 2 of the 18 million population of Karachi could get cancer each year due to exposure to the THMs. (author)

  19. Development of a Certified Reference Material (NMIJ CRM 7203-a) for Elemental Analysis of Tap Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanbei; Narukawa, Tomohiro; Inagaki, Kazumi; Miyashita, Shin-Ichi; Kuroiwa, Takayoshi; Ariga, Tomoko; Kudo, Izumi; Koguchi, Masae; Heo, Sung Woo; Suh, Jung Ki; Lee, Kyoung-Seok; Yim, Yong-Hyeon; Lim, Youngran

    2017-01-01

    A certified reference material (CRM), NMIJ CRM 7203-a, was developed for the elemental analysis of tap water. At least two independent analytical methods were applied to characterize the certified value of each element. The elements certified in the present CRM were as follows: Al, As, B, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sb, Se, Sr, and Zn. The certified value for each element was given as the (property value ± expanded uncertainty), with a coverage factor of 2 for the expanded uncertainty. The expanded uncertainties were estimated while considering the contribution of the analytical methods, the method-to-method variance, the sample homogeneity, the long-term stability, and the concentrations of the standard solutions for calibration. The concentration of Hg (0.39 μg kg -1 ) was given as the information value, since loss of Hg was observed when the sample was stored at room temperature and exposed to light. The certified values of selected elements were confirmed by a co-analysis carried out independently by the NMIJ (Japan) and the KRISS (Korea).

  20. The efficiency of the heat pump water heater, during DHW tapping cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gużda, Arkadiusz; Szmolke, Norbert

    2017-10-01

    This paper discusses one of the most effective systems for domestic hot water (DHW) production based on air-source heat pump with an integrated tank. The operating principle of the heat pump is described in detail. Moreover, there is an account of experimental set-up and results of the measurements. In the experimental part, measurements were conducted with the aim of determining the energy parameters and measures of the economic efficiency related to the presented solution. The measurements that were conducted are based on the tapping cycle that is similar to the recommended one in EN-16147 standard. The efficiency of the air source heat pump during the duration of the experiment was 2.43. In the end of paper, authors conducted a simplified ecological analysis in order to determine the influence of operation of air-source heat pump with integrated tank on the environment. Moreover the compression with the different source of energy (gas boiler with closed combustion chamber and boiler fired by the coal) was conducted. The heat pump is the ecological friendly source of the energy.

  1. The efficiency of the heat pump water heater, during DHW tapping cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gużda Arkadiusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses one of the most effective systems for domestic hot water (DHW production based on air-source heat pump with an integrated tank. The operating principle of the heat pump is described in detail. Moreover, there is an account of experimental set-up and results of the measurements. In the experimental part, measurements were conducted with the aim of determining the energy parameters and measures of the economic efficiency related to the presented solution. The measurements that were conducted are based on the tapping cycle that is similar to the recommended one in EN-16147 standard. The efficiency of the air source heat pump during the duration of the experiment was 2.43. In the end of paper, authors conducted a simplified ecological analysis in order to determine the influence of operation of air-source heat pump with integrated tank on the environment. Moreover the compression with the different source of energy (gas boiler with closed combustion chamber and boiler fired by the coal was conducted. The heat pump is the ecological friendly source of the energy.

  2. Synergistic Effect of Molybdate and Monoethanolamine on Corrosion Inhibition of Ductile Cast Iron in Tap Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K. T.; Kim, Y. S. [Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Chang, H. Y.; Lim, B. T.; Park, H. B. [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Company, Gimcheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    A synergistic effect was observed in the combination of nitrite and ethanolamines. Ethanolamine is one of the representative organic corrosion inhibitors and can be categorized as adsorption type. However, nitrosamines can form when amines mix with sodium nitrite. Since nitrosamine is a carcinogen, the co-addition of nitrite and ethanolamine will be not practical, and thus, a non-toxic combination of inhibitors shall be needed. In order to maximize the effect of monoethanolamine, we focused on the addition of molybdate. Molybdate has been used to alternate the addition of chromate, but it showed insufficient oxidizing power relative to corrosion inhibitors. This work evaluated the synergistic effect of the co-addition of molybdate and monoethanolamine, and its corrosion mechanism was elucidated. A high concentration of molybdate or monoethanolamine was needed to inhibit the corrosion of ductile cast iron in tap water, but in the case of the co-addition of molybdate and monoethanolamine, a synergistic effect was observed. This synergistic effect could be attributed to the molybdate that partly oxidizes the metallic surface and the monoethanolamine that is simultaneously adsorbed on the graphite surface. This adsorbed layer then acts as the barrier layer that mitigates galvanic corrosion between the graphite and the matrix.

  3. Thermodynamic analysis of vapor compression heat pump cycle for tap water heating and development of CO_2 heat pump water heater for residential use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saikawa, Michiyuki; Koyama, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The ideal vapor compression cycle for tap water heating and its COP were defined. • It was verified theoretically that CO_2 achieves the highest COP for tap water heating. • The prototype of CO_2 heat pump water heater for residential use was developed. • Further COP improvement of CO_2 heat pump water heater was estimated. - Abstract: The ideal vapor compression cycle for tap water heating and its coefficient of performance (COP) have been studied theoretically at first. The ideal cycle is defined as the cycle whose high temperature heat source varies temperature with constant specific heat and other processes are same as the reverse Carnot cycle. The COP upper limit of single stage compression heat pump cycle for tap water heating with various refrigerants such as fluorocarbons and natural refrigerants was calculated. The refrigerant which achieves the highest COP for supplying hot water is CO_2. Next, the prototype of CO_2 heat pump water heater for residential use has been developed. Its outline and experimental results are described. Finally its further possibility of COP improvement has been studied. The COP considered a limit from a technical point of view was estimated about 6.0 at the Japanese shoulder season (spring and autumn) test condition of heating water from 17 °C to 65 °C at 16 °C heat source air temperature (dry bulb)/12 °C (wet bulb).

  4. Enhanced chlorine resistance of tap water-adapted Legionella pneumophila as compared with agar medium-passaged strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchta, J M; States, S J; McGlaughlin, J E; Overmeyer, J H; Wadowsky, R M; McNamara, A M; Wolford, R S; Yee, R B

    1985-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that bacteria maintained in a low-nutrient "natural" environment such as swimming pool water are much more resistant to disinfection by various chemical agents than strains maintained on rich media. In the present study a comparison was made of the chlorine (Cl2) susceptibility of hot-water tank isolates of Legionella pneumophila maintained in tap water and strains passaged on either nonselective buffered charcoal-yeast extract or selective differential glycine-vancomycin-polymyxin agar medium. Our earlier work has shown that environmental and clinical isolates of L. pneumophila maintained on agar medium are much more resistant to Cl2 than coliforms are. Under the present experimental conditions (21 degrees C, pH 7.6 to 8.0, and 0.25 mg of free residual Cl2 per liter, we found the tap water-maintained L. pneumophila strains to be even more resistant than the agar-passaged isolates. Under these conditions, 99% kill of tap water-maintained strains of L. pneumophila was usually achieved within 60 to 90 min compared with 10 min for agar-passaged strains. Samples from plumbing fixtures in a hospital yielded legionellae which were "super"-chlorine resistant when assayed under natural conditions. After one agar passage their resistance dropped to levels of comparable strains which had not been previously exposed to additional chlorination. These studies more closely approximate natural conditions than our previous work and show that tap water-maintained L. pneumophila is even more resistant to Cl2 than its already resistant agar medium-passaged counterpart.

  5. Some aspects of the role of inhibitors in the corrosion of copper in tap water as observed by cyclic voltammetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi, H.; Burstein, G.T.; Rodriguez, B.B.; Kawaley, G.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The presence of Fernox ® inhibits both the anodic and cathodic reactions of copper in tap water, with the anodic reaction more heavily supressed. • Fernox ® is more inhibitive than the individual components, BTA or TEA, and also more inhibitive than a mixture of the two. • BTA is the dominant inhibitive component of Fernox ® . TEA also inhibits the reaction, but less effectively. • The inhibitors show the same degree of inhibition and the same mechanism of inhibition in hard and soft tap water. • A mechanism of inhibition is proposed whereby the inhibitor forms a film on the surface, which is reactive: surface polymerization of the reactive inhibitor is proposed. - Abstract: Cyclic voltammetric examination of the corrosion and inhibition of copper in hard and soft tap-waters in the presence of a commercial inhibitor containing benzotriazole (BTA) and triethanolamine (TEA), or its separate components, is presented. The anodic and cathodic reactions are both strongly inhibited, although the anodic reaction more so. BTA is by far the dominant inhibiting component. The inhibitor forms a polymerized reactive adsorbed surface film. Inhibition of the cathodic reaction (oxygen reduction) is not due to electron resistivity of the inhibitor, but rather, by heavily reduced surface coverage of adsorbed oxygen over a wide range of oxygen reduction overpotential.

  6. Dichlorvos (DDVP residue removal from tomato by washing with tap and ozone water, a commercial detergent solution and ultrasonic cleaner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali HESHMATI

    Full Text Available Abstract Dichlorvos (DDVP is one of the most consumption chlorinated organophosphate insecticide used on tomato. The knowledge about the influence of postharvest household processes on the levels of DDVP residues in vegetables is required to estimate dietary exposure. In this study, the removal of sprayed dichlorvos (DDVP on tomato by washing with tap, ozonated water (in dosages of 2, 4 and 6 mg ozone/L, a commercial detergent solution (in concentration of 1, 2 and 3% and ultrasonic cleaner (with power of 100, 200 and 300 W was investigated. DDVP residue was determined by gas chromatography with electron capture detector. Washing processes led to the significant reduction of DDVP. The gradual increase in the percentage of the removal was observed due to increment of washing time, ozone dosage, and concentration of detergent solution as well as ultrasonic power. The maximum removal percentage of DDVP after 15 min of washing with tap and ozonated water, a detergent solution and ultrasonic cleaner was 30.7, 91.9, 70.7, and 88.9%, respectively. In general, results indicated washing with tap, ozonated water, a detergent solution and ultrasonic cleaning are effective methods for removal of DDVP from tomato and reduction of its dietary exposure without influence on product quality.

  7. The Effect of Different Boiling and Filtering Devices on the Concentration of Disinfection By-Products in Tap Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glòria Carrasco-Turigas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Disinfection by-products (DBPs are ubiquitous contaminants in tap drinking water with the potential to produce adverse health effects. Filtering and boiling tap water can lead to changes in the DBP concentrations and modify the exposure through ingestion. Changes in the concentration of 4 individual trihalomethanes (THM4 (chloroform (TCM, bromodichloromethane (BDCM, dibromochloromethane (DBCM, and bromoform (TBM, MX, and bromate were tested when boiling and filtering high bromine-containing tap water from Barcelona. For filtering, we used a pitcher-type filter and a household reverse osmosis filter; for boiling, an electric kettle, a saucepan, and a microwave were used. Samples were taken before and after each treatment to determine the change in the DBP concentration. pH, conductivity, and free/total chlorine were also measured. A large decrease of THM4 (from 48% to 97% and MX concentrations was observed for all experiments. Bromine-containing trihalomethanes were mostly eliminated when filtering while chloroform when boiling. There was a large decrease in the concentration of bromate with reverse osmosis, but there was a little effect in the other experiments. These findings suggest that the exposure to THM4 and MX through ingestion is reduced when using these household appliances, while the decrease of bromate is device dependent. This needs to be considered in the exposure assessment of the epidemiological studies.

  8. The evaluation of the classical Kirby-Bauer antibiogram method for the determination of antibiotic resistant microorganisms in tap water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siedlecka Agata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Water supply systems are the main source of potable water for many inhabitants. The European Union and Polish laws demand high quality of tap water, but the aspect of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB is not mentioned. The special emphasis is placed on the presence of pathogenic microorganisms in water, determining by the presence of chosen indicators. Although these regulations provide quite good quality of drinking water, the neglect of resistance vectors could lead to a serious threat to human health. In this study the randomly chosen sample of water from the Wroclaw water supply system was tested in order to evaluate the usefulness of Kirby-Bauer antibiogram method for the assessment of the presence of ARB. The susceptibility testing with 6 chosen antibiotics was performed on bacterial strains isolated from the sample. The diameters of growth inhibition zones were measured and the preliminary identification of strains was carried out, including Gram staining and bacterial cellular morphologies assessments. Although full recognition of the drug resistance phenomenon demands the identification of bacterial species for the comparison with susceptibility testing guidelines, this preliminary research could answer the question, whether the Kirby-Bauer method is sufficient for investigations of ARB dwelling in Wroclaw tap water or the other solution should be applied.

  9. Efficient Disinfection of Tap and Surface Water with Single High Power 285 nm LED and Square Quartz Tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Hessling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A small water disinfection system based on the combination of a strong single 25 mW LED with a wavelength of 285 nm and a short quartz tube with an outer rectangular cross section is presented. For the disinfection tests clear tap water and slightly turbid and yellow pond water are contaminated with high concentrations of Escherichia coli bacteria. These water samples are exposed to the germicidal 285 nm LED radiation while they flow through the quartz tube. The portion of surviving germs is determined by membrane filtration for different water qualities and flow rates. For clear tap water the bacteria concentration can be reduced by at least three orders of magnitude up to flow rates of about 20 L/h. In pond water the maximum flow rate for such a reduction is less than 3 L/h. These high disinfection capabilities and the small size of this system, allow its integration in medical systems for point of use disinfection or even its application in the Third World for decentralized water disinfection powered by small solar cells, because this disinfection capacity should be sufficient for small groups or families.

  10. Contamination of hospital tap water: the survival and persistence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on conventional and 'antimicrobial' outlet fittings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, C F; Moore, G; Thompson, K-A; Webb, J; Walker, J T

    2017-10-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections have been linked to contaminated hospital taps, highlighting the potential for tap outlet fittings (OF) to harbour biofilm. P. aeruginosa may be transferred to OFs via contaminated cleaning cloths. Suggested interventions include flushing regimens and alternative OF designs. To investigate the transfer of P. aeruginosa from a contaminated cleaning cloth to conventional and 'antimicrobial/antibiofilm' OFs and to determine whether this contamination persists and/or leads to contamination of tap water. Microfibre cloths contaminated with P. aeruginosa (10 8  cfu/mL) were used to wipe four different types of OF [one of conventional design (OF-A) and three marketed as 'antimicrobial' and/or 'antibiofilm' (OF- B, -C and -D)]. OFs were inserted into an experimental water distribution system for up to 24 h. Survival was assessed by culture. Single and multiple water samples were collected and cultured for P. aeruginosa. The median number of P. aeruginosa transferred from cloth to OF was 5.7 × 10 5  cfu (OF-A), 1.9 × 10 6  cfu (OF-B), 1.4 × 10 5  cfu (OF-C) and 2.9 × 10 6  cfu (OF-D). Numbers declined on all OFs during the 24 h period with log reductions ranging from 3.5 (OF-C) to 5.2 (OF-B; P > 0.05). All water samples delivered immediately after OF contamination contained P. aeruginosa at ≥10 cfu per 100 mL. Contamination of water delivered from OF-A persisted despite continued flushing. Water delivered from OF-B did not contain P. aeruginosa beyond the first flush. Contaminated cleaning cloths may transfer P. aeruginosa to OFs, leading to contamination of tap water. Although not removing the potential for contamination, 'antimicrobial/antibiofilm' OFs may prevent P. aeruginosa from continually contaminating water delivered from the outlet. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Airborne exposure to trihalomethanes from tap water in homes with refrigeration-type and evaporative cooling systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerger, Brent D; Suder, David R; Schmidt, Chuck E; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2005-03-26

    This study evaluates airborne concentrations of common trihalomethane compounds (THM) in selected living spaces of homes supplied with chlorinated tap water containing >85 ppb total THM. Three small homes in an arid urban area were selected, each having three bedrooms, a full bath, and approximately 1000 square feet; two homes had standard (refrigeration-type) central air conditioning and the third had a central evaporative cooling system ("swamp cooler"). A high-end water-use pattern was used at each home in this exposure simulation. THM were concurrently measured on 4 separate test days in tap water and air in the bathroom, living room, the bedroom closest to the bathroom, and outside using Summa canisters. Chloroform (trichloromethane, TCM), bromodichloromethane (BDCM), and dibromochloromethane (DBCM) concentrations were quantified using U.S. EPA Method TO-14. The apparent volatilization fraction consistently followed the order: TCM > BDCM > DBCM. Relatively low airborne THM concentrations (similar to outdoors) were found in the living room and bedroom samples for the home with evaporative cooling, while the refrigeration-cooled homes showed significantly higher THM levels (three- to fourfold). This differential remained after normalizing the air concentrations based on estimated THM throughput or water concentrations. These findings indicate that, despite higher throughput of THM-containing water in homes using evaporative coolers, the higher air exchange rates associated with these systems rapidly clears THM to levels similar to ambient outdoor concentrations.

  12. Evaluation of averted doses to members of the Public by tap water restrictions after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinase, Sakae; Kimura, Masanori; Hato, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of urgent protective measures such as tap water restrictions and bottled water supplies in the early stage of an emergency exposure situation was studied after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. Temporal changes in the concentration of an important radionuclide –iodine 131– in tap water were analyzed using published data in Fukushima, Ibaraki and Tokyo. Averted doses to members of the public due to chronic intakes of iodine 131 through tap water restrictions were also evaluated using an internal dose calculation code, DSYS-chronic code. In addition, the costs of bottled water supplies were calculated approximately. Consequently, it was found that the apparent half-life of iodine 131 in tap water was 2.8±1.2 days. The averted equivalent doses to the thyroid of members of the public –1-year-old children– were found to have a maximum value of 8.2 mSv in a local area of Fukushima. In comparison with Fukushima, the bottled water supplies might be a large sum of money regardless of the low doses in Tokyo. In conclusion, apart from the bottled water supplies, the tap water restrictions implemented by the authorities would be effective after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. (author)

  13. When urban taps run dry: sachet water consumption and health effects in low income neighborhoods of Accra, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoler, Justin; Fink, Günther; Weeks, John R; Otoo, Richard Appiah; Ampofo, Joseph A; Hill, Allan G

    2012-03-01

    Intraurban differentials in safe drinking water in developing cities have been exacerbated by rapid population growth that exceeds expansion of local water infrastructure. In Accra, Ghana, municipal water is rationed to meet demand, and the gap in water services is increasingly being filled by private water vendors selling packaged "sachet" water. Sachets extend drinking water coverage deeper into low-income areas and alleviate the need for safe water storage, potentially introducing a health benefit over stored tap water. We explore correlates of using sachets as the primary drinking water source for 2093 women in 37 census areas classified as slums by UN-Habitat, and links between sachet water and reported diarrhea episodes in a subset of 810 children under five. We find that neighborhood rationing exerts a strong effect on a household's likelihood of buying sachet water, and that sachet customers tend to be the poorest of the poor. Sachet use is also associated with higher levels of self-reported overall health in women, and lower likelihood of diarrhea in children. We conclude with implications for sachet regulation in Accra and other sub-Saharan cities facing drinking water shortages. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. When urban taps run dry: Sachet water consumption and health effects in low income neighborhoods of Accra, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoler, Justin; Fink, Günther; Weeks, John R.; Otoo, Richard Appiah; Ampofo, Joseph A.; Hill, Allan G.

    2011-01-01

    Intraurban differentials in safe drinking water in developing cities have been exacerbated by rapid population growth that exceeds expansion of local water infrastructure. In Accra, Ghana, municipal water is rationed to meet demand, and the gap in water services is increasingly being filled by private water vendors selling packaged “sachet” water. Sachets extend drinking water coverage deeper into low-income areas and alleviate the need for safe water storage, potentially introducing a health benefit over stored tap water. We explore correlates of using sachets as the primary drinking water source for 2,093 women in 37 census areas classified as slums by UN-Habitat, and links between sachet water and reported diarrhea episodes in a subset of 810 children under five. We find that neighborhood rationing exerts a strong effect on a household's likelihood of buying sachet water, and that sachet customers tend to be the poorest of the poor. Sachet use is also associated with higher levels of self-reported overall health in women, and lower likelihood of diarrhea in children. We conclude with implications for sachet regulation in Accra and other sub-Saharan cities facing drinking water shortages. PMID:22018970

  15. Analytical assessment about the simultaneous quantification of releasable pharmaceutical relevant inorganic nanoparticles in tap water and domestic waste water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krystek, Petra; Bäuerlein, Patrick S; Kooij, Pascal J F

    2015-03-15

    For pharmaceutical applications, the use of inorganic engineered nanoparticles is of growing interest while silver (Ag) and gold (Au) are the most relevant elements. A few methods were developed recently but the validation and the application testing were quite limited. Therefore, a routinely suitable multi element method for the identification of nanoparticles of different sizes below 100 nm and elemental composition by applying asymmetric flow field flow fraction (AF4) - inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) is developed. A complete validation model of the quantification of releasable pharmaceutical relevant inorganic nanoparticles based on Ag and Au is presented for the most relevant aqueous matrices of tap water and domestic waste water. The samples are originated from locations in the Netherlands and it is of great interest to study the unwanted presence of Ag and Au as nanoparticle residues due to possible health and environmental risks. During method development, instability effects are observed for 60 nm and 70 nm Ag ENPs with different capping agents. These effects are studied more closely in relation to matrix effects. Besides the methodological aspects, the obtained analytical results and relevant performance characteristics (e.g. measuring range, limit of detection, repeatability, reproducibility, trueness, and expanded uncertainty of measurement) are determined and discussed. For the chosen aqueous matrices, the results of the performance characteristics are significantly better for Au ENPs in comparison to Ag ENPs; e.g. repeatability and reproducibility are below 10% for all Au ENPs respectively maximal 27% repeatability for larger Ag ENPs. The method is a promising tool for the simultaneous determination of releasable pharmaceutical relevant inorganic nanoparticles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Biofilm Composition and Threshold Concentration for Growth of Legionella pneumophila on Surfaces Exposed to Flowing Warm Tap Water without Disinfectant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kooij, Dick; Bakker, Geo L; Italiaander, Ronald; Veenendaal, Harm R; Wullings, Bart A

    2017-03-01

    Legionella pneumophila in potable water installations poses a potential health risk, but quantitative information about its replication in biofilms in relation to water quality is scarce. Therefore, biofilm formation on the surfaces of glass and chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) in contact with tap water at 34 to 39°C was investigated under controlled hydraulic conditions in a model system inoculated with biofilm-grown L. pneumophila The biofilm on glass (average steady-state concentration, 23 ± 9 pg ATP cm -2 ) exposed to treated aerobic groundwater (0.3 mg C liter -1 ; 1 μg assimilable organic carbon [AOC] liter -1 ) did not support growth of the organism, which also disappeared from the biofilm on CPVC (49 ± 9 pg ATP cm -2 ) after initial growth. L. pneumophila attained a level of 4.3 log CFU cm -2 in the biofilms on glass (1,055 ± 225 pg ATP cm -2 ) and CPVC (2,755 ± 460 pg ATP cm -2 ) exposed to treated anaerobic groundwater (7.9 mg C liter -1 ; 10 μg AOC liter -1 ). An elevated biofilm concentration and growth of L. pneumophila were also observed with tap water from the laboratory. The Betaproteobacteria Piscinibacter and Methyloversatilis and amoeba-resisting Alphaproteobacteria predominated in the clones and isolates retrieved from the biofilms. In the biofilms, the Legionella colony count correlated significantly with the total cell count (TCC), heterotrophic plate count, ATP concentration, and presence of Vermamoeba vermiformis This amoeba was rarely detected at biofilm concentrations of water-associated disease outbreaks reported in the United States. The organism proliferates in biofilms on surfaces exposed to warm water in engineered freshwater installations. An investigation with a test system supplied with different types of warm drinking water without disinfectant under controlled hydraulic conditions showed that treated aerobic groundwater (0.3 mg liter -1 of organic carbon) induced a low biofilm concentration that supported no or very

  17. Radon in Soil and Tap Water in Lika-Senj County

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krpan, I.; Miklavcic, I.; Muzevic, I.; Poje, M.; Radolic, V.; Stanic, D.; Vukovic, B.; Petrinec, B.

    2013-01-01

    Radon concentration in soil and water in settlements of Lika-Senj County was measured in September 2012 with the Alpha GUARD measuring system. The measured values of radon concentrations in soil at 19 locations were in range from 12.6 (Novalja) to 258.7 kBq/m 3 (Plitvièka Jezera) with the mean of 83.5 kBq/m 3 and standard deviation of 69.3 kBq/m 3 . The obtained average value puts the soil of Lika-Senj County, and according to the used soil classification, into soil of medium geogenic radon potential. It is important to emphasize that radon concentration exceeds the value of 100 kBq m -3 in one third of the measured locations which classifies those areas into areas with high geogenic radon potential. Other radionuclides in soil (40K, 137Cs, 226Ra, 238U, 232Th) were also measured and their values were commented and correlated with the values of radon and thoron. Radon concentrations in the municipal water supply systems of Lika-Senj County were in range from 0.2 Bq/l (Otocac) to 11.2 Bq/l (Gospiæ). The highest value was ten times lower than the usual reference level of 100 Bq/l. The estimated maximum annual radon dose, for children, received by drinking water (75 liters per year) from the municipal water supply Gospiæ is 2.9 μSv.(author)

  18. Detection of trace levels of Pb2+ in tap water at boron-doped diamond electrodes with anodic stripping voltammetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragoe, Diana; Spataru, Nicolae; Kawasaki, Ryuji; Manivannan, Ayyakkannu; Spataru, Tanta; Tryk, Donald A.; Fujishima, Akira

    2006-01-01

    Boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes were used to investigate the possibility of detecting trace levels of lead by linear-sweep anodic stripping voltammetry. The low limit of detection (2 nM) is an advantage compared to other electrode materials, and it was found that at low pH values, copper concentrations that are usually present in drinking water do not affect to a large extent the detection of lead. These findings recommend anodic stripping voltammetry at the BDD electrodes as a suitable mercury-free method for the determination of trace levels of lead in drinking water. The results obtained for the lead detection in tap water real samples are in excellent agreement with those found by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), demonstrating the practical analytical utility of the method

  19. Biological and photocatalytic treatment integrated with separation and reuse of titanium dioxide on the removal of chlorophenols in tap water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryaman, Dhanus; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi

    2010-01-01

    We investigated biological, photocatalytic, and combination of biological and photocatalytic treatments in order to remove a mixture of 2-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, and pentachlorophenol in tap water (total: 100 mg L -1 , each: 25 mg L -1 ). The removal of chlorinated phenols was conducted with a flow biological treatment and a circulative flow photocatalytic treatment under black light and sunlight irradiations integrated with titanium dioxide separation and reuse. The combined biological-photocatalytic treatment significantly shortened the degradation and mineralization time of both the biological treatment and the photocatalytic treatment. The removed chlorophenols per hour by the combined biological-photocatalytic treatment was 25.8 mg h -1 , whereas by the combined photocatalytic-biological treatment was 10.5 mg h -1 . After a large portion of biodegradable 2-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol, and around half amount of slightly biodegradable 2,4,5-trichlorophenol were removed by the biological treatment, the remained three chlorophenols, biorecalcitrant pentachlorophenol, and biodegradation products were completely removed by the subsequent photocatalytic treatment. Since titanium dioxide particles in tap water spontaneously sedimented on standing after the photocatalytic treatment, the combined treatment can be operated by integrating with the titanium dioxide separation and reuse. The TiO 2 particles were recovered and reused at least three times without significantly decreasing the removal efficiency.

  20. Biological and photocatalytic treatment integrated with separation and reuse of titanium dioxide on the removal of chlorophenols in tap water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suryaman, Dhanus, E-mail: dhanussuryaman@yahoo.com [Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology, M.H. Thamrin No. 8, Jakarta 10340 (Indonesia); Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Hasegawa, Kiyoshi [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan)

    2010-11-15

    We investigated biological, photocatalytic, and combination of biological and photocatalytic treatments in order to remove a mixture of 2-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, and pentachlorophenol in tap water (total: 100 mg L{sup -1}, each: 25 mg L{sup -1}). The removal of chlorinated phenols was conducted with a flow biological treatment and a circulative flow photocatalytic treatment under black light and sunlight irradiations integrated with titanium dioxide separation and reuse. The combined biological-photocatalytic treatment significantly shortened the degradation and mineralization time of both the biological treatment and the photocatalytic treatment. The removed chlorophenols per hour by the combined biological-photocatalytic treatment was 25.8 mg h{sup -1}, whereas by the combined photocatalytic-biological treatment was 10.5 mg h{sup -1}. After a large portion of biodegradable 2-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol, and around half amount of slightly biodegradable 2,4,5-trichlorophenol were removed by the biological treatment, the remained three chlorophenols, biorecalcitrant pentachlorophenol, and biodegradation products were completely removed by the subsequent photocatalytic treatment. Since titanium dioxide particles in tap water spontaneously sedimented on standing after the photocatalytic treatment, the combined treatment can be operated by integrating with the titanium dioxide separation and reuse. The TiO{sub 2} particles were recovered and reused at least three times without significantly decreasing the removal efficiency.

  1. Human exposure to thallium through tap water: A study from Valdicastello Carducci and Pietrasanta (northern Tuscany, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanella, Beatrice; Onor, Massimo; D'Ulivo, Alessandro; Giannecchini, Roberto; D'Orazio, Massimo; Petrini, Riccardo; Bramanti, Emilia

    2016-04-01

    A geological study evidenced the presence of thallium (Tl) at concentrations of concern in groundwaters near Valdicastello Carducci (Tuscany, Italy). The source of contamination has been identified in the Tl-bearing pyrite ores occurring in the abandoned mining sites of the area. The strongly acidic internal waters flowing in the mining tunnels can reach exceptional Tl concentrations, up to 9000μg/L. In September 2014 Tl contamination was also found in the tap water distributed in the same area (from 2 to 10μg/L). On October 3, 2014 the local authorities imposed a Do Not Drink order to the population. Here we report the results of the exposure study carried out from October 2014 to October 2015, and aimed at quantifying Tl levels in 150 urine and 318 hair samples from the population of Valdicastello Carducci and Pietrasanta. Thallium was quantified by inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Urine and hair were chosen as model matrices indicative of different time periods of exposure (short-term and long-term, respectively). Thallium values found in biological samples were correlated with Tl concentrations found in tap water in the living area of each citizen, and with his/her habits. Thallium concentration range found in hair and urine was 1-498ng/g (values in unexposed subjects 0.1-6ng/g) and 0.046-5.44μg/L (reference value for the European population 0.006μg/L), respectively. Results show that Tl levels in biological samples were significantly associated with residency in zones containing elevated water Tl levels. The kinetics of decay of Tl concentration in urine samples was also investigated. At the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on human contamination by Tl through water involving such a high number of samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Chemical speciation analysis for bromine in tap water by ion chromatography/inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurata, Keigo; Suzuki, Yoshinari; Furuta, Naoki

    2010-01-01

    Bromide compounds in tap water were measured by using a hyphenated technique of ion chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (IC/ICP-MS) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). We identified bromide ion (Br - ), bromate ion (BrO 3 - ), bromochloroacetic acid (BCAA), dibromoacetic acid (DBAA) and bromodichloroacetic acid (BDCAA) by standard addition methods with IC/ICP-MS. Moreover, we identified BCAA and BDCAA by ESI-MS after separation with IC. Br - , BrO 3 - , BCAA, DBAA and BDCAA in tap water collected from around Tokyo area were quantified by IC/ICP-MS. The maximum concentration of BrO 3 - (1.8 ng mL -1 ) was observed in tap water collected from Bunkyo-ku, although this concentration was lower than 10 ng mL -1 , which is the regulated concentration in Japan. DBAA, which is regulated by United States Environmental Protection Agency, was detected in tap water collected from all sites, except for Ome. However, since BrO 3 - and DBAA are toxic, it is necessary to continue monitoring bromide compounds in tap water. (author)

  3. Stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopes of tap water reveal structure of the San Francisco Bay Area's water system and adjustments during a major drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipple, Brett J; Jameel, Yusuf; Chau, Thuan H; Mancuso, Christy J; Bowen, Gabriel J; Dufour, Alexis; Chesson, Lesley A; Ehleringer, James R

    2017-08-01

    Water availability and sustainability in the Western United States is a major flashpoint among expanding communities, growing industries, and productive agricultural lands. This issue came to a head in 2015 in the State of California, when the State mandated a 25% reduction in urban water use following a multi-year drought that significantly depleted water resources. Water demands and challenges in supplying water are only expected to intensify as climate perturbations, such as the 2012-2015 California Drought, become more common. As a consequence, there is an increased need to understand linkages between urban centers, water transport and usage, and the impacts of climate change on water resources. To assess if stable hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios could increase the understanding of these relationships within a megalopolis in the Western United States, we collected and analyzed 723 tap waters across the San Francisco Bay Area during seven collection campaigns spanning 21 months during 2013-2015. The San Francisco Bay Area was selected as it has well-characterized water management strategies and the 2012-2105 California Drought dramatically affected its water resources. Consistent with known water management strategies and previously collected isotope data, we found large spatiotemporal variations in the δ 2 H and δ 18 O values of tap waters within the Bay Area. This is indicative of complex water transport systems and varying municipality-scale management decisions. We observed δ 2 H and δ 18 O values of tap water consistent with waters originating from snowmelt from the Sierra Nevada Mountains, local precipitation, ground water, and partially evaporated reservoir sources. A cluster analysis of the isotope data collected in this study grouped waters from 43 static sampling sites that were associated with specific water utility providers within the San Francisco Bay Area and known management practices. Various management responses to the drought, such as

  4. Mobility of fertiliser-derived uranium in arable soils and its contribution to uranium concentrations in groundwater and tap water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smidt, Geerd Ahlrich

    2011-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) mineral fertilisers are found to contain high concentrations of uranium (U) (up to 206 mg U kg -1 ) and other trace elements (TE), such as Cd, Pb, Ni, Cu, Zn, Th, Nb, Sr, V, and rare earth elements. The content of U and other trace elements is depended on the sedimentary of igneous origin of the rock phosphate. In this study, the production of P fertilisers has been shown to contaminate top soil horizons with U and other trace elements in the close vicinity of a factory located in Southern Brazil. In contrast to this point source, agricultural P fertilisation leads to a diffuse contamination of the agro-ecosystem with U and other fertiliser-derived trace elements on a large scale. Top soil horizons of arable land accumulate fertiliser-derived U. According to the geochemical behaviour of U(VI) species under oxidising conditions, the mobilisation capacity for U in top soil horizons is considered to be high, contrary to other fertiliser-derived heavy metals (e.g. Cd). Hence, it is assumed that U can be leached to shallow groundwater and can reach fresh water resources potentially used for drinking water supply. The aims of this study were to investigate the concentration of U and other contaminants in P fertilisers, to identify geochemical processes of fertiliser-derived U mobility and mobilisation from arable top soil horizons to the groundwater, and to evaluate the origin of U in German groundwater and tap water. This study presents the broadest recent data set on regional distribution of U concentrations in German tap water to which 76 % of the German population has access. The mean U concentration was 0.68 μg L -1 , the median 0.50 μg L -1 . 1.3 % or 1 million of the 80.6 million inhabitants in Germany are exposed to U concentrations in tap water which are higher than the German drinking water threshold limit of 10 μg L -1 . The regional distribution of U concentrations largely agrees with the geological setting reported for mineral waters

  5. Mobility of fertiliser-derived uranium in arable soils and its contribution to uranium concentrations in groundwater and tap water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smidt, Geerd Ahlrich

    2011-12-20

    Phosphorus (P) mineral fertilisers are found to contain high concentrations of uranium (U) (up to 206 mg U kg{sup -1}) and other trace elements (TE), such as Cd, Pb, Ni, Cu, Zn, Th, Nb, Sr, V, and rare earth elements. The content of U and other trace elements is depended on the sedimentary of igneous origin of the rock phosphate. In this study, the production of P fertilisers has been shown to contaminate top soil horizons with U and other trace elements in the close vicinity of a factory located in Southern Brazil. In contrast to this point source, agricultural P fertilisation leads to a diffuse contamination of the agro-ecosystem with U and other fertiliser-derived trace elements on a large scale. Top soil horizons of arable land accumulate fertiliser-derived U. According to the geochemical behaviour of U(VI) species under oxidising conditions, the mobilisation capacity for U in top soil horizons is considered to be high, contrary to other fertiliser-derived heavy metals (e.g. Cd). Hence, it is assumed that U can be leached to shallow groundwater and can reach fresh water resources potentially used for drinking water supply. The aims of this study were to investigate the concentration of U and other contaminants in P fertilisers, to identify geochemical processes of fertiliser-derived U mobility and mobilisation from arable top soil horizons to the groundwater, and to evaluate the origin of U in German groundwater and tap water. This study presents the broadest recent data set on regional distribution of U concentrations in German tap water to which 76 % of the German population has access. The mean U concentration was 0.68 μg L{sup -1}, the median 0.50 μg L{sup -1}. 1.3 % or 1 million of the 80.6 million inhabitants in Germany are exposed to U concentrations in tap water which are higher than the German drinking water threshold limit of 10 μg L{sup -1}. The regional distribution of U concentrations largely agrees with the geological setting reported for

  6. Plasma-activation of tap water using DBD for agronomy applications: Identification and quantification of long lifetime chemical species and production/consumption mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judée, F; Simon, S; Bailly, C; Dufour, T

    2018-04-15

    Cold atmospheric plasmas are weakly ionized gases that can be generated in ambient air. They produce energetic species (e.g. electrons, metastables) as well as reactive oxygen species, reactive nitrogen species, UV radiations and local electric field. Their interaction with a liquid such as tap water can hence change its chemical composition. The resulting "plasma-activated liquid" can meet many applications, including medicine and agriculture. Consequently, a complete experimental set of analytical techniques dedicated to the characterization of long lifetime chemical species has been implemented to characterize tap water treated using cold atmospheric plasma process and intended to agronomy applications. For that purpose, colorimetry and acid titrations are performed, considering acid-base equilibria, pH and temperature variations induced during plasma activation. 16 species are quantified and monitored: hydroxide and hydronium ions, ammonia and ammonium ions, orthophosphates, carbonate ions, nitrite and nitrate ions and hydrogen peroxide. The related consumption/production mechanisms are discussed. In parallel, a chemical model of electrical conductivity based on Kohlrausch's law has been developed to simulate the electrical conductivity of the plasma-activated tap water (PATW). Comparing its predictions with experimental measurements leads to a narrow fitting, hence supporting the self-sufficiency of the experimental set, I.e. the fact that all long lifetime radicals of interest present in PATW are characterized. Finally, to evaluate the potential of cold atmospheric plasmas for agriculture applications, tap water has been daily plasma-treated to irrigate lentils seeds. Then, seedlings lengths have been measured and compared with untreated tap water, showing an increase as high as 34.0% and 128.4% after 3 days and 6 days of activation respectively. The interaction mechanisms between plasma and tap water are discussed as well as their positive synergy on

  7. Tapping Into an Ancient Source. Isotope Hydrology Techniques to Help Manage Water Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidambi, Misha

    2011-01-01

    The Water Resources Program at the IAEA uses a powerful tool, isotope hydrology, that aids in coping with water scarcity. IAEA scientists are convinced that if we understand how to manage water efficiently, there will be sufficient renewable and non-renewable water sources for meet global needs

  8. De novo biofilm community assembly from tap water source communities favors Nitrotoga over Nitrospira under elevated nitrite surface loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinnunen, Marta; Dechesne, Arnaud; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    -through biofilm system to continuous immigration from a tap water metacommunity while applying different nitrite surface loading rates. After 63 days of operation, we extracted biofilms and analyzed the community composition via Illumina MiSeq targeting the 16S rRNA gene. Previous studies have shown...... that Nitrospira is the dominant nitrite oxidizing genus in low nitrite environments. Hence, we postulated that by elevating the nitrite surface loading we would select for NOB with lower nitrite affinity than Nitrospira. We observed different dominant NOB species under different loading rates. While...... in the metacommunity, Nitrotoga and Nitrospira were found at near equal abundances, in the biofilm community, elevated nitrite loading strongly selected for Nitrotoga over Nitrospira. The biofilms were also significantly different in their alpha-diversity (pdiversity, and the evenness and richness...

  9. Correlation among the terrestrial gamma radiation, the indoor air 222Rn, and the tap water 222Rn in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchli, R.; Burkart, W.

    1989-01-01

    The external gamma radiation and the indoor air Rn (222Rn) concentration were measured in 55 houses of the South East Grisons, the Urseren valley, and the Upper Rhine valley (crystalline subsoils) and in 39 houses of the Molasse basin and the Helvetic nappes (sedimentary subsoils). In homes located on a crystalline subsoil, a mean cellar gamma level of 1.40 mGy y-1 was measured, which is twice the mean gamma level of 0.70 mGy y-1 found in homes built on a sedimentary subsoil. The cellar 222Rn gas concentration is about six times higher in houses with a crystalline subsoil (1232 Bq m-3) than in houses with a sedimentary subsoil (201 Bq m-3). Although a weak correlation is observed between the mean gamma radiation levels and mean cellar 222Rn gas concentrations for the five subregions investigated, the gamma levels and the 222Rn gas concentrations do not correlate for single homes. For the population living on the ground floor of a house with a crystalline subsoil, the gamma radiation and the indoor air 222Rn lead to estimated mean exposures of 1.16 mSv and 9.44 mSv effective dose equivalent per year, respectively. In houses with a sedimentary subsoil, these mean exposures lead to 0.68 mSv y-1 and 3.22 mSv y-1, respectively. A mean tap water 222Rn content of 38.3 Bq L-1 and 10.4 Bq L-1 was measured in 31 villages with a crystalline subsoil and 73 villages with a sedimentary subsoil, respectively. Radon-222 degasing from the tap water into the indoor air leads to an additional exposure of about 0.11 mSv y-1 and 0.03 mSv y-1 in homes with a crystalline subsoil and homes with a sedimentary subsoil, respectively

  10. Determination of As, Cd, and Pb in Tap Water and Bottled Water Samples by Using Optimized GFAAS System with Pd-Mg and Ni as Matrix Modifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezgin Bakırdere

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic, lead, and cadmium were determined in tap and bottled water samples consumed in the west part of Turkey at trace levels. Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS was used in all detections. All of the system parameters for each element were optimized to increase sensitivity. Pd-Mg mixture was selected as the best matrix modifier for As, while the highest signals were obtained for Pb and Cd in the case of Ni used as matrix modifier. Detection limits for As, Cd, and Pb were found to be 2.0, 0.036, and 0.25 ng/mL, respectively. 78 tap water and 17 different brands of bottled water samples were analyzed for their As, Cd, and Pb contents under the optimized conditions. In all water samples, concentration of cadmium was found to be lower than detection limits. Lead concentration in the samples analyzed varied between N.D. and 12.66 ± 0.68 ng/mL. The highest concentration of arsenic was determined as 11.54 ± 2.79 ng/mL. Accuracy of the methods was verified by using a certified reference material, namely, Trace Element in Water, 1643e. Results found for As, Cd, and Pb in reference materials were in satisfactory agreement with the certified values.

  11. Effluent dispersion in natural water receivers (tracer examination)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szpilowski, S.; Owczarczyk, A.; Chmielewski, A.G.

    1993-01-01

    Tracer methods constitute very convenient means for observation and examination of effluent dispersion and dilution processes in natural water receivers. In the report there are presented methods developed and used by the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology (INCT) to measure mixing parameters in natural streams to determine distances of complete transverse mixing as well as to assess and predict dispersion of sewage in large water reservoirs. There are also presented the methods of predicting initial stage of dispersion of sewage discharged into large water reservoirs through underwater out falls and the method for determining the decomposition rates of effluent entering a natural water receiver. The methods presented can be used in analysis of pollution in a given water region, in selection of optimal sewage out fall locations as well as in prediction of effluent dilution intensity at different hydro- and meteorological conditions. (author). 27 refs, 15 figs, 2 tabs

  12. Electrochemical Performances of Diamond Like Carbon Films for Pb(II) Detection in Tap Water Using Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltammetry Technique

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sbartai, A.; Namour, F.; Barbier, F.; Krejčí, J.; Kučerová, R.; Krejčí, T.; Neděla, Vilém; Sobota, Jaroslav; Jaffrezic-Renault, N.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 8 (2013), s. 1524-1529 ISSN 1546-198X Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : Diamond Like Carbon DLC * Lead Detection * Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping * Voltammetry * Tap Water Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.558, year: 2013

  13. Magnesium-to-calcium ratio in tap water, and its relationship to geological features and the incidence of calcium-containing urinary stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohri, K; Kodama, M; Ishikawa, Y; Katayama, Y; Takada, M; Katoh, Y; Kataoka, K; Iguchi, M; Kurita, T

    1989-11-01

    We examined the relationship among magnesium and calcium content in tap water, the geological features and urinary stone incidence in Japan. The magnesium-to-calcium ratio in tap water correlated negatively with the incidence of urolithiasis. There was no correlation between calcium and magnesium concentration in tap water and urinary stone incidence. Geological features in Japan were classified into 5 groups. The magnesium-to-calcium ratio in the basalt areas was higher than in the other areas, while ratio in the granite areas was low. In the sedimentary rock areas calcium and magnesium concentrations were high; the magnesium-to-calcium ratio in these areas was between those of the basalt and granite areas. The limestone areas had a much higher calcium concentration. The incidence of urinary stones in the sedimentary rock and basalt areas was lower than that of the granite areas, while that in the limestone areas was the highest. Thus, the incidence of urinary stone is related to the magnesium-to-calcium ratio in tap water and the geological area.

  14. Postoperative socket irrigation with drinking tap water reduces the risk of inflammatory complications following surgical removal of third molars: a multicenter randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghaeminia, H.; Hoppenreijs, T.J.; Xi, T.; Fennis, J.P.; Maal, T.J.J.; Berge, S.J.; Meijer, G.J.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of postoperative irrigation of the socket with drinking tap water on inflammatory complications following lower third molar removal. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A multicenter randomized controlled trial was carried out from

  15. A time series study of drug sales and turbidity of tap water in Le Havre, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudeau, Pascal; Le Tertre, Alain; Zeghnoun, Abdelkrim; Zanobetti, Antonella; Schwartz, Joel

    2012-06-01

    The 80,000 inhabitants of the lower part of Le Havre obtain their water supply from two karstic springs, Radicatel and Saint-Laurent. Until 2000, the Radicatel water was settled when turbidity exceeded 3 NTU, then filtered and chlorinated, whereas the Saint-Laurent water was simply chlorinated. Our study aimed to characterize the link between water turbidity and the incidence of acute gastroenteritis (AGE). Records on drug sales used for the treatment of AGE were collected from January 1994 to June 1996 (period 1) and from March 1997 to July 2000 (period 2). Daily counts of drug sales were modeled using a Poisson Regression. We used data set 2 as a discovery set, identifying relevant (i.e. both significant and plausible) exposure covariates and lags. We then tested this model on period 1 as a replication dataset. In period 2, the daily drug sales correlated with finished water turbidity at both resources. Settling substantially modified the risk related to turbidity of both raw and finished waters at Radicatel. Correlations were reproducible in period 1 for water from the Radicatel spring. Timeliness of treatment adaptation to turbidity conditions appears to be crucial for reducing the infectious risk due to karstic waters.

  16. Disinfection by-products and extractable organic compounds in South African tap water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carien Nothnagel

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available An important step in urban purification of drinking water is disinfection by e.g. chlorination where potential pathogenic micro-organisms in the water supply are killed. The presence of organic material in natural water leads to the formation of organic by- products during disinfection. Over 500 of these disinfection by-products (DBPs have been identified and many more are estimated to form during the disinfection step. Several DBPs such as trihalomethanes (THMs, which is carcinogenic, poses serious health risks to the community. There is very few quantitative data available which realizes the actual levels of these compounds present in drinking water. The levels of four THMs present in drinking water were measured. It included chloroform, bromodichloromethane, chlorodibromomethane and bromoform. Although microbiological parameters are considered to get more attention than disinfection by-products, the measurement of the levels of these compounds in South-African drinking water is essential together with establishing minimum acceptable concentration levels. The target range for total trihalomethanes (TTHMs established by the US EPA at the end of 2003 is 0-0.08ug/mL. The aim of this paper is to create an awareness of the problem as well as presenting preliminary results obtained with the method of analysis. Preliminary results indicate that urgent attention must be given to the regulation and monitoring of DBPs in South African drinking water.

  17. Concentrations of 222Rn in well and tap waters of North-Eastern Attiki (Central Greece)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kritidis, Panaiotis; Angelou, Panaiotis.

    1984-07-01

    An alpha-scintillation system for determination of low 222 Rn concentrations in water is described. The use of vacuum sampling, the avoidance of sample transfer and the corrections applied result in low systematical errors. The method has been used for a preliminary investigation of 222 Rn concentrations in well waters of NE Attiki, where values between 4 and 345 pCi/1 have been observed. The additional annual effective dose equivalent due to the systematic domestic use of water with the highest radon concentration measured is estimated not to exceed 5 mrem. (author)

  18. Measuring the Willingness to Pay for Tap Water Quality Improvements: Results of a Contingent Valuation Survey in Pusan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Seob Kim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available With increasing concern regarding health, people have developed an interest in the safety of drinking water. In this study, we attempt to measure the economic benefits of tap water quality improvement through a case study on Pusan, the second largest city in Korea. To this end, we use a scenario that the government plans to implement a new project of improving water quality and apply the contingent valuation (CV method. A one-and-one-half bounded dichotomous choice question (OOHBDC format is employed to reduce the potential for response bias in multiple-bound formats such as the double-bound model, while maintaining much of the efficiency. Moreover, we employ the spike model to deal with zero willingness to pay (WTP responses from the OOHBDC CV survey. The CV survey of 400 randomly selected households was rigorously designed to comply with the guidelines for best-practice CV studies using person-to-person interviews. From the spike OOHBDC CV model, the mean WTP for the improvement was estimated to be KRW 2,124 (USD 2.2, on average, per household, per month. The value amounts to 36.6% of monthly water bill and 20.2% of production costs of water. The conventional OOHBDC model produces statistically insignificant mean WTP estimate and even negative value, but the OOHBDC spike model gives us statistically significant mean WTP estimate and fitted our data well. The WTP value to Pusan residents can be computed to be KRW 31.2 billion (USD 32.1 million per year.

  19. Determination of Arsenic in Sinus Wash and Tap Water by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnell, Anna M.; Nahan, Keaton; Holloway, Dawone; Vonderheide, Anne P.

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic is a toxic element to which humans are primarily exposed through food and water; it occurs as a result of human activities and naturally from the earth's crust. An experiment was developed for a senior level analytical laboratory utilizing an Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) for the analysis of arsenic in household…

  20. Antimycobacterial potential of the juniper berry essential oil in tap water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peruč, Dolores; Gobin, Ivana; Abram, Maja; Broznić, Dalibor; Svalina, Tomislav; Štifter, Sanja; Staver, Mladenka Malenica; Tićac, Brigita

    2018-03-01

    Mycobacterium avium complex-related diseases are often associated with poorly maintained hot water systems. This calls for the development of new control strategies. The aim of this study was to investigate the activity of essential oils (EOs) from the Mediterranean plants, common juniper, immortelle, sage, lavandin, laurel, and white cedar against Mycobacterium avium ssp. avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, and Mycobacterium gordonae in culturing broth and freshwater as their most common habitat. To do that, we developed a new method of water microdilution to determine their minimal effective concentrations (MEC). The most active EO was the one from the common juniper with the MEC of 1.6 mg mL-1. Gas chromatography / mass spectrometry the juniper EO identified monoterpenes (70.54 %) and sesquiterpenes (25.9 %) as dominant component groups. The main monoterpene hydrocarbons were α-pinene, sabinene, and β-pinene. The juniper EO significantly reduced the cell viability of M. intracellulare and M. gordonae at MEC, and of M. avium at 2xMEC. Microscopic analysis confirmed its inhibitory effect by revealing significant morphological changes in the cell membrane and cytoplasm of all three bacteria. The mode of action of the juniper EO on the cell membrane was confirmed by a marked leakage of intracellular material. Juniper EO has a great practical potential as a complementary or alternative water disinfectant in hot water systems such as baths, swimming pools, spa pools, hot tubs, or even foot baths/whirlpools.

  1. CHALLENGES IN MAINTAINING DRINKING WATER QUALITY AT THE TAP: CONTAMINATION WITH TOXIC LEAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aging drinking water infrastructure in the US was given a grade of D (poor) by the American Society of Civil Engineers, and was voted as the most urgent of all societal infrastructure challenges. Legacy lead pipe, leaded solder and/or leaded brass are a particularly notorious old...

  2. Trace element analysis of mineral and tap water samples using total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangala, M.J.; Korir, K.A.; Maina, D.M.; Kinyua, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    Results of trace element analysis by TXRF of tap water and various brands of bottled mineral water samples which are representative of local and imported brands sold in Nairobi are reported. The variation in elemental concentrations in water samples analyzed were as follows: potassium (K) 0.2 to 28.9 μg/ml; calcium (Ca) 2.2 to 120 μg/ml; titanium (Ti) 11 to 60 μg/l; manganese (Mn) 8 to 670 μg/l; iron (Fe) 31 to 540 μg/l; copper (Cu) 8 to 30 μg/l; zinc (Zn) 8 to 4730 μg/l; bromine (Br) 9 to 248 μg/l; rubidium (Rb) 10 to 40 μg/l and strontium (Sr) 10 to 1000 μg/l. Local mineral water samples contain higher levels of trace elements; manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), bromine (Br), rubidium (Rb) and strontium (Sr) as compared to the imported brands. Principal component analysis of the results revealed three component loading factors clusters for: rubidium (Rb), strontium (Sr) and calcium (Ca); titanium (Ti), iron (Fe), bromine (Br), and zinc (Zn); zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn) and potassium (K) respectively. The percentage of total variance explained by the components was 31.4, 27.3, and 14.8 respectively. In this study, we also found that a limited spread of 5-6 mm for a 10 μl sample was achieved when the quartz sample carrier was dried in a low pressure (300 mbar) oven at 70 o C for 10 hours. (author)

  3. Diversity, Community Composition, and Dynamics of Nonpigmented and Late-Pigmenting Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria in an Urban Tap Water Production and Distribution System

    OpenAIRE

    Dubrou, S.; Konjek, J.; Macheras, E.; Welté, B.; Guidicelli, L.; Chignon, E.; Joyeux, M.; Gaillard, J. L.; Heym, B.; Tully, T.; Sapriel, G.

    2013-01-01

    Nonpigmented and late-pigmenting rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) have been reported to commonly colonize water production and distribution systems. However, there is little information about the nature and distribution of RGM species within the different parts of such complex networks or about their clustering into specific RGM species communities. We conducted a large-scale survey between 2007 and 2009 in the Parisian urban tap water production and distribution system. We analyzed 1,418 w...

  4. Determination of copper in tap water using solid-phase spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Carol M.; Street, Kenneth W.; Philipp, Warren H.; Tanner, Stephen P.

    1994-01-01

    A new application of ion exchange films is presented. The films are used in a simple analytical method of directly determining low concentrations of Cu(2+) in aqueous solutions, in particular, drinking water. The basis for this new test method is the color and absorption intensity of the ion when adsorbed onto the film. The film takes on the characteristic color of the adsorbed cation, which is concentrated on the film by many orders of magnitude. The linear relationship between absorbance (corrected for variations in film thickness) and solution concentration makes the determinations possible. These determinations agree well with flame atomic absorption determinations.

  5. Determination of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid for assessing the quality tap water using SPE and HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Luiz Delmonico

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of pesticides in agriculture is one of the current problems that may result in contamination of both ground and surface water and groundwater. Considering the environmental importance and the increasing use of herbicides in Maringá region, in the present work methods for extraction and determination of glyphosate (GLYP and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA using solid phase extraction (SPE and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC were developed. For SPE, anion exchange resin was used and elution was done with hydrochloric acid 50.0 mmol L-1, achieving recovery rates of 82.5-116.2% and 67.1-104.0% for AMPA and GLYP, respectively. For HPLC determination the analytes were derivatized and injected in the HPLC with a C18 column and using mobile phase consisting of phosphate buffer 0.20 mol L-1 at pH 3.0 and acetonitrile (85:15; the monitoring was done at 240 nm. The analysis was performed in 8 min with the same limit of detection and limit of quantification for AMPA and GLYP of 0.09 and 0.20 mg L-1, respectively. The methods were applied to analysis of public water supply samples and concentrations from 2.1 up to 2.9 µg L-1 for AMPA and from 2.3 up to 3.3 µg L-1 for glyphosate were found.

  6. The δ2H and δ18O of tap water from 349 sites in the United States and selected territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplen, Tyler B.; Landwehr, Jurate M.; Qi, Haiping; Lorenz, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    Because the stable isotopic compositions of hydrogen (δ2H) and oxygen (δ18O) of animal (including human) tissues, such as hair, nail, and urine, reflect the δ2H and δ18O of water and food ingested by an animal or a human and because the δ2H and δ18O of environmental waters vary geographically, δ2H and δ18O values of tap water samples collected in 2007-2008 from 349 sites in the United States and three selected U.S. territories have been measured in support of forensic science applications, creating one of the largest databases of tap water δ2H and δ18O values to date. The results of replicate isotopic measurements for these tap water samples confirm that the expanded uncertainties (U = 2μc) obtained over a period of years by the Reston Stable Isotope Laboratory from δ2H and δ18O dual-inlet mass spectrometric measurements are conservative, at ±2‰ and ±0.2 ‰, respectively. These uncertainties are important because U.S. Geological Survey data may be needed for forensic science applications, including providing evidence in court cases. Half way through the investigation, an isotope-laser spectrometer was acquired, enabling comparison of dual-inlet isotope-ratio mass spectrometric results with isotope-laser spectrometric results. The uncertainty of the laser-based δ2H measurement results for these tap water samples is comparable to the uncertainty of the mass spectrometric method, with the laser-based method having a slightly lower uncertainty. However, the δ18O uncertainty of the laser-based method is more than a factor of ten higher than that of the dual-inlet isotoperatio mass spectrometric method.

  7. Life-cycle testing of receiving waters with Ceriodaphnia dubia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, A.J.; Konetsky, B.K.

    1996-12-31

    Seven-day tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia are commonly used to estimate toxicity of effluents or receiving waters but can sometimes yield {open_quotes}no toxicity{close_quotes} outcomes even if pollutants are present. We conducted two sets of full life-cycle tests with C. dubia to (1) see if tests with longer exposure periods would reveal evidence for toxicity that might not be evident from 7-day tests, and (2) determine the relative importance of water quality versus food as factors influencing C. dubia reproduction. In the first set of tests, C. dubia was reared in diluted mineral water (negative control), water from a stream impacted by coal fly-ash, or water from a retention basin containing sediments contaminated with mercury, other metals and polychlorinated biphenyls. The second set of tests used water from the retention basin only, but this water was either filtered or not filtered, and food was either added or not added, prior to testing. C. dubia survival and reproduction did not differ much among the three water types in the first set of tests, but these two parameters were strongly affected by the filtering and food-addition treatments in the second set of tests. Thus, C. dubia appeared to be relatively insensitive to general water-quality factors, but quite sensitive to food-related factors. Regression analyses showed that the predictability of life-time reproduction by C. dubia from the results of 7-day tests was very low (R{sup 2}< 0.35) in five of the six experiments. The increase in predictability as a function of test duration also differed among water types in the first set of tests, and among treatments in the second set of tests. Thus, 7-day tests with C. dubia may be used to quantify water-quality problems, but it may not be possible to reliably extrapolate the results of these tests to longer time scales.

  8. Longevity and reproduction of Ceriodaphnia dubia in receiving waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, A.J.; Konetsky, B.K.

    1998-01-01

    Seven-day tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia are commonly used to estimate toxicity of effluents or receiving waters but can sometimes yield no toxicity outcomes even if pollutants are present. The authors conducted two sets of full life-cycle tests with C. dubia to (1) determine whether tests with longer exposure periods to low concentrations of contaminants in ambient water might reveal evidence of toxicity that could not be discerned from 7-d tests and (2) determine the relative importance of water quality versus food as factors influencing C. dubia longevity and reproduction. In the first set of tests, C. dubia was reared in diluted mineral water (a negative control), water from a stream impacted by coal fly-ash, or water from a retention basin containing sediments contaminated with mercury, other metals, and polychlorinated biphenyls. The second set of tests used water from the retention basin only. Before testing, though, water in the second set of tests was either filtered or not filtered, and food was either added or not added. Ceriodaphnia dubia longevity and reproduction did not differ much among the three water types in the first set of tests, but both longevity and reproduction were strongly affected by the filtering and food-addition treatments in the second set of tests. Thus, C. dubia appeared to be relatively insensitive to general water quality factors but sensitive to food-related factors. In five of the six full life-cycle tests, lifetime reproduction by C. dubia could not be reliably predicted from reproduction data from the first 7 d of testing. The increase in predictability of lifetime reproduction of C. dubia as a function of test duration also differed among water types in the first set of tests and among treatments in the second set of tests. This, it may not be possible to reliably extrapolate the results of 7-d tests with C. dubia to longer time scales

  9. Life-cycle testing of receiving waters with Ceriodaphnia dubia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, A.J.; Beane, B.K.

    1995-01-01

    Seven-day tests with Ceriodaphnia are commonly used to estimate the toxicity of effluents or receiving waters, but may yield no toxicity outcomes even when pollutants are present (a possible type II error). The authors conducted two sets of full life-cycle tests with C. dubia to (1) see if tests with longer exposure periods revealed evidence for toxicity that might not be evident from shorter tests, and (2) determine the relative importance of water quality versus food as factors influencing C. dubia reproduction. In the first set of tests, daphnids were reared in diluted mineral water (control), water from a stream impacted by coal fly-ash, or water from a mercury-contaminated retention basin. The second set of tests used water from the retention basin only, but this water was either filtered or not filtered, and food was either added or not added. C. dubia survival and reproduction did not differ much among the three waters in the first set of tests. However, both parameters were strongly affected by the filtering and food-addition treatments in the second set of tests. Thus, C. dubia seems to be moderately insensitive to general water-quality factors, but quite sensitive to food-related parameters. Regression analysis showed that the predictability of life-time reproduction of C. dubia from 7-day test results was low in five of six cases. The increase in predictability as a function of test duration also differed among water types (first set of tests), and among treatments (second set of tests). Thus, 7-day tests with C. dubia may be used to quantify water-quality problems, but it may not be possible to reliably extrapolate the results of such tests to longer time scales

  10. A method for improving reliability and relevance of LCA reviews: the case of life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of tap and bottled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantin, Valentina; Scalbi, Simona; Ottaviano, Giuseppe; Masoni, Paolo

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to propose a method for harmonising Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) literature studies on the same product or on different products fulfilling the same function for a reliable and meaningful comparison of their life-cycle environmental impacts. The method is divided in six main steps which aim to rationalize and quicken the efforts needed to carry out the comparison. The steps include: 1) a clear definition of the goal and scope of the review; 2) critical review of the references; 3) identification of significant parameters that have to be harmonised; 4) harmonisation of the parameters; 5) statistical analysis to support the comparison; 6) results and discussion. This approach was then applied to the comparative analysis of the published LCA studies on tap and bottled water production, focussing on Global Warming Potential (GWP) results, with the aim to identify the environmental preferable alternative. A statistical analysis with Wilcoxon's test confirmed that the difference between harmonised GWP values of tap and bottled water was significant. The results obtained from the comparison of the harmonised mean GWP results showed that tap water always has the best environmental performance, even in case of high energy-consuming technologies for drinking water treatments. The strength of the method is that it enables both performing a deep analysis of the LCA literature and obtaining more consistent comparisons across the published LCAs. For these reasons, it can be a valuable tool which provides useful information for both practitioners and decision makers. Finally, its application to the case study allowed both to supply a description of systems variability and to evaluate the importance of several key parameters for tap and bottled water production. The comparative review of LCA studies, with the inclusion of a statistical decision test, can validate and strengthen the final statements of the comparison. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All

  11. Effect of current intensity and pulse duration on polarization resistance of steel 20 in tap water measured on computer-aided unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorokin, V.I.; Boriskin, A.V.; Stepanets, G.P.; Shestopalova, A.O.

    1995-01-01

    The paper deals with a study of the impact of polarization current and time on the measurement of polarization resistance R p and coefficient K which relates it to the corrosion rate of low carbon Steel 20 in tap water. The formation of thick films of corrosion products on the surface of metal affects R p and K. The obtained data are used to develop an algorithm for corrosivity measuring microprocessor system operation program. 6 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab

  12. Ultrasensitive and selective gold film-based detection of mercury (II) in tap water using a laser scanning confocal imaging-surface plasmon resonance system in real time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongyan; Yang, Liquan; Zhou, Bingjiang; Liu, Weimin; Ge, Jiechao; Wu, Jiasheng; Wang, Ying; Wang, Pengfei

    2013-09-15

    An ultrasensitive and selective detection of mercury (II) was investigated using a laser scanning confocal imaging-surface plasmon resonance system (LSCI-SPR). The detection limit was as low as 0.01ng/ml for Hg(2+) ions in ultrapure and tap water based on a T-rich, single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-modified gold film, which can be individually manipulated using specific T-Hg(2+)-T complex formation. The quenching intensity of the fluorescence images for rhodamine-labeled ssDNA fitted well with the changes in SPR. The changes varied with the Hg(2+) ion concentration, which is unaffected by the presence of other metal ions. The coefficients obtained for ultrapure and tap water were 0.99902 and 0.99512, respectively, for the linear part over a range of 0.01-100ng/ml. The results show that the double-effect sensor has potential for practical applications with ultra sensitivity and selectivity, especially in online or real-time monitoring of Hg(2+) ions pollution in tap water with the further improvement of portable LSCI-SPR instrument. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. 10 years with TAPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loehneer, H.

    1997-01-01

    During the IV TAPS (two arm photon spectrometer) workshop held at Mont Saint Odile near Strasbourg the third of September, the TAPS collaboration celebrated its 10. anniversary. At this occasion a compilation entitled 'The first 10 years with TAPS' was issued. The foreword of the spokesperson of the TAPS collaboration is presented. (K.A.)

  14. Temporal and spatial patterns of micropollutants in urban receiving waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musolff, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.musolff@ufz.d [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Hydrogeology, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Leschik, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastian.leschik@ufz.d [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Hydrogeology, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Moeder, Monika, E-mail: monika.moeder@ufz.d [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Strauch, Gerhard, E-mail: gerhard.strauch@ufz.d [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Hydrogeology, Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Reinstorf, Frido, E-mail: frido.reinstorf@hs-magdeburg.d [University of Applied Sciences Magdeburg-Stendal, Department of Water and Waste Management, Breitscheidstr. 2, 39114 Magdeburg (Germany); Schirmer, Mario, E-mail: mario.schirmer@eawag.c [Eawag, The Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Department of Water Resources and Drinking Water, Ueberlandstr. 133, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2009-11-15

    Based on a monitoring program over the course of a year, we characterize the temporal and spatial distribution of selected micropollutants in an urban watershed within the city of Leipzig, Germany. Micropollutants revealed a ubiquitous presence in untreated and treated wastewater, surface water and groundwater. The loads of 4-nonylphenol in the effluents of the municipal wastewater treatment plant followed a seasonal trend, whereas the loads of all other micropollutants were highly variable and not correlated to seasons. In the surface water, load seasonality of caffeine, galaxolide and tonalide resulted from a rapid removal with increased water temperature. The loads of 4-nonylphenol and of caffeine in the colder months increased when rainfall occurred. In the groundwater, complex spatial and temporal patterns were apparent and were related to varying input, retardation and removal processes. As a consequence, an assessment of micropollutants in urban waters should consider different micropollutants' temporal and spatial variability. - Micropollutants in urban receiving waters are characterized by variable temporal and spatial concentration and load patterns that have to be considered in risk assessments.

  15. Prevalence of pathogenic free-living amoeba and other protozoa in natural and communal piped tap water from Queen Elizabeth protected area, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sente, Celsus; Erume, Joseph; Naigaga, Irene; Mulindwa, Julius; Ochwo, Sylvester; Magambo, Phillip Kimuda; Namara, Benigna Gabriela; Kato, Charles Drago; Sebyatika, George; Muwonge, Kevin; Ocaido, Michael

    2016-08-03

    Pathogenic water dwelling protozoa such as Acanthamoeba spp., Hartmannella spp., Naegleria spp., Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. are often responsible for devastating illnesses especially in children and immunocompromised individuals, yet their presence and prevalence in certain environment in sub-Saharan Africa is still unknown to most researchers, public health officials and medical practitioners. The objective of this study was to establish the presence and prevalence of pathogenic free-living amoeba (FLA), Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Queen Elizabeth Protected Area (QEPA). Samples were collected from communal taps and natural water sites in QEPA. Physical water parameters were measured in situ. The samples were processed to detect the presence of FLA trophozoites by xenic cultivation, Cryptosporidium oocysts by Ziehl-Neelsen stain and Giardia cysts by Zinc Sulphate floatation technique. Parasites were observed microscopically, identified, counted and recorded. For FLA, genomic DNA was extracted for amplification and sequencing. Both natural and tap water sources were contaminated with FLA, Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. All protozoan parasites were more abundant in the colder rainy season except for Harmannella spp. and Naegleria spp. which occurred more in the warmer months. The prevalence of all parasites was higher in tap water than in natural water samples. There was a strong negative correlation between the presence of Acanthamoeba spp., Hartmannella spp., Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. with Dissolved Oxygen (DO) (P protozoa that could possibly be the cause of a number of silent morbidities and mortalities among rural households in QEPA. This implies that water used by communities in QEPA is of poor quality and predisposes them to a variety of protozoan infections including the FLA whose public health importance was never reported, thus necessitating adoption of proper water safety measures.

  16. Investigation of Fungi in Drinking Water Resources as a Source of Contamination Tap Water in Sari, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Yousefi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: One of the most prominent concerns for the water consumers is pathogenic microorganism contamination. Wells and underground water resources are the main resources of drinking water in Sari city, Iran. The main objectives of the research project were to explore the distribution and frequency of mycoflora in wells and underground water resources of the city and their contamination effects on humans. Materials and methods: Three reservoirs and 18 wells or underground water resources were analyzed. Water samples were then filtered and analyzed according to the World Health Organization guidelines. Each filter and 0.2 ml of suspension inoculated on SDA+CG media. For fungal growth, plates were incubated at 27’C for 7-10 days. The fungi were identified by standard mycological techniques. Results: Fungal colonies were isolated from all samples. From total of 160 fungal colonies isolated from wells water, 14 species of fungi were distinguished. Rhodotorula (54.4%, Monilinia (13.7%, Alternaria (6.9% were the most commonly isolated. Drechslera, Rhizopus, and Exserohilum (0.6% had the lowest frequency. There was no significant difference between fungal elements isolated from three major reservoirs (P>0.05. Conclusion: This study revealed that resources of drinking water from an area have to monitored and if its fungal CFU be greater than a certain value, medical and health preventive measures should be taken before the water is used by human. In this context, public and private awareness should also be provided through the media, broadcasting, teachers and scholars.

  17. Different senescent HDPE pipe-risk: brief field investigation from source water to tap water in China (Changsha City).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jing; Tang, Lin; Zhang, Chang; Zeng, Guangming; Deng, Yaocheng; Dong, Haoran; Wang, Jingjing; Wu, Yanan

    2015-10-01

    Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) derived from plastic pipes widely used in water distribution definitely influence our daily drinking water quality. There are still few scientific or integrated studies on the release and degradation of the migrating chemicals in pipelines. This investigation was carried out at field sites along a pipeline in Changsha, China. Two chemicals, 2, 4-tert-buthylphenol and 1, 3-diphenylguanidine, were found to be migrating from high density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe material. New pipes released more of these two compounds than older pipes, and microorganisms living in older pipes tended to degrade them faster, indicating that the aged pipes were safer for water transmission. Microorganism degradation in water plays a dominant role in the control of these substances. To minimize the potential harm to human, a more detailed study incorporating assessment of their risk should be carried out, along with seeking safer drinking pipes.

  18. Evaluation of neonatal squirrel monkeys receiving tritiated water throughout gestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.C.L.; Krebs, J.S.; Sasmore, D.P.; Mitoma, C.

    1980-01-01

    Pregnant squirrel monkeys received tritiated water (HTO) in the drinking water throughout gestation at levels ranging from 16 to 1000 times the permissible level for human consumption (0.003 μCi/ml), resulting in mean body water HTO levels ranging from 0.05 to 3.1 μCi/ml. There were no discernible effects of HTO administration on the newborn progeny in terms of body weight, body dimensions, selected organ weights (brain, heart, adrenal, kidney, liver, spleen), hematologic patterns, and histology of selected organs and tissues (adrenal, kidney, liver, lung, brain, pancreas, jejunum, pituitary, spleen, testes, thymus, skin) other than ovaries. The number of primary oocytes in female progeny decreased markedly with increasing levels of HTO in maternal drinking water. Quantitative analysis of neonate ovaries, testes, brain tissue, and retinal tissue is in progress. No effects of HTO administration on maternal body weight, gestation time, or maintenance of pregnancy to full term were observed. Body weights of HTO-treated inseminated females that did not deliver were less than control weights, but the lack of dose dependence implies that this effect may have been associated with a stimulus characteristic of the HTO administration rather than with irradiation

  19. Occurrence of immunosuppressive drugs and their metabolites in the sewage-impacted Vistula and Utrata Rivers and in tap water from the Warsaw region (Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebułtowicz, Joanna; Nałęcz-Jawecki, Grzegorz

    2016-04-01

    Immunosuppresive therapy following organ transplant frequently includes treatment with tacrolimus and mycophenolic acid derivatives. These pharmaceuticals may enter the environment through wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents and may have a potentially harmful effect on aquatic biota. Tacrolimus, mycophenolic acid and their metabolites were measured at specific points of a large Polish river (Vistula), a smaller river (Utrata) and in tap water samples from the Warsaw region. Analysis was performed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, after solid phase extraction for water samples, or QuEChERS extraction for sediments. Residues of tacrolimus were below quantitation limits in both water and sediment samples. However, in water samples mycophenolic acid concentrations were measured at up to 180 ng L(-1) downstream of WWTP outfalls. No immunosuppressive drugs were detected in tap water. Concentrations of mycophenolic acid exceeded the predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) value in some Polish surface water, and risk calculations predicted at least twice higher concentrations in some other countries of the European Union. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of these immunosuppressive drug concentrations in the environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Hygienic safety of reusable tap water filters (Germlyser® with an operating time of 4 or 8 weeks in a haematological oncology transplantation unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochow Markus

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial safe tap water is crucial for the safety of immunosuppressed patients. Methods To evaluate the suitability of new, reusable point-of-use filters (Germlyser®, Aquafree GmbH, Hamburg, Germany, three variations of a reusable filter with the same filter principle but with different outlets (with and without silver and inner surface coating of the filter encasements (with and without nano-crystalline silver were tested. The filter efficacy was monitored over 1, 4 and 8 weeks operating time in a haematological oncology transplantation unit equipped with 18 water outlets (12 taps, 6 showers. Results The filtered water fulfilled the requirements of absence of pathogens over time. From 348 samples, 8 samples (2.3% exceeded 100 cfu/ml (no sample ≥ 500 cfu/ml. As no reprocessed filter exhibited 100% filter efficacy in the final quality control after each reprocessing, these contaminations could be explained by retrograde contamination during use. Conclusion As a consequence of the study, the manufacturer recommends changing filters after 4 weeks in high risk areas and after 8 weeks in moderate infectious risk areas, together with routine weekly alcohol-based surface disinfection and additionally in case of visible contamination. The filter efficacy of the 3 filters types did not differ significantly regarding total bacterial counts. Manual reprocessing proved to be insufficient. Using a validated reprocessing in a washer/disinfector with alkaline, acid treatment and thermic disinfection, the filters were effectively reprocessable and now provide tap water meeting the German drinking water regulations as well as the WHO guidelines, including absence of pathogens.

  1. High-technology metals as emerging contaminants: Strong increase of anthropogenic gadolinium levels in tap water of Berlin, Germany, from 2009 to 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tepe, N.; Romero, M.; Bau, M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Monitoring study Berlin-2012 confirms tap water contamination with gadolinium. • Contamination confined to western districts of Berlin. • Strong increase of anthropogenic gadolinium from 2009 to 2012. • Anthropogenic gadolinium is tracer for wastewater-derived substances. - Abstract: The distribution of rare earth elements (REE) in tap water sampled in December 2012 in Berlin, Germany, is characterized by anomalously high levels of gadolinium (Gd). While the western districts of the city show strong anthropogenic positive Gd anomalies in REE distribution patterns, the eastern districts are (almost) unaffected. This contamination with anthropogenic Gd results from Gd-based contrast agents used in Magnetic Resonance Imaging, that enter rivers, groundwater and eventually tap water via the clear water effluent from wastewater treatment plants. While the spatial distribution of anthropogenic Gd in 2012 confirms results of an earlier study in 2009 (Kulaksiz and Bau, 2011a), anthropogenic Gd concentrations have increased between 1.5- and 11.5-fold in just three years. This confirms predictions based upon the increase of anthropogenic Gd concentrations in the Havel River over the past two decades and the time it takes the water to migrate from the Havel River to the groundwater production wells. Anomalously high levels of anthropogenic Gd in tap water, which are not confined to Berlin but have also been observed in London, U.K., and in German cities in the Ruhr area and along the Rhine River, reveal that high-technology metals have become emerging contaminants. While non-toxic at the observed concentrations, the anthropogenic Gd is a microcontaminant that may be used as a conservative pseudo-natural tracer for wastewater-derived xenobiotics such as pharmaceuticals, food additives and personal care products. Our results suggest that monitoring the concentrations of such substances in Berlin’s drinking water can be restricted to a few central and

  2. Eco-friendly LC-MS/MS method for analysis of multi-class micropollutants in tap, fountain, and well water from northern Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Marta O; Ribeiro, Ana R; Pereira, Manuel F R; Silva, Adrián M T

    2016-11-01

    Organic micropollutants present in drinking water (DW) may cause adverse effects for public health, and so reliable analytical methods are required to detect these pollutants at trace levels in DW. This work describes the first green analytical methodology for multi-class determination of 21 pollutants in DW: seven pesticides, an industrial compound, 12 pharmaceuticals, and a metabolite (some included in Directive 2013/39/EU or Decision 2015/495/EU). A solid-phase extraction procedure followed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (offline SPE-UHPLC-MS/MS) method was optimized using eco-friendly solvents, achieving detection limits below 0.20 ng L -1 . The validated analytical method was successfully applied to DW samples from different sources (tap, fountain, and well waters) from different locations in the north of Portugal, as well as before and after bench-scale UV and ozonation experiments in spiked tap water samples. Thirteen compounds were detected, many of them not regulated yet, in the following order of frequency: diclofenac > norfluoxetine > atrazine > simazine > warfarin > metoprolol > alachlor > chlorfenvinphos > trimethoprim > clarithromycin ≈ carbamazepine ≈ PFOS > citalopram. Hazard quotients were also estimated for the quantified substances and suggested no adverse effects to humans. Graphical Abstract Occurrence and removal of multi-class micropollutants in drinking water, analyzed by an eco-friendly LC-MS/MS method.

  3. Spatial distribution of orofacial cleft defect births in Harris County, Texas, 1990 to 1994, and historical evidence for the presence of low-level radioactivity in tap water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cech, Irina; Burau, Keith D; Walston, Jane

    2007-06-01

    While both ionizing and nonionizing radiation are known to impair human reproductive capacity, the role of low-level domestic radiation continues to be an unsettled issue. We examined the geostatistical distribution (residential longitude and latitude) of orofacial cleft birth cases adjusted for the underlying population distribution. Furthermore, we examined the cleft birth rates enumerated by zip codes for possible associations with levels of radium and radon in drinking water. Cleft births and unaffected live births in Harris County, Texas, from 1990 to 1994, were geocoded by residential addresses and tested for spatial clusters using the space-time clustering program SaTScan. Historical sample data on local variations in water quality facilitated the assessment of the association of orofacial cleft defect births with low-level radiation exposure. A cluster of significantly greater than expected numbers of cleft defect births was identified in northwest Harris County, (relative risk = 3.0, P = 0.043), where the presence of elevated levels of radium (> 3 pCi/L) and radon (> 300 pCi/L) in the tap water has been known since the 1980s. Despite the ecological design of the study, lacking individual exposure measurements for cleft birth residences, there was strong suggestive evidence of an association between elevated radiation levels in tap water and elevated cleft birth prevalence rates by zip codes. Attention of physicians is invited to environmental causes as potential risk factors for orofacial cleft. This would aid in genetic counseling and the development of future preventive measures.

  4. Tapping mode atomic force microscopy in liquid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putman, Constant A.J.; Putman, C.A.J.; van der Werf, Kees; de Grooth, B.G.; van Hulst, N.F.; Greve, Jan

    1994-01-01

    We show that standard silicon nitride cantilevers can be used for tapping mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) in air, provided that the energy of the oscillating cantilever is sufficiently high to overcome the adhesion of the water layer. The same cantilevers are successfully used for tapping mode

  5. Removal of waterborne pathogens from liver transplant unit water taps in prevention of healthcare-associated infections: a proposal for a cost-effective, proactive infection control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Z Y; Hu, B J; Qin, L; Lin, Y E; Watanabe, H; Zhou, Q; Gao, X D

    2014-04-01

    Hospital water supplies often contain waterborne pathogens, which can become a reservoir for healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). We surveyed the extent of waterborne pathogen contamination in the water supply of a Liver Transplant Unit. The efficacy of point-of-use (POU) water filters was evaluated by comparative analysis in routine clinical use. Our baseline environmental surveillance showed that Legionella spp. (28%, 38/136), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8%, 11/136), Mycobacterium spp. (87%, 118/136) and filamentous fungi (50%, 68/136) were isolated from the tap water of the Liver Transplant Unit. 28.9% of Legionella spp.-positive water samples (n = 38) showed high-level Legionella contamination (≥10(3) CFU/L). After installation of the POU water filter, none of these pathogens were found in the POU filtered water samples. Furthermore, colonizations/infections with Gram-negative bacteria determined from patient specimens were reduced by 47% during this period, even if only 27% (3/11) of the distal sites were installed with POU water filters. In conclusion, the presence of waterborne pathogens was common in the water supply of our Liver Transplant Unit. POU water filters effectively eradicated these pathogens from the water supply. Concomitantly, healthcare-associated colonization/infections declined after the POU filters were installed, indicating their potential benefit in reducing waterborne HAIs. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  6. A study of DNA damage in buccal cells of consumers of well- and/or tap-water using the comet assay: Assessment of occupational exposure to genotoxicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez Boucard, Celia; Lee-Cruz, Larisa; Mercier, Laurence; Ramírez Orozco, Martín; Serrano Pinto, Vania; Anguiano, Gerardo; Cazares, Linette; Díaz, Daniel

    2017-10-01

    Because of concerns that natural aquifers in the region of Todos Santos (Baja California Sur, Mexico) might be contaminated by organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals, a case-control study was conducted among consumers and non-consumers of well- and/or tap-water to determine risks to human health. This study was based on a genotoxic evaluation of buccal cells using the Comet assay technique. Levels of DNA damage in the consumers group were significantly higher than those of the control group. However, occupational exposure to genotoxicants showed to be the critical factor rather than water consumption. Taking into account the professions of well- and/or tap-water consumers, agricultural workers exposed directly (those who fumigated) or indirectly (those not involved in fumigating) to agrochemicals showed greater genetic damage than controls. This difference persisted even when age, and whether the person smoked or consumed alcoholic drinks were considered. These factors were not associated with the level of genetic damage observed. Chemical analyses of organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals were carried out to evaluate the water quality of wells, faucets, and surface water of canals consumed by the population and/or used for irrigation. High concentrations of α and β endosulfan were detected in water of surface canals. Although our inventory of agrochemicals employed in the region showed the use of products considered carcinogenic and/or mutagenic, they were not detected by the analytical techniques used. Heavy metals (arsenic, mercury, and lead) were detected in water of some wells used for irrigation and human consumption. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 58:619-627, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. A highly selective electrochemical sensor based on molecularly imprinted polypyrrole-modified gold electrode for the determination of glyphosate in cucumber and tap water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; She, Yongxin; Li, Tengfei; Zhao, Fengnian; Jin, Maojun; Guo, Yirong; Zheng, Lufei; Wang, Shanshan; Jin, Fen; Shao, Hua; Liu, Haijin; Wang, Jing

    2017-12-01

    An electrochemical sensor based on molecularly imprinted polypyrrole (MIPPy) was developed for selective and sensitive detection of the herbicide glyphosate (Gly) in cucumber and tap water samples. The sensor was prepared via synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymers on a gold electrode in the presence of Gly as the template molecule and pyrrole as the functional monomer by cyclic voltammetry (CV). The sensor preparation conditions including the ratio of template to functional monomers, number of CV cycles in the electropolymerization process, the method of template removal, incubation time, and pH were optimized. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the DPV peak currents of hexacyanoferrate/hexacyanoferrite changed linearly with Gly concentration in the range from 5 to 800 ng mL -1 , with a detection limit of 0.27 ng mL -1 (S/N = 3). The sensor was used to detect the concentration of Gly in cucumber and tap water samples, with recoveries ranging from 72.70 to 98.96%. The proposed sensor showed excellent selectivity, good stability and reversibility, and could detect the Gly in real samples rapidly and sensitively. Graphical abstract Schematic illustration of the experimental procedure to detect Gly using the MIPPy electrode.

  8. Busting the Baby Teeth Myth and Increasing Children’s Consumption of Tap Water: Building Public Will for Children’s Oral Health in Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wyatt C. Hornsby

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available QuestionCan a multifaceted statewide communications campaign motivate behavior change in low-income Colorado families to limit children’s fruit juice consumption and increase children’s consumption of tap water to prevent tooth decay?PurposeCaries is the most common chronic disease of childhood, affecting 40% of kindergartners and 55% of third graders in Colorado. Frequent consumption of 100% fruit juice is linked to childhood caries. The purpose of this campaign, “Cavities Get Around,” was to motivate families to limit children’s fruit juice consumption and increase consumption of tap water to protect baby teeth from caries, while also building public will for children’s oral health.MethodsThe campaign included targeted media, promotores/organizers, and family education. We focused on fruit juice because audience research showed many families view fruit juice as healthy, and it is also a common beverage among young children up to age of 6 years. We also focused on low-socioeconomic status families because data show higher childhood tooth decay rates in this population. To evaluate progress, we conducted identical pre- and post-surveys, each of 600 random low-income parents contacted by landline, mobile telephone, and Internet, allowing for comparative data.ResultsSignificant progress was achieved compared to 2014 baseline results. Findings from a November 2015 statewide survey of parents included the following: (1 22-point increase from 2014 in percentage of children regularly drinking tap water (from 41 to 63%. (2 29-point decrease from 2014 in percentage of respondents who considered fruit juice consumption important to their child’s health and nutritional needs (from 72 to 43%. (3 19-point reduction in fruit juice consumption among young children (from 66% in 2014 to 47% in 2015. (4 6-point reduction in percentage of parents considering baby teeth “less important” than adult teeth (from 21% in 2014 to 15% in 2015. The

  9. Tapping with intentional drift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vardy, A.N.; Daffertshofer, A.; Beek, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    When tapping a desired frequency, subjects tend to drift away from this target frequency. This compromises the estimate of the correlation between inter-tap intervals (ITIs) as predicted by the two-level model of Wing and Kristofferson which consists of an internal timer ('clock') and motor delays.

  10. TAPS for Pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    By placing the Focused Assessment approach within the TAPS pyramid framework, schools are beginning to find a number of ways in which learning in science can be enhanced for pupils. The quotations in this article provide examples of the ways in which science subject leaders (SSL) describe the impact of TAPS on their pupils.

  11. The largest subsea hot tap (future tap flange) at Angel Field, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lad, Deepak; Drysdale, Colin [T.D. Williamson (United States); Naidoo, Sashie [T.D. Williamson (Australia)

    2008-07-01

    A subsea hot tap was conducted near the gas production platforms in Angel Field, Australia in September 2007 and verified as the largest no. 900 subsea hot tap by Australian authorities. This paper outlines the subsea tapping process, risks and safety issues in deep water environment, including the need to ensure 100% system accuracy and that the machine fluids used to operate the subsea tapping machines were environmentally friendly. The testing phase included land and water testing. In the land tests, issues relating to metal hardness, temperature, pressure and ocean currents that affected machine stability, torque and cutting rate were considered. All preliminary design and testing focused on being able to mount the tapping machine to a pre-existing hot-tap flange and conduct the tapping operation, start to finish, preferably without changing the cutter. The water depth tests took place inside a pressurized, underwater hyperbaric chamber. The equipment repeated the land testing process in conditions duplicating that of the actual project site. Timing was also measured in multiple climatic conditions (except water depth) to obtain an estimation of various scenarios. The field tapping process was conducted without problems in over six hours with a single cutter and without any stalls. (author)

  12. Diversity, community composition, and dynamics of nonpigmented and late-pigmenting rapidly growing mycobacteria in an urban tap water production and distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubrou, S; Konjek, J; Macheras, E; Welté, B; Guidicelli, L; Chignon, E; Joyeux, M; Gaillard, J L; Heym, B; Tully, T; Sapriel, G

    2013-09-01

    Nonpigmented and late-pigmenting rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) have been reported to commonly colonize water production and distribution systems. However, there is little information about the nature and distribution of RGM species within the different parts of such complex networks or about their clustering into specific RGM species communities. We conducted a large-scale survey between 2007 and 2009 in the Parisian urban tap water production and distribution system. We analyzed 1,418 water samples from 36 sites, covering all production units, water storage tanks, and distribution units; RGM isolates were identified by using rpoB gene sequencing. We detected 18 RGM species and putative new species, with most isolates being Mycobacterium chelonae and Mycobacterium llatzerense. Using hierarchical clustering and principal-component analysis, we found that RGM were organized into various communities correlating with water origin (groundwater or surface water) and location within the distribution network. Water treatment plants were more specifically associated with species of the Mycobacterium septicum group. On average, M. chelonae dominated network sites fed by surface water, and M. llatzerense dominated those fed by groundwater. Overall, the M. chelonae prevalence index increased along the distribution network and was associated with a correlative decrease in the prevalence index of M. llatzerense, suggesting competitive or niche exclusion between these two dominant species. Our data describe the great diversity and complexity of RGM species living in the interconnected environments that constitute the water production and distribution system of a large city and highlight the prevalence index of the potentially pathogenic species M. chelonae in the distribution network.

  13. Nutrient storage rates in a national marsh receiving waste water

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.A. Nyman

    2000-01-01

    Artificial wetlands are commonly used to improve water quality in rivers and the coastal zone. In most wetlands associated with rivers, denitrification is probably the primary process that reduces nutrient loading. Where rivers meet oceans, however, significant amounts of nutrients might be permanently buried in wetlands because of global sea-level rise and regional...

  14. Greater Vancouver's water supply receives ozone treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosby, J.; Singh, I.; Reil, D. D.; Neden, G.

    2000-10-01

    To improve the overall quality of the treated water delivered to the member municipalities of the Greater Vancouver Water District (GVWD), the GVWD implemented a phased drinking water quality improvement program. The phased treatment program is directed at attaining effective disinfection while minimizing the formation of chlorinated disinfection by-products. Accordingly, the current primary disinfection method of chlorination was reevaluated and an ozone primary disinfection without filtration was authorized. Ozonization provides increased protection against Giardia and Cryptosporidium and a decrease in the formation potential for disinfection by-products (DPBs). This paper describes the design for the ozonation facility at Coquitlam, construction of which began in 1998 and completed during the summer of 2000. The facility houses the liquid oxygen supply, ozone generation, cooling water, ozone injection, primary off-gas ozone destruct system, and provides a home for various office, electrical maintenance and diesel generating functions. The second site at Capilano is expected to start construction in the fall of 2000 and be completed late in 2002. Wit its kilometre long stainless steel ozone contactor and sidestream injector tower, the Coquitlam Ozonation Facility is the first ozone pressure injection system of its kind in North America. 1 tab., 2 figs.

  15. Separation and determination of trace amounts of zinc, lead, cadmium and mercury in tap and Qaroun lake water using polyurethane foam functionalized with 4-hydroxytoluene and 4-hydroxyacetophenone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burham, N.; Abdel-Azeem, S.M.; El-Shahat, M.F.

    2006-01-01

    A stable chelating sorbent was synthesized by covalently linking 4-hydroxytoluene or 4-hydroxyacetophenone with the polyurethane foam (PUF) through -N=N- group. The synthesized chelating sorbents were characterized by IR and UV/vis measurements. The modified foams show excellent stability towards various solvents. Factors influencing the extraction process of Zn(II), Pb(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) were studied and evaluated as a function of pH of metal ion solution and equilibration shaking time. The values of sorption capacity of metal ions (μg g -1 ) were determined with the two types of bonded foams. The two phenolic bonded foams were studied comparatively. The potential applications of the two newly synthesized foams for the removal and separation of the examined metal ions from two natural water samples (drinking tap water and Qaroun lake water at Fayoum City, Egypt) were investigated. Precision (assessed as a relative standard deviation, R.S.D.) was also evaluated and found to be ≤7.3% (N = 5) with a detection limit under 0.46 μg L -1

  16. Separation and determination of trace amounts of zinc, lead, cadmium and mercury in tap and Qaroun lake water using polyurethane foam functionalized with 4-hydroxytoluene and 4-hydroxyacetophenone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burham, N. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Fayoum University, Fayoum City (Egypt)]. E-mail: n_burham@yahoo.com; Abdel-Azeem, S.M. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Fayoum University, Fayoum City (Egypt); El-Shahat, M.F. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Ain-Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2006-10-10

    A stable chelating sorbent was synthesized by covalently linking 4-hydroxytoluene or 4-hydroxyacetophenone with the polyurethane foam (PUF) through -N=N- group. The synthesized chelating sorbents were characterized by IR and UV/vis measurements. The modified foams show excellent stability towards various solvents. Factors influencing the extraction process of Zn(II), Pb(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) were studied and evaluated as a function of pH of metal ion solution and equilibration shaking time. The values of sorption capacity of metal ions ({mu}g g{sup -1}) were determined with the two types of bonded foams. The two phenolic bonded foams were studied comparatively. The potential applications of the two newly synthesized foams for the removal and separation of the examined metal ions from two natural water samples (drinking tap water and Qaroun lake water at Fayoum City, Egypt) were investigated. Precision (assessed as a relative standard deviation, R.S.D.) was also evaluated and found to be {<=}7.3% (N = 5) with a detection limit under 0.46 {mu}g L{sup -1}.

  17. Technical Assistance Plan (TAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Technical Assistance Plan (TAP) enables community groups to retain the services of an independent technical advisor and to provide resources for a community group to help inform other community members about site decisions.

  18. Annual variations and effects of temperature on Legionella spp. and other potential opportunistic pathogens in tap and shower water

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The data contained in this worksheet provides the quantitative detection of potential pathogens for the bathroom water samples used in this study. This dataset is...

  19. Effect of the Crevice Former on the Corrosion Behavior of 316L Stainless Steel in Chloride-Containing Synthetic Tap Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seon-Hong; Lee, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Jung-Gu; Kim, Woo-Cheol

    2018-05-01

    To restrain the failure of the plate heat exchanger (PHE) in customer boiler working fluid, the effect of crevice former type on the corrosion behavior of the 316L stainless steel plate was investigated using electrochemical methods and surface analyses in chloride-containing synthetic tap water (60 °C). The localized corrosion under metal-metal crevice condition was initiated more easily than that under the metal-gasket crevice condition due to the restricted mass transport at the gasket crevice mouth. However, the anodic current under the metal-metal crevice condition was lower than that under metal-gasket crevice condition at a higher anodic potential, indicating that that the metal dissolution under EPDM crevice would be higher than that under metal crevice under the accelerated corrosion condition. Because narrow crevice gap that was formed under gasket accelerated the anodic dissolution at the crevice mouth, the perforation tendency under metal-gasket crevice condition is much higher than that under metal-metal crevice condition. As a result, the crevice geometry, especially the crevice gap, mainly affected the corrosion behavior of PHE material.

  20. Synthesis of surface molecular imprinted polymers based on carboxyl-modified silica nanoparticles with the selective detection of dibutyl phthalate from tap water samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wanzhen; Zhang, Xiaoming; Huang, Weihong; Luan, Yu; Yang, Yanfei; Zhu, Maiyong; Yang, Wenming

    2017-12-01

    In this work, the molecular imprinted polymers were synthesized with the low monomer concentrations for dibutyl phthalate (DBP). The polymers were prepared over carboxyl-modified silica nanoparticle, which used methacrylic acid as the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker agent and azoisobutyronitrile as the initiator in the process of preparation. Various measures were used to characterize the structure and morphology in order to get the optimal polymer. The characterization results show that the optimal polymer has suitable features for further adsorption process. And adsorption capacity experiments were evaluated to analyze its adsorption performance, through adsorption isotherms/kinetics, selectivity adsorption and desorption and regeneration experiments. These results showed that the molecular imprinted polymers had a short equilibrium time about 60 min and high stability with 88% after six cycles. Furthermore, the molecular imprinted polymers were successfully applied to remove dibutyl phthalate. The concentration range was 5.0-30.0 μmol L-1, and the limit of detection was 0.06 μmol L-1 in tap water samples.

  1. Thallium release from acid mine drainages: Speciation in river and tap water from Valdicastello mining district (northwest Tuscany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanella, Beatrice; Casiot, Corinne; Onor, Massimo; Perotti, Martina; Petrini, Riccardo; Bramanti, Emilia

    2017-08-15

    In this work we present an advantageous method for the simultaneous separation and detection of Tl(I) and Tl(III) species through ion chromatography coupled with on-line inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry. Chromatographic separation between Tl(III) and Tl(I) was achieved in less than two minutes. The method was validated by recovery experiments on real samples, and by comparing the sum of the concentrations of individual Tl species with total thallium values obtained from continuous flow ICP-MS. The experimental procedure offers an accurate, sensitive and interference-free method for Tl speciation at trace levels in environmental samples. This allowed us to investigate the Tl speciation in acid mine drainages (AMD), surface waters and springs in a mining catchment in Valdicastello Carducci (Tuscany, Italy), where severe Tl contamination ad been evidenced previously. This study shows for the first time that Tl(III), in addition to Tl(I), is present in considerable amounts in water samples affected by acid mining outflow, raising the question of the origin of this thermodynamically unstable species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Spatial and temporal distributions of toxicity in receiving waters around an oil effluent discharge site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, P.R.

    1994-01-01

    Distributions of pollutants from a point source discharge within the water column may vary in both time and space. In this study, they examined the spatial and temporal patterns of toxicity from an oil production effluent (produced water) discharge plume using sea urchin fertilization and development bioassays. Specifically, they tested the sensitivity and response patterns of sea urchin gametes and early life stages exposed to receiving waters sampled along a 1 km transact near an active produced water outfall. Fertilization success and development of larvae to the pluteus stage varied significantly with proximity to the outfall, with reduced fertilization and larval development found closer to the outfall. Although estimated toxicity in receiving water samples, based on fertilization success, was variable in time -- perhaps responding to variation in the quantity or make-up of produced water discharges -- the general spatial pattern of toxicity along the sampling transact remained relatively constant. Strong evidence that field toxicity was directly attributable to produced water effluents was provided by sampling the receiving waters while the produced water discharge was not operating. At such a time, no toxicity was found at any of the field sites. Receiving water toxicity data, along with toxicity data from the effluent itself, were used to prepare a ''map'' of effective effluent concentrations along the sampling transect

  3. Propeller TAP flap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jørn Bo; Bille, Camilla; Wamberg, Peter

    2013-01-01

    major complications needing additional surgery. One flap was lost due to a vascular problem. Breast reconstruction can be performed by a propeller TAP flap without cutting the descending branch of the thoracodorsal vessels. However, the authors would recommend that a small cuff of muscle is left around...

  4. Assessment of refinery effluents and receiving waters using biologically-based effect methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Within the EU it is apparent that the regulatory focus on the use of biologically-based effects methods in the assessment of refinery effluents and receiving waters has increased in the past decade. This has been reflected in a recent refinery survey which revealed an increased use of such methods for assessing the quality of refinery effluents and their receiving waters. This report provides an overview of recent techniques used for this purpose. Several case studies provided by CONCAWE member companies describe the application of biological methods to effluent discharge assessment and surface water monitoring. The case studies show that when biological methods are applied to refinery effluents and receiving waters they raise different questions compared with those obtained using physical and chemical methods. Although direct measurement of the toxicity of effluent and receiving to aquatic organisms is the most cited technique, more recent efforts include tests that also address the persistence of effluent toxicity once discharged into the receiving water. Similarly, ecological monitoring of receiving waters can identify effects of effluent inputs arising from species interactions and other secondary effects that would not always be apparent from the results of biological tests conducted on single aquatic organisms. In light of recent and proposed regulatory developments the objectives of this report are therefore to: Discuss the application of biologically-based effects methods (including ecological monitoring) to refinery discharges and receiving waters; Assess the implications of such methods for future regulation of refinery discharges; and Provide guidance on good practice that can be used by refineries and the downstream oil industry to carry out and interpret data obtained using biologically-based effects methods. While the emphasis is on the toxic effects of effluents, other properties will also be covered because of their interdependency in determining

  5. Assessment of refinery effluents and receiving waters using biologically-based effect methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-01-15

    Within the EU it is apparent that the regulatory focus on the use of biologically-based effects methods in the assessment of refinery effluents and receiving waters has increased in the past decade. This has been reflected in a recent refinery survey which revealed an increased use of such methods for assessing the quality of refinery effluents and their receiving waters. This report provides an overview of recent techniques used for this purpose. Several case studies provided by CONCAWE member companies describe the application of biological methods to effluent discharge assessment and surface water monitoring. The case studies show that when biological methods are applied to refinery effluents and receiving waters they raise different questions compared with those obtained using physical and chemical methods. Although direct measurement of the toxicity of effluent and receiving to aquatic organisms is the most cited technique, more recent efforts include tests that also address the persistence of effluent toxicity once discharged into the receiving water. Similarly, ecological monitoring of receiving waters can identify effects of effluent inputs arising from species interactions and other secondary effects that would not always be apparent from the results of biological tests conducted on single aquatic organisms. In light of recent and proposed regulatory developments the objectives of this report are therefore to: Discuss the application of biologically-based effects methods (including ecological monitoring) to refinery discharges and receiving waters; Assess the implications of such methods for future regulation of refinery discharges; and Provide guidance on good practice that can be used by refineries and the downstream oil industry to carry out and interpret data obtained using biologically-based effects methods. While the emphasis is on the toxic effects of effluents, other properties will also be covered because of their interdependency in determining

  6. Physics of Beer Tapping

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez , Javier; Casado-Chacón , Almudena; Fuster , Daniel

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The popular bar prank known in colloquial English as beer tapping consists in hitting the top of a beer bottle with a solid object, usually another bottle, to trigger the foaming over of the former within a few seconds. Despite the trick being known for long time, to the best of our knowledge, the phenomenon still lacks scientific explanation. Although it seems natural to think that shock-induced cavitation enhances the diffusion of CO2 from the supersaturated bulk liq...

  7. Monitoring chlorination practices during operation at TAPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sriraman, A.K.; Wani, B.N.; Gokhale, A.S.; Yuvaraju, B.

    1995-01-01

    Chlorination of cooling waters is aimed at the condenser surfaces to minimize the biogrowth, while the residual oxidants in the effluents are negligible. This paper describes the fulfillment of the above criteria, as observed during the monitoring of chlorination practices at Tarapur Atomic Power Station (TAPS) during 1990. (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs

  8. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be found in some metal water taps, interior water pipes, or pipes connecting a house to ... reduce or eliminate lead. See resources below. 5. Children and pregnant women are especially vulnerable to the ...

  9. Modeling and Circumventing the Effect of Sediments and Water Column on Receiver Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audet, P.

    2017-12-01

    Teleseismic P-wave receiver functions are routinely used to resolve crust and mantle structure in various geologic settings. Receiver functions are approximations to the Earth's Green's functions and are composed of various scattered phase arrivals, depending on the complexity of the underlying Earth structure. For simple structure, the dominant arrivals (converted and back-scattered P-to-S phases) are well separated in time and can be reliably used in estimating crustal velocity structure. In the presence of sedimentary layers, strong reverberations typically produce high-amplitude oscillations that contaminate the early part of the wave train and receiver functions can be difficult to interpret in terms of underlying structure. The effect of a water column also limits the interpretability of under-water receiver functions due to the additional acoustic wave propagating within the water column that can contaminate structural arrivals. We perform numerical modeling of teleseismic Green's functions and receiver functions using a reflectivity technique for a range of Earth models that include thin sedimentary layers and overlying water column. These modeling results indicate that, as expected, receiver functions are difficult to interpret in the presence of sediments, but the contaminating effect of the water column is dependent on the thickness of the water layer. To circumvent these effects and recover source-side structure, we propose using an approach based on transfer function modeling that bypasses receiver functions altogether and estimates crustal properties directly from the waveforms (Frederiksen and Delayney, 2015). Using this approach, reasonable assumptions about the properties of the sedimentary layer can be included in forward calculations of the Green's functions that are convolved with radial waveforms to predict vertical waveforms. Exploration of model space using Monte Carlo-style search and least-square waveform misfits can be performed to

  10. Ptaquiloside in Irish Bracken Ferns and Receiving Waters, with Implications for Land Managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connie O’Driscoll

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ptaquiloside, along with other natural phytotoxins, is receiving increased attention from scientists and land use managers. There is an urgent need to increase empirical evidence to understand the scale of phytotoxin mobilisation and potential to enter into the environment. In this study the risk of ptaquiloside to drinking water was assessed by quantifying ptaquiloside in the receiving waters at three drinking water abstraction sites across Ireland and in bracken fronds surrounding the abstraction sites. We also investigated the impact of different management regimes (spraying, cutting and rolling on ptaquiloside concentrations at plot-scale in six locations in Northern Ireland, UK. Ptaquiloside concentrations were determined using recent advances in the use of LC-MS for the detection and quantification of ptaquiloside. The results indicate that ptaquiloside is present in bracken stands surrounding drinking water abstractions in Ireland, and ptaquiloside concentrations were also observed in the receiving waters. Furthermore, spraying was found to be the most effective bracken management regime observed in terms of reducing ptaquiloside load. Increased awareness is vital on the implications of managing land with extensive bracken stands.

  11. Ptaquiloside in Irish Bracken Ferns and Receiving Waters, with Implications for Land Managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Driscoll, Connie; Ramwell, Carmel; Harhen, Brendan; Morrison, Liam; Clauson-Kaas, Frederik; Hansen, Hans Christian B; Campbell, Graeme; Sheahan, Jerome; Misstear, Bruce; Xiao, Liwen

    2016-04-26

    Ptaquiloside, along with other natural phytotoxins, is receiving increased attention from scientists and land use managers. There is an urgent need to increase empirical evidence to understand the scale of phytotoxin mobilisation and potential to enter into the environment. In this study the risk of ptaquiloside to drinking water was assessed by quantifying ptaquiloside in the receiving waters at three drinking water abstraction sites across Ireland and in bracken fronds surrounding the abstraction sites. We also investigated the impact of different management regimes (spraying, cutting and rolling) on ptaquiloside concentrations at plot-scale in six locations in Northern Ireland, UK. Ptaquiloside concentrations were determined using recent advances in the use of LC-MS for the detection and quantification of ptaquiloside. The results indicate that ptaquiloside is present in bracken stands surrounding drinking water abstractions in Ireland, and ptaquiloside concentrations were also observed in the receiving waters. Furthermore, spraying was found to be the most effective bracken management regime observed in terms of reducing ptaquiloside load. Increased awareness is vital on the implications of managing land with extensive bracken stands.

  12. Drugs of abuse, cytostatic drugs and iodinated contrast media in tap water from the Madrid region (central Spain):A case study to analyse their occurrence and human health risk characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, A; Zonja, B; Mastroianni, N; Negreira, N; López de Alda, M; Pérez, S; Barceló, D; Gil, A; Valcárcel, Y

    2016-01-01

    This work analyses the presence of forty-eight emerging pollutants, including twenty-five drugs of abuse and metabolites, seventeen cytostatic drugs and six iodinated contrast media, in tap water from the Madrid Region. Analysis of the target compounds in the tap water was performed by means of (on-line or off-line) solid-phase extraction followed by analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A preliminary human health risk characterization was undertaken for each individual compound and for different groups of compounds with a common mechanism of action found in tap water. The results of the study showed the presence of eight out of the twenty-five drugs of abuse and metabolites analysed, namely, the cocainics cocaine and benzoylecgonine, the amphetamine-type stimulants ephedrine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine and methamphetamine, the opioid methadone and its metabolite 2-ethylene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine and, finally caffeine at concentrations ranging from 0.11 to 502 ng L(-1). Four out of the six analysed iodinated contrast media, namely, diatrizoate, iohexol, iomeprol and iopromide, were detected in at least one sample, with concentration values varying between 0.4 and 5 ng L(-1). Cytostatic compounds were not detected in any sample. Caffeine was the substance showing the highest concentrations, up to 502 ng L(-1), mainly in the drinking water sampling point located in Madrid city. Among the other drugs of abuse, the most abundant compounds were cocaine and benzoylecgonine, detected at concentrations ranging from 0.11 to 86 ng L(-1) and from 0.11 to 53 ng L(-1), respectively. Regarding iodinated contrast media, iohexol was the most ubiquitous and abundant compound, with a frequency of detection of 100% and concentrations from 0.5 to 5.0 ng L(-1) in basically the same range in all sampling points. Taking into account the results and types of treatment applied, ozonisation plus granular activated carbon filtration appears to be

  13. Life cycle assessment of water supply alternatives in water-receiving areas of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Xiong, Wei; Zhang, Wenlong; Wang, Chao; Wang, Peifang

    2016-02-01

    To alleviate the water shortage in northern China, the Chinese government launched the world's largest water diversion project, the South-to-North Water Diversion Project (SNWDP), which delivers water from water-sufficient southern China to water-deficient northern China. However, an up-to-date study has not been conducted to determine whether the project is a favorable option to augment the water supply from an environmental perspective. The life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology integrated with a freshwater withdrawal category (FWI) was adopted to compare water supply alternatives in the water-receiving areas of the SNWDP, i.e., water diversion, wastewater reclamation and seawater desalination. Beijing, Tianjin, Jinan and Qingdao were studied as representative cities because they are the primary water-receiving areas of the SNWDP. The results revealed that the operation phase played the dominant role in all but one of the life cycle impact categories considered and contributed to more than 70% of their scores. For Beijing and Tianjin, receiving water through the SNWDP is the most sustainable option to augment the water supply. The result can be drawn in all of the water-receiving areas of the middle route of the SNWDP. For Jinan and Qingdao, the most sustainable option is the wastewater reclamation system. The seawater desalination system obtains the highest score of the standard impact indicators in all of the study areas, whereas it is the most favorable water supply option when considering the freshwater withdrawal impact. Although the most sustainable water supply alternative was recommended through an LCA analysis, multi-water resources should be integrated into the region's water supply from the perspective of water sustainability. The results of this study provide a useful recommendation on the management of water resources for China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Occurrence, fate and interrelation of selected antibiotics in sewage treatment plants and their receiving surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Hong; Que, Chen-Jing; Xu, Gang; Sun, Yan-Feng; Ma, Jing; Xu, Hui; Sun, Rui; Tang, Liang

    2016-10-01

    The occurrence and fate of 12 commonly used antibiotics, two fluoroquinolones (FQs), three sulfonamides (SAs), three macrolides (MLs), two β-lactams and two tetracyclines (TCs), were studied in four sewage treatment plants (STPs) and their receiving water, the Huangpu River, Shanghai. The levels of selected antibiotics in the STPs ranged from ngL(-1) to μgL(-1), while ofloxacin (OFL) was predominant (reach up to 2936.94ngL(-1)). The highest and lowest proportions were of FQs (STP 1, STP 2 and STP 3) and TCs (in four STPs) respectively in both influents and effluents. And the second-highest proportion was of FQs in STP 4 (only 2% lower than the highest). What could be inferred was that the usage of TCs were extremely low while the usage of FQs were larger than other antibiotics in our study area. The elimination of antibiotics through these STPs was incomplete and a wide range of removal efficiencies (-442.8% to 100%) during the treatment was observed. Based on the mass loadings as well as the per-capita mass loadings of target antibiotics in four STPs, OFL was considered the primary contaminant herein. In the Huangpu River, 3 antibiotics were not detected in any water samples, while the detection frequencies of 4 antibiotics were 100%. The highest concentration detected in the river was 53.91ngL(-1) of sulfapyridine (SD). The Spearman correlation analysis of antibiotics in STPs and the nearby water samples suggests that the antibiotics discharged from some STPs might influence the receiving water to some extent. Moreover, most of the hazard quotient (HQ) values in STP effluents were one order magnitude higher than those in their receiving water. However, there is no imminent significant ecotoxicological risk caused by any single compound in the effluents and receiving waters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact assessment of treated wastewater on water quality of the receiver using the Wilcoxon test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofman Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater treatment is a process which aims to reduce the concentration of pollutants in wastewater to the level allowed by current regulations. This is to protect the receivers which typically are rivers, streams, lakes. Examination of the quality of treated wastewater allows for quick elimination of possible negative effects, and the study of water receiver prevents from excessive contamination. The paper presents the results of selected physical and chemical parameters of treated wastewater from the largest on the region in north-eastern Poland city of Bialystok municipal wastewater treatment and Biała River, the receiver. The samples for research were taken 3–4 a month in 2015 from two points: before and after discharge. The impact of the wastewater treatment plant on the quality of the receiver waters was studied by using non-parametric Wilcoxon test. This test determined whether the analyzed indicators varied significantly depending on different sampling points of the river, above and below place of discharge of treated wastewater. These results prove that the treated wastewater does not affect the water quality in the Biała River.

  16. The methods of receiving coal water suspension and its use as the modifying additive in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyantuyev, S. L.; Urkhanova, L. A.; Lkhasaranov, S. A.; Stebenkova, Y. Y.; Khmelev, A. B.; Kondratenko, A. S.

    2017-01-01

    Results of research of the coal water suspension (CWS) from a cake received in the electrodigit ways in the fluid environment and gas are given in article and also the possibilities of its use as the modifying additive in concrete are considered. Use of a coal cake is perspective as it is a withdrawal of the coal and concentrating enterprises and has extremely low cost. Methods of receiving CWS and possibility of formation of carbon nanomaterials (CNM) are given in their structure. Research and the analysis of a microstructure of a surface of exemplars before electrodigit processing, their element structure, dependence of durability of a cement stone on a look and quantity of an additive of CWS is conducted. For modification of cement the carbon nanomaterials received from the following exemplars of water coal suspensions were used: foams from a cake from a scrubber of the plasma modular reactor, coal water suspension from a cake from electrodigit installation. The product which can find further application for a power engineering as fuel for combustion, and also in structural materials science, in particular, as the modifying additive in concrete allows to receive these methods.

  17. Tapping mode AFM study on the surface dynamics of a single glucose oxidase molecule on a Au(1 1 1) surface in water with implication for a surface-induced unfolding pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Ichiro; Yaoita, Masashi; Higano, Michi; Nagashima, Seiiichi; Kataoka, Ryoichi

    2004-01-01

    We have investigated a surface-induced unfolding dynamics of a single glucose oxidase (GO) molecule on Au(1 1 1) in air-saturated water, using tapping mode atomic force microscopy (TMAFM). We followed the unfolding process by measuring the maximum height of a well-isolated GO molecule on a terrace near a step-edge of the surface as a function of contact time. We find three linear portions with two intersections in a power-law fit to the selected values of the observed heights. The kinetic TMAFM result implies that there exist at least two distinct dynamic regimes in the unfolding

  18. Growth Performance, Mineral Digestibility, and Blood Characteristics of Ostriches Receiving Drinking Water Supplemented with Varying Levels of Chelated Trace Mineral Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfori, Hossein; Ghasemi, Hossein Ali; Hajkhodadadi, Iman; Nazaran, Mohammad Hassan; Hafizi, Maryam

    2018-05-01

    The effects of water supplementation of chelated trace minerals (CTM, which is named Bonzaplex designed with chelate compounds technology) on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of minerals, and some blood metabolites, TM, and antioxidant enzyme values in African ostriches were investigated from 8 to 12 months of age. A total of 20 8-month-old ostriches (five birds in five replicate pens) was randomly allocated into one of the following four treatments: (1) control (basal diet + tap water), (2) low CTM (basal diet +100 mg/bird/day CTM powder in tap water), (3) medium CTM (basal diet +1 g/bird/day CTM powder in tap water), and (4) high CTM (basal diet +2 g/bird/day CTM powder in tap water). Compared with control, medium CTM improved (P water can be recommended for improving growth performance, mineral absorption, and antioxidant status of ostriches fed diets containing the recommended levels of inorganic TM.

  19. Relay self interference minimisation using tapped filter

    KAUST Repository

    Jazzar, Saleh

    2013-05-01

    In this paper we introduce a self interference (SI) estimation and minimisation technique for amplify and forward relays. Relays are used to help forward signals between a transmitter and a receiver. This helps increase the signal coverage and reduce the required transmitted signal power. One problem that faces relays communications is the leaked signal from the relay\\'s output to its input. This will cause an SI problem where the new received signal at the relay\\'s input will be added with the unwanted leaked signal from the relay\\'s output. A Solution is proposed in this paper to estimate and minimise this SI which is based upon using a tapped filter at the destination. To get the optimum weights for this tapped filter, some channel parameters must be estimated first. This is performed blindly at the destination without the need of any training. This channel parameter estimation method is named the blind-self-interference-channel-estimation (BSICE) method. The next step in the proposed solution is to estimate the tapped filter\\'s weights. This is performed by minimising the mean squared error (MSE) at the destination. This proposed method is named the MSE-Optimum Weight (MSE-OW) method. Simulation results are provided in this paper to verify the performance of BSICE and MSE-OW methods. © 2013 IEEE.

  20. Preparation of a hollow porous molecularly imprinted polymer using tetrabromobisphenol A as a dummy template and its application as SPE sorbent for determination of bisphenol A in tap water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Zhang, Xuebin; Liu, Yuxin; Tong, Hongwu; Xu, Yeping; Liu, Shaomin

    2013-12-15

    In this paper, a highly selective sample cleanup procedure combing dummy molecular imprinting and solid-phase extraction (DMIP-SPE) was developed for the isolation and determination of bisphenol A (BPA) in tap water. The novel hollow porous dummy molecularly imprinted polymer (HPDMIP) was prepared adopting a sacrificial support approach, using tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), whose structure was similar to that of BPA, as the dummy template and mesoporous MCM-48 nanospheres as the support. Owing to a very short distance between the binding sites and the surface, a large surface area and a good steric structure to match its imprint molecules, the maximum adsorption capacities (Qmax) of the dummy-imprinted and non-imprinted sorbents for BPA were as high as 445 and 340 μmol g(-1), respectively, and the adsorption reached about 73% of Qmax in 10 min. Meanwhile, a method was developed for the determination of BPA using HPDMIP as a solid-phase extraction enrichment sorbent coupled with HPLC. Under the optimum experimental conditions, HPDMIP exhibited satisfactory results in the enrichment and determination of BPA in tap water with a recovery rate of 95-105%, and relative standard deviations of below 6%, and it can achieve a limit of detection as low as 3 ng mL(-1). The developed extraction protocol eliminated the effect of template leakage on quantitative analysis and could be applied for the determination of BPA in complicated functional samples. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Modeling spray drift and runoff-related inputs of pesticides to receiving water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuyang; Luo, Yuzhou; Goh, Kean S

    2018-03-01

    Pesticides move to surface water via various pathways including surface runoff, spray drift and subsurface flow. Little is known about the relative contributions of surface runoff and spray drift in agricultural watersheds. This study develops a modeling framework to address the contribution of spray drift to the total loadings of pesticides in receiving water bodies. The modeling framework consists of a GIS module for identifying drift potential, the AgDRIFT model for simulating spray drift, and the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for simulating various hydrological and landscape processes including surface runoff and transport of pesticides. The modeling framework was applied on the Orestimba Creek Watershed, California. Monitoring data collected from daily samples were used for model evaluation. Pesticide mass deposition on the Orestimba Creek ranged from 0.08 to 6.09% of applied mass. Monitoring data suggests that surface runoff was the major pathway for pesticide entering water bodies, accounting for 76% of the annual loading; the rest 24% from spray drift. The results from the modeling framework showed 81 and 19%, respectively, for runoff and spray drift. Spray drift contributed over half of the mass loading during summer months. The slightly lower spray drift contribution as predicted by the modeling framework was mainly due to SWAT's under-prediction of pesticide mass loading during summer and over-prediction of the loading during winter. Although model simulations were associated with various sources of uncertainties, the overall performance of the modeling framework was satisfactory as evaluated by multiple statistics: for simulation of daily flow, the Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency Coefficient (NSE) ranged from 0.61 to 0.74 and the percent bias (PBIAS) runoff in receiving waters and the design of management practices for mitigating pesticide exposure within a watershed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Analgesic effect of bilateral subcostal tap block after laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karam, K.; Khan, B.I.

    2018-01-01

    Pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy is mild to moderate in intensity. Several modalities are employed for achieving safe and effective postoperative analgesia, the benefits of which adds to the early recovery of the patients. As a part of multimodal analgesia, various approaches of Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block has been used for management of parietal and incisional components of pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. This study was designed to compare the analgesic efficacy of two different approaches of ultrasound guided TAP block, i.e., Subcostal-TAP block technique with ultrasound guided Posterior-TAP block for post-operative pain management in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anaesthesia. Methods: In this double blinded randomized controlled study, consecutive nonprobability sampling was done and a total of 126 patients admitted for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy fulfilling the inclusion criteria were selected. After induction of general anaesthesia, patients were randomized through draw method and received either ultrasound guided posterior TAP block with 0.375% bupivacaine (20ml volume) on each side of the abdomen or subcostal TAP block bilaterally with the same. Up to 24 hours postoperatively, static and dynamic numeric rating pain scores were assessed. Results: We found statistically significant difference in mean static pain scores over 24 hours postoperatively in subcostal TAP group, suggesting improved analgesia. However, mean dynamic postoperative pain scores were comparable between the two groups. Whereas, patients in both groups were satisfied with pain management. Conclusions: Ultrasound guided subcostal TAP block provides better postoperative analgesia as compared to the Posterior TAP block in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Otherwise both of the approaches improve patient outcomes towards early recovery and discharge from hospital. (author)

  3. Physics of Beer Tapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Javier; Casado-Chacón, Almudena; Fuster, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    The popular bar prank known in colloquial English as beer tapping consists in hitting the top of a beer bottle with a solid object, usually another bottle, to trigger the foaming over of the former within a few seconds. Despite the trick being known for a long time, to the best of our knowledge, the phenomenon still lacks scientific explanation. Although it seems natural to think that shock-induced cavitation enhances the diffusion of CO2 from the supersaturated bulk liquid into the bubbles by breaking them up, the subtle mechanism by which this happens remains unknown. Here, we show that the overall foaming-over process can be divided into three stages where different physical phenomena take place in different time scales: namely, the bubble-collapse (or cavitation) stage, the diffusion-driven stage, and the buoyancy-driven stage. In the bubble-collapse stage, the impact generates a train of expansion-compression waves in the liquid that leads to the fragmentation of preexisting gas cavities. Upon bubble fragmentation, the sudden increase of the interface-area-to-volume ratio enhances mass transfer significantly, which makes the bubble volume grow by a large factor until CO2 is locally depleted. At that point buoyancy takes over, making the bubble clouds rise and eventually form buoyant vortex rings whose volume grows fast due to the feedback between the buoyancy-induced rising speed and the advection-enhanced CO2 transport from the bulk liquid to the bubble. The physics behind this explosive process sheds insight into the dynamics of geological phenomena such as limnic eruptions.

  4. Tapping a new energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, W.

    1999-01-01

    The Sable Offshore Energy Project is one of Canada's largest construction projects which is bringing a new industry to Nova Scotia. A five-party consortium comprised of Mobil Oil Canada, Shell Canada, Imperial Oil, Nova Scotia Resources and Mosbacher, has formed an enterprise called Sable Offshore Energy Inc. The consortium plans to bring natural gas to markets in Canada and the United States before the end of 1999. The Santa Fe Galaxy II is one of the world's most modern marine all-weather drilling rigs that will soon begin the drilling of wells. Once in production, the project will produce half a billion cubic feet of natural gas daily from three production platforms that will tap three separate undersea natural gas fields. The gas will then be transported 200 km to shore near Goldboro, Nova Scotia, through an undersea pipeline. There, it will be treated to remove any remaining water and to separate liquid natural gas from the gas proper. The natural gas liquids will then be carried by an onshore pipeline to a new facility at Point Tupper where they will be processed into propane, butane and condensate. There will be enough gas to meet the potential demand in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. Large urban centres such as Halifax and Saint John will be served by secondary lines that branch off the main pipeline, but developing smaller markets will take time because the necessary infrastructure does not yet exist. The project has already created thousands of jobs in the province. 5 figs

  5. Tapping mode microwave impedance microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, K.; Kundhikanjana, W.; Peng, H.; Cui, Y.; Kelly, M. A.; Shen, Z. X.

    2009-01-01

    We report tapping mode microwave impedance imaging based on atomic force microscope platforms. The shielded cantilever probe is critical to localize the tip-sample interaction near the tip apex. The modulated tip-sample impedance can be accurately

  6. Gas-operated heat pump for monovalent space heating and tap water heating. A seizable contribution to carbon dioxide emission control; Gasbetriebene Waermepumpe zur monovalenten Raumbeheizung und Trinkwassererwaermung. Ein greifbarer Beitrag zur Reduktion der CO{sub 2}-Emissionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heikrodt, K.; Heckt, R. [Viessmann Werke GmbH und Co., Allendorf (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    The project had the objectives to develop a Vuilleumier heat pump for space heating and make an experimental study testing it as a heat generator for a heating system for one- and multi-family houses. Apart from monovalent operation, the following boundary conditions were defined: provision for connection to existing heating systems, even radiator heatings with 75 C/60 C, tap water heating, and air-source heat. Performance constant, manufacturing cost, freedom from maintenance, and service life were taken into consideration in the design, rating and construction of the unit. (orig.) [German] Ziel des Vorhabens war die Entwicklung einer Vuilleumier-Waermepumpe zur Raumbeheizung und deren experimentelle Untersuchung als Waermeerzeuger fuer ein Heizungssystem in Ein- und Mehrfamilienhaeusern. Als Rahmebedingungen wurden neben einer monovalenten Betriebsweise auch die moegliche Anbindung an bestehende Heizungssysteme, sogar Radiatorheizungen mit 75 C/60 C, Trinkwassererwaermung und Luft als Waermequelle festgelegt. Leistungszahl, Herstellkosten, Wartungsfreiheit und Lebensdauer wurden in Konzeption, Auslegung und Konstruktion beruecksichtigt. (orig.)

  7. Chromatographic background drift correction coupled with parallel factor analysis to resolve coelution problems in three-dimensional chromatographic data: quantification of eleven antibiotics in tap water samples by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a diode array detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yong-Jie; Wu, Hai-Long; Fu, Hai-Yan; Zhao, Juan; Li, Yuan-Na; Li, Shu-Fang; Kang, Chao; Yu, Ru-Qin

    2013-08-09

    Chromatographic background drift correction has been an important field of research in chromatographic analysis. In the present work, orthogonal spectral space projection for background drift correction of three-dimensional chromatographic data was described in detail and combined with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) to resolve overlapped chromatographic peaks and obtain the second-order advantage. This strategy was verified by simulated chromatographic data and afforded significant improvement in quantitative results. Finally, this strategy was successfully utilized to quantify eleven antibiotics in tap water samples. Compared with the traditional methodology of introducing excessive factors for the PARAFAC model to eliminate the effect of background drift, clear improvement in the quantitative performance of PARAFAC was observed after background drift correction by orthogonal spectral space projection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Manipulation of polystyrene nanoparticles on a silicon wafer in the peak force tapping mode in water: pH-dependent friction and adhesion force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiwek, Simon; Stark, Robert W., E-mail: stark@csi.tu-darmstadt.de, E-mail: dietz@csi.tu-darmstadt.de; Dietz, Christian, E-mail: stark@csi.tu-darmstadt.de, E-mail: dietz@csi.tu-darmstadt.de [Center of Smart Interfaces, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Str. 10, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Physics of Surfaces, Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Str. 16, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Heim, Lars-Oliver [Center of Smart Interfaces, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Str. 10, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-03-14

    The friction force between nanoparticles and a silicon wafer is a crucial parameter for cleaning processes in the semiconductor industry. However, little is known about the pH-dependency of the friction forces and the shear strength at the interface. Here, we push polystyrene nanoparticles, 100 nm in diameter, with the tip of an atomic force microscope and measure the pH-dependency of the friction, adhesion, and normal forces on a silicon substrate covered with a native silicon dioxide layer. The peak force tapping mode was applied to control the vertical force on these particles. We successively increased the applied load until the particles started to move. The main advantage of this technique over single manipulation processes is the achievement of a large number of manipulation events in short time and in a straightforward manner. Geometrical considerations of the interaction forces at the tip-particle interface allowed us to calculate the friction force and shear strength from the applied normal force depending on the pH of an aqueous solution. The results clearly demonstrated that particle removal should be performed with a basic solution at pH 9 because of the low interaction forces between particle and substrate.

  9. Tapping mode microwave impedance microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, K.

    2009-01-01

    We report tapping mode microwave impedance imaging based on atomic force microscope platforms. The shielded cantilever probe is critical to localize the tip-sample interaction near the tip apex. The modulated tip-sample impedance can be accurately simulated by the finite-element analysis and the result agrees quantitatively to the experimental data on a series of thin-film dielectric samples. The tapping mode microwave imaging is also superior to the contact mode in that the thermal drift in a long time scale is totally eliminated and an absolute measurement on the dielectric properties is possible. We demonstrated tapping images on working nanodevices, and the data are consistent with the transport results. © 2009 American Institute of Physics.

  10. Operator decision support system for integrated wastewater management including wastewater treatment plants and receiving water bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minsoo; Kim, Yejin; Kim, Hyosoo; Piao, Wenhua; Kim, Changwon

    2016-06-01

    An operator decision support system (ODSS) is proposed to support operators of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in making appropriate decisions. This system accounts for water quality (WQ) variations in WWTP influent and effluent and in the receiving water body (RWB). The proposed system is comprised of two diagnosis modules, three prediction modules, and a scenario-based supporting module (SSM). In the diagnosis modules, the WQs of the influent and effluent WWTP and of the RWB are assessed via multivariate analysis. Three prediction modules based on the k-nearest neighbors (k-NN) method, activated sludge model no. 2d (ASM2d) model, and QUAL2E model are used to forecast WQs for 3 days in advance. To compare various operating alternatives, SSM is applied to test various predetermined operating conditions in terms of overall oxygen transfer coefficient (Kla), waste sludge flow rate (Qw), return sludge flow rate (Qr), and internal recycle flow rate (Qir). In the case of unacceptable total phosphorus (TP), SSM provides appropriate information for the chemical treatment. The constructed ODSS was tested using data collected from Geumho River, which was the RWB, and S WWTP in Daegu City, South Korea. The results demonstrate the capability of the proposed ODSS to provide WWTP operators with more objective qualitative and quantitative assessments of WWTP and RWB WQs. Moreover, the current study shows that ODSS, using data collected from the study area, can be used to identify operational alternatives through SSM at an integrated urban wastewater management level.

  11. Tapping methane hydrates for unconventional natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    Methane hydrate is an icelike form of concentrated methane and water found in the sediments of permafrost regions and marine continental margins at depths far shallower than conventional oil and gas. Despite their relative accessibility and widespread occurrence, methane hydrates have never been tapped to meet increasing global energy demands. With rising natural gas prices, production from these unconventional gas deposits is becoming economically viable, particularly in permafrost areas already being exploited for conventional oil and gas. This article provides an overview of gas hydrate occurrence, resource assessment, exploration, production technologies, renewability, and future challenges.

  12. Sediment accretion and carbon storage in constructed wetlands receiving water treated with metal-based coagulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpner, Elizabeth; Kraus, Tamara; Liang, Yan; Bachand, Sandra M.; Horwath, William R.; Bachand, Philip A.M.

    2018-01-01

    In many regions of the world, subsidence of organic rich soils threatens levee stability and freshwater supply, and continued oxidative loss of organic matter contributes to greenhouse gas production. To counter subsidence in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of northern California, we examined the feasibility of using constructed wetlands receiving drainage water treated with metal-based coagulants to accrete mineral material along with wetland biomass, while also sequestering carbon in wetland sediment. Nine field-scale wetlands were constructed which received local drainage water that was either untreated (control), or treated with polyaluminum chloride (PAC) or iron sulfate (FeSO4) coagulants. After 23 months of flooding and coagulant treatment, sediment samples were collected near the inlet, middle, and outlet of each wetland to determine vertical accretion rates, bulk density, sediment composition, and carbon sequestration rates. Wetlands treated with PAC had the highest and most spatially consistent vertical accretion rates (~6 cm year-1), while the FeSO4 wetlands had similarly high accretion rates near the inlet but rates similar to the untreated wetland (~1.5 cm year-1) at the middle and outlet sites. The composition of the newly accreted sediment in the PAC and FeSO4 treatments was high in the added metal (aluminum and iron, respectively), but the percent metal by weight was similar to native soils of California. As has been observed in other constructed wetlands, the newly accreted sediment material had lower bulk densities than the native soil material (0.04-0.10 g cm-3 versus 0.2-0.3 g cm-3), suggesting these materials will consolidate over time. Finally, this technology accelerated carbon burial, with rates in PAC treated wetland (0.63 kg C m-2 yr-1) over 2-fold greater than the untreated control (0.28 kg C m-2 yr-1). This study demonstrates the feasibility of using constructed wetlands treated with coagulants to reverse subsidence by accreting the

  13. Science to Support Management of Receiving Waters in an Event-Driven Ecosystem: From Land to River to Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart E. Bunn

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Managing receiving-water quality, ecosystem health and ecosystem service delivery is challenging in regions where extreme rainfall and runoff events occur episodically, confounding and often intensifying land-degradation impacts. We synthesize the approaches used in river, reservoir and coastal water management in the event-driven subtropics of Australia, and the scientific research underpinning them. Land-use change has placed the receiving waters of Moreton Bay, an internationally-significant coastal wetland, at risk of ecological degradation through increased nutrient and sediment loads. The event-driven climate exacerbates this issue, as the waterways and ultimately Moreton Bay receive large inputs of nutrients and sediment during events, well above those received throughout stable climatic periods. Research on the water quality and ecology of the region’s rivers and coastal waters has underpinned the development of a world-renowned monitoring program and, in combination with catchment-source tracing methods and modeling, has revealed the key mechanisms and management strategies by which receiving-water quality, ecosystem health and ecosystem services can be maintained and improved. These approaches provide a useful framework for management of water bodies in other regions driven by episodic events, or where novel stressors are involved (e.g., climate change, urbanization, to support sustained ecosystem service delivery and restoration of aquatic ecosystems.

  14. Impacts from urban water systems on receiving waters - How to account for severe wet-weather events in LCA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, Eva; Gasperi, Johnny; Gromaire, Marie-Christine; Chebbo, Ghassan; Azimi, Sam; Rocher, Vincent; Roux, Philippe; Rosenbaum, Ralph K; Sinfort, Carole

    2018-01-01

    Sewage systems are a vital part of the urban infrastructure in most cities. They provide drainage, which protects public health, prevents the flooding of property and protects the water environment around urban areas. On some occasions sewers will overflow into the water environment during heavy rain potentially causing unacceptable impacts from releases of untreated sewage into the environment. In typical Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies of urban wastewater systems (UWS), average dry-weather conditions are modelled while wet-weather flows from UWS, presenting a high temporal variability, are not currently accounted for. In this context, the loads from several storm events could be important contributors to the impact categories freshwater eutrophication and ecotoxicity. In this study we investigated the contributions of these wet-weather-induced discharges relative to average dry-weather conditions in the life cycle inventory for UWS. In collaboration with the Paris public sanitation service (SIAAP) and Observatory of Urban Pollutants (OPUR) program researchers, this work aimed at identifying and comparing contributing flows from the UWS in the Paris area by a selection of routine wastewater parameters and priority pollutants. This collected data is organized according to archetypal weather days during a reference year. Then, for each archetypal weather day and its associated flows to the receiving river waters (Seine), the parameters of pollutant loads (statistical distribution of concentrations and volumes) were determined. The resulting inventory flows (i.e. the potential loads from the UWS) were used as LCA input data to assess the associated impacts. This allowed investigating the relative importance of episodic wet-weather versus "continuous" dry-weather loads with a probabilistic approach to account for pollutant variability within the urban flows. The analysis at the scale of one year showed that storm events are significant contributors to the impacts

  15. Geothermal Energy: Tapping the Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bill

    2008-01-01

    Ground source geothermal energy enables one to tap into the earth's stored renewable energy for heating and cooling facilities. Proper application of ground-source geothermal technology can have a dramatic impact on the efficiency and financial performance of building energy utilization (30%+). At the same time, using this alternative energy…

  16. Tapping into Industry and Academia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markus, Arjan; Rosenkopf, Lori

    This paper studies how different boundary-spanning mechanisms concurrently impact firm innovation. We specifically examine how inbound mobility and R&D collaboration interact when firms use these mechanisms to tap into two distinct knowledge domains: industry and academia. To examine the impacts...

  17. Introducing the TAPS Pyramid Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The Teacher Assessment in Primary Science (TAPS) project is a three-year project based at Bath Spa University and funded by the Primary Science Teaching Trust (PSTT). It aims to develop support for a valid, reliable and manageable system of science assessment that will have a positive impact on children's learning. In this article, the author…

  18. Microbial quality of drinking water from groundtanks and tankers at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drinking water quality was investigated at source and corresponding point-of-use in 2 peri-urban areas receiving drinking water either by communal water tanker or by delivery directly from the distribution system to household-based groundtanks with taps. Water quality variables measured were heterotrophic bacteria, total ...

  19. Efficiency improvement of a concentrated solar receiver for water heating system using porous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasartkaew, Boonrit

    2018-01-01

    This experimental study aims at investigating on the performance of a high temperature solar water heating system. To approach the high temperature, a porous-medium concentrated solar collector equipped with a focused solar heliostat were proposed. The proposed system comprised of two parts: a 0.7x0.7-m2 porous medium receiver, was installed on a 3-m tower, and a focused multi-flat-mirror solar heliostat with 25-m2 aperture area. The porous medium used in this study was the metal swarf or metal waste from lathing process. To know how the system efficiency could be improved by using such porous medium, the proposed system with- and without-porous medium were tested and the comparative study was performed. The experimental results show that, using porous medium for enhancing the heat transfer mechanism, the system thermal efficiency was increased about 25%. It can be concluded that the efficiency of the proposed system can be substantially improved by using the porous medium.

  20. Water quality during storm events from two constructed wetlands receiving mine drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stark, L.R.; Brooks, R.P.; Williams, F.M.; Stevens, S.E. Jr.; Davis, L.K.

    1994-01-01

    Flow rates, pH, iron concentration, and manganese concentration were measured during several storm event at two constructed wetlands receiving mine water. During a substantial rain event, flow rates at both the wetland outlets surpassed flow rates at the wetland inlets, reflecting incident rainfall and differences in wetland area at the two sites. A significant positive correlation existed between local rainfall and outflow rates at the larger wetland, but not between rainfall and inflow rates. During storm events, outlet pH, relative to inlet pH, was slightly elevated at the larger wetland, and depressed at the smaller wetland. However, over the course of one year, rainfall was uncorrelated to outlet pH in the larger wetland. A substantial rain event at the smaller wetland resulted in a temporary elevation in outlet iron concentrations, with treatment efficiency reduced to near zero. However, in the larger wetland, outlet iron concentrations were not significantly affected by storm events. 14 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  1. Herbicides and their transformation products in source-water aquifers tapped by public-supply wells in Illinois, 2001-02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Patrick C.; McMillan, William D.

    2004-01-01

    During 2001-02, ground-water samples were collected from 117 public-supply wells distributed throughout Illinois to evaluate the occurrence of herbicides and their transformation products in the State?s source-water aquifers. Wells were selected using a stratified-random method to ensure representation of the major types of source-water aquifers in the State. Samples were analyzed for 18 herbicides and 18 transformation products, including 3 triazine and 14 chloroacetanilide products. Herbicide compounds (field-applied parent herbicides and their transformation products) were detected in 34 percent of samples. A subset of samples was collected unfiltered to determine if analytical results for herbicides in unfiltered samples are similar to those in paired filtered samples and, thus, can be considered equally representative of herbicide concentrations in ground water supplied to the public. The study by the U.S. Geological Survey was done in cooperation with the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency. Parent herbicides were detected in only 4 percent of all samples. The six most frequently detected herbicide compounds (from 5 to 28 percent of samples) were chloroacetanilide transformation products. The frequent occurrence of transformation products and their higher concentrations relative to those of most parent herbicides confirm the importance of obtaining information on transformation products to understand the mobility and fate of herbicides in ground-water systems. No sample concentrations determined during this study exceeded current (2003) Federal or State drinking-water standards; however, standards are established for only seven parent herbicides. Factors related to the occurrence of herbicide compounds in the State?s source-water aquifers include unconsolidated and unconfined conditions, various hydrogeologic characteristics and well-construction aspects at shallow depths, and proximity to streams. Generally, the closer an aquifer (or well location) is

  2. 49 CFR 192.151 - Tapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tapping. 192.151 Section 192.151 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design of Pipeline Components § 192.151 Tapping. (a) Each mechanical fitting used to make a hot tap must be designed for at least the operating pressure of...

  3. Water

    OpenAIRE

    Hertie School of Governance

    2010-01-01

    All human life depends on water and air. The sustainable management of both is a major challenge for today's public policy makers. This issue of Schlossplatz³ taps the streams and flows of the current debate on the right water governance.

  4. Analysis of the impact of water level fluctuations on macrophytes in Miyun Reservoir after receiving water transferred by the South-to-North Water Diversion Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, L.; Gu, H.; Lou, C. H.; Zhang, L.; Meng, Q. Y.

    2016-08-01

    As the main primary producers in aquatic ecosystems, macrophytes affect the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems, and their distribution is controlled by water depth. Miyun Reservoir in Beijing will have to experience substantial changes in water level and surface area as it begins to receive water transferred by the South-to-North Water Diversion Project, which will have an adverse impact on the macrophytes growing there. In this study, a hydrodynamic model was constructed with MIKE21 and then used in a simulation in three scenarios: dry year, normal year and wet year. The results suggest that during water diversion, the annual and interannual water level fluctuations will be too significant for them to adapt and as a result, the original macrophytes in the reservoir tend to die and disappear completely. The area of the zone suitable for macrophyte growth, or suitable growth zone (SGZ), fluctuated. Restricted by the main dam and auxiliary dam to its south, the overall suitable growth zone moved toward the northeast and northwest of the reservoir, with a northeastward movement of its centroid. The distance and path of movement varied between scenarios. After the water diversion was completed, the suitable growth zone shrunk in the three scenarios. It is predicted that the macrophyte species diversity and richness of the reservoir can recover to the levels recorded before water diversion only in dry year. These results suggest that manual interventions should be implemented after water diversion to speed up the natural recovery of aquatic plant communities in Miyun Reservoir and thereby maintain the stability of the aquatic ecosystem.

  5. Economic benefits flow from taps | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-08

    Dec 8, 2010 ... Villagers were unhappy about the time that women and children spent hauling ... Sun Qiu believes the end result is a better quality of life. ... tap water show the wisdom of communities managing their natural resources based ...

  6. Bilateral transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block with 24 hours ropivacaine infusion via TAP catheters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Pernille L; Hilsted, Karen L; Dahl, Jørgen B

    2013-01-01

    The analgesic effect of a TAP block has been investigated in various surgical settings. There are however limited information about block level and block duration. Furthermore, there is a lack of information about continuous TAP block after ultrasound-guided posterior TAP blocks.The aim of this d...... of this double-blind randomized study was therefore to investigate the effect of an ultrasound-guided posterior TAP block with 24 hours local anesthetic infusion via a TAP catheter....

  7. Transport, speciation, toxicity, and treatability of highway stormwater discharged to receiving waters in Louisiana : [tech summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    As centralized wastewater treatment continues to improve while increasingly replacing decentralized systems, urban : rainfall-runoff has become the leading contributor of water body impairments in the United States (USEPA, 1996). For : many water bod...

  8. Spatial and temporal variations of water quality in an artificial urban river receiving WWTP effluent in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Di; Tao, Yi; Liu, Xiaoning; Zhou, Kuiyu; Yuan, Zhenghao; Wu, Qianyuan; Zhang, Xihui

    2016-01-01

    Urban wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent as reclaimed water provides an alternative water resource for urban rivers and effluent will pose a significant influence on the water quality of rivers. The objective of this study was to investigate the spatial and temporal variations of water quality in XZ River, an artificial urban river in Shenzhen city, Guangdong Province, China, after receiving reclaimed water from WWTP effluent. The water samples were collected monthly at different sites of XZ River from April 2013 to September 2014. Multivariate statistical techniques and a box-plot were used to assess the variations of water quality and to identify the main pollution factor. The results showed the input of WWTP effluent could effectively increase dissolved oxygen, decrease turbidity, phosphorus load and organic pollution load of XZ River. However, total nitrogen and nitrate pollution loads were found to remain at higher levels after receiving reclaimed water, which might aggravate eutrophication status of XZ River. Organic pollution load exhibited the lowest value on the 750 m downstream of XZ River, while turbidity and nutrient load showed the lowest values on the 2,300 m downstream. There was a higher load of nitrogen and phosphorus pollution in the dry season and at the beginning of wet season.

  9. Interactions between physical, chemical and biological processes in aquatic systems - impacts on receiving waters with different contents of treated wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreuzinger, N.

    2000-08-01

    Two scenarios have be chosen within this PhD Thesis to describe the integrative key-significance of interactions between most relevant physical, chemical and biological processes in aquatic systems. These two case studies are used to illustrate and describe the importance of a detailed synthesis of biological, physical and chemical interactions in aquatic systems in order to provide relevant protection of water resources and to perform a sound water management. Methods are described to allow a detailed assessment of particular aspects within the complexity of the overall integration and therefore serve as a basis to determine the eventual necessity of proposed water management measures. Regarding the anthropogenic influence of treated wastewater on aquatic systems, one case study focuses on the interactions between emitted waters from a wastewater treatment plant and the resulting immission situation of its receiving water (The receiving water is quantitatively influenced by the treated wastewater by 95 %). This thesis proves that the effluent of wastewater treatment plants operated by best available technology meets the quality standards of running waters for the nutrients nitrogen and phosphorus, carbon-parameters, oxygen-regime and ecotoxicology. Within the second case study the focus is put on interactions between immissions and water usage. The general importance of biological phosphorus precipitation on the trophic situation of aquatic systems is described. Nevertheless, this generally known but within the field of applied limnology so far unrespected process of immobilization of phosphorus could be shown to represent a significant and major impact on phytoplannctotic development and eutrification. (author)

  10. The potential impact of an inter-basin water transfer project on nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorous) and chlorophyll a of the receiving water system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qinghui; Qin, Lihuan; Li, Xuyong

    2015-12-01

    Any inter-basin water transfer project would cause complex physical, chemical, hydrological and biological changes to the receiving system. The primary channel of the middle route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project has a total length of 1267 km. There is a significant difference between the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the originating and receiving drinking water conservation districts. To predict the impacts of this long-distance inter-basin water transfer project on the N&P (nitrogen and phosphorus) concentrations and eutrophication risk of the receiving system, an environmental fluid dynamics code (EFDC) model was applied. The calibrated model accurately reproduced the hydrodynamic, water quality and the entire algal bloom process. Thirteen scenarios were defined to fully understand the N&P and chlorophyll a (Chl a) variation among different hydrological years, different quantity and timing of water transfer, and different inflows of N&P concentrations. The results showed the following: (a) The water transfer project would not result in a substantial difference to the trophic state of the Miyun reservoir in any of the hydrological years. (b) The area affected by the water transfer did not involve the entire reservoir. To minimize the impact of water transfer on N&P nutrients and Chl a, water should be transferred as uniform as possible with small discharge. (c) The variation in Chl a was more sensitive to an increase in P than an increase in N for the transferred water. The increased percentages of the average Chl a concentration when water was transferred in the spring, summer and autumn were 7.76%, 16.67% and 16.45%. Our findings imply that special attention should be given to prevent P increment of the transferred water from May to October to prevent algal blooms. The results provide useful information for decision makers about the quantity and timing of water transfers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. All-integrated and highly sensitive paper based device with sample treatment platform for Cd2+ immunodetection in drinking/tap waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Marzo, Adaris M; Pons, Josefina; Blake, Diane A; Merkoçi, Arben

    2013-04-02

    Nowadays, the development of systems, devices, or methods that integrate several process steps into one multifunctional step for clinical, environmental, or industrial purposes constitutes a challenge for many ongoing research projects. Here, we present a new integrated paper based cadmium (Cd(2+)) immunosensing system in lateral flow format, which integrates the sample treatment process with the analyte detection process. The principle of Cd(2+) detection is based on competitive reaction between the cadmium-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-bovine serum albumin-gold nanoparticles (Cd-EDTA-BSA-AuNP) conjugate deposited on the conjugation pad strip and the Cd-EDTA complex formed in the analysis sample for the same binding sites of the 2A81G5 monoclonal antibody (mAb), specific to Cd-EDTA but not Cd(2+) free, which is immobilized onto the test line. This platform operates without any sample pretreatment step for Cd(2+) detection thanks to an extra conjugation pad that ensures Cd(2+) complexation with EDTA and interference masking through ovalbumin (OVA). The detection and quantification limits found for the device were 0.1 and 0.4 ppb, respectively, these being the lowest limits reported up to now for metal sensors based on paper. The accuracy of the device was evaluated by addition of known quantities of Cd(2+) to different drinking water samples and subsequent Cd(2+) content analysis. Sample recoveries ranged from 95 to 105% and the coefficient of variation for the intermediate precision assay was less than 10%. In addition, the results obtained here were compared with those obtained with the well-established inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICPES) and the analysis of certificate standard samples.

  12. The physics of Beer Tapping

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Javier

    2015-01-01

    The popular bar prank known in colloquial English as beer tapping consists in hitting the top of a beer bottle with a solid object, usually another bottle, to trigger the foaming over of the former within a few seconds. Despite the trick being nown for a long time, to the best of our knowledge, the phenomenon still lacked scientific explanation. Although it seems natural to think that shock-induced cavitation enhances the diffusion of CO2 from the supersaturated bulk liquid into the bub...

  13. Calculation of intercepted runoff depth based on stormwater quality and environmental capacity of receiving waters for initial stormwater pollution management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hai-Qin; Liu, Yan; Gao, Xue-Long; Wang, Hong-Wu; Chen, Yi; Cai, Hui-Yi

    2017-11-01

    While point source pollutions have gradually been controlled in recent years, the non-point source pollution problem has become increasingly prominent. The receiving waters are frequently polluted by the initial stormwater from the separate stormwater system and the wastewater from sewage pipes through stormwater pipes. Consequently, calculating the intercepted runoff depth has become a problem that must be resolved immediately for initial stormwater pollution management. The accurate calculation of intercepted runoff depth provides a solid foundation for selecting the appropriate size of intercepting facilities in drainage and interception projects. This study establishes a separate stormwater system for the Yishan Building watershed of Fuzhou City using the InfoWorks Integrated Catchment Management (InfoWorks ICM), which can predict the stormwater flow velocity and the flow of discharge outlet after each rainfall. The intercepted runoff depth is calculated from the stormwater quality and environmental capacity of the receiving waters. The average intercepted runoff depth from six rainfall events is calculated as 4.1 mm based on stormwater quality. The average intercepted runoff depth from six rainfall events is calculated as 4.4 mm based on the environmental capacity of the receiving waters. The intercepted runoff depth differs when calculated from various aspects. The selection of the intercepted runoff depth depends on the goal of water quality control, the self-purification capacity of the water bodies, and other factors of the region.

  14. The distribution and tapping tidal energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zygmunt Kowalik

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Tidal power along tidal shores has been used for centuries to run small tidal mills. Generating electricity by tapping tidal power proved to be very successful only in the last century through the tidal power plant constructed in 1967 in La Rance, France. This used a large barrier to generate the sea level head necessary for driving turbines. Construction of such plants evolved very slowly because of prohibitive costs and concerns about the environmental impact. Developments in the construction of small, efficient and inexpensive underwater turbines admit the possibility of small scale operations that will use local tidal currents to bring electricity to remote locations. Since the generation of such electricity is concerned with the tidal energy in local water bodies, it is important to understand the site-specific energy balance, i.e., the energy flowing in through open boundaries, and the energy generated and dissipated within the local domain. The question is how to tap the tidal energy while keeping possible changes in the present tidal regimes to a minimum. The older approach of constructing barrages may still be quite useful in some locations. The basics of such tidal power plants constructed in a small bay are analyzed in order to understand the principal parameter for tidal plant evaluation, i.e., the power produced.     The new approach is to place turbines - devices similar to windmills - in the pathway of tidal currents. Theoretically, the amount of power available by such turbines for electricity generation is proportional to the water density and velocity cubed of the tidal flow. The naturally dissipated tidal power due to bottom friction forces is also proportional to the cube of the velocity. Because of this similarity, the exploitation of tidal energy can be directed to reinvesting the naturally dissipated power into tidal power for the generation of electricity. This approach to tidal power exploitation is better tuned

  15. POPULATION DIVERSITY IN MODEL DRINKING WATER BIOFILMS RECEIVING CHLORINE OR MONOCHLORAMINE RESIDUAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most water utilities add monochloramine or chlorine as a residual disinfectant in potable water distribution systems (WDS) to control bacterial regrowth. While monochloramine is considered more stable than chlorine, little is known about the fate of this disinfectant or the effec...

  16. Ptaquiloside in irish bracken ferns and receiving waters, with implications for land managers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Driscoll, Connie; Ramwell, Carmel; Harhen, Brendan

    2016-01-01

    Ptaquiloside, along with other natural phytotoxins, is receiving increased attention from scientists and land use managers. There is an urgent need to increase empirical evidence to understand the scale of phytotoxin mobilisation and potential to enter into the environment. In this study the risk...

  17. Selected Aspects of Functioning of the Sewage Treatment Plant in Szczawnica in Terms of Receiver Water Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Wąsik

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article includes an assessment of the impact of sewage exiting from the sewage treatment plant in Szczawnica before and after the modernization of the facility, the physicochemical composition and the quality of the water of their receiver - Dunajec River. The work was carried out on the basis of analysis of samples taken from raw and purified sewage and receiver waters. The Dunajec water intake was above and below the point of sewer discharge from the WWTP. The range of contaminated indicators included 14 physicochemical parameters and two bacteriological indicators. On the basis of the research conducted, it was stated that the Szczawnica Forest Enterprise after its modernization in 2016 functioned correctly. The purified sewage on it complies with the requirements of a water permit, which translates directly into effective protection against the pollution of receiver waters. This was confirmed by the results of the Kruskal-Wallis test that showed statistically significant differences between the median values of overall nitrogen concentrations before and after the refurbishment of the facility. For the remaining pollutant indices (total suspensions, BOD5, CODCr, total phosphorus, no statistically significant differences were found between the medians. In addition, it was found that the physico-chemical composition of Dunajec waters was similar in both examined sections. The purified effluent discharged from the Szczawnica treatment plant to the Dunajec River did not contribute to deterioration of its water quality in the case of physico-chemical indicators. Based on the classification of these elements, it was determined that in the analyzed period, the Dunajec water in the section directly above and below the WWTP meets the requirements for category A1 of waters intended for the supply of the population (very good quality water. In the case of microbiological classification based on the number of bacteria of the coli group and

  18. Fecal pollution source tracking toolbox for identification, evaluation and characterization of fecal contamination in receiving urban surface waters and groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Ngoc Han; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong; Ngo, Huu Hao

    2015-12-15

    The quality of surface waters/groundwater of a geographical region can be affected by anthropogenic activities, land use patterns and fecal pollution sources from humans and animals. Therefore, the development of an efficient fecal pollution source tracking toolbox for identifying the origin of the fecal pollution sources in surface waters/groundwater is especially helpful for improving management efforts and remediation actions of water resources in a more cost-effective and efficient manner. This review summarizes the updated knowledge on the use of fecal pollution source tracking markers for detecting, evaluating and characterizing fecal pollution sources in receiving surface waters and groundwater. The suitability of using chemical markers (i.e. fecal sterols, fluorescent whitening agents, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, and artificial sweeteners) and/or microbial markers (e.g. F+RNA coliphages, enteric viruses, and host-specific anaerobic bacterial 16S rDNA genetic markers) for tracking fecal pollution sources in receiving water bodies is discussed. In addition, this review also provides a comprehensive approach, which is based on the detection ratios (DR), detection frequencies (DF), and fate of potential microbial and chemical markers. DR and DF are considered as the key criteria for selecting appropriate markers for identifying and evaluating the impacts of fecal contamination in surface waters/groundwater. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. An adaptive framework to differentiate receiving water quality impacts on a multi-scale level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumensaat, F; Tränckner, J; Helm, B; Kroll, S; Dirckx, G; Krebs, P

    2013-01-01

    The paradigm shift in recent years towards sustainable and coherent water resources management on a river basin scale has changed the subject of investigations to a multi-scale problem representing a great challenge for all actors participating in the management process. In this regard, planning engineers often face an inherent conflict to provide reliable decision support for complex questions with a minimum of effort. This trend inevitably increases the risk to base decisions upon uncertain and unverified conclusions. This paper proposes an adaptive framework for integral planning that combines several concepts (flow balancing, water quality monitoring, process modelling, multi-objective assessment) to systematically evaluate management strategies for water quality improvement. As key element, an S/P matrix is introduced to structure the differentiation of relevant 'pressures' in affected regions, i.e. 'spatial units', which helps in handling complexity. The framework is applied to a small, but typical, catchment in Flanders, Belgium. The application to the real-life case shows: (1) the proposed approach is adaptive, covers problems of different spatial and temporal scale, efficiently reduces complexity and finally leads to a transparent solution; and (2) water quality and emission-based performance evaluation must be done jointly as an emission-based performance improvement does not necessarily lead to an improved water quality status, and an assessment solely focusing on water quality criteria may mask non-compliance with emission-based standards. Recommendations derived from the theoretical analysis have been put into practice.

  20. INFLUENCE OF CARP BREEDING ON PHYSICOCHEMICAL STATE OF WATER IN FISH POND AND RECEIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodzimierz Kanownik

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of tests on quality features of feeding water and fish ponds of Mydlniki fish farm in the małopolskie province. The measurement and control points are situated in the river Rudawa before and below the farm and in four breeding ponds were measured in water: temperature, concentrations of dissolved oxygen, electrolytic conductivity, pH, total suspended solids, dissolved solids and concentrations of minerals: SO42+, Cl-, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Fe i Mn, and also biogenic compounds (PO43-, N-NH4+, N-NO2-, N-NO3-. It was found that water from the Rudawa river feeding the ponds did not meet the requirements for inland waters which are the natural environment for the cyprinids. The physicochemical state is below the well due to the high concentration of phosphate. Statistical analysis of 19 tested features revealed a positive effect of the fish ponds on water quality. Concentrations of biogenic compounds (phosphate, nitrite and nitrate nitrogen, dissolved solids, calcium and water conductivity in the fish ponds decreased on average by between 30 and 87% in comparison with the feeding watercourse.

  1. Electronic tap-changer for distribution transformers

    CERN Document Server

    Faiz, Jawad

    2011-01-01

    This reference collects all relevant aspects electronic tap-changer and presents them in a comprehensive and orderly manner. It explains logically and systematically the design and optimization of a full electronic tap-changer for distribution transformers. The book provides a fully new insight to all possible structures of power section design and categorizes them comprehensively, including cost factors of the design. In the control section design, the authors review mechanical tap-changer control systems and they present the modeling of a full electronic tap-changer as well as a closed-loop

  2. Testing the toxicity of metals, phenol, effluents, and receiving waters by root elongation in Lactuca sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Jie; Park, Jihae; Kumar Pandey, Lalit; Choi, Soyeon; Lee, Hojun; De Saeger, Jonas; Depuydt, Stephen; Han, Taejun

    2018-03-01

    Phytotoxicity tests using higher plants are among the most simple, sensitive, and cost-effective of the methods available for ecotoxicity testing. In the present study, a hydroponic-based phytotoxicity test using seeds of Lactuca sativa was used to evaluate the water quality of receiving waters and effluents near two industrial sites (Soyo and Daejon) in Korea with respect to the toxicity of 10 metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, Zn) and phenol, and of the receiving waters and effluents themselves. First, the L. sativa hydroponic bioassay was used to determine whether the receiving water or effluents were toxic; then, the responsible toxicant was identified. The results obtained with the L. sativa bioassay ranked the EC 50 toxicities of the investigated metal ions and phenol as: Cd > Ni > Cu > Zn > Hg > phenol > As > Mn > Cr > Pb > Fe. We found that Zn was the toxicant principally responsible for toxicity in Daejeon effluents. The Daejeon field effluent had a higher Zn concentration than permitted by the effluent discharge criteria of the Ministry of Environment of Korea. Our conclusion on the importance of Zn toxicity was supported by the results of the L. sativa hydroponic assay, which showed that the concentration of Zn required to inhibit root elongation in L. sativa by 50% (EC 50 ) was higher in the Daejeon field effluent than that of pure Zn. More importantly, we proved that the L. sativa hydroponic test method can be applied not only as an alternative tool for determining whether a given waste is acceptable for discharge into public water bodies, but also as an alternative method for measuring the safety of aquatic environments using EC 20 values, with respect to the water pollutants investigated (i.e., Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, Zn, and phenol). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Increasing daily water intake and fluid adherence in children receiving treatment for retentive encopresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhl, Elizabeth S; Hoodin, Flora; Rice, Jennifer; Felt, Barbara T; Rausch, Joseph R; Patton, Susana R

    2010-11-01

    To examine the efficacy of an enhanced intervention (EI) compared to standard care (SC) in increasing daily water intake and fluid goal adherence in children seeking treatment for retentive encopresis. Changes in beverage intake patterns and fluid adherence were examined by comparing 7-week diet diary data collected during participation in the EI to achieved data for families who had previously completed the SC. Compared to children in SC (n = 19), children in the EI (n = 18) demonstrated a significantly greater increase in daily water intake from baseline to the conclusion of treatment ( p ≤ .001), and were four and six times more likely to meet fluid targets in Phases 1 (Weeks 3-4) and 2 (Weeks 5-6) of fluid intervention, respectively (both p ≤ .001). Enhanced education and behavioral strategies were efficacious in increasing children's intake of water and improving fluid adherence. Future research should replicate the findings in a prospective randomized clinical trial to discern their effectiveness.

  4. Nitrogen removal and greenhouse gas emissions from constructed wetlands receiving tile drainage water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groh, Tyler A; Gentry, Lowell E; David, Mark B

    2015-05-01

    Loss of nitrate from agricultural lands to surface waters is an important issue, especially in areas that are extensively tile drained. To reduce these losses, a wide range of in-field and edge-of-field practices have been proposed, including constructed wetlands. We re-evaluated constructed wetlands established in 1994 that were previously studied for their effectiveness in removing nitrate from tile drainage water. Along with this re-evaluation, we measured the production and flux of greenhouse gases (GHGs) (CO, NO, and CH). The tile inlets and outlets of two wetlands were monitored for flow and N during the 2012 and 2013 water years. In addition, seepage rates of water and nitrate under the berm and through the riparian buffer strip were measured. Greenhouse gas emissions from the wetlands were measured using floating chambers (inundated fluxes) or static chambers (terrestrial fluxes). During this 2-yr study, the wetlands removed 56% of the total inlet nitrate load, likely through denitrification in the wetland. Some additional removal of nitrate occurred in seepage water by the riparian buffer strip along each berm (6.1% of the total inlet load, for a total nitrate removal of 62%). The dominant GHG emitted from the wetlands was CO, which represented 75 and 96% of the total GHG emissions during the two water years. The flux of NO contributed between 3.7 and 13% of the total cumulative GHG flux. Emissions of NO were 3.2 and 1.3% of the total nitrate removed from wetlands A and B, respectively. These wetlands continue to remove nitrate at rates similar to those measured after construction, with relatively little GHG gas loss. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  5. Modelling receiving water quality responses to brackishwater shrimp aquaculture farm effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy Chaudhury, R.K.; Ramana Murty, V.; Ravindran, M.

    1999-01-01

    The objective was to perform a waste load allocation and determine the extent of aquaculture that the creeks can sustain, by meeting the water quality criteria for both the creek ecosystem and pond culture. Based on these results, similar assessments may be performed for other sites supporting large scale aquaculture activities. This paper introduces the sampling program and modelling methodology of the study

  6. Phosphorus retention in a newly constructed wetland receiving agricultural tile drainage water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kynkäänniemi, Pia; Ulén, Barbro; Torstensson, Gunnar; Tonderski, Karin S

    2013-01-01

    One measure used in Sweden to mitigate eutrophication of waters is the construction of small wetlands (free water surface wetland for phosphorus retention [P wetlands]) to trap particulate phosphorus (PP) transported in ditches and streams. This study evaluated P retention dynamics in a newly constructed P wetland serving a 26-ha agricultural catchment with clay soil. Flow-proportional composite water samples were collected at the wetland inlet and outlet over 2 yr (2010-2011) and analyzed for total P (TP), dissolved P (DP), particulate P (PP), and total suspended solids (TSS). Both winters had unusually long periods of snow accumulation, and additional time-proportional water samples were frequently collected during snowmelt. Inflow TP and DP concentrations varied greatly (0.02-1.09 mg L) during the sampling period. During snowmelt in 2010, there was a daily oscillation in P concentration and water flow in line with air temperature variations. Outflow P concentrations were generally lower than inflow concentrations, with net P losses observed only in August and December 2010. On an annual basis, the wetland acted as a net P sink, with mean specific retention of 69 kg TP, 17 kg DP, and 30 t TSS ha yr, corresponding to a reduction in losses of 0.22 kg TP ha yr from the agricultural catchment. Relative retention was high (36% TP, 9% DP, and 36% TSS), indicating that small constructed wetlands (0.3% of catchment area) can substantially reduce P loads from agricultural clay soils with moderately undulating topography. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  7. Improving tapping mode atomic force microscopy with piezoelectric cantilevers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, B.; Manning, L.; Sulchek, T.; Adams, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    This article summarizes improvements to the speed, simplicity and versatility of tapping mode atomic force microscopy (AFM). Improvements are enabled by a piezoelectric microcantilever with a sharp silicon tip and a thin, low-stress zinc oxide (ZnO) film to both actuate and sense deflection. First, we demonstrate self-sensing tapping mode without laser detection. Similar previous work has been limited by unoptimized probe tips, cantilever thicknesses, and stress in the piezoelectric films. Tests indicate self-sensing amplitude resolution is as good or better than optical detection, with double the sensitivity, using the same type of cantilever. Second, we demonstrate self-oscillating tapping mode AFM. The cantilever's integrated piezoelectric film serves as the frequency-determining component of an oscillator circuit. The circuit oscillates the cantilever near its resonant frequency by applying positive feedback to the film. We present images and force-distance curves using both self-sensing and self-oscillating techniques. Finally, high-speed tapping mode imaging in liquid, where electric components of the cantilever require insulation, is demonstrated. Three cantilever coating schemes are tested. The insulated microactuator is used to simultaneously vibrate and actuate the cantilever over topographical features. Preliminary images in water and saline are presented, including one taken at 75.5 μm/s - a threefold improvement in bandwidth versus conventional piezotube actuators

  8. Narrow pH Range of Surface Water Bodies Receiving Pesticide Input in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundschuh, Mirco; Weyers, Arnd; Ebeling, Markus; Elsaesser, David; Schulz, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Fate and toxicity of the active ingredients (AI's) of plant protection products in surface waters is often influenced by pH. Although a general range of pH values is reported in literature, an evaluation targeting aquatic ecosystems with documented AI inputs is lacking at the larger scale. Results show 95% of European surface waters (n = 3075) with a documented history of AI exposure fall within a rather narrow pH range, between 7.0 and 8.5. Spatial and temporal variability in the data may at least be partly explained by the calcareous characteristics of parental rock material, the affiliation of the sampling site to a freshwater ecoregion, and the photosynthetic activity of macrophytes (i.e., higher pH values with photosynthesis). Nonetheless, the documented pH range fits well with the standard pH of most ecotoxicological test guidelines, confirming the fate and ecotoxicity of AIs are usually adequately addressed.

  9. Measuring Snow Liquid Water Content with Low-Cost GPS Receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Franziska; Prasch, Monika; Schmid, Lino; Schweizer, Jürg; Mauser, Wolfram

    2014-01-01

    The amount of liquid water in snow characterizes the wetness of a snowpack. Its temporal evolution plays an important role for wet-snow avalanche prediction, as well as the onset of meltwater release and water availability estimations within a river basin. However, it is still a challenge and a not yet satisfyingly solved issue to measure the liquid water content (LWC) in snow with conventional in situ and remote sensing techniques. We propose a new approach based on the attenuation of microwave radiation in the L-band emitted by the satellites of the Global Positioning System (GPS). For this purpose, we performed a continuous low-cost GPS measurement experiment at the Weissfluhjoch test site in Switzerland, during the snow melt period in 2013. As a measure of signal strength, we analyzed the carrier-to-noise power density ratio (C/N0) and developed a procedure to normalize these data. The bulk volumetric LWC was determined based on assumptions for attenuation, reflection and refraction of radiation in wet snow. The onset of melt, as well as daily melt-freeze cycles were clearly detected. The temporal evolution of the LWC was closely related to the meteorological and snow-hydrological data. Due to its non-destructive setup, its cost-efficiency and global availability, this approach has the potential to be implemented in distributed sensor networks for avalanche prediction or basin-wide melt onset measurements. PMID:25384007

  10. Measuring Snow Liquid Water Content with Low-Cost GPS Receivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Koch

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The amount of liquid water in snow characterizes the wetness of a snowpack. Its temporal evolution plays an important role for wet-snow avalanche prediction, as well as the onset of meltwater release and water availability estimations within a river basin. However, it is still a challenge and a not yet satisfyingly solved issue to measure the liquid water content (LWC in snow with conventional in situ and remote sensing techniques. We propose a new approach based on the attenuation of microwave radiation in the L-band emitted by the satellites of the Global Positioning System (GPS. For this purpose, we performed a continuous low-cost GPS measurement experiment at the Weissfluhjoch test site in Switzerland, during the snow melt period in 2013. As a measure of signal strength, we analyzed the carrier-to-noise power density ratio (C/N0 and developed a procedure to normalize these data. The bulk volumetric LWC was determined based on assumptions for attenuation, reflection and refraction of radiation in wet snow. The onset of melt, as well as daily melt-freeze cycles were clearly detected. The temporal evolution of the LWC was closely related to the meteorological and snow-hydrological data. Due to its non-destructive setup, its cost-efficiency and global availability, this approach has the potential to be implemented in distributed sensor networks for avalanche prediction or basin-wide melt onset measurements.

  11. Military Transition Assistance Program (TAP): An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-15

    in the development, management oversight, and strategic planning of TAP. TAP Counseling Requirements Over time, Congress has increased the...training, and placement services provided under qualified job training programs of the DOL* Veterans small business ownership and entrepreneurship ...Accessing Higher Education (DOD) Career Technical Training (VA) Entrepreneurship (SBA) Capstone Verifies that servicemembers have met Career

  12. Electronic tap-changer for distribution transformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faiz, Jawad [Tehran Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Univ. College of Engineering; Siahkolah, Behzad [Kavandish Company, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    This reference collects all relevant aspects electronic tap-changer and presents them in a comprehensive and orderly manner. It explains logically and systematically the design and optimization of a full electronic tap-changer for distribution transformers. The book provides a fully new insight to all possible structures of power section design and categorizes them comprehensively, including cost factors of the design. In the control section design, the authors review mechanical tap-changer control systems and they present the modeling of a full electronic tap-changer as well as a closed-loop control of the full-electronic tap-changer. The book is written for electrical engineers in industry and academia but should be useful also to postgraduate students of electrical engineering. (orig.)

  13. Assessing Receiving Water Quality Impacts due to Flow Path Alteration in Residential Catchments, using the Stormwater and Wastewater Management Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolosoff, S. E.; Duncan, J.; Endreny, T.

    2001-05-01

    The Croton water supply system, responsible for supplying approximately 10% of New York City's water, provides an opportunity for exploration into the impacts of significant terrestrial flow path alteration upon receiving water quality. Natural flow paths are altered during residential development in order to allow for construction at a given location, reductions in water table elevation in low lying areas and to provide drainage of increased overland flow volumes. Runoff conducted through an artificial drainage system, is prevented from being attenuated by the natural environment, thus the pollutant removal capacity inherent in most natural catchments is often limited to areas where flow paths are not altered by development. By contrasting the impacts of flow path alterations in two small catchments in the Croton system, with different densities of residential development, we can begin to identify appropriate limits to the re-routing of runoff in catchments draining into surface water supplies. The Stormwater and Wastewater Management Model (SWMM) will be used as a tool to predict the runoff quantity and quality generated from two small residential catchments and to simulate the potential benefits of changes to the existing drainage system design, which may improve water quality due to longer residence times.

  14. Freely Chosen Index Finger Tapping Frequency Is Increased in Repeated Bouts of Tapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Ernst Albin; Ebbesen, Brian Duborg; Dalsgaard, Ane; Mora-Jensen, Mark Holten; Rasmussen, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Healthy individuals (n = 40) performed index finger tapping at freely chosen frequency during repeated bouts and before and after near-maximal muscle action consisting of 3 intense flexions of the index finger metacarpal phalangeal joint. One experiment showed, unexpectedly, that a bout of tapping increased the tapping frequency in the subsequent bout. Thus, a cumulating increase of 8.2 ± 5.4% (p tapping frequency was still increased in consecutive bouts when rest periods were extended to 20 min. Besides, near-maximal muscle activation, followed by 5 min rest, did not affect the tapping frequency. In conclusion, freely chosen tapping frequency was increased in repeated bouts of tapping, which were separated by 10-20 min rest periods. The observed phenomenon is suggested to be termed repeated bout rate enhancement.

  15. Antibiotic resistance genes in municipal wastewater treatment systems and receiving waters in Arctic Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neudorf, Kara D.; Huang, Yan Nan; Ragush, Colin M.

    2017-01-01

    Domestic wastewater discharges may adversely impact arctic ecosystems and local indigenous people, who rely on being able to hunt and harvest food from their local environment. Therefore, there is a need to develop efficient wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), which can be operated in remote...... communities under extreme climatic conditions. WWTPs have been identified as reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). The objective of this work was to quantify the presence of nine different ARG markers (int1, sul1, sul2, tet(O), erm(B), mecA, blaCTX-M, blaTEM, and qnr(S)) in two passive systems...... (waste stabilization ponds [WSPs]) and one mechanical filtration plant operating in two smaller and one large community, respectively, in Nunavut, Canada. Measurement of water quality parameters (carbonaceous oxygen demand, ammonia, total suspended solids, Escherichia coli and total coliforms) showed...

  16. Lower extremity kinetics in tap dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayers, Lester; Bronner, Shaw; Agraharasamakulam, Sujani; Ojofeitimi, Sheyi

    2010-01-01

    Tap dance is a unique performing art utilizing the lower extremities as percussion instruments. In a previous study these authors reported decreased injury prevalence among tap dancers compared to other dance and sports participants. No biomechanical analyses of tap dance exist to explain this finding. The purpose of the current pilot study was to provide a preliminary overview of normative peak kinetic and kinematic data, based on the hypothesis that tap dance generates relatively low ground reaction forces and joint forces and moments. Six professional tap dancers performed four common tap dance sequences that produced data captured by the use of a force platform and a five-camera motion analysis system. The mean vertical ground reaction force for all sequences was found to be 2.06+/-0.55 BW. Mean peak sagittal, frontal, and transverse plane joint moments (hip, knee, and ankle) ranged from 0.07 to 2.62 N.m/kg. These small ground reaction forces and joint forces and moments support our hypothesis, and may explain the relatively low injury incidence in tap dancers. Nevertheless, the analysis is highly complex, and other factors remain to be studied and clarified.

  17. Evaluation of coastal waters receiving fish processing waste: Lota Bay as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada, Ramón; Rudolph, Anny; Contreras, Sergio

    2004-01-01

    Liquid wastes from the fish meal and oil processing industries produce serious environmental impacts in coastal embayments on the coasts of Chile and Peru. This article presents an analysis of an environmental monitoring program at Lota Bay, a shallow coastal indentation in central Chile (37 degrees S) exposed to industrial fishing activity. The study of the environmental impact produced by waste effluents permitted making an evaluation of the bay's capacity for seasonal recovery from this impact. Seasonal cruises were carried out during 1994 and in 1996, 1997, and 1998. Variables analyzed included salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, ammonium concentration and surface oil and grease. The hydrographic regime of Lota Bay follows a seasonal pattern, where, typical of most SE pacific embayments, waters from subsuperficial oxygen minimum zones moved into the bay. The percentages of dissolved oxygen were critical in the area of organic waste discharge. The impact of wastewater is related to the type and status of the fishery, including: (i) overloads of plant production lines, (ii) maintenance and cleaning of installations, and (iii) degree of shipboard fishing conservation. Major alterations were observed in summer, when the highest discharge of organic load occurred. In winter, an improvement in the re-aeration conditions reduced the impact. Remedial measures implemented beginning in 1997 arose from the monitoring program and had to be separated into two recovery factors including (a) internal management of plants and (b) treatment of plant effluents.

  18. The influence of TAP1 and TAP2 gene polymorphisms on TAP function and its inhibition by viral immune evasion proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praest, P; Luteijn, R D; Brak-Boer, I G J; Lanfermeijer, J; Hoelen, H; Ijgosse, L; Costa, A I; Gorham, R D; Lebbink, R J; Wiertz, E J H J

    2018-06-04

    Herpesviruses encode numerous immune evasion molecules that interfere with the immune system, particularly with certain stages in the MHC class I antigen presentation pathway. In this pathway, the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) is a frequent target of viral immune evasion strategies. This ER-resident transporter is composed of the proteins TAP1 and TAP2, and plays a crucial role in the loading of viral peptides onto MHC class I molecules. Several variants of TAP1 and TAP2 occur in the human population, some of which are linked to autoimmune disorders and susceptibility to infections. Here, we assessed the influence of naturally occurring TAP variants on peptide transport and MHC class I expression. In addition, we tested the inhibitory capacity of three viral immune evasion proteins, the TAP inhibitors US6 from human cytomegalovirus, ICP47 from herpes simplex virus type 1 and BNLF2a from Epstein-Barr virus, for a series of TAP1 and TAP2 variants. Our results suggest that these TAP polymorphisms have no or limited effect on peptide transport or MHC class I expression. Furthermore, our study indicates that the herpesvirus-encoded TAP inhibitors target a broad spectrum of TAP variants; inhibition of TAP is not affected by the naturally occurring polymorphisms of TAP tested in this study. Our findings suggest that the long-term coevolution of herpesviruses and their host did not result in selection of inhibitor-resistant TAP variants in the human population. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Energy-Saving RAM-Power Tap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Alan Roy

    1987-01-01

    Reverse-flow HEXFET(R) minimizes voltage drop and power dissipation. HEXFET(R) scheme reduces voltage drop by approximately 80 percent. Design for power tap for random-access memory (RAM) has potential application in digital systems.

  20. Hydrodynamic modelling of the influence of stormwater and combined sewer overflows on receiving water quality: Benzo(a)pyrene and copper risks to recreational water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björklund, Karin; Bondelind, Mia; Karlsson, Anna; Karlsson, Dick; Sokolova, Ekaterina

    2018-02-01

    The risk from chemical substances in surface waters is often increased during wet weather, due to surface runoff, combined sewer overflows (CSOs) and erosion of contaminated land. There are strong incentives to improve the quality of surface waters affected by human activities, not only from ecotoxicity and ecosystem health perspectives, but also for drinking water and recreational purposes. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of urban stormwater discharges and CSOs on receiving water in the context of chemical health risks and recreational water quality. Transport of copper (Cu) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in the Göta River (Sweden) was simulated using a hydrodynamic model. Within the 16 km modelled section, 35 CSO and 16 urban stormwater point discharges, as well as the effluent from a major wastewater treatment plant, were included. Pollutant concentrations in the river were simulated for two rain events and investigated at 13 suggested bathing sites. The simulations indicate that water quality guideline values for Cu are exceeded at several sites, and that stormwater discharges generally give rise to higher Cu and BaP concentrations than CSOs. Due to the location of point discharges and the river current inhibiting lateral mixing, the north shore of the river is better suited for bathing. Peak concentrations have a short duration; increased concentrations of the pollutants may however be present for several days after a rain event. Monitoring of river water quality indicates that simulated Cu and BaP concentrations are in the same order of magnitude as measured concentrations. It is concluded that hydrodynamic modelling is a useful tool for identifying suitable bathing sites in urban surface waters and areas of concern where mitigation measures should be implemented to improve water quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ormen Lange hot tap - a world record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apeland, Kjell Edvard

    2010-07-01

    For the last 10 years Statoil have been developing a new concept for performing subsea Hot Tap operations remotely controlled. The system was first used offshore in 2008 during a partly diver assisted operation, connecting the Tampen Link pipeline to the Statfjord Intrafield pipeline. In July 2009, the Hot Tap System successfully performed two remotely controlled Hot Taps, on a world record depth of 860 meters on the Ormen Lange field operated by Shell. The Hot Tap technology enables existing pipeline architecture to be modified, without interfering with the current production. Most of the technology is depth independent and the system is currently qualified to 1000 meter depth. Phase II of this project which involves development and construction of a retrofit Tee, thus enabling installation and welding of a Tee on an unprepared pipeline is well underway. This presentation will describe experiences from the development of the Remote Hot Tap system and give an overview of the offshore operations leading to the conclusion of the world's deepest Hot Taps. (Author)

  2. Determination of the Tapping Part Diameter of the Thread Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Dreval'

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is a tendency to increase the proportion of thread milling operations, among other ways of tapping, which is associated with increasing number of CNC machines, flexibility and versatility of the process.Developments presently existing in the RF and used in the thread mills deal, mainly, with the thread milling cutter designs, to process internal and external thread with straight flutes made from high-speed steel.The paper presents a technique to calculate and select the initial design parameters, i.e. the external diameter of the tapping part of thread milling cutter, which is chosen as a basic computational design. The analysis of directories of tool companies containing foreign de-signs of solid thread end-milling cutters has shown that most of them rep-resent the thread cutter designs made of solid carbide. There are solid and interlocking side milling cutters, which use a tapping part both as a single-disk and as a multi-disk one; chip flutes are made to be both as direct and as screw; solid designs of cutters are made from carbide with a diameter of up to 20 ... 25 mm; thread cutters can be left- and right-hand cutting; Designs of the combined thread mills are proposed; internal channels are used for coolant supply.It is shown that the purpose of the external diameter of the tapping part of the thread mill should take into account the effect of the thread mill diameter on the milling process performance, precision of thread profile received, taper thread, tool strength, and the volume of flutes.The analysis has shown that when choosing the external diameter of the thread mill it worth taking its maximum diameter to improve the char-acteristics of the process under the restrictions imposed on the accuracy of the formed thread.

  3. Biomechanical loading on the upper extremity increases from single key tapping to directional tapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jin; Trudeau, Matthieu; Katz, Jeffrey N; Buchholz, Bryan; Dennerlein, Jack T

    2011-08-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders associated with computer use span the joints of the upper extremity. Computing typically involves tapping in multiple directions. Thus, we sought to describe the loading on the finger, wrist, elbow and shoulder joints in terms of kinematic and kinetic difference across single key switch tapping to directional tapping on multiple keys. An experiment with repeated measures design was conducted. Six subjects tapped with their right index finger on a stand-alone number keypad placed horizontally in three conditions: (1) on single key switch (the number key 5); (2) left and right on number key 4 and 6; (3) top and bottom on number key 8 and 2. A force-torque transducer underneath the keypad measured the fingertip force. An active-marker infrared motion analysis system measured the kinematics of the fingertip, hand, forearm, upper arm and torso. Joint moments for the metacarpophalangeal, wrist, elbow, and shoulder joints were estimated using inverse dynamics. Tapping in the top-bottom orientation introduced the largest biomechanical loading on the upper extremity especially for the proximal joint, followed by tapping in the left-right orientation, and the lowest loading was observed during single key switch tapping. Directional tapping on average increased the fingertip force, joint excursion, and peak-to-peak joint torque by 45%, 190% and 55%, respectively. Identifying the biomechanical loading patterns associated with these fundamental movements of keying improves the understanding of the risks of upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders for computer keyboard users. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Hydraulic residence time and iron removal in a wetland receiving ferruginous mine water over a 4 year period from commissioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusin, F M; Jarvis, A P; Gandy, C J

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of residence time distribution (RTD) has been conducted for the UK Coal Authority's mine water treatment wetland at Lambley, Northumberland, to determine the hydraulic performance of the wetland over a period of approximately 4 years since site commissioning. The wetland RTD was evaluated in accordance with moment analysis and modelled based on a tanks-in-series (TIS) model to yield the hydraulic characteristics of system performance. Greater hydraulic performance was seen during the second site monitoring after 21 months of site operation i.e. longer hydraulic residence time to reflect overall system hydraulic efficiency, compared to wetland performance during its early operation. Further monitoring of residence time during the third year of wetland operation indicated a slight reduction in hydraulic residence time, thus a lower system hydraulic efficiency. In contrast, performance during the fourth year of wetland operation exhibited an improved overall system hydraulic efficiency, suggesting the influence of reed growth over the lifetime of such systems on hydraulic performance. Interestingly, the same pattern was found for iron (which is the primary pollutant of concern in ferruginous mine waters) removal efficiency of the wetland system from the second to fourth year of wetland operation. This may therefore, reflect the maturity of reeds for maintaining efficient flow distribution across the wetland to retain a longer residence time and significant fractions of water involved to enhance the extent of treatment received for iron attenuation. Further monitoring will be conducted to establish whether such performance is maintained, or whether efficiency decreases over time due to accumulation of dead plant material within the wetland cells.

  5. More than just tapping: index finger-tapping measures procedural learning in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Felipe N; Irani, Farzin; Richard, Jan; Brensinger, Colleen M; Bilker, Warren B; Gur, Raquel E; Gur, Ruben C

    2012-05-01

    Finger-tapping has been widely studied using behavioral and neuroimaging paradigms. Evidence supports the use of finger-tapping as an endophenotype in schizophrenia, but its relationship with motor procedural learning remains unexplored. To our knowledge, this study presents the first use of index finger-tapping to study procedural learning in individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (SCZ/SZA) as compared to healthy controls. A computerized index finger-tapping test was administered to 1169 SCZ/SZA patients (62% male, 88% right-handed), and 689 healthy controls (40% male, 93% right-handed). Number of taps per trial and learning slopes across trials for the dominant and non-dominant hands were examined for motor speed and procedural learning, respectively. Both healthy controls and SCZ/SZA patients demonstrated procedural learning for their dominant hand but not for their non-dominant hand. In addition, patients showed a greater capacity for procedural learning even though they demonstrated more variability in procedural learning compared to healthy controls. Left-handers of both groups performed better than right-handers and had less variability in mean number of taps between non-dominant and dominant hands. Males also had less variability in mean tap count between dominant and non-dominant hands than females. As expected, patients had a lower mean number of taps than healthy controls, males outperformed females and dominant-hand trials had more mean taps than non-dominant hand trials in both groups. The index finger-tapping test can measure both motor speed and procedural learning, and motor procedural learning may be intact in SCZ/SZA patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Steady state of tapped granular polygons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlevaro, Carlos M; Pugnaloni, Luis A

    2011-01-01

    The steady state packing fraction of a tapped granular bed is studied for different grain shapes via a discrete element method. Grains are monosized regular polygons, from triangles to icosagons. Comparisons with disc packings show that the steady state packing fraction as a function of the tapping intensity presents the same general trends in polygon packings. However, better packing fractions are obtained, as expected, for shapes that can tessellate the plane (triangles, squares and hexagons). In addition, we find a sharp transition for packings of polygons with more than 13 vertices signaled by a discontinuity in the packing fraction at a particular tapping intensity. Density fluctuations for most shapes are consistent with recent experimental findings in disc packing; however, a peculiar behavior is found for triangles and squares

  7. The presence and growth of Legionella species in thermostatic shower mixer taps: an exploratory field study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joost van Hoof; P.W.J.J. van der Wielen; E. van der Blom; O.W.W. Nuijten; L. Hornstra

    2014-01-01

    Legislation in the Netherlands requires routine analysis of drinking water samples for cultivable Legionella species from high-priority installations. A field study was conducted to investigate the presence of Legionella species in thermostatic shower mixer taps. Water samples and the interior of

  8. Fluctuation of biological rhythm in finger tapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, H.; Miyazima, S.; Mitake, S.

    2000-06-01

    By analyzing biological rhythms obtained from finger tapping, we have investigated the differences of two biological rhythms between healthy and handicapped persons caused by Parkinson, brain infraction, car accident and so on. In this study, we have observed the motion of handedness of all subjects and obtained a slope a which characterizes a power-law relation between frequency and amplitude of finger-tapping rhythm. From our results, we have estimated that the slope a=0.06 is a rough criterion in order to distinguish healthy and handicapped persons.

  9. Occurence of antibiotic compounds found in the water column and bottom sediments from a stream receiving two waste water treatment plant effluents in northern New Jersey, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibs, Jacob; Heckathorn, Heather A.; Meyer, Michael T.; Klapinski, Frank R.; Alebus, Marzooq; Lippincott, Robert

    2013-01-01

    An urban watershed in northern New Jersey was studied to determine the presence of four classes of antibiotic compounds (macrolides, fluoroquinolones, sulfonamides, and tetracyclines) and six degradates in the water column and bottom sediments upstream and downstream from the discharges of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and a drinking-water intake (DWI). Many antibiotic compounds in the four classes not removed by conventional WWTPs enter receiving waters and partition to stream sediments. Samples were collected at nine sampling locations on 2 days in September 2008. Two of the nine sampling locations were background sites upstream from two WWTP discharges on Hohokus Brook. Another background site was located upstream from a DWI on the Saddle River above the confluence with Hohokus Brook. Because there is a weir downstream of the confluence of Hohokus Brook and Saddle River, the DWI receives water from Hohokus Brook at low stream flows. Eight antibiotic compounds (azithromycin (maximum concentration 0.24 μg/L), ciprofloxacin (0.08 μg/L), enrofloxacin (0.015 μg/L), erythromycin (0.024 μg/L), ofloxacin (0.92 μg/L), sulfamethazine (0.018 μg/L), sulfamethoxazole (0.25 μg/L), and trimethoprim (0.14 μg/L)) and a degradate (erythromycin-H2O (0.84 μg/L)) were detected in the water samples from the sites downstream from the WWTP discharges. The concentrations of six of the eight detected compounds and the detected degradate compound decreased with increasing distance downstream from the WWTP discharges. Azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and trimethoprim were detected in stream-bottom sediments. The concentrations of three of the four compounds detected in sediments were highest at a sampling site located downstream from the WWTP discharges. Trimethoprim was detected in the sediments from a background site. Pseudo-partition coefficients normalized for streambed sediment organic carbon concentration were calculated for azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, and

  10. Inserting the tap values of the tap changer transformers into the Jacobian matrix as control variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Yalçın

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Series and shunt admittance values of under load tap changer transformers are changed according to tap changing. As this situation changes the structure of bus admittance matrix, it causes the need of rebuilding the bus admittance matrix at each tap changing case in power flow studies. In this paper, a new approach that includes the tap changing effects into the Jacobian matrix. By this approach, the need of rebuilding the bus admittance matrix at each tap changing case during power flow study is prevented. So, fast convergence is achieved for the power flow algorithm. Although there are similar studies for this aim in the literature, apart from these studies, including the tap changing effects to the Jacobian matrix when more than one under load tap changer transformers are connected to the same bus with different connection combinations is provided by the proposed approach. For this aim, new power equations and new Jacobian matrix component calculation equations are obtained. The proposed approach is tested on IEEE 57-bus test system and its accuracy is proved.

  11. Measuring and Modeling Solute Transport in the Rootzone: Protecting the Receiving Water Environments of the Coral Atolls of Tonga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clothier, B. E.; van der Velde, M.; Green, S. R.; Gee, G. W.; Manu, V.; Menoniti, V.; Vanclooster, M.

    2005-05-01

    Intensification of agriculture on the raised coral atolls of the Tongan archipelago, notably through squash-pumpkin production, has lead to increased use of agrichemicals. Agrichemicals, both fertilisers and pesticides, pose a risk to these fragile environments. Sustainable land-management practices are needed for small-island developing states. On Tongatapu, solutes leaving the rootzone of the squash can rapidly find their way to the underlying freshwater lenses. These lenses are hydraulically linked to the internal lagoon, and the fringing reefs. We have used buried, non-suction fluxmeters to monitor both the quantity and quality of drainage leaving the rootzone of squash. Fertiliser is traditionally applied at planting. During establishment of the squash in 2003, some 350 mm of rain fell, with 70 % of this leaving the rootzone of this permeable soil as drainage. The concentration of nitrate-N in the drainage water was measured at around 50 mg-N/L. All of the initial fertiliser dressing had been lost, along with N mineralised from the plowed-in grass. Pesticides are needed in humid tropical environments to control weeds, pests and diseases. These chemicals can leach though the rootzone to contaminate receiving waters. We modeled the transport and fate of the presticides used in squash production, and we developed a Decision Support Tool (DST). Our DST can be used to select the best pesticides for local conditions, to tailor practices for minimising leaching losses below the rootzone, and to avoid the build-up of residues in the soil. This project, funded by the European Union and NZAID, took a multi-disciplinary approach through measurement and modeling protocols. Our DST enabled us to engage the wider community and stakeholders. There has been increased awareness of the impacts and risks associated with productive land management in the fragile hydrological environments of this small-island developing state.

  12. Potential accumulation of estrogenic substances in biofilms and aquatic plants collected in sewage treatment plant (STP) and receiving water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultis, T.; Kuch, B.; Kern, A.; Metzger, J.W. [Inst. for Sanitary Engineering, Water Quality and Solid Waste Management ISWA, Stuttgart Univ. (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    During the past years the estrogenic potency of natural (e.g. estrone and 17{beta}-estradiol E2) and synthetic hormones (e.g. ethinylestradiol EE2) and xenoestrogens (e.g. pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dioxins (PCDDs) and furans (PCDFs), alkylphenolic compounds or bisphenol A (BPA)) has attracted increasing scientific attention. Especially the occurrence and behaviour of these substances in waste water of sewage treatment plants (STPs) were often investigated. Andersen et al. found steroid estrogen concentrations in the effluent of a municipal STP always below the limit of quantification of 1 ng/l. However, Aerni et al. detected E2 and EE2 concentrations up to 6 ng/l and 2 ng/l, and alkylphenols, alkylphenolmonoand diethoxylates even at {mu}g/l concentrations in the effluent of a wastewater treatment plant with a significant industrial impact3. In activated and digested sewage sludge concentrations of estrone and E2 up to 37 ng/g and 49 ng/g, of the synthetic EE2 up to 17 ng/g were observed4. In river sediments the concentrations detected were lower with up to 2 ng/g estrone and 0,9 ng/g EE24. In the meantime many studies exist about raw and treated water in STPs, but there is little knowledge about the influence of estrogenic active substances on aquatic plants so far. In this study we investigated therefore the potency of estrogenic substances to accumulate in the duckweed Lemna minor from STP in comparison to the estrogenicity of duckweed from a natural pond, biofilms in drain and microsieve of the STP by the in vitro E-Screen- and LYES-assay (yeast estrogen screen-assay assisted by enzymatic digestion with lyticase). In addition, we tested the estrogenic activity of moss-like aquatic plants collected at different sites of the receiving water and analyzed the concentrations of four phenolic xenoestrogens in the effluent by GC/MS.

  13. Books Received

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Books Received. Articles in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 1 Issue 1 January 1996 pp 118-118 Books Received. Books Received · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 1 Issue 2 February 1996 pp 120-120 Books Received. Books Received.

  14. 10BASE5 Ethernet Cable & Vampire Tap

    CERN Document Server

    1983-01-01

    10BASE5 Thick Ethernet Cable, 10Mbit/sec. In the 1980s and early 1990's, Ethernet became more popular and provided a much faster data transmission rate. This cable is one of the first ethernet cables from 1983, a thick, bulky affair. Computers were attached via "Vampire Taps" which were connectors screwed straight through the shielding of the cable.

  15. Workshop on physics related to TAPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehn, W.; Loehner, H.

    1991-06-01

    Since December 1989 there exist two accepted proposals for TAPS experiments at SIS: 'η production in Relativistic Heavy Ion Experiments' (S 025) and 'π 0 Excitation Function and π 0 -π 0 Correlations Combined with Charged Particle Flow Analysis' (S 042). A third proposal 'Electromagnetic Excitations' (S 046) was submitted and is accepted by now. Before the new phase with data taking and detailed analysis of relativistic heavy ion data was about to begin, it was feld that there should be a few days set aside to take breath and to consider in a relaxed atmosphere the physics goals for which TAPS was constructed. The large number of undergraduate and graduate students in the collaboration was additional good reason to plan a meeting in a workshop-like atmosphere in order to communicate recent experimental and theoretical results touching the goals of TAPS and to discuss the aims of the submitted proposals and methods of the respective data analysis. Moreover, new ideas for future proposals and advanced technical developments should also be discussed. The aim was to broaden the view for applications of TAPS for photon and neutral meson measurements at the different accelerators at GANIL(Caen), SIS(GSI), MAMI(Mainz) and AGOR(KVI). See hints under the relevant topics. (orig./HSI)

  16. Ideomotor effects of pitch on continuation tapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammirante, Paolo; Thompson, William F; Russo, Frank A

    2011-02-01

    The ideomotor principle predicts that perception will modulate action where overlap exists between perceptual and motor representations of action. This effect is demonstrated with auditory stimuli. Previous perceptual evidence suggests that pitch contour and pitch distance in tone sequences may elicit tonal motion effects consistent with listeners' implicit awareness of the lawful dynamics of locomotive bodies. To examine modulating effects of perception on action, participants in a continuation tapping task produced a steady tempo. Auditory tones were triggered by each tap. Pitch contour randomly and persistently varied within trials. Pitch distance between successive tones varied between trials. Although participants were instructed to ignore them, tones systematically affected finger dynamics and timing. Where pitch contour implied positive acceleration, the following tap and the intertap interval (ITI) that it completed were faster. Where pitch contour implied negative acceleration, the following tap and the ITI that it completed were slower. Tempo was faster with greater pitch distance. Musical training did not predict the magnitude of these effects. There were no generalized effects on timing variability. Pitch contour findings demonstrate how tonal motion may elicit the spontaneous production of accents found in expressive music performance.

  17. The TAPS Pyramid: Where, Who and How?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood-Stephens, Isabel

    2018-01-01

    The TAPS pyramid was developed in late 2014 and has been available as a download on the Primary Science Teaching Trust (PSTT) website since August 2015. But where has it gone since then? Who is using it? And how is it being used in schools to change primary science assessment practice? This article attempts to answer these questions with data from…

  18. Study of heavy ion collisions with TAPS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Löhner, H.

    The photon spectrometer TAPS is a versatile instrument to measure nuclear bremsstrahlung and neutral mesons via their gamma decay. The formation and evolution of compressed nuclear matter is studied in heavy ion collisions at relativistic energies by analyzing the yield and spectral distribution of

  19. Structural assessment of TAPS core shroud under accident loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhasin, Vivek; Kushwaha, H.S.; Mahajan, S.C.; Kakodkar, A.

    1996-09-01

    Over the last few years, the Core Shroud of Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) operating in foreign countries, have developed cracks at weld locations. As a first step for assessment of structural safety of Tarapur Atomic Power Station (TAPS) core shroud, its detailed stress analysis was done for postulated accident loads. This report is concerned with structural assessment of core shroud, of BWR at TAPS, subjected to loads resulting from main steam line break (MSLB), recirculation line break (RLB) and safe shut down earthquake. The stress analysis was done for core shroud in healthy condition and without any crack since, visual examination conducted till now, do not indicate presence of any flaw. Dynamic structural analysis for MSLB and RLB events was done using dynamic load factor (DLF) method. The complete core shroud and its associated components were modelled and analysed using 3D plate/shell elements. Since, the components of core shroud are submerged in water, hence, hydrodynamic added mass was also considered for evaluation of natural frequencies. It was concluded that from structural point of view, adequate safety margin is available under all the accident loads. Nonlinear analysis was done to evaluate buckling/collapse load. The collapse/buckling load have sufficient margin against the allowable limits. The displacements are low hence, the insertion of control rod may not be affected. (author)

  20. Finger-tapping motion analysis in cervical myelopathy by magnetic-sensor tapping device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, Toshitada; Hosono, Noboru; Mukai, Yoshihiro; Makino, Takahiro; Kandori, Akihiko; Fuji, Takeshi

    2013-08-01

    Case-control study. The purpose of this study is to determine finger motion of patients with cervical myelopathy during finger-tapping cycles. A major symptom of patients with compressive cervical myelopathy is finger clumsiness. Therefore, understanding finger motion is prerequisite in assessing the severity of myelopathy. The popular grip-and-release test evaluates only the number of motion cycles, which is insufficient to fully describe complex finger motion. Forty-three patients with cervical myelopathy and 41 healthy controls tapped their index fingers against their thumbs as rapidly as possible for 30 seconds and the motion was recorded by a magnetic-sensor coil attached to the nail surface. Output signals were stored in a computer, which automatically calculated tapping frequency, distance moved, ratio of opening/closing velocity and the SD of the tapping interval. The SD of the tapping interval was significantly greater and all other measures were significantly smaller in patients with cervical myelopathy, than in healthy controls. All indices significantly improved after surgical decompression of the cervical spine. Distance moved (Pearson correlation coefficient: r=0.590, Ptapping interval (r=-0.451; P=0.002) were significantly correlated with the Japanese Orthopedic Association score (neurological scale). The quantitative evaluation of finger paralysis was performed by this tapping device. Speed and regularity in repetitive motion of fingers were correlated with the severity of cervical myelopathy.

  1. Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block after robot-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torup, H; Bøgeskov, M; Hansen, E G

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is widely used as a part of pain management after various abdominal surgeries. We evaluated the effect of TAP block as an add-on to the routine analgesic regimen in patients undergoing robot-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy. METHODS......: In a prospective blinded study, 70 patients scheduled for elective robot-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy were randomised to receive either TAP block (ropivacaine 0.5%, 20 ml on each side) or sham block (isotonic saline 0.9%, 20 ml on each side). All patients had patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) with morphine...... and Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) treatment, had no effect on morphine consumption, VAS pain scores, or frequency of nausea and vomiting after robot-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy compared with paracetamol and NSAID alone....

  2. Biological mechanisms associated with triazophos (TAP) removal by horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (HSFCW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Juan; Feng, Yuqin; Dai, Yanran; Cui, Naxin; Anderson, Bruce; Cheng, Shuiping

    2016-01-01

    Triazophos (TAP) is a widely used pesticide that is easily accumulated in the environment due to its relatively high stability: this accumulation from agricultural runoff results in potential hazards to aquatic ecosystems. Constructed wetlands are generally considered to be an effective technology for treating TAP polluted surface water. However, knowledge about the biological mechanisms of TAP removal is still lacking. This study investigates the responses of a wetland plant (Canna indica), substrate enzymes and microbial communities in bench-scale horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (HSCWs) loaded with different TAP concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.5 and 5 mg·L"−"1). The results indicate that TAP stimulated the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) in the roots of C. indica. The highest TAP concentrations significantly inhibited photosynthetic activities, as shown by a reduced effective quantum yield of PS II (Φ_P_S_I_I) and lower electron transport rates (ETR). However, interestingly, the lower TAP loadings exhibited some favorable effects on these two variables, suggesting that C. indica is a suitable species for use in wetlands designed for treatment of low TAP concentrations. Urease and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in the wetland substrate were activated by TAP. Two-way ANOVA demonstrated that urease activity was influenced by both the TAP concentrations and season, while acidphosphatase (ACP) only responded to seasonal variations. Analysis of high throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA revealed seasonal variations in the microbial community structure of the wetland substrate at the phylum and family levels. In addition, urease activity had a greater correlation with the relative abundance of some functional microbial groups, such as the Bacillaceae family, and the ALP and ACP may be influenced by the plant more than substrate microbial communities. - Highlights: • Physiological responses of the wetland plant to triazophos loads

  3. Biological mechanisms associated with triazophos (TAP) removal by horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (HSFCW)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Juan; Feng, Yuqin; Dai, Yanran; Cui, Naxin [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and ResourceReuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Anderson, Bruce [Department of Civil Engineering, Queen' s University, Kingston K7L3N6 (Canada); Cheng, Shuiping, E-mail: shpcheng@tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and ResourceReuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2016-05-15

    Triazophos (TAP) is a widely used pesticide that is easily accumulated in the environment due to its relatively high stability: this accumulation from agricultural runoff results in potential hazards to aquatic ecosystems. Constructed wetlands are generally considered to be an effective technology for treating TAP polluted surface water. However, knowledge about the biological mechanisms of TAP removal is still lacking. This study investigates the responses of a wetland plant (Canna indica), substrate enzymes and microbial communities in bench-scale horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (HSCWs) loaded with different TAP concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.5 and 5 mg·L{sup −1}). The results indicate that TAP stimulated the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) in the roots of C. indica. The highest TAP concentrations significantly inhibited photosynthetic activities, as shown by a reduced effective quantum yield of PS II (Φ{sub PSII}) and lower electron transport rates (ETR). However, interestingly, the lower TAP loadings exhibited some favorable effects on these two variables, suggesting that C. indica is a suitable species for use in wetlands designed for treatment of low TAP concentrations. Urease and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in the wetland substrate were activated by TAP. Two-way ANOVA demonstrated that urease activity was influenced by both the TAP concentrations and season, while acidphosphatase (ACP) only responded to seasonal variations. Analysis of high throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA revealed seasonal variations in the microbial community structure of the wetland substrate at the phylum and family levels. In addition, urease activity had a greater correlation with the relative abundance of some functional microbial groups, such as the Bacillaceae family, and the ALP and ACP may be influenced by the plant more than substrate microbial communities. - Highlights: • Physiological responses of the wetland plant to triazophos

  4. 49 CFR 192.627 - Tapping pipelines under pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tapping pipelines under pressure. 192.627 Section... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Operations § 192.627 Tapping pipelines under pressure. Each tap made on a pipeline under pressure must be performed by a crew qualified to make...

  5. Emission of heavy metals from an urban catchment into receiving water and possibility of its limitation on the example of Lodz city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakson, Grazyna; Brzezinska, Agnieszka; Zawilski, Marek

    2018-04-14

    Heavy metals are among the priority pollutants which may have toxic effects on receiving water bodies. They are detected in most of samples of stormwater runoff, but the concentrations are very variable. This paper presents results of study on the amount of heavy metals discharged from urban catchment in Lodz (Poland) in 2011-2013. The research was carried out to identify the most important sources of their emission and to assess the threats to receiving water quality and opportunities of their limitation. The city is equipped with a combined sewerage in the center with 18 combined sewer overflows and with separate system in other parts. Stormwater and wastewater from both systems are discharged into 18 small urban rivers. There is a need of restoration of water bodies in the city. Research results indicate that the main issue is high emission of heavy metals, especially zinc and copper, contained in stormwater. Annual mass loads (g/ha/year) from separate system were 1629 for Zn and 305 for Cu. It was estimated that about 48% of the annual load of Zn, 38% of Cu, 61% of Pb, and 40% of Cd discharged into receiving water came from separate system, respectively 4% of Zn and Cu, 10% of Pb and 11% of Cd from CSOs, and the remaining part from wastewater treatment plant. Effective reduction of heavy metals loads discharged into receiving water requires knowledge of sources and emissions for each catchment. Obtained data may indicate the need to apply centralized solution or decentralized by source control.

  6. Changes in The Content of Biodegradable Organic Matter in Tap Water in The City of Częstochowa / Zmiany Zawartości Biodegradowalnej Materii Organicznej w Wodzie Wodociagowej Dla Miasta Częstochowy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakocz Klaudia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents research aimed at the assessment of biodegradable organic carbon content changes (BDOC during water disinfection process. The water samples examined in the research came from intakes, pumping stations at treatment plants situated in the Silesia district and water consumers. The examined water was underground water. One water sample was disinfected by sodium sub chloride while the other one by ozone. BDOC was determined using the Joret method, which involves observation of dissolved organic carbon (DOC decrease in the examined water. The research has shown that BDOC content fluctuates at every stage of the treatment process and distribution of the examined water. Another analyzed parameter was biological stability of water.

  7. Beer tapping: dynamics of bubbles after impact

    OpenAIRE

    Mantic-Lugo, V.; Cayron, A.; Brun, P-T; Gallaire, F.

    2015-01-01

    Beer tapping is a well known prank where a bottle of beer is impacted from the top by a solid object, usually another bottle, leading to a sudden foam overflow. A description of the shock-driven bubble dynamics leading to foaming is presented based on an experimental and numerical study evoking the following physical picture. First, the solid impact produces a sudden downwards acceleration of the bottle creating a strong depression in the liquid bulk. The existing bubbles undergo a strong exp...

  8. Single quadrature duplication and transparent taps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ajung

    2004-01-01

    The concept of single quadrature duplication, which is the process of producing two outputs with the same homodyne detecting statistics as an input, is addressed. This device has important potential application to optical communications as a transparent optical tap in a local area network environment. The characteristics of the device are examined, and a realization scheme employing a coupler and phase-sensitive amplifiers is proposed

  9. Thermal destratification in small standard solar tanks due to mixing during tapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the project is to investigate the thermal destratification in small standard solar tanks due to mixing during tapping. Three different cold water inlet designs are tested. A model of the tested solar tank is verified. Based on the measurements and the calculations it is elucidated how...

  10. Functional Imaging of Human Vestibular Cortex Activity Elicited by Skull Tap and Auditory Tone Burst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noohi, Fatemeh; Kinnaird, Catherine; Wood, Scott; Bloomberg, Jacob; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Seidler, Rachael

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to characterize the brain activation in response to two modes of vestibular stimulation: skull tap and auditory tone burst. The auditory tone burst has been used in previous studies to elicit saccular Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials (VEMP) (Colebatch & Halmagyi 1992; Colebatch et al. 1994). Some researchers have reported that airconducted skull tap elicits both saccular and utricle VEMPs, while being faster and less irritating for the subjects (Curthoys et al. 2009, Wackym et al., 2012). However, it is not clear whether the skull tap and auditory tone burst elicit the same pattern of cortical activity. Both forms of stimulation target the otolith response, which provides a measurement of vestibular function independent from semicircular canals. This is of high importance for studying the vestibular disorders related to otolith deficits. Previous imaging studies have documented activity in the anterior and posterior insula, superior temporal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, pre and post central gyri, inferior frontal gyrus, and the anterior cingulate cortex in response to different modes of vestibular stimulation (Bottini et al., 1994; Dieterich et al., 2003; Emri et al., 2003; Schlindwein et al., 2008; Janzen et al., 2008). Here we hypothesized that the skull tap elicits the similar pattern of cortical activity as the auditory tone burst. Subjects put on a set of MR compatible skull tappers and headphones inside the 3T GE scanner, while lying in supine position, with eyes closed. All subjects received both forms of the stimulation, however, the order of stimulation with auditory tone burst and air-conducted skull tap was counterbalanced across subjects. Pneumatically powered skull tappers were placed bilaterally on the cheekbones. The vibration of the cheekbone was transmitted to the vestibular cortex, resulting in vestibular response (Halmagyi et al., 1995). Auditory tone bursts were also delivered for comparison. To validate

  11. Experimental studies on intake headloss of a blasted lake tap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, James; Billstein, Mats; Engström, Fredrik; Strand, Rikard

    2014-01-01

    In existing reservoirs, construction of an intake is sometimes achieved by so-called lake tapping, a submerged tunnel piercing by blasting out the rock plug at the intake. The blasting process involves phases of rock, water, air and gas released from the explosive charge; the resulting entrance profile often differs from design assumptions. The intake headloss is a factor of concern for power generation. For a vertical intake formed by lake tapping, experiments have been carried out in a 1:30 physical model to examine the effect of entrance shapes on intake headlosses. The purpose is that, if there is potential to reduce the headlosses, the originally blasted intake shape would be modified. In the model, five alternative shapes are evaluated. The test results show that to enlarge the vertical shaft area is the most effective way to reduce the intake headloss; to further blast out a narrow channel upstream does not give much effect. Bearing in mind the risk of free-surface vortex at the intake, the influence of the intake modifications on vortex is also checked

  12. Spontaneous eye blinks are entrained by finger tapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, D-K; Sharikadze, M; Staude, G; Deubel, H; Wolf, W

    2010-02-01

    We studied the mutual cross-talk between spontaneous eye blinks and continuous, self-paced unimanual and bimanual tapping. Both types of motor activities were analyzed with regard to their time-structure in synchronization-continuation tapping tasks which involved different task instructions, namely "standard" finger tapping (Experiment 1), "strong" tapping (Experiment 2) requiring more forceful finger movements, and "impulse-like" tapping (Experiment 3) where upward-downward finger movements had to be very fast. In a further control condition (Experiment 4), tapping was omitted altogether. The results revealed a prominent entrainment of spontaneous blink behavior by the manual tapping, with bimanual tapping being more effective than unimanual tapping, and with the "strong" and "impulse-like" tapping showing the largest effects on blink timing. Conversely, we found no significant effects of the tapping on the timing of the eye blinks across all experiments. The findings suggest a functional overlap of the motor control structures responsible for voluntary, rhythmic finger movements and eye blinking behavior.

  13. The effect of purified sewage discharge from a sewage treatment plant on the physicochemical state of water in the receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanownik Włodzimierz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents changes in the contents of physicochemical indices of the Sudół stream water caused by a discharge of purified municipal sewage from a small mechanical-biological treatment plant with throughput of 300 m3·d−1 and a population equivalent (p.e. – 1,250 people. The discharge of purified sewage caused a worsening of the stream water quality. Most of the studied indices values increased in water below the treatment plant. Almost a 100-fold increase in ammonium nitrogen, 17-fold increase in phosphate concentrations and 12-fold raise in BOD5 concentrations were registered. Due to high values of these indices, the water physicochemical state was below good. Statistical analysis revealed a considerable effect of the purified sewage discharge on the stream water physicochemical state. A statistically significant increase in 10 indices values (BOD5, COD-Mn, EC, TDS, Cl−, Na+, K+, PO43−, N-NH4+ and N-NO2 as well as significant decline in the degree of water saturation with oxygen were noted below the sewage treatment plant. On the other hand, no statistically significant differences between the water indices values were registered between the measurement points localised 150 and 1,000 m below the purified sewage discharge. It evidences a slow process of the stream water self-purification caused by an excessive loading with pollutants originating from the purified sewage discharge.

  14. Desalinated drinking water in the GCC countries - The need to address consumer perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shomar, Basem; Hawari, Jalal

    2017-10-01

    The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries consist of Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. These countries depend mainly on seawater desalination to meet their water needs. Although great emphasis is given to characterize desalinated water for its physicochemical and microbial properties, e.g. presence of metals, other organic contaminants and for bacteria, sensorial characteristics including smell, taste and color have not received the same attention. This is possibly attributed to the fact that inhabitants of GCC States do not use desalinated tap water for drinking consumption, rather they depend on locally produced or imported bottled water where color, taste and odor are not problematic. To address the consumer needs and perceptions of drinking desalinated water in GCC countries, water quality standards and guidelines, should respond to the public concern about other sensorial characteristics (organoleptic properties) including taste, odor, and trigeminal sensations. Often the root causes of color and smell in water are attributed to the presence of organic and inorganic contaminants and to bacterial growth which is frequently accompanied by the production of metabolites and byproducts that are obnoxious. The unpleasant sensorial problems associated with desalinated drinking tap water may constitute the driving force for most people in GCC countries to depend on bottled water. To encourage people in the GCC countries to consume desalinated tap water, it is essential that water testing include measurements of physicochemical properties, biofilm presence and organoleptic parameters to improve overall water quality. This review highlights the contribution of organoleptics for consumers of desalinated tap water. It extends water quality research to be addressed by standards for organoleptic parameters in desalinated drinking water. Accordingly, consumer awareness and outreach campaigns should be implemented to encourage people

  15. Evaluation of the radius-226 doses incorporated with the consumption waters, which is receive by the City of Havana inhabitants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomas Zerquera, J.; Prendes Alonso, M.; Fernandez Gomez, I.M.; Martinez Ricardo, N.

    2001-01-01

    Because of the relatively good solubility of radium compounds contained in the crust of the earths, frequently is this possible to find in spring waters concentration of radium 226 which may be significant. Taking in account that person consumer important volumes of waters annually, it is necessary to assess the dose to population due to the intake of radium 226 by this pathway. Samples were taking in the principal water sources in Havana City and for each samples the radium 226 concentration was determined

  16. Sedimentary records of δ{sup 13}C, δ{sup 15}N and organic matter accumulation in lakes receiving nutrient-rich mine waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widerlund, Anders, E-mail: Anders.Widerlund@ltu.se; Chlot, Sara; Öhlander, Björn

    2014-07-01

    Organic C and total N concentrations, C/N ratios, δ{sup 15}N and δ{sup 13}C values in {sup 210}Pb-dated sediment cores were used to reconstruct historical changes in organic matter (OM) accumulation in three Swedish lakes receiving nutrient-rich mine waters. Ammonium-nitrate-based explosives and sodium cyanide (NaCN) used in gold extraction were the major N sources, while lesser amounts of P originated from apatite and flotation chemicals. The software IsoSource was used to model the relative contribution of soil, terrestrial and littoral vegetation, and phytoplankton detritus in the lake sediments. In one lake the IsoSource modelling failed, suggesting the presence of additional, unknown OM sources. In two of the lakes sedimentary detritus of littoral vegetation and phytoplankton had increased by 15–20% and 20–35%, respectively, since ∼ 1950, when N- and P-rich mine waters began to reach the lakes. Today, phytoplankton is the dominating OM component in these lake sediments, which appears to be a eutrophication effect related to mining operations. Changes in the N isotopic composition of biota, lake water, and sediments related to the use of ammonium-nitrate-based explosives and NaCN were evident in the two studied systems. However, N isotope signals in the receiving waters (δ{sup 15}N ∼ + 9‰ to + 19‰) were clearly shifted from the primary signal in explosives (δ{sup 15}N–NO{sub 3} = + 3.4 ± 0.3‰; δ{sup 15}N–NH{sub 4} = − 8.0 ± 0.3‰) and NaCN (δ{sup 15}N = + 1.1 ± 0.5‰), and direct tracing of the primary N isotope signals in mining chemicals was not possible in the receiving waters. Systems where mine waters with a well known discharge history are a major point source of N with well-defined isotopic composition should, however, be suitable for further studies of processes controlling N isotope signatures and their transformation in aquatic systems receiving mine waters. - Highlights: • Historical mining-related changes in organic

  17. Propensity for obtaining alcohol through shoulder tapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Traci L; Fabian, Lindsey E A; Erickson, Darin J; Lenk, Kathleen M

    2007-07-01

    Underage youth often obtain alcohol from adults who illegally provide the alcohol. One method for obtaining alcohol from adults is shoulder tapping, where youth approach an adult outside an alcohol establishment and ask the adult to purchase alcohol for them. The goal of this study was to assess what percentage of the general and youth-targeted adult population approached outside of a convenience/liquor store will agree to purchase and then provide alcohol to individuals who appear under age 21. We conducted 2 waves of pseudo-underage shoulder tap request attempts, using requesters who were age 21 or older but appeared 18 to 20 years old. In both waves, requests were conducted at randomly selected liquor and convenience stores, requesters explained that the reason they were asking the adult was because they did not have their identification with them, and requesters asked the adults to purchase a 6-pack of beer. During wave 1, we conducted 102 attempts, with the requester approaching the first adult entering the store alone. During wave 2, we conducted 102 attempts where the requester approached the first casually dressed male entering the store alone who appeared to be 21 to 30 years old. During wave 1, 8% of the general sample of approached adults provided alcohol to the pseudo-underage requesters. The odds of adults providing alcohol in urban areas were 9.4 times greater than in suburban areas. During wave 2, 19% of the approached young men provided alcohol to the requesters. No requester, request attempt, establishment, or community characteristics were associated with request attempt outcomes during wave 2. A small percentage of the general population of adults will agree to provide alcohol to underage youth when approached outside an alcohol establishment. The likelihood of underage youth obtaining alcohol through shoulder tapping increases substantially if the youth approach young men.

  18. Advanced analysis of finger-tapping performance: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barut, Cağatay; Kızıltan, Erhan; Gelir, Ethem; Köktürk, Fürüzan

    2013-06-01

    The finger-tapping test is a commonly employed quantitative assessment tool used to measure motor performance in the upper extremities. This task is a complex motion that is affected by external stimuli, mood and health status. The complexity of this task is difficult to explain with a single average intertap-interval value (time difference between successive tappings) which only provides general information and neglects the temporal effects of the aforementioned factors. This study evaluated the time course of average intertap-interval values and the patterns of variation in both the right and left hands of right-handed subjects using a computer-based finger-tapping system. Cross sectional study. Thirty eight male individuals aged between 20 and 28 years (Mean±SD = 22.24±1.65) participated in the study. Participants were asked to perform single-finger-tapping test for 10 seconds of test period. Only the results of right-handed (RH) 35 participants were considered in this study. The test records the time of tapping and saves data as the time difference between successive tappings for further analysis. The average number of tappings and the temporal fluctuation patterns of the intertap-intervals were calculated and compared. The variations in the intertap-interval were evaluated with the best curve fit method. An average tapping speed or tapping rate can reliably be defined for a single-finger tapping test by analysing the graphically presented data of the number of tappings within the test period. However, a different presentation of the same data, namely the intertap-interval values, shows temporal variation as the number of tapping increases. Curve fitting applications indicate that the variation has a biphasic nature. The measures obtained in this study reflect the complex nature of the finger-tapping task and are suggested to provide reliable information regarding hand performance. Moreover, the equation reflects both the variations in and the general

  19. TAP 2: Performance-Based Training Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    Cornerstone of safe operation of DOE nuclear facilities is personnel performing day-to-day functions which accomplish the facility mission. Performance-based training is fundamental to the safe operation. This manual has been developed to support the Training Accreditation Program (TAP) and assist contractors in efforts to develop performance-based training programs. It provides contractors with narrative procedures on performance-based training that can be modified and incorporated for facility-specific application. It is divided into sections dealing with analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation

  20. Evaluation of the received dose by the Ra-226 incorporation due to the consumption of ground waters in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerquera, T.J.; Prendes A, M.

    1996-01-01

    Due to the good solubility of radium compounds in the earth core, concentrations of Ra-226 in ground water may be significant. Some countries, like France and Finland, have reported Ra-226 concentrations in ground water up to 2700 and 5300 mBq/L, respectively. Due to to these reasons, the control of the concentrations of Ra-226 in water for human consumption became a practice in various countries. Sampling and analysis of Ra-226 in water from the principal springs and sources in Cuba have been organized since 1992, taking into account the volumes and primary features of each source. Radium-226 concentrations in analyzed waters are in the range of 26-144 mBq/L. These concentrations correspond to values reported in the literature for sources in other countries. Committed dose for water consumption in a year are in the order of nano Sievert. Determined concentrations are below the values established by corresponding Cuban Standard and no restriction have been recommended. (authors). 5 refs., 2 figs

  1. Diversity receiver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2005-01-01

    The invention is directed to the reception of high rate radio signals (for example DVB-T signals) while the receiver is moving at a high speed (for example in or with a car). Two or more antennas (12, 16) are closely spaced and arranged behind each other in the direction of motion (v) for receiving

  2. Tapping mode SPM local oxidation nanolithography with sub-10 nm resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, S; Ogino, T; Shirakashi, J; Takemura, Y

    2008-01-01

    Tapping mode SPM local oxidation nanolithography with sub-10 nm resolution is investigated by optimizing the applied bias voltage (V), scanning speed (S) and the oscillation amplitude of the cantilever (A). We fabricated Si oxide wires with an average width of 9.8 nm (V = 17.5 V, S 250 nm/s, A = 292 nm). In SPM local oxidation with tapping mode operation, it is possible to decrease the size of the water meniscus by enhancing the oscillation amplitude of cantilever. Hence, it seems that the water meniscus with sub-10 nm dimensions could be formed by precisely optimizing the oxidation conditions. Moreover, we quantitatively explain the size (width and height) of Si oxide wires with a model based on the oxidation ratio, which is defined as the oxidation time divided by the period of the cantilever oscillation. The model allows us to understand the mechanism of local oxidation in tapping mode operation with amplitude modulation. The results imply that the sub-10 nm resolution could be achieved using tapping mode SPM local oxidation technique with the optimization of the cantilever dynamics

  3. Copper mobilization affected by weather conditions in a stormwater detention system receiving runoff waters from vineyard soils (Champagne, France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banas, D., E-mail: damien.banas@u-psud.f [Univ. Reims Champagne-Ardenne, Lab. Eco-Toxicologie, BP 1039, F-51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Univ. Nancy, UR-AFPA, INRA, 2 Av. Foret Haye, F-54505 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Marin, B., E-mail: beatrice.marin@univ-reims.f [Univ. Reims Champagne-Ardenne, EA3795 GEGENA, 2 Esplanade Roland Garros, F-51100 Reims (France); Skraber, S., E-mail: skraber@lippmann.l [Centre de Recherche Public, Gabriel Lippmann, Department of Environment and Agro-biotechnologies (EVA), 41 rue du Brill, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg); Chopin, E.I.B., E-mail: chopin@oakland.ed [Oakland University, Department of Chemistry, Rochester, MI 48309 (United States); Zanella, A., E-mail: augusto.zanella@unipd.i [Univ. Padova, Facolta di Agraria, Viale dell' Universita 16, I-35020 Legnaro (Italy)

    2010-02-15

    Copper, a priority substance on the EU-Water Framework Directive list, is widely used to protect grapevines against fungus diseases. Many vineyards being located on steep slopes, large amounts of Cu could be discharged in downstream systems by runoff water. The efficiency of stormwater detention basins to retain copper in a vineyard catchment was estimated. Suspended solids, dissolved (Cu{sub diss}) and total Cu (Cu{sub tot}) concentrations were monitored in runoff water, upstream, into and downstream from a detention pond. Mean Cu{sub tot} concentrations in entering water was 53.6 mug/L whereas it never exceeded 2.4 mug/L in seepage. Cu{sub tot} concentrations in basin water (>100 mug/L in 24% of the samples) exceeded LC{sub 50} values for several aquatic animals. Copper was principally sequestered by reduced compounds in the basin sediments (2/3 of Cu{sub tot}). Metal sequestration was reversible since sediment resuspension resulted in Cu remobilization. Wind velocity controlled resuspension, explained 70% of Cu{sub diss} variability and could help predicting Cu mobilization. - Copper in stormwater basin is efficiently retained but can be released during windy events or after dredging.

  4. Stream water chemistry in watersheds receiving different atmospheric inputs of H+, NH4+, NO3-, and SO42-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stottlemyer, R.

    1997-01-01

    Weekly precipitation and stream water samples were collected from small watersheds in Denali National Park, Alaska, the Fraser Experimental Forest, Colorado, Isle Royale National Park, Michigan, and the Calumet watershed on the south shore of Lake Superior, Michigan. The objective was to determine if stream water chemistry at the mouth and upstream stations reflected precipitation chemistry across a range of atmospheric inputs of H+, NH4+, NO3-, and SO42-. Volume-weighted precipitation H+, NH4+, NO3-, and SO42- concentrations varied 4 to 8 fold with concentrations highest at Calumet and lowest in Denali. Stream water chemistry varied among sites, but did not reflect precipitation chemistry. The Denali watershed, Rock Creek, had the lowest precipitation NO3- and SO42- concentrations, but the highest stream water NO3and SO42- concentrations. Among sites, the ratio of mean monthly upstream NO3- concentration to precipitation NO3- concentration declined (p 90 percent inputs) across inputs ranging from 0.12 to > 6 kg N ha-1 y-1. Factors possibly accounting for the weak or non-existent signal between stream water and precipitation ion concentrations include rapid modification of meltwater and precipitation chemistry by soil processes, and the presence of unfrozen soils which permits winter mineralization and nitrification to occur.

  5. Copper mobilization affected by weather conditions in a stormwater detention system receiving runoff waters from vineyard soils (Champagne, France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banas, D.; Marin, B.; Skraber, S.; Chopin, E.I.B.; Zanella, A.

    2010-01-01

    Copper, a priority substance on the EU-Water Framework Directive list, is widely used to protect grapevines against fungus diseases. Many vineyards being located on steep slopes, large amounts of Cu could be discharged in downstream systems by runoff water. The efficiency of stormwater detention basins to retain copper in a vineyard catchment was estimated. Suspended solids, dissolved (Cu diss ) and total Cu (Cu tot ) concentrations were monitored in runoff water, upstream, into and downstream from a detention pond. Mean Cu tot concentrations in entering water was 53.6 μg/L whereas it never exceeded 2.4 μg/L in seepage. Cu tot concentrations in basin water (>100 μg/L in 24% of the samples) exceeded LC 50 values for several aquatic animals. Copper was principally sequestered by reduced compounds in the basin sediments (2/3 of Cu tot ). Metal sequestration was reversible since sediment resuspension resulted in Cu remobilization. Wind velocity controlled resuspension, explained 70% of Cu diss variability and could help predicting Cu mobilization. - Copper in stormwater basin is efficiently retained but can be released during windy events or after dredging.

  6. Metagenomic analysis of bacterial community composition and antibiotic resistance genes in a wastewater treatment plant and its receiving surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Junying; Bu, Yuanqing; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Huang, Kailong; He, Xiwei; Ye, Lin; Shan, Zhengjun; Ren, Hongqiang

    2016-10-01

    The presence of pathogenic bacteria and the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) may pose big risks to the rivers that receive the effluent from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In this study, we investigated the changes of bacterial community and ARGs along treatment processes of one WWTP, and examined the effects of the effluent discharge on the bacterial community and ARGs in the receiving river. Pyrosequencing was applied to reveal bacterial community composition including potential bacterial pathogen, and Illumina high-throughput sequencing was used for profiling ARGs. The results showed that the WWTP had good removal efficiency on potential pathogenic bacteria (especially Arcobacter butzleri) and ARGs. Moreover, the bacterial communities of downstream and upstream of the river showed no significant difference. However, the increase in the abundance of potential pathogens and ARGs at effluent outfall was observed, indicating that WWTP effluent might contribute to the dissemination of potential pathogenic bacteria and ARGs in the receiving river. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Pollution patterns and underlying relationships of benzophenone-type UV-filters in wastewater treatment plants and their receiving surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Hong; Li, Jian; Xu, Gang; Ma, Luo-Dan; Li, Jia-Jun; Li, Jin-Song; Tang, Liang

    2018-05-15

    The environmental behaviors of emerging pollutants, benzophenone-type UV filters (BP-UV filters) and their derivatives were investigated in four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), and their receiving surface waters in Shanghai. The concentration level of selected BP-UV filters in the WWTPs was detected from ngL -1 to μgL -1 . BP (621-951ngL -1 ) and BP-3 (841-1.32 × 10 3 ngL -1 ) were the most abundant and highest detection frequency individuals among the target BP-UV filters in influents, whereas BP (198-400ngL -1 ), BP-4 (93.3-288ngL -1 ) and BP-3 (146-258ngL -1 ) were predominant in effluents. BP-UV filters cannot be completely removed and the total removal efficiency varied widely (-456% to 100%) during the treatment process. It can be inferred that the usage of BP and BP-3 are higher than other BP-UV filters in the study area. The lowest and highest levels were BP-2 (ND-7.66ngL -1 ) and BP-3 (68.5-5.01 × 10 3 ng L -1 ) in the receiving surface water, respectively. Interestingly, the seasonal variation of BP-3 is larger than those of other BP-UV filters in surface water from Shanghai. There is no obvious pollution pattern of BP-UV filters in the surface water from the cosmetic factory area. The correlation analysis of BP-UV filters between WWTPs effluents and nearby downstream water samples suggested that BP-UV filters emitted from some WWTPs might be the main source of receiving surface water. Preliminary risk assessment indicated that the levels of BP-UV filters detected by the effluent posed medium to high risk to fish as well as other aquatic organisms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Tapping polyrhythms in music activates language areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuust, Peter; Wallentin, Mikkel; Mouridsen, Kim; Ostergaard, Leif; Roepstorff, Andreas

    2011-05-02

    Music is experienced and understood on the basis of foreground/background relationships and tension created between actual music and the underlying meter. Polyrhythms create tension between a counter meter and the main meter. Previously, we have shown that Brodmann area 47 (BA47), a brain area associated with processing of language, is activated bilaterally when musicians tap the main meter in a polymetric context emphasizing a counter meter, suggesting that processing of metric elements in music relies on brain areas also involved in language processing. In that study, the tension was created entirely by changes in the stimulus while participants were tapping the main meter. Here we find left-hemispheric BA47 activation in response to a self-produced counter meter on top of a main meter provided by an ecological music excerpt. This data indicates that the activation is linked to polyrhythmic tension, regardless of whether it arises from the stimulus or the task. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Vaccination and the TAP-independent antigen processing pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Daniel; Lorente, Elena; Barriga, Alejandro; Johnstone, Carolina; Mir, Carmen

    2013-09-01

    The cytotoxic CD8(+) T lymphocyte-mediated cellular response is important for the elimination of virus-infected cells and requires the prior recognition of short viral peptide antigens previously translocated to the endoplasmic reticulum by the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP). However, individuals with nonfunctional TAP complexes or infected cells with TAP molecules blocked by specific viral proteins, such as the cowpoxvirus, a component of the first source of early empirical vaccination against smallpox, are still able to present several HLA class I ligands generated by the TAP-independent antigen processing pathways to specific cytotoxic CD8(+) T lymphocytes. Currently, bioterrorism and emerging infectious diseases have renewed interest in poxviruses. Recent works that have identified HLA class I ligands and epitopes in virus-infected TAP-deficient cells have implications for the study of both the effectiveness of early empirical vaccination and the analysis of HLA class I antigen processing in TAP-deficient subjects.

  10. Expanding the Universe of "Astronomy on Tap" Public Outreach Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Emily L.; Levine, Brian; Livermore, Rachael C.; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; LaMassa, Stephanie M.; Tyndall, Amy; Muna, Demitri; Garofali, Kristen; Morris, Brett; Byler, Nell; Fyhrie, Adalyn; Rehnberg, Morgan; Hart, Quyen N.; Connelly, Jennifer L.; Silvia, Devin W.; Morrison, Sarah J.; Agarwal, Bhaskar; Tremblay, Grant; Schwamb, Megan E.

    2016-01-01

    Astronomy on Tap (AoT, astronomyontap.org) is free public outreach event featuring engaging science presentations in bars, often combined with music, games, and prizes, to encourage a fun, interactive atmosphere. AoT events feature several short astronomy-related presentations primarily by local professional scientists, but also by visiting scientists, students, educators, amatuer astronomers, writers, and artists. Events are held in social venues (bars, coffee shops, art galleries, etc.) in order to bring science directly to the public in a relaxed, informal atmosphere. With this we hope to engage a more diverse audience than typical lectures at academic and cultural institutions and to develop enthusiasm for science among voting, tax-paying adults. The flexible format and content of an AoT event is easy to adapt and expand based on the priorities, resources, and interests of local organizers. The social nature of AoT events provides important professional development and networking opportunities in science communication. Since the first New York City event in April 2013, Astronomy on Tap has expanded to more than ten cities globally, including monthly events in NYC, Austin, Seattle, and Tucson; semi-regular events in Columbus, New Haven, Santiago, Toronto, and Denver; occasional (so far) events in Rochester (NY), Baltimore, Lansing, and Washington, DC; and one-off events in Chicago and Taipei. Several venues regularly attract audiences of over 200 people. We have received media coverage online, in print, and occasionally even on radio and television. In this poster we describe the overarching goals and characteristics of AoT events, distinct adaptations of various locations, resources we have developed, and the methods we use to coordinate among the worldwide local organizers.

  11. Biochemical Changes Associated With Giving PALUDAL Salt In The Drinking Water Of Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABD-EL-MONEIM, A.E.; LOTFI, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    Three groups of adult male albino rats were given either tap water (control) or saline water (1 % unrefined paludal salt dissolved in tap water or 1 % pure chemically synthesized NaCl in tap water). The experiment was carried out under hot summer conditions. At the end of 28 days of the treatment, blood samples were collected to follow up the biochemical alterations induced by paludal salt intake in kidney, liver and thyroid function tests besides serum electrolytes since unrefined paludal salt is being used extensively nowadays by Egyptian people as a table salt which comprises risks to human health.The results revealed that drinking water containing high level of either pure or unrefined crude salts led to significant elevation of serum urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium, aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Serum triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) were significantly depressed in both groups received high levels of salt in their drinking water. The level of serum total protein was decreased and albumin was negatively affected by salinity of water especially in paludal group while serum globulin was significantly increased in the other two groups. The biochemical alterations observed in rats as a result of drinking water containing paludal salt were more pronounced than those occurred in rats drank tap water plus pure NaCl.

  12. Design and characterization of a low cost CubeSat multi-band optical receiver to map water ice on the lunar surface for the Lunar Flashlight mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinckier, Quentin; Crabtree, Karlton; Paine, Christopher G.; Hayne, Paul O.; Sellar, Glenn R.

    2017-08-01

    Lunar Flashlight is an innovative NASA CubeSat mission dedicated to mapping water ice in the permanently shadowed regions of the Moon, which may act as cold traps for volatiles. To this end, a multi-band reflectometer will be sent to orbit the Moon. This instrument consists of an optical receiver aligned with four lasers, each of which emits sequentially at a different wavelength in the near-infrared between 1 μm and 2 μm. The receiver measures the laser light reflected from the lunar surface; continuum/absorption band ratios are then analyzed to quantify water ice in the illuminated spot. Here, we present the current state of the optical receiver design. To optimize the optical signal-to-noise ratio, we have designed the receiver so as to maximize the laser signal collected, while minimizing the stray light reaching the detector from solarilluminated areas of the lunar surface outside the field-of-view, taking into account the complex lunar topography. Characterization plans are also discussed. This highly mass- and volume-constrained mission will demonstrate several firsts, including being one of the first CubeSats performing science measurements beyond low Earth orbit.

  13. Evaluation of Water Quality for Two St. Johns River Tributaries Receiving Septic Tank Effluent, Duval County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicklein, Shaun M.

    2004-01-01

    Tributary streamflow to the St. Johns River in Duval County is thought to be affected by septic tank leachate from residential areas adjacent to these tributaries. Water managers and the city of Jacksonville have committed to infrastructure improvements as part of a management plan to address the impairment of tributary water quality. In order to provide data to evaluate the effects of future remedial activities in selected tributaries, major ion and nutrient concentrations, fecal coliform concentrations, detection of wastewater compounds, and tracking of bacterial sources were used to document septic tank influences on the water quality of selected tributaries. The tributaries Fishing Creek and South Big Fishweir Creek were selected because they drain subdivisions identified as high priority locations for septic tank phase-out projects: the Pernecia and Murray Hill B subdivisions, respectively. Population, housing (number of residences), and septic tank densities for the Murray Hill B subdivision are greater than those for the Pernecia subdivision. Water-quality samples collected in the study basins indicate influences from ground water and septic tanks. Estimated concentrations of total nitrogen ranged from 0.33 to 2.86 milligrams per liter (mg/L), and ranged from less than laboratory reporting limit (0.02 mg/L) to 0.64 mg/L for total phosphorus. Major ion concentrations met the State of Florida Class III surface-water standards; total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Ecoregion XII nutrient criteria for rivers and streams 49 and 96 percent of the time, respectively. Organic wastewater compounds detected at study sites were categorized as detergents, antioxidants and flame retardants, manufactured polycarbonate resins, industrial solvents, and mosquito repellent. The most commonly detected compound was para-nonylphenol, a breakdown product of detergent. Results of wastewater sampling give evidence that

  14. Dynamical TAP equations for non-equilibrium Ising spin glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roudi, Yasser; Hertz, John

    2011-01-01

    We derive and study dynamical TAP equations for Ising spin glasses obeying both synchronous and asynchronous dynamics using a generating functional approach. The system can have an asymmetric coupling matrix, and the external fields can be time-dependent. In the synchronously updated model, the TAP...... equations take the form of self consistent equations for magnetizations at time t+1, given the magnetizations at time t. In the asynchronously updated model, the TAP equations determine the time derivatives of the magnetizations at each time, again via self consistent equations, given the current values...... of the magnetizations. Numerical simulations suggest that the TAP equations become exact for large systems....

  15. Specific Lipids Modulate the Transporter Associated with Antigen Processing (TAP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholz, C.; Parcej, D.; Ejsing, C. S.

    2011-01-01

    and structural analysis of this ATP-binding cassette complex, we established the overexpression of TAP in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. Screening of optimal solubilization and purification conditions allowed the isolation of the heterodimeric transport complex, yielding 30 mg of TAP/liter of culture....... Detailed analysis of TAP function in the membrane, solubilized, purified, and reconstituted states revealed a direct influence of the native lipid environment on activity. TAP-associated phospholipids, essential for function, were profiled by liquid chromatography Fourier transform mass spectrometry...

  16. Pseudo-Outbreak of Cupriavidus pauculus Infection at an Outpatient Clinic Related to Rinsing Culturette Swabs in Tap Water▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balada-Llasat, Joan-Miquel; Elkins, Camille; Swyers, Lettie; Bannerman, Tammy; Pancholi, Preeti

    2010-01-01

    Cupriavidus pauculus is a water microorganism rarely isolated from clinical specimens. We describe a pseudo-outbreak in which multiple strains that were associated with moistening of culturette swabs with tap water were isolated from a single clinic before collecting the patient specimen. PMID:20444965

  17. Pseudo-Outbreak of Cupriavidus pauculus Infection at an Outpatient Clinic Related to Rinsing Culturette Swabs in Tap Water▿

    OpenAIRE

    Balada-Llasat, Joan-Miquel; Elkins, Camille; Swyers, Lettie; Bannerman, Tammy; Pancholi, Preeti

    2010-01-01

    Cupriavidus pauculus is a water microorganism rarely isolated from clinical specimens. We describe a pseudo-outbreak in which multiple strains that were associated with moistening of culturette swabs with tap water were isolated from a single clinic before collecting the patient specimen.

  18. Assessment of leg muscle activity using toe tapping in patients with Parkinson's disease: comparison of two types of toe tapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Seira; Peper, Ferdinand; Shimokawa, Tetsuya

    2018-05-01

    [Purpose] This study investigates two types of toe tapping, i.e., "closed," with both feet on the floor, and "open," in which the foot does not touch the ground, and evaluates their usefulness in combination with monitoring of muscle activity during toe tapping. [Subjects and Methods] The study enrolled 11 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and 9 controls (Controls). The tibialis anterior (TA) and gastrocnemius (GS) muscle activity during toe tapping was measured using surface electromyography. [Results] In closed tapping, the minima in GS activation with the first tap was significantly higher in patients with PD than in Controls. In open tapping, the coefficient of variation (CV) of local maxima in TA activation was significantly higher in patients with PD than in Controls. In both types of tapping, the CV of extrema in GS activities increased with disease duration, but this may be due to the long-term administration of Levodopa, which itself tends to cause excessive GS activities. [Conclusion] Closed tapping is suitable for the assessment of GS activity and can detect excessive activities, which is observed as visible movement. Open tapping, on the other hand, is suitable for assessment of TA activity.

  19. Tapping generalized essentialism to predict outgroup prejudices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, Gordon; Skorska, Malvina N

    2015-06-01

    Psychological essentialism, the perception that groups possess inherent properties binding them and differentiating them from others, is theoretically relevant to predicting prejudice. Recent developments isolate two key dimensions: essentialistic entitativity (EE; groups as unitary, whole, entity-like) and essentialistic naturalness (EN; groups as fixed and immutable). We introduce a novel question: does tapping the covariance between EE and EN, rather than pitting them against each other, boost prejudice prediction? In Study 1 (re-analysis of Roets & Van Hiel, 2011b, Samples 1-3, in Belgium) and Study 2 (new Canadian data) their common/shared variance, modelled as generalized essentialism, doubles the predictive power relative to regression-based approaches with regard to racism (but not anti-gay or -schizophrenic prejudices). Theoretical implications are discussed. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  20. Creep collapse of TAPS fuel cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhry, S.M.; Anand, A.K.

    1975-01-01

    Densification of UO 2 can cause axial gaps between fuel pelets and cladding in unsupported (internally) at these regions. An analysis is carried out regarding the possibility of creep collapse in these regions. The analysis is based on Timoshenko's theory of collapse. At various times during the residence of fuel in reactor following parameters are calculated : (1) inelastic collapse of perfectly circular tubes (2) plastic instability in oval tubes (3) effect of creep on ovality. Creep is considered to be a non-linear combination of the following : (a) thermal creep (b) intresenic creep (c) stress aided radiation enhanced (d) stress free growth (4) Critical pressure ratio. The results obtained are compared with G.E. predictions. The results do not predict collapse of TAPS fuel cladding for five year residence time. (author)

  1. Pesquisa de Micobactérias Ambientais em água de torneira, luvas e soluções utilizadas em procedimentos cirúrgicos no Hospital Universitário Getúlio Vargas - Manaus/AM Investigation of Environmental Mycobacteria in tap water, surgical gloves and antiseptic solutions used in surgical procedures at the Getúlio Vargas University Hospital, Manaus-AM/Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Vallejo Restrepo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigou-se por métodos bacteriológicos (cultivo e moleculares (PCR - Restriction Enzyme Analysis, PRA, a presença de micobactérias ambientais em águas de torneira, soluções e luvas cirúrgicas, utilizadas nas etapas dos procedimentos cirúrgicos executados no centro cirúrgico do Hospital Universitário Getulio Vargas (HUGV, na cidade de Manaus-Amazonas/Brasil. Foram colhidas e analisadas 105 amostras sendo: 24 de águas (colhidas das 2 torneiras existentes no centro cirúrgico, 8 de solução de Povidine e 7 de solução de Clorhexidina, que servem para a higienização das mãos dos cirurgiões; 39 de luvas cirúrgicas (superfícies internas e externas; e 27 de soluções que foram efetivamente utilizadas durante o ato cirúrgico. Por método bacteriológico obteve-se 41 isolados micobacterianos apenas de águas das torneiras. Pelo PRA obteve-se a detecção de DNA micobacteriano somente na amostra de água que forneceu acima de 100 colônias de micobactérias por tubo semeado. Os isolados foram identificados como sendo Mycobacterium celatum perfil 2, M. gordonae perfil 3, M. gordonae perfil 6, M. intracellulare perfil 1, M. lentiflavum perfil 3 e M. mucogenicum perfil 1. O encontro de M. mucogenicum, espécie já incriminada em surtos pós-cirúrgicos, indica que devem ser efetuados procedimentos de limpeza e monitoramento em todos os pontos de distribuição de águas, visando à prevenção de surtos de micobacterioses nosocomiais induzidos pelo uso das águas nas diferentes atividades de manuseio ou higienização dos pacientes submetidos a procedimentos invasivos.Using bacteriological (culture and molecular (PCR - Restriction Enzyme Analysis, PRA methods, we investigated the presence of environmental mycobacteria in tap water, antiseptic solutions and surgical gloves, used in carrying out surgical procedures at the Getúlio Vargas University Hospital Surgical Center, in Manaus -Amazonas/Brazil. Samples (105 were collected and

  2. The outcome and complications of the DiaTAP bioCarbon button-graft vascular access device in haemodialysis patients: a two-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, M D; Parfrey, P; Marshall, D; Aldrete, V; Purchase, L; Gault, H

    1986-01-01

    The outcome and complications which developed in 8 hemodialysis patients who received 12 DiaTAP bioCarbon button vascular-access devices were reviewed. All patients had a poor vascular access history. Three of twelve devices have been replaced because of thrombosis and two because of infection. Four patients have had 10 episodes of reduced blood flow. Streptokinase infusion into the DiaTAP button led to improved blood flow in 8 of 10 episodes. The 6-month survival rate of the DiaTAP access device was 67% and the average functioning life was 9.4 months. It was a valuable form of access when others had failed.

  3. The Expanding Universe of Astronomy on Tap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livermore, Rachael C.; Morris, Brett; Narayan, Gautham; Morrison, Sarah J.; Schneider, Evan; Bozek, Brandon; Rice, Emily L.; Hummels, Cameron B.; Garofali, Kristen; Martinez, Raquel; Li, Yuan; Green, Joel D.; LaMassa, Stephanie M.; Silvia, Devin W.; Schwamb, Megan E.; Arcavi, Iair; Silverman, Jeffrey M.

    2017-01-01

    Astronomy on Tap (AoT) is a constellation of free public outreach presentations held in bars. AoT events aim to engage audiences who might not choose to attend public lectures in a university setting by creating an informal atmosphere and combining scientific talks with music, games, and prizes. The events have a flexible format, typically consisting of between one and three astronomy-related presentations, sometimes with additional games and trivia, and some locations also produce merchandise. The flexible structure means that the format can be adapted to the resources available in the location and the time commitment the local organizers are willing to make. Some events are broadcast online through live streaming, with some others being posted to YouTube. In conjunction with an active social media presence, this ensures engagement beyond those able to attend events in person. Astronomy on Tap events have now been held in 20 cities around the world and are typically organised by postdocs and graduate students, with some involvement from faculty and outreach or education staff. Holding these events under the global AoT constellation facilitates knowledge transfer, sharing of resources, and networking opportunities for scientists interested in outreach/communication. The events have been highly successful, with some locations regularly attracting more than 200 people per month. In this poster we describe the goals and characteristics of AoT events, the different adaptations by various locations, the resources we have developed, and provide information for those interested in starting a new event in their location.

  4. Comparison between infants receiving traditional supplements (camel thorn, flix weed, and sugar water and exclusively breast fed infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Boskabadi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Although breast milk is considered the best nutritional option for neonates, use of traditional supplements such as sugar water, camel thorn, and flix weed in the first week of life of infants is quite common in Iran and many other countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether consuming such supplements has any impact on infant’s breastfeeding behavior. Materials and Methods: Four hundred fifty four term infants who were referred to the neonatal clinic of Ghaem hospital were enrolled and divided into two groups. Control (exclusively breastfed infants, N=243 and case (breast milk feeding plus traditional remedies such as sugar water, camel thorn, and flix weed, N=211. Spss 19.5 was used for statistical analysis. T-test and Man-Whitney tests were used. A p-value of Results: The two groups were similar in their baseline data. Regarding duration of breastfeeding and breastfeeding frequency, use of these supplements resulted in a reduction in both breastfeeding frequency and duration (p

  5. Long-term simulations of water and isoproturon dynamics in a heterogeneous soil receiving different urban waste composts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipović, Vilim; Coquet, Yves; Pot, Valérie; Romić, Davor; Benoit, Pierre; Houot, Sabine

    2016-04-01

    Implementing various compost amendments and tillage practices has a large influence on soil structure and can create heterogeneities at the plot/field scale. While tillage affects soil physical properties, compost application influences also chemical properties like pesticide sorption and degradation. A long-term field experiment called "QualiAgro" (https://www6.inra.fr/qualiagro_eng/), conducted since 1998 aims at characterizing the agronomic value of urban waste composts and their environmental impacts. A modeling study was carried out using HYDRUS-2D for the 2004-2010 period to confront the effects of two different compost types combined with the presence of heterogeneities due to tillage in terms of water and isoproturon dynamics in soil. A municipal solid waste compost (MSW) and a co-compost of sewage sludge and green wastes (SGW) have been applied to experimental plots and compared to a control plot without any compost addition (CONT). Two wick lysimeters, 5 TDR probes, and 7 tensiometers were installed per plot to monitor water and isoproturon dynamics. In the ploughed layer, four zones with differing soil structure were identified: compacted clods (Δ), non-compacted soil (Γ), interfurrows (IF), and the plough pan (PP). These different soil structural zones were implemented into HYDRUS-2D according to field observation and using measured soil hydraulic properties. Lysimeter data showed (2004 -2010 period) that the CONT plot had the largest cumulative water outflow (1388 mm) compared to the MSW plot (962 mm) and SGW plot (979 mm). HYDRUS-2D was able to describe cumulative water outflow after calibration of soil hydraulic properties, for the whole 2004-2010 period with a model efficiency value of 0.99 for all three plots. Isoproturon leaching showed had the largest cumulative value in the CONT plot (21.31 μg) while similar cumulated isoproturon leachings were measured in the SGW (0.663 μg) and MSW (0.245 μg) plots. The model was able to simulate

  6. Hydrologic and Water-Quality Responses in Shallow Ground Water Receiving Stormwater Runoff and Potential Transport of Contaminants to Lake Tahoe, California and Nevada, 2005-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jena M.; Thodal, Carl E.; Welborn, Toby L.

    2008-01-01

    Clarity of Lake Tahoe, California and Nevada has been decreasing due to inflows of sediment and nutrients associated with stormwater runoff. Detention basins are considered effective best management practices for mitigation of suspended sediment and nutrients associated with runoff, but effects of infiltrated stormwater on shallow ground water are not known. This report documents 2005-07 hydrogeologic conditions in a shallow aquifer and associated interactions between a stormwater-control system with nearby Lake Tahoe. Selected chemical qualities of stormwater, bottom sediment from a stormwater detention basin, ground water, and nearshore lake and interstitial water are characterized and coupled with results of a three-dimensional, finite-difference, mathematical model to evaluate responses of ground-water flow to stormwater-runoff accumulation in the stormwater-control system. The results of the ground-water flow model indicate mean ground-water discharge of 256 acre feet per year, contributing 27 pounds of phosphorus and 765 pounds of nitrogen to Lake Tahoe within the modeled area. Only 0.24 percent of this volume and nutrient load is attributed to stormwater infiltration from the detention basin. Settling of suspended nutrients and sediment, biological assimilation of dissolved nutrients, and sorption and detention of chemicals of potential concern in bottom sediment are the primary stormwater treatments achieved by the detention basins. Mean concentrations of unfiltered nitrogen and phosphorus in inflow stormwater samples compared to outflow samples show that 55 percent of nitrogen and 47 percent of phosphorus are trapped by the detention basin. Organic carbon, cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, phosphorus, and zinc in the uppermost 0.2 foot of bottom sediment from the detention basin were all at least twice as concentrated compared to sediment collected from 1.5 feet deeper. Similarly, concentrations of 28 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds were

  7. Tap Testing Hammer using Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, JaMein DeShon [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ayorinde, Emmanuel Temiloluwa [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mascarenas, David Dennis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Moreu, Fernando [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-08-11

    This is the final poster for a Student Symposium at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This research describes the development, validation, and testing of a remote concrete tapping mechanism enabled by UAS. The conclusion is the following: The results quantify for the first time concrete tapping data collected remotely with UAS, enabling cost-effective, safer and sustainable upgrade prioritization of railroad bridges inventories.

  8. Sequential and Biomechanical Factors Constrain Timing and Motion in Tapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loehr, J.D.; Palmer, C.

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined how timing accuracy in tapping sequences is influenced by sequential effects of preceding finger movements and biomechanical interdependencies among fingers. Skilled pianists tapped Sequences at 3 rates; in each sequence, a finger whose motion was more or less independent of

  9. Local Identification of Voltage Instability from Load Tap Changer Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weckesser, Johannes Tilman Gabriel; Papangelis, Lampros; Vournas, Costas D.

    2017-01-01

    . The new method is not bound to assessing system response over a predefined LTC tapping period. This allows handling LTCs with variable delays, as well as events taking place during the tapping sequence impacting the distribution voltages. For that purpose, eLIVES applies recursive least square fitting...

  10. Role of attractive forces in tapping tip force microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyhle, Anders; Sørensen, Alexis Hammer; Bohr, Jakob

    1997-01-01

    We present experimental and numerical results demonstrating the drastic influence of attractive forces on the behaviour of the atomic force microscope when operated in the resonant tapping tip mode in an ambient environment. It is often assumed that tapping is related to repulsive interaction...

  11. Abstract: Trauma Tapping Technique: Practical First Aid for Stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trauma tapping technique (TTT) is a procedure that uses touch through tapping to relieve anxiety symptoms. TTT is a nonverbal process that can be delivered at minimal cost with the potential for easy dissemination. This technique can be applied in urban or rural communities and in medical or mental health environments.

  12. Real time kernel performance monitoring with SystemTap

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    SystemTap is a dynamic method of monitoring and tracing the operation of a running Linux kernel. In this talk I will present a few practical use cases where SystemTap allowed me to turn otherwise complex userland monitoring tasks in simple kernel probes.

  13. Emissions and dynamics of N{sub 2}O in a buffer wetland receiving water flows from a forested peatland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saari, P. [Centre for Economic Development, Jyvaskyla (Finland). Transport and the Environment], Email: paivi.saari@ely-keskus.fi; Saarnio, S. [Univ. of Eastern Finland, Joensuu (Finland). Finnish Environment Inst., Dept. of Biology; Heinonen, J.; Alm, J. [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Joensuu (Finland)

    2013-06-01

    Forestry operations can cause disturbances in nutrient cycling. Protection of watercourses by trapping the leached solids and nutrients in sedimentation ponds and buffer zones may create a new greenhouse gases (GHG) source. We measured in situ nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) fluxes in different parts of a spruce swamp buffer zone, N{sub 2}O emissions from intact peat columns after fertilization with different ammonium nitrate (NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3}) levels, and the rate and volume of in vivo N{sub 2}O accumulation. N{sub 2}O-producing micro-organisms existed throughout the buffer zone. The rate of N{sub 2}O formation was highest at depths close to the prevailing water table within the buffer zone. Groundwater level and the vicinity of bypass water flows at the soil surface regulated the spatial and temporal variation in the rate of N{sub 2}O efflux in the field. Nitrogen (N) addition rapidly increased in vivo N{sub 2}O release. Microbial activity in the laboratory incubations under optimal conditions was high, but the in situ N{sub 2}O efflux in the field was low. The actual leaching of mineral N from forestry areas was low and the inorganic N concentration in the buffer zone inflow was no higher than is typical for humic brooks or lakes in Finland. The low N{sub 2}O fluxes indicated that forestry operations in the catchment did not result in significant N enrichment of the buffer zone. This study does not support the postulate that peatland buffer zones may become significant sources of N{sub 2}O. (orig.)

  14. A Dynamic Tap Allocation for Concurrent CMA-DD Equalizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trindade DiegovonBM

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper proposes a dynamic tap allocation for the concurrent CMA-DD equalizer as a low complexity solution for the blind channel deconvolution problem. The number of taps is a crucial factor which affects the performance and the complexity of most adaptive equalizers. Generally an equalizer requires a large number of taps in order to cope with long delays in the channel multipath profile. Simulations show that the proposed new blind equalizer is able to solve the blind channel deconvolution problem with a specified and reduced number of active taps. As a result, it minimizes the output excess mean square error due to inactive taps during and after the equalizer convergence and the hardware complexity as well.

  15. Frankincense tapping reduces the carbohydrate storage of Boswellia trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengistu, Tefera; Sterck, Frank J; Fetene, Masresha; Bongers, Frans

    2013-06-01

    Carbohydrates fixed by photosynthesis are stored in plant organs in the form of starch or sugars. Starch and sugars sum to the total non-structural carbohydrate pool (TNC) and may serve as intermediate pools between assimilation and utilization. We examined the impact of tapping on TNC concentrations in stem-wood, bark and root tissues of the frankincense tree (Boswellia papyrifera (Del.) Hochst) in two natural woodlands of Ethiopia. Two tapping treatments, one without tapping (control) and the other with tapping at 12 incisions, are applied on experimental trees. Trees are tapped in the leafless dry period, diminishing their carbon storage pools. If storage pools are not refilled by assimilation during the wet season, when crowns are in full leaf, tapping may deplete the carbon pool and weaken Boswellia trees. The highest soluble sugar concentrations were in the bark and the highest starch concentrations in the stem-wood. The stem-wood contains 12 times higher starch than soluble sugar concentrations. Hence, the highest TNC concentrations occurred in the stem-wood. Moreover, wood volume was larger than root or bark volumes and, as a result, more TNC was stored in the stem-wood. As predicted, tapping reduced the TNC concentrations and pool sizes in frankincense trees during the dry season. During the wet season, these carbon pools were gradually filled in tapped trees, but never to the size of non-tapped trees. We conclude that TNC is dynamic on a seasonal time scale and offers resilience against stress, highlighting its importance for tree carbon balance. But current resin tapping practices are intensive and may weaken Boswellia populations, jeopardizing future frankincense production.

  16. Effects of acidified drinking water on the teeth of laboratory mice

    OpenAIRE

    Kostov, Marko

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the effects of hydrochloric acid used as hygienic measure in drinking water (pH2) on teeth of conventional and germfree laboratory mice. Four groups of 10 animals each were used. Group 1 : Conventional animals (tap water) Group 2 : Conventional animals (tap water, acidified ) Group 3 : Germfree animals (tap water, sterilized ) Group 4 : Germfree animals (tap water , acidified, sterilized ) The application of acidified drinking ...

  17. Exploiting Redundancy in an OFDM SDR Receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Palenik

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Common OFDM system contains redundancy necessary to mitigate interblock interference and allows computationally effective single-tap frequency domain equalization in receiver. Assuming the system implements an outer error correcting code and channel state information is available in the receiver, we show that it is possible to understand the cyclic prefix insertion as a weak inner ECC encoding and exploit the introduced redundancy to slightly improve error performance of such a system. In this paper, an easy way to implement modification to an existing SDR OFDM receiver is presented. This modification enables the utilization of prefix redundancy, while preserving full compatibility with existing OFDM-based communication standards.

  18. Functional Imaging of Human Vestibular Cortex Activity Elicited by Skull Tap and Auditory Tone Burst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noohi, F.; Kinnaird, C.; Wood, S.; Bloomberg, J.; Mulavara, A.; Seidler, R.

    2016-01-01

    The current study characterizes brain activation in response to two modes of vestibular stimulation: skull tap and auditory tone burst. The auditory tone burst has been used in previous studies to elicit either the vestibulo-spinal reflex (saccular-mediated colic Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials (cVEMP)), or the ocular muscle response (utricle-mediated ocular VEMP (oVEMP)). Some researchers have reported that air-conducted skull tap elicits both saccular and utricle-mediated VEMPs, while being faster and less irritating for the subjects. However, it is not clear whether the skull tap and auditory tone burst elicit the same pattern of cortical activity. Both forms of stimulation target the otolith response, which provides a measurement of vestibular function independent from semicircular canals. This is of high importance for studying otolith-specific deficits, including gait and balance problems that astronauts experience upon returning to earth. Previous imaging studies have documented activity in the anterior and posterior insula, superior temporal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, inferior frontal gyrus, and the anterior cingulate cortex in response to different modes of vestibular stimulation. Here we hypothesized that skull taps elicit similar patterns of cortical activity as the auditory tone bursts, and previous vestibular imaging studies. Subjects wore bilateral MR compatible skull tappers and headphones inside the 3T GE scanner, while lying in the supine position, with eyes closed. Subjects received both forms of the stimulation in a counterbalanced fashion. Pneumatically powered skull tappers were placed bilaterally on the cheekbones. The vibration of the cheekbone was transmitted to the vestibular system, resulting in the vestibular cortical response. Auditory tone bursts were also delivered for comparison. To validate our stimulation method, we measured the ocular VEMP outside of the scanner. This measurement showed that both skull tap and auditory

  19. Performance monitoring of zircaloy-4 square fuel channels at TAPS-1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, J.; Ramu, A.; Anilkumar, K.R.; Sharma, B.L.; Bhattacharjee, S.; Ramamurty, U.; Srivastava, S.P.; Prasad, P.N.; Anantharaman, K.

    2006-01-01

    Tarapur Atomic Power Station is a twin unit Boiling Water Reactors. The initial rated capacity of each unit was 210 MWe. Subsequently due to Secondary Steam Generator tube leak problem, the units were de-rated to 160 MWe in the year 1984-85. The station has completed 36 years of successful commercial operation. TAPS reactor fuel channels are made of Zircaloy-4, material. These are used along with 6x6 array nuclear fuel assemblies. The fuel channels need to be discharged once it reaches an optimum exposure limit and based on the surveillance programme, which monitors the channels performance. NFC has indigenously developed fuel channels for TAPS and these are at various stages of exposure in both the reactor cores. The performance review of these channels was carried out by the experts from TAPS-Site, NPCIL-ED and RED, BARC. The two major factors, which affect fuel channels performance, are (a) Bulge and (b) Bow. The phenomenon of longitudinal bow occurs due to the neutron flux gradient across the channels faces. Studies made on this subject by General Electric (GE) indicated that this channel deflection occurs at a slow rate. Therefore, fuel channels surveillance programme is essential to check the irradiated fuel channels performance in order to replace the fuel channels once it reaches the optimum exposure limit. To estimate the useful life of irradiated fuel channels, channel deflection/bulge measurement inspection system and methodology was developed jointly by TAPS and Centre for Design and manufacture (CDM), BARC. This system was successfully deployed at TAPS. This paper briefly describes the developmental efforts made by Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC), Hyderabad, NPCIL-Fuel Group, Engg.Directorate, RED/BARC, CDM/BARC. (author)

  20. Comparison of emerging contaminants in receiving waters downstream of a conventional wastewater treatment plant and a forest-water reuse system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest-water reuse (FWR) systems treat municipal, industrial, and agricultural wastewaters via land application to forest soils. Previous studies have shown that both large-scale conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and FWR systems do not completely remove many contam...

  1. Occurrence and fate of alkylphenols and alkylphenol ethoxylates in sewage treatment plants and impact on receiving waters along the Ter River (Catalonia, NE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Céspedes, Raquel; Lacorte, Sílvia; Ginebreda, Antonio; Barceló, Damià

    2008-05-01

    The partitioning of alkylphenols in the dissolved and particulate matter of influents, effluents, accumulation onto sludge and the impact of sewage treatment plant upon receiving waters was studied along the Ter River basin (Catalonia, NE Spain). A solid-phase extraction or pressurized liquid extraction followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed and permitted to determine target compounds with high efficiency in waters, particulate material and sludge. Nonylphenol mono- and diethoxylate, nonylphenol and octylphenol partitioned preferably upon particulate matter and sludge, whereas long chain NPE(3-15)O prevailed in the dissolved phase and was released by effluents. Within the treatment process, a net accumulation of alkylphenols in sludge was found, producing up to 148g/t/month. The removal efficiency of alkylphenols was of 37-90% and depended on the treatment. Assessment on the fate of these contaminants within STPs is discussed in terms of flow rates, biological oxygen demand and tons of sludge produced.

  2. Hospital and urban effluent waters as a source of accumulation of toxic metals in the sediment receiving system of the Cauvery River, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarajan, Naresh; Laffite, Amandine; Ngelikoto, Patience; Elongo, Vicky; Prabakar, Kandasamy; Mubedi, Josué I; Piana, Pius T M; Wildi, Walter; Poté, John

    2015-09-01

    Hospital and urban effluents contain a variety of toxic and/or persistent substances in a wide range of concentrations, and most of these compounds belong to the group of emerging contaminants. The release of these substances into the aquatic ecosystem can lead to the pollution of water resources and may place aquatic organisms and human health at risk. Sediments receiving untreated and urban effluent waters from the city of Tiruchirappalli in the state of Tamil Nadu, India, are analyzed for potential environmental and human health risks. The sediment samples were collected from five hospital outlet pipes (HOP) and from the Cauvery River Basin (CRB) both of which receive untreated municipal effluent waters (Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, India). The samples were characterized for grain size, organic matter, toxic metals, and ecotoxicity. The results highlight the high concentration of toxic metals in HOP, reaching values (mg kg(-1)) of 1851 (Cr), 210 (Cu), 986 (Zn), 82 (Pb), and 17 (Hg). In contrast, the metal concentrations in sediments from CRB were lower than the values found in the HOP (except for Cu, Pb), with maximum values (mg kg(-1)) of 75 (Cr), 906 (Cu), 649 (Zn), 111 (Pb), and 0.99 (Hg). The metal concentrations in all sampling sites largely exceed the Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs) and the Probable Effect Concentration (PEC) for the Protection of Aquatic Life recommendation. The ecotoxicity test with ostracods exposed to the sediment samples presents a mortality rate ranging from 22 to 100 % (in sediments from HOP) and 18-87 % (in sediments from CRB). The results of this study show the variation of toxic metal levels as well as toxicity in sediment composition related to both the type of hospital and the sampling period. The method of elimination of hospital and urban effluents leads to the pollution of water resources and may place aquatic organisms and human health at risk.

  3. Combining low-cost GPS receivers with upGPR to derive continuously liquid water content, snow height and snow water equivalent in Alpine snow covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Franziska; Schmid, Lino; Prasch, Monika; Heilig, Achim; Eisen, Olaf; Schweizer, Jürg; Mauser, Wolfram

    2015-04-01

    The temporal evolution of Alpine snowpacks is important for assessing water supply, hydropower generation, flood predictions and avalanche forecasts. Especially in high mountain regions with an extremely varying topography, it is until now often difficult to derive continuous and non-destructive information on snow parameters. Since autumn 2012, we are running a new low-cost GPS (Global Positioning System) snow measurement experiment at the high alpine study site Weissfluhjoch (2450 m a.s.l.) in Switzerland. The globally and freely broadcasted GPS L1-band (1.57542 GHz) was continuously recorded with GPS antennas, which are installed at the ground surface underneath the snowpack. GPS raw data, containing carrier-to-noise power density ratio (C/N0) as well as elevation and azimuth angle information for each time step of 1 s, was stored and analyzed for all 32 GPS satellites. Since the dielectric permittivity of an overlying wet snowpack influences microwave radiation, the bulk volumetric liquid water content as well as daily melt-freeze cycles can be derived non-destructively from GPS signal strength losses and external snow height information. This liquid water content information is qualitatively in good accordance with meteorological and snow-hydrological data and quantitatively highly agrees with continuous data derived from an upward-looking ground-penetrating radar (upGPR) working in a similar frequency range. As a promising novelty, we combined the GPS signal strength data with upGPR travel-time information of active impulse radar rays to the snow surface and back from underneath the snow cover. This combination allows determining liquid water content, snow height and snow water equivalent from beneath the snow cover without using any other external information. The snow parameters derived by combining upGPR and GPS data are in good agreement with conventional sensors as e.g. laser distance gauges or snow pillows. As the GPS sensors are cheap, they can easily

  4. Evaluation of pharmaceuticals and personal care products with emphasis on anthelmintics in human sanitary waste, sewage, hospital wastewater, livestock wastewater and receiving water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Won-Jin; Kim, Hee-Young; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Kwon, Jung-Hwan; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2013-03-15

    We investigated 33 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) with emphasis on anthelmintics and their metabolites in human sanitary waste treatment plants (HTPs), sewage treatment plants (STPs), hospital wastewater treatment plants (HWTPs), livestock wastewater treatment plants (LWTPs), river water and seawater. PPCPs showed the characteristic specific occurrence patterns according to wastewater sources. The LWTPs and HTPs showed higher levels (maximum 3000 times in influents) of anthelmintics than other wastewater treatment plants, indicating that livestock wastewater and human sanitary waste are one of principal sources of anthelmintics. Among anthelmintics, fenbendazole and its metabolites are relatively high in the LWTPs, while human anthelmintics such as albendazole and flubendazole are most dominant in the HTPs, STPs and HWTPs. The occurrence pattern of fenbendazole's metabolites in water was different from pharmacokinetics studies, showing the possibility of transformation mechanism other than the metabolism in animal bodies by some processes unknown to us. The river water and seawater are generally affected by the point sources, but the distribution patterns in some receiving water are slightly different from the effluent, indicating the influence of non-point sources. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. TAP Report - Southwest Idaho Juniper Working Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gresham, Garold Linn [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    There is explicit need for characterization of the materials for possible commercialization as little characterization data exists. Pinyon-juniper woodlands are a major ecosystem type found in the Southwest and the Intermountain West regions of the United States including Nevada, Idaho and Oregon. These widespread ecosystems are characterized by the presence of several different species of pinyon and juniper as the dominant plant cover. Since the 1800s, pinyon-juniper woodlands have rapidly expanded their range at the expense of existing ecosystems. Additionally, existing woodlands have become denser, progressively creating potential fire hazards as seen in the Soda Fire, which burned more than 400 sq. miles. Land managers responsible for these areas often desire to reduce pinyon-juniper coverage on their lands for a variety of reasons, as stated in the Working Group objectives. However, the cost of clearing thinning pinyon-juniper stands can be prohibitive. One reason for this is the lack of utilization options for the resulting biomass that could help recover some of the cost of pinyon-juniper stand management. The goal of this TAP effort was to assess the feedstock characteristics of biomass from a juniper harvested from Owyhee County to evaluate possible fuel and conversion utilization options.

  6. Effects of acid mine drainage on dissolved inorganic carbon and stable carbon isotopes in receiving streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonyuy, Ernest W.; Atekwana, Eliot A.

    2008-01-01

    Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) constitutes a significant fraction of a stream's carbon budget, yet the role of acid mine drainage (AMD) in DIC dynamics in receiving streams remains poorly understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate spatial and temporal effects of AMD and its chemical evolution on DIC and stable isotope ratio of DIC (δ 13 C DIC ) in receiving streams. We examined spatial and seasonal variations in physical and chemical parameters, DIC, and δ 13 C DIC in a stream receiving AMD. In addition, we mixed different proportions of AMD and tap water in a laboratory experiment to investigate AMD dilution and variable bicarbonate concentrations to simulate downstream and seasonal hydrologic conditions in the stream. Field and laboratory samples showed variable pH, overall decreases in Fe 2+ , alkalinity, and DIC, and variable increase in δ 13 C DIC . We attribute the decrease in alkalinity, DIC loss, and enrichment of 13 C of DIC in stream water to protons produced from oxidation of Fe 2+ followed by Fe 3+ hydrolysis and precipitation of Fe(OH) 3(s) . The extent of DIC decrease and 13 C enrichment of DIC was related to the amount of HCO 3 - dehydrated by protons. The laboratory experiment showed that lower 13 C enrichment occurred in unmixed AMD (2.7 per mille ) when the amount of protons produced was in excess of HCO 3 - or in tap water (3.2 per mille ) where no protons were produced from Fe 3+ hydrolysis for HCO 3 - dehydration. The 13 C enrichment increased and was highest for AMD-tap water mixture (8.0 per mille ) where Fe 2+ was proportional to HCO 3 - concentration. Thus, the variable downstream and seasonal 13 C enrichment in stream water was due in part to: (1) variations in the volume of stream water initially mixed with AMD and (2) to HCO 3 - input from groundwater and seepage in the downstream direction. Protons produced during the chemical evolution of AMD caused seasonal losses of 50 to >98% of stream water DIC. This loss of DIC

  7. The neural substrates of impaired finger tapping regularity after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calautti, Cinzia; Jones, P Simon; Guincestre, Jean-Yves; Naccarato, Marcello; Sharma, Nikhil; Day, Diana J; Carpenter, T Adrian; Warburton, Elizabeth A; Baron, Jean-Claude

    2010-03-01

    Not only finger tapping speed, but also tapping regularity can be impaired after stroke, contributing to reduced dexterity. The neural substrates of impaired tapping regularity after stroke are unknown. Previous work suggests damage to the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) and prefrontal cortex (PFCx) affects externally-cued hand movement. We tested the hypothesis that these two areas are involved in impaired post-stroke tapping regularity. In 19 right-handed patients (15 men/4 women; age 45-80 years; purely subcortical in 16) partially to fully recovered from hemiparetic stroke, tri-axial accelerometric quantitative assessment of tapping regularity and BOLD fMRI were obtained during fixed-rate auditory-cued index-thumb tapping, in a single session 10-230 days after stroke. A strong random-effect correlation between tapping regularity index and fMRI signal was found in contralesional PMd such that the worse the regularity the stronger the activation. A significant correlation in the opposite direction was also present within contralesional PFCx. Both correlations were maintained if maximal index tapping speed, degree of paresis and time since stroke were added as potential confounds. Thus, the contralesional PMd and PFCx appear to be involved in the impaired ability of stroke patients to fingertap in pace with external cues. The findings for PMd are consistent with repetitive TMS investigations in stroke suggesting a role for this area in affected-hand movement timing. The inverse relationship with tapping regularity observed for the PFCx and the PMd suggests these two anatomically-connected areas negatively co-operate. These findings have implications for understanding the disruption and reorganization of the motor systems after stroke. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Finger tapping ability in healthy elderly and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Tomoko; Fukuoka, Yoshiyuki

    2010-03-01

    The maximum isometric force production capacity of the fingers decreases with age. However, little information is available on age-related changes in dynamic motor capacity of individual fingers. The purpose of this study was to compare the dynamic motor function of individual fingers between elderly and young adults using rapid single-finger and double-finger tapping. Fourteen elderly and 14 young adults performed maximum frequency tapping by the index, middle, ring, or little finger (single-finger tapping) and with alternate movements of the index-middle, middle-ring, or ring-little finger-pair (double-finger tapping). The maximum pinch force between the thumb and each finger, tactile sensitivity of each fingertip, and time taken to complete a pegboard test were also measured. Compared with young subjects, the older subjects had significantly slower tapping rates in all fingers and finger-pairs in the tapping tasks. The age-related decline was also observed in the tactile sensitivities of all fingers and in the pegboard test. However, there was no group difference in the pinch force of any finger. The tapping rate of each finger did not correlate with the pinch force or tactile sensitivity for the corresponding finger in the elderly subjects. Maximum rate of finger tapping was lower in the elderly adults compared with the young adults. The decline of finger tapping ability in elderly adults seems to be less affected by their maximum force production capacities of the fingers as well as tactile sensitivities at the tips of the fingers.

  9. Occurrence and partitioning of antibiotic compounds found in the water column and bottom sediments from a stream receiving two wastewater treatment plant effluents in Northern New Jersey, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibs, Jacob, E-mail: jgibs@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, 810 Bear Tavern Road, West Trenton, NJ 08628 (United States); Heckathorn, Heather A. [U.S. Geological Survey, 810 Bear Tavern Road, West Trenton, NJ 08628 (United States); Meyer, Michael T. [U.S. Geological Survey, 4821 Quail Crest Place, Lawrence, KS 66049 (United States); Klapinski, Frank R.; Alebus, Marzooq; Lippincott, Robert L. [New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, PO Box 413, Trenton, NJ 08625 (United States)

    2013-08-01

    An urban watershed in northern New Jersey was studied to determine the presence of four classes of antibiotic compounds (macrolides, fluoroquinolones, sulfonamides, and tetracyclines) and six degradates in the water column and bottom sediments upstream and downstream from the discharges of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and a drinking-water intake (DWI). Many antibiotic compounds in the four classes not removed by conventional WWTPs enter receiving waters and partition to stream sediments. Samples were collected at nine sampling locations on 2 days in September 2008. Two of the nine sampling locations were background sites upstream from two WWTP discharges on Hohokus Brook. Another background site was located upstream from a DWI on the Saddle River above the confluence with Hohokus Brook. Because there is a weir downstream of the confluence of Hohokus Brook and Saddle River, the DWI receives water from Hohokus Brook at low stream flows. Eight antibiotic compounds (azithromycin (maximum concentration 0.24 μg/L), ciprofloxacin (0.08 μg/L), enrofloxacin (0.015 μg/L), erythromycin (0.024 μg/L), ofloxacin (0.92 μg/L), sulfamethazine (0.018 μg/L), sulfamethoxazole (0.25 μg/L), and trimethoprim (0.14 μg/L)) and a degradate (erythromycin–H{sub 2}O (0.84 μg/L)) were detected in the water samples from the sites downstream from the WWTP discharges. The concentrations of six of the eight detected compounds and the detected degradate compound decreased with increasing distance downstream from the WWTP discharges. Azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and trimethoprim were detected in stream-bottom sediments. The concentrations of three of the four compounds detected in sediments were highest at a sampling site located downstream from the WWTP discharges. Trimethoprim was detected in the sediments from a background site. Pseudo-partition coefficients normalized for streambed sediment organic carbon concentration were calculated for azithromycin

  10. Occurrence and partitioning of antibiotic compounds found in the water column and bottom sediments from a stream receiving two wastewater treatment plant effluents in Northern New Jersey, 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibs, Jacob; Heckathorn, Heather A.; Meyer, Michael T.; Klapinski, Frank R.; Alebus, Marzooq; Lippincott, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    An urban watershed in northern New Jersey was studied to determine the presence of four classes of antibiotic compounds (macrolides, fluoroquinolones, sulfonamides, and tetracyclines) and six degradates in the water column and bottom sediments upstream and downstream from the discharges of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and a drinking-water intake (DWI). Many antibiotic compounds in the four classes not removed by conventional WWTPs enter receiving waters and partition to stream sediments. Samples were collected at nine sampling locations on 2 days in September 2008. Two of the nine sampling locations were background sites upstream from two WWTP discharges on Hohokus Brook. Another background site was located upstream from a DWI on the Saddle River above the confluence with Hohokus Brook. Because there is a weir downstream of the confluence of Hohokus Brook and Saddle River, the DWI receives water from Hohokus Brook at low stream flows. Eight antibiotic compounds (azithromycin (maximum concentration 0.24 μg/L), ciprofloxacin (0.08 μg/L), enrofloxacin (0.015 μg/L), erythromycin (0.024 μg/L), ofloxacin (0.92 μg/L), sulfamethazine (0.018 μg/L), sulfamethoxazole (0.25 μg/L), and trimethoprim (0.14 μg/L)) and a degradate (erythromycin–H 2 O (0.84 μg/L)) were detected in the water samples from the sites downstream from the WWTP discharges. The concentrations of six of the eight detected compounds and the detected degradate compound decreased with increasing distance downstream from the WWTP discharges. Azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and trimethoprim were detected in stream-bottom sediments. The concentrations of three of the four compounds detected in sediments were highest at a sampling site located downstream from the WWTP discharges. Trimethoprim was detected in the sediments from a background site. Pseudo-partition coefficients normalized for streambed sediment organic carbon concentration were calculated for azithromycin, ciprofloxacin

  11. Experimental Study on Environment Friendly Tap Hole Clay for Blast Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siva kumar, R.; Mohammed, Raffi; Srinivasa Rao, K.

    2018-03-01

    Blast furnace (BF) is the best possible route of iron production available. Blast furnace is a high pressure vessel where iron ore is melted and liquid iron is produced. The liquid iron is tapped through the hole in Blast Furnace called tap hole. The tapped liquid metal flowing through the tap hole is plugged using a clay called tap hole clay. Tap hole clay (THC) is a unshaped refractory used to plug the tap hole. The tap hole clay extruded through the tap hole using a gun. The tap hole clay is designed to expand and plug the tap hole. The tap hole filled with clay is drilled using drill bit and the hole made through the tap hole to tap the liquid metal accumulated inside the furnace. The number of plugging and drilling varies depending on the volume of the furnace. The tap hole clay need to have certain properties to avoid problems during plugging and drilling. In the present paper tap hole clay properties in industrial use was tested and studied. The problems were identified related to tap hole clay manufacturing. Experiments were conducted in lab scale to solve the identified problems. The present composition was modified with experimental results. The properties of the modified tap hole clay were found suitable and useful for blast furnace operation with lab scale experimental results.

  12. Branding water

    OpenAIRE

    Dolnicar, Sara; Hurlimann, Anna; Grün, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    Branding is a key strategy widely used in commercial marketing to make products more attractive to consumers. With the exception of bottled water, branding has largely not been adopted in the water context although public acceptance is critical to the implementation of water augmentation projects. Based on responses from 6247 study participants collected between 2009 and 2012, this study shows that (1) different kinds of water – specifically recycled water, desalinated water, tap water and ra...

  13. Near-field receiving water monitoring of trace metals and a benthic community near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in south San Francisco Bay, California: 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Daniel J.; Thompson, Janet K.; Crauder, Jeff; Parcheso, Francis; Stewart, Robin; Kleckner, Amy E.; Dyke, Jessica; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Luoma, Samuel N.

    2015-01-01

    Trace-metal concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure were investigated in a mudflat 1 kilometer (km) south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant (PARWQCP) in South San Francisco Bay, Calif. This report includes the data collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists for the period January 2014 to December 2014. These append to long-term datasets extending back to 1974, and serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto’s Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. 

  14. Beer tapping: dynamics of bubbles after impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantič-Lugo, V.; Cayron, A.; Brun, P.-T.; Gallaire, F.

    2015-12-01

    Beer tapping is a well known prank where a bottle of beer is impacted from the top by a solid object, usually another bottle, leading to a sudden foam overflow. A description of the shock-driven bubble dynamics leading to foaming is presented based on an experimental and numerical study evoking the following physical picture. First, the solid impact produces a sudden downwards acceleration of the bottle creating a strong depression in the liquid bulk. The existing bubbles undergo a strong expansion and a sudden contraction ending in their collapse and fragmentation into a large amount of small bubbles. Second, the bubble clouds present a large surface area to volume ratio, enhancing the CO2 diffusion from the supersaturated liquid, hence growing rapidly and depleting the CO2. The clouds of bubbles migrate upwards in the form of plumes pulling the surrounding liquid with them and eventually resulting in the foam overflow. The sudden pressure drop that triggers the bubble dynamics with a collapse and oscillations is modelled by the Rayleigh-Plesset equation. The bubble dynamics from impact to collapse occurs over a time (tb ≃ 800 μs) much larger than the acoustic time scale of the liquid bulk (tac = 2H/c ≃ 80 μs), for the experimental container of height H = 6 cm and a speed of sound around c ≃ 1500 m/s. This scale separation, together with the comparison of numerical and experimental results, suggests that the pressure drop is controlled by two parameters: the acceleration of the container and the distance from the bubble to the free surface.

  15. Astronomy on Tap: science engagement in the pub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livermore, Rachael C.; Silverman, Jeffrey Michael

    2015-08-01

    Astronomy on Tap is a series of free lectures by astronomers in the pub, aimed at disseminating the latest research to the public in an informal setting. Started in New York City in 2013, Astronomy on Tap has now expanded to seven cities across North and South America. Organized by local astronomers, each event features talks by astronomers from local institutions or visitors, or others whose professions or hobbies intersect with astronomy, along with games and opportunities for the public to interact with professional astronomers. The largest Astronomy on Tap events are in Austin, Texas, attracting over 150 people each month, which consists of populations outside of the self-selected groups that might be reached by more formal EPO activities. The organisers of Astronomy on Tap in Austin (AoTATX) will discuss the impact of and feedback from all of the locations, and present information on setting up new satellite locations.

  16. Trauma Tapping Technique: Practical First Aid for Stress and Trauma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epidemiological studies on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) show a lifetime ... include re-experiencing the traumatic event, avoidant behavior for the memories of ... Methods. Trauma tapping technique (TTT) is a procedure that uses touch ...

  17. Micropollutants in urban receiving waters

    OpenAIRE

    Musolff, Andreas; Hunkeler, Daniel; Schirmer, Mario

    2010-01-01

    À ce jour, la moitié de la population mondiale vit à l’intérieur des villes. Cette utilisation du territoire a un énorme impact sur le bilan hydrique urbain. Non seulement la quantité de l’eau est désormais limitée mais sa qualité s’est également détériorée. Les micropolluants provenant des eaux usées domestiques et industrielles représentent une préoccupation grandissante. Malgré leur présence en faible concentration, ces micropolluants peuvent agir comme perturbateurs endocriniens et comme ...

  18. Adding Sufentanil to TAP Block Hyperbaric Bupivacaine Decreases Post-Cesarean Delivery Morphine Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laleh Eslamian

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Pain management is crucially important in the postoperative period as it increases patient comfort and satisfaction. The primary outcome of present study was to evaluate the effect of sufentanil added to hyperbaric bupivacaine solution 0.25% in transversus abdominis plane (TAP block, on postoperative analgesic consumption. Fifty ASA physical status I–II term primiparous single-tone pregnant women aged 20–40 years scheduled for elective cesarean delivery with Pfannenstiel incision under general anaesthesia were enrolled in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ultrasound guided TAP block was performed at the end of surgery. Patients were randomly enrolled into two groups. Patients in the study group received 20 ml of hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.25% plus 1mL of sufentanil on either side while patients in the placebo group were administered 20 ml of hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.25% along with 1mL of placebo. Post-cesarean delivery visual analogue scale (VAS for pain and morphine usage were measured and recorded. The morphine consumption was significantly less in the study group (37.2 ± 16.1 mg than the control group (52.8 ± 16.7 mg, P =0.002.The VAS for pain both in rest and coughing were same in groups. Sufentanil added to 0.25% hyperbaric bupivacaine in TAP block decreases post cesarean delivery morphine consumption.

  19. Relay self interference minimisation using tapped filter

    KAUST Repository

    Jazzar, Saleh; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a self interference (SI) estimation and minimisation technique for amplify and forward relays. Relays are used to help forward signals between a transmitter and a receiver. This helps increase the signal coverage

  20. Finger and foot tapping sensor system for objective motor assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurić-Jovičić Milica

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Finger tapping test is commonly used in neurological examinations as a test of motor performance. The new system comprising inertial and force sensors and custom proprietary software was developed for quantitative estimation and assessment of finger and foot tapping tests. The aim of this system was to provide diagnosis support and objective assessment of motor function. Methods. Miniature inertial sensors were placed on fingertips and used for measuring finger movements. A force sensor was placed on the fingertip of one finger, in order to measure the force during tapping. For foot tapping assessment, an inertial sensor was mounted on the subject’s foot, which was placed above a force platform. By using this system, various parameters such as a number of taps, tapping duration, rhythm, open and close speed, the applied force and tapping angle, can be extracted for detailed analysis of a patient’s motor performance. The system was tested on 13 patients with Parkinson’s disease and 14 healthy controls. Results. The system allowed easy measurement of listed parameters, and additional graphical representation showed quantitative differences in these parameters between neurological patient and healthy subjects. Conclusion. The novel system for finger and foot tapping test is compact, simple to use and efficiently collects patient data. Parameters measured in patients can be compared to those measured in healthy subjects, or among groups of patients, or used to monitor progress of the disease, or therapy effects. Created data and scores could be used together with the scores from clinical tests, providing the possibility for better insight into the diagnosis. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 175090 and Grant no. 175016

  1. Quantification of Finger-Tapping Angle Based on Wearable Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djurić-Jovičić, Milica; Jovičić, Nenad S; Roby-Brami, Agnes; Popović, Mirjana B; Kostić, Vladimir S; Djordjević, Antonije R

    2017-01-25

    We propose a novel simple method for quantitative and qualitative finger-tapping assessment based on miniature inertial sensors (3D gyroscopes) placed on the thumb and index-finger. We propose a simplified description of the finger tapping by using a single angle, describing rotation around a dominant axis. The method was verified on twelve subjects, who performed various tapping tasks, mimicking impaired patterns. The obtained tapping angles were compared with results of a motion capture camera system, demonstrating excellent accuracy. The root-mean-square (RMS) error between the two sets of data is, on average, below 4°, and the intraclass correlation coefficient is, on average, greater than 0.972. Data obtained by the proposed method may be used together with scores from clinical tests to enable a better diagnostic. Along with hardware simplicity, this makes the proposed method a promising candidate for use in clinical practice. Furthermore, our definition of the tapping angle can be applied to all tapping assessment systems.

  2. Evaluation of primary stability of self-tapping and non-self-tapping dental implants. A 12-week clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, Aleksa; Calvo-Guirado, José Luís; Lazić, Zoran; Gómez-Moreno, Gerardo; Ćalasan, Dejan; Guardia, Javier; Čolic, Snježana; Aguilar-Salvatierra, Antonio; Gačić, Bojan; Delgado-Ruiz, Rafael; Janjić, Bojan; Mišić, Tijana

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between surgical techniques and implant macro-design (self-tapping/non-self-tapping) for the optimization of implant stability in the low-density bone present in the posterior maxilla using resonance frequency analysis (RFA). A total of 102 implants were studied. Fifty-six self-tapping BlueSkyBredent® (Bredent GmbH&Co.Kg®, Senden, Germany) and 56 non-self-tapping Standard Plus Straumann® (Institut Straumann AG®, Waldenburg, Switzerland) were placed in the posterior segment of the maxilla. Implants of both types were placed in sites prepared with either lateral bone-condensing or with bone-drilling techniques. Implant stability measurements were performed using RFA immediately after implant placement and weekly during a 12-week follow-up period. Both types of implants placed after bone condensing achieved significantly higher stability immediately after surgery, as well as during the entire 12-week observation period compared with those placed following bone drilling. After bone condensation, there were no significant differences in primary stability or in implant stability after the first week between both implant types. From 2 to 12 postoperative weeks, significantly higher stability was shown by self-tapping implants. After bone drilling, self-tapping implants achieved significantly higher stability than non-self-tapping implants during the entire follow-up period. The outcomes of the present study indicate that bone drilling is not an effective technique for improving implant stability and, following this technique, the use of self-tapping implants is highly recommended. Implant stability optimization in the soft bone can be achieved by lateral bone-condensing technique, regardless of implant macro-design. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Probing and Tapping: Are We Inserting Pedicle Screws Correctly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Vishal; Mesfin, Addisu; Lee, Robert; Reigrut, Julie; Schmidt, John

    2016-11-01

    Although there are a significant number of research publications on the topic of bone morphology and the strength of bone, the clinical significance of a failed pedicle screw is often revision surgery and the potential for further postoperative complications; especially in elderly patients with osteoporotic bone. The purpose of this report is to quantify the mechanical strength of the foam-screw interface by assessing probe/pilot hole diameter and tap sizes using statistically relevant sample sizes under highly controlled test conditions. The study consisted of two experiments and used up to three different densities of reference-grade polyurethane foam (ASTM 1839), including 0.16, 0.24, and 0.32 g/cm 3 . All screws and rods were provided by K2M Inc. and screws were inserted to a depth of 25 mm. A series of pilot holes, 1.5, 2.2, 2.7, 3.2, 3.7, 4.2, 5.0, and 6.0 mm in diameter were drilled through the entire depth of the material. A 6.5 × 45-mm pedicle screw was inserted and axially pulled from the material (n = 720). A 3.0-mm pilot hole was drilled and tapped with: no tap, 3.5-, 4.5-, 5.5-, and 6.5-mm taps. A 6.5 × 45-mm pedicle screw was inserted and axially pulled from the material (n = 300). The size of the probe/pilot hole had a nonlinear, parabolic effect on pullout strength. This shape suggests an optimum-sized probe hole for a given size pedicle screw. Too large or too small of a probe hole causes a rapid falloff in pullout strength. The tap data demonstrated that not tapping and undertapping by two or three sizes did not significantly alter the pullout strength of the screws. The data showed an exponential falloff of pullout strength when as tap size increased to the diameter of the screw. In the current study, the data show that an ideal pilot hole size half the diameter of the screw is a starting point. Also, that if tapping was necessary, to use a tap two sizes smaller than the screw being implanted. A similar optimum pilot hole or tap size may be

  4. The removal of pharmaceuticals, personal care products, endocrine disruptors and illicit drugs during wastewater treatment and its impact on the quality of receiving waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara; Dinsdale, Richard M; Guwy, Alan J

    2009-02-01

    A 5-month monitoring program was undertaken in South Wales in the UK to determine the fate of 55 pharmaceuticals, personal care products, endocrine disruptors and illicit drugs (PPCPs) in two contrasting wastewater plants utilising two different wastewater treatment technologies: activated sludge and trickling filter beds. The impact of treated wastewater effluent on the quality of receiving waters was also assessed. PPCPs were found to be present at high loads reaching 10kgday(-1) in the raw sewage. Concentrations of PPCPs in raw sewage were found to correlate with their usage/consumption patterns in Wales and their metabolism. The efficiency of the removal of PPCPs was found to be strongly dependent on the technology implemented in the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). In general, the WWTP utilising trickling filter beds resulted in, on average, less than 70% removal of all 55 PPCPs studied, while the WWTP utilising activated sludge treatment gave a much higher removal efficiency of over 85%. The monitoring programme revealed that treated wastewater effluents were the main contributors to PPCPs concentrations (up to 3kg of PPCPsday(-1)) in the rivers studied. Bearing in mind that in the cases examined here the WWTP effluents were also major contributors to rivers' flows (dilution factor for the studied rivers did not exceed 23 times) the effect of WWTP effluent on the quality of river water is significant and cannot be underestimated.

  5. Occurrence and fate of alkylphenols and alkylphenol ethoxylates in sewage treatment plants and impact on receiving waters along the Ter River (Catalonia, NE Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cespedes, Raquel; Lacorte, Silvia; Ginebreda, Antonio; Barcelo, Damia

    2008-01-01

    The partitioning of alkylphenols in the dissolved and particulate matter of influents, effluents, accumulation onto sludge and the impact of sewage treatment plant upon receiving waters was studied along the Ter River basin (Catalonia, NE Spain). A solid-phase extraction or pressurized liquid extraction followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed and permitted to determine target compounds with high efficiency in waters, particulate material and sludge. Nonylphenol mono- and diethoxylate, nonylphenol and octylphenol partitioned preferably upon particulate matter and sludge, whereas long chain NPE 3-15 O prevailed in the dissolved phase and was released by effluents. Within the treatment process, a net accumulation of alkylphenols in sludge was found, producing up to 148 g/t/month. The removal efficiency of alkylphenols was of 37-90% and depended on the treatment. Assessment on the fate of these contaminants within STPs is discussed in terms of flow rates, biological oxygen demand and tons of sludge produced. - Whereas partitioning of nonylphenol upon particulate matter and enrichment in sludge has been detected, long chain NPE n Os were mainly found in the dissolved phase

  6. Identification of the contributors (Ag-110m) for higher radiation field on Primary Heat Transport System of TAPS-3 and its impact on collective dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonwalkar, V.M.; Mohanta, S.; Pal, S.K.; Rajagopalan, H.; Venkataramana, K.

    2018-01-01

    TAPS-3 and 4, First Indian PHWR of capacity 540 MWe, attained first criticality on 21 st May 2006 and 6 th March 2005 respectively. TAPS-3 and 4 are under commercial operation since August 2006 and September 2005. The PHT circuit pipeline/equipment exhibit higher radiation filed in accessible area of Reactor building due to presence of fission product and corrosion produces in the PHT system water and their deposition on the pipeline surface. The radiological monitoring of various equipment/area is performed routinely to detect the deviation and initiate corrective actions. During such routine measurements, it was noted that PHT D 2 O lines at 104 m El. of TAPS-3 were showing increasing trend of radiation field. The radiation field on the PHT D 2 O lines increased from 1 mSv/hr to 10 mSv/hr. The radiation filed at the same location of TAPS-4 was 1mSv/hr

  7. Beam polarimetry in the CBELSA/TAPS experiment; Strahlpolarimetrie am CBELSA/TAPS Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kammer, Susanne

    2010-02-19

    In the identification of nucleon resonances polarization observables play an important role. For the photoproduction experiments of the CBELAS/TAPS assembly at the accelerator facility ELSA in the framework of this thesis linearly and circularly polarized were realized and prepared. Linearly polarized photons were produced on a diamond crystal under usage of the coherent bremsstrahlung. By alignment of the crystal in the bremsstrahlung coherent intensity increasements in form of pronounced edges could be generated. The number of the polarized photons lying in the increasement determines in comparison to the incoherently produced background the degree of polarization. The position of the coherent edge could be tuned by means of control distributions to an arbitrary position in the measured energy spectrum as well as the degree of polarization of the photons optimized. For the production of circularly polarized photons longitudinally polarized electrons on the bremsstrahlung target are required. The polarization transfer of the bremsstrahlung process is uniquely given by the QED, so that the degree of polarization of the photons can be determined via a measurement of the electron-beam polarization. With this goal a for the first time in the CBELSA/TAPS applied momentum-selecting Moeller polarimeter was developed and integrated in the photon-tagging facility. Via a change of the beam helicity the counting-rate asymmetry for parallely and antiparallely beam and target electrons was measured and the degree of polarization of the electrons at beam energies of 2350 MeV determined to typically above 60%. By means of dedicated test measurements and simulations the functionality of the Moeller polarimeter was checked and the relative systematic uncertainty determined to 1%. Since 2007 the Moeller polarimeter essential for the double-polarization experiments is in current operation. Finally a method was sketched, in which via the known cross-section asymmetry of the

  8. Computerized measures of finger tapping: reliability, malingering and traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubel, Kerry A; Yund, E William; Herron, Timothy J; Woods, David L

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed computerized finger tapping metrics in four experiments. Experiment 1 showed tapping-rate differences associated with hand dominance, digits, sex, and fatigue that replicated those seen in a previous, large-scale community sample. Experiment 2 revealed test-retest correlations (r = .91) that exceeded those reported in previous tapping studies. Experiment 3 investigated subjects simulating symptoms of traumatic brain injury (TBI); 62% of malingering subjects produced abnormally slow tapping rates. A tapping-rate malingering index, based on rate-independent tapping patterns, provided confirmatory evidence of malingering in 48% of the subjects with abnormal tapping rates. Experiment 4 compared tapping in 24 patients with mild TBI (mTBI) and a matched control group; mTBI patients showed slowed tapping without evidence of malingering. Computerized finger tapping measures are reliable measures of motor speed, useful in detecting subjects performing with suboptimal effort, and are sensitive to motor abnormalities following mTBI.

  9. Drinking Water - National Drinking Water Clearinghouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savings Septic Unsafe Disposable Wipe Woes FacebookLogo FOCUS AREAS Drinking Water Wastewater Training Security Conservation & Water Efficiency Water We Drink Source Water Protection SORA/COI EPA MOU CartIcon Links Listserv Educators Homeowners Operators Small Systems Drinking Water Read On Tap Latest

  10. Abnormal maximal finger tapping in abstinent cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavel, Stanley C; White, Jason M; Todd, Gabrielle

    2013-11-01

    To investigate movement speed and rhythmicity in abstinent cannabis users, we hypothesized that abstinent cannabis users exhibit decreased maximal finger tapping frequency and increased variability of tapping compared with non-drug users. The study involved 10 healthy adult cannabis users and 10 age-matched and gender-matched controls with no history of illicit drug use. Subjects underwent a series of screening tests prior to participation. Subjects were then asked to tap a strain gauge as fast as possible with the index finger of their dominant hand (duration 5 s). The average intertap interval did not significantly differ between groups, but the coefficient of variation of the intertap interval was significantly greater in the cannabis group than in controls (p=0.011). The cannabis group also exhibited a slow tapping frequency at the beginning of the task. Rhythmicity of finger tapping is abnormal in individuals with a history of cannabis use. The abnormality appears to be long lasting and adds to the list of functional changes present in abstinent cannabis users. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. A post-implementation evaluation of ceramic water filters distributed to tsunami-affected communities in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Lisa M; Walters, Adam; Naghawatte, Ajith; Sobsey, Mark D

    2012-06-01

    Sri Lanka was devastated by the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. During recovery, the Red Cross distributed approximately 12,000 free ceramic water filters. This cross-sectional study was an independent post-implementation assessment of 452 households that received filters, to determine the proportion still using filters, household characteristics associated with use, and quality of household drinking water. The proportion of continued users was high (76%). The most common household water sources were taps or shallow wells. The majority (82%) of users used filtered water for drinking only. Mean filter flow rate was 1.12 L/hr (0.80 L/hr for households with taps and 0.71 for those with wells). Water quality varied by source; households using tap water had source water of high microbial quality. Filters improved water quality, reducing Escherichia coli for households (largely well users) with high levels in their source water. Households were satisfied with filters and are potentially long-term users. To promote sustained use, recovery filter distribution efforts should try to identify households at greatest long-term risk, particularly those who have not moved to safer water sources during recovery. They should be joined with long-term commitment to building supply chains and local production capacity to ensure safe water access.

  12. Assessing potential effects of highway runoff on receiving-water quality at selected sites in Oregon with the Stochastic Empirical Loading and Dilution Model (SELDM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risley, John C.; Granato, Gregory E.

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey and the Oregon Department of Transportation began a cooperative study to demonstrate use of the Stochastic Empirical Loading and Dilution Model (SELDM) for runoff-quality analyses in Oregon. SELDM can be used to estimate stormflows, constituent concentrations, and loads from the area upstream of a stormflow discharge site, from the site of interest and in the receiving waters downstream of the discharge. SELDM also can be used to assess the potential effectiveness of best management practices (BMP) for mitigating potential effects of runoff in receiving waters. Nominally, SELDM is a highway-runoff model, but it is well suited for analysis of runoff from other land uses as well. This report provides case studies and examples to demonstrate stochastic-runoff modeling concepts and to demonstrate application of the model. Basin characteristics from six Oregon highway study sites were used to demonstrate various applications of the model. The highway catchment and upstream basin drainage areas of these study sites ranged from 3.85 to 11.83 acres and from 0.16 to 6.56 square miles, respectively. The upstream basins of two sites are urbanized, and the remaining four sites are less than 5 percent impervious. SELDM facilitates analysis by providing precipitation, pre-storm streamflow, and other variables by region or from hydrologically similar sites. In Oregon, there can be large variations in precipitation and streamflow among nearby sites. Therefore, spatially interpolated geographic information system data layers containing storm-event precipitation and pre-storm streamflow statistics specific to Oregon were created for the study using Kriging techniques. Concentrations and loads of cadmium, chloride, chromium, copper, iron, lead, nickel, phosphorus, and zinc were simulated at the six Oregon highway study sites by using statistics from sites in other areas of the country. Water‑quality datasets measured at hydrologically similar

  13. Putting a tap to the wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, R

    1982-01-01

    The use of windmills has been demonstrated to effectively reduce the consumption of diesel fuel for irrigating and pumping in the Third World. However, farmers in Ghazipur, India, have found that the use of these devices require significant changes in their farming practices to suit the resulting seasonal variation in water output.

  14. Paired Synchronous Rhythmic Finger Tapping without an External Timing Cue Shows Greater Speed Increases Relative to Those for Solo Tapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Masahiro; Shinya, Masahiro; Kudo, Kazutoshi

    2017-03-09

    In solo synchronization-continuation (SC) tasks, intertap intervals (ITI) are known to drift from the initial tempo. It has been demonstrated that people in paired and group contexts modulate their action timing unconsciously in various situations such as choice reaction tasks, rhythmic body sway, and hand clapping in concerts, which suggests the possibility that ITI drift is also affected by paired context. We conducted solo and paired SC tapping experiments with three tempos (75, 120, and 200 bpm) and examined whether tempo-keeping performance changed according to tempo and/or the number of players. Results indicated that those tapping in the paired conditions were faster, relative to those observed in the solo conditions, for all tempos. For the faster participants, the degree of ITI drift in the solo conditions was strongly correlated with that in the paired conditions. Regression analyses suggested that both faster and slower participants adapted their tap timing to that of their partners. A possible explanation for these results is that the participants reset the phase of their internal clocks according to the faster beat between their own tap and the partners' tap. Our results indicated that paired context could bias the direction of ITI drift toward decreasing.

  15. INDUSTRIAL APPROBATION OF COMBINED COUNTERSINK-TAP TOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurulla M. Vagabov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Objectives Based on a critical analysis of the results of complex studies, we set out to demonstrate the advantages, as compared with existing technologies, of a developed technology that uses a new cutting scheme with a combined countersink-tap tool. Methods One way to improve the processing capacity, tool life and quality of a cut thread is to reduce the torque and strain hardening of the processed material by employing a new cutting approach to completely eliminate the friction of the lateral sides of the tooth on the surface of the cut thread. It was necessary for this technology to be checked in real production conditions. Results The conducted production tests of a combined countersink-tap tool with the new cutting scheme developed by the inventors have shown that, as a result of a significant reduction in the torque and a decrease in the strain hardening of the processed material, it is possible to increase the cutting speed and increase labour productivity by more than 2 times as compared with the thread cutting processes using taps with staggered teeth, 1.2 times as compared to taps with a corrected structure, and more than 6 times as compared to standard taps. At the same time, the stability of the tool is increased 3-5 times and the number of breakages is also sharply reduced. Conclusion It has been established that the accuracy of the geometric parameters as well as the strength and quality of the thread surface cut by the combined countersink-tap tool with the new cutting scheme in hard-to-work materials is much higher than the same thread parameters obtained by processing with standard and other known taps. The studies also indicated its high reliability, operability and expediency of application for processing the above-mentioned materials. The advantages of the combined tool also include a reduction in thread cutting time as compared to a separate machining of the threaded hole (countersinking with a standard

  16. Extended topologies of tapped-inductor Z-source inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Miao; Li, Ding; Gao, Feng

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, two distinct types of tapped-inductor Z-source impedance networks are proposed for implementing high performance voltage-type inverters topologies with strong voltage boost inversion abilities and less components' stresses. All proposed topologies can in principle be unified...... into a generic network entity, which is termed hybrid-source tapped-inductor impedance network. The resulting novel Z-source inverters would have a higher output voltage gain and other unique advantages that currently have not yet been investigated. Theoretical analysis for explaining these operating features...

  17. Modeling the effect of soil structure on water flow and isoproturon dynamics in an agricultural field receiving repeated urban waste compost application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipović, Vilim; Coquet, Yves; Pot, Valérie; Houot, Sabine; Benoit, Pierre

    2014-11-15

    Transport processes in soils are strongly affected by heterogeneity of soil hydraulic properties. Tillage practices and compost amendments can modify soil structure and create heterogeneity at the local scale within agricultural fields. The long-term field experiment QualiAgro (INRA-Veolia partnership 1998-2013) explores the impact of heterogeneity in soil structure created by tillage practices and compost application on transport processes. A modeling study was performed to evaluate how the presence of heterogeneity due to soil tillage and compost application affects water flow and pesticide dynamics in soil during a long-term period. The study was done on a plot receiving a co-compost of green wastes and sewage sludge (SGW) applied once every 2 years since 1998. The plot was cultivated with a biannual rotation of winter wheat-maize (except 1 year of barley) and a four-furrow moldboard plow was used for tillage. In each plot, wick lysimeter outflow and TDR probe data were collected at different depths from 2004, while tensiometer measurements were also conducted during 2007/2008. Isoproturon concentration was measured in lysimeter outflow since 2004. Detailed profile description was used to locate different soil structures in the profile, which was then implemented in the HYDRUS-2D model. Four zones were identified in the plowed layer: compacted clods with no visible macropores (Δ), non-compacted soil with visible macroporosity (Γ), interfurrows created by moldboard plowing containing crop residues and applied compost (IF), and the plow pan (PP) created by plowing repeatedly to the same depth. Isoproturon retention and degradation parameters were estimated from laboratory batch sorption and incubation experiments, respectively, for each structure independently. Water retention parameters were estimated from pressure plate laboratory measurements and hydraulic conductivity parameters were obtained from field tension infiltrometer experiments. Soil hydraulic

  18. 'Chaos' in superregenerative receivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commercon, Jean-Claude; Badard, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The superregenerative principle has been known since the early 1920s. The circuit is extremely simple and extremely sensitive. Today, superheterodyne receivers generally supplant superregenerative receivers in most applications because there are several undesirable characteristics: poor selectivity, reradiation, etc. Superregenerative receivers undergo a revival in recent papers for wireless systems, where low cost and very low power consumption are relevant: house/building meters (such as water, energy, gas counter), personal computer environment (keyboard, mouse), etc. Another drawback is the noise level which is higher than that of a well-designed superheterodyne receiver; without an antenna input signal, the output of the receiver hears in an earphone as a waterfall noise; this sound principally is the inherent input noise amplified and detected by the circuit; however, when the input noise is negligible with respect of an antenna input signal, we are faced to an other source of 'noise' self-generated by the superregenerative working. The main objective of this paper concerns this self-generated noise coming from an exponential growing followed by a re-injection process for which the final state is a function of the phase of the input signal

  19. Assessment of variable drinking water sources used in Egypt on broiler health and welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. ELSaidy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study assessed the impact of four water sources used as drinking water in Egypt for broiler chickens on its performance, carcass characteristic, hematological, and immunological responses. Materials and Methods: A total of 204 unsexed 1-day old Indian River broiler chickens were used in this study. They were randomly allocated into four treatment groups of 51 birds in each, with three replicates, 17 birds per replicate. Groups were classified according to water source they had been received into (T1 received farm tap water; (T2 received filtered tap water (T3 received farm stored water at rooftop tanks, (T4 received underground (well water. Results: All water sources showed no significant differences among treated groups at (p>0.05 for most of the performance parameters and carcass characteristics. However (T2 group showed higher records for body weight (BWT, BWT gain (BWG, feed conversion ratio, bursa weight, serum total protein, globulin (G, albumin (A and A/G ratio, Ab titer against New castle disease virus vaccine. On the other hand, it showed lower records for water intake (WI, WI/Feed intake ratio, total leukocytes count %, heterophil %, lymphocyte %, H/L ratio, liver weight, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, serum uric acid and creatinine. Where filtered water reverse osmosis showed lowest records for bacterial load, the absence of coliform bacteria, total dissolved solids (TDS, electrical conductivity (EC and salinity. On the other hand stored water showed higher numerical values for TDS, EC, alkalinity, salinity, pH, bacterial count, and coliform count. Conclusion: Base on the results of this study, it is concluded that different water sources could safely be used as drinking water for poultry; as long as it is present within the acceptable range of drinking water quality for chickens. Suggesting the benefits of treatment of water sources on improving chickens’ health and welfare. Draw

  20. Assessment of variable drinking water sources used in Egypt on broiler health and welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ELSaidy, N.; Mohamed, R. A.; Abouelenien, F.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study assessed the impact of four water sources used as drinking water in Egypt for broiler chickens on its performance, carcass characteristic, hematological, and immunological responses. Materials and Methods: A total of 204 unsexed 1-day old Indian River broiler chickens were used in this study. They were randomly allocated into four treatment groups of 51 birds in each, with three replicates, 17 birds per replicate. Groups were classified according to water source they had been received into (T1) received farm tap water; (T2) received filtered tap water (T3) received farm stored water at rooftop tanks, (T4) received underground (well) water. Results: All water sources showed no significant differences among treated groups at (p>0.05) for most of the performance parameters and carcass characteristics. However (T2) group showed higher records for body weight (BWT), BWT gain (BWG), feed conversion ratio, bursa weight, serum total protein, globulin (G), albumin (A) and A/G ratio, Ab titer against New castle disease virus vaccine. On the other hand, it showed lower records for water intake (WI), WI/Feed intake ratio, total leukocytes count %, heterophil %, lymphocyte %, H/L ratio, liver weight, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, serum uric acid and creatinine. Where filtered water reverse osmosis showed lowest records for bacterial load, the absence of coliform bacteria, total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC) and salinity. On the other hand stored water showed higher numerical values for TDS, EC, alkalinity, salinity, pH, bacterial count, and coliform count. Conclusion: Base on the results of this study, it is concluded that different water sources could safely be used as drinking water for poultry; as long as it is present within the acceptable range of drinking water quality for chickens. Suggesting the benefits of treatment of water sources on improving chickens’ health and welfare. Draw attention to

  1. Assessment of variable drinking water sources used in Egypt on broiler health and welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ELSaidy, N; Mohamed, R A; Abouelenien, F

    2015-07-01

    This study assessed the impact of four water sources used as drinking water in Egypt for broiler chickens on its performance, carcass characteristic, hematological, and immunological responses. A total of 204 unsexed 1-day old Indian River broiler chickens were used in this study. They were randomly allocated into four treatment groups of 51 birds in each, with three replicates, 17 birds per replicate. Groups were classified according to water source they had been received into (T1) received farm tap water; (T2) received filtered tap water (T3) received farm stored water at rooftop tanks, (T4) received underground (well) water. All water sources showed no significant differences among treated groups at (p>0.05) for most of the performance parameters and carcass characteristics. However (T2) group showed higher records for body weight (BWT), BWT gain (BWG), feed conversion ratio, bursa weight, serum total protein, globulin (G), albumin (A) and A/G ratio, Ab titer against New castle disease virus vaccine. On the other hand, it showed lower records for water intake (WI), WI/Feed intake ratio, total leukocytes count %, heterophil %, lymphocyte %, H/L ratio, liver weight, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, serum uric acid and creatinine. Where filtered water reverse osmosis showed lowest records for bacterial load, the absence of coliform bacteria, total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC) and salinity. On the other hand stored water showed higher numerical values for TDS, EC, alkalinity, salinity, pH, bacterial count, and coliform count. Base on the results of this study, it is concluded that different water sources could safely be used as drinking water for poultry; as long as it is present within the acceptable range of drinking water quality for chickens. Suggesting the benefits of treatment of water sources on improving chickens' health and welfare. Draw attention to the importance of maintaining the hygienic quality

  2. Occurrence and geodatabase mapping of three contaminants of emerging concern in receiving water and at effluent from waste water treatment plants - A first overview of the situation in the Republic of Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahar, Alexandre; Tiedeken, Erin Jo; Rowan, Neil J

    2018-03-01

    This constitutes the first study to address occurrence and geodatabase mapping of the anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac (DCL) and the natural (17-beta-estradiol or E2) and synthetic (17-alpha-ethynylestradiol or EE2) estrogenic hormones in Republic of Ireland receiving waters over the period 1999 to 2015. Among these data, 317 samples came from concentration studies, while 205 were from effect-based studies. Monitoring data came from 16 waste water treatment plants (WWTPs), 23 water bodies (including rivers, lakes, marine and transitional waters) and 7 from domestic locations. Out of approximately 1000 WWPTs in the Republic of Ireland, only 16 have been monitored for at least one of these compounds of emerging concern (CECs). Diclofenac is found in treated effluents from 5 WWTPs at levels at least as high as other European WWPTs, and sometime higher. Measurements of E2 and EE2 in WWPT effluents were rare and effluents were more often evaluated for total estrogens; these CECs were generally not detected using conventional analytical methods because of limits of detection being too high compared to environmental concentrations and WFD environmental quality standards. There was good agreement between occurrence of these CEC and regional drug dispensing data in Ireland. Mapping the aforementioned data onto appropriate river basin catchment management tools will inform predictive and simulated risk determinations to inform investment in infrastructure that is necessary to protect rivers and beaches and economic activities that rely on clean water. There is a pressing commensurate need to refine/develop new analytical methods with low levels of detection for future CEC intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Drinking Water in your Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many people choose to filter or test the drinking water that comes out of their tap or from their private well for a variety of reasons. And whether at home, at work or while traveling, many Americans drink bottled water.

  4. Rhythmic finger tapping reveals cerebellar dysfunction in essential tremor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijink, A. W. G.; Broersma, M.; van der Stouwe, A. M. M.; van Wingen, G. A.; Groot, P. F. C.; Speelman, J. D.; Maurits, N. M.; van Rootselaar, A. F.

    Introduction: Cerebellar circuits are hypothesized to play a central role in the pathogenesis of essential tremor. Rhythmic finger tapping is known to strongly engage the cerebellar motor circuitry. We characterize cerebellar and, more specifically, dentate nucleus function, and neural correlates of

  5. Rhythmic finger tapping reveals cerebellar dysfunction in essential tremor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijink, A. W. G.; Broersma, M.; van der Stouwe, A. M. M.; van Wingen, G. A.; Groot, P. F. C.; Speelman, J. D.; Maurits, N. M.; van Rootselaar, A. F.

    2015-01-01

    Cerebellar circuits are hypothesized to play a central role in the pathogenesis of essential tremor. Rhythmic finger tapping is known to strongly engage the cerebellar motor circuitry. We characterize cerebellar and, more specifically, dentate nucleus function, and neural correlates of cerebellar

  6. Potential, Distribution, Ethno-Botany and Tapping Procedures of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potential, Distribution, Ethno-Botany and Tapping Procedures of Gum Producing Acacia Species in the Somali Region, Southeastern Ethiopia. ... Therefore, promotion of gum extraction in the Somali Region both for economic benefit of the community and sustainable management of the fragile ecosystem is recommended.

  7. Hydrogen isotopes identification with the electromagnetic calorimeter TAPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matulewicz, T.; Aphecetche, L.; Charbonnier, Y.; Delagrange, H.; Martinez, G.; Schutz, Y.; Marques, F.M.; Diaz, J.; and others.

    1996-01-01

    A new method has been developed to identify protons and more generally charged massive particles, like charged pions, hydrogen isotopes and heavier particles reaching the TAPS detector. The method was tested on events from the reaction Ar+Ca at 180 A.MeV. (K.A.)

  8. Capillary forces in tapping mode atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zitzler, L.; Herminghaus, S.; Mugele, Friedrich Gunther

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the influence of the relative humidity on amplitude and phase of the cantilever oscillation while operating an atomic force microscope (AFM) in the tapping mode. If the free oscillation amplitude A0 exceeds a certain critical amplitude Ac, the amplitude- and phase-distance curves

  9. Frankincense tapping reduces the carbohydrate storage of Boswellia trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mengistu, T.; Sterck, F.J.; Fetene, M.; Bongers, F.

    2013-01-01

    Carbohydrates fixed by photosynthesis are stored in plant organs in the form of starch or sugars. Starch and sugars sum to the total non-structural carbohydrate pool (TNC) and may serve as intermediate pools between assimilation and utilization. We examined the impact of tapping on TNC

  10. Assessment of Working Scientifically--The TAPS Focused Assessment Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Kendra

    2018-01-01

    The Teacher Assessment in Primary Science (TAPS) Focused Assessment approach embeds assessment within normal classroom science activities. Essentially, a Focused Assessment is a lesson plan for a science inquiry, with an identified focus for assessment and guidance on how to interpret the children's responses in relation to expectations for that…

  11. Media Leader Tapped to Head New York City Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2010-01-01

    When Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg sought a leader for the New York City schools in 2002, his outside-the-box choice was Joel I. Klein, a former assistant U.S. attorney general who had no experience as a school administrator. Eight years later, in seeking a replacement for Mr. Klein, Mr. Bloomberg has tapped yet another person from outside education:…

  12. Gulf digs in to tap a major uranium orebody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.

    1977-01-01

    The progress and future plans of Gulf Mineral Resources Co. for tapping and developing a major uranium orebody via two concrete-lined shafts in the Grants uranium mineral belt in New Mexico are discussed. The mineralogy of the Grants belt is discussed as it relates to the Gulf development project. Numerous pictures of the operation are included

  13. CORE Organic II - Tapping into Europe's organic Trend

    OpenAIRE

    Anonymous,

    2012-01-01

    Organic food production has continued to grow in popularity, partly because it taps into a number ofcontemporary consumer concerns such as animal welfare and healthy eating. A new project aims tocapitalise on this demand by ensuring better research coordination across Europe.

  14. Pilot evaluation of the efficacy of shampoo treatment with ultrapure soft water for canine pruritus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmori, Keitaro; Tanaka, Akane; Makita, Yuka; Takai, Masaki; Yoshinari, Yuji; Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2010-10-01

    Ultrapure soft water (UPSW) is water in which calcium and magnesium ions have been replaced with sodium ions using a cation-exchange resin. We recently demonstrated that washing with soap and UPSW reduced the clinical severity of dermatitis and improved the skin barrier function in NC/NgaTnd mice, a murine model for human atopic dermatitis. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the efficacy of shampoo treatment with UPSW for dogs with pruritus. Eleven dogs with pruritus were randomly assigned to two groups depending on whether they received weekly shampoo treatment with UPSW or tap water for 4 weeks. After a washout period, the treatment protocol was switched such that each dog received both treatments. The pre-treatment and post-treatment values of the following were compared: pruritus scores assessed by the owners; dermatitis scores recorded by an investigator; and transepidermal water loss (TEWL). Shampoo treatment with UPSW significantly decreased pruritus and dermatitis scores in the dogs, whereas shampoo treatment with tap water did not. In addition, shampoo treatment with UPSW, but not with tap water, significantly reduced TEWL in the dogs. Adverse events due to the treatment were not observed in the dogs. Furthermore, we found that topical application of UPSW for barrier-disrupted skin caused by tape stripping in healthy dogs decreased TEWL more rapidly than topical application of tap water. Our findings suggest that shampoo treatment with UPSW promotes skin barrier recovery and thus could be considered as a possible therapeutic option in the management of pruritus and dermatitis in dogs. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 ESVD and ACVD.

  15. Eliciting Cervical Vestibular-Evoked Myogenic Potentials by Bone-Conducted Vibration via Various Tapping Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chia-Chen; Young, Yi-Ho

    2016-01-01

    This study compared bone-conducted vibration (BCV) cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs) via tapping at various skull sites in healthy subjects and patients with vestibular migraine (VM) to optimize stimulation conditions. Twenty healthy subjects underwent a series of cVEMP tests by BCV tapping via a minishaker at the Fz (forehead), Cz (vertex), and inion (occiput) sites in a randomized order of tapping sites. Another 20 VM patients were also enrolled in this study for comparison. All 20 healthy subjects had clear BCV cVEMPs when tapping at the inion (100%) or Cz (100%), but not at the Fz (75%). Mean p13 and n23 latencies from the Cz tapping were significantly longer than those from the Fz tapping, but not longer than those from the inion tapping. Unlike healthy subjects, tapping at the Cz (95%) elicited a significantly higher response rate of present cVEMPs than tapping at the inion (78%) in 20 VM patients (40 ears), because seven of nine VM ears with absent cVEMPs by inion tapping turned out to be present cVEMPs by Cz tapping. While both inion and Cz tapping elicited 100% response rate of cVEMPs for healthy individuals, Cz tapping had a higher response rate of cVEMPs than inion tapping for the VM group. In cases of total loss of saccular function, cVEMPs could not be activated by either inion or Cz tapping. However, if residual saccular function remains, Cz tapping may activate saccular afferents more efficiently than inion tapping.

  16. BIOMECHANICAL EVALUATION OF THE INFLUENCE OF CERVICAL SCREWS TAPPING AND DESIGN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Patricia; Rosa, Rodrigo César; Shimano, Antonio Carlos; Albuquerque de Paula, Francisco José; Volpon, José Batista; Aparecido Defino, Helton Luiz

    2009-01-01

    To assess if the screw design (self-drilling/self-tapping) and the pilot hole tapping could affect the insertion torque and screw pullout strength of the screw used in anterior fixation of the cervical spine. Forty self-tapping screws and 20 self-drilling screws were inserted into 10 models of artificial bone and 10 cervical vertebrae of sheep. The studied parameters were the insertion torque and pullout strength. The following groups were created: Group I-self-tapping screw insertion after pilot hole drilling and tapping; Group II-self-tapping screw insertion after pilot hole drilling without tapping; Group III-self-drilling screw insertion without drilling and tapping. In Groups I and II, the pilot hole had 14.0 mm in depth and was made with a 3mmn drill, while tapping was made with a 4mm tap. The insertion torque was measured and the pullout test was performed. The comparison between groups was made considering the mean insertion torque and the maximum mean pullout strength with the variance analysis (ANOVA; p≤ 0.05). Previous drilling and tapping of pilot hole significantly decreased the insertion torque and the pullout strength. The insertion torque and pullout strength of self-drilling screws were significantly higher when compared to self-tapping screws inserted after pilot hole tapping.

  17. Interferon Alpha Signalling and Its Relevance for the Upregulatory Effect of Transporter Proteins Associated with Antigen Processing (TAP in Patients with Malignant Melanoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Heise

    Full Text Available Interferon alpha (IFNα is routinely used in the clinical practice for adjuvant systemic melanoma therapy. Understanding the molecular mechanism of IFNα effects and prediction of response in the IFNα therapy regime allows initiation and continuation of IFNα treatment for responder and exclusion of non-responder to avoid therapy inefficacy and side-effects. The transporter protein associated with antigen processing-1 (TAP1 is part of the MHC class I peptide-loading complex, and important for antigen presentation in tumor and antigen presenting cells. In the context of personalized medicine, we address this potential biomarker TAP1 as a target of IFNα signalling.We could show that IFNα upregulates TAP1 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of patients with malignant melanoma receiving adjuvant high-dose immunotherapy. IFNα also induced expression of TAP1 in mouse blood and tumor tissue and suppressed the formation of melanoma metastasis in an in vivo B16 tumor model. Besides its expression, TAP binding affinity and transport activity is induced by IFNα in human monocytic THP1 cells. Furthermore, our data revealed that IFNα clearly activates phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT3 in THP1 and A375 melanoma cells. Inhibition of Janus kinases abrogates the IFNα-induced TAP1 expression. These results suggest that the JAK/STAT pathway is a crucial mediator for TAP1 expression elicited by IFNα treatment.We suppose that silencing of TAP1 expression provides tumor cells with a mechanism to escape cytotoxic T-lymphocyte recognition. The observed benefit of IFNα treatment could be mediated by the shown dual effect of TAP1 upregulation in antigen presenting cells on the one hand, and of TAP1 upregulation in 'silent' metastatic melanoma cells on the other hand. In conclusion, this work contributes to a better understanding of the mode of action of IFNα which is essential to identify markers to predict, assess and monitor therapeutic

  18. Interferon Alpha Signalling and Its Relevance for the Upregulatory Effect of Transporter Proteins Associated with Antigen Processing (TAP) in Patients with Malignant Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensslen, Silke; Marquardt, Yvonne; Czaja, Katharina; Joussen, Sylvia; Beer, Daniel; Abele, Rupert; Plewnia, Gabriele; Tampé, Robert; Merk, Hans F.; Hermanns, Heike M.; Baron, Jens M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Interferon alpha (IFNα) is routinely used in the clinical practice for adjuvant systemic melanoma therapy. Understanding the molecular mechanism of IFNα effects and prediction of response in the IFNα therapy regime allows initiation and continuation of IFNα treatment for responder and exclusion of non-responder to avoid therapy inefficacy and side-effects. The transporter protein associated with antigen processing-1 (TAP1) is part of the MHC class I peptide-loading complex, and important for antigen presentation in tumor and antigen presenting cells. In the context of personalized medicine, we address this potential biomarker TAP1 as a target of IFNα signalling. Results We could show that IFNα upregulates TAP1 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with malignant melanoma receiving adjuvant high-dose immunotherapy. IFNα also induced expression of TAP1 in mouse blood and tumor tissue and suppressed the formation of melanoma metastasis in an in vivo B16 tumor model. Besides its expression, TAP binding affinity and transport activity is induced by IFNα in human monocytic THP1 cells. Furthermore, our data revealed that IFNα clearly activates phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT3 in THP1 and A375 melanoma cells. Inhibition of Janus kinases abrogates the IFNα-induced TAP1 expression. These results suggest that the JAK/STAT pathway is a crucial mediator for TAP1 expression elicited by IFNα treatment. Conclusion We suppose that silencing of TAP1 expression provides tumor cells with a mechanism to escape cytotoxic T-lymphocyte recognition. The observed benefit of IFNα treatment could be mediated by the shown dual effect of TAP1 upregulation in antigen presenting cells on the one hand, and of TAP1 upregulation in ‘silent’ metastatic melanoma cells on the other hand. In conclusion, this work contributes to a better understanding of the mode of action of IFNα which is essential to identify markers to predict, assess and

  19. Trends in Design of Water Hydraulics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    2005-01-01

    ordinary tap water and the range of application areas are illustrated with examples, in particular within the food processing industry, humidification operations, water mist systems for fire fighting, high water pressure cleaners, water moisturising systems for wood processing, lumber drying process...... operate with pure water from the tap without additives of any kind. Hence water hydraulics takes the benefit of pure water as fluid being environmentally friendly, easy to clean sanitary design, non-toxic, non-flammable, inexpensive, readily available and easily disposable. The low-pressure tap water...... and accessories running with sea-water as fluid are available. A unique solution is to use reverse osmosis to generate drinking water from sea-water, and furthermore for several off-shore applications. Furthermore, tap water hydraulic components of the Nessie® family and examples of measured performance...

  20. Design and development of weld inspection manipulator for reactor pressure vessel of TAPS-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, H.; Singh, J.P.; Ranjon, R.; Kulkarni, M.P.; Patel, R.J.

    2013-01-01

    The reactor pressure vessel (RPV) of TAPS-1 BWR contains six longitudinal and four circumferential welds. Periodical in-service inspection of these weld joints has been a regulatory issue pending for long. In the 22 nd refuelling outage in July 2012 the inspection of L1-1, L1-2 longitudinal welds as well as their junctions with C1 circumferential weld were proposed to be done using ultrasonic technique. Approaching these welds from OD side of the RPV is a difficult and tedious task. Therefore it was decided to examine these welds from ID side of the RPV by filling the cavity with water and approaching the RPV from top. No technology was locally available to take the probes at a depth of 10-12 m under water. NPCIL approached RTD, BARC to develop an underwater manipulator to accomplish this task. RTD took up this work as a challenge and came out with the design of manipulator. The weld inspection manipulator (WIM) was fabricated on a war foot basis, tested and successfully implemented in the reactor for the first time in TAPS history. The entire activity was completed in three months time. This article gives the details of design, manufacturing, performance testing, qualification trials and implementation of WIM in the reactor. Ultrasonic testing techniques were developed by QAD, BARC which are not covered in this article. (author)

  1. Effects of age, task, and frequency on variability of finger tapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommervoll, Yngve; Ettema, Gertjan; Vereijken, Beatrix

    2011-10-01

    The goal was to assess whether prior studies might have overestimated performance variability in older adults in dual task conditions by relying on primary motor tasks that are not constant with aging. 30 younger and 31 older adults performed a bimanual tapping task at four different frequencies in isolation or concurrently with a secondary task. Results showed that performance of younger and older adults was not significantly different in performing the tapping task at all frequencies and with either secondary task, as indicated by mean tapping performance and low number of errors in the secondary tasks. Both groups showed increased variability as tapping frequency increased and with the presence of a secondary task. Tapping concurrently while reading words increased tapping variability more than tapping concurrently while naming colours. Although older participants' performances were overall more variable, no interaction effects with age were found and at the highest frequencies of tapping, younger and older participants did not differ in performance.

  2. Brain activity during bilateral rapid alternate finger tapping measured with magnetoencephalography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Hiroshi; Odagaki, Masato; Hiwaki, Osamu; Kodabashi, Atsushi; Fujimoto, Toshiro

    2009-04-01

    Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), brain regions involved in an alternate bimanual tapping task by index fingers triggered with spontaneous timing were investigated. The tapping mode in which both index fingers moved simultaneously was interlaced during the task. The groups of the alternate tapping (AL mode) and the simultaneous tapping (SI mode) were extracted from the successive alternating taps with a histogram of intervals between the right and left index fingers. MEG signals in each mode were averaged separately before and after the tapping initiation of the dominant index finger. The activities of the contralateral sensorimotor cortex before and after the tapping initiation in the AL mode were larger than that in the SI mode. The result indicates that the activity of the contralateral sensorimotor cortex depends on the degree of achievement in the difficult motor task such as the voluntary alternate tapping movements.

  3. Illness associated with contamination of drinking water supplies with phenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, S.N.; Straube, R.C.; Williams, A.L.; Bartlett, C.L.

    1985-06-15

    In January 1984 the River Dee in north Wales was contaminated with phenol, with subsequent contamination of the tap water received by about two million consumers. A retrospective postal survey of 594 households was undertaken to determine whether consumption of this contaminated water was associated with illness. Subjects in areas that received contaminated water reported significantly more gastrointestinal illness than those in a nearby unexposed area (32.6% v 8.7%, p less than 0.00001) as well as reporting a higher incidence of any symptoms (43.6% v 18.4%, p less than 0.00001). Symptoms were consistent with phenol poisoning and bore a strong temporal relation to the pollution of the supply, but they developed at concentrations of phenols previously considered to be safe by the water authorities concerned. Chlorophenols produced during the treatment of water may have aggravated the problem.

  4. TAPS: an automated tool for identification of skills, knowledges, and abilities using natural language task description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorgensen, C.C.; Carter, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    A prototype, computer-based tool (TAPS) has been developed to aid training system developers in identifying skills, knowledges, and abilities (SKAs) during task analysis. TAPS uses concepts of flexible pattern matching to evaluate English descriptions of job behaviors and to recode them as SKA lists. This paper addresses the rationale for TAPS and describes its design including SKA definitions and task analysis logic. It also presents examples of TAPS's application

  5. An estimation of finger-tapping rates and load capacities and the effects of various factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekşioğlu, Mahmut; İşeri, Ali

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the finger-tapping rates and finger load capacities of eight fingers (excluding thumbs) for a healthy adult population and investigate the effects of various factors on tapping rate. Finger-tapping rate, the total number of finger taps per unit of time, can be used as a design parameter of various products and also as a psychomotor test for evaluating patients with neurologic problems. A 1-min tapping task was performed by 148 participants with maximum volitional tempo for each of eight fingers. For each of the tapping tasks, the participant with the corresponding finger tapped the associated key in the standard position on the home row of a conventional keyboard for touch typing. The index and middle fingers were the fastest fingers for both hands, and little fingers the slowest. All dominant-hand fingers, except little finger, had higher tapping rates than the fastest finger of the nondominant hand. Tapping rate decreased with age and smokers tapped faster than nonsmokers. Tapping duration and exercise had also significant effect on tapping rate. Normative data of tapping rates and load capacities of eight fingers were estimated for the adult population. In designs of psychomotor tests that require the use of tapping rate or finger load capacity data, the effects of finger, age, smoking, and tapping duration need to be taken into account. The findings can be used for ergonomic designs requiring finger-tapping capacity and also as a reference in psychomotor tests. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  6. TAPS: an automated tool for identification of skills, knowledges, and abilities using natural language task description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorgensen, C.C.; Carter, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    A prototype, computer-based tool (TAPS) has been developed to aid training system developers in identifying skills, knowledges, and abilities (SKAs) during task analysis. TAPS uses concepts of flexible pattern matching to evaluate English descriptions of job behaviors and to recode them as SKA lists. This paper addresses the rationale for TAPS and describes its design including SKA definitions and task analysis logic. It also presents examples of TAPS's application.

  7. TAPS - An automated tool for identification of skills, knowledges, and abilities using natural language task description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorgensen, C.C.; Carter, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    A prototype, computer-based tool (TAPS) has been developed to aid training system developers in identifying skills, knowledges, and abilities (SKAs) during task analysis. TAPS uses concepts of flexible pattern matching to evaluate English descriptions of job behaviors and to recode them as SKA lists. This paper addresses the rationale for TAPS and describes its design including SKA definitions and task analysis logic. It also presents examples of TAPS's application

  8. Estimation method of finger tapping dynamics using simple magnetic detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandori, Akihiko; Sano, Yuko; Miyashita, Tsuyoshi; Okada, Yoshihisa; Irokawa, Masataka; Shima, Keisuke; Tsuji, Toshio; Yokoe, Masaru; Sakoda, Saburo

    2010-05-01

    We have developed the simple estimation method of a finger tapping dynamics model for investigating muscle resistance and stiffness during tapping movement in normal subjects. We measured finger tapping movements of 207 normal subjects using a magnetic finger tapping detection system. Each subject tapped two fingers in time with a metronome at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 Hz. The velocity and acceleration values for both the closing and opening tapping data were used to estimate a finger tapping dynamics model. Using the frequency response of the ratio of acceleration to velocity of the mechanical impedance parameters, we estimated the resistance (friction coefficient) and compliance (stiffness). We found two dynamics models for the maximum open position and tap position. In the maximum open position, the extensor muscle resistance was twice as high as the flexor muscle resistance and males had a higher spring constant. In the tap position, the flexor muscle resistance was much higher than the extensor muscle resistance. This indicates that the tapping dynamics in the maximum open position are controlled by the balance of extensor and flexor muscle friction resistances and the flexor stiffness, and the flexor friction resistance is the main component in the tap position. It can be concluded that our estimation method makes it possible to understand the tapping dynamics.

  9. Estimation method of finger tapping dynamics using simple magnetic detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandori, Akihiko; Sano, Yuko; Miyashita, Tsuyoshi; Okada, Yoshihisa; Irokawa, Masataka; Shima, Keisuke; Tsuji, Toshio; Yokoe, Masaru; Sakoda, Saburo

    2010-05-01

    We have developed the simple estimation method of a finger tapping dynamics model for investigating muscle resistance and stiffness during tapping movement in normal subjects. We measured finger tapping movements of 207 normal subjects using a magnetic finger tapping detection system. Each subject tapped two fingers in time with a metronome at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 Hz. The velocity and acceleration values for both the closing and opening tapping data were used to estimate a finger tapping dynamics model. Using the frequency response of the ratio of acceleration to velocity of the mechanical impedance parameters, we estimated the resistance (friction coefficient) and compliance (stiffness). We found two dynamics models for the maximum open position and tap position. In the maximum open position, the extensor muscle resistance was twice as high as the flexor muscle resistance and males had a higher spring constant. In the tap position, the flexor muscle resistance was much higher than the extensor muscle resistance. This indicates that the tapping dynamics in the maximum open position are controlled by the balance of extensor and flexor muscle friction resistances and the flexor stiffness, and the flexor friction resistance is the main component in the tap position. It can be concluded that our estimation method makes it possible to understand the tapping dynamics.

  10. Effects of aging on control of timing and force of finger tapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Hirokazu; Masumoto, Junya; Inui, Nobuyuki

    2011-04-01

    The present study examined whether the elderly produced a hastened or delayed tap with a negative or positive constant intertap interval error more frequently in self-paced tapping than in the stimulus-synchronized tapping for the 2 N target force at 2 or 4 Hz frequency. The analysis showed that, at both frequencies, the percentage of the delayed tap was larger in the self-paced tapping than in the stimulus-synchronized tapping, whereas the hastened tap showed the opposite result. At the 4 Hz frequency, all age groups had more variable intertap intervals during the self-paced tapping than during the stimulus-synchronized tapping, and the variability of the intertap intervals increased with age. Thus, although the increase in the frequency of delayed taps and variable intertap intervals in the self-paced tapping perhaps resulted from a dysfunction of movement timing in the basal ganglia with age, the decline in timing accuracy was somewhat improved by an auditory cue. The force variability of tapping at 4 Hz further increased with age, indicating an effect of aging on the control of force.

  11. The Ability to Tap to a Beat Relates to Cognitive, Linguistic, and Perceptual Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Adam T.; Kraus, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Reading-impaired children have difficulty tapping to a beat. Here we tested whether this relationship between reading ability and synchronized tapping holds in typically-developing adolescents. We also hypothesized that tapping relates to two other abilities. First, since auditory-motor synchronization requires monitoring of the relationship…

  12. TAp63 suppress metastasis via miR-133b in colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C W; Li, X R; Zhang, Y; Hu, G; Guo, Y H; Zhou, J Y; Du, J; Lv, L; Gao, K; Zhang, Y; Deng, H

    2014-04-29

    TAp63 is a tumour-suppressor protein that is often underexpressed in various types of cancer. It has been shown to activate gene transcription depending on the transcription domain and to be closely related with metastasis. In this study, we demonstrate that TAp63 suppresses metastasis in colon cancer cells through microRNA-133b. We evaluated the correlation of TAp63 and miR-133b with HT-29 and SW-620 cells and investigated the roles of TAp63 in the expression of RhoA, E-cadherin and vimentin. We further investigated the roles of TAp63-mediated invasion and migration of colon cancer cells. TAp63 expression is downregulated in colon cancer, and microRNA-133b is a transcriptional target of TAp63. Furthermore, microRNA-133b is essential for the inhibitory effects of TAp63 on RhoA, E-cadherin and vimentin. Moreover, TAp63 inhibits cell migration and invasion through microRNA-133b. Correspondingly, the inhibitory effect of TAp63 on RhoA, E-cadherin, vimentin, migration and invasion can be blocked by the microRNA-133b inhibitor. TAp63 and microRNA-133b were able to suppress the metastasis of colon cancer. Both TAp63 and microRNA-133b may be potential biomarkers for diagnosis in colon cancer metastasis and may provide unique therapeutic targets for this common malignancy.

  13. Electronic warfare receivers and receiving systems

    CERN Document Server

    Poisel, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Receivers systems are considered the core of electronic warfare (EW) intercept systems. Without them, the fundamental purpose of such systems is null and void. This book considers the major elements that make up receiver systems and the receivers that go in them.This resource provides system design engineers with techniques for design and development of EW receivers for modern modulations (spread spectrum) in addition to receivers for older, common modulation formats. Each major module in these receivers is considered in detail. Design information is included as well as performance tradeoffs o

  14. Influence of Water Quality on Cholesterol-Induced Tau Pathology: Preliminary Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Larry Sparks

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The studies employed the cholesterol-fed rabbit model of Alzheimer's disease (AD to investigate the relationship between AD-like neurofibrillary tangle (NFT neuropathology and tau protein levels as the main component of NFT. We measured brain and plasma tau levels and semiquantified NFT-like neuropathology in cholesterol-fed rabbits administered drinking water of varying quality (distilled, tap, and distilled+copper compared to animals receiving normal chow and local tap water. Total tau levels in plasma were increased in all cholesterol-fed rabbits compared to animals on normal chow, regardless of quality of water. In contrast, increased tau in brain and increased AT8 immunoreactive NFT-like lesions were greatest in cholesterol-fed rabbits administered distilled water. A substantial decrease in brain tau and incidence and density of AT8 immunoreactive NFT-like lesions occurred in cholesterol-fed rabbits administered copper water, and an even greater decrease was observed in cholesterol-fed animals on local tap water. These studies suggest the possibility that circulating tau could be the source of the tau accumulating in the brain.

  15. Recent Results from the CBELSA/TAPS Experiment at ELSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, A.

    To determine the excitation spectrum of the nucleon, measurements of different observables in meson photoproduction are necessary. Many of these observables can be measured with the CBELSA/TAPS experiment, located at the ELSA accelerator in Bonn. The calorimeter system is ideally suited to measure reactions containing photons, giving an opportunity to measure final states comprising neutral mesons like π0 or η. A linearly or circularly polarized photon beam was used in combination with a longitudinally or transversely polarized butanol target. This allows the measurement of different (double) polarization observables like P, T E, G, and H. This contribution reports on the measurement of polarization observables in single or double meson photoproduction off the proton, measured with the CBELSA/TAPS experiment.

  16. Quality of Pinus elliottii sawn timber from tapped forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Gonzalez de Cademartori

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize the quality of Pinus elliottii sawn timber extracted from tapped forests and processed in a sawmill in São José do Norte (RS. Four butt logs and four upper logs for each of the three existing diameter grades were selected and sawed. The wood pieces were analyzed after sawing and after kiln drying. The presence of knots, which occurred due to the absence of forest management and influenced the qualitative classification of the wood pieces, was observed mainly in the samples from upper logs. The process of resin tapping contributed to a higher incidence of resin pockets in the samples from butt logs, also influencing the qualitative classification of the samples. The appearance of drying defects did not modify the classification of the wood samples from butt and upper logs.

  17. A General Approach for Orthogonal 4-Tap Integer Multiwavelet Transforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingli Jing

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An algorithm for orthogonal 4-tap integer multiwavelet transforms is proposed. We compute the singular value decomposition (SVD of block recursive matrices of transform matrix, and then transform matrix can be rewritten in a product of two block diagonal matrices and a permutation matrix. Furthermore, we factorize the block matrix of block diagonal matrices into triangular elementary reversible matrices (TERMs, which map integers to integers by rounding arithmetic. The cost of factorizing block matrix into TERMs does not increase with the increase of the dimension of transform matrix, and the proposed algorithm is in-place calculation and without allocating auxiliary memory. Examples of integer multiwavelet transform using DGHM and CL are given, which verify that the proposed algorithm is an executable algorithm and outperforms the existing algorithm for orthogonal 4-tap integer multiwavelet transform.

  18. Recent results from the CBELSA/TAPS experiment at ELSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiel, A.

    2016-01-01

    To determine the excitation spectrum of the nucleon, measurements of different observables in meson photoproduction are necessary. Many of these observables can be measured with the CBELSA/TAPS experiment, located at the ELSA accelerator in Bonn. The calorimeter system is ideally suited to measure reactions containing photons, giving an opportunity to measure final states comprising neutral mesons like π"0 or η. A linearly or circularly polarized photon beam was used in combination with a longitudinally or transversely polarized butanol target. This allows the measurement of different (double) polarization observables like P, T E, G, and H. This contribution reports on the measurement of polarization observables in single or double meson photoproduction off the proton, measured with the CBELSA/TAPS experiment. (author)

  19. Manual asymmetries in bimanual isochronous tapping tasks in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Inês; Diniz, Ana; Barreiros, João

    2017-01-01

    Tapping tasks have been investigated throughout the years, with variations in features such as the complexity of the task, the use of one or both hands, the employ of auditory or visual stimuli, and the characteristics of the subjects. The evaluation of lateral asymmetries in tapping tasks in children offers an insight into the structure of rhythmic movements and handedness at early stages of development. The current study aims to investigate the ability of children (aged six and seven years-old) to maintain a rhythm, in a bimanual tapping task at two different target frequencies, as well as the manual asymmetries displayed while doing so. The analyzed data in this work are the series of the time intervals between successive taps. We suggest several profiles of behavior, regarding the overall performance of children in both tempo conditions. We also propose a new method of quantifying the variability of the performance and the asymmetry of the hands, based on ellipses placed on scatter plots of the non-dominant-dominant series versus the dominant-non-dominant series. We then use running correlations to identify changes of coordination tendencies over time. The main results show that variability is larger in the task with the longer target interval. Furthermore, most children evidence lateral asymmetries, but in general they show the capacity to maintain the mean of consecutive intertap intervals of both hands close to the target interval. Finally, we try to interpret our findings in the light of existing models and timing modes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Mechanical characteristics of connection for GFRP plates using tapping screws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yuya; Duong, Nguyen Ngoc; Satake, Chito; Matsumoto, Yukihiro

    2017-10-01

    FRP material has good characteristics such as light-weight, high-strength and high-corrosion resistance. Light-weight structure possesses some advantages over the rational constructing procedure such as self-building structures. In recent years, mechanical characteristics of FRP joints using bolts and/or rivet are investigated in detail, and they are used in many FRP structures. However, the bolts lack bearing strength compared with material strength and the joint needs the prepared bolt hole. In this paper, an alternative joint system for FRP structures using tapping screw is proposed and mechanical characteristics are investigated through experiment. Tapping screw has some advantages; easy-to-use, light-weight and high bearing strength. Then, the results of double-lapped tensile shear tests having one, four and eight tapping screws along longitudinal direction are shown. Moreover, it is shown that longitudinal stress distribution is approximately corresponding to the theoretical stress distribution of double-lapped adhesively bonded joints. Based on these, it is proposed that joint strength can be estimated by using the present calculation method.

  1. Stroking and tapping the skin: behavioral and electrodermal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etzi, Roberta; Carta, Carlotta; Gallace, Alberto

    2018-02-01

    Being caressed represents one of the most typical expressions of affection conveyed by touch. Converging evidence suggests that the pleasant perception of gentle and slow stroking delivered to the hairy skin is mediated by C-Tactile afferents (CTs). While behavioral and neural responses to CT-optimal touch have been moderately explored so far, less is known about the autonomic reaction to different kinds of touch (both CT-optimal and not). Here, we investigated whether physiological arousal varies as a function of the specific tactile stimulation provided. Stroking (slow: 3 cm/s 'CT-optimal'; or fast: 30 cm/s) and tapping (random or fixed spatial order) stimulations were delivered to the participants' forearm with a brush, for durations of 9 or 60 s. Participants' skin conductance response (SCR) and level (SCL), as well as subjective evaluations, were recorded. The results revealed that being stroked (at both the velocities) induced higher SCR and SCL than being tapped. Moreover, while higher SCR was elicited by CT-suboptimal stroking compared to CT-optimal stroking, SCL was not affected differently by CT-optimal touch. No differences were found between the effects of 9 and 60 s stimulations. Slow stroking was evaluated as the most pleasant, relaxing and 'social' type of touch compared to the other tactile stimulations. Taken together, these findings shed light on the psychophysiological responses to stroking (including CT-optimal touch) and tapping, and contribute to elucidate the mechanisms underlying hedonic tactile perception.

  2. Rhythmic finger tapping reveals cerebellar dysfunction in essential tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buijink, A W G; Broersma, M; van der Stouwe, A M M; van Wingen, G A; Groot, P F C; Speelman, J D; Maurits, N M; van Rootselaar, A F

    2015-04-01

    Cerebellar circuits are hypothesized to play a central role in the pathogenesis of essential tremor. Rhythmic finger tapping is known to strongly engage the cerebellar motor circuitry. We characterize cerebellar and, more specifically, dentate nucleus function, and neural correlates of cerebellar output in essential tremor during rhythmic finger tapping employing functional MRI. Thirty-one propranolol-sensitive essential tremor patients with upper limb tremor and 29 healthy controls were measured. T2*-weighted EPI sequences were acquired. The task consisted of alternating rest and finger tapping blocks. A whole-brain and region-of-interest analysis was performed, the latter focusing on the cerebellar cortex, dentate nucleus and inferior olive nucleus. Activations were also related to tremor severity. In patients, dentate activation correlated positively with tremor severity as measured by the tremor rating scale part A. Patients had reduced activation in widespread cerebellar cortical regions, and additionally in the inferior olive nucleus, and parietal and frontal cortex, compared to controls. The increase in dentate activation with tremor severity supports involvement of the dentate nucleus in essential tremor. Cortical and cerebellar changes during a motor timing task in essential tremor might point to widespread changes in cerebellar output in essential tremor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessment of macrofauna around Tarapur Atomic Power Station (TAPS), Maharashtra, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubal, Priti; Ambekar, Ajit; Prakash, Chandra; Sawant, Paramita B.; Pal, Asim K.; Lakra, W.S.; Baburajan, A.

    2015-01-01

    A study was carried out to observe the macrofaunal habitation in the coastal area of India's first commercial atomic power station at Tarapur, Maharashtra. Mostly macrobenthos are sedentary as well as sessile in nature; therefore, they are used as indicator organism to monitor health of marine ecosystem. The faunal record observed consisted of 25 groups with 16 different polychaete families dominated by nereidae, capitellidae and spionidae. Shannon wiener index (H') was highest at Varor for faunal groups (2.07) and polychaete families (2.89) and lowest at anthropogenically stressed Uchheli (faunal group -0.77 and polychaete family 1.94). These findings were further supported by dendrogram. Margalef's species richness was highest at Varor (fauna -1.93 and polychaete family -1.61) and lowest at Nandgoan (fauna-1.00 and polychaete family - 0.74) due to dominance of environmental bioindicators, polychaete (nereidae). Along with these observations, hydro-sedimentological parameters revealed comprehensive picture of community structure of macrobenthos and polychaetes families. The elevated water temperature was noticed at TAPS 3 and 4 (30.1 °C) which is under permissible limit (26-28°C ±7) accompanied by pH (7.0). Dissolved oxygen was lowest at Uchheli (4.1mgl -1 ) and maximum was observed at TAPS 1 and 2 area (7.5mgl -1 ). (author)

  4. Characterization of Escherichia coli Isolates from an Urban Lake Receiving Water from a Wastewater Treatment Plant in Mexico City: Fecal Pollution and Antibiotic Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Irma; Salinas, Eva; Martínez, Leticia; Cruz-Córdova, Ariadnna; González-Pedrajo, Bertha; Espinosa, Norma; Amábile-Cuevas, Carlos F

    2015-10-01

    The presence of enteric bacteria in water bodies is a cause of public health concerns, either by directly causing water- and food-borne diseases, or acting as reservoirs for antibiotic resistance determinants. Water is used for crop irrigation; and sediments and aquatic plants are used as fertilizing supplements and soil conditioners. In this work, the bacterial load of several micro-environments of the urban lake of Xochimilco, in Mexico City, was characterized. We found a differential distribution of enteric bacteria between the water column, sediment, and the rhizoplane of aquatic plants, with human fecal bacteria concentrating in the sediment, pointing to the need to assess such bacterial load for each micro-environment, for regulatory agricultural purposes, instead of only the one of the water, as is currently done. Resistance to tetracycline, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was common among Escherichia coli isolates, but was also differentially distributed, being again higher in sediment isolates. A distinct distribution of chloramphenicol minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) among these isolates suggests the presence of a local selective pressure favoring lower MICs than those of isolates from treated water. Fecal bacteria of human origin, living in water bodies along with their antibiotic resistance genes, could be much more common than typically considered, and pose a higher health risk, if assessments are only made on the water column of such bodies.

  5. Spontaneous bimanual independence during parallel tapping and sawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baber, Chris

    2017-01-01

    The performance of complex polyrhythms—rhythms where the left and right hand move at different rates—is usually the province of highly trained individuals. However, studies in which hand movement is guided haptically show that even novices can perform polyrhythms with no or only brief training. In this study, we investigated whether novices are able to tap with one hand by matching different rates of a metronome while sawing with the other hand. This experiment was based on the assumption that saw movement is controlled consistently at a predictable rate without the need for paying primary attention to it. It would follow that consciously matching different stipulated metronome rates with the other hand would result in the spontaneous performance of polyrhythms. Six experimental conditions were randomised: single handed tapping and sawing as well as four bimanual conditions with expected ratios of 1:1 (performed with and without matching a metronome) as well as 3:4 and 4:3 (performed matching a metronome). Results showed that participants executed the saw movement at a consistent cycle duration of 0.44 [0.20] s to 0.51 [0.19] s across single and bimanual conditions, with no significant effect of the condition on the cycle duration (p = 0.315). Similarly, free tapping was executed at a cycle duration of 0.48 [0.22] s. In the bimanual conditions, we found that for a ratio of 4:3 (4 taps against 3 sawing cycles per measure), the observed and predicted ratio of 0.75 were not significantly different (p = 0.369), supporting our hypothesis of the spontaneous adoption of polyrhythms. However, for a ratio of 3:4 (3 taps against 4 sawing cycles per measure), the observed and predicted ratio differed (p = 0.016), with a trend towards synchronisation. Our findings show that bimanual independence when performing complex polyrhythms can in principle be achieved if the movement of one hand can be performed without paying much—if any—attention to it. In this paradigm

  6. Quantitative assessment of finger tapping characteristics in mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roalf, David R; Rupert, Petra; Mechanic-Hamilton, Dawn; Brennan, Laura; Duda, John E; Weintraub, Daniel; Trojanowski, John Q; Wolk, David; Moberg, Paul J

    2018-06-01

    Fine motor impairments are common in neurodegenerative disorders, yet standardized, quantitative measurements of motor abilities are uncommonly used in neurological practice. Thus, understanding and comparing fine motor abilities across disorders have been limited. The current study compared differences in finger tapping, inter-tap interval, and variability in Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and healthy older adults (HOA). Finger tapping was measured using a highly sensitive light-diode finger tapper. Total number of finger taps, inter-tap interval, and intra-individual variability (IIV) of finger tapping was measured and compared in AD (n = 131), PD (n = 63), MCI (n = 46), and HOA (n = 62), controlling for age and sex. All patient groups had fine motor impairments relative to HOA. AD and MCI groups produced fewer taps with longer inter-tap interval and higher IIV compared to HOA. The PD group, however, produced more taps with shorter inter-tap interval and higher IIV compared to HOA. Disease-specific changes in fine motor function occur in the most common neurodegenerative diseases. The findings suggest that alterations in finger tapping patterns are common in AD, MCI, and PD. In addition, the present results underscore the importance of motor dysfunction even in neurodegenerative disorders without primary motor symptoms.

  7. Synergistic cooperation of MDM2 and E2F1 contributes to TAp73 transcriptional activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasim, Vivi; Huang, Can; Zhang, Jing; Jia, Huizhen; Wang, Yunxia; Yang, Li; Miyagishi, Makoto; Wu, Shourong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • MDM2 is a novel positive regulator of TAp73 transcriptional activity. • MDM2 colocalizes together and physically interacts with E2F1. • Synergistic cooperation of MDM2 and E2F1 is crucial for TAp73 transcription. • MDM2 regulates TAp73 transcriptional activity in a p53-independent manner. - Abstract: TAp73, a structural homologue of p53, plays an important role in tumorigenesis. E2F1 had been reported as a transcriptional regulator of TAp73, however, the detailed mechanism remains to be elucidated. Here we reported that MDM2-silencing reduced the activities of the TAp73 promoters and the endogenous TAp73 expression level significantly; while MDM2 overexpression upregulated them. We further revealed that the regulation of TAp73 transcriptional activity occurs as a synergistic effect of MDM2 and E2F1, most probably through their physical interaction in the nuclei. Furthermore, we also suggested that MDM2 might be involved in DNA damage-induced TAp73 transcriptional activity. Finally, we elucidated that MDM2-silencing reduced the proliferation rate of colon carcinoma cells regardless of the p53 status. Our data show a synergistic effect of MDM2 and E2F1 on TAp73 transcriptional activity, suggesting a novel regulation pathway of TAp73

  8. Synergistic cooperation of MDM2 and E2F1 contributes to TAp73 transcriptional activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasim, Vivi, E-mail: vivikasim78@gmail.com [The Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Huang, Can; Zhang, Jing; Jia, Huizhen; Wang, Yunxia [The Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Yang, Li [The Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); The 111 Project Laboratory of Biomechanics and Tissue Repair, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Miyagishi, Makoto [Molecular Composite Medicine Research Group, Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba 305-8566 (Japan); Wu, Shourong, E-mail: shourongwu@hotmail.com [The Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); The 111 Project Laboratory of Biomechanics and Tissue Repair, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2014-07-04

    Highlights: • MDM2 is a novel positive regulator of TAp73 transcriptional activity. • MDM2 colocalizes together and physically interacts with E2F1. • Synergistic cooperation of MDM2 and E2F1 is crucial for TAp73 transcription. • MDM2 regulates TAp73 transcriptional activity in a p53-independent manner. - Abstract: TAp73, a structural homologue of p53, plays an important role in tumorigenesis. E2F1 had been reported as a transcriptional regulator of TAp73, however, the detailed mechanism remains to be elucidated. Here we reported that MDM2-silencing reduced the activities of the TAp73 promoters and the endogenous TAp73 expression level significantly; while MDM2 overexpression upregulated them. We further revealed that the regulation of TAp73 transcriptional activity occurs as a synergistic effect of MDM2 and E2F1, most probably through their physical interaction in the nuclei. Furthermore, we also suggested that MDM2 might be involved in DNA damage-induced TAp73 transcriptional activity. Finally, we elucidated that MDM2-silencing reduced the proliferation rate of colon carcinoma cells regardless of the p53 status. Our data show a synergistic effect of MDM2 and E2F1 on TAp73 transcriptional activity, suggesting a novel regulation pathway of TAp73.

  9. Computationally efficient implementation of sarse-tap FIR adaptive filters with tap-position control on intel IA-32 processors

    OpenAIRE

    Hirano, Akihiro; Nakayama, Kenji

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an computationally ef cient implementation of sparse-tap FIR adaptive lters with tapposition control on Intel IA-32 processors with single-instruction multiple-data (SIMD) capability. In order to overcome randomorder memory access which prevents a ectorization, a blockbased processing and a re-ordering buffer are introduced. A dynamic register allocation and the use of memory-to-register operations help the maximization of the loop-unrolling level. Up to 66percent speedup ...

  10. Computerized measures of finger tapping: effects of hand dominance, age, and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubel, Kerry A; Reed, Bruce; Yund, E William; Herron, Timothy J; Woods, David L

    2013-06-01

    Computerized measures of digit tapping rate were obtained over 3 successive, 10-sec. periods in the right and left index fingers, from a community sample of 1,519 participants (ages 18 to 65 years; 607 men, 912 women). Differences between the dominant and non-dominant hands were found for tapping rate, movement initiation, and button down times, and the decline in tapping rate over the successive, 10-sec. periods. Declines were found in tapping rate in older participants in association with increased intertap variability. Men had higher tapping rates than women in all age ranges. The computerized finger tapping test is an efficient and precise measure of tapping speed and kinetics of potential utility in research and clinical studies of motor performance.

  11. Discharges of produced waters from oil and gas extraction via wastewater treatment plants are sources of disinfection by-products to receiving streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladik, Michelle; Focazio, Michael J.; Engle, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Fluids co-produced with oil and gas production (produced waters) are often brines that contain elevated concentrations of bromide. Bromide is an important precursor of several toxic disinfection by-products (DBPs) and the treatment of produced water may lead to more brominated DBPs. To determine if wastewater treatment plants that accept produced waters discharge greater amounts of brominated DBPs, water samples were collected in Pennsylvania from four sites along a large river including an upstream site, a site below a publicly owned wastewater treatment plant (POTW) outfall (does not accept produced water), a site below an oil and gas commercial wastewater treatment plant (CWT) outfall, and downstream of the POTW and CWT. Of 29 DBPs analyzed, the site at the POTW outfall had the highest number detected (six) ranging in concentration from 0.01 to 0.09 μg L− 1 with a similar mixture of DBPs that have been detected at POTW outfalls elsewhere in the United States. The DBP profile at the CWT outfall was much different, although only two DBPs, dibromochloronitromethane (DBCNM) and chloroform, were detected, DBCNM was found at relatively high concentrations (up to 8.5 μg L− 1). The water at the CWT outfall also had a mixture of inorganic and organic precursors including elevated concentrations of bromide (75 mg L− 1) and other organic DBP precursors (phenol at 15 μg L− 1). To corroborate these DBP results, samples were collected in Pennsylvania from additional POTW and CWT outfalls that accept produced waters. The additional CWT also had high concentrations of DBCNM (3.1 μg L− 1) while the POTWs that accept produced waters had elevated numbers (up to 15) and concentrations of DBPs, especially brominated and iodinated THMs (up to 12 μg L− 1 total THM concentration). Therefore, produced water brines that have been disinfected are potential sources of DBPs along with DBP precursors to streams wherever these wastewaters are discharged.

  12. Influence of radioactive fallout on water supply and sewerage in Finland; Radioaktiivisen laskeuman vaikutukset vesihuoltoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantavaara, A; Saxen, R; Puhakainen, M [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland); Hatva, T; Ahosilta, P; Tenhunen, J [National Board of Waters and the Environment, Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-09-01

    The report reviews the practices and organization of water supply and sewerage in Finland and is related to their response to radioactive fallout situations. The contribution of drinking water to the internal radiation dose caused by radioactive fallout has earlier been small in Finland. However, in a wide-scale fallout situation, the decreasing of collective dose received from water may be justified, if the dose can be reduced at a reasonable cost, for instance by a temporary change of the raw water source. Efficient exchange of information between radiation protection and water supply experts is important for successful dose reduction measures. In Finland waterworks deliver tap water to 4.2 million people. Half of the water is ground water, and generally very well protected against fallout radioactivity. The other half is treated surface water. (6 figs., 5 tabs.).

  13. Impact of PAH [Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons] outlets from an oil refinery on the receiving water area - sediment trap fluxes and multivariate statistical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettersen, Harald; Naef, Carina; Broman, Dag

    1997-01-01

    PAH concentrations (15 compounds) in settling particulate matter (SPM) collected in the waters outside a petroleum refinery on the Swedish Baltic coast, and in samples of particulate and dissolved fractions in the wastewater from the refinery were determined. SPM concentrations varied between 550 and 4250 ng x gdw -1 and the corresponding calculated fluxes varied between 0.1 and 3.7 ng x cm -2 x day -1 . Both concentrations and fluxes did not differ significantly from background coastal or offshore locations in the Baltic. PAH profiles of the SPM samples were compared with the wastewater samples and SPM samples from background areas in the Baltic, using pattern recognition techniques. This analysis showed that the SPM samples from the petroleum refinery displayed a PAH composition similar to that found in background reference sites in the Baltic, and that the SPM samples could not be connected to the wastewater samples from the refinery. This indicates that Nynas AB is not a significant source of PAHs to the waters in its immediate surroundings, i.e. the waters in the Nynashamn area, and/or that the hydraulic residence time of the water outside the refinery is low. A budget calculation showed that the wastewater outlet from Nynas AB is only a minor contributor of the PAH load to the waters outside the refinery. (Author)

  14. Occurrence and risk assessment of four typical fluoroquinolone antibiotics in raw and treated sewage and in receiving waters in Hangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Changlun; Zhuo, Xiajun; Guo, Yun

    2011-07-13

    A sensitive liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection method, combined with one-step solid-phase extraction, was established for detecting the residual levels of the four typical fluoroquinolone antibiotics (ofloxacin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and enrofloxacin) in influent, effluent, and surface waters from Hangzhou, China. For the various environmental water matrices, the overall recoveries were from 76.8 to 122%, and no obvious interferences of matrix effect were observed. The limit of quantitation of this method was estimated to be 17 ng/L for ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin, 20 ng/L for ofloxacin, and 27 ng/L for enrofloxacin. All of the four typical fluoroquinolone antibiotics were found in the wastewaters and surface waters. The residual contents of the four typical fluoroquinolone antibiotics in influent, effluent, and surface water samples are 108-1405, 54-429, and 7.0-51.6 ng/L, respectively. The removal rates of the selected fluoroquinolone antibiotics were 69.5 (ofloxacin), 61.3 (norfloxacin), and 50% (enrofloxacin), indicating that activated sludge treatment is effective except for ciprofloxacin and necessary to remove these fluoroquinolone antibiotics in municipal sewage. The risk to the aquatic environment was estimated by a ratio of measured environmental concentration and predicted no-effect concentration. At the concentrations, these fluoroquinolone antibiotics were found in influent, effluent, and surface waters, and they should not pose a risk for the aquatic environment.

  15. Cryptosporidium: A Guide to Water Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tap Water Many but not all available home water filters remove Cryptosporidium . Some filter designs are more suitable for removal of Cryptosporidium than others. Filters that have the words "reverse osmosis" on the label protect against Cryptosporidium . Some other ...

  16. Bottled Water Everywhere: Keeping it Safe

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that taps an aquifer—layers of porous rock, sand, and earth that contain water—which is under ... it to be labeled as “purified water.” Ensuring Quality and Safety Federal quality standards for bottled water ...

  17. Receiver Test Selection Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-12

    The DOT requests that GPS manufacturers submit receivers for test in the following TWG categories: - Aviation (non-certified), cellular, general location/navigation, high precision, timing, networks, and space-based receivers - Each receiver should b...

  18. PeakForce Tapping resolves individual microvilli on living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillers, Hermann; Medalsy, Izhar; Hu, Shuiqing; Slade, Andrea L; Shaw, James E

    2016-02-01

    Microvilli are a common structure found on epithelial cells that increase the apical surface thus enhancing the transmembrane transport capacity and also serve as one of the cell's mechanosensors. These structures are composed of microfilaments and cytoplasm, covered by plasma membrane. Epithelial cell function is usually coupled to the density of microvilli and its individual size illustrated by diseases, in which microvilli degradation causes malabsorption and diarrhea. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been widely used to study the topography and morphology of living cells. Visualizing soft and flexible structures such as microvilli on the apical surface of a live cell has been very challenging because the native microvilli structures are displaced and deformed by the interaction with the probe. PeakForce Tapping® is an AFM imaging mode, which allows reducing tip-sample interactions in time (microseconds) and controlling force in the low pico-Newton range. Data acquisition of this mode was optimized by using a newly developed PeakForce QNM-Live Cell probe, having a short cantilever with a 17-µm-long tip that minimizes hydrodynamic effects between the cantilever and the sample surface. In this paper, we have demonstrated for the first time the visualization of the microvilli on living kidney cells with AFM using PeakForce Tapping. The structures observed display a force dependence representing either the whole microvilli or just the tips of the microvilli layer. Together, PeakForce Tapping allows force control in the low pico-Newton range and enables the visualization of very soft and flexible structures on living cells under physiological conditions. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Molecular Recognition Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. What is the risk of infecting a cerebrospinal fluid-diverting shunt with percutaneous tapping?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegelman, Lindsey; Asija, Richa; Da Silva, Stephanie L; Krieger, Mark D; McComb, J Gordon

    2014-10-01

    Most CSF-diverting shunt systems have an access port that can be percutaneously tapped. Tapping the shunt can yield valuable information as to its function and whether an infection is present. The fear of causing a shunt infection by tapping may limit the physician's willingness to do so. The authors of this study investigate the risk of infecting a shunt secondary to percutaneous tapping. Following institutional review board approval, CSF specimens obtained from tapping an indwelling CSF-diverting shunt during the 2011 and 2012 calendar years were identified and matched with clinical information. A culture-positive CSF sample was defined as an infection. If results were equivocal, such as a broth-only-positive culture, a repeat CSF specimen was examined. The CSF was obtained by tapping the shunt access port with a 25-gauge butterfly needle after prepping the unshaven skin with chlorhexidine. During the study period, 266 children underwent 542 shunt taps. With 541 taps, no clinical evidence of a subsequent shunt infection was found. One child's CSF went from sterile to infected 11 days later; however, this patient had redness along the shunt tract at the time of the initial sterile tap. The risk of infection from tapping a shunt is remote if the procedure is done correctly.

  20. Vertical Finger Displacement Is Reduced in Index Finger Tapping During Repeated Bout Rate Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Jensen, Mark Holten; Madeleine, Pascal; Hansen, Ernst Albin

    2017-10-01

    The present study analyzed (a) whether a recently reported phenomenon of repeated bout rate enhancement in finger tapping (i.e., a cumulating increase in freely chosen finger tapping frequency following submaximal muscle activation in the form of externally unloaded voluntary tapping) could be replicated and (b) the hypotheses that the faster tapping was accompanied by changed vertical displacement of the fingertip and changed peak force during tapping. Right-handed, healthy, and recreationally active individuals (n = 24) performed two 3-min index finger tapping bouts at freely chosen tapping frequency, separated by 10-min rest. The recently reported phenomenon of repeated bout rate enhancement was replicated. The faster tapping (8.8 ± 18.7 taps/min, corresponding to 6.0 ± 11.0%, p = .033) was accompanied by reduced vertical displacement (1.6 ± 2.9 mm, corresponding to 6.3 ± 14.9%, p = .012) of the fingertip. Concurrently, peak force was unchanged. The present study points at separate control mechanisms governing kinematics and kinetics during finger tapping.

  1. Association of TAP Gene Polymorphisms and Risk of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Natter

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP is responsible for peptide loading onto class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC-I molecules. TAP seems to facilitate the detection of HPV by MHC-I molecules and contributes to successful eradication of HPV. TAP polymorphisms could have an important impact on the course of HPV infection. Objective. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between five TAP gene polymorphisms and the risk of CIN. Methods. This case-control study investigated five common TAP polymorphisms in TAP1 (1341 and 2254 and TAP2 (1135, 1693, and 1993 in 616 women with CIN and 206 controls. Associations between gene polymorphisms and risk of CIN were analysed by univariate and multivariable models. The combined effect of the five TAP gene polymorphisms on the risk for CIN was investigated by haplotype analysis. Results. No significant difference in genotype distribution of the five TAP polymorphisms was observed in women with CIN and controls. Haplotype analysis revealed that women with haplotype mut-wt-wt-wt-wt (TAP polymorphisms t1135-t1341-t1693-t1993-t2254 had a significantly lower risk for CIN, compared to women with the haplotype wt-wt-wt-wt-wt (; OR 0.5 []. Conclusion. Identification of this haplotype combination could be used to identify women, less susceptible for development of CIN following HPV infection.

  2. Bimanual tapping of a syncopated rhythm reveals hemispheric preferences for relative movement frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflug, Anja; Gompf, Florian; Kell, Christian Alexander

    2017-08-01

    In bimanual multifrequency tapping, right-handers commonly use the right hand to tap the relatively higher rate and the left hand to tap the relatively lower rate. This could be due to hemispheric specializations for the processing of relative frequencies. An extension of the double-filtering-by-frequency theory to motor control proposes a left hemispheric specialization for the control of relatively high and a right hemispheric specialization for the control of relatively low tapping rates. We investigated timing variability and rhythmic accentuation in right handers tapping mono- and multifrequent bimanual rhythms to test the predictions of the double-filtering-by-frequency theory. Yet, hemispheric specializations for the processing of relative tapping rates could be masked by a left hemispheric dominance for the control of known sequences. Tapping was thus either performed in an overlearned quadruple meter (tap of the slow rhythm on the first auditory beat) or in a syncopated quadruple meter (tap of the slow rhythm on the fourth auditory beat). Independent of syncopation, the right hand outperformed the left hand in timing accuracy for fast tapping. A left hand timing benefit for slow tapping rates as predicted by the double-filtering-by-frequency theory was only found in the syncopated tapping group. This suggests a right hemisphere preference for the control of slow tapping rates when rhythms are not overlearned. Error rates indicate that overlearned rhythms represent hierarchically structured meters that are controlled by a single timer that could potentially reside in the left hemisphere. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Genetic Variants in TAP Are Associated with High-Grade Cervical Neoplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Mark H.; Leanza, Suzanne; Chiu, Lydia G.; Schlecht, Nicolas F.; Goldberg, Gary L.; Steinberg, Bettie M.; Burk, Robert D.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose The transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) is essential in assembling MHC-I proteins. Human papillomavirus (HPV) evades immune recognition by decreasing class I MHC cell surface expression through down-regulation of TAP1 levels. Consistent with heterogeneity in MHC expression is the individual variability in clearing detectable HPV infections. Genetic polymorphisms in TAP genes may affect protein structure, function, and the ability to clear HPV infection. Experimental Design Case-control study of women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) II or III (n = 114) and women without high-grade CIN (n = 366). Five nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in TAP1 and TAP2 were genotyped using DNA collected in cervicovaginal lavage samples using microsphere array technology (Luminex ×MAP). HPV typing was done using a PCR-based system with MY09/MY11 primers. TAP1 and TAP2 SNPs were validated by direct sequencing. Results Differences in allele distribution between women with high-grade cervical neoplasia and women without was seen for TAP1 I333V (P = 0.02) and TAP1 D637G (p = 0.01).The odds ratios (OR) for CIN III were significantly lower among carriers of the TAP1 I333V polymorphism (OR, 0.28; 95% confidence interval, 0.1-0.8), and TAP1 D637G polymorphism (OR, 0.27; 95% confidence interval, 0.1-0.7). These associations remained significant even after restricting the evaluation to women who were positive for high-risk HPV types. Conclusions In addition to the down-regulation of MHC-1 by oncogenic HPV, HPV pathogenesis might be facilitated by polymorphisms in the TAP proteins. Identifying TAP polymorphisms may potentially be used to identify women less susceptible to progression to high-grade CIN and cervical cancer. PMID:19188174

  4. Three tapasin docking sites in TAP cooperate to facilitate transporter stabilization and heterodimerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Ralf M.; Abrahimi, Parwiz; Mitchell, Susan M.; Cresswell, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) translocates peptide antigens into the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) for loading onto major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. MHC class I acquires its peptide cargo in the peptide loading complex (PLC), an oligomeric complex that the chaperone tapasin organizes by bridging TAP to MHC class I and recruiting accessory molecules such as ERp57 and calreticulin. Three tapasin binding sites on TAP have been described, two of which are located in the N-terminal domains (N domains) of TAP1 and TAP2. The third binding site is present in the core transmembrane domain (coreTMD) of TAP1 and is only used by the unassembled subunits. Tapasin is required to promote TAP stability, but through which binding site(s) it is acting is unknown. In particular the role of tapasin binding to the coreTMD of TAP1 single chains is mysterious as this interaction is lost upon TAP2 association. In this study, we map the respective binding site in TAP1 to the polar face of the amphipathic transmembrane helix TM9 and identify key residues that are essential to establish the interaction. We find that this interaction is dispensable for the peptide transport function but essential to achieve full stability of human TAP1. The interaction is also required for proper heterodimerization of the transporter. Based on similar results obtained using TAP mutants lacking tapasin binding to either N domain, we conclude that all three tapasin-binding sites in TAP cooperate to achieve high transporter stability and efficient heterodimerization. PMID:24501197

  5. Plano de social media marketing para a TAP Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Andreia Cristina Figueiredo

    2014-01-01

    Mestrado em Marketing O social media marketing adquire cada vez maior relevo para as empresas e exige, tal como noutras áreas de marketing, a delineação de um plano estratégico por forma a potenciar o seu sucesso. Tomando como objecto de estudo a companhia aérea TAP Portugal, foi elaborado um Plano de Social Media Marketing, com base no modelo conceptual de Barker et al. (2013), designado de "Social Media Planning Cycle". Para a elaboração do Plano, foram recolhidos dados primários, seguin...

  6. Tapping the zero-point energy as an energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, M.B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the hypothesis for tapping the zero-point energy (ZPE) arises by combining the theories of the ZPE with the theories of system self-organization. The vacuum polarization of atomic nuclei might allow their synchronous motion to activate a ZPE coherence. Experimentally observed plasma ion-acoustic anomalies as well as inventions utilizing cycloid ion motions may offer supporting evidence. The suggested experiment of rapidly circulating a charged plasma in a vortex ring might induce a sufficient zero-point energy interaction to manifest a gravitational anomaly. An invention utilizing abrupt E field rotation to create virtual charge exhibits excessive energy output

  7. Effect of ozonation of swimming pool water on formation of volatile disinfection by-products - A laboratory study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht; Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini; Cheema, Waqas Akram

    2016-01-01

    Ozonation experiments were performed using unchlorinated tap water used for filling municipal swimming pools, actual pool water and pool water polluted by addition of fresh tap water and artificial body fluid to evaluate ozone kinetics and water quality effects on formation of volatile disinfecti...

  8. Tapping and listening: a new approach to bolt looseness monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qingzhao; Zhu, Junxiao; Ho, Siu Chun Michael; Song, Gangbing

    2018-07-01

    Bolted joints are among the most common building blocks used across different types of structures, and are often the key components that sew all other structural parts together. Monitoring and assessment of looseness in bolted structures is one of the most attractive topics in mechanical, aerospace, and civil engineering. This paper presents a new percussion-based non-destructive approach to determine the health condition of bolted joints with the help of machine learning. The proposed method is very similar to the percussive diagnostic techniques used in clinical examinations to diagnose the health of patients. Due to the different interfacial properties among the bolts, nuts and the host structure, bolted joints can generate unique sounds when it is excited by impacts, such as from tapping. Power spectrum density, as a signal feature, was used to recognize and classify recorded tapping data. A machine learning model using the decision tree method was employed to identify the bolt looseness level. Experiments demonstrated that the newly proposed method for bolt looseness detection is very easy to implement by ‘listening to tapping’ and the monitoring accuracy is very high. With the rapid in robotics, the proposed approach has great potential to be implemented with intimately weaving robotics and machine learning to produce a cyber-physical system that can automatically inspect and determine the health of a structure.

  9. A prototype tap test imaging system: Initial field test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, J. J.; Barnard, D. J.; Hudelson, N. A.; Simpson, T. S.; Hsu, D. K.

    2000-05-01

    This paper describes a simple, field-worthy tap test imaging system that gives quantitative information about the size, shape, and severity of defects and damages. The system consists of an accelerometer, electronic circuits for conditioning the signal and measuring the impact duration, a laptop PC and data acquisition and processing software. The images are generated manually by tapping on a grid printed on a plastic sheet laid over the part's surface. A mechanized scanner is currently under development. The prototype has produced images for a variety of aircraft composite and metal honeycomb structures containing flaws, damages, and repairs. Images of the local contact stiffness, deduced from the impact duration using a spring model, revealed quantitatively the stiffness reduction due to flaws and damages, as well as the stiffness enhancement due to substructures. The system has been field tested on commercial and military aircraft as well as rotor blades and engine decks on helicopters. Field test results will be shown and the operation of the system will be demonstrated.—This material is based upon work supported by the Federal Aviation Administration under Contract #DTFA03-98-D-00008, Delivery Order No. IA016 and performed at Iowa State University's Center for NDE as part of the Center for Aviation Systems Reliability program.

  10. Guidelines for Effective TAP (Translation for Academic Purposes Tutorial Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Yazdanmehr

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An increasing need is felt by the university students, especially at Master’s or PhD level, to get a satisfactory command of English so as to manage great amounts of technical materials and articles published internationally. Public and private language institutions, however, have not responded to this need properly specially in non-English speaking countries including Iran. Therefore, the only way left for the students is to demand tutorial sessions which are rare, and if existing, of diverse questionable quality. There seems to be a dearth of base-line or criteria released in any form to define and guide the tutors’ approach and techniques which can be in accordance with university students’ needs and purposes. Aiming to fill this gap, the present paper attempts to be a pioneering research in the realm of TAP (Translation for Academic Purposes tutorial courses and intends to provide guidelines on text selection, role allocation, timing, rate, assignments and other relevant issues in this area. The guidelines are provided based on a post facto case study carried out by one of the authors which created the motive for this research and may further clarify the significance of the issues discussed. The recommended guidelines consist of 5 basic elements and 3 principles. It was discovered, and is expected for others as well, that following these guidelines helps to manage a TAP course in the best and most fruitful way with the least time wasted and with satisfactory result.

  11. Tap-length optimization of adaptive filters used in stereophonic acoustic echo cancellation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kar, Asutosh; Swamy, M.N.S.

    2017-01-01

    An adaptive filter with a large number of weights or taps is necessary for stereophonic acoustic echo cancellation (SAEC), depending on the room impulse response and acoustic path where the cancellation is performed. However, a large tap-length results in slow convergence and increases...... the complexity of the tapped delay line structure for FIR adaptive filters. To overcome this problem, there is a need for an optimum tap-length-estimation algorithm that provides better convergence for the adaptive filters used in SAEC. This paper presents a solution to the problem of balancing convergence...... and steady-state performance of long length adaptive filters used for SAEC by proposing a new tap-length-optimization algorithm. The optimum tap length and step size of the adaptive filter are derived considering an impulse response with an exponentially-decaying envelope, which models a wide range...

  12. Solid-state tap-changer of transformers: Design, control and implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faiz, Jawad; Siahkolah, Behzad [Center of Excellence on Applied Electromagnetic Systems, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran 1439957131 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    This paper presents the implementation of a prototype electronic tap-changer of transformer. Mechanical tap-changer has many problems such as low operating speed, short lifetime and heavy size. In order to solve these problems a fully solid-state tap-changer with a new control strategy and optimal configuration is proposed. The design of tap-changer is discussed and bi-directional solid-state power electronics switches are implemented. Following the realization of the tap-changer controller, developed software for such precise control is introduced. To verify the design procedure and optimal configuration and apply the developed software, a prototype low-power tap-changer has been built and tested. (author)

  13. An Integrated Watershed and Receiving Water Model for Fecal Coliform Fate and Transport in Sinclair and Dyes Inlets, Puget Sound, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Area IMPLND Impervious Land Cover INFILT Interflow Inflow Parameter (related to infiltration capacity of the soil ) INSUR Manning’s N for the...Km) SCCWRP Southern California Coastal Water Research Project SCS Soil Conservation Service SGA Shellfish Growing Area SPAWAR Space and Naval...UCI User Control Input USACE U.S. Army Corps of Engineers USEPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency USGS U.S. Geological Survey xix USLE Universal

  14. Tritium retention in the femoral bone marrow and spleens of mice receiving single intravenous injections of tritiated water and tritiated thymidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshima, Hisamasa; Matsushita, Satoru; Fukutsu, Kumiko; Kashima, Masatoshi

    1987-01-01

    To derive parameters necessary for evaluating the possible hazards of tritium, retention of tritium in total and TCA-insoluble fractions of the femoral marrow and spleen of mice were observed after single intravenous injections of tritiated water and tritiated thymidine. Retention curves of tritium in TCA-insoluble fractions of the femoral marrow and spleen were resolved fairly well into two exponential components. After injecting tritiated thymidine, most of the activity was detected in the TCA-insoluble fraction. Tritium in this fraction decreased with half-times of 2.2 days in the femoral marrow and 3.6 days in the spleen as the first component, and 23.9 days and 30.5 days, respectively, as the second component. After tritiated water injections, the tritium incorporated into the TCA-insoluble fraction was quite small. Most of the activity was considered to be in the TCA-soluble fraction. Tritium in this fraction was estimated to decrease with half-times of 2.6 days in the femoral marrow and 2.3 days in the spleen as the first component, and 8.0 days and 8.2 days, respectively, as the second component. It is concluded that the retention curves of tritium in the bone marrow are similar to those in the spleen for tritiated water, but not for tritiated thymidine. (author)

  15. Organic Wastewater Compounds, Pharmaceuticals, andColiphage in Ground Water Receiving Discharge from OnsiteWastewater Treatment Systems near La Pine, Oregon:Occurrence and Implications for Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkle, Stephen J.; Weick, Rodney J.; Johnson, Jill M.; Cahill, Jeffery D.; Smith, Steven G.; Rich, Barbara J.

    2005-01-01

    The occurrence of organic wastewater compounds (components of 'personal care products' and other common household chemicals), pharmaceuticals (human prescription and nonprescription medical drugs), and coliphage (viruses that infect coliform bacteria, and found in high concentrations in municipal wastewater) in onsite wastewater (septic tank effluent) and in a shallow, unconfined, sandy aquifer that serves as the primary source of drinking water for most residents near La Pine, Oregon, was documented. Samples from two types of observation networks provided basic occurrence data for onsite wastewater and downgradient ground water. One observation network was a group of 28 traditional and innovative (advanced treatment) onsite wastewater treatment systems and associated downgradient drainfield monitoring wells, referred to as the 'innovative systems network'. The drainfield monitoring wells were located adjacent to or under onsite wastewater treatment system drainfield lines. Another observation network, termed the 'transect network', consisted of 31 wells distributed among three transects of temporary, stainless-steel-screened, direct-push monitoring wells installed along three plumes of onsite wastewater. The transect network, by virtue of its design, also provided a basis for increased understanding of the transport of analytes in natural systems. Coliphage were frequently detected in onsite wastewater. Coliphage concentrations in onsite wastewater were highly variable, ranging from less than 1 to 3,000,000 plaque forming units per 100 milliliters. Coliphage were occasionally detected (eight occurrences) at low concentrations in samples from wells located downgradient from onsite wastewater treatment system drainfield lines. However, coliphage concentrations were below method detection limits in replicate or repeat samples collected from the eight sites. The consistent absence of coliphage detections in the replicate or repeat samples is interpreted to indicate

  16. Effects of the Tailored Activity Program in Brazil (TAP-BR) for Persons With Dementia: A Randomized Pilot Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelli, Marcia M P C; Machado, Styfany C B; Lima, Gabriela B; Cantatore, Lais; Sena, Barbara P; Rodrigues, Renata S; Rodrigues, Camila I B; Canon, Mariana B F; Piersol, Catherine V; Nitrini, Ricardo; Yassuda, Monica S; Gitlin, Laura N

    2018-04-25

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of the Tailored Activity Program-Brazilian version (TAP-BR), on behavioral symptoms and the quality of life (QOL) in persons with dementia, as well as on their caregivers, and on caregiver burden. A 2-group randomized controlled trial with 30 dyads was conducted: the experimental group (n=15) received TAP-BR over 4 months, and a wait-list control group (n=15) received usual care. Dyads were recruited from the community of Santos City, Brazil. For persons with dementia, 50% were female individuals, the average age was 81.37 (±7.57), and the educational level was 9.97 (±5.32) years. For caregivers, 83.33% were female, the average age was 65.97 (±10.13), and the educational level was 12.10 (±4.44) years. At posttest, in comparison with the wait-list control group, experimental group caregivers reported greater reductions in number (P<0.001; Cohen d=0.93), frequency (P<0.001; Cohen d=1.12), and intensity (P<0.001; Cohen d=0.77) of the behavioral psychological symptoms of dementia, and caregiver distress (P<0.001; Cohen d=0.87). Caregivers also reported improvement in their own QOL (P<0.05; Cohen d=0.57) and that of the person with dementia (P<0.01; Cohen d=0.56); no differences were found in the ratings of QOL by the person with dementia themselves. The results provide compelling evidence that the TAP-BR is an effective strategy to support dementia caregivers in other cultures (cross-validation).

  17. Impact analysis of tap switch out of step for converter transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong-yue, ZHANG; Zhen-hua, ZHANG; Zhang-xue, XIONG; Gao-wang, YU

    2017-06-01

    AC transformer load regulation is mainly used to adjust the load side voltage level, improve the quality of power supply, the voltage range is relatively narrow. In DC system, converter transformer is the core equipment of AC and DC power converter and inverter. converter transformer tap adjustment can maintain the normal operation of the converter in small angle range control, the absorption of reactive power, economic operation, valve less stress, valve damping circuit loss, AC / DC harmonic component is also smaller. In this way, the tap switch action is more frequent, and a large range of the tap switch adjustment is required. Converter transformer with a more load voltage regulation switch, the voltage regulation range of the switch is generally 20~30%, the adjustment of each file is 1%~2%. Recently it is often found that the tap switch of Converter Transformers is out of step in Converter station. In this paper, it is analyzed in detail the impact of tap switch out of step for differential protection, overexcitation protection and zero sequence over current protection. Analysis results show that: the tap switch out of step has no effect on the differential protection and the overexcitation protection including the tap switch. But the tap switch out of step has effect on zero sequence overcurrent protection of out of step star-angle converter transformer. The zero sequence overcurrent protection will trip when the tap switch out of step is greater than 3 for out of step star-angle converter transformer.

  18. Synchronized tapping facilitates learning sound sequences as indexed by the P300.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiyama, Keiko S; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether and how single finger tapping in synchrony with sound sequences contributed to the auditory processing of them. The participants learned two unfamiliar sound sequences via different methods. In the tapping condition, they learned an auditory sequence while they tapped in synchrony with each sound onset. In the no tapping condition, they learned another sequence while they kept pressing a key until the sequence ended. After these learning sessions, we presented the two melodies again and recorded event-related potentials (ERPs). During the ERP recordings, 10% of the tones within each melody deviated from the original tones. An analysis of the grand average ERPs showed that deviant stimuli elicited a significant P300 in the tapping but not in the no-tapping condition. In addition, the significance of the P300 effect in the tapping condition increased as the participants showed highly synchronized tapping behavior during the learning sessions. These results indicated that single finger tapping promoted the conscious detection and evaluation of deviants within the learned sequences. The effect was related to individuals' musical ability to coordinate their finger movements along with external auditory events.

  19. A statistical characterization of the finger tapping test: modeling, estimation, and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Daniel; McNames, James; Klein, Krystal; Jimison, Holly; Pavel, Misha

    2015-03-01

    Sensory-motor performance is indicative of both cognitive and physical function. The Halstead-Reitan finger tapping test is a measure of sensory-motor speed commonly used to assess function as part of a neuropsychological evaluation. Despite the widespread use of this test, the underlying motor and cognitive processes driving tapping behavior during the test are not well characterized or understood. This lack of understanding may make clinical inferences from test results about health or disease state less accurate because important aspects of the task such as variability or fatigue are unmeasured. To overcome these limitations, we enhanced the tapper with a sensor that enables us to more fully characterize all the aspects of tapping. This modification enabled us to decompose the tapping performance into six component phases and represent each phase with a set of parameters having clear functional interpretation. This results in a set of 29 total parameters for each trial, including change in tapping over time, and trial-to-trial and tap-to-tap variability. These parameters can be used to more precisely link different aspects of cognition or motor function to tapping behavior. We demonstrate the benefits of this new instrument with a simple hypothesis-driven trial comparing single and dual-task tapping.

  20. Method for laboratory tests on noise emission from appliances used in water supply installations. Part 2:mounting and operating conditions for draw off taps and mixing valves; Kyusui kigu hasseion no jikkenshitsu sokuteiho dai2bu,. Kyusui oyobi kongo suisen no toritsuke houho narabini sado joken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    This standard prescribes the laboratory of the water utensil occurrence sound prescribed with JIS A 1424-1 about the installation method of a water stopper to measure water utensil occurrence sound, and the mixed water stopper and the operation condition by the way of examining it, the test device in the way of measuring it. Or, the water stopper made the target, and a mixed water stopper were decided to be designed by the water pressure of the range of 0.1 - 0.5 MPa so that the building (sink, wash and bathtub) might do the use of the cold water in the neighborhood of the building and the warm water. The valve, which has an automatic temperature adjustment, mixed water stopper; a direct exit to the inside is excluded from the object. Moreover, an electric operation dialect is a combination device and this is excluded from the object. (NEDO)

  1. Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring of Trace Metals and a Benthic Community Near the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay, California: 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Daniel J.; Thompson, Janet K.; Dyke, Jessica; Parcheso, Francis; Luoma, Samuel N.; Hornberger, Michelle I.

    2009-01-01

    Results reported herein include trace element concentrations in sediment and in the clam Macoma petalum (formerly reported as Macoma balthica (Cohen and Carlton, 1995)), clam reproductive activity, and benthic macroinvertebrate community structure for a mudflat one kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant (PARWQCP) in South San Francisco Bay. This report includes data collected for the period January 2008 to December 2008 and extends a critical long-term biogeochemical record dating back to 1974. These data serve as the basis for the City of Palo Alto's Near-Field Receiving Water Monitoring Program, initiated in 1994. In 2008, metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue were among the lowest concentrations on record and consistent with results observed since 1991. Following significant reductions in the late 1980's, silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) concentrations appeared to have stabilized. Annual mean concentrations have fluctuated modestly (2-4 fold) in a nondirectional manner. Data for other metals, including chromium, mercury, nickel, selenium, vanadium, and zinc, have been collected since 1994. Over this period, concentrations of these elements, which more likely reflect regional inputs and systemwide processes, have remained relatively constant, aside from typical seasonal variation that is common to all elements. Within years, concentrations generally reach maximum in winter months (January-March) and decline to annual minima in spring through fall. Mercury (Hg) in sediments spiked to the highest observed level in January 2008. However, sedimentary concentrations for the rest of the year and concentrations of Hg in M. petalum for the entire year were consistent with data from previous years. Average selenium (Se) concentrations in sediment were the highest on record, but there is no evidence, yet, to suggest a temporal trend of increasing sedimentary Se. Selenium in M. petalum was not elevated relative to

  2. Clinical improvement of patients with osteoarthritis using thermal mineral water at Szigetvár Spa—results of a randomised double-blind controlled study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzel, Adrienn; Horvát, Krisztina; Molics, Bálint; Berényi, Károly; Németh, Balázs; Szendi, Katalin; Varga, Csaba

    2018-02-01

    Since 1966, Szigetvár in Hungary is well recognised as a thermal spa. Many patients suffering from rheumatic diseases are treated with its thermal mineral water. Our objective was to investigate the effects of a 3-week-long outpatient balneotherapy-based rehabilitation program on patients suffering from osteoarthritis of the hips and the knees. During the treatment period, patients received a 30-min underwater jet massage in a bath tub, five times a week. One patient group received jet massage in a bath tub containing mineral water; the other group received the same treatment in tap water. Primary outcomes were measured by range of movement of the involved joints and Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). Visual analogue scale (VAS) was applied to measure current severity of pain. Furthermore, quality of life was assessed using the Short Form 36 questionnaire (SF-36). Range of movement (ROM) score, Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index and visual analogue scale were determined before the first treatment, after the last treatment and 3 months after the last treatment. SF-36 questionnaire was filled in before the first and after the last treatment. Fifty patients (17 male, 33 female mean age 66.7 ± 4.79 years) were enrolled. After randomisation, patients were divided into two groups: tap water n = 24 and mineral water n = 26. Treatment with the thermal mineral water of Szigetvár significantly improved ROM, WOMAC scores, and SF-36-scored quality of life of the patients. Our double-blind study provided evidence for the beneficial health effects of another Hungarian thermal mineral water masking the colour, odour and pH of the tap water and mineral water.

  3. The occurrence and distribution of pharmaceutical compounds in the effluents of a major sewage treatment plant in Northern Taiwan and the receiving coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Tien-Hsi; Nan, Fan-Hua; Chin, Tzong-Shean; Feng, Hui-Min

    2012-01-01

    The pharmaceutical residues in waste water from the largest sewage treatment plant (STP) in Northern Taiwan and in seawater around the effluent discharged area were determined. An environmental risk assessment for the marine environment was conducted based on the environment risk quotient (ERQ). The concentrations of the analyzed compounds in STP influent and effluent were generally higher than those found in coastal seawater. Relatively higher values were found at the estuarine mouth and the discharged area, suggesting that the STP effluent is a point source. The removal efficiency and half life of the analyzed compounds were 6.3–46.8% and 3–18 days, respectively. The ERQ value theoretical calculation was generally greater than 1. However, when the measured concentrations replaced the predicated concentrations, the ERQ values were considerably lower than 1. Therefore, our results call for a re-evaluation of the risks posed by pharmaceuticals to coastal marine ecosystems in Northern Taiwan.

  4. Transversus abdominal plane (TAP block for postoperative pain management: a review [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Jakobsson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Transversus abdominal plane (TAP block has a long history and there is currently extensive clinical experience around TAP blocks. The aim of this review is to provide a summary of the present evidence on the effects of TAP block and to provide suggestions for further studies. There are several approaches to performing abdominal wall blocks, with the rapid implementation of ultrasound-guided technique facilitating a major difference in TAP block performance. During surgery, an abdominal wall block may also be applied by the surgeon from inside the abdominal cavity. Today, there are more than 11 meta-analyses providing a compiled evidence base around the effects of TAP block. These analyses include different procedures, different techniques of TAP block administration and, importantly, they compare the TAP block with a variety of alternative analgesic regimes. The effects of TAP block during laparoscopic cholecystectomy seem to be equivalent to local infiltration analgesia and also seem to be beneficial during laparoscopic colon resection. The effects of TAP are more pronounced when it is provided prior to surgery and these effects are local anaesthesia dose-dependent. TAP block seems an interesting alternative in patients with, for example, severe obesity where epidural or spinal anaesthesia/analgesia is technically difficult and/or poses a risk. There is an obvious need for further high-quality studies comparing TAP block prior to surgery with local infiltration analgesia, single-shot spinal analgesia, and epidural analgesia. These studies should be procedure-specific and the effects should be evaluated, both regarding short-term pain and analgesic requirement and also including the effects on postoperative nausea and vomiting, recovery of bowel function, ambulation, discharge, and protracted recovery outcomes (assessed by e.g., postoperative quality of recovery scale.

  5. Transversus abdominal plane (TAP) block for postoperative pain management: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson, Jan; Wickerts, Liselott; Forsberg, Sune; Ledin, Gustaf

    2015-01-01

    Transversus abdominal plane (TAP) block has a long history and there is currently extensive clinical experience around TAP blocks. The aim of this review is to provide a summary of the present evidence on the effects of TAP block and to provide suggestions for further studies. There are several approaches to perfor