WorldWideScience

Sample records for received 4-6 years

  1. Fear of repeated injections in children younger than 4 years receiving subcutaneous allergy immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Gabriele; Shankar, Viswanathan; Nazari, Ramin; Kooragayalu, Shravan; Smith, Mitchell; Wiznia, Andrew; Rosenstreich, David

    2012-12-01

    Allergy immunotherapy during early childhood may have potential benefits for the prevention of asthma and allergy morbidity. However, subcutaneous immunotherapy has not yet been prospectively researched in children younger than 4 years, primarily because of safety concerns, including the fear and psychological distress young children may experience with repeated needle injections. To quantify fear in atopic children younger than 4 years with a history of wheezing who are receiving subcutaneous immunotherapy. Fear of injection was graded during a total of 788 immunotherapy injection visits in 18 children (age, 37 months; SD, 9 months) receiving subcutaneous allergy immunotherapy. The parent and the injection nurse assigned fear scores on a scale of 0 to 10 after each injection visit. At the time of analysis, children had a median of 49 injection visits (range, 12-88) during a median study period of 81.5 weeks (range, 15-165 weeks). Fifteen children (83%) lost their fear of injections during the study. A fear score of 0 was achieved after a mean of 8.4 visits (SD, 7.4). The more injection visits were missed, the more likely children were to retain fear of injections (hazard ratio, 0.13; 95% confidence interval, 0.02-1.02; P=.05). Age, adverse events, number of injections at each visit, and change of injection personnel were not associated with increased fear. Our analysis suggests that most children receiving weekly subcutaneous immunotherapy lose their fear of injections during the treatment course. Children with increased intervals between visits may be at higher risk of experiencing fear of injections. clinicaltrial.gov identifier NCT01028560. Copyright © 2012 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. 4-Valent Human Papillomavirus (4vHPV) Vaccine in Preadolescents and Adolescents After 10 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Daron G; Samakoses, Rudiwilai; Block, Stanley L; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Restrepo, Jaime Alberto; Mehlsen, Jesper; Chatterjee, Archana; Iversen, Ole-Erik; Joshi, Amita; Chu, Jian-Li; Krick, Andrea Likos; Saah, Alfred; Das, Rituparna

    2017-12-01

    We describe the final 10-year data for the long-term follow-up study of the 4-valent human papillomavirus (4vHPV) vaccine in preadolescents and adolescents. In the base study (V501-018), 1661 sexually inactive boys and girls received the 4vHPV vaccine (early vaccination group [EVG], managed for 9.9 years) or a placebo at day 1, month 2, and month 6. Thereafter, at month 30, the placebo group (catch-up vaccination group [CVG], managed for 7.4 years) received the 4vHPV vaccine by using the same dosing schedule. Long-term anti-HPV type 6, 11, 16, and 18 immune responses were assessed. Effectiveness was estimated by calculating the incidence rate of the primary endpoints (HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18-related disease or persistent infection). For HPV types 6, 11, and 16, 89% to 96% of subjects remained seropositive through 10-years postvaccination. The preadolescents had 38% to 65% higher geometric mean titers at month 7, which remained 16% to 42% higher at 10 years compared with adolescents. No cases of HPV type 6, 11, 16, and 18-related diseases were observed. Ten subjects had a persistent infection of ≥6 months duration with vaccine-type HPV and 2 subjects had persistent infection for ≥12 months. No new serious adverse events were reported through 10 years. A 3-dose regimen of the 4vHPV vaccine was immunogenic, clinically effective, and generally well tolerated in preadolescents and adolescents during 10 years of follow-up. These long-term findings support efforts to vaccinate this population against HPV before exposure. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. 4-Valent Human Papillomavirus (4vHPV) Vaccine in Preadolescents and Adolescents After 10 Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferris, Daron G; Samakoses, Rudiwilai; Block, Stanley L

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We describe the final 10-year data for the long-term follow-up study of the 4-valent human papillomavirus (4vHPV) vaccine in preadolescents and adolescents. METHODS: In the base study (V501-018), 1661 sexually inactive boys and girls received the 4vHPV vaccine (early vaccination group...... assessed. Effectiveness was estimated by calculating the incidence rate of the primary endpoints (HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18-related disease or persistent infection). RESULTS: For HPV types 6, 11, and 16, 89% to 96% of subjects remained seropositive through 10-years postvaccination. The preadolescents had...... 38% to 65% higher geometric mean titers at month 7, which remained 16% to 42% higher at 10 years compared with adolescents. No cases of HPV type 6, 11, 16, and 18-related diseases were observed. Ten subjects had a persistent infection of ≥6 months duration with vaccine-type HPV and 2 subjects had...

  4. Treatment of Early-Stage Unfavorable Hodgkin Lymphoma: Efficacy and Toxicity of 4 Versus 6 Cycles of ABVD Chemotherapy With Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunther, Jillian R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Fanale, Michelle A. [Department of Lymphoma and Myeloma, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Reddy, Jay P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Akhtari, Mani [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, Galveston, Texas (United States); Smith, Grace L.; Pinnix, Chelsea C.; Milgrom, Sarah A.; Yehia, Zeinab Abou; Allen, Pamela K.; Osborne, Eleanor M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Mawlawi, Osama [Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Dabaja, Bouthaina S., E-mail: bdabaja@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Purpose: The German Hodgkin Study Group HD11 trial validated 4 cycles of doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine (ABVD) chemotherapy followed by involved field radiation therapy (IFRT) for early unfavorable Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) patients. However, practitioners often recommend 6 cycles followed by RT, especially for bulky disease. We compared patient outcomes after treatment with 4 or 6 cycles of ABVD followed by RT (IFRT and involved site RT [ISRT]). Methods and Materials: We identified 128 patients treated for early unfavorable HL (GHSG criteria) between 2000 and 2013. Clinical outcomes (overall survival [OS] and freedom from relapse [FFR]) were estimated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Toxicities were evaluated. Results: The median follow-up time was 5.0 years. Patients received 4 (70 patients, 55%) or 6 (58 patients, 45%) cycles of chemotherapy. Bulky disease was present in 22 patients (31%; 0 stage IA, 3 stage IB, 19 stage IIA) of the 4-cycle group and 42 patients (72%; 5 stage IA, 3 stage IB, 34 stage IIA) of the 6-cycle group. For patients receiving 4 and 6 cycles, the 6-year OS was 100% and 97% (P=.35), respectively, and the 6 year FFR was 100% and 98% (P=.28), respectively. More patients received 6 cycles if they were treated before 2010 (HD11 report) (P=.01) and if they had bulky disease (P<.01). Sixty-eight percent of patients received ISRT. The 6-year FFR was 99% and 100% for patients receiving ISRT and IFRT, respectively (P=.58). More patients experienced bleomycin pulmonary toxicity in the 6-cycle group (20% vs 31%, P=.16). For patients with bulky disease, the 4-year FFR was similar with receipt of 4 (100%) or 6 (98%) cycles (P=.48) and IFRT (100%) or ISRT (98%) (P=.52). There were no deaths among patients with bulky disease. Conclusions: Patients with early unfavorable HL have excellent outcomes with 4 cycles of ABVD chemotherapy followed by ISRT. Six cycles of chemotherapy does not appear superior for disease control, even for bulky disease.

  5. Treatment of Early-Stage Unfavorable Hodgkin Lymphoma: Efficacy and Toxicity of 4 Versus 6 Cycles of ABVD Chemotherapy With Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunther, Jillian R.; Fanale, Michelle A.; Reddy, Jay P.; Akhtari, Mani; Smith, Grace L.; Pinnix, Chelsea C.; Milgrom, Sarah A.; Yehia, Zeinab Abou; Allen, Pamela K.; Osborne, Eleanor M.; Mawlawi, Osama; Dabaja, Bouthaina S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The German Hodgkin Study Group HD11 trial validated 4 cycles of doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine (ABVD) chemotherapy followed by involved field radiation therapy (IFRT) for early unfavorable Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) patients. However, practitioners often recommend 6 cycles followed by RT, especially for bulky disease. We compared patient outcomes after treatment with 4 or 6 cycles of ABVD followed by RT (IFRT and involved site RT [ISRT]). Methods and Materials: We identified 128 patients treated for early unfavorable HL (GHSG criteria) between 2000 and 2013. Clinical outcomes (overall survival [OS] and freedom from relapse [FFR]) were estimated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Toxicities were evaluated. Results: The median follow-up time was 5.0 years. Patients received 4 (70 patients, 55%) or 6 (58 patients, 45%) cycles of chemotherapy. Bulky disease was present in 22 patients (31%; 0 stage IA, 3 stage IB, 19 stage IIA) of the 4-cycle group and 42 patients (72%; 5 stage IA, 3 stage IB, 34 stage IIA) of the 6-cycle group. For patients receiving 4 and 6 cycles, the 6-year OS was 100% and 97% (P=.35), respectively, and the 6 year FFR was 100% and 98% (P=.28), respectively. More patients received 6 cycles if they were treated before 2010 (HD11 report) (P=.01) and if they had bulky disease (P<.01). Sixty-eight percent of patients received ISRT. The 6-year FFR was 99% and 100% for patients receiving ISRT and IFRT, respectively (P=.58). More patients experienced bleomycin pulmonary toxicity in the 6-cycle group (20% vs 31%, P=.16). For patients with bulky disease, the 4-year FFR was similar with receipt of 4 (100%) or 6 (98%) cycles (P=.48) and IFRT (100%) or ISRT (98%) (P=.52). There were no deaths among patients with bulky disease. Conclusions: Patients with early unfavorable HL have excellent outcomes with 4 cycles of ABVD chemotherapy followed by ISRT. Six cycles of chemotherapy does not appear superior for disease control, even for bulky disease.

  6. Study on UF6 condensing receiving system improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhenxing; Li Yingfeng; Li Zhenfeng; He Ping; Wang Yanping; Tian Yushan

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve receiving capacity of UF 6 condensing system, the pressure release mode is changed through modifying gas phase inlet of the first-grade condenser, thus pressure release time is reduced from 13.1 h to 8.1 h. Be- cause of improvement of utility condensers of the two product lines, both the flexibility of feeding nitrogen and the emergency capacity of condensers are improved greatly. And modification of fluid transferring and sampling system make the remains in system transfer flexibly. The practise shows that metal direct recovery rises to the extent, and capacity of the first-grade condensing receiving system improves 8.4%, which strongly guarantees fluorination production safely, continuously and stably run. (authors)

  7. Factors Affecting the IQ of Preterm Born Children of 4-6 Years Old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokofeh Radfar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: This research was carry out with aim of study of factors affecting the IQ of children 4-6 years old born preterm. Materials and Methods: This analytical-cross sectional study was carried out on 102 premature children with age 4-6 years old during years 2004 to 2006. The tools used in this study were Wechsler intelligence scale for children and questioner including demographical characteristic. In this study we used t-test and spearman correlation and also SPSS-18 was used to analyze data. Results: In this study there was statistical relationship between normal child development and gestational age, birth weight, maternal education, multiple pregnancies, but there were not any statistical significant relationship between the history of preterm birth and child s gender, consanguinity parents, apgar, mother job. Conclusion: IQ in preterm babies who admitted in the NICU was lower than non-admitted preterm or term babies.

  8. Addressing the academic gap between 4- and 6-year pharmacy programs in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Sujin; Song, Seungyeon; Lee, Sangmi; Kwon, Kwangil; Kim, Eunyoung

    2014-10-15

    To address the academic gap (or lack of adequate training and programs) between 4- and 6-year pharmacy programs and suggest methods for reducing this gap and to evaluate pharmacists' perceptions of preceptorship. We surveyed a convenience sample of 200 community pharmacists who graduated from a 4-year program who were participating in a continuing education program for clinical pharmacy as organized by the Daejeon branch of the Korea Pharmaceutical Association in 2011. Twenty-one questions were asked about the academic gap, needs for an education program, preceptorship, and medication therapy management services. International precedents were examined through a literature review to glean ideas of how to bridge the academic gap between the 4- and 6-year programs. In total, 132 pharmacists answered the survey (return rate=66.0%). The survey findings included problems caused by the academic gap, high need for an adequate education program, low acceptability of preceptorship, and the possibility of medication therapy management services. US-based, non-traditional PharmD programs and new curriculum-support training in Japan provided examples of how the academic gap has been successfully bridged. Nationwide efforts and government support are urgently required to close the academic gap, and experiential education should be included in transitional programs for 4-year pharmacy program pharmacists.

  9. Pronounced lipoatrophy in HIV-infected men receiving HAART for more than 6 years compared with the background population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, AB; Lindegaard, B; Obel, N

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To establish the prevalence and quantify the severity of body fat redistribution and dyslipidaemia in HIV-infected men after long-term highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) compared with the background population. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, we included 87 HIV......-infected men who had received HAART for at least 6 years and 34 HIV-negative men. Regional body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Fasting metabolic parameters were obtained. Associations between regional body fat distribution and metabolic parameters were evaluated. RESULTS: HIV......-infected patients and controls did not differ with regard to height and lean body mass. Compared with controls, HIV-infected men had reduced total fat mass (median 12.3 versus 19.2 kg, P

  10. Association of parents' and children's physical activity and sedentary time in Year 4 (8-9) and change between Year 1 (5-6) and Year 4: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, Russell; Solomon-Moore, Emma; Macdonald-Wallis, Corrie; Thompson, Janice L; Lawlor, Deborah A; Sebire, Simon J

    2017-08-17

    Parents could be important influences on child physical activity and parents are often encouraged to be more active with their child. This paper examined the association between parent and child physical activity and sedentary time in a UK cohort of children assessed when the children were in Year 1 (5-6 years old) and in Year 4 (8-9 years old). One thousand two hundred twenty three children and parents provided data in Year 4 and of these 685 participated in Year 1. Children and parents wore an accelerometer for five days including a weekend. Mean minutes of sedentary time and moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) were derived. Multiple imputation was used to impute all missing data and create complete datasets. Linear regression models examined whether parent MVPA and sedentary time at Year 4 and at Year 1 predicted child MVPA and sedentary time at Year 4. Change in parent MVPA and sedentary time was used to predict change in child MVPA and sedentary time between Year 1 and Year 4. Imputed data showed that at Year 4, female parent sedentary time was associated with child sedentary time (0.13, 95% CI = 0.00 to 0.27 mins/day), with a similar association for male parents (0.15, 95% CI = -0.02 to 0.32 mins/day). Female parent and child MVPA at Year 4 were associated (0.16, 95% CI = 0.08 to 0.23 mins/day) with a smaller association for male parents (0.08, 95% CI = -0.01 to 0.17 mins/day). There was little evidence that either male or female parent MVPA at Year 1 predicted child MVPA at Year 4 with similar associations for sedentary time. There was little evidence that change in parent MVPA or sedentary time predicted change in child MVPA or sedentary time respectively. Parents who were more physically active when their child was 8-9 years old had a child who was more active, but the magnitude of association was generally small. There was little evidence that parental activity from three years earlier predicted child activity at age 8-9, or

  11. Addressing the Academic Gap Between 4- and 6-Year Pharmacy Programs in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Sujin; Song, Seungyeon; Lee, Sangmi; Kwon, Kwangil; Kim, Eunyoung

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To address the academic gap (or lack of adequate training and programs) between 4- and 6-year pharmacy programs and suggest methods for reducing this gap and to evaluate pharmacists’ perceptions of preceptorship.

  12. Preschool Teachers' Emotional Socialization Responses to 4-6 Year-Old Turkish Preschoolers' Emotional Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Sukran

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate preschool teachers' emotion socialization responses to Turkish preschoolers' emotional expressions based on children's age and gender. The participants in the current study were 12 preschool full time teachers from 4 preschool and 288 preschoolers ranging in age from 4 to 6 years in Aksaray. In…

  13. Tracking food consumption frequency of children from age 4 to 6 years: the Pacific Islands Families study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savila, Fa'asisila; Obolonkin, Victor; Rush, Elaine

    2015-08-21

    To report longitudinal food frequency consumption and evaluate tracking of food frequency among a cohort of New Zealand-born Pacific children. Identify the most commonly consumed foods and estimate tracking among Pacific children aged 4 and 6 years. A qualitative food frequency questionnaire was administered to n>1,000 caregivers of children aged 4 and 6 years. Consumption scores were developed from averaged frequency of daily food. Foods and food groups were examined for tracking. Caregivers completed questionnaires for 646 children at both ages. Twelve most frequently consumed foods were identified, accounting for up to 25% of all food consumed daily. Across ages 4 and 6, the association for frequency of the most frequently consumed foods was moderate (r(2)=0.53). Food groups: breads and cereals; meat and alternates; and vegetables and fruit constituted approximately 72% of all foods consumed daily. The association of frequency of consumption within food groups across the two measurement periods was strong (r(2)=0.96). Pacific children consume similar foods that track from age 4 through age 6 years.

  14. Channel Analysis for a 6.4 Gb s-1 DDR5 Data Buffer Receiver Front-End

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Stefanie; Gerfers, Friedel

    2017-09-01

    In this contribution, the channel characteristic of the next generation DDR5-SDRAM architecture and possible approaches to overcome channel impairments are analysed. Because modern enterprise server applications and networks demand higher memory bandwidth, throughput and capacity, the DDR5-SDRAM specification is currently under development as a follow-up of DDR4-SDRAM technology. In this specification, the data rate is doubled to DDR5-6400 per IO as compared to the former DDR4-3200 architecture, resulting in a total per DIMM data rate of up to 409.6 Gb s-1. The single-ended multi-point-to-point CPU channel architecture in DDRX technology remains the same for DDR5 systems. At the specified target data rate, insertion loss, reflections, cross-talk as well as power supply noise become more severe and have to be considered. Using the data buffer receiver front-end of a load-reduced memory module, sophisticated equalisation techniques can be applied to ensure target BER at the increased data rate. In this work, the worst case CPU back-plane channel is analysed to derive requirements for receiver-side equalisation from the channel response characteristics. First, channel impairments such as inter-symbol-interference, reflections from the multi-point channel structure, and crosstalk from neighboring lines are analysed in detail. Based on these results, different correction methods for DDR5 data buffer front-ends are discussed. An architecture with 1-tap FFE in combination with a multi-tap DFE is proposed. Simulation of the architecture using a random input data stream is used to reveal the required DFE tap filter depth to effectively eliminate the dominant ISI and reflection based error components.

  15. Obesity and motor skills among 4 to 6-year-old children in the united states: nationally-representative surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Castetbon Katia; Andreyeva Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Few population-based studies have assessed relationships between body weight and motor skills in young children. Our objective was to estimate the association between obesity and motor skills at 4 years and 5-6 years of age in the United States. We used repeated cross-sectional assessments of the national sample from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) of preschool 4-year-old children (2005-2006; n = 5 100) and 5-6-year-old kindergarteners (2006-2...

  16. The relationship of expressive language development and social skills in 4-6-year-old Persian-speaking children

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Vahab; Sima Shahim; Mohammad Majid Oryadizanjani; Salime Jafari; Maryam Faham

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aim: Social interaction plays an essential role in acquisition of speech and language as one of the most important developmental factors. The recent studies indicated that language abilities have a close relationship to social skills. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship of development of expressive language and dimensions of social skills in 4-6-years-old Persian-speaking children.Methods: In this study, 123 normal Persian-speaking 4-6-year-old children (76 ...

  17. A clinical repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation service in Australia: 6 years on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galletly, Cherrie A; Clarke, Patrick; Carnell, Benjamin L; Gill, Shane

    2015-11-01

    There is considerable research evidence for the effectiveness of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of depression. However, there is little information about its acceptability and outcomes in clinical settings. This naturalistic study reports on a clinical repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation service that has been running in Adelaide, South Australia (SA), for 6years. During this time, 214 complete acute courses were provided to patients with treatment-resistant Major Depressive Disorder. Patients received either sequential bilateral or right unilateral repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation treatment involving either 18 or 20 sessions given over 6 or 4 weeks respectively. Data included patient demographic details, duration of depression, and medication at the beginning of their repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation course. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale was used to assess response to repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. Of those undergoing a first-time acute treatment course of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (N = 167), 28% achieved remission, while a further 12% met the criteria for a response to treatment. Most patients (N = 123, 77%) had previously been treated with five or more antidepressant medications, and 77 (47%) had previously received electroconvulsive therapy. Referral rates remained high over the 6years, indicating acceptance of the treatment by referring psychiatrists. There were no significant adverse events, and the treatment was generally well tolerated. In all, 41 patients (25%) had a second course of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and 6 (4%) patients had a third course; 21 patients subsequently received maintenance repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. This naturalistic study showed that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation was well accepted by both psychiatrists and patients, and has good efficacy and safety. Furthermore

  18. Factors associated with dental caries in children aged 4-6 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Widayati

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Dental caries is one of the dental health problems. Dental caries are formed because there was leftover food that sticks to the teeth, which eventually lead to tooth calcification. Impact, teeth become brittle, hollow, even broken.Dental caries experience a loss of power to make a child chewing and digestive disruption, which resulted in growth of less than the maximum. This study aims to determine the relationship of parents’ behavior towards the maintenance of dental health of children (feeding habits sweet, sticky and drinking milk, teeth maintenance, inspection tooth and mouth with dental caries in the TK R.A Bustanussholihin in Balun village Turi District of Lamongan. This study Analytics whose data is collected with a cross sectional sample of kindergarten children aged 46 years with a total sample of 49 children. The collection of primary data through interviews parents TK R.A Bustanussholihin student using questionnaires and secondary data obtained from the agency are in the region of the profile data TK R.A Bustanussholihin in Balun Village of Turi District of Lamongan. This study used a correlation coefficient of contingency. Based on the results of the contingency coefficient correlation test showed that the factors that have a strong relationship is the habit of feeding the sweet, sticky, and drink milk with a value of P = 0.504. While the factors that have a weak link is the habit of maintaining dental hygiene habits of children and child oral examination . From this study it can be concluded that there is a relationship or a strong correlation between feeding habits sweet, sticky and drinking milk with the incidence of dental caries in children aged 46. So as to prevent dental caries severity we need to hold counseling on feeding sweet, soft and gooey on the effect of dental caries as well as how it should be formula feeding or breast milk to the child to prevent rampant caries. Keywords: dental caries, sweetened

  19. A 3.1-4.8 GHz CMOS receiver for MB-OFDM UWB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Guang; Yao Wang; Yin Jiangwei; Zheng Renliang; Li Wei; Li Ning; Ren Junyan

    2009-01-01

    An integrated fully differential ultra-wideband CMOS receiver for 3.1-4.8 GHz MB-OFDM systems is presented. A gain controllable low noise amplifier and a merged quadrature mixer are integrated as the RF front-end. Five order Gm-C type low pass filters and VGAs are also integrated for both I and Q IF paths in the receiver. The ESD protected chip is fabricated in a Jazz 0.18 μm RF CMOS process and achieves a maximum total voltage gain of 65 dB, an AGC range of 45 dB with about 6 dB/step, an averaged total noise figure of 6.4 to 8.8 dB over 3 bands and an in-band IIP3 of -5.1 dBm. The receiver occupies 2.3 mm 2 and consumes 110 mA from a 1.8 V supply including test buffers and a digital module.

  20. A 3.1-4.8 GHz CMOS receiver for MB-OFDM UWB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Guang; Yao Wang; Yin Jiangwei; Zheng Renliang; Li Wei; Li Ning; Ren Junyan, E-mail: w-li@fudan.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of ASIC and System, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2009-01-15

    An integrated fully differential ultra-wideband CMOS receiver for 3.1-4.8 GHz MB-OFDM systems is presented. A gain controllable low noise amplifier and a merged quadrature mixer are integrated as the RF front-end. Five order Gm-C type low pass filters and VGAs are also integrated for both I and Q IF paths in the receiver. The ESD protected chip is fabricated in a Jazz 0.18 mum RF CMOS process and achieves a maximum total voltage gain of 65 dB, an AGC range of 45 dB with about 6 dB/step, an averaged total noise figure of 6.4 to 8.8 dB over 3 bands and an in-band IIP3 of -5.1 dBm. The receiver occupies 2.3 mm{sup 2} and consumes 110 mA from a 1.8 V supply including test buffers and a digital module.

  1. German Language and Culture: 9-Year Program Guide to Implementation, Grades 4-5-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This implementation guide is intended to support the Grade 4 to Grade 6 portion of the German Language and Culture Nine-year Program (the program of studies). It was developed primarily for teachers, yet it includes information that may be useful for administrators and other stakeholders in their efforts to plan for and implement the new Chinese…

  2. Punjabi Language and Culture: 9-Year Program Guide to Implementation, Grades 4-5-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This implementation guide is intended to support the Grade 4 to Grade 6 portion of the Punjabi Language and Culture Nine-Year Program (the program of studies.) It was developed primarily for teachers, yet it includes information that may be useful for administrators and other stakeholders in their efforts to plan for and implement the new Punjabi…

  3. Can items used in 4-year-old well-child visits predict children's health and school outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithers, Lisa G; Chittleborough, Catherine R; Stocks, Nigel; Sawyer, Michael G; Lynch, John W

    2014-08-01

    To examine whether items comprising a preschool well-child check for use by family doctors in Australia with 4-5-year old children predicts health and academic outcomes at 6-7 years. The well-child check includes mandatory (anthropometry, eye/vision, ear/hearing, dental, toileting, allergy problems) and non-mandatory (processed food consumption, low physical activity, motor, behaviour/mood problems) items. The predictive validity of mandatory and non-mandatory items measured at 4-5 years was examined using data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Outcomes at 6-7 years included overweight/obesity, asthma, health care/medication needs, general health, mental health problems, quality of life, teacher-reported mathematics and literacy ability (n = 2,280-2,787). Weight or height >90th centile at 4-5 years predicted overweight/obesity at 6-7 years with 60% sensitivity, 79% specificity and 40% positive predictive value (PPV). Mood/behaviour problems at 4-5 predicted mental health problems at 6-7 years with 86% sensitivity, 40% specificity and 8% PPV. Non-mandatory items improved the discrimination between children with and without mental health problems at 6-7 years (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.75 compared with 0.69 for mandatory items only), but was weak for most outcomes. Items used in a well-child health check were moderate predictors of overweight/obesity and mental health problems at 6-7 years, but poor predictors of other health and academic outcomes.

  4. Does the Animal Fun program improve motor performance in children aged 4-6 years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piek, J P; McLaren, S; Kane, R; Jensen, L; Dender, A; Roberts, C; Rooney, R; Packer, T; Straker, L

    2013-10-01

    The Animal Fun program was designed to enhance the motor ability of young children by imitating the movements of animals in a fun, inclusive setting. The efficacy of this program was investigated through a randomized controlled trial using a multivariate nested cohort design. Pre-intervention scores were recorded for 511 children aged 4.83 years to 6.17 years (M=5.42 years, SD=3.58 months). Six control and six intervention schools were compared 6 months later following the intervention, and then again at 18 months after the initial testing when the children were in their first school year. Changes in motor performance were examined using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency short form. Data were analyzed using multi-level-mixed effects linear regression. A significant Condition×Time interaction was found, F(2,1219)=3.35, p=.035, demonstrating that only the intervention group showed an improvement in motor ability. A significant Sex×Time interaction was also found, F(2,1219)=3.84, p=.022, with boys improving over time, but not girls. These findings have important implications for the efficacy of early intervention of motor skills and understanding the differences in motor performance between boys and girls. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Clinical characteristics of pneumonia in bedridden patients receiving home care: a 3-year prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Tadashi; Tachibana, Hiromasa; Ito, Akihiro; Ikeda, Satoshi; Furuta, Kenjiro; Nishiyama, Akihiro; Noyama, Maki; Tokioka, Fumiaki; Yoshioka, Hiroshige; Arita, Machiko

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the epidemiology, clinical features, antimicrobial treatment, and outcomes of bedridden pneumonia patients receiving home healthcare. A 3-year prospective observational study of poor performance status (PS) 3-4 patients receiving long-term home healthcare and hospitalized at a single center with pneumonia between October 2010 and September 2013 was conducted, and their clinical characteristics were compared with non-bedridden community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients. A total of 131 CAP patients with PS 3-4, and 400 CAP patients with PS 0-2 were evaluated. The PS 3-4 patients were older, and exhibited a higher frequency of underlying diseases. Aspiration was thought to be associated with pneumonia in 77.1% of the PS 3-4 patients. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the leading pathogen in both groups, whereas the frequency of streptococci and polymicrobial infections was higher in the PS 3-4 group. The incidence of multidrug-resistant pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or Pseudomonas aeruginosa was lower than in previous healthcare-associated pneumonia reports. The in-hospital mortality and recurrence rates were significantly higher in the PS 3-4 group than in the good PS group (17.6% vs. 6.0%, p < 0.001 and 15.3% vs. 7.5%, p = 0.008, respectively). The clinical characteristics of pneumonia in poor PS patients were similar to healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP), except for the frequency of drug-resistant pathogens. Hence, it might be beneficial to categorize pneumonia in home residents with poor PS separately from pneumonia in CAP patients who were previously healthy or experienced mild comorbidities. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Design and Validation of a Photographic Expressive Persian Grammar Test for Children Aged 4-6 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haresabadi, Fatemeh; Ebadi, Abbas; Shirazi, Tahereh Sima; Dastjerdi Kazemi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Syntax has a high importance among linguistic parameters, and syntax-related problems are the most common in language disorders. Therefore, the present study aimed to design a Photographic Expressive Persian Grammar Test for Iranian children in the age group of 4-6 years and to determine its validity and reliability. First, the target…

  7. 6.4 Tb/s (32 × 200 Gb/s) WDM direct-detection transmission with twin-SSB modulation and Kramers-Kronig receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yixiao; Jiang, Mingxuan; Ruan, Xiaoke; Chen, Zeyu; Li, Chenjia; Zhang, Fan

    2018-05-01

    We experimentally demonstrate 6.4 Tb/s wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) direct-detection transmission based on Nyquist twin-SSB modulation over 25 km SSMF with bit error rates (BERs) below the 20% hard-decision forward error correction (HD-FEC) threshold of 1.5 × 10-2. The two sidebands of each channel are separately detected using Kramers-Kronig receiver without MIMO equalization. We also carry out numerical simulations to evaluate the system robustness against I/Q amplitude imbalance, I/Q phase deviation and the extinction ratio of modulator, respectively. Furthermore, we show in simulation that the requirement of steep edge optical filter can be relaxed if multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) equalization between the two sidebands is used.

  8. Nocardia brasiliensis infection mimicking juvenile idiopathic arthritis in a 4-year-old girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, Nitin; Adib, Navid; Grimwood, Keith

    2013-11-01

    Nocardia are ubiquitous environmental saprophytes that cause pneumonia and disseminated disease in immunocompromised patients. They can also cause localized cutaneous and soft tissue infections in healthy people after direct percutaneous inoculation. Nocardia arthritis is rare in both forms of the disease. Here we present the first published case of a child with septic arthritis caused by N brasiliensis. Importantly, this otherwise well 4-year-old girl had no known history of trauma but presented with transient cutaneous lesions and a 6-week history of arthritis involving the right fourth digit proximal interphalangeal joint without accompanying fever or raised systemic inflammatory markers. She received a diagnosis of juvenile idiopathic arthritis and underwent antiinflammatory and immunosuppressant therapy. After 2 months she developed frank septic arthritis, which necessitated a surgical joint washout, from which an intraoperative swab grew N brasiliensis. The patient received 6 months of high-dose trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and remains well more than 4 years after treatment. This unusual case highlights the importance of considering an indolent infection from slow-growing organisms, including Nocardia, when diagnosing the oligoarthritis subtype of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. This is especially relevant when a single joint is involved and response to antiinflammatory therapy is suboptimal because antiinflammatory agents may mask evolving signs of infection.

  9. Is Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block Sufficient for Routine Dental Treatment in 4- to 6-year-old Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourkazemi, Maryam; Erfanparast, Leila; Sheykhgermchi, Sanaz; Ghanizadeh, Milad

    2017-01-01

    Pain control is one of the most important aspects of behavior management in children. The most common way to achieve pain control is by using local anesthetics (LA). Many studies describe that the buccal nerve innervates the buccal gingiva and mucosa of the mandible for a variable extent from the vicinity of the lower third molar to the lower canine. Regarding the importance of appropriate and complete LA in child-behavior control, in this study, we examined the frequency of buccal gingiva anesthesia of primary mandibular molars and canine after inferior alveolar nerve block injection in 4- to 6-year-old children. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 220 4- to 6-year-old children were randomly selected and entered into the study. Inferior alveolar nerve block was injected with the same method and standards for all children, and after ensuring the success of block injection, anesthesia of buccal mucosa of primary molars and canine was examined by stick test and reaction of child using sound, eye, motor (SEM) scale. The data from the study were analyzed using descriptive statistics and statistical software Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21. The area that was the highest nonanesthetized was recorded as in the distobuccal of the second primary molars. The area of the lowest nonanesthesia was also reported in the gingiva of primary canine tooth. According to this study, in 15 to 30% of cases, after inferior alveolar nerve block injection, the primary mandibular molars' buccal mucosa is not anesthetized. How to cite this article: Pourkazemi M, Erfanparast L, Sheykhgermchi S, Ghanizadeh M. Is Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block Sufficient for Routine Dental Treatment in 4- to 6-year-old Children? Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(4):369-372.

  10. Toothbrushing frequency among 46-year-old Iranian children and associated maternal attitude and sociobehavioral factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Raheleh; Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Akhlaghi, Najmeh; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Alipoor, Mikaeil; Mahaki, Behzad

    2017-01-01

    Background: Toothbrushing is an important aspect of children's oral health self-care. This study aimed to explore toothbrushing frequency among 46-year-old Iranian children and associated maternal attitude and sociobehavioral factors. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 407 mother–child (aged 46 years) pairs through stratified random sampling in Tabriz, Iran. Data were collected using self-reported questionnaires including demographic characteristic, maternal attitude, and toothbrushing frequency of both mothers and children. Logistic regression was used to determine the predicators of children's toothbrushing. Statistical significance was set at P brushed their teeth once daily. Nearly 38.7% of children started toothbrushing behavior regularly at 4 years of age, and 41% had dental visits. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that children's toothbrushing (once daily or more) was associated with maternal brushing frequency (odds ratio [OR] =2.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.53–2.86), maternal attitude toward oral health (OR = 1.15, CI = 1.08–1.22), and children's age (OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.02–1.77). Conclusion: The descriptive results indicated that maternal and children toothbrushing behaviors are unfavorable. Furthermore, maternal toothbrushing behavior is a strong predicator of children's brushing behavior. Health promotional activities seem necessary for mothers to enhance oral health behavior of their children. PMID:28348618

  11. Suprasegmental Features Are Not Acquired Early: Perception and Production of Monosyllabic Cantonese Lexical Tones in 4- to 6-Year-Old Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Puisan; Tsz-Tin Leung, Carrie

    2018-05-17

    Previous studies reported that children acquire Cantonese tones before 3 years of age, supporting the assumption in models of phonological development that suprasegmental features are acquired rapidly and early in children. Yet, recent research found a large disparity in the age of Cantonese tone acquisition. This study investigated Cantonese tone development in 4- to 6-year-old children. Forty-eight 4- to 6-year-old Cantonese-speaking children and 28 mothers of the children labeled 30 pictures representing familiar words in the 6 tones in a picture-naming task and identified pictures representing words in different Cantonese tones in a picture-pointing task. To control for lexical biases in tone assessment, tone productions were low-pass filtered to eliminate lexical information. Five judges categorized the tones in filtered stimuli. Tone production accuracy, tone perception accuracy, and correlation between tone production and perception accuracy were examined. Children did not start to produce adultlike tones until 5 and 6 years of age. Four-year-olds produced none of the tones with adultlike accuracy. Five- and 6-year-olds attained adultlike productions in 2 (T5 and T6) to 3 (T4, T5, and T6) tones, respectively. Children made better progress in tone perception and achieved higher accuracy in perception than in production. However, children in all age groups perceived none of the tones as accurately as adults, except that T1 was perceived with adultlike accuracy by 6-year-olds. Only weak association was found between children's tone perception and production accuracy. Contradicting to the long-held assumption that children acquire lexical tone rapidly and early before the mastery of segmentals, this study found that 4- to 6-year-old children have not mastered the perception or production of the full set of Cantonese tones in familiar monosyllabic words. Larger development was found in children's tone perception than tone production. The higher tone perception

  12. Prevalence of high blood pressure and association with obesity in Spanish schoolchildren aged 4-6 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Espinosa, Noelia; Díez-Fernández, Ana; Sánchez-López, Mairena; Rivero-Merino, Irene; Lucas-De La Cruz, Lidia; Solera-Martínez, Montserrat; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of high blood pressure in children is increasing worldwide, largely, but not entirely, driven by the concurrent childhood obesity epidemic. The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension in 4-to-6-year-old Spanish schoolchildren, and to evaluate the association between different blood pressure (BP) components with different adiposity indicators. Cross-sectional study including a sample of 1.604 schoolchildren aged 4-to-6-years belonging to 21 schools from the provinces of Ciudad Real and Cuenca, Spain. We measured height, weight, body mass index (BMI), fat mass percentage (%FM), triceps skinfold thickness (TST), waist circumference (WC), systolic and diastolic BP, mean arterial pressure and pulse pressure. The estimates of prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension were 12.3% and 18.2%, respectively. In both sexes, adiposity indicators were positively and significantly associated with all BP components (phigh blood pressure in Spanish children. Moreover, high levels of adiposity are associated with high blood pressure in early childhood, which support that it could be related to cardiovascular risk later in life.

  13. Analisis Performa File Transport Protocol pada Perbandingan Metode IPv4 Murni, IPv6 Murni dan Tunneling 6to4 Berbasis Router Mikrotik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siswo Wardoyo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of IPv4 which has more than 30 years led to the capacity of available addresses is running out availability. Currently emerging new generation IP (IPnext generation is IPv6. Many methods for the implementation of IPv6, one with tunneling. 6to4 is a tunneling method that can be directly implemented on an IPv4 network. This study compared the performance level of a pure IPv4 network, IPv6 6to4 tunneling with pure and searching FTP throughput performance. Throughput results obtained pure IPv6 is smaller than the value of 42.9% pure IPv4 throughput, 6to4 tunneling is smaller than 39.4% pure IPv4 and IPv6 pure value 53.626% greater throughput than 6to4 tunneling configuration.

  14. Obesity and motor skills among 4 to 6-year-old children in the United States: nationally-representative surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castetbon, Katia; Andreyeva, Tatiana

    2012-03-15

    Few population-based studies have assessed relationships between body weight and motor skills in young children. Our objective was to estimate the association between obesity and motor skills at 4 years and 5-6 years of age in the United States. We used repeated cross-sectional assessments of the national sample from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) of preschool 4-year-old children (2005-2006; n = 5 100) and 5-6-year-old kindergarteners (2006-2007; n = 4 700). Height, weight, and fine and gross motor skills were assessed objectively via direct standardized procedures. We used categorical and continuous measures of body weight status, including obesity (Body Mass Index (BMI) ≥ 95th percentile) and BMI z-scores. Multivariate logistic and linear models estimated the association between obesity and gross and fine motor skills in very young children adjusting for individual, social, and economic characteristics and parental involvement. The prevalence of obesity was about 15%. The relationship between motor skills and obesity varied across types of skills. For hopping, obese boys and girls had significantly lower scores, 20% lower in obese preschoolers and 10% lower in obese kindergarteners than normal weight counterparts, p Obese girls could jump 1.6-1.7 inches shorter than normal weight peers (p motor skills and fine motor skills of young children were not consistently related to BMI z-scores and obesity. Based on objective assessment of children's motor skills and body weight and a full adjustment for confounding covariates, we find no reduction in overall coordination and fine motor skills in obese young children. Motor skills are adversely associated with childhood obesity only for skills most directly related to body weight.

  15. The Role of Creative Drama in Improving the Creativity of 4-6 Years Old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedighe Momeni

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the influence of creative drama on the creativity of 4 to 6 years old children. Accordingly, using a multi-stage cluster sampling, 52 children (21 girls and 31 boys, of district of Ahwaz city, were chosen and then randomly divided into two groups of experimental (33 people and control (19 people. The researched was directly involved in intervention as regarded the experimental group. The intervention group participated in creative drama activities for two months (15 sessions. The creativity level of the children in these two groups, before and after the intervention, was measured using the creativity test of Jean-Louis Cellier? This test includes verbal creativity, completing and interpreting the pictures that are determinative of creativity components, fluidity, extension, flexibility and originality. The data and the results were analyzed based on descriptive statistical and inferential methods such as frequency, mean, standard deviation and non-parametric rank (Kruskal-Wallis, Wilcoxon and the Spearman correlation. The results indicated that the creative drama significantly increased the creativity of children at the ages of 4 to 6.

  16. Mastery of Fundamental Movement Skills among 6-Year-Old Flemish Pre-School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandaele, Bart; Cools, Wouter; de Decker, Steve; de Martelaer, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess mastery of Fundamental Movement Skills (FMS) in 6- to 6.5-year-old Flemish pre-school children. The subjects were 236 6-year-old children (138 boys, 98 girls; mean age 6 years 2.4 months, SD 2.4). Children were individually assessed with the Motoriktest fur Vier- bis Sechsjahrige Kinder (MOT 4-6) in four…

  17. Graves' disease in 2.5 years old girl - 6-years-long observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonak, Olimpia; Połubok, Joanna; Barg, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric Graves' disease is rare in young children, more frequent in children with other autoimmune diseases or with family history of autoimmune thyroid disease. The 2.5 year old girl was admitted to the hospital with tachycardia and subfebrile temperature. The girl presented symptoms of atopic dermatitis. Child's mother was diagnosed with Hashimoto disease two months after the child's diagnosis. In physical examination of the child, enlarged thyroid was found. At the admission, the laboratory tests revealed decreased TSH (0.001 uIU/ml), increased both FT3 (>30 pg/ml) and FT4 (3.43 ng/dl), but normal levels of anti-thyreoglobulin antibodies (ATG - 0.64 IU/ml) and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (ATPO - 0 IU/ml); thyrotropin receptor antibodies (TRAb) were not identified. The Graves' disease was diagnosed. The girl started treatment with methimazole (2x5mg) and propranolol (due to tachycardia, 2x5mg). The thyroid function (TSH, FT4 and FT3) normalized 1 year after diagnosis and hormone levels remained within normal reference values, but she received methimazole for 18 months. At presen, the patient is 8 years old. She is not receiving any treatment and her thyroid function is correct. The girl still presents symptoms of atopy. In case of symptoms of tachycardia in children, the hyperthyroidism should be taken into consideration. Numerous methods of treatment provide a therapy appropriate to the age and condition of patients. Long remission after treatment with antithyroid drugs could also be achieved in younger (prepubertal) children. © Polish Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology.

  18. Tennessee health studies agreement. Annual report for year 4, January 1 - December 31, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    The Tennessee Department of Health (TDH) has completed the fourth full year of the Oak Ridge Health Studies Agreement grant. This report summarizes the accomplishments and concerns of the State for the period January 1, 1995, to December 31, 1995. The focus of work during the fourth grant year was the actual work on the dose reconstruction. The final work plan for Task 5, Plan to Perform a Systematic Document Search was received in November 1994. Final work plans for Task 1, Investigation of Radioiodine from Radioactive Lanthanum Processing; Task 2, Investigation of Mercury Releases from Lithium Enrichment; Task 3, Investigation of Releases of PCBs from Oak Ridge Facilities; and Task 4, Investigation of Releases of Radionuclides from White Oak Creek to the Clinch River, were received in February 1995. Final work plans for Task 6, Investigation of the Quality of Historical Uranium Effluent Monitoring at Oak Ridge Facilities; and Task 7, Additional Screening of Materials Not Evaluated in the Dose Reconstruction Feasibility Study, were received in April 1995. ChemRisk's 4th Quarterly Report, for October through December 1995, is included in Attachment 1. Attachment 2 contains a study which developed a quality improvement program for data imported to the Tennessee Cancer Reporting System and Birth Defects Verification Program

  19. Prenatal serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI antidepressant exposure and serotonin transporter promoter genotype (SLC6A4 influence executive functions at 6 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitney eWeikum

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal exposure to serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI antidepressants and maternal depression may affect prefrontal cognitive skills (executive functions; EFs including self-control, working memory and cognitive flexibility. We examined long-term effects of prenatal SRI exposure on EFs to determine whether effects are moderated by maternal mood and/or genetic variations in SLC6A4 (a gene that codes for the serotonin transporter [5-HTT] central to the regulation of synaptic serotonin levels and behavior. Children who were exposed to SRIs prenatally (SRI-exposed N=26 and non-exposed (N=38 were studied at age 6 years (M=6.3 SD=0.5 using the Hearts & Flowers task (H&F to assess EFs. Maternal mood was measured during pregnancy (3rd trimester and when the child was age 6 years (Hamilton Depression Scale. Parent reports of child behavior were also obtained (MacArthur Health & Behavior Questionnaire. Parents of prenatally SRI-exposed children reported fewer child externalizing and inattentive (ADHD behaviors. Generalized estimate equation modeling showed a significant 3-way interaction between prenatal SRI exposure, SLC6A4 variant, and maternal mood at the 6-year time-point on H&F accuracy. For prenatally SRI-exposed children, regardless of maternal mood, the H&F accuracy of children with reduced 5HTT expression (a short [S] allele remained stable. Even with increasing maternal depressive symptoms (though all below clinical threshold, EFs of children with at least one short allele were comparable to children with the same genotype whose mothers reported few if any depressive symptoms – in this sense they showed resilience. Children with two long (L alleles were more sensitive to context. When their mothers had few depressive symptoms, LL children showed extremely good EF performance – better than any other group. When their mothers reported more depressive symptoms, LL children’s EF performance was worse than that of any other group.

  20. Safety and Immunogenicity of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted Vaccine in 4-6-year-old Girls: Results to Month 12 From a Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lan; Parra, Mercedes Macias; Sierra, Victor Y; Cespedes, Albino Salas; Granados, Maria Angelica; Luque, Adriana; Damaso, Silvia; Castrejon Alba, Maria Mercedes; Romano-Mazzotti, Luis; Struyf, Frank

    2018-04-01

    The burden of cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) is high in Latin America. The suboptimal HPV vaccination coverage in adolescents could be improved by pediatric immunization. HPV vaccination has not yet been reported in girls HPV-16/18 vaccine in 4-6-year-old girls. Healthy girls (randomized 1:1) received either 2 doses of AS04-HPV-16/18 vaccine (HPV group, N=74) or 1 dose of each measles-mumps-rubella and diphtheria-tetanus-acellular-pertussis vaccines (control group, N=74) 6 months apart. We report the safety and serum anti-HPV-16 and anti-HPV-18 antibodies (measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) up to 6 months postvaccination, that is, month (M) 12. Injection site pain was the most frequently reported solicited local symptom in HPV vaccinees. The incidence of other solicited and unsolicited symptoms after each vaccination was similar between the HPV and control group. Until M12, 1 girl in the HPV group and 2 in the control group reported serious adverse events; all serious adverse events were assessed as unrelated to study vaccines. No potential immune-mediated diseases were identified. All girls seroconverted for both antigens after 2 doses of AS04-HPV-16/18. In initially seronegative girls, anti-HPV-16 geometric mean concentrations were 20080.0 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay units (EU)/mL at M7 and 3246.5 EU/mL at M12; anti-HPV-18 geometric mean concentrations were 10621.8 EU/mL at M7 and 1216.6 EU/mL at M12. Two-dose vaccination with AS04-HPV-16/18 was well tolerated and induced adequate antibody responses in 4-6-year-old girls.

  1. Obesity and motor skills among 4 to 6-year-old children in the united states: nationally-representative surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castetbon Katia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few population-based studies have assessed relationships between body weight and motor skills in young children. Our objective was to estimate the association between obesity and motor skills at 4 years and 5-6 years of age in the United States. We used repeated cross-sectional assessments of the national sample from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B of preschool 4-year-old children (2005-2006; n = 5 100 and 5-6-year-old kindergarteners (2006-2007; n = 4 700. Height, weight, and fine and gross motor skills were assessed objectively via direct standardized procedures. We used categorical and continuous measures of body weight status, including obesity (Body Mass Index (BMI ≥ 95th percentile and BMI z-scores. Multivariate logistic and linear models estimated the association between obesity and gross and fine motor skills in very young children adjusting for individual, social, and economic characteristics and parental involvement. Results The prevalence of obesity was about 15%. The relationship between motor skills and obesity varied across types of skills. For hopping, obese boys and girls had significantly lower scores, 20% lower in obese preschoolers and 10% lower in obese kindergarteners than normal weight counterparts, p p Conclusions Based on objective assessment of children's motor skills and body weight and a full adjustment for confounding covariates, we find no reduction in overall coordination and fine motor skills in obese young children. Motor skills are adversely associated with childhood obesity only for skills most directly related to body weight.

  2. The Implementation of a 2/4/8 Antennas Configurable Diversity OFDM Receiver for Mobile HDTV Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Gao

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Two pre-FFT adaptive array (AA antenna combiners and a post-FFT carrier diversity (CD combiner are integrated with a Japan Terrestrial digital TV (ISDB-T OFDM receiver using 90 nm 7M1P CMOS process. A 2/4/8-antenna diversity receiver can be configured and a low-cost 4 antenna diversity reception system can be realized in one LSI by making use of the AA-CD two-stage diversity combining method. Mobile reception performance is increased by 1.63 times using a denoise filter circuit and SPLINE interpolator under urban 6-path Rayleigh fading (TU6 model with 2-antenna post-FFT carrier diversity (2CD combing mode. The die area is 49 mm2 and the power consumption is 310 mW.

  3. IPv4 to IPv6 Transformation Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakawa, Shin

    According to the recent observations of IPv4 (Internet Protocol version 4) address allocation status, it will be running out within few years. Consequently, to ensure the continuous extension of the Internet operation, introducing IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6) protocol is surely needed. But at the same time, such transformation must be “smooth” for every Internet users and be compatible with today's IPv4 based practices. This paper describes several techniques and usage scenario which are discussed mainly in the IETF — Internet Engineering Task Force — and tried to be implemented as prototype products to transform today's Internet towards the IPv6 based one.

  4. Obesity and motor skills among 4 to 6-year-old children in the united states: nationally-representative surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Few population-based studies have assessed relationships between body weight and motor skills in young children. Our objective was to estimate the association between obesity and motor skills at 4 years and 5-6 years of age in the United States. We used repeated cross-sectional assessments of the national sample from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) of preschool 4-year-old children (2005-2006; n = 5 100) and 5-6-year-old kindergarteners (2006-2007; n = 4 700). Height, weight, and fine and gross motor skills were assessed objectively via direct standardized procedures. We used categorical and continuous measures of body weight status, including obesity (Body Mass Index (BMI) ≥ 95th percentile) and BMI z-scores. Multivariate logistic and linear models estimated the association between obesity and gross and fine motor skills in very young children adjusting for individual, social, and economic characteristics and parental involvement. Results The prevalence of obesity was about 15%. The relationship between motor skills and obesity varied across types of skills. For hopping, obese boys and girls had significantly lower scores, 20% lower in obese preschoolers and 10% lower in obese kindergarteners than normal weight counterparts, p motor skills and fine motor skills of young children were not consistently related to BMI z-scores and obesity. Conclusions Based on objective assessment of children's motor skills and body weight and a full adjustment for confounding covariates, we find no reduction in overall coordination and fine motor skills in obese young children. Motor skills are adversely associated with childhood obesity only for skills most directly related to body weight. PMID:22420636

  5. Hydraulic residence time and iron removal in a wetland receiving ferruginous mine water over a 4 year period from commissioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusin, F M; Jarvis, A P; Gandy, C J

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of residence time distribution (RTD) has been conducted for the UK Coal Authority's mine water treatment wetland at Lambley, Northumberland, to determine the hydraulic performance of the wetland over a period of approximately 4 years since site commissioning. The wetland RTD was evaluated in accordance with moment analysis and modelled based on a tanks-in-series (TIS) model to yield the hydraulic characteristics of system performance. Greater hydraulic performance was seen during the second site monitoring after 21 months of site operation i.e. longer hydraulic residence time to reflect overall system hydraulic efficiency, compared to wetland performance during its early operation. Further monitoring of residence time during the third year of wetland operation indicated a slight reduction in hydraulic residence time, thus a lower system hydraulic efficiency. In contrast, performance during the fourth year of wetland operation exhibited an improved overall system hydraulic efficiency, suggesting the influence of reed growth over the lifetime of such systems on hydraulic performance. Interestingly, the same pattern was found for iron (which is the primary pollutant of concern in ferruginous mine waters) removal efficiency of the wetland system from the second to fourth year of wetland operation. This may therefore, reflect the maturity of reeds for maintaining efficient flow distribution across the wetland to retain a longer residence time and significant fractions of water involved to enhance the extent of treatment received for iron attenuation. Further monitoring will be conducted to establish whether such performance is maintained, or whether efficiency decreases over time due to accumulation of dead plant material within the wetland cells.

  6. VERTICAL JUMP HEIGHT IN YOUNG CHILDREN - A LONGITUDINAL STUDY IN 4- TO 6-YEAR OLD CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Koren

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Preschool children are intensively involved in the process of developing fundamental movement skills such as walking, running, jumping, climbing, crawling and other simple movements. We aimed to compare age- and gender- related trends in countermovement vertical jump (CMJ performance (jumping height measured with a means of ground force plate during a longitudinal study of 4- to 6-year old children (N=79; 43% boys. Furthermore, we classified children CMJ arm-leg coordination into poor, average, or excellent on the grounds of high speed video footage. We found that CMJ height progresses significantly with age when arms are used (P<.001, η2=.632 and without the use of arms (P<.001, η2=.620. There were no sex effects. After classification of CMJ arm - leg coordination we found that children with excellent CMJ coordination progress more intensively than those with average coordination, whereas poorly coordinated jumpers do not progress at all. After extrapolating our data with the data of others, we found logarithmic CMJ height trends until the age of 16 in both sexes, athlete boys jumping higher than the non-athletes after the ages of 14 or 15. It seems that the initial movement patterns level, in this case the observed jumping technic, develops and refines in 4- to 6-year old children at that age. We conclude that jumping coordination is a very important factor of CMJ performance in the studied age span.

  7. Fuel Receiving and Storage Station. License application, amendment 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-04-01

    Amendment No. 4 of the application for licensing the Barnwell Fuel Processing Plant is presented. Information is included on: the quantity and characteristics of nuclear fuel assemblies which can be received and stored; specifications limiting the outside washdown of contaminated casks received for unloading; and definition of environmental monitoring program. (U.S.)

  8. 6-Bromo-2-(1,4-dibromo-4-methylcyclohexyl-6-methylheptan-4-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Benharref

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C15H25Br3O, was synthesized in one step from a mixture of α-atlantone [2-methyl-6-(4-methylcyclohex-3-en-1-ylhepta-2,5-dien-4-one] and γ-atlantone [2-methyl-6-(4-methylcyclohex-3-en-1-ylidenehept-2-en-4-one], which were isolated from an essential oil of the Atlas cedar (Cedrus Atlantica. The molecule is built up from the bromo ethyl cyclohexane ring, which has a substituent bromomethylhexanone group. The cyclohexane ring adopts a chair conformation. In the crystal, molecules are linked by C—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming zigzag chains parallel to [100].

  9. Long-term outcomes of patients receiving a massive transfusion after trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Biswadev; Gabbe, Belinda J; Kaukonen, Kirsi-Maija; Olaussen, Alexander; Cooper, David J; Cameron, Peter A

    2014-10-01

    Resuscitation of patients presenting with hemorrhagic shock after major trauma has evolved to incorporate multiple strategies to maintain tissue perfusion and oxygenation while managing coagulation disorders. We aimed to study changes across time in long-term outcomes in patients with major trauma. A retrospective observational study in a single major trauma center in Australia was conducted. We included all patients with major trauma and massive blood transfusion within the first 24 h during a 6-year period (from 2006 to 2011). The main outcome measures were Glasgow Outcome Score-Extended (GOSE) and work capacity at 6 and 12 months. There were 5,915 patients with major trauma of which 365 (6.2%; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 5.6 - 6.8) received a massive transfusion. The proportion of major trauma patients receiving a massive transfusion decreased across time from 8.2% to 4.4% (P GOSE at 6 months, and 44% unfavorable GOSE at 12 months. Massive transfusion was independently associated with unfavorable outcomes at 6 months after injury (adjusted odds ratio, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.05 - 2.31) but not at 12 months (adjusted odds ratio, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.72 - 1.01). A significant reduction in massive transfusion rates was observed. Unfavorable long-term outcomes among patients receiving a massive transfusion after trauma were frequent with a substantial proportion of survivors experiencing poor functional status 1 year after injury.

  10. Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia: A 6 year retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushruta Shrivastava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: To study the clinical presentations of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia and its response to chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study of 28 women of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia evaluated over a period of 6 years from January 2004 to December 2009. Patients were evaluated on the basis of their age, number of deliveries, history of abortion or molar pregnancy, and the treatment received. All patients were scored on the basis of WHO scoring system. Patients with low risk (score /=7 received multiple agent chemotherapy with EMACO regimen. After completion of chemotherapy patients were followed for a minimum of 2 years. The response to treatment was evaluated during follow-up by clinical examination, beta hCG levels and imaging as and when required. Results: Out of 28 women only 27 could be evaluated, because 1 patient was lost to follow-up. Out of 27 patients, 18 patients (66.67% achieved complete remission with the first-line chemotherapy and additional 25.92% (7/27 achieved complete remission with second line chemotherapy resulting in complete remission of 92.5% (25/27. Conclusion: Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia is curable if patient is properly evaluated and scored. It shows good response to chemotherapy.

  11. Lung function in 6 years old children born very preterm and fed different diets post discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftlund, Line Hedegaard; Agertoft, Lone; Halken, Susanne

    Background: Research has shown that being born preterm may affect lung capacity later in childhood. It is though unknown if type of early nutrition influences lung capacity and the risk of developing asthma in childhood. Aim: The aim was to investigate if type of early nutrition has an impact...... on lung function and the possible risk of developing asthma among 6 year old children born very preterm. Method: A prospective, randomized, interventional multicentre study on nutrition of a preterm birth cohort has been established and described previously. The inclusion criteria were gestational age...... ≤ 32 weeks. From hospital discharge to 4 month corrected age, the children received three different types of nutrition: A: Human milk (HM) B: HM enriched with fortifier (HMF) C: Preterm formula (PF). At the age of 6 years, the children performed an occlusion test (Rocc) and a lung resistance test...

  12. A 6-YEAR EXPERIENCE OF HEART TRANSPLANTATION IN FEDERAL ALMAZOV NORTH-WEST MEDICAL RESEARCH CENTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Shlyakhto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To estimate the results of 6-year experience of heart transplantation (HT in Federal Almazov North-West Medical Research Centre. Methods. From 2010 to 2015 we have performed 65 HT. Mean age was 44.3 ± 14 years old (from 10 to 64 years old. We used biventricular assist device (BIVAD, Berlin Heart Excor support in 7 heart transplant candidates before HT. 19 patients (29% received thymoglobulin, whereas 46 patients (71% had basiliximab to induce immunosuppression.Results. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation machines were implanted in 5 patients (7.7% after HT due to acute right ventricular failure. Suture annuloplasty (the Batista procedure for tricuspid valve repair was carried out in 3 cases (4.6%. Venovenous hemodiafi ltration was used in 11 patients (16.9%. A total of 598 endomyocardial biopsies (EMB were performed after HT. Evidence of cellular rejection (R1 and R2 was presented in 286 biopsies (48%. The 30-day in-hospital mortality rate was 3.1%. The 6-month survival rate after HT was 92%, 1-year – 91% and overall survival for the 6-year period of observation – 89.2%. Maximum observation period was 71 months.Conclusions. The 6-year experience of HT in our Center has shown a high level of survival. BIVAD Excor support can be effectively used as a «bridge» to HT. Prevention of graft loss due to acute rejection in heart transplant recipients can be achieved only through regular EMB monitoring. The rate of viral infection increased in 2 months after HT.

  13. [Vitamin D status in 6- to 10-year-old children: a French multicenter study in 326 children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallet, E; Gaudelus, J; Reinert, P; Stagnara, J; Bénichou, J; Basuyau, J-P; Maurin, M; Cordero, J; Roden, A; Uhlrich, J

    2014-10-01

    To assess the vitamin D status of children aged 6-10years in the French general population for whom no guidelines have yet been defined due to insufficient data. The study was conducted during two winters with very different sunshine levels: 5 March to 17 April 2012 and 8 January to 16 April 2013 in 20 then 22 centers. Three hundred children (60 children for each year of age) attending an ambulatory care unit or outpatient department for a reason unrelated to vitamin D status were included at the end of winter in 20 hospital centers (ten centers in the northern half of France above latitude 46-47°N/Lille: 50°N and ten centers in the southern half of France below latitude 46-47°N/Marseille: 43°N). Centralized 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and parathormone (PTH) assays were performed on leftover blood samples. The currently accepted normal range for 25(OH)D was used to define the following categories: ≤25nmol/L: severe vitamin D deficiency, 25nmol/Lvitamin D deficiency≤50nmol/L, 50nmol/Lvitamin D status≤100nmol/L, >100nmol/L: high vitamin D status. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect the child's characteristics, use of a vitamin D supplement, and milk and dairy product intake. The cumulative number of hours of sunshine over the 90days prior to inclusion in each center was obtained from the Météo-France weather bureau. 25(OH)D assays were performed in 326 children; more than 95% of children received milk and dairy products and 38% had received a vitamin D supplement since starting the school year: 3.1% of children in the overall population presented severe vitamin D deficiency, 34.4% presented vitamin D deficiency, 53.1% had a sufficient vitamin D status, and 9.5% had a 25(OH)D concentration >100nmol/L with no impact on serum calcium and urinary calcium. Children living in the north of France generally had lower 25(OH)D levels than children living in the south of France. In the non-supplemented population (n=188

  14. Intermediate Term (3-6 Years Post Surgery) Outcome of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post-operatively, the 5 eyes had VA ranging from 6/60 to NLP, after a variable follow-up period of 3-6 years. Complications included development of tough vascularized retroprosthetic membrane (4 eyes) and infective endophthalmitis in one eye. Conclusion: The intermediate-term outcome of keratoprosthesis surgery in ...

  15. NEB in Analysis of Optical Flow 4 x 4 and 6 x 6-Patches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Shengxiang; Liang, Di

    2017-01-01

    We apply the nudged elastic band technique to non-lineal high-dimensional datasets, we analyze spaces of 4 x 4 and 6 x 6 optical flow patches and detect their topological properties. We experimentally prove that subsets of 4 x 4 and 6 x 6 optical flow patches can be modeled a circle, which confirm some results of 4 x 4 and 6 x 6 optical flow patches by using a new method-NEB, and expend Adams et al's result to larger patches of optical flow. (paper)

  16. Synthesis of the Novel 4,4?- and 6,6?- Dihydroxamic - 2,2?-Bipyridines and Improved Routes to 4,4?- and 6,6?- Substituted 2,2?-Bipyridines and Mono-N-Oxide-2,2?-Bipyridine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donnici Claudio Luis

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of key precursors for many 2,2?-bipyridine derivatives such as 4,4?-dicarboxy- 2,2?-bipyridine (I, 6,6?-dicarboxy-2,2?-bipyridine- acid (II, 4,4?-dinitro-2,2?-bipyridine-N,N-dioxide (III, 6,6?-dicarbothioamide-2,2?-bipyridine (IV and mono-N-oxide-2,2?-bipyridine (VII through more efficient methods is described. The syntheses of the novel ligands 4,4?-dihydroxamic-2,2?-bipyridine (V and 6,6?-dihydroxamic-2,2?-bipyridine (VI are also reported.

  17. Sleep During Menopausal Transition: A 6-Year Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampio, Laura; Polo-Kantola, Päivi; Himanen, Sari-Leena; Kurki, Samu; Huupponen, Eero; Engblom, Janne; Heinonen, Olli J; Polo, Olli; Saaresranta, Tarja

    2017-07-01

    Menopausal transition is associated with increased dissatisfaction with sleep, but the effects on sleep architecture are conflicting. This prospective 6-year follow-up study was designed to evaluate the changes in sleep stages and sleep continuity that occur in women during menopausal transition. Sixty women (mean age 46.0 years, SD 0.9) participated. All women were premenopausal at baseline, and at the 6-year follow-up, women were in different stages of menopausal transition. Polysomnography was used to study sleep architecture at baseline and follow-up. The effects of aging and menopause (assessed as change in serum follicle-stimulating hormone [S-FSH]) on sleep architecture were evaluated using linear regression models. After controlling for body mass index, vasomotor, and depressive symptoms, aging of 6 years resulted in shorter total sleep time (B -37.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] -71.5 to (-3.3)), lower sleep efficiency (B -6.5, 95%CI -12.7 to (-0.2)), as well as in increased transitions from slow-wave sleep (SWS) to wakefulness (B 1.0, 95%CI 0.1 to 1.9), wake after sleep onset (B 37.7, 95%CI 12.5 to 63.0), awakenings per hour (B 1.8, 95%CI 0.8 to 2.8), and arousal index (B 2.3, 95%CI 0.1 to 4.4). Higher S-FSH concentration in menopausal transition was associated with increased SWS (B 0.09, 95%CI 0.01 to 0.16) after controlling for confounding factors. A significant deterioration in sleep continuity occurs when women age from 46 to 52 years, but change from premenopausal to menopausal state restores some SWS. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Urinary fluoride excretion by children 4-6 years old in a south Texas community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon J. Baez

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated urinary fluoride excretion by school children 4-6 years old who were living in a south Texas rural community that had concentrations of fluoride in drinking water supplies generally around the optimal level. We took supervised collections of urine samples in the morning and afternoon at school, and parents of the participating students collected nocturnal samples. We recorded the beginning and end times of the three collection periods and then determined the urinary volume and urinary flow for each of the periods. We measured urinary fluoride concentrations and calculated the urinary excretion rate per hour. The children had breakfast and lunch provided at the school, where the drinking water contained 1.0-1.3 milligrams/liter (mg/L fluoride. Fluoride concentrations in the tested household water supplies, from wells, ranged from 0.1 to 3.2 mg/L fluoride. The children's average urinary fluoride concentrations found for the day were similar to those for the night, with means ranging from 1.26 mg/L to 1.42 mg/L. Average excretion was 36.4 µg/h in the morning, 45.6 µg/h in the afternoon, and 17.5 µg/h at night. The lower nocturnal excretion rates are easily explained by low urinary flow at night. Based on the 15 hours of urine collected, the extrapolated 24-hour fluoride excretion was 749 µg. In conjunction with similar studies, the data from this study will help in developing upper limits for urinary fluoride excretion that are appropriate for avoiding unsightly fluorosis while providing optimal protection against dental decay.

  19. Ranibizumab for choroidal neovascularization secondary to pseudoxanthoma elasticum: 4-year results from the PIXEL study in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimoun, Gérard; Ebran, Jean-Marc; Grenet, Typhaine; Donati, Alain; Cohen, Salomon-Yves; Ponthieux, Anne

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the long-term effectiveness and safety of ranibizumab 0.5 mg in patients with choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) in a real-world setting. A descriptive, observational, multicenter study in a retrospective and prospective cohort was conducted in France that included patients who had received at least one injection of ranibizumab 0.5 mg during the period October 2011 to October 2014, for CNV secondary to PXE. Eligible patients were identified by review of medical records or during routine consultations. The main objectives were to describe patient characteristics, assess changes in best-corrected visual acuity [VA, Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) letters] over time, the number and reasons for ranibizumab treatment and overall safety. Of the 72 enrolled patients (98 eyes) from 23 centers, 39 (54.2%) were male and mean [±standard deviation (SD)] age was 59.6 (±8.3) years. The mean VA was 64.6 letters at the first ranibizumab injection, which was maintained at the 1-year follow-up (64.7 letters). Thereafter, the mean VA was stable until the 4-year follow-up. At 4 years, the proportion of eyes with VA gain of ≥15 letters was 3/19 (15.8%) and stable VA (change between -15 and +15 letters) was 10/19 (52.6%). Mean (±SD) annual number of ranibizumab injections was 4.1 (±4.0), lower in the second versus first year. The most common reason for ranibizumab treatment was progression of neovascular activity (42.9%). No deaths or new safety findings were reported. In patients with CNV secondary to PXE, ranibizumab 0.5 mg resulted in stable VA over 4 years with a limited number of injections. Safety findings were consistent with the established safety profile of ranibizumab.

  20. Does the Animal Fun program improve social-emotional and behavioural outcomes in children aged 4-6 years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piek, Jan P; Kane, Robert; Rigoli, Daniela; McLaren, Sue; Roberts, Clare M; Rooney, Rosanna; Jensen, Lynn; Dender, Alma; Packer, Tanya; Straker, Leon

    2015-10-01

    Animal Fun was designed to enhance motor and social development in young children. Its efficacy in improving motor skills was presented previously using a randomised controlled trial and a multivariate nested cohort design. Based on the Environmental Stress Hypothesis, it was argued that the program would also result in positive mental health outcomes, investigated in the current study. Pre-intervention scores were recorded for 511 children aged 4.83-6.17 years (M=5.42, SD=.30). Intervention and control groups were compared 6 months following intervention, and again in their first school year. Changes in teacher-rated prosocial behaviour and total difficulties were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, and data analysed using Generalised Linear Mixed Models. There was a significant improvement in prosocial behaviour of children in the intervention group six months after initial testing, which remained at 18-month follow-up. Total difficulties decreased at 6 months for the intervention group, with no change at 18 months. This effect was present only for the hyperactivity/inattention subscale. The only significant change for the control group was an increase in hyperactivity/inattention scores from pre-intervention to 18-month follow-up. The Animal Fun program appears to be effective in improving social and behavioural outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterization of Ti-6Al-4V produced via electron beam additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Brian J.

    In recent years, additive manufacturing (AM) has become an increasingly promising method used for the production of structural metallic components. There are a number of reasons why AM methods are attractive, including the ability to produce complex geometries into a near-net shape and the rapid transition from design to production. Ti-6Al-4V is a titanium alloy frequently used in the aerospace industry which is receiving considerable attention as a good candidate for processing via electron beam additive manufacturing (EBAM). The Sciaky EBAM method combines a high-powered electron beam, weld-wire feedstock, and a large build chamber, enabling the production of large structural components. In order to gain wide acceptance of EBAM of Ti-6Al-4V as a viable manufacturing method, it is important to understand broadly the microstructural features that are present in large-scale depositions, including specifically: the morphology, distribution and texture of the phases present. To achieve such an understanding, stereological methods were used to populate a database quantifying key microstructural features in Ti-6Al-4V including volume fraction of phases, alpha lath width, colony scale factor, and volume fraction of basket weave type microstructure. Microstructural features unique to AM, such as elongated grains and banded structures, were also characterized. Hardness and tensile testing were conducted and the results were related to the microstructural morphology and sample orientation. Lastly, fractured surfaces and defects were investigated. The results of these activities provide insight into the process-structure-properties relationships found in EBAM processed Ti-6Al-4V.

  2. UBERA-6 project: Achievements of 4 working years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaumann, H; Fernandez, C; Dell Occhio, L; D Ovidio, C; Fabro, J; Miceli, M; Novara O; Perez, A; Taboada, H

    2009-01-01

    On May 2005 the President of CNEA created the UBERA-6 project, belonging to the former Technology and Environmental Management, with the aim to convert to Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) the RA-6 reactor core, to swap with the US Department of Energy (US-DoE) equivalent inventories of High Enriched Uranium (HEU) for LEU, to export to USA the spent HEU core and to recover and downblend to LEU remnant HEU inventories contained in fuel and irradiation target scraps. By means of two contracts signed by CNEA and US-DoE, acquisition of consumables and graphite reflectors, the fabrication of LEU core replacement, conditioning, transport and exportation of spent HEU core and subsequent supply of fresh LEU for fuel and irradiation targets used in our research reactors were costed. During July, 2006 468 HEU based fresh plates were exported to USA. On June 30th, 2007 the RA-6 reactor temporarily stopped working and its personnel remover the HEU core to the auxiliary pool. On November 7th the former spent HEU based core was exported to USA. During May and July, 2008 the new RA-6 reactor LEU based core and control assemblies were provided. During March, 2009 the RA-6 reactor became critical. For recovering and blending down of remnant HEU inventories, the Triple Height Laboratory (LTA) was refurbished. A Supplemental Agreement to one of the original contract between CNEA and US-DoE will financially support the refurbishment of the Radiochemical Facility Laboratory (LFR) and so reprocess irradiated HEU retained in radioisotope production filters to downblend into LEU, as well as the separation of the pair Sr90-Y90 and of Cs137 inventories for further application in Nuclear Medicine. [es

  3. Articulation Speaks to Executive Function: An Investigation in 4- to 6-Year-Olds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Netelenbos

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Executive function (EF and language learning play a prominent role in early childhood development. Empirical research continues to point to a concurrent relation between these two faculties. What has been given little attention, however, is the association between EF and speech articulation abilities in children. This study investigated this relation in children aged 46 years. Significant correlations indicated that children with better EF [via parental report of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF inventory] exhibited stronger speech sound production abilities in the articulation of the “s” and “sh” sounds. Furthermore, regression analyses revealed that the Global Executive Composite (GEC of EF as measured by the BRIEF, served as a predictor for speech sound proficiency and that speech sound proficiency served as a predictor for the GEC. Together, these results demonstrate the imbricated nature of EF and speech sound production while bearing theoretical and practical implications. From a theoretical standpoint, the close link between EF and speech articulation may indicate a common ontogenetic pathway. From a practical perspective, the results suggest that children with speech difficulties could be at higher risk for EF deficits.

  4. The relationship of expressive language development and social skills in 4-6-year-old Persian-speaking children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Vahab

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Social interaction plays an essential role in acquisition of speech and language as one of the most important developmental factors. The recent studies indicated that language abilities have a close relationship to social skills. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship of development of expressive language and dimensions of social skills in 4-6-years-old Persian-speaking children.Methods: In this study, 123 normal Persian-speaking 4-6-year-old children (76 boys and 47 girls who had all the specific criteria for normality were randomly selected from several preschools in Shiraz, Iran. During the first stage of testing, test of language development (TOLD was administered to investigate language development of participants; later, the social skills rating system (SSRS including the teachers' and parents' forms were completed by the parents and teachers of participants. The data were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficients.Results: The correlations between expressive language and dimensions of social skills were significant (p<0.001, but teachers' form had a greater correlation with language development (p=0.031. Besides, Pearson's correlations between teachers' and parents' forms was not significant (p=0.27.Conclusion: According to our results, expressive language develops along with social skills development. On the other hand, these results are based on the differences between home and educational environment in social skills achievements of children. These findings are to be considered to provide crucial training in both environments for the children to improve the development of their expressive language.

  5. Children who screen positive for autism at 2.5 years and receive early intervention: a prospective naturalistic 2-year outcome study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spjut Jansson B

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Birgitta Spjut Jansson,1–3 Carmela Miniscalco,1,4 Joakim Westerlund,1,5 Anne-Katrin Kantzer,1,6 Elisabeth Fernell,1 Christopher Gillberg1 1Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, Sahlgrenska Academy, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, 2Unit of Child and Adolescent Habilitation, 3Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, 4Division of Speech and Language Pathology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, 5Department of Psychology, University of Stockholm, Stockholm, 6Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, NU Hospital Organization, Trollhättan, Sweden Background: Previous research has stressed the importance of early identification and intervention for children with autism spectrum disorders. Methods: Children who had screened positive for autism at the age of 2.5 years in a general population screening and then received a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder were enrolled in an intervention program provided by Swedish habilitation services. The following interventions were available: a comprehensive intervention based on Applied Behavior Analysis – Intensive Learning (IL – in two settings, which included home- and preschool-based (IL Regular and only home-based (IL Modified and eclectic interventions.Results: There was considerable variability in terms of outcome, but intervention group status was not associated with any of the chosen outcome variables. Conclusion: The main finding was that the type of intervention was not critical for outcome of adaptive or global functioning. The variability in outcome demonstrates the need for continuous assessments and evaluation of the child’s function and behavior throughout the intervention period. Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, preschool children, early intervention, ABA, cognitive function, follow-up

  6. Attending to Relations: Proportional Reasoning in 3- to 6-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Michelle A.; Cordes, Sara

    2018-01-01

    When proportional information is pit against whole number numerical information, children often attend to the whole number information at the expense of proportional information (e.g., indicating 4/9 is greater than 3/5 because 4 > 3). In the current study, we presented younger (3- to 4-year-olds) and older (5- to 6-year-olds) children a task…

  7. How many employees receive safety training during their first year of a new job?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter M; Mustard, Cameron A

    2007-02-01

    To describe the provision of safety training to Canadian employees, specifically those in their first year of employment with a new employer. Three repeated national Canadian cross-sectional surveys. 59 159 respondents from Statistics Canada's Workplace and Employee Surveys (1999, 2001 and 2003), 5671 who were in their first year of employment. Receiving occupational health and safety training, orientation training or office or non-office equipment training in either a classroom or on-the-job in the previous 12 months. Only 12% of women and 16% of men reported receiving safety training in the previous 12 months. Employees in their first 12 months of employment were more likely to receive safety training than employees with >5 years of job tenure. However, still only one in five new employees had received any safety training while with their current employer. In a fully adjusted regression model, employees who had access to family and support programs, women in medium-sized workplaces and in manufacturing, and men in large workplaces and in part-time employment all had an increased probability of receiving safety training. No increased likelihood of safety training was found in younger workers or those in jobs with higher physical demands, both of which are associated with increased injury risk. From our results, it would appear that only one in five Canadian employees in their first year of a new job received safety training. Further, the provision of safety training does not appear to be more prevalent among workers or in occupations with increased risk of injuries.

  8. The Effectiveness of Additional Literacy Support (ALS) in Years 3 and 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, Tim

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the progress in reading and spelling of 256 children in 11 classes in 9 English primary schools in Years 3 and 4, and a partially overlapping sample of 126 children who received additional help with literacy during 1 year. Teachers and teaching assistants used either Additional Literacy Support (ALS), a highly structured set of…

  9. Crystal structure of the Hg4SiS6 and Hg4SiSe6 compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulay, L.D.; Olekseyuk, I.D.; Parasyuk, O.V.

    2002-01-01

    The crystal structures of Hg 4 SiS 6 and Hg 4 SiSe 6 compounds were investigated using X-ray powder diffraction. These compounds crystallize in the monoclinic Cc space group with the lattice parameters a=1.23020(5), b=0.71031(4), c=1.22791(4) nm, β=109.721(3) deg. for Hg 4 SiS 6 and a=1.28110(4), b=0.74034(4), c=1.27471(1) nm, β=109.605(3) deg. for Hg 4 SiSe 6 . Atomic parameters were refined in the isotropic approximation (R I =0.0571 and R I =0.0555 for the Hg 4 SiS 6 and Hg 4 SiSe 6 , respectively)

  10. Laser Photo-Oxidative Degradation of 4,6-Dimethyldibenzothiophene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gondal, M.A.; Masoudi, H.M.; Pola, Josef

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 9 (2008), s. 1765-1768 ISSN 0045-6535 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene * laser oxidative degradation * molecular oxygen Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.054, year: 2008

  11. Long-Term Outcomes of Early Intervention in 6-Year-Old Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Annette; Munson, Jeffrey; Rogers, Sally J; Greenson, Jessica; Winter, Jamie; Dawson, Geraldine

    2015-07-01

    We prospectively examined evidence for the sustained effects of early intervention based on a follow-up study of 39 children with ASD who began participation in a randomized clinical trial testing the effectiveness of the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) at age 18 to 30 months. The intervention, conducted at a high level of intensity in-home for 2 years, showed evidence of efficacy immediately posttreatment. This group of children was assessed at age 6 years, 2 years after the intervention ended, across multiple domains of functioning by clinicians naive to previous intervention group status. The ESDM group, on average, maintained gains made in early intervention during the 2-year follow-up period in overall intellectual ability, adaptive behavior, symptom severity, and challenging behavior. No group differences in core autism symptoms were found immediately posttreatment; however, 2 years later, the ESDM group demonstrated improved core autism symptoms and adaptive behavior as compared with the community-intervention-as-usual (COM) group. The 2 groups were not significantly different in terms of intellectual functioning at age 6 years. Both groups received equivalent intervention hours during the original study, but the ESDM group received fewer hours during the follow-up period. These results provide evidence that gains from early intensive intervention are maintained 2 years later. Notably, core autism symptoms improved in the ESDM group over the follow-up period relative to the COM group. This improvement occurred at the same time that the ESDM group received significantly fewer services. This is the first study to examine the role of early ESDM behavioral intervention initiated at less than 30 months of age in altering the longer-term developmental course of autism. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Receiving more than data - a signal model, theory and implementation of a cognitive IEEE 802.15.4 receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Esemann

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Standard medium access schemes sense the channel immediately prior transmission, but are blind during the transmission. Therefore, standard transceivers have limited cognitive capabilities which are important for operation in heterogeneous radio environments. Specifically, mobile interferers move gradually into the reception range before actually causing collisions. These gradual interferences cannot yet be detected, and upcoming collisions cannot be predicted. We present a theoretical analysis of the received and demodulated signal. This analysis and the derived signal model verifies that the received signal contains more than transmitted data exclusively. Enhanced signal processing extracts signal components of an interference at the receiver and enables advanced interference detection to provide information about approaching mobile interferers. Our theoretical analysis is evaluated by simulations and experiments with an IEEE 802.15.4 transmitter and an extended cognitive receiver.

  13. How many employees receive safety training during their first year of a new job?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter M; Mustard, Cameron A

    2007-01-01

    Objective To describe the provision of safety training to Canadian employees, specifically those in their first year of employment with a new employer. Design Three repeated national Canadian cross‐sectional surveys. Subjects 59 159 respondents from Statistics Canada's Workplace and Employee Surveys (1999, 2001 and 2003), 5671 who were in their first year of employment. Main outcome Receiving occupational health and safety training, orientation training or office or non‐office equipment training in either a classroom or on‐the‐job in the previous 12 months. Results Only 12% of women and 16% of men reported receiving safety training in the previous 12 months. Employees in their first 12 months of employment were more likely to receive safety training than employees with >5 years of job tenure. However, still only one in five new employees had received any safety training while with their current employer. In a fully adjusted regression model, employees who had access to family and support programs, women in medium‐sized workplaces and in manufacturing, and men in large workplaces and in part‐time employment all had an increased probability of receiving safety training. No increased likelihood of safety training was found in younger workers or those in jobs with higher physical demands, both of which are associated with increased injury risk. Conclusions From our results, it would appear that only one in five Canadian employees in their first year of a new job received safety training. Further, the provision of safety training does not appear to be more prevalent among workers or in occupations with increased risk of injuries. PMID:17296687

  14. Identification of α-Chloro-2,2',4,4',6,6'-Hexanitrobibenzyl as an Impurity in Hexanitrostilbene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellamy, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The final intermediate in the Shipp synthesis of 2,2‧,4,4‧,6,6‧-hexanitrostilbene (HNS) from TNT, α-chloro-2,2‧,4,4‧,6,6‧-hexanitrobibenzyl, has been extracted and characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, chlorine elemental analysis, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). It has also been shown that digestion in NMP of HNS containing α-chlorohexanitrobibenzyl generates another chlorine-containing by-product, 2-chloro-2‧,4,4‧,6,6‧-pentanitrostilbene. This too has been characterized by NMR spectroscopy, chlorine elemental analysis, and HPLC.

  15. Insights into the photocatalytic mechanism of mediator-free direct Z-scheme g-C3N4/Bi2MoO6(010) and g-C3N4/Bi2WO6(010) heterostructures: A hybrid density functional theory study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Opoku, F

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphite-like carbon nitride (g-C3N4)-based heterostructures have received much attention due to their prominent photocatalytic activity. The g-C3N4/Bi2WO6 and g-C3N4/Bi2MoO6 heterostructures, which follow a typical hetero-junction charge transfer...

  16. Mark 4A DSN receiver-exciter and transmitter subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wick, M. R.

    1986-01-01

    The present configuration of the Mark 4A DSN Receiver-Exciter and Transmitter Subsystems is described. Functional requirements and key characteristics are given to show the differences in the capabilities required by the Networks Consolidation task for combined High Earth Orbiter and Deep Space Network tracking support.

  17. Arachidonic acid and DHA status in pregnant women is not associated with cognitive performance of their children at 4 or 6-7 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, Sarah R; Sibbons, Charlene M; Fisk, Helena L; Godfrey, Keith M; Calder, Philip C; Gale, Catharine R; Robinson, Sian M; Inskip, Hazel M; Baird, Janis; Harvey, Nicholas C; Cooper, Cyrus; Burdge, Graham C

    2018-06-01

    Arachidonic acid (ARA) and DHA, supplied primarily from the mother, are required for early development of the central nervous system. Thus, variations in maternal ARA or DHA status may modify neurocognitive development. We investigated the relationship between maternal ARA and DHA status in early (11·7 weeks) or late (34·5 weeks) pregnancy on neurocognitive function at the age of 4 years or 6-7 years in 724 mother-child pairs from the Southampton Women's Survey cohort. Plasma phosphatidylcholine fatty acid composition was measured in early and late pregnancy. ARA concentration in early pregnancy predicted 13 % of the variation in ARA concentration in late pregnancy (β=0·36, PDHA concentration in early pregnancy predicted 21 % of the variation in DHA concentration in late pregnancy (β=0·46, PDHA nor ARA concentrations in early or late pregnancy were associated significantly with neurocognitive function in children at the age of 4 years or the age of 6-7 years. These findings suggest that ARA and DHA status during pregnancy in the range found in this cohort are unlikely to have major influences on neurocognitive function in healthy children.

  18. Infant feeding practices and reported food allergies at 6 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luccioli, Stefano; Zhang, Yuanting; Verrill, Linda; Ramos-Valle, Moraima; Kwegyir-Afful, Ernest

    2014-09-01

    The goal of this study was to identify the frequency of physician-diagnosed food allergies among 6-year-old US children and study the impact of exclusive breastfeeding and complementary food introduction on this frequency. Data were analyzed from children who participated in the Infant Feeding Practices Study II Year 6 Follow-Up Study (Y6FU). Children with probable food allergy (pFA) were defined as children with report of physician-diagnosed food allergy at age 6 years. Subgroups of pFA included children who were not diagnosed before 1 year of age (new pFA) and those with atopic risk factors (high risk). Prevalence of total pFA in the Y6FU was 6.34%. The majority of these children had new pFA and high-risk factors. Higher maternal education, higher family income, family history of food allergy, and reported eczema before 1 year of age were significantly associated with higher odds of total or new pFA. Exclusive breastfeeding duration and timing of complementary food introduction were not significantly associated with total pFA. However, exclusive breastfeeding of ≥4 months compared with no breastfeeding was marginally associated with lower odds of new pFA (adjusted odds ratio: 0.51; P = .07); this effect was not observed with high-risk children. Analysis of infant and maternal variables in the Y6FU cohort of US children revealed that socioeconomic and atopic factors were the main predictors of pFA at age 6 years. Exclusive breastfeeding of ≥4 months may have a preventive effect on development of pFA after 1 year of age in non high-risk children. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Osteoblast Cell Response on the Ti6Al4V Alloy Heat-Treated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Paulina Chávez-Díaz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to examine the effect of the microstructural changes of the Ti6Al4V alloy, two heat treatments were carried out below (Ti6Al4V800 and above (Ti6Al4V1050 its β-phase transformation temperature. After each treatment, globular and lamellar microstructures were obtained. Saos-2 pre-osteoblast human osteosarcoma cells were seeded onto Ti6Al4V alloy disks and immersed in cell culture for 7 days. Electrochemical assays in situ were performed using OCP and EIS measurements. Impedance data show a passive behavior for the three Ti6Al4V alloys; additionally, enhanced impedance values were recorded for Ti6Al4V800 and Ti6Al4V1050 alloys. This passive behavior in culture medium is mostly due to the formation of TiO2 during their sterilization. Biocompatibility and cell adhesion were characterized using the SEM technique; Ti6Al4V as received and Ti6Al4V800 alloys exhibited polygonal and elongated morphology, whereas Ti6Al4V1050 alloy displayed a spherical morphology. Ti and O elements were identified by EDX analysis due to the TiO2 and signals of C, N and O, related to the formation of organic compounds from extracellular matrix. These results suggest that cell adhesion is more likely to occur on TiO2 formed in discrete α-phase regions (hcp depending on its microstructure (grains.

  20. Digital practices in everyday lives of 4 to 6 years old Romanian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyöngyvér Tőkés

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to present some findings of a broader research called Digital literacy and multimodal practices of young children from Romania. The mentioned research was part of the EU COST Action IS1410 involving similar endeavours from over 30 countries (COST 2014; Bakó, 2016: p. 146. In our research we used several sources for data collection such as children and their parents, as well as kindergarten educators. We collected qualitative data using three methods: the visual method of drawing, semi-structured interviews and observation. In this study we present digital practices of 4 to 6 years old Romanian children based on interviews made with the children’s parents. We found similar results to other Romanian (Velicu, Mitarcă, 2016 and European (Chaudron, 2015 research such as: the access and use of digital technology is present but not dominant in the daily routines of Romanian young children; Romanian young children’s favourite digital devices are tablets and smartphones; Romanian young children’s familiar digital activities are watching YouTube videos, playing games, making or watching photos and videos about themselves and their families; Romanian young children learn the use of digital devices by observation and imitation, and through testing; the level of Romanian young children’s digital skills is basic; the digitally unexperienced Romanian parents are not supportive with children’s digital endeavours.

  1. Doping prevalence among preadolescent athletes: a 4-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laure, P; Binsinger, C

    2007-10-01

    To describe the prevalence of doping and its progression in a cohort of preadolescent athletes during a 4-year follow-up. Prospective cohort study. Self-questionnaire survey. All of the pupils entering the first year of secondary school (sixth grade) in the Vosges Département (east France) and followed for 4 years. Drug use (prohibited substances, tobacco, alcohol, cannabis), intention to use, reported health hazards, perceived drug effectiveness, self-esteem, trait anxiety. At the beginning of the study, 1.2% (95% CI 0.8 to 1.6) stated that they had taken doping agents at least once in the preceding 6 months, and this had risen to 3.0% (95% CI 2.3-3.7) 4 years later (pself-esteem and trait anxiety. The results show that doping does exist in preadolescent athletes who train every day. This fact should to be taken into account in preventive actions.

  2. The Growth Trend of 0–6 Years Children in Hamadan City , Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Omidi

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Today millions of children in the world have not got the appropriate growth. For this purpose, this study was performed to evaluate the growth process of children under 6 years old in Hamadan, in addition the surveying this process, the difference in growth of the children were compared and measured by the NCHS standard curve. This was a cross–sectional study that included the research section of 1700 children who was at the average ages of zero, 1, 3, 6, 9,12 months and 1.5 , 2 , 2.5 , 3 , 3.5 , 4 , 4.5 , 5 , 6 years . The selection standard of the children was the perfect physical health and without obvious mental retardation. Regarding the curved standard the results showed that the 50th percentile of boys and girls weight up to 4 and 6 months was increased. Then with increasing the age up to 6 years the weight gradually was decreased, that this weight deduction is closer to the 5th percentile of the standard in 18 and 24 months. The 50th percentile of the children height has been decreased from 9 months up to 6 years too, and the 50th percentile of the head circumference from 18 months up to 6 years of age, constantly and slightly decreased compare to the standard curve. The overall result show that breast feeding is enough for the children up to 6 months and satisfies the children needs. But the causes that decrease the children growth are the lack of mothers knowledge about preparing the supplemental foods and the time of beginning and also inappropriate pattern of nutrition at the time of breast feeding.

  3. A Study to Determine the Incidence of Urinary Tract Infections in Infants and Children Ages 4 Months to 6 Years With Febrile Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nibhanipudi, Kumara V

    2016-01-01

    To determine the incidence of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in infants and children (4 months to 6 years of age) with febrile diarrhea, as outpatients. This was a prospective institutional review board-approved study. patients (between 4 months and 6 years of age) were enrolled in the study who presented to the pediatric emergency room with a complaint of fever (rectal temperature 101°F or more) and diarrhea (watery stools >3 in number). The patients were evaluated for state of hydration, and also urine samples were collected. For those children not toilet trained, urine specimens were collected by bladder catheterization, and for those children toilet trained, urine specimens were obtained by midstream collection method. The urine samples obtained were sent for analysis and culture. Eighty patients were enrolled in the study. The number of specimens obtained by clean catch midstream was 20, and by bladder catheterization was 60. None of the urine specimens obtained by both methods of collection grew any organism. There was no increased incidence of infections in male children whether circumcised (10/60) or uncircumcised (50/60). The mean temperature was 102.8°F (range = 101°F to 105°F). Using in silico online 2 × 2 χ(2) test by comparing both the positive and negative urine culture results, 2-tailed P value is <.0001. Our prospective randomized study concluded that there is no increased incidence of UTIs in infants and children (4 months to 6 years of age) with febrile diarrhea.

  4. A Study to Determine the Incidence of Urinary Tract Infections in Infants and Children Ages 4 Months to 6 Years With Febrile Diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumara V. Nibhanipudi MD, FAAP, FAAEM

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the incidence of urinary tract infections (UTIs in infants and children (4 months to 6 years of age with febrile diarrhea, as outpatients. Methods: This was a prospective institutional review board–approved study. patients (between 4 months and 6 years of age were enrolled in the study who presented to the pediatric emergency room with a complaint of fever (rectal temperature 101°F or more and diarrhea (watery stools >3 in number. The patients were evaluated for state of hydration, and also urine samples were collected. For those children not toilet trained, urine specimens were collected by bladder catheterization, and for those children toilet trained, urine specimens were obtained by midstream collection method. The urine samples obtained were sent for analysis and culture. Results: Eighty patients were enrolled in the study. The number of specimens obtained by clean catch midstream was 20, and by bladder catheterization was 60. None of the urine specimens obtained by both methods of collection grew any organism. There was no increased incidence of infections in male children whether circumcised (10/60 or uncircumcised (50/60. The mean temperature was 102.8°F (range = 101°F to 105°F. Statistics: Using in silico online 2 × 2 χ2 test by comparing both the positive and negative urine culture results, 2-tailed P value is <.0001. Conclusions: Our prospective randomized study concluded that there is no increased incidence of UTIs in infants and children (4 months to 6 years of age with febrile diarrhea.

  5. Academic achievement over 8 years among children who met modified criteria for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder at 4-6 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massetti, Greta M; Lahey, Benjamin B; Pelham, William E; Loney, Jan; Ehrhardt, Ashley; Lee, Steve S; Kipp, Heidi

    2008-04-01

    The predictive validity of symptom criteria for different subtypes of ADHD among children who were impaired in at least one setting in early childhood was examined. Academic achievement was assessed seven times over 8 years in 125 children who met symptom criteria for ADHD at 4-6 years of age and in 130 demographically-matched non-referred comparison children. When intelligence and other confounds were controlled, children who met modified criteria for the predominantly inattentive subtype of ADHD in wave 1 had lower reading, spelling, and mathematics scores over time than both comparison children and children who met modified criteria for the other subtypes of ADHD. In some analyses, children who met modified criteria for the combined type had somewhat lower mathematics scores than comparison children. The robust academic deficits relative to intelligence in the inattentive group in this age range suggest either that inattention results in academic underachievement or that some children in the inattentive group have learning disabilities that cause secondary symptoms of inattention. Unexpectedly, wave 1 internalizing (anxiety and depression) symptoms independently predicted deficits in academic achievement controlling ADHD, intelligence, and other predictors.

  6. Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, Module 1: Volume 6, Engineering assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    This report evaluates the ability of the WRAP Module 1 Facility to achieve the required material throughput by developing a time and motion simulation model of the facility using the WITNESS Simulation Program. Analysis of the simulation model indicated that the required throughput of 6825 drums per year based on working 5.5 hours in the Shipping ampersand Receiving and Waste Process areas and 7 hours in the NDA/NDE area for 175 days a year, as stated in the Functional Design Criteria (FDC) Rev. 1 and Supplemental Design Requirements Document (SDRD) Rev. 1, can be achieved

  7. Excessive Anteversion Leads to Failure at 3 Years Due to Impingement as Evidenced by Twin Notches in Ti6A4V Stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Donaldson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A 63-year old female with bilateral hip replacements was referred to our clinic for pain and elevated metal ions. Her left hip had been revised earlier. The right hip had an SROM Ti6Al4V stem implanted with a 28mm head, a 28mm CoCr liner and Pinnacle Ti6Al4V shell. The patient reported pain, numbness, tingling, and repeated clicking and popping sensations with gait. She specifically noted that her hip would freeze while walking and could pop rising from a chair. Repeated metal ion levels showed Co (blood17ppb, Cr (serum 21ppb, and Ti (blood at 69ppb. CT-images of right hip revealed femoral stem anteversion was 43° and cup anteversion was 40°, for a combined anteversion of 83°. The right hip was revised 3.5 years postoperatively for persistent pain and elevated metal ions. At surgery, large twin notches were evident on her posterior femoral neck and 10mm-wide scalloped damage was evident in the rim of the Ti6A4V shell. SEM-imaging revealed contaminating layers on CoCr head containing elements Al, V and Ti. These indicated that titanium-alloy particles liberated by cup-to-neck impingements had transferred to the CoCr bearings. Our intent in this case was not to document that a MOM bearing produced impingement damage, because this case clearly implicated adverse surgical positioning. Rather, the intent was to document sequelae likely in a THA case that has a metal cup impinging on a metal femoral neck. In particular, twin notches on the femoral neck indicated that this patient was routinely impinging her Ti6Al4V shell against the Ti6Al4V neck and also subluxing her femoral head out of the cup. These signs are a clear indication that one or both components must be revised, as opposed to simply replacing the CoCr liner with a revision polyethylene liner.

  8. One-year adherence to exercise in elderly patients receiving postacute inpatient rehabilitation after cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macchi, Claudio; Polcaro, Paola; Cecchi, Francesca; Zipoli, Renato; Sofi, Francesco; Romanelli, Antonella; Pepi, Liria; Sibilio, Maurizio; Lipoma, Mario; Petrilli, Mario; Molino-Lova, Raffaele

    2009-09-01

    Promoting an active lifestyle through an appropriate physical exercise prescription is one of the major targets of cardiac rehabilitation. However, information on the effectiveness of cardiac rehabilitation in promoting lifestyle changes in elderly patients is still scant. In 131 patients over the age of 65 yrs (86 men, and 45 women, mean age 75 yrs +/- 6 SD) who have attended postacute inpatient cardiac rehabilitation after cardiac surgery, we tested the 1-yr adherence to the physical exercise prescription received at the end of the cardiac rehabilitation by using a questionnaire on physical activity and the 6-min walk test. All of the 36 patients who reported an active lifestyle and 49 of the 95 patients who reported a sedentary lifestyle in the year preceding the cardiac operation reported at least 1 hr/day on 5 days each week of light regular physical activity in the year after the cardiac rehabilitation. Further, the distance walked at the follow-up 6-min walk test was significantly related to the physical activity score gathered from the questionnaire. Our data show that 65% of the elderly patients who have attended postacute inpatient cardiac rehabilitation after cardiac surgery are still capable of recovering or even increasing their regular physical activity and of maintaining these favorable lifestyle changes at least for 1 yr.

  9. Prevalence and Contents of Advance Directives of Patients with ESRD Receiving Dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feely, Molly A; Hildebrandt, Daniel; Edakkanambeth Varayil, Jithinraj; Mueller, Paul S

    2016-12-07

    ESRD requiring dialysis is associated with increased morbidity and mortality rates, including increased rates of cognitive impairment, compared with the general population. About one quarter of patients receiving dialysis choose to discontinue dialysis at the end of life. Advance directives are intended to give providers and surrogates instruction on managing medical decision making, including end of life situations. The prevalence of advance directives is low among patients receiving dialysis. Little is known about the contents of advance directives among these patients with advance directives. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all patients receiving maintenance in-center hemodialysis at a tertiary academic medical center between January 1, 2007 and January 1, 2012. We collected demographic data, the prevalence of advance directives, and a content analysis of these advance directives. We specifically examined the advance directives for instructions on management of interventions at end of life, including dialysis. Among 808 patients (mean age of 68.6 years old; men =61.2%), 49% had advance directives, of which only 10.6% mentioned dialysis and only 3% specifically addressed dialysis management at end of life. Patients who had advance directives were more likely to be older (74.5 versus 65.4 years old; Phydration (34.3%), and pain management (43.4%) than dialysis (10.6%). Although one-half of the patients receiving dialysis in our study had advance directives, end of life management of dialysis was rarely addressed. Future research should focus on improving discernment and documentation of end of life values, goals, and preferences, such as dialysis-specific advance directives, among these patients. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  10. Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair: review of 6 years experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanclooster, P; Smet, B; de Gheldere, C; Segers, K

    2001-01-01

    Since 6 years, the totally extraperitoneal laparoscopic hernia repair has become our procedure of choice to manage inguinal hernia in adult patients, especially for bilateral hernias and recurrences after classical anterior repair. Between March 1993 and March 1999, 976 patients underwent 1259 hernia repairs by an endoscopic total extraperitoneal approach. A large polypropylene prosthesis (15 x 15 cm) is placed and covers all potential defects. Follow-up on patients ranged from 6 to 79 months (mean, 39 months). Per- and postoperative morbidity and complications were acceptable (8.4%) and included conversion to open surgery (0.4%), bleedings (0.3%), urinary retention (4.2%), seromas (2.7%), neuralgias (0.2%), vague persistent groin discomfort (0.4%), orchitis (0.08%) and sigmoido-cutaneous fistula (0.08%). Recurrence rate so far is 0.1%. This retrospective study shows that the totally extraperitoneal repair for inguinal hernia should have a promising future because of low morbidity and low recurrence rate.

  11. Synthesis and thermoluminescence characterization of Na6Mg(SO4)4:RE (RE = Ce, Tb) phosphors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kore, Bhushan P.; Dhoble, N.S.; Dhoble, S.J.

    2014-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) properties of sulfate-based phosphors activated by different rare earths have received tremendous attention to the field of radiation dosimetry. Those TL materials based on CaSO 4 have been widely applied for medical and environmental dosimetry. Taking this fact into account we have synthesized Na 6 Mg(SO 4 ) 4 doped with Ce and Tb by wet chemical method. The prepared phosphor was characterized by XRD, FTIR, photoluminescence (PL) and thermoluminescence. For TL study, the phosphor is irradiated with γ-rays from 60 Co source. For studying luminescence properties, the prepared phosphor was annealed at different temperatures and effects of these annealing temperatures on Na 6 Mg(SO 4 ) 4 samples are investigated and quantified. The changes in the glow curve and PL emission spectrum are also investigated as a function of annealing temperature and the annealing temperature was optimized. For calculation of trapping parameters various methods such as peak shape (PS) method, initial rise (IR) method, various heating rate (VHR) method, and computerized glow curve deconvolution (CGCD) are employed. - Highlights: • Na 6 Mg(SO 4 ) 4 phosphor was successfully prepared by wet chemical method. • Effect of annealing temperatures on PL and TL properties has been studied. • Different trap analysis methods were used for calculating the trapping parameters. • Effect of these methods on activation energies were investigated in detail

  12. Management of Sjogren's Syndrome Patient: A Case Report of Prosthetic Rehabilitation with 6-Year Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mendonça Invernici, Marcos; Vale Nicolau, Gastão; Naval Machado, Maria Ângela; Soares de Lima, Antônio Adilson

    2014-01-01

    Completely and partially edentulous patients with Sjogren's syndrome (SS) experience severe hyposalivation, xerostomia, and considerable difficulty in using tissue-supported prosthesis. This clinical paper describes the management, treatment, and 6-year follow-up of a patient diagnosed with SS type II, who uses corticosteroids and antihyperglycemic drugs. The patient received restorative, periodontal, and surgical treatments followed by implant-supported fixed prosthesis. Radiographic evaluation and probing depth showed gingival health and no bone loss after 6 years. Treatment with implant-retained dental prosthesis greatly increased comfort and function, offering an alternative to patients with SS. PMID:25478245

  13. The Impact of Tobacco Smoke Exposure on Wheezing and Overweight in 46-Year-Old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Grazuleviciene

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy, second-hand tobacco smoke (STS exposure, education level, and preschool children’s wheezing and overweight. Methods. This cohort study used data of the KANC cohort—1,489 46-year-old children from Kaunas city, Lithuania. Multivariate logistic regression was employed to study the influence of prenatal and postnatal STS exposure on the prevalence of wheezing and overweight, controlling for potential confounders. Results. Children exposed to maternal smoking during pregnancy had a slightly increased prevalence of wheezing and overweight. Postnatal exposure to STS was associated with a statistically significantly increased risk of wheezing and overweight in children born to mothers with lower education levels (OR 2.12; 95% CI 1.04–4.35 and 3.57; 95% CI 1.76–7.21, accordingly. Conclusions. The present study findings suggest that both maternal smoking during pregnancy and STS increase the risk of childhood wheezing and overweight, whereas lower maternal education might have a synergetic effect. Targeted interventions must to take this into account and address household smoking.

  14. Synthesis of 5'-bromo-2'-hydroxy-4,4',6'-trimethoxychalcone from Garcinia nervosa and of its isomer 3'-bromo-2'-hydroxy-4,4',6'- trimethoxychalcone

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parab, S.J.; Kapdi, S.G.; Naik, C.G.; Kamat, S.P.

    The unambiguous syntheses of the naturally occurring 5'-bromo-2'-hydroxy-4,4',6'-trimethoxychalcone 1, a constituent of Garcinia nervosa, and its positional isomer 3'-bromo-2'-hydroxy-4,4',6'-trimethoxychalcone 6 are described...

  15. Observed changes in cardiovascular risk factors among high-risk middle-aged men who received lifestyle counselling: a 5-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siren, Reijo; Eriksson, Johan G; Vanhanen, Hannu

    2016-12-01

    To examine the long-term impact of health counselling among middle-aged men at high risk of CVD. An observational study with a 5-year follow-up. All men aged 40 years in Helsinki have been invited to a visit to evaluate CVD risk from 2006 onwards. A modified version of the North Karelia project risk tool (CVD risk score) served to assess the risk. High-risk men received lifestyle counselling based on their individual risk profile in 2006 and were invited to a follow-up visit in 2011. Of the 389 originally high-risk men, 159 participated in the follow-up visits in 2011. Based on their follow-up in relation the further risk communication, we divided the participants into three groups: primary health care, occupational health care and no control visits. Lifestyle and CVD risk score change. All groups showed improvements in lifestyles. The CVD risk score decreased the most in the group that continued the risk communication visits in their primary health care centre (6.1 to 4.8 [95% CI -1.6 to -0.6]) compared to those who continued risk communication visits in their occupational health care (6.0 to 5.4 [95% CI -1.3 to 0.3]), and to those with no risk communication visits (6.0 to 5.9 [95% CI -0.5 to 0.4]). These findings indicate that individualized lifestyle counselling improves health behaviour and reduces total CVD risk among middle-aged men at high risk of CVD. Sustained improvement in risk factor status requires ongoing risk communication with health care providers. KEY POINTS Studies of short duration have shown that lifestyle changes reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease among high-risk individuals. Sustaining these lifestyle changes and maintaining the lower disease risk attained can prove challenging. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk assessment and individualized health counselling for high-risk men, when implemented in primary health care, have the potential to initiate lifestyle changes that support risk reduction. Attaining a sustainable reduction in CVD

  16. [Impact factors analysis on child neglect of children aged 3-6 year-old in rural areas of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Pan, Jianping; Zhang, Songjie; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Weiqing; Tao, Fangbiao; Qin, Rui; Gu, Guixiong; Shi, Shuhua; Zhang, Jing; Du, Qiyun; Zhong, Zhaohui; Jiao, Feng; Wang, Huishan; Xu, Tao; Wang, Guixiang; Xi, Weiping; Pang, Songtao; Wang, Xin; Cao, Chunhong; Li, Min; Yang, Xiaomei

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the major influence factors of child neglect among rural areas children aged 3-6 years in China. According to multi-stage stratified cluster sampling, distribution characteristics and the level of economic development, we randomly sampled 10 provinces, 26 cities (8 capital cities, 16 prefecture-level cities and 2 municipalities) using lottery method. Depending on the different level of economic and cultural, we sampled one medium county from each city (municipalities sampled two counties), a total of 28 counties. All towns were divided into high, medium and low three levels in accordance with economic and cultural, each level sampled one town, each conty sampled three towns, a total of 84 towns were sampled. Each town sampled 40 children, including 20 boys and 20 girls (including each 10 children aged 3 to 6, half and half boys and girls). 4 096 rural children aged 3-6 years old were sampled and surveyed of China. Based on "the Neglect Norms for Children Aged 3 to 6 Years Old in Rural Areas of China" explored the risk factors of child neglect. SPSS 18. 0 for windows was employed for statistics analysis. Multifactorial analysis was conducted through multivariate Logistic Regression. The total neglected rate of the rural children aged 3 to 6 was 53.7% (2,047/3,810), and the total neglected degree was 44.42±7.57. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that, neglected risk of the boys was higher than the girls (OR=1.30, 95% CI: 1.13-1.49), neglected risk of children were higher, when their mothers were migrant workers (OR=2.18, 95% CI: 1.59-3.00); the lower educational level of mothers, the higher neglected risk of children, the children in families that mothers only received primary education or was uneducated were most likely to be neglected (OR=2.92, 95% CI: 1.91-4.47), the second was the families that mothers received primary education (OR=1.86, 95% CI: 1.29-2.69); the lower the household income, the easier to be neglected the children

  17. The Impact of Virtual Reality Distraction on Pain and Anxiety during Dental Treatment in 4-6 Year-Old Children: a Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asl Aminabadi, Naser; Erfanparast, Leila; Sohrabi, Azin; Ghertasi Oskouei, Sina; Naghili, Armaghan

    2012-01-01

    Dental practitioners have numerous methods to control anxiety and pain in children, and distracting the child appears to be the most common technique used for behavior management during dental procedures. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of using virtual reality eyeglasses on severity of pain and anxiety during dental procedures in pediatric patients. This study included 120 healthy children aged 4-6 years. Children with no previous anxiety disorder were randomly divided into two groups, each consisting of 60 children. The study consisted of 3 consecutive treatment sessions. During the first visit fluoride therapy was carried out in both groups. In the next sessions, the groups received restorative treatment with and without virtual reality eyeglasses in a randomized single-blind-controlled crossover fashion. Then at the end of each session the subjects' pain severity was assessed using Wong Baker FACES Pain Rating Scale and state anxiety was measured by Faces version of the Modified Child Dental Anxiety Scale [MCDAS (f)]. There was a significant decrease in pain perception (P anxiety scores (P virtual reality eyeglasses during dental treatment. Results of this study showed that virtual reality eyeglasses can successfully decrease pain perception and state anxiety during dental treatment. 201103126036N1.

  18. Synthesis of the Novel 4,4’- and 6,6’- Dihydroxamic - 2,2’-Bipyridines and Improved Routes to 4,4’- and 6,6’- Substituted 2,2’-Bipyridines and Mono-N-Oxide-2,2’-Bipyridine

    OpenAIRE

    Donnici,Claudio Luis; Máximo Filho,Daniel Henrique; Moreira,Leda Lúcia Cruz; Reis,Genuína Teixeira dos; Cordeiro,Estefania Santos; Oliveira,Ione Ma. Ferreira de; Carvalho,Sandra; Paniago,Eucler B.

    1998-01-01

    The preparation of key precursors for many 2,2’-bipyridine derivatives such as 4,4’-dicarboxy- 2,2’-bipyridine (I), 6,6’-dicarboxy-2,2’-bipyridine- acid (II), 4,4’-dinitro-2,2’-bipyridine-N,N-dioxide (III), 6,6’-dicarbothioamide-2,2’-bipyridine (IV) and mono-N-oxide-2,2’-bipyridine (VII) through more efficient methods is described. The syntheses of the novel ligands 4,4’-dihydroxamic-2,2’-bipyridine (V) and 6,6’-dihydroxamic-2,2’-bipyridine (VI) are also reported. Neste trabalho relatamos ...

  19. 46 CFR 280.6 - Calendar year accounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calendar year accounting. 280.6 Section 280.6 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING SUBSIDIZED VESSELS AND... Calendar year accounting. Except as provided in § 280.9 (relating to the final year of an ODS agreement...

  20. Clinical and economic outcomes of rabbit antithymocyte globulin induction in adults who received kidney transplants from living unrelated donors and received cyclosporine-based immunosuppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, James T; Collins, Curtis D; Stuckey, Linda J; Luan, Fu L; Englesbe, Michael J; Magee, John C; Park, Jeong M

    2009-10-01

    To evaluate the efficacy, safety, and costs of rabbit antithymocyte globulin (TMG) induction in patients who received kidney transplants from living unrelated donors. Retrospective cohort study. Large academic medical center. Eighty-seven patients who received kidney transplants from living unrelated donors: 40 of the recipients underwent transplantation between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2004, and did not receive TMG induction (no induction group); 47 underwent transplantation between January 1, 2005, and June 30, 2006, and received TMG induction (induction group). All patients received cyclosporine-based immunosuppression. Biopsy-proven acute rejection, posttransplantation complications, and inpatient hospital costs for the first 12 months after transplantation were compared between groups using standard univariate statistical analyses. Induction significantly decreased the occurrence of biopsy-proven acute rejection versus no induction (2% vs 48%, pTMG treatment. Slightly elevated initial costs associated with TMG induction were offset by lower costs related to rejection treatment. Total inpatient costs for the 12 months after transplantation were comparable between the groups (no induction $66,038 vs induction $74,183, p>0.05). For the no induction versus induction groups, no significant differences in cytomegalovirus disease (5% vs 6%), malignancy (3% vs 2%), graft failures (5% vs 6%), mortality (5% vs 4%), and serum creatinine concentrations (mean +/- SD 1.4 +/- 0.3 vs 1.5 +/- 0.3 mg/dl) were observed at 12 months (p>0.05 for all comparisons). Five-day TMG induction effectively reduced the 1-year acute rejection rate without significantly increasing total inpatient costs or posttransplantation complications among recipients of kidney transplants from living unrelated donors.

  1. Aripiprazole in the treatment of irritability in pediatric patients (aged 6-17 years) with autistic disorder: results from a 52-week, open-label study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Ronald N; Owen, Randall; Manos, George; Mankoski, Raymond; Kamen, Lisa; McQuade, Robert D; Carson, William H; Corey-Lisle, Patricia K; Aman, Michael G

    2011-06-01

    To report the long-term efficacy of aripiprazole in the treatment of irritability in children and adolescents (ages 6-17 years) with autistic disorder. This was a 52-week, open-label, flexible-dose (2-15 mg/day) study of aripiprazole for the treatment of children and adolescents with irritability associated with autistic disorder. Eligible subjects were enrolled from two 8-week randomized trials or were enrolled as de novo subjects. "Prior aripiprazole" subjects had received treatment with aripiprazole for 8 weeks before entering this study. Evaluation of efficacy, a secondary objective after evaluation of safety and tolerability in this study, was conducted using the caregiver-rated Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Irritability subscale and the clinician-rated Clinical Global Impression-Improvement score. Three hundred thirty subjects received treatment (de novo, n = 86; prior aripiprazole, n = 174; prior placebo, n = 70) and 199 subjects (60.3%) completed 52 weeks of treatment. At their last study visit, 38.2% of subjects were receiving concomitant central nervous system medications (commonly antidepressants, 13.4%; psychostimulants, 11.5%; antiepileptics, 5.9%). At week 52 (observed cases data set), the mean change from baseline in Aberrant Behavior Checklist Irritability subscale scores was -8.0 in de novo subjects and -6.1 in prior placebo subjects; prior aripiprazole subjects maintained symptom improvement that was achieved with treatment in the prior study. At endpoint, the majority of subjects had a Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement score of 2 (much improved) or 1 (very much improved). Aripiprazole reduced symptoms of irritability associated with autistic disorder in pediatric subjects ages 6-17 years who were studied for up to 1 year.

  2. Assessment of physical performance using the 6-minute walk test in children receiving treatment for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooke, Mary C; Garwick, Ann W; Neglia, Joseph P

    2013-01-01

    The study of physical performance in children with cancer is emerging as an important variable in symptom research. Studies have shown that children with cancer experience deficits in physical performance during treatment that may be present years after therapy. The aim of this study was to determine if distance on the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) changed in children during the first 3 cycles of cancer treatment and to compare the distances walked with healthy norms. This is a secondary data analysis of 19 boys and 10 girls, aged 6 to 17 years, who were newly diagnosed with cancer and were part of a larger study that measured changes in fatigue and physical performance during the first 3 cycles of chemotherapy. Participants performed the 6MWT between days 15 and 29 of the first and third cycles of chemotherapy. Pediatric cancer patients did not have a significant change in the distance walked at cycle 3 of chemotherapy compared with cycle 1. When compared with 2 different normative data sets for healthy children, most children with cancer performed significantly below their peers. Children had poor strength and endurance after 3 cycles of chemotherapy even when their disease was responding to treatment. Interventions are needed to promote rehabilitation and maintenance of physical performance, as both are important to quality of life and ongoing child development. Children receiving cancer treatment who are ambulatory may appear to be functioning normally but are in fact severely deconditioned compared with their healthy peers.

  3. 34 CFR 656.4 - What types of Centers receive grants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the country or area; or (2) International studies or the international aspects of contemporary issues or topics (such as international business or energy) while providing instruction in modern foreign... STUDIES OR FOREIGN LANGUAGE AND INTERNATIONAL STUDIES General § 656.4 What types of Centers receive grants...

  4. Glass ionomer ART sealants in Chinese school children-6-year results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, Christopher J; Lo, Edward C M; Hu, Deyu

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate longitudinally ART sealants placed in Chinese school children under field conditions. 191 ART sealants were placed in 140 children, aged 11-14 years, by five assistant dentists in four secondary schools in Deyang, Sichuan Province, China. Teeth selected for sealing were those with pits and fissures that were deep or showing early enamel caries. Teeth were excluded if there was obvious cavitation extending into dentine. Standard instruments and procedures for ART sealants were used. The material used was a high-viscosity glass-ionomer (Ketac-Molar, 3MESPE) that was inserted into the pits and fissures with the "press-finger" technique. The status of the sealants was evaluated annually over 6 years after placement by the same examiner who was not involved in the placement of the sealants using explorers, mouth-mirrors and an intra-oral fibre-optic light. No missing sealants were replaced during the study. 107 sealants (56% of the original) were examined after 6 years. The cumulative survival rates of the sealants (partially or fully retained) after 2, 4 and 6 years were 79%, 68% and 59%, respectively. Caries prevention lagged the fall in sealant survival but remained high throughout the study period, being over 90% in the first 4 years and 85% after 6 years. ART sealants placed under field conditions in Chinese schoolchildren have a high retention rate. Missing sealants should be replaced to maintain their preventive efficacy. The sealing of pits and fissures can be an effective caries preventive approach. Resin-based sealants have the disadvantage in that they require an optimal level of moisture control during placement. In children and in outreach situations glass ionomer ART sealants, which are more moisture tolerant, can offer a viable alternative. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The 4p-5d, 6d and 4p-6s, 7s transitions of Mo IX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatoon, S.; Chaghtai, M.S.Z.; Rahimullah, K.

    1979-01-01

    The transitions 4p-5d, 6d and 4p-6s, 7s have been studied for the first time in Mo IX. The authors have identified 42 4p-5d, 36 4p-6d, 22 4p-6s and 22 4p-7s transitions, establishing 16 4p 3 5d, 14 4p 3 6d and all the ten 4p 3 6s, 7s levels of the spectrum concerned. The ionization energy is estimated to be (1 323 700 +- 700)cm -1 or (164.11 +- 0.09)eV. The spectrum was recorded in sliding and open spark discharges with a 5 m grazing incidence spectrograph of Lund University (Sweden) from about 40 A to 440 A. (Auth.)

  6. SERC programme for the next three years 1993/4-1995/6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    The Science and Engineering Research Council's (SERC) main objective is to support excellent novel and timely research in science and engineering. This is done through the provision of research grants to Higher Education Institutes, the support of research studentships, post-doctoral and senior fellowships, the provision of first-class facilities at its four research establishment including the Daresbury Synchrotron Radiation Facility for use by research scientists and engineers and by participation in certain international institutions such as CERN to allow SERC scientists and engineers access to other facilities. SERC has four Boards concerned with Astronomy and Planetary Science, Engineering, Nuclear Physics and Science. This document describes SERC's programme of work for 1993/4, 1994/5 and 1995/6 as seen from the spring of 1992 and looks at funding levels and priorities. Part I considers the core programme in terms of Boards and other funding routes. Part II discusses activities such as inter-disciplinary and inter-council collaborations. (UK)

  7. The Columbus Knee System: 4-Year Results of a New Deep Flexion Design Compared to the NexGen Full Flex Implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Goebel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Columbus knee system is designed as a standard knee implant to allow high flexion without additional bone resection. Between August, 2004 and March, 2010 we performed 109 total knee arthroplasties of the Columbus knee system in 101 consecutive patients suffering from primary arthrosis of the knee. Mean age was 72.4 years in women and 70.3 years in men. Mean followup was 47.3 months. The 4-year results of a group of patients who received the NexGen Full Flex implant operated by the same surgeon were used for comparison. Mean total knee score was Columbus: 175.6 and NexGen Flex: 183.4; =0.037. Mean operation time was 53 min for Columbus and 66 min for NexGen Flex; 0.05. Radiological assessment showed no signs of loosening for both groups. Therefore, the Columbus knee system can be recommended for flexion angles up to 140∘.

  8. On IEEE 802.15.6 IR-UWB receivers - simulations for DBPSK modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemelä, Ville; Hämäläinen, Matti; Iinatti, Jari

    2013-01-01

    In 2002, Federal Communications Commission (FCC) was the first in defining regulations for ultra wideband (UWB) communications followed by Europe and Japan some years later. Focusing on impulse radio (IR) UWB, in 2007 was the time for the first published standard targeting in personal area networks, released by the IEEE. The second IEEE released standard including UWB definitions is targeted for wireless body area networks (WBAN) and was published in 2012. As the wireless communications has been and will be passing through almost any levels in society, the natural step with WBAN is using it in different medical, healthcare and wellbeing applications. The arguments for these are related to the modern lifestyle, in which people have increasingly more free time and are more interested in taking care of their health and wellbeing. Another challenge is the population composition, i.e., aging in developed countries which call for new solutions and procedures, particularly from cost wise. In this paper, we are evaluating UWB receivers based on the IEEE 802.15.6 physical layer definitions and capable of detecting differentially encoded modulation. The evaluation is performed using two different WBAN channel models.

  9. [Effects of Montessori education on the intellectual development in children aged 2 to 4 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hong-Ling; Yan, Hong; Zuo, Ling; Liu, Ling; Zhang, Xi-Ping

    2009-12-01

    To compare the effects of Montessori education and traditional education on the intellectual development in children aged 2 to 4 years. Children aged between 2 to 3 years who were enrolled in a kindergarten in September 2006 were randomly assigned to the Montessori education and the traditional education groups. In addition to receiving the traditional education, the Montessori education group participated in the two-hour Montessori pedagogical activities every day. The intellectual development was evaluated by the Neuropsychological Development Examination Format for Children Aged 0~6 years published by Capital Pediatrics Research Institute at enrollment and one year after the trial. There were no significant differences in the intelligence growth level between the Montessori education and the traditional education groups at enrollment. After one year, the levels of fine movements, adaptation ability, language, and social behavior developments in the Montessori education group were significantly higher than those in the traditional education group (pdevelopment quotient in the Montessori education group were also higher than those in the traditional education group (peducation can promote the development of large motor ability, fine movements, language, and social behavior in children.

  10. Management of Sjogren’s Syndrome Patient: A Case Report of Prosthetic Rehabilitation with 6-Year Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos de Mendonça Invernici

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Completely and partially edentulous patients with Sjogren’s syndrome (SS experience severe hyposalivation, xerostomia, and considerable difficulty in using tissue-supported prosthesis. This clinical paper describes the management, treatment, and 6-year follow-up of a patient diagnosed with SS type II, who uses corticosteroids and antihyperglycemic drugs. The patient received restorative, periodontal, and surgical treatments followed by implant-supported fixed prosthesis. Radiographic evaluation and probing depth showed gingival health and no bone loss after 6 years. Treatment with implant-retained dental prosthesis greatly increased comfort and function, offering an alternative to patients with SS.

  11. Knowledge and behaviour of parents in relation to the oral and dental health of children aged 4-6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElKarmi, R; Shore, E; O'Connell, A

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate baseline knowledge and behaviour of parents with regard to the oral and dental health of their young children. Following ethical approval, six urban and rural schools were identified. Questionnaires were distributed to the parents of pupils (children aged 4-6 years). The questionnaire included several questions evaluating parental knowledge and behaviour of oral and dental health issues in their children. Each question was assigned a score of either 0 or 1 being inconsistent or consistent with current paediatric guidelines giving a maximum score of 6 for knowledge and 7 for behaviour. Chi-square analysis was used to analyse associations among variables. Parental knowledge varied widely among parents and across questions; however, 70.2 % of parents had scores greater than 3 (range 0-6). The majority of parents (65.8 %) also had scores greater than 3 (range 0-7) for behaviour. Deficiencies were noted in oral hygiene practices; very few parents brushed their child's teeth and were not aware of the recommended age of the first dental visit at 1 year (Age 1 visit). Parents without free medical care demonstrated high levels of knowledge (P parents thought that the information available to them on the oral health of their young children was insufficient. Parents appeared to have limited knowledge regarding the dental and oral health of their young children. This study indicates a need for improved education for parents, particularly in toothbrushing behaviour and use of toothpaste. Education strategies tailored to the Irish population should be explored.

  12. The ten-year single-center experience with 6-mercaptopurine in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazier, Kenneth D; Palance, Adam L; Griffel, Louis H; Das, Kiron M

    2005-01-01

    To report the 10-year experience of a single center in treating patients with refractory inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with relatively lower dose of 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP). The charts of 285 patients with IBD (Crohn's disease 160 and ulcerative colitis 125) receiving 6-MP were reviewed. Clinical response, subsequent breakthrough while taking 6-MP, and relapse rates when 6-MP was discontinued and side effects were assessed. Ninety-three percent of the patients were taking 50 to 75 mg/day of 6-MP. Complete remission was achieved in 62%, partial remission in 14.5%, and failure to achieve remission in 23.5% of the patients. Of complete responders, 27.5% had breakthrough while continuing 6-MP. Nine percent of those that achieved a complete remission experienced a relapse after 6-MP was discontinued. Side effects included leukopenia (11.2%), abnormal liver function tests (3.8%), various infections, including pneumonia (3.1%), pancreatitis (2.5%), nausea (2.1%), headache (2.8%), fever (1.4%), hair loss (1%), and rash (0.7%). Two cancers occurred while taking 6-MP: melanoma on the finger and a fatal colonic lymphoma. Four patients continued 6-MP throughout pregnancies and had normal outcomes. In our experience 6-MP is relatively safe and appears to be as effective at a lower dosage (0.84 mg/kg per day) compared with the recommended higher dosage (1-1.5 mg/kg per day), when leukopenia was more frequent. Serious side effects, although rare, need to be monitored.

  13. Heat-Treated TiO2 Plasma Spray Deposition for Bioactivity Improvement in Ti-6Al-4V Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Renu; Majumdar, Jyotsna Dutta

    2017-12-01

    In the present study, titanium di-oxide (TiO2) coating has been developed on Ti-6Al-4V substrate by plasma spray deposition. Followed by plasma spraying, heat treatment of the sprayed sample has been carried out by isothermally holding it at 823 K (550 °C) for 2 h. Microstructural analysis shows the presence of porosity and unmelted particles on the as-sprayed surface, the area fraction of which reduces after heat treatment. X-ray diffraction analysis shows the phase transformation from anatase (in precursor powder) to rutile (in as-sprayed coating and the same after heat treatment). There is an improvement in nano-hardness, "Young's modulus" and wear resistance in plasma-sprayed TiO2 coating (as-sprayed as well as post-heat-treated condition) as compared to as-received Ti-6Al-4V, though post-heat treatment offers a superior hardness, "young's modulus" and wear resistance as compared to as-sprayed coating. The corrosion behavior in "hank's solution" shows decrease in corrosion resistance after plasma spraying and post-heat treatment as compared to as-received substrate. A significant decrease in contact angle and improvement in bioactivity (in terms of apatite deposition) were observed in TiO2-coated surface as compared to as-received Ti-6Al-4V.

  14. Habilidades auditivas e medidas da imitância acústica em crianças de 4 a 6 anos de idade Auditory abilities and acoustic immittance measures in children from 4 to 6 year old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Della Giacoma Prado Toscano

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar o desempenho em habilidades auditivas e as condições de orelha média de crianças de 4 a 6 anos de idade. MÉTODO: foram aplicados os testes de detecção sonora (audiômetro pediátrico em 20dBNA, a Avaliação Simplificada do Processamento Auditivo (ASPA e as medidas de imitância acústica (handtymp com tom de 226Hz em 61 crianças com média de idade de 5,65 anos. Para comparar os resultados das provas de habilidades auditivas e das medidas da imitância acústica foi aplicado o teste exato de Fisher com nível de significância de pPURPOSE: to evaluate the performance of auditory abilities and conditions in the middle ear of children from 4 to 6 year old. METHOD: we applied the tests in order to detect sound (pediatric audiometer in 20dBHL, the Simplified Assessment of Auditory Processing (SAAP and the acoustic immittance measures (handtymp with a probe of 226Hz. In order to compare the results from the tests of auditory abilities and measures of acoustic impedance we applied Fisher's exact test with significance level of p <0.05. RESULTS: the study involved 61 children with a mean age of 5.65 years. There was some alteration in at least one of the investigated auditory skills in 24.6% of the children. Tympanometry was altered in 34.4% of the children and 64% were classified on the "fail" criterion for the measure of ipsilateral acoustic reflex. Younger children had higher incidence of middle ear disorders, but with no significant statistical difference between different ages as for the tests. CONCLUSION: younger children showed a higher occurrence of alterations in the tests of auditory abilities and measures of acoustic immittance. Research and monitoring programs for the conditions of the middle ear and auditory skills in preschool and school age can eliminate or minimize events that would alter the socio-linguistic development.

  15. The Impact of Virtual Reality Distraction on Pain and Anxiety during Dental Treatment in 4-6 Year-Old Children: a Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Asl Aminabadi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Dental practitioners have numerous methods to control anxiety and pain in children, and distracting the child appears to be the most common technique used for behavior management during dental procedures. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of using virtual reality eyeglasses on severity of pain and anxiety during dental procedures in pediatric patients. Materials and methods. This study included 120 healthy children aged 4-6 years. Children with no previous anxiety disorder were randomly divided into two groups, each consisting of 60 children. The study consisted of 3 consecutive treatment sessions. During the first visit fluoride therapy was carried out in both groups. In the next sessions, the groups received restorative treatment with and without virtual reality eyeglasses in a randomized single-blind-controlled crossover fashion. Then at the end of each session the subjects’ pain severity was assessed using Wong Baker FACES Pain Rating Scale and state anxiety was measured by Faces version of the Modified Child Dental Anxiety Scale [MCDAS (f]. Results. There was a significant decrease in pain perception (P < 0.001 and state anxiety scores (P < 0.001 with the use of virtual reality eyeglasses during dental treatment. Conclusion. Results of this study showed that virtual reality eyeglasses can successfully decrease pain perception and state anxiety during dental treatment. Trial registration number: 201103126036N1.

  16. Stereotactic body radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer: disease control and quality of life at 6 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, Alan J; Santoro, Michael; Diblasio, Fred; Ashley, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) may yield disease control for prostate cancer in a brief, hypofractionated treatment regimen without increasing treatment toxicity. Our report presents a 6-year update from 304 low- (n = 211), intermediate- (n = 81), and high-risk (n = 12) prostate cancer patients who received CyberKnife SBRT. The median PSA at presentation was 5.8 ng/ml. Fifty-seven patients received neoadjuvant hormonal therapy for up to one year. The first 50 patients received a total dose of 35 Gy in 5 fractions of 7 Gy. The subsequent 254 patients received a total dose of 36.25 Gy in 5 fractions of 7.25 Gy. Toxicity was assessed with the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite questionnaire and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group urinary and rectal toxicity scale. Biochemical failure was assessed using the nadir + 2 definition. No patients experienced Grade III or IV acute complications. Fewer than 5% of patients experienced any acute Grade II urinary or rectal toxicities. Late urinary Grade II complications were observed in 4% of patients treated to 35 Gy and 9% of patients treated to 36.25 Gy. Five (2%) late Grade III urinary toxicities occurred in patients who were treated with 36.25 Gy. Late Grade II rectal complications were observed in 2% of patients treated to 35 Gy and 5% of patients treated to 36.25 Gy. Bowel and urinary quality of life (QOL) scores initially decreased, but later returned to baseline values. An overall decrease of 20% in the sexual QOL score was observed. QOL in each domain was not differentially affected by dose. For patients that were potent prior to treatment, 75% stated that they remained sexually potent. Actuarial 5-year biochemical recurrence-free survival was 97% for low-risk, 90.7% for intermediate-risk, and 74.1% for high-risk patients. PSA fell to a median of 0.12 ng/ml at 5 years; dose did not influence median PSA levels. In this large series with long-term follow-up, we found excellent biochemical control rates and

  17. How Universal Are Free Will Beliefs? Cultural Differences in Chinese and U.S. 4- and 6-Year-Olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wente, Adrienne O; Bridgers, Sophie; Zhao, Xin; Seiver, Elizabeth; Zhu, Liqi; Gopnik, Alison

    2016-05-01

    This study explores the development of free will beliefs across cultures. Sixty-seven Chinese 4- and 6-year-olds were asked questions to gauge whether they believed that people could freely choose to inhibit or act against their desires. Responses were compared to those given by the U.S. children in Kushnir, Gopnik, Chernyak, Seiver, and Wellman (). Results indicate that children from both cultures increased the amount of choice they ascribed with age. For inhibition questions, Chinese children ascribed less choice than the U.S. children. Qualitative explanations revealed that the U.S. children were also more likely to endorse notions of autonomous choice. These findings suggest both cultural differences and similarities in free will beliefs. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  18. Environmental concentrations and toxicology of 2,4,6-tribromophenol (TBP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Christoph; Sures, Bernd

    2018-02-01

    2,4,6-Tribromophenol is the most widely produced brominated phenol. In the present review, we summarize studies dealing with this substance from an environmental point of view. We cover concentrations in the abiotic and biotic environment including humans, toxicokinetics as well as toxicodynamics, and show gaps of the current knowledge about this chemical. 2,4,6-Tribomophenol occurs as an intermediate during the synthesis of brominated flame retardants and it similarly represents a degradation product of these substances. Moreover, it is used as a pesticide but also occurs as a natural product of some aquatic organisms. Due to its many sources, 2,4,6-tribromophenol is ubiquitously found in the environment. Nevertheless, not much is known about its toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics. It is also unclear which role the structural isomer 2,4,5-tribromophenol and several degradation products such as 2,4-dibromophenol play in the environment. Due to new flame retardants that enter the market and can degrade to 2,4,6-tribromophenol, this compound will remain relevant in future years - not only in aquatic matrices, but also in house dust and foodstuff, which are an important exposure route for humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Inverse Planned High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy for Locoregionally Advanced Cervical Cancer: 4-Year Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinkle, Christopher L.; Weinberg, Vivian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States); Chen, Lee-May [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States); Littell, Ramey [Gynecologic Oncology, The Permanente Medical Group, San Francisco, California (United States); Cunha, J. Adam M.; Sethi, Rajni A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States); Chan, John K. [Gynecologic Oncology, California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco, California (United States); Hsu, I-Chow, E-mail: ichow.hsu@ucsf.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: Evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of image guided brachytherapy using inverse planning simulated annealing (IPSA) high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDRB) boost for locoregionally advanced cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: From December 2003 through September 2009, 111 patients with primary cervical cancer were treated definitively with IPSA-planned HDRB boost (28 Gy in 4 fractions) after external radiation at our institution. We performed a retrospective review of our experience using image guided brachytherapy. Of the patients, 70% had a tumor size >4 cm, 38% had regional nodal disease, and 15% had clinically evident distant metastasis, including nonregional nodal disease, at the time of diagnosis. Surgical staging involving pelvic lymph node dissection was performed in 15% of patients, and 93% received concurrent cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Toxicities are reported according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0 guidelines. Results: With a median follow-up time of 42 months (range, 3-84 months), no acute or late toxicities of grade 4 or higher were observed, and grade 3 toxicities (both acute and late) developed in 8 patients (1 constitutional, 1 hematologic, 2 genitourinary, 4 gastrointestinal). The 4-year Kaplan-Meier estimate of late grade 3 toxicity was 8%. Local recurrence developed in 5 patients (4 to 9 months after HDRB), regional recurrence in 3 (6, 16, and 72 months after HDRB), and locoregional recurrence in 1 (4 months after HDR boost). The 4-year estimates of local, locoregional, and distant control of disease were 94.0%, 91.9%, and 69.1%, respectively. The overall and disease-free survival rates at 4 years were 64.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] of 54%-73%) and 61.0% (95% CI, 51%-70%), respectively. Conclusions: Definitive radiation by use of inverse planned HDRB boost for locoregionally advanced cervical cancer is well tolerated and achieves excellent local control of disease. However, overall

  20. Vaginal Bleeding In 6 Years Old Young Female: Diagnostic Challenge

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 6 year old young girl was referred to Mendefera (Zoba Debub Referral) Hospital with vaginal bleeding of 4 days duration. She had a history of swimming in a river prior to the incident. An aquatic leech bloated with blood detached from the vagina after 100 milliliters of normal saline flushing into the vagina. The patient was ...

  1. Chemoselective reduction of 1,4,6-cholestatrien-3-one and 1,4,6-androstatriene-3,17-dione by various hydride reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunjeong; Ma, Eunsook

    2007-04-01

    The chemoselectivity of rigid cyclic alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl group on the reducing agents was influenced by the ring size and steric factor. Cholesterol (cholest-5-en-3beta-ol) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) were oxidized with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone to form 1,4,6-cholestatrien-3-one and 1,4,6-androstatriene-3,17-dione. They were reduced with NaBH(4), lithium tri-sec-butylborohydride (l-Selectride), LiAlH(4), 9-borabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane (9-BBN), lithium triethylborohydride (Super-hydride), and BH(3) x (CH(3))(2)S in various conditions, respectively. Reduction of 1,4,6-cholestatrien-3-one and 1,4,6-androstatriene-3,17-dione by NaBH(4) (4 equiv.) produced 4,6-cholestadien-3beta-ol and 4,6-androstadiene-3beta,17beta-diol, respectively. Reduction by l-Selectride (12 equiv.) afforded 4,6-cholestadien-3alpha-ol and 4,6-androstadiene-3alpha,17beta-diol, chemoselectively. Reaction with Super-hydride (12 equiv.) produced 4,6-cholestadien-3-one and 3-oxo-4,6-androstadien-17beta-ol. Reduction of 1,4,6-cholestatrien-3-one by 9-BBN (14 equiv.) produced 1,4,6-cholestatrien-3alpha-ol, but 1,4,6-androstatriene-3,17-dione was not reacted with 9-BBN in the reaction conditions. Reaction of LiAlH(4) (6 equiv.) formed 4,6-cholestadien-3beta-ol and 3-oxo-1,4,6-androstatrien-17beta-ol. Reduction of 1,4,6-cholestatrien-3-one by BH(3) x (CH(3))(2)S (11 equiv.) gave cholestane as major compound and unlike reactivity of cholesterol, 1,4,6-androstatriene-3,17-dione by 8 equiv. of BH(3) x (CH(3))(2)S formed 3-oxo-1,4,6-androstatrien-17beta-ol. LiAlH(4) and BH(3) x (CH(3))(2)S showed relatively low chemoselectivity.

  2. 75 FR 76636 - Anthropomorphic Test Devices; Hybrid III 6-Year-Old Child Test Dummy, Hybrid III 6-Year-Old...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ... provision: ``When a motor vehicle safety standard is in effect under this chapter, a State or a political... [Docket No. NHTSA-2010-0147] RIN 2127-AK34 Anthropomorphic Test Devices; Hybrid III 6-Year-Old Child Test Dummy, Hybrid III 6-Year-Old Weighted Child Test Dummy AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety...

  3. Flexible Receiver Radiation Detection System (FRRDS) Users Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troyer, G.L.

    1996-01-01

    The Flexible Receiver Radiation Detection System (FRRDS) comprises a control computer, a remote data acquisition subsystem, and three hyperpure germanium gamma radiation detectors. The scope of this document is the description of various steps for the orderly start-up, use, and shutdown of the FRRDS. Only those items necessary for these oprations are included. This document is a companion to WHC-SD-W151-UM-002, 'Operating Instructions for the 42 Inch Flexible Receiver,' WHC-SD-W151-UM-003, 'Operating Instructions for the 4-6 Inch Flexible Receiver,' and the vendor supplied system users guide (Ref. 6)

  4. Heat capacity of Sr10(PO4)6Cl2 and Ca10(PO4)6Cl2 by DSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkata Krishnan, R.; Jena, Hrudananda; Govindan Kutty, K.V.; Nagarajan, K.

    2008-01-01

    Strontium and calcium chloroapatites were synthesized by wet chemical method, characterized by X-ray diffraction and are found to be phase pure materials. The measured room temperature lattice parameter of Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 Cl 2 is a = 9.523 A, c = 6.855 A and for Sr 10 (PO 4 ) 6 Cl 2 is a = 9.876 A, c = 7.188 A. Heat capacity measurements were carried out on Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 Cl 2 and Sr 10 (PO 4 ) 6 Cl 2 by DSC in the temperature range 298-800 K. The heat capacity values of Sr 10 (PO 4 ) 6 Cl 2 is higher at all temperatures than Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 Cl 2 . Enthalpy and entropy increments were computed. Heat capacity values of Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 Cl 2 and Sr 10 (PO 4 ) 6 Cl 2 at 298 K are 758 and 868 J K -1 mol -1 , respectively

  5. Management of Sjogren's Syndrome Patient: A Case Report of Prosthetic Rehabilitation with 6-Year Follow-Up

    OpenAIRE

    de Mendonça Invernici, Marcos; Finger Stadler, Amanda; Vale Nicolau, Gastão; Naval Machado, Maria Ângela; Soares de Lima, Antônio Adilson; Compagnoni Martins, Marilia

    2014-01-01

    Completely and partially edentulous patients with Sjogren’s syndrome (SS) experience severe hyposalivation, xerostomia, and considerable difficulty in using tissue-supported prosthesis. This clinical paper describes the management, treatment, and 6-year follow-up of a patient diagnosed with SS type II, who uses corticosteroids and antihyperglycemic drugs. The patient received restorative, periodontal, and surgical treatments followed by implant-supported fixed prosthesis. Radiographic evaluat...

  6. Oral Health Status Among 6- and 12-year-old Jordanian Schoolchildren

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajab, Lamis Darwish; Petersen, Poul Erik; Baqain, Zaid

    2014-01-01

    of caries and the need for dental care. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional epidemiological survey was carried out which included 2496 children aged 6 years and 2560 children aged 12 years selected by stratified cluster sampling. Children were examined in schools and data comprised information about...... caries and gingival health status. WHO methodology and criteria were applied. Structured questionnaires were used to collect information about oral hygiene, dental visits, consumption of sugars and parents' level of education. Results: The caries prevalence rates were 76.4% in 6-year-olds and 45.5% in 12...... and fewer filled teeth than did children of the upper socioeconomic group. Multivariate regression analysis showed that social class was the most important independent variable for caries. The results from 2005 were compared with similar data collected in the capital, Amman, in 1993. For all social classes...

  7. Influence of the Diameter of Dental Implants Replacing Single Molars: 3- to 6-Year Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Jose Alfredo; Senna, Plinio Mendes; Francischone, Carlos Eduardo; Francischone Junior, Carlos Eduardo; Sotto-Maior, Bruno Salles

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the implant diameter on marginal bone remodeling around dental implants replacing single molars after a follow-up period of 3 to 6 years. Patients who received dental implants with an external hexagon platform in healed sites to support a single metal-ceramic crown in the molar region were recalled to the office. The implantation sites and implant length information were recorded, and the implants were divided according to the implant diameter: regular (RP) or wide (WP). Each implant was assessed by digital periapical radiography, using a sensor holder for the paralleling technique. The marginal bone remodeling was determined as the distance from the implant platform to the first bone-to-implant contact, and the known implant length was used to calibrate the images in the computer software. The follow-up measurements were compared with those obtained from the radiograph taken at the time of prosthetic loading to determine the late bone remodeling. The independent t test was used to compare data. A total of 67 implants from 46 patients were evaluated with a mean follow-up period of 4.5 ± 1.0 years. The RP group comprised 36 implants from 29 patients (mean age: 58.3 ± 10.6 years), while 31 implants from 17 patients (mean age: 56.9 ± 11.5 years) were included in the WP group. The RP group presented lower survival rates (86.1%) than the WP group (100.0%). Similar marginal bone loss (P implants exhibited lower incidence failures, the bone levels were similar after the prosthetic loading around regular- and wide-diameter implants supporting single molar crowns.

  8. Neuropsychologic status at the age 4 years and atopy in a population-based birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julvez, J; Torrent, M; Guxens, M; Antó, J M; Guerra, S; Sunyer, J

    2009-09-01

    Mental health has been reported to be associated with allergy, but only a few cohort studies have assessed if neurodevelopment predicts atopy. To investigate if neurobehavioral status of healthy 4-year-old children was associated with specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) at the same age and skin prick test results 2 years later. A population-based birth cohort enrolled 482 children, 422 of them (87%) provided neurobehavioral data, 341 (71%) had specific IgE measured at the age of 4 years; and 395 (82%) had skin prick tests completed at the age of 6 years. Atopy was defined as IgE levels higher than 0.35 kU/l to any of the three tested allergens at the age of 4 or as a positive skin prick test to any of the six tested allergens at the age of 6. McCarthy Scales of Child Abilities and California Preschool Social Competence Scale were the psychometric instruments used. Twelve percent of children at the age of 4 and 17% at the age of 6 were atopic. Neurobehavioral scores were negatively associated with 6-year-old atopy after adjustment for socio-demographic and allergic factors, A relative risk of 3.06 (95% CI: 1.30-7.24) was associated with the lowest tertile (scorings eczema at the age of 6, but not at the age of 4, were associated with neurodevelopment at the age of 4. Neuropsychologic functioning and later atopy are negatively associated in preschool age children.

  9. Design, synthesis and photoelectrochemical properties of hexagonal metallomacrocycles based on triphenylamine: [M6(4,4'-bis(2,2':6',2''-terpyridinyl)triphenylamine)6(X)12]; [M = Fe(II), PF6- and Zn(II), BF4-].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Seok-Ho; Moorefield, Charles N; Wang, Pingshan; Fronczek, Frank R; Courtney, Brandy H; Newkome, George R

    2006-08-07

    Synthesis of a novel bis(terpyridine) ligand, 4,4'-bis(2,2':6',2''-terpyridinyl)triphenylamine, utilizing triphenylamine, as a specific angle controller, has led to the self-assembly of a unique hexagonal metallomacrocycle family, [Fe6(2)6(PF6)12] and [Zn6(2)6(BF4)12], utilizing terpyridine-metal(II)-terpyridine connectivity. The crystal structure of the novel ligand shows that the angle between the two terpyridinyl moieties is 119.69 degrees , which enabled the formation of the hexagonal-shaped macrocycles. The crystal packing architectures of this starting ligand revealed channels induced by solvent encapsulation. Following complexation of this ligand with transition metals [Fe(II) or Zn(II)] in a one-pot reaction, the resultant structures were characterized by (1)H and (13)C NMR, UV/Vis and mass spectroscopies. The expected metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT; lambda(max) = 582 nm) and emission (lambda(em) = 575 nm) characteristics were exhibited by both [Fe6(2)6(PF6)12] and[Zn6(2)6(BF4)12]. The photoelectrochemical characteristics of these hexagonal metallomacrocycles demonstrate that they can be used as sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells.

  10. Risk of Late Toxicity in Men Receiving Dose-Escalated Hypofractionated Intensity Modulated Prostate Radiation Therapy: Results From a Randomized Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Karen E., E-mail: khoffman1@mdanderson.org; Voong, K. Ranh; Pugh, Thomas J.; Skinner, Heath; Levy, Lawrence B.; Takiar, Vinita; Choi, Seungtaek; Du, Weiliang; Frank, Steven J.; Johnson, Jennifer; Kanke, James; Kudchadker, Rajat J.; Lee, Andrew K.; Mahmood, Usama; McGuire, Sean E.; Kuban, Deborah A.

    2014-04-01

    Objective: To report late toxicity outcomes from a randomized trial comparing conventional and hypofractionated prostate radiation therapy and to identify dosimetric and clinical parameters associated with late toxicity after hypofractionated treatment. Methods and Materials: Men with localized prostate cancer were enrolled in a trial that randomized men to either conventionally fractionated intensity modulated radiation therapy (CIMRT, 75.6 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions) or to dose-escalated hypofractionated IMRT (HIMRT, 72 Gy in 2.4-Gy fractions). Late (≥90 days after completion of radiation therapy) genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity were prospectively evaluated and scored according to modified Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria. Results: 101 men received CIMRT and 102 men received HIMRT. The median age was 68, and the median follow-up time was 6.0 years. Twenty-eight percent had low-risk, 71% had intermediate-risk, and 1% had high-risk disease. There was no difference in late GU toxicity in men treated with CIMRT and HIMRT. The actuarial 5-year grade ≥2 GU toxicity was 16.5% after CIMRT and 15.8% after HIMRT (P=.97). There was a nonsignificant numeric increase in late GI toxicity in men treated with HIMRT compared with men treated with CIMRT. The actuarial 5-year grade ≥2 GI toxicity was 5.1% after CIMRT and 10.0% after HIMRT (P=.11). In men receiving HIMRT, the proportion of rectum receiving 36.9 Gy, 46.2 Gy, 64.6 Gy, and 73.9 Gy was associated with the development of late GI toxicity (P<.05). The 5-year actuarial grade ≥2 GI toxicity was 27.3% in men with R64.6Gy ≥ 20% but only 6.0% in men with R64.6Gy < 20% (P=.016). Conclusions: Dose-escalated IMRT using a moderate hypofractionation regimen (72 Gy in 2.4-Gy fractions) can be delivered safely with limited grade 2 or 3 late toxicity. Minimizing the proportion of rectum that receives moderate and high dose decreases the risk of late rectal toxicity after this

  11. Risk of Late Toxicity in Men Receiving Dose-Escalated Hypofractionated Intensity Modulated Prostate Radiation Therapy: Results From a Randomized Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, Karen E.; Voong, K. Ranh; Pugh, Thomas J.; Skinner, Heath; Levy, Lawrence B.; Takiar, Vinita; Choi, Seungtaek; Du, Weiliang; Frank, Steven J.; Johnson, Jennifer; Kanke, James; Kudchadker, Rajat J.; Lee, Andrew K.; Mahmood, Usama; McGuire, Sean E.; Kuban, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To report late toxicity outcomes from a randomized trial comparing conventional and hypofractionated prostate radiation therapy and to identify dosimetric and clinical parameters associated with late toxicity after hypofractionated treatment. Methods and Materials: Men with localized prostate cancer were enrolled in a trial that randomized men to either conventionally fractionated intensity modulated radiation therapy (CIMRT, 75.6 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions) or to dose-escalated hypofractionated IMRT (HIMRT, 72 Gy in 2.4-Gy fractions). Late (≥90 days after completion of radiation therapy) genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity were prospectively evaluated and scored according to modified Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria. Results: 101 men received CIMRT and 102 men received HIMRT. The median age was 68, and the median follow-up time was 6.0 years. Twenty-eight percent had low-risk, 71% had intermediate-risk, and 1% had high-risk disease. There was no difference in late GU toxicity in men treated with CIMRT and HIMRT. The actuarial 5-year grade ≥2 GU toxicity was 16.5% after CIMRT and 15.8% after HIMRT (P=.97). There was a nonsignificant numeric increase in late GI toxicity in men treated with HIMRT compared with men treated with CIMRT. The actuarial 5-year grade ≥2 GI toxicity was 5.1% after CIMRT and 10.0% after HIMRT (P=.11). In men receiving HIMRT, the proportion of rectum receiving 36.9 Gy, 46.2 Gy, 64.6 Gy, and 73.9 Gy was associated with the development of late GI toxicity (P<.05). The 5-year actuarial grade ≥2 GI toxicity was 27.3% in men with R64.6Gy ≥ 20% but only 6.0% in men with R64.6Gy < 20% (P=.016). Conclusions: Dose-escalated IMRT using a moderate hypofractionation regimen (72 Gy in 2.4-Gy fractions) can be delivered safely with limited grade 2 or 3 late toxicity. Minimizing the proportion of rectum that receives moderate and high dose decreases the risk of late rectal toxicity after this

  12. Space Photovoltaic Concentrator Using Robust Fresnel Lenses, 4-Junction Cells, Graphene Radiators, and Articulating Receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Mark; McDanal, A. J.; Brandhorst, Henry; Spence, Brian; Iqbal, Shawn; Sharps, Paul; McPheeters, Clay; Steinfeldt, Jeff; Piszczor, Michael; Myers, Matt

    2016-01-01

    At the 42nd PVSC, our team presented recent advances in our space photovoltaic concentrator technology. These advances include more robust Fresnel lenses for optical concentration, more thermally conductive graphene radiators for waste heat rejection, improved color-mixing lens technology to minimize chromatic aberration losses with 4-junction solar cells, and an articulating photovoltaic receiver enabling single-axis sun-tracking, while maintaining a sharp focal line despite large beta angles of incidence. In the past year, under a NASA Phase II SBIR program, our team has made much additional progress in the development of this new space photovoltaic concentrator technology, as described in this paper.

  13. 26 CFR 1.668(a)-1 - Amounts treated as received in prior taxable years; inclusion in gross income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amounts treated as received in prior taxable years; inclusion in gross income. 1.668(a)-1 Section 1.668(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... treated as received in prior taxable years; inclusion in gross income. (a) Section 668(a) provides that...

  14. Laser surface textured titanium alloy (Ti–6Al–4V): Part 1 – Surface characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfleging, Wilhelm [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, IAM-AWP, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Karlsruhe Nano Micro Facility, H.-von-Helmholtz-Pl. 1, 76344 Egg.-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Kumari, Renu [Department of Metal. and Maters. Eng., I. I. T. Kharagpur, WB 721302 (India); Besser, Heino [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, IAM-AWP, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Scharnweber, Tim [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, IBG-1, P.O. Box 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Majumdar, Jyotsna Dutta, E-mail: jyotsna@metal.iitkgp.ernet.in [Department of Metal. and Maters. Eng., I. I. T. Kharagpur, WB 721302 (India)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Texturing of Ti–6Al–4V with linear and dimple patterns are developed with ArF laser. • Linear textures have width of 25 μm and are at an interval of 20 μm. • Dimple textures are equi-spaced and have a diameter of 60 μm. • Significant refinement of microstructure in textured zone as compared to substrate. • Increased wettability of the textured surface against simulated body fluid. - Abstract: In the present study, a detailed study of the characterization of laser-surface textured titanium alloy (Ti–6Al–4V) with line and dimple geometry developed by using an ArF excimer laser operating at a wavelength of 193 nm with a pulse length of 5 ns is undertaken. The characterization of the textured surface (both the top surface and cross section) is carried out by scanning electron microscopy, electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) technique and X-ray diffraction techniques. There is refinement of microstructure along with presence of titanium oxides (rutile, anatase and few Ti{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase) in the textured surface as compared to as-received one. The area fractions of linear texture and dimple texture measured by image analysis software are 45% and 20%, respectively. The wettability is increased after laser texturing. The total surface energy is decreased due to linear (29.6 mN/m) texturing and increased due to dimple (67.6 mN/m) texturing as compared to as-received Ti–6Al–4V (37 mN/m). The effect of polar component is more in influencing the surface energy of textured surface.

  15. Laser surface textured titanium alloy (Ti–6Al–4V): Part 1 – Surface characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfleging, Wilhelm; Kumari, Renu; Besser, Heino; Scharnweber, Tim; Majumdar, Jyotsna Dutta

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Texturing of Ti–6Al–4V with linear and dimple patterns are developed with ArF laser. • Linear textures have width of 25 μm and are at an interval of 20 μm. • Dimple textures are equi-spaced and have a diameter of 60 μm. • Significant refinement of microstructure in textured zone as compared to substrate. • Increased wettability of the textured surface against simulated body fluid. - Abstract: In the present study, a detailed study of the characterization of laser-surface textured titanium alloy (Ti–6Al–4V) with line and dimple geometry developed by using an ArF excimer laser operating at a wavelength of 193 nm with a pulse length of 5 ns is undertaken. The characterization of the textured surface (both the top surface and cross section) is carried out by scanning electron microscopy, electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) technique and X-ray diffraction techniques. There is refinement of microstructure along with presence of titanium oxides (rutile, anatase and few Ti_2O_3 phase) in the textured surface as compared to as-received one. The area fractions of linear texture and dimple texture measured by image analysis software are 45% and 20%, respectively. The wettability is increased after laser texturing. The total surface energy is decreased due to linear (29.6 mN/m) texturing and increased due to dimple (67.6 mN/m) texturing as compared to as-received Ti–6Al–4V (37 mN/m). The effect of polar component is more in influencing the surface energy of textured surface.

  16. Integrated 1 GHz 4-channel InP phasar based WDM-receiver with Si bipolar frontend array

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, C.A.M.; Vreede, de L.C.N.; Dam, van C.; Scholtes, T.L.M.; Smit, M.K.; Tauritz, J.L.; Pedersen, J.W.; Moerman, I.; Verbeek, B.H.; Baets, R.G.F.

    1995-01-01

    An integrated 4-channel WDM-receiver frontend with 1 GHz channel bandwidth is described. The receiver consists of an integrated wavelength demultiplexer with photodiodes in InP technology connected through bond wires with a 4 channel Si bipolar transimpedance amplifier mounted on an epoxy board. The

  17. Qualification test for the Flexible Receiver. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, C.M.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides the test plan and procedures to certify and design verify the 42 in. and 4 in. -- 6 in. Flexible Receiver as a safety class 3 system. The Flexible Receiver will be used by projects W-151 and W-320 for removing equipment from tanks C-106 and Az-101

  18. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF IPv4 AND IPv6 INTERNET TRAFFIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupesh Jaiswal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The gigantic growth of the internet communication technology has illustrated its value and benefits to private businesses, government organizations, worldwide professionals, academic institutes and individuals over the past few years. The size and range of computing devices connected to the internet, substantially increased because of IPv6 and offers the potential to establish a much more powerful internet compared to the IPv4. IPV6 developed by the IETF to deal with a shortage of IP addresses under IPv4. New features of IPv6 enhance packet processing speeds over routers, switches and end systems. These improved features will have different traffic characteristics than IPv4. The internet traffic which was earlier assumed as Poisson is now shown to have fractal characteristics as; heavy tailedness, self-similarity and long range dependency. Internet traffic showing above characteristics are found to have burstiness at multiple timescales. This behavior impacts network performance and degrades it substantially. It also increases complexity for network design and create difficulties to maintain desired QoS. IPv4 traffic has been well established as self-similar traffic. Nowadays, IPv6 forming a larger share of the internet traffic and it is pivotal to asses IPv6 with regards to fractal behavior. This will enable network designers to do necessary changes in the existing network to reconcile with IPv6. In this paper we compared IPv4 and IPv6 with respect to fractal behavioral characteristics. It is found that IPv6 shows higher degree of heavy tailedness, higher values of Hurst parameter values, higher fractal dimension values i.e. it is more self-similar, greater autocorrelation achieved even at larger lag and thus showing more burstiness.

  19. SPORT-RECREATIVE ACTIVITIES 5-6 YEARS OLD CHILDREN IN KINDERGARDEN ’’CVRČAK’’ IN NIŠ

    OpenAIRE

    Mirjana Petrović; Zoran Jonić; Jadranka Kocić

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that body activities are needed in child such as food and drink. Nowadays way of life causes reduced movement in whole population, such as in preeschool children. Reducing movement in preeschool children can result many postural disturbances and body deformities. In that case it was made systematic medical chackup in children 5-6 years old from ’’Cvrčak’’- Niš kindergarden on food deformities during last seven years (2004-2010). Received results showed desastrous level on foo...

  20. 1,3-Diphenyl-3,4-dihydrobenzo[b][1,6]naphthyridine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Seebacher

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C24H18N2, is the first structural example containing the 3,4-dihydrobenzo[b][1,6]naphthyridine fragment. It was synthesized from 2,4,6,8-tetraphenyl-3,7-diazabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-9-one and was crystallized from a methanol–ethanol solution over two years as a racemate. The C=N double bond [1.2868 (15 Å] is bent significantly out of the plane of the aromatic bicyclic ring system [N—C—C—C = −157.63 (12°] and out of the plane of the phenyl ring bonded at the 1-position [N—C—C—C = 41.15 (16°].

  1. Qualification test for the flexible receiver. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedeschi, D.J.

    1994-12-12

    This document provides the test plan and procedures to certify and design verify the 42{double_prime} and 4{double_prime}-6{double_prime} Flexible Receiver as a safety class 3 system. The Flexible Receiver will be used by projects W-151 and W-320 for removing equipment from tanks C-106 and AZ-101.

  2. Qualification test for the flexible receiver. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tedeschi, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides the test plan and procedures to certify and design verify the 42 double-prime and 4 double-prime-6 double-prime Flexible Receiver as a safety class 3 system. The Flexible Receiver will be used by projects W-151 and W-320 for removing equipment from tanks C-106 and AZ-101

  3. 6 CFR 13.4 - Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investigation. 13.4 Section 13.4 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.4 Investigation. (a) If an Investigating Official concludes that a subpoena pursuant to the Authority conferred by...

  4. Irritable bowel syndrome and chronic fatigue 6 years after giardia infection: a controlled prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanevik, Kurt; Wensaas, Knut-Arne; Rortveit, Guri; Eide, Geir Egil; Mørch, Kristine; Langeland, Nina

    2014-11-15

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders and fatigue may follow acute infections. This study aimed to estimate the persistence, prevalence, and risk of irritable bowel syndrome and chronic fatigue 6 years after Giardia infection. We performed a controlled prospective study of a cohort of 1252 individuals who had laboratory-confirmed Giardia infection during a waterborne outbreak in 2004. In total, 748 cohort cases (exposed) and 878 matched controls responded to a postal questionnaire 6 years later (in 2010). Responses were compared to data from the same cohort 3 years before (in 2007). The prevalences of irritable bowel syndrome (39.4%) by Rome III criteria and chronic fatigue (30.8%) in the exposed group 6 years after giardiasis were significantly elevated compared with controls, with adjusted relative risks (RRs) of 3.4 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.9-3.9) and 2.9 (95% CI, 2.3-3.4), respectively. In the exposed group, the prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome decreased by 6.7% (RR, 0.85 [95% CI, .77-.93]), whereas the prevalence of chronic fatigue decreased by 15.3% from 3 to 6 years after Giardia infection (RR, 0.69 [95% CI, .62-.77]). Giardia exposure was a significant risk factor for persistence of both conditions, and increasing age was a risk factor for persisting chronic fatigue. Giardia infection in a nonendemic setting is associated with an increased risk for irritable bowel syndrome and chronic fatigue 6 years later. The prevalences of both conditions decrease over time, indicating that this intestinal protozoan parasite may elicit very long-term, but slowly self-limiting, complications. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  5. Bladder dysfunction in multiple sclerosis: a 6-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisic Tepavcevic, Darija; Pekmezovic, Tatjana; Dujmovic Basuroski, Irena; Mesaros, Sarlota; Drulovic, Jelena

    2017-03-01

    Bladder dysfunction (BD) is the most common autonomic disturbance in multiple sclerosis, but often overlooked and undertreated. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to explore the changes in the frequency of BD symptoms in MS cohort after a period of 3 and 6 years of follow-up, as well as to investigate the correlations between the presence of BD symptoms and both clinical characteristics and the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) at each subsequent point of estimation. The study population comprises a cohort of 93 patients with MS (McDonald's criteria, 2001). At each time point (baseline, and at the 3- and 6-year follow-up) of estimation, Expanded Disability Status Scale, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, Fatigue Severity Scale, Szasz Sexual Functioning Scale and HRQoL (measured by MSQoL-54) were assessed. The proportion of patients with at least one symptom of BD significantly increased over time, for both men and women (from 48.1% at baseline to 51.9% after 3 years and to 71.4% after 6 years of follow-up for males and from 45.5% at baseline to 50.0% after 3 years and to 66.7% after 6 years of follow-up for females). The most common BD problem was urgency of urination. The presence of BD was statistically significantly associated with higher level of physical disability, sexual dysfunction and HRQoL at each point of follow-up, for both men and women. Our results suggested outstanding frequency of BD in patients with MS, with increasing tendency over time.

  6. Osteoporosis prophylaxis in patients receiving chronic glucocorticoid therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Mir Sadat; AlElq, Abdulmohsen H.; AlShafei, Badar A.; AbuJubarac, Mohammed A.; AlTurki, Haifa A.

    2009-01-01

    Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP) is the most common form of secondary osteoporosis, yet few patients receive proper measures to prevent its development. We retrospectively searched prescription records to determine if patients receiving oral prednisolone were receiving prophylaxis or treatment for osteopenia and osteoporosis. Patients who were prescribed greater or equal to 7.5 milligrams of prednisolone for 6 months or longer during a 6- month period were identified through the prescription monitoring system. Demographic and clinical data were extracted from the patient records, and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans were retrieved, when available. Use of oral calcium, vitamin D and anti-resorptives was recorded. One hundred males and 65 females were receiving oral prednisolone for a mean (SD) duration of 40.4 (29.9) months in males and 41.2 (36.4) months in females. Twenty-one females (12.7%) and 5 (3%) males had bone mineral density measured by DEXA. Of those, 10 (47.6%) females and 3 (50%) males were osteoporotic and 11(52.4%) females and 2 (40%) males were osteopenic. Calcium and vitamin D were prescribed to the majority of patients (60% to 80%), but none were prescribed antiresorptive/anabolic therapy. Patients in this study were neither investigated properly nor treated according to the minimum recommendations for the management of GIOP. Physician awareness about the prevention and treatment of GIOP should be a priority for the local health care system. (author)

  7. Controlled clinical trial of zolpidem for the treatment of insomnia associated with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder in children 6 to 17 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumer, Jeffrey L; Findling, Robert L; Shih, Weichung Joe; Soubrane, Christina; Reed, Michael D

    2009-05-01

    The goal was to evaluate the hypnotic efficacy of zolpidem at 0.25 mg/kg per day (maximum of 10 mg/day), compared with placebo, in children 6 through 17 years of age who were experiencing insomnia associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. An 8-week, North American, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study was conducted. Patients underwent stratification according to age (6-11 years [N = 111] or 12-17 years [N = 90]) and were assigned randomly to receive treatment with the study drug or placebo (in a 2:1 ratio). The primary efficacy variable was latency to persistent sleep between weeks 3 and 6. Secondary efficacy variables also were assessed, and behavioral and cognitive components of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder were monitored. Safety was assessed on the basis of reports of adverse events, abnormal laboratory data, vital signs, and physical examination findings. The potential for next-day residual effects also was assessed. The baseline-adjusted mean change in latency to persistent sleep at week 4 did not differ significantly between the zolpidem and placebo groups (-20.28 vs -21.27 minutes). However, differences favoring zolpidem were observed for the older age group in Clinical Global Impression scores at weeks 4 and 8. No next-day residual effects of treatment were associated with zolpidem, and no rebound phenomena occurred after treatment discontinuation. Central nervous system and psychiatric disorders were the most-frequent treatment-emergent adverse events (>5%) that were observed more frequently with zolpidem than with placebo; these included dizziness, headache, and hallucinations. Ten (7.4%) patients discontinued zolpidem treatment because of adverse events. Zolpidem at a dose of 0.25 mg/kg per day to a maximum of 10 mg failed to reduce the latency to persistent sleep on polysomnographic recordings after 4 weeks of treatment in children and adolescents 6 through 17 years of age who had attention

  8. The prominent 1.6-year periodicity in solar motion due to the inner planets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Charvátová

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The solar motion due to the inner (terrestrial planets (Mercury, Me; Venus, V; Earth, E; Mars, Ma has been calculated (here for the years 1868–2030. The author found these basic properties of this motion: the toroidal volume in which the Sun moves has the inner radius of 101.3 km and the outer radius of 808.2 km. The solar orbit due to the inner (terrestrial planets is "heart-shaped". The orbital points which are the closest to the centre lie at the time distance of 1.6 years (584 days, on the average, and approximately coincide with the moments of the oppositions of V and E. The spectrum of periods shows the dominant period of 1.6 years (V-E and further periods of 2.13 years (E-Ma (25.6 months, QBO, 0.91 years (V-Ma, 0.8 years ((V-E/2 and 6.4 years. All the periods are above the 99% confidence level. A possible connection of this solar motion with the mid-term quasi-periodicities (MTQP, i.e. 1.5–1.7 years in solar and solar-terrestrial indices can be proposed.

  9. Mental Health Diagnoses 3 Years After Receiving or Being Denied an Abortion in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, M Antonia; Neuhaus, John M; Foster, Diana G

    2015-12-01

    We set out to assess the occurrence of new depression and anxiety diagnoses in women 3 years after they sought an abortion. We conducted semiannual telephone interviews of 956 women who sought abortions from 30 US facilities. Adjusted multivariable discrete-time logistic survival models examined whether the study group (women who obtained abortions just under a facility's gestational age limit, who were denied abortions and carried to term, who were denied abortions and did not carry to term, and who received first-trimester abortions) predicted depression or anxiety onset during seven 6-month time intervals. The 3-year cumulative probability of professionally diagnosed depression was 9% to 14%; for anxiety it was 10% to 15%, with no study group differences. Women in the first-trimester group and women denied abortions who did not give birth had greater odds of new self-diagnosed anxiety than did women who obtained abortions just under facility gestational limits. Among women seeking abortions near facility gestational limits, those who obtained abortions were at no greater mental health risk than were women who carried an unwanted pregnancy to term.

  10. Giant aneurysm in 6 years old child - case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirakov, S.; Penkov, M.; Todorov, Y; Minkin, K.

    2014-01-01

    Intracranial saccular aneurysms rare in childhood is. Even among the reported series of childhood aneurysms, it is unusual to find their occurrence in children less than 7 years old. The pathogenesis of these lesions is also a matter of debate and speculations. The peak age of incidence of juvenile cerebral aneurysms appear to be 12 years, occurrence below the age of 7 being rarity. We show a case of 6 years old boy with giant aneurysm. found because of episodes of headache and vomiting. Discussion of pathogenesis for the rare pathology. After discussion of multidisciplinary team, of neuroradiologist and neurosurgeons was decided to be perform endovascular embolization, because of the better outcome for the patient. We performed endovascular treatment of the aneurysm with achieving total embolization. The patient recovery completely, and after 4 days went home. (authors) Key words: GIANT ANEURYSM. SACCULAR ANEURYSM. EMBOLIZATION. STENT ASSISTED COILING

  11. 24 CFR 6.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 6.4... COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT ACT OF 1974 General Provisions § 6.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) Section 109... benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity funded in whole or in part...

  12. Interdental Spacing and Dental Caries in the Primary Dentition of 4-6 Year Old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Babu Kl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: There are various risk factors which play an essential role in the multifactorial disease “dental caries.” Although absence of interdental spaces in the primary dentition may increase the risk of dental caries, not many studies have been carried out to assess this correlation. This study was performed to assess the relationship between interdental spacing and dental caries in primary dentition.Materials and Methods: Five hundred 4-6 year-old children were enrolled into this study. Dental caries was recorded using the criteria given by Warren et al. Following this, impressions were made for the upper and lower arches and dental casts were poured. Interdental spaces were measured on the dental casts using a digital verniercaliper. The data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis.Results: The number of sites with interdental spaces was higher in the maxillary arch in comparison to the mandibular arch. The highest number of interdental spaces was observed between the maxillary anteriors. The number of demineralized, but non-cavitated tooth surfaces (d1were higher than the number of cavitated tooth surfaces. This difference was significant in the mandibular anterior segment. Dental caries showed a negative correlation with interdental spacing. A significant correlation was found between dental caries and interdental spacing in the posterior segment of the mandibular arch.Conclusion: This study showed that children with no interdental spacing in the primary dentition are at higher risk for dental caries.Key Words: Dental Caries; Interdental Spaces; Interproximal Caries

  13. Rigid-rod polyamides and polyimides derived from 4,3 ''-diamino-2 ',6 '-diphenyl- or di(4-biphenylyl)-p-terphenyl and 4-amino-4 ''-carboxy-2 ',6 '-diphenyl-p-terphenyl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiliopoulos, IK; Mikroyannidis, JA; Tsivgoulis, GM

    1998-01-01

    4,3 "-Diamino-2',6'-diphenyl- or di(4-biphenylyl)p-terphenyl (3a or 3b) and 4-amino-4 "-carboxy-2',6'-diphenyl-p-terphenyl (6) were synthesized through pyrylium salts and used for the preparation of rigid-rod polyamides and polyimides. The polymers were characterized by inherent viscosity, elemental

  14. rac-6-Hydroxy-4-(4-nitrophenyl-5-(2-thienylcarbonyl-6-(trifluoromethyl-3,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidin-2(1H-one monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Li Zhang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C16H12F3N3O5S·H2O, was prepared by reaction of 4-nitrobenzaldehyde, 4,4,4-trifluoro-1-(thiophen-2-ylbutane-1,3-dione and urea. The asymmetric unit contains two independent molecules, with essentially identical geometries and conformations. The dihydropyrimidine rings adopt a half-chair conformation. The dihedral angles between the benzene ring and the thiophene ring are 54.82 (8 and 58.72 (8° in the two molecules. The molecular conformation of one of the molecules is stabilized by two intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds, generating an S(6 ring. The crystal structure is stabilized by intermolecular O—H...O and N—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  15. The electrically silent Kv6.4 subunit confers hyperpolarized gating charge movement in Kv2.1/Kv6.4 heterotetrameric channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Bocksteins

    Full Text Available The voltage-gated K(+ (Kv channel subunit Kv6.4 does not form functional homotetrameric channels but co-assembles with Kv2.1 to form functional Kv2.1/Kv6.4 heterotetrameric channels. Compared to Kv2.1 homotetramers, Kv6.4 exerts a ~40 mV hyperpolarizing shift in the voltage-dependence of Kv2.1/Kv6.4 channel inactivation, without a significant effect on activation gating. However, the underlying mechanism of this Kv6.4-induced modulation of Kv2.1 channel inactivation, and whether the Kv6.4 subunit participates in the voltage-dependent gating of heterotetrameric channels is not well understood. Here we report distinct gating charge movement of Kv2.1/Kv6.4 heterotetrameric channels, compared to Kv2.1 homotetramers, as revealed by gating current recordings from mammalian cells expressing these channels. The gating charge movement of Kv2.1/Kv6.4 heterotetrameric channels displayed an extra component around the physiological K(+ equilibrium potential, characterized by a second sigmoidal relationship of the voltage-dependence of gating charge movement. This distinct gating charge displacement reflects movement of the Kv6.4 voltage-sensing domain and has a voltage-dependency that matches the hyperpolarizing shift in Kv2.1/Kv6.4 channel inactivation. These results provide a mechanistic basis for the modulation of Kv2.1 channel inactivation gating kinetics by silent Kv6.4 subunits.

  16. Socioeconomic position and ten-year survival and virologic outcomes in a Ugandan HIV cohort receiving antiretroviral therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew G Flynn

    Full Text Available Lifelong ART is essential to reducing HIV mortality and ending the epidemic, however the interplay between socioeconomic position and long-term outcomes of HIV-infected persons receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART in sub-Saharan Africa is unknown. Furthering the understanding of factors related to long-term ART outcomes in this important region will aid the successful scale-up of ART programs. We enrolled 559 HIV-infected Ugandan adults starting ART in 2004-2005 at the Infectious Diseases Institute in Kampala, Uganda and followed them for 10 years. We documented baseline employment status, regular household income, education level, housing description, physical ability, and CD4 count. Viral load was measured every six months. Proportional hazard regression tested for associations between baseline characteristics and 1 mortality, 2 virologic failure, and 3 mortality or virologic failure as a composite outcome. Over ten years 23% (n = 127 of participants died, 6% (n = 31 were lost-to-follow-up and 23% (107/472 experienced virologic treatment failure. In Kaplan-Meier analysis we observed an association between employment and mortality, with the highest cumulative probability of death occurring in unemployed individuals. In univariate analysis unemployment and disease severity were associated with mortality, but in multivariable analysis the only association with mortality was disease severity. We observed an association between higher household income and an increased incidence of both virologic failure and the combined outcome, and an association between self-employment and lower incidence of virologic failure and the combined outcome when compared to unemployment. Formal education level and housing status were unrelated to outcomes. It is feasible to achieve good ten-year survival, retention-in-care, and viral suppression in a socioeconomically diverse population in a resource-limited setting. Unemployment appears to be related to adverse 10

  17. Cirurgia cardíaca videoassistida: 6 anos de experiência Video-assisted cardiac surgery: 6 years of experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeronimo Antonio Fortunato Júnior

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A cirurgia cardíaca minimamente invasiva e videoassistida (CCVA tem aumentado em popularidade nos últimos 15 anos. As pequenas incisões têm sido associadas a um bom efeito estético e menor trauma cirúrgico, consequentemente, menor dor e rápida recuperação pós-operatória. OBJETIVOS: Apresentar nossa casuística com CCVA, após 6 anos de uso do método. MÉTODOS: Cento e trinta e seis pacientes foram submetidos à CCVA, após consentimento escrito, entre setembro de 2005 e outubro de 2011, sendo 50% do sexo masculino, com idade de 47,8 ± 15,4 anos, divididos em dois grupos: com circulação extracorpórea (CEC (GcCEC=105 pacientes: valvopatia mitral (47/105, valvopatia aórtica (39/105 e cardiopatia congênita (19/105 e sem CEC (GsCEC=31 pacientes: ressincronização cardíaca (18/31, tumor cardíaco (4/31 e revascularização miocárdica minimamente invasiva (6/31. No GcCEC, foi realizada minitoracotomia direita (3 a 5 cm e acesso femoral para canulação periférica. RESULTADOS: No GcCEC, a média de dias em UTI (DUTI e de internação hospitalar (DH foi, respectivamente, 2,4 ± 4,5 dias e 5,0 ± 6,8 dias. Doze pacientes apresentaram complicações no pós-operatório e cinco (4,8% foram a óbito. Noventa e três (88,6% pacientes evoluíram sem intercorrências, foram extubados no centro cirúrgico, permanecendo 1,8 ± 0,9 DUTI e 3,6 ± 1,3 DH. No GsCEC, foram 1,3 ± 0,7 DUTI e 2,9 ± 1,4 DH, sem intercorrências ou óbitos. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados encontrados nesta casuística são comparáveis aos da literatura mundial e confirmam o método como opção à técnica convencional.INTRODUCTION: Minimally invasive and video-assisted cardiac surgery (VACS has increased in popularity over the past 15 years. The small incisions have been associated with a good aesthetic effect and less surgical trauma, therefore less postoperative pain and rapid recovery. OBJECTIVES: To present our series with VACS, after 6 years of use of

  18. SU-F-T-101: Insight into Dosimetry Workload and Planning Timelines: A 6 Year Review at One Institution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardan, R; Popple, R; Smith, H; Fiveash, J [The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To elucidate realistic clinical treatment planning workload and timelines to improve understanding for patients, payers, and other institutions involved in radiotherapy processes. Methods: A web based tool was developed using Oracle Express (Oracle Corp, Redwood City, CA) which allowed communication between the physicians and staff about the current state of the patient plan. For 6 years, all patient courses were logged and time-stamped in 22 discreet steps which detailed start and stop times for simulation, contouring, and treatment planning tasks. This data was combined with the treatment planning database (TPDB) using the Eclipse Scripting API (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) to cross-identify plans between the two systems. This time data was analyzed across our dosimetry staff and treatment modality. Results: In 6 years, 110,477 patient statuses were time-logged for 9683 courses of treatment using our internal software. The courses contained 8305 unique patients who were binned into one of 11 diagnosis site categories. 8253 courses could be reconciled against the TPDB using timestamp data from patient statuses. The average planning volume per dosimetrist was 375.8 ± 142.4 plans per year with the average number of planning revisions per dosimetrist of 71.0 ± 27.1 plans per year. The median treatment planning times by modality ranged from to 48.3 hours for IMRT plans 5 fields or less to 119.6 hours for IMRT with 8 or more fields. Two arc VMAT, three arc VMAT, and 3D plans median times were 89.1 hours, 113.8 hours, and 50.9 hours respectively. Conclusion: Using our web based tool, we have demonstrated the ability to quantify treatment planning timelines and workloads which could help in setting appropriate expectations for patients, payers, and hospital administration. COI: Author received monies from Varian Medical Systems for research and teaching honorarium.

  19. Hip resurfacing in a district general hospital: 6-year clinical results using the ReCap hip resurfacing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Weegen Walter

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of our study was to prospectively report the clinical results of 280 consecutive hips (240 patients who received a ReCap Hip Resurfacing System implant (Biomet Inc., Warsaw, USA in a single district general hospital. Literature reports a large variation in clinical results between different resurfacing designs and published results using this particular design are scarce. Methods Mean follow up was 3.3 years (1.0 to 6.3 and four patients were lost to follow-up. All patients were diagnosed with end-stage hip osteoarthritis, their mean age was 54 years and 76.4% of all patients were male. Results There were 16 revisions and four patients reported a Harris Hip Score Conclusions This independent series confirms that hip resurfacing is a demanding procedure, and that implant survival of the ReCap hip resurfacing system is on a critical level in our series. In non-revised patients, reported outcomes are generally excellent. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00603395

  20. N,N-Diethylanilinium 2,4-dioxo-5-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidin-6-olate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manickam Buvaneswari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the title molecular salt, C10H16N+·C10H4N5O9−, the components are linked through a N—H...O hydrogen bonds. R22(8 ring motifs are formed between inversion-related barbiturate residues. Two intramoleculer N—H...O hydrogen bonds are observed in the anion. The dihedral angle between 2,4,6-trinitrophenyl and barbiturate rings is 53.6 (2°. The N,N-diethylamine substituent is disordered and was modeled as two geometrically equivalent conformers with occupancies of 0.737 (2 and 0.273 (2.

  1. Japanese Language and Culture: 9-Year Program Classroom Assessment Materials, Grade 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This document is designed to provide assessment materials for specific Grade 4 outcomes in the Japanese Language and Culture Nine-year Program, Grades 4-5-6. The assessment materials are designed for the beginner level in the context of teaching for communicative competence. Grade 4 learning outcomes from the Japanese Language and Culture…

  2. Prenatal Fish Oil Supplementation and Allergy: 6-Year Follow-up of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Karen P; Sullivan, Thomas; Palmer, Debra; Gold, Michael; Kennedy, Declan John; Martin, James; Makrides, Maria

    2016-06-01

    Evidence from randomized controlled trials in early infancy suggest that prenatal supplementation with Ω-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) reduces the incidence of allergic disease characterized by an immunoglobulin E (IgE) response. We aimed to determine whether protective effects were evident in the 6-year-old offspring of women supplemented with n-3 rich fish oil during pregnancy. Six-year follow-up of children (n = 706) with a family history of allergic disease from the Docosahexaenoic Acid to Optimize Mother Infant Outcome (DOMInO) trial. Women were randomly allocated to receive n-3 LCPUFA-rich fish oil capsules (800 mg/d docosahexaenoic acid DHA and 100mg/d eicosapentaenoic acid) or vegetable oil capsules (without n-3 LCPUFA). Allergic disease symptoms including eczema, wheeze, rhinitis, and rhino-conjunctivitis, were assessed using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire and sensitization to allergens was measured by skin prick test. There was no difference in the percentage of children with any IgE-associated allergic disease between the n-3 LCPUFA and control groups (116/367 [31.5%] vs 106/336 [31.5%]; adjusted relative risk, 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 0.82-1.33; P = .73). There was a reduction in the percentage of children sensitized to house dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae (49/367 [13.4%] vs 68/336 [20.3%]; adjusted relative risk, 0.67, 95% confidence interval, 0.44-1.00; P = .0495). Prenatal n-3 LCPUFA supplementation did not reduce IgE-associated allergic disease at 6 years of age. Secondary outcomes were suggestive of a protective effect of the intervention on the incidence of D. farinae sensitization. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. N-acetyl-4-aminophenol (paracetamol) in urine samples of 6-11-year-old Danish school children and their mothers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J. K.; Modick, H.; Morck, T. A.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies indicate an association between the use of paracetamol during pregnancy and reproductive disorders in male offspring. Furthermore, N-acetyl-4-aminophenol (NAAP, paracetamol) has been shown to be ubiquitously excreted in urine samples of the general population. To investigate the in...... the internal body burden of the Danish population to NAAP for the first time, 288 morning urine samples from 6- to 11-year-old Danish school children and their mothers were analyzed for NAAP. NAAP was measurable in all mothers and all of the children except for one child. Results showed...... lifestyle related exposure (e.g. via food or indoor air sources). However, we did not detect any association between lifestyle data from questionnaires and levels of NAAP excretion in this study. The knowledge about possible sources of exposure leading to this omnipresent paracetamol excretion is limited...

  4. Playground Apparatus Experience and Muscular Endurance among Children 4-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Carl

    The effects of specific play apparatus experience on a test of upper body muscular endurance was investigated among a group of children 4-6 years old. Both the control and experimental group consisted of 45 subjects randomly selected on the basis of age from two private day care centers situated in the same community. The two groups were of…

  5. Properties of Mn0.4Zn0.6Fe2O4 and Mn0.6Zn0.4Fe2O4 as Nanocatalyst for Ammonia Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puspitasari Poppy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia synthesis requires high pressure and high temperature process. Unfortunately, the capital intensive cost resulting low yield of ammonia by using recent catalyst which is iron oxide. Therefore, manganese zinc ferrite as a soft ferrite material will be introduced as a new nanocatalyst to enhance the ammonia yield. As a new nanocatalyst for ammonia production, study of comparasion two different concentration of MnZn Ferrite is very important. This paper will compare the yield of ammonia by using two different nanocatalyst which are Mn0.4Zn0.6Fe2O4 and Mn0.6Zn0.4Fe2O4. Both were synthesized by sol-gel method and has been characterize by using FESEM (morphology, XRD (phase identification, EDX (elemental analysis and TPR (oxide reduction. The ammonia was produce with and without magnetic field applied. The result shows that the ammonia yield is higher for Mn0.4Zn0.6Fe2O4 nanocatalyst than Mn0.6Zn0.4Fe2O4 by using magnetic field applied. 67.2% of yield has been achieved by using new nanocatalyst Mn0.6Zn0.4Fe2O4 and magnetic field applied at ambient environment.

  6. DWPF SB6 Initial CPC Flowsheet Testing SB6-1 TO SB6-4L Tests Of SB6-A And SB6-B Simulants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, D.; Pickenheim, B.; Best, D.

    2009-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will transition from Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) processing to Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) processing in late fiscal year 2010. Tests were conducted using non-radioactive simulants of the expected SB6 composition to determine the impact of varying the acid stoichiometry during the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) processes. The work was conducted to meet the Technical Task Request (TTR) HLW/DWPF/TTR-2008-0043, Rev.0 and followed the guidelines of a Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TT and QAP). The flowsheet studies are performed to evaluate the potential chemical processing issues, hydrogen generation rates, and process slurry rheological properties as a function of acid stoichiometry. These studies were conducted with the estimated SB6 composition at the time of the study. This composition assumed a blend of 101,085 kg of Tank 4 insoluble solids and 179,000 kg of Tank 12 insoluble solids. The current plans are to subject Tank 12 sludge to aluminum dissolution. Liquid Waste Operations assumed that 75% of the aluminum would be dissolved during this process. After dissolution and blending of Tank 4 sludge slurry, plans included washing the contents of Tank 51 to ∼1M Na. After the completion of washing, the plan assumes that 40 inches on Tank 40 slurry would remain for blending with the qualified SB6 material. There are several parameters that are noteworthy concerning SB6 sludge: (1) This is the second batch DWPF will be processing that contains sludge that has had a significant fraction of aluminum removed through aluminum dissolution; (2) The sludge is high in mercury, but the projected concentration is lower than SB5; (3) The sludge is high in noble metals, but the projected concentrations are lower than SB5; and(4) The sludge is high in U and Pu - components that are not added in sludge simulants. Six DWPF process simulations were completed in 4-L laboratory-scale equipment using

  7. IPv4-protokollasta siirtyminen IPv6-protokollaan

    OpenAIRE

    Ylituomaala, Jaakko

    2011-01-01

    Tässä työssä tutkitaan IPv6-osoiteavaruutta, sekä IPv6-protokollan yhteensopivuutta IPv4-protokollan kanssa. Työssä käydään läpi myös yleisimmät IPv4-yhteensopivat IPv6-reititysmenetelmät. Tutkimuksessa tutustutaan pääpiirteittäin IPv4-osoiteluokkiin, itse osoitteisiin ja IPv4-headeriin. IPv4 osoiteryhmiä on viisi, jotka ovat A, B, C, D ja E. Lisäksi luodaan katsaus IPv4-headerin eri osioihin ja tutustutaan niiden käyttötarkoituksiin. Työssä käydään läpi myös osittain NAT-toiminto. Tu...

  8. German Language and Culture: 9-Year Program Classroom Assessment Materials, Grade 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This document is designed to provide assessment materials for specific Grade 4 outcomes in the German Language and Culture Nine-year Program, Grades 4-5-6. The assessment materials are designed for the beginner level in the context of teaching for communicative competence. Grade 4 learning outcomes from the German Language and Culture Nine-year…

  9. Punjabi Language and Culture: 9-Year Program Classroom Assessment Materials, Grade 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This document is designed to provide assessment materials for specific Grade 4 outcomes in the Punjabi Language and Culture Nine-year Program, Grades 4-5-6. The assessment materials are designed for the beginner level in the context of teaching for communicative competence. Grade 4 learning outcomes from the Punjabi Language and Culture Nine-year…

  10. 26 CFR 1.668(a)-1A - Amounts treated as received in prior taxable years; inclusion in gross income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amounts treated as received in prior taxable years; inclusion in gross income. 1.668(a)-1A Section 1.668(a)-1A Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... treated as received in prior taxable years; inclusion in gross income. (a) Section 668(a) provides that...

  11. [Adherence to treatment after kidney transplantation as quality indicator of the information received: Longitudinal study of 2 years follow-up].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Requena, G; Cantarell, M C; Moreso, F; Parramon, G; Seron, D

    Transplantation is an optimal form of treatment for end-stage renal disease, but requires lifelong adherence to immunosuppressive therapy. The aim of this study was to longitudinally assess the adherence to treatment after kidney transplant, as well as to compare the amount of information about the treatment received at one month and 18 months post-transplantation, and its influence on adherence to treatment. The Self-Reported Measure of Medication Adherence was administered at month (T1), 6 months (T2), 12 months (T3), 18 months (T4), and 24 months (T5) post-transplantation. Survey about aspects of knowledge and attitudes about medication, was administered at one month and 18 months post-transplant. Measures of central tendency and non-parametric tests were used to compare the data. The study included a total of 73 patients with a median age of 57 years. The percentage of patients non-adherent to medication was 9.6% (T1), 22.5% (T2), 29.2% (T3), 29.8% (T4), and 28.1% (T5). One month after transplantation "not consulting with the doctor on forgetting to take medication (P=.034) significantly influenced the non-adherence to treatment. At 18 months post- transplantation, none of the issues raised on medication knowledge had an influence on non-adherence to treatment. Longer times since transplantation increased the non-adherence to treatment. Some issues regarding the information of treatment influenced the non-adherence in the immediate transplant period, but not in the follow-up. Copyright © 2016 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Q4 Titanium 6-4 Material Properties Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Kenneth; Nettles, Mindy

    2015-01-01

    This task involves development and characterization of selective laser melting (SLM) parameters for additive manufacturing of titanium-6%aluminum-4%vanadium (Ti-6Al-4V or Ti64). SLM is a relatively new manufacturing technology that fabricates complex metal components by fusing thin layers of powder with a high-powered laser beam, utilizing a 3D computer design to direct the energy and form the shape without traditional tools, dies, or molds. There are several metal SLM technologies and materials on the market today, and various efforts to quantify the mechanical properties, however, nothing consolidated or formal to date. Meanwhile, SLM material fatigue properties of Ti64 are currently highly sought after by NASA propulsion designers for rotating turbomachinery components.

  13. Characterization of the direct metal laser sintered Ti6Al4V Components

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chauke, L

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available using the DMLS method. Emphasis was made on internal and external flaws generated during layer by layer building 2. Experimental procedure Ti6Al4V dog-borne sample produced by DMLS powder bed method is schematically shown in Figure 1. The EONSINT M...270 equipment [10] was used for the production of dog-bone samples. The sample gauge length, breath and width are given in Figure 1. Tensile properties, hardness profile, microstructure analysis of the as received and heat treated samples were...

  14. Deployment IPv6 over IPv4 network infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Hoang, Tien Dung

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is doing the research about IPv6, concentrate in how to deploy an IPv6 network based on IPv4 network without making any interruption to IPv4 network. This thesis is made for Financing and Promoting Technology Corporation (FPT) in Vietnam. This thesis is completed in two main parts. The theoretical part is making research about IPv4 and IPv6 to have the point of view about IPv4 and IPv6 basically, and from those one, seeing the advantages of IPv6 comparing wit...

  15. Frequency, severity and risk factors for urinary and faecal incontinence at 4 years postpartum: a prospective cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartland, D; MacArthur, C; Woolhouse, H; McDonald, E; Brown, S J

    2016-06-01

    To investigate frequency, severity and risk factors for urinary incontinence and faecal incontinence 4 years after a first birth. Prospective pregnancy cohort study. Melbourne, Australia. A total of 1011 nulliparous women recruited in early pregnancy. Participants were followed up at 32 weeks of gestation; then at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months and 4 years postpartum. Frequency and severity of urinary and faecal incontinence. At 4 years, 29.6% of women reported urinary incontinence and 7.1% reported faecal incontinence. Compared with women having only spontaneous vaginal births, women who delivered exclusively by caesarean section were less likely to have urinary incontinence at 4 years postpartum (adjusted odds ratio 0.4, 95% confidence interval 0.3-0.6). Women who reported urinary incontinence before or during the index pregnancy, and those experiencing symptoms in the first year postpartum had increased odds of incontinence at 4 years, with the highest odds (6-12 times higher) among women who had previously reported moderate or severe symptoms. The odds of reporting faecal incontinence at 4 years were two to six times higher for women experiencing symptoms in pregnancy, and around four to eight times higher for those with symptoms in the first year postpartum. Urinary and faecal incontinence are prevalent conditions 4 years after a first birth. Women reporting urinary or faecal incontinence during pregnancy had markedly higher odds of reporting symptoms at 4 years postpartum, suggesting a need for further investigation and elucidation of aetiological pathways involving nonbirth-related risk factors. Moderate/severe incontinence prevalent 4 years after first birth in population cohort. Prior symptoms are biggest predictor. © 2015 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  16. pVT-Second Virial Coefficients B(T ), Viscosity η(T ), and Self-Diffusion ρD(T) of the Gases: BF3, CF4, SiF4, CCl4, SiCl4, SF6, MoF6, WF6, UF6, C(CH3)4, and Si(CH3)4 Determined by Means of an Isotropic Temperature-Dependent Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarkova, L.; Hohm, U.

    2002-03-01

    We present results on self-consistent calculations of second pVT-virial coefficients B(T), viscosity data η(T), and diffusion coefficients ρD(T) for eleven heavy globular gases: boron trifluoride (BF3), carbon tetrafluoride (CF4), silicon tetrafluoride (SiF4), carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), silicon tetrachloride (SiCl4), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), molybdenum hexafluoride (MoF6), tungsten hexafluoride (WF6), uranium hexafluoride (UF6), tetramethyl methane (C(CH3)4, TMM), and tetramethyl silane (Si(CH3)4, TMS). The calculations are performed mainly in the temperature range between 200 and 900 K by means of isotropic n-6 potentials with temperature-dependent separation rm(T) and potential well depth ɛ(T). The potential parameters at T=0 K (ɛ, rm, n) and the enlargement of the first level radii δ are obtained solving an ill-posed problem of minimizing the squared deviations between experimental and calculated values normalized to their relative experimental error. The temperature dependence of the potential is obtained as a result of the influence of vibrational excitation on binary interactions. This concept of the isotropic temperature-dependent potential (ITDP) is presented in detail where gaseous SF6 will serve as an example. The ITDP is subsequently applied to all other gases. This approach and the main part of the results presented here have already been published during 1996-2000. However, in some cases the data are upgraded due to the recently improved software (CF4, SF6) and newly found experimental data (CF4, SiF4, CCl4, SF6).

  17. National doping prevention guidelines: Intent, efficacy and lessons learned - A 4-year evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wippert, Pia-Maria; Fließer, Michael

    2016-10-10

    Doping presents a potential health risk for young athletes. Prevention programs are intended to prevent doping by educating athletes about banned substances. However, such programs have their limitations in practice. This led Germany to introduce the National Doping Prevention Plan (NDPP), in hopes of ameliorating the situation among young elite athletes. Two studies examined 1) the degree to which the NDPP led to improved prevention efforts in elite sport schools, and 2) the extent to which newly developed prevention activities of the national anti-doping agency (NADA) based on the NDPP have improved knowledge among young athletes within elite sports schools. The first objective was investigated in a longitudinal study (Study I: t0 = baseline, t1 = follow-up 4 years after NDPP introduction) with N = 22 teachers engaged in doping prevention in elite sports schools. The second objective was evaluated in a cross-sectional comparison study (Study II) in N = 213 elite sports school students (54.5 % male, 45.5 % female, age M = 16.7 ± 1.3 years (all students had received the improved NDDP measure in school; one student group had received additionally NADA anti-doping activities and a control group did not). Descriptive statistics were calculated, followed by McNemar tests, Wilcoxon tests and Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA). Results indicate that 4 years after the introduction of the NDPP there have been limited structural changes with regard to the frequency, type, and scope of doping prevention in elite sport schools. On the other hand, in study II, elite sport school students who received further NADA anti-doping activities performed better on an anti-doping knowledge test than students who did not take part (F(1, 207) = 33.99, p doping-prevention in elite sport schools as part of the NDPP was only partially successful. The results of the evaluation indicate that the introduction of the NDPP has contributed more to a change in the

  18. Nationwide survey of US integrated 6-year cardiothoracic surgical residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebastchi, Amir H; Yuh, David D

    2014-08-01

    Integrated 6-year cardiothoracic surgical residency programs have recently been implemented in the United States. We report the results of the first published nationwide survey assessing the motivations, satisfaction, and ambitions of integrated 6-year residents. A 63-question web-based survey was distributed to 83 residents enrolled in 21 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-accredited integrated 6-year programs in November 2013. There was an outstanding 69% response rate. The median age of integrated 6-year residents was 29 years with women comprising 24%. A clear majority had faculty mentorship (95%) and significant clinical exposure in medical school. Focused (100%) and abbreviated (74%) training curricula were identified as the top advantages of integrated 6-year programs; the format itself was a significant factor (46%) in career choice. Most integrated 6-year residents (95%) were satisfied with their program; 80.7% were satisfied with their operative experience thus far. Career plans skewed toward adult cardiac surgery (67%), followed by pediatric cardiac (24%) and general thoracic (9%) surgery; 49% were not particularly concerned about future employment, with 65% foreseeing an increase in opportunities. Specialized training (eg, aortic, heart failure, minimally invasive, congenital) was anticipated by 77%. Most integrated 6-year residents envision an academic career (94.7%). This survey takes an important snapshot of the nascent integrated 6-year format. Mentorship and intense clinical exposure are critical in attracting applicants. Purported advantages of the format are holding true among integrated 6-year residents, with the majority satisfied with their programs. These early data indicate that this format holds significant promise in attracting and retaining highly qualified trainees to academic cardiothoracic surgery. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Crystal Growth and Scintillation Properties of Eu2+ doped Cs4CaI6 and Cs4SrI6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stand, L.; Zhuravleva, M.; Chakoumakos, B.; Johnson, J.; Loyd, M.; Wu, Y.; Koschan, M.; Melcher, C. L.

    2018-03-01

    In this work we present the crystal growth and scintillation properties of two new ternarymetal halide scintillators activated with divalent europium, Cs4CaI6 and Cs4SrI6. Single crystals of each compound were grown in evacuated quartz ampoules via the vertical Bridgman technique using a two-zone transparent furnace. Single crystal X-ray diffraction experiments showed that both crystals have a trigonal (R-3c) structure, with a density of 3.99 g/cm3 and 4.03 g/cm3. The radioluminescence and photoluminescence measurements showed typical luminescence properties due to the 5d-4f radiative transitions in Eu2+. At this early stage of development Cs4SrI6:Eu and Cs4CaI6:Eu have shown very promising scintillation properties, with light yields and energy resolutions of 62,300 ph/MeV and 3.3%, and 51,800 photons/MeV and 3.6% at 662 keV, respectively.

  20. Why do nonsurvivors from community-acquired pneumonia not receive ventilatory support?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Torsten T; Welte, Tobias; Strauss, Richard; Bischoff, Helge; Richter, Klaus; Ewig, Santiago

    2013-08-01

    We investigated rates and predictors of ventilatory support during hospitalization in seemingly not severely compromised nonsurvivors of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We used the database from the German nationwide mandatory quality assurance program including all hospitalized patients with CAP from 2007 to 2011. We selected a population not residing in nursing homes, not bedridden, and not referred from another hospital. Predictors of ventilatory support were identified using a multivariate analysis. Overall, 563,901 patients (62.3% of the whole population) were included. Mean age was 69.4 ± 16.6 years; 329,107 (58.4%) were male. Mortality was 39,895 (7.1%). A total of 28,410 (5.0%) received ventilatory support during the hospital course, and 76.3% of nonsurvivors did not receive ventilatory support (62.6% of those aged ventilatory support during hospitalization. Death from CAP occurred significantly earlier in the nonventilated group (8.2 ± 8.9 vs. 13.1 ± 14.1 days; p ventilatory support is disturbingly high, particularly in younger patients. Both performance predictors for not being ventilated remain ambiguous, because they may reflect either treatment restrictions or deficient clinical performance. Elucidating this ambiguity will be part of the forthcoming update of the quality assurance program.

  1. Cosmic rays and the biosphere over 4 billion years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Variations in the flux of cosmic rays (CR) at Earth during the last 4.6 billion years are constructed from information about the star formation rate in the Milky Way and the evolution of the solar activity. The constructed CR signal is compared with variations in the Earths biological productivit...... as recorded in the isotope delta C-13, which spans more than 3 billion years. CR and fluctuations in biological productivity show a remarkable correlation and indicate that the evolution of climate and the biosphere on the Earth is closely linked to the evolution of the Milky Way....

  2. Implementasi Migrasi Ipv4 Ke Ipv6

    OpenAIRE

    Syafrizal, Melwin; Qamar, Syamsul; Aji, Damawan Bayu

    2013-01-01

    IPv4 yang digunakan di jaringan publik (internet) sudah habis, sehingga kebutuhan koneksi internet baru tidak dapat dilayani. Layanan baru, konten baru, domain name baru, server baru, router baru tidak dapat koneksi ke internet, kecuali menggunakan IPv6. Migrasi IPv4 ke IPv6 bukan hal yang mudah, pengetahuan baru tentang IPv6 perlu dipelajari, kondisi-kondisi yang akan dialami akibat Perubahan IP, mekanisme transisi, atau mekanisme routing perlu dipahami. Cara-cara konfigurasi IPv6 pada berba...

  3. [Plasma vitamin D levels in native and immigrant children under the age of 6 years of different ethnic origins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Muro, J M; Yeste Fernández, D; Marín Muñoz, A; Fernández Cancio, M; Audí Parera, L; Carrascosa Lezcano, A

    2015-05-01

    Nutritional rickets is an emergent disease in Spain, and occurs particularly in black and dark-skinned infants and children from immigrant populations. The aim of this work was to ascertain the vitamin D reserve in a population of native and immigrant children under the age of 6 years. A prospective study was conducted at a Primary Healthcare Centre in Salt (Girona). 307 children with the following origin and race distribution: Caucasian (n=85; 28%), Sub-Saharan (n=101; 32.5%); Maghrebí (n=87, 28.0%); Central-American (n=20; 6.4%) and Indo-Pakistani (n=14; 4.5%). The biochemistry blood parameters studied were: calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, 25-hydroxivitamin D, and parathormone. A nutritional survey was used to estimate calcium and vitamin D intake and degree of sun exposure. Vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/ml) was detected in Caucasians (8%), Sub-Saharans (18%), Central-Americans (20%), Maghrebís (34.5%), and Indo-Pakistanis (64%). Of the children studied (n=9), 2.9% had serious vitamin D deficiency (< 10 ng/ml); only one child of Sub-Saharan origin met the biochemical criteria for classical rickets. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was significantly higher in children not receiving vitamin D supplements in the first year of life. Plasma vitamin D concentrations were deficient in 22.5% of children under the age of six, being more prevalent in children of Indo-Pakistani and Maghrebí origin. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. 4-Bromoanilinium perchlorate 18-crown-6 clathrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Guo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of 4-bromoaniline, 18-crown-6, and perchloric acid in methanol yields the title compound, C6H7BrN+·ClO4−·C12H24O6, in which the protonated –NH3+ group forms three bifurcated N—H...O hydrogen bonds to the O atoms of the crown ether.

  5. Prevalence of corneal astigmatism in Tohono O'odham Native American children 6 months to 8 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Erin M; Dobson, Velma; Miller, Joseph M; Schwiegerling, Jim; Clifford-Donaldson, Candice E; Green, Tina K; Messer, Dawn H

    2011-06-21

    To describe the prevalence of corneal astigmatism in infants and young children who are members of a Native American tribe with a high prevalence of refractive astigmatism. The prevalence of corneal astigmatism was assessed by obtaining infant keratometer (IK4) measurements from 1235 Tohono O'odham children, aged 6 months to 8 years. The prevalence of corneal astigmatism >2.00 D was lower in the 1- to <2-year-old age group when compared with all other age groups, except the 6- to <7-year-old group. The magnitude of mean corneal astigmatism was significantly lower in the 1- to <2-year age group than in the 5- to <6-, 6- to <7-, and 7- to <8-year age groups. Corneal astigmatism was with-the-rule (WTR) in 91.4% of astigmatic children (≥1.00 D). The prevalence and mean amount of corneal astigmatism were higher than reported in non-Native American populations. Mean astigmatism increased from 1.43 D in 1-year-olds to nearly 2.00 D by school age.

  6. Dental erosion among children aged 3-6 years and its associated indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Dan-Ying; Hao, Gu; Lu, Hai-Xia; Tian, Yu; Feng, Xi-Ping

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the status quo of dental erosion in 3- to 6-year-old children in Shanghai. A stratified, cluster, multistage random sampling methods was applied to 3- to 6-year-old children in Shanghai in 2012. Both questionnaire and clinical oral examination were performed in the survey. The questionnaire included general information, such as age, gender, parental education, dietary habit, oral health behavior, general medical health, and socioeconomic status. The clinical examination focused on the eroded tooth surface and dental erosion extent. SPSS v19.0 software package was utilized for statistical analysis. A total of 1,837 children aged 3-6 years were randomly selected in Shanghai. The overall dental erosion prevalence was 15.1 percent. Among different age groups, a relatively high prevalence of 17.1 percent was found in the 4-year-old group, and a relatively low prevalence of 12.0 percent was observed in the 3-year-old group. Surprisingly, there was no significant difference among the four age groups. The occurrence of dental erosion was influenced by habits of vinegar/coffee/tea consumption, mother's educational background, birthplace, and regurgitation (P dental erosion prevalence in 3- to 6-year-old children in Shanghai appears to be close to that of other Chinese provinces as well as that observed in most of surveys carried out in different parts of the world. Efforts should be made to raise public awareness about the disease. Moreover, further studies targeted to explore the relationship between dental erosion and risk factors are needed. It is also necessary to establish a unified diagnostic standard for future epidemiological investigations. © 2015 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  7. Genetic characterization of avian influenza subtype H4N6 and H4N9 from live bird market, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitikoon Pravina

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A one year active surveillance program for influenza A viruses among avian species in a live-bird market (LBM in Bangkok, Thailand was conducted in 2009. Out of 970 samples collected, influenza A virus subtypes H4N6 (n = 2 and H4N9 (n = 1 were isolated from healthy Muscovy ducks. All three viruses were characterized by whole genome sequencing with subsequent phylogenetic analysis and genetic comparison. Phylogenetic analysis of all eight viral genes showed that the viruses clustered in the Eurasian lineage of influenza A viruses. Genetic analysis showed that H4N6 and H4N9 viruses display low pathogenic avian influenza characteristics. The HA cleavage site and receptor binding sites were conserved and resembled to LPAI viruses. This study is the first to report isolation of H4N6 and H4N9 viruses from birds in LBM in Thailand and shows the genetic diversity of the viruses circulating in the LBM. In addition, co-infection of H4N6 and H4N9 in the same Muscovy duck was observed.

  8. Peripheral Blood CCR4+CCR6+ and CXCR3+CCR6+ CD4+ T Cells Are Highly Permissive to HIV-1 Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Gosselin, Annie; Monteiro, Patricia; Chomont, Nicolas; Diaz-Griffero, Felipe; Said, Elias A.; Fonseca, Simone; Wacleche, Vanessa; El-Far, Mohamed; Boulassel, Mohamed-Rachid; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Sekaly, Rafick-Pierre; Ancuta, Petronela

    2009-01-01

    There is limited knowledge on the identity of primary CD4+ T cell subsets selectively targeted by HIV-1 in vivo. In this study, we established a link between HIV permissiveness, phenotype/homing potential, and lineage commitment in primary CD4+ T cells. CCR4+CCR6+, CCR4+CCR6−, CXCR3+CCR6+, and CXCR3+CCR6− T cells expressed cytokines and transcription factors specific for Th17, Th2, Th1Th17, and Th1 lineages, respectively. CCR4+CCR6+ and CXCR3+CCR6+ T cells expressed the HIV coreceptors CCR5 a...

  9. Immediate occlusal loading of implants in the partially edentate mandible: a prospective 1-year radiographic and 4-year clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostman, Pär-Olov; Hellman, Mats; Sennerby, Lars

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present prospective clinical study was to evaluate the radiographic and clinical outcome of immediately loaded implants in the partial edentulous mandible over a 4-year follow-up period using a modified surgical protocol, primary implant stability criteria, and splinting for inclusion. Patients in need of implant treatment in the partial edentate mandible were consecutively included in the study. The implant sites were underprepared to obtain maximal stability. Inclusion criteria for the study were torque of a least 30 Ncm before final seating of the implant and an ISQ greater than 60. A provisional fixed partial denture was delivered within 24 hours and a definitive fixed partial denture within 3 months. The patients were monitored with clinical and radiographic follow-up examinations for up to 4 years. Stability of the implants was measured with resonance frequency analysis at placement and after 6 months. Ninety-six patients were evaluated, and 77 patients who met the inclusion criteria were included. A total of 111 fixed partial dentures supported by 257 Brånemark System implants (77 turned and 180 TiUnite implants) were delivered. Four (1.6%) of the 257 implants did not osseointegrate, giving an overall survival rate of 98.4% after 4 years. Three turned (3.9%) implants and 1 oxidized implant (0.6%) failed after 4 to 13 months. The average marginal bone resorption was 0.7 mm (SD 0.78) during the first year in function. Turned implants showed an average bone loss of 0.5 mm (SD 0.8) and oxidized implants an average of 0.7 mm (SD 0.8). Resonance frequency analysis showed a mean implant stability quotient of 72.2 (SD 7.5) at placement and 72.5 (SD 5.7) after 6 months of loading. It is concluded that immediate loading of implants with firm primary stability in partially edentulous areas of the mandible appears to be a viable procedure with predictable outcome.

  10. Clinical trial of lutein in patients with retinitis pigmentosa receiving vitamin A treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    We sought to determine whether lutein supplementation will slow visual function decline in patients with retinitis pigmentosa receiving vitamin A. DESIGN: Randomized, controlled, double-masked trial of 225 nonsmoking patients, aged 18 to 60 years, evaluated over a 4-year interval. Patients received ...

  11. D6R4 amplitudes in various dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pioline, Boris

    2015-01-01

    Four-graviton couplings in the low energy effective action of type II string vacua compactified on tori are strongly constrained by supersymmetry and U-duality. While the R 4 and D 4 R 4 couplings are known exactly in terms of Langlands-Eisenstein series of the U-duality group, the D 6 R 4 couplings are not nearly as well understood. Exploiting the coincidence of the U-duality group in D=6 with the T-duality group in D=5, we propose an exact formula for the D 6 R 4 couplings in type II string theory compactified on T 4 , in terms of a genus-two modular integral plus a suitable Eisenstein series. The same modular integral computes the two-loop correction to D 6 R 4 in 5 dimensions, but here provides the non-perturbative completion of the known perturbative terms in D=6. This proposal hinges on a systematic re-analysis of the weak coupling and large radius of the D 6 R 4 in all dimensions D≥3, which fills in some gaps and resolves some inconsistencies in earlier studies.

  12. D$^{6}$ℛ$^{4}$ amplitudes in various dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Pioline, Boris

    2015-01-01

    Four-graviton couplings in the low energy effective action of type II string vacua compactified on tori are strongly constrained by supersymmetry and U-duality. While the $R^4$ and $D^4 R^4$ couplings are known exactly in terms of Langlands-Eisenstein series of the U-duality group, the $D^6 R^4$ couplings are not nearly as well understood. Exploiting the coincidence of the U-duality group in $D=6$ with the T-duality group in $D=5$, we propose an exact formula for the $D^6 R^4$ couplings in type II string theory compactified on $T^4$, in terms of a genus-two modular integral plus a suitable Eisenstein series. The same modular integral computes the two-loop correction to $D^6 R^4$ in 5 dimensions, but here provides the non-perturbative completion of the known perturbative terms in $D=6$. This proposal hinges on a systematic re-analysis of the weak coupling and large radius of the $D^6 R^4$ in all dimensions $D\\geq 3$, which fills in some gaps and resolves some inconsistencies in earlier studies.

  13. Language development and affecting factors in 3- to 6-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Bayoğlu, Birgül; Anlar, Banu

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess factors affecting language developmental screening test results in 33.0- to 75.0-month-old children. The study group consists of 402 children, 172 (42.8%) boys and 230 (57.2%) girls, aged 33.0-75.0 months who were examined in four age groups: 3 years (33.0-39.0 months), 4 years (45.0-51.0 months), 5 years (57.0-63.0 months) and 6 years (69.0-75.0 months). Demographic data and medical history obtained by a standard questionnaire and Denver II Developmental Test results were evaluated. Maternal factors such as mother's age, educational level, and socioeconomic status (SES) correlated with language items in all age groups. Linear regression analysis indicated a significant effect of mother's education and higher SES on certain expressive and receptive language items at 3 and 4 years. Fine motor items were closely related to language items at all ages examined, while in the younger (3- and 4-year-old) group gross motor items also were related to language development. Maternal and socioeconomic factors influence language development in children: these effects, already discernible with a screening test, can be potential targets for social and educational interventions. The interpretation of screening test results should take into account the interaction between fine motor and language development in preschool children.

  14. Survey the Process of Collection and Turnover of Receivables, Yearly Budget Laws in Health Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Rahbar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study:  The evaluation of financial performance is one of the main tasks of the manager that is very important. Any decision-making and rational planning in order to increase the productivity and survey the effect of adopted decision on the organization performance is in relation to the accurate assessment of financial performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the process of collection and turnover of receivables and rules of hospital budget in Qom University of medical sciences during the fourth and fifth development plans. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive-analytic and cross-sectional study. It was used from researcher-made forms for collecting data. The data after collection from financial filing unit entered to the excel software and then the period of receivables collection, circulation of receivables,average daily sales and average intake accounts were analyzed,using activity ratios formula. Results: Our findings show that during the fourth and fifth development programs, the turnover of receivables decreased from four times to three times in the year and it is less than the least standard that is five times in the year. The period of receivables collection increased from 72 days to 147 days and it is more than the maximum standard that is 67 days. This issue is the indication of bad situations of insurance companies of under-contract with hospitals in paying of their obligations during study period. Conclusion: The period of collection and turnover of receivables of selected hospitals takes distance from the standard amount that needs to intervention at the macro level of decision-making. This study showed that resorting to legal leverage over the fourth and fifth development plan have not any impact on the improvement of reimbursement process. Therefore, the practical action of politicians about reformation of insurance’s structure and review of the ways of financing can be effective.

  15. OPEC/OJEC for stage 4 neuroblastoma in children over 1 year of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweddle, D A; Pinkerton, C R; Lewis, I J; Ellershaw, C; Cole, M; Pearson, A D

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports the toxicity of OPEC/OJEC chemotherapy in stage 4 neuroblastoma patients over 1 year of age. Ninety-five patients with stage 4 neuroblastoma received alternating courses of OPEC/OJEC--vincristine 1.5 mg/m2 (O), cisplatin 80 mg/m2 (P), etoposide 200 mg/m2 (E), cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m2 (C), and carboplatin 500 mg/m2 (J), every 21 days if there was haematological recovery. Seventy out of ninety-five (74%) patients completed seven or more courses and were evaluable for toxicity. Of these 70 patients, 33% had more than three episodes of fever and sepsis, 35% required more than five blood or platelet transfusions, 36% had grade 2 or more gastrointestinal toxicity and 9% had neurotoxicity. There was a median reduction in GFR of 32 ml/min/1.73 m2 (-46 to 134) and there was one toxic death. OPEC/OJEC is a well-tolerated therapy for stage 4 neuroblastoma over 1 year of age.

  16. 29 CFR 6.4 - Subpoenas (Service Contract Act).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Subpoenas (Service Contract Act). 6.4 Section 6.4 Labor... STANDARDS IN FEDERAL AND FEDERALLY ASSISTED CONSTRUCTION CONTRACTS AND FEDERAL SERVICE CONTRACTS General § 6.4 Subpoenas (Service Contract Act). All applications under the Service Contract Act for subpoenas ad...

  17. Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power Systems sodium-cooled receiver concept. Final report. Volume II, Book 2. Conceptual design, Sections 5 and 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    The overall, long-term objective of the Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power System program is to identify, characterize, and ultimately demonstrate the viability and cost effectiveness of solar/fossil, steam Rankine cycle, hybrid power systems that: (1) consist of a combined solar central receiver energy source and a nonsolar energy source at a single, common site, (2) may operate in the base, intermediate, and peaking capacity modes, (3) produce the rated output independent of variations in solar insolation, (4) provide a significant savings (50% or more) in fuel consumption, and (5) produce power at the minimum possible cost in mills/kWh. It is essential that these hybrid concepts be technically feasible and economically competitive with other systems in the near to mid-term time period (1985-1990) on a commercial scale. The program objective for Phase I is to identify and conceptually characterize solar/fossil steam Rankine cycle, commercial-scale, power plant systems that are economically viable and technically feasible. This volume contains the detailed conceptual design and cost/performance estimates and an assessment of the commercial scale solar central receiver hybrid power system. (WHK)

  18. Evaluation of Cases Applying to Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Outpatient Clinic to Receive Medical Board Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibelnur Avcil

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate socio-demographic characteristics, application reasons and diagnoses of cases applying to child and adolescent psychiatry outpatient clinic in order to receive a medical board report. Materials and Methods: File data of 405 cases in the child and adolescent group (0-18 years, who applied to Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Outpatient clinics of Adnan Menderes University Faculty of Medicine between 1 November 2014 and 31 October 2015 in order to receive a medical board report, were retrospectively examined. Results: Average age of the cases was determined as 6.32±4.62 years, and 42.7% (173 were female and 57.3% (232 were male. When reasons of applications to medical board for the disabled were examined, it was found that the most frequent reason of application is to make them receive special education or to continue their special education at the rate of 66%; when diagnosis distribution of the cases was examined, the most frequent diagnoses included mild mental retardation (28.3%, borderline intellectual functioning (23.5%, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (13.6%, and learning disorder (12.6%. Conclusion: In our study, it was determined that the most frequent diagnosis in children applying to receive a medical board report was mild mental retardation and the most frequent reason of application was to receive special education report. The studies to be conducted with relation to cases applying to medical board for the disabled will help in formation of healthy demographic data about pathologies in our field and in approaching clinically to such cases.

  19. Distinct features of trampoline-related orthopedic injuries in children aged under 6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun Seok; Hong, Jin Heon; Sim, Jae Ang

    2018-02-01

    Concern has been growing about trampoline-related injuries among young children. Several published policy statements have repeatedly recommended that children younger than 6 years should not use trampolines. However, few studies have investigated the injuries caused by trampoline-related accidents among young children. This study aimed to identify the distinct features of trampoline-related orthopedic injuries in children younger than 6 years. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of pediatric patients aged between 0 and 16 years who visited our regional emergency center due to trampoline-related orthopedic injuries between 2012 and 2015. Patients were divided into two groups: a preschool group (younger than 6 years) and a school group (older than 6 years). We compared the features of the injuries in the two groups. Among 208 patients, 108 (52%) were male and 100 (48%) were female. The mean age was 5.4 years. The preschool group accounted for 66%. There were no seasonal variations. Fractures were sustained in 96 patients (46%). The anatomical locations of injuries differed significantly between the two age groups. Proximal tibia fractures were more frequent in the preschool group than the school group (34% and 6%, respectively). Distal tibia fractures were more prevalent in the school group than the preschool group (44% vs. 13%, respectively). Surgical treatment was needed more frequently in the school group (p = 0.035, hazard ratio 2.52, 95% confidence interval: 1.03-6.17). Most of the injuries (82%) occurred at trampoline parks. The anatomical locations of trampoline-related orthopedic injuries differed significantly between age groups. Fractures were more common around the knee in younger children and the ankle in older children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Feeding patterns and diet - children 6 months to 2 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeding children 6 months to 2 years; Diet - age appropriate - children 6 months to 2 years; Babies - feeding solid food ... per day, but will eat more at each feeding than the first 6 months. If you feed ...

  1. Comparison of Environmental Attitudes and Experiences of Five-Year-Old Children Receiving Preschool Education in the Village and City Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkan, Nazmi; Güngör, Hande; Fetihi, Leyla; Erol, Ahmet; Gülay Ogelman, Hülya

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to compare environmental attitudes and experiences of five-year-old children receiving preschool education in the village and city centre. The first group comprised 54 five-year-old children who received preschool education and attended kindergartens of two primary schools in the Karateke and Kocabas villages of Honaz…

  2. Equations for predicting biomass in 2- to 6-year-old Eucalyptus saligna in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig D. Whitesell; Susan C. Miyasaka; Robert F. Strand; Thomas H. Schubert; Katharine E. McDuffie

    1988-01-01

    Eucalyptus saligna trees grown in short-rotation plantations on the island of Hawaii were measured, harvested, and weighed to provide data for developing regression equations using non-destructive stand measurements. Regression analysis of the data from 190 trees in the 2.0- to 3.5-year range and 96 trees in the 4- to 6-year range related stem-only...

  3. TIME COURSE OF STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL CHANGES IN THE MYOCARDIAL ARTERIES OF PATIENTS WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS TREATED WITH METHOTREXATE AND HYDROXYCHLOROQUINE DURING A 4-YEAR FOLLOW-UP PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Petrov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA develop myocardial damage that is frequently latent and usually manifests itself as congestive heart failure and arrhythmias in the late period of the disease.Objective: to comparatively study the time course of clinical, structural, and functional changes in the myocardium in RA patients taking methotrexate (MTX and a combination of MTX and hydroxychloroquine (HC during a 4-year follow-up period.Subjects and methods. Clinical data and echocardiographic, carotid artery ultrasonographic, and Holter electrocardiogram (ECG monitoring readings were analyzed in 83 patients with RA with disease duration of < 10 years, who had received MTX (n = 44 or a combination of MTX and HC (n = 39 for 4 years. RA activity remained low (DAS28 ≤ 3.1 during the follow-up period.Results and discussion. Over 4 years, the RA patients showed significant increases in left ventricular mass index (from 106.20 [98.14; 112.44] to 114.23 [109.12; 131.19], in the rate of eccentric left ventricular hypertrophy (from 22.9 to 40.9%, frequent supraventricular extrasystoles (from 13.3 to 22.8%, different types of premature ventricular contractions (from 14.2 to 26.2%, paroxysmal ventricular tachycardia (from 1.2 to 3.6%, intraventricular conduction disturbances (from 3.6 to 14.4%, and first-degree atrioventricular block (from 2.4 to 4.8%, as well as atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid arteries (from 6.0 to 10.8% (p < 0.05. During combined therapy with MTX and HC, the increase in the rate of eccentric left ventricular hypertrophy, high-grade premature ventricular contractions, and right bundle-branch block was not so great as that during MTX monotherapy (5.1 and 29.6%; 5.1 and 18.2%; 2.6 and 11.4%, respectively.Conclusion. There is evidence that HC intake has a positive impact on myocardial structural and functional parameters in RA patients.

  4. A 6-year longitudinal study of predictors for suicide attempts in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikelenboom, Merijn; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Smit, Johannes H

    2018-06-13

    Major depressive disorder (MDD), represent a major source of risk for suicidality. However, knowledge about risk factors for future suicide attempts (SAs) within MDD is limited. The present longitudinal study examined a wide range of putative non-clinical risk factors (demographic, social, lifestyle, personality) and clinical risk factors (depressive and suicidal indicators) for future SAs among persons with MDD. Furthermore, we examined the relationship between a number of significant predictors and the incidence of a future SA. Data are from 1713 persons (18-65 years) with a lifetime MDD at the baseline measurement of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety who were subsequently followed up 2, 4 and 6 years. SAs were assessed in the face-to-face measurements. Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were used to examine a wide range of possible non-clinical and clinical predictors for subsequent SAs during 6-year follow-up. Over a period of 6 years, 3.4% of the respondents attempted suicide. Younger age, lower education, unemployment, insomnia, antidepressant use, a previous SA and current suicidal thoughts independently predicted a future SA. The number of significant risk factors (ranging from 0 to 7) linearly predicted the incidence of future SAs: in those with 0 predictors the SA incidence was 0%, which increased to 32% incidence in those with 6+ predictors. Of the non-clinical factors, particularly socio-economic factors predicted a SA independently. Furthermore, preexisting suicidal ideation and insomnia appear to be important clinical risk factors for subsequent SA that are open to preventative intervention.

  5. 39 CFR 4.6 - Secretary of the Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Secretary of the Board. 4.6 Section 4.6 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE OFFICIALS (ARTICLE IV) § 4.6 Secretary of the Board. The Secretary of the Board of Governors is appointed by the...

  6. Transition from IPv4 to IPv6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Tadayoni, Reza

    The paper examines the transition from IPv4 to IPv6. More specifically, the aim of the paper is to present information on the status of the transition process and on the drivers and barriers concerning this transition. This includes an update on the availability of IPv4 addresses and on how far t...... the adoption of IPv6 has come. It also includes a discussion on what but also who the drivers and barriers are, including an examination of the implications of implementing transfer markets for IPv4 addresses.......The paper examines the transition from IPv4 to IPv6. More specifically, the aim of the paper is to present information on the status of the transition process and on the drivers and barriers concerning this transition. This includes an update on the availability of IPv4 addresses and on how far...

  7. Crystal and Molecular Structure Studies of Ethyl 4-(4-Hydroxyphenyl-6-(6-methoxy-2-naphthyl-2-oxocyclohex-3-ene-1-carboxylate and Ethyl 4-(3-Bromophenyl-6-(6-methoxy-2-naphthyl-2-oxocyclohex-3-ene-1-carboxylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badiadka Narayana

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The crystal and molecular structures of the title compounds, ethyl 4-(4-hydroxyphenyl-6-(6-methoxy-2-naphthyl-2-oxocyclohex-3-ene-1-carboxylate (I and ethyl 4-(3-bromophenyl-6-(6-methoxy-2-naphthyl-2-oxocyclohex-3-ene-1-carboxylate (II, are reported and confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction data. Compound (I, C26H24O5, crystallizes from a methanol solution in the monoclinic C2/c space group with eight molecules in the unit cell. The unit cell parameters are: a = 25.4114(5 Å, b = 8.47440(10 Å, c = 20.6921(4 Å, β = 108.328(2° and V = 4229.92(13 Å3. Disorder is observed throughout the entire molecule with an occupancy ratio 0.690(2:0.310(2. Compound (II, C26H23O4Br, crystallizes from an ethyl acetate solution in the monoclinic P21/c spacegroup with four molecules in the unit cell. The unit cell parameters are a = 17.8991(9 Å, b = 11.4369(6 Å, c = 10.8507(5 Å, β = 92.428(4° and V = 2219.25(19 Å3. Disorder is observed in the cyclohexenone ring and the carboxylate group with an occupancy ratio 0.830(6:0.170(6. Weak O–H...O (I or C–H...O (II intermolecular interactions are observed which influence crystal packing stability. These chalcone derivative types of molecules are important in their ability to act as activated unsaturated systems in conjugated addition reactions of carbanions in the presence of basic catalysts which exhibit a multitude of biological activities.

  8. Symptoms to pollen and fruits early in life and allergic disease at 4 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, X-M; Neuman, A; Ostblom, E; Pershagen, G; Nordvall, L; Almqvist, C; van Hage, M; Wickman, M

    2008-11-01

    The predictive value of reported early symptoms to pollen or fruits on later allergic disease is unclear. Our aim is to evaluate if symptoms to pollen and/or to fruits early in life are associated with allergic disease and sensitization to pollen at 4 years. The study included 3619 children from the Barn (Children), Allergy, Milieu, Stockholm, Epidemiology project (BAMSE) birth cohort. Reported symptoms of wheeze, sneeze or rash to birch, grass or weed, symptoms (vomiting, diarrhea, rash, facial edema, sneeze, or wheeze) to fruits including tree-nuts at 1 or 2 years of age, and definitions of asthma, rhinitis and eczema at 4 years were derived from questionnaire data. Sensitization to pollen allergens was defined as allergen-specific IgE-antibodies to any pollen (birch/timothy/mugwort) > or =0.35 kU(A)/l. At 1 or 2 years of age, 6% of the children were reported to have pollen-related symptoms, 6% had symptoms to fruits, and 1.4% to both pollen and fruits. Children with symptoms to both pollen and fruits at 1 or 2 years of age had an increased risk for sensitization to any pollen allergen at age 4 (OR(adj) = 4.4, 95% CI = 2.1-9.2). This group of children also had a substantially elevated risk for developing any allergic disease (asthma, rhinitis, or eczema) at 4 years irrespective of sensitization to pollen (OR(adj) = 8.6, 95% CI = 4.5-16.4). The prevalence of reported symptoms to pollen and fruits is very low in early childhood. However, children with early symptoms to both pollen and fruits appear to have a markedly elevated risk for allergic disease.

  9. Five-year Local Control in a Phase II Study of Hypofractionated Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy With an Incorporated Boost for Early Stage Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedman, Gary M.; Anderson, Penny R.; Bleicher, Richard J.; Litwin, Samuel; Li Tianyu; Swaby, Ramona F.; Ma, Chang-Ming Charlie; Li Jinsheng; Sigurdson, Elin R.; Watkins-Bruner, Deborah; Morrow, Monica; Goldstein, Lori J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Conventional radiation fractionation of 1.8-2 Gy per day for early stage breast cancer requires daily treatment for 6-7 weeks. We report the 5-year results of a phase II study of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), hypofractionation, and incorporated boost that shortened treatment time to 4 weeks. Methods and Materials: The study design was phase II with a planned accrual of 75 patients. Eligibility included patients aged ≥18 years, Tis-T2, stage 0-II, and breast conservation. Photon IMRT and an incorporated boost was used, and the whole breast received 2.25 Gy per fraction for a total of 45 Gy, and the tumor bed received 2.8 Gy per fraction for a total of 56 Gy in 20 treatments over 4 weeks. Patients were followed every 6 months for 5 years. Results: Seventy-five patients were treated from December 2003 to November 2005. The median follow-up was 69 months. Median age was 52 years (range, 31-81). Median tumor size was 1.4 cm (range, 0.1-3.5). Eighty percent of tumors were node negative; 93% of patients had negative margins, and 7% of patients had close (>0 and <2 mm) margins; 76% of cancers were invasive ductal type: 15% were ductal carcinoma in situ, 5% were lobular, and 4% were other histology types. Twenty-nine percent of patients 29% had grade 3 carcinoma, and 20% of patients had extensive in situ carcinoma; 11% of patients received chemotherapy, 36% received endocrine therapy, 33% received both, and 20% received neither. There were 3 instances of local recurrence for a 5-year actuarial rate of 2.7%. Conclusions: This 4-week course of hypofractionated radiation with incorporated boost was associated with excellent local control, comparable to historical results of 6-7 weeks of conventional whole-breast fractionation with sequential boost.

  10. Five-year Local Control in a Phase II Study of Hypofractionated Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy With an Incorporated Boost for Early Stage Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freedman, Gary M., E-mail: Gary.Freedman@uphs.upenn.edu [Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Anderson, Penny R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Bleicher, Richard J. [Department of Surgical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Litwin, Samuel; Li Tianyu [Department of Biostatistics, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Swaby, Ramona F. [Department of Medical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Ma, Chang-Ming Charlie; Li Jinsheng [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Sigurdson, Elin R. [Department of Surgical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Watkins-Bruner, Deborah [School of Nursing, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Morrow, Monica [Department of Surgical Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Goldstein, Lori J. [Department of Medical Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: Conventional radiation fractionation of 1.8-2 Gy per day for early stage breast cancer requires daily treatment for 6-7 weeks. We report the 5-year results of a phase II study of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), hypofractionation, and incorporated boost that shortened treatment time to 4 weeks. Methods and Materials: The study design was phase II with a planned accrual of 75 patients. Eligibility included patients aged {>=}18 years, Tis-T2, stage 0-II, and breast conservation. Photon IMRT and an incorporated boost was used, and the whole breast received 2.25 Gy per fraction for a total of 45 Gy, and the tumor bed received 2.8 Gy per fraction for a total of 56 Gy in 20 treatments over 4 weeks. Patients were followed every 6 months for 5 years. Results: Seventy-five patients were treated from December 2003 to November 2005. The median follow-up was 69 months. Median age was 52 years (range, 31-81). Median tumor size was 1.4 cm (range, 0.1-3.5). Eighty percent of tumors were node negative; 93% of patients had negative margins, and 7% of patients had close (>0 and <2 mm) margins; 76% of cancers were invasive ductal type: 15% were ductal carcinoma in situ, 5% were lobular, and 4% were other histology types. Twenty-nine percent of patients 29% had grade 3 carcinoma, and 20% of patients had extensive in situ carcinoma; 11% of patients received chemotherapy, 36% received endocrine therapy, 33% received both, and 20% received neither. There were 3 instances of local recurrence for a 5-year actuarial rate of 2.7%. Conclusions: This 4-week course of hypofractionated radiation with incorporated boost was associated with excellent local control, comparable to historical results of 6-7 weeks of conventional whole-breast fractionation with sequential boost.

  11. The Effect of 3 Versus 6 Years of Zoledronic Acid Treatment of Osteoporosis: A Randomized Extension to the HORIZON-Pivotal Fracture Trial (PFT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Dennis M; Reid, Ian R; Boonen, Steven; Bucci-Rechtweg, Christina; Cauley, Jane A; Cosman, Felicia; Cummings, Steven R; Hue, Trisha F; Lippuner, Kurt; Lakatos, Peter; Leung, Ping Chung; Man, Zulema; Martinez, Ruvie Lou Maria; Tan, Monique; Ruzycky, Mary Ellen; Su, Guoqin; Eastell, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Zoledronic acid 5 mg (ZOL) annually for 3 years reduces fracture risk in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. To investigate long-term effects of ZOL on bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture risk, the Health Outcomes and Reduced Incidence with Zoledronic acid Once Yearly–Pivotal Fracture Trial (HORIZON-PFT) was extended to 6 years. In this international, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled extension trial, 1233 postmenopausal women who received ZOL for 3 years in the core study were randomized to 3 additional years of ZOL (Z6, n = 616) or placebo (Z3P3, n = 617). The primary endpoint was femoral neck (FN) BMD percentage change from year 3 to 6 in the intent-to-treat (ITT) population. Secondary endpoints included other BMD sites, fractures, biochemical bone turnover markers, and safety. In years 3 to 6, FN-BMD remained constant in Z6 and dropped slightly in Z3P3 (between-treatment difference = 1.04%; 95% confidence interval 0.4 to 1.7; p = 0.0009) but remained above pretreatment levels. Other BMD sites showed similar differences. Biochemical markers remained constant in Z6 but rose slightly in Z3P3, remaining well below pretreatment levels in both. New morphometric vertebral fractures were lower in the Z6 (n = 14) versus Z3P3 (n = 30) group (odds ratio = 0.51; p = 0.035), whereas other fractures were not different. Significantly more Z6 patients had a transient increase in serum creatinine >0.5 mg/dL (0.65% versus 2.94% in Z3P3). Nonsignificant increases in Z6 of atrial fibrillation serious adverse events (2.0% versus 1.1% in Z3P3; p = 0.26) and stroke (3.1% versus 1.5% in Z3P3; p = 0.06) were seen. Postdose symptoms were similar in both groups. Reports of hypertension were significantly lower in Z6 versus Z3P3 (7.8% versus 15.1%, p < 0.001). Small differences in bone density and markers in those who continued versus those who stopped treatment suggest residual effects, and therefore, after 3 years of annual ZOL, many patients may discontinue

  12. Development of auditory sensory memory from 2 to 6 years: an MMN study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Elisabeth; Sachse, Steffi; von Suchodoletz, Waldemar

    2008-08-01

    Short-term storage of auditory information is thought to be a precondition for cognitive development, and deficits in short-term memory are believed to underlie learning disabilities and specific language disorders. We examined the development of the duration of auditory sensory memory in normally developing children between the ages of 2 and 6 years. To probe the lifetime of auditory sensory memory we elicited the mismatch negativity (MMN), a component of the late auditory evoked potential, with tone stimuli of two different frequencies presented with various interstimulus intervals between 500 and 5,000 ms. Our findings suggest that memory traces for tone characteristics have a duration of 1-2 s in 2- and 3-year-old children, more than 2 s in 4-year-olds and 3-5 s in 6-year-olds. The results provide insights into the maturational processes involved in auditory sensory memory during the sensitive period of cognitive development.

  13. Changes of hemoglobin and hematocrit in elderly patients receiving lower joint arthroplasty without allogeneic blood transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qi; Zhou, Yiqin; Wu, Haishan; Wu, Yuli; Qian, Qirong; Zhao, Hui; Zhu, Yunli; Fu, Peiliang

    2015-01-05

    It has rarely been reported about the changes of hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct) in elderly patients receiving total knee arthroplasty (TKA) or total hip arthroplasty (THA). This study aimed to evaluate the changes of Hb and Hct after TKA or THA in elderly patients, and analyze its relationship with sex and type of arthroplasty. This is a prospective cohort study, including 107 patients receiving TKA or THA without allogeneic blood transfusion. There were 54 males and 53 females, with a mean age of 69.42 years. Levels of Hb and Hct were examined preoperatively and during the 6 months follow-up after operation. Levels of Hb and Hct decreased postoperatively and reached their minimum points on postoperative day 4. Thereafter, Hb and Hct recovered to their preoperative levels within 6-12 weeks. No significant differences in the levels of Hb and Hct were noticed between different sexes. THA patients showed significantly greater drop in Hb and Hct than TKA patients in the first 4 days postoperatively (P < 0.05). Levels of Hb and Hct decreased during the first 4 days after arthroplasty and gradually returned to their normal levels within 6-12 weeks postoperatively. THA may be associated with higher postoperative blood loss than TKA.

  14. Asthma-associated oral and dental health repercussions in children aged 6 to 12 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juana Angélica Ramos-Ríos

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asthma, which is characterized by mouth breathing and by the use of drugs for its treatment, affects between 1 and 30% of children and adolescents. There are only few studies reporting its impact on the oral cavity. Objectives: To find out the most common asthma-associated repercussions in 6 to 12-year-old children. Methods: Cross-sectional, comparative, analytical study carried out in 2 primary schools from Coclique, Veracruz, Mexico, in 6 to 12-year-old children. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC questionnaire for parents was used. Results: In a population of 409 children, a prevalence of asthma of 6.84% (n = 28 was found, which was higher in males (15, 54%; boys aged 6, 7 and 11 years and girls aged 8, 9 and 10 years were most affected. Risk factors for oral manifestations were acidic pH (OR = 170, caries (OR = 4.29, anterior open bite (OR = 66.78, gingivitis (OR = 9.75, atypical swallowing (OR = 15.70 and high-arched palate (OR = 45.60. Conclusion: Children with chronic conditions such as asthma require an oral and dental preventive program as part of their interdisciplinary care.

  15. 26 CFR 1.4-4 - Short taxable year caused by death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Short taxable year caused by death. 1.4-4 Section... Normal Taxes and Surtaxes § 1.4-4 Short taxable year caused by death. An individual making a return for a... results from the death of the taxpayer. Tax on Corporations ...

  16. Colgajo sural reverso en pacientes pediátricos: experiencia de 6 años Reverse sural flap in pediatric patients: 6 years experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. De la Cruz Reyes

    2012-12-01

    analysis of 10 cases of pediatric patients in which we used the reverse sural flap. We follow a retrospective, descriptive and observational study that includes all patients under 16 years who received a reverse sural flap reconstruction within the period between March 2004 and April 2010 at the Centenario Hospital Miguel Hidalgo in Aguascalientes, México. The study included 10 cases with mean age 10 years (range 3 to 15 years, 6 males and 4 females. The mechanism of trauma in 6 cases were motorcycle injury, car crash in 2 patients, 1 case of bicycle injury, and 1injury by fire arm. The affected areas were foot dorsal area in 5 cases, calcanea in 4 cases and 1 external ankle injury. The average diameter of the affected areas was 8.8 cm. Three patients had minor postoperative ccomplications, 2 distal epidermolysis and 1 partial dehiscence of the flap. There were no serious complications or flap loss. Favorable results were obtained in 100 % of patients at the end of the follow up. In our opinion, the technique of lower leg reconstruction, specifically for foot lesions, with sural neurocutaneous flap of reverse flow is an effective treatment option for pediatric patients.

  17. Assessment of dental caries predictors in 6-year-old school children - results from 5-year retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Mohd

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This was a retrospective cohort study undertaken to assess the rate and pattern of dental caries development in 6-year-old school children followed-up for a period of 5 years, and to identify baseline risk factors that were associated with 5 years caries experience in Malaysian children. Methods This 5-years retrospective cohort study comprised primary school children initially aged 6 years in 2004. Caries experience of each child was recorded annually using World Health Organization criteria. The rates of dental caries were recorded in prevalence and incidence density of carious lesions from baseline to final examination. Risk assessment was done to assess relative risk for caries after 5 years in children with baseline caries status. Simple and multiple logistic regression analysis were performed to identify significant independent risk factors for caries. Results The sample consisted of 1830 school children. All components of DMFT showed significant differences between baseline and final examination. Filled teeth (FT component of the DMFT showed the greatest increases. Results revealed the initial baseline caries level in permanent dentition was a strong predictor for future caries after 5 years (RR=3.78, 95% CI=3.48-4.10, P0.001. Logistic regression analysis showed significant association between caries occurrence and residence (urban/rural (OR=1.80, Pp observed from baseline and after 5 years was 5.80 persons/100 person-year of observation. The rate of new caries-affected tooth (IDt in the period from baseline and after 5-years was 0.76 teeth/100 teeth-year of observation. Conclusion The majority of 12-year-old school children (70% were caries-free and most of the caries were concentrated in only a small proportion (30% of them. We found that the presence of caries in permanent teeth at the age of 6 years was a strong predictor of future caries development in this population. The strong evidence of early permanent teeth

  18. [Oral hygiene customs in 6-12 year old schoolchildren].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Martínez, César Tadeo; Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Robles-Bermeo, Norma Leticia; Mendoza-Rodríguez, Martha; Veras-Hernández, Miriam; De la Rosa-Santillana, Rubén; Escoffié-Ramírez, Mauricio; Márquez-Rodríguez, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To characterize utilization of oral hygiene devices and customs in schoolchildren. MATERIAL AND METHODS. We performed a cross-sectional study in 1,404 schoolchildren (6- 12 year olds) from 14 public schools in Pachuca, Hidalgo, México, using a questionnaire for sociodemographic variables and 1) Tooth brushing frequency (customs were 85.5% tooth brushing, 90.9% toothpaste, 19.4% flossing, and 28.2% mouthwash. Only 11.8% of participants reported utilization in all 4 categories. We observed differences (p < 0.05) across sexes only in the use of toothpaste, as women used it more often. Differences across age were observed (p < 0.05) for tooth brushing (younger children brushed more often) and flossing (older children flossed more often). CONCLUSIONS. Tooth brushing was the oral hygiene practice more often performed in this sample, with other frequencies being relatively low. There were differences by age and sex across some variables.

  19. My idol eats carrots, so do I? The delayed effect of a classroom-based intervention on 46-year-old children’s intake of a familiar vegetable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeinstra, G.G.; Kooijman, V.M.; Kremer, S.

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of a role modelling intervention on children’s intake of a familiar vegetable. Ninety nine 46-year-old children participated at school in a between-subject experiment with three conditions. Two popular Dutch TV idols acted as enthusiastic role models in a

  20. Persistence of hepatitis B immune memory until 9-10 years of age following hepatitis B vaccination at birth and DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP∼T vaccination at 2, 4 and 6 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosalaraksa, Pope; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya; Benjaponpitak, Suwat; Pancharoen, Chitsanu; Chuenkitmongkol, Sunate; B'Chir, Siham; Da Costa, Xavier; Vidor, Emmanuel

    2018-01-15

    To evaluate the long-term persistence of anti-hepatitis B surface (HBs) antibodies and the response to a HB challenge re-vaccination in children who had received a primary series of DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP∼T (Hexaxim™) or DTaP-IPV-HB/PRP∼T (Infanrix hexa™). Two cohorts of participants who had previously received HB vaccine at birth followed by either DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP∼T or DTaP-IPV-HB/PRP∼T co-administered with PCV7 at 2, 4, 6 months of age in a randomized, Phase III, observer-blind study in Thailand, were followed up for anti-HBs antibodies (geometric mean concentrations [GMCs] and seroprotection [SP] rate [% of participants with a titer ≥10 mIU/mL]) at 12-18 months of age and 9-10 years of age. A monovalent HB challenge re-vaccination was administered at 9-10 years of age and the anamnestic response was evaluated. Anti-HBs GMCs and SP rates in the DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP∼T and DTaP-IPV-HB/PRP∼T groups were high and similar post-primary vaccination series (2477 mIU/mL and 99.5% and 2442 mIU/mL and 99.5%, respectively) and declined to a similar extent in each group at 12-18 months (154.5 mIU/mL and 90.8% and 162.3 mIU/mL and 96.5%, respectively). Antibody levels further declined at 9-10 years of age (13.3 mIU/mL and 49.3% and 8.0 mIU/mL and 42.9%) and a strong anamnestic response occurred in each group post-HB challenge re-vaccination (92.8% and 98.7%, respectively). The kinetics of long-term anti-HBs antibody persistence were similar following a primary series of DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP∼T or DTaP-IPV-HB/PRP∼T. The response to a subsequent HB challenge re-vaccination was strong and similar in each group, demonstrating persisting immune memory.

  1. Prospective study of cognitive function in children receiving whole-brain radiotherapy and chemotherapy: 2-year results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packer, R.J.; Sutton, L.N.; Atkins, T.E.; Radcliffe, J.; Bunin, G.R.; D'Angio, G.; Siegel, K.R.; Schut, L.

    1989-01-01

    As survival rates have risen for children with malignant primary brain tumors, so has the concern that many survivors have significant permanent cognitive deficits. Cranial irradiation (CRT) has been implicated as the major cause for cognitive dysfunction. To clarify the etiology, incidence, and severity of intellectual compromise in children with brain tumors after CRT, a prospective study was undertaken comparing the neuropsychological outcome in 18 consecutive children with malignant brain tumors treated with CRT to outcome in 14 children harboring brain tumors in similar sites in the nervous system who had not received CRT. Children with cortical or subcortical brain tumors were not eligible for study. Neuropsychological testing was performed after surgery prior to radiotherapy, after radiotherapy, and at 1- and 2-year intervals thereafter. Children who had received CRT had a mean full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) of 105 at diagnosis which fell to 91 by Year 2. Similar declines were noted in their performance intelligence quotient (IQ) and verbal IQ. After CRT, patients demonstrated a statistically significant decline from baseline in FSIQ (p less than 0.02) and verbal IQ (p less than 0.04). Children who had not received CRT did not demonstrate a fall in any cognitive parameter over time. The decline between baseline testing and testing performed at Year 2 in patients who had CRT was inversely correlated with age (p less than 0.02), as younger children demonstrated the greatest loss of intelligence. Children less than 7 years of age at diagnosis had a mean decline in FSIQ of 25 points 2 years posttreatment. No other clinical parameter correlated with the overall IQ or decline in IQ. After CRT, children demonstrated a wide range of dysfunction including deficits in fine motor, visual-motor, and visual-spatial skills and memory difficulties

  2. Risk factors for obesity in 6 to 12-year-old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Japutra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The causes of obesity in children are multifactorial, including genetics, physiology, metabolism, psychology, socioeconomic status, lifestyle, and culture. Objective To assess for relationships between obesity in 6 to 12-year-old children and maternal nutritional status, maternal education, eating breakfast, eating fast food, physical activity, TV watching, and playing video games. Methods This case-control study included students of Sejahtera Public School aged 6 to 12 years. Questionnaires were distributed to their parents for data on maternal education, eating breakfast, eating fast food, physical activity, TV watching and playing video games. Maternal nutritional status was assessed by one of the researchers. Univariate analysis with Chi–square test was used to assess every risk factor. Those with a P value of <0.25 were subjected to multivariate analysis, performed using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results From June to July 2013, 60 obese children and 60 wellnourished children, as a control group, were enrolled in the study. Obese mothers tended to have obese children [odds ratio/OR 252.48; 95%CI 33.4 to 1908.4]. Children who ate fast food 6–8 times/week, had low physical activity, and watched TV more than 8 hours/week had significantly higher risk for obesity [OR 12.94, 95%CI 1.7 to 100.7; and OR 266.94, 95% CI 7.8 to 9137.7; OR 21.44, 95%CI 2.68 to 171.61; respectively]. Maternal education, eating breakfast, and playing video games were not significant risk factors for childhood obesity. Conclusion Maternal obesity, eating fast food 6-8 times per week, low physical activity and watching TV more than 8 hours/ week are risk factors for childhood obesity.

  3. History of Overweight/Obesity as Predictor of Care Received at 1-year Follow-Up in Adolescents With Anorexia Nervosa or Atypical Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Grace A; Forman, Sara F; Woods, Elizabeth R; Hergenroeder, Albert C; Mammel, Kathleen A; Fisher, Martin M; Ornstein, Rollyn M; Callahan, S Todd; Golden, Neville H; Kapphahn, Cynthia J; Garber, Andrea K; Rome, Ellen S; Richmond, Tracy K

    2017-06-01

    Previous research has indicated that patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) or atypical AN with premorbid history of overweight/obesity have greater weight loss and longer illness duration than patients with no such history. However, little is known about the association of premorbid overweight/obesity and receiving inpatient medical care during treatment for an eating disorder. Using logistic regression, we sought to determine if history of overweight/obesity was associated with receiving inpatient medical care in a sample of 522 patients (mean age 15.5 years, 88% female) with AN/atypical AN. Binary results demonstrated greater percent weight loss (27.4% vs. 16.2%) and higher percent median body mass index (%mBMI, 99.8% vs. 85.2%) at presentation in those with a history of overweight/obesity (p obesity was associated with lower odds of receiving inpatient medical care (odds ratio .60 [95% confidence interval: .45-.80]) at 1-year follow-up. However, these associations were no longer significant after adjusting for %mBMI. Mediation results suggest that %mBMI fully mediates the relationship between history of overweight/obesity and inpatient medical care, in that those with a history of overweight/obesity are less likely to receive care due to presenting at a higher weight. Our findings suggest that, despite greater degree of weight loss and no difference in duration of illness, participants with a history of overweight/obesity are less likely to receive inpatient medical care. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Restenosis in coronary bare metal stents. Importance of time to follow-up: a comparison of coronary angiograms 6 months and 4 years after implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Erik; Helqvist, Steffen; Kløvgaard, Lene

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. Angiographic late lumen loss measured 6 to 9 month after bare metal stent implantation in the coronary arteries is a validated restenosis parameter. Design. We performed a second angiographic follow-up after 4 years in event free survivors from the DANSTENT trial cohort. Results......-sectional vessel area and a 39% reduction of the binary restenosis rate over time. Conclusions. Instent late lumen loss in bare metal stents decreases spontaneously over time. Maturation of early hyperplastic tissue reaction after stent implantation with subsequent thinning of fibrotic tissue might explain...

  5. Upper arm circumference measurement for detecting overweight and obesity in children aged 6-7 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Rosariah Ayu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Obesity is a worldwide problem and is associated with increased risk of metabolic syndrome. Nutritional status in children has traditionally been determined by body mass index (BMI scores, but with limitations. Upper arm circumference measurement may be a better predictor of energy, protein, and fat storage, as well as a simpler method for screening overweight and obesity in children. Objective To determine the diagnostic value of upper arm circumference compared to BMI for detecting overweight and obesity in children aged 6-7 years. Methods This diagnostic study with a cross-sectional design was performed from September to October 2015 at 16 primary schools in Palembang, Indonesia. We measured the heights, weights, and upper arm circumferences, and calculated BMIs of 2,258 children. Receiver-operator characteristic (ROC curve analysis was used to find an optimal upper arm circumference cut-off point to detect overweight and obesity. Diagnostic value was calculated by using a 2x2 table analysis. Results The prevalences of overweight and obesity were 5.8% and 11.7%, respectively. The optimal upper arm circumference cut-off points for detecting overweight in children aged 6-7 years was 185 mm (sensitivity 88.1% and specificity 78.3%, and for obesity was 195 mm (sensitivity 90.15% and specificity 86.65%. Upper arm circumference had a strong correlation with BMI. Conclusion Upper arm circumference measurement is an accurate method fordistinguishing between normoweight, overweight, and obesity in children aged 6-7 years.

  6. Safety of ultrasound-guided transrectal extended prostate biopsy in patients receiving low-dose aspirin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Kariotis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine whether the peri-procedural administration of low-dose aspirin increases the risk of bleeding complications for patients undergoing extended prostate biopsies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From February 2007 to September 2008, 530 men undergoing extended needle biopsies were divided in two groups; those receiving aspirin and those not receiving aspirin. The morbidity of the procedure, with emphasis on hemorrhagic complications, was assessed prospectively using two standardized questionnaires. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding the mean number of biopsy cores (12.9 ± 1.6 vs. 13.1 ± 1.2 cores, p = 0.09. No major biopsy-related complications were noted. Statistical analysis did not demonstrate significant differences in the rate of hematuria (64.5% vs. 60.6%, p = 0.46, rectal bleeding (33.6% vs. 25.9%, p = 0.09 or hemospermia (90.1% vs. 86.9%, p = 0.45. The mean duration of hematuria and rectal bleeding was significantly greater in the aspirin group compared to the control group (4.45 ± 2.7 vs. 2.4 ± 2.6, p = < 0.001 and 3.3 ± 1.3 vs. 1.9 ± 0.7, p < 0.001. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that only younger patients (mean age 60.1 ± 5.8 years with a lower body mass index (< 25 kg/m2 receiving aspirin were at a higher risk (odds ratio = 3.46, p = 0.047 for developing hematuria and rectal bleeding after the procedure. CONCLUSIONS: The continuing use of low-dose aspirin in patients undergoing extended prostatic biopsy is a relatively safe option since it does not increase the morbidity of the procedure.

  7. Cost-effectiveness of abiraterone treatment in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer who previously received docetaxel therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Rudakova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Therapy for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC is a serious problem that requires significant public health care expenditures.Objective: to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of abiraterone treatment in patients with metastatic CRPC who previously received docetaxel under the conditions of the budgetary public health system of the Russian Federation.Material and methods. Markovian simulation based on the COU-AA-301 randomized placebo-controlled Phase III study was used. Survival analysis was made in 70-year-old patients. The cost of abiraterone therapy corresponded to that of the 2013 auctions.Results. Abiraterone therapy in patients who have previously received docetaxel therapy causes an increase in average life expectancy by an average of 4.6 months and progression-free survival by 2.0 months. Moreover, the cost calculated with reference to one year of additional life will account for about 3.6 million rubles and that to one additional quality-adjusted life year will be about 5.45 million rubles.Conclusion. The cost-effectiveness of abiraterone therapy for metastatic CRPC in patients who have previously received docetaxel therapy is similar to that of other medicaments used in oncological practice under the conditions of the budgetary public health system of the Russian Federation. In this connection, abiraterone may be considered as an economically acceptable medical intervention in this clinical situation.

  8. Cost-effectiveness of abiraterone treatment in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer who previously received docetaxel therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Rudakova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Therapy for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC is a serious problem that requires significant public health care expenditures.Objective: to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of abiraterone treatment in patients with metastatic CRPC who previously received docetaxel under the conditions of the budgetary public health system of the Russian Federation.Material and methods. Markovian simulation based on the COU-AA-301 randomized placebo-controlled Phase III study was used. Survival analysis was made in 70-year-old patients. The cost of abiraterone therapy corresponded to that of the 2013 auctions.Results. Abiraterone therapy in patients who have previously received docetaxel therapy causes an increase in average life expectancy by an average of 4.6 months and progression-free survival by 2.0 months. Moreover, the cost calculated with reference to one year of additional life will account for about 3.6 million rubles and that to one additional quality-adjusted life year will be about 5.45 million rubles.Conclusion. The cost-effectiveness of abiraterone therapy for metastatic CRPC in patients who have previously received docetaxel therapy is similar to that of other medicaments used in oncological practice under the conditions of the budgetary public health system of the Russian Federation. In this connection, abiraterone may be considered as an economically acceptable medical intervention in this clinical situation.

  9. Is neoadjuvant chemotherapy prior to radio-chemotherapy beneficial in T4 anal carcinoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moureau-Zabotto, L; Viret, F; Giovaninni, M; Lelong, B; Bories, E; Delpero, J R; Pesenti, C; Caillol, F; de Chaisemartin, C; Minsat, M; Monges, G; Sarran, A; Resbeut, M

    2011-07-01

    This study retrospectively describes the outcome of a series of 38 patients (pts) with T4 anal carcinoma exclusively treated by radio and chemotherapy. From 1992 to 2007, 38 pts with UST4-N0-2-M0 anal carcinoma were treated with exclusive radiotherapy and chemotherapy. All patients received external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) (median dose 45 Gy) with a concomitant chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil-cisplatin). Eleven patients received neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil-cisplatin). After 2-8 weeks, a 15-20 Gy boost was delivered either with EBRT (20 pts) or interstitial (192)Ir brachytherapy (18 pts). Mean follow-up was 66 months. After chemoradiation therapy (CRT), 13 pts (34%) had a complete response, 23 pts (60%) a response >50% (2 pts were not evaluated). The 5-year-disease-free survival was 79.2 ± 6.5%, and the 5-year overall survival was 83.9 ± 6%. Eight patients developed tumor progression (mean delay 8.8 months), six of them requiring a salvage surgery with definitive colostomy for local relapse. Late severe complication requiring colostomy was observed in 2 pts. The 5-year-colostomy-free survival was 78 ± 6.9%. Patients who received primary chemotherapy had a statistically significant better 5-year colostomy-free survival (100% vs. 38 ± 16.4%, P = 0.0006). T4 anal carcinoma can be treated with a curative intent using a sphincter-sparing approach of CRT, and neo-adjuvant chemotherapy should be considered prior to radiotherapy. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. IPv4 and IPv6 protocol compatibility options analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Misevičienė

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The popularity of the internet has led to a very rapid growth of IPv4 (Internet Protocol v4 users. This caused a shortage of IP addresses, so it was created a new version – IPv6 (Internet Protocol v6. Currently, there are two versions of IP for IPv4 and IPv6. Due to the large differences in addressing the protocols IPv4 and IPv6 are incompatible. It is therefore necessary to find ways to move from IPv4 to IPv6. To facilitate the transition from one version to another are developed various mechanisms and strategies. Comparative analysis is done for dual stack, 6to4 tunnel and NAT64 mechanisms in this work. It has helped to reveal the shortcomings of these mechanisms and their application in selection of realization decisions.

  11. Synthesis of 3-Methyl-1-morpholin-4-ylmethyl-2,6-diphenylpiperidin-4-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bathey R. Venkatraman

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the synthesis of 3-methyl-1-morpholin-4-ylmethyl-2,6-diphenylpiperidin-4-one from 3-methyl-2,6-diphenylpiperidin-4-one. The synthesized compound was characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR, EI-MS and elemental analysis.

  12. Effect of topical sucralfate vs clindamycin on posttonsillectomy pain in children aged 6 to 12 years: a triple-blind randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanshahi, Javaneh; Pazira, Sara; Farahani, Farhad; Hashemian, Farnaz; Shokri, Narges; Karkhanei, Behruz; Poorolajal, Jalal

    2014-08-01

    Postoperative sore throat is one of the most common problems after tonsillectomy. Antibiotics remove the local flora and reduce inflammation and thus may reduce postoperative pain after tonsillectomy. To assess the effect of topical sucralfate and clindamycin on local pain reduction after tonsillectomy in children aged 6 to 12 years. Triple-blind randomized clinical trial of children aged 6 to 12 years with sleep apnea or snoring due to adenotonsillar hypertrophy and chronic airway obstruction or with chronic infections who were candidates for tonsillectomy at Besat Hospital, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, from May to October 2013. Patients were randomly assigned to receive sucralfate mouthwash, clindamycin mouthwash, or placebo (cellulose). The oral cavity was washed before and immediately after surgery with 10 mL of the prepared solution for 1 minute and then suctioned. Then, 8 hours after surgery, the patients were asked to keep 10 mL of the prepared mouthwash solution in their mouths for 1 minute 3 times a day for 3 days. Postoperative sore throat evaluated daily for 5 days using the Faces Pain Scale-Revised. Of 110 patients enrolled, 101 patients remained for analysis. Patients in the placebo group had significantly higher mean (SD) throat pain scores than did patients in both drug groups on postsurgery days 1 through 4. Day 1 scores were 8.00 (1.84) for placebo and 6.00 (1.84) for sucralfate and 6.79 (1.87) for clindamycin (P = .001). Pain scores were not significantly different on day 5. Acetaminophen use was more common in the placebo group on days 3 and 4 (2.97 and 2.44) vs the sucralfate group (2.24 and 2.15) and the clindamycin group (2.36 and 2.12) (P = .001 and .02, respectively). Bleeding on day 1 was more common in the placebo group (3 of 34) vs none in the drug groups. Food intolerance on day 1 was less common in patients receiving sucralfate (2 of 34) than placebo (9 of 34) or clindamycin (11 of 33) (P = .02). There was no

  13. PBCDD/F formation from radical/radical cross-condensation of 2-Chlorophenoxy with 2-Bromophenoxy, 2,4-Dichlorophenoxy with 2,4-Dibromophenoxy, and 2,4,6-Trichlorophenoxy with 2,4,6-Tribromophenoxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Xiangli [Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Yu, Wanni [Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); College of Resources and Environment, Linyi University, Linyi 276000 (China); Xu, Fei [Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Zhang, Qingzhu, E-mail: zqz@sdu.edu.cn [Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Hu, Jingtian; Wang, Wenxing [Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • We studied the formation of PBCDD/Fs from the reaction of three CPRs with BPRs. • The substitution pattern of halogenated phenols determines those of PBCDD/Fs. • The substitution of halogenated phenols influence the coupling of phenoxy radicals. • The rate constants of the crucial elementary steps were evaluated. - Abstract: Quantum chemical calculations were carried out to investigate the homogeneous gas-phase formation of mixed polybrominated/chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/benzofurans (PBCDD/Fs) from the cross-condensation of 2-chlorophenoxy radical (2-CPR) with 2-bromophenoxy radical (2-BPR), 2,4-dichlorophenoxy radical (2,4-DCPR) with 2,4-dibromophenoxy radical (2,4-DBPR), and 2,4,6-trichlorophenoxy radical (2,4,6-TCPR) with 2,4,6-tribromophenoxy radical (2,4,6-TBPR). The geometrical parameters and vibrational frequencies were calculated at the MPWB1K/6-31+G(d,p) level, and single-point energy calculations were performed at the MPWB1K/6-311+G(3df,2p) level of theory. The rate constants of the crucial elementary reactions were evaluated by the canonical variational transition-state (CVT) theory with the small curvature tunneling (SCT) correction over a wide temperature range of 600–1200 K. Studies show that the substitution pattern of halogenated phenols not only determines the substitution pattern of the resulting PBCDD/Fs, but also has a significant influence on the formation mechanism of PBCDD/Fs, especially on the coupling of the halogenated phenoxy radicals.

  14. Analysis of injuries from the Army Ten Miler: A 6-year retrospective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquina, Paul F; Griffin, Sarah C; Anderson-Barnes, Victoria C; Tsao, Jack W; O'Connor, Francis G

    2013-01-01

    A number of long-distance running events are held each year in the United States; the Army Ten Miler (ATM) is one such race held annually in Washington, DC. The purpose of the present study was to retrospectively analyze medical encounters for runners participating in the ATM from 1998 to 2004. Of the estimated 91,750 runners over the 6-year period, 73,100 participants finished the race and were included in the data analysis. Demographic and injury data were collected from medical records of participants who received medical care while participating in the ATM, and injury-related factors were assessed. The most common category of injury was musculoskeletal (44%), followed by medical-related problems (27%) and dermatological injuries (27%). Similar to marathon and ironman races, ATM injury rates correlate with race-day temperature and dew point. Overall, however, the injury rates observed at the ATM were relatively low compared to those reported for longer distance events. Finally, we detail the medical coverage provided at the ATM, as this coverage could be used as a guide for similarly distanced races.

  15. Health status of adolescents in the Tibetan plateau area of western China: 6 years after the Yushu earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Yang, Hongyang; Tang, Bihan; Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Lulu

    2017-07-29

    An earthquake struck Yushu in Qinghai province of China on April 14, 2010, causing 2698 deaths and 12,135 injuries.The present study aimed to assess the health status, and associated determinants, of child survivors in the epicenter of the Yushu earthquake 6 years after the event. A cross-sectional survey was performed among students from two junior schools in Yushu County. Descriptive statistics, t-tests, ANOVA, Wilcoxon rank sum tests, Kruskal-Wallis H tests and stepwise linear regression analysis were used for data analysis. The mean scores onmental component summary (MCS)and physical component summary (PCS) were 42.13 (SD 7.32) and 42.04 (SD 8.07), respectively. Lower PCS in the aftermath of an earthquake was associated with being trapped/in danger, injured to self, receiving no escape training while lowerMCS in the aftermath of an earthquake was associated with a lower grade level, not living with parents, fear during the earthquake, death in the family, and not receiving psychological counseling after the earthquake. In conclusion, the results of the present study help to expand our knowledge regarding the health status of child survivors 6 years after the Yushu earthquake. Our study provides evidence-based suggestions for specific long-term health interventions in such vulnerable populations.

  16. 4 CFR 83.6 - Accounting of certain disclosures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting of certain disclosures. 83.6 Section 83.6... Accounting of certain disclosures. (a) With respect to each system of personnel records, GAO shall, except for disclosures made under §§ 83.4(a) and 83.4(b), keep an accurate accounting of— (1) The date...

  17. D 6.4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leschke, Janine; Seeleib-Kaiser, Martin; Spreckelsen, Thees

    Recent youth migrants are at a double-disadvantage in the labour market. They face young peoples’ education to employment transition challenges as well as difficulties of foreign labour market entrants. This paper focuses on three receiving countries, Germany, Norway and the UK, and investigates ...

  18. Increased Level of Interleukin 6 Associates With Increased 90-Day and 1-Year Mortality in Patients With End-Stage Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmler, Johannes; Schneider, Christoph; Treuner-Kaueroff, Theresa; Bartels, Michael; Seehofer, Daniel; Scholz, Markus; Berg, Thomas; Kaiser, Thorsten

    2018-05-01

    Organ allocation for liver transplantation is based on prognosis, using the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) or MELD including serum sodium (MELD-Na) score. These scores do not consider systemic inflammation and septic complications. Blood level of C-reactive protein (CRP), in addition to the MELD score, associates with mortality in patients with end-stage liver disease, whereas levels of interleukin 6 (IL6) have not been systematically studied. We performed a retrospective observational cohort study of 474 patients with end-stage liver disease (63.5% male; median age, 56.9 years), evaluated for liver transplantation in Germany, with at least 1 year of follow up. Data were collected on blood levels of CRP, IL6, and white blood cell count (WBC). Findings were analyzed in relation to mortality and compared with patients' MELD scores and MELD-Na scores. For survival analysis, the cohort was divided into quartiles of IL6, CRP, and WBC levels, as well as MELD scores. Log-rank test and the Cox proportional hazards regression model were used to compare the groups, and area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) values were calculated. Blood levels of IL6 and MELD scores associated with mortality: none of the patients with levels of IL6 below the first quartile (below 5.3 pg/mL) died within 1 year. In contrast, 67.7% of the patients in the highest quartile of IL6 level (37.0 pg/mL or more) died within 1 year. MELD score also correlated with mortality: among patients with MELD scores below 8.7, 0.9% died within 1 year, whereas in patients with MELD scores of 18.0 or more, 67.4% died within 1 year. The predictive value of level of IL6 (AUROC, 0.940) was higher than level of CRP (AUROC, 0.866) (P = .009) or WBC (AUROC, 0.773) (P Level of IL6 associated with 1-year mortality (AUROC, 0.916) to a greater extent than liver synthesis or detoxification markers international normalized ratio (AUROC, 0.839) (P = .007) or bilirubin (AUROC 0.846) (P = .007

  19. Characterization of laser deposited Ti6Al4V/TiC composite powders on a Ti6Al4V substrate

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mahamood, RM

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the material characterization of Ti6Al4V/TiC composite produced by laser metal deposition. The Ti6Al4V/TiC composites were deposited with a composition ratio of 50 wt.% Ti64l4V and 50 wt.% TiC. The depositions were achieved...

  20. 39 CFR 6.4 - Attendance by conference telephone call.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Attendance by conference telephone call. 6.4 Section 6.4 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE MEETINGS (ARTICLE VI) § 6.4 Attendance by conference telephone call. For regularly scheduled meetings of...

  1. The H_6_0Si_6C_5_4 heterofullerene as high-capacity hydrogen storage medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong, Yongliang; Zhou, Qingxiao; Li, Xiaohong; Lv, Shijie

    2016-01-01

    With the great success in Si atoms doped C_6_0 fullerene and the well-established methods for synthesis of hydrogenated carbon fullerenes, this leads naturally to wonder whether Si-doped fullerenes are possible for special applications such as hydrogen storage. Here by using first-principles calculations, we design a novel high-capacity hydrogen storage material, H_6_0Si_6C_5_4 heterofullerene, and confirm its geometric stability. It is found that the H_6_0Si_6C_5_4 heterofullerene has a large HOMO-LUMO gap and a high symmetry, indicating it is high chemically stable. Further, our finite temperature simulations indicate that the H_6_0Si_6C_5_4 heterofullerene is thermally stable at 300 K. H_2 molecules would enter into the cage from the Si-hexagon ring because of lower energy barrier. Through our calculation, a maximum of 21 H_2 molecules can be stored inside the H_6_0Si_6C_5_4 cage in molecular form, leading to a gravimetric density of 11.11 wt% for 21H_2@H_6_0Si_6C_5_4 system, which suggests that the hydrogenated Si_6C_5_4 heterofullerene could be suitable as a high-capacity hydrogen storage material.

  2. Working Health Services Scotland: a 4-year evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, M; Bakhshi, A; Kennedy, M; Macdonald, E B

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Working Health Service Scotland (WHSS) supports the self-employed and employees of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Scotland with a health condition affecting their ability to work, who are either absent or at risk of becoming absent due to it. Aims To evaluate the impact on health and work outcomes of WHSS clients over a 4-year period. Methods Data were collected at enrolment, entry, discharge and follow-up at 3 and 6 months after discharge. Clients completed up to three validated health questionnaires at entry and discharge—EuroQol five dimensions (EQ-5D) and visual analogue scale (VAS); Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS); and Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM). Results A total of 13463 referrals occurred in the 4-year period; 11748 (87%) were eligible and completed entry assessment and 60% of the latter completed discharge paperwork. The majority of referrals were due to musculoskeletal conditions (84%) while 12% were referred with mental health conditions. Almost a fifth (18%) of cases were absent at entry and back at work at discharge. Work days lost while in WHSS was associated with age, length of absence prior to entering WHSS, primary health condition and time in programme. All health measures showed significant improvements from entry to discharge. Improvement in general health was sustained at 3- and 6-month follow-up. Conclusions The WHSS evaluation findings indicate that participation was associated with positive changes to health and return-to-work. The extent of the positive change in health measures and work ability can be highly important economically for employees and employers. PMID:29390161

  3. Synthesis and physical-chemical properties of 6-(5-(1Н-tetrazole-1-ylmethyl-4-R-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthiopyridin-3-amines and 6-((5-(1Н-tetrazole-1-ylmethil-4-R-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthiopyridin-3-yl-(alk,ar,heterylmethanimines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. S. Hulina

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade the number of publications, that contain different aspects of chemistry and use of triazoles and tetrazoles have been doubled and continues to grow. Puplications of recent years show that heterocycles with 1,2,3,4-teterazoles and 1,2,4-triazoles are biologically active compounds with a broad spectrum of action. This fact indicates the interest to these compounds as potential objects of modern pharmaceutical market, namely to those compounds which contain both heterocycles. Purpose – synthesis and establishment of physical-chemical properties of 6-(5-(1Н-tetrazole-1-ylmethyl-4-R-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthiopyridin-3-amines and 6-((5-(1Н-tetrazole-1-ylmethil-4-R-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthiopyridin-3-yl-(alk,ar,heterylmethanimines. Materials and methods. The melting point has been determined by capillary method. The elemental composition of compounds has been set with the help of elemental analyzer Elementar Vario L cube (CHNS. 1H NMR spectra of obtained compounds has been set with the help of Varian Mercury VX-200, solvent – DMSO-d6, internal standart – Tetramethylsilane. Chromatography-mass spectrometry studies have been conducted on gas-liquid chromatograph Agilent 1260 Infinity HPLC equipped with a mass spectrometer Agilent 6120. 5-(1H-Tetrazole-1-ylmethyl-4-R-1,2,4-triazole-3-thioles were used as starting materials for 6-(5-(1Н-tetrazole-1-ylmethyl-4-R-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthiopyridin-3-amines. Synthesis of the compounds was carried out in a medium of propyl alcohol in the presence of 5-amino-2-chloropyridine. 6-((5-(1Н-tetrazole-1-ylmethil-4-R-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthiopyridin-3-yl-(alk,ar,heterylmethanimines were obtained reacting 6-(5-(1Н-tetrazole-1-ylmethyl-4-R-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthiopyridin-3-amines with the appropriate aldehydes (acetaldehyde, m-anisaldehyde, 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 3-fluorobenzaldehyde, 4-fluorobenzaldehyde, 4-diethylaminobenzaldehyd, hydroxynaphthalene in the acetic acid medium. Results. 11 New

  4. The National Practitioner Data Bank: the first 4 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshel, R E; Croft, T; Rodak, J

    1995-01-01

    The National Practitioner Data Bank became operational September 1, 1990, as a flagging system to identify health care practitioners who may have been involved in incidents of medical incompetence. Query volumes have grown substantially over the Data Bank's first 4 years of operation. The greatest increase has come in the number of voluntary queries. By the end of 1994, the Data Bank had processed more than 4.5 million requests for information on practitioners, more than 1.5 million of which were received in 1994 alone. The proportion of queries for which the Data Bank contains information on the practitioner in question has grown as the Data Bank has come to contain more reports. During 1994, 7.9 percent of queries were matched. The Data Bank contained more than 97,500 reports at the end of 1994. More than 82 percent of the reports concerned malpractice payments. Licensure reports made up the bulk of the rest. Physicians predominate in reports, accounting for slightly more than 76 percent of the total. The remainder are related to dentists (16 percent) and all other types of practitioners (8 percent). Since reporting of adverse actions is mandatory only for physicians and dentists, the proportion of reports attributable to these types of practitioners is higher than it would be if adverse action reporting requirements were uniform for all practitioners. State malpractice payment rates and adverse action rates vary widely, but a State's rate in any given year is highly correlated with its rate in any other year. State malpractice rates are not strongly correlated with adverse action rates, neither are the rates for physicians strongly correlated with those for dentists. There is a weak tendency for States with smaller physician populations to have higher levels of licensure and privileging actions.

  5. Predicting Graduation Rates at 4-Year Broad Access Institutions Using a Bayesian Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Gloria; Doran, Erin; Salis Reyes, Nicole A.

    2018-01-01

    This study models graduation rates at 4-year broad access institutions (BAIs). We examine the student body, structural-demographic, and financial characteristics that best predict 6-year graduation rates across two time periods (2008-2009 and 2014-2015). A Bayesian model averaging approach is utilized to account for uncertainty in variable…

  6. [Association between cesarean birth and the risk of obesity in 6-17 year-olds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z H; Xu, R B; Dong, Y H; Yang, Y D; Wang, S; Wang, X J; Yang, Z G; Zou, Z Y; Ma, J

    2017-12-10

    Objective: To explore the association between cesarean section and obesity in child and adolescent. Methods: In this study, a total number of 42 758 primary and middle school students aged between 6 and 17 were selected, using the stratified cluster sampling method in 93 primary and middle schools in Hunan, Ningxia, Tianjin, Chongqing, Liaoning, Shanghai and Guangdong provinces and autonomous regions. Log-Binomial regression model was used to analyze the association between cesarean section and obesity in childhood or adolescent. Results: Mean age of the subjects was (10.5±3.2) years. The overall rate of cesarean section among subjects attending primary or secondary schools was 42.3%, with 55.9% in boys and, 40.6% in girls respectively and with difference statistically significant ( P obesity among those that received cesarean section (17.6%) was significantly higher than those who experienced vaginal delivery (10.2%) ( P obesity in child and adolescent ( OR =1.72, 95% CI : 1.63-1.82; P obesity, physical activity levels, gestational age and birth weight etc ., the differences were still statistically significant ( OR =1.48, 95% CI : 1.39-1.57; P obesity in child or adolescent.

  7. TH-AB-207A-03: Skin Dose to Patients Receiving Multiple CTA and CT Exams of the Head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawfel, RD; Young, G

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To measure patient skin dose from CT angiography (CTA) and CT exams of the head, and determine if patients having multiple exams could receive cumulative doses that approach or exceed deterministic thresholds. Methods: This study was HIPAA compliant and conducted with IRB approval. Patient skin doses were measured over a 4 month period using nanoDot OSL dosimeters placed on the head of 52 patients for two CT scanners. On each scanner, 26 patients received CT exams (scanner 1: 10 females, 16 males, mean age 64.2 years; scanner 2: 18 females, 8 males, mean age 61.2 years). CT exam dose metrics, CTDIvol and dose-length product (DLP) were recorded for each exam. Additionally, skin dose was measured on an acrylic skull phantom in each scanner and on a neuro-interventional imaging system using clinical protocols. Measured dose data was used to estimate peak skin dose (PSD) for 4 patients receiving multiple exams including CTA, head CT, and cerebral angiography. Results: For scanner 1, the mean PSD for CTA exams (98.9 ± 5.3 mGy) and for routine head CT exams (39.2 ± 3.7 mGy) agreed reasonably well with the PSD measured on the phantom, 105.4 mGy and 40.0 mGy, respectively. Similarly for scanner 2, the mean PSD for CTA exams (98.8 ± 7.4 mGy) and for routine head CT exams (42.9 ± 9.4 mGy) compared well with phantom measurements, 95.2 mGy and 37.6 mGy, respectively. In addition, the mean PSD was comparable between scanners for corresponding patient exams, CTA and routine head CT respectively. PSD estimates ranged from 1.9 – 4.5 Gy among 4 patients receiving multiple exams. Conclusion: Patients having several exams including both CTA and routine head CT may receive cumulative doses approaching or exceeding the threshold for single dose deterministic effects.

  8. TH-AB-207A-03: Skin Dose to Patients Receiving Multiple CTA and CT Exams of the Head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nawfel, RD; Young, G [Brigham & Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To measure patient skin dose from CT angiography (CTA) and CT exams of the head, and determine if patients having multiple exams could receive cumulative doses that approach or exceed deterministic thresholds. Methods: This study was HIPAA compliant and conducted with IRB approval. Patient skin doses were measured over a 4 month period using nanoDot OSL dosimeters placed on the head of 52 patients for two CT scanners. On each scanner, 26 patients received CT exams (scanner 1: 10 females, 16 males, mean age 64.2 years; scanner 2: 18 females, 8 males, mean age 61.2 years). CT exam dose metrics, CTDIvol and dose-length product (DLP) were recorded for each exam. Additionally, skin dose was measured on an acrylic skull phantom in each scanner and on a neuro-interventional imaging system using clinical protocols. Measured dose data was used to estimate peak skin dose (PSD) for 4 patients receiving multiple exams including CTA, head CT, and cerebral angiography. Results: For scanner 1, the mean PSD for CTA exams (98.9 ± 5.3 mGy) and for routine head CT exams (39.2 ± 3.7 mGy) agreed reasonably well with the PSD measured on the phantom, 105.4 mGy and 40.0 mGy, respectively. Similarly for scanner 2, the mean PSD for CTA exams (98.8 ± 7.4 mGy) and for routine head CT exams (42.9 ± 9.4 mGy) compared well with phantom measurements, 95.2 mGy and 37.6 mGy, respectively. In addition, the mean PSD was comparable between scanners for corresponding patient exams, CTA and routine head CT respectively. PSD estimates ranged from 1.9 – 4.5 Gy among 4 patients receiving multiple exams. Conclusion: Patients having several exams including both CTA and routine head CT may receive cumulative doses approaching or exceeding the threshold for single dose deterministic effects.

  9. Postmastectomy Radiotherapy for Locally Advanced Breast Cancer Receiving Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Icro Meattini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC is widely used in locally advanced breast cancer (BC treatment. The role of postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT after NAC is strongly debated. The aim of our analysis was to identify major prognostic factors in a single-center series, with emphasis on PMRT. From 1997 to 2011, 170 patients were treated with NAC and mastectomy at our center; 98 cases (57.6% underwent PMRT and 72 cases (42.4% did not receive radiation. At a median follow-up period of 7.7 years (range 2–16 for the whole cohort, median time to locoregional recurrence (LRR was 3.3 years (range 0.7–12.4. The 5-year and 10-year actuarial LRR rate were 14.5% and 15.9%, respectively. At the multivariate analysis the factors that significantly correlated with survival outcome were ≥4 positive nodes (HR 5.0, 1.51–16.52; P=0.035, extracapsular extension (HR 2.18, 1.37–3.46; P=0.009, and estrogen receptor positive disease (HR 0.57, 0.36–0.90; P=0.003. Concerning LRR according to use of radiation, PMRT reduced LRR for patient with clinical T3 staged disease (P=0.015. Our experience confirmed the impact of pathological nodal involvement on survival outcome. PMRT was found to improve local control in patients presenting with clinical T3 tumors, regardless of the response to chemotherapy.

  10. Do Multidimensional Pain Inventory scale score changes indicate risk of receiving sick leave benefits 1 year after a pain rehabilitation programme?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Vanja E; Novo, Mehmed; Sjölund, Bengt H

    2011-01-01

    To study whether scale score changes in the Multidimensional Pain Inventory (MPI) can predict which persons disabled by pain will receive sick leave benefits 1 year after completing a pain rehabilitation programme.......To study whether scale score changes in the Multidimensional Pain Inventory (MPI) can predict which persons disabled by pain will receive sick leave benefits 1 year after completing a pain rehabilitation programme....

  11. Older age impacts on survival outcome in patients receiving curative surgery for solid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Hsien Lu

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: Given the global increase in aging populations and cancer incidence, understanding the influence of age on postoperative outcome after cancer surgery is imperative. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of age on survival outcome in solid cancer patients receiving curative surgery. Methods: A total of 37,288 patients receiving curative surgeries for solid cancers between 2007 and 2012 at four affiliated Chang Gung Memorial Hospital were included in the study. All patients were categorized into age groups by decades for survival analysis. Results: The percentages of patient populations aged <40 years, 40–49 years, 50–59 years, 60–69 years, 70–79 years, and ≥80 years were 9.7%, 17.7%, 27.8%, 22.1%, 16.9%, and 5.7%, respectively. The median follow-up period was 38.9 months (range, 22.8–60.4 months and the overall, cancer-specific, and noncancer-specific mortality rates were 26.0%, 17.6%, and 8.5%, respectively. The overall mortality rate of patients in different age groups were 18.5%, 21.1%, 22.0%, 25.3%, 35.3%, and 49.0%, respectively. Compared to patients aged <40 years, more significant decrease in long-term survival were observed in aging patients. Multivariate analysis showed higher postoperative short-term mortality rates in patients older than 70 years, and the adjusted odds ratio of mortality risk ranged from 1.47 to 1.74 and 2.26 to 3.03 in patients aged 70–79 years and ≥80 years, respectively, compared to those aged <40 years. Conclusion: Aging was a negative prognostic factor of survival outcome in solid cancer patients receiving curative surgery. After adjustment of other clinicopathologic factors, the influence of age on survival outcome was less apparent in the elderly. Keywords: Age, Solid cancer, Surgical resection, Prognosis

  12. From IPv4 to eternity - the HEPiX IPv6 working group

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The much-heralded exhaustion of the IPv4 networking address space has finally started. While many of the research and education networks have been ready and poised for years to carry IPv6 traffic, there is a well-known lack of academic institutes using the new protocols. One reason for this is an obvious absence of pressure due to the extensive use of NAT or that most currently still have sufficient IPv4 addresses. More importantly though, the fact is that moving your distributed applications to IPv6 involves much more than the routing, naming and addressing solutions provided by your campus and national networks. Application communities need to perform a full analysis of their applications, middleware and tools to confirm how much development work is required to use IPv6 and to plan a smooth transition. A new working group of HEPiX (http://www.hepix.org) was formed in Spring 2011 to address exactly these issues for the High Energy Physics community. The HEPiX IPv6 Working Group has been investigating the ma...

  13. Parenthood and separation in couples 6 years after their first infertility consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Magali; Sanchez, Emeline Teillet; Gatimel, Nicolas; Fajau, Carole; Lesourd, Florence; Bujan, Louis; Mieusset, Roger; Parinaud, Jean; Leandri, Roger

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the percentage of couples achieving parenthood and the rate of separation 6 years after their first consultation for infertility. Epidemiological study in the reproductive medicine department of a French university hospital. All first consulting couples (FCC) who had their first infertility consultation in the department in 2007 were contacted by phone and asked to respond to a questionnaire concerning their infertility treatments, parenthood and marital status 6 years after their first consultation. Of the 685 FCC, 94 could not be contacted, 34 refused to respond and 557 (86%) answered the questionnaire. Of 557 FCC who have responded, 361 (65%) have achieved parenthood: 166 (46%) after treatment, 98 (27%) after spontaneous conception, 38 (11%) after both spontaneous and treatment-induced conception and 59 (16%) through adoption. Parenthood was not influenced either by the causes or duration of infertility. Separation occurred in 53 (9.5%) of FCC, mainly in those without any children (28% vs 4% in FCC with at least one child; P<.0001). Six years after their primary consultation, 25% of couples remained childless and 28% of them were separated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Synthesis and physico-chemical properties of (R,S)-6-ditrideuteriomethylamino-4,4-diphenylheptan-3-one hydrochloride (methadone-d6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerardy, B.M.; Poupaert, J.H.; Vandervorst, D.; Dumont, P.; Declerq, J.-P.; Meerssche, M. van; Portoghese, P.S.

    1985-01-01

    A reaction sequence is described to synthesize (R,S)-6-ditrideuteriomethylamino-4,4-diphenylheptan-3-one hydrochloride (methado-ne-d 6 .HC1) in 10.5% overall yield starting from dimethylamine-d 6 hydrochloride. While methadone-d 6 .HC1 had rather similar physicochemical properties compared to methadone.HC1 in the solid phase, a divergent behaviour was observed in solution (pKa, chromatographic and 13 C-NMR data). A higher basicity along with a more important hydrophilicity were observed for the d 6 -derivative. A 13 C-NMR study showed significant differences in the 13 C chemical shifts, which were attributed in part to the intrinsic nature of D itself and in part to a conformational perturbation. The longer duration of antinociceptive action, along with higher tsub(1/2) and clearance, and the depression of the metabolic N-demethylation process were the only biological properties modified by the deuteration. (author)

  15. Long-term prognosis of patients with chronic hepatitis C who did not receive interferon-based therapy: causes of death and analysis based on the FIB-4 index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Toshifumi; Kumada, Takashi; Toyoda, Hidenori; Kiriyama, Seiki; Tanikawa, Makoto; Hisanaga, Yasuhiro; Kanamori, Akira; Kitabatake, Shusuke; Yama, Tsuyoki; Tanaka, Junko

    2016-04-01

    Interferon (IFN)-based therapy has been reported to reduce the liver-related mortality rate in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. However, predictors of survival and causes of death, including non-liver-related causes, have not been sufficiently investigated in chronic HCV patients who have not received IFN-based therapy. A total of 1723 patients with chronic HCV infection who were not treated with IFN-based therapy were enrolled. Survival from liver-related diseases and non-liver-related diseases and causes of death were analyzed on the basis of the fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) index, an index of liver fibrosis. The median follow-up duration was 10.3 years. Of 465 patients who died during the follow-up period, 48.4 % died of liver-related diseases; of the remainder, 51.6 % died of non-liver-related diseases. On the basis of FIB-4 index, the liver-related mortality rate increased as the FIB-4 index increased: 16.1 % in the FIB-4 index 3.25 group (p death (hazard ratio 13.020; 95 % confidence interval 4.155-40.770) and non-liver-related death (hazard ratio 1.667; 95 % confidence interval 1.188-2.340). Patients with chronic HCV infection and an elevated FIB-4 index may benefit from monitoring not only for the development of liver-related diseases but also for the development of non-liver-related diseases.

  16. HIV Case Management Support Service Is Associated with Improved CD4 Counts of Patients Receiving Care at the Antiretroviral Clinic of Pantang Hospital, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bismark Sarfo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Factors associated with individual patient-level management of HIV have received minimal attention in sub-Saharan Africa. This study determined the association between support services and cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4 counts among HIV patients attending ART clinic in Ghana. Methodology. This was a cross-sectional study involving adults with HIV recruited between 1 August 2014 and 31 January 2015. Data on support services were obtained through a closed-ended personal interview while the CD4 counts data were collected from their medical records. Data were entered into EpiData and analyzed using Stata software. Results. Of the 201 patients who participated in the study, 67% (129/191 received case management support service. Counseling about how to prevent the spread of HIV (crude odds ratio (cOR (95% confidence interval (CI (2.79 (1.17–6.68, mental health services (0.2 (0.04–1.00, and case management support service (2.80 (1.34–5.82 was associated with improved CD4 counts of 350 cells/mm3 or more. After adjusting for counseling about how to prevent the spread of HIV and mental health services, case management support service was significantly associated with CD4 counts of 350 cells/mm3 or more (aOR = 2.36 (CI = 1.01–5.49. Conclusion. Case management support service for HIV patients receiving ART improves their CD4 counts above 350 cells/mm3. Incorporating HIV case management services in ART regimen should be a priority in sub-Saharan Africa.

  17. The outcome of apical microsurgery using MTA as the root-end filling material: 2- to 6-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çalışkan, M K; Tekin, U; Kaval, M E; Solmaz, M C

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the influence of various predictors on the healing outcome 2-6 years after apical microsurgery (AMS) using MTA as the root-end filling material. A total of 90 anterior teeth with asymptomatic persistent periradicular periodontitis of strictly endodontic origin that failed after either nonsurgical or surgical treatment were included. Surgery was completed under local anaesthesia using a standardized clinical protocol. Clinical and radiographic measures as well as the follow-up period were used to determine the healing outcome. For statistical analysis of the predictors, the outcome was dichotomized into healed cases and nonhealed cases. Odds ratios were calculated, and Pearson chi-square or Fisher's exact tests were used to analyse the data. Clinical and radiographic assessment of AMS revealed that 80% were healed, 14.4% were nonhealed, whilst 5.6% were judged to be uncertain. None of the various predictors investigated had a significant influence on the outcome of AMS. The results of this clinical study demonstrated that 80% of cases that received apical microsurgery healed when using MTA as the root-end filling material. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. 41 CFR 51-6.4 - Military resale commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Military resale commodities. 51-6.4 Section 51-6.4 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... stores, Armed Forces exchanges and like activities of other Government departments and agencies) shall...

  19. Recommendations for a trans-European dietary assessment method in children between 4 and 14 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L. F.; Lioret, S.; Brants, H.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The main objective of European Food Consumption Validation (EFCOVAL)-child Project is to define and evaluate a trans-European methodology for undertaking national representative dietary surveys among children in the age group of 4-14 years. In the process of identifying...... was to investigate whether the method (two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs)) suggested for the adults in European Food Consumption Survey Method (EFCOSUM) would be usable for children in the age group between 4 and 14 years. However, all available dietary assessment methods were included...... of 4-14 years. Nevertheless, on the basis of the literature, the recommendations were separated for preschoolers (4-6 years) and schoolchildren (7-14 years). Conclusion: For preschoolers, two non-consecutive days of a structured food record are recommended, using a (for children adapted) picture...

  20. Demonstration of carbohydrate-specific immunoglobulin G4 antibodies in sera of patients receiving grass pollen immunotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ree, R.; Aalberse, R. C.

    1995-01-01

    From a group of 92 patients receiving grass pollen immunotherapy, and selected on grounds of high IgG4 titers against Lol p I, sera were tested for IgG4 antibodies against the glycosylated grass pollen allergen Lol p XI. In 72 of 92 cases IgG4 antibodies were demonstrated. The N-glycan of Lol p XI

  1. A Case of 3,4-Dimethoxyamphetamine (3,4-DMA) and 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) Toxicity with Possible Metabolic Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darracq, Michael A; Thornton, Stephen L; Minns, Alicia B; Gerona, Roy R

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of "ecstasy" ingestion revealing 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and 3,4-dimethoxyamphetamine (3,4-DMA) and absence of cytochrome P450 (CYP)-2D6 MDMA metabolites. A 19-year-old presented following a seizure. Initial vital signs were normal. Laboratories were normal with the exception of sodium 127 mEq/L and urine drugs of abuse screen positive for amphetamines. Twelve hours later, serum sodium was 114 mEq/L and a second seizure occurred. After receiving hypertonic saline (3%), the patient had improvement in mental status and admitted to taking "ecstasy" at a rave prior to her initial presentation. Liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF/MS) of serum and urine revealed MDMA, 3,4-DMA, and the CYP-2B6 MDMA metabolites 3,4-methylendioxyamphetamine (MDA) and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyamphetamine (HMA). The CYP2D6 metabolites of MDMA, 3,4-dihydromethamphetamine (HHMA) and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymethamphetamine (HMMA), were detected at very low levels. This case highlights the polypharmacy which may exist among users of psychoactive illicit substances and demonstrates that concurrent use of MDMA and 3,4-DMA may predispose patients to severe toxicity. Toxicologists and other healthcare providers should be aware of this potential toxicity.

  2. [Epidemiological profile of Tinea capitis in Dakar (Senegal). A 6-year retrospective study (2008-2013)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndiaye, M; Diongue, K; Seck, M C; Badiane, A S; Diallo, M A; Deme, A B; Ndiaye, Y D; Dieye, B; Diallo, S; Ndoye, N W; Ndir, O; Ndiaye, D

    2015-06-01

    Tinea capitis is considered as a public health problem in Senegal. The aim of this study was to investigate trends in the incidence, the mycological and epidemiological aspects of tinea capitis diagnosed at Le Dantec Hospital in Dakar. Our work is a retrospective study concerning all scalp samples taken by the parasitology laboratory, over a 6-year period (2008-2013). A total of 1640 specimens were examined. Of these, 566 were positive with direct examination and after culture. We noted the reduction of patients and of the incidence of tineas during 6 years with variations of 147 (46.82%) to 37 (22.02%). The average incidence of the tineas during six years was 34.51%. Patients' age varied between 1 to 83 years with a mean of 27.33 years. Prevalence varied between age groups, with 10.61 % in adults between 20 to 29 years, 7.19% in children between 0 to 9 years, 6.04% between 10 to 19 years, and 5.91% in adults between 30 to 39 years. Women were more infected 469 (82.9%) than men 97 (17.1%). The main dermatophytes isolated were: T. soudanense in 318 cases (56.18%), T. rubrum in 104 cases (18.37%), M. langeronii in 72 cases (12.72%), M. canis in 36 cases (6.36%), and T. mentagrophytes in 26 cases (4.60%). Our study showed a decrease in the annual incidence of tinea capitis over the study period with an evident increase in trichophytic tinea. This study showed that tinea is endemic in Senegal mainly among women between 20 and 29 years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Photoluminescence properties of Eu(3+)/ Sm(3+) activated CaZr4(PO4)6 phosphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Govind B; Dhoble, S J

    2016-09-01

    Solid state reaction method was employed for the synthesis of a series of CaZr4(PO4)6: Eu(3+)/Sm(3+) phosphors. The red-emitting CaZr4(PO4)6:Eu(3+) phosphors can be efficiently excited at 396 nm and thereby, exhibit a strong red luminescence predominantly corresponding to the electric dipole transition at 615 nm. Under 405 nm excitation, CaZr4(PO4)6:Sm(3+) phosphors display orange emission with color temperatures approximately around 2200 K. The acquired results reveal that CaZr4(PO4)6: RE(3+) (RE = Eu, Sm) phosphors could be potential candidates for red and orange emitting phosphor, respectively, for UV/blue-pump LEDs.

  4. Elevated Eosinophil Protein X in Urine from Healthy Neonates Precedes Development of Atopy in the First 6 Years of Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chawes, Bo Lund Krogsgaard; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Bisgaard, Hans

    2011-01-01

    -prostaglandin-F2a was associated with any of the atopic phenotypes. Conclusion Eosinophil protein-X in urine from asymptomatic neonates is a biomarker significantly associated with later development of allergic sensitization, nasal eosinophilia and eczema during the first 6 years of life. These findings suggest...... D2 metabolite) assessed in urine from healthy at-risk neonates precede development of atopic disease during the first 6 years of life. Methods We measured eosinophil protein-X (N=369), leukotriene-C4/D4/E4 (N=367), and 11ß-prostaglandin-F2a (N=366) in urine from 1-month-old children participating...... untill age 6 years. Associations between urinary biomarkers and development of atopic traits were investigated using general estimating equations, logistic regression and Cox regression. Measurements and Main Results Eosinophil protein-X in the urine of the asymptomatic 1-month-old neonates...

  5. Essential role of Stat6 in IL-4 signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, K; Tanaka, T; Shi, W; Matsumoto, M; Minami, M; Kashiwamura, S; Nakanishi, K; Yoshida, N; Kishimoto, T; Akira, S

    1996-04-18

    Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is a pleiotropic lymphokine which plays an important role in the immune system. IL-4 activates two distinct signalling pathways through tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat6, a signal transducer and activator of transcription, and of a 170K protein called 4PS. To investigate the functional role of Stat6 in IL-4 signalling, we generated mice deficient in Stat6 by gene targeting. We report here that in the mutant mice, expression of CD23 and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II in resting B cells was not enhanced in response to IL-4. IL-4 induced B-cell proliferation costimulated by anti-IgM antibody was abolished. The T-cell proliferative response was also notably reduced. Furthermore, production of Th2 cytokines from T cells as well as IgE and IgG1 responses after nematode infection were profoundly reduced. These findings agreed with those obtained in IL-4 deficient mice or using antibodies to IL-4 and the IL-4 receptor. We conclude that Stat6 plays a central role in exerting IL-4 mediated biological responses.

  6. Attending to relations: Proportional reasoning in 3- to 6-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Michelle A; Cordes, Sara

    2018-03-01

    When proportional information is pit against whole number numerical information, children often attend to the whole number information at the expense of proportional information (e.g., indicating 4/9 is greater than 3/5 because 4 > 3). In the current study, we presented younger (3- to 4-year-olds) and older (5- to 6-year-olds) children a task in which the proportional information was presented either continuously (units cannot be counted) or discretely (countable units; numerical information available). In the discrete conditions, older children showed numerical interference-responding based on the number of pieces instead of the proportion of pieces. However, older children easily overcame this poor strategy selection on discrete trials if they first had some experience with continuous, proportional strategies, suggesting this prevalent reliance on numerical information may be malleable. Younger children, on the other hand, showed difficulty with the proportion task, but showed evidence of proportional reasoning in a simplified estimation-style task, suggesting that younger children may still be developing their proportional and numerical skills in task-dependent ways. Lastly, across both age groups, performance on the proportional reasoning task in continuous contexts, but not discrete contexts, was related to more general analogical reasoning skills. Findings suggest that children's proportional reasoning abilities are actively developing between the ages of 3 and 6 and may depend on domain general reasoning skills. We discuss the implications for this work for both cognitive development and education. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Alzheimer's disease susceptibility variants in the MS4A6A gene are associated with altered levels of MS4A6A expression in blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proitsi, Petroula; Lee, Sang Hyuck; Lunnon, Katie; Keohane, Aoife; Powell, John; Troakes, Claire; Al-Sarraj, Safa; Furney, Simon; Soininen, Hilkka; Kłoszewska, Iwona; Mecocci, Patrizia; Tsolaki, Magda; Vellas, Bruno; Lovestone, Simon; Hodges, Angela

    2014-02-01

    An increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) has previously been found to be associated with variants at the MS4A6A locus. We sought to identify which genes and transcripts in this region have altered expression in AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and are influenced by the AD risk variant(s), as a first step to understanding the molecular basis of AD susceptibility at this locus. Common variants located within highly expressed MS4A6A transcripts were significantly associated with AD and MS4A6A expression levels in blood from MCI and AD subjects (p < 0.05, rs610932, rs7232, rs583791). More copies of the protective (minor) allele were associated with lower MS4A6A expression of each transcript (e.g., p = 0.019; rs610932-total MS4A6A). Furthermore, in heterozygous AD subjects, relative expression of the protective allele of V4-MS4A6A transcripts was lower (p < 0.008). Irrespective of genotype, MS4A6A transcripts were increased in blood from people with AD (p < 0.003), whereas lower expression of full length V1-MS4A6A (p = 0.002) and higher expression of V4-MS4A6A (p = 1.8 × 10(-4)) were observed in MCI, relative to elderly controls. The association between genotype and expression was less consistent in brain, although BA9 did have a similar genotype association with V4-MS4A6A transcripts as in blood. MS4A6A transcripts were widely expressed in tissues and cells, with the exception of V4-MS4A6A, which was not expressed in neuronal cells. Together these results suggest that high levels of MS4A6A in emerging AD pathology are detrimental. Persons with MCI may lower MS4A6A expression to minimize detrimental disease associated MS4A6A activity. However, those with the susceptibility allele appear unable to decrease expression sufficiently, which may explain their increased risk for developing AD. Inhibiting MS4A6A may therefore promote a more neuroprotective phenotype, although further work is needed to establish whether this is the case. Copyright © 2014

  8. Prenatal Fluoride Exposure and Cognitive Outcomes in Children at 4 and 6-12 Years of Age in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashash, Morteza; Thomas, Deena; Hu, Howard; Martinez-Mier, E Angeles; Sanchez, Brisa N; Basu, Niladri; Peterson, Karen E; Ettinger, Adrienne S; Wright, Robert; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Liu, Yun; Schnaas, Lourdes; Mercado-García, Adriana; Téllez-Rojo, Martha María; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio

    2017-09-19

    Some evidence suggests that fluoride may be neurotoxic to children. Few of the epidemiologic studies have been longitudinal, had individual measures of fluoride exposure, addressed the impact of prenatal exposures or involved more than 100 participants. Our aim was to estimate the association of prenatal exposure to fluoride with offspring neurocognitive development. We studied participants from the Early Life Exposures in Mexico to Environmental Toxicants (ELEMENT) project. An ion-selective electrode technique was used to measure fluoride in archived urine samples taken from mothers during pregnancy and from their children when 6-12 y old, adjusted for urinary creatinine and specific gravity, respectively. Child intelligence was measured by the General Cognitive Index (GCI) of the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities at age 4 and full scale intelligence quotient (IQ) from the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI) at age 6-12. We had complete data on 299 mother-child pairs, of whom 287 and 211 had data for the GCI and IQ analyses, respectively. Mean (SD) values for urinary fluoride in all of the mothers (n=299) and children with available urine samples (n=211) were 0.90 (0.35) mg/L and 0.82 (0.38) mg/L, respectively. In multivariate models we found that an increase in maternal urine fluoride of 0.5mg/L (approximately the IQR) predicted 3.15 (95% CI: -5.42, -0.87) and 2.50 (95% CI -4.12, -0.59) lower offspring GCI and IQ scores, respectively. In this study, higher prenatal fluoride exposure, in the general range of exposures reported for other general population samples of pregnant women and nonpregnant adults, was associated with lower scores on tests of cognitive function in the offspring at age 4 and 6-12 y. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP655.

  9. Exploring the Relationship between Participation in a Structured Sports Program and Development of Gross Motor Skills in Children Ages 3 to 6 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahagirdar, Ishanee; Venditti, Laura Anne; Duncan, Andrea; Reed, Nick; Fleming, Sean

    2017-01-01

    This study looked at the relationship between participation in a structured sports program and gross-motor-skills development in children aged 3 to 6 years. Twenty-seven children participated in the study, with 16 children receiving an eight-week sports program intervention. Children were assessed at pre- and postintervention using a modified…

  10. Developments in UK defect assessment procedures R6 revision 4 and BS7910

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharples, J.K.; Ainsworth, R.A.; Budden, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    The R6 defect assessment procedures have been developed over many years by the UK nuclear power generation industry. The procedures are updated on a regular basis, taking into account the information resulting from the R6 development programme and other available information worldwide. A major revision, Revision 4, of the R6 procedures was released in 2000. Just prior to that release, in 1999, the British Standards flaw assessment procedure BS7910 was issued and combined and updated the previous published documents PD6493 and PD6539, for components operating at temperatures where creep was negligible and important, respectively. BS79l0 is also under constant development. This paper provides a brief overview of the BS7910 and R6 Revision 4 procedures and describes updates to the respective documents since they were first issued. Some ongoing developments which will lead to future revisions to the documents are also described. (author)

  11. Effect of compliance during periodontal maintenance therapy on levels of bacteria associated with periodontitis: A 6-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Fernando Oliveira; Vieira, Thaís Riberal; Cortelli, Sheila Cavalca; Cota, Luís Otávio Miranda; Costa, José Eustáquio; Aguiar, Maria Cássia Ferreira; Cortelli, José Roberto

    2018-05-01

    It is well established that regular compliance during periodontal maintenance therapy (PMT) maintains the stability of periodontal clinical parameters obtained after active periodontal therapy (APT). However, compliance during PMT has not yet been related to subgingival bacterial levels. Thus, this study followed individuals in PMT over 6 years and longitudinally evaluated the effects of compliance on periodontitis-associated bacterial levels and its relation to periodontal status. From a 6-year prospective cohort study with 212 individuals in PMT, 91 were determined to be eligible. From this total, 28 regular compliers (RC) were randomly selected and matched for age and sex with 28 irregular compliers (IC). Complete periodontal examination and microbiological samples were obtained 5 times: T1 (prior to APT), T2 (after APT), T3 (2 years), T4 (4 years), and T5 (6 years). Total bacteria counts and levels of Actinomyces naeslundii, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Treponema denticola were evaluated through quantitative polymerase chain reaction. RC had less tooth loss and better clinical and microbiological conditions over time when compared with IC. IC had higher total bacterial counts and higher levels of T. denticola. Moreover, among IC, total bacterial counts were positively associated with plaque index and bleeding on probing, while levels of A. naeslundii, T. forsythia, and T. denticola were negatively associated with clinical attachment loss (4 to 5 mm) among RC. Compliance positively influenced subgingival microbiota and contributed to stability of periodontal clinical status. Regular visits during PMT sustained microbiological benefits provided by APT over a 6-year period. © 2018 American Academy of Periodontology.

  12. Self-esteem in 6- to 16-year-olds with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaheswari, Yoganathan; Poulsaeman, Veronica; Chandran, Vijayalakshmi

    2012-10-01

    Childhood nocturnal enuresis (NE) and incontinence has been shown to be associated with increased behavioural problems and reduced self-esteem (SE) in Western populations. The impact on Asian children, however, is not known. This study investigates the relationship between SE and monosymptomatic NE in Malaysian children aged 6 to 16 years. Children with wetting frequency of at least 4 out of 14 nights were recruited with controls matched for age, gender and race. SE scores were obtained using the 'I Think I Am' questionnaire for five domains: body image, talents and skills, psychological well-being, relationship with family and relationship with others. A total of 126 children were recruited; 22 enuretics aged 6-9 years and their matched controls (Group1) and 41 enuretics aged 10-16 years and their matched controls (Group 2). SE scores were similar between the enuretic and controls in Group 1, whereas in Group 2, enuretics had significantly lower scores (P Malaysian children with monosymptomatic NE aged 10 years and above is significantly lower than their peers. This effect is seen particularly among girls, adolescents and those with frequent wetting. In the light of these findings, the 'wait and see' approach by the Malaysian medical profession is no longer appropriate. Treatment should begin before the age of 10 years. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2012 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  13. Quantum-chemical study of structure and stability of hydride complexes Li4BeH6 and Li4MgH6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zyubin, A.S.; Charkin, O.P.; Klabo, D.A.; Shlojfer, P.R.

    1993-01-01

    Nonempirical calculations of geometrical structure, electronic structure and relative energies of a wide range of different configurations of Li 4 MH 6 (M = Be, Mg) molecules were conducted in order to predict the existence of complex hydrides with high hydrogen content. It was revealed, that Li 4 MH 6 molecules were stable to decomposition and could exist in isolated state or in inert matrices. Li 4 MH 6 systems are noted for existence of several isomers with energy, close to the basic structure. The presence of M atoms with coordination number (CN) equal to four is considered to be their common feature. The structure, where CN of Be and Mg is equal to three, are less stable. Configurations, including M atoms with CN = 5 or 6, are much more unfavorable from the viewpoint of energy

  14. 4,6-Dibromo-N-{3-[(4,6-dibromo-2,3-dimethylphenylimino]butan-2-ylidene}-2,3-dimethylaniline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Huang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C20H20Br4N2, is a product of the condensation reaction of 4,6-dibromo-2,3-dimethylaniline and butane-2,3-dione. The molecule has a center of symmetry at the mid-point of the central C—C bond. The dihedral angle between the benzene ring and the 1,4-diazabutadiene plane is 78.3 (2°. Niether hydrogen bonding nor aromatic stacking is observed in the crystal structure.

  15. [Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in children less than 6 years-old: long-term progress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colino, Esmeralda; Martín Frías, María; Roldán, Belén; Álvarez, María Ángeles; Yelmo, Rosa; Barrio, Raquel

    2017-11-01

    The aims of the study are to evaluate the efficacy and safety of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) treatment in pre-school children with type I diabetes, and to assess whether the criteria of good metabolic control are achieved. A review was performed on the medical charts of patient's180mg/dl), and hypoglycaemia (<70mg/dl), mean blood glucose, standard deviation and coefficient of variation (SD/mean glucose ×100). Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS. HbA1c decreased from 6.9% (6.7-7.5) to 6.8% (6.4-7.1) after one year of CSII. Afterwards, it remained under 6.8% during the follow-up (median 5 years [3-6]). Prior to CSII, 74% of children had HbA1c levels < 7.5%. It increased to 96% after one year of CSII. Median blood glucose measurements /day was 10 (9-11). Total insulin dose did not change significantly. During the follow-up, there was one episode of DKA and one episode of HS. I/HC at breakfast were higher than at other meals (0.92 vs. 0.55, 0.6 and 0.5, respectively). CSII is effective and safe in pre-school children. It allows good metabolic control (based on Society for Paediatric and Adolescent Diabetes / American Diabetes Association criteria) to be achieved and maintained for long periods of time without an increase in adverse events. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. 40 CFR 721.9527 - Bis(1,2,2,6,6-pentamethyl-4-piperidin-4-ol) ester of cy-clo-ali-phatic spiroketal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bis(1,2,2,6,6-pentamethyl-4-piperidin-4-ol) ester of cy-clo-ali-phatic spiroketal. 721.9527 Section 721.9527 Protection of Environment...-piperidin-4-ol) ester of cy-clo-ali-phatic spiroketal. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses...

  17. Patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who receive multiple electroconvulsive therapy sessions: characteristics, indications, and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iancu, Iulian; Pick, Nimrod; Seener-Lorsh, Orit; Dannon, Pinhas

    2015-01-01

    While electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has been used for many years, there is insufficient research regarding the indications for continuation/maintenance (C/M)-ECT, its safety and efficacy, and the characteristics of patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who receive multiple ECT sessions. The aims of this study were to characterize a series of patients who received 30 ECT sessions or more, to describe treatment regimens in actual practice, and to examine the results of C/M-ECT in terms of safety and efficacy, especially the effect on aggression and functioning. We performed a retrospective chart review of 20 consecutive patients (mean age 64.6 years) with schizophrenia (n=16) or schizoaffective disorder (n=4) who received at least 30 ECT sessions at our ECT unit, and also interviewed the treating physician and filled out the Clinical Global Impression-Severity, Global Assessment of Functioning, and the Staff Observation Aggression Scale-Revised. Patients received a mean of 91.3 ECT sessions at a mean interval of 2.6 weeks. All had been hospitalized for most or all of the previous 3 years. There were no major adverse effects, and cognitive side effects were relatively minimal (cognitive deficit present for several hours after treatment). We found that ECT significantly reduced scores on the Staff Observation Aggression Scale-Revised subscales for verbal aggression and self-harm, and improved Global Assessment of Functioning scores. There were reductions in total aggression scores, subscale scores for harm to objects and to others, and Clinical Global Impression-Severity scores, these were not statistically significant. C/M-ECT is safe and effective for chronically hospitalized patients. It improves general functioning and reduces verbal aggression and self-harm. More research using other aggression tools is needed to determine its effects and to reproduce our findings in prospective and controlled studies.

  18. Maximum oxygen uptake and objectively measured physical activity in Danish children 6-7 years of age: the Copenhagen school child intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiberg, Stig; Hasselstrøm, Henriette; Grønfeldt, Vivian

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To provide normative data on maximum oxygen uptake (V·O2MAX) and physical activity in children 6-7 years of age and analyse the association between these variables. Methods: VO2MAX was measured in 366 boys (mean (SD) 6.8 (0.4) years of age) and 332 girls (6.7 (0.4) years of age) from.......5 (6.0) v 44.8 (5.6) ml/kg/min (+8%); pgirls. The difference in VO2MAX between boys and girls decreased to +2% when expressed relative to lean body mass (LBM). Absolute VO2MAX was related to LBM, body mass, and stature (all pBoys were more physically active than girls (mean counts...... +9.4%, pboys and girls with the same VO2MAX were compared, boys were more active. The difference in physical activity between the sexes was higher when sustained activity of higher intensity was compared. Conclusions: VO2MAX is higher in boys than girls (+11%), even when...

  19. Biotransformation of ginsenosides F4 and Rg6 in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wen-Wen; Zhang, Hai-Xia; Qiu, Shou-Bei; Wei, Ying-Jie; Zhu, Fen-Xia; Wang, Jing; Wang, Dan-Dan; Jia, Xiao-Bin; Tang, Dao-Quan; Chen, Bin

    2017-03-28

    Ginsenosides F 4 and Rg 6 (GF 4 and GRg 6 ), two main active components of steamed notoginseng or red ginseng, are dehydrated disaccharide saponins. In this work, biotransformation of ginsenosides F 4 and Rg 6 in zebrafish was investigated by qualitatively identifying their metabolites and then proposing their possible metabolic pathways. The prediction of possible metabolism of ginsenosides F 4 and Rg 6 using zebrafish model which can effectively simulate existing mammals model was early and quickly performed. Metabolites of ginsenosides F 4 and Rg 6 after exposing to zebrafish for 24 h were identified by Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography/Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry. A total of 8 and 6 metabolites of ginsenosides F 4 and Rg 6 were identified in zebrafish, respectively. Of these, 7 and 5, including M1, M3-M5, M7-M9 and N1 (N5), N2, N4 (N9), N7-N8 were reported for the first time as far as we know. The mechanisms of their biotransformation involved were further deduced to be desugarization, glucuronidation, sulfation, dehydroxylation, loss of C-17 and/or C-23 residue pathways. It was concluded that loss of rhamnose at position C-6 and glucuronidation at position C-3 in zebrafish were considered as the main physiologic and metabolic processes of ginsenosides F 4 and ginsenosides Rg 6 , respectively.

  20. Factors accounting for the 4-year change in acuity in patients between 50 and 80 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Darren E; Nguyen, Lan Chi; Parker, Katrina E; Applegate, Raymond A

    2013-07-01

    It is well known that acuity slowly decreases in the later decades of life. We wish to determine the extent by which 4-year longitudinal acuity changes can be accounted for by changes in optical quality, or combination of optical quality metrics and of age between 50 and 80 years. High-contrast logMAR acuity, 35 image quality metrics, 4 intraocular scatter metrics, and 4 Lens Opacification Classification System III metrics and entry age were measured on one eye of each of the 148 subjects. Acuity change between baseline and the last visit was regressed against change in each metric for all eyes and a faster changing subset of 50 eyes with a gain or loss of four or more letters. Average change across 148 subjects was a 1.6 ± 4 letter loss (t148 = 4.31, p model for faster changing eyes included change in point spread function entropy, posterior subcapsular cataract, and trefoil and baseline age (sequential r adjusted values of 0.19, 0.27, 0.32, and 0.34, respectively; p = 1.48 × 10 for the full four-factor model). The same variables entered the multiple-regression model for the full 148 data set where most of the acuity measurements were within test-retest error and accounted for less of the variance (r adjusted = 0.15, p = 2.37 × 10). Despite being near noise levels for the measurement of acuity, change in optical quality metrics was the most important factor in eyes that lost or gained four or more letters of acuity. These findings should be generalizable given that our 4-year acuity change is essentially identical to other studies and indicate that these optical quality markers can be used to help identify those on a faster track to an acuity change.

  1. Physical water scarcity metrics for monitoring progress towards SDG target 6.4 : An evaluation of indicator 6.4.2 “Level of water stress”

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanham, D.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; Wada, Y.; Bouraoui, F.; de Roo, A.; Mekonnen, M. M.; van de Bund, W. J.; Batelaan, O.; Pavelic, P.; Bastiaanssen, Wim G M; Kummu, M.; Rockström, J.; Liu, J.; Bisselink, B.; Ronco, P.; Pistocchi, A.; Bidoglio, G.

    2018-01-01

    Target 6.4 of the recently adopted Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) deals with the reduction of water scarcity. To monitor progress towards this target, two indicators are used: Indicator 6.4.1 measuring water use efficiency and 6.4.2 measuring the level of water stress (WS). This paper aims to

  2. 5-(2-amimo-4-styryl pyrimidine-4-yl-4-methoxybenzofuran-6-ol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atteyat A Labib

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the organic synthesis of 5-(2-amimo-4-styryl pyrimidine-4-yl-4-methoxy benzofuran-6-ol (SPBF as an example of a benzofuran derivative used as a new series of amyloid imaging agents. These benzofuran derivatives may be useful amyloid imaging agents for detecting B-amyloid plagues in the brain of Alzheimer’s disease. The precursor is 1-[6-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzofuran-5-yl]-phenyl butadiene ketone, which react with guanidine hydrochloride. The purification process was done via crystallization using solvent ethanol. The overall yield was 75% and the structure of the synthesized compound was confirmed by correct analytical and spectral data. Also, The synthesized compound was labeled with radioactive iodine -125 via electrophilic substitution reaction, in the presence of iodogen as an oxidizing agent, the labeling process was carried out at 95oC for 20min. The radiochemical yield was determined by using a thin layer chromatography and the yield was equal to 80%. Preliminary an in-vivo study examined normal mice after intravenous injection through the tail vein and the data showed the labeling compound was quickly cleared from most body organs. The radioiodinated compound showed high brain uptake.The results of this study suggest that radioiodinated (SPBF may be useful as a brain imaging agents.

  3. Meningococcal serogroup B-specific responses after vaccination with bivalent rLP2086: 4 year follow-up of a randomised, single-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Helen S; Richmond, Peter C; Beeslaar, Johannes; Jiang, Qin; Jansen, Kathrin U; Garcés-Sánchez, Maria; Martinón-Torres, Federico; Szenborn, Leszek; Wysocki, Jacek; Eiden, Joseph; Harris, Shannon L; Jones, Thomas R; Lee, Su-San; Perez, John L

    2017-01-01

    Bivalent rLP2086 is a recombinant factor H binding protein-based vaccine approved in the USA for prevention of meningococcal serogroup B disease in 10-25-year-olds. We aimed to assess the persistence of bactericidal antibodies up to 4 years after a three-dose schedule of bivalent rLP2086. We did this randomised, single-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial at 25 sites in Australia, Poland, and Spain. In stage 1 of the study (February, 2009-May, 2010), healthy adolescents (aged 11-18 years) were randomly assigned, via an interactive voice and web-response system with computer-generated sequential random numbers, to receive either ascending doses of vaccine (60 μg, 120 μg, and 200 μg) or placebo at months 0, 2, and 6. Dispensing staff were not masked to group allocation, but allocation was concealed from principal investigators, participants and their guardians, and laboratory personnel. In stage 2 of the study (reported here), we enrolled healthy adolescents who had received three doses of 120 μg bivalent rLP2086 (the optimum dose level identified in stage 1) or saline. Immunogenicity was determined in serum bactericidal antibody assay using human complement (hSBA) by use of four meningococcal serogroup B test strains expressing vaccine-heterologous factor H binding protein variants: PMB80 (A22), PMB2001 (A56), PMB2948 (B24), and PMB2707 (B44). Immunogenicity in stage 2 was assessed at months 6, 12, 24, and 48 post-vaccination. We did analysis by intention to treat. This trial is registered as ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00808028. Between March 17, 2010, and Feb 8, 2011, 170 participants who received 120 μg of bivalent rLP2086 and 80 participants who received placebo in stage 1 of the study were entered into stage 2; 210 participants completed stage 2 up to 48 months. 1 month after the third vaccination, 93% (n=139/149) to 100% (n=48/48) of vaccine recipients achieved protective hSBA titres equal to or greater than the lower limit of quantification to each

  4. Smoking Patterns, Attitudes and Motives: Unique Characteristics among 2-Year versus 4-Year College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, C. J.; An, L. C.; Thomas, J. L.; Lust, K. A.; Sanem, J. R.; Swan, D. W.; Ahluwalia, J. S.

    2011-01-01

    Given the previously documented higher rates of smoking among 2-year college students in comparison with 4-year university students, this study compares smoking patterns, attitudes and motives among 2-year and 4-year college students. Two thousand two hundred and sixty-five undergraduate students aged 18-25 years at a 2-year college and a 4-year…

  5. Cu4Pr6(MoO4)11-Pr2(MoO4)3 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzumanyan, G.A.

    1982-01-01

    Existence boundaries and Dalton compositions (CuPr(MoO 4 ) 2 , CuPr 3 (MoO 4 ) 5 ) of solid solutions that in the mojority are of shcheelite dsitored structure have been determined in the Cu 4 Pr 6 (MoO 4 ) 11 -Pr 2 (MoO 4 ) 3 system. It has been revealed that regions of homogeneity near the CuPr(MoO 4 ) 2 composition have a horseshoeshaped profile

  6. Synthesis and thermal stability of the sodalite Na6Zn2[Al6Si6O24](SO4)2 and its reaction with hydrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiden, Frank; Nielsen, Ulla Gro; Warner, Terence Edwin

    2012-01-01

    Ca2[Al6Si6O24](SO4)2. Na6Zn2[Al6Si6O24](SO4)2 was shown to be largely immiscible with nosean, Na8[Al6Si6O24]SO4 in the solid-state. Na6Zn2[Al6Si6O24](SO4)2 decomposes above 700 °C, yielding nosean, Na8[Al6Si6O24]SO4; willemite, Zn2SiO4; gahnite, ZnAl2O4; and presumably a glass phase, 2Na2O•9SiO2...

  7. Symptomatic burden of COPD for patients receiving dual or triple therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen S

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Stephanie Chen,1 Mark Small,2 Leandro Lindner,3 Xiao Xu1,4 1Health Economics and Payer Analytics, AstraZeneca, Gaithersburg, MD, USA; 2Respiratory, Adelphi Real World, Bollington, UK; 3Global Payer Evidence and Pricing, AstraZeneca, Cambridge, UK; 4Global Payer Evidence and Pricing, AstraZeneca, Gaithersburg, MD, USA Background: COPD is associated with a large disease burden. The use of dual (two maintenance treatments and triple (combination of any three treatments therapy has shown efficacy for symptom relief; however, some patients with COPD remain symptomatic despite these therapies. This study assessed the scope and magnitude of the symptomatic burden for patients with COPD receiving dual or triple therapy. Patients and methods: Cross-sectional data from three Adelphi COPD surveys (2013–2016 conducted in the USA, Europe, Japan, and China were analyzed for patients with COPD and forced expiratory volume in 1 second ≤65% receiving dual or triple therapy for ≥3 months. Physicians completed clinical and disease characteristic forms for identified patients. Corresponding patients completed questionnaires that included validated survey instruments to assess adherence and symptom impact. Descriptive statistics are reported. Results: Our analysis included 690 patients (mean age 68.2 years; 73.3% male; 41.4% and 58.6% were receiving dual and triple therapy, respectively. Most patients had dyspnea with substantial disability (modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scale rating ≥2, 56.3%; large health status impairment from symptoms, COPD Assessment Test score >20, 64.4%. A large symptom burden was observed, even for patients highly adherent to treatment (Morisky Medication Adherence Scale 8, 30.3% [185/612], of whom 62.1% still had a COPD Assessment Test score >20. Sensitivity analyses of patients regardless of their forced expiratory volume in 1 second status and of those receiving treatment for >6 months both reported similar results

  8. STAT6: its role in interleukin 4-mediated biological functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, K; Kishimoto, T; Akira, S

    1997-05-01

    Interleukin (IL) 4 is known to be a cytokine which plays a central role in the regulation of immune response. Studies on cytokine signal transduction have clarified the mechanism by which IL4 exerts its functions. Two cytoplasmic proteins, signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 6 and IL4-induced phosphotyrosine substrate/insulin receptor substrate 2 (4PS/IRS2), are activated in IL4 signal transduction. Recent studies from STAT6-deficient mice have revealed the essential role of STAT6 in IL4-mediated biological actions. In addition, STAT6 has also been demonstrated to be important for the functions mediated by IL13, which is related to IL4. IL4 and IL13 have been shown to induce the production of IgE, which is a major mediator in an allergic response. These findings indicate that STAT6 activation is involved in IL4- and IL13-mediated disorders such as allergy.

  9. Isomerisation of c4-c6 aldoses with zeolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to isomerization of C4-C6 aldoses to their corresponding C4-C6 ketoses. In particular, the invention concerns isomerization of C4-C6 aldoses over solid zeolite catalysts free of any metals other than aluminum, in the presence of suitable solvent(s) at suitable elevated...... temperatures. C6 and C5 aldose sugars such as glucose and xylose, which are available in large amounts from biomass precursors, are isomerized to fructose and xylulose respectively, in a one or two-step process over inexpensive commercially available zeolite catalysts, containing aluminum as the only metal...

  10. 25 CFR 518.4 - What criteria must a tribe meet to receive a certificate of self-regulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of self-regulation? 518.4 Section 518.4 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS SELF REGULATION OF CLASS II GAMING § 518.4 What criteria must a tribe meet to receive a certificate of self-regulation? (a) The Commission shall issue a certificate of self-regulation...

  11. Swallowing Function and Nutritional Status in Japanese Elderly People Receiving Home-care Services: A 1-year Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, Y; Furuta, M; Akifusa, S; Takeuchi, K; Adachi, M; Kinoshita, T; Kikutani, T; Nakamura, S; Yamashita, Y

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition is a serious health concern for frail elderly people. Poor oral function leading to insufficient food intake can contribute to the development of malnutrition. In the present study, we explored the longitudinal association of malnutrition with oral function, including oral health status and swallowing function, in elderly people receiving home nursing care. Prospective observational cohort study with 1-year follow-up. Two mid-sized cities in Fukuoka, Japan from November 2010 to March 2012. One hundred and ninety-seven individuals, aged ≥ 60 years, living at home and receiving home-care services because of physical disabilities, without malnutrition. Oral health status, swallowing function, taking modified-texture diets such as minced or pureed foods, nutritional status, cognitive function, and activities of daily living were assessed at baseline. The associations between malnutrition at 1-year follow-up and these related factors were analyzed using a logistic regression model. Swallowing disorders [risk ratio (RR): 5.21, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.65-16.43] were associated with malnutrition. On the other hand, oral health status did not have a direct association with malnutrition. Swallowing disorders may be associated with the incidence of malnutrition in elderly people receiving home-care. The findings indicate that maintaining swallowing function may contribute to the prevention of malnutrition in frail elderly people.

  12. The potential of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) for detection of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (2,4,6-TCA) in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpas, Zeev; Guamán, Ana V; Calvo, Daniel; Pardo, Antonio; Marco, Santiago

    2012-05-15

    The off-flavor of "tainted wine" is attributed mainly to the presence of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (2,4,6-TCA) in the wine. In the present study the atmospheric pressure gas-phase ion chemistry, pertaining to ion mobility spectrometry, of 2,4,6-trichloroanisole was investigated. In positive ion mode the dominant species is a monomer ion with a lower intensity dimer species with reduced mobility values (K(0)) of 1.58 and 1.20 cm(2)V(-1) s(-1), respectively. In negative mode the ion with K(0) =1.64 cm(2)V(-1)s(-1) is ascribed to a trichlorophenoxide species while the ions with K(0) =1.48 and 1.13 cm(2)V(-1)s(-1) are attributed to chloride attachment adducts of a TCA monomer and dimer, respectively. The limit of detection of the system for 2,4,6-TCA dissolved in dichloromethane deposited on a filter paper was 2.1 μg and 1.7 ppm in the gas phase. In ethanol and in wine the limit of detection is higher implying that pre-concentration and pre-separation are required before IMS can be used to monitor the level of TCA in wine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Probability of acoustic transmitter detections by receiver lines in Lake Huron: results of multi-year field tests and simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Todd A.; Holbrook, Christopher M.; Binder, Thomas; Dettmers, John M.; Cooke, Steven J.; Vandergoot, Christopher S.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundAdvances in acoustic telemetry technology have led to an improved understanding of the spatial ecology of many freshwater and marine fish species. Understanding the performance of acoustic receivers is necessary to distinguish between tagged fish that may have been present but not detected and from those fish that were absent from the area. In this study, two stationary acoustic transmitters were deployed 250 m apart within each of four acoustic receiver lines each containing at least 10 receivers (i.e., eight acoustic transmitters) located in Saginaw Bay and central Lake Huron for nearly 2 years to determine whether the probability of detecting an acoustic transmission varied as a function of time (i.e., season), location, and distance between acoustic transmitter and receiver. Distances between acoustic transmitters and receivers ranged from 200 m to >10 km in each line. The daily observed probability of detecting an acoustic transmission was used in simulation models to estimate the probability of detecting a moving acoustic transmitter on a line of receivers.ResultsThe probability of detecting an acoustic transmitter on a receiver 1000 m away differed by month for different receiver lines in Lake Huron and Saginaw Bay but was similar for paired acoustic transmitters deployed 250 m apart within the same line. Mean probability of detecting an acoustic transmitter at 1000 m calculated over the study period varied among acoustic transmitters 250 m apart within a line and differed among receiver lines in Lake Huron and Saginaw Bay. The simulated probability of detecting a moving acoustic transmitter on a receiver line was characterized by short periods of time with decreased detection. Although increased receiver spacing and higher fish movement rates decreased simulated detection probability, the location of the simulated receiver line in Lake Huron had the strongest effect on simulated detection probability.ConclusionsPerformance of receiver

  14. Insights into the photocatalytic mechanism of mediator-free direct Z-scheme g-C3N4/Bi2MoO6(010) and g-C3N4/Bi2WO6(010) heterostructures: A hybrid density functional theory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opoku, Francis; Govender, Krishna Kuben; Sittert, Cornelia Gertina Catharina Elizabeth van; Govender, Penny Poomani

    2018-01-01

    Graphite-like carbon nitride (g-C3N4)-based heterostructures have received much attention due to their prominent photocatalytic activity. The g-C3N4/Bi2WO6 and g-C3N4/Bi2MoO6 heterostructures, which follow a typical hetero-junction charge transfer mechanisms show a weak potential for hydrogen evolution and reactive radical generation under visible light irradiation. A mediator-free Z-scheme g-C3N4/Bi2MoO6(010) and g-C3N4/Bi2WO6(010) heterostructures photocatalyst are designed for the first time using first-principles studies. Moreover, theoretical understanding of the underlying mechanism, the effects of interfacial composition and the role the interface play in the overall photoactivity is still unexplained. The calculated band gap of the heterostructures is reduced compared to the bulk Bi2WO6 and Bi2MoO6. In this study, we systematically calculated energy band structure, optical properties and charge transfer of the g-C3N4/Bi2MoO6(010) and g-C3N4/Bi2WO6(010) heterostructures using the hybrid density functional theory approach. The results show that the charge transfer at the interface of the heterostructures induces a built-in potential, which benefits the separation of photogenerated charge carriers. The g-C3N4/Bi2MoO6(010) heterostructure with more negative adhesion energy (-1.10 eVA-2) is predicted to have a better adsorptive ability and can form more easily compared to the g-C3N4/Bi2WO6(010) interface (-1.16 eVA-2). Therefore, our results show that the g-C3N4 interaction with Bi2MoO6 is stronger than Bi2WO6, which is also verified by the smaller vertical separation (3.25 Å) between Bi2MoO6 and g-C3N4 compared to the g-C3N4/Bi2WO6(010) interface (3.36 Å). The optical absorption verifies that these proposed Z-scheme heterostructures are excellent visible light harvesting semiconductor photocatalyst materials. This enhancement is ascribed to the role of g-C3N4 monolayer as an electron acceptor and the direct Z-scheme charge carrier transfer at the interface of

  15. In-situ study of surface relief due to cubic-tetragonal martensitic transformation in Mn_6_9_._4Fe_2_6_._0Cu_4_._6 antiferromagnetic shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.; Yuan, F.; Gen, Z.; Wang, L.; Cui, Y.G.; Wan, J.F.; Zhang, J.H.; Rong, Y.H.

    2016-01-01

    Temperature-dependence surface relief during cubic↔tetragonal martensitic transformation (MT) in Mn_6_9_._4Fe_2_6_._0Cu_4_._6 antiferromegnetic shape memory alloy was studied by means of in-situ atomic force microscopy. The surface morphology memory effect was found and the crystallography reversibility of the transformation and its shearing characters were directly verified. Twin shearing is suggested as the main mechanism of formation of tent-type surface relief. The surface relief angle (θ_α|θ_β)<0.5° was firstly measured and might be the smallest compared with that in other shape memory alloys. A Landau model was proposed to consider the shearing strain related with surface relief of MT varying with the coupling effect between second-order antiferromagnetic transition and first-order MT. According to this model, the Mn_6_9_._4Fe_2_6_._0Cu_4_._6 alloy belongs to the weak coupling system and this kind of weak coupling effect makes the main contribution to the small relief angle. - Highlights: • Temperature-dependence surface relief in Mn-Fe-Cu alloy was firstly studied. • The surface morphology memory effect in Mn-Fe-Cu alloy was found. • Smallest surface relief angle (θ_α|θ_β).

  16. Design and Synthesis of 2-Alkylpyrimidine-4,6-diol and 6-Alkylpyridine-2,4-diol as Potent GPR84 Agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Qing; Chen, Lin-Hai; Yang, Hui; Lu, Wei; Xie, Xin; Nan, Fa-Jun

    2016-06-09

    A series of alkylpyrimidine-4,6-diol derivatives were designed and synthesized as novel GRP84 agonists based on a high-throughput screening (HTS) hit 1. 6-Nonylpyridine-2,4-diol was identified as the most potent agonist of GPR84 reported so far, with an EC50 of 0.189 nM. These novel GPR84 agonists will provide valuable tools for the study of the physiological functions of GPR84.

  17. Long-Term Course of Failed Back Surgery Syndrome (FBSS Patients Receiving Integrative Korean Medicine Treatment: A 1 Year Prospective Observational Multicenter Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinho Lee

    Full Text Available With increase of spine surgeries, failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS prevalence is also rising. While complementary and alternative medicine (CAM is commonly used for low back pain (LBP, there are no studies reporting use of integrative Korean medicine in FBSS patients.Patients with pain continuing after back surgery or recurring within 1 year and visual analogue scale (VAS of LBP or leg pain of ≥6 (total n = 120 were recruited at 2 hospital sites from November 2011 to September 2014. Weekly sessions of integrative Korean medicine treatment were conducted for 16 weeks (herbal medicine, acupuncture/electroacupuncture, pharmacopuncture/bee venom pharmacopuncture, and Chuna manual therapy with additional follow-ups at 24 weeks and 1 year. Outcome measures included VAS of LBP and leg pain (primary outcome, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI, Short-Form 36 (SF-36, medical use, and patient global impression of change (PGIC.VAS of LBP and leg pain improved at 6 months (LBP from 6.1±2.0 at baseline to 2.9±2.3; and leg pain from 5.4±2.6 to 2.4±2.5, respectively. Eighty patients (66.7% showed improvement of 50% or more in main pain of LBP or leg pain from baseline. Disability and quality of life also improved at 6 months (ODI from 41.3±12.3 at baseline to 23.6±13.6; and SF-36 from 42.8±14.5 to 62.7±16.8. At 1 year follow-up, conventional medical management use decreased, improvement in pain and disability was maintained, and 79.2% reported improvement of PGIC.Despite limitations as an observational study, integrative Korean medicine treatment showed positive results in pain, function, and quality of life of FBSS patients.

  18. ACER Spelling Test: Years 3-6. Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn.

    The Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER) Spelling Test is designed to measure levels of achievement in spelling and comprises Test Cards, Answer Sheets, Class Analysis Charts and Handbook. The test itself is divided into four parts, one part for each of years 3 through 6 with each part consisting of 50 words. Directions for…

  19. Solar energy receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jacob

    1978-01-01

    An improved long-life design for solar energy receivers provides for greatly reduced thermally induced stress and permits the utilization of less expensive heat exchanger materials while maintaining receiver efficiencies in excess of 85% without undue expenditure of energy to circulate the working fluid. In one embodiment, the flow index for the receiver is first set as close as practical to a value such that the Graetz number yields the optimal heat transfer coefficient per unit of pumping energy, in this case, 6. The convective index for the receiver is then set as closely as practical to two times the flow index so as to obtain optimal efficiency per unit mass of material.

  20. Use of Palliative Care in Patients With End-Stage COPD and Receiving Home Oxygen: National Trends and Barriers to Care in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, Barret; Hertz, Paul; Bond, Alexandra; McDermid, Robert C; Celi, Leo Anthony

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the use of palliative care (PC) in patients with end-stage COPD receiving home oxygen hospitalized for an exacerbation. A retrospective nationwide cohort analysis was performed, using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. All patients ≥ 18 years of age with a diagnosis of COPD, receiving home oxygen, and admitted for an exacerbation were included. A total of 55,208,382 hospitalizations from the 2006-2012 Nationwide Inpatient Sample were examined. There were 181,689 patients with COPD, receiving home oxygen, and admitted for an exacerbation; 3,145 patients (1.7%) also had a PC contact. There was a 4.5-fold relative increase in PC referral from 2006 (0.45%) to 2012 (2.56%) (P < .01). Patients receiving PC consultations compared with those who did not were older (75.0 years [SD 10.9] vs 70.6 years [SD 9.7]; P < .01), had longer hospitalizations (4.9 days [interquartile range, 2.6-8.2] vs 3.5 days [interquartile range, 2.1-5.6]), and more likely to die in hospital (32.1% vs 1.5%; P < .01). Race was significantly associated with referral to palliative care, with white patients referred more often than minorities (P < .01). Factors associated with PC referral included age (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.02-1.04; P < .01), metastatic cancer (OR, 2.40; 95% CI, 2.02-2.87; P < .01), nonmetastatic cancer (OR, 2.75; 95% CI, 2.43-3.11; P < .01), invasive mechanical ventilation (OR, 4.89; 95% CI, 4.31-5.55; P < .01), noninvasive mechanical ventilation (OR, 2.84; 95% CI, 2.58-3.12; P < .01), and Do Not Resuscitate status (OR, 7.95; 95% CI, 7.29-8.67; P < .01). The use of PC increased dramatically during the study period; however, PC contact occurs only in a minority of patients with end-stage COPD admitted with an exacerbation. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Para-ter-butyl of calix(4)arene with acetamide-ether as inorganic-organic receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, F.M. de; Scopelliti, R.; Muller, G.; Buenzli J, C.G.; Charbonniere, L.

    2001-01-01

    A new functionalized calix(4)arene was designed and constructed with predetrmined properties to form lanthanides complexes and to sensibilize its luminescent properties. This, in addition to sensibilize that photophysical property and once formed the complex resulted a good receiver of organic molecules as it is demonstrated the crystal structure of the lutetium complex. (Author)

  2. A 65mW,0.4-2.3 GHz bandpass filter for satellite receivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, van der J.D.; Kasperkovitz, D.; Bretveld, A.

    2002-01-01

    A monolithic tunable bandpass filter for satellite receiver front-ends is presented. The nter frequency of the bandpass filter can be tuned from 0.4 GHz to 2.3 GHz. The filter is constructed using four transconductor-C poly-phase filter sections and has a 50 dB variable gain range. At 20 dB

  3. Dietary patterns on weekdays and weekend days in 4–14-year-old Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothausen, Berit Worm; Matthiessen, Jeppe; Andersen, L. F.

    2013-01-01

    National Survey of Dietary Habits and Physical Activity 2003–8, where a total of 784 children aged 4–14 years completed a 7 d pre-coded food record. Principal component analysis was used to identify dietary patterns in the age groups 46, 7–10 and 11–14 years. Consistently, two dietary patterns, labelled...... patterns may somewhat track between weekdays and weekends, the specific foods actually eaten became less healthy during weekends....

  4. A 4-year study of avian influenza virus prevalence and subtype diversity in ducks of Newfoundland, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanyan; Wille, Michelle; Dobbin, Ashley; Robertson, Gregory J; Ryan, Pierre; Ojkic, Davor; Whitney, Hugh; Lang, Andrew S

    2013-10-01

    The island of Newfoundland, Canada, is at the eastern edge of North America and has migratory bird connections with the continental mainland as well as across the North Atlantic Ocean. Here, we report a 4-year avian influenza virus (AIV) epidemiological study in ducks in the St. John's region of Newfoundland. The overall prevalence of AIV detection in ducks during this study was 7.2%, with American Black Ducks contributing the vast majority of the collected samples and the AIV positives. The juvenile ducks showed a significantly higher AIV detection rate (10.6%) compared with adults (3.4%). Seasonally, AIV prevalence rates were higher in the autumn (8.4%), but positives were still detected in the winter (4.6%). Preliminary serology tests showed a high incidence of previous AIV infection (20/38, 52.6%). A total of 43 viruses were characterized for their HA-NA or HA subtypes, which revealed a large diversity of AIV subtypes and little recurrence of subtypes from year to year. Investigation of the movement patterns of ducks in this region showed that it is a largely non-migratory duck population, which may contribute to the observed pattern of high AIV subtype turnover. Phylogenetic analysis of 4 H1N1 and one H5N4 AIVs showed these viruses were highly similar to other low pathogenic AIV sequences from waterfowl in North America and assigned all gene segments into American-avian clades. Notably, the H1N1 viruses, which were identified in consecutive years, possessed homologous genomes. Such detection of homologous AIV genomes across years is rare, but indicates the role of the environmental reservoir in viral perpetuation.

  5. D{sup 6}R{sup 4} amplitudes in various dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pioline, Boris [CERN PH-TH,Case C01600, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Université Paris 6,UMR 7589, F-75005 Paris (France); Laboratoire de Physique Théorique et Hautes Energies, CNRS UMR 7589,Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris cedex 05 (France)

    2015-04-13

    Four-graviton couplings in the low energy effective action of type II string vacua compactified on tori are strongly constrained by supersymmetry and U-duality. While the R{sup 4} and D{sup 4}R{sup 4} couplings are known exactly in terms of Langlands-Eisenstein series of the U-duality group, the D{sup 6}R{sup 4} couplings are not nearly as well understood. Exploiting the coincidence of the U-duality group in D=6 with the T-duality group in D=5, we propose an exact formula for the D{sup 6}R{sup 4} couplings in type II string theory compactified on T{sup 4}, in terms of a genus-two modular integral plus a suitable Eisenstein series. The same modular integral computes the two-loop correction to D{sup 6}R{sup 4} in 5 dimensions, but here provides the non-perturbative completion of the known perturbative terms in D=6. This proposal hinges on a systematic re-analysis of the weak coupling and large radius of the D{sup 6}R{sup 4} in all dimensions D≥3, which fills in some gaps and resolves some inconsistencies in earlier studies.

  6. Anemia and Iron Deficiency in Vietnamese Children, 6 to 11 Years Old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Nguyen Bao, Khanh; Tran Thuy, Nga; Nguyen Huu, Chinh; Khouw, Ilse; Deurenberg, Paul

    2016-07-01

    In a population sample of 385 children, 6 to 11 years old, venous blood parameters-hemoglobin (Hb), ferritin, red blood cell count (RBC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), C-reactive protein (CRP), and α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP)-were determined to get insight into the iron status. The prevalence of anemia was 11.4%; 5.6% had iron deficiency (ID), whereas 0.4% had ID anemia. Correction for inflammation based on CRP and AGP did not markedly change the overall prevalence of ID and ID anemia. Stunted children had lower Hb and ferritin values compared with nonstunted children, and thin children had lower values compared with normal-weight or overweight and obese children. Many nonanemic children had alert values for RBC, MCV, MCH, and MCHC. It is concluded that although the prevalence of anemia is of the magnitude of a mild public health problem, the iron status of many nonanemic children is borderline, as indicated by a high number of children with low values for red blood cytology. © 2016 APJPH.

  7. The Use of Intravenous Antibiotics at the Onset of Neutropenia in Patients Receiving Outpatient-Based Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamadah, Aziz; Schreiber, Yoko; Toye, Baldwin; McDiarmid, Sheryl; Huebsch, Lothar; Bredeson, Christopher; Tay, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Empirical antibiotics at the onset of febrile neutropenia are one of several strategies for management of bacterial infections in patients undergoing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant (HSCT) (empiric strategy). Our HSCT program aims to perform HSCT in an outpatient setting, where an empiric antibiotic strategy was employed. HSCT recipients began receiving intravenous antibiotics at the onset of neutropenia in the absence of fever as part of our institutional policy from 01 Jan 2009; intravenous Prophylactic strategy. A prospective study was conducted to compare two consecutive cohorts [Year 2008 (Empiric strategy) vs. Year 2009 (Prophylactic strategy)] of patients receiving HSCT. There were 238 HSCTs performed between 01 Jan 2008 and 31 Dec 2009 with 127 and 111 in the earlier and later cohorts respectively. Infection-related mortality pre- engraftment was similar with a prophylactic compared to an empiric strategy (3.6% vs. 7.1%; p = 0.24), but reduced among recipients of autologous HSCT (0% vs. 6.8%; p = 0.03). Microbiologically documented, blood stream infections and clinically documented infections pre-engraftment were reduced in those receiving a prophylactic compared to an empiric strategy, (11.7% vs. 28.3%; p = 0.001), (9.9% vs. 24.4%; p = 0.003) and (18.2% vs. 33.9% p = 0.007) respectively. The prophylactic use of intravenous once-daily ceftriaxone in patients receiving outpatient based HSCT is safe and may be particularly effective in patients receiving autologous HSCT. Further studies are warranted to study the impact of this Prophylactic strategy in an outpatient based HSCT program. PMID:23029441

  8. The Role of Inference Making and Other Language Skills in the Development of Narrative Listening Comprehension in 4-6-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepola, Janne; Lynch, Julie; Laakkonen, Eero; Silven, Maarit; Niemi, Pekka

    2012-01-01

    In this two-year longitudinal study, we sought to examine the developmental relationships among early narrative listening comprehension and language skills (i.e., vocabulary knowledge, sentence memory, and phonological awareness) and the roles of these factors in predicting narrative listening comprehension at the age of 6 years. We also sought to…

  9. Emergency peripartum hysterectomy, physical and mental consequences: a 6-year study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisa-Oana Bălălău

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Emergency peripartum hysterectomy (EPH is performed for massive postpartum hemorrhage following a cesarean delivery or vaginal delivery, in order to save the patient’s life. The current study was performed on a sample of 13.162 patients, which underwent cesarean or vaginal delivery during a period of 6 years, from 2010 to 2015, in Bucur Maternity Hospital. There were two subsequential groups consisting in: 6593 patients with cesarean operations and 6569 patients with vaginal delivery. In 12 cases occurred one or more of the risk factors that lead to EPH, divided equally across the two groups above. The main two types of surgery are a more frequent subtotal hysterectomy, which is the preferred type of EPH as it takes less time and is associated with fewer complications, and a total hysterectomy. The majority of procedures were performed at patients over 35 years old (9 of 12, with a median age of 31,16 (ranging from 21 to 44 years old. The most important risk factor present across the lot was multiparity (11 from 12, with cicatricial uterus being the second one (4 of 12. ICU median time was 4,5 days (ranging from 3 to 15 days, with a median blood transfusion necessity of around 2,4 I.U per patient. There were no mother or newborn reported deaths, neither PTSD following EPH.EPH is a procedure performed as last-resort, life-saving surgery, leaving no time for mental preparation of the patients. This may predispose to negative psychological outcomes, especially because they are not part of decision-making process due to the emergency character of hysterectomy.

  10. Density of liquid Ti-6Al-4V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmon Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ti-6Al-4V is due to its high strength-density ratio a commonly used alloy in aerospace industry applications. But liquid phase data are scarce as preventing contaminations of the reactive high temperature melt during the investigation process poses a challenge. The thermophysical quantity density is of special interest since it is necessary input parameter in modern numerical casting and solidification simulations. Liquid phase density of Ti-6Al-4V as function of temperature was determined employing a fast resistive pulse-heating technique based on the approach to avoid contaminations of the specimen by extremely reducing the experimental duration of the investigation process. Temperature dependent density of liquid Ti-6Al-4V was determined in a temperature range between 2050 K and 2590 K and is presented.

  11. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Probiotic Use to Prevent Clostridium difficile Infection in Hospitalized Adults Receiving Antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Nicole T; Leff, Jared A; Schneider, Yecheskel; Crawford, Carl V; Maw, Anna; Bosworth, Brian; Simon, Matthew S

    2017-01-01

    Systematic reviews with meta-analyses and meta-regression suggest that timely probiotic use can prevent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in hospitalized adults receiving antibiotics, but the cost effectiveness is unknown. We sought to evaluate the cost effectiveness of probiotic use for prevention of CDI versus no probiotic use in the United States. We programmed a decision analytic model using published literature and national databases with a 1-year time horizon. The base case was modeled as a hypothetical cohort of hospitalized adults (mean age 68) receiving antibiotics with and without concurrent probiotic administration. Projected outcomes included quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), costs (2013 US dollars), incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs; $/QALY), and cost per infection avoided. One-way, two-way, and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted, and scenarios of different age cohorts were considered. The ICERs less than $100000 per QALY were considered cost effective. Probiotic use dominated (more effective and less costly) no probiotic use. Results were sensitive to probiotic efficacy (relative risk 1.6%), the risk of probiotic-associated bactermia/fungemia (cost (65). In probabilistic sensitivity analysis, at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $100000/QALY, probiotics were the optimal strategy in 69.4% of simulations. Our findings suggest that probiotic use may be a cost-effective strategy to prevent CDI in hospitalized adults receiving antibiotics age 65 or older or when the baseline risk of CDI exceeds 1.6%.

  12. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Probiotic Use to Prevent Clostridium difficile Infection in Hospitalized Adults Receiving Antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leff, Jared A; Schneider, Yecheskel; Crawford, Carl V; Maw, Anna; Bosworth, Brian; Simon, Matthew S

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Systematic reviews with meta-analyses and meta-regression suggest that timely probiotic use can prevent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in hospitalized adults receiving antibiotics, but the cost effectiveness is unknown. We sought to evaluate the cost effectiveness of probiotic use for prevention of CDI versus no probiotic use in the United States. Methods We programmed a decision analytic model using published literature and national databases with a 1-year time horizon. The base case was modeled as a hypothetical cohort of hospitalized adults (mean age 68) receiving antibiotics with and without concurrent probiotic administration. Projected outcomes included quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), costs (2013 US dollars), incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs; $/QALY), and cost per infection avoided. One-way, two-way, and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted, and scenarios of different age cohorts were considered. The ICERs less than $100000 per QALY were considered cost effective. Results Probiotic use dominated (more effective and less costly) no probiotic use. Results were sensitive to probiotic efficacy (relative risk CDI (>1.6%), the risk of probiotic-associated bactermia/fungemia (cost (65). In probabilistic sensitivity analysis, at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $100000/QALY, probiotics were the optimal strategy in 69.4% of simulations. Conclusions Our findings suggest that probiotic use may be a cost-effective strategy to prevent CDI in hospitalized adults receiving antibiotics age 65 or older or when the baseline risk of CDI exceeds 1.6%. PMID:29230429

  13. Effect of vitamin A supplementation with BCG vaccine at birth on vitamin A status at 6 wk and 4 mo of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane B; Lisse, Ida M; Aaby, Peter

    2007-01-01

    with higher (9%; 95% CI: 2, 17%) RBP concentrations in children of noneducated mothers but not in children of educated mothers. Overall, RBP concentrations increased between 6 wk and 4 mo of age. The increase correlated inversely with the number of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccines received...

  14. Can maintaining cognitive function at 65 years old predict successful ageing 6 years later? The PROOF study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Lionard, Karine; Thomas-Antérion, Catherine; Crawford-Achour, Emilie; Rouch, Isabelle; Trombert-Paviot, Béatrice; Barthélémy, Jean-Claude; Laurent, Bernard; Roche, Frédéric; Gonthier, Régis

    2011-03-01

    preservation of cognitive abilities is required to have a good quality of life. The predictive value of cognitive functioning at 65 years old on successful ageing 6 years later is not established. nine hundred and seventy-six questionnaires were sent by mail to a sample of healthy and voluntary French pensioners. Successful ageing was defined through health status and well-being. Cognitive abilities had been assessed 6 years earlier according to an objective method (Free and Cued Selective Recall Reminding Test (FCSRT), the Benton visual retention test and the similarities subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised) and a subjective one (Goldberg's anxiety scale, Mac Nair's scale and a Visual Analogue Scale to evaluate memory abilities change in the last 5 years). six hundred and eighty-six questionnaires could be analysed. The mean age was 72.9 ± 1.2 years old with 59% of women and 99% lived at home. Well-being was negatively correlated with the FCSRT (r = -0.08, P = 0.0318) but positively related with the Benton (r = 0.09, P = 0.0125) and the similarities tests (r = 0.09, P = 0.0118). There is a negative correlation between anxious and cognitive complaints measured at baseline, and successful ageing indicators 6 years later. preservation of cognitive abilities at the age of retirement can predict a successful ageing 6 years later. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00759304.

  15. Parameter optimization for selective laser melting of TiAl6V4 alloy by CO2 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baitimerov, R. M.; Lykov, P. A.; Radionova, L. V.; Safonov, E. V.

    2017-10-01

    TiAl6V4 alloy is one of the widely used materials in powder bed fusion additive manufacturing technologies. In recent years selective laser melting (SLM) of TiAl6V4 alloy by fiber laser has been well studied, but SLM by CO2-lasers has not. SLM of TiAl6V4 powder by CO2-laser was studied in this paper. Nine 10×10×10 mm cubic specimens were fabricated using different SLM process parameters. All of the fabricated specimens have a good dense structure and a good surface finish quality without dimensional distortion. The lowest porosity that was achieved was about 0.5%.

  16. Crystallographic aspects of hydrated salts of 4,6-diaminopyrimidine with the first five dicarboxylic acids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matulková, I.; Andreoni, R.; Císařová, I.; Němec, I.; Fábry, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 232, č. 6 (2017), s. 471-484 ISSN 2194-4946 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-05506S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : crystal structure analysis * 4,6-diaminopyrimidine * dicarboxylic acids * hydrogen-bonding * vibrational spectroscopy * X-ray diffraction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 3.179, year: 2016

  17. 2-Methoxy-4,6-diphenylnicotinonitrile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel T. Mague

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C19H14N2O, the phenyl rings form dihedral angles of 10.90 (10 and 42.14 (6° with pyridine ring and an angle of 35.7 (2° with each other. The orientation of the methoxy group is defined by the C—O—C—N torsion angle of 4.9 (2°.

  18. Results of photorefractive keratectomy in keratoconus suspects at 4 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgihan, K; Ozdek, S C; Konuk, O; Akata, F; Hasanreisoglu, B

    2000-01-01

    We studied the long-term results of photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) in keratoconus suspects detected by videokeratography (TMS). Bilateral inferior corneal steepening was detected in 6 candidates for PRK presenting with moderate myopia or astigmatism. Mean follow-up was 44.5 +/- 4.4 months (range, 38 to 54 mo). Mean spherical equivalent refraction was -5.18 +/- 1.60 D (mean sphere, -4.73 D; mean cyclinder, -0.92 D) which was stable for at least the preceding year. The quantitative measurement of inferior corneal steepening (I-S value) was greater than +1.60 (mean, 1.83 +/- 0.11) in all eyes. An Aesculap Meditec Mel 60 excimer laser was used for the PRK procedures and mean follow-up was 44.5 months. Postoperative pachymetric measurements were also performed in 6 eyes. Postoperative uncorrected visual acuity was 20/20 in 8 eyes (66.6%) and 20/32 or better in all eyes with a mean postoperative spherical equivalent refraction of -0.70 +/- 0.74 D (mean sphere, -0.63 D; mean cyclinder, -0.39 D). Five eyes (41.6%) were within +/- 0.50 D spherical equivalent refraction. Inferior steepening was associated with thinning of the inferior cornea which was statistically significantly thinner than the superior thickness (Student's t-test, P < .05). There were no wound healing problems or any sign that the excimer laser adversely affected the cornea during follow-up. Photorefractive keratectomy seems to be a safe procedure for reducing or eliminating myopia or astigmatism in keratoconus suspect eyes-most probably forme fruste keratoconus-with a stable refraction, but this may be different in eyes with early keratoconus, known to be a progressive disease.

  19. Analysis of neonatal sepsis in one neonatal intensive care unit for 6 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Chun

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Sepsis is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the newborn, particularly in preterm. The objective of this study was to analyze the incidence rate, causative pathogens and clinical features of neonatal sepsis in one neonatal intensive care unit (NICU for 6 years. Methods : This study was retrospectively performed to review the clinical and laboratory characteristics including sex, gestational age, birth weight, Apgar score, length of hospitalization, length of total parenteral nutrition, presence of central venous catheter, underlying diseases, laboratory findings, microorganisms isolated from blood culture, complications and mortality in 175 patients between January 2003 and December 2008. Results : 1 Sepsis was present in 175 of 3,747 infants for 6 years. There were more gram-positive organisms. 2 The gram-negatives were more prevalent in preterm. There were no significant differences of other clinical features between two groups. 3 Underlying diseases were found in 73.7%, and the most common disease was cardiovascular disease. The most common organisms of gram-positives and gram-negatives were methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and Serratia marcescens. 4 There was statistically significant difference on platelet counts between two groups (P&lt;0.05. 5 Complications were found in 18.3% and septic shock was the most common. MRSA was the most common pathogen in sepsis with complication. 6 The mortality rate was 7.4%. 7 There were differences in monthly blood stream infection/ 1,000 patient-days. Conclusion : The studies about the factors that can influence neonatal sepsis will contribute to decrease the infection rates in NICUs.

  20. Extracting performance of cesium by 25,27-bis (2-propyloxy) calix[4]-26,28-crown-6 (iPr-C[4]C-6) in n-octanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jianchen Wang; Xiaowen Zhu; Chongli Song

    2005-01-01

    In this work, the extraction of cesium (Cs + ) in nitric acid and in a simulated high level liquid waste (HLLW) by iPr-C[4]C-6 was investigate in the dilluent n-octanol. The slope of the extractant dependency equals 1, indicating that the complex has 1:1[Cs + .iPr-C[4]C-6]Cs + to ligand. 0.025mol/L iPr-C[4]C-6 in n-octanol (abbreviated to iPr-C[4]C-6-n-octanol) has a stronger extracting ability to Cs when acidities are between 1.0mol/L and 4.0mol/L. The stripping properties of Cs loading in 0.025mol/L iPr-C[4]C-6-n-octanol was studied. Cs loading in iPr-C[4]C-6-n-octanol can be stripped easily into the aqueous phase because the distribution ratios of Cs are lower than 0.5 when pH is between 2 and 10 in the aqueous phase. On above basis, the better parameters were selected and the cold cascade test for removing Cs from the simulated HLLW was investigated on miniature centrifugal contactors. The results of the test are attractive. The removing ratio of Cs from the simulated HLLW is 99.5% and the stripping ratio of Cs loading in 0.025mol/L iPr-C[4]C-6-n-octanol is 99.2%. The results show that 0.025mol/L iPr-C[4]C-6-n-octanol is an effective process for removing Cs from HLLW. (author)

  1. Thermophysical Properties of Solid and Liquid Ti-6Al-4V (TA6V) Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivineau, M.; Cagran, C.; Doytier, D.; Eyraud, V.; Nadal, M.-H.; Wilthan, B.; Pottlacher, G.

    2006-03-01

    Ti-6Al-4V (TA6V) titanium alloy is widely used in industrial applications such as aeronautic and aerospace due to its good mechanical properties at high temperatures. Experiments on two different resistive pulse heating devices (CEA Valduc and TU-Graz) have been carried out in order to study thermophysical properties (such as electrical resistivity, volume expansion, heat of fusion, heat capacity, normal spectral emissivity, thermal diffusivity, and thermal conductivity) of both solid and liquid Ti-6Al-4V. Fast time-resolved measurements of current, voltage, and surface radiation and shadowgraphs of the volume have been undertaken. At TU-Graz, a fast laser polarimeter has been used for determining the emissivity of liquid Ti-6Al-4V at 684.5 nm and a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) for measuring the heat capacity of solid Ti-6Al-4V. This study deals with the specific behavior of the different solid phase transitions (effect of heating rate) and the melting region, and emphasizes the liquid state ( T > 2000 K).

  2. Communication dated 6 November 2006 received from the Permanent Mission of the Islamic Republic of Iran to the Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a Note Verbale dated 6 November 2006 from the Permanent Mission of the Islamic Republic of Iran to the IAEA, enclosing 'the response of the Islamic Republic of Iran to the package on 6 June 2006', contained in United Nations document A/61/514-S/2006/806. The Note Verbale and, as requested by the Permanent Mission, its enclosure, are reproduced herein for the information of Member States

  3. Communication dated 6 November 2006 received from the Permanent Mission of the Islamic Republic of Iran to the Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-08

    The Secretariat has received a Note Verbale dated 6 November 2006 from the Permanent Mission of the Islamic Republic of Iran to the IAEA, enclosing 'the response of the Islamic Republic of Iran to the package on 6 June 2006', contained in United Nations document A/61/514-S/2006/806. The Note Verbale and, as requested by the Permanent Mission, its enclosure, are reproduced herein for the information of Member States.

  4. Nutritional status and CD4 cell counts in patients with HIV/AIDS receiving antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Celia Oliveira dos Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Even with current highly active antiretroviral therapy, individuals with AIDS continue to exhibit important nutritional deficits and reduced levels of albumin and hemoglobin, which may be directly related to their cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4 cell counts. The aim of this study was to characterize the nutritional status of individuals with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS and relate the findings to the albumin level, hemoglobin level and CD4 cell count. Methods Patients over 20 years of age with AIDS who were hospitalized in a university hospital and were receiving antiretroviral therapy were studied with regard to clinical, anthropometric, biochemical and sociodemographic characteristics. Body mass index, percentage of weight loss, arm circumference, triceps skinfold and arm muscle circumference were analyzed. Data on albumin, hemoglobin, hematocrit and CD4 cell count were obtained from patient charts. Statistical analysis was performed using Fisher's exact test, Student's t-test for independent variables and the Mann-Whitney U-test. The level of significance was set to 0.05 (α = 5%. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS 17.0 software for Windows. Results Of the 50 patients evaluated, 70% were male. The prevalence of malnutrition was higher when the definition was based on arm circumference and triceps skinfold measurement. The concentrations of all biochemical variables were significantly lower among patients with a body mass index of less than 18.5kg/m2. The CD4 cell count, albumin, hemoglobin and hematocrit anthropometric measures were directly related to each other. Conclusions These findings underscore the importance of nutritional follow-up for underweight patients with AIDS, as nutritional status proved to be related to important biochemical alterations.

  5. 5-Methyl-4-oxo-4,6-dihydro-3H-pyridazino[4,5-b]carbazole-1-carbonitrile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Haider

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound was prepared in excellent yield from 5-methyl-4-oxo-4,6-dihydro-3H-pyridazino[4,5-b]carbazole-1-carbaldehyde by treatment with hydroxylamine hydrochloride in formic acid without isolation of the intermediate oxime.

  6. Access to 4-Year Public Colleges and Degree Completion

    OpenAIRE

    Goodman, Joshua Samuel; Hurwitz, Michael; Smith, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Does access to 4-year colleges affect degree completion for students who would otherwise attend 2-year colleges? Admission to Georgia’s 4-year public sector requires minimum SAT scores. Regression discontinuity estimates show that access to this sector increases 4-year college enrollment and college quality, largely by diverting students from 2-year colleges. Access substantially increases bachelor’s degree completion rates for these relatively low-skilled students. SAT retaking behavior sugg...

  7. A phase I/II trial of beta-(1,3/(1,6 D-glucan in the treatment of patients with advanced malignancies receiving chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weitberg Alan B

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract β-(1,3/(1,6 D-glucan, a component of the fungal cell wall, has been shown to stimulate the immune system, enhance hematopoiesis, amplify killing of opsonized tumor cells and increase neutrophil chemotaxis and adhesion. In view of these attributes, the β-glucans should be studied for both their therapeutic efficacy in patients with cancer as well as an adjunctive therapy in patients receiving chemotherapy as a maneuver to limit suppression of hematopoiesis. In this study, twenty patients with advanced malignancies receiving chemotherapy were given a β-(1,3/(1,6 D-glucan preparation (MacroForce plus IP6, ImmuDyne, Inc. and monitored for tolerability and effect on hematopoiesis. Our results lead us to conclude that β-glucan is well-tolerated in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy, may have a beneficial effect on hematopoiesis in these patients and should be studied further, especially in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and lymphoma.

  8. Efficacy of vaccination at 4 and 6 weeks in the control of canine parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cramer, K G M; Stylianides, E; van Vuuren, M

    2011-04-21

    Seroconversion after early vaccination at four weeks against canine parvovirus (CPV) using a high antigen titre vaccine was evaluated in 121 puppies from three breeds of dogs housed in kennels representative of the private practitioner's environment. The trial included 52 German shepherd pups, 25 Rottweiler pups and 44 Boerboel pups. From each group 11, 4, and 18 puppies acted as control dogs, respectively. Depending on the different groups, puppies were vaccinated at 4, 6, 9 and 12 weeks. The experimental group differed from the control group in that they received the high titre vaccine at 4 weeks of age, whereas the control group was not vaccinated at 4 weeks. Blood was collected from all pups prior to vaccination to measure maternally derived colostral antibody. The results indicated that vaccination at 4 weeks of age in pups with high maternally derived antibody levels, results in seroconversion rates that may lead to a reduction in the window of susceptibility with respect to CPV infection. The implications of the findings with respect to dogs in heavily contaminated environments are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. SYNTHESIS OF 2,6-DIAMINOPYRIDINE-4-NITROPHENOL (2,6DAP4N COCRYSTAL NANOPARTICLES BY LASER ABLATION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Zulina

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We propose findings for laser ablation of organic materials in liquids as one of the perspective methods of nanoparticles synthesis on their basis. We describe nanoparticles synthesis for 2,6-diaminopyridine-4-nitrophenol (2,6DAP4N cocrystal by the method of material laser ablation at nanoparticles condensation in liquid (dodecane and polyphenyleneoxide. Laser radiation with wavelength equal to 355 nm, pulse duration - 10 ns, pulse repetition rate - 3.8 kHz, and pulse power density equal to 170 kW/cm2 has been used in the study. Nanoparticles in the form of colloids have been obtained and studied by visible range spectroscopy and optical microscopy. Obtained particles size is around 0.5 μm.

  10. Substitution and Redox Chemistry of [Bu(4)N](2)[Ta(6)Cl(12)(OSO(2)CF(3))(6)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopuk, Nicholas; Kennedy, Vance O.; Stern, Charlotte L.; Shriver, Duward F.

    1998-09-21

    Two sequential electrochemical reductions occur for the cluster anion [Ta(6)Cl(12)(OSO(2)CF(3))(6)](2)(-) at 0.89 and 0.29 V vs Ag/AgCl, with the generation [Ta(6)Cl(12)(OSO(2)CF(3))(6)](3)(-) and [Ta(6)Cl(12)(OSO(2)CF(3))(6)](4)(-). Chemical reduction of [Ta(6)Cl(12)(OSO(2)CF(3))(6)](2)(-) by ferrocene produces [Ta(6)Cl(12)(OSO(2)CF(3))(6)](3)(-) with the concomitant shift of the nu(SO(2)) stretch from 1002 to 1018 cm(-)(1). Reaction of [Bu(4)N](2)[Ta(6)Cl(12)(OSO(2)CF(3))(6)] (1) with [Bu(4)N]X (X = Cl, Br, I, NCS) occurs by reduction and substitution, yielding [Bu(4)N](3)[Ta(6)Cl(12)X(6)], where the clusters with X = Br, I, and NCS are new. Spectroscopic (IR and UV-vis) evidence indicates that the reduced cluster core {Ta(6)Cl(12)}(2+) is produced in reaction mixtures of 1 with the halide and pseudohalide ions. Concomitant substitution of the triflate ligands of 1 by X(-) occurs and the rates for the overall reduction and substitution increase in the order X(-) = Cl(-) < Br(-) < NCS(-) < I(-) < CN(-). Reduction of 1 with ferrocene followed by addition of [Bu(4)N]O(2)CCH(3) produces the new cluster [Ta(6)Cl(12)(O(2)CCH(3))(6)](3)(-) isolated as the tetrabutylammonium salt. Cyclic voltammetry and UV-vis spectroscopy on the new clusters [Bu(4)N](3)[Ta(6)Cl(12)X(6)] (X = Br, I, NCS, and O(2)CCH(3)) are reported. Crystal data for [Bu(4)N](3)[Ta(6)Cl(12)(NCS)(6)].CH(2)Cl(2): monoclinic, space group, P2(1)/c (No. 14); a = 25.855(6) Å, b = 21.843(6) Å, c = 16.423(3) Å; beta = 100.03(2) degrees; V = 9133(3) Å(3); Z = 4.

  11. Oral hygiene risk indicators among 6- to 9-year-old Taiwanese aboriginal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Hui-Ju; Huang, Shun-Te; Tsai, Chi-Cheng; Chiou, Meng-Jao; Liao, Cheng-Ta

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the dental health status, dietary habits, oral hygiene levels, and caretaker risk indicators among Taiwanese children. This cross-sectional purposive sampling study included 256 aboriginal children, 6 to 9 years old, living in remote regions in southern Taiwan. Participants received dental examinations, and questionnaires were completed by caretakers. Data were analyzed using the χ(2) test, t test, and multiple logistic regressions. The deft (sum of decayed, extracted, and filled primary teeth) and defs (sum of the decayed, extracted, and filled primary dentition surfaces) indices were affected by the frequencies of drinking sweetened beverages (P = .0006) and daily toothbrushing (P = .0032). Caretakers' toothbrushing frequency was a significant predictor of children's oral hygiene status (P oral hygiene was 2.04 (P = .0184). Oral hygiene among aboriginal children in this study was inadequate. Caretakers' toothbrushing frequency and betel quid habit were significant predictors of poor children's oral hygiene. © 2012 APJPH.

  12. Physical water scarcity metrics for monitoring progress towards SDG target 6.4: An evaluation of indicator 6.4.2 "Level of water stress".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanham, D; Hoekstra, A Y; Wada, Y; Bouraoui, F; de Roo, A; Mekonnen, M M; van de Bund, W J; Batelaan, O; Pavelic, P; Bastiaanssen, W G M; Kummu, M; Rockström, J; Liu, J; Bisselink, B; Ronco, P; Pistocchi, A; Bidoglio, G

    2018-02-01

    Target 6.4 of the recently adopted Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) deals with the reduction of water scarcity. To monitor progress towards this target, two indicators are used: Indicator 6.4.1 measuring water use efficiency and 6.4.2 measuring the level of water stress (WS). This paper aims to identify whether the currently proposed indicator 6.4.2 considers the different elements that need to be accounted for in a WS indicator. WS indicators compare water use with water availability. We identify seven essential elements: 1) both gross and net water abstraction (or withdrawal) provide important information to understand WS; 2) WS indicators need to incorporate environmental flow requirements (EFR); 3) temporal and 4) spatial disaggregation is required in a WS assessment; 5) both renewable surface water and groundwater resources, including their interaction, need to be accounted for as renewable water availability; 6) alternative available water resources need to be accounted for as well, like fossil groundwater and desalinated water; 7) WS indicators need to account for water storage in reservoirs, water recycling and managed aquifer recharge. Indicator 6.4.2 considers many of these elements, but there is need for improvement. It is recommended that WS is measured based on net abstraction as well, in addition to currently only measuring WS based on gross abstraction. It does incorporate EFR. Temporal and spatial disaggregation is indeed defined as a goal in more advanced monitoring levels, in which it is also called for a differentiation between surface and groundwater resources. However, regarding element 6 and 7 there are some shortcomings for which we provide recommendations. In addition, indicator 6.4.2 is only one indicator, which monitors blue WS, but does not give information on green or green-blue water scarcity or on water quality. Within the SDG indicator framework, some of these topics are covered with other indicators. Copyright © 2017 The Authors

  13. Microstructure and Properties of the Ti6Al4V/Inconel 625 Bimetal Obtained by Explosive Joining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topolski, Krzysztof; Szulc, Zygmunt; Garbacz, Halina

    2016-08-01

    The study is concerned with the bimetallic plate composed of the Ti6Al4V and Inconel 625 alloys. The alloys were joined together using the explosive method with the aim to produce a bimetallic joint. The structure and the mechanical properties of the as-received raw Ti6Al4V and Inconel 625 alloys, the Ti6Al4V/Inconel 625 joint, and the joint after annealing (600 °C for 1 h) were examined. The samples observations were performed using a light microscope and a scanning electron microscope. The mechanical properties were estimated by microhardness measurements, tensile tests, and three-point bending tests. Moreover, the deformation strengthening of the metals and the strength of the joint were analyzed. The explosive process resulted in a good quality bimetallic joint. Both sheets were deformed plastically and the joint surface between the alloys had a wavy shape. In the area of the joint surface, the hardness was increased. For example, the annealing at 600 °C for 1 h resulted in changes of the microhardness in the entire volume of the samples and in changes of the morphology of the joint surface. In three-point bending tests, the samples were examined in two opposite positions (Ti6Al4V on the top or Inconel 625 on the top). The results indicated to depend on the position in which the sample was tested.

  14. Our experience of high dose I-131 therapy in 75 patients with well differentiated carcinoma thyroid followed up over 5 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougall, P.; Kumar, A.; Ashok, P.; Chinwan, B.P.; Khan, B.; Pandey, D.; Joshi, N.D.

    2005-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy. The epidemiology of thyroid cancer is variable, depending on the geographic location of the patient population. Well differentiated thyroid cancer (WTC), is responsive to high dose I-131 treatment, and is the most accepted form of therapy, even though the dose administered for ablation of residual thyroid tissue maybe controversial. At our centre, 75 patients of WTC, mean age 42.4 years, 22 males and 53 females (M:F 1:2.4), were treated with high dose oral I-131 therapy with a Total Mean Dose (TMD) of 263.6 mCi, 4 - 6 weeks post thyroidectomy. They were followed up over a period of 6 years. Twenty ( 26.7%) patients had follicular cancer (FC), 47 (62.7%) papillary cancer (PC) and 8 (10.7%) were mixed (MC), on histopathology, at presentation. 38 (50.7%) patients had only residual thyroid tissue (RTT) on I-131 whole body bone scan (WBS) and 37 (49.3%) presented with metastatic disease (MD) at the time of therapy. Of the 37 patients with MD, 21 (56.8%) had metastases to the lymph nodes, 6 (16.2%) to the lungs, 4 (10.8%) to bone, 3 (8.1%) to bone and lung, and 4 (10.8%) to lung plus lymph nodes. Twenty-three patients (7 FC , 13 - PC and 3 MC; 6 RTT, 17 - MD) , received more than one dose of I-131 with a TMD of 422.7 mCi (Range 88 1590 mCi ). 52 patients (13 FC, 34 PC, 5 MC; 20 MD and 32 RTT) received a single TMD of 104.4 (Range 39.5 219 mCi). On follow-up, 3 patients of FC with MD (2 lung metastasis and 1 with extensive lymph node metastasis), died within 3 months 2 years of therapy. 3 patients of MD (2 FC, 1-MC; 2 bone metastasis and 1 bone with lung metastasis) died after 5 .5 years, Of the 6 patients who died, 5 were FC and only 1 was MC. 2 patients with MD to lungs and bone had received a single dose and were lost to follow up. All patients with PC and FC with only RTT, were surviving at the end of 5 years. None of the patients with MD to lymph nodes died at the end of 5 years, either receiving single or

  15. Who Receives Speech/Language Services by 5 Years of Age in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Farkas, George; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Maczuga, Steve; Cook, Michael; Morano, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We sought to identify factors predictive of or associated with receipt of speech/language services during early childhood. We did so by analyzing data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study–Birth Cohort (ECLS-B; Andreassen & Fletcher, 2005), a nationally representative data set maintained by the U.S. Department of Education. We addressed two research questions of particular importance to speech-language pathology practice and policy. First, do early vocabulary delays increase children's likelihood of receiving speech/language services? Second, are minority children systematically less likely to receive these services than otherwise similar White children? Method Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed for a population-based sample of 9,600 children and families participating in the ECLS-B. Results Expressive vocabulary delays by 24 months of age were strongly associated with and predictive of children's receipt of speech/language services at 24, 48, and 60 months of age (adjusted odds ratio range = 4.32–16.60). Black children were less likely to receive speech/language services than otherwise similar White children at 24, 48, and 60 months of age (adjusted odds ratio range = 0.42–0.55). Lower socioeconomic status children and those whose parental primary language was other than English were also less likely to receive services. Being born with very low birth weight also significantly increased children's receipt of services at 24, 48, and 60 months of age. Conclusion Expressive vocabulary delays at 24 months of age increase children’s risk for later speech/language services. Increased use of culturally and linguistically sensitive practices may help racial/ethnic minority children access needed services. PMID:26579989

  16. Clinical performance of a glass ionomer restorative system: a 6-year evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurgan, Sevil; Kutuk, Zeynep Bilge; Ergin, Esra; Oztas, Sema Seval; Cakir, Filiz Yalcin

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the long-term clinical performance of a glass ionomer (GI) restorative system in the restoration of posterior teeth compared with a micro-filled hybrid posterior composite. A total of 140 (80 Cl1 and 60 Cl2) lesions in 59 patients were restored with a GI system (Equia) or a micro hybrid composite (Gradia Direct). Restorations were evaluated at baseline and yearly during 6 years according to the modified-USPHS criteria. Negative replicas at each recall were observed under SEM to evaluate surface characteristics. Data were analyzed with Cohcran's Q and McNemar's tests (p evaluated in 47 patients with a recall rate of 79.6% at 6 years. Significant differences were found in marginal adaptation and marginal discoloration for both restorative materials for Cl1 and Cl2 restorations (p  0.05). A significant decrease in color match was observed in Equia restorations (p performance after 6 years. SEM evaluations were in accordance with the clinical findings. Both materials showed a good clinical performance for the restoration of posterior teeth during the 6-year evaluation. The clinical effectiveness of Equia and Gradia Direct Posterior was acceptable in Cl1 and Cl2 cavities subsequent to 6-year evaluation.

  17. 12 CFR 215.6 - Prohibition on knowingly receiving unauthorized extension of credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM LOANS TO EXECUTIVE OFFICERS, DIRECTORS, AND PRINCIPAL SHAREHOLDERS OF MEMBER BANKS... officer, director, or principal shareholder of a member bank or any of its affiliates shall knowingly receive (or knowingly permit any of that person's related interests to receive) from a member bank...

  18. Oral Health Status Related to Social Behaviors among 6 - 11 Year Old Schoolchildren in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulëjeta Ferizi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the current oral health status among schoolchildren in Kosovo aged 6-11 years. Material and methods: A study included 5679 schoolchildren aged 6 -11 years, from different towns of Kosovo. Dental health status was evaluated using the World Health Organization (WHO caries diagnostic criteria for decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft/DMFT index, for deciduous and permanent dentition. The observed children have answered a number of questions about their oral hygiene, eating habits, and dental visits. The analysis included frequencies and means. The differences between means were tested using the student t-test (p<0.05. The factors associated with dental caries were tested using the Spearman’s rank. Results: The mean dmft/DMFT of schoolchildren aged 6-11 years was 4.36 ± 3.763 and 1.20 ± 1.488, respectively. Sealant placements were found among 90 schoolchildren, amounting to 1.58%. From 8 years of age, 50% of children brush their teeth twice a day. Confectionery consumption among the observed children has increased. Forty percent of them eat sweets at least once a day, and majority of them visit their dentists only when necessary. A significant correlation between consumption of confectionery, oral hygiene, dental visits and the prevalence of caries was confirmed. Conclusion: The results of the present study show that there is a high prevalence of caries among 6-11 year old schoolchildren, thus pointing to a need for an extensive program of primary oral health care as well as utilizing preventive measures and regular dental visits.

  19. Hot electron bolometer heterodyne receiver with a 4.7-THz quantum cascade laser as a local oscillator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloosterman, J.L.; Hayton, D.J.; Ren, Y.; Kao, T.Y.; Hovenier, J.N.; Gao, J.R.; Klapwijk, T.M.; Hu, Q.; Walker, C.K.; Reno, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    We report on a heterodyne receiver designed to observe the astrophysically important neutral atomic oxygen [OI] line at 4.7448?THz. The local oscillator is a third-order distributed feedback quantum cascade laser operating in continuous wave mode at 4.741?THz. A quasi-optical, superconducting NbN

  20. Calculations of received dose for different points in the enrichment uranium oxide warehouse at 4%

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso V, G.

    1990-06-01

    In order to verifying that the received dose so much inside as outside of the warehouse of enriched uranium dioxide to 4% it doesn't represent risk to the personnel, the modelling of this and the corresponding calculations for the extreme case of dose at contact are made. (Author)

  1. C_6_0"3"- versus C_6_0"4"- /C_6_0"2"- - synthesis and characterization of five salts containing discrete fullerene anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeddinghaus, M. Bele; Klein, Wilhelm; Wahl, Bernhard; Faessler, Thomas F.; Jakes, Peter; Eichel, Ruediger A.

    2014-01-01

    Five new compounds, [Rb(18crown-6)]_3[C_6_0] (1), [Rb(18crown-6)]_6[C_6_0]_2(C_3H_7NO)_2(C_4H_8O)_2 (2), [Rb(benzo18crown-6)]_6[C_6_0]_2(C_2H_8N_2)_5 (3), [Cs(benzo18crown-6)]_3C_6_0(C_2H_8N_2)_2 (4), and [Cs_3(benzo18crown-6)_5]C_6_0(C_2H_8N_2)_(_4_._5_+_x_) (5) were synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray structure determination. All compounds contain discrete C_6_0 anions, which are ordered in 1, 2, and 4, where direct cation-anion contacts occur. The unit cells of 1 and 2 contain two independent fullerides, which coordinate to the rubidium atoms either of two or of four [Rb(18crown-6)] units. Owing to the presence of differently coordinated fullerene units in compounds 1 and 2, a possible disproportionation of C_6_0"3"- into C_6_0"2"- and C_6_0"4"- anions is discussed. In 3 and 4 the C_6_0 anions are coordinated by three Rb and Cs atoms, respectively. In all compounds the average charge of the anion is -3. Magnetic data reveal a doublet spin state for 3. The EPR spectra are discussed for compounds 3 and 5. The role of a dynamic Jahn-Teller distortion is discussed, and we report the first IR spectroscopic data of fullerene trianions, which have been obtained in solution. (Copyright copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. The effects of oligomerization on Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mcm4/6/7 function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davey Megan J

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Minichromosome maintenance proteins (Mcm 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 are related by sequence and form a variety of complexes that unwind DNA, including Mcm4/6/7. A Mcm4/6/7 trimer forms one half of the Mcm2-7 hexameric ring and can be thought of as the catalytic core of Mcm2-7, the replicative helicase in eukaryotic cells. Oligomeric analysis of Mcm4/6/7 suggests that it forms a hexamer containing two Mcm4/6/7 trimers, however, under certain conditions trimeric Mcm4/6/7 has also been observed. The functional significance of the different Mcm4/6/7 oligomeric states has not been assessed. The results of such an assessment would have implications for studies of both Mcm4/6/7 and Mcm2-7. Results Here, we show that Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mcm4/6/7 reconstituted from individual subunits exists in an equilibrium of oligomeric forms in which smaller oligomers predominate in the absence of ATP. In addition, we found that ATP, which is required for Mcm4/6/7 activity, shifts the equilibrium towards larger oligomers, likely hexamers of Mcm4/6/7. ATPγS and to a lesser extent ADP also shift the equilibrium towards hexamers. Study of Mcm4/6/7 complexes containing mutations that interfere with the formation of inter-subunit ATP sites (arginine finger mutants indicates that full activity of Mcm4/6/7 requires all of its ATP sites, which are formed in a hexamer and not a trimer. In keeping with this observation, Mcm4/6/7 binds DNA as a hexamer. Conclusions The minimal functional unit of Mcm4/6/7 is a hexamer. One of the roles of ATP binding by Mcm4/6/7 may be to stabilize formation of hexamers.

  3. [Determinants of survival in HIV patients receiving antiretroviral therapy in Goma, Democratic Republic of Congo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akilimali, P Z; Mutombo, P B; Kayembe, P K; Kaba, D K; Mapatano, M A

    2014-06-01

    The study aimed to identify factors associated with the survival of patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. A historic cohort of HIV patients from two major hospitals in Goma (Democratic Republic of Congo) was followed from 2004 to 2012. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to describe the probability of survival as a function of time since inclusion into the cohort. The log-rank test was used to compare survival curves based on determinants. The Cox regression model identified the determinants of survival since treatment induction. The median follow-up time was 3.56 years (IQR=2.22-5.39). The mortality rate was 40 deaths per 1000 person-years. Male gender (RR: 2.56; 95 %CI 1.66-4.83), advanced clinical stage (RR: 2.12; 95 %CI 1.15-3.90), low CD4 count (CD4 < 50) (RR: 2.05; 95 %CI : 1.22-3.45), anemia (RR: 3.95; 95 %CI 2.60-6.01), chemoprophylaxis with cotrimoxazole (RR: 4.29, 95 % CI 2.69-6.86) and period of treatment initiation (2010-2011) (RR: 3.34; 95 %CI 1.24-8.98) were statistically associated with short survival. Initiation of treatment at an early stage of the disease with use of less toxic molecules and an increased surveillance especially of male patients are recommended to reduce mortality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. A longitudinal study of grapheme-colour synaesthesia in childhood: 6/7 years to 10/11 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eSimner

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Grapheme-colour synaesthesia is a condition characterised by enduring and consistent associations between letter/digits and colours. This study is the continuation of longitudinal research begun by Simner, Harrold, Creed, Monro and Foulkes (2009 which aimed to explore the development of this condition in real time within a childhood population. In that earlier study we randomly sampled over 600 children and tested them aged 6/7 years and 7/8 years. We identified the child synaesthetes within that cohort and measured their development over 1 year, in comparison to a group of nonsynaesthetic children with both average and superior memories. We were able to show the beginnings of a developmental progression in which synaesthetic associations (e.g. A = red mature over time from relatively chaotic pairings into a system of fixed consistent associations. In the current study we return to this same population three years later when participants are now 10/11 years. We used the same paired-association memory task to determine the synaesthetic status of our participants and to also establish synaesthetes’ inventories of grapheme-colour associations. We compared their inventories to those from age 6/7 year and 7/8 years to examine how synaesthesia matures over time. Together with earlier findings, our study shows that grapheme-colour synaesthesia emerges with a protracted lineal trajectory, with 34% of letters/digits fixed at age 6/7 years, 48% fixed at 7/8 years and 71% fixed at 10/11 years. We also show several cases where synaesthesia is not developing in the same time-frame as peers, either because it has died out at an older age, or because it was slower to develop than other cases. Our study paints the first picture of the emergence of synaesthesia in real-time over four years within a randomly sampled population of child synaesthetes.

  5. Long-term follow-up of HIV-1-infected adults who received the F4/AS01B HIV-1 vaccine candidate in two randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrer, Thomas; Dinges, Warren; Roman, François

    2018-05-03

    This Phase I/II, open, long-term follow-up study was conducted in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve (N = 212) and ART-treated (N = 19) human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1)-infected adults, who received an HIV-1 investigational vaccine (F4/AS01 B ) or placebo in two previous studies (NCT00814762 and NCT01218113). After a minimum of two years and a maximum of four years of follow-up post-vaccination per patient, no significant differences were observed between F4/AS01 B and placebo groups in terms of viral load, CD4 + T-cell count and incidence of specific clinical events. Vaccine-induced polyfunctional CD4 + T-cells persisted up to study end and no relevant vaccine-related safety events were reported in F4/AS01 B groups. This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01092611). Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. The CryoSat Interferometer after 6 years in orbit: calibration and achievable performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scagliola, Michele; Fornari, Marco; De Bartolomei, Maurizio; Bouffard, Jerome; Parrinello, Tommaso

    2016-04-01

    The main payload of CryoSat is a Ku-band pulse width limited radar altimeter, called SIRAL (Synthetic interferometric radar altimeter). When commanded in SARIn (synthetic aperture radar interferometry) mode, through coherent along-track processing of the returns received from two antennas, the interferometric phase related to the first arrival of the echo is used to retrieve the angle of arrival of the scattering in the across-track direction. In fact, the across-track echo direction can be derived by exploiting the precise knowledge of the baseline vector (i.e. the vector between the two antennas centers of phase) and simple geometry. The end-to-end calibration strategy for the CryoSat interferometer consists on in-orbit calibration campaigns following the approach described in [1]. From the beginning of the CryoSat mission, about once a year the interferometer calibration campaigns have been periodically performed by rolling left and right the spacecraft of about ±0.4 deg. This abstract is aimed at presenting our analysis of the calibration parameters and of the achievable performance of the CryoSat interferometer over the 6 years of mission. Additionally, some further studies have been performed to assess the accuracy of the roll angle computed on ground as function of the aberration (the apparent displacement of a celestial object from its true position, caused by the relative motion of the observer and the object) correction applied to the attitude quaternions, provided by the Star Tracker mounted on-board. In fact, being the roll information crucial to obtain an accurate estimate of the angle of arrival, the data from interferometer calibration campaigns have been used to verify how the application of the aberration correction affects the roll information and, in turns, the measured angle of arrival. [1] Galin, N.; Wingham, D.J.; Cullen, R.; Fornari, M.; Smith, W.H.F.; Abdalla, S., "Calibration of the CryoSat-2 Interferometer and Measurement of Across

  7. Behavioral outcome including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder/hyperactivity disorder and minor neurological signs in perinatal high-risk newborns at 4-6 years of age with relation to risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Masuko; Aotani, Hirofumi; Hattori, Ritsuko; Funato, Masahisa

    2004-06-01

    Diagnostic problems with the criteria of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the Diagnostic Statistical Manual, 4th edn, have been identified. The aim of this study was to clarify whether the minor neurological signs test (MNT) the authors had previously reported was a predictor for the criteria of ADHD or hyperactivity disorder (HD) in perinatal risk children at 4-6 years of age and what kind of risk factors related to MNT. A total of 136 children discharged from neonatal intensive care units were examined at the age of 4-6 years by a developmental neuropediatrician using both MNT and diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV ADHD/ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases, 10th edn) HD. SPSS base and professional were used for statistical analysis. On comparison of diagnostic criteria between ADHD (11.0%) and HD (27.5%), the incidence in the same subjects showed significant difference. MNT scores showed significant correlation with criteria of ADHD (P Apgar 5 in the NLBW group and toxemia of pregnancy and small for gestational age (SGA) in VLBW group were highly correlated with behavioral outcome. Minor neurological signs test score was a significant predictor for criteria of ADHD and HD. High incidences of positive MNT were suspected in not only VLBW children but also NLBW children and Apgar 5 in NLBW children and toxemia of pregnancy and SGA in VLBW children influenced behavioral outcome.

  8. Predicting remembering and forgetting of autobiographical memories in children and adults: a 4-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Patricia J; Larkina, Marina

    2016-11-01

    Preservation and loss to forgetting of autobiographical memories is a focus in both the adult and developmental literatures. In both, there are comparative arguments regarding rates of forgetting. Children are assumed to forget autobiographical memories more rapidly than adults, and younger children are assumed to forget more rapidly than older children. Yet few studies can directly inform these comparisons: few feature children and adults, and few prospectively track the survival of specific autobiographical memories over time. In a 4-year prospective study, we obtained autobiographical memories from children 4, 6, and 8 years, and adults. We tested recall of different subsets of the events after 1, 2, and 3 years. Accelerated rates of forgetting were apparent among all child groups relative to adults; within the child groups, 4- and 6-year-olds had accelerated forgetting relative to 8-year-olds. The differences were especially pronounced in open-ended recall. The thematic coherence of initial memory reports also was a significant predictor of the survival of specific memories. The pattern of findings is consistent with suggestions that the adult distribution of autobiographical memories is achieved as the quality of memory traces increases (here measured by thematic coherence) and the rate of forgetting decreases.

  9. Predicting remembering and forgetting of autobiographical memories in children and adults: A 4-year prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Patricia J.; Larkina, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Preservation and loss to forgetting of autobiographical memories is a focus in both the adult and developmental literatures. In both, there are comparative arguments regarding rates of forgetting. Children are assumed to forget autobiographical memories more rapidly than adults, and younger children are assumed to forget more rapidly than older children. Yet few studies can directly inform these comparisons: few feature children and adults, and few prospectively track the survival of specific autobiographical memories over time. In a 4-year prospective study, we obtained autobiographical memories from children 4, 6, and 8 years, and adults. We tested recall of different subsets of the events after 1, 2, and 3 years. Accelerated rates of forgetting were apparent among all child groups relative to adults; within the child groups, 4- and 6-year-olds had accelerated forgetting relative to 8-year-olds. The differences were especially pronounced in open-ended recall. The thematic coherence of initial memory reports also was a significant predictor of the survival of specific memories. The pattern of findings is consistent with suggestions that the adult distribution of autobiographical memories is achieved as the quality of memory traces increases (here measured by thematic coherence) and the rate of forgetting decreases. PMID:26566236

  10. The Efficiency of Delone Coverings of the Canonical Tilings MATH {cal T}(*(A_4)) -> T^*(A4) and MATH {cal T}(*(D_6)) -> T^*(D6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopolos, Zorka; Kasner, Gerald

    This chapter is devoted to the coverings of the two quasiperiodic canonical tilings MATH {cal T}(*(A_4)) -> T^*(A4) and MATH {cal T}(*(D_6)) equiv {cal T}(*(2F)) -> T^*(D6) T^*(2F), obtained by projection from the root lattices A4 and D6, respectively. In the first major part of this chapter, in Sect. 5.2, we shall introduce a Delone covering MATH {cal C}(s_{{cal) T}(*(A_4)}) -> C^sT^*(A4) of the 2-dimensional decagonal tiling MATH {cal T}(*(A_4)) -> T^*(A4). In the second major part of this chapter, Sect. 5.3, we summarize the results related to the Delone covering of the icosahedral tiling MATH {cal T}(*(D_6)) -> T^*(D6), MATH {cal C}_{{cal T}(*(D_6)}) -> CT^*(D6) and determine the zero-, single-, and double- deckings and the resulting thickness of the covering. In the conclusions section, we give some suggestions as to how the definition of the Delone covering might be changed in order to reach some real (full) covering of the icosahedral tiling MATH {cal T}(*(D_6)) -> T^*(D6). In Section 5.2 the definition of the Delone covering is also changed in order to avoid an unnecessary large thickness of the covering.

  11. Rhenium(5) and molybdenum(5) complexes with 4',4(5)-divaleryldibenzo-18-crown-6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashurova, N.Kh.; Yakubov, K.G.; Tashmukhamedova, A.K.; Basitova, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    Methods for synthesizing oxohalide complexes of rhenium and molybdenum with +5 oxidation degree with 4',4 (5) -divaleryldibenzo-18-crown-6 were developed. Content and composition of prepared compounds were investigated by the methods of element analysis, crystal optics, conductometry, IR spectroscopy in the near and far regions, thermogravimetry. Oxidation degree of the complex-forming metal was determined. It was established that composition of the compounds coressponded to the general formula MOLX · H 2 O, where M - Re, Mo; L -4',4 (5) -divaleryldibenzo-18-crown-6; X -Cl - , Br -

  12. System performance of a 4-channel PHASAR WDM receiver operating at 1.2 Gbit/s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, C.A.M.; van Deventer, M.O.; Vreede, de L.C.N.; Dam, van C.; Smit, M.K.; Verbeek, B.H.

    1996-01-01

    Phased arrays are important key components in wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) systems. We have realized a 4-channel WDM receiver combining a phased array with photodetectors on InP with a Si bipolar transimpedance amplifier. The channels are spaced at 2.0 nm with a 1.0-nm flat passband. On

  13. rac-1-[6-Hydroxy-4-(4-methoxyphenyl-3,6-dimethyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-2H-indazol-5-yl]ethanone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin A. Potekhin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C18H22N2O3, represents a (4S,5R,6S-stereoisomer, crystallizing as a racemate in a centrosymmetric space group. The six-membered aliphatic ring adopts a half-chair conformation, with the hydroxy- and acetyl-substituted C atoms deviating by 0.458 (2 and −0.366 (2 Å, respectively, from the plane defined by other four ring atoms. The pyrazole ring is essentially planar [r.m.s deviation = 0.004 (2 Å]. In the crystal, the molecules are linked into chains along the b axis by N—H...N hydrogen bonds. The chains are linked by O—H...N hydrogen bonds into layers parallel to the bc plane.

  14. Calcium Sulfoaluminate Sodalite (Ca 4 Al 6 O 12 SO 4 ) Crystal Structure Evaluation and Bulk Modulus Determination

    KAUST Repository

    Hargis, Craig W.

    2013-12-12

    The predominant phase of calcium sulfoaluminate cement, Ca 4(Al6O12)SO4, was investigated using high-pressure synchrotron X-ray diffraction from ambient pressure to 4.75 GPa. A critical review of the crystal structure of Ca4(Al 6O12)SO4 is presented. Rietveld refinements showed the orthorhombic crystal structure to best match the observed peak intensities and positions for pure Ca4(Al6O 12)SO4. The compressibility of Ca4(Al 6O12)SO4 was studied using cubic, orthorhombic, and tetragonal crystal structures due to the lack of consensus on the actual space group, and all three models provided similar results of 69(6) GPa. With its divalent cage ions, the bulk modulus of Ca4(Al6O 12)SO4 is higher than other sodalites with monovalent cage ions, such as Na8(AlSiO4)6Cl2 or Na8(AlSiO4)6(OH)2·H 2O. Likewise, comparing this study to previous ones shows the lattice compressibility of aluminate sodalites decreases with increasing size of the caged ions. Ca4(Al6O12)SO4 is more compressible than other cement clinker phases such as tricalcium aluminate and less compressible than hydrated cement phases such as ettringite and hemicarboaluminate. © 2013 The American Ceramic Society.

  15. Photo-induced effects of the virgin Ge_2_4_._9Sb_1_1_._6S_6_3_._5 film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knotek, P.; Tichy, L.; Kutalek, P.

    2015-01-01

    Amorphous Ge_2_4_._9Sb_1_1_._6S_6_3_._5 film was prepared through thermal evaporation. A blue shift of the optical band gap by approximately 100 meV was observed as a result of self-bleaching process of protected film aged for two years. The magnitude of the light induced blue shift of the optical band of the virgin film is primarily dependent on the light penetration depth and on the light intensity. The kinetics of photo-bleaching follows the stretch exponential function with a formal rate of bleaching depending on the light intensity while the saturated state is independent from the light intensity. The far infrared spectra indicate that ageing, illumination by over-band gap-photons and annealing of the virgin film are mainly accompanied by the film network ordering. Illumination by UV light photons led to a blue shift accompanied by the significant oxidation as evidenced by the results of the far infrared spectra and the energy dispersive analysis. - Highlights: • “Giant” photo-induced effects in virgin Ge_2_4_._9Sb_1_1_._6S_6_3_._5 film • The role of the film thickness, the wavelengths and intensity of excitation photons • The changes of the photo-sensitivity due to the self-ageing process • The high-intensity illumination (> 10 W/cm"2) led to the different processes

  16. 24-hour immunologic assessment of CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes in renal transplant recipients receiving chronic methylprednisolone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornatore, K M; Reed, K; Venuto, R

    1995-11-01

    Glucocorticoids are commonly prescribed in the post transplant period as a component of combination immunosuppressive regimens. However, the daily 24-hour pattern of helper lymphocytes (CD4+) and suppressor cells (CD8+) during chronic methylprednisolone therapy has not been examined in renal transplant recipients in relation to glucocorticoid exposure and time post-transplant. The response of total lymphocytes, CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes was examined in 23 stable renal transplant recipients who received methylprednisolone for at least 8 months post-transplant. The patient's prescribed oral methylprednisolone dose (mean daily dose = 9.7 +/- 2.6 mg) was given intravenously and whole blood was sampled periodically over 24 h for lymphocyte counts and methylprednisolone concentrations. A complete blood count with differential was determined via an automated hemocytometer with CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes determined using flow cytometry. Methylprednisolone area under the concentration versus time curve (AUC) was determined and normalized for each patient's respective dose. A general lymphopenia resulted in all patients with a mean decrease of 61 +/- 15% and an average nadir time occurring at 6 h. The decline from baseline was 76 +/- 17% for absolute number of CD4+ and 59 +/- 18% for CD8+ lymphocytes with an average nadir time at 6 h. Twelve patients exhibited a baseline CD4+ count to be less than 688 cells/mm3 (the low end of the reference range) and the lymphocyte count of all the patients fell below this value at the nadir. Six patients had a CD8+ lymphocyte count below 380 cells/mm3 (low end of the reference range) at baseline with 21 of the 23 patients exhibiting less than 380 cells/mm3 at the nadir time. At the time of nadir, the mean CD4+ and CD8+ counts were 156 +/- 105 cells/mm3 and 256 +/- 270 cells/mm3, respectively. In 17 of the 23 patients, the CD4+ count was below 200 cells/mm3 at the time of nadir. The dose-normalized AUC of methylprednisolone ranged from 22.6

  17. Survival in Patients Receiving Prolonged Ventilation: Factors that Influence Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. James Mamary

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Prolonged mechanical ventilation is increasingly common. It is expensive and associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Our objective is to comprehensively characterize patients admitted to a Ventilator Rehabilitation Unit (VRU for weaning and identify characteristics associated with survival. Methods 182 consecutive patients over 3.5 years admitted to Temple University Hospital (TUH VRU were characterized. Data were derived from comprehensive chart review and a prospectively collected computerized database. Survival was determined by hospital records and social security death index and mailed questionnaires. Results Upon admission to the VRU, patients were hypoalbuminemic (albumin 2.3 ± 0.6 g/dL, anemic (hemoglobin 9.6 ± 1.4 g/dL, with moderate severity of illness (APACHE II score 10.7 + 4.1, and multiple comorbidities (Charlson index 4.3 + 2.3. In-hospital mortality (19% was related to a higher Charlson Index score ( P = 0.006; OR 1.08-1.6, and APACHE II score ( P = 0.016; OR 1.03-1.29. In-hospital mortality was inversely related to admission albumin levels ( P = 0.023; OR 0.17-0.9. The presence of COPD as a comorbid illness or primary determinant of respiratory failure and higher VRU admission APACHE II score predicted higher long-term mortality. Conversely, higher VRU admission hemoglobin was associated with better long term survival (OR 0.57-0.90; P = 0.0006. Conclusion Patients receiving prolonged ventilation are hypoalbuminemic, anemic, have moderate severity of illness, and multiple comorbidities. Survival relates to these factors and the underlying illness precipitating respiratory failure, especially COPD.

  18. [Value of forced expiratory volume in 6 seconds (FEV(6)) in the evaluation of pulmonary function in Chinese elderly males].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, M M; Zhang, H S; Sun, T Y

    2017-05-30

    Objective: To evaluate the value of forced expiratory volume in 6 seconds (FEV(6)) in the evaluation of pulmonary function in Chinese elderly males. Methods: Pulmonary function tests of elderly who had received regular physical examination in Beijing Hospital from July 2003 to April 2015 were analyzed on subjects with the following characteristics: aged 60 years or older, completion of bronchial dilation test and able to exhale for at least six seconds. The included subjects were divided into 2 groups: 60-function in the study population was evaluated. Results: A total of 475 elderly men aged 60 years or older were enrolled, with a mean age of (77.13±9.53) years. Totally there were 269 subjects in 60-accounted for 56.6%; 206 subjects were in ≥80 years group, which accounted for 43.4%. There were 292 subjects with irreversible airflow obstruction, accounting for 61.5%. In all the included subjects, FEV(6) was significantly correlated with FVC and post-bronchodilator FEV(1)/FEV(6) was significantly correlated with post-bronchodilator FEV(1)/FVC( r =0.971, 0.978; both P function middle group, a total of 73 cases, which included 20 cases ≥80 years old. The proportion of middle group among ≥80 years group was significantly less than that of the 60-function middle group, FEV(1)/FEV(6) or FEV(1)/FVC had no correlation with inspiratory capacity or residual volume/total lung capacity (all P >0.05). Conclusions: FEV(6) and FEV(1)/FEV(6) are strongly correlated with FVC and FEV(1)/FVC, and there is excellent agreement between FEV(1)/FEV(6) and FEV(1)/FVC. FEV(6) is simple, easy to operate and with less influencing factors, which can be used as a valid alternative for FVC in diagnosing airflow obstruction in elderly males.

  19. [Prevalence of high-risk HPV and its distribution in cervical precancerous lesions among 35-64 years old women who received cervical cancer screening in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, J; Gao, L L; Zhang, Y; Han, L L; Wang, J D

    2018-05-06

    Objective: To study the prevalence of high-risk HPV (HR HPV) in women who accepted cervical cancer screening in Beijing and its distribution in cervical precancerous lesions. Methods: From January 2014 to March 2015, all women aged 35-64 years old and received free screening in institutions of cervical cancer in Beijing were recruited. Stratified cluster random sampling method was used in selecting 31 091 women for gynecological examination and genotyping of HR-HPV. Those positive for HR-HPV (except for HPV 16/18) were examined for cervical cell. For those atypical squamous cells of uncertain significance (ASCUS) and above, who were positive for HPV 16/18 and with uncertain results for cervical cell, were transferred for colposcopy examination. For those with suspicious or abnormal results for colposcopy, were transferred for histopathology. The prevalence of HR-HPV, cervical cancer and precancerous lesions among the participants were analyzed. Results: Totally 31 091 women aged from 35-year-old to 64-year-old, with 44.3% (13 780 women) in the 35-49 age group and 55.7% (17 311 women) in the 50-64 age group. 66.1% (20 536 women) were rural women. The infection rate of HR-HPV was 7.4%(2 305 cases) among the women. High-risk infection rates of HPV except HPV 16/18 were 5.7% (1 758 cases), and multi-infection rate was 1.5% (477 cases). The highest infection rate was 7.9% (1 044 cases) among the 45-49 year-old and 50-54 year-old age groups (χ(2)=14.07, P= 0.015). The rate in rural women was significantly higher than that of the urban women (6.2%, 507 cases; 7.9%, 1 798 cases) (χ(2)=25.75, Page group.

  20. Mental disorders and general well-being in cardiology outpatients--6-year survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birket-Smith, Morten; Hansen, Baiba H; Hanash, Jamal A

    2009-01-01

    disorder with the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders; Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R, Non-Patient Edition, psychosis screening; the Clock Drawing Test; and the WHO-5 Well-Being Index. The cardiologists were asked in each patient to rate the severity of somatic disease and mental......OBJECTIVE: Long-term survival in a sample of cardiology outpatients with and without mental disorders and other psychosocial risk factors. METHODS: In a cardiology outpatient setting, 103 consecutive patients were asked to participate in the study. Of these, 86 were included and screened for mental...... problems on visual analogue scales (VAS-somatic and VAS-mental). Cardiac diagnosis, noncardiac comorbidity, history of mental disorder, and the number of daily social contacts were noted. Survival was followed for 6 years. RESULTS: At baseline, 33 (38.4%) patients had mental disorder, 6 dementia, 11 major...

  1. On the Tetragonal Forms of KMo 4O 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarroll, W. H.; Ramanujachary, K. V.; Greenblatt, M.; Marsh, Richard E.

    1995-06-01

    A reexamination of the X-ray diffraction data for the tetragonal form of KMo4O6 prepared by fused salt electrolysis leads to the conclusion that the crystal structure is better described by using space group P 4/mbm and not P4¯ as previously reported. However, refinement in the new space group does not result in any significant changes in the atomic arrangement. Possible reasons for the significant difference between the c lattice parameter of this form of KMo4O6 and that prepared at high pressures are also discussed.

  2. [Active management of labor with cesarean index 6.4% and very good materno-fetal outcome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo Ruiz, Eliodoro; Rodríguez Fernández, Jesús Javier

    2002-11-01

    The objective of this study is to reduce the incidence of cesarean section and to evaluate the impact on fetal-maternal morbidity and mortality by strictly following the guidelines of the National Health Office (Secretaria de Salud) at the Hospital of Gynecology and Obstetrics of Garza Garcia in Nuevo Leon, Mexico. A prospective and observational study was made. All the patients who culminated their pregnancy on Saturdays and Sundays between 7:00 and 19:00 hrs, in the period June 2000 to June 2001, were included in this study. The incidence of Cesarean sections and its impact on maternal-fetal morbidity and mortality were observed. A total of 798 patients were included in the study. The total number of newborns was 801. The age average was of 23.4 years (14 years-40 years). Of the 798 patients, 280 (35.1%) presented dystocia at vaginal delivery, 467 patients (58.5%) had an eutocic vaginal delivery and 51 patients (6.4%) went through a Caesarean section. The Apgar scores were: 8 at the first minute and 9 at the fifth minute for 681 neonates (85.01%); and 7/9 for 53 (6.6%). According to the results obtained in the present study we can conclude that the incidence of Cesarean section can be reduced by strictly following the guidelines of the National Health Office without affecting the maternal-fetal morbidity and mortality.

  3. Summary of radioactive solid waste received in the 200 Areas during calendar year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hladek, K.L.

    1996-01-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company manages and operates the Hanford Site 200 Area radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office. These facilities include radioactive solid waste disposal sites and radioactive solid waste storage areas. This document summarizes the amount of radioactive materials that have been buried and stored in the 200 Area radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities since startup in 1944 through calendar year 1995. This report does not include backlog waste, solid radioactive wastes in storage or disposed of in other areas, or facilities such as the underground tank farms. Unless packaged within the scope of WHC-EP-0063, Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria, liquid waste data are not included in this document. This annual report provides a summary of the radioactive solid waste received in the both the 200-East and 200-West Areas during the calendar year 1995

  4. Summary of radioactive solid waste received in the 200 Areas during calendar year 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hladek, K.L.

    1996-06-06

    Westinghouse Hanford Company manages and operates the Hanford Site 200 Area radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office. These facilities include radioactive solid waste disposal sites and radioactive solid waste storage areas. This document summarizes the amount of radioactive materials that have been buried and stored in the 200 Area radioactive solid waste storage and disposal facilities since startup in 1944 through calendar year 1995. This report does not include backlog waste, solid radioactive wastes in storage or disposed of in other areas, or facilities such as the underground tank farms. Unless packaged within the scope of WHC-EP-0063, Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria, liquid waste data are not included in this document. This annual report provides a summary of the radioactive solid waste received in the both the 200-East and 200-West Areas during the calendar year 1995.

  5. Association of CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 polymorphisms and disease-free survival of Thai post-menopausal breast cancer patients who received adjuvant tamoxifen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamnanphon M

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Montri Chamnanphon,1 Khunthong Pechatanan,2 Ekapob Sirachainan,3 Narumol Trachu,4 Wasun Chantratita,5 Ekawat Pasomsub,5 Wilai Noonpakdee,6 Insee Sensorn,1,7 Chonlaphat Sukasem11Division of Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, 2Department of Medicine, Phramongkutklao College of Medicine, 3Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, 4Research Center, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, 5Division of Virology, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, 6Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, 7Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok, ThailandPurpose: To investigate the impact of CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 polymorphisms in predicting tamoxifen efficacy and clinical outcomes in Thai breast cancer patients.Methods: Polymorphisms of CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 were genotyped by the AmpliChip™ CYP450 Test (Roche Molecular Diagnostics, Branchburg, NJ, USA for 57 patients, who were matched as recurrent versus nonrecurrent breast cancers (n = 33 versus n = 24, respectively, with a 5-year follow-up.Results: Based on the genotype data, five CYP2D6 predicted phenotype groups were identified in this study including homozygous extensive metabolizer (13 of 57, 22.80%, extensive/intermediate metabolizer (23 of 57, 40.40%, extensive/poor metabolizer (3 of 57, 5.30%, homozygous intermediate metabolizer (14 of 57, 24.50%, and intermediate/poor metabolizer (4 of 57, 7.00%, and three CYP2C19 genotype groups including homozygous extensive metabolizer (27 of 57, 47.40%, extensive/intermediate metabolizer (27 of 57, 47.40%, and homozygous poor metabolizer (3 of 57, 5.30%. The CYP2D6 variant alleles were *10 (52 of 114, 45.60%, *5 (5 of 114, 4.40%, *41 (2 of 114, 1.80%, *4 (1 of 114, 0

  6. Costs and outcome of assertive community treatment (ACT) in a rural area in Denmark: 4-year register-based follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastrup, Lene Halling; Aagaard, Jørgen

    2015-02-01

    Health economic evidence of assertive community treatment (ACT) in Denmark is limited. The aim of the study was to assess the costs and outcome of ACT among 174 patients with severe and persistent mental illness in a rural area of Denmark. The study was based on a quasi-experimental design with a control group from the neighbouring region. Costs and retention in mental health services were analysed by using register data 1 year before and 4 years after inclusion in the study. Data on the use of supportive housing were available for the year before baseline and the subsequent 2 years only. Seventy eight percent of the patients receiving ACT were in contact with psychiatric services at the 4-year follow-up, while 69% of the patients in the control group had contact with psychiatric services (P < 0.17). Days in supportive housing were lower for the ACT group before baseline and remained so (dropping to zero) for the subsequent 2 years. Over 4 years, the mean total costs per patient in the group receiving ACT were DDK 493,442 (SE = 34,292). Excluding costs of supportive housing, the mean total costs per patient of the control group were DDK 537,218 (SE = 59,371), P < 0.53. If these costs are included, however, the mean total costs for the ACT group are unchanged, whereas costs for the control group rise to DDK 671,500 (SE = 73,671), P < 0.03. While ACT appears to have resulted in a significant reduction in costs for psychiatric hospitalizations, baseline differences in use of supportive housing make the effects of ACT on overall costs more ambiguous. At worst, however, overall costs did not increase. Given the generally acknowledged clinical benefits of ACT over standard outpatient care, the results support further dissemination of ACT in Denmark.

  7. A prospective study of cognitive functions following conventional radiotherapy for supratentorial gliomas in young adults: 4-year results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigliani, Maria-Claudia; Sichez, Nicole; Poisson, Michel; Delattre, Jean-Yves

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of limited field conventional cerebral radiotherapy (RT) on cognitive functions of adults. Methods and Materials: A prospective neuropsychological study was performed on 17 patients who underwent conventional limited field RT for a low-grade glioma or for a good-prognosis anaplastic glioma. Results were compared with 14 control patients with low-grade gliomas who did not receive radiotherapy. Results: A transient significant decrease of performances for the Reaction Time test was observed at 6 months in the irradiated group with return to baseline values 12 months post-RT. Subsequently, no other significant changes were observed over a 48-month follow-up period in the irradiated and nonirradiated groups. Nonetheless, when the scores of each patient were considered over time instead of the mean values of the group, one irradiated patient (5.8%) experienced progressive deterioration while two irradiated patients (11.7%) experienced long-lasting improvement. Individual changes did not occur in the control group. Conclusion: This study suggests that a transient early delayed drop of neuropsychological performances at 6 months is frequent following limited field conventional RT, but the risk of long-term cognitive dysfunction after irradiation is low, at least in the first 4 years after RT and when it is administered alone in young adults

  8. On binding specificity of (64) photolyase to a T(64)T DNA photoproduct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aalbæk Jepsen, Katrine; Solov'yov, Ilia

    2017-01-01

    this binding for a specific enzyme called (64) photolyase, which is capable of repairing certain UV-induced damage in DNA. Through molecular dynamics simulations we describe the binding between photolyase and the DNA and reveal that several charged amino acid residues in the enzyme, such as arginines...

  9. Laser shock peening of titanium 6-4 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brar, N.S.; Hopkins, A.; Laber, M.W.

    2000-01-01

    Laser shock peening of titanium 6-4 has been shown to improve its high cycle fatigue life. Residual compressive stresses generated on the surface of titanium 6-4, as a result of laser shocking, have shown dramatic improvement in the performance of aircraft turbine blades. Laser shocking of titanium was carried out with a 20 ns pulse width, 50 joule pulsed laser, operated by LSP Technologies, Columbus, OH. Titanium disks, 20-mm in diameter, and ranging in thicknesses from zero (bare LiF) to 3-mm were subjected to laser shock to monitor amplitude and temporal stress profiles of the pulsed laser. Laser shock stress amplitudes on the back of titanium disks were monitored with VISAR using LiF as the window material. The peak shock stress produced in LiF (titanium thickness zero) was measured to be 16±1 GPa. The laser shock amplitude decays to about 2.7 GPa while propagating through 3-mm thick disk of titanium 6-4

  10. Slide 6

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have established production capabilities for 4 launch vehicles per year with 4 months of launch preparation period. With the LVM3 having to make 2 launches per year, out launch frequency can become 6 launches per year. The RLV's goal is to achieve substantially large number of launches per year as new uses ...

  11. 2-Methylpyridinium/pyridinium 5-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)-2,6-dioxo-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyrimidin-4-olates as potent anticonvulsant agents—synthesis and crystal structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangaiyarkarasi, G.; Kalaivani, D., E-mail: kalaivbalaj@yahoo.co.in [Affiliated to Bharathidasan University, Post Graduate and Research Department of Chemistry, Seethalakshmi Ramaswami College, Tiruchirappalli-620 002 (India)

    2013-12-15

    The molecular salt, 2-methylpyridinium 5-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)-2,6-dioxo-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropy-rimidin-4-olate) (I), is prepared from the ethanolic solution of 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, pyrimidine-2,4,6-(1H,3H,5H)-trione (barbituric acid) and 2-methylpyridine at room temperature, and the molecular salt, pyridinium 5-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)-2,6-dioxo-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyrimidin-4-olate (II), is prepared from the same reactants, by dissolving them in hot DMSO and ethanol mixture at 70°C. The structures of I and II are characterized by visible, IR, {sup 1}H-NMR, {sup 13}C-NMR and elemental analysis and confirmed by single crystal X-ray analysis. Both the salts crystallize in triclinic crystal system with sp. gr. P-bar1. They possess noticeable anticonvulsant activity even at low concentration (25 mg/kg). Acute toxicity studies of these complexes indicate that LD{sub 50} values are greater than 1500 mg/kg and the tested animals do not show any behavioural changes.

  12. 2-Methylpyridinium/pyridinium 5-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)-2,6-dioxo-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyrimidin-4-olates as potent anticonvulsant agents—synthesis and crystal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangaiyarkarasi, G.; Kalaivani, D.

    2013-01-01

    The molecular salt, 2-methylpyridinium 5-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)-2,6-dioxo-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropy-rimidin-4-olate) (I), is prepared from the ethanolic solution of 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, pyrimidine-2,4,6-(1H,3H,5H)-trione (barbituric acid) and 2-methylpyridine at room temperature, and the molecular salt, pyridinium 5-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)-2,6-dioxo-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyrimidin-4-olate (II), is prepared from the same reactants, by dissolving them in hot DMSO and ethanol mixture at 70°C. The structures of I and II are characterized by visible, IR, 1 H-NMR, 13 C-NMR and elemental analysis and confirmed by single crystal X-ray analysis. Both the salts crystallize in triclinic crystal system with sp. gr. P-bar1. They possess noticeable anticonvulsant activity even at low concentration (25 mg/kg). Acute toxicity studies of these complexes indicate that LD 50 values are greater than 1500 mg/kg and the tested animals do not show any behavioural changes

  13. The stability of a terahertz receiver based on a superconducting integrated receiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozhegov, R V; Gorshkov, K N; Gol'tsman, G N; Kinev, N V; Koshelets, V P

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of stability testing of a terahertz radiometer based on a superconducting receiver with a SIS tunnel junction as the mixer and a flux-flow oscillator as the local oscillator. In the continuum mode, the receiver with a noise temperature of 95 K at 510 GHz measured over the intermediate frequency (IF) passband of 4-8 GHz offered a noise equivalent temperature difference of 10 ± 1 mK at an integration time of 1 s. We offer a method to significantly increase the integration time without the use of complex measurement equipment. The receiver observed a strong signal over a final detection bandwidth of 4 GHz and offered an Allan time of 5 s.

  14. The stability of a terahertz receiver based on a superconducting integrated receiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozhegov, R V; Gorshkov, K N; Gol' tsman, G N [Department of Physics, Moscow State Pedagogical University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Kinev, N V; Koshelets, V P, E-mail: Ozhegov@rplab.ru [Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics, 125009 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-03-15

    We present the results of stability testing of a terahertz radiometer based on a superconducting receiver with a SIS tunnel junction as the mixer and a flux-flow oscillator as the local oscillator. In the continuum mode, the receiver with a noise temperature of 95 K at 510 GHz measured over the intermediate frequency (IF) passband of 4-8 GHz offered a noise equivalent temperature difference of 10 {+-} 1 mK at an integration time of 1 s. We offer a method to significantly increase the integration time without the use of complex measurement equipment. The receiver observed a strong signal over a final detection bandwidth of 4 GHz and offered an Allan time of 5 s.

  15. Predictors of receiving therapy among very low birth weight 2-year olds eligible for Part C early intervention in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Beth Marie; Robert, Stephanie; Albanese, Aggie; Sadek-Badawi, Mona; Palta, Mari

    2013-07-11

    The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (Part C) authorizes states to establish systems to provide early intervention services (e.g., therapy) for children at risk, with the incentive of federal financial support. This study examines family and neighborhood characteristics associated with currently utilizing physical, occupational, or speech therapy among very low birthweight (VLBW) 2-year-old children who meet Wisconsin eligibility requirements for early intervention services (EI) due to developmental delay. This cross-sectional analysis used data from the Newborn Lung Project, a regional cohort study of VLBW infants hospitalized in Wisconsin's newborn intensive care units during 2003-2004. We included the 176 children who were age two at follow-up, and met Wisconsin state eligibility requirements for EI based on developmental delay. Exact logistic regression was used to describe child and neighborhood socio-demographic correlates of parent-reported receipt of therapy. Among VLBW children with developmental delay, currently utilizing therapy was higher among children with Medicaid (aOR = 5.3, 95% CI: 1.3, 28.3) and concomitant developmental disability (aOR = 5.2, 95% CI: 2.1, 13.3) and lower for those living in a socially more disadvantaged neighborhood (aOR=0.48, 95% CI: 0.21, 0.98, per tertile). Among a sample of VLBW 2-year olds with developmental delays who are EI-eligible in WI, 4 out of 5 were currently receiving therapy, per parent report. Participation in Medicaid positively influences therapy utilization. Children with developmental difficulties who live in socially disadvantaged neighborhoods are at highest risk for not receiving therapy.

  16. Prevalence and Characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorder Among 4-Year-Old Children in the Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Deborah L; Bilder, Deborah A; Zahorodny, Walter; Pettygrove, Sydney; Durkin, Maureen S; Fitzgerald, Robert T; Rice, Catherine; Kurzius-Spencer, Margaret; Baio, Jon; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    2016-01-01

    Early identification of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) facilitates timely access to intervention services. Yet, few population-based data exist on ASD identification among preschool-aged children. The authors aimed to describe ASD prevalence and characteristics among 4-year-old children in 5 of 11 sites participating in the 2010 Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network. Children with ASD were identified through screening of health and education records for ASD indicators, data abstraction and compilation for each child, and clinician review of records. ASD prevalence estimates, ages at first evaluation and ASD diagnosis, cognitive test scores, and demographics were compared for 4-year-old children and 8-year-old children living in the same areas. Among 58,467 children in these 5 sites, 4-year-old ASD prevalence was 13.4 per 1000, which was 30% lower than 8-year-old ASD prevalence. Prevalence of ASD without cognitive impairment was 40% lower among 4-year-olds compared with 8-year-olds, but prevalence of ASD with cognitive impairment was 20% higher among 4-year-olds compared with 8-year-olds. Among 4-year-olds with ASD, female and non-Hispanic white children were more likely to receive their first comprehensive evaluation by age 36 months compared with male and non-Hispanic black children, respectively. Among children diagnosed with ASD by age 48 months, median age at first comprehensive evaluation was 27 months for 4-year-olds compared with 32 months for 8-year-olds. Population-based ASD surveillance among 4-year-old children provides valuable information about the early identification of children with ASD and suggests progression toward lowering the age of first ASD evaluation within participating Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring communities.

  17. Effect of vitamin A supplementation with BCG vaccine at birth on vitamin A status at 6 wk and 4 mo of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane B; Lisse, Ida M; Aaby, Peter

    2007-01-01

    concentrations indicated vitamin A deficiency in 32% of the children at age 6 wk and in 16% at age 4 mo. VAS was not associated with higher RBP concentrations overall or in either sex. However, the effect of VAS varied with maternal education (P for interaction = 0.004): At age 6 wk, VAS was associated...... with higher (9%; 95% CI: 2, 17%) RBP concentrations in children of noneducated mothers but not in children of educated mothers. Overall, RBP concentrations increased between 6 wk and 4 mo of age. The increase correlated inversely with the number of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccines received...... placebo-controlled trial of VAS, we obtained blood from 614 children at 6 wk of age and from 369 mother-infant pairs at 4 mo of age. We assessed vitamin A status on the basis of serum retinol-binding protein (RBP) and measured serum C-reactive protein to monitor for concurrent infections. RESULTS: RBP...

  18. Problems of the internet transition from protocol IPv4 to IPv6

    OpenAIRE

    Potrebuješ , Nejc

    2013-01-01

    Internet currently coexist of older IPv4 networks, new IPv6 network and networks that supports both IPv6 and IPv4 stack. IPv4 and IPv6 networks are unfortunately incompatible. To enable communication between these two networks several mechanisms were developed. These mechanisms are so called »IPv4/v6 transition mechanisms«. In this thesis first there are IPv4 and IPv6 protocols presented, disadvantages of an IPv4 protocol and advantages of an IPv6 protocol. Further there are some transitio...

  19. Complementary feeding at 4 versus 6 months of age for preterm infants born at less than 34 weeks of gestation: a randomised, open-label, multicentre trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuchita Gupta, MD

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: Evidence on the optimal time to initiation of complementary feeding in preterm infants is scarce. We examined the effect of initiation of complementary feeding at 4 months versus 6 months of corrected age on weight for age at 12 months corrected age in preterm infants less than 34 weeks of gestation. Methods: In this open-label, randomised trial, we enrolled infants born at less than 34 weeks of gestation with no major malformation from three public health facilities in India. Eligible infants were tracked from birth and randomly assigned (1:1 at 4 months corrected age to receive complementary feeding at 4 months corrected age (4 month group, or continuation of milk feeding and initiation of complementary feeding at 6 months corrected age (6 month group, using computer generated randomisation schedule of variable block size, stratified by gestation (30 weeks or less, and 31–33 weeks. Iron supplementation was provided as standard. Participants and the implementation team could not be masked to group assignment, but outcome assessors were masked. Primary outcome was weight for age Z-score at 12 months corrected age (WAZ12 based on WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study growth standards. Analyses were by intention to treat. The trial is registered with Clinical Trials Registry of India, number CTRI/2012/11/003149. Findings: Between March 20, 2013, and April 24, 2015, 403 infants were randomly assigned: 206 to receive complementary feeding from 4 months and 197 to receive complementary feeding from 6 months. 22 infants in the 4 month group (four deaths, two withdrawals, 16 lost to follow-up and eight infants in the 6 month group (two deaths, six lost to follow-up were excluded from analysis of primary outcome. There was no difference in WAZ12 between two groups: −1·6 (SD 1·2 in the 4 month group versus −1·6 (SD 1·3 in the 6 month group (mean difference 0·005, 95% CI −0·24 to 0·25; p=0·965. There were more

  20. Anisotropic magnetic properties of the KMo4O6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, M.; Maffei, M. L.; Dos Santos, C. A. M.; Ferreira, B.; Sartori, A. F.

    2012-02-01

    Electrical resistivity measurements in the tetragonal KMo4O6 single crystals show a metal-insulator transition (MIT) near 100K. Magnetization measurements as a function of temperature show no evidence of magnetic ordering at this MIT [1]. Single crystals of KMo4O6 were obtained by electrolysis of a melt with a molar ratio of K2MoO4:MoO3 = 6:1. The process were carried out at 930 C with a current of 20-25mA for 52h in argon atmosphere. After that, electrodes were removed from the melt alloying the crystals to cool down to room temperature rapidly. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) showed that the black single crystals were grown on the platinum cathode. Typical dimensions of the single crystals are 1x0.2x0.2mm^3. X-ray diffractometry confirmed that the single crystals have KMo4O6 tetragonal crystalline structure with space group P4. Magnetization measurements were performed parallel and perpendicular to the c-axis from 2 to 300K. The results show anisotropic behavior between both directions. Furthermore, the temperature independence of the magnetization at high temperature and the upturn at low temperature are observed in agreement with previous results [1]. MxH curves measured at several temperatures show nonlinear behavior and a small magnetic ordering. The magnetic ordering seems to be related to the MIT near 100K. This material is based upon support by FAPESP (2009/14524-6 and 2009/54001-6) and CNPq/NSF (490182/2009-7). M. Andrade is CAPES fellow and C.A.M. dos Santos is CNPq fellow. [4pt] [1] K. V. Ramanujachary et al., J. Sol. State Chem.102 (1993) 69.

  1. The prognostic value of electrodiagnostic testing in patients with sciatica receiving physical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Nathan J; Fritz, Julie M; Kircher, John C; Thackeray, Anne

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the prognostic value of electrodiagnostic testing in patients with sciatica receiving physical therapy. Electrodiagnostic testing was performed on 38 patients with sciatica participating in a randomized trial comparing different physical therapy interventions. Patients were grouped and analyzed according to the presence or absence of radiculopathy based on electrodiagnostic testing. Longitudinal data analysis was conducted using multilevel growth modeling with ten waves of data collected from baseline through the treatment and post-treatment periods up to 6 months. The primary outcome measure was changes in low back pain-related disability assessed using the Roland and Morris disability questionnaire (RMDQ). Patients with radiculopathy (n = 19) had statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvements in RMDQ scores at every post-treatment follow-up occasion regardless of treatment received. The final multilevel growth model revealed improvements in RMDQ scores in patients with radiculopathy at the 6-week (-8.1, 95 % CI -12.6 to -2.6; P = 0.006) and 6-month (-4.1, 95 % CI -7.4 to -0.7; P = 0.020) follow-up occasions compared to patients without radiculopathy. Treatment group was not a significant predictive factor at any follow-up occasion. An interaction between electrodiagnostic status and time revealed faster weekly improvements in RMDQ scores in patients with radiculopathy at the 6-week (-0.72, 95 % CI -1.4 to -0.04; P = 0.040) through the 16-week (-0.30, 95 % CI, -0.57 to -0.04; P = 0.028) follow-up occasions compared to patients without radiculopathy. The presence of lumbosacral radiculopathy identified with electrodiagnostic testing is a favorable prognostic factor for recovery in low back pain-related disability regardless of physical therapy treatment received.

  2. Sustained Antibody Responses 6 Years Following 1, 2, or 3 Doses of Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine in Adolescent Fijian Girls, and Subsequent Responses to a Single Dose of Bivalent HPV Vaccine: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Zheng Quan; Russell, Fiona M; Reyburn, Rita; Fong, James; Tuivaga, Evelyn; Ratu, Tupou; Nguyen, Cattram D; Devi, Rachel; Kama, Mike; Matanitobua, Silivia; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Garland, Suzanne M; Sinha, Rohit; Frazer, Ian; Tikoduadua, Lisi; Kado, Joseph; Rafai, Eric; Mulholland, Edward K; Licciardi, Paul V

    2017-04-01

    The duration of antibody response following reduced human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine doses has not been determined. We compared the antibody responses in girls previously vaccinated with zero, 1, 2, or 3 doses of quadrivalent HPV vaccine (4vHPV; Gardasil, Merck) 6 years previously. A prospective cohort study was undertaken in 200 Fijian girls 15-19 years of age. Approximately equal numbers of girls from 2 main ethnic groups (Fijians of Indian descent [FID] and Indigenous Fijians [iTaukei]) in Fiji were recruited for each dosage groups. Blood was drawn before and 28 days following a single dose of bivalent HPV vaccine (2vHPV; Cervarix, GlaxoSmithKline). We measured neutralizing antibodies (NAb) against HPV-6, -11, -16, and -18 using the pseudovirion-based neutralization assay. After 6 years (before a dose of 2vHPV was given), the geometric mean NAb titers for all 4 HPV types were not statistically different between 2-dose (2D) and 3-dose (3D) recipients: HPV-6 (3D: 2216 [95% confidence interval {CI},1695-2896]; 2D: 1476 [95% CI, 1019-2137]; P = .07), HPV-11 (3D: 4431 [95% CI, 3396-5783]; 2D: 2951 [95% CI, 1984-4390]; P = .09), HPV-16 (3D: 3373 [95% CI, 2511-4530]; 2D: 3275 [95% CI, 2452-4373]; P = .89); HPV-18 (3D: 628 [95% CI: 445-888]; 2D: 606 [95% CI, 462-862]; P = .89), and were higher in FID than iTaukei girls. Although 1-dose recipients had significantly lower NAb titers than 2-/3-dose recipients, their NAb titers were 5- to 30-fold higher than unvaccinated girls. Post-2vHPV NAb titers against HPV-16 and -18 were not statistically different between girls who received 1, 2, or 3 doses of 4vHPV previously. Two doses of 4vHPV provide similar NAb titers as 3 doses for 6 years, although the clinical significance is unknown. A single dose of 4vHPV elicits antibodies that persisted for at least 6 years, and induced immune memory, suggesting possible protection against HPV vaccine types after a single dose of 4vHPV. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University

  3. [Reliability of the PROFUND index to predict 4-year mortality in polypathological patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez-Manglano, Jesús; Del Corral Beamonte, Esther; Ramos Ibáñez, Rosa; Lambán Aranda, María Pilar; Toyas Miazza, Carla; Rodero Roldán, María Del Mar; Ortiz Domingo, Concepción; Munilla López, Eulalia; de Escalante Yangüela, Begoña

    2016-09-16

    To determine the usefullness of the PROFUND index to assess the risk of global death after 4 years in polypathological patients. Multicenter prospective cohort (Internal Medicine and Geriatrics) study. Polypathological patients admitted between March 1st and June 30th 2011 were included. For each patient, data concerning age, sex, living at home or in a nursing residence, polypathology categories, Charlson, Barthel and Lawton-Brody indexes, Pfeiffer questionnaire, socio-familial Gijon scale, delirium, number of drugs, hemoglobin and creatinine values were gathered, and the PROFUND index was calculated. The follow-up lasted 4 years. We included 441 patients, 324 from Internal Medicine and 117 from Geriatrics, with a mean age of 80.9 (8.7) years. Of them, 245 (55.6%) were women. Heart (62.7%), neurological (41.4%) and respiratory (37.3%) diseases were the most frequent. Geriatrics inpatients were older and more dependants and presented greater cognitive deterioration. After 4 years, 335 (76%) patients died. Mortality was associated with age, dyspnoea, Barthel index<60, delirium, advanced neoplasia and≥4 admissions in the last year. The area under the curve of the PROFUND index was 0.748, 95% CI 0.689-0.806, P<.001 in Internal Medicine and 0.517, 95% CI 0.369-0.666, P=.818 in Geriatrics patients, respectively. The PROFUND index is a reliable tool for predicting long-term global mortality in polypathological patients from Internal Medicine but not from Geriatrics departments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. A longitudinal study of grapheme-color synesthesia in childhood: 6/7 years to 10/11 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simner, Julia; Bain, Angela E

    2013-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a condition characterized by enduring and consistent associations between letter/digits and colors. This study is the continuation of longitudinal research begun by Simner et al. (2009) which aimed to explore the development of this condition in real time within a childhood population. In that earlier study we randomly sampled over 600 children and tested them aged 6/7 and 7/8 years. We identified the child synesthetes within that cohort and measured their development over 1 year, in comparison to a group of non-synesthetic children with both average and superior memories. We were able to show the beginnings of a developmental progression in which synesthetic associations (e.g., A = red) mature over time from relatively chaotic pairings into a system of fixed consistent associations. In the current study we return to this same population three years later when participants are now 10/11 years. We used the same paired-association memory task to determine the synesthetic status of our participants and to also establish synesthetes' inventories of grapheme-color associations. We compared their inventories to those from age 6/7 and 7/8 years to examine how synesthesia matures over time. Together with earlier findings, our study shows that grapheme-color synesthesia emerges with a protracted trajectory, with 34% of letters/digits fixed at age 6/7 years, 48% fixed at 7/8 years and 71% fixed at 10/11 years. We also show several cases where synesthesia is not developing in the same time-frame as peers, either because it has died out at an older age, or because it was slower to develop than other cases. Our study paints the first picture of the emergence of synesthesia in real-time over four years within a randomly sampled population of child synesthetes.

  5. Association between Infancy BMI Peak and Body Composition and Blood Pressure at Age 5–6 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hof, Michel H. P.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; de Hoog, Marieke L. A.; van Eijsden, Manon; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The development of overweight is often measured with the body mass index (BMI). During childhood the BMI curve has two characteristic points: the adiposity rebound at 6 years and the BMI peak at 9 months of age. In this study, the associations between the BMI peak and body composition measures and blood pressure at age 5–6 years were investigated. Methods Measurements from the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD) study were available for this study. Blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) and body composition measures (BMI, waist-to-height ratio, fat percentage) were gathered during a health check at about 6 years of age (n = 2822). All children had multiple BMI measurements between the 0–4 years of age. For boys and girls separately, child-specific BMI peaks were extracted from mixed effect models. Associations between the estimated BMI peak and the health check measurements were analysed with linear models. In addition, we investigated the potential use of the BMI at 9 months as a surrogate measure for the magnitude of the BMI peak. Results After correction for the confounding effect of fetal growth, both timing and magnitude of the BMI peak were significantly and positively associated (pBMI peak showed no direct association with blood pressure at the age 5–6 year, but was mediated by the current BMI. The correlation between the magnitude of the BMI peak and BMI at 9 months was approximately 0.93 and similar associations with the measures at 5–6 years were found. Conclusion The magnitude of the BMI peak was associated with body composition measures at 5–6 years of age. Moreover, the BMI at 9 months could be used as surrogate measure for the magnitude of the BMI peak. PMID:24324605

  6. A 4-year clinical evaluation of direct composite build-ups for space closure after orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Mustafa; Tuncer, Safa; Öztaş, Evren; Tekçe, Neslihan; Uysal, Ömer

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the medium-term clinical performance of direct composite build-ups for diastema closures and teeth recontouring using a nano and a nanohybrid composite in combination with three- or two-step etch-and-rinse adhesives following treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances. A total of 30 patients (mean age, 19.5 years) received 147 direct composite additions for teeth recontouring and diastema closures. A nano and a nanohybrid composite (Filtek Supreme XT and CeramX Duo) were bonded to tooth structure by using a three-step (Scotchbond Multipurpose) or a two-step (XP Bond) etch and rinse adhesive. Ten out of 147 composite build-ups (composite addition) constituted tooth recontouring cases, and the remaining 137 constituted diastema closure cases. The restorations were evaluated by two experienced, calibrated examiners according to modified Ryge criteria at the following time intervals: baseline, 1, 2, 3, and 4 years. The 4-year survival rates were 92.8 % for Filtek Supreme XT/Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus and 93 % for CeramX Duo/XP Bond. Only ten restorations failed (5 Filtek Supreme XT and 5 CeramX Duo). Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences between the two composite-adhesive combinations with respect to color match, marginal discoloration, wear/loss of anatomical form, caries formation, marginal adaptation, and surface texture on comparing the five time periods (baseline, 1, 2, 3, and 4 years) The 4-year survival rates in the present study were favorable. The restorations exhibited excellent scores with regard to color match, marginal adaptation, surface texture, marginal discoloration, wear/loss of anatomical form, and caries formation, after 4 years of clinical evaluation. Clinical relevance An alternative clinical approach for correcting discrepancies in tooth size and form, such as performing direct composite restorations following fixed orthodontic treatment, may be an excellent and minimally invasive treatment.

  7. Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power Systems sodium-cooled receiver concept. Final report. Volume II, Book 1. Conceptual design, Sections 1 through 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    The overall, long-term objective of the Solar Central Receiver Hybrid Power System program is to identify, characterize, and ultimately demonstrate the viability and cost effectiveness of solar/fossil, steam Rankine cycle, hybrid power systems that: (1) consist of a combined solar central receiver energy source and a nonsolar energy source at a single, common site, (2) may operate in the base, intermediate, and peaking capacity modes, (3) produce the rated output independent of variations in solar insolation, (4) provide a significant savings (50% or more) in fuel consumption, and (5) produce power at the minimum possible cost in mills/kWh. It is essential that these hybrid concepts be technically feasible and economically competitive with other systems in the near to mid-term time period (1985-1990) on a commercial scale. The program objective for Phase I is to identify and conceptually characterize solar/fossil steam Rankine cycle, commercial-scale, power plant systems that are economically viable and technically feasible. This volume presents in detail the market analysis, parametric analysis, and the selection process for the preferred system. (WHK)

  8. 48 CFR 915.404-4-71-6 - Fee base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fee base. 915.404-4-71-6... CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 915.404-4-71-6 Fee base. (a) The fee base shown... estimate of cost to which a percentage factor is applied to determine maximum fee allowances. The fee base...

  9. ASSESSMENT OF MOVEMENT SKILL PERFORMANCE IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN: CONVERGENT VALIDITY BETWEEN MOT 4-6 AND M-ABC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter Cools

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to determine the level of agreement between the Motoriktest für Vier- bis Sechsjährige Kinder [MOT 4-6] and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children [M-ABC]. 48 preschool children participated in the study (Mean age = 5 years, 6 months, SD = 3 months. There was high classification agreement (90% between both tests. A Kappa correlation coefficient (0.67 provided moderately strong support for convergent validity. Less agreement was shown in identification of motor difficulties (58%. This was reflected by lower correlation coefficients on the fine movement cluster and test item level. The MOT 4-6 showed values within the range of similar movement skill performance assessment protocols. Because of its specific focus it may be of meaningful value to assess movement skill competence in typically developing preschool children (ages 4 to 6.

  10. Synthesis and crystal structure of Bi6.4Pb0.6P2O15.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arumugam, N.; Lynch, V.; Steinfink, H.

    2007-01-01

    Bi 6.4 Pb 0.6 P 2 O 15.2 is a polymorph of structures with the general stoichiometry Bi 6+x M 1-x P 2 O 15+y . However, unlike previously published structures that consist of layers formed by edge sharing OBi 4 tetrahedra bridged by PO 4 and TO 6 (T=transition metal) tetrahedra and octahedra the title compound's structure is more complex. It is monoclinic, C2, a=19.4698(4) A, b=11.3692(3) A, c=16.3809(5) A, β=101.167(1) o , Z=10. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction data were refined by least squares on F 2 converging to R 1 =0.0387, wR 2 =0.0836 for 7023 intensities. The crystal twins by mirror reflection across (001) as the twin plane and twin component 1 equals 0.74(1). Oxygen ions are in tetrahedral coordination to four metal ions and the O(BiPb) 4 units share corners to form layers that are part of the three-dimensional framework. Eight oxygen ions form a cube around the two crystallographically independent Pb ions. Pb-O bond lengths vary from 2.265(14) to 2.869(14) A. Pairs of such cubes share an edge to form a Pb 3 O 20 unit. The two oxygen ions from the unshared edges are part of irregular Bi polyhedra. Other oxygen ions of Bi polyhedra are part only of O(BiPb) 4 units, and some oxygen ions of the polyhedra are also part of PO 4 tetrahedra. One, two, three and or four PO 4 moieties are connected to the Bi polyhedra. Bi-O bond lengths ≤3.1 A vary from 2.090(12) to 3.07(3) A. The articulations of Pb cubes, Bi polyhedra and PO 4 tetrahedra link into the three-dimensional structure. - Graphical abstract: View of the structure of Bi 6.4 Pb 0.6 P 2 O 15.2 parallel to the b-axis

  11. A 6-week, multicenter, randomized, double-masked, parallel-group study comparing travoprost 0.004% to latanoprost 0.005% followed by 6-week, open-label treatment with travoprost 0.004%.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maul, Eugenio; Carrasco, Félix Gil; Costa, Vital Paulino; Casiraghi, Javier F; Vargas, Enrique; Sarmina, Judith S; Mayol, Renato

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the tolerability and efficacy of once-daily travoprost 0.004% versus latanoprost 0.005% for 6 weeks followed by 6 weeks of once-daily travoprost 0.004% in decreasing intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with open-angle glaucoma (OAG) or ocular hypertension (OH). This multicenter, randomized, doublemasked, active-controlled, parallel-group trial was conducted at 32 centers across Latin America. Patients aged > or =18 years with OAG or OH were randomly assigned to receive topical travoprost 0.004% or latanoprost 0.005% 1 drop QD (9 PM) for 6 weeks (masked phase). At 6 weeks, all patients were assigned to receive open-label travoprost 0.004% 1 drop QD (9 PM) for 6 additional weeks (open-label phase). Study visits were scheduled at weeks 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12. At each study visit, IOP was measured at 5 PM (+/-1 hour; approximately 20 hours after study drug administration). IOP changes from baseline were combined (pooled) from the 1-, 2-, 4-, and 6-week data to provide a comparison between the 2 treatment groups. Ocular adverse events (AEs) were monitored using slit-lamp examination. A total of 302 patients were enrolled (travoprost group, 155 patients; latanoprost group, 147 patients). The mean (SD) age of the travoprost group was 61.9 (10.6) years; 60.6% were female; and 47.1% were white. The mean (SD) age of the latanoprost group was 60.5 (12.4) years; 62.6% were female; and 49.0% were white. Mean IOP values were not significantly different between the travoprost and latanoprost groups at baseline (24.7 vs 24.2 mm Hg) or 6 weeks; however, the between-group difference in reductions from baseline in pooled IOP during the masked phase of the study was statistically significant (-8.3 vs -7.5 mm Hg; P = 0.009). At weeks 6 and 12, mean lOP levels were 16.1 and 16.2 mm Hg, respectively, in the travoprost group and 16.4 and 16.1 mm Hg in the group that was switched from latanoprost to travoprost (all, P = NS). The most common ocular AEs

  12. Fabrication of magnetic Fe@ZnO0.6S0.4 nanocomposite for visible-light-driven photocatalytic inactivation of Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ziling; Wu, Dan; Wang, Wei; Tan, Fatang; Ng, Tsz Wai; Chen, Jianguo; Qiao, Xueliang; Wong, Po Keung

    2017-02-01

    Bacterial inactivation by magnetic photocatalysts has now received growing interests due to the easy separation for recycle and reuse of photocatalysts. In this study, magnetic Fe@ZnO0.6S0.4 photocatalyst was prepared by a facile two-step precipitation method. Multiple techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis diffused reflectance spectra (UV-vis DRS) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) were employed to characterize the structure, morphology and physicochemical properties of the photocatalyst. The as-obtained Fe@ZnO0.6S0.4 possessing magnetic property was easily collected from the reaction system by a magnet. Under white light-emitting-diode (LED) lamp irradiation, Fe@ZnO0.6S0.4 nanocomposite could completely inactivate 7-log of Escherichia coli K-12 within 5 h. More importantly, almost no decrease of photocatalytic efficiency in bacterial inactivation was observed even after five consecutive cycles, demonstrating Fe@ZnO0.6S0.4 exhibited good stability for reuse. The low released rate of Fe2+/Fe3+ and Zn2+ from Fe@ZnO0.6S0.4 composite further indicated the photocatalyst showed low cytotoxicity to bacterium and high stability under LED lamp irradiation. Facile preparation, high photocatalytic efficiency, good stability and reusability, and magnetic recovery property endow Fe@ZnO0.6S0.4 nanocomposite to be a promising photocatalytic material for bacterial inactivation.

  13. B-Vitamin Intake and Biomarker Status in Relation to Cognitive Decline in Healthy Older Adults in a 4-Year Follow-Up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Catherine F; Ward, Mary; Tracey, Fergal; Hoey, Leane; Molloy, Anne M; Pentieva, Kristina; McNulty, Helene

    2017-01-10

    Advancing age can be associated with an increase in cognitive dysfunction, a spectrum of disability that ranges in severity from mild cognitive impairment to dementia. Folate and the other B-vitamins involved in one-carbon metabolism are associated with cognition in ageing but the evidence is not entirely clear. The hypothesis addressed in this study was that lower dietary intake or biomarker status of folate and/or the metabolically related B-vitamins would be associated with a greater than expected rate of cognitive decline over a 4-year follow-up period in healthy older adults. Participants (aged 60-88 years; n = 155) who had been previously screened for cognitive function were reassessed four years after initial investigation using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). At the 4-year follow-up assessment when participants were aged 73.4 ± 7.1 years, mean cognitive MMSE scores had declined from 29.1 ± 1.3 at baseline to 27.5 ± 2.4 ( p 0.56 points per year). Lower vitamin B6 status, as measured using pyridoxal-5-phosphate (PLP; vitamin B6 was also associated with a greater rate of cognitive decline (OR, 4.22; 95% CI, 1.28-13.90; p B-vitamins. In conclusion, lower dietary and biomarker status of vitamin B6 at baseline predicted a greater than expected rate of cognitive decline over a 4-year period in healthy older adults. Vitamin B6 may be an important protective factor in helping maintain cognitive health in ageing.

  14. Clinical correlates of hypoglycaemia over 4 years in people with type 2 diabetes starting insulin: An analysis from the CREDIT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Home, Philip; Calvi-Gries, Francoise; Blonde, Lawrence; Pilorget, Valerie; Berlingieri, Joseph; Freemantle, Nick

    2018-04-01

    To identify factors associated with documented symptomatic and severe hypoglycaemia over 4years in people with type 2 diabetes starting insulin therapy. CREDIT, a prospective international observational study, collected data over 4 years on people starting any insulin in 314 centres; 2729 and 2271 people had hypoglycaemia data during the last 6 months of years 1 and 4, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression was used to select the characteristics associated with documented symptomatic hypoglycaemia, and the model was tested against severe hypoglycaemia. The proportions of participants reporting ≥1 non-severe event were 18.5% and 16.6% in years 1 and 4; the corresponding proportions of those achieving a glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) concentration risk of hypoglycaemia. © 2017 The Authors. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Cerebral MRI of very low birth weight children at 6 years of age compared with the findings at 1 year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skranes, J.S.; Nilsen, G.; Smevik, O.; Vik, T.; Brubakk, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    Background. We have previously reported the results of cerebral MRI examinations in an unselected year cohort of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants at one year of corrected age. Twenty-one (78 %) of 27 infants had abnormal myelination, mainly in the central occipital white matter (COWM) and in the centrum semiovale (CS), seen on T2-weighted images. Twelve infants had irregular and dilated lateral ventricles. We speculated whether these findings indicated perinatal periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). Only two infants had completely normal MRI at age 1 year. Objective. To determine whether the abnormal myelination seen at 1 year of age, was still present, either as delayed myelination or as gliosis caused by perinatal PVL. Materials and methods. In the present study, we report the results of follow-up cerebral MRI in 20 of these infants at 6 years of age. Results. Most of the children with MRI deviations at 1 year still had abnormalities at 6 years. Abnormal myelination in the central occipital white matter combined with abnormalities in the CS or with ventricular dilatation at age 1 year, presented as gliosis in 12 of 13 children at 6 years of age. Abnormalities solely in the COWM at age 1 year had normalised in two of five children and persisted as delayed myelination in three at age 6 years. Gliotic changes in periventricular white matter were found in 12 of 20 children (60 %). Areas most affected were the CS (11 children) and the COWM (9 children). Delayed myelination in COWM was found in six children (30 %), combined with gliosis in CS in three children. Twelve infants had ventricular dilatation both at 1 and 6 years of age. Conclusions. The MRI correlates of PVL, i. e. gliosis and ventricular dilatation, are common findings on cerebral MRI at 6 years of age in VLBW infants. (orig.)

  16. Clinical Profile and Sex Differences in Brazilian Children and Adolescents Receiving Psychiatric Services in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonezer, Jordana; Muller, Thomaz; Rocha, Gibsi Possapp; Recondo, Rogéria; Nogueira, Eduardo Lopes; Spanemberg, Lucas

    2015-06-27

    We present a survey of sex differences and socio-demographic and clinical variables in children and adolescents receiving a psychiatric consultation service in an emergency department (ED). This observational, retrospective, and cross-sectional study included all records of patients (age, services in an ED in a 4-year period (January 2010 to December 2013). Two hundred fifty-nine records of children and adolescents were located. The mean age of the participants was 14.19 years, and most subjects were female (59.5%) and had private health insurance (83.7%). Most participants (87.4%) were accompanied by their parents. The main complaints were suicide attempts (21.8%) and psychomotor agitation/aggressiveness (21.8%). Unipolar depression (37.8%) and adjustment, reactive, and anxiety disorders (13.7%) were the most prevalent diagnoses. Most patients received an indication of psychiatric hospitalization (51.7%). Females had more suicide attempts than males (28.3% vs 12.4%) and less psychomotor agitation/aggressiveness than males (15.5% vs 31.4%). Females also exhibited more unipolar depression (47.6% vs 23.5%), fewer psychotic disorders (4.2% vs 16.3%), and substance use/misuse (1.4% vs 13.3%) than males. Males needed more psychiatric medication during evaluation (37.9% vs 19.2%). This survey of the profile of pediatric patients evaluated by a psychiatric service in an ED in Brazil was the first of its kind. The large percentage of patients referred for hospitalization highlights the importance of specialized psychiatry care for this age group in this facility, which is a common entry point for mental health care.

  17. New metal-organic frameworks of [M(C6H5O7)(C6H6O7)(C6H7O7)(H2O)] . H2O (M=La, Ce) and [Ce2(C2O4)(C6H6O7)2] . 4H2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng Shengfeng; Wang, Yun-Hsin; Lee, Chi-Shen

    2012-01-01

    Two novel materials, [M(C 6 H 5 O 7 )(C 6 H 6 O 7 )(C 6 H 7 O 7 )(H 2 O)] . H 2 O (M=La(1a), Ce(1b)) and [Ce 2 (C 2 O 4 )(C 6 H 6 O 7 ) 2 ] . 4H 2 O (2), with a metal-organic framework (MOF) were prepared with hydrothermal reactions and characterized with photoluminescence, magnetic susceptibility, thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray powder diffraction in situ. The crystal structures were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 crystallized in triclinic space group P1-bar (No. 2); compound 2 crystallized in monoclinic space group P2 1 /c (No. 14). The structure of 1 is built from a 1D MOF, composed of deprotonated citric ligands of three kinds. Compound 2 contains a 2D MOF structure consisting of citrate and oxalate ligands; the oxalate ligand arose from the decomposition in situ of citric acid in the presence of Cu II ions. Photoluminescence spectra of compounds 1b and 2 revealed transitions between the 5d 1 excited state and two levels of the 4f 1 ground state ( 2 F 5/2 and 2 F 7/2 ). Compounds 1b and 2 containing Ce III ion exhibit a paramagnetic property with weak antiferromagnetic interactions between the two adjacent magnetic centers. - Graphical Abstract: [M(C 6 H 5 O 7 )(C 6 H 6 O 7 )(C 6 H 7 O 7 )(H 2 O)] . H 2 O (M=La(1a), Ce(1b)) and [Ce 2 (C 2 O 4 )(C 6 H 6 O 7 ) 2 ] . 4H 2 O (2)—with 1D and 2D structures were synthesized and characterized. Highlights: ► Two MOF – [M(C 6 H 5 O 7 )(C 6 H 6 O 7 )(C 6 H 7 O 7 )(H 2 O)] . H 2 O (M=La(1a), Ce(1b)) and [Ce 2 (C 2 O 4 )(C 6 H 6 O 7 ) 2 ] . 4H 2 O (2) – with 1D and 2D structures. ► The adjacent chains of the 1D framework were correlated with each other through an oxalate ligand to form a 2D layer structure. ► The source of the oxalate ligand was the decomposition in situ of citric acid oxidized in the presence of Cu II ions.

  18. Pegvisomant treatment in a 4-year-old girl with neurofibromatosis type 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, Katharina M; Sehested, Astrid; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2006-01-01

    with acromegaly. We wanted to investigate whether pegvisomant was effective in a child with octreotide-resistant GH excess. CASE: A 4-year-old girl with neurofibromatosis type 1 and GH excess associated with optic glioma received pegvisomant injections (10 mg subcutaneously) with increasing intervals from daily....... Intracranial tumours remained unchanged in size and visual impairment did not deteriorate. CONCLUSION: Pegvisomant normalized IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels. Growth velocity was normalized after initial catch-down growth, and it remains to be seen whether this result can be maintained during long-term treatment.......BACKGROUND/AIMS: Growth hormone (GH) excess in childhood is a rare disorder. Current treatment options such as somatostatin analogues, pituitary surgery or irradiation can have serious side effects. Recently, a GH receptor antagonist, pegvisomant, was introduced for the treatment of adults...

  19. ELOVL4 protein preferentially elongates 20:5n3 to very long chain PUFAs over 20:4n6 and 22:6n3[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Man; Benham, Aaron; Logan, Sreemathi; Brush, R. Steven; Mandal, Md Nawajes A.; Anderson, Robert E.; Agbaga, Martin-Paul

    2012-01-01

    We hypothesized that reduction/loss of very long chain PUFAs (VLC-PUFAs) due to mutations in the ELOngase of very long chain fatty acid-4 (ELOVL4) protein contributes to retinal degeneration in autosomal dominant Stargardt-like macular dystrophy (STGD3) and age-related macular degeneration; hence, increasing VLC-PUFA in the retina of these patients could provide some therapeutic benefits. Thus, we tested the efficiency of elongation of C20-C22 PUFA by the ELOVL4 protein to determine which substrates are the best precursors for biosynthesis of VLC-PUFA. The ELOVL4 protein was expressed in pheochromocytoma cells, while green fluorescent protein-expressing and nontransduced cells served as controls. The cells were treated with 20:5n3, 22:6n3, and 20:4n6, either individually or in equal combinations. Both transduced and control cells internalized and elongated the supplemented FAs to C22-C26 precursors. Only ELOVL4-expressing cells synthesized C28-C38 VLC-PUFA from these precursors. In general, 20:5n3 was more efficiently elongated to VLC-PUFA in the ELOVL4-expressing cells, regardless of whether it was in combination with 22:6n3 or with 20:4n6. In each FA treatment group, C34 and C36 VLC-PUFAs were the predominant VLC-PUFAs in the ELOVL4-expressing cells. In summary, 20:5n3, followed by 20:4n6, seems to be the best precursor for boosting the synthesis of VLC-PUFA by ELOVL4 protein. PMID:22158834

  20. Prenatal Fluoride Exposure and Cognitive Outcomes in Children at 4 and 6–12 Years of Age in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Deena; Hu, Howard; Angeles Martinez-Mier, E.; Sanchez, Brisa N.; Basu, Niladri; Peterson, Karen E.; Ettinger, Adrienne S.; Wright, Robert; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Liu, Yun; Schnaas, Lourdes; Mercado-García, Adriana; María Téllez-Rojo, Martha; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio

    2017-01-01

    Background: Some evidence suggests that fluoride may be neurotoxic to children. Few of the epidemiologic studies have been longitudinal, had individual measures of fluoride exposure, addressed the impact of prenatal exposures or involved more than 100 participants. Objective: Our aim was to estimate the association of prenatal exposure to fluoride with offspring neurocognitive development. Methods: We studied participants from the Early Life Exposures in Mexico to Environmental Toxicants (ELEMENT) project. An ion-selective electrode technique was used to measure fluoride in archived urine samples taken from mothers during pregnancy and from their children when 6–12 y old, adjusted for urinary creatinine and specific gravity, respectively. Child intelligence was measured by the General Cognitive Index (GCI) of the McCarthy Scales of Children’s Abilities at age 4 and full scale intelligence quotient (IQ) from the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI) at age 6–12. Results: We had complete data on 299 mother–child pairs, of whom 287 and 211 had data for the GCI and IQ analyses, respectively. Mean (SD) values for urinary fluoride in all of the mothers (n=299) and children with available urine samples (n=211) were 0.90 (0.35) mg/L and 0.82 (0.38) mg/L, respectively. In multivariate models we found that an increase in maternal urine fluoride of 0.5mg/L (approximately the IQR) predicted 3.15 (95% CI: −5.42, −0.87) and 2.50 (95% CI −4.12, −0.59) lower offspring GCI and IQ scores, respectively. Conclusions: In this study, higher prenatal fluoride exposure, in the general range of exposures reported for other general population samples of pregnant women and nonpregnant adults, was associated with lower scores on tests of cognitive function in the offspring at age 4 and 6–12 y. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP655 PMID:28937959

  1. Near ultraviolet spectroscopic studies of 2,4-diamino-6-piperidinopyrimidine-3-oxide (minoxidil) and 2,4-diamino-6-piperidinopyrimidine (desoxyminoxidil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamann, Thomas J.

    The near u.v. spectra of 2,4-diamino-6-piperidinopyrimidine (desoxyminoxidil) and 2,4-diamino-6-piperidinopyrimidine-3-oxide (minoxidil) can be viewed as perturbed pyrimidine spectra. The u.v. properties of pyrimidine and a series of aminopyrimidines, specifically 2,4,6-triaminopyrimidine, are examined to obtain u.v. spectral assignments for desoxyminoxidil and minoxidil. Minoxidil and its desoxy counterpart have C s symmetry, and all π → π* absorptions are allowed 1A' ← 1A' transitions. The two lowest energy π →- π* absorptions observed in minoxidil (262 nm, 292 nm) are tentatively assigned as very mild oxygen → pyrimidine ring charge-transfer transitions. Intensity decreases in protic solvents, and the results of simple Hückel molecular orbital calculations indicate that the 292 nm transition has more charge-transfer character than the 262 nm absorption. The protonated species of desoxyminoxidil and minoxidil have very similar u.v. spectra. This is due to the lack of oxygen-related charge transfer in protonated minoxidil, and the high probability that the positive charge resides in similar environments in the minoxidil and desoxyminoxidil molecular frameworks.

  2. Factors affecting running performance in 6-12-year-olds: The Health Oriented Pedagogical Project (HOPP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksen, Per Morten; Mamen, Asgeir; Gammelsrud, Heidi; Lindberg, Morten; Hjelle, Ole Petter

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine factors affecting running performance in children. A cross-sectional study exploring the relationships between height, weight, waist circumference, muscle mass, body fat percentage, relevant biomarkers, and the Andersen intermittent running test in 2272 children aged 6 to 12 years. Parental education level was used as a non-physiological explanatory variable. Mean values (SD) and percentiles are presented as reference values. Height (β = 6.4, p running test. In addition, high parental education level showed a positive association with the running test. Boys display better running performance than girls at all age ages, except 7 years old, probably because of additional muscle mass and less fatty tissue. Height and increased level of haemoglobin positively affected running performance. Lower body fat percentage and high parental education level correlated with better running performance.

  3. Fabrication of magnetic Fe@ZnO_0_._6S_0_._4 nanocomposite for visible-light-driven photocatalytic inactivation of Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Ziling; Wu, Dan; Wang, Wei; Tan, Fatang; Ng, Tsz Wai; Chen, Jianguo; Qiao, Xueliang; Wong, Po Keung

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Fe@ZnO_0_._6S_0_._4 was prepared by a facile two-step precipitation method. • Fe@ZnO_0_._6S_0_._4 exhibited high photocatalytic activity under LED lamp irradiation. • Fe@ZnO_0_._6S_0_._4 possessed good stability and reusability for bacterial inactivation. • Fe@ZnO_0_._6S_0_._4 could be easily collected from the reaction solution by a magnet. • The release rate of metal ions from nanocomposite was kept at a very low level. - Abstract: Bacterial inactivation by magnetic photocatalysts has now received growing interests due to the easy separation for recycle and reuse of photocatalysts. In this study, magnetic Fe@ZnO_0_._6S_0_._4 photocatalyst was prepared by a facile two-step precipitation method. Multiple techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–vis diffused reflectance spectra (UV-vis DRS) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) were employed to characterize the structure, morphology and physicochemical properties of the photocatalyst. The as-obtained Fe@ZnO_0_._6S_0_._4 possessing magnetic property was easily collected from the reaction system by a magnet. Under white light-emitting-diode (LED) lamp irradiation, Fe@ZnO_0_._6S_0_._4 nanocomposite could completely inactivate 7-log of Escherichia coli K-12 within 5 h. More importantly, almost no decrease of photocatalytic efficiency in bacterial inactivation was observed even after five consecutive cycles, demonstrating Fe@ZnO_0_._6S_0_._4 exhibited good stability for reuse. The low released rate of Fe"2"+/Fe"3"+ and Zn"2"+ from Fe@ZnO_0_._6S_0_._4 composite further indicated the photocatalyst showed low cytotoxicity to bacterium and high stability under LED lamp irradiation. Facile preparation, high photocatalytic efficiency, good stability and reusability, and magnetic recovery property endow Fe@ZnO_0_._6S_0_._4 nanocomposite to be a promising photocatalytic material

  4. Different Competitive Capacities of Stat4 and Stat6 Deficient CD4+ T Cells during Lymphophenia-Driven Proliferation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez-Guajardo, Vanesa Maria; Borghans, J.A.M.; Marquez, M.-E.

    2005-01-01

    The outcome of an immune response relies on the competitive capacities acquired through differentiation of CD4ﰀ T cells into Th1 or Th2 effector cells. Because Stat4 and Stat6 proteins are implicated in the Th1 vs Th2 generation and maintenance, respectively, we compare in this study the kinetics...... of Stat4ﰐ/ﰐ and Stat6ﰐ/ﰐ CD4ﰀ T cells during competitive bone marrow reconstitution and lymphopenia-driven proliferation. After bone marrow transplantation, both populations reconstitute the peripheral T cell pools equally well. After transfer into lymphopenic hosts, wild-type and Stat6ﰐ/ﰐ CD4ﰀ T cells...... show a proliferation advantage, which is early associated with the expression of an active phospho-Stat4 and the down-regulation of Stat6. Despite these differences, Stat4- and Stat6-deficient T cells reach similar steady state numbers. However, when both Stat4ﰐ/ﰐ and Stat6ﰐ/ﰐ CD4ﰀ T cells...

  5. STAT6 Mediates Interleukin-4 Growth Inhibition in Human Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Gooch

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to acting as a hematopoietic growth factor, interleukin-4 (IL-4 inhibits growth of some transformed cells in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we show that insulin receptor substrate (IRS-1, IRS-2, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6 are phosphorylated following IL-4 treatment in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. STAT6 DNA binding is enhanced by IL-4 treatment. STAT6 activation occurs even after IRS-1 depletion, suggesting the two pathways are independent. To examine the role of STAT6 in IL-4-mediated growth inhibition and apoptosis, a fulllength STAT6 cDNA was transfected into MCF-7 cells. Transient overexpression of STAT6 resulted in both cytoplasmic and nuclear expression of the protein, increased DNA binding in response to IL-4, and increased transactivation of an IL-4 responsive promoter. In STAT6-transfected cells, basal proliferation was reduced whereas apoptosis was increased. Finally, stable expression of STAT6 resulted in reduced foci formation compared to vector-transfected cells alone. These results suggest STAT6 is required for IL-4mediated growth inhibition and induction of apoptosis in human breast cancer cells.

  6. 38 CFR 6.4 - Proof of age, relationship and marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., relationship and marriage. 6.4 Section 6.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS....4 Proof of age, relationship and marriage. Whenever it is necessary for a claimant to prove age, relationship or marriage, the provisions of 38 U.S.C. 103(c) and Part 3 this chapter will be followed. [26 FR...

  7. Modification of Ti6Al4V surface by diazonium compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandomierski, Mariusz; Buchwald, Tomasz; Strzemiecka, Beata; Voelkel, Adam

    2018-02-01

    Ti6Al4V alloy is the most commonly used in orthopedic industry as an endoprosthesis. Ti6Al4V exhibits good mechanical properties, except the abrasion resistance. Surface modification of Ti6Al4V in order to obtain organic layer, and then the attachment of the polymer, can allow for overcoming this problem. The aim of the work was the modification of Ti6Al4V surface by diazonium compounds: salt or cation generated in situ and examine the influence of the reducing agent - ascorbic acid, and the temperature of reaction on modification process. Moreover, the simulated body fluid was used for the assessment of the organic layer stability on Ti6Al4V surface. The evaluation of the modification was carried out using the following methods: Raman microspectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Higher temperature of modification by 4-hydroxymethylbenzenediazonium cation, provides the largest amount of organic layer on the Ti6Al4V alloy. In the case of the Ti6Al4V modified by Variamine Blue B salt, the amount of organic layer is not dependent on the reaction condition. Moreover, the ascorbic acid and the presence of TiO2 does not effect on the modification. The modified surface is completely coated with the organic layer which is stable in simulated body fluid.

  8. Immunogenicity and Safety of a Trivalent Inactivated Influenza Vaccine in Children 6 Months to 17 Years of Age, Previously Vaccinated with an AS03-Adjuvanted A(H1N1)Pdm09 Vaccine: Two Open-label, Randomized Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesikari, Timo; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Berglund, Johan; Korhonen, Tiina; Flodmark, Carl-Erik; Lindstrand, Ann; Silfverdal, Sven Arne; Bambure, Vinod; Caplanusi, Adrian; Dieussaert, Ilse; Roy-Ghanta, Sumita; Vaughn, David W

    2015-07-01

    During the influenza pandemic 2009-2010, an AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine was used extensively in children 6 months of age and older, and during the 2010-2011 influenza season, the A(H1N1)pdm09 strain was included in the seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) without adjuvant. We evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of TIV in children previously vaccinated with the AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine. Healthy children were randomized (1:1) to receive TIV or a control vaccine. Children were aged 6 months to 9 years (n = 154) and adolescents 10-17 years (n = 77) when they received AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine at least 6 months before study enrolment. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and neutralizing antibody responses against the A(H1N1)pdm09 strain were evaluated before (day 0) and at day 28 and month 6 after study vaccination. Reactogenicity was assessed during the 7 day postvaccination period, and safety was assessed for 6 months. At day 0, >93.9% of all children had HI titers ≥1:40 for the A(H1N1)pdm09 strain, which increased to 100% at both day 28 and month 6 in the TIV group. Between days 0 and 28, HI antibody geometric mean titers against A(H1N1)pdm09 increased by 9-fold and 4-fold in children 6 months to 9 years of age and 10-17 years of age, respectively. AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine-induced robust immune responses in children that persisted into the next season, yet were still boosted by TIV containing A(H1N1)pdm09. The reactogenicity and safety profile of TIV did not appear compromised by prior receipt of AS03-adjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine.

  9. 4,8-bisallyl-2,6-dimethylnaphthalene-1,5-diyl diacetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jørn Bolstad; Sørensen, Jeanett N.; Schaumburg, Kjeld

    2014-01-01

    4,8-Diallyl-2,6-dimethylnaphthalene-1,5-diyl diacetate (1) which is a highly substituted naphthalene derivative has been synthesized in two steps starting from 2,6-dimethyl-1,5-naphthalenediol (3) using a modified Claisen-rearrangement.......4,8-Diallyl-2,6-dimethylnaphthalene-1,5-diyl diacetate (1) which is a highly substituted naphthalene derivative has been synthesized in two steps starting from 2,6-dimethyl-1,5-naphthalenediol (3) using a modified Claisen-rearrangement....

  10. A comparative consecutive case series of 20 children with a diagnosis of ADHD receiving homeopathic treatment, compared with 10 children receiving usual care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fibert, Philippa; Relton, Clare; Heirs, Morag; Bowden, Deborah

    2016-05-01

    20 consecutively enrolled children age 5-16 with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) received treatment by a homeopath (8 consultations and individualized remedies) for one year. Ten subsequently enrolled children received similar time and attention for 4 months. The study explored optimum treatment protocols; the effectiveness, deliverability and acceptability of treatment; and the feasibility of outcome measurement and recruitment. Parents completed Conners' Parent Rating Scale, Revised Long Version ( L) every 4 months, from which DSMIV total scores were extracted; and Measure Your Own Medical Outcome Profile (MYMOP) every consultation. An interaction between time (baseline/4 months) and group (treatment/non-treatment) was found .756 F (1,28)=9.06, p=0.005. The intervention was associated with statistically significant improvements in treated children over the year: L (t (18)=4.529, p≤0.000); MYMOP (t (18)=6.938, p≤0.000). Mean DSMIV total t scores decreased at each time point: baseline: 85 (SD 5.1); 4 months 76.2 (SD 10.9); and 12 months 71.5 (SD 12.77). Recruitment of control participants was problematic. Recruitment to treatment was feasible via ADHD support groups, charities, police support agencies and social services, not schools or NHS services. Attending appointments was problematic for some participants, but home visits did not improve uptake. The best venue was a familiar clinic. Some participants took medicines inappropriately, but generally taking homeopathic remedies was acceptable and well implemented. L (80 items) was problematic for some parents. MYMOP was preferred by parents but not acceptable to stakeholders. In this small consecutive sample the intervention was associated with improvements in criminality, anger and children with a concomitant diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder ASD. Treatment by a homeopath was associated with sustained, increasing improvements and the intervention was acceptable to participants. More

  11. Financial services FY 1995 site support program plan WBS 6.10.4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vodney, E.P.

    1994-09-01

    This is the signed Financial Service fiscal year 1995 Site Support Program Plan, Work Breakdown Structure 6.10.4, for the Hanford site. This plan is intended to enable the contractor to accomplish the following: ensure financial integrity in all Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) operation while supporting the programmatic activities of WHC, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, and other Hanford contractors; provide efficient and effective financial services, and value added audits and review that enable management to enhance future operational results.

  12. The PMIP4 contribution to CMIP6 - Part 1: Overview and over-arching analysis plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Masa; Braconnot, Pascale; Harrison, Sandy P.; Haywood, Alan M.; Jungclaus, Johann H.; Otto-Bliesner, Bette L.; Peterschmitt, Jean-Yves; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Albani, Samuel; Bartlein, Patrick J.; Brierley, Chris; Crucifix, Michel; Dolan, Aisling; Fernandez-Donado, Laura; Fischer, Hubertus; Hopcroft, Peter O.; Ivanovic, Ruza F.; Lambert, Fabrice; Lunt, Daniel J.; Mahowald, Natalie M.; Peltier, W. Richard; Phipps, Steven J.; Roche, Didier M.; Schmidt, Gavin A.; Tarasov, Lev; Valdes, Paul J.; Zhang, Qiong; Zhou, Tianjun

    2018-03-01

    This paper is the first of a series of four GMD papers on the PMIP4-CMIP6 experiments. Part 2 (Otto-Bliesner et al., 2017) gives details about the two PMIP4-CMIP6 interglacial experiments, Part 3 (Jungclaus et al., 2017) about the last millennium experiment, and Part 4 (Kageyama et al., 2017) about the Last Glacial Maximum experiment. The mid-Pliocene Warm Period experiment is part of the Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP) - Phase 2, detailed in Haywood et al. (2016).The goal of the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project (PMIP) is to understand the response of the climate system to different climate forcings for documented climatic states very different from the present and historical climates. Through comparison with observations of the environmental impact of these climate changes, or with climate reconstructions based on physical, chemical, or biological records, PMIP also addresses the issue of how well state-of-the-art numerical models simulate climate change. Climate models are usually developed using the present and historical climates as references, but climate projections show that future climates will lie well outside these conditions. Palaeoclimates very different from these reference states therefore provide stringent tests for state-of-the-art models and a way to assess whether their sensitivity to forcings is compatible with palaeoclimatic evidence. Simulations of five different periods have been designed to address the objectives of the sixth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6): the millennium prior to the industrial epoch (CMIP6 name: past1000); the mid-Holocene, 6000 years ago (midHolocene); the Last Glacial Maximum, 21 000 years ago (lgm); the Last Interglacial, 127 000 years ago (lig127k); and the mid-Pliocene Warm Period, 3.2 million years ago (midPliocene-eoi400). These climatic periods are well documented by palaeoclimatic and palaeoenvironmental records, with climate and environmental changes

  13. Measurements of exhaled nitric oxide in healthy subjects age 4 to 17 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchvald, Frederik; Baraldi, Eugenio; Carraro, Silvia

    2005-01-01

    to almost 100% from the age of 10 years. The repeatability of 3 approved measurements was 1.6 ppb (95% CI, 1.49-1.64 ppb). CONCLUSION: FE NO in healthy children is below 15 to 25 ppb depending on age and self-reported atopy. Measurement of FE NO by NIOX is simple and safe and has a good repeatability...... NO was measured in healthy subjects of 4 to 17 years according to American Thoracic Society guidelines (single breath online, exhalation flow 50 mL/s) with a chemiluminescence analyzer (NIOX Exhaled Nitric Oxide Monitoring System, Aerocrine, Sweden) in 3 European and 2 US centers. Each child performed 3...... NO in 405 children was 9.7 ppb, and the upper 95% confidence limit was 25.2 ppb. FE NO increased significantly with age, and higher FE NO was seen in children with self-reported rhinitis/conjunctivitis or hay fever. The success rate was age-dependent and improved from 40% in the children 4 years old...

  14. [Level of tobacco smoking amongst 6th year students of Wroclaw Medical University].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurpas, Donata; Wojtal, Mariola; Bielska, Dorota; Rogalska, Monika; Steciwko, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Prevention of tobacco smoking amongst youths and young adult could limit deaths because of illness tobacco related to 2050. The assessment of the level of smoking was the aim of examinations amongst medical students. An anonymous questionnaire containing questions on the subject of tobacco smoking was carried amongst 6th year students of the Medical Department of Wroclaw Medical University in the academic year 2008/2009. Two hundreds then students took part in the study. 62% of examined came from the provincial capital, the 11.4% from the town with the population above 100 hundred of inhabitants, 22.4% of towns with the population below 100 hundred of inhabitants and 3.8% of students--from country centers. 14.8 % respondents admitted to smoking cigarettes, 75.2% were non-smoking persons, 10% were smokers but ceased smoking cigarettes in the sequence of a few last years. Amongst smokers--the most (59% of students and 71% of students) is smoking to 5 cigarettes per day. The most students (56% of women and 60% of men) began smoking in the secondary school. In studied group 67.6% (142) examined is claiming that the anti-tobacco advice should give family doctors, and 43% thinks that a patient which isn't able to cease the smoking in spite of strong motivation should be seen by a family doctor. The percentage of smokers amongst medical students didn't take turns in the sequence of two last years, however amongst smokers--biggest percentage is smoking to 5 cigarettes per day. The students most often begin smoking in the secondary school. The straight majority of the medical students is paying attention, that family doctors should take up giving the anti-tobacco advice and helping patients which isn't able to cease the smoking in spite of strong motivation. The ones smoking the small number of cigarettes and which began smoking in the secondary school are predominating amongst smokers. Overbalancing percentage of examined is located anti-tobacco therapy into competence of

  15. Grindability of cast Ti-6Al-4V alloyed with copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Ikuya; Aoki, Takayuki; Okabe, Toru

    2009-02-01

    This study investigated the grindability of cast Ti-6Al-4V alloyed with copper. The metals tested were commercially pure titanium (CP Ti), Ti-6Al-4V, experimental Ti-6Al-4V-Cu (1, 4, and 10 wt% Cu), and Co-Cr alloy. Each metal was cast into five blocks (3.0 x 8.0 x 30.0 mm(3)). The 3.0-mm wide surface of each block was ground using a hand-piece engine with an SiC wheel at four circumferential speeds (500, 750, 1000, and 1250 m/min) at a grinding force of 100 g. The grindability index (G-index) was determined as volume loss (mm(3)) calculated from the weight loss after 1 minute of grinding and the density of each metal. The ratio of the metal volume loss and the wheel volume loss was also calculated (G-ratio, %). Data (n = 5) were statistically analyzed using ANOVA (alpha= 0.05). Ti-6Al-4V and the experimental Ti-6Al-4V-Cu alloys exhibited significantly (p grindability of some of the resultant Ti-6Al-4V-Cu alloys.

  16. Receiver subsystem analysis report (RADL Item 4-1). The 10-MWe solar thermal central-receiver pilot plant: Solar-facilities design integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    The results of thermal hydraulic, design for the stress analyses which are required to demonstrate that the receiver design for the Barstow Solar Pilot Plant satisfies the general design and performance requirements during the plant's design life are presented. Recommendations are made for receiver operation. The analyses are limited to receiver subsystem major structural parts (primary tower, receiver unit core support structure), pressure parts (absorber panels, feedwater, condensate and steam piping/components, flash tank, and steam mainfold) and shielding.

  17. Predominant CD4 T-lymphocyte tropism of human herpesvirus 6-related virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, K; Sonoda, S; Higashi, K; Kondo, T; Takahashi, H; Takahashi, M; Yamanishi, K

    1989-01-01

    Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6)-related virus was isolated from CD4+ CD8- and CD3+ CD4+ mature T lymphocytes but could not be isolated from CD4- CD8+, CD4- CD8-, and CD3- T cells in the peripheral blood of exanthem subitum patients. HHV-6-related virus predominantly infected CD4+ CD8+, CD4+ CD8-, and CD3+ CD4+ cells with mature phenotypes and rarely infected CD4- CD8+ cells from cord blood mononuclear cells, which suggested predominant CD4 mature T-lymphocyte tropism of HHV-6-related virus.

  18. Graphene radio frequency receiver integrated circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shu-Jen; Garcia, Alberto Valdes; Oida, Satoshi; Jenkins, Keith A; Haensch, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Graphene has attracted much interest as a future channel material in radio frequency electronics because of its superior electrical properties. Fabrication of a graphene integrated circuit without significantly degrading transistor performance has proven to be challenging, posing one of the major bottlenecks to compete with existing technologies. Here we present a fabrication method fully preserving graphene transistor quality, demonstrated with the implementation of a high-performance three-stage graphene integrated circuit. The circuit operates as a radio frequency receiver performing signal amplification, filtering and downconversion mixing. All circuit components are integrated into 0.6 mm(2) area and fabricated on 200 mm silicon wafers, showing the unprecedented graphene circuit complexity and silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process compatibility. The demonstrated circuit performance allow us to use graphene integrated circuit to perform practical wireless communication functions, receiving and restoring digital text transmitted on a 4.3-GHz carrier signal.

  19. Desloratadine therapy improves allergic rhinitis symptoms in latin american children aged 6 to 12 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassinari, Paolo; Suárez, Nelson R; Centeno, Jorge; Velásquez, Janina Vergara; Aguirre-Mariscal, Héctor; Gonzálezdíaz, Sandra N; Jerves, Alfredo Fernández de Córdova

    2009-04-01

    : To determine the effectiveness of desloratadine syrup in relieving symptoms of allergic rhinitis (AR) among children in Latin America. : In an open-label trial conducted in 5 Latin American countries, 455 children aged 6 to 12 years with seasonal or perennial AR were treated with desloratadine syrup 2.5 mg/d for 6 weeks. Thirty percent of subjects were concomitantly taking corticosteroids, and 21.3% had a history of asthma. Efficacy was measured by improvement in the Total Symptom Severity 4 questionnaire and decrease in severity of individual nasal symptoms of congestion, rhinorrhea, pruritus, and sneezing. Physicians and subjects' caregivers rated symptom improvement in a separate assessment at final visit. : Treatment with desloratadine led to a significant decrease in mean Total Symptom Severity 4 score, from 7.54 at baseline to 1.96 at study end (P Latin American children.

  20. Features of tennis methods of teaching 5-6 years old children in the initial stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Kurmaeva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : theoretical and methodological justification for the existing teaching methods tennis of 5-6 years old children. Material : 17 special analysis and scientific and methodological sources. Results : the features of the existing methods of teaching children at an early stage of training. The main theses of the existing methods: 1 the training process is carried out in the form of games; 2 the level of general physical preparedness level exceeds special; 3 The first two years of the children do not participate in official competitions; 4 education of children begins with " School Ball ", with a gradual transition to employment with racket and ball; 5 training is built on two levels: theoretical - each " part" in the form of pre- formation of a mental model of rational behavior, and practical - the formation of the ability to perform motor actions. Conclusions : it was found that the existing methods of constructing the training process for children 5-6 years do not account for their physiological characteristics, therefore proposed to use computer technology and animation, that will shorten the formation of motor skills of children.

  1. A Case of Juvenile Huntington Disease in a 6-Year-Old Boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Sang Sunwoo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Huntington disease is a neurodegenerative disorder distinguished by the triad of dominant inheritance, choreoathetosis and dementia, usually with onset in the fourth and fifth decades. It is caused by an unstable cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG trinucleotide repeat expansion in the gene IT15 in locus 4p16.3. Juvenile HD that constitutes about 3% to 10% of all patients is clinically different from adult-onset form and characterized by a larger number of CAG repeats typically exceeding 60. We report a case of a 6-year-old boy with myoclonic seizure and 140 CAG repeats confirmed by molecular genetic analysis.

  2. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled noninferiority trial of amoxicillin for clinically diagnosed acute otitis media in children 6 months to 5 years of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Saux, Nicole; Gaboury, Isabelle; Baird, Marian; Klassen, Terry P.; MacCormick, Johnna; Blanchard, Colline; Pitters, Carrol; Sampson, Margaret; Moher, David

    2005-01-01

    Objectives Debate continues with respect to a “watch and wait” approach versus immediate antibiotic treatment for the initial treatment of acute otitis media. In this double-blind noninferiority trial, we compared clinical improvement rates at 14 days for children (6 months to 5 years of age) with acute otitis media who were randomly assigned to receive amoxicillin or placebo. Methods We enrolled healthy children who presented to clinics or the emergency department with a new episode of acute otitis media during the fall and winter months in Ottawa (from December 1999 to the end of March 2002). The children were randomly assigned to receive amoxicillin (60 mg/kg daily) or placebo for 10 days. Telephone follow-up was performed on each of days 1, 2 and 3 and once between day 10 and day 14. The primary outcome was clinical resolution of symptoms, defined as absence of receipt of an antimicrobial (other than the amoxicillin in the treatment group) at any time during the 14-day period. Secondary outcomes were the presence of pain and fever and the activity level in the first 3 days, recurrence rates, and the presence of middle ear effusion at 1 and 3 months. Results According to clinical scoring, 415 of the 512 children who could be evaluated had moderate disease. At 14 days 84.2% of the children receiving placebo and 92.8% of those receiving amoxicillin had clinical resolution of symptoms (absolute difference –8.6%, 95% confidence interval –14.4% to –3.0%). Children who received placebo had more pain and fever in the first 2 days. There were no statistical differences in adverse events between the 2 groups, nor were there any significant differences in recurrence rates or middle ear effusion at 1 and 3 months. Interpretation Our results did not support the hypothesis that placebo was noninferior to amoxicillin (i.e., that the 14-day cure rates among children with clinically diagnosed acute otitis media would not be substantially worse in the placebo group

  3. Five-year follow-up of survival and relapse in patients who received cryotherapy during high-dose chemotherapy for stem cell transplantation shows no safety concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanberg, A; Ohrn, K; Birgegård, G

    2012-11-01

    We have previously published a randomised controlled study of the efficacy of cryotherapy in preventing acute oral mucositis after high-dose chemotherapy for stem cell transplantation. The present study is a 5-year follow-up safety study of survival in these patients. In the previously published study oral cryotherapy (cooling of the oral cavity) during high-dose chemotherapy significantly reduced mucositis grade and opiate use in the treated group. All patients were followed up for at least 5 years with regard to relapse and death rates. Baseline data, transplant complications and mucositis data were compared. Significantly more patients (25/39) who received oral cryotherapy were alive after 5 years compared to 15/39 in the control group (P= 0.025). Relapse rates were similar. The only baseline difference was a lower proportion of patients in complete remission at transplantation in the control group (6 vs. 13, P= 0.047). This 5-year follow-up study gave no support for safety concerns with cryotherapy. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Sexual dysfunction in multiple sclerosis: A 6-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisic-Tepavcevic, Darija; Pekmezovic, Tatjana; Trajkovic, Goran; Stojsavljevic, Nebojsa; Dujmovic, Irena; Mesaros, Sarlota; Drulovic, Jelena

    2015-11-15

    Sexual dysfunction (SD) is a common but often overlooked and undertreated symptom in multiple sclerosis (MS). The purpose of our longitudinal study was to explore the changes in the level of sexual functioning in MS cohort after a period of 3 and 6 years of follow-up, as well as to investigate the predictors of changes in SD during the period of observation. The study population comprise a cohort of 93 patients with MS (McDonald's criteria, 2001) who were assessed at three time points during the study (baseline, and at the 3- and 6-year follow-up). The presence and severity of SD was quantified by Szasz sexual functioning scale. Independent predictors of the ordinal-scaled measure of sexual problems were identified using a generalized linear mixed regression models. The number of reported SD symptoms increased markedly for both genders during the whole period of observation. Duration of follow-up, age, level of physical disability, depression and fatigue were identified as independent prognostic factors for deterioration of sexual functioning in patients with MS during the 6-year follow-up. Our study provides insight into dynamics of change in sexual function among patients with MS and predictors of change, over the period of 6 years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Depression, anxiety and 6-year risk of cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seldenrijk, Adrie; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Batelaan, Neeltje M.; Wieman, Iris; van Schaik, Digna J. F.; Penninx, Brenda J. W. H.

    Objective: Depression and anxiety are considered etiological factors in cardiovascular disease (ND), though their relative contribution and differentiation by clinical characteristics have not been studied intensively. We examined 6-year associations between depressive and anxiety disorders,

  6. HIV positive asylum seekers receiving the order to leave the Belgian territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeester, Remy; Legrand, Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

    In a human rights based approach, the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe has recently released a resolution about migrants and refugees and the fight against HIV (1). It states that "an HIV positive migrant should never be expelled when it is clear that he will not receive adequate health care and assistance in the country to which he is being sent back. To do otherwise would amount to a death sentence for that person." Nevertheless, in Belgium, for the last 2 years, none of the HIV-infected migrants in care in the AIDS Reference Centers (ARC) received the right to stay in Belgium for medical reasons. We identified all HIV-infected asylum seekers in care between 1 July 2012 and 1 July 2014 in the ARC of Charleroi, Belgium, and we analyzed their medical and social files. Among the 302 patients in active follow up in our ARC, 45 HIV positive asylum seekers were in care during the last 2 years. Male/female ratio was 0/96. Mean age was 35 years. Countries of origin and reasons for migration are detailed in the Table 1. 18% (8/45) knew their seropositivity before arriving in Europe. All the patients introduced an asylum request, 29 (64%) have received a negative answer and an order to leave the territory, 4 (9%) were regularized for non-medical reasons (see Table 1), 4 (9%) are waiting for an answer and for 8 (18%) outcome is unknown due to lost follow up (LFU). 31 (69%) patients have also introduced a request to stay for medical reasons: 18 (58%) have received a refusal, 7 (23%) are still waiting for an answer, and 6 (19%) are LFU. Only 23 (51%) patients are still in care in our ARC on 1 July 2014 (see Table 1). The immigration office bases its decisions on availability of the treatment in the country even if accessible only to a limited number of patients. Decisions taken by the Belgian authorities for the last two years concerning HIV-infected asylum seekers do not guarantee the continuity of care of those patients and push them towards illegality. Such

  7. Nutritional intervention on malnutrition in 3-6 years old rural children in Qazvin Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavoshy, R; Noroozi, M; Jahanihashemi, H; Kiamiri, D

    2012-04-01

    Malnutrition is one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in children. Not only include acute effects on children's health, but also it has long-term effects on their cognitive development and economic growth in the society. Wasting (weight for height with Zmalnutrition indices in children. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a cooked meal for 175 days on the anthropometric indices of weight, height and weight for height (wasting) of 3-6 years old children in all the rural nursery of Qazvin province, in Iran. In this interventional study, 2385 children (48.8% female and 51.2% male) were recruited. Data were collected by a census in 2010. The children were received a cooked meal based on 360 +/- 20 kcal energy, 17% protein, 53% carbohydrate and 30% fat per day for 175 days at lunch time. The anthropometric indices were collected before and after the intervention. The results were analyzed using paired t-test by SPSS V.16 software. Prevalence of wasting (mild and moderate) and (sever malnutrition) after intervention reduced from 14.2 and 0.95-12.6 and 0.5%, respectively (p children (p children.

  8. Urinary incontinence 4 and 12 years after first delivery: Risk factors associated with prevalence, incidence, remission, and persistence in a cohort of 236 women

    OpenAIRE

    Pizzoferrato, Anne-Cécile; Fauconnier, Arnaud; Quiboeuf, Emeline; Morel, Karine; Schaal, Jean-Patrick; Fritel, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    International audience; AIMS: Our aim was to study risk factors associated with prevalence, incidence, and remission of UI 4 and 12 years after first delivery. METHODS: Seven hundred seventy-four nulliparous women who gave birth in 1996 in two French maternity units at term received a questionnaire about their urinary symptoms in 2000 and again in 2008. Two hundred thirty-six women returned a questionnaire about UI 4 and 12 years after first delivery. Four groups of women were built: (A) wome...

  9. Depression and anxiety among chronic pain patients receiving prescription opioids and medical marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feingold, Daniel; Brill, Silviu; Goor-Aryeh, Itay; Delayahu, Yael; Lev-Ran, Shaul

    2017-08-15

    High rates of depression and anxiety have been consistently reported among patients suffering from chronic pain. Prescription opioids are one of the most common modalities for pharmacological treatment of pain, however in recent years medical marijuana(MM) has been increasingly used for pain control in the US and in several countries worldwide. The aim of this study was to compare levels of depression and anxiety among pain patients receiving prescription opioids and MM. Participants were patients suffering from chronic pain treated with prescription opioids (OP,N=474), MM (N=329) or both (OPMM,N=77). Depression and anxiety were assessed using the depression module of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7). Prevalence of depression among patients in the OP, MM and OPMM groups was 57.1%, 22.3% and 51.4%, respectively and rates of anxiety were 48.4%, 21.5% and 38.7%, respectively. After controlling for confounders, patients in the OP group were significantly more likely to screen positive for depression (Adjusted Odds Ratio(AOR)=6.18;95%CI=4.12-9.338) and anxiety(AOR=4.12;CI=3.84-5.71)) compared to those in the MM group. Individuals in the OPMM group were more prone for depression (AOR for depression=3.34;CI=1.52-7.34)) compared to those in the MM group. Cross-sectional study, restricting inference of causality. Levels of depression and anxiety are higher among chronic pain patients receiving prescription opioids compared to those receiving MM. Findings should be taken into consideration when deciding on the most appropriate treatment modality for chronic pain, particularly among those at risk for depression and anxiety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of a 6-Week Active Play Intervention on Fundamental Movement Skill Competence of Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulkes, J D; Knowles, Z; Fairclough, S J; Stratton, G; O'Dwyer, M; Ridgers, N D; Foweather, L

    2017-04-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of an active play intervention on fundamental movement skills of 3- to 5-year-old children from deprived communities. In a cluster randomized controlled trial design, six preschools received a resource pack and a 6-week local authority program involving staff training with help implementing 60-minute weekly sessions and postprogram support. Six comparison preschools received a resource pack only. Twelve skills were assessed at baseline, postintervention, and at a 6-month follow-up using the Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol. One hundred and sixty-two children (Mean age = 4.64 ± 0.58 years; 53.1% boys) were included in the final analyses. There were no significant differences between groups for total fundamental movement skill, object-control skill or locomotor skill scores, indicating a need for program modification to facilitate greater skill improvements.

  11. General and specific attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder factors of children 4 to 6 years of age: An exploratory structural equation modeling approach to assessing symptom multidimensionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Víctor B; Ponce, Fernando P; Martínez-Molina, Agustín; Arias, Benito; Núñez, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We tested first-order factor and bifactor models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) to adequately summarize the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, (DSM-IV-TR) symptoms observed in a Spanish sample of preschoolers and kindergarteners. Six ESEM and CFA models were estimated based on teacher evaluations of the behavior of 638 children 4 to 6 years of age. An ESEM bifactor model with a central dimension plus 3 specific factors (inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity) showed the best fit and interpretability. Strict invariance between the sexes was observed. The bifactor model provided a solution to previously encountered inconsistencies in the factorial models of ADHD in young children. However, the low reliability of the specific factors casts doubt on the utility of the subscales for ADHD measurement. More research is necessary to clarify the nature of G and S factors of ADHD. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Systematic co-operation between employer, occupational health service and social insurance office: a 6-year follow-up of vocational rehabilitation for people on sick-leave, including economic benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kärrholm, Jenny; Ekholm, Karolina; Ekholm, Jan; Bergroth, Alf; Ekholm, Kristina Schüldt

    2008-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of systematic co-operation among municipal employees on the number of sick-leave days per month and the type of benefit granted by the Social Insurance Office. A further aim was to evaluate the economic consequences for society. A 6-year follow-up study with a matched-pairs design. Days on sick-leave were calculated for each subject one year before the intervention started and yearly for the following 6-year period. Statistical mixed-model analysis was used. The economic benefit of the intervention was estimated as the increased production stemming from fewer days on sick-leave. Sixty-four employees on long-term sick-leave were individually matched with controls from another Social Insurance Office in a county with a socioeconomic structure similar to that of the study group. The study group had 5.7 fewer days on sick-leave per month and person over the 6-year period (p=0.003). The estimated average economic benefit of the intervention was euro36,600 per person over the 6-year period. In conclusion, those who received systematic co-operation in vocational rehabilitation had fewer days on sick-leave than their "treatment-as-usual" peers. This effect persisted over 6 years, generating substantial net economic gains for society.

  13. Packet traffic features of IPv6 and IPv4 protocol traffic

    OpenAIRE

    ÇİFLİKLİ, Cebrail; GEZER, Ali; ÖZŞAHİN, Abdullah Tuncay

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, the IPv6 protocol is in a transition phase in operational networks. The ratio of its traffic volume is increasing day by day. The many provided facilities for IPv6 connection increasethe total IPv6 traffic load. IPv6-over-IPv4 tunnels, pilot programsto provide IPv6 connections, IPv6/IPv4 dual stack operating systems,and free IPv6 tunnel brokers cause the IPv6 protocol to expand quickly. For efficient resource utilization, the characteristics of network traffic should be determ...

  14. Validation of the "Pain Block" concrete ordinal scale for children aged 4 to 7 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jin Hee; Lee, Jin Hee; Kim, Do Kyun; Jung, Jae Yun; Chang, Ikwan; Kwon, Hyuksool; Shin, Jonghwan; Paek, So Hyun; Oh, Sohee; Kwak, Young Ho

    2018-04-01

    Pain scales using faces are commonly used tools for assessing pain in children capable of communicating. However, some children require other types of pain scales because they have difficulties in understanding faces pain scales. The goal of this study was to develop and validate the "Pain Block" concrete ordinal scale for 4- to 7-year-old children. This was a multicenter prospective observational study in the emergency department. Psychometric properties (convergent validity, discriminative validity, responsivity, and reliability) were compared between the "Pain Block" pain scale and the Faces Pain Scale-Revised (FPS-R) to assess the validity of the "Pain Block" scale. A total of 163 children (mean age, 5.5 years) were included in this study. The correlation coefficient between the FPS-R and the Pain Block scale was 0.82 for all participants which increased with age. Agreement between the 2 pain scales was acceptable, with 95.0% of the values within the predetermined limit. The differences in mean scores between the painful group and nonpainful group were 3.3 (95% confidence interval, 2.6-4.1) and 3.8 (95% confidence interval, 3.1-4.6) for FPR-S and Pain Block, respectively. The pain scores for both pain scales were significantly decreased when analgesics or pain-relieving procedures were administered (difference in Pain Block, 2.4 [1.4-3.3]; and difference in FPS-R, 2.3 [1.3-3.3]). The Pain Block pain scale could be used to assess pain in 4- to 7-year-old children capable of understanding and counting up to the number 5, even if they do not understand the FPS-R pain scale.

  15. Predicting vocabulary growth in children with and without specific language impairment: a longitudinal study from 2;6 to 21 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Mabel L; Hoffman, Lesa

    2015-04-01

    Children with specific language impairment (SLI) often have vocabulary impairments. This study evaluates longitudinal growth in a latent trait of receptive vocabulary in affected and unaffected children ages 2;6 (years;months) to 21 years and evaluates as possible predictors maternal education, child gender, and nonverbal IQ. A sample of 519 participants (240 with SLI; 279 unaffected) received an average of 7 annual assessments for a total of 3,012 latent trait Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) observations. Unconditional and conditional multilevel growth models were estimated to evaluate growth trajectories and predictor relationships over time. Children with SLI had lower levels of receptive vocabulary throughout the age range assessed. They did not close the gap with age peers. Children with higher nonverbal IQs had better PPVT performance, as did children of mothers with higher education. Child gender showed an advantage for young girls that leveled out with age and then became an advantage for boys from ages 10 to 21 years. All children's rate of vocabulary acquisition slowed around 12 years of age. The outcomes of the study have implications for hypothesized causal pathways for individual differences; predictions differ for children under 5 years, 6-10 years, and later ages.

  16. Nido-Carborane building-block reagents. 2. Bulky-substituent (alkyl)2C2B4H6 derivatives and (C6H5)2C2B4H6: synthesis and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyter, H.A. Jr.; Grimes, R.N.

    1988-01-01

    The preparation and chemistry of nido-2,3-R 2 C 2 C 2 B 4 H 6 carboranes in which R is n-butyl, isopentyl, n-hexyl, and phenyl was investigated in order to further assess the steric and electronic influence of the R groups on the properties of the nido-C 2 B 4 cage, especially with respect to metal complexation at the C 2 B 3 face and metal-promoted oxidative fusion. The three dialkyl derivatives were prepared from the corresponding dialkylacetylenes via reaction with B 5 H 9 and triethylamine, but the diphenyl compound could not be prepared in this manner and was obtained instead in a thermal reaction of B 5 H 9 with diphenylacetylene in the absence of amine. All four carboranes are readily bridge-deprotonated by NaH in THF, and the anions of the dialkyl species, on treatment with FeCl 2 and air oxidation, generate the respective R 4 C 4 B 8 H 8 carborane fusion products were R = n-C 4 H 9 , i-C 5 H 11 or n-C 6 H 13 . The diphenylcarborane anion Ph 2 C 2 B 4 H 5 - did not form detectable metal complexes with Fe 2+ , Co 2+ , or Ni 2+ , and no evidence of a Ph 4 C 4 B 8 H 8 fusion product has been found. Treatment of Ph 2 C 2 B 4 H 6 with Cr(CO) 6 did not lead to metal coordination of the phenyl rings, unlike (PhCH 2 ) 2 C 2 B 4 H 6 , which had previously been shown to form mono- and bis(tricarbonylchromium) complexes. However, the reaction of Ph 2 C 2 B 4 H 5 - , CoCl 2 , and (PhPCH 2 ) 2 did give 1,1-(Ph 2 PCH 2 ) 2 -1-Cl-1,2,3-Co(Ph 2 C 2 B 4 H 4 ), the only case in which metal complexation of the diphenylcarborane was observed. 14 references, 3 figures, 3 tables

  17. Specific anti-EL4-lymphoma immunity in mice cured 2 years earlier with doxorubicin and interleukin-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrke, M J; Verstovsek, S; Zaleskis, G; Ho, R L; Ujházy, P; Maccubbin, D L; Mihich, E

    1996-05-01

    This laboratory has reported the conditions for an effective, non-toxic, chemoimmunotherapy utilizing doxorubicin in combination with prolonged administration of interleukin-2 and the identification of the critical role of activated CD8+ T cells in the therapeutic effect. Mice (C57BL/6) cured in those studies have been followed for the remainder of their life spans. These mice, approximately 2 months of age when initially inoculated with syngeneic EL4 lymphoma, survived for more than 2 years, the normal life span of C57BL/6 mice. Mice 4 months old reinoculated with the EL4 cells all survived. At about 1 year of age mice were sacrificed and the ability of their thymocytes and splenocytes to develop specific CD8+ anti-EL4 activity was as high as it had been at the time of tumor rejection. At about 2 years of age EL4 was reimplanted into mice; all of them survived. These surviving mice, at 2 years 2 months of age, as well as a group of 2-year-old mice not rechallenged, were killed and functional antitumor activity and phenotype characteristics of various lymphocyte populations were determined in comparison to those of young and age-matched control mice. The phenotyping of the lymphocytes from the cured mice indicated very notable differences in subset distribution and increased CD44 expression. Functionally they developed high levels of anti-EL4 activity, which was ablated by combined treatment with monoclonal antibodies against CD8 and CD44, indicating the role of memory cells. Consistent with cells from aged mice, these same cell populations had a very reduced allogeneic responsiveness. It appears that cured mice have developed an immune memory specific for EL4.

  18. Synthesis, structure and electronic configuration of [Rh{sub 6}Te{sub 8}(PPh{sub 3}){sub 6}].4C{sub 6}H{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiele, Guenther; Balmer, Markus [Marburg Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich Chemie; Dehnen, Stefanie [Marburg Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich Chemie and Wissenschaftliches Zentrum fuer Materialwissenschaften

    2016-08-01

    [Rh{sub 6}Te{sub 8}(PPh{sub 3}){sub 6}].4C{sub 6}H{sub 6}, the first compound with a molecular Chevrel-type [Rh{sub 6}Te{sub 8}] cluster core has been synthesized and structurally characterized. By means of quantum chemical calculation, the close relationship of its electronic configuration to that of the lighter homologue has been demonstrated. The different crystal solvent content prevents an isostructural crystallization.

  19. A novel extended architecture with 4 6·6 4 topology based on mixed-valence Wells-Dawson arsenotungstate and mixed-ligand Cu(I) units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Ruizhan; Ren, Xiaoyu; Li, Zuoxi; Liu, Bin; Hu, Huaiming; Xue, Ganglin; Fu, Feng; Wang, Jiwu

    2010-09-01

    A novel inorganic-organic hybrid compound based on mixed-valence Wells-Dawson arsenotungstate and mixed-ligand Cu(I) units, Cu 8I(imi) 4(bpy) 6(H 2O)[As 2VW 2VW 16VlO 62]·2H 2O ( 1) (bpy=4,4'-bipydine; imi=imidazole), has been hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, luminescent spectrum and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction revealed that four terminal and three bridging oxygen atoms of the Wells-Dawson cluster are coordinated to Cu(I) ions and form an unprecedented hepta-supporting polyoxometalate. The functionalized arsenotungstates are further connected by two kinds of tridentate linkers, Imi-Cu-(bpy)-Cu-(bpy)-Cu-(bpy)-Cu-Imi and Imi-Cu-(bpy)-Cu-(bpy)-Cu-H 2O, to construct a 3D framework with 4 6·6 4 topology. The hybrid material has an intense emission at about 397 nm.

  20. Dose requirements of alfentanil to eliminate autonomic responses during rapid-sequence induction with thiopental 4 mg/kg and rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Arab, Mohammad H; Rostrup, Morten; Heier, Tom

    2016-12-01

    Opioids are integral part of anesthesia induction, but information on optimal dosing is limited. We aimed to determine doses of alfentanil needed to eliminate increases in 5 autonomic response variables (plasma concentrations of epinephrine, norepinephrine and vasopressin, arterial blood pressure [ABP], and heart rate) during rapid-sequence induction of anesthesia with thiopental 4 mg/kg and rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg. Prospective, randomized, observer-blinded, interventional clinical study. Large academic institution. Eighty-four healthy patients, aged 18 to 55 years, received 1 of 7 assessor-blinded doses of alfentanil (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 μg/kg) together with thiopental 4 mg/kg and rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg, administered in rapid succession (15 seconds). Laryngoscopy was initiated 40 seconds after rocuronium, and tracheal intubation was concluded within 15 seconds thereafter. An indwelling radial artery catheter was used for hemodynamic monitoring and blood sampling. Relationships between alfentanil dose and response variables were tested with linear regression, and the influence of covariates (sex, body weight, and age) was determined. Alfentanil dose needed to prevent increases in ABP >10% above baseline with 95% probability was estimated with logistic regression. Significant relationships were determined between alfentanil dose and response variables. Clinically interesting influence of covariates was not found. Alfentanil 55 μg/kg was needed to prevent increases in ABP postintubation >10% above baseline with 95% probability. One individual needed a bolus of vasopressor postintubation. Optimal control of autonomic responses during rapid-sequence induction was achieved with clinically relevant doses of alfentanil in healthy patients anesthetized with thiopental 4 mg/kg and rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Injection frequency and anatomic outcomes 1 year following conversion to aflibercept in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messenger, Wyatt B; Campbell, J Peter; Faridi, Ambar; Shippey, Loton; Bailey, Steven T; Lauer, Andreas K; Flaxel, Christina J; Hwang, Thomas S

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the clinical, anatomic and functional effects of conversion to aflibercept following ranibizumab and/or bevacizumab in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). A retrospective review of patients with neovascular AMD treated with intravitreal ranibizumab and/or bevacizumab who were switched to aflibercept was performed. The primary outcome was change in injection frequency in the year following the change. Secondary outcomes included change in central macular thickness (CMT) at 6 months and 1 year, presence of intraretinal and subretinal fluid at 6 months and visual acuity at 1 year. A total of 109 eyes with neovascular AMD were switched to aflibercept and met inclusion criteria. Overall, aflibercept injection frequency was unchanged with patients receiving 7.4 antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections the year prior to conversion compared with 7.2 aflibercept injections in the year following (p=0.47). However, the change to aflibercept was associated with improvement in CMT from 324 to 295 μm (p=0.0001) at 6 months and 299 μm (p=0.0047) at 1 year. There was no effect on visual acuity at 1 year. In a subgroup analysis, patients who had received ≥10 anti-VEGF injections in the year prior had fewer injections (11.1 to 8.4, p<0.0001) and clinic visits (13.9 to 9.6, p<0.0001) as well as a significant decrease in CMT (-35 μm, p=0.02). In our population, switching to aflibercept therapy was not associated with a change in injection frequency nor improved visual acuity, but was associated with improved CMT at 6 months and 1 year. In patients who received at least 10 anti-VEGF injections in the year prior, transitioning to aflibercept was associated with a reduced injection frequency and CMT, suggesting potential cost savings in this population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Long-term safety and efficacy of deferasirox (Exjade) for up to 5 years in transfusional iron-overloaded patients with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vichinsky, Elliott; Bernaudin, Françoise; Forni, Gian Luca; Gardner, Renee; Hassell, Kathryn; Heeney, Matthew M; Inusa, Baba; Kutlar, Abdullah; Lane, Peter; Mathias, Liesl; Porter, John; Tebbi, Cameron; Wilson, Felicia; Griffel, Louis; Deng, Wei; Giannone, Vanessa; Coates, Thomas

    2011-08-01

    To date, there is a lack of long-term safety and efficacy data for iron chelation therapy in transfusion-dependent patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). To evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of deferasirox (a once-daily oral iron chelator), patients with SCD completing a 1-year, Phase II, randomized, deferoxamine (DFO)-controlled study entered a 4-year extension, continuing to receive deferasirox, or switching from DFO to deferasirox. Average actual deferasirox dose was 19·4 ± 6·3 mg/kg per d. Of 185 patients who received at least one deferasirox dose, 33·5% completed the 5-year study. The most common reasons for discontinuation were withdrawal of consent (23·8%), lost to follow-up (9·2%) and adverse events (AEs) (7·6%). Investigator-assessed drug-related AEs were predominantly gastrointestinal [including nausea (14·6%), diarrhoea (10·8%)], mild-to-moderate and transient in nature. Creatinine clearance remained within the normal range throughout the study. Despite conservative initial dosing, serum ferritin levels in patients with ≥ 4 years deferasirox exposure significantly decreased by -591 μg/l (95% confidence intervals, -1411, -280 μg/l; P = 0·027; n = 67). Long-term deferasirox treatment for up to 5 years had a clinically acceptable safety profile, including maintenance of normal renal function, in patients with SCD. Iron burden was substantially reduced with appropriate dosing in patients treated for at least 4 years. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. High figure of merit and thermoelectric properties of Bi-doped Mg2Si0.4Sn0.6 solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wei; Zhang, Qiang; Yin, Kang; Chi, Hang; Zhou, Xiaoyuan; Tang, Xinfeng; Uher, Ctirad

    2013-01-01

    The study of Mg 2 Si 1−x Sn x -based thermoelectric materials has received widespread attention due to a potentially high thermoelectric performance, abundant raw materials, relatively low cost of modules, and non-toxic character of compounds. In this research, Mg 2.16 (Si 0.4 Sn 0.6 ) 1−y Bi y solid solutions with the nominal Bi content of 0≤y≤0.03 are prepared using a two-step solid state reaction followed by spark plasma sintering consolidation. Within this range of Bi concentrations, no evidence of second phase segregation was found. Bi is confirmed to occupy the Si/Sn sites in the crystal lattice and behaves as an efficient n-type dopant in Mg 2 Si 0.4 Sn 0.6 . Similar to the effect of Sb, Bi doping greatly increases the electron density and the power factor, and reduces the lattice thermal conductivity of Mg 2.16 Si 0.4 Sn 0.6 solid solutions. Overall, the thermoelectric figure of merit of Bi-doped Mg 2.16 Si 0.4 Sn 0.6 solid solutions is improved by about 10% in comparison to values obtained with Sb-doped materials of comparable dopant content. This improvement comes chiefly from a marginally higher Seebeck coefficient of Bi-doped solid solutions. The highest ZT∼1.4 is achieved for the y=0.03 composition at 800 K. - Graphical abstract: (a)The relationship between electrical conductivity and power factor for Sb/Bi-doped Mg 2.16 (Si 0.4 Sn 0.6 ) 1−y (Sb/Bi) y (0 2.16 (Si 0.4 Sn 0.6 ) 1−y Bi y (0≤y≤0.03) solid solutions. (c)Temperature dependent dimensionless figure of merit ZT of Mg 2.16 (Si 0.4 Sn 0.6 ) 1−y Bi y (0≤y≤0.03) solid solutions. - Highlights: • Bi doped Mg 2.16 Si 0.4 Sn 0.6 showed 15% enhancement in the power factor as compared to Sb doped samples. • Bi doping reduced κ ph of Mg 2.16 Si 0.4 Sn 0.6 due to stronger point defect scattering. • The highest ZT=1.4 at 800 K was achieved for Mg 2.16 (Si 0.4 Sn 0.6 ) 0.97 Bi 0.03

  4. Safety and immunogenicity of yellow fever 17D vaccine in adults receiving systemic corticosteroid therapy: an observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernéis, Solen; Launay, Odile; Ancelle, Thierry; Iordache, Laura; Naneix-Laroche, Véronique; Méchaï, Frédéric; Fehr, Thierry; Leroy, Jean-Philippe; Issartel, Bertrand; Dunand, Jean; van der Vliet, Diane; Wyplosz, Benjamin; Consigny, Paul-Henri; Hanslik, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    To assess the safety and immunogenicity of live attenuated yellow fever (YF) 17D vaccine in adults receiving systemic corticosteroid therapy. All adult travelers on systemic corticosteroid therapy who had received the YF17D vaccine in 24 French vaccination centers were prospectively enrolled and matched with healthy controls (1:2) on age and history of YF17D immunization. Safety was assessed in a self-administered standardized questionnaire within 10 days after immunization. YF-specific neutralizing antibody titers were measured 6 months after vaccination in patients receiving corticosteroids. Between July 2008 and February 2011, 102 vaccine recipients completed the safety study (34 receiving corticosteroids and 68 controls). The median age was 54.9 years (interquartile range [IQR] 45.1-60.3 years) and 45 participants had a history of previous YF17D immunization. The median time receiving corticosteroid therapy was 10 months (IQR 1-67 months) and the prednisone or equivalent dosage was 7 mg/day (IQR 5-20). Main indications were autoimmune diseases (n = 14), rheumatoid arthritis (n = 9), and upper respiratory tract infections (n = 8). No serious adverse event was reported; however, patients receiving corticosteroids reported more frequent moderate/severe local reactions than controls (12% and 2%, respectively; relative risk 8.0, 95% confidence interval 1.4-45.9). All subjects receiving corticosteroids who were tested (n = 20) had neutralizing antibody titers >10 after vaccination. After YF17D immunization, moderate/severe local reactions may be more frequent in patients receiving systemic corticosteroid therapy. Immunogenicity seems satisfactory. Large-scale studies are needed to confirm these results. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  5. Synthesis of 6-Methyl-9-propyldibenzothiophene-4-ol amended to 9-isopropyl-6-methyldibenzothiophene-4-ol. Final technical report, July 25, 1991--January 25, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenbraun, E.J.

    1992-02-17

    This is a draft final technical report on Task 1 of a contract to synthesize 6-Methyl-9-propyldibenzothiophene-4-ol, as amended to 9- isopropyl-6-methyldibenzothiophene-4-ol. This report is a compilation of data presented in earlier reports. The first annual report dealt with an attempted synthesis of 4-methoxy-6-methyl-9- propyldibenzothiophene (the original target compound), the successful synthesis and delivery of 200 grams of the sulfide 1,4-diethyl-2- [(2{prime}-methoxyphenyl)-thio]benzene, and initial work on a new synthesis route for the preparation of the new target compound 9- isopropyl-6-methyldibenzothiophene-4-ol. The change to the new target compound and the new synthesis route became necessary when it was learned that the sulfide mixture could not be cyclized to the substituted dibenzothiophene mixture. The second annual report described the successful preparation of 45 g of the new target compound using the new synthesis route. Subsequently funds were provided to synthesize an additional 45 g of the new target using the same reaction scheme. This task was recently completed.

  6. Perancangan dan Analisis Perbandingan Implementasi OSPF pada Jaringan IPv4 dan IPv6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAULINE RAHMIATI

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak OSPF (Open Shortest Path First adalah suatu routing protokol bersifat terbuka dan didukung oleh berbagai perangkat network. IPv4 telah mencapai batas maksimum dalam jumlah alamat sehingga IPv6 merupakan solusi dalam hal tersebut. Seperti IPv4, IPv6 juga sudah mulai diimplementasikan untuk routing protokol OSPF, oleh karena itu pada penelitian ini akan dirancang suatu routing protokol OSPF IPv6 dan sebagai bahan perbandingan akan dibandingkan dengan OSPF IPv4. Software Cisco Packet Tracer 5.3 digunakan untuk mensimulasikan perancangan jaringan yang dibuat. Pada penelitian ini akan dibandingkan 2 buah jaringan berbasis routing protokol OSPF, yaitu OSPF untuk IPv4 dan IPv6. Skenario pertama dilakukan 100 kali dalam 5 kasus untuk mengetahui nilai delay OSPF IPv4 dan OSPF IPv6. Skenario kedua dilakukan pemutusan link dilakukan sebanyak 30 kali, hal yang dilihat dari pengujian ini adalah hasil trace route dari cost yang ada. Skenario ketiga dilakukan dengan mengamati waktu konvergensi dari OSPF IPv4 dan IPv6. Secara keseluruhan nilai delay OSPF IPv6 lebih kecil dibandingkan dengan OSPF IPv4 sebesar 3-6%, Trace route dan nilai cost pada OSPF IPv6 dan OSPF IPv4 sama tetapi nilai delay OSPF IPv6 lebih kecil sebesar 3-6% dan waktu konvergensi OSPF IPv4 bernilai sama dengan OSPF IPv6 yaitu 10 detik. Kata kunci: OSPF, IPv4, Ipv6, delay, konvergensi Abstract OSPF (Open Shortest Path First is a routing protocol that opened and supported by a wide range of network devices. IPv4 has reached the maximum limit on the number of addresses that IPv6 are a solution in this case. Same as IPv4, IPv6 also has begun to be implemented for the OSPF routing protocol, therefore this study wiould design an IPv6 OSPF routing protocol and as a comparison will be compared to IPv4 OSPF. Cisco Packet Tracer 5.3 software was used to simulate the made network design. This research would compare two pieces of network-based routing protocol OSPF, OSPF for IPv4 and IPv6. The

  7. Body mass index in the first year after kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, B; Moratelli, L; Silva, L B; Paiva, A C M; Silva, A N; Carminatti, M; Bastos, M G; Sanders-Pinheiro, H

    2014-01-01

    Kidney transplant recipients (KTR) experience better appetite, partly due to the use of steroids, and are subjected to less severe dietetic restrictions, hence they tend to increase the uptake of calories, which favors weight gain posttransplantation. In this study, we evaluate the profile of body mass index (BMI) in the first year posttransplantation. This was a retrospective study including 131 patients who received transplants between 1991 and 2011. We collected demographic and clinical data such as body weight and height, and calculated BMI pretransplantation and at 6 and 12 months posttransplantation. Mean age was 47.1 ± 13.1 years, 64.9% were male, and 29% of patients were diabetic. Pretransplantation mean BMI was 23.04 ± 4.08 kg/m(2), and at 6 and 12 months posttransplantation it increased to 24.55 ± 4.2 kg/m(2) and 24.65 ± 4.16 kg/m(2), respectively (P importance of identifying subjects at risk for excessive weight gain posttransplantation, thus allowing an early nutritional intervention to prevent its complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [A 6-year evaluation of dyslipidemia in a health center: Importance of improvement actions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antón-García, F; Correcher-Salvador, E; Rodríguez-Lagos, F A; González-Caminero, S

    2014-01-01

    Dyslipidemia, especially an increased LDL-cholesterol, has been shown to be one of the most important risk factors in the genesis of coronary involvement. The prevalence of dyslipidemias in Spain is high. The objective of this study is to assess the progress of dyslipidemic patients in our health center over a 6-year period, and see if there has been any improvement in its control after the presentation of the evaluation of the first 3 years, as well as an updated dyslipidemia protocol. Assessment Period 1 (2006-2008): 267 patients with dyslipidemia. Assessment Period 2 (2009-2011): 222 patients, excluding exitus and address changes. age, sex, personal history of CVD, vascular risk factors, lipids, drug treatment, risk levels, and percentages of CV control objectives. Mean age was 66.2 years (SD 13.4), 66.3% women. Period 1-Period 2: Total cholesterol: 221.9-196.6 mg/dl (P=.000); LDL-cholesterol: 147.9-115.8 mg/dl (P=.000). In high risk patients, therapeutic targets: 14-50.5% (P=.024); medium risk: 35-68.1% (P=.038); low risk: 44-68.2% (P=NS). Pharmacotherapy 68-77% (P=.000). Changing treatment: 30-43% (P=.001). Adherence: 75-86% (P=.003). Untreated high risk: 15.4-16.3% (P=NS). There was a significant improvement in Period 2, especially in high-risk patients, after presenting the results of the evaluation for Period 1 and with the updated dyslipidemia protocol. There are high risk patients without lipid-lowering treatment to be detected and reviewed. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  9. Hexane-1,6-diaminium bis[3,4,5,6-tetrachloro-2-(methoxycarbonylbenzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the anion of the title salt, C6H18N22+·2C9H3Cl4O4−, the methoxycarbonyl and carboxyl groups are aligned at dihedral angles of 71.0 (3 and 100.9 (3°, respectively, with the aromatic ring. The asymmetric unit contains half a cation and one anion. In the crystal, intermolecular N—H...O, C—H...Cl and C—H...O hydrogen bonds link the components into a three-dimensional network.

  10. Oxovanadium(IV)-catalysed oxidation of dibenzothiophene and 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunlaja, Adeniyi S; Chidawanyika, Wadzanai; Antunes, Edith; Fernandes, Manuel A; Nyokong, Tebello; Torto, Nelson; Tshentu, Zenixole R

    2012-12-07

    The reaction between [V(IV)OSO(4)] and the tetradentate N(2)O(2)-donor Schiff base ligand, N,N-bis(o-hydroxybenzaldehyde)phenylenediamine (sal-HBPD), obtained by the condensation of salicylaldehyde and o-phenylenediamine in a molar ratio of 2 : 1 respectively, resulted in the formation of [V(IV)O(sal-HBPD)]. The molecular structure of [V(IV)O(sal-HBPD)] was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction, and confirmed the distorted square pyramidal geometry of the complex with the N(2)O(2) binding mode of the tetradentate ligand. The formation of the polymer-supported p[V(IV)O(sal-AHBPD)] proceeded via the nitrosation of sal-HBPD, followed by the reduction with hydrogen to form an amine group that was then linked to Merrifield beads followed by the reaction with [V(IV)OSO(4)]. XPS and EPR were used to confirm the presence of oxovanadium(IV) within the beads. The BET surface area and porosity of the heterogeneous catalyst p[V(IV)O(sal-AHBPD)] were found to be 6.9 m(2) g(-1) and 180.8 Å respectively. Microanalysis, TG, UV-Vis and FT-IR were used for further characterization of both [V(IV)O(sal-HBPD)] and p[V(IV)O(sal-AHBPD)]. Oxidation of dibenzothiophene (DBT) and 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT) was investigated using [V(IV)O(sal-HBPD)] and p[V(IV)O(sal-AHBPD)] as catalysts. Progress for oxidation of these model compounds was monitored with a gas chromatograph fitted with a flame ionization detector. The oxidation products were characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, microanalysis and NMR. Dibenzothiophene sulfone (DBTO(2)) and 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene sulfone (4,6-DMDBTO(2)) were found to be the main products of oxidation. Oxovanadium(IV) Schiff base microspherical beads, p[V(IV)O(sal-AHBPD)], were able to catalyse the oxidation of sulfur in dibenzothiophene (DBT) and 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT) to a tune of 88.0% and 71.8% respectively after 3 h at 40 °C. These oxidation results show promise for potential application

  11. The use of the AOA TTR-4P GPS receiver in operation at the BIPM for real-time restitution of GPS time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Claudine

    1994-01-01

    The Global Positioning System is an outstanding tool for the dissemination of time. Using mono-channel C/A-code GPS time receivers, the restitution of GPS time through the satellite constellation presents a peak-to-peak discrepancy of several tens of nanoseconds without SA but may be as high as several hundreds of nanoseconds with SA. As a consequence, civil users are more and more interested in implementing hardware and software methods for efficient restitution of GPS time, especially in the framework of the project of a real-time prediction of UTC (UTCp) which could be available in the form of time differences (UTCp - GPS time). Previous work, for improving the real-time restitution of GPS time with SA, to the level obtained without SA, focused on the implementation of a Kalman filter based on past data and updated at each new observation. An alternative solution relies upon the statistical features of the noise brought about by SA; it has already been shown that the SA noise is efficiently reduced by averaging data from numerous satellites observed simultaneously over a sufficiently long time. This method was successfully applied to data from a GPS time receiver, model AOA TTR-4P, connected to the cesium clock kept at the BIPM. This device, a multi-channel, dual frequency, P-code GPS time receiver, is one of the first TTR-4P units in operation in a civil laboratory. Preliminary comparative studies of this new equipment with conventional GPS time receivers are described in this paper. The results of an experimental restitution of GPS time, obtained in June 1993, are also detailed: 3 to 6 satellites were observed simultaneously with a sample interval of 15 s, an efficient smoothing of SA noise was realized by averaging data on all observed satellites over more than 1 hour. When the GPS system is complete in 1994, 8 satellites will be observable continuously from anywhere in the world and the same level of uncertainty will be obtained using a shorter averaging

  12. Genome sequence and description of Paenibacillus ihuae strain GD6 sp. nov., isolated from the stool of a 62-year-old Frenchman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Al-Bayssari

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Paenibacillus ihuae strain GD6 (=CSUR P892 = DSMZ 45751T is the new type strain collected from the stool of a 69-year-old Frenchman admitted to an intensive care unit and receiving a 10-day course of imipenem at the time of stool collection. This is a Gram-positive, facultative anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium. We describe here the features of this organism, together with its complete genome sequence and annotation. The genome size is 6 719 043 bp with 49.6% G+C content and contains 6211 protein-coding and 65 sRNA genes, including four 5S rRNA genes, one 16S rRNA gene and one 23S rRNA gene. Keywords: Culturomics, Paenibacillus ihuae, taxonogenomics

  13. Ultra-wideband wireless receiver front-end for high-speed indoor applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe-Yang Huang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Low-noise, ultra-wideband (UWB wireless receiver front-end circuits were presented in this study. A two-stage common-source low-noise amplifier with wideband input impedance matching network, an active-balun and a double-balanced down-conversion mixer were adopted in the UWB wireless receiver front-end. The proposed wireless receiver front-end circuits were implemented in 0.18 μm radio-frequency-CMOS process. The maximum down-conversion power gain of the front-end is 25.8 dB; minimum single-sideband noise figure of the front-end is 4.9 dB over complete UWB band ranging from 3.1 to 10.6 GHz. Power consumption including buffers is 39.2 mW.

  14. A 6-year review of the outcome of endometrial ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaltas, J; Taylor, N; Healey, M

    1998-02-01

    In June, 1995 a postal questionnaire was distributed to all 232 women who had an endometrial ablation at Monash Medical Centre between July, 1989 and December, 1994. Data was analyzed from the 149 who responded. Length of follow-up ranged from 6 months to 6 years 6 months. Of these 78% were satisfied with their ablation and 84% found their menses to be lighter or to have stopped. The repeat ablation rate was 13% and the hysterectomy rate was 17%.

  15. Incidence of urinary retention during treatment with single tablet combinations of solifenacin+tamsulosin OCAS™ for up to 1 year in adult men with both storage and voiding LUTS: A subanalysis of the NEPTUNE/NEPTUNE II randomized controlled studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus J Drake

    Full Text Available The emergence of urinary retention (UR, specifically acute urinary retention (AUR, has been a concern when treating men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS with antimuscarinic drugs.In NEPTUNE (12-week, double-blind, men (≥45 years with LUTS were randomized to receive tamsulosin oral-controlled absorption system (TOCAS 0.4 mg, fixed-dose combination (FDC of solifenacin (Soli 6 mg + TOCAS 0.4 mg, FDC Soli 9 mg + TOCAS 0.4 mg, or placebo. In NEPTUNE II (40-week, open-label extension of NEPTUNE, continuing patients received 4-week FDC Soli 6 mg + TOCAS, then FDC Soli 6 mg or 9 mg + TOCAS for the remainder of the study, switchable every 3 months.Across both studies, 1208 men received ≥1 dose of FDC Soli 6 mg or 9 mg + TOCAS for up to 52 weeks; 1199 men completed NEPTUNE and 1066 received ≥1 dose in NEPTUNE II. In total, 13 men (1.1%; 95% CI, 0.6%-1.8% reported a UR event while receiving FDC, eight of which were AUR (0.7%; 95% CI, 0.3%-1.3%, incidence 7/1000 man-years. Six men reported UR events while taking Soli 6 mg + TOCAS (three AUR, and seven men reported a UR event while taking Soli 9 mg + TOCAS (five AUR. One man developed AUR while taking TOCAS alone and four reported UR (three AUR during placebo run-in. Most AUR/UR events occurred within 4 months of treatment initiation.FDC Soli and TOCAS was associated with a low rate of UR and AUR in men with LUTS.

  16. 4,2':6',4"- and 3,2':6',3"-Terpyridines: The Conflict between Well-Defined Vectorial Properties and Serendipity in the Assembly of 1D-, 2D- and 3D-Architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Y Maximilian; Prescimone, Alessandro; Constable, Edwin C; Housecroft, Catherine E

    2017-06-30

    A comparative investigation of the coordination assemblies formed between Co(NCS)₂ and two monotopic 4,2':6',4''-terpyridine (4,2':6',4"-tpy) ligands or two related ditopic ligands is reported. Crystals were grown by layering MeOH solutions of Co(NCS)₂ over a CHCl₃ or 1,2-C₆H₄Cl₂ solution of the respective ligand at room temperature. With 4'-(2-methylpyrimidin-5-yl)-4,2':6',4"-terpyridine ( 6 ), the 1D-coordination polymer {[Co₂(NCS)₄(MeOH)₄( 6 )₂]∙2MeOH∙8H₂O} n assembles with 6 coordinating only through the outer N-donors of the 4,2':6',4"-tpy unit; coordination by the MeOH solvent blocks two cobalt coordination sites preventing propagation in a higher-dimensional network. A combination of Co(NCS)₂ and 1-(4,2':6',4"-terpyridin-4'-yl)ferrocene ( 7 ) leads to {[Co(NCS)₂( 7 )₂]∙4CHCl₃} n which contains a (4,4) net; the 2D-sheets associate through π-stacking interactions between ferrocenyl and pyridyl units. A 3D-framework is achieved through use of the ditopic ligand 1,4-bis( n propoxy)-2,5-bis(4,2':6',4"-terpyridin-4'-yl)benzene ( 8 ) which acts as a 4-connecting node in {[Co(NCS)₂( 8 )₂] . 2C₆H₄Cl₂} n ; the combination of metal and ligand planar 4-connecting nodes results in a {6⁵.8} cds net. For a comparison with the coordinating abilities of the previously reported 1,4-bis( n octoxy)-2,5-bis(4,2':6',4"-terpyridin-4'-yl)benzene ( 3 ), a more flexible analogue 9 was prepared. {[Co(NCS)₂( 9 )]∙2CHCl₃} n contains a (4,4) net defined by both metal and ligand planar 4-connecting nodes. The n octoxy tails of 9 protrude from each side of the (4,4) net and thread through adjacent sheets; the arene-attached n octoxy chains associate through a combination of van der Waals and C-H...π interactions.

  17. Familial pathways to early-onset suicide attempt: a 5.6-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, David A; Melhem, Nadine M; Oquendo, Maria; Burke, Ainsley; Birmaher, Boris; Stanley, Barbara; Biernesser, Candice; Keilp, John; Kolko, David; Ellis, Steve; Porta, Giovanna; Zelazny, Jamie; Iyengar, Satish; Mann, J John

    2015-02-01

    Suicide attempts are strong predictors of suicide, a leading cause of adolescent mortality. Suicide attempts are highly familial, although the mechanisms of familial transmission are not understood. Better delineation of these mechanisms could help frame potential targets for prevention. To examine the mechanisms and pathways by which suicidal behavior is transmitted from parent to child. In this prospective study conducted from July 15, 1997, through June 21, 2012, a total of 701 offspring aged 10 to 50 years (mean age, 17.7 years) of 334 clinically referred probands with mood disorders, 191 (57.2%) of whom had also made a suicide attempt, were followed up for a mean of 5.6 years. The primary outcome was a suicide attempt. Variables were examined at baseline, intermediate time points, and the time point proximal to the attempt. Participants were assessed by structured psychiatric assessments and self-report and by interview measures of domains hypothesized to be related to familial transmission (eg, mood disorder and impulsive aggression). Among the 701 offspring, 44 (6.3%) had made a suicide attempt before participating in the study, and 29 (4.1%) made an attempt during study follow-up. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that proband suicide attempt was a predictor of offspring suicide attempt (odds ratio [OR], 4.79; 95% CI, 1.75-13.07), even controlling for other salient offspring variables: baseline history of mood disorder (OR, 4.20; 95% CI, 1.37-12.86), baseline history of suicide attempt (OR, 5.69; 95% CI, 1.94-16.74), and mood disorder at the time point before the attempt (OR, 11.32; 95% CI, 2.29-56.00). Path analyses were consistent with these findings, revealing a direct effect of proband attempt on offspring suicide attempt, a strong effect of offspring mood disorder at each time point, and impulsive aggression as a precursor of mood disorder. Parental history of a suicide attempt conveys a nearly 5-fold increased odds of suicide attempt

  18. Digitalization in radiology--6 years in the St. Elisabeth Oncology Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkovic, L; Lehotska, V; Magula, J; Tothova, L

    2008-01-01

    To determine advantages and specific problems of film-free digital hospital focused on radiology department. In the St. Elisabeth Oncology Institute in Bratislava we have more than 6-year experience with digital modalities and the PACS system. During this period many difficulties occurred and are expected to rise with an increasing number of digital modalities. Statistical evaluation of a 6-year period in numerous graphs and schemes. The amount of data can be seen in graphs, which show the amount of examinations and data volume from different modalities for specific time period to October 2007 and present volumes and increase of data amount in megabytes (MB) in the last 6 years. Despite of systematic capacity increase it is a long-term archiving and economical problem. It is crucial to solve the daily amount of data, backup copies, type of archiving media, and priority of data accessibility (Tab. 1, Fig. 5, Ref. 9). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk.

  19. Differences in spirometry values between U.S. children 6-11 years and adolescents 12-19 years with current asthma, 2007-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kit, Brian K; Simon, Alan E; Tilert, Timothy; Okelo, Sande; Akinbami, Lara J

    2016-03-01

    National Asthma Education and Prevention Program (NAEPP) guidelines recommend that periodic spirometry be performed in youth with asthma. NAEPP uses different spirometry criteria to define uncontrolled asthma for children (6-11 years) and adolescents (12+ years). To describe differences in spirometry between U.S. children and adolescents with current asthma. We examined cross-sectional spirometry data from 453 U.S. youth with current asthma age 6-19 years from the 2007-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. The main outcomes were percentage predicted forced expiratory volume at 1 sec (FEV1%) ≤80 and the ratio of FEV1 to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) ≤0.80. We also examined the prevalence of youth with spirometry values consistent with uncontrolled asthma, using NAEPP age-specific criteria, defined for children aged 6-11 years as FEV1% ≤80 or FEV1/FVC ≤0.80, and for adolescents aged 12-19 years as FEV1% ≤80. Children 6-11 years and adolescents 12-19 years did not differ in prevalence of FEV1% ≤80 (10.1% vs. 9.0%) or FEV1/FVC ≤0.80 (30.6% vs. 29.8%). However, based on the NAEPP age-specific criteria, 33.0% of children 6-11 years and 9.0% of adolescents 12-19 years had spirometry values consistent with uncontrolled asthma (P spirometry values consistent with uncontrolled asthma did differ. The difference appears to stem mainly from the different spirometry criteria for the two age groups. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Efficacy of a monovalent human-bovine (116E) rotavirus vaccine in Indian children in the second year of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Nita; Rongsen-Chandola, Temsunaro; Bavdekar, Ashish; John, Jacob; Antony, Kalpana; Taneja, Sunita; Goyal, Nidhi; Kawade, Anand; Kang, Gagandeep; Rathore, Sudeep Singh; Juvekar, Sanjay; Muliyil, Jayaprakash; Arya, Alok; Shaikh, Hanif; Abraham, Vinod; Vrati, Sudhanshu; Proschan, Michael; Kohberger, Robert; Thiry, Georges; Glass, Roger; Greenberg, Harry B; Curlin, George; Mohan, Krishna; Harshavardhan, G V J A; Prasad, Sai; Rao, T S; Boslego, John; Bhan, Maharaj Kishan

    2014-08-11

    Rotavirus gastroenteritis is one of the leading causes of diarrhea in Indian children less than 2 years of age. The 116E rotavirus strain was developed as part of the Indo-US Vaccine Action Program and has undergone efficacy trials. This paper reports the efficacy and additional safety data in children up to 2 years of age. In a double-blind placebo controlled multicenter trial, 6799 infants aged 6-7 weeks were randomized to receive three doses of an oral human-bovine natural reassortant vaccine (116E) or placebo at ages 6, 10, and 14 weeks. The primary outcome was severe (≥11 on the Vesikari scale) rotavirus gastroenteritis. Efficacy outcomes and adverse events were ascertained through active surveillance. We randomly assigned 4532 and 2267 subjects to receive vaccine and placebo, respectively, with over 96% subjects receiving all three doses of the vaccine or placebo. The per protocol analyses included 4354 subjects in the vaccine and 2187 subjects in the placebo group. The overall incidence of severe RVGE per 100 person years was 1.3 in the vaccine group and 2.9 in the placebo recipients. Vaccine efficacy against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in children up to 2 years of age was 55.1% (95% CI 39.9 to 66.4; pvaccine efficacy in the second year of life of 48.9% (95% CI 17.4 to 68.4; p=0.0056) was only marginally less than in the first year of life [56.3% (95% CI 36.7 to 69.9; pvaccine dose and all were reported only after the third dose. The sustained efficacy of the 116E in the second year of life is reassuring. The trial is registered with Clinical Trial Registry-India (# CTRI/2010/091/000102) and Clinicaltrials.gov (# NCT01305109). Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. TRAO Multibeam Receiver System and Key Science Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youngung

    2017-06-01

    Taeduk Radio Astronomy Observatory (TRAO) is now equipped with a main controling computer with VxWorks operating system, a new receiver system, and a new backend system. The new receiver system(TRAO-SEQUOIA) is equipped with high-performing 16-pixel MMIC pre-amplifiers in a 4x4 array, operating within 85~115 GHz frequency range. The system temperature ranges from 150 K (86~110 GHz) to 450 K (115 GHz). The 2nd IF modules with the narrow band and the 8 channels with 4 FFT spectrometers allow to observe 2 frequencies simultaneously within the 85~100 or 100~115 GHz bands for all 16 pixels of the receiver. Radome replacement was completed successfully as of February 2017. In addition, a new servo system will be installed in 2017 summer. We provide OTF (On-The-Fly) as a main observing mode, and position switching mode is available as well. The backend system (FFT spectrometer) provides the 4096x2 channels with fine velocity resolution of about 0.05 km/sec (15 kHz) per channel, and their full spectra bandwidth is 60 MHz. Beam efficiency of the TRAO was measured to be about 46% - 54% (with less than 2% error) between 86 and 115 GHz bands and pointing errors of the 14m telescope were found be 4.4 arcsec in AZ direction and 6 arcsec in EL direction. Generally, we allocate 18 hours of telescope time a day from January to the middle of May, and from October to December. Three Key Science Programs had been selected in 2015 fall and they are supposed to have higher priority for telescope time.

  2. Unexpected Leiomyosarcoma 4 Years after Laparoscopic Removal of the Uterus Using Morcellation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Prins

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Laparoscopic hysterectomies are increasingly popular; a morcellation device is often used. Although there are some clear benefits, morcellation of tissue does have potential risks. Case Presentation. In this case report we present a 55-year-old woman with an abdominal tumour 4 years after a laparoscopic hysterectomy using a morcellation device. Postoperative histological analysis, compromised by morcellated tissue, showed benign myoma. Because of the benign tumour no follow-up was performed. The patient presented now with an abdominal tumour, and she was scheduled for surgical removal of the tumour. During abdominal surgery the tumour appeared malignant and biopsies were taken. Histological analysis showed leiomyosarcoma, and the patient was referred to a third care centre for further treatment. The patient recovered quickly after abdominal removal of the tumour; however, after 7 months the patient had complaints and a CT scan showed a large intra-abdominal tumour with possible lung metastasis. The patient received palliative chemotherapy and died after 10 months. Conclusion. This case shows that although unexpected after a hysterectomy, a leiomyosarcoma has to be considered in case of a suspect tumour in the lower abdomen.

  3. EVALUASI DATA ANTROPOMETRI ANAK-ANAK USIA 4-6 TAHUN DI JAWA TIMUR DAN APLIKASI PADA PERANCANGAN FASILITAS BELAJAR DI SEKOLAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Herawati

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Anthropometry data realy important towards learning facilities design. Comfortness and functional of table an chair have correlation with physical structure of the user. Many study for 6-18 years old in anthropometry data, but for 4-6 years old children there’s no specific anthropometry data.in this research, anthropometry data for 4-6 years old child were analyze and applied to the school facilities design. 550 children from 50 schools in East Java were measured, they consist of 259 girls and 291 boys. Average weight of the boys is 21.40kg with 9.23 standard deviation; the girls average weight is 19,91kg with 5.5 standard deviation. From the body dimension gathered from this research could be applied in desigining learning facilities, such as computer table and chair. Another body dimension also used to determine seat’s width, back support’s height, etc, considering the percentile which is appropriate for each adjustment.

  4. Three Versus 6 Months of Oxaliplatin-Based Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Patients With Stage III Colon Cancer: Disease-Free Survival Results From a Randomized, Open-Label, International Duration Evaluation of Adjuvant (IDEA) France, Phase III Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Thierry; Vernerey, Dewi; Mineur, Laurent; Bennouna, Jaafar; Desrame, Jérôme; Faroux, Roger; Fratte, Serge; Hug de Larauze, Marine; Paget-Bailly, Sophie; Chibaudel, Benoist; Bez, Jeremie; Dauba, Jérôme; Louvet, Christophe; Lepere, Céline; Dupuis, Olivier; Becouarn, Yves; Mabro, May; Egreteau, Joëlle; Bouche, Olivier; Deplanque, Gaël; Ychou, Marc; Galais, Marie Pierre; Ghiringhelli, François; Dourthe, Louis Marie; Bachet, Jean-Baptiste; Khalil, Ahmed; Bonnetain, Franck; de Gramont, Aimery; Taieb, Julien

    2018-05-20

    Purpose Reduction of adjuvant treatment duration may decrease toxicities without loss of efficacy in stage III colon cancer. This could offer clear advantages to patients and health care providers. Methods In International Duration Evaluation of Adjuvant Chemotherapy (IDEA) France, as part of the IDEA international collaboration, patient with colon cancer patients were randomly assigned to 3 and 6 months of modified FOLFOX6 (mFOLFOX6: infusional fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin) or capecitabine plus oxaliplatin (CAPOX) by physician choice. The primary end point was disease-free survival (DFS), and analyses were descriptive. Results A total of 2,010 eligible patients received either 3 or 6 months of chemotherapy (modified intention-to-treat population); 2,000 (99%) had stage III colon cancer (N1: 75%, N2: 25%); 1,809 (90%) received mFOLFOX6, and 201 (10%) received CAPOX. The median age was 64 years, and the median follow-up time was 4.3 years. Overall, 94% (3 months) and 78% (6 months) of patients completed treatment (fluoropyrimidines ± oxaliplatin). Maximal grade 2 and 3 neuropathy rates were 28% and 8% in the 3-month arm and 41% and 25% in the 6-month arm ( P < .001). Final rates of residual neuropathy greater than grade 1 were 3% in the 3-month arm and 7% in the 6-month arm ( P < .001). There were 578 DFS events: 314 and 264 in the 3- and 6-month arms, respectively. The 3-year DFS rates were 72% and 76% in the 3- and 6-month arms, respectively (hazard ratio [HR], 1.24; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.46; P = .0112). In the 3 and 6-month arms, respectively, for patients who received mFOLFOX6, the 3-year DFS rates were 72% and 76% (HR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.51); for the T4 and/or N2 population, they were 58% and 66% (HR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.82); and for the T1-3N1 population, they were 81% and 83% (HR, 1.15; 95% CI, 0.89 to 1.49). Conclusion IDEA France, in which 90% of patients received mFOLFOX6, shows superiority of 6 months of adjuvant chemotherapy compared

  5. Improved tribological behavior of boron implanted Ti-6Al-4V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, N.P.; Walter, K.C.; Nastasi, M.

    1998-03-01

    Boron implanted of Ti6Al4V has been conducted at combinations of 32 and 40 keV to supplement that done previously at 75 keV. Shallower boron depth profiles with higher B-concentrations in the Ti64 surface have been obtained by tailoring the combinations of ion energy and dose. This work used three different ion energy and dose combinations of 4 x 10 17 B-at/cm 2 at 40 keV plus 2 x 10 17 B-at/cm 2 at 32 keV, 4 x 10 17 B-at/cm 2 at 40 keV, and 4 x 10 17 B-at/cm 2 at 32 keV plus 2 x 10 17 B-at/cm 2 at 40 keV. Comparisons are made between Ti6Al4V with a shallow implanted boron depth profile, Ti6Al4V with a deeper b