Discusses the history of first aid training provisions in the United Kingdom with respect to the outdoor industry, what to look for in a first aid training provider, an experiential model of first aid training, and the current National Governing Body requirements for first aid training for various types of coaches and instructors. (TD)
The device of the present invention evaluates the propriety of an operation which is conducted optionally by a trainee depending on the state of the plant, analyzes the cause of an operation error and aids the preparation of training policy and teaching materials based on the results of the evaluation and the analysis. Namely, an operation data collection device collects operation data for the plant operation conducted by the trainee and the state of the plant during the operation. Since an operation evaluation device evaluates the plant operation in a short period of time based on the evaluation criteria of an operation evaluation knowledge base, an operation error is never overlooked. Accordingly, uniform and highly reliable operation training at definite evaluation criteria can be obtained. In addition, an error-cause analyzing device and a training policy knowledge base analyze the cause of an error inherent to each of the trainee, and it is recorded systematically independently on every trainees. Since a training policy guide device retrieves and presents an operation error and a cause of the error, there can be prepared a training policy incorporating training with respect to the operation error that each of the trainee tends to commit. (I.S.)
Phillips, J.G.P.; Binns, J.B.H.
The Royal Navy's Nuclear Propulsion School at HMS SULTAN which is responsible for training all ratings and officers who operate Submarine Pressurised Water Reactor plants, has available a varied selection of classroom simulator training aids as well as purpose built Submarine Manoeuvring Room simulators. The use of these classroom training aids in the twelve months prior to Autumn 1981 is discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of using relatively expensive computer based aids to support classroom instruction for students who do not investigate mathematically the dynamics of the Reactor Plant are identified. The conclusions drawn indicate that for students of limited academic ability the classroom simulators are disproportionately expensive in cost, maintenance load, and instructional time. Secondly, the experience gained in the use of the Manoeuvring Room Simulators to train future operators who have just finished the academic phase of their training is outlined. The possible pitfalls for the instructor are discussed and the lessons learnt, concluding that these simulators provide a valuable substitute for the live plant enabling trainees to be brought up to a common standard and reducing their on job training time to an acceptable level. (author)
The training programme, training methods, tools and aids necessary for staffing nuclear power plants depend very much on the overall contractual provisions. The basis for training programmes and methods is the definition of the plant organization and the prequalification of the personnel. Preselection tests are tailored to the different educational levels and precede the training programme, where emphasis is put on practical on-the-job training. Technical basic and introductory courses follow language training and give a broad but basic spectrum of power plant technology. Plant-related theoretical training consists of reactor technology training combined with practical work in laboratories, on a test reactor and of the nuclear power plant course on design philosophy and operation. Classroom instruction together with video tapes and other audiovisual material which are used during this phase are described; as well as the various special courses for the different specialists. The first step of on-the-job training is a practical observation phase in an operating nuclear power plant, where the participants are assigned to shift work or to the different special departments, depending on their future assignment. Training in manufacturers' workshops, in laboratories or in engineering departments necessitate other training methods. The simulator training for operating personnel, for key personnel and, to some extent, also for maintenance personnel and specialists gives the practical feeling for nuclear power plant behaviour during normal and abnormal conditions. During the commissioning phase of the own nuclear power plant, which is the most important practical training, the participants are integrated into the commissioning staff and are assisted during their process of practical learning on-the-job by special instructors. Personnel training also includes performance of training of instructors and assistance in building up special training programmes and material as well
Guy, Robin Frederick
This paper describes a number of different types of training aids currently employed in online training: non-interactive audiovisual presentations; interactive computer-based aids; partially interactive aids based on recorded searches; print-based materials; and kits. The advantages and disadvantages of each type of aid are noted, and a table…
The spectrum of training aids used in the nuclear industry runs the gamut from the very basic (i.e., valve training aids - gate, globe, check) to the highly complex (i.e., nuclear full scope simulator). Designing and purchasing the best training aids take much time, detailed investigation, and good understanding of plant operations. The training aid that has given the New York Power Authority the best results has been the motor operator valve (MOV) trainer. Some of the items that make the MOV trainer a good choice are: (1) large number of MOVs in the plant, (2) importance of MOVs to safe plant operation, (3) detailed MOV procedures used by the plant, (4) history of MOV problems, and (5) ability to demonstrate important concepts and operation - hammer blow effect, torque and limit switch adjustment and functions, and actual sequence of operation of the limitorque valve operator
Recently, new training techniques that involve the use of robots have been used in the rehabilitation of patients with hemiplegia and paraplegia. Robots used for training the arm include the MIT-MANUS, Arm Trainer, mirror-image motion enabler (MIME) robot, and the assisted rehabilitation and measurement (ARM) Guide. Robots that are used for lower-limb training are the Rehabot, Gait Trainer, Lokomat, LOPES Exoskeleton Robot, and Gait Assist Robot. Robot-aided therapy has enabled the functional training of the arm and the lower limbs in an effective, easy, and comfortable manner. Therefore, with this type of therapy, the patients can repeatedly undergo sufficient and accurate training for a prolonged period. However, evidence of the benefits of robot-aided training has not yet been established.
The first three phases of Training System Development (TSD) -- job and task analysis, curriculum design, and training material development -- are time consuming and labor intensive. The use of personal computers with a combination of commercial and custom-designed software resulted in a significant reduction in the man-hours required to complete these phases for a Health Physics Technician Training Program at a nuclear power station. This paper reports that each step in the training program project involved the use of personal computers: job survey data were compiled with a statistical package, task analysis was performed with custom software designed to interface with a commercial database management program. Job Performance Measures (tests) were generated by a custom program from data in the task analysis database, and training materials were drafted, edited, and produced using commercial word processing software
Bertulli, Chiara G.; Guéry, Loreleï; McGinty, Niall; Suzuki, Ailie; Brannan, Naomi; Marques, Tania; Rasmussen, Marianne H.; Gimenez, Olivier
Knowledge of abundance and survival of humpback whales, white-beaked dolphins and minke whales are essential to manage and conserve these species in Icelandic coastal shelf waters. Our main goal was to test the feasibility of employing inexpensive research methods (data collected by trained-scientist volunteers onboard opportunistic vessels) to assess abundance and apparent survival. No previous studies in Iceland have investigated these two demographic parameters in these three cetacean species using open capture-recapture models accounting for imperfect and possibly heterogeneous detection. A transient effect was accounted for whenever required to estimate the population of resident individuals. Identification photographs were collected by scientist-trained volunteers for 7 years (2006-2013) from onboard commercial whale-watching vessels in the coastal waters of Faxaflói (southwest coast, 4400 km2) and Skjálfandi (northeast coast, 1100 km2), Iceland. We estimated an average abundance of 83 humpback whales (Mn; 95% confidence interval: 54-130) in Skjálfandi; 238 white-beaked dolphins (La; [163-321]) in Faxaflói; and 67 minke whales (Ba; [53-82]) in Faxaflói and 24 (14-31) in Skjálfandi. We also found that apparent survival was constant for all three species (Mn: 0.52 [0.41-0.63], La: 0.79 [0.64-0.88], Ba-Faxaflói: 0.80 [0.67-0.88], Ba-Skjálfandi: 0.96 [0.60-0.99]). Our results showed inter-annual variation in abundance estimates which were small for all species, and the presence of transience for minke whales. A significant increase in abundance during the study period was solely found in minke whale data from Skjálfandi. Humpback whales and white-beaked dolphins showed lower apparent survival rates compared to similar baleen whale and dolphin populations. Our results show data collected by trained-scientist volunteers can produce viable estimates of abundance and survival although bias in the methods we employed exist and need to be addressed. With the
Epps, Patricia H.; Vallenari, Allison
This manual includes all necessary information for implementing the Champs program, which trains older elementary school students or middle/high school students to operate puppets to deliver an HIV/AIDS message to kindergarten through sixth graders. Relying on a peer approach, the Program provides scripted, prerecorded lessons intended to reach…
Loftin, R. Bowen; Savely, Robert T.
Specific autonomous training systems based on artificial intelligence technology for use by NASA astronauts, flight controllers, and ground-based support personnel that demonstrate an alternative to current training systems are described. In addition to these specific systems, the evolution of a general architecture for autonomous intelligent training systems that integrates many of the features of traditional training programs with artificial intelligence techniques is presented. These Intelligent Computer-Aided Training (ICAT) systems would provide, for the trainee, much of the same experience that could be gained from the best on-the-job training. By integrating domain expertise with a knowledge of appropriate training methods, an ICAT session should duplicate, as closely as possible, the trainee undergoing on-the-job training in the task environment, benefitting from the full attention of a task expert who is also an expert trainer. Thus, the philosophy of the ICAT system is to emulate the behavior of an experienced individual devoting his full time and attention to the training of a novice - proposing challenging training scenarios, monitoring and evaluating the actions of the trainee, providing meaningful comments in response to trainee errors, responding to trainee requests for information, giving hints (if appropriate), and remembering the strengths and weaknesses displayed by the trainee so that appropriate future exercises can be designed.
... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false First aid equipment and training. 28.210 Section 28.210....210 First aid equipment and training. (a) Each vessel must have on board a complete first aid manual... location. (b) First aid and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) course certification. Certification in...
therapy should be considered. Sunportive therapy, including high levels of broad-spectrum vitamins and a bland diet , should be given. Patients should be...Median lethal dose 11,000 mg/min/m 3 Median incapacitating 3 dose Approx. 80 mg/min/m Rate of detox . Rapid; effects disappear in a few hours 20 3...Dog Training Aids: Toxicity and Treatment," Technical Report, Air Force Occupational and Environmental Health Laboratory (1975) 2. Sporting Arms and
... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Training and training aids on request. 301.7516... the United States § 301.7516-1 Training and training aids on request. The Commissioner is authorized... conducted by the Internal Revenue Service, and to supply them with texts and other training aids. Requests...
NGFATOS is a course development guideline containing the essential elements of what can be considered safe, helpful and effective first aid training in occupational settings. This guide is intended for use by first aid program developers, institution...
..., and training aids. 141.41 Section 141.41 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... aids. An applicant for a pilot school certificate or a provisional pilot school certificate must show that its flight simulators, flight training devices, training aids, and equipment meet the following...
The training of performance singing in a multi lingual, multi cultural educational context presents unique problems and requires inventive teaching strategies. Computer-aided training offers objective visual feedback of the voice production that can be implemented as a teaching aid in higher education. This article reports on ...
Sengupta, Manisha; Ejaz, Farida K.; Harris-Kojetin, Lauren D.
Training and satisfaction with training were examined using data from nationally representative samples of 2,897 certified nursing assistants (CNAs) from the National Nursing Assistant Survey and 3,377 home health aides (HHAs) from the National Home Health Aide Survey conducted in 2004 and 2007, respectively. This article focuses on the…
Bakke, H K; Bakke, H K; Schwebs, R
To increase knowledge and competence about first aid in the population, first-aid instruction is included in primary and secondary school curricula. This study aimed to establish how much time is spent on first-aid training, which first-aid measures are taught, and which factors prevent teachers from providing the quantity and quality of first-aid training that they wish to give. A questionnaire was distributed to teachers in physical education in primary and secondary schools and to teachers in vocational subjects in higher secondary schools. The teachers taught a median of two lessons in first aid per year. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was taught by 64% of teachers, free airway and recovery position by 69% and stopping severe bleeding by 51%. Recognising heart attack and stroke was taught by 25% and 23%, respectively. The main factors that the teachers perceived as limiting the amount and quality of first-aid training were insufficient learning objective specifications in the curriculum, too many other competence aims, lack of CPR mannequins and lack of training as first-aid instructors. Norwegian teachers provide an appreciable amount of first-aid training to their students. However, several potential life-saving measures are poorly covered. The curriculum needs to contain first aid but also should specify what first-aid measures to be taught. First-aid training of teachers should adequately prepare them to be first-aid instructors. © 2017 The Authors. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation.
Andrews, Dee H.; Uliano, Kevin C.
Instructor's Diagnostic Aid for Feedback in Training (IDAFT) is a computer-assisted method based on error analysis, domains of learning, and events of instruction. Its use with Navy team instructors is currently being explored. (JOW)
Reveruzzi, Bianca; Buckley, Lisa; Sheehan, Mary
Background: This review examines the breadth of first aid training delivered to school students and the components that are age appropriate to adolescents. Method: Eligible studies included school-based first aid interventions targeting students aged between 10 and 18 years. Online databases were searched, for peer-reviewed publications available…
This article aims to increase awareness of the lack of first aid skills among nurses and midwives. It is intended to appeal to and challenge students and registered practitioners to assess their first aid skills in practice and to seek the necessary training to improve and update their skills.
Full Text Available Abstract Purpose The aim of the study was to evaluate the newly develop course prepared for the employees working in the forest and mountain environment Methodology 31 people participated in the course. They were employees of Roztocze National Park and the Forestry Commission Lutowiska. A diagnostic survey was implemented in a form of a questionnaire. The respondents were provided with two original questionnaires and a telephone survey. Surveys were anonymous and voluntary. Findings The average assessment of First Aid knowledge before the workshop was 2.48 and majority of participants assesed First Aid as difficult. After the workshop, the respondents assessed the knowledge on average as 3.87 and as much as 58% declared that definitely would provide First Aid to a stranger; 81% to a close person. Over 80% of respondents noticed the need of regular training in First Aid. Research implication The analysis showed that regular improvement of First Aid skills is required by the participants. The training should be adjusted to the group’s needs in terms of the program, teaching techniques and the place of training. There is a need to implement such training on a wider scale among forestry and mountain workers. Originality Uncovering the gaps in First Aid training in mountain and forest workers in their professional training.
Sarma, Haribondhu; Oliveras, Elizabeth
School-based HIV/AIDS education is a common and well-proven intervention strategy for providing information on HIV/AIDS to young people. However, lack of skills among teachers for imparting sensitive information to students can lead to programme failure in terms of achieving goals. A cross-sectional study was conducted among teachers to identify the factors that support or hinder their role in HIV/AIDS education. A self-administered questionnaire was used for interviewing teachers from randomly-selected schools in two adjacent districts in Bangladesh. Based on exposure to teachers' training, the districts were divided into control and intervention areas and the teachers' ability, skill, and their participation in HIV/AIDS education were compared between the districts. Trained teachers in the intervention schools were more likely to participate, less likely to face difficulties, and more likely to use interactive teaching methods in HIV/ AIDS classes compared to the controls who did not receive any training. Inadequate allocation of time for conducting the HIV/AIDS class was found to be barriers to HIV/AIDS education that suggest the need to provide teachers with more support in terms of training and logistics.
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First-Aid training; supervisory employees. 75... First-Aid training; supervisory employees. The mine operator shall conduct first-aid training courses... employee and date on which the employee satisfactorily completed the first-aid training course. The...
Yoneyama, Mitsuru; Kubota, Ryuji; Fujiwara, Tadashi; Sakuma, Hitoshi
The education and training system for Accident Management was developed by the Japanese BWR group and Hitachi Ltd. The education and training system is composed of two systems. One is computer aided instruction (CAI) education system and the education and training system with computer simulations. Both systems are designed to be executed on personal computers. The outlines of the CAI education system and the education and training system with simulator are reported below. These systems provides plant operators and technical support center staff with the effective education and training for accident management. (author)
Reveruzzi, Bianca; Buckley, Lisa; Sheehan, Mary
This review examines the breadth of first aid training delivered to school students and the components that are age appropriate to adolescents. Eligible studies included school-based first aid interventions targeting students aged between 10 and 18 years. Online databases were searched, for peer-reviewed publications available as at August 2014. A total of 20 journal articles were relevant to the review. Research supported programs with longer durations (3 hours or more). Most programs taught resuscitation alone and few included content that was context-specific and relevant to the target group. The training experience of the facilitator did not appear to impact on student outcomes. Incorporating both practical and didactic components was found to be an important factor in delivering material and facilitating the retention of knowledge. Educational resources and facilitator training were found to be common features of effective programs. The review supports first aid in school curriculum and provides details of key components pertinent to design of school-based first aid programs. The findings suggest that first aid training may have benefits wider than the uptake and retention of knowledge and skills. There is a need for future research, particularly randomized controlled trials to aid in identifying best practice approaches. © 2016, American School Health Association.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Individuals with sensorineural hearing loss are often able to regain some lost auditory function with the help of hearing aids. However, hearing aids are not able to overcome auditory distortions such as impaired frequency resolution and speech understanding in noisy environments. The coexistence of peripheral hearing loss and a central auditory deficit may contribute to patient dissatisfaction with amplification, even when audiological tests indicate nearly normal hearing thresholds. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to validate the effects of a formal auditory training program in adult hearing aid users with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss. METHODS: Fourteen bilateral hearing aid users were divided into two groups: seven who received auditory training and seven who did not. The training program was designed to improve auditory closure, figure-to-ground for verbal and nonverbal sounds and temporal processing (frequency and duration of sounds. Pre- and post-training evaluations included measuring electrophysiological and behavioral auditory processing and administration of the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (APHAB self-report scale. RESULTS: The post-training evaluation of the experimental group demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in P3 latency, improved performance in some of the behavioral auditory processing tests and higher hearing aid benefit in noisy situations (p-value < 0,05. No changes were noted for the control group (p-value <0,05. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrated that auditory training in adult hearing aid users can lead to a reduction in P3 latency, improvements in sound localization, memory for nonverbal sounds in sequence, auditory closure, figure-to-ground for verbal sounds and greater benefits in reverberant and noisy environments.
Lee, Sangjun; Lee, Seungmin; Lim, Hobin; Hyung, Sangcheol; Kim, Jaekwang [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
Current radioactive-related training has focused on the prevention of a radiation disaster. Procedures to recover nuclear and radiological materials have been simplified due to the lack of training tools to reproduce real conditions for security and staff at nuclear facilities. The process of recovering materials is crucial in order to collect evidence and secure the safety of response forces. Moreover, exercises for recovering lost or missing a low dose radiation sources, does not well match with explosive like RDD blast situations. Therefore KINAC has been developing training aids in order to closely reproduce conditions of an actual terrorist attack and enhance effectiveness of exercises. These tools will be applied to Nuclear Forensics Exercises in which evidence collection is important at the time of an incident. KINAC has been developing training aids to enhance the effectiveness of such exercises by providing simulated conditions of actual terrorist incidents. Simulated training aids, based on the beacon system, operate with electromagnetic waves. These tools are able to simulate environments close to actual conditions by supplying similar properties of radioactivity. Training aids will be helpful in giving experience to security personnel and staff in the event of a terrorist incident. This experience includes collecting evidence for nuclear forensics. KINAC also has a plan to hold drills using these tools this year with The Armed Force CBR Defense Command.
Lee, Sangjun; Lee, Seungmin; Lim, Hobin; Hyung, Sangcheol; Kim, Jaekwang
Current radioactive-related training has focused on the prevention of a radiation disaster. Procedures to recover nuclear and radiological materials have been simplified due to the lack of training tools to reproduce real conditions for security and staff at nuclear facilities. The process of recovering materials is crucial in order to collect evidence and secure the safety of response forces. Moreover, exercises for recovering lost or missing a low dose radiation sources, does not well match with explosive like RDD blast situations. Therefore KINAC has been developing training aids in order to closely reproduce conditions of an actual terrorist attack and enhance effectiveness of exercises. These tools will be applied to Nuclear Forensics Exercises in which evidence collection is important at the time of an incident. KINAC has been developing training aids to enhance the effectiveness of such exercises by providing simulated conditions of actual terrorist incidents. Simulated training aids, based on the beacon system, operate with electromagnetic waves. These tools are able to simulate environments close to actual conditions by supplying similar properties of radioactivity. Training aids will be helpful in giving experience to security personnel and staff in the event of a terrorist incident. This experience includes collecting evidence for nuclear forensics. KINAC also has a plan to hold drills using these tools this year with The Armed Force CBR Defense Command
In the UK, voluntary organisations such as the British Red Cross and St John Ambulance have been advocating the compulsory inclusion of first aid education in the school curricula as a way of improving the outcomes for casualties following accidents or emergencies occurring in non-hospital settings. This article focuses on the rationale for teaching first aid to children, including potential benefits of and barriers to providing such education. Commencing first aid training in primary school children and updating skills regularly throughout life may give individuals the confidence to respond to emergency situations.
Gieci, A.; Macko, J.; Mosny, J.; Gese, A.
The operator's mental activity is the most important part of his work. A processing of a large amount of the information by the operator is possible only if he/she possesses appropriate cognitive skills. To facilitate the novice's acquisition of the experienced operator's cognitive skills of the decision-making process a special type of the expert system was developed. The cognitive engineering's models and problem-solving methodology constitutes the basis of this expert system. The article gives an account of the prototype of the mentioned expert system developed to aid the whole mental activity of the nuclear power plant operator during his decision-making process. (author). 6 refs, 6 figs
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First-aid training program; minimum... § 75.1713-6 First-aid training program; minimum requirements. (a) All first-aid training programs... course of instruction similar to that outlined in “First Aid, A Bureau of Mines Instruction Manual.” (b...
Bakke, Håkon Kvåle; Steinvik, Tine; Angell, Johan; Wisborg, Torben
Bystander first aid can improve survival following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest or trauma. Thus, providing first aid education to laypersons may lead to better outcomes. In this study, we aimed to establish the prevalence and distribution of first aid training in the populace, how often first aid skills are needed, and self-reported helping behaviour. We conducted a telephone survey of 1000 respondents who were representative of the Norwegian population. Respondents were asked where and when they had first aid training, if they had ever encountered situations where first aid was necessary, and stratified by occupation. First aid included cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and basic life support (BLS). To test theoretical first aid knowledge, respondents were subjected to two hypothetical first aid scenarios. Among the respondents, 90% had received first aid training, and 54% had undergone first aid training within the last 5 years. The workplace was the most common source of first aid training. Of the 43% who had been in a situation requiring first aid, 89% had provided first aid in that situation. There were considerable variations among different occupations in first aid training, and exposure to situations requiring first aid. Theoretical first aid knowledge was not as good as expected in light of the high share who had first aid training. In the presented scenarios 42% of respondent would initiate CPR in an unconscious patient not breathing normally, and 46% would provide an open airway to an unconscious road traffic victim. First aid training was correlated with better theoretical knowledge, but time since first aid training was not. A high proportion of the Norwegian population had first aid training, and interviewees reported high willingness to provide first aid. Theoretical first aid knowledge was worse than expected. While first aid is part of national school curriculum, few have listed school as the source for their first aid training.
Especially, the use of Finite Element (FE) based pavement modeling results for training the NN aided inverse analysis is considered to be accurate in realistically characterizing the non-linear stress-sensitive response of underlying pavement layers in real-time. Efficient NN learning algorithms have been developed and ...
...) Nurse aides who have an offer of employment from a facility; (3) Nurse aides who become employed by a... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FFP for nurse aide training and competency... CARE FACILITIES Requirements That Must Be Met by States and State Agencies: Nurse Aide Training and...
Strini, Robert A.; Strini, Keith
Military air operations in the European theater require U.S. and NATO participants to send various mission experts to 10 Combined Air Operations Centers (CAOCs). Little or no training occurs prior to their arrival for tours of duty ranging between 90 days to 3 years. When training does occur, there is little assessment of its effectiveness in raising CAOC mission readiness. A comprehensive training management system has been developed that utilizes traditional and web based distance-learning methods for providing instruction and task practice as well as distributed simulation to provide mission rehearsal training opportunities on demand for the C2 warrior. This system incorporates new technologies, such as voice interaction and virtual tutors, and a Learning Management System (LMS) that tracks trainee progress from academic learning through procedural practice and mission training exercises. Supervisors can monitor their subordinate's progress through synchronous or asynchronous methods. Embedded within this system are virtual tutors, which provide automated performance measurement as well as tutoring. The training system offers a true time management savings for current instructors and training providers that today must perform On the Job Training (OJT) duties before, during and after each event. Many units do not have the resources to support OJT and are forced to maintain an overlap of several days to minimally maintain unit readiness. One CAOC Commander affected by this paradigm has advocated supporting a beta version of this system to test its ability to offer training on-demand and track the progress of its personnel and unit readiness. If successful, aircrew simulation devices can be connected through either Distributed Interactive Simulation or High Level Architecture methods to provide a DMT-C2 air operations training environment in Europe. This paper presents an approach to establishing a training, testing and decision aid capability and means to assess
Reynolds, John G.; Durban, Matthew M.; Gash, Alexander E.; Grapes, Michael D.; Kelley, Ryan S.; Sullivan, Kyle T.
Additive Manufacturing (AM) is used to make aids that target the training of K-9s to detect explosives. The process uses mixtures of explosives and matrices commonly used in AM. The explosives are formulated into a mixture with the matrix and printed using AM techniques and equipment. The explosive concentrations are kept less than 10% by wt. of the mixture to conform to requirements of shipping and handling.
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First aid training program; minimum... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 77.1706 First aid training program; minimum requirements. (a) All first aid training programs required under the provisions of §§ 77.1703 and 77.1704 shall...
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First-Aid training; supervisory employees. 77... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 77.1703 First-Aid training; supervisory employees. The mine operator shall conduct first-aid training courses for selected supervisory employees at the mine. Within 60 days...
... they would otherwise spend observing, coaching, and facilitating the learning of exercise players. This study: (1) Identifies the impact of force modernization on future exercise control and training feedback functions...
Full Text Available State aid is one of the instruments by which the state can intervene in the economy. Granting thus aid without any control could lead to an imbalance of the market. Very important issues is therefore control of granted aid. European Commission developed catalogue types of aid, which could be granted. One of such types of aid is aid to employment and training. The aim of this article is to demonstrate the importance of state aid for employment and training. In the article the statistical analysis of granted state aid in that area in year 2008-2013 will be done.
The objectives formulated for introducing computer aided instruction into the nuclear training programme are discussed and the process of comparative evaluation which was followed to arrive at a preferred system is described. Three points must be remembered. First it is unlikely that specialized training will benefit from any cost reduction since the total manpower invested can seldom be applied over enough students to represent an overall cost saving when compared with conventional classroom methods. Second it is unnecessary to present on a video screen material which would be better left in its original printed textbook or manual. Thirdly care must be taken not to assume too much or too little prior knowledge in the student. In nuclear training, concentrated information transfer is required in a short period of time. Carefully planned and executed computer assisted instruction can improve teaching effectiveness and provide a welcome alternative to conventional classroom instruction. (U.K.)
Yoneyama, Mitsuru; Masuda, Takahiro; Kubota, Ryuji; Fujiwara, Tadashi; Sakuma, Hitoshi
Under severe accident conditions of a nuclear power plant, plant operators and technical support center (TSC) staffs will be under a amount of stress. Therefore, those individuals responsible for managing the plant should promote their understanding about the accident management and operations. Moreover, it is also important to train in ordinary times, so that they can carry out accident management operations effectively on severe accidents. Therefore, the education and training system which works on personal computers was developed by Japanese BWR group (Tokyo Electric Power Co.,Inc., Tohoku Electric Power Co. ,Inc., Chubu Electric Power Co. ,Inc., Hokuriku Electric Power Co.,Inc., Chugoku Electric Power Co.,Inc., Japan Atomic Power Co.,Inc.), and Hitachi, Ltd. The education and training system is composed of two systems. One is computer aided instruction (CAI) education system and the other is education and training system with a computer simulation. Both systems are designed to execute on MS-Windows(R) platform of personal computers. These systems provide plant operators and technical support center staffs with an effective education and training tool for accident management. TEPCO used the simulation system for the emergency exercise assuming the occurrence of hypothetical severe accident, and have performed an effective exercise in March, 2000. (author)
Hackett, Daniel A; Johnson, Nathan A; Chow, Chin-Moi
Bodybuilding involves performing a series of poses on stage where the competitor is judged on aesthetic muscular appearance. The purpose of this study was to describe training practices and ergogenic aids used by competitive bodybuilders and to determine whether training practices comply with current recommendations for muscular hypertrophy. A web-based survey was completed by 127 competitive male bodybuilders. The results showed that during the off-season phase of training (OFF), the majority of respondents performed 3-6 sets per exercise (95.3%), 7-12 repetition maximum (RM) per set (77.0%), and 61- to 120-seconds recovery between sets and exercises (68.6%). However, training practices changed 6 weeks before competition (PRE), where there was an increased number of respondents who reported undertaking 3-4 sets per exercise at the expense of 5-6 sets per exercise (p competitions (56 of 73 respondents), whereas dietary supplementation was used by all respondents. The findings of this study demonstrate that competitive bodybuilders comply with current resistance exercise recommendations for muscular hypertrophy; however, these changed before competition during which there is a reduction resistance training volume and intensity. This alteration, in addition to an increase in aerobic exercise volume, is purportedly used to increase muscle definition. However, these practices may increase the risk of muscle mass loss in natural compared with amateur bodybuilders who reportedly use drugs known to preserve muscle mass.
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First aid training program; availability of... WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 77.1704 First aid training program; availability... shall make available to all miners employed in the mine a course of instruction in first aid conducted...
Fenske, Robert H.
The present and future training needs of financial aid practitioners (financial aid officers, counselors, and support staff personnel) at Arizona colleges and government agencies were assessed. Attention was directed to the literature on training and programs for financial aid practitioners, as well as the possibilities of developing a…
Rouse, William B.; Johnson, William B.
A methodological framework is presented for representing tradeoffs among alternative combinations of training and aiding for personnel in complex situations. In general, more highly trained people need less aid, and those with less training need more aid. Balancing training and aiding to accomplish the objectives of the system in a cost effective…
Tipple, Christopher A; Caldwell, Patricia T; Kile, Brian M; Beussman, Douglas J; Rushing, Blake; Mitchell, Natalie J; Whitchurch, Christian J; Grime, Martin; Stockham, Rex; Eckenrode, Brian A
Effective and reliable training aids for victim recovery canine teams is essential for law enforcement and investigative purposes. Without adequate training aids, the rate of recovery for sub surface or surface human remains deposition using canine teams may be adversely affected and result in confusing information. The composition of three commercially available canine training aids that purportedly generate volatile components responsible for the odor of human decomposition is relatively simple and not closely related to those compounds experimentally determined to be present at the site of surface or sub-surface human remains. In this study, these different commercial formulations were chemically characterized using six different sampling approaches, including two applications of direct liquid injection, solid-phase microextraction (SPME), purge and trap, ambient preconcentration/thermal desorption, and cryogenic preconcentration/thermal desorption. Direct liquid injections resulted in the fewest number of detected compounds, while a cryogen based thermal desorption method detected the greatest number of compounds in each formulation. Based solely upon the direct liquid injection analysis, Pseudo™ Scent I was composed of approximately 29±4% and 71±5% of 2-pyrrolidinone and 4-aminobutanoic acid, respectively. This same analysis showed that Pseudo™ Scent II was composed of approximately 11±1, 11±1, 24±5, and 54±7% of putrescine, cadaverine, 2-pyrrolidinone, and 4-aminobutanoic acid, respectively. Headspace analysis was conducted to more closely simulate the process whereby a canine's nose would capture a volatiles profile. More compounds were detected using the headspace sampling method; however, the vast majority was not consistent with current data on human decomposition. Additionally, the three formulations were tested in outdoor and indoor scenarios by a double-blinded canine team, using a certified and specifically trained victim recovery canine
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Shark Mark Recapture Database is a Cooperative Research Program database system used to keep multispecies mark-recapture information in a common format for...
Sacco, A; Ciavarella, M; Trevisan, A; Monteforte, Gabriella; De Santis, A
The inter-ministerial decree (D.I.) 388/03 (the Italian law on first aid in the workplace) attaches particular importance to the organization of first aid and to the content of the teaching and training of designated workers, specifying teaching objectives, programme and duration of courses. However it provides less details on the requirements and qualifications of the teachers and trainers. To discuss this topic in the light of the guidelines contained in the literature and the existing legislation. We used the specific references of literature and legislation concerning first aid training of designated workers. The objectives and the content of the training courses call for a high level of professional competence and approach. Therefore, training of designated workers should be planned and carried out in accordance with the training standards used for the teaching and training of the so-called "lay rescuers". The need to achieve high training standards for workers responsible for first aid at the workplace is to a large extent justified by the difficulty of the role of employees. This need follows the current tendency in regulations to guarantee adequate and up-dated training also for other agents operating within the system of workplace prevention. In this context the occupational physician plays a significant role in the training programmes for designated workers.
Bothe, Hans-Heinrich; Gebert, H.
People with decreasing hearing ability are more dependent on alternative personal communication channels. To ‘read and understand’ visible articulatory movements of the conversation partner, as done in the process of speechreading, is one possible solution for understanding verbal statements...... on the employment of computer‐based communication aids for hearing‐impaired, deaf and deaf‐blind people . This paper presents the complete system that is composed of a 3D‐facial animation with synchronized speech synthesis, a natural language dialogue unit and a student‐teacher‐training module. Due to the very...... modular structure of the software package and the centralized event manager, it is possible to add or replace specific modules when needed. The present version of our teacher‐student module uses a hierarchically structured composition of important single words and short phrases, supplemented by easy...
Lynch, Dania M; Gennat, Hanni C; Celenza, Tony; Jacobs, Ian G; O'Brien, Debra; Jelinek, George A
To define the extent of Senior First Aid training in a sample of the Western Australian community, and to evaluate the effect of previous training on first aid knowledge and skills. A telephone survey of a random sample from suburban Perth and rural Western Australia; and practical assessment of first aid skills in a subsample of those surveyed. 30.4% of respondents had completed a Senior First Aid certificate. Trained individuals performed consistently better in theoretical tests (p=0.0001) and practical management of snakebite (p=0.021) than untrained. However, many volunteers, both trained and untrained, demonstrated poor skills in applying pressure immobilisation bandaging and splinting the limb adequately despite electing to do so in theory. Overall knowledge and performance of first aid skills by the community are poor, but are improved by first aid training courses.
Naval Education and Training Command, Washington, DC.
This first aid manual is designed to serve as basic first aid instructional materials for all nonmedical naval personnel. Chapters are included on the following topics: basic life support, hemorrhage, shock, wounds, injuries, drug abuse, poisoning, common medical emergencies, NBC (nuclear, biological, chemical) agent casualties, and rescue and…
Almagro Vidal, A.; Tandon, A.; Eppich, R.
Recent dramatic events have brought to the forefront the debate on how to protect, safeguard and document Cultural Heritage in conflict areas. Heritage places have become battlefields, sources of illicit trafficking and even deliberate targets of destruction because of the politicisation to further conflict ideologies as well as misinterpretation of the values they represent. Is it possible to protect Cultural Heritage under such circumstances? If yes, when is the right time to intervene and who can help in this task? How can documentation and training assist? The International Course on First Aid to Cultural Heritage in Times of Crisis promoted by ICCROM (The International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property) in collaboration with various partners focuses specifically on ways to help in such difficult and stressful situations. This paper explores the methodological approach and highlights the special circumstances that surround rapid documentation and preliminary condition assessment in conflict areas, and in cases of complex emergencies such as an earthquake striking a conflict area. The paper identifies international actors that might play a special and crucial role in the first steps of such a situation and recognizes the need for training activities to strengthen capacities for disaster response to cultural heritage at national and regional levels.
Irvine, A Blair; Beaty, Jeff A; Seeley, John R; Bourgeois, Michelle
Problematic resident behaviors may escalate in long-term care facilities (LTCs). If nurse aides (NAs) are not nearby, the nearest staff to intervene may be non-direct care workers (NDCWs), who have little or no dementia training. This pilot research tested Internet dementia-training program, designed for NAs, on NDCWs in a LTC setting. Sixty-eight NDCWs participated, filling out two baseline surveys at 1-month intervals and a posttest survey after training. The surveys included video-situation testing, items addressing psychosocial constructs associated with behavior change, and measures training-acceptance. Paired t tests showed significant positive effects on measures of knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy, and behavioral intentions, with small-moderate effect sizes. Nursing staff as well as non-health care workers showed improved scores, and the web-site training program was well received by all participants. These results suggest that Internet training may allow staff development coordinators to conserve limited resources by cross-training of different job categories with the same program.
Full Text Available This report describes the process followed in establishing training aids to make employees aware of the dangers of frictional hazards. The actual outputs of the project are training aids that will be used by trainers to transfer the knowledge...
A life skills and HIV/AIDS education programme was implemented in secondary schools as a strategy to combat the spread of HIV/AIDS among school-going young people in South Africa. As part of a joint effort of the Departments of Health and Education, two teachers per school were trained to implement life skills training ...
Bakke, Håkon Kvåle; Steinvik, Tine; Angell, Johan; Wisborg, Torben
Background Bystander first aid can improve survival following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest or trauma. Thus, providing first aid education to laypersons may lead to better outcomes. In this study, we aimed to establish the prevalence and distribution of first aid training in the populace, how often first aid skills are needed, and self-reported helping behaviour. Methods We conducted a telephone survey of 1000 respondents who were representative of the Norwegian population. Respondents were ...
Van de Velde, Stijn; Heselmans, Annemie; Roex, Ann; Vandekerckhove, Philippe; Ramaekers, Dirk; Aertgeerts, Bert
This study reviewed evidence on the effects of nonresuscitative first aid training on competence and helping behavior in laypersons. We identified randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials and interrupted time series on nonresuscitative first aid training for laypersons by using 12 databases (including MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO), hand searching, reference checking, and author communication. Two reviewers independently evaluated selected studies with the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Review Group quality criteria. One reviewer extracted data with a standard form and another checked them. In anticipation of substantial heterogeneity across studies, we elected a descriptive summary of the included studies. We included 4 studies, 3 of which were randomized trials. We excluded 11 studies on quality issues. Two studies revealed that participants trained in first aid demonstrated higher written test scores than controls (poisoning first aid: relative risk 2.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.64 to 2.72; various first aid cases: mean difference 4.75, 95% CI 3.02 to 6.48). Two studies evaluated helping responses during unannounced simulations. First aid training improved the quality of help for a bleeding emergency (relative risk 25.94; 95% CI 3.60 to 186.93), not the rate of helping (relative risk 1.13; 95% CI 0.88 to 1.45). Training in first aid and helping behavior increased the helping rates in a chest pain emergency compared with training in first aid only (relative risk 2.80; 95% CI 1.05 to 7.50) or controls (relative risk 3.81; 95% CI 0.98 to 14.89). Participants trained in first aid only did not help more than controls (relative risk 1.36; 95% CI 0.28 to 6.61). First aid programs that also train participants to overcome inhibitors of emergency helping behavior could lead to better help and higher helping rates.
Vakili, Mohammad Ali; Mohjervatan, Ali; Heydari, Seyed Taghi; Akbarzadeh, Armin; Hosini, Nazanin Sadat; Alizad, Farideh; Arasteh, Peyman; Moghasemi, Mohammad Javad
To evaluate the efficacy of a first aid training course for a group of drivers. This study comprised 500 drivers, randomly selected from the road transport companies. They underwent a course of first aid training and the results were evaluated at 0-3 and 4-6 months after training. Both quantitative and qualitative improvements were observed in the drivers'efficacy in giving first aid. Also the rate of correct interventions was higher at 4-6 months than at 0-3 months. The exception was airway management which was not favorably improved after training. The first aid training course for drivers is beneficial and helpful for prehospital care system in road traffic accidents.
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First-aid training program; retraining of...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1713-5 First-aid training program; retraining of supervisory... shall conduct refresher first-aid training courses each calendar year for all selected supervisory...
Thombs, Dennis L; Gonzalez, Jennifer M Reingle; Osborn, Cynthia J; Rossheim, Matthew E; Suzuki, Sumihiro
In college and university residence halls, resident assistants (RAs) are expected to serve as first-aid providers to students who may have alcohol, other drug, mental health, and academic problems. Despite this responsibility, evidence-based, first-aid programs have not been developed and tested for the RA workforce. The current study examined effects of an investigational first-aid program designed specifically for RAs. The online Peer Hero Training program is a novel approach to RA training in its use of interactive video dramatizations of incidents involving substance-using or distressed residents. A 9-month randomized trial conducted on eight US campuses compared RAs who participated in the Peer Hero Training program to RAs who received training-as-usual. Participation in the Peer Hero Training program significantly increased RA first-aid efforts for residential students who may have had alcohol, other drug, mental health, or academic problems 6 months after baseline. Compared with those in the training-as-usual condition, RAs in the Peer Hero Training program made more than 10 times as many first-aid efforts for possible alcohol problems, almost 14 times the number of first-aid efforts for possible drug use, almost 3 times the number of first-aid efforts for possible mental health problems, and 3 times the number of first-aid efforts for academic problems. There was no evidence that measured RA attitudes mediated the effects of the intervention. Results of this preliminary evaluation trial suggest that online training using interactive video dramatizations is a viable approach to strengthening RAs' ability to provide alcohol, other drugs, and mental health first-aid to undergraduates.
California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Publications.
This workbook on first aid is one of a series of nine individual units of instruction for roofing apprenticeship classes in California. The workbook covers 12 topics: introduction to first-aid practices; burns; skeletal injuries; spinal injuries; wounds, bleeding, and bruises; emergencies of the heart and blood circulation system; breathing and…
The SAMOA meeting, held in Halden (Norway) in 1993, presented 17 papers grouped into three sessions which titles are: operator aids for control rooms, operator aids for technical support centers, simulation tools for operator training. The specialist meeting also addressed the question of identification of information needs not covered by the instrumentation, examined means to perform phenomenological behaviour assessments needed to support station procedures, and discussed computational aids/methods for predicting accident progression and consequences
The SAMOA meeting, held in Halden (Norway) in 1993, presented 17 papers grouped into three sessions which titles are: operator aids for control rooms, operator aids for technical support centers, simulation tools for operator training. The specialist meeting also addressed the question of identification of information needs not covered by the instrumentation, examined means to perform phenomenological behaviour assessments needed to support station procedures, and discussed computational aids/methods for predicting accident progression and consequences
Chao, Li-Wei; Gow, Jeff; Akintola, Olagoke; Pauly, Mark
The purpose of this study was to compare two different methods to teach educators about HIV/AIDS. Sixty educators were selected from eight schools in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa, to undergo HIV/AIDS training using an interactive CD-ROM intervention. Another sixty educators from other schools were selected to undergo a two-day Life Skills…
Full Text Available This paper describes an experiment conducted to measure haptic sensitivity and the effects of haptic training with and without visual aid. The protocol for haptic training consisted of a needle insertion task using dual-layer silicon samples. A visual aid was provided as a multimodal cue for the haptic perception task. Results showed that for a group of novices (subjects with no previous experience in needle insertion, training with a visual aid resulted in a longer time to task completion, and a greater applied force, during post-training tests. This suggests that haptic perception is easily overshadowed, and may be completely replaced, by visual feedback. Therefore, haptic skills must be trained differently from visuomotor skills.
Altintaş, Kerim Hakan; Aslan, Dilek; Yildiz, Ali Naci; Subaşi, Nüket; Elçin, Melih; Odabaşi, Orhan; Bilir, Nazmi; Sayek, Iskender
In Turkey, the first aiders are few in quantity and yet they are required in many settings, such as earthquakes. It was thought that training first year university students in first aid and basic life support (FA-BLS) techniques would serve to increase the number of first aiders. It was also thought that another problem, the lack of first aid trainers, might be addressed by training medical students to perform this function. A project aimed at training first year university students in FA-BLS was conducted at Hacettepe University. In the first phase, medical student first aid trainers (MeSFAT) were trained in FA-BLS training techniques by academic trainers and in the second phase, first year university students were trained in FA-BLS techniques by these peer trainers under the academic trainers' supervision. The purpose of this study was to assess the participants' evaluation of this project and to propose a new program to increase the number of first aiders in the country. In total, 31 medical students were certified as MeSFATs and 12 of these trained 40 first year university students in FA-BLS. Various questionnaires were applied to the participants to determine their evaluation of the training program. Most of the participants and the authors considered the program to be successful and effective. This method may be used to increase the number of first aid trainers and first aiders in the community.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effi cacy of a locus of control-based training programme in reducing HIV and AIDS risk among university students. The locus of control-based variables that formed the training programme were social systems control, deferment of gratifi cation, personal values and expectancies, ...
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First-aid training program; availability of... Miscellaneous § 75.1713-4 First-aid training program; availability of instruction to all miners. On or before... the mine a course of instruction in first-aid conducted by the operator or under the auspices of the...
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First aid training program; retraining of..., SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 77.1705 First aid..., 1972, each operator of a surface coal mine shall conduct refresher first aid training programs each...
Hart, Laura M; Jorm, Anthony F; Paxton, Susan J
Eating disorders cause significant burden that may be reduced by early and appropriate help-seeking. However, despite the availability of effective treatments, very few individuals with eating disorders seek treatment. Training in mental health first aid is known to be effective in increasing mental health literacy and supportive behaviours, in the social networks of individuals with mental health problems. Increases in these domains are thought to improve the likelihood that effective help is sought. However, the efficacy of mental health first aid for eating disorders has not been evaluated. The aim of this research was to examine whether specific training in mental health first aid for eating disorders was effective in changing knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards people with eating disorders. A repeated measures, uncontrolled trial was conducted to establish proof of concept and provide guidance on the future design of a randomised controlled trial. Self-report questionnaires, administered at baseline, post-training and 6-month follow-up, assessed the effectiveness of the 4-hour, single session, mental health first aid training. 73 participants completed the training and all questionnaires. The training intervention was associated with statistically significant increases in problem recognition and knowledge of appropriate mental health first aid strategies, which were maintained at 6-month follow-up. Sustained significant changes in attitudes and behaviours were less clear. 20 participants reported providing assistance to someone with a suspected eating disorder, seven of whom sought professional help as a result of the first aid interaction. Results provided no evidence of a negative impact on participants or the individuals they provided assistance to. This research provides preliminary evidence for the use of training in mental health first aid as a suitable intervention for increasing community knowledge of and support for people with eating
Jensen, Kamilla B.; Morthorst, Britt Reuter; Vendsborg, Per B.
PURPOSE: To examine the effect of the Australian educational intervention Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) in a Danish context. Primary outcome was improvement concerning confidence in help-giving behavior towards people suffering from mental illness. Secondary outcomes were increased knowledge...
Botham, C. N.
Within the context of cooperative education, audiovisual aids may be used for spreading the idea of cooperatives and helping to consolidate study groups; for the continuous process of education, both formal and informal, within the cooperative movement; for constant follow up purposes; and for promoting loyalty to the movement. Detailed…
Rackal, Julia M; Tynan, Anne-Marie; Handford, Curtis D; Rzeznikiewiz, Damian; Agha, Ayda; Glazier, Richard
The complexity of HIV/AIDS raises challenges for the effective delivery of care. It is important to ensure that the expertise and experience of care providers is of high quality. Training and experience of HIV/AIDS providers may impact not only individual patient outcomes but increasingly on health care costs as well. The objective of this review is to assess the effects of provider training and experience on people living with HIV/AIDS on the following outcomes: immunological (ie. viral load, CD4 count), medical (ie. mortality, proportion on antiretrovirals), psychosocial (ie. quality of life measures) and economic outcomes (ie health care costs). We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Dissertation Abstracts International (DAI), CINAHL, HealthStar, PsycInfo, PsycLit, Social Sciences Abstracts, and Sociological Abstracts from January 1, 1980 through May 29, 2009. Electronic searches were performed for abstracts from major international AIDS conferences. Reference lists from pertinent articles, books and review articles were retrieved and reviewed. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), controlled clinical trials, cohort, case control, cross-sectional studies and controlled before and after designs that examined the qualifications/training and patient volume of HIV/AIDS care of providers caring for persons known to be infected with HIV/AIDS were included. At least two authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Study authors were contacted for further information as required. Assessment of confounding factors was undertaken independently by two reviewers. A total of four studies (one randomized controlled trial, three non- randomized studies) involving 8488 people living with HIV/AIDS were included. The main findings of this review demonstrated a trend to improved outcomes when treated by a provider with more training/expertise in HIV/AIDS care in the outpatient (clinic) setting. Due to the heterogeneity of the included studies, we could not perform a
He, Zhimin; Wynn, Persephone; Kendrick, Denise
Relatively little is currently known about the effectiveness of first-aid training for children and laypeople. We have undertaken a systematic review to synthesise the evidence and inform policy and practice in this area. A range of bibliographic databases were searched. Studies were eligible if they used experimental designs, provided first-aid training to laypeople or children and reported first-aid knowledge, skills behaviours or confidence. Studies were selected for inclusion, data extracted and risk of bias assessed by two independent reviewers. Findings were synthesised narratively. 23 studies (14 randomised controlled trials and 9 non-randomised studies) were included, 12 of which recruited children or young people (≤19 years old). Most studies reported significant effects favouring the intervention group; 11 out of 16 studies reported significant increases in first-aid knowledge; 11 out of 13 studies reported significant increases in first-aid skills; 2 out of 5 studies reported significant improvements in helping behaviour; and 2 out of 3 studies reported significant increases in confidence in undertaking first aid. Only one study undertook an economic evaluation; finding an intensive instructor-led course was more effective, but had significantly higher costs than either a less-intensive instructor-led course or a video-delivered course. Most studies were at risk of bias, particularly selection, performance or detection bias. There is some evidence to support provision of first-aid training, particularly for children or young people, but many studies were judged to be at risk of bias. Conclusions cannot be drawn about which first-aid training courses or programmes are most effective or the age at which training can be most effectively provided. Few studies evaluated training in adult laypeople. High-quality studies are required assessing effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of standardised first-aid training to inform policy development and provision
NASA's Virtual Glovebox (VGX) was developed to allow astronauts on Earth to train for complex biology research tasks in space. The astronauts may reach into the virtual environment, naturally manipulating specimens, tools, equipment, and accessories in a simulated microgravity environment as they would do in space. Such virtual reality technology also provides engineers and space operations staff with rapid prototyping, planning, and human performance modeling capabilities. Other Earth based applications being explored for this technology include biomedical procedural training and training for disarming bio-terrorism weapons.
Rosso, G L; Bruno, Santina; Feola, M; Zanelli, R; Corino, P
Four years after the law concerning first aid in the workplace was passed in Italy (inter-ministerial decree 388/2003), which is a useful tool in improving safety at work, it is necessary to organize first aid courses specifically for those working in the road haulage sector which would also be effective in case of traffic accidents. In view of the characteristics of the working environment in this sector (the road) and of the working conditions (generally workers are isolated and far from the company's headquarters), it would be necessary to organize ad hoc first aid courses at the workplace for the category of professional drivers. The aim of this article is to discuss some possible organizational aspects of first aid in the road haulage sector, such as: number of workers responsible for first aid, how to train workers for specific risks of traffic accidents, the requirements for teachers responsible for first aid and course targets that must be achieved. A good level of training, achieved during the first aid course at the workplace, might therefore be useful to improve road safety and increase the quality of basic and advanced first aid in road traffic injuries.
Tumlinson, Katherine; Hubacher, David; Wesson, Jennifer; Lasway, Christine
A job aid is a tool, such as a flowchart or checklist, that makes it easier for staff to carry out tasks by providing quick access to needed information. Many public health organizations are engaged in the production of job aids intended to improve adherence to important medical guidelines and protocols, particularly in resource-constrained countries. However, some evidence suggests that actual use of job aids remains low. One strategy for improving utilization is the introduction of job aids in training workshops. This paper summarizes the results of two separate evaluations conducted in Uganda and the Dominican Republic (DR) which measured the usefulness of a series of four family planning checklists 7-24 months after distribution in training workshops. While more than half of the health care providers used the checklists at least once, utilization rates were sub-optimal. However, the vast majority of those providers who utilized the checklists found them to be very useful in their work.
Van de Velde, Stijn; Roex, Ann; Vangronsveld, Karoline; Niezink, Lidewij; Van Praet, Koen; Heselmans, Annemie; Donceel, Peter; Vandekerckhove, Philippe; Ramaekers, Dirk; Aertgeerts, Bert
There is limited evidence indicating that laypersons trained in first aid provide better help, but do not help more often than untrained laypersons. This study investigated the effect of conventional first aid training versus conventional training plus supplementary training aimed at decreasing barriers to helping. The authors conducted a randomised controlled trial. After 24 h of conventional first aid training, the participants either attended an experimental lesson to reduce barriers to helping or followed a control lesson. The authors used a deception test to measure the time between the start of the unannounced simulated emergency and seeking help behaviour and the number of particular helping actions. The authors randomised 72 participants to both groups. 22 participants were included in the analysis for the experimental group and 36 in the control group. The authors found no statistically or clinically significant differences for any of the outcome measures. The time until seeking help (geometrical mean and 95% CI) was 55.5 s (42.9 to 72.0) in the experimental group and 56.5 s (43.0 to 74.3) in the control group. 57% of the participants asked a bystander to seek help, 40% left the victim to seek help themselves and 3% did not seek any help. Supplementary training on dealing with barriers to helping did not alter the helping behaviour. The timing and appropriateness of the aid provided can be improved. The authors registered this trial at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT00954161.
Lawton, R.K.; Louche, K.A.
A problem has existed in nuclear power plant training departments about how to choose questions for examinations without instructor bias, how to permanently store this exam so that it can be reconstructed, how to statistically analyze class, instructor, and student performance, and how to keep accurate, easily accessible records of all training. The design of the software package discussed in the paper is such that a complete record of classes, quizzes, exams, instructors, and analysis is available for each trainee. The need for classes is automatically available from the computer with randomly created exams available on request
Jorm, Anthony F; Kitchener, Betty A; Fischer, Julie-Anne; Cvetkovski, Stefan
Mental Health First Aid training is a course for the public that teaches how to give initial help to a person developing a mental health problem or in a mental health crisis. The present study evaluated the effects of Mental Health First Aid training delivered by e-learning on knowledge about mental disorders, stigmatizing attitudes and helping behaviour. A randomized controlled trial was carried out with 262 members of the Australian public. Participants were randomly assigned to complete an e-learning CD, read a Mental Health First Aid manual or be in a waiting list control group. The effects of the interventions were evaluated using online questionnaires pre- and post-training and at 6-months follow up. The questionnaires covered mental health knowledge, stigmatizing attitudes, confidence in providing help to others, actions taken to implement mental health first aid and participant mental health. Both e-learning and the printed manual increased aspects of knowledge, reduced stigma and increased confidence compared to waiting list. E-learning also improved first aid actions taken more than waiting list, and was superior to the printed manual in reducing stigma and disability due to mental ill health. Mental Health First Aid information received by either e-learning or printed manual had positive effects, but e-learning was better at reducing stigma.
Vitti, Simone Virginia; Blasca, Wanderléia Quinhoneiro; Sigulem, Daniel; Torres Pisa, Ivan
Adults and elderly users of hearing aids suffer psychosocial reactions as a result of hearing loss. Auditory rehabilitation is typically carried out with support from a speech therapist, usually in a clinical center. For these cases, there is a lack of computer-based self-training tools for minimizing the psychosocial impact of hearing deficiency. To develop and evaluate a web-based auditory self-training system for adult and elderly users of hearing aids. Two modules were developed for the web system: an information module based on guidelines for using hearing aids; and an auditory training module presenting a sequence of training exercises for auditory abilities along the lines of the auditory skill steps within auditory processing. We built aweb system using PHP programming language and a MySQL database .from requirements surveyed through focus groups that were conducted by healthcare information technology experts. The web system was evaluated by speech therapists and hearing aid users. An initial sample of 150 patients at DSA/HRAC/USP was defined to apply the system with the inclusion criteria that: the individuals should be over the age of 25 years, presently have hearing impairment, be a hearing aid user, have a computer and have internet experience. They were divided into two groups: a control group (G1) and an experimental group (G2). These patients were evaluated clinically using the HHIE for adults and HHIA for elderly people, before and after system implementation. A third web group was formed with users who were invited through social networks for their opinions on using the system. A questionnaire evaluating hearing complaints was given to all three groups. The study hypothesis considered that G2 would present greater auditory perception, higher satisfaction and fewer complaints than G1 after the auditory training. It was expected that G3 would have fewer complaints regarding use and acceptance of the system. The web system, which was named Sis
... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000594.htm HIV/AIDS To use the sharing features on this page, ... immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. When a person becomes infected with HIV, the ...
Hambrick, Erin P; Rubens, Sonia L; Vernberg, Eric M; Jacobs, Anne K; Kanine, Rebecca M
Dissemination of Psychological First Aid (PFA) is challenging considering the complex nature of disaster response and the various disaster mental health (DMH) trainings available. To understand challenges to dissemination in community mental health centers (CMHCs), interviews were conducted with nine DMH providers associated with CMHCs. Consensual qualitative analysis was used to analyze data. Interviews were targeted toward understanding organizational infrastructure, DMH training requirements, and training needs. Results clarified challenges to DMH training in CMHCs and factors that may promote buy-in for trainings. For example, resources are limited and thus allocated for state and federal training requirements. Therefore, including PFA in these requirements could promote adoption. Additionally, a variety of training approaches that differ in content, style, and length would be useful. To conclude, a conceptual model for ways to promote buy-in for the PFA Guide is proposed.
Essam Lauibi Esmail
Full Text Available Planetary gear trains (PGTs are introduced to undergraduate mechanical engineering students in the course of Theory of Machines. The complexity of the traditional methods for analyzing PGTs has kept many from becoming familiar with the capability of PGTs in mechanisms and machine design. In this paper a unified general formulation for simultaneously visualizing velocities, torques, and power flow through a train is presented on a single nomograph. Therefore, the increasing complex mechanical systems, such as automotive transmissions, are much easier to understand. Nomographs of Fundamental Gear Entities (FGEs are constructed based on the nomographs of their fundamental circuits, without specifying the exact gear dimensions. They are then unified in one system nomograph. Nomographs are promising to provide designers with an efficient tool for the design of geared mechanisms.
Bollig, Georg; Myklebust, Anne G; Østringen, Kristin
Children can be the only persons present in an emergency situation. Aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of a first aid course for 4-5-year-old kindergarten children given by a first aid instructor and kindergarten teachers. A mixed methods approach using both quantitative and qualitative methods was used to investigate the effects of teaching first aid in the kindergarten in the present study. 10 kindergarten children at the age of 4-5 years were included in a pilot-study, 5 girls and 5 boys. Three of them were four years and seven were five years old. Two months after completion of the first aid course children were tested in a scenario where the children had to provide first aid to an unconscious victim after a cycle accident. The next seven months the children were followed by participant observation. The findings suggest that 4-5-year-old children are able to learn and apply basic first aid. Tested two months after course completion 70% of the children assessed consciousness correctly and knew the correct emergency telephone number; 60% showed correct assessment of breathing and 40% of the participants accomplished the other tasks (giving correct emergency call information, knowledge of correct recovery position, correct airway management) correctly. Many of the children showed their capabilities to do so in a first aid scenario although some participants showed fear of failure in the test scenario. In an informal group testing most of these children could perform first aid measures, too. Teaching first aid also lead to more active helping behaviour and increased empathy in the children. Kindergarten children aged 4-5 years can learn basic fist aid. First aid training should start in the kindergarten. © 2011 Bollig et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Lee, D.J.; Tottman-Trayner, E.
The paper describes how the rapid development of desktop computing power, the associated fall in prices, and the advancement of computer graphics technology driven by the entertainment industry has enabled the nuclear industry to achieve improvements in operation and training through the use of computer simulation. Applications are focused on the fuel handling operations at Torness Power Station where visualization through computer modelling is being used to enhance operator awareness and to assist in a number of operational scenarios. It is concluded that there are significant benefits to be gained from the introduction of the facility at Torness as well as other locations. (author)
Li, Feng; Sheng, Xiaoyang; Zhang, Jinsong; Jiang, Fan; Shen, Xiaoming
Unintentional injuries are a major cause of death among children. Data suggest that the retention of knowledge and skills about first aid declined over time. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of pediatric first aid training among teachers. A stratified random sampling method was used to select 1,067 teachers. The selected trainees received pediatric first aid training. Follow-up assessments were conducted 6 months, 9 months and 4 years following the training. A standardized collection of demographics was performed, and participants were given a questionnaire to indicate knowledge of and emotions about first aid. In the pretest, 1067 people responded with a mean of 21.0 correct answers to 37 questions, whereas in the post-test period, the mean score increased to 32.2 correct answers of 37 questions (P 70%) had administered correct first aid for injuries. This study demonstrated that the acquisition of knowledge, both short and long term, significantly improves. Despite appreciable decreases in knowledge long term, knowledge retention was modest but stable.
Katona, Lindsay B; Douglas, William S; Lena, Sean R; Ratner, Kyle G; Crothers, Daniel; Zondervan, Robert L; Radis, Charles D
The challenges presented by traumatic injuries in low-resource communities are especially relevant in South Sudan. This study was conducted to assess whether a 3-day wilderness first aid (WFA) training course taught in South Sudan improved first aid knowledge. Stonehearth Open Learning Opportunities (SOLO) Schools designed the course to teach people with limited medical knowledge to use materials from their environment to provide life-saving care in the event of an emergency. A pre-test/post-test study design was used to assess first aid knowledge of 46 community members in Kit, South Sudan, according to a protocol approved by the University of New England Institutional Review Board. The course and assessments were administered in English and translated in real-time to Acholi and Arabic, the two primary languages spoken in the Kit region. Descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, and correlation analyses were conducted. Results included a statistically significant improvement in first aid knowledge after the 3-day training course: t(38)=3.94; Pfirst of its kind in South Sudan, provides evidence that a WFA training course in South Sudan is efficacious. These findings suggest that similar training opportunities could be used in other parts of the world to improve basic medical knowledge in communities with limited access to medical resources and varying levels of education and professional experiences.
California State Dept. of Motor Vehicles, Sacramento.
This handbook is designed to guide California parents in helping their teenagers practice the driving skills required to obtain a driver license. The first section includes information on the following topics: meeting California driver training and licensing requirements, understanding the parent's role as the driving instructor's aide, using the…
Timko, Tamara C.; Sainato, Diane M.
A study involving 9 children (ages 41-69 months) examined the effects of a first aid training procedure on the acquisition, maintenance, and generalization of seeking adult assistance in response to simulated injuries. All participants were successful in acquiring the response and obtaining adult assistance as well as responding quickly.…
California Univ., Los Angeles. Center for Mental Health in Schools.
This presentation and training aid provides a brief overview and discussion of the nature and scope of youth suicide, what prevention programs try to do, a framework for a public health approach, guides to programs and more. This material can be used for both handouts and as overheads for use with presentations. (GCP)
Semlitz, Linda; Ogiwara, Kaori; Weissbecker, Inka; Gilbert, Elizabeth; Sato, Maiko; Taniguchi, Machi; Ishii, Chikako; Sawa, Chie
International Medical Corps and TELL, a local mental health non-profit organization in Japan, collaborated to develop localized Psychological First Aid (PFA) training of welfare and volunteer organizations supporting survivors of the Japan March 11, 2011 triple disaster The trainings significantly increased participants 'perceived competency in applying PFA principles and in interacting with the disaster affected populations in a safe manner The collaboration between International Medical Corps and TELL in developing, implementing and evaluating the training has potential to inform PFA activities in other disaster affected settings.
Anatoliy G. Gritchenko
Full Text Available The article outlines the theoretical and practical aspects of software training aids development and implementation in professional preparation practice of technological education teacher. The myriad opportunities of new information technologies are described; the characteristic features of modern software training tool (STT are revealed; the main algorithmic structure circuits of training programs construction (linear, cyclic, with hyperlinks, to the labels, which enable the development of STT variety and functionality are given; the methodology of STT creating is described based on the analysis of the technology teacher preparation in HEE content, MITE didactic functions and selection criteria of educational software for this area of specialist’s preparation.
Kumar, Anant; Kumar, Prakash
Training needs assessments are pivotal for any capacity building program. Building capacity of service providers and staff involved in HIV/AIDS intervention programs is crucial because of the distinct nature of such programs. It requires specific knowledge, skills, and attitudes that are of utmost importance, influencing the reach of the program and its impact in halting and reversing the epidemic. This study was conducted to identify the training needs assessment of personnel involved in targeted intervention for high risk populations vulnerable to HIV infection in Jharkhand, India. Through the study the authors critically examine the existing training needs and gaps and suggest strategies to address them.
De Buck, Emmy; Van Remoortel, Hans; Dieltjens, Tessa; Verstraeten, Hans; Clarysse, Matthieu; Moens, Olaf; Vandekerckhove, Philippe
"Calling for help, performing first aid and providing Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)" is part of the educational goals in secondary schools in Belgium (Flanders). However, for teachers it is not always clear at what age children can be taught which aspects of first aid. In addition, it is not clear what constitutes "performing first aid" and we strongly advocate that the first aid curriculum is broader than CPR training alone. To develop an evidence-based educational pathway to enable the integration of first aid into the school curriculum by defining the goals to be achieved for knowledge, skills and attitudes, for different age groups. Studies were identified through electronic databases research (The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase). We included studies on first aid education for children and adolescents up to 18 years old. A multidisciplinary expert panel formulated their practice experience and expert opinion and discussed the available evidence. We identified 5822 references and finally retained 30 studies (13 experimental and 17 observational studies), including studies concerning emergency call (7 studies), cardiopulmonary resuscitation (18 studies), AED (Automated External Defibrillator) use (6 studies), recovery position (5 studies), choking (2 studies), injuries (5 studies), and poisoning (2 studies). Recommendations (educational goals) were derived after carefully discussing the currently available evidence in the literature and balancing the skills and attitudes of children of different ages. An evidence-based educational pathway with educational goals concerning learning first aid for each age group was developed. This educational pathway can be used for the integration of first aid training in school curricula. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Jacobs, Gerard A; Gray, Brandon L; Erickson, Sara E; Gonzalez, Elvira D; Quevillon, Randal P
Any community can experience a disaster, and many traumatic events occur without warning. Psychologists can be an important resource assisting in psychological support for individuals and communities, in preparation for and in response to traumatic events. Disaster mental health and the community-based model of psychological first aid are described. The National Preparedness and Response Science Board has recommended that all mental health professionals be trained in disaster mental health, and that first responders, civic officials, emergency managers, and the general public be trained in community-based psychological first aid. Education and training resources in these two fields are described to assist psychologists and others in preparing themselves to assist their communities in difficult times and to help their communities learn to support one another. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Horikoshi, Hiroyuki; Kikuchi, Akihiro; Onoguchi, Masahisa
higher performance than the corresponding CAD software trained with a European database for the analysis of bone scans from Japanese patients. These results could at least partly be caused by the physical differences between Japanese and European patients resulting in less influence of attenuation......Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) software for bone scintigrams have recently been introduced as a clinical quality assurance tool. The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of two CAD systems, one based on a European and one on a Japanese training database, in a group of bone...... scans from Japanese patients.The two CAD software are trained to interpret bone scans using training databases consisting of bone scans with the desired interpretation, metastatic disease or not. One software was trained using 795 bone scans from European patients and the other with 904 bone scans from...
Frey, Allan H.
Experimentation was carried out to evaluate holograms for use in training and as job aids. Holograms were compared against line drawings and photographs as methods of presenting visual information needed to accomplish a number of tasks. The dependent variables were assembly speed and assembly errors with people unstressed, assembly speed and assembly errors with people stressed, the percentage of discovered errors in assemblies, the number of correct assemblies misidentified as erroneous, and information extraction. Holograms generally were as good as or better visual aids than either photographs or line drawings. The use of holograms tends to reduce errors rather than speed assembly time in the assembly tasks used in these experiments. They also enhance the discovery of errors when the subject is attempting to locate assembly errors in a construction. The results of this experimentation suggest that serious consideration should be given to the use of holography in the development of job aids and in training. Besides these advantages for job aids, other advantages we found are that when page formated information is stored in man-readable holograms they are still useable when scratched or damaged even when similarly damaged microfilm is unuseable. Holography can also be used to store man and machine readable data simultaneously. Such storage would provide simplified backup in the event of machine failure, and it would permit the development of compatible machine and manual systems for job aid applications.
Pandey, D P; Thapa, C L; Hamal, P K
Tropical lowland on Nepal is at full of risk to snake bite. The snake bite mortality is due to lack of awareness about proper management of victims. The study aims to assess the change in the pattern of management of snake bite victims after first aid training. A retrospective study was done from October 2007 to October 2008 among 43 snake bite victims in rural Madi valley comprising of 4 village development committees where first aid training was conducted one year before. Only 26% of the snake bite victims approached traditional healer before arriving at the heath facility. The case fatality rate dropped to 22% after venomous snake bite. Pressure Immobilization bandaging and local compression pad immobilization technique was used by 56% who went to the health facility. Mean duration for reaching health facility was 61.51±33.55 minutes. Common places of bite were field 16 (37.2%), Indoor 6 (14%), while sleeping 6 (14%), and yard 6 (14%). Lower extremity bites were 32 (74.4%), upper extremity 8 (18.6%) and head 3 (7%). Bicycle was the commonest mode of transport 22 (51%) followed by ambulance 9(27.9%) and Motorcycle 6 (11%). First aid training changes the attitude of the people in management of snake bite victims and is one of the effective ways in decreasing mortality. Nationwide campaigning should be done especially at snake bite prone area about the proper first aid technique to improve the awareness level of the general population.
Savely, Robert T.
Space station training will be a major task, requiring the creation of large numbers of simulation-based training systems for crew, flight controllers, and ground-based support personnel. Given the long duration of space station missions and the large number of activities supported by the space station, the extension of space shuttle training methods to space station training may prove to be impractical. The application of artificial intelligence technology to simulation training can provide the ability to deliver individualized training to large numbers of personnel in a distributed workstation environment. The principal objective of this project is the creation of a software development environment which can be used to build intelligent training systems for procedural tasks associated with the operation of the space station. Current NASA Johnson Space Center projects and joint projects with other NASA operational centers will result in specific training systems for existing space shuttle crew, ground support personnel, and flight controller tasks. Concurrently with the creation of these systems, a general-purpose development environment for intelligent computer-aided training systems will be built. Such an environment would permit the rapid production, delivery, and evolution of training systems for space station crew, flight controllers, and other support personnel. The widespread use of such systems will serve to preserve task and training expertise, support the training of many personnel in a distributed manner, and ensure the uniformity and verifiability of training experiences. As a result, significant reductions in training costs can be realized while safety and the probability of mission success can be enhanced.
Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Neilands, Torsten B; Rodríguez-Madera, Sheilla L; Padilla, Mark
Scientific literature has systematically documented the negative effects of social stigma for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). HIV/AIDS stigma has the potential to negatively impact self-care strategies for those already affected, and simultaneously hinder prevention efforts to deter the emergence of new infections. When health professionals manifest these negative attitudes access to quality health-care and prevention strategies can be seriously affected. Scientifically tested interventions to reduce HIV/AIDS stigma among health professionals are still scarce. Although the number of tested interventions has increased over the past decade, few of them target Latino health professionals or Spanish-speaking populations. Furthermore, although some of those interventions have been reported as effective for stigma reduction, more work is needed to better understand the underlying variables that account for the reduction of stigma attitudes in those efforts. The SPACES intervention has been documented as an effective HIV/AIDS stigma-reduction intervention focusing on health-care professionals in training. The intervention, which is delivered in Spanish, has been previously tested with medical students in Puerto Rico and shown significant results in addressing negative attitudes toward PLWHA. The main objective of this study was to document the underlying variables that fostered reduction of HIV/AIDS stigma due to participation in the SPACES intervention. Results evidence that health professionals in training who participated in the intervention (n = 507) had less stigmatizing attitudes toward PLWHA due to an increase in their positive emotions toward this population. In light of these results, we discuss the importance of engaging health professionals in HIV/AIDS stigma-reduction interventions that go beyond the provision of information and skills for interacting with PLWHA, and address the emotional component of HIV/AIDS stigma.
McCrea, Rachel S
An important first step in studying the demography of wild animals is to identify the animals uniquely through applying markings, such as rings, tags, and bands. Once the animals are encountered again, researchers can study different forms of capture-recapture data to estimate features, such as the mortality and size of the populations. Capture-recapture methods are also used in other areas, including epidemiology and sociology.With an emphasis on ecology, Analysis of Capture-Recapture Data covers many modern developments of capture-recapture and related models and methods and places them in the historical context of research from the past 100 years. The book presents both classical and Bayesian methods.A range of real data sets motivates and illustrates the material and many examples illustrate biometry and applied statistics at work. In particular, the authors demonstrate several of the modeling approaches using one substantial data set from a population of great cormorants. The book also discusses which co...
Jorm, Anthony F; Kitchener, Betty A; Sawyer, Michael G; Scales, Helen; Cvetkovski, Stefan
Mental disorders often have their first onset during adolescence. For this reason, high school teachers are in a good position to provide initial assistance to students who are developing mental health problems. To improve the skills of teachers in this area, a Mental Health First Aid training course was modified to be suitable for high school teachers and evaluated in a cluster randomized trial. The trial was carried out with teachers in South Australian high schools. Teachers at 7 schools received training and those at another 7 were wait-listed for future training. The effects of the training on teachers were evaluated using questionnaires pre- and post-training and at 6 months follow-up. The questionnaires assessed mental health knowledge, stigmatizing attitudes, confidence in providing help to others, help actually provided, school policy and procedures, and teacher mental health. The indirect effects on students were evaluated using questionnaires at pre-training and at follow-up which assessed any mental health help and information received from school staff, and also the mental health of the student. The training increased teachers' knowledge, changed beliefs about treatment to be more like those of mental health professionals, reduced some aspects of stigma, and increased confidence in providing help to students and colleagues. There was an indirect effect on students, who reported receiving more mental health information from school staff. Most of the changes found were sustained 6 months after training. However, no effects were found on teachers' individual support towards students with mental health problems or on student mental health. Mental Health First Aid training has positive effects on teachers' mental health knowledge, attitudes, confidence and some aspects of their behaviour. ACTRN12608000561381.
Jorm Anthony F
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental disorders often have their first onset during adolescence. For this reason, high school teachers are in a good position to provide initial assistance to students who are developing mental health problems. To improve the skills of teachers in this area, a Mental Health First Aid training course was modified to be suitable for high school teachers and evaluated in a cluster randomized trial. Methods The trial was carried out with teachers in South Australian high schools. Teachers at 7 schools received training and those at another 7 were wait-listed for future training. The effects of the training on teachers were evaluated using questionnaires pre- and post-training and at 6 months follow-up. The questionnaires assessed mental health knowledge, stigmatizing attitudes, confidence in providing help to others, help actually provided, school policy and procedures, and teacher mental health. The indirect effects on students were evaluated using questionnaires at pre-training and at follow-up which assessed any mental health help and information received from school staff, and also the mental health of the student. Results The training increased teachers' knowledge, changed beliefs about treatment to be more like those of mental health professionals, reduced some aspects of stigma, and increased confidence in providing help to students and colleagues. There was an indirect effect on students, who reported receiving more mental health information from school staff. Most of the changes found were sustained 6 months after training. However, no effects were found on teachers' individual support towards students with mental health problems or on student mental health. Conclusions Mental Health First Aid training has positive effects on teachers' mental health knowledge, attitudes, confidence and some aspects of their behaviour. Trial registration ACTRN12608000561381
Minas, Harry; Colucci, Erminia; Jorm, Anthony F
The aim of this project was to investigate in members of the Vietnamese community in Melbourne the impact of Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training on attitudes to people with mental illness and on knowledge about mental disorders. Our hypotheses were that at the end of the training participants would have increased knowledge of mental disorders and their treatments, and decreased negative attitudes towards people with mental disorders. Respondents were 114 participants in two-day MHFA training workshops for the Vietnamese community in Melbourne conducted by two qualified MHFA trainers. Participants completed the research questionnaire prior to the commencement of the training (pre-test) and at its completion (post-test). The questionnaires assessed negative attitudes towards people with mental illness (as described in four vignettes), ability to recognise the mental disorders described in the vignettes, and knowledge about how to assist someone with one of these disorders. Responses to open-ended questions were content analysed and coded. To evaluate the effect of the training, answers to the structured questions and to the coded open-ended questions given at pre- and post-test were compared using McNemar tests for dichotomous values and Wilcoxon tests for other scores. Between pre- and post-test there was significant improvement in recognition of mental disorders; more targeted and appropriate mental health first aid responses, and reduction in inappropriate first aid responses; and negative attitudes to the people described in the vignettes declined significantly on many items of the stigma scale. A two-day, MHFA training course for general members of the Vietnamese community in Melbourne demonstrated significant reductions in stigmatising attitudes, improved knowledge of mental disorders and improved knowledge about appropriate forms of assistance to give to people in the community with mental disorder. There is sufficient evidence to scale up to a population
Chandra, Anita; Kim, Jee; Pieters, Huibrie C; Tang, Jennifer; McCreary, Michael; Schreiber, Merritt; Wells, Kenneth
We assessed the feasibility and impact on knowledge, attitudes, and reported practices of psychological first-aid (PFA) training in a sample of Medical Reserve Corps (MRC) members. Data have been limited on the uptake of PFA training in surge responders (eg, MRC) who are critical to community response. Our mixed-methods approach involved self-administered pre- and post-training surveys and within-training focus group discussions of 76 MRC members attending a PFA training and train-the-trainer workshop. Listen, protect, connect (a PFA model for lay persons) focuses on listening and understanding both verbal and nonverbal cues; protecting the individual by determining realistic ways to help while providing reassurance; and connecting the individual with resources in the community. From pre- to post-training, perceived confidence and capability in using PFA after an emergency or disaster increased from 71% to 90% (P psychological distress of persons affected by public health threats. PFA training is a promising approach to improve surge responder confidence and competency in addressing postdisaster needs.
Morawska, Alina; Fletcher, Renee; Pope, Susan; Heathwood, Ellen; Anderson, Emily; McAuliffe, Christine
Mental health first aid (MHFA) training has been disseminated in the community and has yielded positive outcomes in terms of increasing help-seeking behaviour and mental health literacy. However, there has been limited research investigating the effectiveness of this programme in multicultural communities. Given the increasing levels of multiculturalism in many countries, as well as the large number of barriers presented to these groups when trying to seek help for mental illnesses, the present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of MHFA in these settings. A total of 458 participants, who were recruited from multicultural organizations, participated in a series of MHFA training courses. Participants completed questionnaires pre and post the training course, and 6-month follow-up interviews were conducted with a subsample of participants. Findings suggested that MHFA training increased participant recognition of mental illnesses, concordance with primary care physicians about treatments, confidence in providing first aid, actual help provided to others, and a reduction in stigmatizing attitudes. A 6-month follow up also yielded positive long-term effects of MHFA. The results have implications for further dissemination and the use of MHFA in diverse communities. In addition, the results highlight the need for mental health training in health-care service providers. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2012 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Massey, Jennifer; Brooks, Meghan; Burrow, Jeff
This study evaluates the effectiveness of providing the Mental Health First Aid training program to student affairs staff. The objective of the training was to increase knowledge of mental health, enhance sensitivity, and raise confidence to intervene and assist individuals experiencing a mental health issue. We found the training successfully met…
Lafitte, Pascale; Bridot, Michel; Semedo, Luis; Gagnayre, Rémi
The National Institute of Research and Security and the “CHANTIER Ecole” network have developed first-aid training for employees of integration into the workplace centres. Specifically geared towards workplace safety, but similar in its content to home first-aid and rescue training, this training is also designed to enhance individual and collective responsibility and citizenship. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the personal and interpersonal effects of first-aid training of these employees by considering their social and professional difficulties in terms of psychosocial skills, such as empowerment, stress and emotions management, and decision-making capacity. A descriptive-inductive study was conducted over 18 months based on the grounded theory approach. Five integration into the work-place centres participated in the study and 34 interviews were conducted. These results raise several questions concerning: a) the characteristics of this public targeted by this training and their perception of integration into the workplace; b) the suitability of this training to working conditions and the link with other types of training such as family health education; c) the relationship between citizenship training and first-aid training at work, as it is more applicable to family training than workplace training. A quantitative study is considered to confirm these observations in other integration into the workplace centres.
of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. 1 What is the phone number emergency line; 2 How should you act when you arrive at the place of fresh traffic accident where has not been given any help yet? 3 How will you know that a person has internal bleeding in a car accident? 4 How will you know that a person has a spinal injury in a car accident? Answers were given into context with other parts of questionnaire. There were 370 respondents mostly at the age of eighteen and nineteen who were applying for "B" driving license in four regions from thirteen in the Czech Republic. Survey shows alarming results. Promising number of willing respondents - 92% of young drivers intend to provide first aid in traffic accidents - gives in the light of other responses reason for serious concern. Despite high willingness only 58% of respondents feel competent to provide first aid, fair idea of how to act have 23% of respondents and the most common life-threatening states in a car accident is able to identify only few individuals. Such bad results are probably due to the unsufficient first aid courses in driving schools, which are focused mainly on theory and are lacking of practical training. Therefore there is strong need for change in system of first aid courses in driving schools towards more relevant forms of training.
McCabe, O Lee; Lating, Jeffrey M; Everly, George S; Mosley, Adrian M; Teague, Paula J; Links, Jonathan M; Kaminsky, Michael J
Traditionally faith communities have served important roles in helping survivors cope in the aftermath of public health disasters. However, the provision of optimally effective crisis intervention services for persons experiencing acute or prolonged emotional trauma following such incidents requires specialized knowledge, skills, and abilities. Supported by a federally-funded grant, several academic health centers and faith-based organizations collaborated to develop a training program in Psychological First Aid (PFA) and disaster ministry for members of the clergy serving urban minorities and Latino immigrants in Baltimore, Maryland. This article describes the one-day training curriculum composed of four content modules: Stress Reactions of Mind-Body-Spirit, Psychological First Aid and Crisis Intervention, Pastoral Care and Disaster Ministry, and Practical Resources and Self Care for the Spiritual Caregiver Detailed descriptions of each module are provided, including its purpose; rationale and background literature; learning objectives; topics and sub-topics; and educational methods, materials and resources. The strengths, weaknesses, and future applications of the training template are discussed from the vantage points of participants' subjective reactions to the training.
Yanagawa, Youichi; Omori, Kazuhiko; Ishikawa, Kouhei; Takeuchi, Ikuto; Jitsuiki, Kei; Yoshizawa, Toshihiko; Sato, Jun; Matsumoto, Hideyuki; Tsuchiya, Masaru; Osaka, Hiromichi
The Japanese Association for Disaster Medicine developed a mass casualty life support (MCLS) course to improve cooperation among medical practitioners during a disaster, which is essential for reducing the rates of preventable disaster death. We investigated whether there was difference in first aid activity among members of the ambulance service during mass casualty training based on having taken the MCLS course. Mass casualty training was held at the fire department of Numazu City. Twenty-one ambulance service parties participated in this training. They first evaluated the mass casualty situation, performed the appropriate services at the scene during the initial period, and then provided START triage for mock wounded patients. Throughout the training, 5 examiners evaluated their performance. Regarding the difference in first aid activity based on MCLS course attendance among the ambulance service members, the cooperative management (scored on a scale of 1 to 5) among the members who had taken the MCLS course was significantly better than that among those who had not taken the course (median [interquartile range]: 5 [0.5] vs. 4 [1.75], P<0.05). Attending an MCLS course may help to improve outcomes in the face of an actual mass casualty incident. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;page 1 of 4).
Aboutalib, Sarah S.; Mohamed, Aly A.; Zuley, Margarita L.; Berg, Wendie A.; Luo, Yahong; Wu, Shandong
Digital mammography screening is an important exam for the early detection of breast cancer and reduction in mortality. False positives leading to high recall rates, however, results in unnecessary negative consequences to patients and health care systems. In order to better aid radiologists, computer-aided tools can be utilized to improve distinction between image classifications and thus potentially reduce false recalls. The emergence of deep learning has shown promising results in the area of biomedical imaging data analysis. This study aimed to investigate deep learning and transfer learning methods that can improve digital mammography classification performance. In particular, we evaluated the effect of pre-training deep learning models with other imaging datasets in order to boost classification performance on a digital mammography dataset. Two types of datasets were used for pre-training: (1) a digitized film mammography dataset, and (2) a very large non-medical imaging dataset. By using either of these datasets to pre-train the network initially, and then fine-tuning with the digital mammography dataset, we found an increase in overall classification performance in comparison to a model without pre-training, with the very large non-medical dataset performing the best in improving the classification accuracy.
Keidser, Gitte; Alamudi, Karima
Commercial trainable hearing aids (HA) (i.e., devices that for a period are adjusted by the user in different acoustic environments and that subsequently with changing environments automatically adapt to the user's preferred settings), are readily available; however, little information exists about the efficacy of training a HA. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy and reliability of training a HA in everyday environments. The participants were 26 hearing-impaired volunteers with a median age of 79 years and an average pure-tone average of 53 dB HL. Test devices were commercial, multimemory, prototype devices that enabled training of the compression characteristics in four frequency bands and in six sound classes. Participants wore the National Acoustic Laboratories nonlinear fitting procedure version 2 prescription for 3 weeks and trained the devices from the prescribed response for 3 weeks, before comparing their trained response with the prescription for 2 weeks. The devices were reset to the prescription, and 19 participants repeated the training and comparison trials. During the comparison trial, participants made daily diary ratings of their satisfaction with the programs, and a structured interview was completed at the end of the comparison trial. The participants displayed different needs for changing the prescription, with more daily adjustments leading to training across more sound classes. Unreliable observations were obtained from 8 participants after each of the test and retest comparison trials. Of the 10 participants who made sufficient changes to the prescription during the first trial, 80% preferred their trained response. The 8 "low trainers" reported no preference, and also reported lower overall satisfaction with the device. Fewer adjustments were made during the repeat trial, resulting in less training. Significant correlations between trained variations were seen for 63% of 19 participants. Of the 10 participants who
Kranz, William D; Strange, Nicholas A; Goodpaster, John V
Genuine explosive materials are traditionally employed in the training and testing of explosive-detecting canines so that they will respond reliably to these substances. However, challenges arising from the acquisition, storage, handling, and transportation of explosives have given rise to the development of "pseudo-explosive" training aids. These products attempt to emulate the odor of real explosives while remaining inert. Therefore, a canine trained on a pseudo-explosive should respond to its real-life analog. Similarly, a canine trained on an actual explosive should respond to the pseudo-explosive as if it was real. This research tested those assumptions with a focus on three explosives: single-base smokeless powder, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), and a RDX-based plastic explosive (Composition C-4). Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with solid phase microextraction as a pre-concentration technique, we determined that the volatile compounds given off by pseudo-explosive products consisted of various solvents, known additives from explosive formulations, and common impurities present in authentic explosives. For example, simulated smokeless powders emitted terpenes, 2,4-dinitrotoluene, diphenylamine, and ethyl centralite. Simulated TNT products emitted 2,4- and 2,6-dinitrotoluene. Simulated C-4 products emitted cyclohexanone, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, and dimethyldinitrobutane. We also conducted tests to determine whether canines trained on pseudo-explosives are capable of alerting to genuine explosives and vice versa. The results show that canines trained on pseudo-explosives performed poorly at detecting all but the pseudo-explosives they are trained on. Similarly, canines trained on actual explosives performed poorly at detecting all but the actual explosives on which they were trained.
Everly, George S; Flynn, Brian W
Most authorities agree that mass disasters leave in their wake a need for some form of acute mental health services. However, a review of current literature on crisis intervention and disaster mental health reveals differing points of view on the methods that should be employed (Raphael, 1986; NIMH, 2002). Nevertheless, there appears to be virtual universal endorsement, by relevant authorities, of the value of acute "psychological first aid" (American Psychiatric Association, 1954; USDHHS, 2004; Raphael, 1986; NIMH, 2002; Institute of Medicine, 2003; WHO, 2003; DoD/VAPTSD, 2004; Ritchie, et al., 2004; Friedman, Hamblin, Foa, & Charney, 2004). Psychological first aid (PFA), as an acute mental health intervention, seems uniquely applicable to public health settings, the workplace, the military, mass disaster venues, and even the demands of more well circumscribed critical incidents, e.g., dealing with the psychological aftermath of accidents, robberies, suicide, homicide, or community violence. In this document, we shall introduce the notion of psychological first aid (PFA) as one aspect of a psychological continuum of care, offer a rudimentary definition of PFA, and provide the reader with a practicalframework for its implementation utilizing the individual psychological first aid (iPFA)format. The goal of this paper is to better prepare public health, public safety, and other disaster response personnel who do not possess formal clinical mental health degrees or specialized training to provide iPFA services to primary and secondary disaster victims.
Oliver, Emily; Cooper, Jane; McKinney, David
To explore the effect that different activities included in first aid training can have on an individual's propensity to act in a medical emergency. Additional pilot-developed activities were added to a core first aid training session to create six unique groups, including a control group where no activities were added. Participants rated their agreement to pre-identified fears following the course and scored their self-efficacy and willingness to act before, immediately after and 2 months after the course. Change values were compared between groups. Three locations in the UK (community halls, schools). 554 members of the public were recruited using advertising and community groups. A deliberately broad demographic was sought and achieved using targeted approaches where a particular demographic was deficient. Each participant attended one British Red Cross first aid course lasting 2 h. The same questionnaire was completed by all participants before and after each course. Two months later all participants were asked a series of follow-up questions. All courses showed an increase in self-efficacy and willingness to act immediately following the course. The course, which included both factual information relevant to helping in an emergency and 'helper' identity activities, produced significantly more positive responses to pre-identified fears. Activities which allow the learner to explore and discuss behaviour in an emergency situation can effectively increase the learner's propensity to act. First aid education should be expanded to support the learner to develop both the skill and the will to help. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Jorm Anthony F
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this project was to investigate in members of the Vietnamese community in Melbourne the impact of Mental Health First Aid (MHFA training on attitudes to people with mental illness and on knowledge about mental disorders. Our hypotheses were that at the end of the training participants would have increased knowledge of mental disorders and their treatments, and decreased negative attitudes towards people with mental disorders. Methods Respondents were 114 participants in two-day MHFA training workshops for the Vietnamese community in Melbourne conducted by two qualified MHFA trainers. Participants completed the research questionnaire prior to the commencement of the training (pre-test and at its completion (post-test. The questionnaires assessed negative attitudes towards people with mental illness (as described in four vignettes, ability to recognise the mental disorders described in the vignettes, and knowledge about how to assist someone with one of these disorders. Responses to open-ended questions were content analysed and coded. To evaluate the effect of the training, answers to the structured questions and to the coded open-ended questions given at pre- and post-test were compared using McNemar tests for dichotomous values and Wilcoxon tests for other scores. Results Between pre- and post-test there was significant improvement in recognition of mental disorders; more targeted and appropriate mental health first aid responses, and reduction in inappropriate first aid responses; and negative attitudes to the people described in the vignettes declined significantly on many items of the stigma scale. Conclusion A two-day, MHFA training course for general members of the Vietnamese community in Melbourne demonstrated significant reductions in stigmatising attitudes, improved knowledge of mental disorders and improved knowledge about appropriate forms of assistance to give to people in the community with mental
Subedi, Parangkush; Li, Changwei; Gurung, Ashok; Bizune, Destani; Dogbey, M Christina; Johnson, Caroline C; Yun, Katherine
The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training for Bhutanese refugee community leaders in the U.S. We hypothesized that training refugee leaders would improve knowledge of mental health problems and treatment process and decrease negative attitudes towards people with mental illness. One hundred and twenty community leaders participated in MHFA training, of whom 58 had sufficient English proficiency to complete pre- and post-tests. The questionnaires assessed each participant's ability to recognize signs of depression, knowledge about professional help and treatment, and attitudes towards people with mental illness. Between the pre- and post-test, participants showed significant improvement in the recognition of symptoms of depression and expressed beliefs about treatment that became more concordant with those of mental health professionals. However, there was no reduction in negative attitudes towards people with mental illness. MHFA training course is a promising program for Bhutanese refugee communities in the U.S. However, some adaptations may be necessary to ensure that MHFA training is optimized for this community.
The scope of the Specialist Meeting was limited to operator aids for accident management which were in operation or could be soon. Moreover, the meeting concentrated on the management of accidents beyond the design basis, including tools which might be extended from the design basis range into the severe accident area. Relevant simulation tools for operator training were also part of the scope of the meeting. The presentations showed that the design and implementation of operator aids were closely related to the organisation adopted by the user, whether it was a utility or a governmental agency. The most common organisation is to share the management of severe accidents among two groups of people: the operating team in the Control Room (CR) and a team of specialists in a Technical Support Centre (TSC). The CR is in charge of the operation of the plant in all conditions using a set of procedures and guidelines, while the experts in the TSC are able to produce in-depth analyses of the plant state and its evolution. The responsibility is shared between the CR and the TSC during accident progression. The TSC acts as a support for the CR for reactor operation and takes charge of the predictions of radioactive releases (source term, accident progression, release and dispersion of radioactive substances, as well as the interaction with public authorities). But this type of organisation is not general and the differences can induce different approaches in the design of operator aids. The first session was dedicated to operator aids for control rooms, the second session to operator aids for technical support centres
McCabe, O Lee; Everly, George S; Brown, Lisa M; Wendelboe, Aaron M; Abd Hamid, Nor Hashidah; Tallchief, Vicki L; Links, Jonathan M
Surges in demand for professional mental health services occasioned by disasters represent a major public health challenge. To build response capacity, numerous psychological first aid (PFA) training models for professional and lay audiences have been developed that, although often concurring on broad intervention aims, have not systematically addressed pedagogical elements necessary for optimal learning or teaching. We describe a competency-based model of PFA training developed under the auspices of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Association of Schools of Public Health. We explain the approach used for developing and refining the competency set and summarize the observable knowledge, skills, and attitudes underlying the 6 core competency domains. We discuss the strategies for model dissemination, validation, and adoption in professional and lay communities.
Pujiastuti, E.; Mashuri
Not all of teachers of Mathematics in Junior High School (JHS) can design and create teaching aids. Moreover, if teaching aids should be designed so that it can be used in learning through scientific approaches. The problem: How to conduct an integrated and sustainable training that the math teacher of JHS, especially in Semarang can design and create teaching aids that can be presented to the scientific approach? The purpose of this study to find a way of integrated and continuous training so that the math teacher of JHS can design and create teaching aids that can be presented to the scientific approach. This article was based on research with a qualitative approach. Through trials activities of resulting of training model, Focus Group Discussions (FGD), interviews, and triangulation of the results of the research were: (1) Produced a training model of integrated and sustainable that the mathematics teacher of JHS can design and create teaching aids that can be presented to the scientific approach. (2) In training, there was the provision of material and workshop (3) There was a mentoring in the classroom. (4) Sustainability of the consultation. Our advice: (1) the trainer should be clever, (2) the training can be held at the holidays, while the assistance during the holiday season was over.
Thompson, Michael E; Harutyunyan, Tsovinar L; Dorian, Alina H
Conflict in the South Caucasus' Nagorno Karabagh region has damaged health facilities and disrupted the delivery of services and supplies as well as led to depletion of human and fixed capital and weakened the de facto government's ability to provide training for health care providers. In response to documented medical training deficits, the American University of Armenia organized a first aid training course (FATC) for primary health care providers within the scope of the USAID-funded Humanitarian Assistance Project in Nagorno Karabagh. This paper reports the follow-up assessments conducted to inform policy makers regarding FATC knowledge and skill retention and the potential need for periodic refresher training. Follow-up assessments were conducted six months and 18 months following the FATC to assess the retention of knowledge, attitudes, and self-reported practices. Eighty-four providers participated in the first follow-up and 210 in the second. The assessment tool contained items addressing the use and quality of the first aid skills, trainee's evaluation of the course, and randomly selected test questions to assess knowledge retention. At both follow-up points, the participants' assessment of the course was positive. More than 85% of the trainees self-assessed their skills as "excellent" or "good" and noted that skills were frequently practiced. Scores of approximately 58% on knowledge tests at both the first and second follow-ups indicated no knowledge decay between the first and second survey waves, but substantial decline from the immediate post-test assessment in the classroom. The trainees assessed the FATC as effective, and the skills covered as important and well utilized. Knowledge retention was modest, but stable. Refresher courses are necessary to reverse the decay of technical knowledge and to ensure proper application in the field.
Bond, Kathy S; Jorm, Anthony F; Kitchener, Betty A; Reavley, Nicola J
The role and demands of studying nursing and medicine involve specific stressors that may contribute to an increased risk for mental health problems. Stigma is a barrier to help-seeking for mental health problems in nursing and medical students, making these students vulnerable to negative outcomes including higher failure rates and discontinuation of study. Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) is a potential intervention to increase the likelihood that medical and nursing students will support their peers to seek help for mental health problems. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a tailored MHFA course for nursing and medical students. Nursing and medical students self-selected into either a face-to-face or online tailored MHFA course. Four hundred and thirty-four nursing and medical students completed pre- and post-course surveys measuring mental health first aid intentions, mental health literacy, confidence in providing help, stigmatising attitudes and satisfaction with the course. The results of the study showed that both the online and face-to-face courses improved the quality of first aid intentions towards a person experiencing depression, and increased mental health literacy and confidence in providing help. The training also decreased stigmatizing attitudes and desire for social distance from a person with depression. Both online and face-to-face tailored MHFA courses have the potential to improve outcomes for students with mental health problems, and may benefit the students in their future professional careers.
Altintaş, Kerim Hakan; Yildiz, Ali Naci; Aslan, Dilek; Ozvariş, Sevkat Bahar; Bilir, Nazmi
We developed 24 and 12-h programs for first aid and basic life support (FA-BLS) training for first-year medical students and evaluated the opinions of both the trainers and trainees on the effectiveness of the programs. The trainees were the first-year students of academic years 2000-2001 (316 students) and 2001-2002 (366 students). The evaluations of the participants were collected from short questionnaires created specifically for the study. For the 24-h training program, most of the students stated that FA-BLS sessions met their expectations (85.9%) and they were satisfied with the training (91.1%). Of the participants, 75.6% stated that they could apply FA confidently in real situations simulating the topics they learned in the FA-BLS sessions. For the 12-h training program, 84.4% of the students felt themselves competent in FA-BLS applications. The trainers considered both of the programs as effective.
Mental health literacy among the public is often poor, and although people frequently encounter others experiencing mental distress in their workplace, families and communities, they may be ill-equipped to provide appropriate support. 'Mental Health First Aid' (MHFA), a 12-h mental health promotion programme seeks to address this, training people in the knowledge and skills needed to engage with someone experiencing mental health problems. Research relating to the MHFA programme has centred on course attendees, with a paucity of research surrounding the delivery of basic mental health training programmes. Understanding experiences of instructors delivering such programmes is key to the success of future delivery. This study sought to identify the views and experiences of instructors delivering the MHFA programme in Wales. Fourteen MHFA instructors participated in semi-structured audio-recorded interviews, with the transcripts analysed to identify key themes. This paper explores two of the identified themes namely prerequisite skills and support required by instructors. The study highlighted that because of the ensuing emotional labour experienced by instructors, universal mental health training programmes must put in place a clear infrastructure to train, support and monitor those delivering them, for programme roll-out to be effective.
Full Text Available South Africa’s economic prospects depend on the productivity of its labour, and productivity can only be maximised when the labour force possess the appropriate skills. Business is playing its part by offering training opportunities to employees. Collectively, they are spending more than the government’s mandated level on training. However, the HIV and AIDS epidemic is eroding this investment in southern Africa where the HIV epidemic is at its worst. While there has been empirical work that provides estimates on the cost of HIV and AIDS to business, there is very little data on the actual amounts large companies spend on training, and how much of this investment is eroded as a result of HIV and AIDS deaths. Using an estimate of the HIV and AIDS death rate in the private sector and survey data which identifies training expenditure by sector, the authors estimate the extent to which HIV and AIDS has potentially eroded this investment. The loss for all sectors was estimated at almost R10 million (R9,871,732 during the study year, which equates to USD1,183,661 per annum. This amount represented on average 0.73 per cent of the actual investment in training. The real costs of HIV and AIDS on business, which includes absenteeism, declining productivity and other costs are difficult to quantify, but they are likely to significantly exceed this lost training investment as a result of increasing morbidity and mortality rates due to HIV. It is therefore in a company’s best interest to: (1 ensure that a sound HIV and AIDS policy is in place; (2 invest in effective prevention programmes; and (3 provide the appropriate ARV treatment to infected employees if this treatment is not easily accessible through the public health sector.
Sprangers, Suzan; Dijkstra, Katinka; Romijn-Luijten, Anna
Effective communication by nursing home staff is related to a higher quality of life and a decrease in verbal and physical aggression and depression in nursing home residents. Several communication intervention studies have been conducted to improve communication between nursing home staff and nursing home residents with dementia. These studies have shown that communication skills training can improve nursing aides’ communication with nursing home residents. However, these studies tended to be time-consuming and fairly difficult to implement. Moreover, these studies focused on the communicative benefits for the nursing home residents and their well-being, while benefits and well-being for the nursing aides were neglected. The current study focused on implementing a brief communication skills training program to improve nursing aides’ (N=24) communication with residents with dementia (N=26) in a nursing home. The effects of the training on nursing aides’ communication, caregiver distress, and job satisfaction and residents’ psychopathology and agitation were assessed relative to a control group condition. Nursing aides in the intervention group were individually trained to communicate effectively with residents during morning care by using short instructions, positive speech, and biographical statements. Mixed ANOVAs showed that, after training, nursing aides in the intervention group experienced less caregiver distress. Additionally, the number of short instructions and instances of positive speech increased. Providing nursing aides with helpful feedback during care aids communication and reduces caregiver burden, even with a brief intervention that requires limited time investments for nursing home staff. PMID:25653513
Hyde, Patricia R.; Loftin, R. Bowen
These proceedings are organized in the same manner as the conference's contributed sessions, with the papers grouped by topic area. These areas are as follows: VE (virtual environment) training for Space Flight, Virtual Environment Hardware, Knowledge Aquisition for ICAT (Intelligent Computer-Aided Training) & VE, Multimedia in ICAT Systems, VE in Training & Education (1 & 2), Virtual Environment Software (1 & 2), Models in ICAT systems, ICAT Commercial Applications, ICAT Architectures & Authoring Systems, ICAT Education & Medical Applications, Assessing VE for Training, VE & Human Systems (1 & 2), ICAT Theory & Natural Language, ICAT Applications in the Military, VE Applications in Engineering, Knowledge Acquisition for ICAT, and ICAT Applications in Aerospace.
Rao, Aparna; Rishiq, Dania; Yu, Luodi; Zhang, Yang; Abrams, Harvey
The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of hearing aid use and the effectiveness of ReadMyQuips (RMQ), an auditory training program, on speech perception performance and auditory selective attention using electrophysiological measures. RMQ is an audiovisual training program designed to improve speech perception in everyday noisy listening environments. Participants were adults with mild to moderate hearing loss who were first-time hearing aid users. After 4 weeks of hearing aid use, the experimental group completed RMQ training in 4 weeks, and the control group received listening practice on audiobooks during the same period. Cortical late event-related potentials (ERPs) and the Hearing in Noise Test (HINT) were administered at prefitting, pretraining, and post-training to assess effects of hearing aid use and RMQ training. An oddball paradigm allowed tracking of changes in P3a and P3b ERPs to distractors and targets, respectively. Behavioral measures were also obtained while ERPs were recorded from participants. After 4 weeks of hearing aid use but before auditory training, HINT results did not show a statistically significant change, but there was a significant P3a reduction. This reduction in P3a was correlated with improvement in d prime (d') in the selective attention task. Increased P3b amplitudes were also correlated with improvement in d' in the selective attention task. After training, this correlation between P3b and d' remained in the experimental group, but not in the control group. Similarly, HINT testing showed improved speech perception post training only in the experimental group. The criterion calculated in the auditory selective attention task showed a reduction only in the experimental group after training. ERP measures in the auditory selective attention task did not show any changes related to training. Hearing aid use was associated with a decrement in involuntary attention switch to distractors in the auditory selective
Full Text Available One receives much more information through a visual sense than through a tactile one. However, most visual aids for hearing-impaired persons are not wearable because it is difficult to make them compact and it is not a best way to mask always their vision.Generally it is difficult to get the integrated patterns by a single mathematical transform of signals, such as a Foruier transform. In order to obtain the integrated pattern speech parameters should be carefully extracted by an analysis according as each parameter, and a visual pattern, which can intuitively be understood by anyone, must be synthesized from them. Successful integration of speech parameters will never disturb understanding of individual features, so that the system can be used for speech training and communication.
Svensson, Bengt; Hansson, Lars; Stjernswärd, Sigrid
Restricted mental health literacy and stigma are barriers to treatment of mental disorders. A Mental Health First Aid training program was tested for implementation in Sweden among employees in the public sector. The aim of the present qualitative study was to explore participants' experiences of the program in more depth, in conjunction with a randomized controlled study. Twenty four persons participated in a total of six focus groups 6-8 months after program participation. Data were analyzed using content analysis. The analysis resulted in five categories illustrating the participants' experiences of the course: increased awareness, knowledge and understanding; influence on attitude and approach; tool box and confidence; feedback on content and layout; and tangible examples of applied knowledge. The most central finding is the fruitfulness of the program's practical focus and use, the increased confidence and inclination to act following program participation, and the importance of experienced instructors.
Full Text Available Abstract Background We present an innovative approach to healthcare worker (HCW training using mobile phones as a personal learning environment. Twenty physicians used individual Smartphones (Nokia N95 and iPhone, each equipped with a portable solar charger. Doctors worked in urban and peri-urban HIV/AIDS clinics in Peru, where almost 70% of the nation's HIV patients in need are on treatment. A set of 3D learning scenarios simulating interactive clinical cases was developed and adapted to the Smartphones for a continuing medical education program lasting 3 months. A mobile educational platform supporting learning events tracked participant learning progress. A discussion forum accessible via mobile connected participants to a group of HIV specialists available for back-up of the medical information. Learning outcomes were verified through mobile quizzes using multiple choice questions at the end of each module. Methods In December 2009, a mid-term evaluation was conducted, targeting both technical feasibility and user satisfaction. It also highlighted user perception of the program and the technical challenges encountered using mobile devices for lifelong learning. Results With a response rate of 90% (18/20 questionnaires returned, the overall satisfaction of using mobile tools was generally greater for the iPhone. Access to Skype and Facebook, screen/keyboard size, and image quality were cited as more troublesome for the Nokia N95 compared to the iPhone. Conclusions Training, supervision and clinical mentoring of health workers are the cornerstone of the scaling up process of HIV/AIDS care in resource-limited settings (RLSs. Educational modules on mobile phones can give flexibility to HCWs for accessing learning content anywhere. However lack of softwares interoperability and the high investment cost for the Smartphones' purchase could represent a limitation to the wide spread use of such kind mLearning programs in RLSs.
Li, Feng; Jiang, Fan; Jin, Xing-Ming; Shen, Xiao-Ming
The object of this study was to assess, in cost-effective measures, 3 different models for pediatric first-aid training among caregivers and teachers. Quasi-experimental design was used. A stratified random sampling method was used to obtain 1282 teachers working at nurseries and kindergartens in Shanghai that consists of 18 districts and 1 county. One thousand two hundred eighty-two teachers were allocated randomly to the 3 models of training: 441 to interactive training model (group A), 441 to lecture-based training model (group B), and 400 to video instruction training model (group C). The first-aid knowledge in the 3 models was evaluated before and after the training. There was a statistical significance in the results of postassessment among the 3 training models. In group A, 329 (87.3%) trainees passed the course; in group B, 294 (81.7%) passed; and in group C, 262 (79.4%) passed. The total cost of group A was ¥2361 per edition, the total cost of group B was ¥1955 per edition, and the total cost of group C was ¥1064 per edition (P training model may slightly increase the rate of trainees who passed the course, the cost-effectiveness of video instruction training model is clearly superior.
Brownie, C.; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.
Jolly (1982, Biometrics 38, 301-321) presented modifications of the Jolly-Seber model for capture-recapture data, which assume constant survival and/or capture rates. Where appropriate, because of the reduced number of parameters, these models lead to more efficient estimators than the Jolly-Seber model. The tests to compare models given by Jolly do not make complete use of the data, and we present here the appropriate modifications, and also indicate how to carry out goodness-of-fit tests which utilize individual capture history information. We also describe analogous models for the case where young and adult animals are tagged. The availability of computer programs to perform the analysis is noted, and examples are given using output from these programs.
Morgan, Amy J; Ross, Anna; Reavley, Nicola J
To provide an up-to-date assessment of the effectiveness of the Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training program on improving mental health knowledge, stigma and helping behaviour. Systematic review and meta-analysis. A systematic search of electronic databases was conducted in October 2017 to identify randomised controlled trials or controlled trials of the MHFA program. Eligible trials were in adults, used any comparison condition, and assessed one or more of the following outcomes: mental health first aid knowledge; recognition of mental disorders; treatment knowledge; stigma and social distance; confidence in or intentions to provide mental health first aid; provision of mental health first aid; mental health of trainees or recipients of mental health first aid. Risk of bias was assessed and effect sizes (Cohen's d) were pooled using a random effects model. Separate meta-analyses examined effects at post-training, up to 6 months post-training, and greater than 6 months post-training. A total of 18 trials (5936 participants) were included. Overall, effects were generally small-to-moderate post-training and up to 6 months later, with effects up to 12-months later unclear. MHFA training led to improved mental health first aid knowledge (ds 0.31-0.72), recognition of mental disorders (ds 0.22-0.52) and beliefs about effective treatments (ds 0.19-0.45). There were also small reductions in stigma (ds 0.08-0.14). Improvements were also observed in confidence in helping a person with a mental health problem (ds 0.21-0.58) and intentions to provide first aid (ds 0.26-0.75). There were small improvements in the amount of help provided to a person with a mental health problem at follow-up (d = 0.23) but changes in the quality of behaviours offered were unclear. This review supports the effectiveness of MHFA training in improving mental health literacy and appropriate support for those with mental health problems up to 6 months after training. PROSPERO (CRD42017060596).
Jensen, Kamilla B; Morthorst, Britt Reuter; Vendsborg, Per B; Hjorthøj, Carsten; Nordentoft, Merete
To examine the effect of the Australian educational intervention Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) in a Danish context. Primary outcome was improvement concerning confidence in help-giving behavior towards people suffering from mental illness. Secondary outcomes were increased knowledge and ability to recognize mental illness and improved positive attitudes towards people suffering from mental health problems. Study design was a randomized trial with a waitlist control group. The intervention group was compared with the control group at 6-month follow-up. Both groups completed at baseline and at 6-month follow-up. A significant difference was found between employees trained in the intervention group compared to the control group at 6-month follow-up on the items of confidence in making contact to (Cohen's d 0.17), talking to (Cohen's d 0.18) and providing help to (Cohen's d 0.31) people suffering from a mental health illness. Further, participants improved in knowledge (Cohen's d depression vignette 0.40/Cohen's d schizophrenia vignette 0.32) and in the ability to recognize schizophrenia OR = 1.75 (95 % CI 1.00-3.05), p = 0.05. A significant difference between the intervention group and control group at follow-up concerning actual help offered was not found. Changes in attitudes were limited. The MHFA training was effective in a Danish context.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Introduction of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT has boosted interest in parasite-based malaria diagnosis, leading to increased use of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs, particularly in rural settings where microscopy is limited. With donor support, national malaria control programmes are now procuring large quantities of RDTs. The scarcity of health facilities and trained personnel in many sub-Saharan African countries means that limiting RDT use to such facilities would exclude a significant proportion of febrile cases. RDT use by volunteer community health workers (CHWs is one alternative, but most sub-Saharan African countries prohibit CHWs from handling blood, and little is known about CHW ability to use RDTs safely and effectively. This Zambia-based study was designed to determine: (i whether Zambian CHWs could prepare and interpret RDTs accurately and safely using manufacturer's instructions alone; (ii whether simple, mostly pictorial instructions (a "job aid" could raise performance to adequate levels; and (iii whether a brief training programme would produce further improvement. Methods The job aid and training programme were based on formative research with 32 CHWs in Luangwa District. The study team then recruited three groups of CHWs in Chongwe and Chibombo districts. All had experience treating malaria based on clinical diagnosis, but only six had prior RDT experience. Trained observers used structured observation checklists to score each participant's preparation of three RDTs. Each also read 10 photographs showing different test results. The first group (n = 32 was guided only by manufacturer's instructions. The second (n = 21 used only the job aid. The last (n = 26 used the job aid after receiving a three-hour training. Results Mean scores, adjusted for education, age, gender and experience, were 57% of 16 RDT steps correctly completed for group 1, 80% for group 2, and 92% for group 3. Mean percentage of test
Harvey, Steven A; Jennings, Larissa; Chinyama, Masela; Masaninga, Fred; Mulholland, Kurt; Bell, David R
Introduction of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) has boosted interest in parasite-based malaria diagnosis, leading to increased use of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), particularly in rural settings where microscopy is limited. With donor support, national malaria control programmes are now procuring large quantities of RDTs. The scarcity of health facilities and trained personnel in many sub-Saharan African countries means that limiting RDT use to such facilities would exclude a significant proportion of febrile cases. RDT use by volunteer community health workers (CHWs) is one alternative, but most sub-Saharan African countries prohibit CHWs from handling blood, and little is known about CHW ability to use RDTs safely and effectively. This Zambia-based study was designed to determine: (i) whether Zambian CHWs could prepare and interpret RDTs accurately and safely using manufacturer's instructions alone; (ii) whether simple, mostly pictorial instructions (a "job aid") could raise performance to adequate levels; and (iii) whether a brief training programme would produce further improvement. The job aid and training programme were based on formative research with 32 CHWs in Luangwa District. The study team then recruited three groups of CHWs in Chongwe and Chibombo districts. All had experience treating malaria based on clinical diagnosis, but only six had prior RDT experience. Trained observers used structured observation checklists to score each participant's preparation of three RDTs. Each also read 10 photographs showing different test results. The first group (n = 32) was guided only by manufacturer's instructions. The second (n = 21) used only the job aid. The last (n = 26) used the job aid after receiving a three-hour training. Mean scores, adjusted for education, age, gender and experience, were 57% of 16 RDT steps correctly completed for group 1, 80% for group 2, and 92% for group 3. Mean percentage of test results interpreted correctly were 54% (group 1
Yeatts, Dale E.; Cready, Cynthia; Swan, James; Shen, Yuying
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the certified nurse aides' (CNAs) perception that "training is always available when needed" and the CNAs' performance, turnover, attitudes, burnout, and empowerment. The data came from a larger study where a self-administered survey instrument was completed by 359 CNAs…
Sorenson, R.J.; Schneider, R.A.
Purpose of the course was to train in the accounting and control of nuclear materials in a bulk processing facility, for international safeguards. The Exxon low enriched uranium fabrication plant is used as an example. This volume contains visual aids used for the presentation
Ajuwon, Ademola; Funmilayo, Fawole; Oladepo, Oladimeji; Osungbade, Kayode; Asuzu, Michael
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to train primary health care workers to be trainers and implementers of community-based AIDS prevention activities in Oyo State, Nigeria, by describing an evaluation of the project. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 148 primary health care workers recruited from the 33 local government areas (LGA) of the…
Rispel, L. C.; Peltzer, K.; Nkomo, N.; Molomo, B.
In 2006, De Beers Consolidated Diamond Mines in South Africa entered into a partnership, with the Soul City Institute for Health and Development Communications to implement an HIV and AIDS Community Training Partnership Program (CTPP), initially in five diamond mining areas in three provinces of South Africa. The aim of CTPP was to improve HIV…
Ali Mohammad Hoseinpour
Full Text Available Introduction The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is a retrovirus that infects cells of the immune system, destroying or impairing their function. As the infection progresses, the immune system becomes weaker, and the person becomes more susceptible to infections. The most advanced stage of HIV infection is acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of intervention training on knowledge and attitude of teachers about HIV/AIDS. Materials and Methods This quasi-experimental study, 11 cities were selected randomly cluster among 27 cities of Khorasan Razavi province- Iran. The study teachers were selected multi stage cluster sampling method; so, in the selected cities, randomly selected a number of 4 high schools of each cluster, and all the teachers of these schools were invited to participate in this research. At pre-test basic knowledge and attitude of teachers about HIV/AIDS were evaluated. Then their educational needs and curriculum were designed. Then 2 weeks after conducting the education, teacher's knowledge and attitude were evaluated (post-test. Results 1,838 teachers with the mean age of 39.81+6.104 participated in this study. The mean score of their knowledge about HIV/AIDS rose from 11.84+2.116 to 12.2+ 1.450 after intervention. The mean score of their attitude about HIV/AIDS rose from 18.07+4.740 to 20.64+4.905 after intervention. The results showed that there was a significant difference between teachers’ knowledge and attitude before and after the training program (P=0.000. Conclusion According to the study it can be concluded teachers training to increase knowledge about HIV/AIDS and improve their attitude towards the disease AIDS.
Lippmann, John; Livingston, Patricia; Craike, Melinda J.
Aims: Flexible-learning first aid courses are increasingly common due to reduced classroom contact time. This study compared retention of first aid knowledge and basic life support (BLS) skills three months after a two-day, classroom-based first aid course (STD) to one utilizing on-line theory learning at home followed by one day of classroom…
Akoury-Dirani, Leyla; Sahakian, Tina S; Hassan, Fahed Y; Hajjar, Ranya V; El Asmar, Khalil
The Syrian refugee crisis in Lebanon required a fast and efficient comprehensive rescue strategy. Professionals working in emergency response were neither prepared to provide psychological first aid nor prepared to screen for mental health disorders in child refugees. This article examines the efficacy of a national training program in psychological first aid (PFA) to enhance the readiness of mental health field workers in the Syrian refugee response. Participant (N = 109) were recruited from Lebanese ministries and nongovernmental organizations. They received a 2.5-day training on PFA and on screening for mental health disorders in children. Their knowledge and perceived readiness were assessed before the training, immediately after the training, and 1 month after the training using 2 evaluation forms. Evaluation Form A was a multiple choice questionnaire composed of 20 questions and created on the basis of the content of the training, and Evaluation Form B was a Likert-type scale of 20 items created based on the core components of PFA. The data of 60 participants were analyzed. The results showed a significant increase in knowledge and readiness, specifically on the components related to the principles and techniques of PFA. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Kallenberg, Michiel; Karssemeijer, Nico
It would be of great value when available databases of screen-film mammography (SFM) images can be used to train full-field digital mammography (FFDM) computer-aided detection (CAD) systems, as compilation of new databases is costly. In this paper, we investigate this possibility. Firstly, we develop a method that converts an FFDM image into an SFM-like representation. In this conversion method, we establish a relation between exposure and optical density by simulation of an automatic exposure control unit. Secondly, we investigate the effects of using the SFM images as training samples compared to training with FFDM images. Our FFDM database consisted of 266 cases, of which 102 were biopsy-proven malignant masses and 164 normals. The images were acquired with systems of two different manufacturers. We found that, when we trained our FFDM CAD system with a small number of images, training with FFDM images, using a five-fold crossvalidation procedure, outperformed training with SFM images. However, when the full SFM database, consisting of 348 abnormal cases (including 204 priors) and 810 normal cases, was used for training, SFM training outperformed FFDMA training. These results show that an existing CAD system for detection of masses in SFM can be used for FFDM images without retraining.
Intelligent computer aided training systems hold great promise for the application of this technology to mainstream education and training. Yet, this technology, which holds such a vast potential impact for the future of education and training, has had little impact beyond the enclaves of government research labs. This is largely due to the inaccessibility of the technology to those individuals in whose hands it can have the greatest impact, teachers and educators. Simply throwing technology at an educator and expecting them to use it as an effective tool is not the answer. This paper provides a background into the use of technology as a training tool. MindLink, developed by HyperTech Systems, provides trainers with a powerful rule-based tool that can be integrated directly into a Windows application. By embedding expert systems technology it becomes more accessible and easier to master.
Benton, Kerry William Kim
Papua New Guinea has experienced a growing HIV/AIDS epidemic. The Christian Churches have played a vital role in responding to HIV, through community support, encouragement and social change. Strong, effective Church leadership can help create safe environments of care and support for those infected and for prevention of HIV. Method A series of trainings in capacity development for clergy were undertaken by the National AIDS Council Secretariat (NACS)/National HIV/AIDS Support Project (NHASP). Results A model "Church's Response to HIV and AIDS in a Care Continuum" was developed to assist the training. This paper discusses the model and the lessons learned.
O'Reilly, Claire L; Bell, J Simon; Kelly, Patrick J; Chen, Timothy F
The aim of this study was to assess the impact of delivering Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training for pharmacy students on their mental health literacy and stigma towards mental illness. A non-randomized controlled design was used, with all third year pharmacy students at the University of Sydney (n = 272) in 2009 invited to participate in one of two MHFA training courses, each of 12 hours duration. Of these, 174 students applied for MHFA training, of whom 60 were randomly selected and offered MHFA training. Outcome measures that were completed by all participants in the MHFA and non-MHFA groups before and after the MHFA training included an evaluation of mental health literacy, the 7-item social distance scale, and 16 items related to self-reported behaviour. The survey instrument was completed by 258 participants at baseline (59 MHFA and 199 non-MHFA) and 223 participants at follow up (53 MHFA and 170 non-MHFA). The MHFA training improved the participants' ability to correctly identify a mental illness (p = 0.004). There was a significant mean decrease in total social distance of 2.18 (SD 3.35) p training. This study demonstrated that MHFA training can reduce pharmacy students' mental health stigma, improve recognition of mental disorders and improve confidence in providing services to consumers with a mental illness in the pharmacy setting.
Kurzynski, Marek; Jaskolska, Anna; Marusiak, Jaroslaw; Wolczowski, Andrzej; Bierut, Przemyslaw; Szumowski, Lukasz; Witkowski, Jerzy; Kisiel-Sajewicz, Katarzyna
One of the biggest problems of upper limb transplantation is lack of certainty as to whether a patient will be able to control voluntary movements of transplanted hands. Based on findings of the recent research on brain cortex plasticity, a premise can be drawn that mental training supported with visual and sensory feedback can cause structural and functional reorganization of the sensorimotor cortex, which leads to recovery of function associated with the control of movements performed by the upper limbs. In this study, authors - based on the above observations - propose the computer-aided training (CAT) system, which generating visual and sensory stimuli, should enhance the effectiveness of mental training applied to humans before upper limb transplantation. The basis for the concept of computer-aided training system is a virtual hand whose reaching and grasping movements the trained patient can observe on the VR headset screen (visual feedback) and whose contact with virtual objects the patient can feel as a touch (sensory feedback). The computer training system is composed of three main components: (1) the system generating 3D virtual world in which the patient sees the virtual limb from the perspective as if it were his/her own hand; (2) sensory feedback transforming information about the interaction of the virtual hand with the grasped object into mechanical vibration; (3) the therapist's panel for controlling the training course. Results of the case study demonstrate that mental training supported with visual and sensory stimuli generated by the computer system leads to a beneficial change of the brain activity related to motor control of the reaching in the patient with bilateral upper limb congenital transverse deficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kanowski, Len G; Jorm, Anthony F; Hart, Laura M
Background Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training was developed in Australia to teach members of the public how to give initial help to someone developing a mental health problem or in a mental health crisis situation. However, this type of training requires adaptation for specific cultural groups in the community. This paper describes the adaptation of the program to create an Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Mental Health First Aid (AMHFA) course and presents an initial evaluation of its uptake and acceptability. Methods To evaluate the program, two types of data were collected: (1) quantitative data on uptake of the course (number of Instructors trained and courses subsequently run by these Instructors); (2) qualitative data on strengths, weaknesses and recommendations for the future derived from interviews with program staff and focus groups with Instructors and community participants. Results 199 Aboriginal people were trained as Instructors in a five day Instructor Training Course. With sufficient time following training, the majority of these Instructors subsequently ran 14-hour AMHFA courses for Aboriginal people in their community. Instructors were more likely to run courses if they had prior teaching experience and if there was post-course contact with one of the Trainers of Instructors. Analysis of qualitative data indicated that the Instructor Training Course and the AMHFA course are culturally appropriate, empowering for Aboriginal people, and provided information that was seen as highly relevant and important in assisting Aboriginal people with a mental illness. There were a number of recommendations for improvements. Conclusion The AMHFA program is culturally appropriate and acceptable to Aboriginal people. Further work is needed to refine the course and to evaluate its impact on help provided to Aboriginal people with mental health problems. PMID:19490648
Stockton, Rex; Paul, Tebatso; Voils-Levenda, Amanda; Robbins, Melanie; Li, Peiwei; Zaitsoff, Andrew
Mental health concerns can exacerbate the progression and transmission of HIV/AIDS. Thus there have been calls for increased research and integration of mental health care into HIV/AIDS treatment in Sub-Saharan Africa, where the disease has reached pandemic levels. This qualitative study analyzed the open-ended survey responses of 181 individuals…
Full Text Available Objective: First aid is the helping behavior and initial care provided for an acute illness or injury. Students have the potential for changing the health scenario of the society if properly groomed and educated. The objective of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of educational intervention on the first aid among middle school students of a rural school in West Bengal. Materials and Methods: A total of 230, 6th and 7th standard students were given a self-administered questionnaire for assessing their baseline knowledge about management of common injuries followed by educational intervention with a systematically devised teaching module during February to March 2016. Post intervention evaluation of their knowledge acquisition was done after 2 weeks with same questionnaire. Results: The baseline knowledge on the management of selected injuries was found to be insufficient among the study subjects. Paired t-test was performed to compare the pre- and post-test scores of knowledge and attitude of the students about first aid, and there was a significant change in knowledge from pretest score (mean = 1.50, standard deviation [SD] =0.47 to posttest score (mean = 6.53, SD = 1.30. To quantify the effectiveness of health education, effect size (Cohen's d was derived. For knowledge score, Cohen's d was 5.14 with large effect size indicating highly effective impact of the training program. Significant change was also noticed regarding attitude regarding first aid as evident from increase in pretest score (mean = 1.19, SD = 0.96 to posttest score (mean = 3.17, SD = 1.03; Cohen's d was 1.88 with medium effect size. Conclusion: Inculcating first-aid training in the school curriculum can be a fruitful investment in ensuring proper and timely management of illnesses and injuries not only for the school children but also for the community at large.
Bandyopadhyay, Lina; Manjula, M; Paul, Bobby; Dasgupta, Aparajita
First aid is the helping behavior and initial care provided for an acute illness or injury. Students have the potential for changing the health scenario of the society if properly groomed and educated. The objective of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of educational intervention on the first aid among middle school students of a rural school in West Bengal. A total of 230, 6 th and 7 th standard students were given a self-administered questionnaire for assessing their baseline knowledge about management of common injuries followed by educational intervention with a systematically devised teaching module during February to March 2016. Post intervention evaluation of their knowledge acquisition was done after 2 weeks with same questionnaire. The baseline knowledge on the management of selected injuries was found to be insufficient among the study subjects. Paired t -test was performed to compare the pre- and post-test scores of knowledge and attitude of the students about first aid, and there was a significant change in knowledge from pretest score (mean = 1.50, standard deviation [SD] =0.47) to posttest score (mean = 6.53, SD = 1.30). To quantify the effectiveness of health education, effect size (Cohen's d) was derived. For knowledge score, Cohen's d was 5.14 with large effect size indicating highly effective impact of the training program. Significant change was also noticed regarding attitude regarding first aid as evident from increase in pretest score (mean = 1.19, SD = 0.96) to posttest score (mean = 3.17, SD = 1.03); Cohen's d was 1.88 with medium effect size. Inculcating first-aid training in the school curriculum can be a fruitful investment in ensuring proper and timely management of illnesses and injuries not only for the school children but also for the community at large.
..., processing, and acting upon information is often inadequate. The current research examined two levels of training, decision aiding, and homogeneity on group performance, using a personality concept classified "action orientation...
Carruth, Ann K.; Pryor, Susan; Cormier, Cathy; Bateman, Aaron; Matzke, Brenda; Gilmore, Karen
Background: Farming is a hazardous occupation posing health risks from agricultural exposures for the farm owner and family members. First Aid for Rural Medical Emergencies (F.A.R.M.E.) was developed to support a train-the-trainer (TTT) program to prepare high school students to teach first aid skills and risk reduction through peer interaction.…
Hossain, D; Gorman, D; Eley, R; Coutts, J
This study was a pilot project responding to the increasing levels of stress, depression and other mental health issues in Australian rural areas resulting from prolonged drought and a changing economic and social environment. Thirty-two Advisory and Extension Agents (AEAs) attended a training course held in 2007 and 2008 in Queensland, Australia. A year after the training, data was collected to determine its value. Interviews were conducted with course participants and their supervisors and focus groups were held with stakeholders (farmers, agency staff and health professionals). The findings show that Mental Health First Aid training improved the participants' confidence level and their knowledge of mental health issues and increased their empathy toward persons with mental health problems. Furthermore, providing training on mental health issues to AEAs was perceived by stakeholders to be beneficial to both farmers and AEAs. This study demonstrated that stakeholders and course participants see this type of training as very much needed and highly beneficial. Further, providing training in mental health issues to rural service providers can be very beneficial to their farmer clients and their social network.
Anastassova, Margarita; Burkhardt, Jean-Marie
The paper presents an ergonomic analysis carried out in the early phases of an R&D project. The purpose was to investigate the functioning of today's Automotive Service Technicians (ASTs) training in order to inform the design of an Augmented Reality (AR) teaching aid. The first part of the paper presents a literature review of some major problems encountered by ASTs today. The benefits of AR as technological aid are also introduced. Then, the methodology and the results of two case studies are presented. The first study is based on interviews with trainers and trainees; the second one on observations in real training settings. The results support the assumption that today's ASTs' training could be regarded as a community-of-practice (CoP). Therefore, AR could be useful as a collaboration tool, offering a shared virtual representation of real vehicle's parts, which are normally invisible unless dismantled (e.g. the parts of a hydraulic automatic transmission). We conclude on the methods and the technologies to support the automotive CoP.
Mastro, T D; Kitayaporn, D; Weniger, B G; Vanichseni, S; Laosunthorn, V; Uneklabh, T; Uneklabh, C; Choopanya, K; Limpakarnjanarat, K
The purpose of the study was to estimate the number of injection drug users infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Bangkok to allow planning for health services for this population. A two-sample capture-recapture method was used. The first capture listed all persons on methadone treatment for opiate addiction from April 17 through May 17, 1991, at 18 facilities in Bangkok. The second capture involved urine testing of persons held at 72 Bangkok police stations from June 3 through September 30, 1991. Persons whose urine tests were positive for opiate metabolites or methadone were included on the second list. The first capture comprised 4064 persons and the recapture 1540 persons. There were 171 persons included on both lists, yielding an estimate of 36,600 opiate users in Bangkok. Existing data indicate that 89% of opiate users in Bangkok inject drugs and that about one third are infected with HIV, yielding an estimate of approximately 12,000 HIV-infected injection drug users in Bangkok in 1991. During the 1990s the number of cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and other HIV-related diseases, including tuberculosis, in the population of HIV-infected injection drug users in Bangkok will increase dramatically, placing new demands on existing health care facilities. The capture-recapture method may be useful in estimating difficult-to-count populations, including injection drug users.
Mahdian, Babak; Novozámský, Adam; Saic, Stanislav
Roč. 6, č. 4 (2015), 1000294-1-1000294-6 ISSN 2157-7145 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-28462S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : forensic s * cyclostationarity * recapturing * CFA Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/ZOI/mahdian-0458829.pdf
Parker, Donald E.; Harm, D. L.; Florer, Faith L.
This paper describes ongoing development of training procedures to enhance self-attitude awareness in astronaut trainees. The procedures are based on observations regarding self-attitude (perceived self-orientation and self-motion) reported by astronauts. Self-attitude awareness training is implemented on a personal computer system and consists of lesson stacks programmed using Hypertalk with Macromind Director movie imports. Training evaluation will be accomplished by an active search task using the virtual Spacelab environment produced by the Device for Orientation and Motion Environments Preflight Adaptation Trainer (DOME-PAT) as well as by assessment of astronauts' performance and sense of well-being during orbital flight. The general purpose of self-attitude awareness training is to use as efficiently as possible the limited DOME-PAT training time available to astronauts prior to a space mission. We suggest that similar training procedures may enhance the performance of virtual environment operators.
Hochstein, Stefan; Blickhan, Reinhard
To maximize swimming speed athletes copy fish undulatory swimming during the underwater period after start and turn. The anatomical limitations may lead to deviations and may enforce compensating strategies. This has been investigated by analyzing the kinematics of two national female swimmers while swimming in a still water pool. Additionally, the flow around and behind the swimmers was measured with the aid of time-resolved particle image velocimetry (TR-2D-PIV). As compared to fish, the swimmers used undulatory waves characterized by much higher Strouhal numbers but very similar amplitude distributions along the body and Froude efficiencies. Vortices generated in the region of strongly flexing joints are suitable to be used pedally to enhance propulsion (vortex re-capturing). Complementing studies using numerical and technical modeling will help us to probe the efficiency of observed mechanisms and further improvements of the human strategy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ahmed, Nazeema; Flisher, Alan J.; Mathews, Catherine; Jansen, Shahieda; Mukoma, Wanjiru; Schaalma, Herman
This paper provides a process evaluation of a 6-day teacher training programme which forms part of a sexuality education project. The training aimed at providing teachers with the necessary knowledge and skills to effectively teach a 16-lesson Grade 8 (14 year olds) life skills curriculum consisting of participatory exercises on sexual…
Graves, James W.; And Others
The experimental program in structured activities in perceptual training was said to have two main objectives: to train children in retention of visual and auditory images and to increase the children's motivation to learn. Eight boys and girls participated in the program for two hours daily for a 10-week period. The age range was 7.0 to 12.10…
Sethi, Suresh; Linden, Daniel; Wenburg, John; Lewis, Cara; Lemons, Patrick R.; Fuller, Angela K.; Hare, Matthew P.
Error-tolerant likelihood-based match calling presents a promising technique to accurately identify recapture events in genetic mark–recapture studies by combining probabilities of latent genotypes and probabilities of observed genotypes, which may contain genotyping errors. Combined with clustering algorithms to group samples into sets of recaptures based upon pairwise match calls, these tools can be used to reconstruct accurate capture histories for mark–recapture modelling. Here, we assess the performance of a recently introduced error-tolerant likelihood-based match-calling model and sample clustering algorithm for genetic mark–recapture studies. We assessed both biallelic (i.e. single nucleotide polymorphisms; SNP) and multiallelic (i.e. microsatellite; MSAT) markers using a combination of simulation analyses and case study data on Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) and fishers (Pekania pennanti). A novel two-stage clustering approach is demonstrated for genetic mark–recapture applications. First, repeat captures within a sampling occasion are identified. Subsequently, recaptures across sampling occasions are identified. The likelihood-based matching protocol performed well in simulation trials, demonstrating utility for use in a wide range of genetic mark–recapture studies. Moderately sized SNP (64+) and MSAT (10–15) panels produced accurate match calls for recaptures and accurate non-match calls for samples from closely related individuals in the face of low to moderate genotyping error. Furthermore, matching performance remained stable or increased as the number of genetic markers increased, genotyping error notwithstanding.
de Boo, Diederick W.; van Hoorn, François; van Schuppen, Joost; Schijf, Laura; Scheerder, Maeke J.; Freling, Nicole J.; Mets, Onno; Weber, Michael; Schaefer-Prokop, Cornelia M.
To assess whether short-term feedback helps readers to increase their performance using computer-aided detection (CAD) for nodule detection in chest radiography. The 140 CXRs (56 with a solitary CT-proven nodules and 84 negative controls) were divided into four subsets of 35; each were read in a
Full Text Available AIM: The aim of this study is to determine first and emergency aid formal and practical education levels and perception of adequacy of trainee medical noncommissioned officers who graduated from Gulhane Military Medical Academy Medical NCO Vocational School in 2007. METHOD: The study included 54 trainee medical NCOs who had graduated from Gulhane Military Medical Academy Medical NCO Vocational School in 2007. The data were collected by a questionnaire developed by the investigators. RESULTS: Of the participants 79,6 % stated that he had never used the defibrillator, 33,3 % had never made hemorrhage control, 53,7% had never done fracture stabilization, 90,7% expressed himself adequate in Intravenous (IV cannulation, 98,2% in hemorrhage control and 72,2% in Firearms wounds management. In the exam including 10 questions nobody answered all the questions correctly and correct answers average was 5.9 ± 1.3 (minimum 3, maximum 9. CONCLUSION: Having the medical NCOs in a training program before they start service would be useful. Revision of the training program for medical NCOs according to the findings of our study especially in competency giving practical training would help the training of NCOs. Skills related to combat casualty care of NCOs should be promoted. Bu arastirma 13 ncu Balkan Askeri Tip Komitesi Kongresinde poster bildiri olarak sunulmustur. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(4.000: 291-296
Full Text Available Muscle strength training for stroke patients is of vital importance for helping survivors to progressively restore muscle strength and improve the performance of their activities in daily living (ADL. An adaptive hierarchical therapy control framework which integrates the patient's real biomechanical state estimation with task-performance quantitative evaluation is proposed. Firstly, a high-level progressive resistive supervisory controller is designed to determine the resistive force base for each training session based on the patient's online task-performance evaluation. Then, a low-level adaptive resistive force triggered controller is presented to further regulate the interactive resistive force corresponding to the patient's real-time biomechanical state – characterized by the patient's bio-damping and bio-stiffness in the course of one training session, so that the patient is challenged in a moderate but engaging and motivating way. Finally, a therapeutic robot system using a Barrett WAM™ compliant manipulator is set up. We recruited eighteen inpatient and outpatient stroke participants who were randomly allocated in experimental (robot-aided and control (conventional physical therapy groups and enrolled for sixteen weeks of progressive resistance training. The preliminary results show that the proposed therapy control strategies can enhance the recovery of strength and motor control ability.
Yu, Jyaehyoung; Jeon, Hanjae; Song, Changgeun; Han, Woojae
The goal of the present study was to develop an auditory training program using a mobile device and to test its efficacy by applying it to older adults suffering from moderate-to-severe sensorineural hearing loss. Among the 20 elderly hearing-impaired listeners who participated, 10 were randomly assigned to a training group (TG) and 10 were assigned to a non-training group (NTG) as a control. As a baseline, all participants were measured by vowel, consonant and sentence tests. In the experiment, the TG had been trained for 4 weeks using a mobile program, which had four levels and consisted of 10 Korean nonsense syllables, with each level completed in 1 week. In contrast, traditional auditory training had been provided for the NTG during the same period. To evaluate whether a training effect was achieved, the two groups also carried out the same tests as the baseline after completing the experiment. The results showed that performance on the consonant and sentence tests in the TG was significantly increased compared with that of the NTG. Also, improved scores of speech perception were retained at 2 weeks after the training was completed. However, vowel scores were not changed after the 4-week training in both the TG and the NTG. This result pattern suggests that a moderate amount of auditory training using the mobile device with cost-effective and minimal supervision is useful when it is used to improve the speech understanding of older adults with hearing loss. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 61-68. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Kitchener Betty A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the high prevalence of mental disorders and the comparatively low rate of professional help-seeking, it is useful for members of the public to have some skills in how to assist people developing mental disorders. A Mental Health First Aid course has been developed to provide these skills. Two randomized controlled trials of this course have shown positive effects on participants' knowledge, attitudes and behavior. However, these trials have provided limited data on participants' subsequent experiences in providing first aid. To remedy this, a study was carried out gathering stories from participants in one of the trials, 19–21 months post-training. Methods Former course participants were contacted and sent a questionnaire either by post or via the internet. Responses were received from 94 out of the 131 trainees who were contacted. The questionnaire asked about whether the participant had experienced a post-training situation where someone appeared to have a mental health problem and, if so, asked questions about that experience. Results Post-training experiences were reported by 78% of respondents. Five key points emerged from the qualitative data: (1 the majority of respondents had had some direct experience of a situation where mental health issues were salient and the course enabled them to take steps that led to better effects than otherwise might have been the case; (2 positive effects were experienced in terms of increased empathy and confidence, as well as being better able to handle crises; (3 the positive effects were experienced by a wide range of people with varied expectations and needs; (4 there was no evidence of people over-reaching themselves because of over-confidence and (5 those who attended were able to identify quite specific benefits and many thought the course not only very useful, but were keen to see it repeated and extended. Conclusion The qualitative data confirm that most members of the
The primary goal of the project is to develop a computer-assisted visual search (CAVS) mammography training tool that will improve the perceptual and cognitive skills of trainees leading to mammographic expertise...
Jorgensen, Eric L; Fuller, Joseph J
...) began to develop better ways to present Technical Information (TI) to Navy Fleet users needed for purposes of operating, maintaining, training, and logistically supporting the Navy's inventory of weapon systems...
The primary goal of the project is to develop a computer-assisted visual search (CAVS) mammography training tool that will improve the perceptual and cognitive skills of trainees leading to mammographic expertise...
The primary goal of the project is to develop a computer-assisted visual search (CAVS) mammography training tool that will improve the perceptual and cognitive skills of trainees leading to mammographic expertise...
Jensen, Kamilla B; Morthorst, Britt R; Vendsborg, Per B
BACKGROUND: Studies show a high and growing prevalence of mental disorders in the population worldwide. 25% of the general population in Europe will during their lifetime experience symptoms related to a mental disorder. The Mental Health First Aid concept (MHFA) was founded in 2000 in Australia...... by Kitchener and Jorm, in order to provide the population with mental health first aid skills. The aim of the concept is, through an educational intervention (course), to increase confidence in how to help people suffering from mental health problems. Further, secondary aims are to increase the mental health...... participants will be allocated to either the intervention group or the control group. The control group will attend the course six months later, hence waiting list design. From fall 2013 to spring 2014 participants will be educated to be "mental health first-aiders" following a manualized, two days MHFA course...
Bond, Kathy S; Jorm, Anthony F; Kitchener, Betty A; Reavley, Nicola J
Background The role and demands of studying nursing and medicine involve specific stressors that may contribute to an increased risk for mental health problems. Stigma is a barrier to help-seeking for mental health problems in nursing and medical students, making these students vulnerable to negative outcomes including higher failure rates and discontinuation of study. Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) is a potential intervention to increase the likelihood that medical and nursing students will ...
Dugdale, James H; Hunter, Angus; Di Virgilio, Thomas; Macgregor, Lewis J; Hamilton, D Lee
This study examined the acute effects of the 'Slingshot' on bench-press performance, prime-mover surface electromyographic (sEMG) amplitude, and barbell velocity during maximal and submaximal bench-pressing in competitive male powerlifters. Fifteen male powerlifters (mean ± SD age: 27.05 ± 5.94 years; mass: 94.15kg; 1RM bench-press: 139.7 ± 16.79kg) participated in the study. Bench-press strength, average barbell velocity, and sEMG amplitude of the prime mover muscles (triceps brachii, pectoralis major and anterior deltoid) were measured during two conditions; 'Raw' (without use of any assistance) and 'Slingshot' [using the 'Slingshot' to perform both the weight achieved during 'Raw' 1RM testing (Raw max/SS), and absolute 1RM using the 'Slingshot' (SS)]. The results showed that the 'Slingshot' significantly increased bench press 1RM performance by a mean ± SD of 20.67kg ± 3.4kg. Barbell velocity and stick point analysis indicate that this improvement is likely driven by an increase in peak and pre-stick barbell velocity as triceps RMS was lower throughout all rep max phases with the 'Slingshot'. The 'Slingshot' also caused reductions in RMS, specifically of the triceps at all rep ranges but barbell velocity was better maintained in the last reps of all sets. These data indicate that the 'Slingshot' specifically de-loaded the triceps muscle throughout all rep ranges and provide assistance to maintaining barbell velocity under fatigue during later repetitions of multiple-repetition sets. The 'Slingshot' training aid could therefore be used in de-load phases of bench press training or as an over-reaching and velocity training aid.
Gong, Jing; Liu, Ji-Yu; Sun, Xi-Wen; Zheng, Bin; Nie, Sheng-Dong
This study aims to develop a computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) scheme for classification between malignant and benign lung nodules, and also assess whether CADx performance changes in detecting nodules associated with early and advanced stage lung cancer. The study involves 243 biopsy-confirmed pulmonary nodules. Among them, 76 are benign, 81 are stage I and 86 are stage III malignant nodules. The cases are separated into three data sets involving: (1) all nodules, (2) benign and stage I malignant nodules, and (3) benign and stage III malignant nodules. A CADx scheme is applied to segment lung nodules depicted on computed tomography images and we initially computed 66 3D image features. Then, three machine learning models namely, a support vector machine, naïve Bayes classifier and linear discriminant analysis, are separately trained and tested by using three data sets and a leave-one-case-out cross-validation method embedded with a Relief-F feature selection algorithm. When separately using three data sets to train and test three classifiers, the average areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) are 0.94, 0.90 and 0.99, respectively. When using the classifiers trained using data sets with all nodules, average AUC values are 0.88 and 0.99 for detecting early and advanced stage nodules, respectively. AUC values computed from three classifiers trained using the same data set are consistent without statistically significant difference (p > 0.05). This study demonstrates (1) the feasibility of applying a CADx scheme to accurately distinguish between benign and malignant lung nodules, and (2) a positive trend between CADx performance and cancer progression stage. Thus, in order to increase CADx performance in detecting subtle and early cancer, training data sets should include more diverse early stage cancer cases.
Richter, Andre; Chan, David K. C.
In industry today, professional Photonic Design Automation (PDA) tools are a necessity to enable fast development cycles for the design of optical components, systems and networks. The training of industrial personnel is of great importance in facilitating the full usability of PDA tools tailored to meet these demands. As the market leader of design and planning tools for system integrators and manufacturers of optical transmission systems and components, VPIsystems offers a set of two-day training courses. Attendees are taught on the design of metro WDM networks, high speed DWDM and ultra long-haul WDM systems, analogue and digital cable access systems, EDFA and Raman amplifiers, as well as active devices and circuits. The course work compromises of: (1) lectures on physical and modeling background topics; (2) creation of typical simulation scenarios and; (3) the analysis of results. This course work is facilitated by guided, hands-on lab exercises using VPIsystems software for a variety of practical design situations. In classes of up to 15, each attendee is allocated a computer, thereby allowing for a thorough and speedy training for the individual in all of the covered topics as well as for any extra-curriculum topics to be covered. Since 1999, more than 750 people have graduated from over 60 training courses. In this paper, details of VPIsystems Industry training program will be presented.
Pajuelo Castro, J J; Meneses Pardo, J C; Salinas Casado, P L; Hernandez Martin, P; Montilla Canet, R; Del Campo Cuesta, J L; Incera Bustio, G; Martin Ayuso, D
The latest terrorist attacks in Europe and in the rest of the world, and the military experience in the most recent conflicts leave us with several lessons learned. The most important is that the fate of the wounded rests in the hands of the one who applies the first dressing, because the victims usually die within the first 10 minutes, before professional care providers or police personnel arrive at the scene. A second lesson is that the primary cause of preventable death in these types of incidents involving explosives and firearms is massive hemorraghe. There is a need to develop a training oriented to citizens so they can identify and use available resources to avoid preventable deaths that occur in this kind of incidents, especially massive hemorrhage. A 7-hour training intervention program was developed and conducted between January and May 2017. Data were collected from participants' answers on a multiple-choice test before and after undertaking the training. Improved mean score for at least 75% of a group's members on the posttraining test was considered reflective of adequate knowledge. A total of 173 participants (n = 74 men [42.8%]; n = 99 women [57.2%]) attended the training. They were classified into three groups: a group of citizens/ first responders with no prior health training, a group of health professionals, and a group of nursing students. Significant differences (ρ first responders group. 2017.
Full Text Available Hyperspectral images (HSI provide rich information which may not be captured by other sensing technologies and therefore gradually find a wide range of applications. However, they also generate a large amount of irrelevant or redundant data for a specific task. This causes a number of issues including significantly increased computation time, complexity and scale of prediction models mapping the data to semantics (e.g., classification, and the need of a large amount of labelled data for training. Particularly, it is generally difficult and expensive for experts to acquire sufficient training samples in many applications. This paper addresses these issues by exploring a number of classical dimension reduction algorithms in machine learning communities for HSI classification. To reduce the size of training dataset, feature selection (e.g., mutual information, minimal redundancy maximal relevance and feature extraction (e.g., Principal Component Analysis (PCA, Kernel PCA are adopted to augment a baseline classification method, Support Vector Machine (SVM. The proposed algorithms are evaluated using a real HSI dataset. It is shown that PCA yields the most promising performance in reducing the number of features or spectral bands. It is observed that while significantly reducing the computational complexity, the proposed method can achieve better classification results over the classic SVM on a small training dataset, which makes it suitable for real-time applications or when only limited training data are available. Furthermore, it can also achieve performances similar to the classic SVM on large datasets but with much less computing time.
Alexandre Ramos Lazzarotto
to improve aerobic and strength capacities with shorter time of training and stands out within the used methods. It is crucial to understand this syndrome's characteristics for the best application of physical exercise in the HIV infected patients. Therefore, the aim of this study is to review the main HIV infection characteristics and the evidence available on concurrent training with single and multiple sets in immunological, virological, cardiorespiratory and neuromuscular parameters in subjects living with HIV/AIDS. A systematic review of papers published from 2000-2007 in the Scielo and Pubmed database, as well as theses and dissertations on Physical Education, Sports and Health fields from the digital library totalizing 8 studies, was performed. Evidence from these 8 investigated studies showed that concurrent training, both with single and multiple sets, improves cardiorespiratory and neuromuscular parameters. However, the results in the immunological and virological parameters are not completely understood, especially on protocols with single sets.
Biedermann, Grant; Rakholia, Akash Vrijal; McGuinness, Hayden
An inertial sensing system includes a magneto-optical trap (MOT) that traps atoms within a specified trapping region. The system also includes a cooling laser that cools the trapped atoms so that the atoms remain within the specified region for a specified amount of time. The system further includes a light-pulse atom interferometer (LPAI) that performs an interferometric interrogation of the atoms to determine phase changes in the atoms. The system includes a controller that controls the timing of MOT and cooling laser operations, and controls the timing of interferometric operations to substantially recapture the atoms in the specified trapping region. The system includes a processor that determines the amount inertial movement of the inertial sensing system based on the determined phase changes in the atoms. Also, a method of inertial sensing using this inertial sensing system includes recapture of atoms within the MOT following interferometric interrogation by the LPAI.
Crawford, Gemma; Burns, Sharyn K; Chih, Hui Jun; Hunt, Kristen; Tilley, P J Matt; Hallett, Jonathan; Coleman, Kim; Smith, Sonya
The impact of mental health problems and disorders in Australia is significant. Mental health problems often start early and disproportionately affect young people. Poor adolescent mental health can predict educational achievement at school and educational and occupational attainment in adulthood. Many young people attend higher education and have been found to experience a range of mental health issues. The university setting therefore presents a unique opportunity to trial interventions to reduce the burden of mental health problems. Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) aims to train participants to recognise symptoms of mental health problems and assist an individual who may be experiencing a mental health crisis. Training nursing students in MHFA may increase mental health literacy and decrease stigma in the student population. This paper presents a protocol for a trial to examine the efficacy of the MHFA training for students studying nursing at a large university in Perth, Western Australia. This randomised controlled trial will follow the CONSORT guidelines. Participants will be randomly allocated to the intervention group (receiving a MHFA training course comprising two face to face 6.5 hour sessions run over two days during the intervention period) or a waitlisted control group (not receiving MHFA training during the study). The source population will be undergraduate nursing students at a large university located in Perth, Western Australia. Efficacy of the MHFA training will be assessed by following the intention-to-treat principle and repeated measures analysis. Given the known burden of mental health disorders among student populations, it is important universities consider effective strategies to address mental health issues. Providing MHFA training to students offers the advantage of increasing mental health literacy, among the student population. Further, students trained in MHFA are likely to utilise these skills in the broader community, when they
McCabe, O Lee; Mosley, Adrian M; Gwon, Howard S; Everly, George S; Lating, Jeffrey M; Links, Jonathan M; Kaminsky, Michael J
Clergy and laity have been a traditional source of support for people striving to cope with everyday tragedies, but not all faith leaders have the specialized knowledge required for the challenges of mental health ministry in the aftermath of widespread trauma and mass casualty events. On the other hand, some mental health professionals have acquired high levels of expertise in the field of disaster mental health but, because of their limited numbers, cannot be of direct help to large numbers of disaster survivors when such events are broad in scale. The authors have addressed the problem of scalability of post-disaster crisis mental health services by establishing an academic/faith partnershipforpsychological first aid training. The curriculum was piloted with 500 members of the faith community in Baltimore City and other areas of Maryland. The training program is seen as a prototype of specialized first-responder training that can be built upon to enhance and extend the roles of spiritual communities in public health emergencies, and thereby augment the continuum of deployable resources available to local and state health departments.
Marecki, J.; Duzinkiewicz, K.; Kosmowski, K.T.
The Faculty of Electrical Engineering of the Gdansk Technical University has organized post-graduate studies in nuclear power engineering in cooperation with the Institute of Nuclear Research at Swierk since 1973. Post-graduate courses in nuclear power plant construction and design were organized twice. Between 1986 and 1990, prototype software was developed for aiding lectures, self-teaching and knowledge testing in the following fields: 1) dynamics and control of nuclear reactors; 2) simulators of nuclear power plant basic systems (reactor, steam generator, steam turbine, and synchronous generator). (Z.S.) 2 refs
Moradi, Shahram; Wahlin, Anna; Hällgren, Mathias; Rönnberg, Jerker; Lidestam, Björn
This study aimed to examine the efficacy and maintenance of short-term (one-session) gated audiovisual speech training for improving auditory sentence identification in noise in experienced elderly hearing-aid users. Twenty-five hearing aid users (16 men and 9 women), with an average age of 70.8 years, were randomly divided into an experimental (audiovisual training, n = 14) and a control (auditory training, n = 11) group. Participants underwent gated speech identification tasks comprising Swedish consonants and words presented at 65 dB sound pressure level with a 0 dB signal-to-noise ratio (steady-state broadband noise), in audiovisual or auditory-only training conditions. The Hearing-in-Noise Test was employed to measure participants’ auditory sentence identification in noise before the training (pre-test), promptly after training (post-test), and 1 month after training (one-month follow-up). The results showed that audiovisual training improved auditory sentence identification in noise promptly after the training (post-test vs. pre-test scores); furthermore, this improvement was maintained 1 month after the training (one-month follow-up vs. pre-test scores). Such improvement was not observed in the control group, neither promptly after the training nor at the one-month follow-up. However, no significant between-groups difference nor an interaction between groups and session was observed. Conclusion: Audiovisual training may be considered in aural rehabilitation of hearing aid users to improve listening capabilities in noisy conditions. However, the lack of a significant between-groups effect (audiovisual vs. auditory) or an interaction between group and session calls for further research. PMID:28348542
Hovell, Melbourne F.; Blumberg, Elaine J.; Liles, Sandy; Powell, Linda; Morrison, Theodore C.; Duran, Gabriela; Sipan, Carol L.; Burkham, Susan; Kelley, Norma
Tests the effectiveness of behavioral skills training based on the Behavioral-Ecological Model among a group of adolescents. Evaluates two interventions: one teaching condom use skills and the other teaching anger management skills. Changes in most skills were significant at postintervention but were not maintained at six months. Few risk-related…
Mohatt, Nathaniel Vincent; Boeckmann, Robert; Winkel, Nicola; Mohatt, Dennis F; Shore, Jay
Persistent stigma, lack of knowledge about mental health, and negative attitudes toward treatment are among the most significant barriers to military service members and veterans seeking behavioral health care. With the high rates of untreated behavioral health needs among service members and veterans, identifying effective programs for reducing barriers to care is a national priority. This study adapted Mental Health First Aid (MHFA), an evidence-based program for increasing mental health knowledge, decreasing stigma, and increasing laypeople's confidence in helping and frequency of referring people in need, for military and veteran populations and pilot tested the adapted training program with 4 Army National Guard armories. A total of 176 community first responders (CFRs) participated in a comparative outcomes study, with 69 receiving the training and 107 participating in the control group. CFRs were individuals in natural positions within the Armory or home communities of Guard members to identify and help service members in mental health crisis. Surveys assessing confidence in helping, attitudes toward help seeking, knowledge of resources, use of MHFA practices, and stigma were completed before the training, immediately post-training, at 4 months post-training, and at 8 months post-training. Analyses included repeated measures analysis of variances on data from CFRs who received the training and mixed between-within subjects analysis of variances comparing the intervention and control group longitudinally at three time points. Institutional review board approval for this study was received from Montana State University and the U.S. Army Medical Department, Medical Research and Materiel Command, Human Research Protection Office. Significant and meaningful improvements in confidence (p stigma (p stigma (η 2 = 0.02), with a significant and meaningful difference observed for practice behaviors (p mental health support. In addition, there were positive growth
Everly, George S; Barnett, Daniel J; Sperry, Nancy L; Links, Jonathan M
Disaster mental health research has found that psychological casualties from a given disaster can be expected to far outnumber physical casualties. Amidst a shortage of mental health professionals and against the backdrop of natural disasters, continued terrorism, and pandemic influenza, there is a striking need to expand and operationalize available human resources to enhance the psychological resiliency of those affected. Through the utilization of psychological first aid (PFA) as an early crisis intervention tool, and by virtue of their occupation and experience, nurses are particularly well-suited to assume a leadership role in expanding the disaster mental health presence beyond the existing cadre of mental health clinicians. Here, we characterize the importance of integrating PFA in the context of other nursing functions, to augment mental health surge capacity in disaster settings.
Chan, John S Y; Wu, Qiaofeng; Liang, Danxia; Yan, Jin H
Finger sequence learning requires visuospatial working memory (WM). However, the dynamics between age, WM training, and motor skill acquisition are unclear. Therefore, we examined how visuospatial WM training improves finger movement sequential accuracy in younger (n=26, 21.1±1.37years) and older adults (n=22, 70.6±4.01years). After performing a finger sequence learning exercise and numerical and spatial WM tasks, participants in each age group were randomly assigned to either the experimental (EX) or control (CO) groups. For one hour daily over a 10-day period, the EX group practiced an adaptive n-back spatial task while those in the CO group practiced a non-adaptive version. As a result of WM practice, the EX participants increased their accuracy in the spatial n-back tasks, while accuracy remained unimproved in the numerical n-back tasks. In all groups, reaction times (RT) became shorter in most numerical and spatial n-back tasks. The learners in the EX group - but not in the CO group - showed improvements in their retention of finger sequences. The findings support our hypothesis that computerized visuospatial WM training improves finger sequence learning both in younger and in older adults. We discuss the theoretical implications and clinical relevance of this research for motor learning and functional rehabilitation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
De Boo, Diederick W; van Hoorn, François; van Schuppen, Joost; Schijf, Laura; Scheerder, Maeke J; Freling, Nicole J; Mets, Onno; Weber, Michael; Schaefer-Prokop, Cornelia M
To assess whether short-term feedback helps readers to increase their performance using computer-aided detection (CAD) for nodule detection in chest radiography. The 140 CXRs (56 with a solitary CT-proven nodules and 84 negative controls) were divided into four subsets of 35; each were read in a different order by six readers. Lesion presence, location and diagnostic confidence were scored without and with CAD (IQQA-Chest, EDDA Technology) as second reader. Readers received individual feedback after each subset. Sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve (AUC) were calculated for readings with and without CAD with respect to change over time and impact of CAD. CAD stand-alone sensitivity was 59 % with 1.9 false-positives per image. Mean AUC slightly increased over time with and without CAD (0.78 vs. 0.84 with and 0.76 vs. 0.82 without CAD) but differences did not reach significance. The sensitivity increased (65 % vs. 70 % and 66 % vs. 70 %) and specificity decreased over time (79 % vs. 74 % and 80 % vs. 77 %) but no significant impact of CAD was found. Short-term feedback does not increase the ability of readers to differentiate true- from false-positive candidate lesions and to use CAD more effectively. • Computer-aided detection (CAD) is increasingly used as an adjunct for many radiological techniques. • Short-term feedback does not improve reader performance with CAD in chest radiography. • Differentiation between true- and false-positive CAD for low conspicious possible lesions proves difficult. • CAD can potentially increase reader performance for nodule detection in chest radiography.
Blackman, H.S.; Nelson, W.R.
An experiment is presented that was designed to investigate the use of protocol analysis, during task performance, as a technique for knowledge engineering that provides a direct tie between knowledge and performance. The technique is described and problem solving strategies are presented that were found to correlate with optimal performance. The results indicate that protocol analysis adds a dimension to the more standard knowledge engineering approaches by providing a more complete picture of the expert's knowledge and a performance yardstick to determine the most optimal problem solving strategies. Implications for the developers of expert systems and training programs are discussed. (author)
Originating in Australia, 'Mental Health First Aid' (MHFA) is a way of providing support to someone who is experiencing a mental health problem before professional help is obtained. Positive evaluations have shown that it both increases confidence while decreasing stigmatizing attitudes. However, the evidence base surrounding the delivery of basic mental health programmes remains underdeveloped. This descriptive qualitative study explored the views and experiences of 14 MHFA instructors from across Wales through semi-structured interviews, as a means to identify the experience of course delivery from their perspective. Data were collected between January and April 2009. The study found individuals benefited from being an MHFA instructor through increased confidence and self-development. However, instructors encountered logistical difficulties in course delivery and noted that as attendees related to the course material, they wished to discuss their own mental health problems during the course. This created considerable challenges for instructors, who noted both positive and negative impacts on themselves, and on their expectations of the role of becoming MHFA instructors. In conclusion, basic mental health training courses must build a clear infrastructure, ongoing quality assurance processes and reliable support structures to train, support and monitor those delivering them. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing.
Svensson, Bengt; Hansson, Lars
Epidemiological studies have shown a high prevalence of mental illness among the elderly. Clinical data however indicate both insufficient detection and treatment of illnesses. Suggested barriers to treatment include conceptions that mental health symptoms belong to normal aging and lack of competence among staff in elderly care in detecting mental illness. A Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training program for the elderly was developed and provided to staff in elderly care. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in knowledge in mental illness, confidence in helping a person, readiness to give help and attitudes towards persons with mental illness. Single group pre-test-post-test design. The study group included staff in elderly care from different places in Sweden (n = 139). Significant improvements in knowledge, confidence in helping an elderly person with mental illness and attitudes towards persons with mental illness are shown. Skills acquired during the course have been practiced during the follow-up. The adaption of MHFA training for staff working in elderly care gives promising results. Improvements in self-reported confidence in giving help, attitudes towards persons with mental illness and actual help given to persons with mental illness are shown. However, the study design allows no firm conclusions and a randomized controlled trail is needed to investigate the effectiveness of the program. Outcomes should include if the detection and treatment of mental illness among the elderly actually improved.
Vizeshfar, Fatemeh; Momennasab, Marzieh; Yektatalab, Shahrzad; Iman, Mohamad Taghi
Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a health volunteers' complementary training programme on first aid. Design: Quasi-experimental study. Setting: A comprehensive health centre in the southwest of Iran. Method: The study was conducted in the second half of 2015 with all 25 health volunteers in the Qamar Bani Hashem…
Richardson, J. Jeffrey
This paper is part of an Air Force planning effort to develop a research, development, and applications program for the use of artificial intelligence (AI) technology in three target areas: training, performance measurement, and job performance aiding. The paper is organized in five sections that (1) introduce the reader to AI and those subfields…
The purpose of this study was to determine the training effects on school personnel's knowledge, attitudes, comfort, and confidence levels toward educating students about HIV/AIDS in Pennsylvania. The following four research questions were explored: (a) What is the knowledge, attitudes, confidence, and comfort levels of school personnel regarding…
Blackman, H.S.; Nelson, W.R.
The objective of this work is to evaluate the potential for developing a complete model for training novices based upon a combination of rules for operation, and heuristics for application of the rules. The method used to investigate this potential is based upon the experimental evaluation of the response tree expert system. The present study used the low pressure injection system (LPIS) simulation developed for the response tree expert system evaluation, so that the rules of operation were already developed, and only the expert heuristics needed to be identified. The heuristics were abstracted from concurrent and recall protocols, taken from expert operators while attempting to solve transients on the LPIS, using protocol analysis techniques previously developed. This paper describes the experiment, and identifies the mental processes used by expert operators
Royle, J. Andrew; Kery, Marc; Guelat, Jerome
1. Spatial capture–recapture models make use of auxiliary data on capture location to provide density estimates for animal populations. Previously, models have been developed primarily for fixed trap arrays which define the observable locations of individuals by a set of discrete points. 2. Here, we develop a class of models for 'search-encounter' data, i.e. for detections of recognizable individuals in continuous space, not restricted to trap locations. In our hierarchical model, detection probability is related to the average distance between individual location and the survey path. The locations are allowed to change over time owing to movements of individuals, and individual locations are related formally by a model describing individual activity or home range centre which is itself regarded as a latent variable in the model. We provide a Bayesian analysis of the model in WinBUGS, and develop a custom MCMC algorithm in the R language. 3. The model is applied to simulated data and to territory mapping data for the Willow Tit from the Swiss Breeding Bird Survey MHB. While the observed density was 15 territories per nominal 1 km2 plot of unknown effective sample area, the model produced a density estimate of 21∙12 territories per square km (95% posterior interval: 17–26). 4. Spatial capture–recapture models are relevant to virtually all animal population studies that seek to estimate population size or density, yet existing models have been proposed mainly for conventional sampling using arrays of traps. Our model for search-encounter data, where the spatial pattern of searching can be arbitrary and may change over occasions, greatly expands the scope and utility of spatial capture–recapture models.
Yackulic, Charles B.; Korman, Josh; Yard, Michael D.; Dzul, Maria C.
Introduced species are frequently implicated in declines of native species. In many cases, however, evidence linking introduced species to native declines is weak. Failure to make strong inferences regarding the role of introduced species can hamper attempts to predict population viability and delay effective management responses. For many species, mark–recapture analysis is the more rigorous form of demographic analysis. However, to our knowledge, there are no mark–recapture models that allow for joint modeling of interacting species. Here, we introduce a two‐species mark–recapture population model in which the vital rates (and capture probabilities) of one species are allowed to vary in response to the abundance of the other species. We use a simulation study to explore bias and choose an approach to model selection. We then use the model to investigate species interactions between endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha) and introduced rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the Colorado River between 2009 and 2016. In particular, we test hypotheses about how two environmental factors (turbidity and temperature), intraspecific density dependence, and rainbow trout abundance are related to survival, growth, and capture of juvenile humpback chub. We also project the long‐term effects of different rainbow trout abundances on adult humpback chub abundances. Our simulation study suggests this approach has minimal bias under potentially challenging circumstances (i.e., low capture probabilities) that characterized our application and that model selection using indicator variables could reliably identify the true generating model even when process error was high. When the model was applied to rainbow trout and humpback chub, we identified negative relationships between rainbow trout abundance and the survival, growth, and capture probability of juvenile humpback chub. Effects on interspecific interactions on survival and capture probability were strongly
Royle, J. Andrew; Chandler, Richard B.; Sun, Catherine C.; Fuller, Angela K.
1. Understanding space usage and resource selection is a primary focus of many studies of animal populations. Usually, such studies are based on location data obtained from telemetry, and resource selection functions (RSFs) are used for inference. Another important focus of wildlife research is estimation and modeling population size and density. Recently developed spatial capture–recapture (SCR) models accomplish this objective using individual encounter history data with auxiliary spatial information on location of capture. SCR models include encounter probability functions that are intuitively related to RSFs, but to date, no one has extended SCR models to allow for explicit inference about space usage and resource selection.
Limohpasmanee, W.; Kaewchoung, W.
Population estimation is the important information which required for the insect control planning especially the controlling with SIT. Moreover, It can be used to evaluate the efficiency of controlling method. Due to the complexity of calculation, the population estimation with mark and recapture methods were not used widely. So that, this program is developed with Qbasic on the purpose to make it accuracy and easier. The program evaluation consists with 6 methods; follow Seber's, Jolly-seber's, Jackson's Ito's, Hamada's and Yamamura's methods. The results are compared with the original methods, found that they are accuracy and more easier to applied
Carter, Elizabeth Lee
In this dissertation, I examine the evolution of the Gypsy trope in Romantic French literature at a time when nostalgia became a powerful aesthetic and political tool used by varying sides of an ideological war. Long considered a transient outsider who did not view time or privilege the past in the same way Europeans did, the Gypsy, I argue, became a useful way for France's writers to contain and tame the transience they felt interrupted nostalgia's attempt to recapture a lost past. My wo...
Lebreton, Jean-Dominique; Nichols, James D.; Barker, Richard J.; Pradel, Roger; Spendelow, Jeffrey A.
Many fields of science begin with a phase of exploration and description, followed by investigations of the processes that account for observed patterns. The science of ecology is no exception, and recent decades have seen a focus on understanding key processes underlying the dynamics of ecological systems. In population ecology, emphasis has shifted from the state variable of population size to the demographic processes responsible for changes in this state variable: birth, death, immigration, and emigration. In evolutionary ecology, some of these same demographic processes, rates of birth and death, are also the determinants of fitness. In animal population ecology, the estimation of state variables and their associated vital rates is especially problematic because of the difficulties in sampling such populations and detecting individual animals. Indeed, early capture–recapture models were developed for the purpose of estimating population size, given the reality that all animals are not caught or detected at any sampling occasion. More recently, capture–recapture models for open populations were developed to draw inferences about survival in the face of these same sampling problems. The focus of this paper is on multi‐state mark–recapture models (MSMR), which first appeared in the 1970s but have undergone substantial development in the last 15 years. These models were developed to deal explicitly with biological variation, in that animals in different “states” (classes defined by location, physiology, behavior, reproductive status, etc.) may have different probabilities of survival and detection. Animal transitions between states are also stochastic and themselves of interest. These general models have proven to be extremely useful and provide a way of thinking about a remarkably wide range of important ecological processes. These methods are now at a stage of refinement and sophistication where they can readily be used by biologists to tackle a wide
functions, and charateristics of equipment and components, (3) direc- tions of flow through systems and equipments, (4) parameter settings (pressures...Army training literature. Arlington, VA: U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences, November 1975. (AD-A033 935) Main, R. E...individual spot check examinations of main propulsion person - nel to assure PQS/SPPOT program is being properly conducted. 3. Provide technical
Max M. North
Full Text Available The major goal of this study was to observe theeffectiveness of Virtual Reality Training (VRT in assistingstudents who suffer from Communication Apprehension(CA. CA seems to be prevalent throughout a large portionof the human population. Apparently, this study has only afew precedents and can be considered a novel step intreatment of CA. Thirty undergraduate volunteer studentsenrolled at a university in Georgia participated in thisstudy. A virtual auditorium scene for CA training wascreated. Virtual Auditorium was a simulation of a 48 footwide, 100 foot long, and 55 foot high auditorium with threesections of chairs that accommodated over 100 spectators.The virtual auditorium program was designed to allow theaudience to enter the auditorium one at a time, then by fiveat a time until the whole auditorium was filled. Also,several audio clips were used to react to and create a desiredeffect upon the participant. The audio clips includedmaking comments, encouraging the participant to speaklouder, ignoring the participant, laughing, holdingconversations with others, and clapping hands at thebeginning or end of the entire session. An amplifier wasused in conjunction with the virtual reality software inorder for the participant to hear the echo of their own voice.A Subjective Units of Disturbance (SUD scale was used forall five sessions to measure the participant’s anxiety level.SUD scale ranged from 0 (no anxiety to 10 (panic-levelanxiety. Sessions lasted approximately 40 to 45 minutes.After analyzing the data, the result of this research showedVRT to be effective at reducing CA anxiety. While therewas fluctuation in the standard deviation of data, meaningparticipants responded the VRT at different rates, theaverage level of anxiety reported during the post-test wassignificantly less than that of the pre-test. The participantsreported experiencing the same symptoms during VRTsessions just as they would experience in a real situation.The symptoms were
Breckwoldt, J; Lingemann, C; Wagner, P
Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is the most effective intervention for out of hospital sudden cardiac arrest; therefore, basic life support (BLS) courses for lay persons have become well established in industrialized countries, often since decades. Despite this favorable situation bystander CPR rates still remain low in some countries (e.g. in Germany), indicating serious implementation problems. The quality of instruction in these courses could be one reason for low bystander CPR rates. We therefore analyzed official lay BLS courses in terms of the teaching quality in the domains of knowledge, skills and attitudes (according to Bloom's taxonomy). A total of 20 officially accredited lay BLS courses in Berlin, Germany, were analyzed by a participating observer, who remained blinded to the instructor and course participants until the end of the course. Courses were offered by German rescue organizations and private providers according to European Resuscitation Council (ERC) guidelines. Teaching quality was rated by a standardized checklist including 21 observable criteria of teaching quality for transfer of knowledge (n = 10), skills (n = 8) and attitudes (n = 3). In order to achieve comparability between items the results of each criterion were quantified by Likert scales ranging from +2 (very good) to -2 (very poor). The average score of all courses was +0.47 (SD ±0.46) for transfer of knowledge, +0.03 (SD ±0.61) for skills and -1.08 (SD ±0.73) for attitudes. In the domain of knowledge transfer, learning atmosphere and course structure were rated to be generally good, whilst marked deficits were found with respect to correctness of content. In the domain of skills the more positive ratings were given for teaching of single BLS elements (e.g. compressions and ventilation), in contrast to the training of BLS context, where e.g. realistic scenarios were only used by 3 out of 20 instructors. The domain of attitude transfer had the worst
McCabe, O Lee; Perry, Charlene; Azur, Melissa; Taylor, Henry G; Bailey, Mark; Links, Jonathan M
Ensuring the capacity of the public health, emergency preparedness system to respond to disaster-related need for mental health services is a challenge, particularly in rural areas in which the supply of responders with relevant expertise rarely matches the surge of demand for services. This investigation established and evaluated a systems-based partnership model for recruiting, training, and promoting official recognition of community residents as paraprofessional members of the Maryland Medical Professional Volunteer Corps. The partners were leaders of local health departments (LHDs), faith-based organizations (FBOs), and an academic health center (AHC). A one-group, quasi-experimental research design, using both post-test only and pre-/post-test assessments, was used to determine the feasibility, effectiveness, and impact of the overall program and of a one-day workshop in Psychological First Aid (PFA) for Paraprofessionals. The training was applied to and evaluated for 178 citizens drawn from 120 Christian parishes in four local health jurisdictions in rural Maryland. Feasibility-The model was demonstrated to be practicable, as measured by specific criteria to quantify partner readiness, willingness, and ability to collaborate and accomplish project aims. Effectiveness-The majority (93-99%) of individual participants "agreed" or "strongly agreed" that, as a result of the intervention, they understood the conceptual content of PFA and were confident about ("perceived self-efficacy") using PFA techniques with prospective disaster survivors. Impact-Following PFA training, 56 of the 178 (31.5%) participants submitted same-day applications to be paraprofessional responders in the Volunteer Corps. The formal acceptance of citizens who typically do not possess licensure in a health profession reflects a project-engendered policy change by the Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. These findings are consistent with the conclusion that it is feasible to
Yaden, David B., Jr.
An important part of NASA's mission involves the secondary application of its technologies in the public and private sectors. One current application being developed is The Adult Literacy Evaluator, a simulation-based diagnostic tool designed to assess the operant literacy abilities of adults having difficulties in learning to read and write. Using Intelligent Computer-Aided Training (ICAT) system technology in addition to speech recognition, closed-captioned television (CCTV), live video and other state-of-the-art graphics and storage capabilities, this project attempts to overcome the negative effects of adult literacy assessment by allowing the client to interact with an intelligent computer system which simulates real-life literacy activities and materials and which measures literacy performance in the actual context of its use. The specific objectives of the project are as follows: (1) to develop a simulation-based diagnostic tool to assess adults' prior knowledge about reading and writing processes in actual contexts of application; (2) to provide a profile of readers' strengths and weaknesses; and (3) to suggest instructional strategies and materials which can be used as a beginning point for remediation. In the first and development phase of the project, descriptions of literacy events and environments are being written and functional literacy documents analyzed for their components. From these descriptions, scripts are being generated which define the interaction between the student, an on-screen guide and the simulated literacy environment.
Full Text Available A.I.D.S as a worldwide crisis continues to spread in Iran too. The number of afflicted patients has reached 5780 subjects most of them are between 20 to 40 years of age. Prevention is one of the most effective methods to combat this human hazard. Promotion of general knowledge is thought to be the preliminary measure in this regard. Although, schools have turned to be the most favorable environment for health education, the issue of the group to afford training has remained controversial in our country yet. The aim of this research is a comparison between the effect of training performed by teachers or health staff on the knowledge of students of the first high school grade in Bushehr/ Iran. A total of 684 male and female students of the first high school grade were selected according to cluster random sampling. The selected students were divided into two groups and training for A.I.D.S using the same contents was done by their teachers and health staff separately. Before intervention, the mean knowledge scores of female & male students about A.I.D.S were 16.68 and 15.52, respectively. There was no significant difference in female students in two groups but teacher trained male students showed an increment score of 4.17 while in health staff ones, the score increment was 2.22 (P<0.01. In conclusion, the level of knowledge about A.I.D.S was not satisfactory in the high school students in Bushehr and for education in this group their sex in conjunction to different training methods should be considered.
Nkyekyer, Joanna; Meyer, Denny; Blamey, Peter J; Pipingas, Andrew; Bhar, Sunil
Sensorineural hearing loss is the most common sensory deficit among older adults. Some of the psychosocial consequences of this condition include difficulty in understanding speech, depression, and social isolation. Studies have shown that older adults with hearing loss show some age-related cognitive decline. Hearing aids have been proven as successful interventions to alleviate sensorineural hearing loss. In addition to hearing aid use, the positive effects of auditory training-formal listening activities designed to optimize speech perception-are now being documented among adults with hearing loss who use hearing aids, especially new hearing aid users. Auditory training has also been shown to produce prolonged cognitive performance improvements. However, there is still little evidence to support the benefits of simultaneous hearing aid use and individualized face-to-face auditory training on cognitive performance in adults with hearing loss. This study will investigate whether using hearing aids for the first time will improve the impact of individualized face-to-face auditory training on cognition, depression, and social interaction for adults with sensorineural hearing loss. The rationale for this study is based on the hypothesis that, in adults with sensorineural hearing loss, using hearing aids for the first time in combination with individualized face-to-face auditory training will be more effective for improving cognition, depressive symptoms, and social interaction rather than auditory training on its own. This is a crossover trial targeting 40 men and women between 50 and 90 years of age with either mild or moderate symmetric sensorineural hearing loss. Consented, willing participants will be recruited from either an independent living accommodation or via a community database to undergo a 6-month intensive face-to-face auditory training program (active control). Participants will be assigned in random order to receive hearing aid (intervention) for
Meyer, Denny; Blamey, Peter J; Pipingas, Andrew; Bhar, Sunil
Background Sensorineural hearing loss is the most common sensory deficit among older adults. Some of the psychosocial consequences of this condition include difficulty in understanding speech, depression, and social isolation. Studies have shown that older adults with hearing loss show some age-related cognitive decline. Hearing aids have been proven as successful interventions to alleviate sensorineural hearing loss. In addition to hearing aid use, the positive effects of auditory training—formal listening activities designed to optimize speech perception—are now being documented among adults with hearing loss who use hearing aids, especially new hearing aid users. Auditory training has also been shown to produce prolonged cognitive performance improvements. However, there is still little evidence to support the benefits of simultaneous hearing aid use and individualized face-to-face auditory training on cognitive performance in adults with hearing loss. Objective This study will investigate whether using hearing aids for the first time will improve the impact of individualized face-to-face auditory training on cognition, depression, and social interaction for adults with sensorineural hearing loss. The rationale for this study is based on the hypothesis that, in adults with sensorineural hearing loss, using hearing aids for the first time in combination with individualized face-to-face auditory training will be more effective for improving cognition, depressive symptoms, and social interaction rather than auditory training on its own. Methods This is a crossover trial targeting 40 men and women between 50 and 90 years of age with either mild or moderate symmetric sensorineural hearing loss. Consented, willing participants will be recruited from either an independent living accommodation or via a community database to undergo a 6-month intensive face-to-face auditory training program (active control). Participants will be assigned in random order to receive
Andreatta, Pamela; Gans-Larty, Florence; Debpuur, Domitilla; Ofosu, Anthony; Perosky, Joseph
Maternal mortality from postpartum hemorrhage remains high globally, in large part because women give birth in rural communities where unskilled (traditional birth attendants) provide care for delivering mothers. Traditional attendants are neither trained nor equipped to recognize or manage postpartum hemorrhage as a life-threatening emergent condition. Recommended treatment includes using uterotonic agents and physical manipulation to aid uterine contraction. In resource-limited areas where Obstetric first aid may be the only care option, physical methods such as bimanual uterine compression are easily taught, highly practical and if performed correctly, highly effective. A simulator with objective performance feedback was designed to teach skilled and unskilled birth attendants to perform the technique. To evaluate the impact of simulation-based training on the ability of birth attendants to correctly perform bimanual compression in response to postpartum hemorrhage from uterine atony. Simulation-based training was conducted for skilled (N=111) and unskilled birth attendants (N=14) at two regional (Kumasi, Tamale) and two district (Savelugu, Sene) medical centers in Ghana. Training was evaluated using Kirkpatrick's 4-level model. All participants significantly increased their bimanual uterine compression skills after training (p=0.000). There were no significant differences between 2-week delayed post-test performances indicating retention (p=0.52). Applied behavioral and clinical outcomes were reported for 9 months from a subset of birth attendants in Sene District: 425 births, 13 postpartum hemorrhages were reported without concomitant maternal mortality. The results of this study suggest that simulation-based training for skilled and unskilled birth attendants to perform bi-manual uterine compression as postpartum hemorrhage Obstetric first aid leads to improved applied procedural skills. Results from a smaller subset of the sample suggest that these skills
Isil Irem Budakoglu
Full Text Available Knowing about the frequency of diseases, accidents and any condition related with the health constitute the main control and intervention programs that will apply in health. There is a need to determine the measurements for frequency of these conditions and data for determination of measurements. Even if surveillance or registration system of a country is very well, it can be insufficient to collect some other conditions related with health; in fact so many countries can not designate their basic data such as birth and death numbers. There are many methods for collecting health data, such as registration system, surveys, etc. Another method which has been using recently in epidemiology called capture-recapture method. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2008; 7(1: 75-80
Kramer, V L; Carper, E R; Beesley, C; Reisen, W K
Two mark-release-recapture studies were conducted along the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta in northern California to describe the population ecology and dispersal pattern of Aedes dorsalis (Meigen). Immature Ae. dorsalis were collected from saline tidal marshes, reared to adults, marked, and released. Recapture grids during the July and September studies were within 8.0 and 2.4 km of the release sites, and recapture rates were 0.1 and 1.2%, respectively. The longest recorded flight was 5.8 km, and mosquitoes were recaptured up to 15 d after release. In September, 84% of the marked mosquitoes were recaptured within 2.0 km of the release site, and the mean dispersal distance was 1.9 km. Marked mosquitoes flew predominantly downwind to the east. There was no evidence that Ae. dorsalis traversed the 1.6-km-wide river from Contra Costa to Solano County. Temporal and spatial recapture patterns indicated a possible short-range migration pattern from oviposition sites to upland host-seeking areas. Changes in the recapture rate with cohort age delineated a 7-d gonotrophic cycle during September.
Garson, Arthur; Green, Donna M; Rodriguez, Lia; Beech, Richard; Nye, Christopher
Because the Affordable Care Act will expand health insurance to cover an estimated thirty-two million additional people, new approaches are needed to expand the primary care workforce. One possible solution is Grand-Aides®, who are health care professionals operating under the direct supervision of nurses, and who are trained and equipped to conduct telephone consultations or make primary care home visits to patients who might otherwise be seen in emergency departments and clinics. We conducted pilot tests with Grand-Aides in two pediatric Medicaid settings: an urban federally qualified health center in Houston, Texas, and a semi-rural emergency department in Harrisonburg, Virginia. We estimated that Grand-Aides and their supervisors averted 62 percent of drop-in visits at the Houston clinic and would have eliminated 74 percent of emergency department visits at the Virginia test site. We calculated the cost of the Grand-Aides program to be $16.88 per encounter. That compares with current Medicaid payments of $200 per clinic visit in Houston and $175 per emergency department visit in Harrisonburg. In addition to reducing health care costs, Grand-Aides have the potential to make a substantial impact in reducing congestion in primary care practices and emergency departments.
Lee, Jong-Sun; You, Sungeun; Choi, Yun-Kyeung; Youn, Hyae-Young; Shin, Hye Sook
The present study aimed to examine the training effects of a didactic and simulation-based psychological first aid (PFA) program. Based on the competency-based model, the study sought to examine whether the PFA training would enhance knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Study 1 examined the training effects of the PFA program in a sample of undergraduate and graduate students in psychology. Study 2 was conducted with school counselors. In both studies, all participants completed a one-day PFA workshop with a 3-hour didactic lecture and a 3-hour simulation-based practice. Assessments were conducted prior to the didactic lecture and upon completion of the simulation-based practice. In study 1, an examination of pre- and posttest comparisons indicated that the training significantly improved students' PFA knowledge and perceived competence in PFA skill. In study 2, the same PFA training significantly improved school counselors' PFA knowledge, perceived competence in PFA skill, perceived preparedness and confidence to provide psychological assistance for future disasters, but their perceived willingness to participate in psychological assistance did not significantly change after the training. This study provides preliminary evidence supporting the effectiveness of the PFA training program using a combined method of didactic and simulation-based practice for disaster mental health providers in Korea.
Full Text Available The present study aimed to examine the training effects of a didactic and simulation-based psychological first aid (PFA program. Based on the competency-based model, the study sought to examine whether the PFA training would enhance knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Study 1 examined the training effects of the PFA program in a sample of undergraduate and graduate students in psychology. Study 2 was conducted with school counselors. In both studies, all participants completed a one-day PFA workshop with a 3-hour didactic lecture and a 3-hour simulation-based practice. Assessments were conducted prior to the didactic lecture and upon completion of the simulation-based practice. In study 1, an examination of pre- and posttest comparisons indicated that the training significantly improved students' PFA knowledge and perceived competence in PFA skill. In study 2, the same PFA training significantly improved school counselors' PFA knowledge, perceived competence in PFA skill, perceived preparedness and confidence to provide psychological assistance for future disasters, but their perceived willingness to participate in psychological assistance did not significantly change after the training. This study provides preliminary evidence supporting the effectiveness of the PFA training program using a combined method of didactic and simulation-based practice for disaster mental health providers in Korea.
Full Text Available Purpose: HIV/AIDS is a major public health issue. Studies have shown that young people between the ages of 15 to 24 years accounts for more than 40% of new HIV infections. However, new infections could be prevented if the desired impact is made on young people through interventions such as effective peer education program to improve their knowledge, attitude and practice. Therefore, this study is aimed at assessing the impact of peer education vis-a-vis attitudinal changes and practices on issues relating to HIV/AIDS among youths in North central Nigeria. Methods: This classical experimental study was carried out in three stages, that is: pre-intervention, intervention and post-intervention stages among students of Government High School, Ilorin between the ages of 15 and 24 years. The sample size was 80 students each for study and control groups. Proportional gender distribution was ensured in the selection and the sampling technique was multistage sampling technique. Data collection was through semi structured self administered pre and post evaluation questionnaire. Peer education training and forth night mentoring sessions was conducted for the study group. Impact of the intervention was assessed after eight weeks. Results: Analysis of the result shows that out of the sixteen questions asked on respondents‟ attitude, only four showed statistical significance between the study and control group before the intervention which shot up to eleven after intervention. Also, the frequency of those having bad practices regarding prevention of HIV/AIDS also reduced after intervention. This reduction was much more in many instances when compared to the control group. Conclusion: This study has revealed that peer education training among youth can go a long way in educating them on issues relating to HIV/AIDS prevention. It can also bring about attitudinal changes and better practices that may help in reducing incidence and prevalence of HIV/AIDS in our
Mehl-Madrona, Lewis; Renfrew, Nita M; Mainguy, Barbara
Introduction: Reiki is a Japanese form of energy healing that has become popular in the US. Reiki training involves three stages—levels I, II, and III—to a master practitioner level and requires both giving and receiving Reiki. We set out to implement a program to train clients of a supported residence in Brooklyn, NY. They were all older than age 50 years and had HIV/AIDS and substance-abuse and/or mental-health disorders. Methods: A qualitative, narrative-inquiry study was conducted. The Reiki master kept a journal of her 3 years of providing 90 minutes of Reiki treatment and/or training once weekly at the residence. Forty-five of 50 potential participants attended these sessions with various frequencies. Stories were collected from 35 participants regarding their experience of Reiki training. We posited success as continued involvement in the program. Results: All 35 participants reported receiving benefit from participation in Reiki. Participants first took part in training because of the offered subway tokens; however, 40 continued their involvement despite a lack of compensation. When asked why they continued, participants reported life-changing experiences, including a greater ability to cope with addictions, a greater ability to manage counseling, healing of wounds, improvement of T-cell counts, and improved skills of daily living. Conclusion: Reiki training can be successfully implemented in a supported housing facility with people with HIV/AIDS and comorbid disorders. Some people in our study population reported areas of improvement and life-changing experiences. Our study did not establish the efficacy of Reiki, but our findings support the effect of the entire gestalt of implementing a program related to spirituality and healing and supports the goal of implementing a larger randomized, controlled trial in this setting to establish the efficacy of Reiki. PMID:22058669
Akanda Md. Abdus Salam
Full Text Available Individual heterogeneity in capture probabilities and time dependence are fundamentally important for estimating the closed animal population parameters in capture-recapture studies. A generalized estimating equations (GEE approach accounts for linear correlation among capture-recapture occasions, and individual heterogeneity in capture probabilities in a closed population capture-recapture individual heterogeneity and time variation model. The estimated capture probabilities are used to estimate animal population parameters. Two real data sets are used for illustrative purposes. A simulation study is carried out to assess the performance of the GEE estimator. A Quasi-Likelihood Information Criterion (QIC is applied for the selection of the best fitting model. This approach performs well when the estimated population parameters depend on the individual heterogeneity and the nature of linear correlation among capture-recapture occasions.
Lam, Angus Yk; Jorm, Anthony F; Wong, Daniel Fk
The aim of this study was to investigate in members of the Chinese community in Melbourne the impact of Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training on knowledge about mental disorders and on attitudes to people with mental illness. The hypotheses were that at the end of the training participants would have increased knowledge of mental disorders and related treatments, and decreased negative attitudes towards people with mental disorders. Respondents were 108 participants of three MHFA training workshops for the Chinese community in Melbourne conducted by a qualified MHFA trainer. Participants completed the research questionnaire prior to the commencement of the training (pre-test) and at its completion (post-test). The questionnaires assessed participants' ability to recognize a mental disorder (depression and schizophrenia) described in the vignettes, knowledge about the professional help and treatment, and negative attitudes towards people with mental illness. Between pre- and post-test there was significant improvement in the recognition of mental disorders, beliefs about treatment became more concordant with health professionals, and negative attitudes reduced. The MHFA training course for general members of the Chinese community in Melbourne produced significant positive change in the level of mental health literacy and reductions in stigmatizing attitudes. The evidence from this study, together with the accumulated evidence of the benefits of MHFA training in the general Australian community, suggests that this approach should be scaled up to a level where it can have an impact on the whole of the Chinese community in Australia.
Full Text Available A mark and recapture study of two reef sparids, Chrysoblephus laticeps and C. cristiceps, was done in the Tsitsikamma Coastal National Park. Fish were marked with plastic anchor tags and an intraperitoneal injection of oxytetracycline. All recaptures were taken within two kilometres of the tagging locality, suggesting that both species are resident in the area. Growth in length during the period at liberty was very variable and sometimes negative, but was comparable with published growth rates.
RC-201205) Monitoring Species of Concern Using Noninvasive Genetic Sampling and Capture- Recapture Methods November 2016 This document has been...From - To) Apr 25 2012-Jan 31 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Monitoring Species of Concern Using Noninvasive Genetic Sampling and Capture- Recapture...NGS-CR) modeling to evaluate the status of species of conservation concern . A secondary objective was to demonstrate the combination of NGS with
... principles and first aid intervention in: a. human and animal (especially dog and snake) bites. b. bites and...) Pontoons .43(a)(1), (e) Hatch, Protection around Open Hatch .35 Hazard Communication .1(b)(4), .90...
Marchetti-Mercer, Maria C.; Cleaver, Glenda
Describes a specific training method developed in a family therapy course at the University of Pretoria in South Africa, where genograms and family sculpting were used to improve cross-cultural understanding among psychology masters students. Discusses the theoretical implications of the group training process for the training of psychologists in…
Desmond Di Wang
Full Text Available Purpose: In airline revenue management, the modeling of the spill and recapture effects is essential for an accurate estimation of the passenger flow and the revenue in a flight network. However, as most current approaches toward spill and recapture involve either non-linearity or a tremendous amount of additional variables, it is computationally intractable to apply those techniques to the classical network design and capacity planning models.Design/methodology: We present a new framework that incorporates the spill and recapture effects, where the spill from an itinerary is recaptured by other itineraries based on their attractiveness. The presented framework distributes the accepted demand of an itinerary according to the currently available itineraries, without adding extra variables for the recaptured spill. Due to its compactness, we integrate the framework with the classical capacity planning and network design models.Findings: Our preliminary computational study shows an increase of 1.07% in profitability anda better utilization of the network capacity, on a medium-size North American airline provided by Sabre Airline Solutions.Originality/value: Our investigation leads to a holistic model that tackles the network design and capacity planning simultaneously with an accurate modeling of the spill and re- capture effects.Furthermore, the presented framework for spill and recapture is versatile and can be easily applied to other disciplines such as the hospitality industry and product line design (PLD problems.
Song, Rong; Tong, Kai-Yu; Hu, Xiaoling; Li, Le; Sun, Rui
This study designed an arm-eye coordination test to investigate the effectiveness of the robot-aided rehabilitation for persons after stroke. Six chronic poststroke subjects were recruited to attend a 20-session robot-aided rehabilitation training of elbow joint. Before and after the training program, subjects were asked to perform voluntary movements of elbow flection and extension by following sinusoidal trajectories at different velocities with visual feedback on their joint positions. The elbow angle and the electromyographic signal of biceps and triceps as well as clinical scores were evaluated together with the parameters. Performance was objectively quantified by root mean square error (RMSE), root mean square jerk (RMSJ), range of motion (ROM), and co-contraction index (CI). After 20 sessions, RMSE and ROM improved significantly in both the affected and the unaffected side based on two-way ANOVA (P quantitative parameters and clinical scales could enable the exploration of effects of different types of treatment and design progress-based training method to accelerate the processes of recovery.
Agroforestry In-Service Training. A Training Aid for Asia & the Pacific Islands (Honiara, Solomon Islands, South Pacific, October 23-29, 1983). Training for Development. Peace Corps Information Collection & Exchange Training Manual No. T-16.
Fillion, Jacob; Weeks, Julius
The Forestry/Natural Resources Sector in the Office of Training and Program Support of the Peace Corps conducted an agroforestry inservice training workshop in Honiara, Solomon Islands, in 1983. Participants included Peace Corps volunteers and their host country national counterparts from six countries of the Pacific Islands and Asia (Western…
Full Text Available This paper has two distinct yet interrelated parts. First, it is a study into the sociology of sound and music—an exploration of how the phenomena of noise organizes and structures human behavior. Second, it is an auditory ethnographic excursion into the world of mixed martial arts (MMA fighting. Using a general qualitative approach grounded by the soundscape, participant observation and semi-structured interviews, we query MMA fighters’ experiences with sound and music, noting how these “sonic things” become key aids in bonding, training, and fighting. Lastly, we describe how participants use music to achieve various motivational and psychophysical outcomes.
Vinculos Entre la Capacitacion de Docentes y el Desarrollo de Materiales Educativos Impresos--Anotaciones para Una Discusion (Links between In-service Teacher Training and the Development of Printed Educational Aids).
Valle, Victor M.
Textbooks and other printed materials will be ever present, in the foreseeable future, as major aids for teaching and learning processes. New textbooks imply new guidelines for teachers, and the ways to handle such guidelines demand teacher training. This paper explains some links between inservice teacher training programs and the development of…
Friedenberg, Nicholas A; Hoover, Jan Jeffrey; Boysen, Krista; Killgore, K Jack
Abundance estimates are essential for assessing the viability of populations and the risks posed by alternative management actions. An effort to estimate abundance via a repeated mark-recapture experiment may fail to recapture marked individuals. We devised a method for obtaining lower bounds on abundance in the absence of recaptures for both panmictic and spatially structured populations. The method assumes few enough recaptures were expected to be missed by random chance. The upper Bayesian credible limit on expected recaptures allows probabilistic statements about the minimum number of individuals present in the population. We applied this method to data from a 12-year survey of pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) in the lower and middle Mississippi River (U.S.A.). None of the 241 individuals marked was recaptured in the survey. After accounting for survival and movement, our model-averaged estimate of the total abundance of pallid sturgeon ≥3 years old in the study area had a 1%, 5%, or 25% chance of being <4,600, 7,000, or 15,000, respectively. When we assumed fish were distributed in proportion to survey catch per unit effort, the farthest downstream reach in the survey hosted at least 4.5-15 fish per river kilometer (rkm), whereas the remainder of the reaches in the lower and middle Mississippi River hosted at least 2.6-8.5 fish/rkm for all model variations examined. The lower Mississippi River had an average density of pallid sturgeon ≥3 years old of at least 3.0-9.8 fish/rkm. The choice of Bayesian prior was the largest source of uncertainty we considered but did not alter the order of magnitude of lower bounds. Nil-recapture estimates of abundance are highly uncertain and require careful communication but can deliver insights from experiments that might otherwise be considered a failure. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Improving the way artemether-lumefantrine (AL is provided to patients attending clinics is critical to maximize the benefit of this new medicine. In 2007, a new initiative was launched in one part of Kenya to improve malaria case-management through enhanced in-service training and provision of job aids. Methods An evaluation of the intervention using pre- and post-intervention cross sectional health facility surveys was conducted in Bondo district. The surveys included: audit of government health facilities, health worker structured interviews and exit interviews with caretakers of sick children below five years of age. The outcome indicators were the proportions of febrile children who had AL prescribed, AL dispensed, and four different dispensing and counseling tasks performed. Results At baseline 33 government health facilities, 48 health workers and 386 febrile child consultations were evaluated. At follow-up the same health facilities were surveyed and 36 health workers and 390 febrile child consultations evaluated. The findings show: 1 no health facility or health worker was exposed to all components of the intervention; 2 the proportion of health workers who received the enhanced in-service training was 67%; 3 the proportion of febrile children with uncomplicated malaria treated with the first-line anti-malarial drug, artemether-lumefantrine (AL, at health facilities where AL was in stock increased from 76.9% (95%CI: 69.4, 83.1 to 87.6% (95% CI: 82.5, 91.5; 4 there were modest but non-significant improvements in dispensing and counseling practices; and 5 when the analyses were restricted to health workers who received the enhanced in-service training and/or had received new guidelines and job aids, no significant improvements in reported case-management tasks were observed compared to baseline. Conclusion In-service training and provision of job aids alone may not be adequate to improve the prescribing, dispensing and
Wasunna, Beatrice; Zurovac, Dejan; Bruce, Jane; Jones, Caroline; Webster, Jayne; Snow, Robert W
Improving the way artemether-lumefantrine (AL) is provided to patients attending clinics is critical to maximize the benefit of this new medicine. In 2007, a new initiative was launched in one part of Kenya to improve malaria case-management through enhanced in-service training and provision of job aids. An evaluation of the intervention using pre- and post-intervention cross sectional health facility surveys was conducted in Bondo district. The surveys included: audit of government health facilities, health worker structured interviews and exit interviews with caretakers of sick children below five years of age. The outcome indicators were the proportions of febrile children who had AL prescribed, AL dispensed, and four different dispensing and counseling tasks performed. At baseline 33 government health facilities, 48 health workers and 386 febrile child consultations were evaluated. At follow-up the same health facilities were surveyed and 36 health workers and 390 febrile child consultations evaluated. The findings show: 1) no health facility or health worker was exposed to all components of the intervention; 2) the proportion of health workers who received the enhanced in-service training was 67%; 3) the proportion of febrile children with uncomplicated malaria treated with the first-line anti-malarial drug, artemether-lumefantrine (AL), at health facilities where AL was in stock increased from 76.9% (95%CI: 69.4, 83.1) to 87.6% (95% CI: 82.5, 91.5); 4) there were modest but non-significant improvements in dispensing and counseling practices; and 5) when the analyses were restricted to health workers who received the enhanced in-service training and/or had received new guidelines and job aids, no significant improvements in reported case-management tasks were observed compared to baseline. In-service training and provision of job aids alone may not be adequate to improve the prescribing, dispensing and counseling tasks necessary to change malaria case
Svensson, Bengt; Hansson, Lars
According to a recent report from the European Brain Council and the European Colleague of Neuropsychopharmacology the one year prevalence of some kind of mental disorder is around 27% among the adult population in Europe. Research has shown a lack of mental health literacy in the population in general and it is thus important to find ways to improve the public's knowledge and skills to provide first hand support to people with mental disorders. Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) is a training program that has shown positive changes in knowledge and helping behavior. This study investigates if MHFA training in a Swedish context provides a sustained improvement in knowledge about mental disorders, a better ability to be helpful in contacts with people who are ill and if it changes attitudes in a positive direction. The introduction of the training program was made in accordance with the constructor's instructions. Participants were mainly public sector employees from a county in the west of Sweden. The study was a randomized controlled trial with an experiment group (n = 199) and a control group (n = 207) placed on a waiting list during a 6-month follow-up. A two-year follow-up was conducted for participants (n = 155) from both the intervention and waiting list group who had completed the training and during the follow-up been in contact with persons with mental disorders. The intervention group improved in knowledge as well as in confidence in providing help for someone in need. The two-year follow-up showed that the improvements were to a great extent maintained. Mental Health First Aid might raise the level of awareness of mental disorders and have an influence on the number of people who can receive professional treatment for their problems.
Full Text Available According to a recent report from the European Brain Council and the European Colleague of Neuropsychopharmacology the one year prevalence of some kind of mental disorder is around 27% among the adult population in Europe. Research has shown a lack of mental health literacy in the population in general and it is thus important to find ways to improve the public's knowledge and skills to provide first hand support to people with mental disorders. Mental Health First Aid (MHFA is a training program that has shown positive changes in knowledge and helping behavior. This study investigates if MHFA training in a Swedish context provides a sustained improvement in knowledge about mental disorders, a better ability to be helpful in contacts with people who are ill and if it changes attitudes in a positive direction.The introduction of the training program was made in accordance with the constructor's instructions. Participants were mainly public sector employees from a county in the west of Sweden. The study was a randomized controlled trial with an experiment group (n = 199 and a control group (n = 207 placed on a waiting list during a 6-month follow-up. A two-year follow-up was conducted for participants (n = 155 from both the intervention and waiting list group who had completed the training and during the follow-up been in contact with persons with mental disorders. The intervention group improved in knowledge as well as in confidence in providing help for someone in need. The two-year follow-up showed that the improvements were to a great extent maintained.Mental Health First Aid might raise the level of awareness of mental disorders and have an influence on the number of people who can receive professional treatment for their problems.
Full Text Available This article introduces Rcapture, an R package for capture-recapture experiments. The data for analysis consists of the frequencies of the observable capture histories over the t capture occasions of the experiment. A capture history is a vector of zeros and ones where one stands for a capture and zero for a miss. Rcapture can fit three types of models. With a closed population model, the goal of the analysis is to estimate the size N of the population which is assumed to be constant throughout the experiment. The estimator depends on the way in which the capture probabilities of the animals vary. Rcapture features several models for these capture probabilities that lead to different estimators for N. In an open population model, immigration and death occur between sampling periods. The estimation of survival rates is of primary interest. Rcapture can fit the basic Cormack-Jolly-Seber and Jolly-Seber model to such data. The third type of models fitted by Rcapture are robust design models. It features two levels of sampling; closed population models apply within primary periods and an open population model applies between periods. Most models in Rcapture have a loglinear form; they are fitted by carrying out a Poisson regression with the R function glm. Estimates of the demographic parameters of interest are derived from the loglinear parameter estimates; their variances are obtained by linearization. The novel feature of this package is the provision of several new options for modeling capture probabilities heterogeneity between animals in both closed population models and the primary periods of a robust design. It also implements many of the techniques developed by R. M. Cormack for open population models.
Li, Zhihui; Liu, Hanwei; Zhang, Yongshun; Guo, Yiduo
The performance of space-time adaptive processing (STAP) may degrade significantly when some of the training samples are contaminated by the signal-like components (outliers) in nonhomogeneous clutter environments. To remove the training samples contaminated by outliers in nonhomogeneous clutter environments, a robust nonhomogeneous training samples detection method using the sparse-recovery (SR) with knowledge-aided (KA) is proposed. First, the reduced-dimension (RD) overcomplete spatial-temporal steering dictionary is designed with the prior knowledge of system parameters and the possible target region. Then, the clutter covariance matrix (CCM) of cell under test is efficiently estimated using a modified focal underdetermined system solver (FOCUSS) algorithm, where a RD overcomplete spatial-temporal steering dictionary is applied. Third, the proposed statistics are formed by combining the estimated CCM with the generalized inner products (GIP) method, and the contaminated training samples can be detected and removed. Finally, several simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed KA-SR-GIP method.
Adams, Jenny; Roberts, Joanne; Simms, Kay; Cheng, Dunlei; Hartman, Julie; Bartlett, Charles
We designed a study to measure the functional capacity requirements of firefighters to aid in the development of an occupation-specific training program in cardiac rehabilitation; 23 healthy male firefighters with no history of heart disease completed a fire and rescue obstacle course that simulated 7 common firefighting tasks. They wore complete personal protective equipment and portable metabolic instruments that included a data collection mask. We monitored each subject's oxygen consumption (VO(2)) and working heart rate, then calculated age-predicted maximum heart rates (220 - age) and training target heart rates (85% of age-predicted maximum heart rate). During performance of the obstacle course, the subjects' mean working heart rates and peak heart rates were higher than the calculated training target heart rates (t(22) = 5.69 [working vs target, p functional capacity greatly exceeded that typically attained by patients in traditional cardiac rehabilitation programs (5 to 8 METs). In conclusion, our results indicate the need for intense, occupation-specific cardiac rehabilitation training that will help firefighters safely return to work after a cardiac event.
Everly, George S; Lee McCabe, O; Semon, Natalie L; Thompson, Carol B; Links, Jonathan M
The Johns Hopkins Center for Public Health Preparedness, which houses the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-funded Preparedness and Emergency Response Learning Center, has been addressing the challenge of disaster-caused behavioral health surge by conducting training programs in psychological first aid (PFA) for public health professionals. This report describes our approach, named RAPID-PFA, and summarizes training evaluation data to determine if relevant knowledge, skills, and attitudes are imparted to trainees to support effective PFA delivery. In the wake of disasters, there is an increase in psychological distress and dysfunction among survivors and first responders. To meet the challenges posed by this surge, a professional workforce trained in PFA is imperative. More than 1500 participants received a 1-day RAPID-PFA training. Pre-/postassessments were conducted to measure (a) required knowledge to apply PFA; (b) perceived self-efficacy, that is, belief in one's own ability, to apply PFA techniques; and (c) confidence in one's own resilience in a crisis context. Statistical techniques were used to validate the extent to which the survey successfully measured individual PFA constructs, that is, unidimensionality, and to quantify the reliability of the assessment tool. Statistically significant pre-/postimprovements were observed in (a) knowledge items supportive of PFA delivery, (b) perceived self-efficacy to apply PFA interventions, and (c) confidence about being a resilient PFA provider. Cronbach alpha coefficients ranging from 0.87 to 0.90 suggested that the self-reported measures possessed sufficient internal consistency. Findings were consistent with our pilot work, and with our complementary research initiatives validating a variant of RAPID-PFA with faith communities. The RAPID-PFA model promises to be a broadly applicable approach to extending community behavioral health surge capacity. Relevant next steps include evaluating the effectiveness
Setting Research Priorities for HIV/AIDS-related research in a post-graduate training programme: lessons learnt from the Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programme scientific workshop
Poggensee, Gabriele; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya Endie; Bashorun, Adebobola; Nguku, Patrick Mboya; Fawole, Olufunmilayo Ibitola; Sabitu, Kabir
In Nigeria the current prevalence of HIV is 4.1% with over 3.5 million infected and estimated 1.5 million in need of anti-retroviral treatment. Epidemiological and implementation studies are necessary for monitoring and evaluation of interventions. To define research areas which can be addressed by participants of the Nigeria Field Epidemiology and Training Programme (NFELTP) a workshop was held in April 2013 in Abuja, Nigeria. Priority research areas were identified using criteria lists for ranking of the relevance of research questions. Based on a research matrix, NFELTP residents developed the aims and objectives, study design for HIV-related research proposals. This workshop was the first workshop held by the NFELTP to establish an inventory of research questions which can be addressed by the residents within their training period. This inventory will help to increase HIV/AIDS-related activities of NFELTP which are in accordance with research needs in Nigeria and PEPFAR objectives. PMID:25426209
Elisiane Crestani de Miranda
Full Text Available A implantação de programas de reabilitação para o deficiente auditivo idoso é de grande importância. OBJETIVO: Verificar a eficácia de um programa de treinamento auditivo formal em idosos que receberam próteses auditivas há no mínimo três meses, por meio de testes de reconhecimento de fala e questionário de auto-avaliação. MÉTODO: Estudo de coorte contemporânea longitudinal. Foram selecionados 13 idosos usuários de próteses auditivas intra-aurais em adaptação binaural, de ambos os sexos, com idade média de 65,30 anos. Este grupo foi subdividido aleatoriamente em Grupo Experimental e Grupo Controle, por meio de sorteio. O Grupo Experimental foi submetido a sete sessões de treinamento auditivo formal, visando estimular as habilidades auditivas de fechamento auditivo, memória, atenção, figura-fundo e integração binaural. Os participantes foram avaliados por três testes comportamentais e um questionário de auto-avaliação. RESULTADOS: Os idosos do Grupo Experimental apresentaram desempenho significantemente melhor nas avaliações após o treinamento auditivo e também em relação ao Grupo Controle. CONCLUSÃO: O programa de treinamento auditivo em cabina acústica, associado ao uso de próteses auditivas, melhora o desempenho das habilidades de reconhecimento de fala e reduz a percepção do handicap auditivo de idosos usuários de próteses auditivas intra-aurais.It is of paramount importance to install hearing rehabilitation programs for the elderly. AIM: to check the efficacy of a forma auditory training program for elderly patients fitted with hearing aids for at least three months, by means of speech recognition tests and self-assessment questionnaires. METHODS: longitudinal contemporary cohort study. We selected 13 elderly hearing aid users, using intra-canal hearing aids in both ears, from both genders, with average age of 65.3 years. This group was randomly divided in Experiment Group and Control Group. The
Ramos Monserrat, M; March Cerdá, J C
estimate the number of irregular economic immigrants in Mallorca. We used the capture-recapture method, an indirect method based on contrasts of data from two or more sources. Data were obtained from the Delegación de Gobierno (police and immigration authority), Comisiones Obreras (labor union), and institutions that provide health-related services to immigrants. Individuals were identified by birth date and country of origin. The total number of economic immigrants estimated with this method was 39 392. According to the Delegación de Gobierno data, the number of regular immigrants on the date of our inquiry was 9000. With the capture-recapture method, the number of irregular immigrants in Mallorca was therefore estimated at 30 000. The capture-recapture method can be useful to estimate the population of irregular immigrants in a given area at a given time, if sufficiently precise information on the identity of each individual can be obtained.
Stanley, Thomas R.; Richards, Jon D.
Capture-recapture methods are widely used to estimate population parameters of free-ranging animals. Closed-population capture-recapture models, which assume there are no additions to or losses from the population over the period of study (i.e., the closure assumption), are preferred for population estimation over the open-population models, which do not assume closure, because heterogeneity in detection probabilities can be accounted for and this improves estimates. In this paper we introduce CloseTest, a new Microsoft® Windows-based program that computes the Otis et al. (1978) and Stanley and Burnham (1999) closure tests for capture-recapture data sets. Information on CloseTest features and where to obtain the program are provided.
Gerontological nursing (the care of the elderly) as a specialization for registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, and nursing aides is discussed with respect to training and qualifications, employment outlook, and earnings for each group. (JT)
Burns, Sharyn; Crawford, Gemma; Hallett, Jonathan; Hunt, Kristen; Chih, Hui Jun; Tilley, P J Matt
The prevalence of mental health problems have been found to be higher among university students compared to their non-student peers. Nursing students in particular face a range of additional stressors which may impact their undergraduate performance and their careers. Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) aims to increase mental health literacy and to reduce stigma and may positively impact on the student population. This paper describes a MHFA randomised controlled trial targeting nursing students at a large Australian university. This study aimed to measure the impact of the MHFA course on mental health literacy, mental health first aid intentions, confidence in helping someone with a mental health problem and stigmatising attitudes including social distance. Participants were first year nursing students (n = 181) randomly allocated to the intervention (n = 92) or control (n = 89) group. Intervention group participants received the standardised MHFA course for nursing students. Online self-report questionnaires were completed at three time intervals: baseline (one week prior to the intervention: T 1 ) (n = 140), post intervention (T 2 ) (n = 120), and two months post intervention (T 3 ) (n = 109). Measures included demographics, mental health knowledge, recognition of depression, confidence in helping, mental health first aid intentions and stigmatising attitudes including social distance. Repeated measures ANOVA was computed to measure if the impact of time (T 1 , T 2 , T 3 ) and group (intervention and control) on the outcome variables. There was a significant improvement among intervention compared to control group participants across the three time periods for knowledge scores (p mental health first aid intentions (p mental health literacy and reduce stigmatising attitudes and social distance. While this course has particular salience for nursing and other health science students, there are broader benefits to the general university population that
Kemper Valverde, Nicolas; Lara Rosano, Felipe; Guerrero Briseno, Pedro [Laboratorio de Inteligencia Artificial, Instituto de Ingenieria UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Monedero De La Vega, Arturo F. [Seccion Ingenieria Energetica, DEPFI UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)
The incorporation of computer aided teaching technologies increases the efficiency in the transmission and acquisition of knowledge, allowing the handling of large information volumes, the knowledge homogenization among the students, the availability, the massive teaching and the permanent updating of the same. On the other hand, considering that all energy saving policy must be supported in a training and dissemination program of the respective energy technologies an immediate option is the use of computerized systems of teaching-learning. Precisely, in this paper, are presented the fundamental technical aspects for the development of a tutorial expert system, to aid the training in energy cogeneration, trying to integrate in the application, the usage of multimedia tools with the intelligent handling of the teaching-learning process through the inference machine of an expert system. [Espanol] La incorporacion de metodologias de ensenanza auxiliada por computadora incrementa la eficiencia en la transmision y adquisicion del conocimiento, permitiendo la manipulacion de grandes volumenes de informacion, la homogeneizacion del conocimiento en los educandos, la disponibilidad, masificacion y la permanente actualizacion del mismo. Por otro lado, considerando que toda politica de ahorro de energia debe estar soportada en un programa de capacitacion y de divulgacion de las tecnologias energeticas respectivas, una alternativa inmediata es el empleo de sistemas computarizados de ensenanza-aprendizaje. Precisamente, en este trabajo, se presenta los aspectos tecnicos fundamentales del desarrollo de un sistema experto tutorial para apoyar la capacitacion en cogeneracion de energia, tratando de integrar en la aplicacion, el empleo de las herramientas multimedios con el manejo inteligente del proceso de ensenanza-aprendizaje a traves de la maquina de inferencia de un sistema experto.
Roger W. Perry
Although site fidelity to permanent roost structures by bats is generally known, long-term fidelity to areas such as foraging or drinking sites is unknown. Furthermore, mist-net recaptures of bats over multiple years are rarely reported. Extensive mist-net surveys were conducted over the course of 8 y in the Ouachita National Forest of central Arkansas, United States...
... closeout process that is nearly identical to the CDBG closeout process and place both sets of instructions... activities such as rehabilitation and new construction. HUD reasoned that Congress chose the percentage to be..., owing to the mostly automatic operation of the resale/recapture mechanisms, will ensure grantees are...
Land value recapture has always been a controversial subject. In many countries there have been and there are different experiences that deal with the common objective of sharing with the wider community the benefits that derive from the development of land. Different approaches are the consequence
Jamie S. Sanderlin; Peter M. Waser; James E. Hines; James D. Nichols
Metapopulation ecology has historically been rich in theory, yet analytical approaches for inferring demographic relationships among local populations have been few. We show how reverse-time multi-state captureÂrecapture models can be used to estimate the importance of local recruitment and interpopulation dispersal to metapopulation growth. We use 'contribution...
Ramsay, Crystal M.; Guo, Xiuyan; Pursel, Barton K.
Although learning spaces research is not new, research approaches that target the specific teaching and learning experiences of faculty and students who occupy active learning classrooms (ALCs) is nascent. We report on two novels data collection approaches: Flashbacks and Re-Captures. Both leverage faculty reflective practice and provide windows…
Palusci, Vincent J.; Wirtz, Stephen J.; Covington, Theresa M.
Objectives: To (1) test the use of capture-recapture methods to estimate the total number of child maltreatment deaths in a single state using information from death certificates, child welfare reports, child death review teams, and uniform crime reports; and to (2) compare these estimates to the number of maltreatment deaths identified through an…
In an attempt to understand why patients do not take medications, researchers are increasingly focusing on how communication processes influence adherence behaviors. Pharmacists have an important role to play in this regard. However, existing communication skills training (CST) programs for pharmacists are not necessarily sensitive to the needs of pharmacists working in specific contexts such as Southern Africa. In addition, CST programs are often poorly described in the literature, lack a theoretical background, and focus excessively on evaluation. This article describes the process of developing a CST program for pharmacists working in Southern African HIV/AIDS contexts, focusing on conceptualization and design. Some shortfalls in current approaches to CST are addressed. A number of sources were consulted during the development phase of the project, including interactional and focus group research, previously developed training models, analysis of currently available CST materials for pharmacists, and a literature review. These are discussed and some attention is also given to the challenges of implementing and evaluating the program. The project highlights the importance of providing CST that is disease- and context-specific, grounded in appropriate research and theoretical frameworks, and based on a rigorous process of development.
Boulanger, John; Kendall, Katherine C; Stetz, Jeffrey B; Roon, David A; Waits, Lisette P; Paetkau, David
A fundamental challenge to estimating population size with mark-recapture methods is heterogeneous capture probabilities and subsequent bias of population estimates. Confronting this problem usually requires substantial sampling effort that can be difficult to achieve for some species, such as carnivores. We developed a methodology that uses two data sources to deal with heterogeneity and applied this to DNA mark-recapture data from grizzly bears (Ursus arctos). We improved population estimates by incorporating additional DNA "captures" of grizzly bears obtained by collecting hair from unbaited bear rub trees concurrently with baited, grid-based, hair snag sampling. We consider a Lincoln-Petersen estimator with hair snag captures as the initial session and rub tree captures as the recapture session and develop an estimator in program MARK that treats hair snag and rub tree samples as successive sessions. Using empirical data from a large-scale project in the greater Glacier National Park, Montana, USA, area and simulation modeling we evaluate these methods and compare the results to hair-snag-only estimates. Empirical results indicate that, compared with hair-snag-only data, the joint hair-snag-rub-tree methods produce similar but more precise estimates if capture and recapture rates are reasonably high for both methods. Simulation results suggest that estimators are potentially affected by correlation of capture probabilities between sample types in the presence of heterogeneity. Overall, closed population Huggins-Pledger estimators showed the highest precision and were most robust to sparse data, heterogeneity, and capture probability correlation among sampling types. Results also indicate that these estimators can be used when a segment of the population has zero capture probability for one of the methods. We propose that this general methodology may be useful for other species in which mark-recapture data are available from multiple sources.
Guo, Yuhong; Ren, Dongsheng; Zheng, Canjun; Wu, Haixia; Yang, Shuran; Liu, Jingli; Li, Hongsheng; Li, Huazhong; Li, Qun; Yang, Weizhong; Chu, Cordia
Background Studying the dispersal range of Anopheles sinensis is of major importance for understanding the transition from malaria control to elimination. However, no data are available regarding the dispersal range of An. sinensis in China. The aim of the present study was to study the dispersal range of An. sinensis and provide the scientific basis for the development of effective control measures for malaria elimination in China. Methodology/Principal Findings Mark-Release-Recapture (MRR) experiments were conducted with 3000 adult wild An. sinensis in 2010 and 3000 newly emerged wild An. sinensis in 2011 in two villages of Yongcheng City in Henan Province. Marked An. sinensis were recaptured daily for ten successive days using light traps. The overall recapture rates were 0.83% (95% CI, 0.50%∼1.16%) in 2010 and 1.33% (95% CI, 0.92%∼1.74%) in 2011. There was no significant difference in the recapture rates of wild An. sinensis and newly emerged An. sinensis. The majority of An. sinensis were captured due east at study site I compared with most in the west at study site II. Eighty percent and 90% of the marked An. sinensis were recaptured within a radius of 100 m from the release point in study site I and II, respectively, with a maximum dispersal range of 400 m within the period of this study. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicate that local An. sinensis may have limited dispersal ranges. Therefore, control efforts should target breeding and resting sites in proximity of the villages. PMID:23226489
Sansom-Daly, Ursula M; Wakefield, Claire E; Bryant, Richard A; Butow, Phyllis; Sawyer, Susan; Patterson, Pandora; Anazodo, Antoinette; Thompson, Kate; Cohn, Richard J
A cancer diagnosis is 2.9 times more likely to occur during the adolescent and young adult years than in younger children. This spike in incidence coincides with a life stage characterised by psychological vulnerability as young people strive to attain numerous, critical developmental milestones. The distress young people experience after cancer treatment seriously jeopardises their ability to move into well-functioning adulthood. This article presents the protocol of the Recapture Life study, a phase II three-arm randomised controlled trial designed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of a new intervention in reducing distress and improving quality of life for adolescent and young adult cancer survivors. The novel intervention, "ReCaPTure LiFe" will be compared to a both a wait-list, and a peer-support group control. Ninety young people aged 15-25 years who have completed cancer treatment in the past 1-6 months will be recruited from hospitals around Australia. Those randomised to receive Recapture Life will participate in six, weekly, 90-minute online group sessions led by a psychologist, involving peer-discussion around cognitive-behavioural coping skills (including: behavioural activation, thought challenging, communication and assertiveness skills training, problem-solving and goal-setting). Participants randomised to the peer-support group control will receive non-directive peer support delivered in an identical manner. Participants will complete psychosocial measures at baseline, post-intervention, and 12-months post-intervention. The primary outcome will be quality of life. Secondary outcomes will include depression, anxiety, stress, family functioning, coping, and cancer-related identity. This article reviews the empirical rationale for using group-based, online cognitive-behavioural therapy in young people after cancer treatment. The potential challenges of delivering skills-based programs in an online modality are highlighted, and the role of both
Snape, Darlene A; Morgan, Myfanwy; Ridsdale, Leone; Goodacre, Steve; Marson, Anthony G; Noble, Adam J
Epilepsy affects around 1% of the UK population; 40% of whom experience two or more seizures annually. However, most Emergency Department (ED) visits by people with epilepsy (PWE) are clinically unnecessary. Evidence highlights that with correct training, seizures can be safely managed by patients and their families within the community. Arguably therefore, PWE who frequently visit the ED might benefit from a self-management intervention that improves their own and their families' confidence and ability in managing seizures. Currently, no such intervention is available for PWE attending the ED. A collaborative approach (patients, carers, health professionals) was adopted to develop a patient-focused, self-management intervention. An existing group-based seizure management course, offered by the Epilepsy Society, was adapted. Collaborative feedback was sought via a base-line document review, one-to-one semi-structured interviews, and focus group discussions. The applied framework provided a systematic approach from development through to implementation. Participant feedback overall was extremely positive. People with epilepsy who visit the ED reported a positive view of epilepsy seizure first aid training and associated educational materials. Their feedback was then used to develop the optimized intervention presented here. Strengths and perceived barriers to successful implementation and participation, as well as the practical and psychosocial benefits, were identified. We describe the developed intervention together with the process followed. This description, while being project-specific, provides a useful template to assist in the development of interventions more generally. Ongoing evaluation will determine the effects of the training intervention on participants' behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Basavanhally, Ajay; Viswanath, Satish; Madabhushi, Anant
Clinical trials increasingly employ medical imaging data in conjunction with supervised classifiers, where the latter require large amounts of training data to accurately model the system. Yet, a classifier selected at the start of the trial based on smaller and more accessible datasets may yield inaccurate and unstable classification performance. In this paper, we aim to address two common concerns in classifier selection for clinical trials: (1) predicting expected classifier performance for large datasets based on error rates calculated from smaller datasets and (2) the selection of appropriate classifiers based on expected performance for larger datasets. We present a framework for comparative evaluation of classifiers using only limited amounts of training data by using random repeated sampling (RRS) in conjunction with a cross-validation sampling strategy. Extrapolated error rates are subsequently validated via comparison with leave-one-out cross-validation performed on a larger dataset. The ability to predict error rates as dataset size increases is demonstrated on both synthetic data as well as three different computational imaging tasks: detecting cancerous image regions in prostate histopathology, differentiating high and low grade cancer in breast histopathology, and detecting cancerous metavoxels in prostate magnetic resonance spectroscopy. For each task, the relationships between 3 distinct classifiers (k-nearest neighbor, naive Bayes, Support Vector Machine) are explored. Further quantitative evaluation in terms of interquartile range (IQR) suggests that our approach consistently yields error rates with lower variability (mean IQRs of 0.0070, 0.0127, and 0.0140) than a traditional RRS approach (mean IQRs of 0.0297, 0.0779, and 0.305) that does not employ cross-validation sampling for all three datasets. PMID:25993029
Gould, Matthew J.; Cain, James W.; Roemer, Gary W.; Gould, William R.
sampling occasions could be implemented to reduce degradation of DNA due to UV radiation; this might help increase amplification rates and thereby increase both the number of unique individuals identified and the number of recaptures, improving the precision of the density estimates. A pilot study may be useful to determine the length of time hair samples can remain in the field prior to collection. In addition, researchers may consider setting hair traps and bear rubs in more shaded areas (e.g., north facing slopes) to help reduce exposure to UV radiation. To reduce the sampling interval it will be necessary to either hire more field personnel or decrease the number of hair traps per sampling session. Both of these will enhance detection of long-range movement events by individual bears, increase initial capture and recapture rates, and improve precision of the parameter estimates. We recognize that all studies are constrained by limited resources, however, increasing field personnel would also allow a larger study area to be sampled or enable higher trap density.In conclusion, we estimated the density of black bears in 5 study areas within 3 mountains ranges of New Mexico. Our estimates will aid the NMDGF in setting sustainable harvest limits. Along with estimates of density, information on additional demographic rates (e.g., survival rates and reproduction) and the potential effects that climate change and future land use may have on the demography of black bears may also help inform management of black bears in New Mexico, and may be considered as future areas for research.
Full text: In this paper, we discuss briefly the developed level of physical protection system (PPS) in different Chinese history stage, and the relation between PPS and society, politics, military and security. It reveals the current status of application of PPS in China, and the level of design, implementation, evaluation and products. We also discuss the developing direction and applying tendency of PPS in future China. We mainly introduce a software using the ASD to evaluate the effectiveness of the PPS at a facility. It is used for training, design, and implementation of physical system. It identifies the path which adversaries can follow to accomplish sabotage or theft. For a specific PPS and threat, the most vulnerable path can be determined. The path probability of interruption P(I) establishes of the total PPS. Especially, we introduce how to specify threat characteristics bases the situation of present Chinese society, based global and local threat development. We also introduce how to build a data base of different elements based on the level of crime at present China. (author)
Whittington, Jesse; Sawaya, Michael A
Capture-recapture studies are frequently used to monitor the status and trends of wildlife populations. Detection histories from individual animals are used to estimate probability of detection and abundance or density. The accuracy of abundance and density estimates depends on the ability to model factors affecting detection probability. Non-spatial capture-recapture models have recently evolved into spatial capture-recapture models that directly include the effect of distances between an animal's home range centre and trap locations on detection probability. Most studies comparing non-spatial and spatial capture-recapture biases focussed on single year models and no studies have compared the accuracy of demographic parameter estimates from open population models. We applied open population non-spatial and spatial capture-recapture models to three years of grizzly bear DNA-based data from Banff National Park and simulated data sets. The two models produced similar estimates of grizzly bear apparent survival, per capita recruitment, and population growth rates but the spatial capture-recapture models had better fit. Simulations showed that spatial capture-recapture models produced more accurate parameter estimates with better credible interval coverage than non-spatial capture-recapture models. Non-spatial capture-recapture models produced negatively biased estimates of apparent survival and positively biased estimates of per capita recruitment. The spatial capture-recapture grizzly bear population growth rates and 95% highest posterior density averaged across the three years were 0.925 (0.786-1.071) for females, 0.844 (0.703-0.975) for males, and 0.882 (0.779-0.981) for females and males combined. The non-spatial capture-recapture population growth rates were 0.894 (0.758-1.024) for females, 0.825 (0.700-0.948) for males, and 0.863 (0.771-0.957) for both sexes. The combination of low densities, low reproductive rates, and predominantly negative population growth
Full Text Available Capture-recapture studies are frequently used to monitor the status and trends of wildlife populations. Detection histories from individual animals are used to estimate probability of detection and abundance or density. The accuracy of abundance and density estimates depends on the ability to model factors affecting detection probability. Non-spatial capture-recapture models have recently evolved into spatial capture-recapture models that directly include the effect of distances between an animal's home range centre and trap locations on detection probability. Most studies comparing non-spatial and spatial capture-recapture biases focussed on single year models and no studies have compared the accuracy of demographic parameter estimates from open population models. We applied open population non-spatial and spatial capture-recapture models to three years of grizzly bear DNA-based data from Banff National Park and simulated data sets. The two models produced similar estimates of grizzly bear apparent survival, per capita recruitment, and population growth rates but the spatial capture-recapture models had better fit. Simulations showed that spatial capture-recapture models produced more accurate parameter estimates with better credible interval coverage than non-spatial capture-recapture models. Non-spatial capture-recapture models produced negatively biased estimates of apparent survival and positively biased estimates of per capita recruitment. The spatial capture-recapture grizzly bear population growth rates and 95% highest posterior density averaged across the three years were 0.925 (0.786-1.071 for females, 0.844 (0.703-0.975 for males, and 0.882 (0.779-0.981 for females and males combined. The non-spatial capture-recapture population growth rates were 0.894 (0.758-1.024 for females, 0.825 (0.700-0.948 for males, and 0.863 (0.771-0.957 for both sexes. The combination of low densities, low reproductive rates, and predominantly negative
Stanley, T.R.; Burnham, K.P.
The assumption of demographic closure in the analysis of capture-recapture data under closed-population models is of fundamental importance. Yet, little progress has been made in the development of omnibus tests of the closure assumption. We present a closure test for time-specific data that, in principle, tests the null hypothesis of closed-population model M(t) against the open-population Jolly-Seber model as a specific alternative. This test is chi-square, and can be decomposed into informative components that can be interpreted to determine the nature of closure violations. The test is most sensitive to permanent emigration and least sensitive to temporary emigration, and is of intermediate sensitivity to permanent or temporary immigration. This test is a versatile tool for testing the assumption of demographic closure in the analysis of capture-recapture data.
Carroll, E. L.; Childerhouse, S. J.; Fewster, R. M.
Superpopulation capture-recapture models are useful for estimating the abundance of long-lived, migratory species because they are able to account for the fluid nature of annual residency at migratory destinations. Here we extend the superpopulation POPAN model to explicitly account...... 700 whales, sampled during two sets of winter expeditions in 1995-1998 and 2006-2009. Due to differences in recapture rates between sexes, only sex-specific models were considered. The POPAN-tau models, which explicitly account for a decrease in capture probability in non-calving years, fit the female...... estimate of 1007 males (95% CL 794, 1276) and an estimated annual increase of 7% (95% CL 5%, 9%) for 1995-2009. Combined, the total superpopulation estimate for 1995-2009 was 2169 whales (95% CL 1836, 2563). Simulations suggest that failure to account for the effect of reproductive status on the capture...
Link, W.A.; Barker, R.J.
The development of sophisticated mark-recapture models over the last four decades has provided fundamental tools for the study of wildlife populations, allowing reliable inference about population sizes and demographic rates based on clearly formulated models for the sampling processes. Mark-recapture models are now routinely described by large numbers of parameters. These large models provide the next challenge to wildlife modelers: the extraction of signal from noise in large collections of parameters. Pattern among parameters can be described by strong, deterministic relations (as in ultrastructural models) but is more flexibly and credibly modeled using weaker, stochastic relations. Trend in survival rates is not likely to be manifest by a sequence of values falling precisely on a given parametric curve; rather, if we could somehow know the true values, we might anticipate a regression relation between parameters and explanatory variables, in which true value equals signal plus noise. Hierarchical models provide a useful framework for inference about collections of related parameters. Instead of regarding parameters as fixed but unknown quantities, we regard them as realizations of stochastic processes governed by hyperparameters. Inference about demographic processes is based on investigation of these hyperparameters. We advocate the Bayesian paradigm as a natural, mathematically and scientifically sound basis for inference about hierarchical models. We describe analysis of capture-recapture data from an open population based on hierarchical extensions of the Cormack-Jolly-Seber model. In addition to recaptures of marked animals, we model first captures of animals and losses on capture, and are thus able to estimate survival probabilities w (i.e., the complement of death or permanent emigration) and per capita growth rates f (i.e., the sum of recruitment and immigration rates). Covariation in these rates, a feature of demographic interest, is explicitly
Laycock, Silas G. T.
In time domain astronomy, recurrent transients present a special problem: how to infer total populations from limited observations. Monitoring observations may give a biassed view of the underlying population due to limitations on observing time, visibility and instrumental sensitivity. A similar problem exists in the life sciences, where animal populations (such as migratory birds) or disease prevalence, must be estimated from sparse and incomplete data. The class of methods termed Capture-Recapture is used to reconstruct population estimates from time-series records of encounters with the study population. This paper investigates the performance of Capture-Recapture methods in astronomy via a series of numerical simulations. The Blackbirds code simulates monitoring of populations of transients, in this case accreting binary stars (neutron star or black hole accreting from a stellar companion) under a range of observing strategies. We first generate realistic light-curves for populations of binaries with contrasting orbital period distributions. These models are then randomly sampled at observing cadences typical of existing and planned monitoring surveys. The classical capture-recapture methods, Lincoln-Peterson, Schnabel estimators, related techniques, and newer methods implemented in the Rcapture package are compared. A general exponential model based on the radioactive decay law is introduced which is demonstrated to recover (at 95% confidence) the underlying population abundance and duty cycle, in a fraction of the observing visits (10-50%) required to discover all the sources in the simulation. Capture-Recapture is a promising addition to the toolbox of time domain astronomy, and methods implemented in R by the biostats community can be readily called from within python.
Fusaro, Jonathan L.; Conner, Mary M.; Conover, Michael R.; Taylor, Timothy J.; Kenyon, Marc W., Jr.; Sherman, Jamie R.; Ernest, Holly B.
California’s black bear (Ursus americanus) population has tripled over the last 3 decades, causing an increased incidence of human–bear conflicts, many of which now occur in urban areas. Consequently, it is imperative that bear managers have the ability to monitor population parameters in both wildland and urban environments to help manage bears. Capture-mark-recapture (CMR) methods using uniquely typed genetic samples (DNA) collected via hair-snares have been widely used to monitor bears in ...
Ring, Howard; Howlett, James; Pennington, Mark; Smith, Christopher; Redley, Marcus; Murphy, Caroline; Hook, Roxanne; Platt, Adam; Gilbert, Nakita; Jones, Elizabeth; Kelly, Joanna; Pullen, Angela; Mander, Adrian; Donaldson, Cam; Rowe, Simon; Wason, James; Irvine, Fiona
People with an intellectual (learning) disability (ID) and epilepsy have an increased seizure frequency, higher frequencies of multiple antiepileptic drug (AED) use and side effects, higher treatment costs, higher mortality rates and more behavioural problems than the rest of the population with epilepsy. The introduction of nurse-led care may lead to improvements in outcome for those with an ID and epilepsy; however, this has not been tested in a definitive clinical trial. To determine whether or not ID nurses, using a competency framework developed to optimise nurse management of epilepsy in people with an ID, can cost-effectively improve clinical and quality-of-life outcomes in the management of epilepsy compared with treatment as usual. Cluster-randomised two-arm trial. Community-based secondary care delivered by members of community ID teams. Participants were adults aged 18-65 years with an ID and epilepsy under the care of a community ID team and had had at least one seizure in the 6 months before the trial. The experimental intervention was the Learning Disability Epilepsy Specialist Nurse Competency Framework. This provides guidelines describing a structure and goals to support the delivery of epilepsy care and management by ID-trained nurses. The primary outcome was the seizure severity scale from the Epilepsy and Learning Disabilities Quality of Life questionnaire. Measures of mood, behaviour, AED side effects and carer strain were also collected. A cost-utility analysis was undertaken along with a qualitative examination of carers' views of participants' epilepsy management. In total, 312 individuals were recruited into the study from 17 research clusters. Using an intention-to-treat analysis controlling for baseline individual-level and cluster-level variables there was no significant difference in seizure severity score between the two arms. Altogether, 238 complete cases were included in the non-imputed primary analysis. Analyses of the secondary
Fuller, Angela K; Sutherland, Chris S; Royle, J Andrew; Hare, Matthew P
Estimating the abundance or density of populations is fundamental to the conservation and management of species, and as landscapes become more fragmented, maintaining landscape connectivity has become one of the most important challenges for biodiversity conservation. Yet these two issues have never been formally integrated together in a model that simultaneously models abundance while accounting for connectivity of a landscape. We demonstrate an application of using capture-recapture to develop a model of animal density using a least-cost path model for individual encounter probability that accounts for non-Euclidean connectivity in a highly structured network. We utilized scat detection dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) as a means of collecting non-invasive genetic samples of American mink (Neovison vison) individuals and used spatial capture-recapture models (SCR) to gain inferences about mink population density and connectivity. Density of mink was not constant across the landscape, but rather increased with increasing distance from city, town, or village centers, and mink activity was associated with water. The SCR model allowed us to estimate the density and spatial distribution of individuals across a 388 km² area. The model was used to investigate patterns of space usage and to evaluate covariate effects on encounter probabilities, including differences between sexes. This study provides an application of capture-recapture models based on ecological distance, allowing us to directly estimate landscape connectivity. This approach should be widely applicable to provide simultaneous direct estimates of density, space usage, and landscape connectivity for many species.
Fuller, Angela K.; Sutherland, Christopher S.; Royle, Andy; Hare, Matthew P.
Estimating the abundance or density of populations is fundamental to the conservation and management of species, and as landscapes become more fragmented, maintaining landscape connectivity has become one of the most important challenges for biodiversity conservation. Yet these two issues have never been formally integrated together in a model that simultaneously models abundance while accounting for connectivity of a landscape. We demonstrate an application of using capture–recapture to develop a model of animal density using a least-cost path model for individual encounter probability that accounts for non-Euclidean connectivity in a highly structured network. We utilized scat detection dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) as a means of collecting non-invasive genetic samples of American mink (Neovison vison) individuals and used spatial capture–recapture models (SCR) to gain inferences about mink population density and connectivity. Density of mink was not constant across the landscape, but rather increased with increasing distance from city, town, or village centers, and mink activity was associated with water. The SCR model allowed us to estimate the density and spatial distribution of individuals across a 388 km2 area. The model was used to investigate patterns of space usage and to evaluate covariate effects on encounter probabilities, including differences between sexes. This study provides an application of capture–recapture models based on ecological distance, allowing us to directly estimate landscape connectivity. This approach should be widely applicable to provide simultaneous direct estimates of density, space usage, and landscape connectivity for many species.
Link, W.A.; Yoshizaki, J.; Bailey, L.L.; Pollock, K.H.
Natural tags based on DNA fingerprints or natural features of animals are now becoming very widely used in wildlife population biology. However, classic capture-recapture models do not allow for misidentification of animals which is a potentially very serious problem with natural tags. Statistical analysis of misidentification processes is extremely difficult using traditional likelihood methods but is easily handled using Bayesian methods. We present a general framework for Bayesian analysis of categorical data arising from a latent multinomial distribution. Although our work is motivated by a specific model for misidentification in closed population capture-recapture analyses, with crucial assumptions which may not always be appropriate, the methods we develop extend naturally to a variety of other models with similar structure. Suppose that observed frequencies f are a known linear transformation f = A???x of a latent multinomial variable x with cell probability vector ?? = ??(??). Given that full conditional distributions [?? | x] can be sampled, implementation of Gibbs sampling requires only that we can sample from the full conditional distribution [x | f, ??], which is made possible by knowledge of the null space of A???. We illustrate the approach using two data sets with individual misidentification, one simulated, the other summarizing recapture data for salamanders based on natural marks. ?? 2009, The International Biometric Society.
Grace C. Huerta
Full Text Available The world has been challenged by the AIDS epidemic for 15 years. In 1985, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control, allocated funds to all state departments of education to assist schools in the development of AIDS education policies and programs. Yet, these policies do not ensure that all students receive effective AIDS education. On September 21, 1991, the Arizona Legislature passed Senate Bill 1396, which requires public schools to annually provide AIDS education in grades K-12. The bill was rescinded in 1995. With prohibitive curriculum guidelines, limited teacher training opportunities and tremendous instructional demands, this educational policy was implemented in disparate forms. By examining the perspectives of the Arizona educators (representing three school districts, this qualitative study reveals how teachers ultimately controlled the delivery and nature of AIDS instruction based upon personal values, views of teacher roles, and their interpretation of the mandate itself.
Educational aids include printed matter, aural media, visual media, audiovisual media and objects. A distinction is made between learning aids, which include blackboards, overhead projectors, flipcharts, wallcharts and pinboards, and learning aids, which include textbooks, worksheets, documentation and experimental equipment. The various aids are described and their use explained. The aids available at the School for Nuclear Technology of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre are described
Ijsselmuiden, C; Evian, C; Matjilla, J; Steinberg, M; Schneider, H
The National AIDS Convention in South Africa (NACOSA) in October 1992 was the first real attempt to address HIV/AIDS. In Soweto, government, the African National Congress, nongovernmental organizations, and organized industry and labor representatives worked for 2 days to develop a national plan of action, but it did not result in a united effort to fight AIDS. The highest HIV infection rates in South Africa are among the KwaZulu in Natal, yet the Inkatha Freedom Party did not attend NACOSA. This episode exemplifies the key obstacles for South Africa to prevent and control AIDS. Inequality of access to health care may explain why health workers did not diagnose the first AIDS case in blacks until 1985. Migrant labor, Bantu education, and uprooted communities affect the epidemiology of HIV infection. Further, political and social polarization between blacks and whites contributes to a mindset that AIDS is limited to the other race which only diminishes the personal and collective sense of susceptibility and the volition and aptitude to act. The Department of National Health and Population Development's voluntary register of anonymously reported cases of AIDS specifies 1517 cumulative AIDS cases (October 1992), but this number is low. Seroprevalence studies show between 400,000-450,000 HIV positive cases. Public hospitals cannot give AIDS patients AZT and DDI. Few communities provided community-based care. Not all hospitals honor confidentiality and patients' need for autonomy. Even though HIV testing is not mandatory, it is required sometimes, e.g., HIV testing of immigrants. AIDS Training, Information and Counselling Centers are in urban areas, but not in poor areas where the need is most acute. The government just recently developed in AIDS education package for schools, but too many people consider it improper, so it is not being used. The poor quality education provided blacks would make it useless anyhow. Lifting of the academic boycott will allow South African
Suzuki, Kenji; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Naeppi, Janne; Dachman, Abraham H.
One of the limitations of the current computer-aided detection (CAD) of polyps in CT colonography (CTC) is a relatively large number of false-positive (FP) detections. Rectal tubes (RTs) are one of the typical sources of FPs because a portion of a RT, especially a portion of a bulbous tip, often exhibits a cap-like shape that closely mimics the appearance of a small polyp. Radiologists can easily recognize and dismiss RT-induced FPs; thus, they may lose their confidence in CAD as an effective tool if the CAD scheme generates such ''obvious'' FPs due to RTs consistently. In addition, RT-induced FPs may distract radiologists from less common true positives in the rectum. Therefore, removal RT-induced FPs as well as other types of FPs is desirable while maintaining a high sensitivity in the detection of polyps. We developed a three-dimensional (3D) massive-training artificial neural network (MTANN) for distinction between polyps and RTs in 3D CTC volumetric data. The 3D MTANN is a supervised volume-processing technique which is trained with input CTC volumes and the corresponding ''teaching'' volumes. The teaching volume for a polyp contains a 3D Gaussian distribution, and that for a RT contains zeros for enhancement of polyps and suppression of RTs, respectively. For distinction between polyps and nonpolyps including RTs, a 3D scoring method based on a 3D Gaussian weighting function is applied to the output of the trained 3D MTANN. Our database consisted of CTC examinations of 73 patients, scanned in both supine and prone positions (146 CTC data sets in total), with optical colonoscopy as a reference standard for the presence of polyps. Fifteen patients had 28 polyps, 15 of which were 5-9 mm and 13 were 10-25 mm in size. These CTC cases were subjected to our previously reported CAD scheme that included centerline-based segmentation of the colon, shape-based detection of polyps, and reduction of FPs by use of a Bayesian neural network based on geometric and texture
Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn
of the main relationships; (ii) estimating the impact of aid on a range of final and intermediate outcomes; and (iii) quantifying a simplied representation of the full structural form, where aid impacts on growth through key intermediate outcomes. A coherent picture emerges: aid stimulates growth and reduces......Controversy over the aggregate impact of foreign aid has focused on reduced form estimates of the aid-growth link. The causal chain, through which aid affects developmental outcomes including growth, has received much less attention. We address this gap by: (i) specifying a structural model...... poverty through physical capital investment and improvements in health....
concrete, in its plastic condition, may be poured into forms and then allowed to harden. b. Prefabricated and "Tilt-UD" Advances in techology...poured in place but interior walls may be prefabricated . PRINCIPLES: MASS CONSTRUCTION Methods a. Walls built in place b. Pre-fab, and " tilt-up...buildings are replacements for older structures and thus have only the front wall exposed; the side walls being abutted to adjoining buildings. This
AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medicine can suppress symptoms. ...
Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles and instituti......Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles...... and institutions of the aid system; and (c) discusses whether aid has been effective. While much of the original optimism about the impact of foreign aid needed modification, there is solid evidence that aid has indeed helped further growth and poverty reduction...
... learn CPR properly, take an accredited first-aid training course, including CPR and how to use an automated external defibrillator ( ... and Research. © 1998-2018 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER). All rights reserved.
Sansom-Daly Ursula M
Full Text Available Abstract Background A cancer diagnosis is 2.9 times more likely to occur during the adolescent and young adult years than in younger children. This spike in incidence coincides with a life stage characterised by psychological vulnerability as young people strive to attain numerous, critical developmental milestones. The distress young people experience after cancer treatment seriously jeopardises their ability to move into well-functioning adulthood. Methods/Design This article presents the protocol of the Recapture Life study, a phase II three-arm randomised controlled trial designed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of a new intervention in reducing distress and improving quality of life for adolescent and young adult cancer survivors. The novel intervention, “ReCaPTure LiFe” will be compared to a both a wait-list, and a peer-support group control. Ninety young people aged 15–25 years who have completed cancer treatment in the past 1–6 months will be recruited from hospitals around Australia. Those randomised to receive Recapture Life will participate in six, weekly, 90-minute online group sessions led by a psychologist, involving peer-discussion around cognitive-behavioural coping skills (including: behavioural activation, thought challenging, communication and assertiveness skills training, problem-solving and goal-setting. Participants randomised to the peer-support group control will receive non-directive peer support delivered in an identical manner. Participants will complete psychosocial measures at baseline, post-intervention, and 12-months post-intervention. The primary outcome will be quality of life. Secondary outcomes will include depression, anxiety, stress, family functioning, coping, and cancer-related identity. Discussion This article reviews the empirical rationale for using group-based, online cognitive-behavioural therapy in young people after cancer treatment. The potential challenges of delivering skills
Harris, Jason T; Miller, David W; Foster, Doug W
This paper describes the initiatives taken by Cook Nuclear Plant to study the on-site behavior of recaptured tritium released in its airborne effluents. Recapture is the process where a released radioactive effluent, in this case tritium, is brought back on-site through some mechanism. Precipitation, shifts in wind direction, or anthropogenic structures that restrict or alter effluent movement can all lead to recapture. The investigation was started after tritium was detected in the north storm drain outfall. Recent inadvertent tritium releases by several other nuclear power plants, many of which entered the groundwater, have led to increased surveillance and scrutiny by regulatory authorities and the general public. To determine the source of tritium in the outfall, an on-site surface water, well water, rainwater and air-conditioning condensate monitoring program was begun. Washout coefficients were also determined to compare with results reported by other nuclear power plants. Program monitoring revealed detectable tritium concentrations in several precipitation sample locations downwind of the two monitored containment building release vents. Tritium was found in higher concentrations in air-conditioning condensate, with a mean value of 528 Bq L(-1) (14,300 pCi L(-1)). The condensate, and to a lesser extent rainwater, were contributing to the tritium found in the north storm drain outfall. Maximum concentration values for each sample type were used to estimate the most conservative dose. A maximum dose of 1.1 x 10(-10) mSv (1.1 x 10(-8) mrem) total body was calculated to determine the health impact of the tritium detected.
Powell, L.A.; Conroy, M.J.; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.; Krementz, D.G.
Biologists often estimate separate survival and movement rates from radio-telemetry and mark-recapture data from the same study population. We describe a method for combining these data types in a single model to obtain joint, potentially less biased estimates of survival and movement that use all available data. We furnish an example using wood thrushes (Hylocichla mustelina) captured at the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge in central Georgia in 1996. The model structure allows estimation of survival and capture probabilities, as well as estimation of movements away from and into the study area. In addition, the model structure provides many possibilities for hypothesis testing. Using the combined model structure, we estimated that wood thrush weekly survival was 0.989 ? 0.007 ( ?SE). Survival rates of banded and radio-marked individuals were not different (alpha hat [S_radioed, ~ S_banded]=log [S hat _radioed/ S hat _banded]=0.0239 ? 0.0435). Fidelity rates (weekly probability of remaining in a stratum) did not differ between geographic strata (psi hat=0.911 ? 0.020; alpha hat [psi11, psi22]=0.0161 ? 0.047), and recapture rates ( = 0.097 ? 0.016) banded and radio-marked individuals were not different (alpha hat [p_radioed, p_banded]=0.145 ? 0.655). Combining these data types in a common model resulted in more precise estimates of movement and recapture rates than separate estimation, but ability to detect stratum or mark-specific differences in parameters was week. We conducted simulation trials to investigate the effects of varying study designs on parameter accuracy and statistical power to detect important differences. Parameter accuracy was high (relative bias [RBIAS] inference from this model, study designs should seek a minimum of 25 animals of each marking type observed (marked or observed via telemetry) in each time period and geographic stratum.
Kendall, W.L.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.
Statistical inference for capture-recapture studies of open animal populations typically relies on the assumption that all emigration from the studied population is permanent. However, there are many instances in which this assumption is unlikely to be met. We define two general models for the process of temporary emigration, completely random and Markovian. We then consider effects of these two types of temporary emigration on Jolly-Seber (Seber 1982) estimators and on estimators arising from the full-likelihood approach of Kendall et al. (1995) to robust design data. Capture-recapture data arising from Pollock's (1982) robust design provide the basis for obtaining unbiased estimates of demographic parameters in the presence of temporary emigration and for estimating the probability of temporary emigration. We present a likelihood-based approach to dealing with temporary emigration that permits estimation under different models of temporary emigration and yields tests for completely random and Markovian emigration. In addition, we use the relationship between capture probability estimates based on closed and open models under completely random temporary emigration to derive three ad hoc estimators for the probability of temporary emigration, two of which should be especially useful in situations where capture probabilities are heterogeneous among individual animals. Ad hoc and full-likelihood estimators are illustrated for small mammal capture-recapture data sets. We believe that these models and estimators will be useful for testing hypotheses about the process of temporary emigration, for estimating demographic parameters in the presence of temporary emigration, and for estimating probabilities of temporary emigration. These latter estimates are frequently of ecological interest as indicators of animal movement and, in some sampling situations, as direct estimates of breeding probabilities and proportions.
Bronner, Anne-Christine; Hénaux, Viviane; Vergne, Timothée; Vinard, Jean-Luc; Morignat, Eric; Hendrikx, Pascal; Calavas, Didier; Gay, Emilie
The mandatory bovine abortion notification system in France aims to detect as soon as possible any resurgence of bovine brucellosis. However, under-reporting seems to be a major limitation of this system. We used a unilist capture-recapture approach to assess the sensitivity, i.e. the proportion of farmers who reported at least one abortion among those who detected such events, and representativeness of the system during 2006-2011. We implemented a zero-inflated Poisson model to estimate the ...
Witek-McManus, Stefan; Mathanga, Don P; Verney, Allison; Mtali, Austin; Ali, Doreen; Sande, John; Mwenda, Reuben; Ndau, Saidi; Mazinga, Charles; Phondiwa, Emmanuel; Chimuna, Tiyese; Melody, David; Roschnik, Natalie; Brooker, Simon J; Halliday, Katherine E
With increasing levels of enrolment, primary schools present a pragmatic opportunity to improve the access of school children to timely diagnosis and treatment of malaria, increasingly recognised as a major health problem within this age group. The expanded use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) by community health workers (CHWs) has raised the prospect of whether teachers can provide similar services for school children. We describe and evaluate the training of primary school teachers to use a first aid kit containing malaria RDTs and ACT for the diagnosis and treament of uncomplicated malaria in school children in southern Malawi. We outline the development of the intervention as: (1) conception and design, (2) pilot training, (3) final training, and (4) 7-month follow up. The training materials were piloted at a four-day workshop in July 2013 following their design at national stakeholders meetings. The evaluation of the pilot training and materials were assessed in relation to increased knowledge and skill sets using checklist evaluations and questionnaires, the results of which informed the design of a final seven-day training programme held in December 2013. A follow up of trained teachers was carried out in July 2014 following 7 months of routine implementation. A total of 15 teachers were evaluated at four stages: pilot training, two weeks following pilot, final training and seven months following final training. A total of 15 and 92 teachers were trained at the pilot and final training respectively. An average of 93 % of the total steps required to use RDTs were completed correctly at the final training, declining to 87 % after 7 months. All teachers were observed correctly undertaking safe blood collection and handling, accurate RDT interpretation, and correct dispensing of ACT. The most commonly observed errors were a failure to wait 20 minutes before reading the test result, and adding an incorrect volume
Boulanger, John; Nielsen, Scott E; Stenhouse, Gordon B
One of the challenges in conservation is determining patterns and responses in population density and distribution as it relates to habitat and changes in anthropogenic activities. We applied spatially explicit capture recapture (SECR) methods, combined with density surface modelling from five grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) management areas (BMAs) in Alberta, Canada, to assess SECR methods and to explore factors influencing bear distribution. Here we used models of grizzly bear habitat and mortality risk to test local density associations using density surface modelling. Results demonstrated BMA-specific factors influenced density, as well as the effects of habitat and topography on detections and movements of bears. Estimates from SECR were similar to those from closed population models and telemetry data, but with similar or higher levels of precision. Habitat was most associated with areas of higher bear density in the north, whereas mortality risk was most associated (negatively) with density of bears in the south. Comparisons of the distribution of mortality risk and habitat revealed differences by BMA that in turn influenced local abundance of bears. Combining SECR methods with density surface modelling increases the resolution of mark-recapture methods by directly inferring the effect of spatial factors on regulating local densities of animals.
Yoshizaki, J.; Pollock, K.H.; Brownie, C.; Webster, R.A.
Misidentification of animals is potentially important when naturally existing features (natural tags) are used to identify individual animals in a capture-recapture study. Photographic identification (photoID) typically uses photographic images of animals' naturally existing features as tags (photographic tags) and is subject to two main causes of identification errors: those related to quality of photographs (non-evolving natural tags) and those related to changes in natural marks (evolving natural tags). The conventional methods for analysis of capture-recapture data do not account for identification errors, and to do so requires a detailed understanding of the misidentification mechanism. Focusing on the situation where errors are due to evolving natural tags, we propose a misidentification mechanism and outline a framework for modeling the effect of misidentification in closed population studies. We introduce methods for estimating population size based on this model. Using a simulation study, we show that conventional estimators can seriously overestimate population size when errors due to misidentification are ignored, and that, in comparison, our new estimators have better properties except in cases with low capture probabilities (<0.2) or low misidentification rates (<2.5%). ?? 2009 by the Ecological Society of America.
Sutherland, Chris; Munoz, David; Miller, David A.W.; Grant, Evan H. Campbell
Spatial capture–recapture (SCR) is a relatively recent development in ecological statistics that provides a spatial context for estimating abundance and space use patterns, and improves inference about absolute population density. SCR has been applied to individual encounter data collected noninvasively using methods such as camera traps, hair snares, and scat surveys. Despite the widespread use of capture-based surveys to monitor amphibians and reptiles, there are few applications of SCR in the herpetological literature. We demonstrate the utility of the application of SCR for studies of reptiles and amphibians by analyzing capture–recapture data from Red-Backed Salamanders, Plethodon cinereus, collected using artificial cover boards. Using SCR to analyze spatial encounter histories of marked individuals, we found evidence that density differed little among four sites within the same forest (on average, 1.59 salamanders/m2) and that salamander detection probability peaked in early October (Julian day 278) reflecting expected surface activity patterns of the species. The spatial scale of detectability, a measure of space use, indicates that the home range size for this population of Red-Backed Salamanders in autumn was 16.89 m2. Surveying reptiles and amphibians using artificial cover boards regularly generates spatial encounter history data of known individuals, which can readily be analyzed using SCR methods, providing estimates of absolute density and inference about the spatial scale of habitat use.
Brown, C. R.
Full Text Available Mark–recapture and the statistical analysis methods associated with it offer great potential for investigating fitness components associated with particular behavioral traits. However, few behavioral ecologists have used these techniques. We illustrate the insights that have come from a long–term mark–recapture study of social behavior in Cliff Swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota. The number of transient swallows passing through a colony per hour increased with colony size and was responsible in part for increased rates of ectoparasite introduction from outside the group into the larger colonies. Annual survival probabilities of males engaging in extra–pair copulation attempts were lower than those of males not seen to commit extra–pair copulations, suggesting that males who engage in this behavior may be inferior individuals and that females do not benefit from copulating with them. Females engaging in intraspecific brood parasitism had higher annual survival probabilities than ones either parasitized by others or not known to be either hosts or parasites. This suggests that parasitic females are high–quality birds and that brood parasitism is an effective reproductive tactic for increasing their fitness. By estimating first–year survival of chicks, we found that a clutch size of 4 eggs is often the most productive, on average, as measured by recruitment of offspring as breeders, although birds laying the more uncommon clutch size of 5 fledge more young on average. This helps to explain the observed clutch–size distribution in which clutch size 4 is the most commonly produced.
Goode, Matthew J; Beaver, Jared T; Muller, Lisa I; Clark, Joseph D.; van Manen, Frank T.; Harper, Craig T; Basinger, P Seth
Traditional methods for estimating white-tailed deer population size and density are affected by behavioral biases, poor detection in densely forested areas, and invalid techniques for estimating effective trapping area. We evaluated a noninvasive method of capture—recapture for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) density estimation using DNA extracted from fecal pellets as an individual marker and for gender determination, coupled with a spatial detection function to estimate density (spatially explicit capture—recapture, SECR). We collected pellet groups from 11 to 22 January 2010 at randomly selected sites within a 1-km2 area located on Arnold Air Force Base in Coffee and Franklin counties, Tennessee. We searched 703 10-m radius plots and collected 352 pellet-group samples from 197 plots over five two-day sampling intervals. Using only the freshest pellets we recorded 140 captures of 33 different animals (15M:18F). Male and female densities were 1.9 (SE = 0.8) and 3.8 (SE = 1.3) deer km-2, or a total density of 5.8 deer km-2 (14.9 deer mile-2). Population size was 20.8 (SE = 7.6) over a 360-ha area, and sex ratio was 1.0 M: 2.0 F (SE = 0.71). We found DNA sampling from pellet groups improved deer abundance, density and sex ratio estimates in contiguous landscapes which could be used to track responses to harvest or other management actions.
Kendall, W.L.; Conn, P.B.; Hines, J.E.
Matrix population models that allow an animal to occupy more than one state over time are important tools for population and evolutionary ecologists. Definition of state can vary, including location for metapopulation models and breeding state for life history models. For populations whose members can be marked and subsequently re-encountered, multistate mark-recapture models are available to estimate the survival and transition probabilities needed to construct population models. Multistate models have proved extremely useful in this context, but they often require a substantial amount of data and restrict estimation of transition probabilities to those areas or states subjected to formal sampling effort. At the same time, for many species, there are considerable tag recovery data provided by the public that could be modeled in order to increase precision and to extend inference to a greater number of areas or states. Here we present a statistical model for combining multistate capture-recapture data (e.g., from a breeding ground study) with multistate tag recovery data (e.g., from wintering grounds). We use this method to analyze data from a study of Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) in the Atlantic Flyway of North America. Our analysis produced marginal improvement in precision, due to relatively few recoveries, but we demonstrate how precision could be further improved with increases in the probability that a retrieved tag is reported.
Alexandre C. Siqueira
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Estimating population parameters is essential for understanding the ecology of species, which ultimately helps to assess their conservation status. The seahorse Hippocampus reidi is directly exposed to anthropogenic threats along the Brazilian coast, but the species still figures as Data Deficient (DD at IUCN’s Red List. To provide better information on the ecology of this species, we studied how population parameters vary over time in a natural subtropical environment. By combing mark-recapture models for open and closed populations, we estimated abundance, survival rate, emigration probability, and capture probability. We marked 111 individuals, which showed a 1:1 sex ratio, and an average size of 10.5 cm. The population showed high survival rate, low temporary emigration probability and variable capture probability and abundance. Our models considering relevant biological criteria illuminate the relatively poorly known population ecology and life history of seahorses. It is our hope that this study inspires the use of mark-recapture methods in other populations of H. reidi in a collective effort to properly assess their conservation status.
Muñoz, David J.; Miller, David A.W.; Sutherland, Chris; Grant, Evan H. Campbell
The cryptic behavior and ecology of herpetofauna make estimating the impacts of environmental change on demography difficult; yet, the ability to measure demographic relationships is essential for elucidating mechanisms leading to the population declines reported for herpetofauna worldwide. Recently developed spatial capture–recapture (SCR) methods are well suited to standard herpetofauna monitoring approaches. Individually identifying animals and their locations allows accurate estimates of population densities and survival. Spatial capture–recapture methods also allow estimation of parameters describing space-use and movement, which generally are expensive or difficult to obtain using other methods. In this paper, we discuss the basic components of SCR models, the available software for conducting analyses, and the experimental designs based on common herpetological survey methods. We then apply SCR models to Red-backed Salamander (Plethodon cinereus), to determine differences in density, survival, dispersal, and space-use between adult male and female salamanders. By highlighting the capabilities of SCR, and its advantages compared to traditional methods, we hope to give herpetologists the resource they need to apply SCR in their own systems.
... the benefit of the section 179A deduction allowable multiplied by the recapture percentage. The... property. The recapture amount is equal to the benefit of the section 179A deduction allowable multiplied... allowance for depreciation, this increase in basis is recoverable over its remaining recovery period...
Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano
A critical account of the rise of celebrity-driven “compassionate consumption” Cofounded by the rock star Bono in 2006, Product RED exemplifies a new trend in celebrity-driven international aid and development, one explicitly linked to commerce, not philanthropy. Brand Aid offers a deeply informed...
Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles...
Full Text Available Spatial capture-recapture modelling (SCR is a powerful analytical tool to estimate density and derive information on space use and behaviour of elusive animals. Yet, SCR has been seldom applied to the study of ecologically keystone small mammals. Here we highlight its potential and requirements with a case study on common voles (Microtus arvalis. First, we address mortality associated with live-trapping, which can be high in small mammals, and must be kept minimal. We designed and tested a nest box coupled with a classic Sherman trap and show that it allows a 5-fold reduction of mortality in traps. Second, we address the need to adjust the trapping grid to the individual home range to maximize spatial recaptures. In May-June 2016, we captured and tagged with transponders 227 voles in a 1.2-ha area during two monthly sessions. Using a Bayesian SCR with a multinomial approach, we estimated: (1 the baseline detection rate and investigated variation according to sex, time or behaviour (aversion/attraction after a previous capture; (2 the parameter sigma that describes how detection probability declines as a function of the distance to an individual´s activity centre, and investigated variation according to sex; and (3 density and population sex-ratio. We show that reducing the maximum distance between traps from 12 to 9.6m doubled spatial recaptures and improved model predictions. Baseline detection rate increased over time (after overcoming a likely aversion to entering new odourless traps and was greater for females than males in June. The sigma parameter of males was twice that of females, indicating larger home ranges. Density estimates were of 142.92±38.50 and 168.25±15.79 voles/ha in May and June, respectively, with 2-3 times more females than males. We highlight the potential and broad applicability that SCR offers and provide specific recommendations for using it to study small mammals like voles.
... qualified electric vehicle. A qualified electric vehicle is a motor vehicle that meets the requirements of section 30(c). Accordingly, a qualified electric vehicle does not include any motor vehicle that has ever been used (for either personal or business use) as a non-electric vehicle. (b) Recapture of credit for...
Kirkeby, Carsten; Bødker, Rene; Stockmarr, Anders
Studying the dispersal of small flying insects such as Culicoides constitutes a great challenge due to huge population sizes and lack of a method to efficiently mark and objectively detect many specimens at a time. We here describe a novel mark-release-recapture method for Culicoides in the field...
Amanda E. Rosenberger; Jason B. Dunham
Estimation of fish abundance in streams using the removal model or the LincolnâPeterson markârecapture model is a common practice in fisheries. These models produce misleading results if their assumptions are violated. We evaluated the assumptions of these two models via electrofishing of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in central Idaho streams....
N.A.H. van Hest; C.J.P.A. Hoebe (Christian); J.W. Boer, den; J.K. Vermunt (Jeroen); E.P.F. IJzerman (Ed); W.G. Boersma (Wim); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik)
textabstractTo estimate incidence and completeness of notification of Legionnaires' disease (LD) in The Netherlands in 2000 and 2001, we performed a capture–recapture analysis using three registers: Notifications, Laboratory results and Hospital admissions. After record-linkage, 373 of the 780 LD
Buster, M. C.; van Brussel, G. H.; van den Brink, W.
One of the objectives of Amsterdam's methadone maintenance treatment is maximising its coverage among problematic opiate users. In order to evaluate what proportion is reached, the capture-recapture method is conducted to estimate the prevalence of problematic opiate use. Samples of opiate users in
Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that none of 2 sources of Forensic Medicine Department and Death Registration System, per se or both, fully covered road traffic mortalities and using capture-recapture method can help estimate the actual number of deaths.
A recommended workflow methodology in the creation of an educational and training application incorporating a digital reconstruction of the cerebral ventricular system and cerebrospinal fluid circulation to aid anatomical understanding.
Manson, Amy; Poyade, Matthieu; Rea, Paul
The use of computer-aided learning in education can be advantageous, especially when interactive three-dimensional (3D) models are used to aid learning of complex 3D structures. The anatomy of the ventricular system of the brain is difficult to fully understand as it is seldom seen in 3D, as is the flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This article outlines a workflow for the creation of an interactive training tool for the cerebral ventricular system, an educationally challenging area of anatomy. This outline is based on the use of widely available computer software packages. Using MR images of the cerebral ventricular system and several widely available commercial and free software packages, the techniques of 3D modelling, texturing, sculpting, image editing and animations were combined to create a workflow in the creation of an interactive educational and training tool. This was focussed on cerebral ventricular system anatomy, and the flow of cerebrospinal fluid. We have successfully created a robust methodology by using key software packages in the creation of an interactive education and training tool. This has resulted in an application being developed which details the anatomy of the ventricular system, and flow of cerebrospinal fluid using an anatomically accurate 3D model. In addition to this, our established workflow pattern presented here also shows how tutorials, animations and self-assessment tools can also be embedded into the training application. Through our creation of an established workflow in the generation of educational and training material for demonstrating cerebral ventricular anatomy and flow of cerebrospinal fluid, it has enormous potential to be adopted into student training in this field. With the digital age advancing rapidly, this has the potential to be used as an innovative tool alongside other methodologies for the training of future healthcare practitioners and scientists. This workflow could be used in the creation of other tools
Chang Chinjang; Wang Tunglu; Lin Chihpao
Measurement Uncertainty Recapture PowerUprates (MUR PU) are achieved through the use of state-of-the-art feedwater flow measurement devices, i.e., ultrasonic flow meters (UFMs), that reduce the degree of uncertainty associated with feedwater flow measurement and in turn provide for a more accurate calculation of thermal power. The Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER) teamed with Sargent and Lundy, LLC (S and L), Pacific Engineers and Constructors, Ltd (PECL), and AREVA to develop a program and plan for the Kuosheng Nuclear Power Station (KNPS) MUR PU Engineering Service Project and for the assistance to Kuosheng MUR PU operation. After regulator's approval of the licensing requests, KSNPS conducted the power ascension test and switchover to the new rated thermal power for Unit 2 and Unit 1 on 7/7/2007 and 11/30/2007, respectively. From then on, KNPS became the first nuclear power plant implementing MUR PU operation in Taiwan and in Asia. (author)
"Als iemand in zijn vinger snijdt of z'n hoofd stoot, pak je de EHBO-koffer. Maar wat als je geliefde of iemand anders in je omgeving een paniekaanval krijgt of depressief overkomt?" Dit zijn de eerste zinnen op de Nederlandse website van Mental Health First Aid (MHFA, www.mhfa.nl), oftewel eerste
Werfel, Krystal L.; Douglas, Michael; Ackal, Leigh
This case report details a year-long phonological awareness (PA) intervention for pre-kindergarten children with hearing loss (CHL) who use listening and spoken language. All children wore cochlear implants and/or hearing aids. Intervention occurred for 15 min/day, 4 days per week across the pre-kindergarten school year and was delivered by…
Ellison, Laura E.; Lukacs, Paul M.
Concern for migratory tree-roosting bats in North America has grown because of possible population declines from wind energy development. This concern has driven interest in estimating population-level changes. Mark-recapture methodology is one possible analytical framework for assessing bat population changes, but sample size requirements to produce reliable estimates have not been estimated. To illustrate the sample sizes necessary for a mark-recapture-based monitoring program we conducted power analyses using a statistical model that allows reencounters of live and dead marked individuals. We ran 1,000 simulations for each of five broad sample size categories in a Burnham joint model, and then compared the proportion of simulations in which 95% confidence intervals overlapped between and among years for a 4-year study. Additionally, we conducted sensitivity analyses of sample size to various capture probabilities and recovery probabilities. More than 50,000 individuals per year would need to be captured and released to accurately determine 10% and 15% declines in annual survival. To detect more dramatic declines of 33% or 50% survival over four years, then sample sizes of 25,000 or 10,000 per year, respectively, would be sufficient. Sensitivity analyses reveal that increasing recovery of dead marked individuals may be more valuable than increasing capture probability of marked individuals. Because of the extraordinary effort that would be required, we advise caution should such a mark-recapture effort be initiated because of the difficulty in attaining reliable estimates. We make recommendations for what techniques show the most promise for mark-recapture studies of bats because some techniques violate the assumptions of mark-recapture methodology when used to mark bats.
Sun, Catherine C.; Fuller, Angela K.; Hare, Matthew P.; Hurst, Jeremy E.
The population of American black bears (Ursus americanus) in southern New York, USA has been growing and expanding in range since the 1990s. This has motivated a need to anticipate future patterns of range expansion. We conducted a non-invasive, genetic, spatial capture-recapture (SCR) study to estimate black bear density and identify spatial patterns of population density that are potentially associated with range expansion. We collected hair samples in a 2,519-km2 study area in southern New York with barbed-wire hair snares and identified individuals and measured genetic diversity using 7 microsatellite loci and 1 sex-linked marker. We estimated a mean density of black bears in the region of 13.7 bears/100 km2, and detected a slight latitudinal gradient in density consistent with the documented range expansion. However, elevation and the amounts of forest, crop, and developed landcover types did not influence density, suggesting that bears are using a diversity of resources in this heterogeneous landscape outside their previously described distribution. These results provide the first robust baseline estimates for population density and distribution associated with different landcover types in the expanded bear range. Further, genetic diversity was comparable to that of non-expanding black bear populations in the eastern United States, and in combination with the latitudinal density gradient, suggest that the study area is not at the colonizing front of the range expansion. In addition, the diversity of landcover types used by bears in the study area implies a possible lack of constraints for further northern expansion of the black bear range. Our non-invasive, genetic, spatial capture-recapture approach has utility for studying populations of other species that may be expanding in range because SCR allows for the testing of explicit, spatial ecological hypotheses.
Full Text Available When estimating population density from data collected on non-invasive detector arrays, recently developed spatial capture-recapture (SCR models present an advance over non-spatial models by accounting for individual movement. While these models should be more robust to changes in trapping designs, they have not been well tested. Here we investigate how the spatial arrangement and size of the trapping array influence parameter estimates for SCR models. We analysed black bear data collected with 123 hair snares with an SCR model accounting for differences in detection and movement between sexes and across the trapping occasions. To see how the size of the trap array and trap dispersion influence parameter estimates, we repeated analysis for data from subsets of traps: 50% chosen at random, 50% in the centre of the array and 20% in the South of the array. Additionally, we simulated and analysed data under a suite of trap designs and home range sizes. In the black bear study, we found that results were similar across trap arrays, except when only 20% of the array was used. Black bear density was approximately 10 individuals per 100 km(2. Our simulation study showed that SCR models performed well as long as the extent of the trap array was similar to or larger than the extent of individual movement during the study period, and movement was at least half the distance between traps. SCR models performed well across a range of spatial trap setups and animal movements. Contrary to non-spatial capture-recapture models, they do not require the trapping grid to cover an area several times the average home range of the studied species. This renders SCR models more appropriate for the study of wide-ranging mammals and more flexible to design studies targeting multiple species.
Kery, Marc; Gardner, Beth; Stoeckle, Tabea; Weber, Darius; Royle, J. Andrew
Assessment of abundance, survival, recruitment rates, and density (i.e., population assessment) is especially challenging for elusive species most in need of protection (e.g., rare carnivores). Individual identification methods, such as DNA sampling, provide ways of studying such species efficiently and noninvasively. Additionally, statistical methods that correct for undetected animals and account for locations where animals are captured are available to efficiently estimate density and other demographic parameters. We collected hair samples of European wildcat (Felis silvestris) from cheek-rub lure sticks, extracted DNA from the samples, and identified each animals' genotype. To estimate the density of wildcats, we used Bayesian inference in a spatial capture-recapture model. We used WinBUGS to fit a model that accounted for differences in detection probability among individuals and seasons and between two lure arrays. We detected 21 individual wildcats (including possible hybrids) 47 times. Wildcat density was estimated at 0.29/km2 (SE 0.06), and 95% of the activity of wildcats was estimated to occur within 1.83 km from their home-range center. Lures located systematically were associated with a greater number of detections than lures placed in a cell on the basis of expert opinion. Detection probability of individual cats was greatest in late March. Our model is a generalized linear mixed model; hence, it can be easily extended, for instance, to incorporate trap- and individual-level covariates. We believe that the combined use of noninvasive sampling techniques and spatial capture-recapture models will improve population assessments, especially for rare and elusive animals.
Mathews, T.; Surendran Nair, S.; McManamay, R.
Mercury (Hg) bioaccumulation can be described by models of varying complexity, from the simplified bioconcentration factor which describes the partitioning of contaminants between water and the organism, to more sophisticated models which take into consideration speciation, complexation, and/or bioavailability. At contaminated sites, especially those that are undergoing remediation, it is helpful to have a dynamic framework to identify critical Hg sources and processes, and to predict time scales to recovery. However, understanding the relationship between changes in exposure concentrations and bioaccumulation rates remains a challenge. East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) is a Hg-contaminated stream located in East Tennessee. Over the past 30 years, various remediation actions have succeeded in significantly reducing Hg inputs to this stream. One of the major goals of remediation is to reduce Hg bioaccumulation in resident sunfish in order to meet human health guidelines. Mercury is measured in sunfish fillets bi-annually at various sites along the stream. Because Hg analysis requires only 100 mg of tissue, fish can be sampled non-lethally and released at the site of capture. Since 2008, passive induced transponder (PIT) tags have been used to identify individual fish that are collected from EFPC for Hg analysis. Approximately 10% of PIT tagged fish were recaptured, allowing for the measurement of growth rates and Hg bioaccumulation rates in individual fish. While traditional biomonitoring studies conducted in EFPC have found that the average Hg concentrations in sacrificed fish have not responded to changes in aqueous Hg concentrations over the past 10 years, data from the mark-recapture study show that individual fish may respond to changes in aqueous inorganic Hg concentrations on shorter time scales. Rapid changes in aqueous Hg concentrations over a four year period resulted in measurable increases and decreases in Hg concentrations in individual fish that could not
Despite advances made in recent years in medical first aid, psychiatric intervention, survival training and equipment design, many people still perish quickly during and immediately following a disastrous event. In this study, individuals and groups of survivors of life-threatening events were debriefed and the behavior of those who coped well during such a threat to life were compared with those who did not. The behaviors of those who coped well were distilled into a set of principles for psychological first aid; that is, a series of simple actions for use within a disaster which serves to recover victims to functional behavior as quickly as possible, thus increasing their chance for survival. These principles of psychological first aid have recently been introduced into basic first aid and survival training courses for both military and civilian units.
Fink, R.K.; Callow, R.A.; Larson, T.K.; Ransom, V.H.
An expert system called the ATHENA AIDE that assists in the preparation of input models for the ATHENA thermal-hydraulics code has been developed by researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The ATHENA AIDE uses a menu driven graphics interface and rule-based and object-oriented programming techniques to assist users of the ATHENA code in performing the tasks involved in preparing the card image input files required to run ATHENA calculations. The ATENA AIDE was developed and currently runs on single-user Xerox artificial intelligence workstations. Experience has shown that the intelligent modeling environment provided by the ATHENA AIDE expert system helps ease the modeling task by relieving the analyst of many mundane, repetitive, and error prone procedures involved in the construction of an input model. This reduces errors in the resulting models, helps promote standardized modeling practices, and allows models to be constructed more quickly than was previously possible
... Relations Cyber Infrastructure Computational Biology Equal Employment Opportunity Ethics Global Research Office of Mission Integration and Financial Management Strategic Planning Workforce Effectiveness Workplace Solutions Technology Transfer Intellectual Property Division of AIDS ...
The Sun article, "Employers finding that AIDS in the workplace is a managerial nightmare" (April 3), did not accurately portray the status of AIDS in the workplace. The AIDS virus, HTLV III, is transmitted by body fluids, primarily semen and blood, and there is no known risk of transmitting the virus by casual contact in the workplace. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) released guidelines for child care workers last August. Guidelines on preventing transmission of AIDS in the workplace were issued by CDC in November 1985. These guidelines specifically discussed health care, personal service, and food service workers. The recommendations were against routine screening. Furthermore, employment should not be restricted on the basis of a positive HTLV III antibody test. A person with HTLV III infection should be exempt from the workplace only if there are circumstances interfering with job performance. In Maryland, the Governor's Task Force on AIDS has gone on record as endorsing CDC guidelines related to employment. Furthermore, the task force condemns discrimination based on the disease AIDS, AIDS Related Complex (ARC), or HTLV III infection. Increasingly AIDS patients are being considered legally disabled and therefore are protected by federal and state laws prohibiting discrimination on the basis of a handicap. Marylanders who are subjected to mandatory HTLV III screening in the workplace, or if discriminated against on the basis of HTLV III inefction, should contact the Maryland Commission on Human Relations, the Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, or the Health Education Resource Organization (HERO). All 3 of these resources guarantee confidentiality. It is only by employees reporting incidents that a nightmare in the workplace can be avoided in Maryland. full text
Topham, Charles S.
Describes an 11-week emergency medical care training program for adolescents focusing on: pretest results; factual emergency instruction and first aid; practical experience training; and assessment. (RC)
Background: Globally, there are small proportions of drivers with first aid skills and even those trained do not practice it well. In Africa, the proportions of drivers with first aid skills were found to be much smaller. Evidences show that widespread first-aid training is important for successful pre-hospital care when accident ...
Several evidences were presented during the meeting in London entitled "Origins of AIDS and the HIV epidemic," debating the idea that AIDS was an accidental result of a polio vaccination campaign conducted by a virologist, Hilary Koprowski, and colleagues in the late 1950s among thousands of people in the Belgian Congo. The meeting carefully examined the CHAT theory presented by a writer, Edward Hooper, in his book "The River" and has raised questions on the correlation between vaccination sites and early records of HIV-1, and on the estimated amount of HIV particles that would get through each stage of the process of creating CHAT. Overall, the meeting agreed to reject the CHAT theory of AIDS for it has no basis, since Koprowski and colleagues denied the use of chimpanzee kidneys, which Hooper openly suggests in his book. The meeting noted that the disease's origins remain a mystery.
Guerra, C.A.; Reiner Jr, R.C.; Perkins, T.A.; Lindsay, S.W.; Midega, J.T.; Brady, O.J.; Barker, C.M.; Reisen, W.K.; Harrington, L.C.; Takken, W.; Kitron, U.; Lloyd, A.L.; Hay, S.I.; Scott, T.W.; Smith, D.L.
Background Pathogen transmission by mosquitos is known to be highly sensitive to mosquito bionomic parameters. Mosquito mark-release-recapture (MMRR) experiments are a standard method for estimating such parameters including dispersal, population size and density, survival, blood feeding frequency
General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Health, Education, and Human Services Div.
The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) contracts with state approving agencies (SAAs) to assess whether schools and training programs offer education of sufficient quality for veterans to receive VA education assistance benefits when attending them. The General Accounting Office examined the gatekeeping activities of the VA and the Department of…
Bernanke, Joel; McCommon, Benjamin
Given many competing demands, psychotherapy training to competency is difficult during psychiatric residency. Good Psychiatric Management for borderline personality disorder (GPM) offers an evidence-based, simplified, psychodynamically informed framework for the outpatient management of patients with borderline personality disorder, one of the most challenging disorders psychiatric residents must learn to treat. In this article, we provide an overview of GPM, and show that training in GPM meets a requirement for training in supportive psychotherapy; builds on psychodynamic psychotherapy training; and applies to other severe personality disorders, especially narcissistic personality disorder. We describe the interpersonal hypersensitivity model used in GPM as a straightforward way for clinicians to collaborate with patients in organizing approaches to psychoeducation, treatment goals, case management, use of multiple treatment modalities, and safety. A modification of the interpersonal hypersensitivity model that includes intra-personal hypersensitivity can be used to address narcissistic problems often present in borderline personality disorder. We argue that these features make GPM ideally suited for psychiatry residents in treating their most challenging patients, provide clinical examples to illustrate these points, and report the key lessons learned by a psychiatry resident after a year of GPM supervision.
Masunaga, Gen; Ota, Hidetoshi
A mark and recapture study was carried out for three years on a population of the Ijima's sea snake, Emydocephalus ijimae, in the coastal shallow water of Zamamijima Island, central Ryukyus, Japan. The relatively high recapture (47% of 167 marked snakes) suggests that E. ijimae is a particularly philopatric, sedentary species among the sea snakes. The sex ratio (male: female), approximately 1.6:1, significantly skewed from 1:1. The growth rate in SVL declined with growth, with females thoroughly growing better than males. Males and females were estimated to begin reproductive activity in the second or third summer and the third spring after birth, respectively. Frequency of female reproduction is guessed to vary from annual to biennial, or even less frequent.
Gen, Masunaga; Hidetoshi, Ota; Graduate School of Science and Engeneering, University of the Ryukyus; Tropical Biosphere Research Center, University of the Ryukyus
A mark and recapture study was carried out for three years on a population of the Ijima's sea snake, Emydocephalus ijimae, in the coastal shallow water of Zamamijima Island, central Ryukyus, Japan. The relatively high recapture (47% of 167 marked snakes) suggests that E. ijimae is a particularly philopatric, sedentary species among the sea snakes. The sex ratio (male: female), approximately 1.6:1, significantly skewed from 1:1. The growth rate in SVL declined with growth, with females thoroug...
Whitfield, Lindsay; Fraser, Alastair
This article presents a new analytical approach to the study of aid negotiations. Building on existing approaches but trying to overcome their limitations, it argues that factors outside of individual negotiations (or the `game' in game-theoretic approaches) significantly affect the preferences...
Full Text Available Background: To reduce traffic injuries in the country, health professionals should have accurate estimates of road traffic deaths. Multiple and sometimes inconsistent statistics presented by organizations in charge create high degree of uncertainty for planners and decision makers. To achieve an accurate estimate, several methods are available. Of them, capture-recapture method seems to be an appropriate and affordable method regarding the reliability of the data sources. This study aimed to estimate the number of road traffic deaths in Kurdistan Province during 2004-2009, using capture-recapture method and based on 2 sources of data obtained from Death Registration System and Forensic Medicine Department. Materials and Methods: All deaths due to road traffic accidents in Kurdistan Province were extracted during 2004-2009. These deaths were legally registered in Death Registration System and Forensic Medicine Department. Shared cases among these 2 sources were identified based on full name, age, gender, and date of death and finally the accurate number of deaths was calculated using the correct volume formula. Results: During study period, Forensic Medicine Department of the province had registered about 3289 cases of road traffic mortalities and Death Registration System had registered 3771 cases of death resulting from road traffic accidents. Using capture-recapture method, the number of deaths in the same years was estimated as 5726 people (5818-5634:CI95%. The proportion of mortality registered in the Death Registration System and Forensic Medicine Department of the province to the total estimated deaths were 65.8% and 57.4%, respectively and both systems together covered 85.4% of road traffic deaths, i.e. under-reporting of about 832 people. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that none of 2 sources of Forensic Medicine Department and Death Registration System, per se or both, fully covered road traffic mortalities and
Molina, Santiago; Fuller, Angela K.; Morin, Dana J.; Royle, J. Andrew
The Andean bear (Tremarctos ornatus) is the only extant species of bear in South America and is considered threatened across its range and endangered in Ecuador. Habitat loss and fragmentation is considered a critical threat to the species, and there is a lack of knowledge regarding its distribution and abundance. The species is thought to occur at low densities, making field studies designed to estimate abundance or density challenging. We conducted a pilot camera-trap study to estimate Andean bear density in a recently identified population of Andean bears northwest of Quito, Ecuador, during 2012. We compared 12 candidate spatial capture–recapture models including covariates on encounter probability and density and estimated a density of 7.45 bears/100 km2 within the region. In addition, we estimated that approximately 40 bears used a recently named Andean bear corridor established by the Secretary of Environment, and we produced a density map for this area. Use of a rub-post with vanilla scent attractant allowed us to capture numerous photographs for each event, improving our ability to identify individual bears by unique facial markings. This study provides the first empirically derived density estimate for Andean bears in Ecuador and should provide direction for future landscape-scale studies interested in conservation initiatives requiring spatially explicit estimates of density.
Ginzel, Matthew D; Hanks, Lawrence M
This study evaluates the potential for using blends of synthetic hydrocarbons in mark-recapture studies of insects. To test the durability of hydrocarbons, we applied a blend of five straight-chain hydrocarbons (C24, C21, C26. C28, C30) to detached elytra of the red milkweed beetle, Tetraopes tetrophthalmus (Forster) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), mounted the elytra on pins, and placed them in an exposed location outdoors. The amount of hydrocarbons on the elytra did not change over time, even after two months of exposure to sun and rain. Synthetic hydrocarbons applied to the elytra of living beetles did not significantly influence their longevity or mating success in a laboratory study. and the amounts of hydrocarbons did not change with age. The invariability of hydrocarbon ratios over time suggests that blends could provide a nearly infinite variety of ratios to mark individual insects uniquely and indelibly with a hydrocarbon "fingerprint." This technique offers a convenient, safe, and durable means of individually marking insects and may find application in field studies of larger bodied insects that are long-lived and sedentary.
Full Text Available Five annual capture-mark-recapture surveys on Jasus edwardsii were used to evaluate the effect of sample size and fishing effort on the precision of estimated survival probability. Datasets of different numbers of individual lobsters (ranging from 200 to 1,000 lobsters were created by random subsampling from each annual survey. This process of random subsampling was also used to create 12 datasets of different levels of effort based on three levels of the number of traps (15, 30 and 50 traps per day and four levels of the number of sampling-days (2, 4, 6 and 7 days. The most parsimonious Cormack-Jolly-Seber (CJS model for estimating survival probability shifted from a constant model towards sex-dependent models with increasing sample size and effort. A sample of 500 lobsters or 50 traps used on four consecutive sampling-days was required for obtaining precise survival estimations for males and females, separately. Reduced sampling effort of 30 traps over four sampling days was sufficient if a survival estimate for both sexes combined was sufficient for management of the fishery.
Kordjazi, Ziya; Frusher, Stewart; Buxton, Colin; Gardner, Caleb; Bird, Tomas
Five annual capture-mark-recapture surveys on Jasus edwardsii were used to evaluate the effect of sample size and fishing effort on the precision of estimated survival probability. Datasets of different numbers of individual lobsters (ranging from 200 to 1,000 lobsters) were created by random subsampling from each annual survey. This process of random subsampling was also used to create 12 datasets of different levels of effort based on three levels of the number of traps (15, 30 and 50 traps per day) and four levels of the number of sampling-days (2, 4, 6 and 7 days). The most parsimonious Cormack-Jolly-Seber (CJS) model for estimating survival probability shifted from a constant model towards sex-dependent models with increasing sample size and effort. A sample of 500 lobsters or 50 traps used on four consecutive sampling-days was required for obtaining precise survival estimations for males and females, separately. Reduced sampling effort of 30 traps over four sampling days was sufficient if a survival estimate for both sexes combined was sufficient for management of the fishery. PMID:26990561
De Fanis, A; Pruemper, G; Hergenhahn, U; Kukk, E; Tanaka, T; Kitajima, M; Tanaka, H; Fritzsche, S; Kabachnik, N M; Ueda, K
We employ a novel technique in which highly excited Rydberg states of Ne + 2p 4n p are populated via PCI-induced recapture of the near-threshold 1s photoelectron (De Fanis et al 2004 Phys. Rev. A 70 040702) to investigate valence inter-multiplet Auger transitions. The following series of the transitions have been observed: Ne + 2p 4 ( 1 D)np 2 L → Ne 2+ 2p 4 3 P J , Ne + 2p 4 ( 1 S)np 2 P →Ne 2+ 2p 4 3 P J and Ne + 2p 4 ( 1 S)np 2 P →Ne 2+ 2p 4 1 D. Their energy positions, quantum defects and the anisotropy parameters of the Auger electron emission have been determined. Experimental results are in good agreement with multi-configuration Dirac-Fock calculations carried out as a part of this study. The importance of interference effects for decays via naturally overlapping fine-structure components of the intermediate state is discussed
Farcomeni, Alessio; Cortese, Antonio; Sgarlata, Eleonora; Alunni Fegatelli, Danilo; Marfia, Gerolama Alessandra; Buttari, Fabio; Mirabella, Massimiliano; De Fino, Chiara; Prosperini, Luca; Pozzilli, Carlo; Grasso, Maria Grazia; Iasevoli, Luigi; Di Battista, Giancarlo; Millefiorini, Enrico
Limited data are available on the prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) in central Italy. The objective of this study is to estimate MS prevalence in the metropolitan area of Rome. We used the capture-recapture method to calculate prevalence estimates in the study area. The selected prevalence day was December 31, 2015. A total of 1,007 patients, with a definite diagnosis of MS according to the revised McDonald's criteria, were considered for crude, age- and sex-specific prevalence estimation. The overall crude prevalence rate was 146.2 cases per 100,000 (95% CI 119.9-172.5). A higher prevalence rate was recorded in females (194.1, 95% CI 149.6-238.6) than in males (93.0, 95% CI 67.2-118.8) with a female to male ratio of 1.8. Age-specific prevalence peaked in the 25-34 , 35-44 and 45-54 years class; moreover, it was found to increase up to the 45-54 years age group in females and the 35-44 years age group in males, decreasing thereafter. The results confirm that the metropolitan area of Rome is a high-risk area for MS. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Bassili, A; Al-Hammadi, A; Al-Absi, A; Glaziou, P; Seita, A; Abubakar, I; Bierrenbach, A L; van Hest, N A
The lack of applicable population-based methods to measure tuberculosis (TB) incidence rates directly at country level emphasises the global need to generate robust TB surveillance data to ascertain trends in disease burden and to assess the performance of TB control programmes in the context of the United Nations Millenium Development Goals and World Health Organization targets for TB control. To estimate the incidence of TB cases (all forms) and sputum smear-positive disease, and the level of under-reporting of TB in Yemen in 2010. Record-linkage and three-source capture-recapture analysis of data collected through active prospective longitudinal surveillance within the public and private non-National Tuberculosis Programme sector in twelve Yemeni governorates, selected by stratified cluster random sampling. For all TB cases, the estimated ratio of notified to incident cases and completeness of case ascertainment after record linkage, i.e., the ratio of detected to incident cases, was respectively 71% (95%CI 64-80) and 75% (95%CI 68-85). For sputum smear-positive TB cases, these ratios were respectively 67% (95%CI 58-75) and 76% (95%CI 66-84). We estimate that there were 13 082 (95%CI 11 610-14 513) TB cases in Yemen in 2010. Under-reporting of TB in Yemen is estimated at 29% (95%CI 20-36).
Yoshizaki, J.; Brownie, C.; Pollock, K.H.; Link, W.A.
Misidentification of animals is potentially important when naturally existing features (natural tags) such as DNA fingerprints (genetic tags) are used to identify individual animals. For example, when misidentification leads to multiple identities being assigned to an animal, traditional estimators tend to overestimate population size. Accounting for misidentification in capture-recapture models requires detailed understanding of the mechanism. Using genetic tags as an example, we outline a framework for modeling the effect of misidentification in closed population studies when individual identification is based on natural tags that are consistent over time (non-evolving natural tags). We first assume a single sample is obtained per animal for each capture event, and then generalize to the case where multiple samples (such as hair or scat samples) are collected per animal per capture occasion. We introduce methods for estimating population size and, using a simulation study, we show that our new estimators perform well for cases with moderately high capture probabilities or high misidentification rates. In contrast, conventional estimators can seriously overestimate population size when errors due to misidentification are ignored. ?? 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
Burt, Louise M.; Borchers, David L.; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Marques, Tigao A
Mark–recapture distance sampling (MRDS) methods are widely used for density and abundance estimation when the conventional DS assumption of certain detection at distance zero fails, as they allow detection at distance zero to be estimated and incorporated into the overall probability of detection to better estimate density and abundance. However, incorporating MR data in DS models raises survey and analysis issues not present in conventional DS. Conversely, incorporating DS assumptions in MR models raises issues not present in conventional MR. As a result, being familiar with either conventional DS methods or conventional MR methods does not on its own put practitioners in good a position to apply MRDS methods appropriately. This study explains the sometimes subtly different varieties of MRDS survey methods and the associated concepts underlying MRDS models. This is done as far as possible without giving mathematical details – in the hope that this will make the key concepts underlying the methods accessible to a wider audience than if we were to present the concepts via equations.
Kendall, W. L.
Full Text Available Multistate mark-recapture methods provide an excellent conceptual framework for considering estimation in studies of marked animals. Traditional methods include the assumptions that (1 each state an animal occupies is observable, and (2 state is assigned correctly at each point in time. Failure of either of these assumptions can lead to biased estimates of demographic parameters. I review design and analysis options for minimizing or eliminating these biases. Unobservable states can be adjusted for by including them in the state space of the statistical model, with zero capture probability, and incorporating the robust design, or observing animals in the unobservable state through telemetry, tag recoveries, or incidental observations. Mis¿classification can be adjusted for by auxiliary data or incorporating the robust design, in order to estimate the probability of detecting the state an animal occupies. For both unobservable and mis-classified states, the key feature of the robust design is the assumption that the state of the animal is static for at least two sampling occasions
Kendall, W.L.; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.
Matrix population models are important tools for research and management of populations. Estimating the parameters of these models is an important step in applying them to real populations. Multistate capture-recapture methods have provided a useful means for estimating survival and parameters of transition between locations or life history states but have mostly relied on the assumption that the state occupied by each detected animal is known with certainty. Nevertheless, in some cases animals can be misclassified. Using multiple capture sessions within each period of interest, we developed a method that adjusts estimates of transition probabilities for bias due to misclassification. We applied this method to 10 years of sighting data for a population of Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) in order to estimate the annual probability of transition from nonbreeding to breeding status. Some sighted females were unequivocally classified as breeders because they were clearly accompanied by a first-year calf. The remainder were classified, sometimes erroneously, as nonbreeders because an attendant first-year calf was not observed or was classified as more than one year old. We estimated a conditional breeding probability of 0.31 + 0.04 (estimate + 1 SE) when we ignored misclassification bias, and 0.61 + 0.09 when we accounted for misclassification.
Cocron, Peter; Bühler, Franziska; Franke, Thomas; Neumann, Isabel; Dielmann, Benno; Krems, Josef F
We report results from a 1-year field study (N = 80) on user interactions with regenerative braking in electric vehicles. Designed to recapture energy in vehicles with electric powertrains, regenerative braking has an important influence on both the task of driving and energy consumption. Results from user assessments and data from onboard data loggers indicate that most drivers quickly learned to interact with the system, which was triggered via accelerator. Further, conventional braking manoeuvres decreased significantly as the majority of deceleration episodes could only be executed through regenerative braking. Still, some drivers reported difficulties when adapting to the system. These difficulties could be addressed by offering different levels of regeneration so that the intensity of the deceleration could be individually modified. In general, the system is trusted and regarded as a valuable tool for prolonging range. Regenerative braking in electric vehicles has direct implications for the driving task. We found that drivers quickly learn to use and accept a system, which is triggered via accelerator. For those reporting difficulties in the interaction, it appears reasonable to integrate options to customise or switch off the system.
Ghezzehei, T. A.; Sarkhot, D. V.; Berhe, A. A.
Recently, the potential for biochar use to recapture excess nutrients from dairy wastewater has been a focus of a growing number of studies. It is suggested that biochar produced from locally available waste biomass can be important in reducing release of excess nutrient elements from agricultural runoff, improving soil productivity, and long-term carbon (C) sequestration. Here we present a review of a new approach that is showing promise for the use of biochar for nutrient capture. Using batch sorption experiments, it has been shown that biochar can adsorb up to 20 to 43% of ammonium and 19-65% of the phosphate in flushed dairy manure in 24 h. These results suggest a potential of biochar for recovering essential nutrients from dairy wastewater and improving soil fertility if the enriched biochar is returned to soil. Based on the sorption capacity of 2.86 and 0.23 mg ammonium and phosphate, respectively, per gram of biochar and 10-50% utilization of available excess biomass, in the state of California (US) alone, 11 440 to 57 200 t of ammonium-N and 920-4600 t of phosphate can be captured from dairy waste each year while at the same time disposing up to 8-40 million tons of waste biomass.
Rong, Wei; Tong, Kai Yu; Hu, Xiao Ling; Ho, Sze Kit
An electromyography-driven robot system integrated with neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) was developed to investigate its effectiveness on post-stroke rehabilitation. The performance of this system in assisting finger flexion/extension with different assistance combinations was evaluated in five stroke subjects. Then, a pilot study with 20-sessions training was conducted to evaluate the training's effectiveness. The results showed that combined assistance from the NMES-robot could improve finger movement accuracy, encourage muscle activation of the finger muscles and suppress excessive muscular activities in the elbow joint. When assistances from both NMES and the robot were 50% of their maximum assistances, finger-tracking performance had the best results, with the lowest root mean square error, greater range of motion, higher voluntary muscle activations of the finger joints and lower muscle co-contraction in the finger and elbow joints. Upper limb function improved after the 20-session training, indicated by the increased clinical scores of Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Action Research Arm Test and Wolf Motor Function Test. Muscle co-contraction was reduced in the finger and elbow joints reflected by the Modified Ashworth Scale. The findings demonstrated that an electromyography-driven NMES-robot used for chronic stroke improved hand function and tracking performance. Further research is warranted to validate the method on a larger scale. Implications for Rehabilitation The hand robotics and neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) techniques are still separate systems in current post-stroke hand rehabilitation. This is the first study to investigate the combined effects of the NMES and robot on hand rehabilitation. The finger tracking performance was improved with the combined assistance from the EMG-driven NMES-robot hand system. The assistance from the robot could improve the finger movement accuracy and the assistance from the NMES could reduce the
Savely, Robert T.; Loftin, R. Bowen
Training is a major endeavor in all modern societies. Common training methods include training manuals, formal classes, procedural computer programs, simulations, and on-the-job training. NASA's training approach has focussed primarily on on-the-job training in a simulation environment for both crew and ground based personnel. NASA must explore new approaches to training for the 1990's and beyond. Specific autonomous training systems are described which are based on artificial intelligence technology for use by NASA astronauts, flight controllers, and ground based support personnel that show an alternative to current training systems. In addition to these specific systems, the evolution of a general architecture for autonomous intelligent training systems that integrates many of the features of traditional training programs with artificial intelligence techniques is presented. These Intelligent Computer Aided Training (ICAT) systems would provide much of the same experience that could be gained from the best on-the-job training.
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emergency medical assistance; first-aid. 75... Emergency medical assistance; first-aid. [Statutory Provisions] Each operator shall make arrangements in... trained in first-aid and first-aid training shall be made available to all miners. Each coal mine shall...
Full Text Available Tactile aids, which translate sound waves into vibrations that can be felt by the skin, have been used for decades by people with severe/profound hearing loss to enhance speech/language development and improve speechreading.The development of tactile aids dates from the efforts of Goults and his co-workers in the 1920s; Although The power supply was too voluminous and it was difficult to carry specially by children, it was too huge and heavy to be carried outside the laboratories and its application was restricted to the experimental usage. Nowadays great advances have been performed in producing this instrument and its numerous models is available in markets around the world.
This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: Practical Tools for Radiation Emergency Preparedness. A specialist working with CDC's Radiation Studies Branch describes Psychological First Aid and a newly developed multimedia training program, entitled "Psychological First Aid in Radiation Disasters."
Adams, Jenny; Schneider, Jonna; Hubbard, Matthew; McCullough-Shock, Tiffany; Cheng, Dunlei; Simms, Kay; Hartman, Julie; Hinton, Paul; Strauss, Danielle
This study was designed to measure the functional capacity of healthy subjects during strenuous simulated police tasks, with the goal of developing occupation-specific training for cardiac rehabilitation of police officers. A calibrated metabolic instrument and an oxygen consumption data collection mask were used to measure the oxygen consumption and heart rates of 30 Dallas Police Academy officers and cadets as they completed an 8-event obstacle course that simulated chasing, subduing, and handcuffing a suspect. Standard target heart rates (85% of age-predicted maximum heart rate, or 0.85 x [220 - age]) and metabolic equivalents (METs) were calculated; a matched-sample t test based on differences between target and achieved heart rate and MET level was used for statistical analysis. Peak heart rates during the obstacle course simulation were significantly higher than the standard target heart rates (those at which treadmill stress tests in physicians' offices are typically stopped) (t(29) = 12.81, P requires a functional capacity greater than that typically attained in traditional cardiac rehabilitation programs. Rehabilitation professionals should consider performing maximal stress tests and increasing the intensity of cardiac rehabilitation workouts to effectively train police officers who have had a cardiac event.
Shoffstall-Cone, Sarah; Williard, Mary
In 1999, An Oral Health Survey of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) Dental Patients found that 79% of 2- to 5-year-olds had a history of tooth decay. The Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium in collaboration with Alaska's Tribal Health Organizations (THO) developed a new and diverse dental workforce model to address AI/AN oral health disparities. This paper describes the workforce model and some experience to date of the Dental Health Aide (DHA) Initiative that was introduced under the federally sanctioned Community Health Aide Program in Alaska. These new dental team members work with THO dentists and hygienists to provide education, prevention and basic restorative services in a culturally appropriate manner. The DHA Initiative introduced 4 new dental provider types to Alaska: the Primary Dental Health Aide, the Expanded Function Dental Health Aide, the Dental Health Aide Hygienist and the Dental Health Aide Therapist. The scope of practice between the 4 different DHA providers varies vastly along with the required training and education requirements. DHAs are certified, not licensed, providers. Recertification occurs every 2 years and requires the completion of 24 hours of continuing education and continual competency evaluation. Dental Health Aides provide evidence-based prevention programs and dental care that improve access to oral health care and help address well-documented oral health disparities.
Full Text Available Background. In 1999, An Oral Health Survey of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN Dental Patients found that 79% of 2- to 5-year-olds had a history of tooth decay. The Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium in collaboration with Alaska’s Tribal Health Organizations (THO developed a new and diverse dental workforce model to address AI/AN oral health disparities. Objectives. This paper describes the workforce model and some experience to date of the Dental Health Aide (DHA Initiative that was introduced under the federally sanctioned Community Health Aide Program in Alaska. These new dental team members work with THO dentists and hygienists to provide education, prevention and basic restorative services in a culturally appropriate manner. Results. The DHA Initiative introduced 4 new dental provider types to Alaska: the Primary Dental Health Aide, the Expanded Function Dental Health Aide, the Dental Health Aide Hygienist and the Dental Health Aide Therapist. The scope of practice between the 4 different DHA providers varies vastly along with the required training and education requirements. DHAs are certified, not licensed, providers. Recertification occurs every 2 years and requires the completion of 24 hours of continuing education and continual competency evaluation. Conclusions. Dental Health Aides provide evidence-based prevention programs and dental care that improve access to oral health care and help address well-documented oral health disparities.
Davies, M; Maguire, S; Okolie, C; Watkins, W; Kemp, A M
Prompt first aid reduces burn morbidity. With an estimated 19,000 children attending emergency departments (ED) with a burn or scald every year in the UK, a parent's knowledge of first aid is particularly important. This study evaluates the extent and source of this knowledge. Parents attending the emergency and antenatal departments of a University Hospital answered a structured questionnaire detailing demographics, knowledge of burns first aid and its source. Knowledge was stratified into 4 categories: contraindicated, poor, inadequate and adequate. Individual chi-squared tests and ordered logistic regressions were performed to relate knowledge to demographic features. The 106 respondents (44% men) reflected a wide range of socio-economic (SE) grouping and educational level. Overall 32% had an adequate knowledge of burns first aid while 43% had poor or no knowledge. There was no significant correlation between gender, educational status or age and knowledge; however those from higher SE groups (pfirst aid training (pfirst aid training, 74% had adequate knowledge. The logistic regression accounting for all significant variables showed that previous first aid training was the most influential factor in knowledge of first aid (pfirst-aid knowledge. Overall, the knowledge of burns first aid among parents is inadequate and correlates with lower SE groups. There was a significant association between knowledge and previous first aid training. Results suggest that targeting burns first aid training to all new parents, particularly those in low income households, would be of value. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.
Partial Contents: AIDS in Burundi, Rwanda AIDS Situation in Country Examined, Estimated Over 750,000 HIV Positive, In 3 Years 4 Million May Be AIDS Carriers, Events at National AIDS Convention Analyzed, Senior Army...
Smith, S.G.; Skalski, J.R.; Schlechte, J.W.; Hoffmann, A.; Cassen, V.
Program SURPH is the culmination of several years of research to develop a comprehensive computer program to analyze survival studies of fish and wildlife populations. Development of this software was motivated by the advent of the PIT-tag (Passive Integrated Transponder) technology that permits the detection of salmonid smolt as they pass through hydroelectric facilities on the Snake and Columbia Rivers in the Pacific Northwest. Repeated detections of individually tagged smolt and analysis of their capture-histories permits estimates of downriver survival probabilities. Eventual installation of detection facilities at adult fish ladders will also permit estimation of ocean survival and upstream survival of returning salmon using the statistical methods incorporated in SURPH.1. However, the utility of SURPH.1 far exceeds solely the analysis of salmonid tagging studies. Release-recapture and radiotelemetry studies from a wide range of terrestrial and aquatic species have been analyzed using SURPH.1 to estimate discrete time survival probabilities and investigate survival relationships. The interactive computing environment of SURPH.1 was specifically developed to allow researchers to investigate the relationship between survival and capture processes and environmental, experimental and individual-based covariates. Program SURPH.1 represents a significant advancement in the ability of ecologists to investigate the interplay between morphologic, genetic, environmental and anthropogenic factors on the survival of wild species. It is hoped that this better understanding of risk factors affecting survival will lead to greater appreciation of the intricacies of nature and to improvements in the management of wild resources. This technical report is an introduction to SURPH.1 and provides a user guide for both the UNIX and MS-Windows reg-sign applications of the SURPH software
Bronner, Anne; Hénaux, Viviane; Vergne, Timothée; Vinard, Jean-Luc; Morignat, Eric; Hendrikx, Pascal; Calavas, Didier; Gay, Emilie
The mandatory bovine abortion notification system in France aims to detect as soon as possible any resurgence of bovine brucellosis. However, under-reporting seems to be a major limitation of this system. We used a unilist capture-recapture approach to assess the sensitivity, i.e. the proportion of farmers who reported at least one abortion among those who detected such events, and representativeness of the system during 2006-2011. We implemented a zero-inflated Poisson model to estimate the proportion of farmers who detected at least one abortion, and among them, the proportion of farmers not reporting. We also applied a hurdle model to evaluate the effect of factors influencing the notification process. We found that the overall surveillance sensitivity was about 34%, and was higher in beef than dairy cattle farms. The observed increase in the proportion of notifying farmers from 2007 to 2009 resulted from an increase in the surveillance sensitivity in 2007/2008 and an increase in the proportion of farmers who detected at least one abortion in 2008/2009. These patterns suggest a raise in farmers' awareness in 2007/2008 when the Bluetongue Virus (BTV) was detected in France, followed by an increase in the number of abortions in 2008/2009 as BTV spread across the country. Our study indicated a lack of sensitivity of the mandatory bovine abortion notification system, raising concerns about the ability to detect brucellosis outbreaks early. With the increasing need to survey the zoonotic Rift Valley Fever and Q fever diseases that may also cause bovine abortions, our approach is of primary interest for animal health stakeholders to develop information programs to increase abortion notifications. Our framework combining hurdle and ZIP models may also be applied to estimate the completeness of other clinical surveillance systems.
Full Text Available The mandatory bovine abortion notification system in France aims to detect as soon as possible any resurgence of bovine brucellosis. However, under-reporting seems to be a major limitation of this system. We used a unilist capture-recapture approach to assess the sensitivity, i.e. the proportion of farmers who reported at least one abortion among those who detected such events, and representativeness of the system during 2006-2011. We implemented a zero-inflated Poisson model to estimate the proportion of farmers who detected at least one abortion, and among them, the proportion of farmers not reporting. We also applied a hurdle model to evaluate the effect of factors influencing the notification process. We found that the overall surveillance sensitivity was about 34%, and was higher in beef than dairy cattle farms. The observed increase in the proportion of notifying farmers from 2007 to 2009 resulted from an increase in the surveillance sensitivity in 2007/2008 and an increase in the proportion of farmers who detected at least one abortion in 2008/2009. These patterns suggest a raise in farmers' awareness in 2007/2008 when the Bluetongue Virus (BTV was detected in France, followed by an increase in the number of abortions in 2008/2009 as BTV spread across the country. Our study indicated a lack of sensitivity of the mandatory bovine abortion notification system, raising concerns about the ability to detect brucellosis outbreaks early. With the increasing need to survey the zoonotic Rift Valley Fever and Q fever diseases that may also cause bovine abortions, our approach is of primary interest for animal health stakeholders to develop information programs to increase abortion notifications. Our framework combining hurdle and ZIP models may also be applied to estimate the completeness of other clinical surveillance systems.
This lecture precises the method and means developed by EDF to ensure the training of maintenance personnel according to their initial educational background and their experience. The following points are treated: General organization of the training for maintenance personnel in PWR and GCR nuclear power stations and in Creys Malville fast breeder reactor; Basic nuclear training and pedagogical aids developed for this purpose; Specific training and training provided by contractors; complementary training taking into account the operation experience and feedback; Improvement of velocity, competence and safety during shut-down operations by adapted training. (orig.)
Cicero, Mark; Bilbily, Alexander; Colak, Errol; Dowdell, Tim; Gray, Bruce; Perampaladas, Kuhan; Barfett, Joseph
Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are a subtype of artificial neural network that have shown strong performance in computer vision tasks including image classification. To date, there has been limited application of CNNs to chest radiographs, the most frequently performed medical imaging study. We hypothesize CNNs can learn to classify frontal chest radiographs according to common findings from a sufficiently large data set. Our institution's research ethics board approved a single-center retrospective review of 35,038 adult posterior-anterior chest radiographs and final reports performed between 2005 and 2015 (56% men, average age of 56, patient type: 24% inpatient, 39% outpatient, 37% emergency department) with a waiver for informed consent. The GoogLeNet CNN was trained using 3 graphics processing units to automatically classify radiographs as normal (n = 11,702) or into 1 or more of cardiomegaly (n = 9240), consolidation (n = 6788), pleural effusion (n = 7786), pulmonary edema (n = 1286), or pneumothorax (n = 1299). The network's performance was evaluated using receiver operating curve analysis on a test set of 2443 radiographs with the criterion standard being board-certified radiologist interpretation. Using 256 × 256-pixel images as input, the network achieved an overall sensitivity and specificity of 91% with an area under the curve of 0.964 for classifying a study as normal (n = 1203). For the abnormal categories, the sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve, respectively, were 91%, 91%, and 0.962 for pleural effusion (n = 782), 82%, 82%, and 0.868 for pulmonary edema (n = 356), 74%, 75%, and 0.850 for consolidation (n = 214), 81%, 80%, and 0.875 for cardiomegaly (n = 482), and 78%, 78%, and 0.861 for pneumothorax (n = 167). Current deep CNN architectures can be trained with modest-sized medical data sets to achieve clinically useful performance at detecting and excluding common pathology on chest radiographs.
Full Text Available Glass eels (Anguilla anguilla arriving after the fishing season in the Vilaine estuary (France were caught by boat and at a trapping ladder located at a blocking dam upstream in the estuary. They were marked with Bismarck brown, rhodamine B or neutral red, and released into the estuary. The effect of marking on behaviour, mortality and recapture differed according to the dye and concentration used. The glass eels also differed in response to marking according to their origin. Estuarine glass eels were clearly desynchronized in their selective tidal stream transport and left the release area after a few tidal cycles. Trapped glass eels were less sensitive to marking. They remained in the release area and were recaptured in larger number both in the trapping ladder and in the estuary. These results supported a model of two behavioral fractions in the estuary: flow-carried migrants and active glass eels with stronger rheotactic behaviour. The proportion of active glass eels in the estuary shifted from none for the two weeks after the fishery closure, to 10% value of the total stock. At the trapping ladder, the migration ended in June each year, while a large stock was still present in the estuary. These observations favour the interpretation of a short duration of the active phase at this site followed by the transition towards a more benthic behavior. The daily efficiency of the trapping ladder was calculated as 4% of the active stock from both stock estimations and average recapture rate. This value was consistent with the low annual efficiency of the trapping ladder, calculated as 30% of the estuarine stock of glass eels that arrived after the fishing season.
Rosenberger, Amanda E.; Dunham, Jason B.
Estimation of fish abundance in streams using the removal model or the Lincoln - Peterson mark - recapture model is a common practice in fisheries. These models produce misleading results if their assumptions are violated. We evaluated the assumptions of these two models via electrofishing of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in central Idaho streams. For one-, two-, three-, and four-pass sampling effort in closed sites, we evaluated the influences of fish size and habitat characteristics on sampling efficiency and the accuracy of removal abundance estimates. We also examined the use of models to generate unbiased estimates of fish abundance through adjustment of total catch or biased removal estimates. Our results suggested that the assumptions of the mark - recapture model were satisfied and that abundance estimates based on this approach were unbiased. In contrast, the removal model assumptions were not met. Decreasing sampling efficiencies over removal passes resulted in underestimated population sizes and overestimates of sampling efficiency. This bias decreased, but was not eliminated, with increased sampling effort. Biased removal estimates based on different levels of effort were highly correlated with each other but were less correlated with unbiased mark - recapture estimates. Stream size decreased sampling efficiency, and stream size and instream wood increased the negative bias of removal estimates. We found that reliable estimates of population abundance could be obtained from models of sampling efficiency for different levels of effort. Validation of abundance estimates requires extra attention to routine sampling considerations but can help fisheries biologists avoid pitfalls associated with biased data and facilitate standardized comparisons among studies that employ different sampling methods.
Schmitz, Andrew; Shaw, John; Chakraborty, Himadri S.; Thumm, Uwe
The resonant charge transfer process in the collision of hydrogen anions with metal surfaces is described within a single-active-electron wave-packet propagation method. The ion-survival probability is found to be strongly enhanced at two different surface-specific perpendicular velocities of the ion. It is shown that, while the low-velocity enhancement is induced from a dynamical confinement of the ion level inside the band gap, the high-velocity enhancement is due to electron recapture from transiently populated image states. Results are presented for Li(110), Cu(111), and Pd(111) surfaces.
Paynter, R. A.
This paper considers use of modern training materials and aids in radiation protection training activities. The development in the UK of training courses to satisfy the training requirements for Radiation Protection Advisers is also discussed. (Author)
The author outlines the approach used by Ontario Hydro to train operators from the day they are hired as Operators-in-Training until they are Authorized Unit First Operators. He describes in detail the use of the simulator in the final year of the authorization program, drawing on experience with the Pickering NGS A simulator. Simulators, he concludes, are important aids to training but by no means all that is required to guarantee capable First Operators
Richey, Lisa Ann
of social change in southern Africa. This sociological study of HIV/AIDS peer education in diverse South African businesses tries to understand "the web of social relationships that influence behavior" (5), particularly with reference to Erving Goffman's classic framing of social space as "front stage......" and "back stage" and Victor Turner's notion of "liminality." So-called front-stage behavior includes that of workplace peer educators who give training sessions to coworkers within vertically structured communication programs run by HIV/AIDS managers; back-stage interventions include educators...
... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Medical services and first aid. 1926.50 Section 1926.50... Environmental Controls § 1926.50 Medical services and first aid. (a) The employer shall insure the availability... employees, a person who has a valid certificate in first-aid training from the U.S. Bureau of Mines, the...
... an individual who is not employed, or does not have an offer to be employed, as a nurse aide becomes... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nurse aide competency evaluation. 483.154 Section... Requirements That Must Be Met by States and State Agencies: Nurse Aide Training and Competency Evaluation, and...
the quality control of important process parameters. Applied to the thermal reactor power, the statistical certainty of warranting the allowable value can be quantified. This quantification allows keeping a safety margin in agreement with the authority. This paper presents the operational application of this method at an operating plant and describes the additional use of process data reconciliation for acceptance tests, power recapture and system and component diagnosis. (author)
'Seizure First Aid Training' for people with epilepsy who attend emergency departments, and their family and friends: study protocol for intervention development and a pilot randomised controlled trial.
Noble, A J; Marson, A G; Tudur-Smith, C; Morgan, M; Hughes, D A; Goodacre, S; Ridsdale, L
People with chronic epilepsy (PWE) often make costly but clinically unnecessary emergency department (ED) visits. Offering them and their carers a self-management intervention that improves confidence and ability to manage seizures may lead to fewer visits. As no such intervention currently exists, we describe a project to develop and pilot one. To develop the intervention, an existing group-based seizure management course that has been offered by the Epilepsy Society within the voluntary sector to a broader audience will be adapted. Feedback from PWE, carers and representatives from the main groups caring for PWE will help refine the course so that it addresses the needs of ED attendees. Its behaviour change potential will also be optimised. A pilot randomised controlled trial will then be completed. 80 PWE aged ≥16 who have visited the ED in the prior 12 months on ≥2 occasions, along with one of their family members or friends, will be recruited from three NHS EDs. Dyads will be randomised to receive the intervention or treatment as usual alone. The proposed primary outcome is ED use in the 12 months following randomisation. For the pilot, this will be measured using routine hospital data. Secondary outcomes will be measured by patients and carers completing questionnaires 3, 6 and 12 months postrandomisation. Rates of recruitment, retention and unblinding will be calculated, along with the ED event rate in the control group and an estimate of the intervention's effect on the outcome measures. Ethical approval: NRES Committee North West-Liverpool East (Reference number 15/NW/0225). The project's findings will provide robust evidence on the acceptability of seizure management training and on the optimal design of a future definitive trial. The findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at conferences. ISRCTN13 871 327. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a
Tufto, Jarle; Lande, Russell; Ringsby, Thor-Harald; Engen, Steinar; Saether, Bernt-Erik; Walla, Thomas R; DeVries, Philip J
1. We develop a Bayesian method for analysing mark-recapture data in continuous habitat using a model in which individuals movement paths are Brownian motions, life spans are exponentially distributed and capture events occur at given instants in time if individuals are within a certain attractive distance of the traps. 2. The joint posterior distribution of the dispersal rate, longevity, trap attraction distances and a number of latent variables representing the unobserved movement paths and time of death of all individuals is computed using Gibbs sampling. 3. An estimate of absolute local population density is obtained simply by dividing the Poisson counts of individuals captured at given points in time by the estimated total attraction area of all traps. Our approach for estimating population density in continuous habitat avoids the need to define an arbitrary effective trapping area that characterized previous mark-recapture methods in continuous habitat. 4. We applied our method to estimate spatial demography parameters in nine species of neotropical butterflies. Path analysis of interspecific variation in demographic parameters and mean wing length revealed a simple network of strong causation. Larger wing length increases dispersal rate, which in turn increases trap attraction distance. However, higher dispersal rate also decreases longevity, thus explaining the surprising observation of a negative correlation between wing length and longevity. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2012 British Ecological Society.
Full Text Available Survival probabilities of loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta are estimated for the first time in the Mediterranean by analysing 3254 tagging and 134 re-encounter data from this region. Most of these turtles were juveniles found at sea. Re-encounters were live resightings and dead recoveries and data were analysed with Barker’s model, a modified version of the Cormack-Jolly-Seber model which can combine recapture, live resighting and dead recovery data. An annual survival probability of 0.73 (CI 95% = 0.67-0.78; n=3254 was obtained, and should be considered as a conservative estimate due to an unknown, though not negligible, tag loss rate. This study makes a preliminary estimate of the survival probabilities of in-water developmental stages for the Mediterranean population of endangered loggerhead sea turtles and provides the first insights into the magnitude of the suspected human-induced mortality in the region. The model used here for the first time on sea turtles could be used to obtain survival estimates from other data sets with few or no true recaptures but with other types of re-encounter data, which are a common output of tagging programmes involving these wide-ranging animals.
Weller, Z.; Hoeting, J.; von Fischer, J.
Pipeline systems that distribute natural gas (NG) within cities can leak, leading to safety hazards and wasted product. Moreover, these leaks are climate-altering because NG is primarily composed of methane, a potent greenhouse gas. Scientists have recently developed an innovative method for mapping NG leak locations by installing atmospheric methane analyzers on Google Street View cars. We develop new statistical methodology to answer key inferential questions using data collected by these mobile air monitors. The new calibration-capture-recapture (CCR) model utilizes data from controlled methane releases and data collected by GSV cars to provide inference for several desired quantities, including the number of undetected methane sources and the total methane output rate in a surveyed region. The CCR model addresses challenges associated with using a capture-recapture model to analyze data collected by a mobile detection system including variable sampling effort and lack of physically marking individuals. We develop a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm for parameter estimation and apply the CCR model to methane data collected in two U.S. cities. The CCR model provides a new framework for inferring the total number of leaks in NG distribution systems and offers critical insights for informing intelligent repair policy that is both cost-effective and environmentally friendly.
First aid Animal bites: First aid Animal bites: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff These guidelines can help you care for a minor animal bite, such ... 26, 2017 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-animal-bites/basics/ART-20056591 . Mayo ...
First aid Chest pain: First aid Chest pain: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff Causes of chest pain can vary from minor problems, such as indigestion ... 26, 2018 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-chest-pain/basics/ART-20056705 . Mayo ...
First aid Head trauma: First aid Head trauma: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff Most head trauma involves injuries that are minor and don't require ... 21, 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-head-trauma/basics/ART-20056626 . Mayo ...
Resources - HIV/AIDS ... information on AIDS : AIDS.gov -- www.aids.gov AIDS Info -- aidsinfo.nih.gov The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation -- www.kff.org/hivaids US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc.gov/hiv
Representatives of English speaking African countries attended the International Labor Organization Tripartite Workshop on the Role of the Organized Sector in Reproductive Health and the Prevention of AIDS held in Uganda. AIDS has robbed these countries of lawyers, physicians, teachers, managers, and other skilled professionals, all of whom are difficult to replace. HIV/AIDS mainly affects persons in their most productive years (20-40 years) and in the higher socioeconomic groups. Professionals with AIDS become ill and die at a faster rate than their replacements can be trained. The young, less experienced work force translates into an increase in breakdowns, accidents, delays, and misjudgments. International and national efforts to control HIV/AIDS have not stopped the spread of HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). More than 8 million persons in SSA are HIV infected. 1.5 million in Uganda are HIV infected. As of October 1994, 30,000 persons in Zambia and 33,000 in Zimbabwe had AIDS. These numbers are just the tip of the iceberg due to underreporting. HIV/AIDS increases absenteeism among infected and healthy workers alike. It burdens the already existing scarce health care resources and equipment (e.g., in 1992, AIDS cases occupied 70% of hospital beds in Kigali, Rwanda). Unions, workers, and families must share knowledge about safer sex. The Zimbabwe Confederation of Trade Unions has had an HIV/AIDS education program since 1992. The Zambia Congress of Trade Unions strongly supports government efforts to sensitize the labor force and society to the effects of HIV/AIDS. The Federation of Uganda Employers has reached about 150,000 workers and more than 200 top executives through its AIDS prevention activities. Some company programs provide medical facilities for employees and their families. The Ubombo Ranches, Ltd. in Swaziland, a producer and processor of sugar cane, has a training-of-trainers program on HIV/AIDS and family planning for all village health workers and
Hjertholm, Peter; Laursen, Jytte; White, Howard
foreign aid, macroeconomics of aid, gap models, aid fungibility, fiscal response models, foreign debt,......foreign aid, macroeconomics of aid, gap models, aid fungibility, fiscal response models, foreign debt,...
... Coinfection Hepatitis C Coinfection HIV/AIDS Coinfection HIV/AIDS Coinfection Approximately 10% of the HIV-infected population ... Control and Prevention website to learn about HIV/AIDS and Viral Hepatitis guidelines and resources. Home About ...
First aid Gastroenteritis: First aid Gastroenteritis: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff Gastroenteritis is an inflammation of your stomach and intestines. Common causes are: Viruses. Food or water contaminated by ...
First aid Snakebites: First aid Snakebites: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff Most North American snakes aren't dangerous to humans. Some exceptions include the rattlesnake, coral snake, water moccasin ...
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español HIV and AIDS KidsHealth / For Kids / HIV and AIDS ... actually the virus that causes the disease AIDS. HIV Hurts the Immune System People who are HIV ...
... the aids? Start using your hearing aids in quiet surroundings, gradually building up to noisier environments. Then eventually work up to wearing your hearing aids all waking hours. Keep a diary to help you remember your ...
First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle ...
van Dalen, H.P.; Reuser, M.
Development assistance targeting health overwhelmingly concentrates on HIV/AIDS. This column argues that that focus neglects critical demographic issues and degrades health infrastructure, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. The prime rule for AIDS aid should be “First, do no harm”.
Birchler, Kassandra; Michaelowa, Katharina
This paper examines the effect of education aid on primary enrolment and education quality. Using the most recent data on aid disbursements and econometric specifications inspired by the general aid effectiveness literature, we find some evidence that donors' increase in funding has substantially contributed to the successful increase in enrolment over the last 15 years. The most robust effect is obtained by aid for education facilities and training. In addition, we find complementarities bet...
Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Zipkin, Elise; Scott, Sillett T.; Chandler, Richard; Royle, J. Andrew
Wildlife populations consist of individuals that contribute disproportionately to growth and viability. Understanding a population's spatial and temporal dynamics requires estimates of abundance and demographic rates that account for this heterogeneity. Estimating these quantities can be difficult, requiring years of intensive data collection. Often, this is accomplished through the capture and recapture of individual animals, which is generally only feasible at a limited number of locations. In contrast, N-mixture models allow for the estimation of abundance, and spatial variation in abundance, from count data alone. We extend recently developed multistate, open population N-mixture models, which can additionally estimate demographic rates based on an organism's life history characteristics. In our extension, we develop an approach to account for the case where not all individuals can be assigned to a state during sampling. Using only state-specific count data, we show how our model can be used to estimate local population abundance, as well as density-dependent recruitment rates and state-specific survival. We apply our model to a population of black-throated blue warblers (Setophaga caerulescens) that have been surveyed for 25 years on their breeding grounds at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire, USA. The intensive data collection efforts allow us to compare our estimates to estimates derived from capture–recapture data. Our model performed well in estimating population abundance and density-dependent rates of annual recruitment/immigration. Estimates of local carrying capacity and per capita recruitment of yearlings were consistent with those published in other studies. However, our model moderately underestimated annual survival probability of yearling and adult females and severely underestimates survival probabilities for both of these male stages. The most accurate and precise estimates will necessarily require some amount of intensive
The aim of the study was to develop an HIV and AIDS training manual, and to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and management of faith healers of Apostolic churches regarding HIV and AIDS, before and after they attended an HIV and AIDS training programme. A quasi-experimental intervention design was used with faith ...
Barbara S. McCall; Michael S. Mitchell; Michael K. Schwartz; Jim Hayden; Samuel A. Cushman; Pete Zager; Wayne F. Kasworm
We used mark-recapture analysis to investigate the dynamics of a black bear (Ursus americanus) population in northern Idaho where food availability varies seasonally and annually. We conducted noninvasive genetic sampling (NGS) during 2003-2006 in the Purcell Mountains of Idaho to collect black bear DNA samples for individual identification of bears. We used a...
Fitzgerald, Derry; Charles, Jane; Coyle, Eugene
This paper presents a possible approach for developing a violin teaching aid based on violin pedagogy, sound analysis and comparison of beginner and good player recordings. This teaching aid is targeted at students who have difficulty listening attentively to the sounds they produce. It aims to draw their attention to the sound of a fault, offer correction and to train the user's ear to actively listen.
groups by birth years: members of Generation Y were born between 1980-1994 and Generation Z between 1995-2009. Those who distinguish between these two...groups do so because Generation Z is the world‟s first generation to be considered digital “natives,” where Generation Y grew up during the...contexts and political climates. Generation Y was the “two-income, daycare” generation while Generation Z is 43 the first generation after the Baby
... first aid. 50-204.6 Section 50-204.6 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating... SUPPLY CONTRACTS General Safety and Health Standards § 50-204.6 Medical services and first aid. (a) The... trained to render first aid. First aid supplies approved by the consulting physician shall be readily...
It is known that children with DD can learn first-aid skills and use whenever needed. Applying first-aid skills was taught to three inclusion students with autism through "first-aid skills training package". In the study multiple probe design with probe trials across behaviors was used. The findings indicated that first-aid skills…
This article considers the epidemic proportion of AIDS in developing countries, and discusses the U.S. Agency for International Development's (USAID) reworked and intensified strategy for HIV infection and AIDS prevention and control over the next 5 years. Developing and launching over 650 HIV and AIDS activities in 74 developing countries since 1986, USAID is the world's largest supporter of anti-AIDS programs. Over $91 million in bilateral assistance for HIV and AIDS prevention and control have been committed. USAID has also been the largest supporter of the World Health Organization's Global Program on AIDS since 1986. Interventions have included training peer educators, working to change the norms of sex behavior, and condom promotion. Recognizing that the developing world will increasingly account for an ever larger share of the world's HIV-infected population, USAID announced an intensified program of estimated investment increasing to approximately $400 million over a 5-year period. Strategy include funding for long-term, intensive interventions in 10-15 priority countries, emphasizing the treatment of other sexually transmitted diseases which facilitate the spread of HIV, making AIDS-related policy dialogue an explicit component of the Agency's AIDS program, and augmenting funding to community-based programs aimed at reducing high-risk sexual behaviors. The effect of AIDS upon child survival, adult mortality, urban populations, and socioeconomic development in developing countries is discussed. Program examples are also presented.
Acknowledging AIDS as a crosscutting development issue, a Zambian rural water supply project that provides safe accessible water to rural communities embarked on a new initiative to mainstream AIDS into the water sector. The work of providing safe water takes the predominantly male workforce away from their spouses and families, into the rural villages of Zambia's Eastern Province, for long periods of time. With an HIV prevalence rate of 16.1%, the risk of HIV exposure exists for both employees and rural villagers. AIDS mainstreaming activities were designed to target both groups. An AIDS mainstreaming strategy was developed by identifying components that could be influenced in the external domain (the organization's usual work) and the internal domain (the workplace). Basic questions were addressed such as: how does AIDS affect the organization, how might the usual work aggravate susceptibility to HIV infection, and where is the comparative advantage? A workplace program including peer education, employee health education (including condoms) and a workplace policy was established for employees. For the target population, a series of five messages connecting safe water and AIDS was developed and disseminated through educational drama, community meetings and trainings, and integrated into the regular water, sanitation and hygiene activities. As an efficient utilization of resources that makes a broad impact, AIDS mainstreaming does not change the sector's mandate but takes advantage of the extensive geographic coverage and natural distribution system of water projects to disseminate AIDS information and make linkages with AIDS partners.
Stoklosa, Jakub; Dann, Peter; Huggins, Richard
To accommodate seasonal effects that change from year to year into models for the size of an open population we consider a time-varying coefficient model. We fit this model to a capture-recapture data set collected on the little penguin Eudyptula minor in south-eastern Australia over a 25 year period using Jolly-Seber type estimators and nonparametric P-spline techniques. The time-varying coefficient model identified strong changes in the seasonal pattern across the years which we further examined using functional data analysis techniques. To evaluate the methodology we also conducted several simulation studies that incorporate seasonal variation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vlašánek, Petr; Sam, L.; Novotný, Vojtěch
Roč. 38, č. 6 (2013), s. 560-569 ISSN 0307-6946 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0115; GA ČR GAP505/10/0673; GA MŠk(CZ) LH11008 Grant - others:National Science Foundation(US) DEB-0841885; GA JU(CZ) 121/2010/P; GA JU(CZ) 136/2010/P; European Social Fund(CZ) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0064 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Lepidoptera * lowland rainforest * mark-release-recapture Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.967, year: 2013 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/een.12051/pdf
Rock, Samuel K., Jr.; Chagalis, George P.
The Basic Medical Specialist course has one of the largest enrollments of the U.S. Army's Academy of Health Sciences; 11,000 soldiers were trained in this course in 1977 and 1978. Training encompasses both emergency first aid (for field medics) and basic nursing skills. A task force working to improve Army training developed this course, in…
Camila S. Barros
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Efficiently obtaining high-quality data on animal populations and communities is paramount for ecological and conservation studies. In many instances these data come from live-trapping, the success of which depends on various factors, such as the interaction between the trap's mechanisms and the morphological or ecological characteristics of the animals, and weather conditions that can affect both trap efficiency and animal behavior. Integrative approaches that address the simultaneous effects of these factors on capture-recapture success are rare. Here we contribute to close this knowledge gap by focusing on a large capture-recapture dataset from three 2-ha grids monitored for approximately two years (totaling 55.000 traps-night in the Morro Grande Forest Reserve, São Paulo, Brazil. The dataset contains data on 3608 captures of 1273 individuals from 24 species of Atlantic forest small mammals. We evaluated if mortality rates and the capture-recapture success of small mammals varied between two types of trap (Sherman and pitfall, and if the capture success of each type varied with age and sex of individuals, and with weather conditions. Our findings highlight that trap efficiency depends not only on the quantities considered (species, individuals or recaptures, but also on animal characteristics and weather conditions. Large pitfall traps should be used whenever the focus is on biodiversity and community parameters, since they captured more individuals and species. Studies focusing on demographic parameters require the combined use of pitfall and Sherman traps. While pitfall traps captured a larger number of individuals and a higher proportion of juveniles, Sherman traps provided higher recapture rates for most species.
Sean M Murphy
Full Text Available Loss and fragmentation of natural habitats caused by human land uses have subdivided several formerly contiguous large carnivore populations into multiple small and often isolated subpopulations, which can reduce genetic variation and lead to precipitous population declines. Substantial habitat loss and fragmentation from urban development and agriculture expansion relegated the Highlands-Glades subpopulation (HGS of Florida, USA, black bears (Ursus americanus floridanus to prolonged isolation; increasing human land development is projected to cause ≥ 50% loss of remaining natural habitats occupied by the HGS in coming decades. We conducted a noninvasive genetic spatial capture-recapture study to quantitatively describe the degree of contemporary habitat fragmentation and investigate the consequences of habitat fragmentation on population density and genetics of the HGS. Remaining natural habitats sustaining the HGS were significantly more fragmented and patchier than those supporting Florida's largest black bear subpopulation. Genetic diversity was low (AR = 3.57; HE = 0.49 and effective population size was small (NE = 25 bears, both of which remained unchanged over a period spanning one bear generation despite evidence of some immigration. Subpopulation density (0.054 bear/km2 was among the lowest reported for black bears, was significantly female-biased, and corresponded to a subpopulation size of 98 bears in available habitat. Conserving remaining natural habitats in the area occupied by the small, genetically depauperate HGS, possibly through conservation easements and government land acquisition, is likely the most important immediate step to ensuring continued persistence of bears in this area. Our study also provides evidence that preferentially placing detectors (e.g., hair traps or cameras primarily in quality habitat across fragmented landscapes poses a challenge to estimating density-habitat covariate relationships using spatial
Vergne, Timothée; Calavas, Didier; Cazeau, Géraldine; Durand, Benoît; Dufour, Barbara; Grosbois, Vladimir
Capture-recapture (CR) methods are used to study populations that are monitored with imperfect observation processes. They have recently been applied to the monitoring of animal diseases to evaluate the number of infected units that remain undetected by the surveillance system. This paper proposes three bayesian models to estimate the total number of scrapie-infected holdings in France from CR count data obtained from the French classical scrapie surveillance programme. We fitted two zero-truncated Poisson (ZTP) models (with and without holding size as a covariate) and a zero-truncated negative binomial (ZTNB) model to the 2006 national surveillance count dataset. We detected a large amount of heterogeneity in the count data, making the use of the simple ZTP model inappropriate. However, including holding size as a covariate did not bring any significant improvement over the simple ZTP model. The ZTNB model proved to be the best model, giving an estimation of 535 (CI(95%) 401-796) infected and detectable sheep holdings in 2006, although only 141 were effectively detected, resulting in a holding-level prevalence of 4.4‰ (CI(95%) 3.2-6.3) and a sensitivity of holding-level surveillance of 26% (CI(95%) 18-35). The main limitation of the present study was the small amount of data collected during the surveillance programme. It was therefore not possible to build complex models that would allow depicting more accurately the epidemiological and detection processes that generate the surveillance data. We discuss the perspectives of capture-recapture count models in the context of animal disease surveillance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Curran, James R.
As early as the 1930s the term Master Hearing Aid (MHA) described a device used in the fitting of hearing aids. In their original form, the MHA was a desktop system that allowed for simulated or actual adjustment of hearing aid components that resulted in a changed hearing aid response. Over the years the MHA saw many embodiments and contributed to a number of rationales for the fitting of hearing aids. During these same years, the MHA was viewed by many as an inappropriate means of demonstrating hearing aids; the audio quality of the desktop systems was often superior to the hearing aids themselves. These opinions and the evolution of the MHA have molded the modern perception of hearing aids and the techniques used in the fitting of hearing aids. This article reports on a history of the MHA and its influence on the fitting of hearing aids. PMID:23686682
Ewelina Karolina Kucharska
Full Text Available Introduction and Aim Today, more and more emphasis is placed on training, awareness, change. People want to feel safe - this is one of the needs, according to the pyramid Maslow. To achieve this, training, knowledge acquisition and refinement are needed. Knowledge of the principles of first aid is important because it can save human life. Information about the scope of rescue and help we acquire in everyday life and in training, which aims to take care of the employee, the will to help, showing that everyone has the choice and influence on what they do, reaching people's awareness, imaging the threats and How to avoid them. The purpose of this paper is to analyze and estimate the level of knowledge and awareness about first aid among office workers. By showing what are the effective forms of training and how important first-aid skills are, I'm looking for answers as the average worker knows first aid, or should there be even more emphasis on training in the field. Material and Methods The research was conducted in the form of a questionnaire. Respondents who were administrative and office workers working in the city with over 100,000 inhabitants, in the city to 10,000 inhabitants and in the country, answered questions about their first aid knowledge. Results The results are presented in descriptive. After completing the survey, respondents answered specific questions. Conclusions The conclusion of the questionnaire replies is that there is too little first aid training, especially among rural and urban workers below 10 000 000 inhabitants.
Joseph, Nitin; Narayanan, Thanneermalai; Bin Zakaria, Saifuddin; Nair, Abhishek Venugopal; Belayutham, Lavina; Subramanian, Aathiya Mihiraa; Gopakumar, K G
Circumstances requiring medical attention are common at schools. Teachers are often the first individuals to witness and handle situations requiring first aid and medical emergencies. To determine awareness, attitudes and practices of school teachers and the facilities available at schools with respect to administration of first aid. Data were obtained from 146 teachers in nine schools in Mangalore, India, using a self-administered questionnaire. The schools were also inspected for first aid equipment and facilities. Only 69 (47%) teachers had received first aid training previously. Poor and moderate knowledge of first aid was observed among 19 (13%) and 127 (87%) teachers, respectively. Only eight teachers knew the correct procedure for cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Most teachers 96 (66%) were willing to administer first aid if provided with the required training. A total of 74 teachers reported having practised first aid in response to a situation arising at their school. Wounds (36%) and syncopal attack (23%) were among the commonly encountered situations requiring first aid management at schools. Teachers' confidence level in administering first aid was significantly associated with prior training in first aid (p=0.001). First aid kits were available in only five of the nine schools surveyed. The current competency level among teachers in Mangalore to administer first aid is inadequate. Measures need to be taken at schools to ensure initiation of first aid training followed by periodic training for teachers in first aid.
Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry, 2Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology,. Kasturba ... schools do not have formal first aid training in the teaching curriculum. Aim: The .... Definition of first aid.
Seo, K. W.; Joo, Y. C.; Park, J. C.; Hong, C. S.; Choi, I. K.; Cho, B. J.; Lee, H. Y.; Seo, I. S.; Park, N. K.
This report describes the annual results on control of training instrument. The scope and contents are the following: 1. Control of Compact Nuclear Simulator 2. Control of Radiation/Radioactivity Measurement 3. Control of Non-Destructive Testing Equipment 4. Control of Chemical Equipment 5. Control of Personal Computer 6. Other related Lecture Aid Equipment. Efforts were employed to upgrade the training environment through retrofitting experimental facilities, compiling teaching materials and reforcing audio-visual aids. The Nuclear Training Center executed the open-door training courses for 2,496 engineers/scientists from the nuclear regulatory, nuclear industries, research institutes and other related organizations by means of offering 45 training courses during the fiscal year 1995. (author). 15 tabs., 7 figs., 13 refs
Helton, M.; Young, P.
The use of a video camera for training is not a new idea and is used throughout the country for training in such areas as computers, car repair, music and even in such non-technical areas as fishing. Reviewing a taped simulator training session will aid the student in his job performance regardless of the position he holds in his organization. If the student is to be examined on simulator performance, video will aid in this training in many different ways
Chatterji, A; Sehgal, K
The Indian Health Organisation (IHO) is a nongovernmental organization based in Bombay with more than 12 years experience in HIV/AIDS prevention and control efforts. It has attacked ignorance and prejudice via communication efforts. IHO has created a bond with some hospital systems of Bombay. IHO disseminated information about HIV/AIDS in Bombay's red light districts and has bridged the gap between the city's medical establishment and the community most in need. IHO's aggressive street-level fighting in a sector replete with sensitive issues has somewhat isolated it from mainstream national NGOs involved in HIV/AIDS education and control as well as from the medical establishment and potential partners. IHO funds have been reduced, forcing IHO to reduce intervention programs and responses to field demands. It suffers from a high rate of turnover among middle management staff. IHO's chief advantage is its confidence gained over the past 12 years. IHO has clearly delineated the direction it wants to go: care and support programs for persons affected by HIV/AIDS and for commercial sex workers to allow them to quit prostitution, orphan care, and development of training institutions for the education and motivation of medical personnel on HIV/AIDS care and prevention. It plans to build a hospice for AIDS patients and orphans and a training center. Training activities will vary from one-week orientation programs to three-month certificate courses for medical workers, NGOs, and managers from the commercial sector. IHO is prepared to share its experiences in combating HIV/AIDS in Bombay in a team effort. As official and bilateral funding has been decreasing, IHO has targeted industry for funding. Industry has responded, which enables IHO to sustain its core programs and approaches. IHO observations show a decrease in the number of men visiting red-light districts. IHO enjoys a positive relationship with Bombay's media reporting on AIDS.
selected item will be filled in with a dot to indicate selection (Figure 7). Radio buttons have a small “i” icon next to the label that provide...Classroom, A13 78 Cognitive-Complex Decision Making, 14, 51, A5 Cognitive-Declarative, 14, 51, A5 Cognitive-Problem Solving, 14, 51, A5 ...Cognitive-Procedural, 14, 51, A5 Cognitive-Quantitative Reasoning, 14, 51, A5 Cognitive-Spatial Reasoning, 14, 51, A5 Collaboration, A9 Command and
modules to train individuals to distinguish gait deviations (trunk motion and lower-limb motion). Each of these modules help trainers improve their...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-10-1-0870 TITLE: Advanced Prosthetic Gait Training Tool PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Karim Abdel-Malek CONTRACTING...study is to produce a computer-based Advanced Prosthetic Gait Training Tool to aid in the training of clinicians at military treatment facilities
... 21, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 158 AIDS Myths and Misunderstandings WHY ARE THERE SO MANY ... support this belief. Myth: Current medications can cure AIDS. It’s no big deal if you get infected. ...
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001958.htm First aid kit To use the sharing features on this ... ahead, you can create a well-stocked home first aid kit. Keep all of your supplies in one ...
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español First Aid & Safety Keeping your child safe is your top ... do in an emergency, how to stock a first-aid kit, where to call for help, and more. ...
... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007579.htm Poisoning first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... burns Stupor Unconsciousness (coma) Unusual breath odor Weakness First Aid Seek immediate medical help. For poisoning by swallowing ...
... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000028.htm Head injury - first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... a concussion can range from mild to severe. First Aid Learning to recognize a serious head injury and ...
... Partner Spotlight Awareness Days Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or ... AIDS Get Email Updates on AAA Anonymous Feedback HIV/AIDS Media Infographics Syndicated Content Podcasts Slide Sets ...
... et al., eds. American Medical Association Handbook of First Aid and Emergency Care. New York: Random House; 2009. Accessed July 21, 2017. Piazza GM, et al. First Aid Manual. 3rd ed. London, England; New York, N. ...
... aids : Most parts are contained in a small plastic case that rests behind the ear; the case ... certain situations (for example, background noise and whistle reduction). They also have greater flexibility in hearing aid ...
... for Educators Search English Español First Aid: The Flu KidsHealth / For Parents / First Aid: The Flu Print ... tiredness What to Do If Your Child Has Flu Symptoms: Call your doctor. Encourage rest. Keep your ...
Briefly described is the activity of the Centre for the Research of Instruction Methods and Aids and experiences gained by the centre presented. The Centre is oriented to the research and testing of instruction and training objectives and content (curricula, programmes, professiograms), new methods (methodologies of individual subjects) and educational technologies (teaching aids, simulators, microcomputer Hvezda 1). Research works are carried out also Dukovany nuclear power plant training centre. (B.S.)
19 Feb 1983 ... deal with immunological changes in haemophiliacs similar to those in AIDS and indicate that a number of these patients may be at special risk, a finding supported by a report> of 3 ca es of AIDS identified in heterosexual haemophiliacs. An even more baffling finding is that AIDS is more prevalent in ...
... 12, 2017. Jevon P, et al. Part 5 — First-aid treatment for severe bleeding. Nursing Times. 2008;104:26. Oct. 19, 2017 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-severe-bleeding/basics/ART-20056661 . Mayo ...
... Skin problems. In: American Medical Association Handbook of First Aid and Emergency Care. New York, N.Y.: Random House; 2009. Jan. 12, 2018 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-puncture-wounds/basics/ART-20056665 . Mayo ...
Buiren, K.; Brouwer, E.
From economic theory we derive a set of hypotheses on the determination of state aid. Econometric analysis on EU state aid panel data is carried out to test whether the determinants we expect on the basis of theory, correspond to the occurrence of state aid in practice in the EU. We find that
... Also in Spanish Recreational Drugs and HIV (New Mexico AIDS Education and Training Center) Also in Spanish Side Effects of HIV Medicines: HIV and Diabetes (AIDSinfo) Also in Spanish Side Effects of HIV ...
Hansen, Annette Skovsted
Stakeholders of two success story events negotiated an idea of development as individual entrepreneurship. The sixty-five-year-old Japanese Foreign Aid history includes stories of successes told by professionals from developing countries throughout the world. Their stories reflect the cultural...... sector training programs partly financed by Japanese Official development Assistance (ODA)....
Nachman, Gøsta Støger; Skovgård, Henrik; Pedersen, Henrik Skovgård
Mark-recapture techniques are used for studies of animal populations. With only three sampling occasions, both Bailey's triple-catch (BTC) and Jolly-Seber's (J-S) stochastic method can be applied. As marking and handling of fragile organisms may harm them, and thereby affect their chances of being...... to compare the subsampling method with the ordinary mark-recapture methods. Model-generated populations were sampled with and without subsampling to provide estimates of population size, loss, and dilution rates. The estimated parameters were compared with their true values to identify biases associated...... with the sampling methods, using 81 different combinations of population size, dilution rate, loss rate, and sampling effort. Each combination was replicated 1,000 times. In no cases did subsampling perform more poorly than the ordinary methods. J-S was slightly more accurate than BTC to estimate the population...
Mariën, J.; Sluydts, V.; Borremans, B.; Gryseels, S.; Broecke, B. V.; Sabuni, C. A.; Katakweba, A. A. S.; Mulungu, L. S.; Günther, S.; Goüy de Bellocq, Joëlle; Massawe, A. W.; Leirs, H.
Roč. 11, č. 90 (2018), č. článku 90. ISSN 1756-3305 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus * trade-off hypothesis * mastomys-natalensis * cowpox virus * lassa-virus * mopeia virus * bank voles * populations * virulence * wild * Arenavirus * Morogoro virus * Survival analysis * Capture-mark-recapture * Host-parasite interaction Impact factor: 3.080, year: 2016
evolved since World War II in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. I review the aid process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of aid and categorize some of the key goals, principles and institutions of the aid system. The evidence on whether aid has...... been effective in furthering economic growth and development is discussed in some detail. I add perspective and identify some critical unresolved issues. I finally turn to the current development debate and discuss some key concerns, I believe should be kept in mind in formulating any agenda for aid...
Full Text Available The concepts, targets, tools, institutions and modes of operation of official development assistance have been overtaken by the pace of change in a world marked by the combined momentum of demography, technology and economic growth.Aid can however recover, as social consequences of the globalization call for new forms of regulation. It will then be necessary to modify and diversify our target-setting processes, to update operating procedures, and to find better ways of measuring policy implementation. Aid volumes will certainly continue to grow, and we must transform the way aid is financed. Public and private aid stakeholders must recognize the importance of these transformations and be ready to support them, by questioning the methods as well as the objectives of the policies they are implementing. Otherwise, they will severely impede the emergence of the policies we need if we are to build a better world.
Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin
The AEL (aid effectiveness literature) is econo¬metric studies of the macroeconomic effects of development aid. It contains about 100 papers of which 68 are reduced form estimates of theeffect of aid on growth in the recipient country. The raw data show that growth is unconnected to aid......, but the AEL has put so much structure on the data that all results possible have emerged. The present meta study considers both the best-set of the 68 papers and the all-set of 543 regressions published. Both sets have a positive average aid-growth elasticity, but it is small and insignificant: The AEL has...... betweenstudies is real. In particular, the aid-growth association is stronger for Asian countries, and the aid-growth association is shown to have been weaker in the 1970s....
Three Asian companies are investing in HIV/AIDS education and prevention schemes because they are starting to feel the effects of the HIV/AIDS pandemic on their workforces. A total of 17 companies from the region signed a document in the Fifth International Congress on AIDS in Asia and the Pacific committing to the fight against AIDS. The group said that effective workplace programs can prevent an increase in absenteeism, health care costs and labor turnover, a decrease in productivity, loss of experienced personnel and the need for increased resources to hire and retrain replacements. American International Assurance in Thailand accredits companies with effective HIV/AIDS campaigns in the workplace and gives them a 5-10% discount on premiums on group life insurance policies. At Freeport Mining in Indonesia, an HIV/AIDS campaign markedly improved condom usage rates and decreased incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among workers. Meanwhile, India's Tata Tea Limited expanded its health services to include surveys, training, education, and counseling on HIV/AIDS and STDs.
Hanson, L.B.; Grand, J.B.; Mitchell, M.S.; Jolley, D.B.; Sparklin, B.D.; Ditchkoff, S.S.
Closed-population capture-mark-recapture (CMR) methods can produce biased density estimates for species with low or heterogeneous detection probabilities. In an attempt to address such biases, we developed a density-estimation method based on the change in ratio (CIR) of survival between two populations where survival, calculated using an open-population CMR model, is known to differ. We used our method to estimate density for a feral pig (Sus scrofa) population on Fort Benning, Georgia, USA. To assess its validity, we compared it to an estimate of the minimum density of pigs known to be alive and two estimates based on closed-population CMR models. Comparison of the density estimates revealed that the CIR estimator produced a density estimate with low precision that was reasonable with respect to minimum known density. By contrast, density point estimates using the closed-population CMR models were less than the minimum known density, consistent with biases created by low and heterogeneous capture probabilities for species like feral pigs that may occur in low density or are difficult to capture. Our CIR density estimator may be useful for tracking broad-scale, long-term changes in species, such as large cats, for which closed CMR models are unlikely to work. ?? CSIRO 2008.
Correia, M; Palma, J; Koldewey, H; Andrade, J P
In this study, the spot pattern in Hippocampus guttulatus was analysed using a computer programme algorithm that allowed individual comparison. This methodology was first tested in a controlled environment using 51 adult and 55 juvenile H. guttulatus. Positive matches were obtained in 86·3 and 83·6% of the adults and juveniles, respectively. In a second experiment, monthly surveys were carried out in five selected locations in the Ria Formosa Lagoon, south Portugal, over the course of a year and a total of 980 photographs were analysed. Photographed H. guttulatus were re-sighted one to nine times during the course of the survey period with an overall re-sight record of over 30%. Photo-identification was therefore shown to be a useful tool for non-invasive mark-recapture studies that can be successfully used to survey the population abundance of H. guttulatus aged 6 months or older in consecutive years. This could be of great value when considering the assessment of H. guttulatus populations and understanding changes over time. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.
McCrea, Rachel S.; Roberts, David L.
The illegal trade in elephant ivory is driving the unlawful killing of elephants such that populations are now suffering unsustainable reductions. The internet is increasingly being used as a platform to conduct illegal wildlife trade, including elephant ivory. As a globally accessible medium the internet is as highly attractive to those involved in the illegal trade as it is challenging to regulate. Characterising the online illegal wildlife (ivory) trade is complex, yet key to informing enforcement activities. We applied mark-recapture to investigate behaviour associated with the online trade in elephant ivory on eBay UK as a generalist online marketplace. Our results indicate that trade takes place via eBay UK, despite its policy prohibiting this, and that two distinct trading populations exist, characterised by the pattern of their ivory sales. We suggest these may represent a large number of occasional (or non-commercial) sellers and a smaller number of dedicated (or commercial) sellers. Directing resource towards reducing the volume of occasional sales, such as through education, would enable greater focus to be placed upon characterising the extent and value of the illegal, “commercial” online ivory trade. MRC has the potential to characterise the illegal trade in ivory and diverse wildlife commodities traded using various online platforms. PMID:28289565
Chan, Stephen C Y; Karczmarski, Leszek
Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) inhabiting Hong Kong waters are thought to be among the world's most anthropogenically impacted coastal delphinids. We have conducted a 5-year (2010-2014) photo-ID study and performed the first in this region comprehensive mark-recapture analysis applying a suite of open population models and robust design models. Cormack-Jolly-Seber (CJS) models suggested a significant transient effect and seasonal variation in apparent survival probabilities as result of a fluid movement beyond the study area. Given the spatial restrictions of our study, limited by an administrative border, if emigration was to be considered negligible the estimated survival rate of adults was 0.980. Super-population estimates indicated that at least 368 dolphins used Hong Kong waters as part of their range. Closed robust design models suggested an influx of dolphins from winter to summer and increased site fidelity in summer; and outflux, although less prominent, during summer-winter intervals. Abundance estimates in summer (N = 144-231) were higher than that in winter (N = 87-111), corresponding to the availability of prey resources which in Hong Kong waters peaks during summer months. We point out that the current population monitoring strategy used by the Hong Kong authorities is ill-suited for a timely detection of a population change and should be revised.
Stephen C Y Chan
Full Text Available Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis inhabiting Hong Kong waters are thought to be among the world's most anthropogenically impacted coastal delphinids. We have conducted a 5-year (2010-2014 photo-ID study and performed the first in this region comprehensive mark-recapture analysis applying a suite of open population models and robust design models. Cormack-Jolly-Seber (CJS models suggested a significant transient effect and seasonal variation in apparent survival probabilities as result of a fluid movement beyond the study area. Given the spatial restrictions of our study, limited by an administrative border, if emigration was to be considered negligible the estimated survival rate of adults was 0.980. Super-population estimates indicated that at least 368 dolphins used Hong Kong waters as part of their range. Closed robust design models suggested an influx of dolphins from winter to summer and increased site fidelity in summer; and outflux, although less prominent, during summer-winter intervals. Abundance estimates in summer (N = 144-231 were higher than that in winter (N = 87-111, corresponding to the availability of prey resources which in Hong Kong waters peaks during summer months. We point out that the current population monitoring strategy used by the Hong Kong authorities is ill-suited for a timely detection of a population change and should be revised.
Nichols, James D.; Hines, James E.
We first consider the estimation of the finite rate of population increase or population growth rate, u i , using capture-recapture data from open populations. We review estimation and modelling of u i under three main approaches to modelling openpopulation data: the classic approach of Jolly (1965) and Seber (1965), the superpopulation approach of Crosbie & Manly (1985) and Schwarz & Arnason (1996), and the temporal symmetry approach of Pradel (1996). Next, we consider the contributions of different demographic components to u i using a probabilistic approach based on the composition of the population at time i + 1 (Nichols et al., 2000b). The parameters of interest are identical to the seniority parameters, n i , of Pradel (1996). We review estimation of n i under the classic, superpopulation, and temporal symmetry approaches. We then compare these direct estimation approaches for u i and n i with analogues computed using projection matrix asymptotics. We also discuss various extensions of the estimation approaches to multistate applications and to joint likelihoods involving multiple data types.
In recent years, there has been an increase in technically advanced systems and equipment and a need for highly skilled and knowledgeable maintenance technicians to maintain them. To implement an effective training program, training groups' and plant staffs' key to success must be cooperation and creativity. This paper deals with plant staff interface and how to effectively conduct performance-based training while holding the line on costs. This paper includes cost effective and innovative measures to produce performance-based training for maintenance disciplines including: Using the plants staff as a resource as subject matter experts in the development and verification of training materials. Using the plant staff as a resource for the construction of training aids. Using salvage and surplus to produce high quality, low cost training aids. Using cutaways for better understanding of he theory of equipment operation. These cost saving practices are currently being used at Gulf States Utilities' River Bend Nuclear Station
Coates, Mitchell; Lamb, Janeen; Bartlett, Brendan; Datta, Poulomee
The content and structure of pre-service and teacher-aide programs has major implications for training, management, support and deployment of teachers and teacher-aides in mainstream schools working with students who have ASD. Data pertaining to course content and structure were collected from university and teacher-aide training websites, program…
First aid Fractures (broken bones) Fractures (broken bones): First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff A fracture is a ... 10, 2018 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-fractures/basics/ART-20056641 . Mayo Clinic ...
Bakke, H K; Steinvik, T; Eidissen, S-I; Gilbert, M; Wisborg, T
Bystander first aid and basic life support can likely improve victim survival in trauma. In contrast to bystander first aid and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, little is known about the role of bystanders in trauma response. Our aim was to determine how frequently first aid is given to trauma victims by bystanders, the quality of this aid, the professional background of first-aid providers, and whether previous first-aid training affects aid quality. We conducted a prospective 18-month study in two mixed urban-rural Norwegian counties. The personnel on the first ambulance responding to trauma calls assessed and documented first aid performed by bystanders using a standard form. A total of 330 trauma calls were included, with bystanders present in 97% of cases. Securing an open airway was correctly performed for 76% of the 43 patients in need of this first-aid measure. Bleeding control was provided correctly for 81% of 63 patients for whom this measure was indicated, and prevention of hypothermia for 62% of 204 patients. Among the first-aid providers studied, 35% had some training in first aid. Bystanders with documented first-aid training gave better first aid than those where first-aid training status was unknown. A majority of the trauma patients studied received correct pre-hospital first aid, but still there is need for considerable improvement, particularly hypothermia prevention. Previous first-aid training seems to improve the quality of first aid provided. The effect on patient survival needs to be investigated. © 2015 The Authors. The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
As a means of aiding progress in improving food production, a seven-weeks training course on the use of radioisotopes and radiation in soil and plant nutrition is to be held in Teheran, starting on 3 November. It will be open to scientists sponsored by Governments of countries in Africa, the Middle East, Asia and the Far East. (author)
Meehan, S T
In its fight against the spread of AIDS, which is inextricably linked to the issues of international development, the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) has focused support on strengthening existing health care systems, helping vulnerable groups gain control over their lives and health, promoting AIDS prevention measures, and building links to other related health services. Funding includes 1) a grant to Hope House in Zambia (counseling and support for persons with AIDS); 2) a contribution to the Canadian Public Health Association's $11 million Southern Africa AIDS Training Programme (helps regional organizations working in AIDS prevention and support through education, training, hospital outreach, peer education for vulnerable groups, assistance to women's shelters, and networking); 3) support for Laval University's Laval Centre for International Cooperation in Health and Development (runs a $22 million program in French-speaking West Africa that operates in over 10 countries and focuses on epidemiological surveillance, information, education, and communication, control of sexually transmitted diseases [STDs], and management of national AIDS programs); 4) support for the University of Manitoba's $3 million program with the University of Nairobi to slow the spread of HIV (strengthens local health care capabilities for STD/HIV diagnosis, treatment, and counseling, with special emphasis on training and education); 5) support in the past for a study of proposed AIDS legislation and its potential impact on the human rights of PLWHIV/AIDS in Thailand; 6) a contribution to help equip the office of the National Movement for Street Children, Rio de Janeiro (focuses on preventing the spread of AIDS among child prostitutes); and 7) long-term financial support to the Interagency Coalition on AIDS and Development, a coalition of Canadian development nongovernmental organizations responding to AIDS in developing countries. An address to obtain a pamphlet giving
Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn
, are being drawn on the basis of fragile evidence. This paper first assesses the aid-growth literature with a focus on recent contributions. The aid-growth literature is then framed, for the first time, in terms of the Rubin Causal Model, applied at the macroeconomic level. Our results show that aid has......The micro-macro paradox has been revived. Despite broadly positive evaluations at the micro and meso-levels, recent literature has turned decidedly pessimistic with respect to the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth. Policy implications, such as the complete cessation of aid to Africa...... a positive and statistically significant causal effect on growth over the long run with point estimates at levels suggested by growth theory. We conclude that aid remains an important tool for enhancing the development prospects of poor nations....
Czerwiec, M K
Matthew P. McAllister wrote: "Comic books can and have contributed positively to the discourse about AIDS: images that encourage true education, understanding and compassion can help cope with a biomedical condition which has more than a biomedical relevance" . With this in mind, I combined a 23-narrator oral history and my personal memoir about an inpatient Chicago AIDS hospital unit in my book, Taking Turns: Stories from HIV/AIDS Care Unit 371. In doing so, I built upon the existing rich history of HIV/AIDS in comics, which this article will briefly describe. Although not a comprehensive review of the intersection of AIDS and comics, the book is a tour through influences that proved useful to me. In addition, in making my book, I faced a distinct ethical issue with regard to representing patient experiences with HIV/AIDS, and I describe here how I addressed it. © 2018 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
Mahmoud, Mohammed Bashir
The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has impacted the civilized world like no other disease. This research aimed to discuss some of the main aids-related complications and their detection by radiology tests, specifically central nervous system and musculoskeletal system disorders. The objectives are: to show specific characteristics of various diseases of HIV patient, to analyze the effect of pathology in patients by radiology, to enhance the knowledge of technologists in aids imaging and to improve communication skills between patient and radiology technologists
The challenge of making training decisions with a high degree of confidence as to the results of those decisions face every DOD, Federal, State, and City agency. Training has historically been a very labor and paper intensive system with limited automation support. This paper outlines how one DOD component, the Air Force, is approaching that challenge. The Training Decision System (TDS) will provide the Air Force with an automated decision aid to help plan and estimate the consequences of various mixes of resident training, On-The-Job Training (OJT), and field training within a specialty such as security. The system described provides training from enlistment to separation and responds to hundreds of related security task needs. This system identifies what the tasks are, who should provide the training, what training setting should be used, what proficiency should be achieved, and through computer modeling provides an assessment of training effectiveness options and estimate the impact of implementing those options. With current budgetary constraints and with the possibility of further reductions in the future, the most cost effective training mix must be found to sustain required capabilities
either the M16 or M4 that allows for easy adjustment of the front sight post. The device should be durable. Rifle Qualification “ Nintendo game...Per some DSs, a Nintendo -type device that allows a Soldier to practice shooting record qualification already exists and is located in the museum at
Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn
The micro-macro paradox has been revived. Despite broadly positive evaluations at the micro- and meso-levels, recent literature doubts the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth and development. This paper assesses the aid-growth literature and, taking inspiration from the program...... evaluation literature, we re-examine key hypotheses. In our findings, aid has a positive and statistically significant causal effect on growth over the long run, with confidence intervals conforming to levels suggested by growth theory. Aid remains a key tool for enhancing the development prospects of poor...
Madsen, Sara M K; Moore, Brian C J
The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. © The Author(s) 2014.
Sara M. K. Madsen
Full Text Available The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems.
Tarp, Finn; Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel
inputs. We take as our point of departure a growth accounting analysis and review both intended and unintended effects of aid. Mozambique has benefited from sustained aid inflows in conflict, post-conflict and reconstruction periods. In each of these phases aid has made an unambiguous, positive...... contribution both enabling and supporting rapid growth since 1992. At the same time, the proliferation of donors and aid-supported interventions has burdened local administration and there is a distinct need to develop government accountability to its own citizens rather than donor agencies. In ensuring...
evolved since World War II in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. I review the aid process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of aid and categorize some of the key goals, principles and institutions of the aid system. The evidence on whether aid has...... been effective in furthering economic growth and development is discussed in some detail. I add perspective and identify some critical unresolved issues. I finally turn to the current development debate and discuss some key concerns, which I believe should be kept in mind in formulating any agenda...
This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: Practical Tools for Radiation Emergency Preparedness. A specialist working with CDC's Radiation Studies Branch describes Psychological First Aid and a newly developed multimedia training program, entitled "Psychological First Aid in Radiation Disasters.". Created: 12/30/2010 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH) Radiation Studies Branch and Emergency Risk Communication Branch (ERCB)/Joint Information Center (JIC); Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR). Date Released: 1/13/2011.
evaluate the performance of mark-recapture population size estimators under field conditions, which is essential for selecting an appropriate method and obtaining reliable results in ecology and conservation biology, and thus for sound management.
"Japan's technical assistance programs to Asian countries are summarized. Movements of high-level manpower accompanying direct foreign investments by private enterprise are also reviewed. Proposals for increased human resources development include education and training of foreigners in Japan as well as the training of Japanese aid experts and the development of networks for information exchange." excerpt
It is estimated that 33% of deaths among the working population in Thailand by the year 2000 will result from AIDS. AIDS mortality will bring decreased productivity, increased healthcare costs, a decline in tourism, reduced labor exports, and labor shortages. The AIDS epidemic in the country therefore has a direct impact upon companies' productivity and resulting profitability. Acknowledging this reality and the need for action, the Managing Director of Northwest Airlines for Thailand, Indochina, and West Asia, James P. Reinnoldt, and the General Manager of Bangkok's Regent Hotel, Bill Black, started the nonprofit Thailand Business Coalition on AIDS (TBCA) to combat AIDS. The TBCA will provide leadership, coordination, education, and resources to help companies and the business sector get a positive response to the AIDS dilemma. The organization was established to lead through and beyond the AIDS epidemic in the interest of business by promoting coherent HIV/AIDS policies and workplace education with help from nongovernmental organizations. The TBCA will be supported by membership dues, private contributions, and grants. Member companies will receive a manual and a quarterly newsletter and be allowed to join a training course on managing AIDS in the workplace. The organization's target of enlisting 250 member companies within the next 12 months means that help will be rendered in the training of 50,000 Thai workers.
Flak, Marianne M; Hernes, Susanne S; Chang, Linda; Ernst, Thomas; Douet, Vanessa; Skranes, Jon; Løhaugen, Gro C C
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a condition characterized by memory problems that are more severe than the normal cognitive changes due to aging, but less severe than dementia. Reduced working memory (WM) is regarded as one of the core symptoms of an MCI condition. Recent studies have indicated that WM can be improved through computer-based training. The objective of this study is to evaluate if WM training is effective in improving cognitive function in elderly patients with MCI, and if cognitive training induces structural changes in the white and gray matter of the brain, as assessed by structural MRI. The proposed study is a blinded, randomized, controlled trail that will include 90 elderly patients diagnosed with MCI at a hospital-based memory clinic. The participants will be randomized to either a training program or a placebo version of the program. The intervention is computerized WM training performed for 45 minutes of 25 sessions over 5 weeks. The placebo version is identical in duration but is non-adaptive in the difficulty level of the tasks. Neuropsychological assessment and structural MRI will be performed before and 1 month after training, and at a 5-month folllow-up. If computer-based training results in positive changes to memory functions in patients with MCI this may represent a new, cost-effective treatment for MCI. Secondly, evaluation of any training-induced structural changes to gray or white matter will improve the current understanding of the mechanisms behind effective cognitive interventions in patients with MCI. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01991405. November 18, 2013.
Rahmani, Fouad Lazhar
The aim of this paper is to present mathematical modelling of the spread of infection in the context of the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). These models are based in part on the models suggested in the field of th AIDS mathematical modelling as reported by ISHAM .
Addison, Tony; Morrissey, Oliver; Tarp, Finn
This Special Issue explores macroeconomic effects of aid from various perspectives through a blend of studies, both conceptual and empirical in nature. The overall aim is to enhance the understanding of the macroeconomic dimensions of aid in the policy and research communities, and to inspire...
Pohl, Melvin I.
After defining HIV and the AIDS disease and outlining symptoms and means of infection, this fact sheet lists the ways alcohol and drugs are involved with the AIDS epidemic, noting that needle-sharing transmits the virus; that alcohol or mood-altering drugs like crack cocaine cause disinhibition, increase sex drive, encourage sex for drugs, and…
Jones, Edward Samuel
of data spanning nearly 50 years, this paper uses panel cointegration techniques to consider these issues. The analysis provides clear evidence for heterogeneity both between donors and over time, bandwagon effects, and a growing influence of security considerations in aid provision. Domestic...... macroeconomic shocks have a moderate but delayed effect on aid disbursements....
Huddleston, Thomas, Jr.; Batty, Burt F.
Student financial assistance services are becoming a major part of the institutional marketing plan as traditional college-age students decline in numbers and price competition among institutions increases. The effect of financial aid on enrollment and admissions processes is discussed along with the role of the financial aid officer. (Author/LBH)
Lof, Matthijs; Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh; Tarp, Finn
to nonrandom omission of a large proportion of observations. Furthermore, we show that NDHKM’s use of co-integrated regressions is not a suitable empirical strategy for estimating the causal effect of aid on income. Evidence from a Panel VAR model estimated on the dataset of NDHKM, suggests a positive...... and statistically significant long-run effect of aid on income....
Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin
The AEL consists of empirical macro studies of the effects of development aid. At the end of 2004 it had reached 97 studies of three families, which we have summarized in one study each using meta-analysis. Studies of the effect on investments show that they rise by 1/3 of the aid – the rest is c...
... last rabies vaccination, if known any recent unusual behavior by the animal the animal's location, if known if the animal ... Scratches First Aid: Cuts First Aid: Skin Infections Cat Scratch ... Safe Around Animals Cuts, Scratches, and Abrasions Rabies Cuts, Scratches, and ...
Moradian, M.A.; Chow, M.P.; Osborne, R.L.; Jenkins, M.A.
The Westinghouse Turbine Artificial Intelligence Diagnostics system or TurbinAID, can diagnose both thermodynamic and mechanical component anomalies within the turbine, and around the turbine cycle. any monitoring system can detect that a variable is in an abnormal state, but TurbinAID can also indicate the cause, and provide recommended corrective action(s). The TurbinAID Expert Systems utilize multiple sensor and variable inputs, and their interdependencies in the generation of a diagnosis. The system performs sensor validation as part of the data acquisition scheme. The TurbinAID system has been in operation for several years. This paper describes the monitoring and diagnostic functions provided by TurbinAID, and how the utility industry both nuclear and fossil, can utilize the system to enhance unit operation
Schoenfisch, Ashley L; Lipscomb, Hester; Phillips, Leslie E
A rate-based understanding of home care aides' adverse occupational outcomes related to their work location and care tasks is lacking. Within a 30-month, dynamic cohort of 43 394 home care aides in Washington State, injury rates were calculated by aides' demographic and work characteristics. Injury narratives and focus groups provided contextual detail. Injury rates were higher for home care aides categorized as female, white, 50 to working through an agency (versus individual providers). In addition to direct occupational hazards, variability in workload, income, and supervisory/social support is of concern. Policies should address the roles and training of home care aides, consumers, and managers/supervisors. Home care aides' improved access to often-existing resources to identify, manage, and eliminate occupational hazards is called for to prevent injuries and address concerns related to the vulnerability of this needed workforce. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Washington, DC.
This booklet contains excerpts of the training-related requirements of the standards promulgated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). It is designed as an aid for employers, safety and health professionals, and others who need to know training requirements. (References to training may be difficult to locate in the long and…
... operations. (5) LNG release response procedures. (6) First aid procedures for— (i) Frostbite; (ii) Burns... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Training: General. 127.503... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Personnel Training § 127.503 Training: General. The...
Rossi, Sophie; Toigo, Carole; Hars, Jean; Pol, Françoise; Hamann, Jean-Luc; Depner, Klaus; Le Potier, Marie-Frederique
The understanding of host-parasite systems in wildlife is of increasing interest in relation to the risk of emerging diseases in livestock and humans. In this respect, many efforts have been dedicated to controlling classical swine fever (CSF) in the European Wild Boar. But CSF eradication has not always been achieved even though vaccination has been implemented at a large-scale. Piglets have been assumed to be the main cause of CSF persistence in the wild since they appeared to be more often infected and less often immune than older animals. However, this assumption emerged from laboratory trials or cross-sectional surveys based on the hunting bags. In the present paper we conducted a capture-mark-recapture study in free-ranging wild boar piglets that experienced both CSF infection and vaccination under natural conditions. We used multi-state capture recapture models to estimate the immunization and infection rates, and their variations according to the periods with or without vaccination. According to the model prediction, 80% of the infected piglets did not survive more than two weeks, while the other 20% quickly recovered. The probability of becoming immune did not increase significantly during the summer vaccination sessions, and the proportion of immune piglets was not higher after the autumn vaccination. Given the high lethality of CSF in piglets highlighted in our study, we consider unlikely that piglets could maintain the chain of CSF virus transmission. Our study also revealed the low efficacy of vaccination in piglets in summer and autumn, possibly due to the low palatability of baits to that age class, but also to the competition between baits and alternative food sources. Based on this new information, we discuss the prospects for the improvement of CSF control and the interest of the capture-recapture approach for improving the understanding of wildlife diseases.
Pek, Jen Heng
Cardiac life support is a form of first aid for cardiac emergencies. However, research and evidence in this field is lacking compared with other forms of first aid. Having identified the common emergencies that are encountered in the hospital, based on the available evidence, we have put together what could be an evidence-based approach to the first aid management of some of these common emergencies, viz. breathlessness, chest pain, allergies, stroke, heat injury, poisoning, unconsciousness, seizures, and trauma situations such as bleeding, wounds, contusions, head injury, burns and fractures. Educating the public is the key to developing a first responder bystander. These guidelines could become the basis for training of the public. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.
Misra, S.M.; Ramaswamy, L.R.; Gohel, N.; Bharadwaj, G.; Ranade, M.R.; Khadilkar, M.G.
Systems with significant software contents are replacing the old hardware logic systems. These systems not only are versatile but are easy to make changes in the program. Extensive use of such systems in critical real-time operation environment warrants not only excessive training on simulators, documentation but also fault tolerant system to bring the operation to a safe state in case of error. With new graphic user software interface and advancement in personal computer hardware design, the dynamic status of the physical environment can be shown on the visual display at near real time. These visual aids along with the software covering all the interlocks aids an operator in his professional work. This paper highlights the operator aid system for Dhruva fueling machine. (author). 6 refs., 1 fig
Larcan, Alain; Julien, Henri
First-aid--treatment aimed at enabling a victim to survive pending the arrival of qualified medical support--is less well developed in France than in many other industrialized countries, especially among the general public. The current status of first-aid in France is paradoxical: schooling is free and obligatory, the ambulance service and emergency services are of the highest quality, but the general public are too often passive and unknowledgeable when faced with an emergency situation. This situation is due to several factors, including the complexity of first-aid training and regulations, the involvement of too many public bodies, the legal liability of the first-aider, and a lack of ongoing training. The French National Academy of Medicine recommends 8 measures to improve this situation: Provide a legal definition of first-aid: "a set of recognized measures aimed, in an emergency setting, at preserving the physical and psychological integrity of the victim of an accident or illness, notably pending the arrival of professional medical assistance". Waive, as in many other countries, civil and legal responsibility for the non professional first-aider, except in case of clear negligence. Reinforce the organization of first-aid in France in order to monitor the number and quality of first-aiders, and to ensure theoretical and pedagogic research; create a communications department capable of supporting and promoting first-aid. Improve access to first-aid training by increasing the number of situations in which it is obligatory (driving tuition, school and university examinations, group responsibility, at-risk practices), by providing financial assistance for certain groups, and by ensuring routine training at school, in the armed forces, and in the workplace. Create a progressive and integrated citizen first-aid training course with individual modules, ensuring that first-aiders update and perfect their knowledge throughout life. Soften pedagogic rules and shorten
Clausen, P.; Frederiksen, M.; Percival, S. M.
areas by intensive field studies. In this paper we use standard capture-recapture analysis to investigate seasonal and annual survival rates of the population. We divided the year into three periods with different spatial distribution of the geese, autumn (September-December), winter (Jan...... spring to autumn (0.982 MSR), -resulting in an overall annual survival rate of 0.870. We discuss the variation in seasonal and annual mortality rates in relation to constraints faced by the birds such as seasonal changes in availability of food resources, severe winters, long-distance migration...
Perhaps more than any other disease in recent history, AIDS has taught a cruel and crucial lesson: the constraints on our response to this epidemic are as deep as our denial, as entrenched as the inequities that permeate our society, as circumscribed as our knowledge, and as unlimited as our compassion and our commitment to human rights. Elaborating on these themes, the final three articles in this Special Section on AIDS consider three widely divergent yet intimately connected topics: AIDS in Cuba, AIDS in Brazil, and global AIDS prevention in the 1990s. Together, they caution that if we persist in treating AIDS as a problem only of "others," no country will be spared the social and economic devastation that promises to be the cost of our contempt and our folly. Solidarity is not an option; it is a necessity. Without conscious recognition of the worldwide relationship between health, human rights, and social inequalities, our attempts to abate the spread of AIDS--and to ease the suffering that follows in its wake--most surely will fall short of our goals. Finally, as we mourn our dead, we must take to heart the words of Mother Jones, and "fight like hell for living." This is the politics of survival.
Elias, A M
In April 1991, the Ethnic Communities' Council of NSW was granted funding under the Community AIDS Prevention and Education Program through the Department of Community Services and Health, to produce a series of 6x50 second AIDS radio triggers with a 10-second tag line for further information. The triggers are designed to disseminate culturally-sensitive information about HIV/AIDS in English, Italian, Greek, Spanish, Khmer, Turkish, Macedonian, Serbo-Croatian, Arabic, Cantonese, and Vietnamese, with the goal of increasing awareness and decreasing the degree of misinformation about HIV/AIDS among people of non-English-speaking backgrounds through radio and sound. The 6 triggers cover the denial that AIDS exists in the community, beliefs that words and feelings do not protect one from catching HIV, encouraging friends to be compassionate, compassion within the family, AIDS information for a young audience, and the provision of accurate and honest information on HIV/AIDS. The triggers are slated to be completed by the end of July 1991 and will be broadcast on all possible community, ethnic, and commercial radio networks across Australia. They will be available upon request in composite form with an information kit for use by health care professionals and community workers.
Even though the workplace is ideal for promoting HIV/STD (sexually transmitted disease) prevention to benefit workers and employers, many workplaces are not convinced that they should be involved in HIV/AIDS and STD education, prevention, and support. They do not realize that time and money spent on health programs save them money. Perhaps they do not feel obligated to protect the health of their employees. The AIDS epidemic adversely affects society and the economy at both the macro and micro level. AIDS tends to strike the productive age group, thereby seriously affecting the workplace. In many Sub-Saharan African countries, at least 20% of the urban workforce may be infected with HIV. Persons living with HIV include top management, skilled professionals, general hands, and farm laborers. HIV/AIDS costs for formal employment are assumed through reduced productivity; increased costs of occupational benefits and social security measures; loss of skilled labor, professionals, and managerial expertise as well as the experience among workers; increased costs of training and recruitment; and low morale from stigmatization, discrimination, and subsequent industrial relation problems. Needed are comprehensive HIV/AIDS and STD workplace programs that ensure the rights of persons with HIV and compassionate treatment of these persons. Trade union or other labor representatives, management, and appropriate government departments should work together and build on existing health legislation and policy to bring about effective negotiation and policy development concerning AIDS and employment. Training of peer educators, support services (counseling, STD referral and/or treatment), community action, management commitment, monitoring and evaluation, and supportive workplace conditions make for effective comprehensive workplace programs. Successful programs operate in fishing villages in Tanzania, tea plantations in India, the University of Papua New Guinea, and Ugandan army
Belkora, Jeff; Volz, Shelley; Loth, Meredith; Teng, Alexandra; Zarin-Pass, Margot; Moore, Dan; Esserman, Laura
Background Decision aids educate patients about treatment options and outcomes. Communication aids include question lists, consultation summaries, and audio-recordings. In efficacy studies, decision aids increased patient knowledge, while communication aids increased patient question-asking and information recall. Starting in 2004, we trained successive cohorts of post-baccalaureate, pre-medical interns to coach patients in the use of decision and communication aids at our university-based br...
... Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets the body’s immune ... and often leads to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). The U.S. CDC reported that in 2015, 39, ...
... Policy The Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic The Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic Published: Nov 29, 2017 Facebook Twitter ... 2001-FY 2018 Request The Global Response to HIV/AIDS International efforts to combat HIV began in ...
... if desired. What questions should I ask before buying hearing aids? Before you buy a hearing aid, ... the period of warranty? Does the warranty cover future maintenance and repairs? Will loaner aids be provided ...
Full Text Available In order to develop oral communication, hearing impaired infants and young children must be able to hear speech comfortably and consistently. To day children with all degrees of hearing loss may be condidates for some kinds of amlification. As children differ from adults, many Factors should be consider in hearing aid selection, evaluation and fitting. For example the child age when he or she is candidate for custom instruments? Do we consider programmable Hearing aid? Are multi memory instruments appropriate for them? What about directional microphones? What style of hearing aid do we select? In this paper such questions are Answered.
Selaya, Pablo; Thiele, Rainer
This article examines empirically the proposition that aid to poor countries is detrimental for external competitiveness, giving rise to Dutch disease type effects. At the aggregate level, aid is found to have a positive effect on growth. A sectoral decomposition shows that the effect is (i......) significant and positive in the tradable and the nontradable sectors, and (ii) equally strong in both sectors. The article thus provides no empirical support for the hypothesis that aid reduces external competitiveness in developing countries. A possible reason for this finding is the existence of large idle...
Tarp, Finn; Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh
Recent litterature in the meta-analysis category where results from a range of studies are brought together throws doubt on the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth and development. This article assesses what meta-analysis has to contribute to the litterature on the effectiveness...... of foreign aid in terms of growth impact. We re-examine key hypotheses, and find that the effect of aid on growth is positive and statistically significant. This significant effect is genuine, and not an artefact of publication selection. We also show why our results differ from those published elsewhere....
Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh; Tarp, Finn
Some recent literature in the meta-analysis category where results from a range of studies are brought together throws doubt on the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth and development. This paper assesses what meta-analysis has to say about the effectiveness of foreign aid in terms...... of the growth impact. We re-examine key hypotheses, and find that the effect of aid on growth is positive and statistically significant. This significant effect is genuine, and not an artefact of publication selection. We also show why our results differ from those published elsewhere....
Eaton, Mitchell J.; Link, William A.
Estimating the age of individuals in wild populations can be of fundamental importance for answering ecological questions, modeling population demographics, and managing exploited or threatened species. Significant effort has been devoted to determining age through the use of growth annuli, secondary physical characteristics related to age, and growth models. Many species, however, either do not exhibit physical characteristics useful for independent age validation or are too rare to justify sacrificing a large number of individuals to establish the relationship between size and age. Length-at-age models are well represented in the fisheries and other wildlife management literature. Many of these models overlook variation in growth rates of individuals and consider growth parameters as population parameters. More recent models have taken advantage of hierarchical structuring of parameters and Bayesian inference methods to allow for variation among individuals as functions of environmental covariates or individual-specific random effects. Here, we describe hierarchical models in which growth curves vary as individual-specific stochastic processes, and we show how these models can be fit using capture–recapture data for animals of unknown age along with data for animals of known age. We combine these independent data sources in a Bayesian analysis, distinguishing natural variation (among and within individuals) from measurement error. We illustrate using data for African dwarf crocodiles, comparing von Bertalanffy and logistic growth models. The analysis provides the means of predicting crocodile age, given a single measurement of head length. The von Bertalanffy was much better supported than the logistic growth model and predicted that dwarf crocodiles grow from 19.4 cm total length at birth to 32.9 cm in the first year and 45.3 cm by the end of their second year. Based on the minimum size of females observed with hatchlings, reproductive maturity was estimated
Rotella, J.J.; Link, W.A.; Chambert, T.; Stauffer, G.E.; Garrott, R.A.
1.Life-history theory predicts that those vital rates that make larger contributions to population growth rate ought to be more strongly buffered against environmental variability than are those that are less important. Despite the importance of the theory for predicting demographic responses to changes in the environment, it is not yet known how pervasive demographic buffering is in animal populations because the validity of most existing studies has been called into question because of methodological deficiencies. 2.We tested for demographic buffering in the southern-most breeding mammal population in the world using data collected from 5558 known-age female Weddell seals over 30years. We first estimated all vital rates simultaneously with mark-recapture analysis and then estimated process variance and covariance in those rates using a hierarchical Bayesian approach. We next calculated the population growth rate's sensitivity to changes in each of the vital rates and tested for evidence of demographic buffering by comparing properly scaled values of sensitivity and process variance in vital rates. 3.We found evidence of positive process covariance between vital rates, which indicates that all vital rates are affected in the same direction by changes in annual environment. Despite the positive correlations, we found strong evidence that demographic buffering occurred through reductions in variation in the vital rates to which population growth rate was most sensitive. Process variation in vital rates was inversely related to sensitivity measures such that variation was greatest in breeding probabilities, intermediate for survival rates of young animals and lowest for survival rates of older animals. 4.Our work contributes to a small but growing set of studies that have used rigorous methods on long-term, detailed data to investigate demographic responses to environmental variation. The information from these studies improves our understanding of life
Gore, Mauvis A.; Frey, Peter H.; Ormond, Rupert F.; Allan, Holly; Gilkes, Gabriella
Following centuries of exploitation, basking sharks (Cetorhinus maximus) are considered by IUCN as Endangered in the Northeast Atlantic, where they have now been substantially protected for over two decades. However, the present size of this population remains unknown. We investigated the use of photo-identification of individuals’ dorsal fins, combined with mark-recapture methodology, to investigate the size of populations of basking shark within the west coast of Scotland. From a total of 921 encounters photographed between 2004 and 2011, 710 sharks were found to be individually identifiable based on dorsal fin damage and natural features. Of these, only 41 individuals were re-sighted, most commonly both within days of, and close to the site of, the initial encounter. A smaller number were re-sighted after longer periods of up to two years. A comparison of the distinguishing features of individuals on first recording and subsequent re-sighting showed that in almost all cases these features remained little changed, suggesting the low re-sighting rate was not due to a loss of distinguishing features. Because of the low number of re-sighting we were not able to produce reliable estimates for the long-term regional population. However, for one 50 km diameter study area between the islands of Mull, Coll and Tiree, we were able to generate closed-population estimates for 6–9 day periods in 2010 of 985 (95% CI = 494–1683), and in 2011 of 201 (95% CI = 143–340). For the same 2011 period an open-population model generated a similar estimate of 213 (95% CI = 111–317). Otherwise the low rate and temporal patterning of re-sightings support the view that such local basking shark populations are temporary, dynamic groupings of individuals drawn from a much larger regional population than previously supposed. The study demonstrated the feasibility and limitations of photo-identification as a non-invasive technique for identifying individual basking sharks. PMID
Rotella, Jay J; Link, William A; Chambert, Thierry; Stauffer, Glenn E; Garrott, Robert A
1. Life-history theory predicts that those vital rates that make larger contributions to population growth rate ought to be more strongly buffered against environmental variability than are those that are less important. Despite the importance of the theory for predicting demographic responses to changes in the environment, it is not yet known how pervasive demographic buffering is in animal populations because the validity of most existing studies has been called into question because of methodological deficiencies. 2. We tested for demographic buffering in the southern-most breeding mammal population in the world using data collected from 5558 known-age female Weddell seals over 30 years. We first estimated all vital rates simultaneously with mark-recapture analysis and then estimated process variance and covariance in those rates using a hierarchical Bayesian approach. We next calculated the population growth rate's sensitivity to changes in each of the vital rates and tested for evidence of demographic buffering by comparing properly scaled values of sensitivity and process variance in vital rates. 3. We found evidence of positive process covariance between vital rates, which indicates that all vital rates are affected in the same direction by changes in annual environment. Despite the positive correlations, we found strong evidence that demographic buffering occurred through reductions in variation in the vital rates to which population growth rate was most sensitive. Process variation in vital rates was inversely related to sensitivity measures such that variation was greatest in breeding probabilities, intermediate for survival rates of young animals and lowest for survival rates of older animals. 4. Our work contributes to a small but growing set of studies that have used rigorous methods on long-term, detailed data to investigate demographic responses to environmental variation. The information from these studies improves our understanding of life
If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. Language Training Françoise Benz tel. 73127 email@example.com General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place: from 1st March to 25 June 2004 (2 weeks break at Easter). These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mr. Liptow: tel. 72957.
If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please discuss with your supervisor and apply electronically directly from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an "application for training" form available from your Divisional Secretariat or from your DTO (Divisional Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order of their receipt. LANGUAGE TRAINING Françoise Benz tel. 73127 firstname.lastname@example.org General and Professional English Courses The next session will take place: from 1st March to 25 June 2004 (2 weeks break at Easter). These courses are open to all persons working on the Cern site, and to their spouses. For registration and further information on the courses, please consult our Web pages: http://cern.ch/Training or contact Mr. Liptow: tel. 72957.
HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It harms your immune system by destroying the white blood cells ... It is the final stage of infection with HIV. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. HIV most ...
... first signs of HIV infection Diarrhea Weight loss Oral yeast infection (thrush) Shingles (herpes zoster) Progression to AIDS Thanks ... eyes, digestive tract, lungs or other organs. Candidiasis. Candidiasis ... tongue, esophagus or vagina. Cryptococcal meningitis. Meningitis is ...
Dec 2, 2004 ... The correlation between HIV infection and surgery began to be highlighted only two ... expect greater clinical exposure to patients with. HIV/AIDS. .... fractures in HIV patient, although too little is known about the relationship ...