Rosen, L N; Martin, L
Four different types of childhood maltreatment were examined as predictors of unwanted sexual experiences and acknowledged sexual harassment among male and female active duty soldiers in the United States Army. Predictor variables included childhood sexual abuse, physical-emotional abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect. Three types of unwanted sexual experiences in the workplace were examined as outcome variables: gender harassment, unwanted sexual attention, and coercion. Both sexual and physical-emotional abuse during childhood were found to be predictors of unwanted sexual experiences and of acknowledged sexual harassment in the workplace. Among female soldiers, the most severe type of unwanted experience-coercion-was predicted only by childhood physical-emotional abuse. Among male soldiers childhood sexual abuse was the strongest predictor of coercion. A greater variety of types of childhood maltreatment predicted sexual harassment outcomes for male soldiers. Childhood maltreatment and adult sexual harassment were predictors of psychological well-being for soldiers of both genders.
Gómez, Francisco R; Semenyna, Scott W; Court, Lucas; Vasey, Paul L
The Istmo Zapotec are a pre-Columbian cultural group indigenous to the Istmo region of Oaxaca, Mexico. Istmo Zapotec recognize three genders: men, women, and muxes. Like Istmo Zapotec men, muxes are biological males. However, unlike Istmo Zapotec men, most muxes are exclusively androphilic (i.e., sexually attracted to adult males), relatively feminine, and routinely adopt the receptive role during anal intercourse. Furthermore, the Istmo Zapotec recognize two types of muxes: muxe gunaa, who resemble the transgender androphilic males that are common in many non-Western cultures, and muxe nguiiu, who resemble the cisgender androphilic males ("gay" men) common in Western cultures. Retrospective research conducted in Canada and Samoa demonstrates that cisgender and transgender androphilic males recall elevated indicators of childhood separation anxiety (i.e., feelings of distress related to separation from major attachment figures) when compared to males who are gynephilic (i.e., sexually attracted to adult females). The present study compared recalled indicators of childhood separation anxiety among Istmo Zapotec men, women, muxe gunaa, and muxe nguiiu (N = 454). Men recalled significantly lower levels of childhood separation anxiety compared to all other groups (all p biological and developmental foundation despite being different in appearance.
Mortz, Charlotte G; Andersen, Klaus E; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common disease in childhood and an important risk factor for the later development of other atopic diseases. Many publications on childhood AD use questionnaires based on information obtained in adulthood, which introduce the possibility of recall bias. In a prospectiv...
Semenyna, Scott W; VanderLaan, Doug P; Vasey, Paul L
Having a greater than average number of older biological brothers is a robust correlate of male androphilia (i.e., sexual attraction and arousal to adult males). Previous investigations have sought to understand whether this fraternal birth order (FBO) effect is also systematically related to recalled indicators of childhood gender nonconformity (CGN). However, these investigations have relied on data from low-fertility Western populations in which expressions of femininity in male children are routinely stigmatized and consequently, suppressed. The present study examined the FBO effect (among other sibship characteristics) and recalled indicators of CGN in Samoa, a high-fertility population, whose members are relatively tolerant of male femininity. Indeed, Samoans identify feminine androphilic males as belonging to an alternative gender category, known locally as fa'afafine. The present study compared the sibship characteristics of 231 fa'afafine and 231 opposite-sex attracted men from Samoa, as well as how these characteristics related to recalled CGN. Results replicated the well-established FBO effect for predicting male sexual orientation, with each older brother increasing the odds of being androphilic by 21%. However, no relationship was found between the number of older brothers (or other siblings) a participant had and their recalled CGN. Although fa'afafine reported significantly more CGN than Samoan men, CGN did not mediate the FBO effect, nor did the FBO effect and CGN interact to predict male sexual orientation. These findings are consistent with previous studies suggesting that the FBO effect is associated with male sexual orientation, but not childhood female-typical gender expression among androphilic males. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Wyatt, G E; Riederle, M
This study examined the relationship between sexual harassment in work, educational, and social settings and sexual abuse in childhood and/or adulthood in a stratified community sample of 248 African-American and white American women. The cumulative impact of sexual victimization on women's sense of general well-being was also examined. Those most likely to be sexually harassed in work and social settings were women with contact sexual abuse histories, regardless of ethnicity. The work status of harassers of women with sexual abuse histories differed significantly by ethnic group. Although women with prior sexual abuse experiences from both ethnic groups most frequently reported a response to sexual harassment at work, they least frequently did so in social settings. A history of childhood sexual abuse was more negatively associated with African- American women's well-being than were repeated experiences of sexual violence. Future research should address the implications of ethnic and cultural issues on the cumulative impact of incidents of sexual violence on women of color.
Madison, J; Minichiello, V
This study identified how 16 Australian registered nurses classified sex-based harassers and explained their own behavior and the behavior of the harasser. A qualitative research design, relying on in-depth interviews, was used to collect the data. The study found that harassment is linked to gender roles and that the harassed are reluctant to blame the harasser--the harassed had "sound" rationalizations for harassment. Awareness of the interactional dynamics of self-blame and these rationalizations will help nurse executives ensure a harassment-free workplace.
Lukowski, Angela F; Milojevich, Helen M
The ability to recall the past allows us to report on details of previous experiences, from the everyday to the significant. Because recall memory is commonly assessed using verbal report paradigms in adults, studying the development of this ability in preverbal infants and children proved challenging. Over the past 30 years, researchers have developed a non-verbal means of assessing recall memory known as the elicited or deferred imitation paradigm. In one variant of the procedure, participants are presented with novel three-dimensional stimuli for a brief baseline period before a researcher demonstrates a series of actions that culminate in an end- or goal-state. The participant is allowed to imitate the demonstrated actions immediately, after a delay, or both. Recall performance is then compared to baseline or to performance on novel control sequences presented at the same session; memory can be assessed for the individual target actions and the order in which they were completed. This procedure is an accepted analogue to the verbal report techniques used with adults, and it has served to establish a solid foundation of the nature of recall memory in infancy and early childhood. In addition, the elicited or deferred imitation procedure has been modified and adapted to answer questions relevant to other aspects of cognitive functioning. The broad utility and application of imitation paradigms is discussed, along with limitations of the approach and directions for future research.
Tractenberg, Saulo G; Viola, Thiago W; Gomes, Carlos F A; Wearick-Silva, Luis Eduardo; Kristensen, Christian H; Stein, Lilian M; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo
Exposure to adversities during sensitive periods of neurodevelopment is associated with the subsequent development of substance dependence and exerts harmful, long-lasting effects upon memory functioning. In this study, we investigated the relationship between childhood neglect (CN) and memory using a dual-process model that quantifies recollective and non-recollective retrieval processes in crack cocaine dependents. Eighty-four female crack cocaine-dependent inpatients who did (N = 32) or did not (N = 52) report a history of CN received multiple opportunities to study and recall a short list composed of familiar and concrete words and then received a delayed-recall test. Crack cocaine dependents with a history of CN showed worse performance on free-recall tests than did dependents without a history of CN; this finding was associated with declines in recollective retrieval (direct access) rather than non-recollective retrieval. In addition, we found no evidence of group differences in forgetting rates between immediate- and delayed-recall tests. The results support developmental models of traumatology and suggest that neglect of crack cocaine dependents in early life disrupts the adult memory processes that support the retrieval of detailed representations of events from the past.
Veale, Jaimie F
Recalled childhood gender role/identity is a construct that is related to sexual orientation, abuse, and psychological health. The purpose of this study was to assess the factorial validity of a short version of Zucker et al.'s (2006) "Recalled Childhood Gender Identity/Gender Role Questionnaire" using confirmatory factor analysis and to test the stability of the factor structure across groups (measurement invariance). Six items of the questionnaire were completed online by 1929 participants from a variety of gender identity and sexual orientation groups. Models of the six items loading onto one factor had poor fit for the data. Items were removed for having a large proportion of error variance. Among birth-assigned females, a five-item model had good fit for the data, but there was evidence for differences in scale's factor structure across gender identity, age, level of education, and country groups. Among birth-assigned males, the resulting four-item model did not account for all of the relationship between variables, and modeling for this resulted in a model that was almost saturated. This model also had evidence of measurement variance across gender identity and sexual orientation groups. The models had good reliability and factor score determinacy. These findings suggest that results of previous studies that have assessed recalled childhood gender role/identity may have been susceptible to construct bias due to measurement variance across these groups. Future studies should assess measurement invariance between groups they are comparing, and if it is not found the issue can be addressed by removing variant indicators and/or applying a partial invariance model.
Plöderl, Martin; Fartacek, Reinhold
The role of childhood gender role nonconformity (CGNC) and childhood harassment (CH) in explaining suicidality (suicide ideation, aborted suicide attempts, and suicide attempts) was examined in a sample of 142 lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adults and 148 heterosexual adults in Austria. Current and previous suicidality, CGNC, and CH were significantly greater in LGB participants compared to heterosexual participants. After controlling for CGNC, the effect of sexual orientation on CH diminished. CGNC correlated significantly with current suicidality in the LGB but not in the heterosexual group, and only non-significant correlations were found for CGNC with previous suicidality. Controlling for CH and CGNC diminished the effect of sexual orientation on current suicidality. Bayesian multivariate analysis indicated that current suicidality, but not previous suicidality, depended directly on CGNC. CH and CGNC are likely implicated in the elevated levels of current suicidality among adult LGB participants. As for previous suicidality, the negative impact of CGNC on suicidality might be overshadowed by stress issues affecting sexual minorities around coming out. The association of CGNC with current suicidality suggests an enduring effect of CGNC on the mental health and suicide risk of LGB individuals.
Castilho, Paula; Pinto-Gouveia, José; Amaral, Vânia; Duarte, Joana
Research has robustly shown that early negative parenting experiences are associated with psychopathology and self-criticism in adulthood. This study investigates recall of personal feelings of perceived threat and subordination in childhood and its relation to psychopathology. In addition, we explore the mediator role of self-criticism in this association. A sample of 193 subjects from the general population completed self-report questionnaires measuring the study variables. The mediator analyses suggested that the impact of submissiveness experiences in childhood on depression and anxiety is mediated by self-criticism. Our findings highlight the route through which the recall of personal feelings of perceived involuntary subordination to parents contributes to depression and anxiety in adulthood. Although the relation between early experiences of abuse and later psychological problems is now well established, there has been less study on subtler forms of threat and subordinate behaviour in childhood. Given ours and previous findings, therapists should be aware of, and prone to explore, these early experiences. Most studies exploring early negative experiences mainly refer to attachment theory-related constructs (e.g., attachment style). We also highlight the importance of noting rank structure and rank style in the family. Self-criticism seems to be a key process in the relation between early aversive experiences of subordination and psychopathology. Given the idea that self-reassuring operates through a different affect system, helping people develop inner warmth and compassion for the self may be important to counteract feelings of self-hatred and self-attack. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Grauerholz, E; King, A
This study explores the explicit and implicit messages of sexual harassment that viewers receive when viewing prime-time television in the US. A content analysis of 48 hours of prime-time television reveals that sexual harassment on television is both highly visible and invisible. Sexual harassment is rendered visible simply by its prominence in these programs. Incidents involving quid-pro-quo harassment and environmental harassment occur with regularity on television. Furthermore, about 84% of the shows studied contained at least one incident of sexual harassment; yet these acts of sexual harassment remained largely invisible because none of the behaviors were labeled as sexual harassment. These incidents are presented in humorous ways, and victims are generally unharmed and very effective at ending the harassment. Although such programs may actually reflect the reality of many women's lives in terms of prevalence of sexual harassment, they perpetuate several myths about sexual harassment, such as that sexual harassment is not serious and that victims should be able to handle the situations themselves.
Sbraga, T P; O'Donohue, W
We review the current state of sexual harassment theory, research, treatment, and prevention. Definitional problems and implications are discussed. An examination of the epidemiology of sexual harassment is presented, highlighting correlates that include characteristics of the organizational environment, the perpetrator, and the recipient of unwanted sexual behavior. Normative responses to sexual harassment and consequences are discussed. Descriptions of the most prevalent models of sexual harassment are offered and the empirical evidence for them is briefly reviewed. From there, the effect of model development and evaluation on the prevention and treatment of sexual harassment is considered. We comment on the steps that would need to be taken to develop viable prevention and treatment programs. Suggestions for fruitful avenues of research and theory development are offered.
This study used adult recall of childhood dreams to test Cann and Donderi's (1986) findings that Jungian intuitives recall more archetypal dreams than do sensate subjects, and that introverts recall more everyday dreams than extraverts. It was hypothesized that since dreams recalled from childhood are relatively high in archetypal content, there…
Atchison, Christina; Zvoc, Miro; Balakrishnan, Ravikumar
To improve uptake of childhood immunizations in Wandsworth we developed a standardized call/recall system based on parents being sent three reminders and defaulters being referred to a Health Visitor. Thirty-two out of 44 primary care practices in the area implemented the intervention in September 2011. The aim of this study was to evaluate the implementation, delivery and impact on immunization uptake of the new call/recall system. To assess implementation and delivery, a mixed method approach was used including qualitative (structured interviews) and quantitative (data collected at three months post-implementation) assessment. To assess the impact, we used Student's t test to compare the difference in immunization uptake rates between intervention and non-intervention practices before and after implementation. The call/recall system was viewed positively by both parents and staff. Most children due or overdue immunizations were successfully captured by the 1st invitation reminder. After three invitations, between 87.3 % (MMR1) and 92.2 % (pre-school booster) of children identified as due or overdue immunizations successfully responded. Prior to implementation there was no difference in uptake rates between intervention and non-intervention practices. Post-implementation uptake rates for DTaP/IPV/Hib, MMR1, MMR2 and the pre-school booster were significantly greater in the intervention practices. Similar findings were seen for PCV and Hib/MenC boosters, although the differences were not statistically significant at the 5 % level. Following the successful implementation of a standardized call/recall system in Wandsworth, other regions or primary care practices may wish to consider introducing a similar system to help improve their immunization coverage levels.
Puech, Paloma; Pitcho, Benjamin
Two types of harassment are distinguished: sexual and psychological. In the private sector, according to French labour laws and the penal code, psychological harassment is actionable. It is up to the employer to prove the absence of harassment. The sanctions incurred can be up to 5 years imprisonment and a 150,000 euro fine and various measures of compensation for damages can be envisaged.
Basile, Benjamin M.; Hampton, Robert R.
If you draw from memory a picture of the front of your childhood home, you will have demonstrated recall. You could also recognize this house upon seeing it. Unlike recognition, recall demonstrates memory for things that are not present. Recall is necessary for planning and imagining, and can increase the flexibility of navigation, social behavior, and other cognitive skills. Without recall, memory is more limited to recognition of the immediate environment. Amnesic patients are impaired on r...
Raver, Jana L; Nishii, Lisa H
Despite scholars' and practitioners' recognition that different forms of workplace harassment often co-occur in organizations, there is a paucity of theory and research on how these different forms of harassment combine to influence employees' outcomes. We investigated the ways in which ethnic harassment (EH), gender harassment (GH), and generalized workplace harassment (GWH) combined to predict target individuals' job-related, psychological, and health outcomes. Competing theories regarding additive, exacerbating, and inuring (i.e., habituating to hardships) combinations were tested. We also examined race and gender differences in employees' reports of EH, GH, and GWH. The results of two studies revealed that EH, GH, and GWH were each independently associated with targets' strain outcomes and, collectively, the preponderance of evidence supported the inurement effect, although slight additive effects were observed for psychological and physical health outcomes. Racial group differences in EH emerged, but gender and race differences in GH and GWH did not. Implications are provided for how multiple aversive experiences at work may harm employees' well-being. 2010 APA, all rights reserved
Hines, Melissa; Brook, Charles; Conway, Gerard S
We assessed core gender identity, sexual orientation, and recalled childhood gender role behavior in 16 women and 9 men with CAH and in 15 unaffected female and 10 unaffected male relatives, all between the ages of 18 and 44 years. Women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) recalled significantly more male-typical play behavior as children than did unaffected women, whereas men with and without CAH did not differ. Women with CAH also reported significantly less satisfaction with the female sex of assignment and less heterosexual interest than did unaffected women. Again, men with CAH did not differ significantly from unaffected men in these respects. Our results for women with CAH are consistent with numerous prior reports indicating that girls with CAH show increased male-typical play behavior. They also support the hypotheses that these women show reduced heterosexual interest and reduced satisfaction with the female sex of assignment. Our results for males are consistent with most prior reports that boys with CAH do not show a general alteration in childhood play behavior. In addition, they provide initial evidence that core gender identity and sexual orientation are unaffected in men with CAH. Finally, among women with CAH, we found that recalled male-typical play in childhood correlated with reduced satisfaction with the female gender and reduced heterosexual interest in adulthood. Although prospective studies are needed, these results suggest that those girls with CAH who show the greatest alterations in childhood play behavior may be the most likely to develop a bisexual or homosexual orientation as adults and to be dissatisfied with the female sex of assignment.
Mello, Claudia Berlim de; Muszkat, Mauro; Xavier, Gilberto Fernando; Bueno, Orlando Francisco Amodeo
During development, children become capable of categorically associating stimuli and of using these relationships for memory recall. Brain damage in childhood can interfere with this development. This study investigated categorical association of stimuli and recall in four children with brain damages. The etiology, topography and timing of the lesions were diverse. Tasks included naming and immediate recall of 30 perceptually and semantically related figures, free sorting, delayed recall, and cued recall of the same material. Traditional neuropsychological tests were also employed. Two children with brain damage sustained in middle childhood relied on perceptual rather than on categorical associations in making associations between figures and showed deficits in delayed or cued recall, in contrast to those with perinatal lesions. One child exhibited normal performance in recall despite categorical association deficits. The present results suggest that brain damaged children show deficits in categorization and recall that are not usually identified in traditional neuropsychological tests.
Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.
This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…
Workplace sexual harassment is illegal, but many workers report that they have been sexually harassed. Exposure to the risk of sexual harassment may decrease productivity, which would reduce wages. Alternatively, workers may receive a compensating differential for exposure to sexual harassment, which would increase wages. Data on claims of sexual harassment filed with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission are used to calculate the first measures of sexual harassment risks by industry, a...
Smeets, Tom; Geraerts, Elke; Jelicic, Marko; Merckelbach, Harald
Traumatic stress associated with childhood sexual abuse (CSA) may result in chronic alterations of stress-sensitive neurochemical systems (e.g., the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and sympathetic-adrenal medullary activity). Some authors have suggested that these alterations might help explain why some individuals, after a period of inability to remember, demonstrate delayed recall of CSA memories (i.e., "recovered" memories). The present study is the first study that explored morning cortisol responses and circadian cortisol profiles among women with recovered (n=7), repressed (n=8), or continuous (n=6) memories of CSA and women without a history of CSA (n=9). Although there were group differences in current depression and post-traumatic stress symptoms, we found no differences in cortisol awakening response or daytime profile between women reporting recovered, repressed, or continuous memories of CSA as compared to women without a history of CSA. Implications for neurobiological models intended to explain the delayed recall of CSA are discussed.
Sexual Harassment 1 Contrapower Sexual Harassment of Military Officers Sexual harassment is generally categorized in one of two ways: quid pro quo ...power or status over the victim (McKinney, 1992). The very definition of quid pro quo sexual harassment generally necessitates a superior harassing a...Contrapower Sexual Harassment of Military Officers A Thesis Presented by Sarah K. Clapp to the
Woods, Krystle C; Buchanan, Nicole T; Settles, Isis H
The current study examined differences in appraisal, harassment, and severity of posttraumatic stress symptoms among 105 Black women who were sexually harassed by either a White (cross-racial sexual harassment) or a Black man (intraracial sexual harassment). Analyses revealed that women appraised cross-racial more negatively than intraracial harassment, despite there being no significant differences in the likelihood of experiencing gender harassment, unwanted sexual attention, or sexual coercion. Further, cross-racial harassment was more likely to include racialized sexual harassment (harassing behaviors combining race and gender simultaneously) and higher status perpetrators. Finally, cross-racial sexual harassment had an indirect (but not direct) mediated effect on posttraumatic stress via participants' appraisals of their harassment. Specifically, the more negative appraisal associated with cross-racial sexual harassment was associated with increased posttraumatic stress symptoms. In light of these findings, consideration of perpetrator race and racially sexualized behaviors could prove significant additions to current models of sexual harassment.
Rabelo, Verónica Caridad; Cortina, Lilia M
This project investigated the incidence, interplay, and impact of gender- and sexuality-based harassment, as experienced by lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) employees in higher education. Unlike much queer empirical research, participants in this study were residents of noncoastal regions of the U.S. that are predominantly White, rural, and conservative (i.e., "red states"). They completed surveys about their harassment experiences (gender harassment-sexist, gender harassment-policing, and heterosexist harassment), perceived support systems (from supervisors and organizations), and job attitudes (job burnout, job stress, and job satisfaction). Results showed that gender harassment-both sexist and policing subtypes-rarely occurred absent heterosexist harassment, and vice versa. Harassment severity (experiencing moderate to high levels of all three harassment types) was significantly associated with greater levels of job burnout (both disengagement and exhaustion) and job dissatisfaction. Even infrequent experiences of harassment related to large increases in the "threat" variety of job stress (i.e., sense of feeling hassled and overwhelmed on the job). Additionally, employees who perceived the lowest organizational support reported the most harassment. We interpret results in light of research on organizational behavior and LGBQ psychology. Moreover, we discuss our findings in the context of Title VII, currently interpreted to protect against harassment based on gender, sex, and sex stereotyping, but not sexual orientation. Our results can inform several possible avenues of expanding gay civil rights in employment: broadening judicial interpretations of Title VII, passing new legislation (e.g., the Employment Non-Discrimination Act, or ENDA), and strengthening organizational supports and policies that protect against sexuality-based abuses.
harassment and unwanted sexual attention) appear to affect job satisfaction and organizational commitment more than the overt quid pro quo type of... Sexual Harassment and Organizational Outcomes Charlie L. Law DEFENSE EQUAL OPPORTUNITY MANAGEMENT...No. 99-11 Sexual harassment and Organizational, 2 Executive Summary Issue Sexual harassment continues to be a
Office for Civil Rights (ED), Washington, DC.
Sexual harassment affects students at all levels of education. To combat this problem, fundamental information that can help school administrators, teachers, students, and parents recognize and deal with sexual harassment under Title IX are presented in this pamphlet. The text describes quid pro quo harassment and hostile-environment harassment,…
Celik, Yusuf; Celik, Sevilay Senol
To identify the prevalence and sources of sexual harassment against nurses in Turkey, its consequences, and factors affecting harassment experiences. Descriptive survey. Participants (N=622) were selected from nurses working in eight Ministry of Health hospitals in Turkey. Participants were surveyed with a Sexual Harassment Questionnaire, consisting of the sociodemographic characteristics of participants, types of sexual harassment, sources, feelings, ramifications, and ways to cope with sexual harassment behaviors. Frequency and percentage distributions, chi-square, and logistic regression were used for data analysis. The results showed 37.1% of participants had been harassed sexually. Physicians were identified as the primary instigators of sexual harassment. The most common reactions against harassers were anger and fear; frequently reported negative effects of sexual harassment were disturbed mental health function, decline in job performance, and headache. "Did nothing" was the coping method used most commonly by the nurses. About 80% of sexually harassed nurses did not report the incident of sexual harassment to hospital administration. The lower working status and power of nurses in the workplace, poor working conditions in healthcare settings, and insufficient administrative mechanisms, including the present law and regulations against sexual harassers, were identified as important factors in the work environment in Turkey.
Robb, L A; Doverspike, D
The interaction between the likelihood of males engaging in sexual harassment and the effectiveness of a 1-hr. sexual harassment-prevention training was explored in a laboratory study. An interaction of scores on the Likelihood to Sexually Harass Scale and training condition for 90 undergraduate men was found, such that sexual harassment-prevention training had a small negative effect on the attitudes of males with a high proclivity to harass.
At a special colloquium at CERN on 31 May, social psychologist Véronique Ducret will discuss harassment in the workplace. The goal of her seminar is prevention of harassment, how to avoid it and how to react if you find yourself a victim. Harassment takes many forms, some more obvious than others. At first glance, you may think that cases of sexual harassment would be clear-cut, but often there is misunderstanding as to what is unacceptable behaviour. The golden rule is always to put yourself in the other person's shoes. What is important is not necessarily what you intend, but how it is received. A harmless joke to some may be deeply offensive to others. Other forms of harassment, such as moral harassment or 'mobbing' and exclusion are equally pernicious, equally damaging, and also not always clear-cut. In some cases, the perpetrators may not realise the impact of their actions. Following an introduction by the CERN Director of Administration, Jan van der Boon, Ducret's symposium wil...
O'Hare, E A; O'Donohue, W
A new model of the etiology of sexual harassment, the four-factor model, is presented and compared with several models of sexual harassment including the biological model, the organizational model, the sociocultural model, and the sex role spillover model. A number of risk factors associated with sexually harassing behavior are examined within the framework of the four-factor model of sexual harassment. These include characteristics of the work environment (e.g., sexist attitudes among co-workers, unprofessional work environment, skewed sex ratios in the workplace, knowledge of grievance procedures for sexual harassment incidents) as well as personal characteristics of the subject (e.g., physical attractiveness, job status, sex-role). Subjects were 266 university female faculty, staff, and students who completed the Sexual Experience Questionnaire to assess the experience of sexual harassment and a questionnaire designed to assess the risk factors stated above. Results indicated that the four-factor model is a better predictor of sexual harassment than the alternative models. The risk factors most strongly associated with sexual harassment were an unprofessional environment in the workplace, sexist atmosphere, and lack of knowledge about the organization's formal grievance procedures.
Lewis, John F.; And Others
As in many other areas of society, sexual harassment has become an important issue in education. It has left the educational community with many questions about what constitutes sexual harassment, how to prevent it, and how to deal with the legal problems that may arise concerning it. This report dispels several myths about sexual harassment in…
Luo, T Y
This study, with the use of a questionnaire survey method, examined the characteristics of sexual harassment experiences and the dynamics of the attitudes toward sexual harassment among male and female workers in Taipei. An occupationally representative sample of male and female workers was recruited to participate in the survey. The findings showed that 1 in 4 workers in Taipei experienced some sort of sexual harassment in the workplace, 36% (n = 493) of the surveyed women and 13% (n = 415) of the surveyed men reported experiencing workplace sexual harassment. The most frequently reported type of sexual harassment was unwanted sexual jokes/comments, followed by unwanted deliberate body contact, and unwanted requests/pressure for a date. The major source of sexual harassment came from coworkers of the opposite sex. Majority of the alleged victims attributed their sexual harassment incident to insensitivity of the initiator. In being consistent with previous research, the study established three attitudinal models toward sexual harassment among Chinese workers: the victim-blame/trivialization model, the natural/biological explanation, and the power/manipulation model. The study found no consistent relationship between the self-rated attitudes toward sexual harassment and the self-reported sexual harassment experiences.
Rabinerson, David; Maman, Maor; Glezerman, Marek
Sexual harassment is quite prevalent in medical organizations. The two most affected groups are medical students and nurses. In its broad perspective, sexual harassment is defined as any type of offensive behavior with sexual connotation aimed at any individual or minority. In Israel, sexual harassment is regarded as such only in the literal sense, although recently, courts tend to adopt a more comprehensive approach in their ruling. Final legislation of the law against sexual harassment, which includes employer liability for the actions of its workers, caused increased awareness of the phenomenon of sexual harassment and may serve in reducing its prevalence in the medical environment.
Oakleaf, Linda; Grube, Angela Johnson
Employers are responsible for sexual harassment perpetrated by a supervisor. Camps may be responsible for sexual harassment between campers. Steps to reduce liability include providing multiple channels for reporting sexual harassment; having written policies prohibiting sexual harassment and procedures for reporting it; posting these policies and…
Goodwin, Megan P.; And Others
Examined Central Michigan University employees' (N=449) sexual harassment experiences through employee survey. Found that (1) more women than men reported sexual harassment; (2) most common harassers cited were male co-workers, administrators, and maintenance employees; (3) harassment most frequently attributed to working conditions and hours; (4)…
HarassMap is an Egyptian organisation that works to create an environment where sexual harassment is not tolerated, and where individuals and institutions take action against it. For the purpose of this project, the project team cleaned up, organised, and made openly available for the public to access and use through a web portal, three main types of data: Crowdsourced reports of sexual harassment incidents (reports on HarassMap’s online reporting and mapping system) - CSV and XL...
Cummings, Kimberly M.; Armenta, Madeline
Examined the impact of harasser gender, participant gender, and presence of bystanders on perceptions of penalty appropriateness for peer sexual harassment in college. Students responded to descriptions of potential sexual harassment between one college student and another and described the appropriate penalty. Participants were more likely to…
This paper introduces ‘harassment’ in a model of bribery and corruption. We characterize the harassment equilibrium and show that taxpayers, with all possible levels of income, participate in such equilibrium. Harassment has a regressive bias. Harassment costs as such may not affect tax revenue.
Full Text Available Sexual harassment is a highly prevalent form of gender-based discrimination and sexual exploitation in the workplace and academic environment. In the dental field, there are a few studies regarding sexual harassment among the patients, professors and claims of their students. There is a silence of consent surrounding sexual harassment. It is clearly an issue about which the practicing dentists need to be informed in order to provide knowledgeable assessment and treatment for all patients. Dentists also have a role in advocacy, expert consultation or testimony, research and prevention through education and training. It is a fact that sexual harassment is very commonly encountered by almost everyone especially women. It is the most unresolved and under recognized problem of today especially when professionals are concerned. Preventing sexual harassment requires a considerable investment of time and personnel. This paper reviews the topic of sexual harassment as a problem from its legal aspects and recommendations for further steps to resolve this issue in dentistry.
Workplace sexual harassment and depressive symptoms: a cross-sectional multilevel analysis comparing harassment from clients or customers to harassment from other employees amongst 7603 Danish employees from 1041 organizations.
Friborg, Maria K; Hansen, Jørgen V; Aldrich, Per T; Folker, Anna P; Kjær, Susie; Nielsen, Maj Britt D; Rugulies, Reiner; Madsen, Ida E H
Previous research has reported that sexual harassment can lead to reduced mental health. Few studies have focused on sexual harassment conducted by clients or customers, which might occur in person-related occupations such as eldercare work, social work or customer service work. This study examined the cross-sectional association between sexual harassment by clients or customers and depressive symptoms. We also examined if this association was different compared to sexual harassment conducted by a colleague, supervisor or subordinate. Further, we investigated if psychosocial workplace initiatives modified the association between sexual harassment by clients or customers and level of depressive symptoms. We used data from the Work Environment and Health in Denmark cohort study (WEHD) and the Work Environment Activities in Danish Workplaces Study (WEADW) collected in 2012. WEHD is based on a random sample of employed individuals aged 18-64. In WEADW, organizational supervisors or employee representatives provided information on workplace characteristics. By combining WEHD and WEADW we included self-reported information on working conditions and health from 7603 employees and supervisors in 1041 organizations within 5 occupations. Data were analyzed using multilevel regression and analyses adjusted for gender, age, occupation and socioeconomic position. Exposure to workplace sexual harassment from clients or customers was statistically significantly associated with a higher level of depressive symptoms (2.05; 95% CI: 0.98-3.12) compared to no exposure. Employees harassed by colleagues, supervisors or subordinates had a higher mean level of depressive symptoms (2.45; 95% CI: 0.57-4.34) than employees harassed by clients or customers. We observed no statistically significant interactions between harassment from clients and customers and any of the examined psychosocial workplace initiatives (all p > 0.05). The association between sexual harassment and depressive
Workplace sexual harassment and depressive symptoms: a cross-sectional multilevel analysis comparing harassment from clients or customers to harassment from other employees amongst 7603 Danish employees from 1041 organizations
Maria K. Friborg
Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has reported that sexual harassment can lead to reduced mental health. Few studies have focused on sexual harassment conducted by clients or customers, which might occur in person-related occupations such as eldercare work, social work or customer service work. This study examined the cross-sectional association between sexual harassment by clients or customers and depressive symptoms. We also examined if this association was different compared to sexual harassment conducted by a colleague, supervisor or subordinate. Further, we investigated if psychosocial workplace initiatives modified the association between sexual harassment by clients or customers and level of depressive symptoms. Methods We used data from the Work Environment and Health in Denmark cohort study (WEHD and the Work Environment Activities in Danish Workplaces Study (WEADW collected in 2012. WEHD is based on a random sample of employed individuals aged 18–64. In WEADW, organizational supervisors or employee representatives provided information on workplace characteristics. By combining WEHD and WEADW we included self-reported information on working conditions and health from 7603 employees and supervisors in 1041 organizations within 5 occupations. Data were analyzed using multilevel regression and analyses adjusted for gender, age, occupation and socioeconomic position. Results Exposure to workplace sexual harassment from clients or customers was statistically significantly associated with a higher level of depressive symptoms (2.05; 95% CI: 0.98–3.12 compared to no exposure. Employees harassed by colleagues, supervisors or subordinates had a higher mean level of depressive symptoms (2.45; 95% CI: 0.57–4.34 than employees harassed by clients or customers. We observed no statistically significant interactions between harassment from clients and customers and any of the examined psychosocial workplace initiatives (all p > 0
McGinley, Meredith; Richman, Judith A.; Rospenda, Kathleen M.
While harassment in the workplace has been linked to deleterious drinking outcomes, researchers have yet to examine the long-term effects of chronic workplace harassment. During a ten year longitudinal mail survey, university employees (N = 2265) were administered measures of sexual harassment, generalized workplace harassment, and problematic drinking. Using growth mixture modeling, two latent classes of workplace harassment emerged: infrequent and chronic. Demographic characteristics (gende...
Issues in sexual harassment are discussed, including definitions, the experience of harassment, related behavior patterns, prevalence, beliefs, tolerance, and current research. The efforts and impact of a group of female faculty, staff, and graduate students (Women against Sexual Harassment) at the University of Rhode Island are described. (MSE)
Hill, Catherine; Silva, Elena
This book presents a look at the "big picture." Is sexual harassment common? What kinds of behaviors are taking place? Who is being harassed, and who is doing the harassing? For students who admit to harassing others, why do they do it? How does sexual harassment affect students' educational experience? What do students think should be done about…
Full Text Available Source memory involves recollecting the contextual details surrounding a memory episode. When source information is bound together, it makes a memory episodic in nature. Unfortunately, very little is known about the factors that contribute to its formation in early development. This study examined the development of source memory in middle childhood. Measures of executive function were examined as potential sources of variation in fact and source recall. Continuous electroencephalogram (EEG measures were collected during baseline and fact and source retrieval in order to examine memory-related changes in EEG power. Six and 8-year-old children were taught 10 novel facts from two different sources and recall for fact and source information was later tested. Older children were better on fact recall, but both ages were comparable on source recall. However, source recall performance was poor at both ages, suggesting that this ability continues to develop beyond middle childhood. Regression analyses revealed that executive function uniquely predicted variance in source recall performance. Task-related increases in theta power were observed at frontal, temporal and parietal electrode sites during fact and source retrieval. This investigation contributes to our understanding of age-related differences in source memory processing in middle childhood.
Offermann, Lynn R; Malamut, Adam B
Using cases of harassment by leaders, the authors examined the effects of target perceptions of leader responses to sexual harassment and whether leader implementation of harassment policies made a difference beyond the impact of the policies themselves. Results showed that women who perceived that leaders made honest efforts to stop harassment felt significantly freer to report harassment, were more satisfied with the complaint process, and reported greater commitment than did those viewing leaders as more harassment tolerant. Different leadership levels had different effects, with hierarchically proximal leaders generally having the greatest impact. Leadership mediated the relationship between organizational policy and outcomes, supporting the view that a key role for leaders is establishing an ethical organizational climate that reinforces formal harassment policies through actions.
Swift-Gallant, Ashlyn; Coome, Lindsay A; Monks, D Ashley; VanderLaan, Doug P
Developmental theories of the biological basis of sexual orientation suggest that sexually differentiated psychological and behavioural traits should be linked with sexual orientation. Subgroups of gay men delineated by anal sex roles differ according to at least one such trait: gender expression. The present study assessed the hypothesis that handedness, a biologically determined sexually differentiated trait, corresponds to differences in subgroups of gay men based on anal sex role. Furthermore, it assessed whether handedness mediates the association between gender nonconformity and male sexual orientation. Straight and gay men (N = 333) completed the Edinburgh Inventory of Handedness and the Recalled Childhood Gender Nonconformity Scale. Gay men also completed measures of anal sex role preference. As in previous studies, gay men showed greater non-right-handedness and gender nonconformity than straight men. Also, among gay men, bottoms/versatiles (i.e., gay men who take a receptive anal sex role, or who take on both a receptive and insertive anal sex role) were more gender-nonconforming than tops (i.e., gay men who take an insertive anal sex role). In support of the hypothesis, bottoms/versatiles were more non-right-handed than tops and handedness mediated the male sexual orientation and anal sex role differences in Recalled Childhood Gender Nonconformity. Together, these findings suggest that developmental processes linked to handedness underpin variation among men in sexual orientation and gender nonconformity as well as variation among subgroups of gay men that are delineated by anal sex roles.
Full Text Available Developmental theories of the biological basis of sexual orientation suggest that sexually differentiated psychological and behavioural traits should be linked with sexual orientation. Subgroups of gay men delineated by anal sex roles differ according to at least one such trait: gender expression. The present study assessed the hypothesis that handedness, a biologically determined sexually differentiated trait, corresponds to differences in subgroups of gay men based on anal sex role. Furthermore, it assessed whether handedness mediates the association between gender nonconformity and male sexual orientation. Straight and gay men (N = 333 completed the Edinburgh Inventory of Handedness and the Recalled Childhood Gender Nonconformity Scale. Gay men also completed measures of anal sex role preference. As in previous studies, gay men showed greater non-right-handedness and gender nonconformity than straight men. Also, among gay men, bottoms/versatiles (i.e., gay men who take a receptive anal sex role, or who take on both a receptive and insertive anal sex role were more gender-nonconforming than tops (i.e., gay men who take an insertive anal sex role. In support of the hypothesis, bottoms/versatiles were more non-right-handed than tops and handedness mediated the male sexual orientation and anal sex role differences in Recalled Childhood Gender Nonconformity. Together, these findings suggest that developmental processes linked to handedness underpin variation among men in sexual orientation and gender nonconformity as well as variation among subgroups of gay men that are delineated by anal sex roles.
Swift-Gallant, Ashlyn; Coome, Lindsay A.; Monks, D. Ashley; VanderLaan, Doug P.
Developmental theories of the biological basis of sexual orientation suggest that sexually differentiated psychological and behavioural traits should be linked with sexual orientation. Subgroups of gay men delineated by anal sex roles differ according to at least one such trait: gender expression. The present study assessed the hypothesis that handedness, a biologically determined sexually differentiated trait, corresponds to differences in subgroups of gay men based on anal sex role. Furthermore, it assessed whether handedness mediates the association between gender nonconformity and male sexual orientation. Straight and gay men (N = 333) completed the Edinburgh Inventory of Handedness and the Recalled Childhood Gender Nonconformity Scale. Gay men also completed measures of anal sex role preference. As in previous studies, gay men showed greater non-right-handedness and gender nonconformity than straight men. Also, among gay men, bottoms/versatiles (i.e., gay men who take a receptive anal sex role, or who take on both a receptive and insertive anal sex role) were more gender-nonconforming than tops (i.e., gay men who take an insertive anal sex role). In support of the hypothesis, bottoms/versatiles were more non-right-handed than tops and handedness mediated the male sexual orientation and anal sex role differences in Recalled Childhood Gender Nonconformity. Together, these findings suggest that developmental processes linked to handedness underpin variation among men in sexual orientation and gender nonconformity as well as variation among subgroups of gay men that are delineated by anal sex roles. PMID:28234947
Full Text Available Unwelcome sexual advances, proposition or pressure for sexual activity, offensive flirtations, leering, whistling, making sexually suggestive gestures, sexual jokes, unwanted sexual looks, unwanted letters, telephone call, or materials of a sexual nature, unwanted physical contact, actual or attempting rape or sexual assault, this and more of this conduct if took place in the workplace would amount to a sexual harassment. The sexual harassment at work has become a serious issue of our time. It is an unjustified interference of integrity, dignity and well-being of workers, causing problems from headaches to depression, loss of confidence, panic attacks and perhaps suicide as the only way appearing to be the sole possible relief from the unremitting and frightening behavior. This article presents information concerning the sexual harassment at workplace, covering topics such as, the definitions for sexual harassment in both international and national context, a short history of sexual harassment, types of sexual harassment, effect of sexual harassment, measure to combat and prevent sexual harassment. It offers a short overview in sexual harassment legislation of some industrialized EU Member States and the legal remedies available against sexual harassment. The main purpose of this article is to provide a better understanding and prevention concerning the issue of sexual harassment in workplace.
Full Text Available Sexual harassment is not a new phenomenon in tertiary institutions. It has been receiving considerable attention in research and the media and public awareness has increased dramatically. However, the term sexual harassment is not used uniformly across the globe because countries have defined it differently. Consequently, prevalence of sexual harassment in education varies across cultures. This paper examines sexual harassment from a comparative perspective. It specifically focuses on the definition of sexual harassment, incidence of sexual harassment of students in tertiary institutions, effects of sexual harassment on victims; and victims’ responses to sexual harassment. It also offers suggestions for curtailing sexual harassment in these institutions.
McGinley, Meredith; Richman, Judith A.; Rospenda, Kathleen M.
While harassment in the workplace has been linked to deleterious drinking outcomes, researchers have yet to examine the long-term effects of chronic workplace harassment. During a ten year longitudinal mail survey, university employees (N = 2265) were administered measures of sexual harassment, generalized workplace harassment, and problematic drinking. Using growth mixture modeling, two latent classes of workplace harassment emerged: infrequent and chronic. Demographic characteristics (gender, age, and race) predicted the shape of the trajectories and likelihood of class membership. As hypothesized, membership in the chronic harassment classes was linked to future problematic drinking, even after controlling for previous drinking. PMID:21745045
McGinley, Meredith; Richman, Judith A; Rospenda, Kathleen M
Although harassment in the workplace has been linked to deleterious drinking outcomes, researchers have yet to examine the long-term effects of chronic workplace harassment. During a 10-year longitudinal mail survey, university employees (N = 2,265) were administered measures of sexual harassment, generalized workplace harassment, and problematic drinking. Using growth mixture modeling, two latent classes of workplace harassment emerged: infrequent and chronic. Demographic characteristics (gender, age, and race) predicted the shape of the trajectories and likelihood of class membership. As hypothesized, membership in the chronic harassment classes was linked to future problematic drinking, even after controlling for previous drinking.
Cass, Stacie A; Levett, Lora M; Kovera, Margaret Bull
Community members reporting for jury duty (N = 128) read a sexual harassment trial summary in which harassment severity and the organization's sexual harassment policy and response were manipulated. Jurors who read the severe harassment scenario were more likely to agree that the plaintiff had suffered and should be compensated for her suffering and that the organization should be punished than were jurors who read the mild harassment scenario. When the organization had and enforced a sexual harassment policy, jurors believed that the plaintiff had suffered little and the organization should not be punished compared with conditions in which the organization did not have an enforced sexual harassment policy. Harassment severity influenced jurors' compensatory awards, and organizational behavior influenced jurors' punitive awards. These results have implications for plaintiffs, who must decide whether to claim specific or garden-variety damages; organizations, which could create or modify sexual harassment policy to limit damages; and trial lawyers, who could tailor arguments to maximize or minimize awards. 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Holmes, Mary Anne; Marin-Spiotta, Erika; Schneider, Blair
Harassment, sexual and otherwise, including bullying and discrimination, remains an ongoing problem in the science workforce. In response to monthly revelations of harassment in academic science in the U.S. in 2016, the American Geophysical Union (AGU) convened a workshop to discuss strategies for professional societies to address this pernicious practice. Participants included researchers on this topic and members from professional science societies, academia, and U.S. federal government agencies. We agreed on the following principles: - Harassment, discrimination and bullying most often occur between a superior (e.g., an advisor, professor, supervisor) and a student or early career professional, representing a power difference that disadvantages the less-powerful scientist. - Harassment drives excellent potential as well as current scientists from the field who would otherwise contribute to the advancement of science, engineering and technology. - Harassment, therefore, represents a form of scientific misconduct, and should be treated as plagiarism, falsification, and other forms of scientific misconduct are treated, with meaningful consequences. To address harassment and to change the culture of science, professional societies can and should: ensure that their Code of Ethics and/or Code of Conduct addresses harassment with clear definitions of what constitutes this behavior, including in academic, professional, conference and field settings; provide a clear and well-disseminated mechanism for reporting violations to the society; have a response person or team in the society that can assist those who feel affected by harassment; and provide a mechanism to revisit and update Codes on a regular basis. The Code should be disseminated widely to members and apply to all members and staff. A revised Code of Ethics is now being constructed by AGU, and will be ready for adoption in 2017. See http://harassment.agu.org/ for information updates.
Full Text Available HarassMap is an Egyptian organisation that works to create an environment where sexual harassment is not tolerated, and where individuals and institutions take action against it. For the purpose of this project, the project team cleaned up, organised, and made openly available for the public to access and use through a web portal, three main types of data: Crowdsourced reports of sexual harassment incidents (reports on HarassMap’s online reporting and mapping system - CSV and XLS Field data from HarassMap’s research on sexual harassment using traditional qualitative and quantitative research methods - DOCX, PDF, SAV, MP3 Social media conversations (comment threads and messages related to sexual harassment on harassMap’s Facebook page - XLS The social media data was collected retrospectively from our Facebook page during the project period and covers the period 2010-2016. The crowdsourced data and the research data was cleaned and organised to make sure it is usable for the public but still kept in its raw format. During the collection and organisation period, we also made sure to clear out all personal identifiers from the data to ensure anonymity and confidentiality, and prepared descriptions of each dataset that will help the public understand how the data was collected and how it can and cannot be used. The data is stored online on a web portal that we built together with a web developer during the project period. On the web portal, the data is available for the public to view, search and download for research or other purposes. The data is also backed up on a hard drive and the cloud. The web portal and HarassMap open data will be advertised on our website, and the direct link shared with our contacts and others who approach us with interest in our data.
Fasting, Kari; Brackenridge, Celia
Sexual harassment in sport has become an active research field within the past decade yet we know relatively little about the characteristics of the harassing coach. How are harassing coaches characterised by their victims, that is, the athletes themselves? Do they demonstrate specific kinds of behaviours? One purpose of this article is to address…
Mar 28, 2017 ... More than 95 per cent of women in Egypt have experienced sexual harassment at ... HarassMap's map of Cairo shows the location and type of incidents that ... HarassMap: Mapping Sexual Harassment and Violence in Egypt.
McCabe, Marita P; Hardman, Lisa
The authors investigated how individual factors (age, gender, gender role, past experiences of sexual harassment) and organizational factors (gender ratio, sexual harassment policies, the role of employers) related to workers' attitudes toward and perceptions of sexual harassment. In Study 1, participants were 176 workers from a large, white-collar organization. In Study 2, participants were 75 workers from a smaller, blue-collar organization. Individuals from Study 2 experienced more sexual harassment, were more tolerant of sexual harassment, and perceived less behavior as sexual harassment than did individuals from Study 1. For both samples, organizational and individual factors predicted workers' attitudes toward and experiences of sexual harassment. Individual factors-such as age, gender, gender role, past experiences of sexual harassment, and perceptions of management's tolerance of sexual harassment-predicted attitudes toward sexual harassment. Workers' attitudes, the behavioral context, and the gender of the victim and perpetrator predicted perceptions of sexual harassment. The authors discussed the broader implications of these findings and suggested recommendations for future research.
Valente, Sharon M; Bullough, Vern
Nurses who are sexually harassed at work face frustration and emotional and economic consequences. Historically before the 1970s, nurses had little legal recourse and tolerated sexual harassment as a necessary "evil" associated with working. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 created the option for legal remedies for sexual harassment/discrimination cases. Successful court cases established the legal criteria for sexual harassment. This article discusses the history, definition, high profile cases, research, consequences, and prevention of sexual harassment. Although research is scant and little is known of how nurses respond to harassing behavior, prevention requires coordinated activities of employers, individual employees, and the healthcare profession. Sexual harassment at work increases anxiety and undermines the nurse's ability to focus on the delivery of safe and competent care.
Bronner, Gila; Peretz, Chava; Ehrenfeld, Mally
Nursing has dealt with sexual harassment long before the term was coined during the 1970s. The current study investigated sexual harassment of nurses and nursing students in Israel following new legislation against sexual harassment in the workplace. A self-report questionnaire was administered to 281 nurses and 206 nursing students (80% women) from five medical centres in Israel. Seven types of sexual harassment behaviour patterns were evaluated. Frequency of sexual harassment decreased as the behaviour became more intimate and offensive. Ninety percent of subjects reported experiencing at least one type of sexual harassment and 30% described at least four types. A significant difference was found between nurses and nursing students. Furthermore, "severe" types of behaviour were experienced by 33% of nurses, in comparison with 23% of nursing students. Women were significantly more exposed than men to "mild" and "moderate" types of sexual harassment, while 35% of men vs. 26% of women were exposed to "severe" types of harassment. However, women responded significantly more assertively than men to "severe" sexual harassment. Particular attention is needed when sexual harassment occurs to male students and nurses because they may be subjected to the more offensive sexual conducts and at the same time may lack the ability to respond assertively.
quid pro quo type of Sexual harassment and Organizational, 4 sexual harassment (e.g., sexual coercion). This should drive organizational efforts to... Sexual Harassment and Organizational Outcomes Executive Summary Charlie L. Law DEFENSE EQUAL...Executive Summary] No. 99-11 Sexual harassment and Organizational, 2 Executive Summary Issue
Polce-Lynch, Mary; Myers, Barbara J.; Kliewer, Wendy; Kilmartin, Christopher
Evaluated self-reported influences on self-esteem involving the media, sexual harassment, body image, family and peer relationships, and emotional expression for 93 boys and 116 girls in grades 5, 8, and 12. Results generally supported a pattern in which boys and girls were most similar in late childhood and again in late adolescence. Discusses…
Robbins, I; Bender, M P; Finnis, S J
Sexual harassment is a problem faced by women in the workplace which can lead to adverse psychological consequences as well as impaired work performance. Sexual harassment is about the abuse of power and status rather then merely being about sex per se and has to be viewed in the context of institutionalized male power. Although there is a relative dearth of research, there is increasing evidence that sexual harassment of nurses is common and that it can have adverse effects on nurses physical and psychological health as well as a direct impact on patient care. Nursing, by its very nature of having to care for patients bodily needs, transgresses normal social rules regarding bodily contact. This is exploited by the perpetrator who relies on nurses' caring attitude to be able to harass. A descriptive model of the processes involved in harassment is presented which offers the possibility of being able to intervene at a number of points in the process. Interventions need to be aimed at both individual and organizational levels if there is to be a prospect of reducing a major occupational stressor for nurses.
Angelone, David J; Mitchell, Damon; Carola, Kara
The present study attempted to develop a laboratory analogue for the study of tolerance for sexual harassment by using an online speed-dating paradigm. In that context, the relation between participants' sexual harassment attitudes, perpetrator attractiveness, perpetrator status, and perceived dating potential of the perpetrator were examined as factors influencing participants' tolerance of sexually harassing behavior. Participants were 128 female college students from a small northeastern public university. Results indicated that attractiveness, high social status, and attitudinal beliefs about sexual harassment were all predictive of tolerance for sexual harassment, providing preliminary support for the validity of this paradigm. In addition, participants' self reported likelihood to date a bogus male dating candidate was also predictive of tolerance for sexual harassment, over and above the aforementioned variables, suggesting that dating potential can play a role in perceptions of sexual harassment. Further, this experiment demonstrated that perceptions of sexual harassment can be assessed using the in vivo measurement of behavior. In addition, using an online environment not only provides a contemporary spin and adds a greater degree of external validity compared to other sexual harassment analogues, it also reduces any risk of potential physical sexual contact for participants.
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sexual harassment. 73.735-306 Section 73.735-306... Conduct on the Job § 73.735-306 Sexual harassment. Sexual harassment is deliberate unsolicited verbal comments, gestures, or physical contact of a sexual nature which are unwelcome. Sexual harassment is...
Workplace sexual harassment is internationally condemned as sex discrimination and a violation of human rights, and more than 75 countries have enacted legislation prohibiting it. Sexual harassment in the workplace increases absenteeism and turnover and lowers workplace productivity and job satisfaction. Yet it remains pervasive and underreported, and neither legislation nor market incentives have been able to eliminate it. Strong workplace policies prohibiting sexual harassment, workplace tr...
Norman, I D; Aikins, M; Binka, F N
This study investigated the prevalence and incidence of Traditional (where a person in a position of power harasses a subordinate) and contra power sexual harassment, (where a subordinate is the harasser of authority figure) in medical schools in Ghana. among. Cross-sectional study. Four hundred and nine medical students from four medical schools in Ghana were interviewed. We also considered if academic and financial dependence would predict either traditional or contra power sexual harassment. We further investigated, whether women were more bothered by sexual harassment than men and the correlation between sexual harassment and health. Women were 61% more likely to be sexually harassed than men 39%. Sexual harassment negatively affects the victims' health outcome. We found that the traditional form of sexual harassment was prevalent in medical schools in Ghana and that academic dependence predicted attacks. In the first and second years, women at these institutions are more likely to be sexually harassed than men. Sexual harassment policies of medical school need to be widely circulated. The various medical schools should provide reporting procedures and counseling for victims. This paper would inform policy and research.
Shepela, Sharon Toffey; Levesque, Laurie L.
Studied sexual harassment, including mild forms of harassment, experienced by male and female college students (n=369). Men and women were harassed with similar frequency, and more subtle forms of harassment were common. The very frequency of these subtle behaviors may explain why they are less likely to be labeled as harassment. (SLD)
Nye, Christopher D; Brummel, Bradley J; Drasgow, Fritz
Sexual harassment has received a substantial amount of empirical attention over the past few decades, and this research has consistently shown that experiencing these behaviors has a detrimental effect on employees' well-being, job attitudes, and behaviors at work. However, these findings, and the conclusions that are drawn from them, make the implicit assumption that the empirical models used to examine sexual harassment are properly specified. This article presents evidence that properly specified aggregate construct models are more consistent with theoretical structures and definitions of sexual harassment and can result in different conclusions about the nomological network of harassment. Results from 3 large samples, 2 military and 1 from a civilian population, are used to illustrate the differences between aggregate construct and reflective indicator models of sexual harassment. These analyses suggested that the factor structure and the nomological network of sexual harassment differ when modeling harassment as an aggregate construct. The implications of these results for the continued study of sexual harassment are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
At a special colloquium at CERN on 31 May, social psychologist Véronique Ducret will discuss harassment in the workplace. The goal of her seminar is prevention of harassment, how to avoid it and how to react if you find yourself a victim. Véronique Ducret is a consultant social psychologist specialising in cases of harassment. She is author of the work'Pour une entreprise sans harcèlement sexuel', and has given several seminars on the subject at CERN. Her talk will be given in French, in the main auditorium at 14:00 on 31 May.
Dougherty, Debbie S.; Smythe, Mary Jeanette
While EEOC guidelines for managing sexual harassment prescribe a strong sexual harassment policy and aggressive remedial action following complaints, a communication approach suggests a need for a more complex understanding of sexual harassment as diffused throughout an organizational culture. The present case study uses a sensemaking approach to…
Friborg, Maria K; Hansen, Jørgen V; Aldrich, Per T
employees and supervisors in 1041 organizations within 5 occupations. Data were analyzed using multilevel regression and analyses adjusted for gender, age, occupation and socioeconomic position. RESULTS: Exposure to workplace sexual harassment from clients or customers was statistically significantly......BACKGROUND: Previous research has reported that sexual harassment can lead to reduced mental health. Few studies have focused on sexual harassment conducted by clients or customers, which might occur in person-related occupations such as eldercare work, social work or customer service work....... This study examined the cross-sectional association between sexual harassment by clients or customers and depressive symptoms. We also examined if this association was different compared to sexual harassment conducted by a colleague, supervisor or subordinate. Further, we investigated if psychosocial...
Asha P Shetty
Full Text Available Introduction: Workplace harassment is the belittling or threatening behavior directed at an individual worker or a group of workers. Matters of workplace harassment recently gained interest among practitioners and researchers as it is becoming one of the most sensitive areas of effective workplace management. Materials and Methods: Nonexperimental cross-sectional exploratory survey approach with quantitative design was adopted. Samples constituted both male and female employees 20–60 years working for minimum 6 h in an institution selected by random sampling technique. Data were collected using demographic tool and workplace harassment experience tool developed by the investigator. The Institutional Ethics Committee approval and the individual subject consent were also obtained. Results: Data obtained from 210 employees indicated that majority (20% were between the age group of 30–35 years. Majority, 63.3%, of the employees had occasional harassment, 8.1% had mild harassment, 0.5% had severe harassment, and 28.1% reported no harassment at the workplace. Area-wise analysis indicated that highest possible area among participants was psychological (15.5 ± 7.26 and the lowest harassment was in the area of physical harassment (3.74 ± 1.75. Conclusion: Workplace harassment is a serious concern which requires immediate attention for better outcome. Although majority of the participants experience at least some form of harassment, they hesitate to objectively indicate the same due to fear of consequences of losing the job and facing further ramifications. The issue requires to be addressed with appropriate policies at the workplace. The study will help to plan the strategies to be implemented for building a healthy workplace environment.
... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sexual harassment. 1019.5 Section 1019.5... TRANSPORTATION BOARD EMPLOYEES § 1019.5 Sexual harassment. (a) Members and employees shall not engage in harassment on the basis of sex. Unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or...
... CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY § 1300.104 Sexual harassment. It is TVA policy that all TVA employees are responsible for assuring that the workplace is free from sexual harassment... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sexual harassment. 1300...
O'Connell, Colleen E.; Korabik, Karen
A survey of 214 female university employees found that gender harassment was most frequently experienced, but it was not related to age. Harassment by peers was associated with higher stress and intent to quit. Harassment by higher-level men was associated with a wider variety of negative outcomes. (SK)
Using nationally representative data from the 1992 U.S. National Health and Social Life Survey, this study queried the prevalence and risk factors of lifetime workplace sexual harassment among both women and men. Among those aged 18-60 reporting ever having worked, 41% of women (CI, 37-44) reported any workplace harassment over their lifetime, with men's harassment prevalence significantly lower, at 32% (CI, 29-35). In the youngest age groups (those in their 20s or younger), there was no statistically significant difference between women's and men's harassment prevalence. Multivariate analysis of risk factors suggested that, in contrast to much of the harassment literature, among both genders workplace harassment seemed to have at least as much to do with a system of "routine activities" mechanisms-a victim's conscious or unconscious sexual signaling, more exposure to potential harassers, and a perpetrator's lower cost of harassment-as with unobserved differences in power between victim and perpetrator. Strikingly, both women's and men's harassment was strongly linked to markers of sexualization, whether early developmental factors or behavioral patterns in adulthood-a mechanism insufficiently emphasized in the harassment literature.
Witkowska, Eva; Gillander Gådin, Katja
The aim of the study was to explore what behaviors experienced from peers and school staff at school are acknowledged as sexual harassment, and perceived as problematic, by female high school students, and what other factors may be relevant. Analyses were performed of responses (to 540 questionnaires) in an anonymous self-report mail survey from a random sample of female Swedish high-school students (59% response rate). Exposure to relevant behaviors, of varying levels of severity, alone, does not explain the acknowledgment of harassment. Many students were subjected to many of the potentially offensive behaviors without labeling them as sexual harassment, despite the fact that they saw many of them as problematic. Further, viewing the relevant behaviors as problems in one's school did not necessarily lead to acknowledging that sexual harassment in general was a problem. However, the behaviors seen as problems were less likely to be dismissed as sexual harassment than personal experiences. This was especially true of the most common behaviors, namely verbal ones. The results demonstrate female students' reluctance to label incidents as sexual harassment, despite the fact that actual behaviors are perceived as environmental problems. Potentially offensive sex-related behaviors become normalized in the school environment and are difficult to address, when little support is provided by schools.
... employees, an employer is responsible for acts of sexual harassment in the workplace where the employer (or... the acts of non-employees, with respect to sexual harassment of employees in the workplace, where the... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sexual harassment. 1604.11 Section 1604.11 Labor...
Wasserman, Nora M. Fraser
This document discusses the developing law of sexual harassment. Sexual harassment is discussed not only in the school environment, but also in the workplace. Two legally recognized forms of sexual harassment are described: (1) quid pro quo, or demanding sexual favors in exchange for grades, raises, promotions; and (2) the hostile environment…
Duldt, Bonnie W.
Sexual harassment in the workplace, specifically in nursing, is discussed. The impact of sexual harassment, characteristics of those commonly involved, the need for changing attitudes of men and women in the workplace, the factor of power in relationships, and ways to avoid legal suits are all examined. (CT)
Cléa Adas Saliba Garbin
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Sexual harassment is unlawful in all work and educational environments in most nations of the world. The goals of this study were to describe the sexual harassment prevalence and to evaluate the experiences and attitudes of undergraduate students in one dental school in Brazil. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An 18-item questionnaire was administered to 254 dental students with a completion rate of 82% (208. Students were requested to respond to questions about their background and academic level in dental school, their personal experiences with sexual harassment and their observation of someone else being sexually harassed. Bivariate statistical analyses were performed. RESULTS: Fifteen percent of the students reported being sexually harassed by a patient, by a relative of a patient or by a professor. Male students had 3 times higher probability of being sexually harassed than female student [OR=2.910 (1.113-7.611]. Additionally, 25.4% of the students reported witnessing sexual harassment at the school environment. The majority of students did not feel professionally prepared to respond to unwanted sexual behaviors. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate that sexual harassment can occur in a dental school setting. There is a need for ongoing sexual harassment education programs for students and university staff. Increased knowledge of sexual harassment during graduation can better prepare dental professionals to respond to sexual harassment during their practice.
Garbin, Cléa Adas Saliba; Zina, Lívia Guimarães; Garbin, Artênio José Insper; Moimaz, Suzely Adas Saliba
Sexual harassment is unlawful in all work and educational environments in most nations of the world. The goals of this study were to describe the sexual harassment prevalence and to evaluate the experiences and attitudes of undergraduate students in one dental school in Brazil. An 18-item questionnaire was administered to 254 dental students with a completion rate of 82% (208). Students were requested to respond to questions about their background and academic level in dental school, their personal experiences with sexual harassment and their observation of someone else being sexually harassed. Bivariate statistical analyses were performed. Fifteen percent of the students reported being sexually harassed by a patient, by a relative of a patient or by a professor. Male students had 3 times higher probability of being sexually harassed than female student [OR=2.910 (1.113-7.611)]. Additionally, 25.4% of the students reported witnessing sexual harassment at the school environment. The majority of students did not feel professionally prepared to respond to unwanted sexual behaviors. These findings demonstrate that sexual harassment can occur in a dental school setting. There is a need for ongoing sexual harassment education programs for students and university staff. Increased knowledge of sexual harassment during graduation can better prepare dental professionals to respond to sexual harassment during their practice.
N Vanishree; V Chaithra; Amandeep Pabbla
Sexual harassment is a highly prevalent form of gender-based discrimination and sexual exploitation in the workplace and academic environment. In the dental field, there are a few studies regarding sexual harassment among the patients, professors and claims of their students. There is a silence of consent surrounding sexual harassment. It is clearly an issue about which the practicing dentists need to be informed in order to provide knowledgeable assessment and treatment for all patients. Den...
Krøjer, Jo; Lehn-Christiansen, Sine; Nielsen, Mette Lykke
Sexual harassment is illegal and may have very damaging effects on the people exposed to it. One would expect organizations, employers, and institutions to take very good care to prevent employees from exposure to sexual harassment from anyone in their workplace. And yet, many people, mostly women...... institutions might act to prevent sexual harassment toward caregivers......., are exposed to sexual harassment at work. In care work, such behaviour is often directed toward their female caregiver by elderly citizens in need of care. Contemporary Nordic studies of working life and work environment have primarily investigated the interpersonal dimensions of sexual harassment, thus...
Berdahl, Jennifer L; Moore, Celia
To date there have been no studies of how both sex and ethnicity might affect the incidence of both sexual and ethnic harassment at work. This article represents an effort to fill this gap. Data from employees at 5 organizations were used to test whether minority women are subject to double jeopardy at work, experiencing the most harassment because they are both women and members of a minority group. The results supported this prediction. Women experienced more sexual harassment than men, minorities experienced more ethnic harassment than Whites, and minority women experienced more harassment overall than majority men, minority men, and majority women.
We face a number of legal and ethical issues in our work as scientists and as AGU members. To uphold the highest ethical standards in our professional activities, the Council has adopted policies on free access to published material, ethics in publishing, and misconduct in science. But what about guidelines to govern the personal behavior that constitutes harassment, sexual or otherwise?For years the AGU headquarters staff has had a policy that offers protection from harassment and rules for dealing with it, but the membership went without one until 1994. That year the Council adopted a policy that extends to the membership as well as to the staff and the vendors they encounter at meetings. The law only requires a policy to prevent harassment in the workplace, but the Council felt that a harassment policy was particularly important for members because the subtle behavior that can constitute harassment is most likely to occur at events that combine work and social interaction, such as the meetings, conferences, and training seminars that AGU members attend.
Elgart, Lloyd D.; Schanfield, Lillian
Sexual harassment in American higher education is currently a problem of ethics and morals rather than of law. Any meaningful remedy for the student victim must be created and implemented by the institution, because courts, legislatures, and administrative agencies do not offer a remedy to student victims of sexual harassment. (MSE)
Waldo, C R; Berdahl, J L; Fitzgerald, L F
Research on sexual harassment has recently expanded to include examination of men's experiences. Such research, however, has ignored the power dynamics involved in sexual harassment and typically assumed exclusively heterosexual situations. We examine legal cases illustrating the many forms that male-male harassment may take and the complex array of situations in which such harassment occurs. We then report the frequencies of experiences of harassment in three large samples of working men as well as the sex of the perpetrators of the harassment. Finally, we examine men's evaluations of these situations to determine the degree to which they found them to be harassing in a psychological sense. Our results indicate that men experience potentially sexually harassing behaviors from other men at least as often as they do from women; however, men in all samples reported relatively few negative reactions to these experiences. Future research should examine the predictors and outcomes of such situations to clarify the meaning of such behavior for male targets.
Kempe, Allison; Saville, Alison; Dickinson, L Miriam; Eisert, Sheri; Reynolds, Joni; Herrero, Diana; Beaty, Brenda; Albright, Karen; Dibert, Eva; Koehler, Vicky; Lockhart, Steven; Calonge, Ned
We compared the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of population-based recall (Pop-recall) versus practice-based recall (PCP-recall) at increasing immunizations among preschool children. This cluster-randomized trial involved children aged 19 to 35 months needing immunizations in 8 rural and 6 urban Colorado counties. In Pop-recall counties, recall was conducted centrally using the Colorado Immunization Information System (CIIS). In PCP-recall counties, practices were invited to attend webinar training using CIIS and offered financial support for mailings. The percentage of up-to-date (UTD) and vaccine documentation were compared 6 months after recall. A mixed-effects model assessed the association between intervention and whether a child became UTD. Ten of 195 practices (5%) implemented recall in PCP-recall counties. Among children needing immunizations, 18.7% became UTD in Pop-recall versus 12.8% in PCP-recall counties (P immunization rates in preschool children.
Beran, Tanya N.; Rinaldi, Christina; Bickham, David S.; Rich, Michael
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of harassment in high school and into university, and the impact of one particular form of harassment: cyber-harassment. Participants were 1,368 students at one US and two Canadian universities (mean age = 21.1 years, 676 female students). They responded on five-point scales to questions about…
Wolak, Janis; Mitchell, Kimberly J; Finkelhor, David
To shed light on the nature of online harassment and the extent to which it may be bullying by examining differences in the characteristics of harassed youth, online harassment incidents, and distressing online harassment based on the identity of online harassers (known peer vs. online-only contact). A telephone survey of a nationally representative sample of 1500 youth Internet users, ages 10 to 17, conducted between March and June 2005. Nine percent (n = 129) of youth were harassed online in the past year, 43% (n = 56) by known peers and 57% (n = 73) by people they met online and did not know in person (online-only contacts). Most online harassment incidents did not appear to meet the standard definition of bullying used in school-based research and requiring aggression, repetition, and power imbalance. Only 25% of incidents by known peers and 21% by online-only contacts involved both repeated incidents and either distress to targets or adult intervention. In many cases, the concept of "bullying" or "cyber-bullying" may be inappropriate for online interpersonal offenses. We suggest using "online harassment," with disclaimers that it does not constitute bullying unless it is part of or related to offline bullying. This would include incidents perpetrated by peers that occur entirely online, but arise from school-related events or relationships and have school-related consequences for targets. The Internet provides opportunities for the extension of conventional school bullying to new venues. Those who study conventional school bullying should include online forms of the behavior in research, prevention, and intervention paradigms.
Full Text Available This paper aims to present results of the survey on sexual harassment of students of the Faculty of Special Education and Rehabilitation, University of Belgrade. It starts with presenting and discussing different definitions of the term ‘sexual harassment’. Afterwards, a brief overview of available surveys on this subject is provided. Results of the surveys completed so far show that this kind of students’ victimization in educational institutions is frequent in all parts of the world, regardless of the economic, ethnic and religious grounds. The aim of the survey conducted at the Faculty of Special Education and Rehabilitation (FASPER was to identify the prevalence and characteristics of sexual harassment among undergraduate students, as well as possible forms of assistance and support to students who experience sexual harassment. A survey was conducted by the students of FASPER during April and May 2014 on a sample of 147 students of all four years of undergraduate studies. For data collection a victimization survey was used. The survey results suggested that sexual harassment of students of FASPER is prevalent, while it only manifests itself in a form of verbal harassment with a sexual connotation. Female students are more exposed to harassment than male students, but we need to interpret this finding with a caution due to the fact that a sample was mostly consisted of female respondents. According to the students’ opinion, possible solutions for preventing and eliminating sexual harassment of students of FASPER are education of students and employees, adoption of rules for protection of students from this kind of victimization and establishment of support service for students who experience victimization by sexual harassment.
Deane, Nancy H.; Tillar, Darrel L.
A practical approach to the prevention of sexual harassment is considered, and a study of sexual harassment as perceived by victims, the courts, and the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) is presented. Attention is directed to the sociology of sexual harassment and to the following possible responses available to victims of harassment:…
Silva, Sarah Cristina Andrade; Universidade de Franca - UNIFRAN; Bittar, Cléria Maria; Universidade de Franca - UNIFRAN
Current investigation is a bibliographical review on feminine vulnerability with regard to moral harassment. Moral harassment is defined as all vexation during work, especially when a hierarchy between people has been established. Horizontal moral harassment among people of the same occupation, although it exists, is more difficult to be proved in court. Literature shows that victims of moral harassment may be women and men but research in Brazil and in other countries reveals that most victi...
Halgas, Jordan T. L.
In a litigious society, it is of particular importance that students understand the law of sexual harassment and sexual harassment investigations. Sexual harassment litigation can create a heavy financial burden on employers. Sexual harassment investigations and litigation also cause a social impact on employers. In order to provide students with…
Pryor, John B.; And Others
Presents a Person X Situation (PXS) model of sexual harassment suggesting that sexually harassing behavior may be predicted from an analysis of social situational and personal factors. Research on sexual harassment proclivities in men is reviewed, and a profile of men who have a high a likelihood to sexually harass is discussed. Possible PXS…
Kopels, Sandra; Dupper, David R.
Describes extent and impact of harassment; responses of victims, school personnel, and perpetrators to harassment; and legal redress available to victims. Includes specific steps social workers and other school personnel should take to prevent or alleviate such problems. (LBT)
Guidelines and institutional policies regarding sexual harassment in academia have a relatively short and controversial background. Deference to Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) guidelines in employment sexual harassment incidents guides much of the thinking in contemporary courts. Title IX of the Educational Amendments and the Civil Rights Restoration Act of 1987 are but two of the legal redresses available to students with harassment grievance complaints. Lack of definition of the term as well as research studies in nursing complicate the issue of sexual harassment. The potential impact of harassment on nursing students both in the classroom and in the practice area is significant. Nursing administrators and educators must be proactive in writing and implementing policies regarding sexual harassment.
In recent years, an accumulation of Japanese research about sexual harassment and a number of very public court cases involving prominent public figures placed the issue of sexual harassment in the media spotlight. Japan was forced to recognise sexual harassment as a national problem, and not an issue, which was confined to the Western world. In April 1999, the Japanese government realised the need to amend existing laws to include sexual harassment under article twenty-one of the Equal Oppor...
M. Carmen Herrera
Full Text Available Sexual harassment is one of the most widespread forms of gender violence. Perceptions of sexual harassment depend on gender, context, the perceivers’ ideology, and a host of other factors. Research has underscored the importance of coping strategies in raising a victim’s self-confidence by making her feel that she plays an active role in overcoming her own problems. The aim of this study was to assess the men’s perceptions of sexual harassment in relation to different victim responses. The study involved 101 men who were administered a questionnaire focusing on two of the most frequent types of harassment (gender harassment vs. unwanted sexual attention and victim response (confrontation vs. non confrontation, both of which were manipulated. Moreover, the influences of ideological variables, ambivalent sexism, and the acceptance of myths of sexual harassment on perception were also assessed. The results highlight the complexities involved in recognizing certain behaviors as harassment and the implications of different victim responses to incidents of harassment. As the coping strategies used by women to confront harassment entail drawbacks that pose problems or hinder them, the design and implementation of prevention and/or education programs should strive to raise awareness among men and women to further their understanding of this construct.
Bucchianeri, Michaela M; Gower, Amy L; McMorris, Barbara J; Eisenberg, Marla E
Despite prejudice-based harassment's associations with serious physical and mental health risks, research examining multiple forms of harassment among children/adolescents is lacking. This study documents the prevalence of prejudice-based harassment (i.e., harassment on the basis of gender, race/ethnicity, weight or physical appearance, sexual orientation, and disability status) among a large, statewide, school-based Midwestern U.S. sample of 162,034 adolescents. Weight-/appearance-based harassment was most prevalent among both girls (25.3%) and boys (19.8%). Adolescents from certain vulnerable groups experienced higher rates of multiple types of harassment, even when controlling for other sociodemographic characteristics. Prejudice-based harassment experiences are prevalent among adolescent girls and boys. Differential rates of each type of harassment are reported across groups within the corresponding sociodemographic status (e.g., white female adolescents report a significantly lower rate of race-based harassment (4.8%), as compared to Native American (18.6%), mixed/other race (18.9%), Hispanic/Latina (21.5%), Asian/Pacific Islander (24.2%), or Black/African American (24.8%) female adolescents); but a pattern of cross-harassment also is evident, such that differences in prevalence of each harassment type emerge across a variety of statuses (e.g., disability-based harassment was statistically significantly higher among discordant heterosexual (12.7%), gay (13.0%), bisexual (15.3%), and unsure (15.3%) male adolescents than among heterosexual male (7.2%) adolescents). Adolescents from specific sociodemographic groups are particularly vulnerable to certain types of harassment. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sexual Harassment in Public Medical Schools in Ghana. ... of power harasses a subordinate) and contra power sexual harassment, (where a subordinate is the ... Results: Women were 61% more likely to be sexually harassed than men 39%.
Lacroix, C A; Wilson, J F
Harassment based on gender violates the rule of workplace equality established by Title VII of the Civil Rights Act and enforced by the EEOC. In 1986, the US Supreme Court, in Meritor Savings Bank v Vinson, established the criteria that must be met for a claim of hostile environment sexual harassment to be considered valid. Plaintiffs must show that they were subjected to conduct based on their gender, that it was unwelcome, and that it was severe and pervasive enough to alter their condition of employment, resulting in an abusive working environment. There have been few sexual harassment cases involving veterinary professionals, and it is our goal to help keep the number of filed actions to a minimum. The most effective way to avoid hostile environment sexual harassment claims is to confront the issue openly and to adopt a sexual harassment policy for the practice. When it comes to sexual harassment, an ounce of prevention is unquestionably worth a pound of cure.
Berdahl, Jennifer L
In 3 studies, the author tested 2 competing views of sexual harassment: (a) It is motivated primarily by sexual desire and, therefore, is directed at women who meet feminine ideals, and (b) it is motivated primarily by a desire to punish gender-role deviants and, therefore, is directed at women who violate feminine ideals. Study 1 included male and female college students (N = 175) and showed that women with relatively masculine personalities (e.g., assertive, dominant, and independent) experienced the most sexual harassment. Study 2 (N = 134) showed that this effect was not because women with relatively masculine personalities were more likely than others to negatively evaluate potentially harassing scenarios. Study 3 included male and female employees at 5 organizations (N = 238) and showed that women in male-dominated organizations were harassed more than women in female-dominated organizations, and that women in male-dominated organizations who had relatively masculine personalities were sexually harassed the most. ((c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.
Information on characteristics of harassers can help policymakers and educators develop more effective prevention programs. Results of a survey of 336 men and 333 women are presented in terms of institutional size, satisfaction with institutional response, views on the acceptability of harassment, beliefs related to harassment, and types of…
Wishnietsky, Dan H.
Study surveyed North Carolina school superintendents (n=140) and high school seniors (n=300) on the extent of teacher-student sexual harassment. Data revealed discrepancies between the number of teachers disciplined for student sexual harassment and the number of students claiming harassment. Presents a structure for establishing guidelines to…
Full Text Available Education should safely shape the minds and attitudes of young adults and children, especially with the in loco parentis principle in mind. Young adults who have experienced sexual harassment in the very environment that should have protected them as learners suffer greatly from social problems and from emotional and academic strain. Victims often become future harassers themselves. Sexual harassment should be eradicated from the education sector in toto to ensure a safe learning environment. High incidences of harassment have been found among college students in America, while a very small percentage of such transgressions have been reported. Similar statistics in South African universities are not available, the problem is therefore managed in a void. The position in schools is more alarming. In South Africa it has been found that 30 per cent of girls are raped at school and that male learners and educators are the main culprits. Not only is the magnitude of this problem gravely underestimated, but the effect of sexual harassment on learners has also not been managed properly. The authors argue that the focus is on avoiding legal responsibility and accountability, rather than on being proactive. The historic invisibility of sexual harassment in education can be attributed to the wrongful silencing thereof.
Russo, Andrea; Milić, Ranko; Knežević, Bojana; Mulić, Rosanda; Mustajbegović, Jadranka
Aim To study the incidence of harassment in the workplace among teachers at primary and secondary schools. Methods We analyzed the existing questionnaires on harassment in the workplace and developed a new one was to specifically address harassment of teachers in the public education sector. The questionnaire was then experimentally applied to a sample of 764 primary and secondary school teachers in Split Dalmatia County, Croatia. It included three scales –exposure to harassment, witnessing harassment, and disturbance by harassment. Validity of the three scales was examined by factor analysis. Results All three scales showed satisfactory metric characteristics: Cronbach α coefficient was 0.93 for exposure scale, 0.95 for witnessing scale, and 0.97 for disturbance scale. Out of 764 teachers surveyed, 164 (22.4%) were exposed to and 192 (31.7%) witnessed different kinds of harassment in the previous 12 months. There were significantly more of those who experienced harassment as witnesses (χ21 = 249.301; P harassment disturbed women more than men (χ21 = 5.27; P = 0.022). Those who were exposed to harassment had significantly lower median age (42; range 23-68) than those who were not exposed (45; range 23-65) (U = 31401.50; z = 2.129; P = 0.033). Conclusion The questionnaire registered wide spectrum of harassment types, indicating the need for continuous monitoring and systematic work on the prevention of these phenomena. The study showed that exposure to harassment is associated with age, indicating that younger teachers should be the target population for detection and prevention of workplace harassment. PMID:18717002
Franke, Ann H.
Several recent incidents have brought national attention to issues involving male professors and sexual-harassment policies on campuses. Allegations of harassment can involve high stakes for the accused, with dismissal as a possible penalty. Criminal charges for harassment, in contrast to assault, are rare. Within an institution, people accused of…
Mohipp, Charmaine; Senn, Charlene Y.
This study compared the perceptions of 172 graduate students to traditional versus contrapower sexual harassment. Graduate students are a unique sample due to their dual role as a student and a teacher. After controlling for attitudes toward feminism and sexual harassment, participants viewed contrapower sexual harassment as less indicative of…
Apr 26, 2018 ... The research group leading HarassMap in Egypt are combatting sexual harassment with an online tool, developed in 2014, that enables the general public to voluntarily report incidents of harassment that they have experienced or witnessed. The reported incidents are displayed on a free interactive map ...
Eisenberg, Marla E; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Perry, Cheryl L
This study described peer harassment in a large, multiethnic sample of adolescents, and explored the relationship between experiencing peer harassment and both school connectedness and achievement. Survey data came from 4,746 students in grades 7-12 at 31 public schools in ethnically and socioeconomically diverse communities in a Midwestern state. Frequency of five types of harassment were analyzed with data on school connectedness and grades. Multivariate analysis controlled for gender, grade level, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Results indicate that most students periodically experience mistreatment; 10% to 17% report being treated disrespectfully, having others act superior, or being insulted at least once per week, and an additional 14% to 22% of students report suffering these behaviors a few times per month. Girls, Whites, Native Americans, and middle school students reported more harassment than boys, other ethnic groups, and high school students, respectively. Peer harassment related significantly to both aspects of school life; those who disliked school tended to suffer more mistreatment, and "B" students reported the least harassment on average. Young people mistreated by peers may not want to be in school and may thereby miss out on the benefits of school connectedness as well as educational advancement. The high prevalence of peer harassment and its association with school connectedness and school achievement provide justification for interventions aimed at prevention of peer harassment. A schoolwide approach using educational and policy components may provide an appropriate prevention strategy.
Sexual harassment is not a new phenomenon in tertiary institutions. It has been receiving considerable attention in research and the media and public awareness has increased dramatically. However, the term sexual harassment is not used uniformly across the globe because countries have defined it differently. Consequently, prevalence of sexual harassment in education varies across cultures. This paper examines sexual harassment from a comparative perspective...
Hill, Catherine; Kearl, Holly
Sexual harassment has long been an unfortunate part of the climate in middle and high schools in the United States. Often considered a kind of bullying, sexual harassment by definition involves sex and gender and therefore warrants separate attention. The legal definition of sexual harassment also differentiates it from bullying. Based on a…
Friborg, Maria K.; Hansen, Jørgen V.; Aldrich, Per T.
Background: Previous research has reported that sexual harassment can lead to reduced mental health. Few studies have focused on sexual harassment conducted by clients or customers, which might occur in person-related occupations such as eldercare work, social work or customer service work...... workplace initiatives modified the association between sexual harassment by clients or customers and level of depressive symptoms. Methods: We used data from the Work Environment and Health in Denmark cohort study (WEHD) and the Work Environment Activities in Danish Workplaces Study (WEADW) collected...... employees and supervisors in 1041 organizations within 5 occupations. Data were analyzed using multilevel regression and analyses adjusted for gender, age, occupation and socioeconomic position. Results: Exposure to workplace sexual harassment from clients or customers was statistically significantly...
R. Peters; P.A. Bourne
Within the Caribbean only countries such as Belize, Bahamas and Guyana have legitimized legislation against sexual harassment. Countries such as Jamaica, Barbados and St. Kitts and Nevis have draft bills before parliament. In the Jamaican context, the country in September 1981 signed the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) which came into effect in 1984 which deals with the issue of sexual harassment under Articles 2 (Policy Measures and Legislat...
De Backer, Charlotte J S
The aim of this study is to investigate if reported childhood food habits predict the food habits of students at present. Questions addressed are: does the memory of childhood family meals promote commensality among students? Does the memory of (grand)parents' cooking influence students' cooking? And, is there still a gender difference in passing on everyday cooking skills? Using a cross-sectional survey, 104 students were asked about their current eating and cooking habits, and their eating habits and the cooking behavior of their (grand)parents during their childhood. Results show that frequencies in reported childhood family meals predict frequencies of students' commensality at present. The effects appear for breakfast and dinner, and stay within the same meal: recalled childhood family breakfasts predict current breakfast commensality, recalled childhood family dinners predict current dinner commensality. In terms of recalled cookery of (grand)parents and the use of family recipes a matrilineal dominance can be observed. Mothers are most influential, and maternal grandmothers outscore paternal grandmothers. Yet, fathers' childhood cooking did not pass unnoticed either. They seem to influence male students' cookery. Overall, in a life-stage of transgression students appear to maintain recalled childhood food rituals. Suggestions are discussed to further validate these results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stedham, Yvonne; Mitchell, Merwin C.
This study focuses on sexual harassment and job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and employee turnover among casino employees. It is the first study investigating sexual harassment in the gaming industry. Based on sex-role spillover theory it was expected that sexual harassment has less of an impact on casino employees than on employees in other industries. Six Reno, Nevada casinos participated in the study and 330 responses were generated from casino employees. The study results show that sexual harassment of and by casino employees is perceived to occur at about the same rate as in other industries. Sexually harassed employees were compared to employees who indicated that they had not been sexually harassed. Sexually harassed employees were less satisfied with their jobs and less committed to the organization. However, they were not more likely to quit their jobs. Sexually harassed employees tended to be younger, Caucasian, and in dealer positions. Hence, in addition to the well-publicized cost of sexual harassment lawsuits, the study shows that sexual harassment in casinos may well be the source of hidden costs important to human resources managers. A result of major interest was that employees who had been harassed held management responsible for not ensuring a work environment that is free of sexual harassment. Implications for casino management are discussed.
(1) Sexual harassment is a violation of The Civil Rights Act of 1964. (2) Most states do not require employers to conduct sexual harassment training. (3) Most sexual harassment training for state legislators occurs at their orientation.
US Department of Education, 2008
Sexual harassment of students is illegal. A federal law, "Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972" ("Title IX"), prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex, including sexual harassment, in education programs and activities. All public and private education institutions that receive any federal funds must comply with…
Cortina, Lilia M
Bridging the social support, sexual victimization, and cultural psychology literatures, this study examines social-support processes in the context of sexual harassment and Hispanic American culture. Surveys were administered to a community sample of Hispanic American working women, 249 of whom described some encounter with sexual harassment at work. Regression results provided mixed backing for hypotheses about support-seeking behavior, which appeared largely dependent on the social power of the harassment perpetrator. Additional findings upheld predictions about support-perception patterns; harassed women perceived more supportive social reactions when they turned to informal networks of friends and family, but responses were less positive when they turned to formal, organizational sources. Finally, as expected, perceived support and acculturation interacted to moderate relations between sexual harassment and job satisfaction. The article concludes with implications for research and interventions related to social support and sexual harassment.
Pinkos Cobb, Ellen
Workplace Bullying and Harassment: New Developments in International Law provides a comprehensive tour around the globe, summarizing relevant legislation and key developments in workplace bullying, harassment, sexual harassment, discrimination, violence, and stress in over 50 countries in Europe, the Asia Pacific region, the Americas region, and the Middle East and Africa. Workplace bullying, harassment, and other psychological workplace hazards are becoming increasingly acknowledged and legislated against in the modern work world. The costs of bullying, harassment, violence, discrimination, and stress at work are huge and far-reaching. Frequently under-reported and misunderstood, workplace bullying, harassment, violence, discrimination, and stress wreak havoc on the vitality and prosperity of organizations and individuals alike.
Allen, Ben T.
This booklet on sexual harassment on college campuses covers sexual harassment law, harassment prevention, protection from liability, and handling allegations. Chapter 1, "What Is Sexual Harassment?" defines the term and gives an overview of sexual harassment law. Chapter 2, "How Does Sexual Harassment Law Apply in Actual Situations?" illustrates…
Barton, G Michael; Morrison, Eileen
The medical field has long endured the destructive forces of personal harassment in work environments. Personal harassment, often called workplace bullying, has historically been kept quiet. The targets of personal harassment suffered in silence. Many of the targets either left the organization or became passive-aggressive members of the work team. Personal harassment is no longer tucked away in the shadows, however. This issue is now being cited as a major cause of low morale, high employee turnover, and increased workplace violence. The intent of this article is to provide an awareness of personal harassment and how it has had a catastrophic impact on the medical field. Awareness of this issue is the first step toward its prevention. Medical practitioners, leaders, and employees must commit to addressing this issue before it can adversely impact their organizations.
Bracey, Gerald W.
A University of Michigan study that surveyed students about sexual harassment behaviors discovered that 83% of girls and 60% of boys have experienced harassment. Also, 75% of the victims had also been perpetrators. Another study examined how cultural influences may affect high-achieving Japanese students' use of will power and memorization…
Full Text Available No study has been conducted on sexual harassment of physiotherapists in South Africa and it is therefore not known whether harassment occurs and if it does, to what extent. To this purpose, a questionnaire on sexual harassment and other sexual-related issues in the physiotherapy work environment in South Africa, was sent to a random selection of 982 physiotherapists registered with the Health Professions Council of South Africa. The response rate was 32%. This paper presents the results of the first half of the questionnaire, which was devoted to sexual harassment of the physiotherapist. Approximately 60% had experienced sexual harassment, of which 83.98% had been perpetrated by patients. Only 5.82% of the respondents had received some form of information in this regard. The most common form of harassment was requests for a hug or kiss.
Withers, Nancy A.
Sexual harassment is a problem in high schools, on college campuses, and in the workplace, although unclear definitions and misinterpretations of sexual harassment have led many to believe that the amount of sexual harassment that occurs is minimal. Sexual harassment has been defined as a continuum of behaviors, with physical sexual assault at one…
Dekker, I; Barling, J
The authors investigated the predictors of workplace sexual harassment in 278 male university faculty and staff (M age = 45 years). Workplace variables (perceptions of organizational sanctions against harassment and perceptions of a sexualized workplace) and personal variables (adversarial sexual beliefs, sexual harassment beliefs, perspective taking, and self-esteem) were studied as predictors of sexualized and gender harassment. Social desirability was controlled. Both organizational variables and beliefs about sexual harassment predicted gender harassment and sexualized harassment. Perspective taking, adversarial sexual beliefs, and sexual harassment beliefs moderated the effects of perceived organizational sanctions against harassment on sexualized harassment. Findings are discussed as they relate to organizational efforts to reduce or prevent sexual harassment.
Anderson, Patricia L.
School administrators should develop a clear policy statement prohibiting sexual harassment; create guidelines to implement the policy; and designate a key administrator to oversee and ensure compliance with laws related to sexual harassment. Lists steps for dealing with a claim, what teachers can do to protect themselves from claims, and what a…
Workplace sexual harassment and depressive symptoms:A cross-sectional multilevel analysis comparing harassment from clients or customers to harassment from other employees amongst 7603 Danish employees from 1041 organizations
Friborg, Maria K.; Hansen, Jørgen V.; Aldrich, Per T.; Folker, Anna P.; Kjær, Susie; Nielsen, Maj Britt D.; Rugulies, Reiner; Madsen, Ida E. H.
Background Previous research has reported that sexual harassment can lead to reduced mental health. Few studies have focused on sexual harassment conducted by clients or customers, which might occur in person-related occupations such as eldercare work, social work or customer service work. This study examined the cross-sectional association between sexual harassment by clients or customers and depressive symptoms. We also examined if this association was different compared to sexual harassmen...
Bucchianeri, Michaela M; Eisenberg, Marla E; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
To document the prevalence of harassment on the basis of weight, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status, as well as sexual harassment, among a diverse population of adolescents. Specifically, this study examined rates of each type of harassment reported across groups within the corresponding sociodemographic category (e.g., racial/ethnic category differences in prevalence of racial harassment), and also explored patterns of "cross-harassment" (i.e., differences in prevalence of each harassment type across all other sociodemographic characteristics). We used data from Project Eating and Activity in Teens 2010 for the study. The sample was composed of 2,793 adolescents (53% female; 81% nonwhite). We conducted regression analyses to yield prevalence estimates of each type of harassment in each demographic and body mass index category. Weight- and race-based harassment (35.3% and 35.2%, respectively) was most prevalent, followed by sexual harassment (25.0%) and socioeconomic status-based harassment (16.1%). Overweight and obese adolescents reported disproportionately higher rates of all forms of harassment than did normal-weight and underweight adolescents. In addition, Asian and mixed-/other race adolescents were more vulnerable to harassment overall compared with those from other racial/ethnic groups. Harassment experiences are prevalent among adolescent boys and girls. Differential rates of each type of harassment are reported across groups within the corresponding sociodemographic category, but a pattern of cross-harassment also is evident, such that differences in prevalence of each type of harassment emerge across a variety of sociodemographic characteristics. Adolescents from various intersecting sociodemographic and weight-status groups are particularly vulnerable to certain types of harassment. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
McLaughlin, Heather; Uggen, Christopher; Blackstone, Amy
Power is at the core of feminist theories of sexual harassment, though it has rarely been measured directly in terms of workplace authority. While popular characterizations portray male supervisors harassing female subordinates, power-threat theories suggest that women in authority may be more frequent targets. This article analyzes longitudinal survey data and qualitative interviews from the Youth Development Study (YDS) to test this idea and to delineate why and how supervisory authority, gender non-conformity, and workplace sex ratios affect harassment. Relative to non-supervisors, female supervisors are more likely to report harassing behaviors and to define their experiences as sexual harassment. Sexual harassment can serve as an “equalizer” against women in power, motivated more by control and domination than by sexual desire. The interviews point to social isolation as a mechanism linking harassment to gender non-conformity and women’s authority, particularly in male-dominated work settings. PMID:23329855
Stier, William F., Jr.
Sexual harassment, according to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), is when any unwelcome sexual advances for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature takes place. For sexual harassment to take place there must be some type of behavior, language, or material of a sexual nature, which is offensive.…
Rhodes, Frank H. T.
Discusses sexual harassment on college campuses. Focuses on harassing behavior that stems from power relationships and harassing behavior among peers. Describes how Cornell University is addressing these problems. (ABL)
Woody, Robert Henley; Perry, Nancy Walker
Examines legal proscriptions and practical definitions of sexual harassment, describes psychological effects of sexual harassment (Sexual Harassment Trauma Syndrome) for victim-client and impact on family system, and offers guidance for family therapy. Focuses on vulnerability of victim-client, reconstruction of self-concept as primary goal of…
Tochterman, Suzanne; Barnes, Fred
Discusses teachers as victims of sexual harassment in their classrooms. Includes examples involving preservice and new teachers. Discusses the impact of harassment on teachers themselves and on classroom performance. Offers strategies to support and intervene with new teachers who have been victims of sexual harassment. (MKA)
Magley, V J; Hulin, C L; Fitzgerald, L F; DeNardo, M
Research has consistently documented a discrepancy between experiencing offensive sex-related behaviors and labeling these situations as sexual harassment, leading to several attempts to understand this phenomenon. The authors propose that the issue of why it is that women who report such experiences generally do not indicate that they have been sexually harassed is an important psychological question, and may provide a path through the nested meanings of workplace harassment. The authors argue for the value of moving beyond a descriptive approach to this issue by examining the effects of self-labeling on the psychological, health, and work-related outcomes of unwelcome, sex-related experiences. They present data from female employees working in 3 separate organizations, demonstrating that women exposed to such behaviors report very similar consequences, whether they label their experiences as harassment or not.
María del Carmen Herrera
Full Text Available Current research has postulated that sexual harassment is one of the most serious social problems. Perceptions of sexual harassment vary according to some factors: gender, context, and perceiver’s ideology. The strategies most commonly used by women to cope with harassment range from avoiding or ignoring the harasser to confronting the harasser or reporting the incident. The aim of this study was to explore women’s perception of sexual harassment, and to assess the implications of different victim responses to harassment. A total of 138 women were administered a questionnaire where the type of harassment, and victim response were manipulated. Moreover, the influence of ideological variables (i.e. ambivalent sexism and the acceptance of myths of sexual harassment on perception was assessed. Results show perception of sexual harassment was lower in gender harassment than in unwanted sexual attention and participants believed women who confronted their harasser would be evaluated negatively by men. Furthermore, effects of ideology on perception of harassment were found. The results underscore the complexities involved in defining certain behaviours as harassment, and the implications of different victim responses to harassment.
Baird, C L; Bensko, N L; Bell, P A; Viney, W; Woody, W D
Perceptions of sexual harassment were investigated as a function of perpetrators' and recipients' gender. Undergraduate students (100 women, 98 men) were presented 34 scenarios of men and women interacting at work. Participants were asked to read carefully each scenario and indicate on a scale anchored by 1 (strongly disagree) and 7 (strongly agree) their opinions as to whether the scenario represented an incident of sexual harassment. Analysis indicated that women rated "hostile environment" scenarios as more harassing than men, and male perpetrators were rated as more harassing than female perpetrators. Even though some scenarios were rated as more harassing than others, the full range of the 7-point scale was used on every scenario, indicating a lack of agreement on what constitutes harassment. This lack of agreement highlights the debate within the legal community about whether the "reasonable person" or the "reasonable woman" standard should be used to judge sexual harassment in the workplace.
This dissertation aims to contribute to a comprehensive explanation of sexual harassment by the investigation of three social-psychological processes, which seem to crucially contribute to the etiology of sexual harassment: motivation to sexually harass (e.g., power or sexuality), enabling processes (e.g., through diverse situational cues), and legitimization of sexually harassing behavior (e.g., by applying myths about sexual harassment). By consolidating these three processes into one multi...
Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Fröjd, Sari; Marttunen, Mauri
Sexual harassment has been studies as a mechanism reproducing inequality between sexes, as gender based discrimination, and more recently, as a public health problem. The role of family-related factors for subjection to sexual harassment in adolescent has been little studied. Our aim was to study the role of socio-demographic family factors and parental involvement in adolescent's persona life for experiences of sexual harassment among 14-18-year-old population girls and boys. An anonymous cross-sectional classroom survey was carried out in comprehensive and secondary schools in Finland. 90953 boys and 91746 girls aged 14-18 participated. Sexual harassment was elicited with five questions. Family structure, parental education, parental unemployment and parental involvement as perceived by the adolescent were elicited. The data were analyzed using cross-tabulations with chi-square statistics and logistic regressions. All types of sexual harassment experiences elicited were more common among girls than among boys. Parental unemployment, not living with both parents and low parental education were associated with higher likelihood of reporting experiences of sexual harassment, and parental involvement in the adolescent's personal life was associated with less reported sexual harassment. Parental involvement in an adolescent's life may be protective of perceived sexual harassment. Adolescents from socio-economically disadvantaged families are more vulnerable to sexual harassment than their more advantaged peers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Russo, Andrea; Milić, Ranko; Knezević, Bojana; Mulić, Rosanda; Mustajbegović, Jadranka
To develop a questionnaire on harassment in the workplace among teachers at primary and secondary schools. We analyzed the existing questionnaires on harassment in the workplace and developed a new one was to specifically address harassment of teachers in the public education sector. The questionnaire was then experimentally applied to a sample of 764 primary and secondary school teachers in Split Dalmatia County, Croatia. It included three scales -exposure to harassment, witnessing harassment, and disturbance by harassment. Validity of the three scales was examined by factor analysis. All three scales showed satisfactory metric characteristics: Cronbach alpha coefficient was 0.93 for exposure scale, 0.95 for witnessing scale, and 0.97 for disturbance scale. Out of 764 teachers surveyed, 164 (22.4%) were exposed to and 192 (31.7%) witnessed different kinds of harassment in the previous 12 months. There were significantly more of those who experienced harassment as witnesses (chi(2)(1)=249.301; Pharassment disturbed women more than men (chi(2)(1)=5.27; P=0.022). Those who were exposed to harassment had significantly lower median age (42; range 23-68) than those who were not exposed (45; range 23-65) (U=31401.50; z=2.129; P=0.033). The questionnaire registered wide spectrum of harassment types, indicating the need for continuous monitoring and systematic work on the prevention of these phenomena. The study showed that exposure to harassment is associated with age, indicating that younger teachers should be the target population for detection and prevention of workplace harassment.
Background: A number of studies conducted on sexual harassment focused on general magnitude rather than specific details of the various forms of sexual harassment and their effect on psychological health. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess the prevalence rates of the various forms of sexual harassments and ...
Describes and compares the law applicable to sexual harassment at work in 23 industrialized countries. Shows how different legal approaches have been adopted to combat sexual harassment in the countries surveyed and how this diversity reflects differences of legal traditions and of attitudes toward the legal classification of sexual harassment.…
Holzbauer, Jerome J.; Conrad, Clifton F.
The purpose of this exploratory study of disability harassment was to develop a typology of disability harassment experiences anchored in the perspectives of students with disabilities who have experienced harassment in urban, suburban, and exurban-rural schools. Based on focus group interviews with four groups of young people with various…
Fineran, Susan; Gruber, James E
An examination of the frequency and impact of workplace sexual harassment on work, health, and school outcomes on high school girls is presented in two parts. The first compares the frequency of harassment in this sample (52%) to published research on adult women that used the same measure of sexual harassment. The second part compares outcomes for girls who experienced harassment versus those who did not. Students in a small, suburban high school for girls completed a paper and pencil survey during class. A modified version of the Sexual Experiences Questionnaire (SEQ: Fitzgerald et al., 1988) was used to identify sexually harassed working teenagers. Work attitudes, assessments of physical health and mental health, and school-related outcomes were measured using standardized scales. Data were analyzed using difference of proportions tests, t-tests, and regression. The percentage of harassed girls was significantly higher than the figures reported in most studies of working women. Girls who were sexually harassed were less satisfied with their jobs and supervisors, had higher levels of academic withdrawal, and were more apt to miss school than their non-harassed peers. Sexual harassment significantly impacts employed high school girls' connections to work and school. It not only taints their attitudes toward work but it also threatens to undermine their commitment to school. Educators, practitioners and community leaders should be aware of the negative impact this work experience may have on adolescents and explore these issues carefully with students who are employed outside of school. Teenage students, stressed by sexual harassment experienced at work may find their career development or career potential impeded or threatened due to school absence and poor academic performance. In addition, the physical safety of working students may be at risk, creating a need for teenagers to receive training to deal with sexual assault and other types of workplace violence
Discusses difficulties in arriving at definition of sexual harassment. Uses a commonplace definition to distinguish quid pro quo and hostile environment harassment. Outlines obligations of organizations, giving attention to the development of appropriate policies and procedures. Discusses effect of organization's climate on institutional…
Kim, Nicole Jung-Eun; Vásquez, Victoria Breckwich; Torres, Elizabeth; Nicola, R M Bud; Karr, Catherine
The purpose of this study was to understand Mexican women farmworkers' perceptions of workplace sexual harassment, its related factors and consequences, and potential points of intervention. This community-based participatory research study conducted focus groups with 20 women farmworkers in rural Washington. Four coders analyzed and gleaned interpretations from verbatim transcripts. Three main themes were identified. It was learned that women farmworkers: (1) frequently experienced both quid pro quo and hostile work environment forms of sexual harassment; (2) faced employment and health consequences due to the harassment; and (3) felt that both individual- and industry-level changes could prevent the harassment. Based on these findings, the authors identified three sets of risk factors contributing to workplace sexual harassment and recommend using a multilevel approach to prevent future harassment in the agriculture industry.
Bucchianeri, Michaela M.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
Purpose The purpose of this study was to document the prevalence of harassment on the basis of weight, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status, as well as sexual harassment, among a diverse population of adolescents. Specifically, this study examined rates of each type of harassment reported across groups within the corresponding sociodemographic category (e.g., racial/ethnic category differences in prevalence of racial harassment), and also explored patterns of “cross-harassment” (i.e., differences in prevalence of each harassment type across all other sociodemographic characteristics). Methods Data from EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens) were used for the current study. The sample was comprised of 2,793 adolescents (53% female; 81% non-white). Regression analyses were conducted to yield prevalence estimates of each type of harassment in each demographic and BMI category. Results Weight- and race-based harassment (35.3% and 35.2%, respectively) were most prevalent, followed by sexual harassment (25.0%) and SES-based harassment (16.1%). Overweight and obese adolescents reported disproportionately higher rates of all forms of harassment than did normal-weight and underweight adolescents. In addition, Asian and mixed-/other-race adolescents were more vulnerable to harassment overall as compared to those from other racial/ethnic groups. Conclusions Harassment experiences are prevalent among adolescent boys and girls. Differential rates of each type of harassment are reported across groups within the corresponding sociodemographic category, but a pattern of “cross-harassment” also is evident, such that differences in prevalence of each type of harassment emerge across a variety of sociodemographic characteristics. Adolescents from various intersecting sociodemographic and weight-status groups are particularly vulnerable to certain types of harassment. PMID:23566562
Nawyn, S J; Richman, J A; Rospenda, K M; Hughes, T L
While workplace sexual harassment has received a great deal of attention in both the popular media and scientific literature, less attention has been directed to the differential occurrence of sexual harassment among lesbians, gay men, and heterosexual men and women, and the relationships between these experiences and alcohol-related outcomes. Additionally, the distribution of alcohol-related outcomes of non-sexual forms of workplace harassment among these groups have not been adequately explored. Using data from a university-based study of workplace harassment and alcohol use (N = 2492), we focus on exposure to workplace harassment and alcohol-related outcomes for lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals compared to heterosexual men and women. Lesbian/bisexual women did not differ significantly from heterosexual women in their experiences of workplace harassment. However, stronger linkages between harassment and increased alcohol consumption and problems were found for lesbian and bisexual women than for heterosexual women. Gay/bisexual men, on the other hand, experienced significantly more sexual harassment than heterosexual men, but did not report a corresponding increase in alcohol use and abuse. Implications for future research on sexual identity, alcohol use, and workplace harassment are discussed.
Fineran, Susan; Gruber, James E.
Objective: An examination of the frequency and impact of workplace sexual harassment on work, health, and school outcomes on high school girls is presented in two parts. The first compares the frequency of harassment in this sample (52%) to published research on adult women that used the same measure of sexual harassment. The second part compares…
Thacker, Rebecca A.
Keeping sexual harassment incidents at bay in the workplace involves prevention training that teaches people how to identify harassment and how to respond, using such techniques as role play and discussion. Trainees should also be informed of the organization's policy and procedures for reporting complaints. (JOW)
Lee Kum Chee
Full Text Available This study examined the potential risks factors associated with sexually harassing behaviors within the framework of the four-factor model of sexual harassment. The factors examined are unprofessional work environment, skewed gender ratio in the workplace, knowledge of grievance procedure for sexual harassment, sexist attitudes among co-workers, privacy of workspace, physical attractiveness, dress manner of victims, job status, and sex roles. The dependent variable is incidence of sexual harassment which was evaluated using the Sexual Experience Questionnaire developed by Fitzgerald, Shullman, Bailey, Richards, Swecker, Gold, Ormerod, and Weitzman (1988. Data were collected from 657 women employees working in Malaysian organizations. The findings showed that the predictions of the four-factor model are also largely true in the case of the Malaysian workplace. The study also found that sexual harassment behaviors are fairly widespread in Malaysia.
Hom, Melanie A; Stanley, Ian H; Spencer-Thomas, Sally; Joiner, Thomas E
This cross-sectional study investigated the association between harassment, career suicidality, and psychiatric symptoms among women firefighters. Women firefighters (n = 290) completed self-report measures of experiences with harassment on the job, career suicidality, and various psychiatric symptoms. Logistic regression analyses and one-way analyses of variance were used to address study aims. Of the sample, 21.7% reported having experienced sexual harassment and 20.3% reported having been threatened or harassed in another way on their firefighting job. Sexual harassment and other threats/harassment on the job were both significantly associated with a greater likelihood of reporting career suicidal ideation, as well as reporting more severe psychiatric symptoms. Harassment and threats experienced on the job may be associated with increased suicide risk and more severe psychiatric symptoms among women firefighters. Efforts are needed to reduce the occurrence of harassment and threats within the fire service and provide support for women firefighters who have been harassed or threatened.
de Haas, Stans; Timmerman, Greetje; Höing, Mechtild
The aims of this study were to investigate whether sexual harassment is related to mental and physical health of both men and women, and to explore the possible moderating effects of gender on the relation between sexual harassment and health. In addition, we investigated whether women were more often bothered by sexual harassment than men, and whether victims who report being bothered by the harassment experience more health problems compared to victims who did not feel bothered. A representative sample of 3,001 policemen and 1,295 policewomen in the Dutch police force filled out an Internet questionnaire. It appeared that women were more often bothered by sexual harassment than men, but gender did not moderate the relation between sexual harassment and mental and physical health. In addition, victims who felt bothered by the harassing behaviors reported more mental and physical health problems than victims who did not feel bothered. The distinction between bothered and nonbothered victims is important because appraisal is an essential aspect in the operationalization of sexual harassment. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.
Hoyman, Michele; Robinson, Ronda
Discusses sexual harrassment guidelines which legally define the term as sex discrimination. While this is good for those facing harassment, it unrealistically places a socially-based problem on the shoulders of personnel managers. Points out the long-term benefits of a workplace free from harassment and intimidation. (JOW)
Davidhizar, R; Erdel, S; Dowd, S
Research reveals a widespread and frequently mismanaged problem--sexual harassment. Federal and state rulings, workplace guidelines and the Equal Opportunity Commission's definition of sexual harassment can help determine where to draw the line.
Brown, Victoria Bolanle; Oluwatosin, O Abimbola
Reminder/recall systems are effective ways to improve immunization rates, but their feasibility in primary health care (PHC) settings in Nigeria has not been adequately evaluated. In this study we describe the acceptability and adaptability of immunization reminder/recall system in an urban setting in southwest Nigeria. This is a descriptive report of a cluster randomized controlled trial. Four local government areas (LGAs) were randomly assigned into a cellphone reminder/recall intervention group or a usual care control group. Within each LGA, PHC centers were purposively selected to participate in the study. In each PHC center, mothers and their infants aged 0-3 months were enrolled into the two groups during the infants' first immunization visit. Mothers (or other contact persons) in the intervention group received cellphone calls reminding them to take their child for scheduled immunizations. Follow-up of all the children lasted till the final scheduled immunization visit for each child. The intervention lasted for 13 months. A total of 595 mothers/infants pairs (295 in the intervention group and 300 in the control group) participated in the study. Almost all mothers (n = 590, 99.2%) had access to their own cellphone or had access to a cellphone belonging to a significant other. Ninety-eight percent (n = 584) of all mothers were willing to receive immunization reminder/recall phone calls. Eighty-seven percent (n = 2023) of all calls (n = 2324) for the reminder/recall intervention went through to the recipients and of these calls, 1948 (96.3%) were received. The mean cost of each call in US Dollars was about 5 cents. Immunization compliance rate (the receipt of required number of doses of routine vaccines at the appropriate age at recommended interval) was 79.2% among the children in intervention group and 46.4% in the control group (p recall interventions to improve routine childhood immunization are feasible in PHC settings in limited
Sexual harassment and hostile work environments are explored. Managerial roles are discussed, including taking a proactive approach and dealing appropriately with an employee's claim. Nurse managers must confront the issue of sexual harassment as complaints continue to develop throughout the industry. Because managers are responsible for employees' actions, it is essential that they familiarize themselves with what constitutes the act and how to handle a claim. Sexual harassment is defined by US Civil Rights Acts (1964 and 1991), US Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, UK's Equal Opportunities Commission, American Nurses Association and the Royal College of Nursing. Frederick Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory of Motivation is also related to workplace sexual harassment. Sexual harassment is a widespread problem within the industry, claiming both men and women as its victims. Managers can be held responsible for sexual harassment even if they are unaware of the existence of behaviour.
Ashbaughm, Lauren P.; Cornell, Dewey G.
Sexual harassment is widely viewed as a form of bullying, but has received little attention in studies of middle school students. A survey of 109 6th grade students found that 29% of students reported at least one sexual harassment experience in the past 30 days, with 11% reporting harassment once per week or more. Although boys and girls reported…
Carmen Herrera, M.; Herrera, Antonio; Expósito, Francisca
Sexual harassment is one of the most widespread forms of gender violence. Perceptions of sexual harassment depend on gender, context, the perceivers' ideology, and a host of other factors. Research has underscored the importance of coping strategies in raising a victim's self-confidence by making her feel that she plays an active role in overcoming her own problems. The aim of this study was to assess the men's perceptions of sexual harassment in relation to different victim responses. The st...
Fornés, Joana; Cardoso, Meiremar; Castelló, Joana Maria; Gili, Margalida
Psychological harassment in the workplace involves disrespectful or humiliating behavior to workers. Nurses make up one of the groups that are most exposed to these behaviors. This descriptive study investigated the most common types of psychological harassment in the nursing workplace and their relationship with sociodemographic variables among 285 nurses in Spain. Findings indicate differences in the prevalence of psychological harassment depending on the criterion that was used. Psychological harassment is positively correlated with a desire to abandon the profession and negatively with participation in decision making. The results suggest combining different measures to evaluate psychological harassment in the workplace and zero-tolerance polices for psychological abuse. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lytell, Maria C.
Organizational tolerance of sexual harassment has been repeatedly touted as an important antecedent of sexual harassment. Yet, not much is known about the antecedents of perceptions of organizational tolerance. Based on theories from the sexual harassment, organizational justice, and psychological climate literatures, individuals were hypothesized…
MCLAUGHLIN, HEATHER; UGGEN, CHRISTOPHER; BLACKSTONE, AMY
Many working women will experience sexual harassment at some point in their careers. While some report this harassment, many leave their jobs to escape the harassing environment. This mixed-methods study examines whether sexual harassment and subsequent career disruption affect women’s careers. Using in-depth interviews and longitudinal survey data from the Youth Development Study, we examine the effect of sexual harassment for women in the early career. We find that sexual harassment increases financial stress, largely by precipitating job change, and can significantly alter women’s career attainment. PMID:29056822
McLaughlin, Heather; Uggen, Christopher; Blackstone, Amy
Many working women will experience sexual harassment at some point in their careers. While some report this harassment, many leave their jobs to escape the harassing environment. This mixed-methods study examines whether sexual harassment and subsequent career disruption affect women's careers. Using in-depth interviews and longitudinal survey data from the Youth Development Study, we examine the effect of sexual harassment for women in the early career. We find that sexual harassment increases financial stress, largely by precipitating job change, and can significantly alter women's career attainment.
Full Text Available Moral harassment at the workplace has become in the last period a very often met phenomenon that severely affects the work relations and represents a significant health and safety danger. This problem has become in the last period an important issue for the European Union which has initiated a series of studie for analyzing the consequences of this pehenomenon on the normal process of the work relations, that has lead, in its turn to an awareness of this new dimenion of harassment between the employees at the internal level.
Richman, J A; Rospenda, K M; Flaherty, J A; Freels, S
While sexual harassment and generalized workplace abuse (GWA) have been linked with alcohol use and abuse, active problem-focused coping has been shown to lessen vulnerability to deleterious mental health consequences of varied social stressors. At the same time, active coping is relatively more efficacious in response to stressors, which are amenable to change by personal actions. However, the moderating role that coping plays in relation to harassment and drinking is unknown. Using data from a two-wave survey of university employees (N=2038), we addressed the extent to which (1) active coping was utilized by harassed and abused employees, (2) whether coping impacted on the continuation or cessation of harassment and abuse, and (3) the extent to which nonsuccessful coping was predictive of alcohol use and abuse. Active coping had no significant impact on the ability to end harassing or abusive experiences. Moreover, the use of problem-focused coping that was unsuccessful predicted some drinking outcomes for both men and women, controlling for Wave I drinking and sociodemographic characteristics. The data suggest that increased institutional attention to the prevention of workplace harassment and abuse might impact on decreasing alcohol use and abuse.
Takeuchi, Masumi; Nomura, Kyoko; Horie, Saki; Okinaga, Hiroko; Perumalswami, Chithra R; Jagsi, Reshma
The purpose of this study is three-fold: (1) to compare harassment (sexual, gender, and academic harassment both directly and indirectly experienced - i.e. "directly harassed" and "have seen or heard of someone who experienced harassment", respectively) experienced by males and females, (2) to investigate whether such experiences correlate with burnout, and (3) to explore whether social support might mitigate any such relationship between harassment and burnout. This cross-sectional study was conducted at a private university in Japan in February 2014 and is based on a work-life balance survey obtained from 330 academic faculty members. We investigated the association between each of the six subcategories of harassment (direct and indirect forms of each of the three types) and burnout using general linear regression models; we then evaluated interactions between harassment and social support in these models. The prevalence of direct and indirect experiences of harassment was higher in females than in males for all three types of harassment. Males showed higher burnout scores if they had direct experiences of harassment. There were significant interactions between social support and the direct experience of harassment; high social support mitigated the effect size of direct harassment on burnout among males. Females showed higher burnout scores if they had indirect experiences of harassment. However, the same buffering effect of social support on burnout as observed in males was not observed in females. Direct harassment experiences increased the risk of burnout in males, and indirect harassment experiences increased burnout in females.
Fasting, K; Brackenridge, CH; Walseth, K
Sexual harassment research was first undertaken in the workplace and educational settings. Research on sexual harassment in sport is scarce but has grown steadily since the mid-1980s. Even so, very little is known about the causes and/or characteristics and/or consequences of sexual harassment in sport settings. This article reports on the findings from interviews with 25 elite female athletes in Norway who indicated in a prior survey (N =572) that they had experienced sexual harassment from ...
Fitzgerald, L F
Sexual harassment has been a fixture of the workplace since women first began to work outside the home. Although true epidemiological studies do not exist, large-scale surveys of working women suggest that approximately 1 of every 2 women will be harassed at some point during their academic or working lives. The data indicate that harassment is degrading, frightening, and sometimes physically violent; frequently extends over a considerable period of time; and can result in profound job-related, psychological; and health-related consequences. This article provides a brief review of the prevalence and consequences of sexual harassment and outlines social policy implications for research, legislation, and primary prevention.
De Venter, Maud; Illegems, Jela; Van Royen, Rita; Moorkens, Greta; Sabbe, Bernard G C; Van Den Eede, Filip
There is wide consensus that childhood trauma plays an important role in the aetiology of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). The current study examines the differential effects of childhood trauma subtypes on fatigue and physical functioning in individuals suffering from CFS. Participants were 155 well-documented adult, predominantly female CFS patients receiving treatment at the outpatient treatment centre for CFS of the Antwerp University Hospital in Belgium. Stepwise regression analyses were conducted with outcomes of the total score of the Checklist Individual Strength (CIS) measuring fatigue and the scores on the physical functioning subscale of the Medical Outcomes Short Form 36 Health Status Survey (SF-36) as the dependent variables, and the scores on the five subscales of the Traumatic Experiences Checklist (TEC) as the independent variables. The patients' fatigue (β=1.38; p=0.025) and physical functioning scores (β=-1.79; p=0.034) were significantly predicted by childhood sexual harassment. There were no significant effects of emotional neglect, emotional abuse, bodily threat, or sexual abuse during childhood. Of the childhood trauma subtypes investigated, sexual harassment emerged as the most important predictor of fatigue and poor physical functioning in the CFS patients assessed. These findings have to be taken into account in further clinical research and in the assessment and treatment of individuals coping with chronic fatigue syndrome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Drawn from a larger study examining the experiences of lesbian teachers working in high schools across New South Wales (NSW), Australia, this article explores the ways in which interpersonal anti-lesbian harassment marginalises lesbian teachers. It relays some of the impacts harassment has on individuals, yet also shows that many of these teachers…
Studies have indicated that as many as 80% of students experience some form of sexual harassment in public schools. Such statistics are troublesome, considering that peer sexual harassment can have long-term psychological effects on student victims. Public schools have a responsibility to provide a safe educational environment free of peer sexual…
This paper reviews the literature and case law related to the issue of sexual harassment of females and specifically focuses on the adolescent female in the public middle school setting. The controversial thesis statement the researcher explored was: "sexual harassment is a manifestation of the ubiquitous power imbalance between men and women…
In 2001 the American Association of University Women Educational Foundation released the research report "Hostile Hallways: Bullying, Teasing, and Sexual Harassment in Schools." According to the report, in the eight years since the original AAUW study, "Hostile Hallways: The AAUW Survey on Sexual Harassment in America's Schools" (1993), not a lot…
Imagines the role of the male college professor in view of the erotic and sexual nature of his subjectivity and the glaring possibilities of sexual misconduct with students. Outlines some experiences related to the sexual harassment policies of one private college. (HB)
Freels, Sally A; Richman, Judith A; Rospenda, Kathleen M
Data from a longitudinal study of university employees across four waves is used to determine the extent to which workplace harassment predicts drinking or conversely the extent to which drinking predicts workplace harassment, and to address gender differences in these relationships. Mixed effects regression models are used to test the effects of 1) harassment at the previous wave on drinking at the current wave, adjusting for drinking at the previous wave, and 2) drinking at the previous wave on harassment at the current wave, adjusting for harassment at the previous wave. For males, drinking at the previous wave predicts sexual harassment at the current wave, whereas for females, sexual harassment at the previous wave predicts drinking at the current wave.
Walsh, Benjamin M.; Bauerle, Timothy J.; Magley, Vicki J.
Studies have evaluated the outcomes of sexual harassment training, but considerably less research has focused on variables that influence sexual harassment training effectiveness. To address this need, we developed and tested a model of individual and contextual inhibitors of sexual harassment training motivation to learn. Survey data collected…
York, Kenneth M.
In 1980, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) published the Guidelines on Sexual Harassment, specifying that sexual harassment is a kind of sex discrimination under Title VII and is an unlawful employment practice. While the determination of the behaviors that constitute sexual harassment would enable employees to write more…
The literature of sexual harassment, particularly on college campuses, is reviewed. Topics discussed include definition of sexual harassment, legal implications, the role of individual perceptions, victim and peer response to harassment, and development of institutional policy and strategies for combatting harassment. A substantial bibliography is…
Lewis, John F.; Hastings, Susan C.
As in most workplaces, sexual harassment has been an issue of significant magnitude in educational institutions as well. It has left the education community with many questions about what constitutes sexual harassment, how to prevent it, and how to deal with the legal problems that may arise concerning it. This report dispels several myths about…
Relates story of a college program director's coercive sexual harassment and the response of women faculty and peers outside the university. Focuses on the distinction between "having affairs" and "sexual coercion." Claims only when definitions of sexual harassment are articulated can men and women begin to talk to one another about the problem.…
About one year since I last covered the topic of sexual harassment, I am returning to this theme again as it continues to be raised in the Ombud office. This trend is likely to continue as long as everyday sexism and harassment remain hidden and our workplace culture persists in turning a blind eye to these issues… In previous articles, we discussed how to say “stop” to unwelcome behaviour and what to do when the situation persists. We also discussed what is meant by harassment, defined in CERN’s Operational Circular No. 9 as “…unwelcome behaviour that has the effect of violating a person’s dignity and/or creating a hostile work environment…” Finally, we underlined the need to promote a peer culture that recognises the early signs of any behaviour that risks deteriorating into harassment. So, what more is there to say? Sexual harassment in the workplace remains an invisible i...
The individual perception of sexual harassment and the gap between the individual and legal-institutional defi nitions of sexual harassment has been subject to intense scientifi c scrutiny as this is considered to be one of the reasons for the failure of anti-harassment policies. This article focuses on perceptions and constructions of sexual harassment by students and the gap between students’ individual defi nitions and expert (mainly legislative) definitions of sexual harassment. The artic...
Meyer, Elizabeth J.
This article provides an analysis of teachers' perceptions of and responses to gendered harassment in Canadian secondary schools based on in-depth interviews with six teachers in one urban school district. Gendered harassment includes any behaviour that polices and reinforces traditional heterosexual gender norms such as (hetero)sexual harassment,…
Maypole, Donald E.
Of 50 percent of the members of the Iowa chapter of the National Association of Social Workers, 27 percent of the women and men surveyed reported they had experienced sexual harassment at work. Discusses sources and types of sexual harassment found, as well as recourses taken by those harassed. (Author/ABB)
Equal Opportunities in the Employment (Amendment) Act of 2006 has introduced the employers' compulsory obligation to prevent sexual harassment and has reinforced the employers' liability for taking measures against sexual harassment in the workplace. Recently some court cases charging sexual harassment as sexual violence have appeared. These cases of rape in the workplace try defendants from the viewpoint of psychological studies, using such concepts as rape-trauma syndrome. These trends, how...
Lee Kum Chee; Mohd Nazari Ismail; Chan Foong Bee
This study examined the potential risks factors associated with sexually harassing behaviors within the framework of the four-factor model of sexual harassment. The factors examined are unprofessional work environment, skewed gender ratio in the workplace, knowledge of grievance procedure for sexual harassment, sexist attitudes among co-workers, privacy of workspace, physical attractiveness, dress manner of victims, job status, and sex roles. The dependent variable is incidence of sexual hara...
María del Carmen Herrera; Antonio Herrera; Francisca Expósito
Current research has postulated that sexual harassment is one of the most serious social problems. Perceptions of sexual harassment vary according to some factors: gender, context, and perceiver’s ideology. The strategies most commonly used by women to cope with harassment range from avoiding or ignoring the harasser to confronting the harasser or reporting the incident. The aim of this study was to explore women’s perception of sexual harassment, and to assess the implications of different v...
Garbin, Andréia De Conto; Fischer, Frida Marina
To analyze discourses on workplace psychological harassment in print media. Documental study on workplace psychological harassment that analyzed news stories published in three major newspapers of the State of São Paulo (southeastern Brazil) between 1990 and 2008. Discourse analysis was performed to identify discursive practices that reflect the phenomenon of psychological harassment in today's society, explanations for its occurrence and impact on workers' health. RESULT ANALYSIS: This theme emerged in the media through the dissemination of books, academic research production and laws. It was initially published in general news then in jobs and/or business sections. Discourses on compensation and precautionary business practices and coping strategies are widespread. Health-related aspects are foregone under the prevailing money-based rationale. Corporate cultures are permissive regarding psychological harassment and conflicts are escalated while working to achieve goals and results. Indifference, embarrassment, ridicule and demean were common in the news stories analyzed. The causal explanations of workplace harassment tend to have a psychological interpretation with emphasis on individual and behavioral characteristics, and minimizing a collective approach. The discourses analyzed trivialized harassment by creating caricatures of the actors involved. People apprehend its psychological content and stigmatization which contributes to making workplace harassment an accepted practice and trivializing work-related violence.
American Association of University Women, 2011
Sexual harassment has long been an unfortunate part of the climate in middle and high schools in the United States. Often considered a kind of bullying, sexual harassment by definition involves sex and gender and therefore warrants separate attention. The legal definition of sexual harassment also differentiates it from bullying. Based on a…
A study examined four reports of sexual harassment on college campuses. The reports show that harassers "key" their victims so that a contest will begin but the victims do not understand what is happening. Miscommunication occurs when power myths about men and women intersect during the harassment episode. Such myths include: the looking…
Shelton, J. Nicole; Chavous, Tabbye M.
Examined how racial factors influence college women's perceptions of sexual harassment with samples of 46 black and 89 white women. Data suggest that sexual harassment between black women and black men is trivialized compared to sexual behavior between black women and white men. Discusses implications for the study of sexual harassment. (SLD)
Vohlídalová, M. (Marta)
The paper focuses on perceptions and constructions of sexual harassment by students and the gap between students’ individual definitions and expert definitions of sexual harassment. The paper centres on two main research questions: i) how do students perceive sexual harassment and ii) what are the factors and dimensions that contribute to particular behaviour being labelled as sexual harassment? The study is based on qualitative in-depth interviews with students.
Wolfram, Hans-Joachim; Linton, Kenisha; McDuff, Nona
In this study, we examined the direct effect of (positive vs. negative) evaluation of potentially harassing experiences due to ethnic background on impaired well-being as well as the moderating effect of ethnic identity centrality on the relationship between (lower vs. higher) frequency of potentially harassing experiences and impaired well-being. Using a gender-balanced sample with equal proportions of black and minority ethnic and white undergraduate students (N = 240), we found that, expectedly, ethnic identity centrality intensified the effects of higher frequency of potentially harassing experiences on lower self-esteem and lower positive affect. Unexpectedly, however, gender identity centrality buffered the effects of higher frequency as well as more negative evaluation of potentially harassing experiences on lower self-esteem, indicating that gender identity centrality may be a protective resource, even though it is not specific to ethnic harassment. Exploratory analyses revealed that for black and minority ethnic respondents with high ethnic identity centrality and for white respondents with low ethnic identity centrality, there were associations between more negative evaluation of potentially harassing experiences and lower self-esteem and lower positive affect. This finding might indicate that ethnic identity centrality was a risk factor in black and ethnic minority respondents, but a protective factor in white respondents.
Alexander, Pamela C; Alexander, Elmore R; Warner, Stephanie
.... Based on the study findings, organizations with the best programs for prevention of sexual harassment had effective human relations strategies in which policies and training on sexual harassment...
Hemalatha, Dr K; Sundaresh, Noopura
To understand the complexity of sexual harassment it requires more complex models but the general problem in the models of sexual harassment in the literature today is their over simplicity. The research paper examines three existing models of sexual harassment from the literature- the psychological model, the organizational model, and the socio-cultural model. From the psychological models, the author examines the impact that "attitudes towards women" has upon the presence of sexual harassme...
Rienzo, Barbara A.; Moore, Michele Johnson
Investigated the extent to which Florida's school districts complied with the Florida Department of Education's (FDOE) recommendations for addressing sexual harassment in schools. Surveys of district equity coordinators and analysis of policies indicated that most districts approved sexual harassment policies incorporating many FDOE…
Bendixen, Mons; Kennair, Leif Edward Ottesen
Sexual harassment has traditionally been studied as men's harassment of women. This has led to a lack of knowledge about same sex harassment, and women harassing peers. This has also downplayed the inherent sexual nature of sexual harassment acts. While keeping in mind that sexual harassment is undesirable and causes distress, one needs to consider that many acts that are perceived as unwanted may not primarily be motivated by a wish to derogate but rather by an interest in soliciting short-t...
Kabat-Farr, Dana; Cortina, Lilia M
Legal definitions of sex-based harassment have evolved over the decades; it is important that social science perspectives on this phenomenon evolve as well. This study seeks to refine our understanding of conditions in which sex-based harassment thrives, with empirical evidence from three organizations. Previous research has suggested that underrepresentation of one's gender in the employment context increases risk for sex-based harassment. This work has focused mainly on sexual-advance forms of harassment, mainly in the lives of women. Less is known about the gender harassment of women, or about any kind of harassment of men. Extending this scholarship, we analyzed survey data from women and men working in three diverse domains: academia (N = 847), the court system (N = 1,158), and the military (N = 19,960). Across all samples, the underrepresentation of women in a workgroup related to increased odds of women experiencing gender harassment, but not sexual-advance harassment. For men, the opposite pattern emerged: underrepresentation did not increase men's risk for either type of harassment, instead relating to decreased odds of harassment in some contexts. We interpret these results in light of theories of tokenism, gender stereotyping, and sex role spillover in organizations. Our findings support the recommendation that, to reduce harassment (whether it be illegal or legal, gender- or sexuality-based, targeted at women or men), organizations should strive for gender balance in every job at every level. For male-dominated contexts, this implies a need to recruit, retain, and integrate more women throughout the organizational hierarchy.
Jardim, Lucia Rodrigues
This study aims to determine how sexual harassment can effectively be managed in the workplace in accordance with sexual harassment policies and procedures. The literature review takes an in depth view into: local and international codes with reference to the differences and similarities between the codes; the processes and procedures managers should follow when faced with sexual harassment grievances; the legal alternatives available to victims of sexual harassment. The empirical research wa...
Russo, Andrea; Milić, Ranko; Knežević, Bojana; Mulić, Rosanda; Mustajbegović, Jadranka
Aim To develop a questionnaire on harassment in the workplace among teachers at primary and secondary schools. Methods We analyzed the existing questionnaires on harassment in the workplace and developed a new one was to specifically address harassment of teachers in the public education sector. The questionnaire was then experimentally applied to a sample of 764 primary and secondary school teachers in Split Dalmatia County, Croatia. It included three scales –exposure to harassment,...
Driscoll, Jeanne Bosson
Both sexual attraction and harassment must be dealt with if men and women are to develop truly productive working relationships. Key issues include policies on sexual attraction and harassment, availability of professional resources on the subjects, training, and the role of personnel specialists. (CT)
Ivy, Diana K.; Hamlet, Stephen
Shows that more women than men reported being targets of peer sexual harassment. Notes that women view certain behaviors as harassing and as more severe than men. Finds that classmates were a primary category of harassers for women and a secondary category for men. Documents peer sexual harassment in college classrooms and discusses implications…
Diehl, Charlotte; Glaser, Tina; Bohner, Gerd
Prior research has shown that (1) better knowledge about the consequences of rape goes along with less rape-supportive attitudes and lower rape proclivity, and (2) empathy with the victims correlates negatively with sexual aggression. In two experiments, the authors combined these approaches in order to reduce sexual harassment myth acceptance (SHMA) and the likelihood to sexually harass (LSH). In Study 1, 101 male and female university students read a report describing sexual harassment as either serious or harmless, and completed scales assessing dispositional empathy and SHMA. Results showed that higher empathy was associated with lower SHMA; furthermore, learning about the seriousness (vs. harmlessness) of sexual harassment led to lower SHMA, particularly in participants low in empathy. Gender differences in SHMA were fully explained by gender differences in empathy. In Study 2, perspective taking, a crucial aspect of empathy, was manipulated. One hundred nineteen male and female participants read either a neutral text or a description of a sexual harassment case, which was written either from the female target's or from the male perpetrator's perspective; then they completed scales measuring SHMA and (only male participants) LSH. The target's perspective led to lower SHMA and to lower LSH than did the neutral text, whereas no such effect was found for the perpetrator's perspective. Implications for intervention programs are discussed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Mashhood Ahmed Sheikh
Full Text Available The mechanisms by which childhood socioeconomic status (CSES affects adult mental health, general health, and well-being are not clear. Moreover, the analytical assumptions employed when assessing mediation in social and psychiatric epidemiology are rarely explained. The aim of this paper was to explain the intermediate confounding assumption, and to quantify differential recall bias in the association between CSES, childhood abuse, and mental health (SCL-10, general health (EQ-5D, and subjective well-being (SWLS. Furthermore, we assessed the mediating role of psychological and physical abuse in the association between CSES and mental health, general health, and well-being; and the influence of differential recall bias in the estimation of total effects, direct effects, and proportion of mediated effects. The assumptions employed when assessing mediation are explained with reference to a causal diagram. Poisson regression models (relative risk, RR and 99% CI were used to assess the association between CSES and psychological and physical abuse in childhood. Mediation analysis (difference method was used to assess the indirect effect of CSES (through psychological and physical abuse in childhood on mental health, general health, and well-being. Psychological abuse and physical abuse mediated the association between CSES and adult mental health, general health, and well-being (6-16% among men and 7-14% among women, p<0.001. The results suggest that up to 27% of the association between CSES and childhood abuse, 23% of the association between childhood abuse, and mental health, general health, and well-being, and 44% of the association between CSES and mental health, general health, and well-being is driven by differential recall bias. Assessing mediation with cross-sectional data (exposure, mediator, and outcome measured at the same time showed that the total effects and direct effects were vastly overestimated (biased upwards. Consequently, the
Limback, E. Rebecca; Bland, Zinna
To prevent sexual harassment, schools should have a written policy and should educate students about it. Suggested teaching activities include using current court cases, examining and refining school policy, roleplaying on video, inviting speakers, and using an "Is This Sexual Harassment?" questionnaire describing various behaviors. (SK)
Townsley, Nikki C.; Geist, Patricia
Contributes to scholarship advancing the understanding of human communication, illustrating the discursive enactment of hegemony through organizational responses to sexual harassment. Analyzes stories from both victims of sexual harassment and administrators who manage sexual harassment complaints at a major United States university. Argues that…
Niven, D; Wang, C; Rowe, M P; Taga, M; Vladeck, J P; Garron, L C
The past year has seen a growing public awareness of sexual harassment in the workplace. The question of what constitutes sexual harassment and how to recognize it has been debated in the news, the courts, and Congress. This HBR case study is less concerned with defining it than with examining what a manager should do about it. When Filmore Trust manager Jerry Tarkwell found out one of his employees was being sexually harassed on the job, he thought he knew exactly what to do. Following company policy, he immediately notified the bank's equal employment office. Then he called Jill McNair, the employee being harassed. Her response dumbfounded him. "You had no right to call EEO before talking to me," McNair said angrily. Do you have any idea what could happen to me and to my career if people find out about this?" Tarkwell didn't understand; McNair wasn't to blame. He believed the only person who should be worried was the harasser. Tarkwell tried to spell out the procedure for her. "All you have to do is write a letter and ..." McNair cut him off. "If this gets investigated by EEO, everyone in the building could be questioned. I'll probably get transferred, and then I won't have a chance at promotion. And who'd want to work with me? Every man in the company would be afraid I'd report him if he so much as opened a door for me."(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Rezvan, Mohammadreza; Shekarpour, Saeedeh; Balasuriya, Lakshika; Thirunarayan, Krishnaprasad; Shalin, Valerie; Sheth, Amit
Having a quality annotated corpus is essential especially for applied research. Despite the recent focus of Web science community on researching about cyberbullying, the community dose not still have standard benchmarks. In this paper, we publish first, a quality annotated corpus and second, an offensive words lexicon capturing different types type of harassment as (i) sexual harassment, (ii) racial harassment, (iii) appearance-related harassment, (iv) intellectual harassment, and (v) politic...
... harassment. 1300.105 Section 1300.105 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY STANDARDS OF CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY § 1300.105 National origin harassment. It is TVA policy that all TVA employees are responsible for assuring that the workplace is free from...
Gender and Behaviour ... Sexual harassment is a recurring decimal in tertiary institutions. The paper therefore investigates the effects of sexual harassment on the academic performance of female students, using Delta State University, Abraka, ...
Malavika A Subramanyam
Full Text Available National data on birthweight from birth certificates or medical records are not available in India. The third Indian National Family Health Survey included data on birthweight of children obtained from health cards and maternal recall. This study aims to describe the population that these data represent and compares the birthweight obtained from health cards with maternal recall data in terms of its socioeconomic patterning and as a risk factor for childhood growth failure.The analytic sample consisted of children aged 0 to 59 months with birthweight data obtained from health cards (n = 3227 and maternal recall (n = 16,787. The difference between the card sample and the maternal recall sample in the distribution across household wealth, parental education, caste, religion, gender, and urban residence was compared using multilevel models. We also assessed the ability of birthweight to predict growth failure in infancy and childhood in the two groups. The survey contains birthweight data from a majority of household wealth categories (>5% in every category for recall, both genders, all age groups, all caste groups, all religion groups, and urban and rural dwellers. However, children from the lowest quintile of household wealth were under-represented (4.73% in card and 8.62% in recall samples. Comparison of data across health cards and maternal recall revealed similar social patterning of low birthweight and ability of birthweight to predict growth failure later in life. Children were less likely to be born with low birthweight if they had mothers with over 12 years of education compared to 1-5 years of education with relative risk (RR of 0.79 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.52, 1.2 in the card sample and 0.70 (95% CI: 0.59, 0.84 in the recall sample. A 100 gram difference in a child's birthweight was associated with a decreased likelihood of underweight in both the card (RR: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.94, 0.96 and recall (RR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.96, 0
Clear, Emily R; Coker, Ann L; Cook-Craig, Patricia G; Bush, Heather M; Garcia, Lisandra S; Williams, Corrine M; Lewis, Alysha M; Fisher, Bonnie S
This large, population-based study is one of the few to examine prevalence rates of sexual harassment occurring during the past 12 months by victimization and perpetration among adolescents. In this large, cross-sectional survey of students attending 26 high schools, sexual harassment was defined using three questions from the Sexual Experiences Questionnaire. Among 18,090 students completing the survey, 30% disclosed sexual harassment victimization (37% of females, 21% of males) and 8.5% reported perpetration (5% of females, 12% of males). Sexual harassment perpetration was highly correlated with male sex, minority race/ethnicity, same-sex attraction, bullying, alcohol binge drinking, and intraparental partner violence. © The Author(s) 2014.
Gill, Ritu; Febbraro, Angela R
Recent studies examining sexual harassment in the military indicate a decrease in reports of harassment, which may be attributed to several factors, including zero-tolerance policies or anti-harassment programs. However, the decrease may also be attributed to fears of losing one's job or of being derogated by colleagues if harassment is reported. This qualitative study of women employed in the Canadian combat arms examined spontaneously shared perceptions and experiences of sexual harassment. Six of the 26 women interviewed shared their experiences or perceptions of harassment, including concerns about potential repercussions of reporting. Implications for gender integration in military organizations are discussed.
Walsh, Kate; Galea, Sandro; Cerda, Magdalena; Richards, Catherine; Liberzon, Israel; Tamburrino, Marijo B.; Calabrese, Joseph; Koenen, Karestan C.
Objective Despite concerns about increased sexual harassment and assault following 2013 legislation repealing the ban on women in combat, little research has examined military factors that could prevent sexual harassment and assault during deployment. This study examined whether unit support, which reflects the quality of service members’ relationships within their unit, protects against sexual harassment and assault during deployment. Methods Participants were 1674 Ohio Army National Guard service members who reported at least one deployment during a telephone survey conducted in 2008-2009. Participants completed measures of sexual harassment/assault, unit support, and psychosocial support. Logistic regression was used to model odds of sexual harassment/assault. Results Approximately 13.2% (n=198) of men and 43.5% (n=74) of women reported sexual harassment, and 1.1% (n=17) of men and 18.8% (n=32) of women reported sexual assault during their most recent deployment. Higher unit support was associated with decreased odds of sexual harassment and assault. Conclusions A substantial proportion of men and women reported sexual harassment/assault. Higher unit support was associated with diminished odds of sexual harassment/assault during deployment. Programming designed to improve unit cohesion has potential to reduce sexual harassment and assault. PMID:25442705
Walsh, Kate; Galea, Sandro; Cerda, Magdalena; Richards, Catherine; Liberzon, Israel; Tamburrino, Marijo B; Calabrese, Joseph; Koenen, Karestan C
Despite concerns about increased sexual harassment and assault after the 2013 legislation repealing the ban on women in combat, little research has examined military factors that could prevent sexual harassment and assault during deployment. This study examined whether unit support, which reflects the quality of service members' relationships within their unit, protects against sexual harassment and assault during deployment. Participants were 1,674 Ohio Army National Guard service members who reported at least one deployment during a telephone survey conducted in 2008 and 2009. Participants completed measures of sexual harassment/assault, unit support, and psychosocial support. Logistic regression was used to model odds of sexual harassment/assault. Approximately 13.2% of men (n = 198) and 43.5% of women (n = 74) reported sexual harassment, and 1.1% of men (n = 17) and 18.8% of women (n = 32) reported sexual assault during their most recent deployment. Greater unit support was associated with decreased odds of sexual harassment and assault. A substantial proportion of men and women reported sexual harassment/assault. Greater unit support was associated with diminished odds of sexual harassment/assault during deployment. Programming designed to improve unit cohesion has the potential to reduce sexual harassment and assault. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
McIntyre, Jerilyn S.
Sexual harassment complaints are challenges to the abuse of power in certain kinds of communicative relationships, and sexual harassment policies and procedures are ways of defining the responsible exercise of power and providing the means to address grievances that result from irresponsible and potentially harmful uses of power in those…
Petersen, Jennifer L.; Hyde, Janet Shibley
The current study describes longitudinal trends in sexual harassment by adolescent peers and highlights gender, pubertal status, attractiveness, and power as predictors of harassment victimization. At the end of 5th, 7th, and 9th grades, 242 adolescents completed questionnaires about sexual harassment victimization, pubertal status, and perceived…
Street, Amy E; Gradus, Jaimie L; Stafford, Jane; Kelly, Kacie
The goal of this investigation was to examine gender differences in experiences of sexual harassment during military service and the negative mental health symptoms associated with these experiences. Female (n = 2,319) and male (n = 1,627) former reservists were surveyed about sexual harassment during their military service and current mental health symptoms. As expected, women reported a higher frequency of sexual harassment. Further, women had increased odds of experiencing all subtypes of sexual harassment. Being female conferred the greatest risk for experiencing the most serious forms of harassment. For both men and women, sexual harassment was associated with more negative current mental health. However, at higher levels of harassment, associations with some negative mental health symptoms were stronger for men than women. Although preliminary, the results of this investigation suggest that although women are harassed more frequently than men, clinicians must increase their awareness of the potential for sexual harassment among men in order to provide the best possible care to all victims of harassment. Copyright 2007 APA.
DeSouza, Eros R.
The current study investigated incivility, sexual harassment, and racial-ethnic harassment simultaneously when the targets were faculty members and the perpetrators were students (i.e., academic contrapower harassment; ACH). The sample constituted 257 faculty members (90% were White and 53% were women) from a medium-sized state university in the…
Sydell, Eric J.; Nelson, Eileen S.
Examines influence of gender and race on perception of sexual harassment and on recommended punitive measures by college judicial boards for potential harasser. Significant gender-based differences were found in perception of an ambiguous sexual-harassment situation, with men tending to attribute greater responsibility to victim than did women.…
Scarduzio, Jennifer A; Sheff, Sarah E; Smith, Mathew
The ways sexual harassment occurs both online and in face-to-face settings has become more complicated. Sexual harassment that occurs in cyberspace or online sexual harassment adds complexity to the experiences of victims, current research understandings, and the legal dimensions of this phenomenon. Social networking sites (SNS) are a type of social media that offer unique opportunities to users and sometimes the communication that occurs on SNS can cross the line from flirtation into online sexual harassment. Victims of sexual harassment employ communicative strategies such as coping to make sense of their experiences of sexual harassment. The current study qualitatively examined problem-focused, active emotion-focused, and passive emotion-focused coping strategies employed by sexual harassment victims across multiple settings. We conducted 26 in-depth interviews with victims that had experienced sexual harassment across multiple settings (e.g., face-to-face and SNS). The findings present 16 types of coping strategies-five problem-focused, five active emotion-focused, and six passive emotion-focused. The victims used an average of three types of coping strategies during their experiences. Theoretical implications extend research on passive emotion-focused coping strategies by discussing powerlessness and how victims blame other victims. Furthermore, theoretically the findings reveal that coping is a complex, cyclical process and that victims shift among types of coping strategies over the course of their experience. Practical implications are offered for victims and for SNS sites.
Martin, Jennifer L.
This intervention study examines the problem of sexual harassment in an alternative high school for at-risk students. It was hypothesized that creating a forum where girls felt safe to share their experiences would increase their awareness of sexual harassment and its effects, eventually contributing to a decrease in incidents of sexual harassment…
Taylor, Elizabeth A.; Hardin, Robin; Rode, Cheryl R.
Sexual harassment and incivility in the workplace are the unwanted sexual attention and bullying of employees by their superior. There are times, however, when the roles are reversed and the superior is the target of such behavior. Contrapower harassment refers to subordinate incivility and/or sexual attention directed toward a superior. The focus…
Graser, M; Manaouil, C; Verrier, A; Doutrellot-Phillipon, C; Jardé, O
The recent French Law on Social Modernisation of 17 January 2002 introduced into the French Labour Code and into the French Criminal Code, the concept of "moral" harassment. The definition of psychological harassment under this law adopts quite a broad conception of the notion of psychological harassment. The legislator has established a means for "friendly" settlement of disputes: mediation. When it has not been possible to settle the dispute internally, the Courts have a number of sanctions available to them. The French Labour Code provides that any termination of the contract of employment resulting from a situation of psychological harassment is automatically null and void. Such nullification should therefore be applicable whatever the nature of the termination: dismissal, resignation or negotiated departure and it punishes psychological harassment at work by imprisonment for one year and a fine of 3,750 Euros. The French Criminal Code prescribes penalties of one year and 15,000 Euros.
Mitchell, Kimberly J; Ybarra, Michele L; Korchmaros, Josephine D
This article examines (a) variation in rates of sexual harassment across mode (e.g., in-person, online) and type of harassment, (b) the impact of sexual harassment (i.e., distressing vs. non-distressing), and (c) how sexual harassment is similarly and differently experienced across sexual orientation and gender identity groups. Data were collected as part of the Teen Health and Technology online survey of 5,907 13 to 18 year-old Internet users in the United States. Past year sexual harassment was reported by 23-72% of youth, depending upon sexual orientation, with the highest rates reported by lesbian/queer girls (72%), bisexual girls (66%), and gay/queer boys (66%). When examined by gender identity, transgender youth reported the highest rates of sexual harassment - 81%. Overall, the most common modes for sexual harassment were in-person followed by online. Distress in the form of interference with school, family, and/or friends; creating a hostile environment; or being very/extremely upset was reported by about half of the sexually harassed bisexual girls and lesbian/queer girls, 65% of the gender non-conforming/other gender youth, and 63% of the transgender youth. Youth with high social support and self-esteem were less likely to report sexual harassment. Findings point to the great importance of sexual harassment prevention for all adolescents, with particular emphasis on the unique needs and experiences of youth of different sexual orientations and gender identities. Socio-emotional programs that emphasize self-esteem building could be particularly beneficial for reducing the likelihood of victimization and lessen the impact when it occurs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kisa, Adnan; Dziegielewski, Sophia F; Ates, Metin
Sexual harassment remains a universal factor that can affect nursing performance and worker productivity in any type of health care facility. There are few studies in this area that have been conducted in developing countries. To measure the occurrence of sexual harassment, a questionnaire was given to 353 nurses in two different hospitals yielding a response rate of 61%. Overall, the majority of the respondents (n = 157 out of 251) reported that they had been subjected to sexual harassment in the workplace, and the harassment experience was strong enough to affect worker productivity. In addition, many nurses reported the belief that sexual harassment remains a disturbing problem in this developing country that should not be ignored. Based on these findings, implications for policy and further study are suggested.
Schneider, M; Phillips, S P
This paper reports the qualitative data from a study of sexual harassment of female family physicians by patients. In addition to the everyday harassment that any woman might encounter in a work setting, the physicians in this study also reported types of harassment which are unique to the practice of medicine. These include opportunistic harassment such as exposure of the genitals, inappropriately touching the physician when the examination requires close contact, excessive discussion of sexual matters for apparent erotic gratification, and acting out behaviours from non-competent patients. Other reported behaviours were not, strictly speaking, sexual harassment but were troublesome nonetheless, including spontaneous erections during physical examinations, physically intimidating behaviour, and ambiguous behaviours which were sexual in nature, but difficult to interpret. The findings are discussed in the context of theory pertaining to contrapower harassment. It is concluded that for some patients the gender of the physician takes precedence over her occupational status and, this combined with the unique characteristics of the doctor/patient relationship, can make the practice of family medicine more conductive to sexual harassment than other professions.
Watstein, Sarah Barbara
Examines the issue of sexual harassment in the library workplace and library profession. Laws relating to sexual harassment in the library are explored, and the immediate and long-term preventive solutions at the individual, institutional, and association levels are discussed. (KRN)
Blackstone, Amy; Uggen, Christopher; McLaughlin, Heather
Studies of legal mobilization often focus on people who have perceived some wrong, but rarely consider the process that selects them into the pool of potential “mobilizers.” Similarly, studies of victimization or targeting rarely go on to consider what people do about the wrong, or why some targets come forward and others remain silent. We here integrate sociolegal, feminist, and criminological theories in a conceptual model that treats experiencing sexual harassment and mobilizing in response to it as interrelated processes. We then link these two processes by modeling them as jointly determined outcomes and examine their connections using interviews with a subset of our survey respondents. Our results suggest that targets of harassment are selected, in part, because they are least likely to tell others about the experience. Strategies that workers employ to cope with and confront harassment are also discussed. We find that traditional formal/informal dichotomies of mobilization responses may not fully account for the range of ways individuals respond to harassment, and we propose a preliminary typology of responses. PMID:20300446
Abo Ali, Ehab A; Saied, Shimaa M; Elsabagh, Hala M; Zayed, Hanaa A
Sexual harassment against nurses is a major workplace problem causing adverse psychological effects and may affect the occupational performance of the nurses. This study aimed to assess the magnitude of this problem, and its characteristics and consequences among the nursing staff in Tanta University Hospitals, Gharbeia Governorate, Egypt. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out on 430 nurses at Tanta University Hospitals using a semistructured, self-administered questionnaire to collect the data concerning the exposure and characteristics of harassment situations. A representative sample of the nurses was taken randomly from the emergency, medical and surgical departments. Overall, 70.2% of the studied nurses were ever exposed to sexual harassment at the workplace; 43.7% of the harassed nurses were working in both day and night shifts. Staring in a suggestive manner emerged as the most common form of harassment, followed by hearing sexual words and comments or jokes (70.9, 58.6 and 57.3%, respectively). The relatives of the patients were the most common perpetrators, followed by the hospital staff other than the doctors (61.9, 45.4%, respectively). During the harassment situation, astonishment and shock were the most frequent responses in 65.2% of the harassed nurses, while after its occurrence 38.4% ignored the situation. About 95% of the harassed nurses were left with psychological effects, mostly in the form of disappointment and depression (76.5 and 67.9%, respectively). The prevalence of sexual harassment among nurses at the workplace was high with relation to certain occupational factors, and it led to marked psychological effects on the victims. Hence, protective legislations and measures should be taken by the hospital management for prevention of this problem in the future.
Full Text Available Sexual harassment is illegal and may have very damaging effects on the people exposed to it. One would expect organizations, employers, and institutions to take very good care to prevent employees from exposure to sexual harassment from anyone in their workplace. And yet, many people, mostly women, are exposed to sexual harassment at work. In care work, such behaviour is often directed toward their female caregiver by elderly citizens in need of care. Contemporary Nordic studies of working life and work environment have primarily investigated the interpersonal dimensions of sexual harassment, thus focusing on the relation between elderly citizens in need of care and their professional caregivers. In this article, we argue that sexual harassment from the elderly toward newcomers in elder care should also be seen as an effect of institutional practices. Based upon a Foucauldianinspired notion of practice-making, the article carries out a secondary analysis of three different empirical studies in order to explore how sexual harassment is produced and maintained through institutional practices in elder care. The term institution in this perspective includes three dimensions; a political, an educational (educational institutions in health and elder care, and a work organizational dimension. By examining elder care in these different dimensions, we identify how sexual harassment of professional caregivers is produced and maintained through institutional practice-making in elder care. The article thus contributes to our knowledge on working life by expanding and qualifying the understanding of the problematic working environment in care work, and by offering an alternative theoretical and analytical approach to the study of sexual harassment. Together, these insights suggest how elder care institutions might act to prevent sexual harassment toward caregivers.
Dionisi, Angela M; Barling, Julian; Dupré, Kathryne E
We focus on the differential outcomes associated with experiencing workplace aggression and sexual harassment by a supervisor. To do so, we identify and empirically address several issues within current workplace aggression and sexual harassment research, including the need to (a) conceptualize their multidimensional nature, (b) contrast comparable dimensions between the two, (c) recognize and control for covictimization, and (d) consider the role of target gender. Data were analyzed using multiple regression and dominance analyses on a sample of 467 employed women (M age = 40 years). Results showed that all forms of sexual harassment were more strongly associated with work withdrawal and psychological well-being than comparable forms of workplace aggression. Nonphysical workplace aggression accounted for more of the variance in attitudinal outcomes (job, coworker and supervisor satisfaction, intent to quit, commitment) than nonphysical sexual harassment. Sexual harassment accounted for more of the variance than workplace aggression in all outcomes when the harassment and aggression involved some form of threatened or actual physical contact. Conceptual and methodological issues are discussed.
Lach, Denise H.; Gwartney-Gibbs, Patricia A.
Sexual harassment is the most visible example of workplace disputes that systematically disadvantage women. The prevalence of sexual harassment contributes to the persistence of occupational sex segregation. (SK)
Cardoso, Fernando Luiz
This research used interview and questionnaire data from homosexual (n = 177), bisexual (n = 157), and heterosexual (n = 544) men between 20 and 30 years of age among lower class men and university students in three countries: Brazil, Thailand, and Turkey. The main goal of the study was to examine the recalled childhood sex-typed behavior and adult sports preferences that distinguish homosexuals from bisexuals and heterosexuals. In all three cultures and both social groups, homosexual men were almost always more likely as children to have wanted to be a girl, to cross-dress, to play with girls, to do girls' tasks, and to practice fewer sports. They were also less likely to bully others or to engage in physical fights. As children, homosexual men were more likely to prefer swimming and playing volleyball rather than soccer and, as adults, they preferred watching gymnastics and swimming over soccer. The bisexuals scored intermediate mostly in "desire to be a girl" and "cross-dressing," although they were much closer to the heterosexuals. These results, coupled with previous cross-cultural research, suggest that cross-gender behavior in childhood may characterize most male homosexuals regardless of their cultural milieu.
Rademakers, Jany J D J M; van den Muijsenbergh, Maria E T C; Slappendel, Geerte; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine L M; Borleffs, Jan C C
Sexual harassment of medical students has been the focus of many international studies. Prevalence rates from 18% to over 60% have been reported. However, a Dutch study at Nijmegen Medical School found the prevalence rate to be lower (13.3% in the total group; 20% among female students only). We aimed to identify whether Nijmegen constitutes a positive sample of Dutch medical schools or whether incidents of sexual harassment are less prevalent in the Netherlands than elsewhere, and to establish if and how these experiences impact the professional lives of students. Students received a semi-structured questionnaire containing questions about their experiences of sexual harassment during clerkships. The questions referred to students' reactions to any incidents, the possible consequences for their wellbeing or professional functioning and the way cases of sexual harassment were handled. The prevalence of sexual harassment was significantly higher in Utrecht than in Nijmegen. In both studies rates were relatively low compared with international data. Nevertheless, 1 in 3-5 Dutch female medical students had experienced unwelcome sexual attention from patients, colleagues or supervisors. Three of 10 students who had experienced such an incident stated that it had a negative impact on their functioning afterwards. Prevalence rates of sexual harassment in medical schools in the Netherlands are low compared with international rates. However, the number of women students who experience sexual harassment is still 1 in 3-5. The occurrence of and ways to deal with these incidents should be important topics in the training of medical students and supervisors.
Robin, Gaëlle; Stéphan, Florian; Le Galudec, Mickaël; Hazif-Thomas, Cyril; Walter, Michel
Harassment may be either moral, physical or sexual. It is defined as a phenomenon that happens repeatedly. It is underestimated in professional environments and probably even more so in private life. Without referring to a pathological personality, harassers have common pathological traits.
De Coster, Stacy; Estes, Sarah Beth; Mueller, Charles W.
In criminology, routine activities of potential victims can be used to predict victimization. Application to organizational sexual harassment data shows that organizational features (proximity in job location, supervisor or work group guardianship) and individual characteristics (target attractiveness) can predict sexual harassment victimization,…
Naveed, Anila; Tharani, Ambreen; Alwani, Nasreen
In today's world women are increasingly participating in the realm of work force, yet they are facing many obstacles in their way. Sexual harassment is one of those obstacles. Sexual harassment at work place is prevalent in every society. It could happen to anyone but women are the targeted victims. Sexual harassment is considered as a traumatic event and the victim may end up in having physical and mental sufferings that hinders a person to work effectively. At an organisational level this may result in decrease work effectiveness, decreased work productivity, high absenteeism, high turnover, and low staff morale. Hence there is a need that, organisations and government should look seriously into this matter. Proper education and training programs should be developed to deal with these issues. The goal must be both to deal with sexual harassment incidents effectively and to prevent the occurrence of future incidents.
Khubchandani, Jagdish; Price, James H
Most research on workplace harassment originates from European countries.Prevalence of workplace harassment and associated morbidity has not been well studied in the United States. The purpose of this study was to assess in a sample of US workers the prevalence of workplace harassment and the psychological and physical health consequences of workplace harassment. The 2010 National Health Interview Survey data were analyzed in 2014 for this study. We computed the prevalence of workplace harassment, assessed the demographic and background characteristics of victims of harassment, and tested the association between harassment and selected health risk factors by using logistic regression analysis. Statistical significance was established as p workplace in the past 12 months. The odds of harassment were significantly higher for females (OR 1.47, p women victims were observed. Workplace harassment in the US is associated with significant health risk factors and morbidity. Workplace policies and protocols can play a significant role in reducing harassment and the associated negative health outcomes.
McGinley, Meredith; Rospenda, Kathleen M; Liu, Li; Richman, Judith A
The experience of chronic generalized harassment from others can have a deleterious impact on individuals over time. Specifically, coping resources may be taxed, resulting in the use of avoidant coping strategies such as substance use. However, little is known about the experience of chronic generalized harassment (e.g., verbal hostility, manipulation by others, exclusion from important events) and its impact on substance use in collegiate populations. In the current study, we examined the latent growth of generalized harassment across the transition from high school to college, whether this growth was heterogeneous, and the relationships between latent generalized harassment classifications and substance use. Incoming freshmen students (N = 2890; 58% female; 53% white) at eight colleges in Illinois completed a web survey at five points: fall 2011 (baseline), spring 2012 (T1), fall 2012 (T2), fall 2013 (T3) and fall 2014 (T4). Students were required to be at least 18 years old at baseline, and were compensated with online gift certificates. Two-part latent class growth analysis was implemented in order to examine heterogeneous growth over time. The results supported a two-class solution (infrequent and chronic classes) for generalized harassment. Growth in harassment was characterized by a decrease from baseline through college entry, with a recovery in rates by T3. Members of the chronically harassed class had greater mean generalized harassment over time, and were less likely to report zero instances of harassment experiences. As hypothesized, membership in the chronic class predicted future binge drinking, drinking to intoxication, problems due to alcohol use, and cigarette use, but not marijuana use. Future interventions should focus on providing college students with resources to help cope with distress stemming from persistent generalized harassment from peers, faculty, and other individuals in higher-education settings.
Dardis, Christina M; Vento, Stephanie A; Gradus, Jaimie L; Street, Amy E
Victims' conceptualizations of traumatic experiences can impact screening responses and decisions to utilize health care. Despite experiencing events constituting sexual harassment, many victims do not label their experiences as such. In the military, specific situational factors (e.g., occurred on-duty, higher ranking harasser) and victim appraisals of experiences (e.g., offensive, threatening) have been associated with increased labeling of sexual harassment. However, no research has examined sexual harassment labeling among those deployed in recent Afghanistan and Iraq conflicts, where the context of harassment may differ from peacetime settings. The purpose of the present study was to examine frequencies of labeling sexual harassment during deployment, factors associated with labeling, and associations between labeling and perceived need for and use of mental health services. 2,348 veterans (51% women, 49% men) drawn from a random sample of veterans deployed in support of the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq completed a mail survey. Women were significantly more likely than men to label experiences as harassment. Whereas appraisals of events were associated with both women's and men's labeling, situational factors were only associated with women's labeling. Among women, labeling was associated with a greater perceived need for and use of mental health services among those who experienced nonassaultive harassment. These results confirm the importance of using behavioral language when screening for experiences of harassment among veterans returning from deployment. We discuss strategies for addressing labeling in the context of mental health treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Charney, D A; Russell, R C
A few widely publicized cases have made sexual harassment a salient subject in the 1990s. This article reviews the topic in a comprehensive manner, with particular attention to demographic information, psychosocial consequences, appropriate therapeutic interventions, and related psychological issues. Computerized literature searches were used to identify research and review papers from psychiatry and psychology journals. Nonscientific works that provide additional information are also cited. The literature suggests that sexual harassment is a widespread phenomenon, affecting 42% of women and 15% of men in occupational settings, 73% of women and 22% of men during medical training, and lower percentages in other educational settings. Despite the pervasive nature of this problem, only 1%-7% of victims file formal complaints. Sexual harassment produces an array of psychological and physical symptoms in over 90% of victims, and 12% seek help from mental health care professionals. Self-doubt is a central issue regardless of gender, but in instances where the perpetrator is male and the victim is female, there are ramifications unique to the trauma of gender-based abuse. It is critical that therapists avoid contributing to the process of "second injury" and not imply that patients have brought their troubles on themselves. Key therapeutic tasks include empathy, validation, and empowerment. Few experimental studies have focused on the victims of sexual harassment, and none have focused on the perpetrators. Psychiatry can play an invaluable role in the assessment and treatment of victims, the fostering of education and research in this area, and the understanding of underlying psychological and gender issues.
Matusitz, Jonathan; Breen, Gerald Mark
This paper is an examination of how Inoculation Theory can be applied in the prevention of sexual harassment in the medical setting. The basic tenet of the theory is the study of the processes through which we withstand and oppose attitude transformation during social interactions that may influence or change our attitudes. More importantly, this paper analyzes sexual harassment as a pervasive phenomenon in the medical setting. As such, it defines what sexual harassment is, explains the prevalence of sexual harassment between the physician and the patient, describes some of the general studies conducted in medical settings, provides a case scenario of doctor-patient sexual harassment, and identifies some key consequences to doctors, patients, and society.
Lewis, Jacqueline; Coursol, Diane; Wahl, Kay Herting
Workplace harassment includes dysfunctional personal interactions characterized by bullying behaviors, personal attacks, and attempts to denigrate others. Targets of workplace harassment may experience stress, depression, low self-esteem, loss of sleep, and even posttraumatic stress disorder. Strategies that counselors can use to work effectively…
Asserts that men's confusion concerning sexual harassment stems primarily from the difficulty inherent in trying to differentiate between traditional male sexual behavior and sexual harassment. Describes the "5C" model of traditional heterosexual male sexuality (control, conquest, competition, climax, and confusion). Presents approaches for…
Lundy-Wagner, Valerie; Winkle-Wagner, Rachelle
In this conceptual paper, the authors discuss how research about sexual harassment and campus racial climates for undergraduate students is relegated to separate silos. Drawing on intersectionality and critical race feminist frameworks, the authors juxtapose these strands of research with attention to ethnicity/race and gender, highlighting how…
Romito, Patrizia; Cedolin, Carlotta; Bastiani, Federica; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josèphe
The aim of this study is to describe sexual harassment among Italian university students and analyze the relationship between harassment and disordered eating behaviors. An observational survey was conducted among university students at Trieste University (Italy) in spring 2014. Students answered an anonymous self-administered questionnaire about sexual harassment, including three domains-sexual harassment, unwanted comments on physical appearance, cyber-harassment-and disordered eating behaviors. The global sexual harassment index was computed with three levels: Level 0, no harassment; Level 1, harassment in at least one of the three domains; and Level 2, harassment in two or three domains. Disordered eating behaviors were classified by at least one of the following: (a) eating without being able to stop or vomiting at least once or twice a month, (b) using laxatives or diuretics at least once or twice a week, (c) monitoring weight every day, and (d) dieting at least very often. The sample included 759 students (347 men and 412 women; 18-29 years old). Experiencing sexual harassment was related to eating disorder symptoms for both genders with a regular gradient: the higher the harassment score, the more frequent the disordered eating behavior symptoms, even after adjusting for age and previous sexual violence. The association was stronger for males than females. Sexual harassment and disordered eating behaviors have long been considered mainly a female problem. Men are not exempt from these problems and in some cases may be more affected than women. The topics should be assessed in men and women.
Bowling, Nathan A; Beehr, Terry A
Although workplace harassment affects the lives of many employees, until recently it has been relatively ignored in the organizational psychology literature. First, the authors introduced an attribution- and reciprocity-based model that explains the link between harassment and its potential causes and consequences. The authors then conducted a meta-analysis to examine the potential antecedents and consequences of workplace harassment. As shown by the meta-analysis, both environmental and individual difference factors potentially contributed to harassment and harassment was negatively related to the well-being of both individual employees and their employing organizations. Furthermore, harassment contributed to the variance in many outcomes, even after controlling for 2 of the most commonly studied occupational stressors, role ambiguity and role conflict. (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved
Hershcovis, M Sandy; Barling, Julian
In 2 studies, we investigated victim attributions (Study 1) and outcomes (Study 2) for workplace aggression and sexual harassment. Drawing on social categorization theory, we argue that victims of workplace aggression and sexual harassment may make different attributions about their mistreatment. In Study 1, we investigated victim attributions in an experimental study. We hypothesized that victims of sexual harassment are more likely than victims of workplace aggression to depersonalize their mistreatment and attribute blame to the perpetrator or the perpetrator's attitudes toward their gender. In contrast, victims of workplace aggression are more likely than victims of sexual harassment to personalize the mistreatment and make internal attributions. Results supported our hypotheses. On the basis of differential attributions for these 2 types of mistreatment, we argue that victims of workplace aggression may experience stronger adverse outcomes than victims of sexual harassment. In Study 2, we compared meta-analytically the attitudinal, behavioral, and health outcomes of workplace aggression and sexual harassment. Negative outcomes of workplace aggression were stronger in magnitude than those of sexual harassment for 6 of the 8 outcome variables. Implications and future directions are discussed. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved
Houle, Jason N.; Staff, Jeremy; Mortimer, Jeylan T.; Uggen, Christopher; Blackstone, Amy
Sexual harassment has been theorized as a stressor with consequences for the physical and mental health of its targets. Though social scientists have documented a negative association between sexual harassment and mental health, few longitudinal studies have investigated the association between sexual harassment and depressive symptoms. Using longitudinal survey data from the Youth Development Study, combined with in-depth interviews, this article draws on Louise Fitzgerald’s theoretical framework, stress theory, and the life course perspective to assess the impact of sexual harassment on depressive affect during the early occupational career. In support of Fitzgerald’s model, our findings confirm that sexual harassment is a stressor that is associated with increased depressive symptoms. Our quantitative results show that women and men who experience more frequent sexual harassment at work have significantly higher levels of depressed mood than non-harassed workers, even after controlling for prior harassment and depressive symptoms. Moreover, we find evidence that sexual harassment early in the career has long-term effects on depressive symptoms in adulthood. Interviews with a subset of our survey respondents point to a variety of coping strategies and reveal further links between harassment and other aspects of mental health, such as anger and self-doubt. PMID:22140650
Houle, Jason N; Staff, Jeremy; Mortimer, Jeylan T; Uggen, Christopher; Blackstone, Amy
Sexual harassment has been theorized as a stressor with consequences for the physical and mental health of its targets. Though social scientists have documented a negative association between sexual harassment and mental health, few longitudinal studies have investigated the association between sexual harassment and depressive symptoms. Using longitudinal survey data from the Youth Development Study, combined with in-depth interviews, this article draws on Louise Fitzgerald's theoretical framework, stress theory, and the life course perspective to assess the impact of sexual harassment on depressive affect during the early occupational career. In support of Fitzgerald's model, our findings confirm that sexual harassment is a stressor that is associated with increased depressive symptoms. Our quantitative results show that women and men who experience more frequent sexual harassment at work have significantly higher levels of depressed mood than non-harassed workers, even after controlling for prior harassment and depressive symptoms. Moreover, we find evidence that sexual harassment early in the career has long-term effects on depressive symptoms in adulthood. Interviews with a subset of our survey respondents point to a variety of coping strategies and reveal further links between harassment and other aspects of mental health, such as anger and self-doubt.
Meloni, Marion; Austin, Michelle
This case study describes the implementation of a zero tolerance of bullying and harassment program and its outcomes in an ACT hospital. The significance of bullying and harassment within this hospital workplace and its impact became apparent in the 2005 employee satisfaction survey. The results showed low staff satisfaction, a relatively high occurrence of perceived bullying and harassment in the workplace, and a low level of trust by staff in the management of bullying and harassment issues in comparison to the health sector norms. A bullying and harassment program was therefore put in place led by the hospital's Organisational Development Unit and a zero-tolerance approach towards bullying and harassment was adopted and embraced by the leadership group. After nearly 3 years the program has had a positive impact, including contributing to an overall increase in staff satisfaction and improvements in the bullying and harassment section of the latest employee satisfaction survey. Additional initiatives have been implemented and improved employee satisfaction results are expected in 2010-11.
Heesch, Kristiann C; Sahlqvist, Shannon; Garrard, Jan
Harassment from motorists is a major constraint on cycling that has been under-researched. We examined incidence and correlates of harassment of cyclists. Cyclists in Queensland, Australia were surveyed in 2009 about their experiences of harassment while cycling, from motor vehicle occupants. Respondents also indicated the forms of harassment they experienced. Logistic regression modeling was used to examine gender and other correlates of harassment. Of 1830 respondents, 76% of men and 72% of women reported harassment in the previous 12 months. The most reported forms of harassment were driving too close (66%), shouting abuse (63%), and making obscene gestures/sexual harassment (45%). Older age, overweight/obesity, less cycling experience (harassment, while living in highly advantaged areas (SEIFA deciles 8 or 9), cycling for recreation, and cycling for competition were associated with increased likelihood of harassment. Gender was not associated with reports of harassment. Efforts to decrease harassment should include a closer examination of the circumstances that give rise to harassment, as well as fostering road environments and driver attitudes and behaviors that recognize that cyclists are legitimate road users. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lippel, Katherine; Vézina, Michel; Bourbonnais, Renée; Funes, Amélie
This article reports on the results of an empirical study of working conditions including psychological harassment (workplace bullying) in the province of Québec, Canada, the first North American jurisdiction to regulate psychological harassment in its labor legislation. All empirical data provided in this article was drawn from the Québec Survey on Working, Employment and Occupational Health and Safety Conditions, conducted through 5071 telephone interviews of a representative sample of Québec workers, including the self-employed. Here we focus on employees, and provide bivariate and multivariate analyses. All analyses were stratified by gender. We provide a portrait of exposure to psychological harassment, and exposure to other psychosocial factors in the workplace associated with exposure to psychological harassment. Results show associations between exposure to psychological harassment and negative health measures including psychological distress, symptoms of depression, traumatic work accidents, musculoskeletal disorders and negative perception of health status. We report on steps taken by employees to put an end to the harassment. Gender similarities and differences in exposure, associated risk factors, health measures and strategies are presented and discussed in light of the legal context in which the study took place. We conclude with recommendations for prevention strategies that take into consideration the gender composition of the workplace. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tang, Wai Yen; Fox, Jesse
Online video games afford co-play and social interaction, often anonymous, among players from around the world. As predicted by the social identity model of deindividuation effects, undesirable behavior is not uncommon in online gaming environments, and online harassment has become a pervasive issue in the gaming community. In this study, we sought to determine what personality traits and game-related variables predicted two types of online aggression in video games: general harassment (e.g., skill-based taunting, insulting others' intelligence) and sexual harassment (e.g., sexist comments, rape threats). Men who play online video games (N = 425) participated in an anonymous online survey. Social dominance orientation and hostile sexism predicted higher levels of both sexual harassment and general harassment in online games. Game involvement and hours of weekly gameplay were additional predictors of general harassment. We discuss implications of online social aggression and online sexual harassment for online gaming. We also apply our findings to the broader understanding of online harassment, cyberaggression, cyberbullying, and other forms of online hostility in computer-mediated communication contexts. Aggr. Behav. 42:513-521, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Shoop, Robert J.
A "boilerplate" sexual harassment policy embedded in the district policy manual is insufficient. Schools need a comprehensive sexual harassment prevention program addressing authority, accountability, responsibility, and training. Since the vast majority of sexual harassment in schools is student-to-student, training efforts should not be limited…
Buchanan, Nicole T; Bluestein, Brooke M; Nappa, Alexa C; Woods, Krystle C; Depatie, Melissa M
This study examines the relationship between body image (weight/shape concerns), eating pathology, and sexual harassment among men and women (N=2446). Hierarchical regressions controlling for depression revealed main effects of gender such that women reported greater weight/shape concerns, eating pathology, dietary restraint, eating concerns, and binge eating compared to men. Main effects for sexual harassment indicated that as harassment increased, participants reported increased weight/shape concerns, eating pathology, dietary restraint, eating concerns, binge eating, and compensatory behaviors. There were small but significant interactions between gender and harassment for eating pathology total score (which included each of the domains listed above), weight/shape concerns, dietary restraint, and eating concerns such that the relationship between increased harassment and increased pathology was stronger for women compared to men. The largest interaction was found for compensatory behaviors, such that while women and men's scores both increased as harassment increased, the relationship was stronger for men. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Li, Siu Fai; Grant, Kelly; Bhoj, Tanuja; Lent, Gretchen; Garrick, Jocelyn Freeman; Greenwald, Peter; Haber, Marc; Singh, Malini; Prodany, Karla; Sanchez, Leon; Dickman, Eitan; Spencer, James; Perera, Tom; Cowan, Ethan
In 1995, a Society for Academic Emergency Medicine in-service survey reported high rates of verbal and physical abuse experienced by Emergency Medicine (EM) residents. We sought to determine the prevalence of abuse and harassment 10 years later to bring attention to these issues and determine if there has been a change in the prevalence of abuse over this time period. To determine the prevalence of abuse and harassment in a sample of EM residencies. We conducted a cross-section survey of EM residents from 10 residencies. EM residents were asked about their experience with verbal abuse, verbal threats, physical threats, physical attacks, sexual harassment, and racial harassment; and by whom. The primary outcome of the study was the prevalence of abuse and harassment as reported by EM residents. There were 196 of 380 residents (52%) who completed the survey. The prevalence of any type of abuse experienced was 91%; 86% of residents experienced verbal abuse, 65% verbal threats, 50% physical threats, 26% physical attacks, 23% sexual harassment, and 26% racial harassment. Women were more likely than men to encounter sexual harassment (37% [38/102] vs. 8% [7/92]; p harassment was not limited to minorities (23% [16/60] for Caucasians vs. 26% [29/126] for non-Caucasians; p = 0.59). Senior residents were more likely to have encountered verbal and physical abuse. Only 12% of residents formally reported the abuse they experienced. Abuse and harassment during EM residency continues to be commonplace and is underreported. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The ageing population poses a tremendous challenge in understanding the sources of inequalities in health. Though they appear to be far removed, childhood conditions are known to be inextricably linked with adult health, and in turn on health in later life. The long arm of childhood conditions hypothesis is often tested using recollection of childhood circumstances, but such subjective recall can yield potentially inaccurate or possibly biased inferences. We tested the long arm hypothesis on three outcomes in later life, arrayed from objective to subjective health, namely: gait speed, episodic memory and mental health.We used the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing 2006 enriched with retrospective life history (N = 5,913. To deal with recall problems two solutions, covariate measurement and endogenous treatment models, were applied. Retrospective childhood material lack includes growing up without running hot or cold water, fixed bath, indoor lavatory and central heating. Adjustment is made for an extensive set of confounders including sex, age, adult health, wealth, education, occupation, social support, social connections, chronic conditions, smoking, drinking, and physical exercise. It is found that material poverty when growing up shows no association with health when growing old, assuming accurate recall. Once recall problems are controlled, we found that childhood material poverty changes inversely with later life health.A poorer childhood goes with slower gait, poorer memory and more depression in later life. This result provides a further impetus to eliminate child poverty.
Ulusoy, Hatice; Swigart, Valerie; Erdemir, Firdevs
Sexual harassment in medical education has been studied in the Americas, Europe and Asia; however, little is known about sexual harassment in Middle Eastern cultures. Our initial aim was to describe the sexual harassment of female doctors-in-training by male patients and their relatives in Turkey. During our analysis of data, we expanded our objectives to include the formulation of a framework that can provide a theoretical background to enhance medical educators' understanding of sexual harassment across cultures. Questionnaires were provided to female resident doctors. Respondents were asked about their experiences of sexual harassment, about their reactions and about any precautionary measures they had used. Descriptive statistics were generated using SPSS software. Qualitative data were analysed using content analysis. Forty-nine (51.0%) of 96 distributed questionnaires were completed. Thirty-three (67.3%) participants stated that they had been sexually harassed by a patient or patient's relative at some point in their career. 'Gazing at the doctor in a lewd manner', selected by 25 (51.0%) participants, was the most common form of harassment. The methods of coping selected by the highest numbers of respondents involved seeking the discharge of the patient (24.2%), avoiding contact with the patient or relatives (24.2%) and showing rejection (21.2%). Participants' comments about the prevention of sexual harassment revealed a deep sense of need for protection. The interface between quantitative and qualitative findings and a review of the literature supported the development of a value-based, cross-cultural conceptual framework linking the valuing of hierarchy and conservatism with the occurrence of sexual harassment. We relate our findings to issues of patriarchy, power and socio-cultural influences that impact both the perpetrator and the target of sexual harassment. Medical educators are responsible for the control and prevention of sexual harassment of
Gosselin, H L
This article is an effort to shed new light on what has been commonly termed sexual harassment, to identify its forms and, most importantly, to explore its effect upon those who have been subjected to it. The author's hypothesis is that sexual harassment in the workplace is more a social phenomenon than a personal problem, and that it is the cause of lasting psychological, social and economic after-effects among its victims. Combatting sexual harassment is only part of the solution; we must look beyond its legal aspects to find ways of changing male-female occupational relationships, and we must provide support to victims of sexual harassment.
harassment conduct. It concludes that the direct criminalization of sexual harassment poses serious constitutional and practical problems that need...34an unlawful employment practice for any employer . . . to discriminate against an individual with respect to his compensation, terms, conditions, or...women only after they either simulated masturbating it or performing fellatio on it) 76 had official "zero tolerance" policies on sexual harassment
Heesch, Kristiann C; Sahlqvist, Shannon; Garrard, Jan
Objective Harassment from motorists is a major constraint on cycling that has been under-researched. We examined incidence and correlates of harassment of cyclists. Methods Cyclists in Queensland, Australia were surveyed in 2009 about their experiences of harassment while cycling, from motor vehicle occupants. Respondents also indicated the forms of harassment they experienced. Logistic regression modeling was used to examine gender and other correlates of harassment. Results Of 1830 respondents, 76% of men and 72% of women reported harassment in the previous 12 months. The most reported forms of harassment were driving too close (66%), shouting abuse (63%), and making obscene gestures/sexual harassment (45%). Older age, overweight/obesity, less cycling experience (<2 years) and less frequent cycling (<3 days/week) were associated with less likelihood of harassment, while living in highly advantaged areas (SEIFA deciles 8 or 9), cycling for recreation, and cycling for competition were associated with increased likelihood of harassment. Gender was not associated with reports of harassment. Conclusions Efforts to decrease harassment should include a closer examination of the circumstances that give rise to harassment, as well as fostering road environments and driver attitudes and behaviors that recognize that cyclists are legitimate road users. PMID:22001076
Mangiaruga, Anastasia; Scarpelli, Serena; Bartolacci, Chiara; De Gennaro, Luigi
Brain and sleep maturation covary across different stages of life. At the same time, dream generation and dream recall are intrinsically dependent on the development of neural systems. The aim of this paper is to review the existing studies about dreaming in infancy, adulthood, and the elderly stage of life, assessing whether dream mentation may reflect changes of the underlying cerebral activity and cognitive processes. It should be mentioned that some evidence from childhood investigations, albeit still weak and contrasting, revealed a certain correlation between cognitive skills and specific features of dream reports. In this respect, infantile amnesia, confabulatory reports, dream-reality discerning, and limitation in language production and emotional comprehension should be considered as important confounding factors. Differently, growing evidence in adults suggests that the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the encoding and retrieval of episodic memories may remain the same across different states of consciousness. More directly, some studies on adults point to shared neural mechanisms between waking cognition and corresponding dream features. A general decline in the dream recall frequency is commonly reported in the elderly, and it is explained in terms of a diminished interest in dreaming and in its emotional salience. Although empirical evidence is not yet available, an alternative hypothesis associates this reduction to an age-related cognitive decline. The state of the art of the existing knowledge is partially due to the variety of methods used to investigate dream experience. Very few studies in elderly and no investigations in childhood have been performed to understand whether dream recall is related to specific electrophysiological pattern at different ages. Most of all, the lack of longitudinal psychophysiological studies seems to be the main issue. As a main message, we suggest that future longitudinal studies should collect dream reports
Broedel-Zaugg, K; Shaffer, V; Mawer, M; Sullivan, D L
To determine the frequency and severity of sexual harassment in the pharmacy workplace for both male and female pharmacists, and to identify: (1) instigators, (2) places of occurrence, and (3) pharmacists' responses. Mailed survey using elements of the Sexual Experience Questionnaire (SEQ). One repeat mailing to nonrespondents. Community pharmacies, hospital pharmacies, other pharmacies in the state of Ohio. 789 randomly selected pharmacists registered in Ohio. Not applicable. Amount of gender harassment, unwanted sexual attention, and sexual coercion; differences in occurrences of sexual harassment between men and women; identification of instigators as colleagues, patients, or supervisors; identification of place of occurrence as community pharmacy, hospital pharmacy, or elsewhere; pharmacists' responses and reactions. After two mailings, 265 usable surveys were returned for a response rate of 34%. Women differed significantly from men in total occurrences of sexual harassment, with men reporting 183 instances of sexual harassment and women reporting 281 such experiences. Instigators were colleagues (43%), patients (30%), and superiors (27%). Men reported 143 experiences of unwanted sexual attention, whereas women reported 272 such occurrences. Colleagues were responsible for 47% of instances of unwanted sexual attention, patients were responsible for 37%, and superiors 16%. No significant differences were found between men and women in total number of occurrences of sexual coercion. Sexual harassment in the workplace has been experienced by both male and female pharmacists. Women experienced more hostile work environment harassment than did men. However, quid pro quo harassment did not differ significantly between the sexes.
... them. Data are from the 2004 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey of Reserve Components (WGRR), which was designed both to estimate the level of sexual harassment and provide information on a variety of consequences of harassment...
Ortiz-Hernández, Luis; Compeán-Dardón, María Sandra; Gallardo-Hernández, Georgina; Támez-González, Silvia; Pérez-Salgado, Diana; Verde-Flota, Elizabeth
This study focuses on the frequency with which students of health-related professional careers have perceived themselves as victims of sexual harassment, how this has occurred, and the characteristics of those students associated with that experience. Cross-sectional descriptive study, with a sample of 530 students from health-related schools at the Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Xochimilco in Mexico City. Statistical analysis was stratified by sex, age, race, perception of physical attractiveness, transgression of gender stereotypes, and sexual orientation. Experiences of sexual harassment were assessed based on a scale of 19 questions. Five components were identified by factor analysis: verbal and/or physical harassment by inadequate staring/glancing, inadequate proposals, and comments. In general, women were more harassed by inadequate staring/glancing; those who perceived themselves as being more physically attractive were more verbally harassed, whereas those who transgressed gender stereotypes were more exposed to physical harassment and harrassing glances as compared to men who were seen themselves as being less attractive and who did not transgressed the gender stereotype. Sexual harassment is an existing situation occurring among students. It is necessary to detect and recognize the forms of presentation of gender inequalities to avoid imposing sanctions on conducts that are not adhered to gender stereotypes.
Clark, Pat, Ed.
This brief report discusses sexual harassment in public schools and presents six recommendations for all school personnel to follow to help lower the incidence of sexual harassment. The report provides a definition of sexual harassment and cites several provisions of Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972. Contains three resources for…
Beauregard, Terri Kinion
The sexual harassment experienced by a sample of women (N=154) in a university setting was compared with the sexual harassment experienced by them in a workplace setting. Results appeared to support the following generalizations: (1) there is greater gender harassment, unwanted sexual attention, and sexual coercion in the workplace setting than in…
Mènard, Kim S; Shoss, Naomi E; Pincus, Aaron L
The purpose of this study was to examine a trait model of personality (Five-Factor Model) as a mediator of the relationship between attachment styles and sexually harassing behavior in a sample of male (N = 148) and female (N = 278) college students. We found that gender (male) and low Agreeableness predicted engaging in sexual harassment and all three of its subtypes; gender harassment, unwanted sexual attention, and sexual coercion. Further, low Conscientiousness predicted overall sexual harassment, gender harassment, and unwanted sexual attention. Personality traits mediated the relationship between insecure attachment styles (Preoccupation with Relationships and Relationships as Secondary) and sexually harassing behaviors. Thus, factors beyond gender can help predict students' propensity to sexually harass others.
Bayram Özdemir, Sevgi; Özdemir, Metin; Stattin, Håkan
Immigrant youth are at risk of experiencing harassment in school; however, we have only limited understanding of what makes youth harass their peers on ground of their ethnic origin. To address this major limitation, we examined (a) whether youth's negative attitudes toward immigrants impact their engagement in ethnic harassment over time and (b)…
Sexual harassment broke into the national consciousness in 1991, when Anita Hill accused Clarence Thomas--then a nominee to the U.S. Supreme Court--of having made sexually inappropriate comments to her. The controversy spawned a flood of charges nationwide, including on college campuses. Since then colleges have tried to stem harassment with…
Bossler, Adam M.; Holt, Thomas J.; May, David C.
Online harassment can consist of threatening, worrisome, emotionally hurtful, or sexual messages delivered via an electronic medium that can lead victims to feel fear or distress much like real-world harassment and stalking. This activity is especially prevalent among middle and high school populations who frequently use technology as a means to…
Cleary, J S; Schmieler, C R; Parascenzo, L C; Ambrosio, N
The authors examined students' perceptions, attitudes, and experiences of sexual harassment by faculty members at a state university, using a sample of 1,139 graduate and undergraduate students. Twenty-six percent (292) of those in the sample responded. The instrument used in the study, adapted from a survey previously used at the University of Iowa, operationally defined eight categories of behavior: sexist comments, undue attention, verbal sexual advances, body language, invitations, physical advances, explicit sexual propositions, and sexual bribery. As many as 8% of the respondents indicated they had experienced the three most extreme forms of harassment--physical advances, explicit sexual propositions, and sexual bribery. Although most students thought they would report sexual harassment, only three incidents of the most extreme forms of sexual harassment were actually reported. Those who experienced harassment indicated that it generally came from one rather than from several faculty members and that it came from both male and female faculty. Twenty-three percent of the men reported experiencing sexist comments, and 5 male students reported they had experienced at least one of the three most extreme forms of sexual harassment. Recommendations for policy revisions and campus health promotion programming that were made following the survey are discussed.
Richman, Judith A; Rospenda, Kathleen M; Flaherty, Joseph A; Freels, Sally; Zlatoper, Ken
Research has linked workplace harassment and abuse with distress and drinking. However, increasing societal attention to sexual harassment (SH) has been accompanied by pressures on work organizations to censure harassing behaviors. We address altered perceptions of the organizational tolerance (OT) for SH and generalized workplace abuse (GWA), changes in the prevalence and incidence of these experiences, and their impact on distress and drinking behaviors. A cohort of workers completed a mail survey at three points in time. Questionnaires assessed perceptions of OT for SH and GWA, experiences of SH and GWA, coping, and distress and drinking behaviors. Both sexes perceived that tolerance of SH and GWA has decreased over time. Changes in reported prevalence of these experiences differed by gender, and incidence for both genders decreased more strongly than prevalence. The linkages between SH/GWA and distress and drinking changed over time, but in different ways for women and men. SH and GWA still have deleterious consequences, and replications of this research and greater efforts at prevention are needed.
De Letter, Jolien; van Rooij, Tony; Van Looy, Jan
Objective. Online multiplayer games allow large numbers of participants to play simultaneously online. Unfortunately, this has also given rise to new forms of harassment and abuse. The current study used the criminological framework of Routine Activity Theory to identify possible circumstantial and individual risk factors that predict both general and sexual harassment victimization in this online context. Method. An online survey of online multiplayer gamers (N = 883) was conducted. Meas...
Every-Palmer, Susanna; Barry-Walsh, Justin; Pathé, Michele
Due to the nature of their work, politicians are at greater risk of stalking, harassment and attack than the general population. The small, but significantly elevated risk of violence to politicians is predominantly due not to organised terrorism or politically motivated extremists but to fixated individuals with untreated serious mental disorders, usually psychosis. Our objective was to ascertain the frequency, nature and effects of unwanted harassment of politicians in New Zealand and the possible role of mental illness in this harassment. New Zealand Members of Parliament were surveyed, with an 84% response rate (n = 102). Quantitative and qualitative data were collected on Parliamentarians' experiences of harassment and stalking. Eighty-seven percent of politicians reported unwanted harassment ranging from disturbing communications to physical violence, with most experiencing harassment in multiple modalities and on multiple occasions. Cyberstalking and other forms of online harassment were common, and politicians felt they (and their families) had become more exposed as a result of the Internet. Half of MPs had been personally approached by their harassers, 48% had been directly threatened and 15% had been attacked. Some of these incidents were serious, involving weapons such as guns, Molotov cocktails and blunt instruments. One in three politicians had been targeted at their homes. Respondents believed the majority of those responsible for the harassment exhibited signs of mental illness. The harassment of politicians in New Zealand is common and concerning. Many of those responsible were thought to be mentally ill by their victims. This harassment has significant psychosocial costs for both the victim and the perpetrator and represents an opportunity for mental health intervention. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.
Full Text Available Orientation: Globally, women have become an essential part of the mining workforce. Among other jobs, they fulfil management positions, operate heavy machinery and are involved in artisanal mining processes. In South Africa, new mining legislation not only prohibits the exclusion of women but requires from companies to actively change the demographic profile of their workforce. Mining companies are obliged to also employ women in core mining activities. Although well intended, women appointed in core positions work side by side with men, often in isolation, and are frequently at risk of sexual abuse and/or harassment. Research purpose: This research determined perceptions regarding the occurrence of sexual harassment among women working in core mining positions. Motivation for the study: Currently, there is a paucity of published data on the occurrence of sexual harassment in the mining industry. Method: A mixed-method research design was used including quantitative and qualitative research paradigms. Quantitative data were collected by means of a structured questionnaire. Qualitative data were collected by means of individual and group interviews. Main findings: From the literature review and the empirical findings, it is evident that women are still exploited and sexually harassed in the mining industry. Incidents taking place on a daily basis vary from whistling; name calling; use of vulgar or derogatory language; display of body parts; physical contact, ranging from touching to sexual assault and rape; to the exchange of sexual favours for promotion. Practical/managerial implications: It is evident from the research that a holistic approach is required to effectively eradicate sexual harassment in the mining industry, involving the commitment of relevant state departments, human resource managers and labour experts. Contribution: Practical recommendations are made to effectively address sexual harassment in the mining industry.
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sexual behavior and harassment. 638.512... establish rules concerning sexual behavior and harassment. See also §§ 638.539(g) and 638.813(a) of this... PROGRAM UNDER TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.512 Sexual behavior...
Apr 5, 2013 ... To learn more about HarassMap, visit harassmap.org, follow ... وترسم خرائط لذلك على موقع harassmap.org، ثم تستخدم البيانات بعد ذلك لإقناع ...
Sinclair, Katerina O; Bauman, Sheri; Poteat, V Paul; Koenig, Brian; Russell, Stephen T
To examine how two forms of interstudent harassment, cyber and bias-based harassment, are associated with academic, substance use, and mental health problems. We used a population-based survey of 17,366 middle and high school students that assessed harassment due to race/ethnicity or sexual orientation, and harassment through the Internet or text messaging along with other forms of interstudent harassment. Odds ratios indicated that students experiencing both cyber and bias-based harassment were at the greatest risk for adjustment problems across all indicators, with suicidal ideation and attempts having the largest risk differences. Assessments of adolescent health and adjustment should include questions regarding both cyber and bias-based harassment. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Marsh, Jaimee; Patel, Sonya; Gelaye, Bizu; Goshu, Miruts; Worku, Alemayehu; Williams, Michelle A; Berhane, Yemane
To determine the one year prevalence of workplace abuse and sexual harassment and to determine the extent of their associations with symptoms of depression. A total of 387 female faculty and staff from colleges in Awassa, Ethiopia completed a self-administered questionnaire which collected information about relationships, mood and feelings, thoughts and satisfaction concerning the workplace, and experiences with sexual harassment. Symptoms of depression were evaluated using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Logistic regression procedures were employed to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The 12 mo prevalence of either workplace abuse or sexual harassment was 86.3%; with 39.5% reporting workplace abuse only, 4.1% of them reporting sexual harassment only, and 42.6% reporting experiences of both sexual harassment and workplace abuse. Overall, the mean depression score for this cohort was 3.7 (standard deviation 4.2, range 0-19), and 9.3% of the cohort were identified as having moderate or moderately severe depression. The proportion of participants with depression were statistically significantly elevated in relation to reported experience of workplace abuse and sexual harassment (p=0.001). Compared with women reporting no experience with workplace abuse or sexual harassment, those who reported experiencing both workplace abuse and sexual harassment had an 8.00 fold increased risk of depression (OR=8.00, 95% CI:1.05-60.85). Inferences from this analysis are limited by our relatively small sample size as reflected by the wide 95% CI. Workplace abuse and sexual harassment are highly prevalent, and are positively correlated with symptoms of depression among college female faculty and staff in Awassa, Ethiopia. Future policies should include a combination of education, health, and public policy initiatives that clearly outline the problem and consequences of workplace abuse and sexual harassment in educational settings.
Full Text Available Mobbing and harassment are widely analysed in organizations providing various services but are little studied in the companies undertaking industrial activities. Therefore, the aim of the paper is to diagnose the prevalence of mobbing and harassment in the steel enterprises. The case study analysis of the largest steel producer in the world, and specifically its division in Poland was used to determine the prevalence of these phenomena. It was found out that the said company is the example of the ethically and socially responsible organization. However, the interviews indicate that single cases of mobbing and harassment activities (though relatively rare were also observed. They were distributed among three groups of employees: 1 those who do physical work (are directly engaged in the production process; 2 employees involved in the administrative activity and sales; and 3 managerial staff.
Howe, Mark L
Adults frequently provide compelling, detailed accounts of early childhood experiences in the courtroom. Judges and jurors are asked to decide guilt or innocence based solely on these decades-old memories using 'common sense' notions about memory. However, these notions are not in agreement with findings from neuroscientific and behavioural studies of memory development. Without expert guidance, judges and jurors may have difficulty in properly adjudicating the weight of memory evidence in cases involving adult recollections of childhood experiences.
Expósito, Francisca; Herrera, Antonio; Valor-Segura, Inmaculada; Herrera, M Carmen; Lozano, Luis M
Sexual harassment is among the most serious forms of gender violence, and what all violent acts have in common are the many myths associated with them. Three studies were conducted to adapt a Spanish version of the Illinois Sexual Harassment Myth Acceptance (ISHMA) scale, which assesses myths about sexual harassment. The first study aimed to, for the first time, present psychometric data on the Spanish version of the ISHMA. The participants were 339 college students. After adapting the items and measuring their content validity, we examined the test's dimensional structure, statistically analyzed the items, and determined the instrument's reliability (α = .91 for the total scale and between .77 and .84 for the different dimensions). Study 2 involved 326 adult participants from the general population and its objective was to evaluate the scale's dimensional structure through confirmatory factor analysis (χ2 143 = 244.860, p sexual harassment.
Nielsen, Maj Britt D; Kjær, Susie; Aldrich, Per T; Madsen, Ida E H; Friborg, Maria K; Rugulies, Reiner; Folker, Anna P
Care workers are often exposed to sexual harassment from patients. Research shows that such exposure may have detrimental effects on mental health of the care workers. Inappropriate sexual behaviour from patients is a particular challenge for formal and informal care workers alike. There is a scarceness of studies investigating the experience and the handling of sexual harassment from patients. To investigate the experience and handling of sexual harassment from patients in care work. The study follows an explorative qualitative approach based on group interviews (n=19) with 39 care workers. Ten workplaces participated in the study, including hospitals, nursing homes, community health centres, rehabilitations care centres, and psychiatric residential facilities. We conducted group interviews with care workers (employees), managers, shop stewards and/or safety representatives. The majority of the interviewees were trained nurses. The interviews revealed that sexual harassment is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon. The care workers often separated between intentional and unintentional behaviours initiated by cognitively impaired patients. Thus, they often refrain from using the term harassment, because it implies that the actions were intentional. However, the interviews revealed that, in practice, this separation was very difficult, and that sexual harassment often creates a range of dilemmas in the daily work. At the same time, sexual harassment is a taboo. The managers, shop stewards and safety representatives in this study were often not aware of the frequency and the impact of the episodes had on the care workers. The workplaces participating in this study, rarely had guidelines or policies for managing and/or preventing sexual harassment or inappropriate sexual behaviours, but often responded to episodes in an ad hoc and case-by-case manner. The term sexual harassment might not be appropriate in the context of care work, because many patients who display
Jo Krøjer; Sine Lehn-Christiansen; Mette Lykke Nielsen
Sexual harassment is illegal and may have very damaging effects on the people exposed to it. One would expect organizations, employers, and institutions to take very good care to prevent employees from exposure to sexual harassment from anyone in their workplace. And yet, many people, mostly women, are exposed to sexual harassment at work. In care work, such behaviour is often directed toward their female caregiver by elderly citizens in need of care. Contemporary Nordic studies of working li...
Unwelcome sexual advances, proposition or pressure for sexual activity, offensive flirtations, leering, whistling, making sexually suggestive gestures, sexual jokes, unwanted sexual looks, unwanted letters, telephone call, or materials of a sexual nature, unwanted physical contact, actual or attempting rape or sexual assault, this and more of this conduct if took place in the workplace would amount to a sexual harassment. The sexual harassment at work has become a serious issue of our time. I...
Watstein, Sarah Barbara
This second part of an article on sexual harassment and libraries features stories of library workers who have suffered sexual harassment. Highlights include problems from men and women; homosexuality issues; harassment from supervisors, employees being supervised, co-workers, and patrons; and the involvement of Equal Employment Opportunity…
Morgan, J F; Porter, S
A survey was carried out of psychiatric trainees' work-related experiences of unwanted sexual contact. A structured postal questionnaire was administered to 100 psychiatric trainees from senior house officer to specialist registrar level in a large psychiatric rotation. There was an 85% response rate; 86% (73) of the sample had experienced unwanted sexual contact, with 47% (40) experiencing deliberate touching, leaning over or cornering, and 18% (15) receiving letters, telephone calls or material of a sexual nature. Three-quarters (64) of respondents had experienced unwanted sexual contact from patients and 64% (54) from staff. Experiences and attitudes did not generally differ by gender, grade or training experience. Four out of 48 female respondents described stalking by patients. Of the 39 respondents who had reported harassment by patients, 31 felt supported by colleagues, while of the 13 who had reported harassment by colleagues, eight felt supported. Two-thirds of the respondents considered sexual harassment 'some-times' or 'frequently' a problem for the profession. Diagnoses of confusional states, mania or schizophrenia made subjects less likely to consider unwanted sexual behaviour to be 'sexual harassment' (86%, 80%, and 67%, respectively), but not for other diagnoses. Levels of threatening and intrusive sexual harassment are unacceptably high in this study group. Health trusts should adopt policies of 'zero tolerance' and all incidents should be reported. Psychological impact on victims should be acknowledged even when the behaviour of the perpetrator can be explained by diagnosis.
Morgan, J.; Porter, S.
A survey was carried out of psychiatric trainees' work-related experiences of unwanted sexual contact. A structured postal questionnaire was administered to 100 psychiatric trainees from senior house officer to specialist registrar level in a large psychiatric rotation. There was an 85% response rate; 86% (73) of the sample had experienced unwanted sexual contact, with 47% (40) experiencing deliberate touching, leaning over or cornering, and 18% (15) receiving letters, telephone calls or material of a sexual nature. Three-quarters (64) of respondents had experienced unwanted sexual contact from patients and 64% (54) from staff. Experiences and attitudes did not generally differ by gender, grade or training experience. Four out of 48 female respondents described stalking by patients. Of the 39 respondents who had reported harassment by patients, 31 felt supported by colleagues, while of the 13 who had reported harassment by colleagues, eight felt supported. Two-thirds of the respondents considered sexual harassment `sometimes' or `frequently' a problem for the profession. Diagnoses of confusional states, mania or schizophrenia made subjects less likely to consider unwanted sexual behaviour to be `sexual harassment' (86%, 80%, and 67%, respectively), but not for other diagnoses. Levels of threatening and intrusive sexual harassment are unacceptably high in this study group. Health trusts should adopt policies of `zero tolerance' and all incidents should be reported. Psychological impact on victims should be acknowledged even when the behaviour of the perpetrator can be explained by diagnosis. PMID:10474725
Rothkopf, Ian; Turgeon, Sarah M
In a prior study, we observed that female-typical characteristics in elementary school girls' drawings were correlated with a feminized digit ratio (2D:4D), a marker for prenatal androgen exposure. However, this observation was limited to older girls, suggesting that social factors mediate the relationship between 2D:4D and drawing. To examine the hypothesis that the influence of prenatal androgen on girls' drawing is mediated by an effect of early androgens on sex-typical behavior, we examined 2D:4D, free drawings, and scores on the Recalled Childhood Gender Identity (RCGI) Questionnaire in a population of college students. Characteristics of participants' free drawings were assessed and those that showed sex differences were compared with 2D:4D and RCGI scores. Men had smaller 2D:4D ratios than women, used fewer total colors, used fewer pinks, purples, and blues, and had higher gender-typical scores on the RCGI. Women's drawings were more likely to contain flowers and animals and men's drawings were more likely to represent sports. Within-sex RCGI and 2D:4D scores were not significantly correlated. Significant within-sex relationships between 2D:4D and RCGI and drawing behavior were observed but the effects appeared to be independent; the hypothesis that gender-typical childhood behavior mediates the effect of prenatal androgen on drawing characteristics was not supported.
Bell, Margret E; Street, Amy E; Stafford, Jane
Given the importance of reporting to sexual harassment prevention and intervention efforts, it is not surprising that an extensive scientific literature has developed on predictors of victims' decisions about making a formal report to authorities about their experiences. In contrast, little empirical work has focused on how reporting affects victims, particularly their psychosocial well-being. This study used a national sample of 1,562 former military Reservists who had experienced sexual harassment during their service to examine the relationship between reporting; experiences reporting; and psychosocial well-being, as indicated by post-harassment functioning, worst symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following the harassment, and current symptoms of depression. Making a formal report was not associated with well-being, but among those who did report, perceiving that the report had resulted in the harassment being addressed by authorities was associated with better post-harassment functioning and fewer symptoms of PTSD. Satisfaction with the reporting process showed the strongest association with well-being, demonstrating small but meaningful associations with depression and medium-to-large and medium associations with post-harassment functioning and PTSD, respectively. Although findings did not vary by gender, predictors accounted for more variance in well-being for men than women. In the whole sample, satisfaction with the reporting process mediated the relationship between victims' perceptions of system responsiveness to the report and post-harassment functioning and PTSD. Findings suggest that a victim's perceptions of and satisfaction with the reporting process may impact well-being more strongly than whether the victim made a report to authorities. Men may be even more strongly impacted by their experiences with the reporting process than women.
Zeira, Anat; Astor, Ron Avi; Benbenishty, Rami
Current empirical literature on sexual harassment in schools is mostly based on nonrepresentative samples of middle-class high-school Caucasian female students. Thus the scope of research regarding gender, age, and cultural differences is very limited. This article reports on findings on sexual harassment in Jewish and Arab schools in Israel with regard to gender, age, and cultural differences. The study is part of the first national survey on school violence in Israel. The representative sample includes 10,400 students in grades 7 through 11 attending public schools in Israel. Students were asked to report whether they were victims of specific acts of sexual harassment in school during the month before the survey. Overall, 29.1% of the students were victims of at least one act of harassment. The more common acts were to show offensive pictures or to send obscene letters, to take off or to try to take off part of the student's clothing, and to try to kiss a student. The most vulnerable groups are the Arab boys and 8th grade students. Report rates were the lowest among Arab girls. Sexual harassment is prevalent in Israeli schools. The pattern of victimization is different for boys and girls and for students in Jewish and Arab schools. These patterns are a complex phenomenon that must be considered in the intervention and policy measures addressing sexual harassment at school.
Mathews, Ben; Bismark, Marie M
Sexual harassment of women in medicine has become a subject of national debate after a senior female surgeon stated that if a woman complained of unwanted advances her career would be jeopardised, and subsequent reports suggest that sexual harassment is a serious problem in the medical profession. Sexual harassment of women in the medical profession by their colleagues presents substantial legal, ethical and cultural questions for the profession. Women have enforceable legal rights to gender equality and freedom from sexual harassment in the workplace. Both individual offenders and employers face significant legal consequences for sexual harassment in every Australian state and territory, and individual medical practitioners and employers need to understand their legal and ethical rights and responsibilities in this context. An individual offender may be personally liable for criminal offences, and for breaching anti-discrimination legislation, duties owed in civil law, professional standards and codes of conduct. An employer may be liable for breaching anti-discrimination legislation, workplace safety laws, duties owed in contract law, and a duty of care owed to the employee. Employers, professional colleges and associations, and regulators should use this national debate as an opportunity to improve gender equality and professional culture in medicine; individuals and employers have clear legal and ethical obligations to minimise sexual harassment to the greatest extent possible.
Madison, J; Minichiello, V
To explore how registered nurses (RNs) recognized and labeled incidents of sex-based and sexual harassment in the Australian health care workplace. Qualitative, using 16 unstructured interviews with registered nurses in Australia. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed largely by inductive analysis. Key categories were identified as themes or concepts for analysis. RNs reported several indicators of sexual harassment, including the invasion of space, confirmation from others, lack of respect, the deliberate nature of the behavior, perceived power or control, overly friendly behavior, and a sexualized workplace. RNs rarely labeled harassing behaviors as sex-based or sexual harassment. Many forces reduce the likelihood that RNs will correctly recognize and label unwelcome sexualized behavior as sexual harassment. Recognition is associated with a variety of workplace behaviors that sometimes precede harassment. Implications for the health care workplace are discussed.
Paludi, Michele; Nydegger, Rudy; Desouza, Eros; Nydegger, Liesl; Dicker, Kelsey Allen
The incidence, psychological dimensions, reporting, and impact of sexual harassment of college students throughout the world are reviewed. Special attention is paid to methodological constraints in conducting cross-cultural research in sexual harassment, including difficulty in securing research participants, different methodologies to collect incidence data, use of retrospective data, and varying, definitions of sexual harassment. Recommendations for implementing intervention programs are offered. The strategies suggested deal with the social causes that maintain the harassment, including renegotiating the balance of power between men and women.
Allroggen, M; Rau, T; Fegert, J M
Sexual harassment among adolescents has long been neglected in Germany though it is frequent and leads to significant strain for the victims. In international studies, the prevalence of sexual harassment ranges from 10 to 80 % among students. For the development of sexual harassment individual as well as school based factors play a role. Different pathways lead to this problematic behaviour. The effect of new media in the development of sexual harassment cannot be estimated so far. Frequent consequences of sexual harassment in addition to school associated difficulties are unspecific somatic complaints. General practitioners and pediatricians are frequently consulted tn the first place. Recommendations for consultation and interventions are presented. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
O'Connor, Maureen; Gutek, Barbara A; Stockdale, Margaret; Geer, Tracey M; Melançon, Renée
In two decades of research on sexual harassment, one finding that appears repeatedly is that gender of the rater influences judgments about sexual harassment such that women are more likely than men to label behavior as sexual harassment. Yet, sexual harassment judgments are complex, particularly in situations that culminate in legal proceedings. And, this one variable, gender, may have been overemphasized to the exclusion of other situational and rater characteristic variables. Moreover, why do gender differences appear? As work by Wiener and his colleagues have done (R. L. Wiener et al., 2002; R. L. Wiener & L. Hurt, 2000; R. L. Wiener, L. Hurt, B. Russell, K. Mannen, & C. Gasper, 1997), this study attempts to look beyond gender to answer this question. In the studies reported here, raters (undergraduates and community adults), either read a written scenario or viewed a videotaped reenactment of a sexual harassment trial. The nature of the work environment was manipulated to see what, if any, effect the context would have on gender effects. Additionally, a number of rater characteristics beyond gender were measured, including ambivalent sexism attitudes of the raters, their judgments of complainant credibility, and self-referencing that might help explain rater judgments. Respondent gender, work environment, and community vs. student sample differences produced reliable differences in sexual harassment ratings in both the written and video trial versions of the study. The gender and sample differences in the sexual harassment ratings, however, are explained by a model which incorporates hostile sexism, perceptions of the complainants credibility, and raters' own ability to put themselves in the complainant's position (self-referencing).
Nagata-Kobayashi, Shizuko; Maeno, Tetsuhiro; Yoshizu, Misaki; Shimbo, Takuro
Perceived abuse or harassment during residency has a negative impact on residents' health and well-being. This issue pertains not only to Western countries, but also to those in Asia. In order to launch strong international preventive measures against this problem, it is necessary to establish the generality and cultural specificity of this problem in different countries. Therefore, we investigated mistreatment among resident doctors in Japan. In 2007, a multi-institutional, cross-sectional survey was conducted at 37 hospitals. A total of 619 residents (409 men, 210 women) were recruited. Prevalence of mistreatment in six categories was evaluated: verbal abuse; physical abuse; academic abuse; sexual harassment; gender discrimination, and alcohol-associated harassment. In addition, alleged abusers, the emotional effects of abusive experiences, and reluctance to report the abuse to superiors were investigated. Male and female responses were statistically compared using chi-square analysis. A total of 355 respondents (228 men, 127 women) returned a completed questionnaire (response rate 57.4%). Mistreatment was reported by 84.8% of respondents (n = 301). Verbal abuse was the most frequently experienced form of mistreatment (n = 256, 72.1%), followed by alcohol-associated harassment (n = 184, 51.8%). Among women, sexual harassment was also often reported (n = 74, 58.3%). Doctors were most often reported as abusers (n = 124, 34.9%), followed by patients (n = 77, 21.7%) and nurses (n = 61, 17.2%). Abuse was reported to have occurred most frequently during surgical rotations (n = 98, 27.6%), followed by rotations in departments of internal medicine (n = 76, 21.4%), emergency medicine (n = 41, 11.5%) and anaesthesia (n = 40, 11.3%). Very few respondents reported their experiences of abuse to superiors (n = 36, 12.0%). The most frequent emotional response to experiences of abuse was anger (n = 84, 41.4%). Mistreatment during residency is a universal phenomenon. Deliberation
Maintains that, on the 75th anniversary of women's suffrage, significant advances in the legal status, achievements, and opportunities for women have been made. Contends, however, that sexual harassment is still widespread in the nation's schools. Includes six charts defining and describing forms of sexual harassment. (CFR)
Williams, Karen B.; Cyr, Ramona R.
Studies divergent sexual harassment perceptions in a case of a perpetrator's gradual sexual advancements and a target's escalating commitment to their relationship, using 60 male and 60 female undergraduates. Males' ratings of sexual harassment decreased when female target participated in increasingly informal friendly interactions. Females'…
Wayne, J H; Riordan, C M; Thomas, K M
Given recent court decisions, there is a need to investigate less common forms of sexual harassment, including women harassing men and same-gender harassment. The present study was a 2 (harasser gender) x 2 (target gender) x 2 (participant gender) factorial design in which 408 mock jurors made decisions in a hostile work environment case. Women harassing men were more likely to be found guilty than were men harassing women, and harassers in same-gender cases were more likely to be found guilty and were perceived more negatively than harassers in cross-gender cases. Participant gender differences were found in cross-gender, but not same-gender, conditions. Results suggest that the gender composition of the harasser and target may be an extralegal factor influencing managerial and juror decision making.
World of Work, 1997
A discussion of judicial and arbitral trends regarding sexual harassment addresses what constitutes harassment, outlines legislative action and judicial decisions, and identifies recent trends that show the evolution of social responses to it. (JOW)
Shute, Rosalyn H
This study, carried out in the high school context, is the first direct test of Berdahl's status theory of sex-based harassment. The theory covers not just male harassment of females, but female harassment of males and same-sex harassment. Participants were 771 males and 679 females, from Years 8 to 10, in five co-educational lower socioeconomic status (SES) Australian city schools, participating in a wider study of peer victimization. They indicated on a 5-point scale (from never to almost every day) how frequently they had experienced each of six sex-based harassment behaviors over the previous year, from same-sex and from opposite-sex peers, and responded to a question about sense of safety at school. Nonparametric analyses supported five of seven hypotheses derived from the theory: boys harassed others most often, girls were harassed most often, boy-to-girl harassment was the most frequent, girls harassed girls more than they did boys, and girl-to-boy harassment was the least frequent. However, contrary to the theory, boys' same-sex harassment was no more frequent than that between girls, and girl-to-girl harassment was just as threatening to victims' sense of safety as boy-to-boy harassment. The study largely supports Berdahl's theory. The unexpected results can be understood in terms of the intimate nature of adolescent girls' groups in high schools and their centrality for identity formation. In this context, girls are highly motivated to defend their status in terms of stereotypically feminine standards regarding appearance, sexual activity, and access to high-status boys. The theory implies that structural changes to reduce the salience of sex differences and sex stereotyping will be crucial to efforts to address sex-based harassment.
Lee, Sun-Kyoung; Song, Ju-Eun; Kim, Sue
The purpose of this study was to identify the experience and perception of sexual harassment during the clinical practice of Korean nursing students. The descriptive study was conducted using a self-report questionnaire from December 2009 to January 2010. Participants were 542 nursing students recruited from 12 nursing colleges in Korea, who had finished 1,000 hours of clinical practice which is the minimum requirement for graduation. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics. Ninety-seven participants (17.9%) reported that they experienced sexual harassment during clinical practice and 36 participants (6.7%) answered whether it was a sexual harassment or not. When sexual harassment was asked by the specific 18 items in the sexual harassment checklist, 52.0% (n = 282) of participants reported that they experienced at least 1 item among 18 items of sexual harassment. Sexual harassments were frequently made by the persons in their 40s (41.2%), men (97.9%) and patients (96.9%) and in the psychiatric wards (67.0%). Many respondents recognized that sexual harassment during clinical practice was caused by abnormal sexual desire of a pervert (34.5%) or men's sexual impulse (26.2%). Also, sexual harassment was perceived as a serious problem (19.4%) and education was necessary for prevention (88.3%). Education program is needed to prevent sexual harassment and enhance the gender sensitivity of nursing students, who are in the high-risk group of sexual harassment during clinical practice. This will in turn contribute to a safe educational environment for clinical practice. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Sexual harassment, once an issue only among women, is becoming a serious issue among men. The number of law suits brought by men alleging sexual harassment is increasing and will likely continue to increase as more women attain supervisory and management positions. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) defines harassment as…
Mushtaq, Mamoona; Sultana, Safia; Imtiaz, Iqra
To determine the prevalence of sexual harassment in nurses and to observe its correlation with negative mental health (depression, anxiety and stress). Further to examine the role of sexual harassment as a predictor of negative mental health in nurses and to explore the differences in the experience of sexual harassment, depression, anxiety and stress between junior and senior nurses. Cross-sectional descriptive study. Public Sector Hospitals in Lahore, from December 2011 to March 2012. Asample of 200 nurses with age range 23 to 46 years was obtained. Assessment tools used in the study were Sexual Harassment Experience Questionnaire (SHEQ) by Kamal, and Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) by Lovibond and Lovibond. Mean age of the nurses was 29.80 ±7.10 years. Among these 63% were married and 37% unmarried. The mean working experience of nurses was 13.7 ±3. 52 years and their mean monthly income was 27820 ±13687.32 rupees. Their working hours ranged from 8 to 16 hours (M = 8.32, SD = 2.12). The mean prevalence of sexual harassment was 71.66 ±19.01. A significant positive correlation of sexual harassment with depression, anxiety, stress and combined effect of them (DASS) was found. Multiple regression analysis showed sexual harassment as significant predictor of depression (β= 0.47, p Sexual harassment was found to be a predictor of negative mental health in the form of depression, anxiety and stress in nurses of public hospitals.
L. Bütow-Dûtoit; C.A. Eksteen; M. De Waal
This paper follows on a previous paper describing a studyconducted on sexual harassment in the physiotherapy work environment inSouth Africa. A survey questionnaire was used to determine the reactions ofphysiotherapists after they experienced their worst incidents of sexualharassment. The most common method of handling the sexual harassmentwas to avoid the perpetrator or situation. The most common effects relatedto work performance after the sexual harassment had occurred, were adecr...
sexual harassment in the workplace has largely been neglected...influences on sexual harassment. In M.S. Stockdale (Ed.) Sexual harassment in the workplace : Perspectives, frontiers, and response strategies (pp...Dealing with harassment: A systems approach. In Margaret S. Stockdale (Ed.) Sexual Harassment in the Workplace ; Perspectives, Frontiers,
Romito, P; Cedolin, C; Bastiani, F; Beltramini, L; Saurel-Cubizolles, M J
Menstrual disorders and sexual harassment are common among young women and interfere with their life and activities. We aimed to describe the association of sexual harassment and menstrual disorders among female university students. This cross-sectional, observational study examined the association between sexual harassment and menstrual disorders in a sample of 349 university students in Italy. Students answered an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive bivariate analyses and logistic regression analyses were performed. Main outcome measures were associations between levels of exposure to sexual harassment (none, levels 1 and 2) and five menstrual disorders (premenstrual symptoms, heavy bleeding, pain, irregular cycles, and amenorrhea). Among the women interviewed (mean age 20.4 ± 1.45 years), 146 (41.8%) had experienced sexual harassment in the previous 12 months: 91 (26.1%) level 1 and 55 (15.7%) level 2. The frequency of premenstrual symptoms was 31.9% ( n=110); heavy bleeding, 35.3% ( n=124); pain, 51.4% ( n=181); irregular cycles, 55.5% ( n=195); and amenorrhea, 6.7% ( n=23). After adjustment for age, place of birth, being in a couple relationship and receiving hormone therapy, the frequency of menstrual disorders, except for amenorrhea, was increased with sexual harassment, with a regular gradient from no harassment to level 2 harassment. Introducing factors of depression, specific gynaecological problems and lifetime sexual violence did not change the results. For instance, the adjusted odds ratios of premenstrual symptoms were 2.10 [1.19-3.68] for women with level 1 harassment and 3.58 [1.83-7.03] for women with level 2 compared with women without harassment exposure. Sexual harassment is related to the prevalence of menstrual disorders. Healthcare providers should encourage dialogue with patients and address the issue of sexual violence or harassment.
Fallahi Khoshknab, Masoud; Oskouie, Fatemeh; Ghazanfari, Nahid; Najafi, Fereshteh; Tamizi, Zahra; Afshani, Shahla; Azadi, Ghazal
There are high levels of sexual harassment in health care systems. Also, workplace violence occurs against ethnic and racial minorities. This study aimed to identify the frequency of and the factors contributing to and preventing sexual and racial harassment in the workplace towards health professionals in Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 6500 out of 57000 health workers who were selected by multistage random sampling from some teaching hospitals in Iran. Data were collected using the questionnaire of "workplace violence in the health sector" developed by the International Labor Organization, International Council of Nurses, World Health Organization, and Public Services International. According to the findings, the frequencies of sexual harassment and racial harassment were, respectively, 4.7% and 12% for the 12 months prior to the study (2011). Among healthcare workers, nurses reported the highest rate of violence. The most important contributing factors in sexual and racial harassment were lack of security facilities (45.8%) and people's ignorance of employees' tasks (55.7%). The presence of security force, safety measures in the wards, and guards were noted as the most important preventive factor to harassment. Based on the results, the frequency of sexual and racial harassment is low, which can be attributed to underreporting due to cultural sensitivity or fear. So, identifying the reasons for refusal to report harassment, developing a clear mechanism for reporting and providing the necessary trainings to health workers are essential in order to deal with harassment.
Barnett, Jessica Penwell
Harassment scholarship increasingly attends to the intersectional nature of harassment and its function within systems of domination. However, little of this work includes disability. In-depth interviews with 24 adults on the autism spectrum in the USA demonstrate the intersections of gender, sexuality and (dis)ability in the construction of deviant embodiments as targets for harassment. These intersections also shape how participants made sense of these experiences of violence. Participants' disability characteristics were often read as gender or sexual variance, with harassers relying on sexist and heterosexist constructs to frighten, demean or humiliate them for disability characteristics. Participant experiences demonstrate the cisgender basis of 'able-bodied' identity as well as the 'able-bodied' basis of cisgender and heterosexual identities and experiences. The interdependency of gender, sexuality and (dis)ability embodiment point to how it is critical for scholars and activists to account for the role of gender and heterosexist harassment in ableist oppression and disability harassment in (hetero)sexist oppression, as well as the limits of current US law enforcement structures in providing redress for harassment.
Gasparini, Clelia; Devigili, Alessandro; Pilastro, Andrea
Sexual harassment is a common outcome of sexual conflict over mating rate. A large number of studies have identified several direct costs to females of sexual harassment including energy expenditure and reduced foraging ability. However, the fitness consequences of sexual harassment for descendants have rarely been investigated. Here, we manipulated the level of sexual harassment and mating rate in two groups of female guppies, Poecilia reticulata, a live-bearing fish in which sexual conflict over mating rate is particularly pronounced. Each female was allowed to interact with three males for one day (low sexual harassment, LSH) or for eight days (high sexual harassment, HSH) during each breeding cycle throughout their life. Female lifetime fecundity did not differ between the groups, but we found a strong effect on offspring fitness. HSH females produced (1) daughters with smaller bodies and (2) sons with shorter gonopodia, which were less attractive to females and less successful in coercive matings than their LSH counterparts. Although these results may be influenced by the indirect effects of sex ratio differences between treatments, they suggest that sexual harassment and elevated mating rate can have negative cross-generational fitness effects and more profound evolutionary consequences than currently thought. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.
Timmerman, M.C.; Bajema, C.W.
A substantial body of research addressing the issue of sexual harassment in the workplace has been developed over the past decade. In this article we consider the complexity of cross-cultural comparisons of the incidence rates of sexual harassment and present the results of our research on sexual
Websites Employee Resources Gender Relations Academies Work to Prevent Assault, Harassment WASHINGTON, Dec . 13, 2007 - The Defense Department's Annual Report on Sexual Harassment and Violence at the U.S assault at the U.S. service academies during the 2006-2007 school year, officials are calling them a sign
McLaughlin, Heather; Uggen, Christopher; Blackstone, Amy
Power is at the core of feminist theories of sexual harassment, although it has rarely been measured directly in terms of workplace authority. Popular characterizations portray male supervisors harassing female subordinates, but power-threat theories suggest that women in authority may be more frequent targets. This article analyzes longitudinal…
Vance, Suzy; Wendt, Anne
Developed a construct of sexual issues/sexual harassment in the workplace based on survey responses of 101 participants in a training program on sexual harassment before the training and 111 participants after the training. Results show a progression of attitudes toward behaviors from safe to most dangerous. (SLD)
Timmerman, M.C.; Bajema, C.W.
A substantial body of research addressing the issue of sexual harassment in the workplace has been developed over the past decade. In this article we consider the complexity of cross-cultural comparisons of the incidence rates of sexual harassment and present the results of our research on sexual
Konrad, Alison M.; Gutek, Barbara A.
Three theories account for individuals' perceptions of sexual harassment: (1) men and women view and define sexual harassment differently; (2) differential sexual experiences at work account for different perceptions; and (3) gender role "spillover" accounts for perceptual differences. A sample of 1,232 working men and women supports these…
Brown, Cindy M.; Flatow, Gail M.
Surveys Indiana journalists, finding that two models tested (the sociocultural model and the organizational model, both grounded in conception of power differences between harassed and harasser) have explanatory power, but that they explain the same results in different ways and sometimes combinations of the models provide better explanations of…
Nickerson, Amanda B; Aloe, Ariel M; Livingston, Jennifer A; Feeley, Thomas Hugh
Although peer bystanders can exacerbate or prevent bullying and sexual harassment, research has been hindered by the absence of a validated assessment tool to measure the process and sequential steps of the bystander intervention model. A measure was developed based on the five steps of Latané and Darley's (1970) bystander intervention model applied to bullying and sexual harassment. Confirmatory factor analysis with a sample of 562 secondary school students confirmed the five-factor structure of the measure. Structural equation modeling revealed that all the steps were influenced by the previous step in the model, as the theory proposed. In addition, the bystander intervention measure was positively correlated with empathy, attitudes toward bullying and sexual harassment, and awareness of bullying and sexual harassment facts. This measure can be used for future research and to inform intervention efforts related to the process of bystander intervention for bullying and sexual harassment. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Banerjee, Amitav; Sharma, Bhavana
Indian society is in a stage of rapid social transition. As more women enter the workforce, stresses vis-à-vis the genders are to be expected in patriarchal society to which most of our population belongs. Earlier studies in Western societies have revealed gender differences in perception of what constitutes sexual harassment. Elicit gender differences, if any, in the workplace sexual harassment among future professionals. A cross-sectional study among the students of professional colleges. A total of 200 students of both sexes were randomly selected from four professional colleges. Data collection was done on a structured questionnaire by interview. Internal consistency of the questionnaire was tested by Crohnbach's α coefficient. Associations between gender and perceptions were explored with Chi-square, Odds Ratio with 95% confidence interval, where applicable. The differences in perception on what constitutes sexual harassment among the genders were statistically significant on many measures (Psexual harassment. Men were more lacking in awareness regarding sexual harassment.
Rosen, L N; Martin, L
This study examines the effects of three types of unwanted sexual experiences in the workplace on the psychological well-being of male and female U.S. Army soldiers, and the mediating or moderating roles of appraisal of sexual harassment, organizational climate, and the sociodemographic profile of victims. A survey was administered to 1,060 male soldiers and 305 female soldiers between May and July, 1995, at three Army posts in the United States. Unwanted sexual experiences were found to be significant predictors of psychological symptoms for male and female soldiers. Certain aspects of organizational climate and appraisal of sexual harassment were also significant predictors of psychological symptoms.
Dec 11, 2017 ... HarassMap has also led to another profound impact in Egypt: Cairo ... of sexual harassment in Egypt is empowering women and changing men's attitudes. ... IDRC congratulates first cohort of Women in Climate Change ...
data records from 1996 to 2006 on issues to do with sexual harassment from ... and protect the potential victim ... college women have been sexually harassed. There are .... environment which the University should provide for. , students to ...
Fnais, Naif; al-Nasser, Muhammad; Zamakhshary, Mohammad; Abuznadah, Wesam; Dhukair, Shahla Al; Saadeh, Mayssa; Al-Qarni, Ali; Bokhari, Bayan; Alshaeri, Taqreed; Aboalsamh, Nouf; Binahmed, AbdulAziz
Multiple surveys of medical residents have shown a high incidence of harassment and discrimination in academic health centers. Harassment has a negative effects on residents' health and on their ability to function. No previous study has documented the prevalence of harassment and discrimination among residents in Saudi Arabia. We aimed in this study to assess the prevalence of harassment and discrimination among residents at a tertiary care academic hospitals in Saudi Arabia. Cross-sectional survey conducted at National Guard Hospitals in Riyadh, Jeddah and Al-Ahsa'a from 27 July to 20 August 2010. The survey included questions on the prevalence of harassment of different types, inlcuding verbal, academic, physical and sexual harassment, as well as discrimination on the basis of gender, region of origin or physical appearance. Of 380 residents, 213 (56%) returned a completed questionnaire (123 male, 57.8%). At least one of type of harassment and discrimination was reported by 83.6% of respondents. The most frequently reported forms were verbal harassment and gender discrimination (61.5% and 58.3%, respectively). Sexual harassment was commonly reported (19.3%) and was experienced significantly more often by female residents than by male residents (P=.0061). Harassment and discrimination of Saudi residents is common with more than three-quarters reporting having had such an experience. Identification of the risk factors is a necessary first step in clarifying this issue and could be used when planning strategies for prevention.
Full Text Available Limited research has explored the link between mobile phone use and harassment behaviors. This paper details the findings from a preliminary study that examined perceptions of unwanted communication, with one focus group (7 participants and two vignettes presented to 145 students. The vignette participants were asked to respond to hypothetical questions about continued and unwanted contact being maintained as if they were both a sender and recipient of the contact and if they had actually been harassed. Response options allowed for intended behavior to be measured against generally agreed thresholds of duration and frequency used to identify harassment. Findings indicated that harassment by text is more prevalent than other forms of off-line stalking and, despite recipients reporting being distressed, there was still a higher level of acceptance of this form of harassment than other forms. Furthermore, responses to text harassment were associated with a high frequency of behaviors perceived as not actively discouraging further texts, therefore having the effect of prolonging unwanted contact. These results are discussed in relation to intervention strategies and future research.
Loeffler, T. A.
Sexual harassment can be devastating and have tremendous impact on the emotional well-being, physical health, and vocational success of those who experience it. It is especially important for outdoor education program staff to proactively address sexual harassment because these programs often take place in remote locations that may make escape…
The paper focuses on the incidence of sexual harassment in tertiary science education and its attendant effects on students and academics. Data from a survey of six higher institutions comprising two universities, two colleges of education and two polytechnics was used. Results indicate high rate of sexual harassment of ...
Mansell, Jamie; Moffit, Dani M.; Russ, Anne C.; Thorpe, Justin N.
Context: Sexual harassment is a growing concern in higher education. Athletic training students should feel safe in their programs, whether in the didactic or clinical setting. Though the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education creates standards to keep the students safe, there are none regarding sexual harassment training for…
Conroy, Nicole E.
This article provides an integrative review of the literature on adolescent sexual harassment and highlights potential contributions of feminist theory for research. Although developmental theories for studying sexual harassment are useful in their own right, the discussion focuses on how they fail to address the ways in which sexual harassment…
Questionnaires were distributed to 351 students in a public university in East Coast Malaysia. The findings revealed that 58.6% of the respondents have been harassed at least once and majority of them were female. The greatest form of sexual harassment experience by the respondents was offensive behavior followed by ...
Carr, P L; Ash, A S; Friedman, R H; Szalacha, L; Barnett, R C; Palepu, A; Moskowitz, M M
Gender-based discrimination and sexual harassment are common in medical practice and may be even more prevalent in academic medicine. To examine the prevalence of gender-based discrimination and sexual harassment among medical school faculty and the associations of gender-based discrimination with number of publications, career satisfaction, and perceptions of career advancement. A self-administered mailed questionnaire of U.S. medical school faculty that covered a broad range of topics relating to academic life. 24 randomly selected medical schools in the contiguous United States. A random sample of 3332 full-time faculty, stratified by specialty, graduation cohort, and sex. Prevalence of self-reported experiences of discrimination and harassment, number of peer-reviewed publications, career satisfaction, and perception of career advancement. Female faculty were more than 2.5 times more likely than male faculty to perceive gender-based discrimination in the academic environment (P productivity but lower career satisfaction scores than did other women (Padvancement (72% compared with 47%). Publications, career satisfaction, and professional confidence were not affected by sexual harassment, and self-assessed career advancement was only marginally lower for female faculty who had experienced sexual harassment (P = 0.06). Despite substantial increases in the number of female faculty, reports of gender-based discrimination and sexual harassment remain common.
Gema Martín Seoane
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to study the relationship among gender, school grade and peer harassment at Primary School. The participants were 2.050 children aged 8 to 13. The overall sample was designed to represent all students in grades 3th through 6th in both public and private schools. A self-report questionnaire on peer harassment situations was administered to the participants. Factor analysis revealed two different dimensions: ‘physical violence and property attacks’ and ‘verbal violence and social exclusion’. Boys reported higher levels of peer harassment among classmates than girls. No effect of the school grade on the gender differences CONTEXTOS EDUCATIVOS, 13 (2010, 11-26 11 Contextos Educ., 13 (2010, 11-26 was found. This paper provides a better understanding of peer harassment as well as some prevention indications.
Pina, Afroditi; Gannon, Theresa A.; Saunders, Benjamin
Sexual harassment has been recognized as a serious problem in the literature over the past 30 years. In this\\ud paper, we review the existing research surrounding the phenomenon of sexual harassment, paying particular\\ud attention to factors of relevance for understanding perpetrators of sexual harassment. We also provide an\\ud overview of the perplexing nature of sexual harassment and the various concerns that have surrounded the\\ud topic leading to its recognition. The different theoretical...
Fnais, Naif; Soobiah, Charlene; Chen, Maggie Hong; Lillie, Erin; Perrier, Laure; Tashkhandi, Mariam; Straus, Sharon E; Mamdani, Muhammad; Al-Omran, Mohammed; Tricco, Andrea C
Harassment and discrimination include a wide range of behaviors that medical trainees perceive as being humiliating, hostile, or abusive. To understand the significance of such mistreatment and to explore potential preventive strategies, the authors conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the prevalence, risk factors, and sources of harassment and discrimination among medical trainees. In 2011, the authors identified relevant studies by searching MEDLINE and EMBASE, scanning reference lists of relevant studies, and contacting experts. They included studies that reported the prevalence, risk factors, and sources of harassment and discrimination among medical trainees. Two reviewers independently screened all articles and abstracted study and participant characteristics and study results. The authors assessed the methodological quality in individual studies using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. They also conducted a meta-analysis. The authors included 57 cross-sectional and 2 cohort studies in their review. The meta-analysis of 51 studies demonstrated that 59.4% of medical trainees had experienced at least one form of harassment or discrimination during their training (95% confidence interval [CI]: 52.0%-66.7%). Verbal harassment was the most commonly cited form of harassment (prevalence: 63.0%; 95% CI: 54.8%-71.2%). Consultants were the most commonly cited source of harassment and discrimination, followed by patients or patients' families (34.4% and 21.9%, respectively). This review demonstrates the surprisingly high prevalence of harassment and discrimination among medical trainees that has not declined over time. The authors recommend both drafting policies and promoting cultural change within academic institutions to prevent future abuse.
Long, Denise A.
Sexual harassment has serious implications for both the individual and the organization. However, there appears to be confusion among different groups of people as to what behaviors constitute sexual harassment. The present study was designed as an aid in defining sexual harassment and an attempt to discover any differences which may exist between groups in what is considered to be sexual harassment. Perceiving certain behaviors as being sexual harassment appears to be...
Comer, Debra R.; Cooper, Elizabeth A.
Describes how to use Michael Crichton's novel "Disclosure" and the film based on it for class discussions of such issues as what constitutes sexual harassment, harassment of men, relationship between sexual harassment and power, organizational responses to harassment, and gender differences in career advancement tactics. (SK)
Ybarra, Michele L; Diener-West, Marie; Leaf, Philip J
As more and more youth utilize the Internet, concern about Internet harassment and its consequences for adolescents is growing. This paper examines the potential overlap in online and school harassment, as well as the concurrence of Internet harassment and school behavior problems. The Growing Up with Media survey is a national cross-sectional online survey of 1588 youth between the ages of 10 and 15 years old. Our main measures were Internet harassment (i.e., rude or nasty comments, spreading of rumors, threatening or aggressive comments) and school functioning (i.e., academic performance; skipping school; detentions and suspensions; and carrying a weapon to school in the last 30 days). Although some overlap existed, 64% of youth who were harassed online did not report also being bullied at school. Nonetheless, youth harassed online were significantly more likely to also report two or more detentions or suspensions, and skipping school in the previous year. Especially concerning, youth who reported being targeted by Internet harassment were eight times more likely than all other youth to concurrently report carrying a weapon to school in the past 30 days (odds ratio = 8.0, p = .002). Although the data do not support the assumption that many youth who are harassed online are bullied by the same (or even different) peers at school, findings support the need for professionals working with children and adolescents, especially those working in the schools, to be aware of the possible linkages between school behavior and online harassment for some youth.
Wear, Delese; Aultman, Julie
Sexual harassment occurs with regularity during medical training, and it remains largely unreported. This study is one institution’s attempt to understand how third and fourth-year medical students perceive and experience sexual harassment, what they believe about reporting sexual harassment, and how they believe it might be eradicated from the educational environment. We used a qualitative research method for our investigation, which would generate more specific language to use in a larger e...
A practicum to determine the need for a sexual harassment policy and to develop an appropriate policy for Sheldon Jackson College, Alaska, is described. The objective of the practicum was to determine the impact of equal opportunity legislation, specifically as it relates to sexual harassment of students, on the private college campus. The…
Review of national legislation and key cases on sexual harassment in North America, Europe, Asia, and Africa identified the following trends: recognition of harassment as employment discrimination, the importance of the legal framework used and the composition of the hearing body, the issue of individual or employer liability, and the influence of…
Trigg, Mary; Wittenstrom, Kim
Corroborates the findings of past surveys that sexual harassment is present in secondary public schools, and analyzes findings from two different theoretical perspectives. Explores student definitions and responses to sexual harassment, and discusses barriers to knowledge and prevention of sexual harassment in secondary schools. (JPS)
Snyder, Jamie A; Scherer, Heidi L; Fisher, Bonnie S
Despite work organizations' attempts to reduce sexual harassment, it continues to be a salient issue for employers across all occupations. Extending social disorganization theory to the work environment, this study examines the relationship between workplace organization, social ties, and sexual harassment victimization. Survey responses to the 2002 and 2006 Quality of Working Life module from the General Social Survey by a sample of 3,530 adult men and women employees in the United States were used. Logistic regression models were estimated for men and women separately to estimate the effect of workplace characteristics on the risk of sexual harassment victimization. Employees who reported poor workplace relations between management and employees and lower coworker social ties were more likely to experience sexual harassment in their work environments. Specific workplace characteristics such as low productivity, poor time management, and inadequate administrative support were significantly related to increased sexual harassment risk. No significant gender differences were found across models suggesting that the predictors of sexual harassment are similar for men and women. This study demonstrates that workplace characteristics are related to sexual harassment risk in the workplace. Suggestions for sexual harassment prevention, including management and organizational strategies, are discussed.
Settles, Isis H; Buchanan, Nicole T; Yap, Stevie C Y; Harrell, Zaje A T
This study examined data from U.S. military personnel (1,764 men; 4,540 women) to determine whether appraisals of sexual harassment as frightening mediate the relationship between perpetrator characteristics (perpetrator sex and rank) and three psychological/job outcomes (psychological distress, role limitations, and work satisfaction), and whether these relationships were stronger for women than men. Results indicated that frightening appraisals mediated the relationship between perpetrator rank and all outcomes for both sexes. However, frightening appraisals mediated the relationship between perpetrator sex and outcomes only for women. As predicted, having a male perpetrator or a higher status perpetrator was more strongly related to frightening appraisals for women than men. However, unexpectedly, the relationship between frightening appraisals and more psychological distress, more role limitations, and less work satisfaction was stronger for men than women. We discuss the results in terms of expectancy norm violations and sexual harassment as a form of dominance.
28 mars 2017 ... More than 95 per cent of women in Egypt have experienced sexual harassment at least once, but many citizens there turn a blind eye when it happens. The HarassMap project is aiming to change that attitude at home and abroad, empowering women and changing the attitudes of men in the process.
Glass, Nancy; Hanson, Ginger C; Anger, W Kent; Laharnar, Naima; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Weinstein, Marc; Perrin, Nancy
The study examines the effectiveness of a workplace violence and harassment prevention and response program with female homecare workers in a consumer driven model of care. Homecare workers were randomized to either; computer based training (CBT only) or computer-based training with homecare worker peer facilitation (CBT + peer). Participants completed measures on confidence, incidents of violence, and harassment, health and work outcomes at baseline, 3, 6 months post-baseline. Homecare workers reported improved confidence to prevent and respond to workplace violence and harassment and a reduction in incidents of workplace violence and harassment in both groups at 6-month follow-up. A decrease in negative health and work outcomes associated with violence and harassment were not reported in the groups. CBT alone or with trained peer facilitation with homecare workers can increase confidence and reduce incidents of workplace violence and harassment in a consumer-driven model of care. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert
The role of peer harassment in the association between sexual minority status and adolescent risky behavior was examined for 15-year-olds in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (n = 957). The findings, although exploratory, suggest the importance of gender. For girls, peer harassment was best viewed as a moderator of the link between sexual minority status and increased risky behavior. It intensified an existing association, reflecting the gendered nature of the impact of sexual minority status on the adolescent social context. For boys, peer harassment was primarily a mediator, such that sexual minority status was associated with more risky behavior via elevated harassment, although sexual minority status itself was associated with lower risky behavior overall. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Full Text Available Anastasia Mangiaruga, Serena Scarpelli, Chiara Bartolacci, Luigi De Gennaro Department of Psychology, University of Rome “Sapienza”, Rome, Italy Abstract: Brain and sleep maturation covary across different stages of life. At the same time, dream generation and dream recall are intrinsically dependent on the development of neural systems. The aim of this paper is to review the existing studies about dreaming in infancy, adulthood, and the elderly stage of life, assessing whether dream mentation may reflect changes of the underlying cerebral activity and cognitive processes. It should be mentioned that some evidence from childhood investigations, albeit still weak and contrasting, revealed a certain correlation between cognitive skills and specific features of dream reports. In this respect, infantile amnesia, confabulatory reports, dream-reality discerning, and limitation in language production and emotional comprehension should be considered as important confounding factors. Differently, growing evidence in adults suggests that the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the encoding and retrieval of episodic memories may remain the same across different states of consciousness. More directly, some studies on adults point to shared neural mechanisms between waking cognition and corresponding dream features. A general decline in the dream recall frequency is commonly reported in the elderly, and it is explained in terms of a diminished interest in dreaming and in its emotional salience. Although empirical evidence is not yet available, an alternative hypothesis associates this reduction to an age-related cognitive decline. The state of the art of the existing knowledge is partially due to the variety of methods used to investigate dream experience. Very few studies in elderly and no investigations in childhood have been performed to understand whether dream recall is related to specific electrophysiological pattern at different ages. Most
Rowe, Mary P.
Advice is presented for managers who encounter sexual harassment problems. Three recommendations are offered: complainants can be helped to help themselves, such conflicts can be resolved through procedures designed to deal with all kinds of complaints, and the issue of power differences should be confronted. (MLW)
Dodaj, Arta; Krajina, Marijana; Sesar, Kristina; Šimić, Nataša
The aim of this study was to research the relation between exposure to maltreatment in childhood and working memory capacity in adulthood. A survey among 376 females in the age between 16 and 67 was administered. Exposure to maltreatment in childhood (sexual, physical and psychological abuse, neglect and witnessing family violence) was assessed retrospectively using the Child Maltreatment Questionnaire (Karlović, Buljan-Flander, & Vranić, 2001), whilst the Working Memory Questionnaire (Vallat-Azouvi, Pradat-Diehl, & Azouvi, 2012) was used to assess working memory capacity (recalling verbal information, numerical information, attention ability and executive functioning). The results suggest a significantly greater prevalence of physical abuse and witnessing family violence in comparison to other forms of maltreatment in childhood. Psychological abuse and witnessing family violence have shown themselves to be statistically significant predictors for deficits in total working memory capacity, verbal recall and attention ability. The results suggest that traumatic experiences during childhood, such as abuse, may trigger particular cognitive changes which may be reflected in adulthood. It is, therefore, exceedingly important to conduct further research in order to contribute to the understanding of the correlation between cognitive difficulties and maltreatment in childhood.
Murrell, Audrey J.; Dietz-Uhler, Beth L.
Examines impact of gender identity and adversarial sexual beliefs as predictors of attitudes toward sexual harassment for 52 female and 55 male college students. Adversarial beliefs and experience with sexual harassment predict less tolerant attitudes toward harassment for males, whereas strong gender group identity and experience with harassment…
Lichty, Lauren F.; Torres, Jennifer M. C.; Valenti, Maria T.; Buchanan, NiCole T.
Background: Peer sexual harassment is a significant social problem with consequences for both students and schools. Four out of 5 students report experiencing sexual harassment. These experiences have been linked to poor psychological health and academic withdrawal. Recognizing the seriousness of sexual harassment in schools, Supreme Court rulings…
Banerjee, Amitav; Sharma, Bhavana
Background: Indian society is in a stage of rapid social transition. As more women enter the workforce, stresses vis-à-vis the genders are to be expected in patriarchal society to which most of our population belongs. Earlier studies in Western societies have revealed gender differences in perception of what constitutes sexual harassment. Aim: Elicit gender differences, if any, in the workplace sexual harassment among future professionals. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study among the students of professional colleges. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 students of both sexes were randomly selected from four professional colleges. Data collection was done on a structured questionnaire by interview. Statistical Analysis: Internal consistency of the questionnaire was tested by Crohnbach's α coefficient. Associations between gender and perceptions were explored with Chi-square, Odds Ratio with 95% confidence interval, where applicable. Results: The differences in perception on what constitutes sexual harassment among the genders were statistically significant on many measures (Psexual harassment. Men were more lacking in awareness regarding sexual harassment. PMID:22969176
Ojanen, Timo Tapani; Boonmongkon, Pimpawun; Samakkeekarom, Ronnapoom; Samoh, Nattharat; Cholratana, Mudjalin; Guadamuz, Thomas Ebanan
Increasing evidence indicates that face-to-face (offline) youth violence and online harassment are closely interlinked, but evidence from Asian countries remains limited. This study was conducted to quantitatively assess the associations between offline violence and online harassment among youth in Central Thailand. Students and out-of-school youth (n=1,234, age: 15-24 years) residing, studying, and/or working in a district in Central Thailand were surveyed. Participants were asked about their involvement in online harassment and in verbal, physical, sexual, and domestic types of offline violence, as perpetrators, victims, and witnesses within a 1-year period. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess independent associations between different kinds of involvement in offline violence and online harassment. Perpetration and victimization within the past year were both reported by roughly half of the youth both online and offline. Over three quarters had witnessed violence or harassment. Perpetrating online harassment was independently associated with being a victim online (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=10.1; 95% CI [7.5, 13.6]), and perpetrating offline violence was independently associated with being a victim offline (AOR=11.1; 95% CI [8.1, 15.0]). Perpetrating online harassment was independently associated with perpetrating offline violence (AOR=2.7; 95% CI [1.9, 3.8]), and being a victim online was likewise independently associated with being a victim offline (AOR=2.6; 95% CI [1.9, 3.6]). Online harassment and offline violence are interlinked among Thai youth, as in other countries studied so far. Interventions to reduce either might best address both together. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Petersen, Jennifer L.; Hyde, Janet S.
Peer sexual harassment is a pervasive problem in schools and is associated with a variety of negative mental health outcomes. Objectification theory suggests that sexual attention in the form of peer harassment directs unwanted attention to the victim's body and may lead to a desire to alter the body via disordered eating. In the current study, we…
Broad, Jonathan; Matheson, Marion; Verrall, Fabienne; Taylor, Anna K; Zahra, Daniel; Alldridge, Louise; Feder, Gene
Discrimination and harassment create a hostile environment with deleterious effects on student well-being and education. In this study, we aimed to: (i) measure prevalences and types of discrimination and harassment in one UK medical school, and (ii) understand how and why students report them. The study used a mixed-methods design. A medical school population survey of 1318 students was carried out in March 2014. Students were asked whether they had experienced, witnessed or reported discrimination or harassment and were given space for free-text comments. Two focus group sessions were conducted to elicit information on types of harassment and the factors that influenced reporting. Proportions were analysed using the Wilson score method and associations tested using chi-squared and regression analyses. Qualitative data were subjected to framework analysis. Degrees of convergence between data were analysed. A total of 259 (19.7%) students responded to the survey. Most participants had experienced (63.3%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 57.3-69.0) or witnessed (56.4%, 95% CI: 50.3-62.3) at least one type of discrimination or harassment. Stereotyping was the form most commonly witnessed (43.2%, 95% CI: 37.4-49.3). In the qualitative data, reports of inappropriate joking and invasion of personal space were common. Black and minority ethnic students had witnessed and religious students had experienced a greater lack of provision (χ 2 = 4.73, p = 0.03 and χ 2 = 4.38, p = 0.04, respectively). Non-heterosexual students had experienced greater joking (χ 2 = 3.99, p = 0.04). Students with disabilities had experienced more stereotyping (χ 2 = 13.5, p harassment. Seven of 140 survey respondents had reported incidents (5.0%, 95% CI: 2.4-10.0). Reporting was perceived as ineffective and as potentially victimising of the reporter. Harassment and discrimination are prevalent in this sample and associated with gender, ethnicity, sexuality, disability and year
Rotundo, M; Nguyen, D H; Sackett, P R
Research on gender differences in perceptions of sexual harassment informs an ongoing legal debate regarding the use of a reasonable person standard instead of a reasonable woman standard to evaluate sexual harassment claims. The authors report a meta-analysis of 62 studies of gender differences in harassment perceptions. An earlier quantitative review combined all types of social-sexual behaviors for a single meta-analysis; the purpose of this study was to investigate whether the magnitude of the female-male difference varies by type of behavior. An overall standardized mean difference of 0.30 was found, suggesting that women perceive a broader range of social-sexual behaviors as harassing. However, the meta-analysis also found that the female-male difference was larger for behaviors that involve hostile work environment harassment, derogatory attitudes toward women, dating pressure, or physical sexual contact than sexual propositions or sexual coercion.
Williams, M F
This study sought to determine the prevalence and impact of violence and sexual harassment experienced by registered nurses (RNs) in their workplaces in Illinois. A random sample of 1,130 RNs were selected to participate in the mail survey. The instrument used was the Nurse Assault Survey originally developed by the Nurse Assault Project Team in Ontario, Canada, and modified by the author. Three hundred forty-five subjects completed the survey (response rate: 30%). Fifty-seven percent of those responding reported personal experience with some aspect of sexual harassment, and 26% reported being victimized by physical assault while on the job. About one third of those who indicated they had been sexually harassed also had been physically assaulted. Patients/clients were the most frequent perpetrators of sexual harassment and physical assault, while physicians committed over half of the sexual assaults. Bivariate analysis showed a significant relationship between physical assault and levels of job satisfaction. A significant relationship also was found between sexual harassment and levels of job satisfaction. Results demonstrate that nurses need to take and active role in fostering a work environment free from violence and sexual harassment. They should be knowledgeable about institutional policies and, where none exist, they should work with administrators to develop them. Prevention and intervention programs should be developed for both student and registered nurses.
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incidental harassment authorization for Arctic waters. 216.107 Section 216.107 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL... Incidental to Specified Activities § 216.107 Incidental harassment authorization for Arctic waters. (a...
Perry, Elissa L; Kulik, Carol T; Bourhis, Anne C
Some federal courts have used a reasonable woman standard rather than the traditional reasonable man or reasonable person standard to determine whether hostile environment sexual harassment has occurred. The current research examined the impact of the reasonable woman standard on federal district court decisions, controlling for other factors found to affect sexual harassment court decisions. Results indicated that there was a weak relationship between whether a case followed a reasonable woman precedent-setting case and the likelihood that the court decision favored the plaintiff. The implications of our findings for individuals and organizations involved in sexual harassment claims are discussed.
Jones, Lisa M; Mitchell, Kimberly J; Turner, Heather A; Ybarra, Michele L
Using a national sample of youth from the U.S., this paper examines incidents of bias-based harassment by peers that include language about victims' perceived sexual orientation, race/ethnicity, religion, weight or height, or intelligence. Telephone interviews were conducted with youth who were 10-20 years old (n = 791). One in six youth (17%) reported at least one experience with bias-based harassment in the past year. Bias language was a part of over half (52%) of all harassment incidents experienced by youth. Perpetrators of bias-based harassment were similar demographically to perpetrators of non-biased harassment. However, bias-based incidents were more likely to involve multiple perpetrators, longer timeframes and multiple harassment episodes. Even controlling for these related characteristics, the use of bias language in incidents of peer harassment resulted in significantly greater odds that youth felt sad as a result of the victimization, skipped school, avoided school activities, and lost friends, compared to non-biased harassment incidents. Copyright © 2018 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sadrabad, Akram Zolfaghari; Bidarizerehpoosh, Farahnaz; Farahmand Rad, Reza; Kariman, Hamid; Hatamabadi, Hamidreza; Alimohammadi, Hossein
The widespread epidemic of emerging abuse in Emergency Departments (ED) toward residents generates negative effects on the residents' health and welfare. The purpose of this study was to determine and highlight the high prevalence of abuse and harassment toward Emergency residents. In 2011, a multi-institutional, cross-sectional study was conducted at seven Emergency Residencies of central hospitals in Iran. Residents were asked about their age, marital status, postgraduate year (PGY) levels, and work experiences before residency. Prevalence of abuse in four categories was evaluated: verbal abuse; verbal and physical threat; physical assault and sexual harassment; and by whom. The data were analyzed by SPSS version 17.0 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Two hundred fifteen of the 296 residents (73%) completed the survey. The prevalence of any type of abuse experienced was 89%; 43% of residents experienced verbal and physical threats, 10% physical assault, and 31% sexual harassment. Verbal abuse and verbal and physical threats without the use of weapons were higher in men in comparison with women (pmen to encounter sexual harassment (31% vs. 7%, psexual harassment categories, sexual jokes (51%) were the most prevalent between residents. Junior residents (PGY-1) were more likely to experience abuse than senior residents (PGY-2 and PGY-3; pharassment during residency in ED are highly prevalent. Educational programs and effective preventive measures against this mistreatment are urgently required. © The Author(s) 2016.
In 1997, the Supreme Court of India recognised sexual harassment in the workplace as a violation of human rights. However, little is known about the extent or persistence of sexual harassment. To obtain an understanding of women's experiences of sexual harassment in the health sector, an exploratory study was undertaken in 2005-2006 among 135 women health workers, including doctors, nurses, health care attendants, administrative and other non-medical staff working in two government and two private hospitals in Kolkata, West Bengal, India. Four types of experiences were reported by the 77 women who had experienced 128 incidents of sexual harassment: verbal harassment (41), psychological harassment (45), sexual gestures and exposure (15), and unwanted touch (27). None of the women reported rape, attempted rape or forced sex but a number of them knew of other women health workers who had experienced these. The women who had experienced harassment were reluctant to complain, fearing for their jobs or being stigmatised, and most were not aware of formal channels for redress. Experiences of sexual harassment reflected the obstacles posed by power imbalances and gender norms in empowering women to make a formal complaint, on the one hand, and receive redress on the other.
Over the last decade, there has been a growing awareness worldwide of the existence and extent of sexual harassment in the workplace. Governments, employers’ and workers’ organizations in both industrialized and developing countries have introduced a range of laws, policies and procedures aimed at preventing and combating it. Given this proliferation of measures designed to prevent sexual harassment, it is useful to review their development and consider the range of issues enco...
Diehl, Charlotte; Rees, Jonas; Bohner, Gerd
We combine evolutionary and sociocultural accounts of sexual harassment, proposing that sexuality-related and hostility-related motives lead to different types of harassment. Specifically, men's short-term mating orientation (STMO) was hypothesized to predict only unwanted sexual attention but not gender harassment, whereas men's hostile sexism (HS) was hypothesized to predict both unwanted sexual attention and gender harassment. As part of an alleged computer-chat task, 100 male students could send sexualized personal remarks (representing unwanted sexual attention), sexist jokes (representing gender harassment), or nonharassing material to an attractive female target. Independently, participants' STMO, HS, and sexual harassment myth acceptance (SHMA) were assessed. Correlational and path analyses revealed that STMO specifically predicted unwanted sexual attention, whereas HS predicted both unwanted sexual attention and gender harassment. Furthermore, SHMA fully mediated the effect of HS on gender harassment, but did not mediate effects of STMO or HS on unwanted sexual attention. Results are discussed in relation to motivational explanations for sexual harassment and antiharassment interventions. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Stein, Nan D.
Students and employees are legally protected against sexual harassment, regardless of the perpetrator's age or status. Although caution is needed when responding to complaints, school leaders should avoid making backroom deals with staff members accused of molestation or improper sexual conduct. All school community members need information and…
Based on literature reviews, methodologies, and findings, this paper presents an empirical study of sexual harassment in the hospitality industry. Zhongjing Grand Hotel is used as a case study of sexual harassment in the context of China. The similarities and differences from literatures and research findings are indicated. The research proposes two main arguments: (1) the definitions of sexual harassment need to be improved and specific. (2) sexual harassment can happen every places and ever...
Eom, Elizabeth; Restaino, Stephen; Perkins, Amy M; Neveln, Nicole; Harrington, John W
Sexual harassment can be physical interaction and touching, as well as, psychological, environmental, or via Internet and text messaging. An online survey in an urban clinic asked children, aged 12 to 18 years the following: demographic data, height and weight, chronic medical conditions, healthcare use, questions concerning sexual harassment-witnessed and exposure, and finally questions from the Pediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC-35). Overall, 124 of 210 (59%) of the 12- to 18-year-olds surveyed had experienced sexual harassment, with the predominance being female 69% (80/116) versus 48% (49/92) male. Participants who had experienced sexual harassment were significantly more likely to score positive for psychological impairment than those who had not experienced sexual harassment (chi-square test P harassment (2-sample t test P = .08). Sexual harassment has a direct correlation to psychological impairment in adolescents, especially females. © The Author(s) 2014.
Zewude, Bereket Tessema; Ashine, Kidus Meskele
An attempt has been done on attitude towards sexual harassment which is critical issue nowadays in higher institutions. The result of the study could suggest for putting proper polices in place which is considered as vital in preventing sexual harassment as well as creating awareness about sexual harassment issue specially in higher institutions…
The assumption of a twofold cost of sex not only complicates the maintenance of sex but also sets conditions for sexual conflict: in organisms with the twofold cost, males often sexually harass females. Sexual harassment is detrimental to female fitness and thus might help maintain sexual populations if male harassment inflicts a harsher cost on parthenogens than on sexual females (asymmetric harassment cost). However, the generality of this concept is now considered doubtful because selective harassment of parthenogens results in loss of mating opportunities for males. Using three mathematical models, I show here that sexual harassment still can impose the asymmetric cost on parthenogens. First, I apply the Lotka-Volterra model to show the degree of asymmetric harassment cost that permits sex to be maintained stably in the population. Second, using adaptive dynamics, I examine whether sexually antagonistic coevolution for sexual harassment, which occurs only in sexual populations, can promote the asymmetric harassment cost. Finally, an individual-based model, which assumes a spatial structure unlike that in the other two, demonstrates that the asymmetric evolution of harassment cost prevents further invasions of parthenogens from different patches into sexual lineages; these mechanisms may account for allopatric distributions of sexual and parthenogenetic lineages as well as the maintenance of sex.
Darden, Safi K; James, Richard; Ramnarine, Indar W; Croft, Darren P
Across sexually reproducing species, males and females are in conflict over the control of reproduction. At the heart of this conflict in a number of taxa is male harassment of females for mating opportunities and female strategies to avoid this harassment. One neglected consequence that may result from sexual harassment is the disruption of important social associations. Here, we experimentally manipulate the degree of sexual harassment that wild female guppies (Poecilia reticulata) experience by establishing replicated, semi-natural pools with different population sex ratios. We quantify the effects of sexual harassment on female social structure and the development of social recognition among females. When exposed to sexual harassment, we found that females had more disparate social networks with limited repeated interactions when compared to females that did not experience male harassment. Furthermore, females that did not experience harassment developed social recognition with familiar individuals over an 8-day period, whereas females that experienced harassment did not, an effect we suggest is due to disruption of association patterns. These results show that social network structure and social recognition can be affected by sexual harassment, an effect that will be relevant across taxonomic groups and that we predict will have fitness consequences for females.
Buchanan, NiCole T; Fitzgerald, Louise F
Research on workplace harassment has typically examined either racial or sexual harassment, without studying both simultaneously. As a result, it remains unknown whether the co-occurrence of racial and sexual harassment or their interactive effects account for unique variance in work and psychological well-being. In this study, hierarchical linear regression analyses were used to explore the influence of racial and sexual harassment on these outcomes among 91 African American women involved in a sexual harassment employment lawsuit. Results indicated that both sexual and racial harassment contributed significantly to the women's occupational and psychological outcomes. Moreover, their interaction was statistically significant when predicting supervisor satisfaction and perceived organizational tolerance of harassment. Using a sample of African American women employed in an organizational setting where harassment was known to have occurred and examining sexual and racial harassment concomitantly makes this study unique. As such, it provides novel insights and an important contribution to an emerging body of research and underscores the importance of assessing multiple forms of harassment when examining organizational stressors, particularly among women of color.
Chapman, Gordon R., Ed.; And Others
The problem of harassment of women in the workplace has received increasing attention from government agencies, Congress, and the courts in recent years. This growing general awareness of the problem of harassment and sex discrimination by both employers and employees is being made more acute by women's growing demands for career opportunities…
Popp, Earl Y.; Serra, Michael J.
Recent research suggests that human memory systems evolved to remember animate things better than inanimate things. In the present experiments, we examined whether these effects occur for both free recall and cued recall. In Experiment 1, we directly compared the effect of animacy on free recall and cued recall. Participants studied lists of…
Pierre Joubert; Christo van Wyk; Sebastiaan Rothmann
This article aims to investigate the perceptions of academic staff relating to the incidence of sexual harassment at higher education institutions in South Africa. The results show a relatively low incidence level of sexual harassment, with gender harassment being more prevalent than unwanted sexual attention and quid pro quo harassment. No statistically significant effect of gender, age, population group or years of service was found on the perceptions of the incidence of sexual harassment. ...
Henning, Marcus A.; Zhou, Chen; Adams, Peter; Moir, Fiona; Hobson, Jennifer; Hallett, Charlene; Webster, Craig S.
Workplace harassment in higher education adversely impacts workforce productivity and has deleterious health effects on victims. The aim of this study was to review the literature pertaining to workplace harassment in higher education. This systematic literature search was conducted in December 2013 and completed in January 2014. Refereed journal…
Keyton, Joann; Rhodes, Steve
A study identified the verbal and nonverbal behaviors that people associate with flirting as opposed to sexual harassment, determined whether people could successfully distinguish between flirting and sexual harassment, and examined the relationship between variables that might affect the first two objectives. Subjects, 57 females and 32 males…
de Haas, Stans; Hoing, Mechtild; Timmerman, M.C.
The aims of this study were to investigate whether sexual harassment is related to mental and physical health of both men and women, and to explore the possible moderating effects of gender on the relation between sexual harassment and health. In addition, we investigated whether women were more
Timmerman, M.C.; Bajema, C.W.
A substantial body of research addressing the issue of sexual harassment in the workplace has been developed over the past decade. In this article, we present the results of our review study of research on sexual harassment in the workplace in 11 Northern and Western European countries and consider
Around 300 people attended the talk on 'Sexual and psychological harassment: suffering at work' given by specialist Véronique Ducret at CERN at the end of May. The Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel organised this event with the aim of making it clear to CERN personnel what sexual harassment and mobbing are, and how to combat them. Véronique Ducret during her talk at CERN. A look can have a thousand different connotations. But at what point does it stop being just a look and become an intrusion on someone's privacy? When someone persists in this kind of behaviour, it ends up by making the other person feel uncomfortable. This was one of the questions that was answered during Véronique Ducret's talk on 'Sexual and psychological harassment: suffering at work'. Another question answered concerned mobbing - up to what point is it acceptable to put pressure on someone at work? Here again her answer pointed to situations which persist over time and the manner in which the pressure is applied. These kinds o...
Klein, Kristen M; Apple, Kevin J; Kahn, Arnold S
Kelley's (Nebr Symp Motiv 15:192-238, 1967) attribution theory can inform sexual harassment research by identifying how observers use consensus, consistency, and distinctiveness information in determining whether a target or perpetrator is responsible for a sexual harassment situation. In this study, Kelley's theory is applied to a scenario in which a male perpetrator sexually harasses a female target in a university setting. Results from 314 predominantly female college students indicate that consistency and consensus information significantly affect participants' judgments of blame and responsibility for the situation. The authors discuss the importance of the reference groups used to derive consensus and distinctiveness information, and reintroduce Kelley's attribution theory as a means of understanding observers' perceptions of sexual harassment.
Bucchianeri, Michaela M; Eisenberg, Marla E; Wall, Melanie M; Piran, Niva; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
To explore relationships between harassment (i.e., race-, weight-, socioeconomic-status (SES)-based, and sexual) and health-related outcomes, including self-esteem, depressive symptoms, body satisfaction, substance use, and self-harm behavior, among diverse adolescents. Cross-sectional analysis using data from a population-based study of adolescents participating in Eating and Activity in Teens 2010 (EAT 2010) (n = 2,793; mean age = 14.4 years). Sample was socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse (81% racial/ethnic minority; 54% low or low-middle income). Having experienced any type of harassment was significantly associated with poor self-esteem, depressive symptoms, low body satisfaction, substance use, and self-harm behaviors. After mutually adjusting for other types of harassment, weight-based harassment was consistently associated with lower self-esteem and lower body satisfaction in both genders (standardized βs ranged in magnitude from .39 to .48); sexual harassment was significantly associated with self-harm and substance use in both genders (ORs: 1.64 to 2.92); and both weight-based and sexual harassment were significantly associated with depressive symptoms among girls (standardized βs = .34 and .37). Increases in the number of different harassment types reported by adolescents were associated with elevated risk for alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use, and self-harm (ORs: 1.22 to 1.42) as well as emotional well-being (standardized βs: .13 to .26). Having had any harassment experience was significantly associated with a variety of negative health and well-being outcomes among adolescents, and risk for these outcomes increases with the number of harassment types an adolescent experiences. Early detection and intervention to decrease harassment experiences may be particularly important in mitigating psychological and behavioral harm among adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All
GARBIN, Cléa Adas Saliba; ZINA, Lívia Guimarães; GARBIN, Artênio José Insper; MOIMAZ, Suzely Adas Saliba
OBJECTIVE: Sexual harassment is unlawful in all work and educational environments in most nations of the world. The goals of this study were to describe the sexual harassment prevalence and to evaluate the experiences and attitudes of undergraduate students in one dental school in Brazil. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An 18-item questionnaire was administered to 254 dental students with a completion rate of 82% (208). Students were requested to respond to questions about their background and academic...
Fitzgerald, L F; Drasgow, F; Hulin, C L; Gelfand, M J; Magley, V J
Sexual harassment of women in organizational settings has recently become a topic of interest to researchers and the general public alike. Although numerous studies document its frequency, the development of conceptual models identifying antecedents and consequences of harassment has proceeded at a slower pace. In this article, an empirical test of a recently proposed conceptual model is described. According to the model, organizational climate for sexual harassment and job gender context are critical antecedents of sexual harassment; harassment, in turn, influences work-related variables (e.g., job satisfaction); psychological states (e.g., anxiety and depression); and physical health. On the basis of a sample of women employed at a large, regulated utility company, the model's predictions were generally supported.
Gibbs, M; Sigal, J; Friedman, C R; Orosy-fildes, C
This paper presents two studies investigating judgments in a simulated sexual harassment hearing in which 240 male and female undergraduates participated. The transcript presented a female student's allegations of sexual harassment against a male professor. In the first experiment, 4 versions of a transcript were created, varying the aggressiveness of the attack on the female student complainant and the status of the accused professor. The findings supported the hypothesis that an aggressive attack negatively affects believability of the victim. The findings are also consistent with previous studies, which found out that denial was an effective technique for handling attacks. In the second experiment, the case was modified as to the emotionality of both the victim and the accused and the time of the between the occurrence and the reporting of the alleged harassment incident (1 month vs. 6 months). The results indicated that emotionality was important to decisions about the severity of punishment and guilt; when the victim was emotional, the defendant was punished more severely. Both experiments indicated that process variables (e.g., aggressiveness of attack) might be important in the perception of sexual harassment.
Last year, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 11th Circuit ruled in "Davis" that a student can sue for damages if school officials know a student is being sexually harassed but fail to intervene. (MLF)
Binder, Renee; Garcia, Paul; Johnson, Bonnie; Fuentes-Afflick, Elena
Although Title IX, the federal law prohibiting sexual harassment in educational institutions, was enacted in 1972, sexual harassment continues to be distressingly common in medical training. In addition, many women who experience sexual harassment do not report their experiences to authorities within the medical school.In this article, the authors review the literature on the prevalence of sexual harassment in medical schools since Title IX was enacted and on the cultural and legal changes that have occurred during that period that have affected behaviors. These changes include decreased tolerance for harassing behavior, increased legal responsibility assigned to institutions, and a significant increase in the number of female medical students, residents, and faculty. The authors then discuss persisting barriers to reporting sexual harassment, including fears of reprisals and retaliation, especially covert retaliation. They define covert retaliation as vindictive comments made by a person accused of sexual harassment about his or her accuser in a confidential setting, such as a grant review, award selection, or search committee.The authors concluding by highlighting institutional and organizational approaches to decreasing sexual harassment and overt retaliation, and they propose other approaches to decreasing covert retaliation. These initiatives include encouraging senior faculty members to intervene and file bystander complaints when they witness inappropriate comments or behaviors as well as group reporting when multiple women are harassed by the same person.
Lenhart, S A; Klein, F; Falcao, P; Phelan, E; Smith, K
Despite the increasing participation of women in medicine over the past few decades, hindrances to professional advancement for women physicians and medical students persist. The present study sought to assess the prevalence of gender bias and sexual harassment in a sample of women physicians and medical students. Within a one-year period, 54% of respondents encountered some form of sex discrimination. In addition, approximately one-fourth experienced sexual harassment (27%) and/or discrimination related to parenthood (24%). Unwanted sexual attention not viewed as sexual harassment was experienced by more than twice as many respondents (55%). Other forms of discrimination were reported as well: age (22%), sexual preference (20%), and race (7%). Perceptions of the extent of sex discrimination and sexual harassment, of their impact on professional commitment, and of the adequacy of solutions at institutions varied directly with whether or not respondents had experienced some form of employment discrimination within the past 12 months. This study points to the need for clarification of what constitutes sexual harassment and for the creation of safe, effective mechanisms to remedy and prevent all forms of gender bias.
Full Text Available Background: Indian society is in a stage of rapid social transition. As more women enter the workforce, stresses vis-à-vis the genders are to be expected in patriarchal society to which most of our population belongs. Earlier studies in Western societies have revealed gender differences in perception of what constitutes sexual harassment. Aim: Elicit gender differences, if any, in the workplace sexual harassment among future professionals. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study among the students of professional colleges. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 students of both sexes were randomly selected from four professional colleges. Data collection was done on a structured questionnaire by interview. Statistical Analysis: Internal consistency of the questionnaire was tested by Crohnbach′s α coefficient. Associations between gender and perceptions were explored with Chi-square, Odds Ratio with 95% confidence interval, where applicable. Results: The differences in perception on what constitutes sexual harassment among the genders were statistically significant on many measures (P<0.01. Conclusions: Men and women differ in their awareness as to what constitute sexual harassment. Men were more lacking in awareness regarding sexual harassment.
Mathematical analysis shows that if the pattern of rehearsal in free-recall experiments (of necessity, the pattern observed when participants rehearse aloud) be continued without any further interruption by stimuli (as happens during recall), it terminates with the retrieval of the same 1 word over and over again. Such a terminal state is commonly reached before some of the words in the list have been retrieved even once; those words are not recalled. The 1 minute frequently allowed for recall in free-recall experiments is ample time for retrieval to seize up in this way. The author proposes a model that represents the essential features of the pattern of rehearsal; validates that model by reference to the overt rehearsal data from B. B. Murdock, Jr., and J. Metcalfe (1978) and the recall data from B. B. Murdock, Jr., and R. Okada (1970); demonstrates the long-term properties of continued sequences of retrievals and, also, a fundamental relation linking recall to the total time of presentation; and, finally, compares failure to recall in free-recall experiments with forgetting in general.
Bull Schaefer, Rebecca A.; Crosswhite, Alicia M.
Both sexual harassment and managerial crisis communication are important topics in undergraduate, graduate, and executive programs. This article describes a group role-play exercise that engages students in the process of responding to a public claim of workplace sexual harassment and requires small groups to share their reactions within a press…
Mansfield, Katherine Cumings; Beck, Amy Gray; Fung, Kakim; Montiel, Marta; Goldman, Madeline
Gender discrimination and sexual harassment persist on college campuses across the United States. This seems especially obvious at the beginning of the academic year when many freshman women and their parents are welcomed to campus with sexually explicit signs displayed on all-male residences. But, sometimes, sexual harassment and gender…
McLaughlin, Heather; Uggen, Christopher; Blackstone, Amy
Young disadvantaged workers are especially vulnerable to harassment due to their age and social class position. As young people enter the workforce, their experiences of, and reactions to, harassment may vary dramatically from those of older adult workers. Three case studies introduce theory and research on the relationship between social class…
Campos, Izabel Carolina Martins; Serafim, Alessandra da Cruz; Custódio, Kamilla Valler; da Silva, Lizandra; Cruz, Roberto Moraes
Programs geared towards the occupational health of public workers, that include the prevention of moral harassment, have been created in Santa Catarina. Any institution identified for its poor records in regards to moral harassment will end up having its image tainted before society at large. This is due to its use of arbitrary and embarrassing means for accomplishing everyday tasks. This article aims to consider Workplace Psychological Harassment (WPH), its risks and implications for the health of public workers. The methodology chosen was a teacher's case study, which consisted of document research, interviews, anamnesis and observation, all in order to relate both theory and practice. The results indicate that WPH is a complex phenomenon, which can be studied in a variety of ways. WPH risks the biopsychosocial health of the worker, causing the deterioration in social-professional relations, illness, and incapacity, as well as higher costs and certain degradation in production. It is difficult to prove incidents and their impact. Nevertheless, this research concluded that WPH has harmful consequences for the physical and mental health of workers, and is in the ergonomic field, since part of this profession's role is to seek understanding of work in order to reorganize it.
Marshall, Sheila K; Faaborg-Andersen, Pernille; Tilton-Weaver, Lauree C; Stattin, Håkan
Although the receipt of peer sexual harassment in schools has been linked to deliberate self-injury, the direction of association over time has not been tested. Two longitudinal studies examined whether receipt of peer sexual harassment within schools predicts engagement in deliberate self-injury or vice versa. Differences between boys and girls were also tested. Surveys were conducted in two countries, Canada and Sweden. Measures of sexual harassment and deliberate self-injury were administered yearly in classrooms. Two waves of data were collected in the Canadian study (N = 161, 59.6% girls, mean age = 13.82 years); three waves of data were collected in Sweden (N = 513, 47% girls, mean age = 13.23 years). In the Canadian study, deliberate self-injury predicted subsequent peer sexual harassment; the converse relationship was not significant. No significant gender differences were found. Across the three waves of the Swedish study, peer sexual harassment predicted self-injury from T1 to T2, and self-injury predicted peer sexual harassment from T2 to T3. However, self-injury did not mediate peer sexual harassment at T1 and T3. Tests of gender differences revealed self-injury predicted sexual harassment from T2 to T3 among Swedish girls but not boys. Adolescents who deliberately self-injure may be vulnerable to sexual harassment by peers at school. Cultural norms may have a role in whether this process applies primarily to girls or to both genders. Sexual harassment by peers may also increase self-injury, but this is not subsequently linked to increases in receipt of sexual harassment. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sims, Carra S; Drasgow, Fritz; Fitzgerald, Louise F
Sexual harassment has consistently negative consequences for working women, including changes in job attitudes (e.g., lower satisfaction) and behaviors (e.g., increased work withdrawal). Cross-sectional evidence suggests that harassment influences turnover intentions. However, few studies have used actual turnover; rather, they rely on proxies. With a sample of 11,521 military servicewomen with turnover data spanning approximately 4 years, the authors used the appropriate method for longitudinal turnover data--Cox's regression--to investigate the impact of harassment on actual turnover. Experiences of harassment led to increased turnover, even after controlling for job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and marital status. Among officers, harassment also affected turnover over and above rank. Given turnover's relevance to organizational bottom lines, these findings have important implications not only for individual women but also for organizations. ((c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved).
Cappozzo, Humberto L.; Túnez, Juan I.; Cassini, Marcelo H.
Most colonial pinnipeds form extreme clusters of breeding females that cannot be entirely explained by the distribution of sites for reproduction. Avoidance of male harassment has been postulated as an important determinant of reproductive aggregation in this group of mammals. Female gregariousness can reduce harassment by resident males by two mechanisms; directly by the ‘dilution effect’ or indirectly because resident males that defend large female groups are less harassing. In order to investigate the relationship between male harassment and female gregariousness in relation to the size of breeding groups, we analysed the behaviour of dominant males and their females in a breeding colony of Otaria flavescens. Females in large breeding groups received less harassment by resident males due to dilution effects and because males that defended a large group interacted less frequently with females than males with small groups.
Workplace climate can promote, or hinder, scientific productivity and innovation. The Committee on the Status of Women in Astronomy (CSWA) Survey on Workplace Climate sought to discover whether scientists in the astronomical and planetary science communities experienced a hostile work environment. The survey investigated the extent to which negative experiences 1) were motivated by the target's identity (e.g., gender, gender identity, sexual orientation, ability status, religion, neurodiversity, or race and ethnicity) and 2) affected the extent to which respondents felt safe in their workplaces. 426 participants were recruited for an online survey. This presentation will include the preliminary results from respondents' experiences in the last five years. Notable conclusions include: 1. Scientists in the astronomical and planetary science communities experience and witness inappropriate language, verbal harassment, and physical assault. 2. Abuses that relate to gender are those that appear in the greatest proportion in this sample. 3. Inappropriate comments, harassment, and assault lead to a number of scientists feeling unsafe in their workplaces, and pursuing fewer scholarly opportunities as a direct result of these experiences. This presentation, in addition to highlighting results from the recent CSWA Survey, will also include a definition for harassment and highlight the types of harassment that are frequently encountered by scientists, as well as highlight techniques for dealing with harassment, both in the workplace and at conferences.
Taniguchi, Toshiyo; Takaki, Jiro; Hirokawa, Kumi; Fujii, Yasuhito; Harano, Kaori
The purpose of this prospective study was to investigate the effect of the patterning of workplace bullying and harassment over two time points (chronic, remission, onset, and never) on psychological and physical stress reactions. The subjects were 543 workers at welfare facilities for the elderly in Japan who completed a self-administered questionnaire at Time 1 (from August to September, 2009) and at Time 2 (from September to October, 2011). Workplace bullying and harassment were assessed using the Negative Acts Questionnaire (NAQ). Stress reactions were assessed using the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire. In the multiple logistic regression analyses, onset of person-related bullying was significantly (psexual harassment was significantly (psexual harassment was significantly (psexual harassment can cause stress reactions. Remission of sexual harassment can terminate physical stress reaction.
Full Text Available This paper follows on a previous paper describing a studyconducted on sexual harassment in the physiotherapy work environment inSouth Africa. A survey questionnaire was used to determine the reactions ofphysiotherapists after they experienced their worst incidents of sexualharassment. The most common method of handling the sexual harassmentwas to avoid the perpetrator or situation. The most common effects relatedto work performance after the sexual harassment had occurred, were adecrease in concentration, job pleasure and confidence in job performanceand the most common emotional effect experienced was anger.
Quietly, many women in the world face an uphill battle at home, at work and on college campuses. The battle is sexual harassment. The numbers are staggering. Every day, hundreds of thousands of women are sexually harassed. In the developing nations, because of customs and traditions, women are afraid to speak out.
Kumi Hirokawa; Toshiyo Taniguchi; Jiro Takaki
The aim of this study was to investigate associations of workplace bullying and harassment with headache, stiffness of the neck or shoulders, lumbago, and pain of two or more joints. The subjects in this cross-sectional study were recruited from workers (n = 1,913) at 35 healthcare or welfare facilities in Japan. Because of non-participation or missing data, the number of subjects included in the analysis varied (response rate ? 77.1%). Workplace bullying and harassment were assessed using th...
Malloy, David Cruise; Zakus, Dwight H.
The literature discussing harassment issues in sport primarily focuses on sexual harassment and abuse. Discussion of this topic is dominated by definitions of harassment in terms of the biological, psychological, cultural, and organizational rationale for its occurrence and a variety of educational methods to transmit the "facts" of this…
Chang, Yu-Ting; Hayter, Mark; Lin, Mei-Ling
Sexual harassment is a significant issue in the lives of students. Understanding how young adolescents feel about sexual harassment and their coping strategies is a central element to guide school nursing interventions promoting sexual health. This study explored the sexual harassment experiences of young adolescents in Taiwan. A qualitative…
Reason, Robert D.; Rankin, Susan R.
Using a campus climate assessment instrument developed by Rankin (1998), we surveyed students (N = 7,347) from 10 campuses to explore the different experiences with harassment and campus climates reported by men and women. Both men and women reported experiencing harassment, although women experienced harassment at statistically significantly…
Zheng, Wu Yi; Kanesarajah, Jeeva; Waller, Michael; McGuire, Annabel C; Treloar, Susan A; Dobson, Annette J
To examine whether the relationship between traumatic exposure on deployment and poor mental health varies by the reported level of childhood adversity experienced in Australian military veterans deployed to the Bougainville or East Timor military operations. Cross-sectional self-reported survey data were collected in 2008 from 3,564 Australian military veterans who deployed to East Timor or Bougainville on their deployment experiences, health and recall of childhood events. Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate the association between childhood adversity, deployment exposures and mental health. The most common childhood adversity reported was 'not having a special teacher, youth worker or family friend who looked out for them while growing up'. On average, responders reported experiencing 3.5 adverse childhood experiences (SD 2.7) and averaged 5.3 (SD 4.9) traumatic exposures on deployment. Both childhood adversity and traumatic exposures on deployment were associated with higher odds of poorer mental health. However, there was no evidence that level of childhood adversity modified the association between traumatic exposure and mental health. These findings suggest that military personnel who recalled a higher level of childhood adversity may need to be monitored for poor mental health and, if required, provided with appropriate support. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.
Bucchianeri, Michaela M.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Wall, Melanie M.; Piran, Niva; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
Purpose To explore relationships between harassment (i.e., race-, weight-, SES-based, sexual) and health-related outcomes, including self-esteem, depressive symptoms, body satisfaction, substance use, and self-harm behavior, among diverse adolescents. Method Cross-sectional analysis using data from a population-based study with socioeconomically and racially/ethnically diverse sample (81% racial/ethnic minority; 54% low or low-middle income) of adolescents participating in Eating and Activity in Teens 2010 (EAT 2010) (n = 2,793; mean age = 14.4 years). Results Harassment experiences were significantly associated with negative health behaviors and well-being. After mutually adjusting for other types of harassment, weight-based harassment was consistently associated with lower self-esteem and lower body satisfaction in both genders (standardized βs ranged in magnitude from 0.39 to 0.48); sexual harassment was significantly associated with self-harm and substance use in both genders (ORs: 1.64 to 2.92); and both weight-based and sexual harassment were significantly associated with depressive symptoms among girls (standardized βs = 0.34 and 0.37). Increases in the number of harassment types reported by adolescents were associated with elevated risk for all outcomes regarding substance use/self-harm (ORs: 1.22 to 1.42) and emotional well-being (standardized βs: 0.13 to 0.26). Conclusions Harassment—particularly weight-based and sexual harassment— is associated with a variety of negative health and well-being outcomes among adolescents, and risk for these outcomes increases with the number of harassment types an adolescent experiences. Early detection and intervention to decrease harassment experiences may be particularly important in mitigating psychological and behavioral harm among adolescents. PMID:24411820
Hinze, Susan W
Despite larger numbers of women in medicine and strong statements against gender discrimination in written policies and the medical literature, sexual harassment persists in medical training. This study examines the everyday lives of women and men resident physicians to understand the context within which harassment unfolds. The narratives explored here reveal how attention is deflected from the problem of sexual harassment through a focus on women's 'sensitivity'. Women resist by refusing to name sexual harassment as problematic, and by defining sexual harassment as 'small stuff' in the context of a rigorous training program. Ultimately, both tactics of resistance fail. Closer examination of the relations shaping everyday actions is key, as is viewing the rigid hierarchy of authority and power in medical training through a gender lens. I conclude with a discussion of how reforms in medical education must tend to the gendered, everyday realities of women and men in training.
Wiener, R L; Hurt, L; Russell, B; Mannen, K; Gasper, C
This research tests the possibility that the reasonable woman as compared to the reasonable person test of hostile work environment sexual harassment interacts with hostile and benevolent sexist beliefs and under some conditions triggers protectionist attitudes toward women who complain of sexual harassment. We administered to a sample of undergraduates the ambivalent sexism inventory along with the fact patterns in two harassment cases and asked them to make legally relevant decisions under either the reasonable woman or person standard. We found that those high in hostile sexism, and women, found more evidence of harassment. However, those high in benevolent sexism did not exhibit the hostile sexism effects. Although men were less sensitive to the reasonable woman standard than women, under some conditions the reasonable woman standard enabled both genders to find greater evidence of harassment. The results are discussed from the perspectives of law and psychology.
Roč. 47, č. 6 (2011), s. 1119-1147 ISSN 0038-0288 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OK08007; GA ČR GAP 404/10/0021 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : sexual harassment * higher education * anti-harassment policy Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 0.357, year: 2011
Business and Professional Women's Foundation, Washington, DC.
This paper focuses on the problem of sexual harassment in the workplace. The legal definition of sexual harassment as drawn up by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission is: "unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature that are explicitly or implicitly a term or condition…
Reviews issues and relevant court decisions related to sexual harassment in the workplace. Focuses on definitions and types of sexual harassment, circumstances and institutional settings under which it occurs, its effects on an organization, and steps an organization might take to keep sexual harassment out of the workplace. (35 citations) (MAB)
Jacobs, C D; Bergen, M R; Korn, D
To measure the effect of an intervention to reduce gender insensitivity and sexual harassment at one medical school. Stanford University School of Medicine undertook a multifaceted program to educate faculty and students regarding gender issues and to diminish sexual harassment. The authors developed a survey instrument to assess the faculty's perceptions regarding environment (five scales) and incidences of sexual harassment. Faculty were surveyed twice during the interventions (1994 and 1995). Between the two years, the authors measured significant improvements in mean ratings for positive climate (p = .004) and cohesion (p = .006) and decreases in the faculty's perceptions of sexual harassment (p = 0006), gender insensitivity (p = .001), and gender discrimination (p = .004). The faculty also reported fewer observations of harassing behavior during the study period. An intervention program to diminish gender insensitivity and sexual harassment can measurably improve a medical school's environment.
Licata, Betty Jo; Popovich, Paula M.
Presents a prototype training program using role theory as a framework for understanding sexual harassment in the workplace. Describes four phases of the program for employees, supervisors, and managers. (CH)
Gorman, Adam D; Abernethy, Bruce; Farrow, Damian
The present study compared traditional measures of pattern recall to measures of anticipatory recall and decision-making to examine the underlying mechanisms of expert pattern perception and to address methodological limitations in previous studies where anticipatory recall has generally been overlooked. Recall performance in expert and novice basketball players was measured by examining the spatial error in recalling player positions both for a target image (traditional recall) and at 40-ms increments following the target image (anticipatory recall). Decision-making performance was measured by comparing the participant's response to those identified by a panel of expert coaches. Anticipatory recall was observed in the recall task and was significantly more pronounced for the experts, suggesting that traditional methods of spatial recall analysis may not have provided a completely accurate determination of the full magnitude of the experts' superiority. Accounting for anticipatory recall also increased the relative contribution of recall skill to decision-making accuracy although the gains in explained variance were modest and of debatable functional significance.
Full Text Available The paper gives an overview of the most important EU acts that prohibit the sexual harassment in the workplace and recommend the protection mechanisms. The problem of sexual harassment has been perceived from the aspect of gender (inequality and discrimination while its solution is found in urgeing for consistent implementation of the principle of equal opportunity of women and men in the sphere of labor and employment. For the purpose of providing a comparative insight, it has been also given an overview of national legislative in this domain proceeding by conclusion that only few initial steps in creating the adequate mechanisms of protection from sexual harassment in the workplace have been made so far. .
OBJECTIVE: To determine the responses of female physicians who have been sexually harassed by patients, as a means of answering the question, "What is to be done?" DESIGN: As part of a larger study on the topic, randomly selected participants were mailed a questionnaire requesting information about the nature and extent of sexual harassment by patients and about resulting feelings, actions, and suggestions for prevention. SETTING: Family practices in Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: A random sample of the 1064 female certificants of the College of Family Physicians of Canada in active practice in Ontario during 1992 was selected. A total of 599 were surveyed; 422 (70%) replied. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Responses to survey questions. RESULTS: Of the 422 respondents, 76% reported sexual harassment by patients and their reactions to it. Though most respondents had many suggestions about how to minimize harassment, written comments suggested confusion as to its cause. Many participants wondered whether their behaviour, manner, or dress provoked unwanted responses. The ability to root the cause of the harassment externally as a social rather than a personal problem seemed to decrease immobilization. CONCLUSIONS: There is no single effective response to sexual harassment, but understanding its source as an abuse of the power of gender* (perhaps to overcome the powerlessness felt as a patient) could enable female physicians to act in protective and effective ways. PMID:8924816
Warren, M W
The dual-coding model (Paivio, 1971, 1975) predicts a larger imaginal component in the recall of pictures relative to words and a larger imaginal component in the recall of concrete words relative to abstract words. These predictions were tested by examining the effect of a recall-concurrent imagery-suppression task (pursuit-rotor tracking) on the recall of pictures vs picture labels and on the recall of concrete words vs abstract words. The results showed that recall-concurrent pursuit-rotor tracking interfered with picture recall, but not word recall (Experiments 1 and 2); however, there was no evidence of an effect of recall-concurrent tracking on the recall of concrete words (Experiment 3). The results suggested a revision of the dual-coding model.
Douglass, Caitlin H; Wright, Cassandra J C; Davis, Angela C; Lim, Megan S C
Background: Technology-facilitated sexual harassment is an emerging phenomenon. This study investigates correlates of sexual harassment among young Australians. Methods: Participants aged 15-29 were recruited for an online survey. Participants reported how often in the past year they experienced sexual harassment in person, via phone, social media and dating apps. Correlates of in-person and technology-facilitated sexual harassment were identified using logistic regression. Results: Of all participants (n=1272, 70% female), two-thirds reported sexual harassment in person, 34% through social media and 26% via phone. Of participants who used a dating app in the past year (n=535), 57% experienced sexual harassment. Sexual harassment in person was correlated with being female (aOR=9.2, CI=6.9-12.2), trans and gender diverse (aOR=2.6, CI=1.2-5.7) and being aged 20-24 years (aOR=1.5, CI=1.1-2.1). Heterosexual identity reduced the odds of sexual harassment in person (aOR=0.7, CI=0.5-0.9). Technology-facilitated sexual harassment was correlated with female (aOR=3.5, CI=2.6-4.6) and trans and gender diverse identities (aOR=3.0, CI=1.4-6.5). Older age [25-29 years (aOR=0.5, CI=0.4-0.8)] and heterosexual identity (aOR=0.7, CI=0.5-0.9) significantly reduced the odds of technology-facilitated sexual harassment. Conclusion: Young people identifying as female, trans and gender diverse and non-heterosexual are at risk of in-person and technology-facilitated sexual harassment. Service and technology providers, academics, and policy makers must respond with innovative strategies.
Hobson, Charles J.; Guziewicz, Jennifer
Reports on a survey concerning thirteen recommended sexual harassment preventive/protective practices at U.S. colleges and universities. A majority of responding institutions had formal sexual harassment policies, offered counseling to student victims, and investigated all complaints. Relatively fewer schools provided student access to faculty…
Mahlangu, Vimbi Petrus
This paper highlights legal understanding of quid pro quo sexual harassment in schools. Quid pro quo sexual harassment implies abuse of authority or position to gain something sexual. A duty of care rests on teachers, Schools Governing Bodies and the Department of Education to provide and maintain safe schools that are free from all forms of…
Gruber, James; Fineran, Susan
A comparison of the impact of bullying and sexual harassment on five school outcomes was conducted on a sample of high school students. Results revealed that sexual harassment was a stronger predictor than bullying of all school outcomes for both sexes, but especially for girls. This study suggests that sexual harassment, which activates sexist and heterosexist stereotypes, erodes school engagement, alienates students from teachers, and adversely affects academic achievement, to a greater degree than bullying does. © The Author(s) 2015.
Schneider, K T; Swan, S; Fitzgerald, L F
Previous evidence regarding the outcomes of sexual harassment in the workplace has come mainly from self-selected samples or analogue studies or those using inadequate measures. The sexual harassment experiences, coping responses, and job-related and psychological outcomes of 447 female private-sector employees and 300 female university employees were examined. Discriminant function analyses indicated that women who had not been harassed and women who had experienced low, moderate, and high frequencies of harassment could be distinguished on the basis of both job-related and psychological outcomes. These outcomes could not be attributed to negative affective disposition, attitudes toward harassment, or general job stress. Results suggest that relatively low-level but frequent types of sexual harassment can have significant negative consequences for working women.
Krings, Franciska; Facchin, Stephanie
This study demonstrated relations between men's perceptions of organizational justice and increased sexual harassment proclivities. Respondents reported higher likelihood to sexually harass under conditions of low interactional justice, suggesting that sexual harassment likelihood may increase as a response to perceived injustice. Moreover, the…
Darnell, Doyanne A.; Cook, Sarah L.
Street harassment, the act of sexual harassment by strangers in public, is a common experience shared by many women. This paper reports the first experimental evaluation of the impact of a popular documentary-style film, "War Zone," on men's attitudes toward street harassment and empathy for women who experience it. The sample was an ethnically…
Layman, Nancy S.
The purpose of this book is to familiarize middle and high school administrators, teachers, and students with the laws concerning sexual harassment and strategies for dealing with it. The book can also help educators avoid liability for sexual harassment. Part 1 defines sexual harassment and emphasizes that men and women may perceive the same…
van den Berg, Henk; Langeveld, Nelia E.
BACKGROUND: In childhood, cancer survivors fertility is a major point of concern. In boys, only semen analysis and impregnation confirm fertility. Since parents constitute a major source of information for children, we investigated recall and assumptions on their child's fertility. PROCEDURE: One
... promotion, training, salary increases, rewards, etc., are based on an employee's submission to or rejection... productivity is also engaging in sexual harassment. (d) It is the policy of the Relocation Commission that...
Yamagishi, Takashi; Sato, Takuya; Sato, Atsushi; Imamura, Toru
Our aim was to identify cognitive factors affecting free recall, cued recall, and recognition tasks in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). We recruited 349 consecutive AD patients who attended a memory clinic. Each patient was assessed using the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS) and the extended 3-word recall test. In this task, each patient was asked to freely recall 3 previously presented words. If patients could not recall 1 or more of the target words, the examiner cued their recall by providing the category of the target word and then provided a forced-choice recognition of the target word with 2 distracters. The patients were divided into groups according to the results of the free recall, cued recall, and recognition tasks. Multivariate logistic regression analysis for repeated measures was carried out to evaluate the net effects of cognitive factors on the free recall, cued recall, and recognition tasks after controlling for the effects of age and recent memory deficit. Performance on the ADAS Orientation task was found to be related to performance on the free and cued recall tasks, performance on the ADAS Following Commands task was found to be related to performance on the cued recall task, and performance on the ADAS Ideational Praxis task was found to be related to performance on the free recall, cued recall, and recognition tasks. The extended 3-word recall test reflects deficits in a wider range of memory and other cognitive processes, including memory retention after interference, divided attention, and executive functions, compared with word-list recall tasks. The characteristics of the extended 3-word recall test may be advantageous for evaluating patients' memory impairments in daily living.
L. Bütow-Dütoit; C. A. Eksteen; M. De Waal
This paper presents the legal framework within which sexual harassment of healthcare professionals, including physiotherapists, may be managed in their work environment in South Africa. According to both international and national legal principles, sexual harassment is considered a form of discrimination. There are various statutes in South Africa that may assist physiotherapists when they seek redress after being sexually harassed. These entail labour-related laws, laws aimed at removing all...
Houle, Jason N.; Staff, Jeremy; Mortimer, Jeylan T.; Uggen, Christopher; Blackstone, Amy
Sexual harassment has been theorized as a stressor with consequences for the physical and mental health of its targets. Though social scientists have documented a negative association between sexual harassment and mental health, few longitudinal studies have investigated the association between sexual harassment and depressive symptoms. Using longitudinal survey data from the Youth Development Study, combined with in-depth interviews, this article draws on Louise Fitzgerald’s theoretical fram...
of which are defined legally. The quid pro quo type is the easiest to identify and although frequencies are low, it is the most likely one to be...SEXISM, SEXUAL HARASSMENT AND SEXUAL ASSAULT: TOWARD CONCEPTUAL CLARITY Dr. Richard Harris Department of Social Work and Center for Policy...00-2007 to 00-00-2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sexism, Sexual Harassment and Sexual Assault: Toward Conceptual Clarity 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT
Lal Bahadur Kunwar
Full Text Available Sexual harassment is a challenging issue where women and men work together. It is being recognized as a violation of human rights and human dignity which undermines the equality of opportunity and treatment between men and women. So, this descriptive study was conducted in Dhangadhi Municipality Kailali District, Nepalto find out the experience of sexual harassment in female at working place. Only female respondents who were working in office were taken purposively from four sectors such as government sectors, Company, Government and Public School and NGOs/INGOs for the study by using pre-structured interview schedules. From each sectors 25% of the total female respondents which was 23 people were selected. Data were collected on the basis of first come first take method till the required number was achieved. The study was conducted among 92 respondents. It was observed that women workers were victimized by all form of sexual harassment such as verbal (56.3%, physical (16.9%, Written or Graphical(11.3%, gesture(8.5% and emotional(7.0% form of sexual harassment. Co-workers (52.1% are the major harassers to the women workers. Among 92 respondents, 71(77.2% respondents were facing sexual harassment at working place and major cause of sexual harassment was (36.9% power and position of male but they often ignore the incidence. Female workers are very much vulnerable to sexual harassment by their male co‐workers, immediate Supervisor and manager. It negatively impacts their performance in work, mental and physical health, their human right and dignity.
Shinsako, S A; Richman, J A; Rospenda, K M
This study examined the prevalence of sexual harassment and generalized workplace abuse, and their differential effects on drinking behaviors in medical residents and graduate students at an urban American university. While medical residents had greater odds of experiencing harassment and abuse in their training programs, it was found that in most cases their deleterious drinking behaviors decreased, whereas graduate student drinking behaviors increased as a consequence of these experiences. The drinking outcomes of men were more affected by harassment and abuse than those of women.
Grenfell-Essam, Rachel; Ward, Geoff; Tan, Lydia
In 2 experiments, participants were presented with lists of between 2 and 12 words for either immediate free recall (IFR) or immediate serial recall (ISR). Auditory recall advantages at the end of the list (modality effects) and visual recall advantages early in the list (inverse modality effects) were observed in both tasks and the extent and…
Ruth Corazón Llerena Benites
Full Text Available Objective: Determinate the perception and attitudes towards street sexual harassment among female students of the Human Medicine Faculty at San Martin de Porres University. Methods: Descriptive and transversal study in which the previously validated “Likert” questionnaires, “Scale of Acceptance of Modern Myths about Sexual Aggression” and “Street Harassment Scale” where applied in a virtual way to 227 female students from the 4th, 5th, 6th academic year of the Human Medicine Faculty at San Martin de Porres University. The analysis was made in the SPSS v22 program using descriptive statistics like media, mode, tables of frequency and percentage to determine the prevalence of street harassment and the level of acceptance of beliefs about sexual harassment. Results: We found that 91% of the participants considered that they had been (sexually harassed at least once in the last year. 48% of participants were absolutely disagree with the statements about the myths of sexual aggression. The th percentage of students that mentioned never have been harassed lowered for every year of study, from 13% in the 4 year th to 7.9% in the 6 year. Most of the students came from Central South Lima of which 88% were harassed at least once the past year. Approximately, about half of the participants, independent of the mean of transport they have used, said that they had been harassed once last year. The group of 22 years old was the most affected Conclusion: Even though the participants considered that the Street harassment only happened a few times the past year, we didn't underestimate the fact that for almost everyone this harassment had happened at least once. Also, the majority considered to be strongly disagree regarding the myths about sexual harassment. So, it appears that street harassment, despite acting as a social problem that affects the physical and mental well-being of the Young female community, hasn't been properly managed by the
During the last years, harassment experiences have more often than earlier been included in the framework of work stress, thereby being seen more as a result of how the work organisation function rather than being a result of poor characteristics among individuals. The aim of the present study was to examine the relation between sexual harassment, gender discrimination, bullying, conflicts and informal decision structures. The study took place at a large university in the northern part of Sweden, and data was collected by a questionnaire. Lack of equality and conflicts were significantly related to sexual harassment among women, but none of the studied factors to sexual harassment among men. Common among both women and men were that gender discrimination, bullying, conflicts, being negatively affected by informal decision structures, that women are given preferential treatment and lack of information were related to poor health. To summarise, the results in the present study support earlier studies in their conclusions that work organisation is closely related to the occurrence of harassment. This is especially important to point out when planning for interventions against for example sexual harassment, which very often focuses on the harassed individual, rather than the organisation.
Graham, Sandra; Juvonen, Jaana
Examined peer groups and school ethnic composition as risk factors for peer harassment during early adolescence. Peers nominated aggressive and harassed students and reported self-perceived loneliness, social anxiety, and global self-esteem. Found that deviations from normative perceptions of a person's peer group were particularly detrimental to…
Reinken, Michelle A.
Bound by federal and state laws, which protect individuals from sex discrimination, public higher education institutions must respond to the challenge of eliminating sexual harassment on campus. Statistics published by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission suggest that in spite of well-designed sexual harassment policies and action plans,…
Hershcovis, M. Sandy; Barling, Julian
In 2 studies, we investigated victim attributions (Study 1) and outcomes (Study 2) for workplace aggression and sexual harassment. Drawing on social categorization theory, we argue that victims of workplace aggression and sexual harassment may make different attributions about their mistreatment. In Study 1, we investigated victim attributions in…
van den Muijsenbergh, M E T C; Lagro-Janssen, A L M
To investigate the incidence, type and consequences of sexual harassment of medical students at the Radboud University in Nijmegen, the Netherlands, during their period of work placement, as well as the students' need for care thereafter. Questionnaire. During the period from 1 July to 31 December 2003, 5th and 6th year medical students were asked about their experiences with sexual harassment by means of a questionnaire. Sexual harassment was defined as unwelcome, sexually-coloured attention. Of the 183 questionnaires distributed, 113 (62%) were returned. 15 (20%) of the 75 female students and none of the 38 male students had experienced sexual harassment. The offenders included 9 patients and 6 doctors (54 men and 1 woman). In 7 of the 15 cases the harassment consisted of combinations of unwanted behaviour and unwanted sexually-coloured remarks. 9 of the 15 students had discussed their experiences with their peers, 7 with a supervisor and 3 with nobody. The most important reason to discuss it first in their peer group was that, despite the fact that the students were convinced that the offender's behaviour was unacceptable, they still doubted their own judgement. 5 students felt inhibited in their contacts with patients after the incident. 8 of the 15 offenders were not confronted with their behaviour. 6 of the 15 students were not satisfied with the way their case was handled. The problem of sexual harassment of medical students during their period of work placement should not be underestimated. It has a negative impact on the personal and professional conduct of future doctors. This subject should be part of the training of both medical students and their supervisors.
TANIGUCHI, Toshiyo; TAKAKI, Jiro; HIROKAWA, Kumi; FUJII, Yasuhito; HARANO, Kaori
The purpose of this prospective study was to investigate the effect of the patterning of workplace bullying and harassment over two time points (chronic, remission, onset, and never) on psychological and physical stress reactions. The subjects were 543 workers at welfare facilities for the elderly in Japan who completed a self-administered questionnaire at Time 1 (from August to September, 2009) and at Time 2 (from September to October, 2011). Workplace bullying and harassment were assessed using the Negative Acts Questionnaire (NAQ). Stress reactions were assessed using the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire. In the multiple logistic regression analyses, onset of person-related bullying was significantly (ppsychological and physical stress reactions at Time 2. Chronic form of person-related bullying was significantly (ppsychological stress reaction at Time 2. Onset of sexual harassment was significantly (psexual harassment was significantly (psexual harassment can cause stress reactions. Remission of sexual harassment can terminate physical stress reaction. PMID:26537998
Shannon, Candice A; Rospenda, Kathleen M; Richman, Judith A
This study constitutes the first national longitudinal survey to address the relationship between workplace harassment and service utilization. We examine how patterns of sexual harassment and generalized workplace harassment are linked to utilization of mental health, health, legal, spiritual, and work-related services, and whether and how gender influences these relationships. Data derive from a random digit dial telephone survey with a continental US sample of employed adults. Eligibility criteria were being 18 years of age or over, and being employed at least 20 h per week at some time in the 12 months prior to the wave 1 survey. Out of 4116 households with eligible individuals, 2151 agreed to participate at wave 1. At wave 2, 1418 participated, thus, the overall response rate was 34.5%. We show that the patterning of workplace harassment over two time points (chronic, remission, onset, never harassed) is associated with the use of different types of services. Gender partially moderated the relationship between workplace harassment and services.
Baker, Nancy V.
More than thirty years ago, an administrative assistant at Cornell University first challenged her university's indifference to her boss's sexually predatory behavior. While she did not prevail, her case sparked a movement. Litigation, news stories, and government guidelines defining sexual harassment followed. And universities responded: policies…
Otgaar, Henry; Scoboria, Alan; Smeets, Tom
We report on the 1st experimental elicitation of nonbelieved memories for childhood events in adults (Study 1) and children (Study 2) using a modified false memory implantation paradigm. Participants received true (trip to a theme park) and false (hot air balloon ride) narratives and recalled these events during 2 interviews. After debriefing, 13%…
Campbell, Cody; Kramer, Alaina; Woolman, Kendra; Staecker, Emma; Visker, Joseph; Cox, Carol
Administrators from three workplaces were interested in conducting evidence-based sexual harassment prevention training for their employees, but they could devote little time during the workday to the training. A pilot program to evaluate the use of a 1-hour workshop that followed best practice recommendations and adult learning principles using job-related scenarios was designed. Participants' overall sexual harassment prevention knowledge scores significantly increased from before to after the workshop and were significantly higher after the workshop than those of a control group. The majority of participants also perceived that their workplaces were committed to employees understanding the sexual harassment policy, and that the workplace would seriously investigate claims and take corrective action. Even a brief workshop covering essential content using adult learning principles can be effective in sexual harassment prevention knowledge acquisition. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.
Bell, Margret E; Turchik, Jessica A; Karpenko, Julie A
Research has shown that experiences ofmilitary sexual assault and harassment can have a negative impact on veterans' health and functioning, even years or decades later, thus clearly identifying this as an important area of concern for social workers. In addition to understanding the scope and general impact of military sexual assault and harassment, social workers also must thoroughly understand how different cultural factors may intersect with veterans' experiences. To this end, this article reviews the current knowledge base on how veterans' life experiences related to gender can affect their experience of and recovery from military sexual assault and harassment, highlights common gender-specific issues, and discusses implications for practice.
Bhatarah, Parveen; Ward, Geoff; Tan, Lydia
In two experiments, we examined the relationship between free recall and immediate serial recall (ISR), using a within-subjects (Experiment 1) and a between-subjects (Experiment 2) design. In both experiments, participants read aloud lists of eight words and were precued or postcued to respond using free recall or ISR. The serial position curves were U-shaped for free recall and showed extended primacy effects with little or no recency for ISR, and there was little or no difference between recall for the precued and the postcued conditions. Critically, analyses of the output order showed that although the participants started their recall from different list positions in the two tasks, the degree to which subsequent recall was serial in a forward order was strikingly similar. We argue that recalling in a serial forward order is a general characteristic of memory and that performance on ISR and free recall is underpinned by common memory mechanisms.
Marks, Saul; Mountjoy, Margo; Marcus, Madalyn
Sexual harassment and abuse occur in all sports and at all levels with an increased risk at the elite level. The physical and psychological consequences of sexual harassment and abuse are significant for the athlete, their team and for the health and integrity of sport in general. The sports medicine health professional has an integral role to play in the prevention of sexual harassment and abuse in sport. This paper provides sport healthcare professionals with a practical guide on prevention strategies and advice on the recognition and management of suspected abuse.
Isadora Gomes Mazucatto
Full Text Available The modernization of work relationships and the new demands of the market about the worker profile contributed for establishment of human relations from a utilitarian logic, which favors the competition and hostility, and allows the configuration of a scenario conducive to psychological violence situations at work, especially to moral harassment occurrence. Based on these premises, the paper analyzes the characteristics and reach of the moral harassment in the workplace to show that prevention through compliance programs is more effective to promote ergonomic ethics and, consequently, to mitigate moral harassment cases.
City Coll. of San Francisco, CA. Office of Institutional Research, Planning and Grants.
This document describes the findings of a 1997 sexual harassment student opinion survey conducted at City College of San Francisco. Survey questions were jointly developed by the Sexual Harassment Prevention Sub-Committee of the Diversity Advisory Committee and the Office of Research and Planning, approved by the College Advisory Council, and…
Webb, L. Dean; And Others
By their silence and failure to combat peer sexual harassment, schools are serving as training grounds for domestic violence. Schools must establish a districtwide program of student peer sexual harassment prevention and intervention comprised of a school policy, an environmental survey of the problem, a grievance procedure, a training component,…
Dougherty, Debbie S.
Contributes to scholarship on sexual harassment. Finds that men's "power over" standpoint and the related fear of marginalization clash with women's "power with" standpoint and the related fear of physical harm. Argues that managers and researchers need to understand both standpoints to better understand the dynamics of sexual harassment and how…
Mohamed, Ashgar Ali Ali
The vitality of school in proffering solutions to the societal challenges cannot be underrated. However, school as a hub and pivot place in addressing multifarious challenges in our society is faced with some social ills such as bullying and sexual harassment. More profusely, an escalation of sexual harassment in schools’ and on campuses cannot be denied. More copiously, of greater challenges in our contemporary period is inadequate and ineffective measure to curb prevalence of sexual harassm...
Gower, Amy L; McMorris, Barbara J; Eisenberg, Marla E
Bullying and prejudice-based harassment frequently occur in school settings and have significant consequences for the health and wellbeing of young people. Yet far fewer studies have examined the role of the school environment in peer harassment than individual factors. This multilevel study examined associations between a variety of school-level risk and protective factors and student-level reports of bullying and prejudice-based harassment during adolescence. Data come from 8th, 9th, and 11th graders who completed the 2013 Minnesota Student Survey (N = 122,180 students nested in 505 schools). School-level variables were created by aggregating student report data in five areas: academic orientation to school, internal assets, teacher-student relationship quality, feelings of safety at school, and receipt of disciplinary action. Results indicated that youth attending schools with a higher proportion of students with strong internal assets had lower odds of nearly every type of bullying and prejudice-based harassment assessed when compared to youth attending schools with a lower proportion of students with strong internal assets. Additionally, the proportion of students feeling unsafe at school was a fairly consistent risk factor for most types of peer harassment. Findings support the idea that prevention programs aimed at improving school-wide internal assets and feelings of safety at school may be key prevention points. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Paola A Campos
Full Text Available Objective. To document the frequency and forms of street harassment and examine the association between street harassment experiences and perceptions of social cohesion. Materials and methods. Baseline survey data collected among women seeking care in public health clinics in Mexico City were used for analysis. Results. Nearly two-thirds (62.8% of women reported experiencing some form of street harassment in the prior month; women with street harassment experiences reported significantly lower perceived social cohesion (b=-0.46; 95%CI:0.69,-0.22. Conclusions. Findings indicate reducing street harassment may have important implications for improving women’s perceived social cohesion and their safety in Mexico City.
Tully, Carol A.
Early studies on the prevalence of peer sexual harassment in schools have left little doubt that it is a serious problem, often with negative consequences. Research indicates that sexual harassment is a subjective and gendered phenomenon, and peer sexual harassment is further complicated by the developmental changes associated with adolescence.…
Hibino, Yuri; Hitomi, Yoshiaki; Kambayashi, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Hiroyuki
To identify factors affecting nurse-perceived sexual harassment and specific types of patient sexual behavior experienced by Japanese nurses. Cross-sectional questionnaire study of Japanese hospital nurses. Self-administered questionnaires (N=600) were distributed to Japanese hospital nurses, and 464 were returned (response rate of 77.3%). Two instruments were used: one was for determining sexual harassment by patients, and the other was for determining specific types of patient behavior that had sexual connotations. Registered nurses were at a much higher risk of sexual harassment than were nurse assistants. In addition, registered nurses had a much more positive attitude toward gender equality compared with assistant nurses. A positive attitude toward gender equality mediated by a relatively high education level might be associated with increasing reports of sexual harassment. An increasing incidence of sexual harassment claims among nurses should prompt hospital organizations to take proper action against it. Education on gender equality was thus considered a long-term solution for reducing the sexual harassment of Japanese hospital nurses. Establishing a safer working environment could enable nurses to provide better care for patients and thereby promote the development of good relationships between nurses and patients.
Rinehart, Sarah J; Espelage, Dorothy L; Bub, Kristen L
Gendered harassment, including sexual harassment and homophobic name-calling, is prevalent in adolescents and is linked to negative outcomes including depression, anxiety, suicidality, substance abuse, and personal distress. However, much of the extant literature is cross-sectional and rarely are perpetrators of these behaviors included in studies of outcomes. Therefore, the current study examined the effects of longitudinal changes in gendered harassment perpetration and victimization on changes in mental health outcomes among a large sample of early adolescents. Given that these behaviors commonly occur in the context of a patriarchal society (males hold power), we also investigated the impact of gender on gendered harassment. Participants included 3,549 students from four Midwestern middle schools (50.4% female, 49% African American, 34% White) at two time points (13 and 17 years old). Results indicated that increases from age 13 to 17 years in sexual harassment perpetration and victimization and homophobic name-calling perpetration and victimization predicted increases in depression symptoms and substance use. Gender did not moderate these pathways. These findings highlight that negative outcomes are associated with changes in gendered harassment among adolescents and emphasize the importance of prevention efforts. Implications for school interventions are discussed.
Godier, Lauren; Fossey, Matt
Despite media interest in alleged sexual violence and harassment in the UK military, there remains a paucity of UK-based peer-reviewed research in this area. Ministry of Defence and service-specific reports support the suggestion that UK service personnel may be at risk of experiencing sexual harassment. These reports however highlight a reluctance by service personnel to report sexual harassment through official channels. In this article, we discuss the paucity of UK-based research pertainin...
Thomas C. Head; Peter F. Sorensen, Jr.; Laura B. Pincus
A major difficulty in controlling sexual harassment is that it is actually a perceptual phenomenon. A survey was created to determine what effects a perpetratorÕs gender and management status and evaluatorÕs education have on whether fifteen behaviors are perceived as sexual harassment. Responses indicated a strong negative bias towards male superiors, while a positive bias appeared for female peers. Graduate degree subjects perceived more of the behaviors as harassing, but were much less bia...
... Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION GUIDELINES ON DISCRIMINATION BECAUSE... to Guidelines on Discrimination Because of Sex, § 1604.11(a) n. 1, 45 FR 7476 sy 74677 (November 10... for acts of harassment in the workplace on the basis of national origin, where the employer, its...
Topsfield Foundation, Pomfret, CT. Study Circles Resource Center.
This discussion guide offers suggestions for conversations about sexual harassment. Its purpose is to help readers use dialogue to understand the legal definition of sexual harassment and to clarify and develop their own and others' definitions of acceptable behavior between men and women in the workplace, on campus, or wherever people gather. An…
Chan, Darius K. S.; Tang, Catherine So-Kum; Chan, Wai
Investigated the impact of sexual harassment on women in the workplace and college in Hong Kong. Questionnaires assessed sexual harassment experiences, perceived prevalence of sexual harassment at work, job or study satisfaction, and organizational commitment. Personal experience with sexual harassment negatively associated with job and study…
Claybourn, Marvin; Spinner, Barry; Malcom, Kathryn
Public awareness of the occurrence and effects of workplace harassment continues to grow. However, despite increasing awareness, ambiguity remains about how harassment is defined and, consequently, how to determine whether a questionable situation should be judged as harassment. For this research we reviewed definitions of workplace harassment and identified four elements that were frequently included as criteria for making judgments of whether harassment had occurred (i.e., repetition, intent, perceived intent, consequences). In two separate studies, fictional scenarios were used to evaluate the extent to which participants' judgments about harassment were affected by the presence or absence of the four elements. Ratings of the scenarios provided by student participants (study one; N=160) and a convenience sample of community participants (study two; N=292) with varying levels of work experience and diverse professional backgrounds were analysed. According to our results the four elements significantly influenced participants' judgments of harassment. The intent of the harasser had the strongest and most consistent effect on harassment judgements and whether the behaviour was repeated had the weakest and least consistent effect. In addition to the unique effects of the individual elements, significant interactions between the elements emerged and suggest that harassment judgements depend on the interplay of a variety of factors. Though the results of these studies add to the growing body of research that focuses on defining workplace harassment, they also highlight the need for additional research in the area. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
US Consumer Product Safety Commission — CPSC provides accessibility to recalls via a recall database. The information is publicly available to consumers and businesses as well as software and application...
Wear, Delese; Aultman, Julie M; Borges, Nicole J
The literature consistently reports that sexual harassment occurs with regularity in medical education, mostly in clinical settings, and most of it goes unreported. Reasons for nonreporting include the fear of retaliation, a reluctance to be viewed as a victim, a fear that one is being "too sensitive," and the belief that nothing will be done. We wanted to examine with greater concentration the stories women students tell about sexual harassment, including what they count as sexual harassment, for more or different clues to their persistent nonreporting. We used focus groups to interview 30 women students at 5 U.S. medical schools. We used systematic inductive guidelines to analyze the transcribed data, linking to and building new theoretical frameworks to provide an interpretive understanding of the lived experiences of the women in our study. Consistent with previous literature, most of the students interviewed had either witnessed or observed sexual harassment. We selected 2 theoretical lenses heretofore not used to explain responses to sexual harassment: 3rd-wave feminist theory to think about how current women students conceive sexual harassment and personality theory to explain beliefs about nonreporting. Medical educators need new ways to understand how contemporary women students define and respond to sexual harassment.
Shaw, Brian C.; Hyde, W. Brent
During its 1997-98 term, the U.S. Supreme Court decided four major sexual harassment cases. This article summarizes those cases' impact on the analytical framework governing school boards' liability of sexual harassment. The text opens with the issue of sexual harassment of employees by supervisors and two cases that established new standards…
Vimbi Petrus Mahlangu
Full Text Available Paper highlights legal understanding of quid pro quo sexual harassment in schools. Quid pro quo sexual harassment implies abuse of authority or position to gain something sexual. A duty of care rests on teachers, Schools Governing Bodies and the Department of Education to provide and maintain safe schools that are free from all forms of victimisation and abuse. However, there seems to be an abuse of power by all those who are supposedly to protect learners in schools. Paper used an abuse of organisational power theory and conceptualisation framework as a lens used in analysing various forms of victimisation and abuse with an effort to provide a better understanding of behaviour that amounts to abuse. Paper concludes with guidelines for handling harassment and bullying in the school contexts.
Quick, James Campbell; McFadyen, M Ann
Sexual harassment (SH) is a continuing, chronic occupational health problem in organizations and work environments. First addressed in the Journal of Occupational Health Psychology through a 1998 Special Section on Sexual Harassment, we return to this consequential issue. If the goal is to reduce SH in organizations, and we believe that it should be, then a key question is whether we have made progress in 2 decades. The answer is mixed. Yes, there is a 28% decline in SH complaints. No, there is an increase in complaints by males. No, there has been an increase in the percentage of merit resolutions and monetary benefits. Maybe, because how do we explain the complexity of SH with emergent gay, lesbian, and transgender workforce members. One persistent problematic aspect of SH lack of agreement on definition. We address 2 of the 3 definitional approaches. We consider the broad, negative consequences for organizations and for individual victims. Harassers and aggressors destroy lives, leaving long legacies of suffering. In addition, we offer some suggestions for moving forward in science and practice, with emphasis on the role of the bystander. We conclude that SH is a preventable, if not always predictable, occupational health problem. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Wolff, Jennifer M.; Rospenda, Kathleen M.; Colaneri, Anthony S.
Sexual harassment on college campuses is a frequent occurrence and serious public health concern. Victims of sexual harassment are at risk for many possible negative health consequences. In addition, certain psychological distress symptoms and/or alcohol use may put individuals at increased risk of being victims of sexual harassment. Data from over 2,000 college students in the Midwestern United States were used to examine reciprocal causal effects of the relations between (1) experiencing sexual harassment and alcohol use and (2) experiencing sexual harassment and psychological distress symptoms, specifically depression and anger/hostility. Analyses were conducted separately for sexual harassment that occurs at school and that occurs in college students’ workplaces and also separately for men and women. Results of cross-lagged panel models showed that there were reciprocal causal effects between sexual harassment and alcohol problems, depression, and anger. Discussion focuses on the overall patterns of results as well as the nuances within these findings. PMID:26983588
Wolff, Jennifer M; Rospenda, Kathleen M; Colaneri, Anthony S
Sexual harassment on college campuses is a frequent occurrence and serious public health concern. Victims of sexual harassment are at risk for many possible negative health consequences. In addition, certain psychological distress symptoms and/or alcohol use may put individuals at increased risk of being victims of sexual harassment. Data from more than 2,000 college students in the Midwestern United States were used to examine reciprocal causal effects of the relations between (a) experiencing sexual harassment and alcohol use and (b) experiencing sexual harassment and psychological distress symptoms, specifically depression and anger/hostility. Analyses were conducted separately for sexual harassment which occurs at school and which occurs in college students' workplaces, and also separately for men and women. Results of cross-lagged panel models showed that there were reciprocal causal effects between sexual harassment and alcohol problems, depression, and anger. Discussion focuses on the overall patterns of results as well as the nuances within these findings.
Nishina, Adrienne; Juvonen, Jaana
Two studies examined daily incidents of peer harassment in urban middle schools. Sixth-grade students (M age=11 years) described their daily personal experiences and witnessed accounts of peer harassment, and rated their negative feelings across a 2-week period. In Study 1 (n=95), within-subject analyses across 4 days revealed that both personally…
Full Text Available In this paper we consider the complexities associated with the internal workplace disclosure of sexual harassment for rural employees. We acknowledge the existence of certain accompanying ‘special issues’ for rural women and predict that these elements (such as the traditionally conservative bush attitudes about violence against women, the added cultural dimensions of small-town gossip and self-reliance and the impact of isolation would have some impact on the inclination of rural women to report workplace sexual harassment. To test that hypothesis, a sample of female employees and a sample of employers from different areas considered as ‘rural’ were interviewed. In defining ‘rural’ for this purpose we adopted a social constructionist approach. We report on participants’ experiences and attitudes about making an internal sexual harassment complaint. We discuss the barriers to disclosure that respondents perceive. We identify the types of rural workplaces (occupation, rurality, gender ratios which tend to utilise sexual harassment policies and offer training, and we consider the impact of these on the likelihood of reporting. We also investigate whether other variables, such as the type of harassment experienced, employees’ attitude about what constitutes sexual harassment and reporting, age, seniority and/or education affect reporting. We conclude that disclosure practices could be improved by the implementation of visiting sexual harassment consultants/officers who would visit rural communities to educate, hear complaints, help with the development of policies, provide advice referral to counseling mediation and provide follow up.
Shrier, Diane K; Zucker, Alyssa N; Mercurio, Andrea E; Landry, Laura J; Rich, Michael; Shrier, Lydia A
To examine bias and sexual harassment experiences of physician mothers and their physician daughters; correlations of these experiences with career satisfaction, stress at work, stress at home, and percentage of women in specialty; and influences of the mother on her daughter's experiences. A convenience sample of 214 families with mother and daughter physicians was sent a 56-item survey that included questions on bias and sexual harassment experiences. Statistical comparisons were made within 136 dyads where both mother and daughter returned the questionnaire. Eighty-four percent of mothers and 87% of daughters responded. Mothers and daughters reported similarly high rates and severity of sexual harassment before medical school, while in residency/fellowship, while in practice/work setting, and by teachers and supervisors. Daughters reported higher rates of harassment during medical school and by patients, mothers by colleagues. Gender and racial/ethnic discrimination was lower for daughters compared with their mothers, but gender discrimination was still substantial. Compared with other daughters, daughters who experienced discrimination or sexual harassment reported lower career satisfaction and more stress at work and at home and worked in specialties with fewer women. Gender discrimination and sexual harassment remain entrenched in medical education and professional workplaces. Maternal role models and mentors were not as protective as anticipated. Leadership of medical institutions and professional associations must deal more effectively with persistent discrimination and harassment or risk the loss of future leaders.
Clancy, Kathryn B. H.; Nelson, Robin G.; Rutherford, Julienne N.; Hinde, Katie
Little is known about the climate of the scientific fieldwork setting as it relates to gendered experiences, sexual harassment, and sexual assault. We conducted an internet-based survey of field scientists (N = 666) to characterize these experiences. Codes of conduct and sexual harassment policies were not regularly encountered by respondents, while harassment and assault were commonly experienced by respondents during trainee career stages. Women trainees were the primary targets; their perpetrators were predominantly senior to them professionally within the research team. Male trainees were more often targeted by their peers at the research site. Few respondents were aware of mechanisms to report incidents; most who did report were unsatisfied with the outcome. These findings suggest that policies emphasizing safety, inclusivity, and collegiality have the potential to improve field experiences of a diversity of researchers, especially during early career stages. These include better awareness of mechanisms for direct and oblique reporting of harassment and assault and, the implementation of productive response mechanisms when such behaviors are reported. Principal investigators are particularly well positioned to influence workplace culture at their field sites. PMID:25028932
Wear, Delese; Aultman, Julie
Sexual harassment occurs with regularity during medical training, and it remains largely unreported. This study is one institution's attempt to understand how third and fourth-year medical students perceive and experience sexual harassment, what they believe about reporting sexual harassment, and how they believe it might be eradicated from the educational environment. We used a qualitative research method for our investigation, which would generate more specific language to use in a larger empirical study involving larger numbers of our students. We conducted five focus groups with 24 students, which yielded five categories of response obtained through a close, line-byline reading of transcribed audiotapes. In addition, we offer four recommendations to medical education researchers, deans of medical schools, and medical school accrediting bodies that may reduce the incidence of sexual harassment of medical students. While we do not make the case that the observations, explanations, and recommendations of these 24 students reflect the opinions of all medical students here or elsewhere, we do propose that they are a snapshot of one medical school's gender climate and offer a valuable foundation for further inquiry.
Kathryn B H Clancy
Full Text Available Little is known about the climate of the scientific fieldwork setting as it relates to gendered experiences, sexual harassment, and sexual assault. We conducted an internet-based survey of field scientists (N = 666 to characterize these experiences. Codes of conduct and sexual harassment policies were not regularly encountered by respondents, while harassment and assault were commonly experienced by respondents during trainee career stages. Women trainees were the primary targets; their perpetrators were predominantly senior to them professionally within the research team. Male trainees were more often targeted by their peers at the research site. Few respondents were aware of mechanisms to report incidents; most who did report were unsatisfied with the outcome. These findings suggest that policies emphasizing safety, inclusivity, and collegiality have the potential to improve field experiences of a diversity of researchers, especially during early career stages. These include better awareness of mechanisms for direct and oblique reporting of harassment and assault and, the implementation of productive response mechanisms when such behaviors are reported. Principal investigators are particularly well positioned to influence workplace culture at their field sites.
Clancy, Kathryn B H; Nelson, Robin G; Rutherford, Julienne N; Hinde, Katie
Little is known about the climate of the scientific fieldwork setting as it relates to gendered experiences, sexual harassment, and sexual assault. We conducted an internet-based survey of field scientists (N = 666) to characterize these experiences. Codes of conduct and sexual harassment policies were not regularly encountered by respondents, while harassment and assault were commonly experienced by respondents during trainee career stages. Women trainees were the primary targets; their perpetrators were predominantly senior to them professionally within the research team. Male trainees were more often targeted by their peers at the research site. Few respondents were aware of mechanisms to report incidents; most who did report were unsatisfied with the outcome. These findings suggest that policies emphasizing safety, inclusivity, and collegiality have the potential to improve field experiences of a diversity of researchers, especially during early career stages. These include better awareness of mechanisms for direct and oblique reporting of harassment and assault and, the implementation of productive response mechanisms when such behaviors are reported. Principal investigators are particularly well positioned to influence workplace culture at their field sites.
Puech, Paloma; Pitcho, Benjamin
The French Labour Code, which provides full protection against moral and sexual harassment, is not applicable to public sector workers. The public hospital is however not exempt from such behaviour, which could go unpunished. Public sector workers are therefore protected by the French General Civil Service Regulations and the penal code.
Rogers, Frances E.
No school board member, administrator, or teacher wants to see a student suffering from taunts of the student's peers, but with budget cutbacks, reductions in force, and increased class size, teachers and administrators are stretched too thin to easily identify, investigate, and remedy student-on-student harassment. But school districts must…
St Clair-Thompson, Helen L; Allen, Richard J
There is some debate surrounding the cognitive resources underlying backward digit recall. Some researchers consider it to differ from forward digit recall due to the involvement of executive control, while others suggest that backward recall involves visuospatial resources. Five experiments therefore investigated the role of executive-attentional and visuospatial resources in both forward and backward digit recall. In the first, participants completed visuospatial 0-back and 2-back tasks during the encoding of information to be remembered. The concurrent tasks did not differentially disrupt performance on backward digit recall, relative to forward digit recall. Experiment 2 shifted concurrent load to the recall phase instead and, in this case, revealed a larger effect of both tasks on backward recall, relative to forwards recall, suggesting that backward recall may draw on additional resources during the recall phase and that these resources are visuospatial in nature. Experiments 3 and 4 then further investigated the role of visual processes in forward and backward recall using dynamic visual noise (DVN). In Experiment 3, DVN was presented during encoding of information to be remembered and had no effect upon performance. However, in Experiment 4, it was presented during the recall phase, and the results provided evidence of a role for visual imagery in backward digit recall. These results were replicated in Experiment 5, in which the same list length was used for forward and backward recall tasks. The findings are discussed in terms of both theoretical and practical implications.
General Services Administration — This Recalls API allows you to tap into a list of (1) drug and food safety recalls from the Food and Drug Administration, Food Safety and Inspection Service, and...
Barling, J; Rogers, A G; Kelloway, E K
The authors developed and tested a structural model predicting personal and organizational consequences of workplace violence and sexual harassment for health care professionals who work inside their client's home. The model suggests that workplace violence and sexual harassment predict fear of their recurrence in the workplace, which in turn predicts negative mood (anxiety and anger) and perceptions of injustice. In turn, fear, negative mood, and perceived injustice predict lower affective commitment and enhanced withdrawal intentions, poor interpersonal job performance, greater neglect, and cognitive difficulties. The results supported the model and showed that the associations of workplace violence and sexual harassment with organizational and personal outcomes are indirect, mediated by fear and negative mood. Conceptual implications for understanding sexual harassment and workplace violence, and future research directions, are suggested.
Godier, Lauren R; Fossey, M
Despite media interest in alleged sexual violence and harassment in the UK military, there remains a paucity of UK-based peer-reviewed research in this area. Ministry of Defence and service-specific reports support the suggestion that UK service personnel may be at risk of experiencing sexual harassment. These reports however highlight a reluctance by service personnel to report sexual harassment through official channels. In this article, we discuss the paucity of UK-based research pertaining to the prevalence and impact of sexual harassment in the military, explore potential reasons for this gap in knowledge and outline future directions and priorities for academic research. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
HarassMap et Uber Égypte nouent un partenariat pour sensibiliser la population à la question du harcèlement sexuel. 11 décembre 2017. CRDI. L'organisation HarassMap, soutenue par le CRDI, a une fois de plus incité à apporter des changements progressifs dans le domaine de la lutte contre le harcèlement sexuel.
Full Text Available Background/Aims: Our aim was to identify cognitive factors affecting free recall, cued recall, and recognition tasks in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Subjects: We recruited 349 consecutive AD patients who attended a memory clinic. Methods: Each patient was assessed using the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS and the extended 3-word recall test. In this task, each patient was asked to freely recall 3 previously presented words. If patients could not recall 1 or more of the target words, the examiner cued their recall by providing the category of the target word and then provided a forced-choice recognition of the target word with 2 distracters. The patients were divided into groups according to the results of the free recall, cued recall, and recognition tasks. Multivariate logistic regression analysis for repeated measures was carried out to evaluate the net effects of cognitive factors on the free recall, cued recall, and recognition tasks after controlling for the effects of age and recent memory deficit. Results: Performance on the ADAS Orientation task was found to be related to performance on the free and cued recall tasks, performance on the ADAS Following Commands task was found to be related to performance on the cued recall task, and performance on the ADAS Ideational Praxis task was found to be related to performance on the free recall, cued recall, and recognition tasks. Conclusion: The extended 3-word recall test reflects deficits in a wider range of memory and other cognitive processes, including memory retention after interference, divided attention, and executive functions, compared with word-list recall tasks. The characteristics of the extended 3-word recall test may be advantageous for evaluating patients’ memory impairments in daily living.
Hillard, Pamela; Love, Lisa; Franks, Heather M; Laris, B A; Coyle, Karin K
Seattle Public Schools has implemented policies and programs to increase safety, family involvement, and student achievement for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) youth. This case study examines students' perceptions of bullying and harassment in the school environment, and teacher intervention when these problems arise in the presence of strong district policies and programs aimed at reducing LGBTQ bullying and harassment in schools. We surveyed students in Gay-Straight Alliance (GSA) groups at 13 secondary schools (N = 107). We also conducted focus groups with GSA students and students not involved in the GSAs in 7 of 13 schools (N = 16 groups, including 154 students). GSA students who were lesbian, gay, bisexual, or questioning (LGBQ) were significantly more likely than straight students to experience several types of harassment. On the basis of student report, the 2 most common intervention strategies by teachers for verbal harassment included stopping the harassment and explaining why it is wrong; teachers intervened in physical harassment by trying to stop the harassment. Students provided input on how to strengthen teacher interventions, including the need for more consistency in responding and following up. Students also noted a need for more focus on educating those who harass, rather than just asking them to stop. Seattle Public Schools has made great strides in creating safe and welcoming schools for LGBTQ students, but still have to work further toward reaching this goal. Data from students on how they experience their school environment can help identify areas for improvement. © 2013, American School Health Association.
Woodberry, Kristen A; Serur, Rachael A; Hallinan, Sean B; Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle I; Giuliano, Anthony J; Wojcik, Joanne D; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Frazier, Jean A; Goldstein, Jill M; Shenton, Martha E; McCarley, Robert W; Seidman, Larry J
Psychosis prevention and early intervention efforts in schizophrenia have focused increasingly on sub-threshold psychotic symptoms in adolescents and young adults. Although many youth report symptom onset prior to adolescence, the childhood incidence of prodromal-level symptoms in those with schizophrenia or related psychoses is largely unknown. This study reports on the retrospective recall of prodromal-level symptoms from 40 participants in a first-episode of schizophrenia (FES) and 40 participants at "clinical high risk" (CHR) for psychosis. Onset of positive and non-specific symptoms was captured using the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes. Frequencies are reported according to onset during childhood (prior to age 13), adolescence (13-17), or adulthood (18+). Childhood-onset of attenuated psychotic symptoms was not rare. At least 11% of FES and 23% of CHR reported specific recall of childhood-onset of unusual or delusional ideas, suspiciousness, or perceptual abnormalities. Most recalled experiencing non-specific symptoms prior to positive symptoms. CHR and FES did not differ significantly in the timing of positive and non-specific symptom onset. Other than being younger at assessment, those with childhood onset did not differ demographically from those with later onset. Childhood-onset of initial psychotic-like symptoms may be more common than previous research has suggested. Improved characterization of these symptoms and a focus on their predictive value for subsequent schizophrenia and other major psychoses are needed to facilitate screening of children presenting with attenuated psychotic symptoms. Accurate detection of prodromal symptoms in children might facilitate even earlier intervention and the potential to alter pre-illness trajectories. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
sexual harassment in 2012 (Defense Manpower Data Center, 2012). More recently , the 2014 RAND Military Workplace Study found that approximately...Journal of Women’s Studies , 8, 388-397. Campbell, R. (2008). The psychological impact of rape victims’ experiences with the legal, medical, and...and alcohol related outcomes: The mediating role of psychological distress. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 63, 412-419. Rosen, L. N
Van de Vliert, Evert; Einarsen, Stale; Nielsen, Morten Birkeland
Conflict in a workgroup turns into harassment if a group member is persistently confronted with negative acts with few possibilities to retaliate. Cross-national differences in such intragroup harassment are considerable but wait to be understood. In this study, survey data from 44,836 employees in
Full Text Available This paper presents the legal framework within which sexual harassment of healthcare professionals, including physiotherapists, may be managed in their work environment in South Africa. According to both international and national legal principles, sexual harassment is considered a form of discrimination. There are various statutes in South Africa that may assist physiotherapists when they seek redress after being sexually harassed. These entail labour-related laws, laws aimed at removing all forms of discrimination, as well as the criminal and civil pathways of seeking justice.