WorldWideScience

Sample records for reasons critical evaluation

  1. Clinical reasoning and critical thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Bastos Cerullo, Josinete Aparecida; de Almeida Lopes Monteiro da Cruz, Diná

    2010-01-01

    This study identifies and analyzes nursing literature on clinical reasoning and critical thinking. A bibliographical search was performed in LILACS, SCIELO, PUBMED and CINAHL databases, followed by selection of abstracts and the reading of full texts. Through the review we verified that clinical reasoning develops from scientific and professional knowledge, is permeated by ethical decisions and nurses values and also that there are different personal and institutional strategies that might improve the critical thinking and clinical reasoning of nurses. Further research and evaluation of educational programs on clinical reasoning that integrate psychosocial responses to physiological responses of people cared by nurses is needed.

  2. Helping Students to Recognize and Evaluate an Assumption in Quantitative Reasoning: A Basic Critical-Thinking Activity with Marbles and Electronic Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slisko, Josip; Cruz, Adrian Corona

    2013-01-01

    There is a general agreement that critical thinking is an important element of 21st century skills. Although critical thinking is a very complex and controversial conception, many would accept that recognition and evaluation of assumptions is a basic critical-thinking process. When students use simple mathematical model to reason quantitatively…

  3. Optimizing Reasonableness, Critical Thinking, and Cyberspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikuenobe, Polycarp

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the author argues that the quantity, superabundance of information, easy availability, and quick access to information in cyberspace may engender critical thinking and the optimization of reasonableness. This point is different from, but presupposes, the commonplace view that critical thinking abilities, criteria, processes, and…

  4. Critical Thinking, Autonomy and Practical Reason

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuypers, Stefaan E.

    2004-01-01

    This article points out an internal tension, or even conflict, in the conceptual foundations of Harvey Siegel's conception of critical thinking. Siegel justifies critical thinking, or critically rational autonomy, as an educational ideal first and foremost by an appeal to the Kantian principle of respect for persons. It is made explicit that this…

  5. Time-Critical Reasoning: Representations and Application

    OpenAIRE

    Horvitz, Eric J.; Seiver, Adam

    2013-01-01

    We review the problem of time-critical action and discuss a reformulation that shifts knowledge acquisition from the assessment of complex temporal probabilistic dependencies to the direct assessment of time-dependent utilities over key outcomes of interest. We dwell on a class of decision problems characterized by the centrality of diagnosing and reacting in a timely manner to pathological processes. We motivate key ideas in the context of trauma-care triage and transportation decisions.

  6. Critical thinking versus clinical reasoning versus clinical judgment: differential diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor-Chmil, Joyce

    2013-01-01

    Concepts of critical thinking, clinical reasoning, and clinical judgment are often used interchangeably. However, they are not one and the same, and understanding subtle difference among them is important. Following a review of the literature for definitions and uses of the terms, the author provides a summary focused on similarities and differences in the processes of critical thinking, clinical reasoning, and clinical judgment and notes suggested methods of measuring each.

  7. Practical theology: A critically engaged practical reason approach of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article seeks to present a critically engaged practical reasoning approach in which theory and practice have an in-ter-dependent relationship. Practical reason is an activity in which engagement happens at every stage. For this to happen, theory and practice interact as equal variables that have a bearing on each other ...

  8. Fostering critical thinking, reasoning, and argumentation skills through bioethics education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowning, Jeanne Ting; Griswold, Joan Carlton; Kovarik, Dina N; Collins, Laura J

    2012-01-01

    Developing a position on a socio-scientific issue and defending it using a well-reasoned justification involves complex cognitive skills that are challenging to both teach and assess. Our work centers on instructional strategies for fostering critical thinking skills in high school students using bioethical case studies, decision-making frameworks, and structured analysis tools to scaffold student argumentation. In this study, we examined the effects of our teacher professional development and curricular materials on the ability of high school students to analyze a bioethical case study and develop a strong position. We focused on student ability to identify an ethical question, consider stakeholders and their values, incorporate relevant scientific facts and content, address ethical principles, and consider the strengths and weaknesses of alternate solutions. 431 students and 12 teachers participated in a research study using teacher cohorts for comparison purposes. The first cohort received professional development and used the curriculum with their students; the second did not receive professional development until after their participation in the study and did not use the curriculum. In order to assess the acquisition of higher-order justification skills, students were asked to analyze a case study and develop a well-reasoned written position. We evaluated statements using a scoring rubric and found highly significant differences (p<0.001) between students exposed to the curriculum strategies and those who were not. Students also showed highly significant gains (p<0.001) in self-reported interest in science content, ability to analyze socio-scientific issues, awareness of ethical issues, ability to listen to and discuss viewpoints different from their own, and understanding of the relationship between science and society. Our results demonstrate that incorporating ethical dilemmas into the classroom is one strategy for increasing student motivation and

  9. Fostering Critical Thinking, Reasoning, and Argumentation Skills through Bioethics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowning, Jeanne Ting; Griswold, Joan Carlton; Kovarik, Dina N.; Collins, Laura J.

    2012-01-01

    Developing a position on a socio-scientific issue and defending it using a well-reasoned justification involves complex cognitive skills that are challenging to both teach and assess. Our work centers on instructional strategies for fostering critical thinking skills in high school students using bioethical case studies, decision-making frameworks, and structured analysis tools to scaffold student argumentation. In this study, we examined the effects of our teacher professional development and curricular materials on the ability of high school students to analyze a bioethical case study and develop a strong position. We focused on student ability to identify an ethical question, consider stakeholders and their values, incorporate relevant scientific facts and content, address ethical principles, and consider the strengths and weaknesses of alternate solutions. 431 students and 12 teachers participated in a research study using teacher cohorts for comparison purposes. The first cohort received professional development and used the curriculum with their students; the second did not receive professional development until after their participation in the study and did not use the curriculum. In order to assess the acquisition of higher-order justification skills, students were asked to analyze a case study and develop a well-reasoned written position. We evaluated statements using a scoring rubric and found highly significant differences (p<0.001) between students exposed to the curriculum strategies and those who were not. Students also showed highly significant gains (p<0.001) in self-reported interest in science content, ability to analyze socio-scientific issues, awareness of ethical issues, ability to listen to and discuss viewpoints different from their own, and understanding of the relationship between science and society. Our results demonstrate that incorporating ethical dilemmas into the classroom is one strategy for increasing student motivation and

  10. Fostering critical thinking, reasoning, and argumentation skills through bioethics education.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne Ting Chowning

    Full Text Available Developing a position on a socio-scientific issue and defending it using a well-reasoned justification involves complex cognitive skills that are challenging to both teach and assess. Our work centers on instructional strategies for fostering critical thinking skills in high school students using bioethical case studies, decision-making frameworks, and structured analysis tools to scaffold student argumentation. In this study, we examined the effects of our teacher professional development and curricular materials on the ability of high school students to analyze a bioethical case study and develop a strong position. We focused on student ability to identify an ethical question, consider stakeholders and their values, incorporate relevant scientific facts and content, address ethical principles, and consider the strengths and weaknesses of alternate solutions. 431 students and 12 teachers participated in a research study using teacher cohorts for comparison purposes. The first cohort received professional development and used the curriculum with their students; the second did not receive professional development until after their participation in the study and did not use the curriculum. In order to assess the acquisition of higher-order justification skills, students were asked to analyze a case study and develop a well-reasoned written position. We evaluated statements using a scoring rubric and found highly significant differences (p<0.001 between students exposed to the curriculum strategies and those who were not. Students also showed highly significant gains (p<0.001 in self-reported interest in science content, ability to analyze socio-scientific issues, awareness of ethical issues, ability to listen to and discuss viewpoints different from their own, and understanding of the relationship between science and society. Our results demonstrate that incorporating ethical dilemmas into the classroom is one strategy for increasing student

  11. Model of critical diagnostic reasoning: achieving expert clinician performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harjai, Prashant Kumar; Tiwari, Ruby

    2009-01-01

    Diagnostic reasoning refers to the analytical processes used to determine patient health problems. While the education curriculum and health care system focus on training nurse clinicians to accurately recognize and rescue clinical situations, assessments of non-expert nurses have yielded less than satisfactory data on diagnostic competency. The contrast between the expert and non-expert nurse clinician raises the important question of how differences in thinking may contribute to a large divergence in accurate diagnostic reasoning. This article recognizes superior organization of one's knowledge base, using prototypes, and quick retrieval of pertinent information, using similarity recognition as two reasons for the expert's superior diagnostic performance. A model of critical diagnostic reasoning, using prototypes and similarity recognition, is proposed and elucidated using case studies. This model serves as a starting point toward bridging the gap between clinical data and accurate problem identification, verification, and management while providing a structure for a knowledge exchange between expert and non-expert clinicians.

  12. Critical heat flux evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banner, D.

    1995-01-01

    Critical heat flux (CHF) is of importance for nuclear safety and represents the major limiting factors for reactor cores. Critical heat flux is caused by a sharp reduction in the heat transfer coefficient located at the outer surface of fuel rods. Safety requires that this phenomenon also called the boiling crisis should be precluded under nominal or incidental conditions (Class I and II events). CHF evaluation in reactor cores is basically a two-step approach. Fuel assemblies are first tested in experimental loops in order to determine CHF limits under various flow conditions. Then, core thermal-hydraulic calculations are performed for safety evaluation. The paper will go into more details about the boiling crisis in order to pinpoint complexity and lack of fundamental understanding in many areas. Experimental test sections needed to collect data over wide thermal-hydraulic and geometric ranges are described CHF safety margin evaluation in reactors cores is discussed by presenting how uncertainties are mentioned. From basic considerations to current concerns, the following topics are discussed; knowledge of the boiling crisis, CHF predictors, and advances thermal-hydraulic codes. (authors). 15 refs., 4 figs

  13. The principle of optimisation: reasons for success and legal criticism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Regalado, Luis

    2008-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has adopted new recommendations in 2007. In broad outlines they fundamentally continue the recommendations already approved in 1990 and later on. The principle of optimisation of protection, together with the principles of justification and dose limits, remains playing a key role of the ICRP recommendations, and it has so been for the last few years. This principle, somehow reinforced in the 2007 ICRP recommendations, has been incorporated into norms and legislation which have peacefully been in force in many countries all over the world. There are three main reasons to explain the success in the application of the principle of optimisation in radiological protection: First, the subjectivity of the sentence that embraces the principle of optimisation, 'As low as reasonably achievable' (ALARA), that allows different valid interpretations under different circumstances. Second, the pragmatism and adaptability of ALARA to all exposure situations. And third, the scientific humbleness which is behind the principle of optimisation, which makes a clear contrast with the old fashioned scientific positivism that enshrined scientist opinions. Nevertheless, from a legal point of view, there is some criticism cast over the principle of optimisation in radiological protection, where it has been transformed in compulsory norm. This criticism is based on two arguments: The lack of democratic participation in the process of elaboration of the norm, and the legal uncertainty associated to its application. Both arguments are somehow known by the ICRP which, on the one hand, has broadened the participation of experts, associations and the professional radiological protection community, increasing the transparency on how decisions on recommendations have been taken, and on the other hand, the ICRP has warned about the need for authorities to specify general criteria to develop the principle of optimisation in national

  14. Evaluating moral reasoning in nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod-Sordjan, Renee

    2014-06-01

    Evidence-based practice suggests the best approach to improving professionalism in practice is ethics curricula. However, recent research has demonstrated that millennium graduates do not advocate for patients or assert themselves during moral conflicts. The aim of this article is the exploration of evaluation techniques to evaluate one measurable outcome of ethics curricula: moral reasoning. A review of literature, published between 1995 and 2013, demonstrated that the moral orientations of care and justice as conceptualized by Gilligan and Kohlberg are utilized by nursing students to solve ethical dilemmas. Data obtained by means of reflective journaling, Ethics of Care Interview (ECI) and Defining Issues Test (DIT), would objectively measure the interrelated pathways of care-based and justice-based moral reasoning. In conclusion, educators have an ethical responsibility to foster students' ability to exercise sound clinical judgment, and support their professional development. It is recommended that educators design authentic assessments to demonstrate student's improvement of moral reasoning. © The Author(s) 2013.

  15. Developing Students' Critical Reasoning About Online Health Information: A Capabilities Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiblom, Jonna; Rundgren, Carl-Johan; Andrée, Maria

    2017-11-01

    The internet has become a main source for health-related information retrieval. In addition to information published by medical experts, individuals share their personal experiences and narratives on blogs and social media platforms. Our increasing need to confront and make meaning of various sources and conflicting health information has challenged the way critical reasoning has become relevant in science education. This study addresses how the opportunities for students to develop and practice their capabilities to critically approach online health information can be created in science education. Together with two upper secondary biology teachers, we carried out a design-based study. The participating students were given an online retrieval task that included a search and evaluation of health-related online sources. After a few lessons, the students were introduced to an evaluation tool designed to support critical evaluation of health information online. Using qualitative content analysis, four themes could be discerned in the audio and video recordings of student interactions when engaging with the task. Each theme illustrates the different ways in which critical reasoning became practiced in the student groups. Without using the evaluation tool, the students struggled to overview the vast amount of information and negotiate trustworthiness. Guided by the evaluation tool, critical reasoning was practiced to handle source subjectivity and to sift out scientific information only. Rather than a generic skill and transferable across contexts, students' critical reasoning became conditioned by the multi-dimensional nature of health issues, the blend of various contexts and the shift of purpose constituted by the students.

  16. Probabilistic Criticality Consequence Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P. Gottlieb; J.W. Davis; J.R. Massari

    1996-01-01

    This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development (WPD) department with the objective of providing a comprehensive, conservative estimate of the consequences of the criticality which could possibly occur as the result of commercial spent nuclear fuel emplaced in the underground repository at Yucca Mountain. The consequences of criticality are measured principally in terms of the resulting changes in radionuclide inventory as a function of the power level and duration of the criticality. The purpose of this analysis is to extend the prior estimates of increased radionuclide inventory (Refs. 5.52 and 5.54), for both internal and external criticality. This analysis, and similar estimates and refinements to be completed before the end of fiscal year 1997, will be provided as input to Total System Performance Assessment-Viability Assessment (TSPA-VA) to demonstrate compliance with the repository performance objectives

  17. Curriculum evaluation of ethical reasoning and professional responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Carole R; Bowen, Denise M; Paarmann, Carlene S

    2003-01-01

    This exploratory study evaluated curricular content and evaluation mechanisms related to ethics and professionalism in the baccalaureate dental hygiene program at Idaho State University. Competency-based education requires enhanced student preparation in ethical reasoning, critical thinking, and decision-making. Graduates must integrate concepts, beliefs, principles, and values to fulfill ethical and professional responsibilities. Methods included 1) development of five supporting competencies defining ethics and professionalism to provide a framework for curricular evaluation; 2) assessment of all course content and evaluation methods for each supporting competency; 3) evaluation of students' clinical performance based on professional judgment grades; and 4) survey of junior (n=30) and senior (n=27) students' attitudes about dental hygiene practice related to ethics and professionalism. Results revealed that most courses include content and evaluation related to at least one supporting competency; however, authentic evaluation is weak. Clinical instructors rarely relate evaluations to ethical principles or values. Surveys showed significant differences between junior and senior students' attitudes about ethics and professionalism in six of thirty-four areas (the six were laws and regulations; communication and interpersonal skills; problem solving; professional activities/programs; integrity; and safe work environment). This article shares one approach for evaluating curricular content and evaluation methods designed to develop student competence in ethical reasoning and professionalism. Based upon the study's findings, recommendations are made for curricular enhancement via authentic evaluation and faculty training.

  18. Improving critical thinking : Effects of dispositions and instructions oneconomics students' reasoning skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijltjes, Anita; van Gog, Tamara; Leppink, Jimmie; Paas, Fred

    2014-01-01

    This experiment investigated the impact of critical thinking dispositions and instructions on economics students' performance on reasoning skills. Participants (. N=. 183) were exposed to one of four conditions: critical thinking instruction, critical thinking instruction with self-explanation

  19. Evaluating Middle Years Students' Proportional Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Annette; Dole, Shelley; Hilton, Geoff; Goos, Merrilyn; O'Brien, Mia

    2012-01-01

    Proportional reasoning is a key aspect of numeracy that is not always developed naturally by students. Understanding the types of proportional reasoning that students apply to different problem types is a useful first step to identifying ways to support teachers and students to develop proportional reasoning in the classroom. This paper describes…

  20. Evaluation of Saxton critical experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Hyung Kook; Noh, Jae Man; Jung, Hyung Guk; Kim, Young Il; Kim, Young Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    As a part of International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP), SAXTON critical experiments were reevaluated. The effects of k{sub eff} of the uncertainties in experiment parameters, fuel rod characterization, soluble boron, critical water level, core structure, {sup 241}Am and {sup 241}Pu isotope number densities, random pitch error, duplicated experiment, axial fuel position, model simplification, etc., were evaluated and added in benchmark-model k{sub eff}. In addition to detailed model, the simplified model for Saxton critical experiments was constructed by omitting the top, middle, and bottom grids and ignoring the fuel above water. 6 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs. (Author)

  1. Evaluation of Saxton critical experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Hyung Kook; Noh, Jae Man; Jung, Hyung Guk; Kim, Young Il; Kim, Young Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    As a part of International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP), SAXTON critical experiments were reevaluated. The effects of k{sub eff} of the uncertainties in experiment parameters, fuel rod characterization, soluble boron, critical water level, core structure, {sup 241}Am and {sup 241}Pu isotope number densities, random pitch error, duplicated experiment, axial fuel position, model simplification, etc., were evaluated and added in benchmark-model k{sub eff}. In addition to detailed model, the simplified model for Saxton critical experiments was constructed by omitting the top, middle, and bottom grids and ignoring the fuel above water. 6 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs. (Author)

  2. Practical theology: A critically engaged practical reason approach of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-04-11

    Apr 11, 2014 ... His correlation of theory and practice in his three stages of theory, practice and theory is also critiqued .... The revised method of correlation takes cultural practices seriously, not .... Moral thinking or moral reasoning as used by Browning refers .... universal amidst the relativism, prevalent in post-modernity.

  3. Evaluating the inverse reasoning account of object discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Christopher D; Kemp, Charles

    2015-06-01

    People routinely make inferences about unobserved objects. A hotel guest with welts on his arms, for example, will often worry about bed bugs. The discovery of unobserved objects almost always involves a backward inference from some observed effects (e.g., welts) to unobserved causes (e.g., bed bugs). The inverse reasoning account, which is typically formalized as Bayesian inference, posits that the strength of a backward inference is closely connected to the strength of the corresponding forward inference from the unobserved causes to the observed effects. We evaluated the inverse reasoning account of object discovery in three experiments where participants were asked to discover the unobserved "attractors" and "repellers" that controlled a "particle" moving within an arena. Experiments 1 and 2 showed that participants often failed to provide the best explanations for various particle motions, even when the best explanations were simple and when participants enthusiastically endorsed these explanations when presented with them. This failure demonstrates that object discovery is critically dependent on the processes that support hypothesis generation-processes that the inverse reasoning account does not explain. Experiment 3 demonstrated that people sometimes generate explanations that are invalid even according to their own forward inferences, suggesting that the psychological processes that support forward and backward inference are less intertwined than the inverse reasoning account suggests. The experimental findings support an alternative account of object discovery in which people rely on heuristics to generate possible explanations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Communication of bed allocation decisions in a critical care unit and accountability for reasonableness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swota Alissa H

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Communication may affect perceptions of fair process for intensive care unit bed allocation decisions through its impact on the publicity condition of accountability for reasonableness. Methods We performed a qualitative case study to describe participant perceptions of the communication of bed allocation decisions in an 18-bed university affiliated, medical-surgical critical care unit at Sunnybrook and Women's College Health Sciences Centre. Interviewed participants were 3 critical care physicians, 4 clinical fellows in critical care, 4 resource nurses, 4 "end-users" (physicians who commonly referred patients to the unit, and 3 members of the administrative staff. Median bed occupancy during the study period (Jan-April 2003 was 18/18; daily admissions and discharges (median were 3. We evaluated our description using the ethical framework "accountability for reasonableness" (A4R to identify opportunities for improvement. Results The critical care physician, resource nurse, critical care fellow and end-users (trauma team leader, surgeons, neurosurgeons, anesthesiologists functioned independently in unofficial "parallel tracks" of bed allocation decision-making; this conflicted with the official designation of the critical care physician as the sole authority. Communication between key decision-makers was indirect and could exclude those affected by the decisions; notably, family members. Participants perceived a lack of publicity for bed allocation rationales. Conclusion The publicity condition should be improved for critical care bed allocation decisions. Decision-making in the "parallel tracks" we describe might be unavoidable within usual constraints of time, urgency and demand. Formal guidelines for direct communication between key participants in such circumstances would help to improve the fairness of these decisions.

  5. Bayesian Reasoning in Data Analysis A Critical Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    D'Agostini, Giulio

    2003-01-01

    This book provides a multi-level introduction to Bayesian reasoning (as opposed to "conventional statistics") and its applications to data analysis. The basic ideas of this "new" approach to the quantification of uncertainty are presented using examples from research and everyday life. Applications covered include: parametric inference; combination of results; treatment of uncertainty due to systematic errors and background; comparison of hypotheses; unfolding of experimental distributions; upper/lower bounds in frontier-type measurements. Approximate methods for routine use are derived and ar

  6. Ten good reasons to practice ultrasound in critical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, Daniel; van Hooland, Simon; Elbers, Paul; Malbrain, Manu L N G

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, critical care ultrasound has gained its place in the armamentarium of monitoring tools. A greater understanding of lung, abdominal, and vascular ultrasound plus easier access to portable machines have revolutionised the bedside assessment of our ICU patients. Because ultrasound is not only a diagnostic test, but can also be seen as a component of the physical exam, it has the potential to become the stethoscope of the 21st century. Critical care ultrasound is a combination of simple protocols, with lung ultrasound being a basic application, allowing assessment of urgent diagnoses in combination with therapeutic decisions. The LUCI (Lung Ultrasound in the Critically Ill) consists of the identification of ten signs: the bat sign (pleural line); lung sliding (seashore sign); the A-lines (horizontal artefact); the quad sign and sinusoid sign indicating pleural effusion; the fractal and tissue-like sign indicating lung consolidation; the B-lines and lung rockets indicating interstitial syndromes; abolished lung sliding with the stratosphere sign suggesting pneumothorax; and the lung point indicating pneumothorax. Two more signs, the lung pulse and the dynamic air bronchogram, are used to distinguish atelectasis from pneumonia. The BLUE protocol (Bedside Lung Ultrasound in Emergency) is a fast protocol (respiratory failure. With this protocol, it becomes possible to differentiate between pulmonary oedema, pulmonary embolism, pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, and pneumothorax, each showing specific ultrasound patterns and profiles. The FALLS protocol (Fluid Administration Limited by Lung Sonography) adapts the BLUE protocol to be used in patients with acute circulatory failure. It makes a sequential search for obstructive, cardiogenic, hypovolemic, and distributive shock using simple real-time echocardiography in combination with lung ultrasound, with the appearance of B-lines considered to be the endpoint for fluid therapy

  7. Improving critical thinking and clinical reasoning with a continuing education course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Dina Monteiro; Pimenta, Cibele Mattos; Lunney, Margaret

    2009-03-01

    Continuing education courses related to critical thinking and clinical reasoning are needed to improve the accuracy of diagnosis. This study evaluated a 4-day, 16-hour continuing education course conducted in Brazil.Thirty-nine nurses completed a pretest and a posttest consisting of two written case studies designed to measure the accuracy of nurses' diagnoses. There were significant differences in accuracy from pretest to posttest for case 1 (p = .008) and case 2 (p = .042) and overall (p = .001). Continuing education courses should be implemented to improve the accuracy of nurses' diagnoses.

  8. Knowledge and critical thinking skills increase clinical reasoning ability in urogenital disorders: a Universitas Sriwijaya Medical Faculty experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfannuddin Irfannuddin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim Clinical reasoning is one of the essential competencies for medical practitioners, so that it must be exercised by medical students. Studies on quantitative evidence of factors influencing clinical reasoning abilicy of students are limited. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of knowledge and other factors on the clinical reasoning abiliry ofthe students, which can serve as reference to establish methods for learning ctinical reasoning.Methods This is a cross-sectional study on fourth semester students enrolled in the Competency-based Curriculum of the Medical Faculty, University of Sriwijaya. Data on clinical reasoning abilily and risk factors during urogenital blockwere collected inApril 2008, when the students have just completed the btock. Clinical reasoning abiliry was tested using the Script Concordance test and the risk factors were evaluated based on formative tests, block summative assessments, and student characteristics. Data were analyzed by Cox regression.Results The prevalence of low clinical reasoning ability of the 132 students was 38.6%. The group with low basic knowledge was found to have 63% risk ol low clinical reasoning abiliry when compared to those with high basic knowledge (adjusted RR = 1.63; 95% conidence intewal (Ct: 1.10 -2.42. When compared to students with high critical thinking skitls, those with lory critical thinking skills had 2.3 time to be low clinical reasoning abitity (adjusted RR : 2.30; 95% CI: 1.55 - 3.41.Conclusion Students with low critical thinking skills or with inadequate knowledge had a higher risk of low clinical reasoning ability. (Med J Indones 2009; 18: 53-9Keywords: clinical reasoning, basic knowledge, critical thinking, competency-based curriculum

  9. A study of critical reasoning in online learning: application of the Occupational Performance Process Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Anita Witt; Batorski, Rosemary E

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effect of an online guided independent study on critical reasoning skills. Twenty-one first-semester Master of Occupational Therapy students completed an online assignment designed to facilitate application of the Occupational Performance Process Model (Fearing & Clark) and kept reflective journals. Data from the journals were analyzed in relation to the three sets of questions, question type and results of the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA). This assignment appeared to be effective for enhancing awareness and use of critical reasoning skills. Differences in patterns of critical reasoning between students with high and low WGCTA scores and results of an inductive analysis of the journal entries are discussed. Future research investigating the types of feedback that effectively facilitate development of critical reasoning and whether students with high and low WGCTA scores might benefit from different types of instruction and/or feedback is recommended. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Models of clinical reasoning with a focus on general practice: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Shahram; Hosseinzadeh, Mohammad; Hosseini, Fakhrolsadat

    2017-10-01

    Diagnosis lies at the heart of general practice. Every day general practitioners (GPs) visit patients with a wide variety of complaints and concerns, with often minor but sometimes serious symptoms. General practice has many features which differentiate it from specialty care setting, but during the last four decades little attention was paid to clinical reasoning in general practice. Therefore, we aimed to critically review the clinical reasoning models with a focus on the clinical reasoning in general practice or clinical reasoning of general practitioners to find out to what extent the existing models explain the clinical reasoning specially in primary care and also identity the gaps of the model for use in primary care settings. A systematic search to find models of clinical reasoning were performed. To have more precision, we excluded the studies that focused on neurobiological aspects of reasoning, reasoning in disciplines other than medicine decision making or decision analysis on treatment or management plan. All the articles and documents were first scanned to see whether they include important relevant contents or any models. The selected studies which described a model of clinical reasoning in general practitioners or with a focus on general practice were then reviewed and appraisal or critics of other authors on these models were included. The reviewed documents on the model were synthesized. Six models of clinical reasoning were identified including hypothetic-deductive model, pattern recognition, a dual process diagnostic reasoning model, pathway for clinical reasoning, an integrative model of clinical reasoning, and model of diagnostic reasoning strategies in primary care. Only one model had specifically focused on general practitioners reasoning. A Model of clinical reasoning that included specific features of general practice to better help the general practitioners with the difficulties of clinical reasoning in this setting is needed.

  11. Models of clinical reasoning with a focus on general practice: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAHRAM YAZDANI

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diagnosis lies at the heart of general practice. Every day general practitioners (GPs visit patients with a wide variety of complaints and concerns, with often minor but sometimes serious symptoms. General practice has many features which differentiate it from specialty care setting, but during the last four decades little attention was paid to clinical reasoning in general practice. Therefore, we aimed to critically review the clinical reasoning models with a focus on the clinical reasoning in general practice or clinical reasoning of general practitioners to find out to what extent the existing models explain the clinical reasoning specially in primary care and also identity the gaps of the model for use in primary care settings Methods: A systematic search to find models of clinical reasoning were performed. To have more precision, we excluded the studies that focused on neurobiological aspects of reasoning, reasoning in disciplines other than medicine decision making or decision analysis on treatment or management plan. All the articles and documents were first scanned to see whether they include important relevant contents or any models. The selected studies which described a model of clinical reasoning in general practitioners or with a focus on general practice were then reviewed and appraisal or critics of other authors on these models were included. The reviewed documents on the model were synthesized Results: Six models of clinical reasoning were identified including hypothetic-deductive model, pattern recognition, a dual process diagnostic reasoning model, pathway for clinical reasoning, an integrative model of clinical reasoning, and model of diagnostic reasoning strategies in primary care. Only one model had specifically focused on general practitioners reasoning. Conclusion: A Model of clinical reasoning that included specific features of general practice to better help the general practitioners with the difficulties

  12. Reason, Science, Criticism. Joseph Agassi interviewed on his 90th birthday by Zuzana Parusniková

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Parusniková, Zuzana; Agassi, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 4 (2017), s. 526-545 ISSN 1335-0668 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Joseph Agassi * interview Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion http://klemens.sav.sk/fiusav/organon/?q=sk/reason- science -criticism

  13. Effects of an experiential learning program on the clinical reasoning and critical thinking skills of occupational therapy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Patty

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of participation in a 1-week, experiential, hands-on learning program on the critical thinking and clinical reasoning skills of occupational therapy students. A quasi-experimental, nonrandomized pre- and post-test design was used with a sample of 25 students. The students had completed three semesters of didactic lecture coursework in a master's level OT educational program prior to participation in a hands-on therapy program for children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Changes in critical thinking and clinical reasoning skills were evaluated using the following dependent measures: Self-Assessment of Clinical Reflection and Reasoning (SACRR) and the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST). Changes in pretest and posttest scores on the SACRR and the CCTST were statistically significant (p>0.05) following completion of the experiential learning program. This study supports the use of hands-on learning to develop clinical reasoning and critical thinking skills in healthcare students, who face ever more diverse patient populations upon entry-level practice. Further qualitative and quantitative investigations are needed to support the results of this study and determine which components of experiential learning programs are essential for developing clinical reasoning and critical thinking skills in future allied health professionals.

  14. Operation ARA: A Computerized Learning Game that Teaches Critical Thinking and Scientific Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Diane F.; Millis, Keith; Graesser, Arthur C.; Butler, Heather; Forsyth, Carol; Cai, Zhiqiang

    2012-01-01

    Operation ARA (Acquiring Research Acumen) is a computerized learning game that teaches critical thinking and scientific reasoning. It is a valuable learning tool that utilizes principles from the science of learning and serious computer games. Students learn the skills of scientific reasoning by engaging in interactive dialogs with avatars. They…

  15. Informal Reasoning Fallacy and Critical Thinking Dispositions: A Univariate Study of Demographic Characteristics among Malaysian Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Shamala

    2011-01-01

    A component in the study of critical thinking which needs to be addressed is informal reasoning fallacy. It is a type of mental trickery which is able to self-deceive undergraduates and public at large. In order to practice good critical thinking, one has to detect and get rid of these fallacies. However, students have to be disposed in detecting…

  16. Evaluation of Probabilistic Reasoning Evidence from Seventh-Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Emrullah; Gürbüz, Ramazan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate probabilistic reasoning of seventh-grade students (N=167) studying at randomly selected three middle schools that served low and middle socioeconomic areas in a city of Turkey. "Probabilistic Reasoning Test (PRT)" was developed and used as a data collection tool. In analyzing the data,…

  17. Understanding the Complex Relationship between Critical Thinking and Science Reasoning among Undergraduate Thesis Writers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, Jason E; Thompson, Robert J; Schiff, Leslie A; Reynolds, Julie A

    2018-01-01

    Developing critical-thinking and scientific reasoning skills are core learning objectives of science education, but little empirical evidence exists regarding the interrelationships between these constructs. Writing effectively fosters students' development of these constructs, and it offers a unique window into studying how they relate. In this study of undergraduate thesis writing in biology at two universities, we examine how scientific reasoning exhibited in writing (assessed using the Biology Thesis Assessment Protocol) relates to general and specific critical-thinking skills (assessed using the California Critical Thinking Skills Test), and we consider implications for instruction. We find that scientific reasoning in writing is strongly related to inference , while other aspects of science reasoning that emerge in writing (epistemological considerations, writing conventions, etc.) are not significantly related to critical-thinking skills. Science reasoning in writing is not merely a proxy for critical thinking. In linking features of students' writing to their critical-thinking skills, this study 1) provides a bridge to prior work suggesting that engagement in science writing enhances critical thinking and 2) serves as a foundational step for subsequently determining whether instruction focused explicitly on developing critical-thinking skills (particularly inference ) can actually improve students' scientific reasoning in their writing. © 2018 J. E. Dowd et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2018 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  18. Evaluating critical thinking in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oermann, M H

    1997-01-01

    Although much has been written about measurement instruments for evaluating critical thinking in nursing, this article describes clinical evaluation strategies for critical thinking. Five methods are discussed: 1) observation of students in practice; 2) questions for critical thinking, including Socratic questioning; 3) conferences; 4) problem-solving strategies; and 5) written assignments. These methods provide a means of evaluating students' critical thinking within the context of clinical practice.

  19. Wiki Activities in Blended Learning for Health Professional Students: Enhancing Critical Thinking and Clinical Reasoning Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snodgrass, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    Health professionals use critical thinking, a key problem solving skill, for clinical reasoning which is defined as the use of knowledge and reflective inquiry to diagnose a clinical problem. Teaching these skills in traditional settings with growing class sizes is challenging, and students increasingly expect learning that is flexible and…

  20. Understanding the Complex Relationship between Critical Thinking and Science Reasoning among Undergraduate Thesis Writers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, Jason E.; Thompson, Robert J., Jr.; Schif, Leslie A.; Reynolds, Julie A.

    2018-01-01

    Developing critical-thinking and scientific reasoning skills are core learning objectives of science education, but little empirical evidence exists regarding the interrelationships between these constructs. Writing effectively fosters students' development of these constructs, and it offers a unique window into studying how they relate. In this…

  1. The heuristic-analytic theory of reasoning: extension and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jonathan St B T

    2006-06-01

    An extensively revised heuristic-analytic theory of reasoning is presented incorporating three principles of hypothetical thinking. The theory assumes that reasoning and judgment are facilitated by the formation of epistemic mental models that are generated one at a time (singularity principle) by preconscious heuristic processes that contextualize problems in such a way as to maximize relevance to current goals (relevance principle). Analytic processes evaluate these models but tend to accept them unless there is good reason to reject them (satisficing principle). At a minimum, analytic processing of models is required so as to generate inferences or judgments relevant to the task instructions, but more active intervention may result in modification or replacement of default models generated by the heuristic system. Evidence for this theory is provided by a review of a wide range of literature on thinking and reasoning.

  2. Gifts to the Future: Design Reasoning, Design Research, and Critical Design Practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet McDonnell

    Full Text Available Set in the context of a particular orthodoxy about the history of design research over the last 50 years, this opinion piece selectively surveys some of the significant findings from research into what expert design reasoning entails. Using the conceit of a pool of knowledge—which has come about from many different design research agendas, using multiple methods, and with differing foci of attention—it indicates some of what we know about design reasoning as a phenomenon by taking three “scoops” from the pool. These scoops, respectively characterize design reasoning as navigating the swamp; having negative capability; and being concerned with framing. This material is then used to contrast expert design reasoning with salient features of some popular characterizations of design thinking. The contribution concludes with some comments on designer formation, centered on the necessity of proficiency in reflection implied by any goal to nurture critical design practitioners.

  3. Criticality safety evaluation in Tokai Reprocessing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, Nobutoshi; Nakajima, Masayoshi; Takaya, Akikazu; Ohnuma, Hideyuki; Shirouzu, Hidetomo; Hayashi, Shinichiro; Yoshikawa, Koji; Suto, Toshiyuki

    2000-04-01

    Criticality limits for equipments in Tokai Reprocessing Plant which handle fissile material solution and are under shape and dimension control were reevaluated based on the guideline No.10 'Criticality safety of single unit' in the regulatory guide for reprocessing plant safety. This report presents criticality safety evaluation of each equipment as single unit. Criticality safety of multiple units in a cell or a room was also evaluated. The evaluated equipments were ones in dissolution, separation, purification, denitration, Pu product storage, and Pu conversion processes. As a result, it was reconfirmed that the equipments were safe enough from a view point of criticality safety of single unit and multiple units. (author)

  4. Critical Care Nurses' Reasons for Poor Attendance at a Continuous Professional Development Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viljoen, Myra; Coetzee, Isabel; Heyns, Tanya

    2016-12-01

    Society demands competent and safe health care, which obligates professionals to deliver quality patient care using current knowledge and skills. Participation in continuous professional development programs is a way to ensure quality nursing care. Despite the importance of continuous professional development, however, critical care nurse practitioners' attendance rates at these programs is low. To explore critical care nurses' reasons for their unsatisfactory attendance at a continuous professional development program. A nominal group technique was used as a consensus method to involve the critical care nurses and provide them the opportunity to reflect on their experiences and challenges related to the current continuous professional development program for the critical care units. Participants were 14 critical care nurses from 3 critical care units in 1 private hospital. The consensus was that the central theme relating to the unsatisfactory attendance at the continuous professional development program was attitude. In order of importance, the 4 contributing priorities influencing attitude were communication, continuous professional development, time constraints, and financial implications. Attitude relating to attending a continuous professional development program can be changed if critical care nurses are aware of the program's importance and are involved in the planning and implementation of a program that focuses on the nurses' individual learning needs. ©2016 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  5. Reasoning in Design: Idea Generation Condition Effects on Reasoning Processes and Evaluation of Ideas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer-Petersen, Claus Lundgaard; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2015-01-01

    to investigate idea generation sessions of two industry cases. Reasoning was found to appear in sequences of alternating reasoning types where the initiating reasoning type was decisive. The study found that abductive reasoning led to more radical ideas, whereas deductive reasoning led to ideas being for project...... requirements, but having a higher proportion being rejected as not valuable. The study sheds light on the conditions that promote these reasoning types. The study is one of the first of its kind and advances an understanding of reasoning in design by empirical means and suggests a relationship between......Reasoning is at the core of design activity and thinking. Thus, understanding and explaining reasoning in design is fundamental to understand and support design practice. This paper investigates reasoning in design and its relationship to varying foci at the stage of idea generation and subsequent...

  6. Deliberative Democracy, Critical Thinking, and the Deliberating Individual: empirical challenges to the reasonability of the citizen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juho Ritola

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, I first discuss the conditions set by theorists of democratic deliberation on proper deliberation. These conditions call for reasoned decisions from mutually acceptable premises. Next, I present the ideal of critical thinking that should guide the citizen in this deliberation. I then examine the empirical literature on human reasoning. Some research results in the empirical literature paint a bleak picture of human rationality: we fall victim to heuristics and biases, persevere in our beliefs in the face of contrary evidence, and justify our moral judgments by post hoc-reasoning. In addition, the deliberating groups have problems of their own. The groups may, for example, amplify errors or fall victim to information cascades.  Though these epistemically detrimental processes can be overcome, they do present a challenge to our rationality. The essay concludes by arguing that the empirical evidence in fact supports an internalistic approach to group deliberation, a claim challenged by Solomon (2006.

  7. Researches on nuclear criticality safety evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuno, Hiroshi; Suyama, Kenya; Nomura, Yasushi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2003-10-01

    For criticality safety evaluation of burnup fuel, the general-purpose burnup calculation code, SWAT, was revised, and its precision was confirmed through comparison with other results from OECD/NEA's burnup credit benchmarks. Effect by replacing the evaluated nuclear data from JENDL-3.2 to ENDF/B-VI and JEF-2.2 was also studied. Correction factors were derived for conservative evaluation of nuclide concentrations obtained with the simplified burnup code ORIGEN2.1. The critical masses of curium were calculated and evaluated for nuclear criticality safety management of minor actinides. (author)

  8. Researches on nuclear criticality safety evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuno, Hiroshi; Suyama, Kenya; Nomura, Yasushi

    2003-01-01

    For criticality safety evaluation of burnup fuel, the general-purpose burnup calculation code, SWAT, was revised, and its precision was confirmed through comparison with other results from OECD/NEA's burnup credit benchmarks. Effect by replacing the evaluated nuclear data from JENDL-3.2 to ENDF/B-VI and JEF-2.2 was also studied. Correction factors were derived for conservative evaluation of nuclide concentrations obtained with the simplified burnup code ORIGEN2.1. The critical masses of curium were calculated and evaluated for nuclear criticality safety management of minor actinides. (author)

  9. Critical enrichment and critical density of infinite systems for nuclear criticality safety evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Yoshitaka; Koyama, Takashi; Komuro, Yuichi

    1986-03-01

    Critical enrichment and critical density of homogenous infinite systems, such as U-H 2 O, UO 2 -H 2 O, UO 2 F 2 aqueous solution, UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 aqueous solution, Pu-H 2 O, PuO 2 -H 2 O, Pu(NO 3 ) 4 aqueous solution and PuO 2 ·UO 2 -H 2 O, were calculated with the criticality safety evaluation computer code system JACS for nuclear criticality safety evaluation on fuel facilities. The computed results were compared with the data described in European and American criticality handbooks and showed good agreement with each other. (author)

  10. Neural basis of nonanalytical reasoning expertise during clinical evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durning, S.J.; Costanzo, M.E.; Artino, A.R.; Graner, J.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Beckman, T.J.; Wittich, C.M.; Roy, M.J.H.M. van; Holmboe, E.S.; Schuwirth, L.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Understanding clinical reasoning is essential for patient care and medical education. Dual-processing theory suggests that nonanalytic reasoning is an essential aspect of expertise; however, assessing nonanalytic reasoning is challenging because it is believed to occur on the

  11. Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors for Reasonably Maximally Exposed Individual and Average Member of Critical Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. Montague

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to develop additional Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors (BDCFs) for a reasonably maximally exposed individual (RMEI) for the periods 10,000 years and 1,000,000 years after the repository closure. In addition, Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors for the average member of a critical group are calculated for those additional radionuclides postulated to reach the environment during the period after 10,000 years and up to 1,000,000 years. After the permanent closure of the repository, the engineered systems within the repository will eventually lose their abilities to contain radionuclide inventory, and the radionuclides will migrate through the geosphere and eventually enter the local water table moving toward inhabited areas. The primary release scenario is a groundwater well used for drinking water supply and irrigation, and this calculation takes these postulated releases and follows them through various pathways until they result in a dose to either a member of critical group or a reasonably maximally exposed individual. The pathways considered in this calculation include inhalation, ingestion, and direct exposure

  12. Critical self-evaluation for excellence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullee, G.R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of critical self-evaluation of performance as a stimulus for excellence. Self-evaluation inherently provides acceptance and ownership of a problem, thereby motivating change. Some of the key elements of self-evaluation are discussed such as unbiased observations and appropriate performance standards. As circumstances change, an ongoing self-appraisal approach provides continuing feedback to maintain and further excellence. Two examples of critical self-evaluation in use at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) are discussed

  13. Investigating the Correlation Between Pharmacy Student Performance on the Health Science Reasoning Test and a Critical Thinking Assignment

    OpenAIRE

    Nornoo, Adwoa O.; Jackson, Jonathan; Axtell, Samantha

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To determine whether there is a correlation between pharmacy students? scores on the Health Science Reasoning Test (HSRT) and their grade on a package insert assignment designed to assess critical thinking.

  14. Validating MCNP5 libraries and tracking the reason for differences between libraries in criticality calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossny, K.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to validate MCNP5 libraries by simulating 4 detailed benchmark experiments and comparing MCNP5 results (each library) with the experimental results and also the previously validated codes for the same experiments MORET 4.A coupled with APOLLO2 (France), and MONK8 (UK). The reasons for difference between libraries are also investigated in this work. Investigating the reason for the differences between libraries will be done by specifying a different library for specific part (clad, fuel, light water) and checking the result deviation than the previously calculated result (with all parts of the same library). The investigated benchmark experiments are of single fuel rods arrays that are water-moderated and water-reflected. Rods contained low-enriched (4.738 wt.% 92 235 U)uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) fuel were clad with aluminum alloy AGS. These experiments were subcritical approaches extrapolated to critical, with the multiplication factor reached being very close to 1.000 (within 0.1%); the subcritical approach parameter was the water level. The studied four cases differ from each other in pitch, number of fuel rods and of course critical height of water. The results show that although library ENDF/B-IV lacks light water treatment card, however its results can be reliable as light water treatment library does not have significant differences from library to another, so it will not be necessary to specify light water treatment card. The main reason for differences between ENDF/B-V and ENDF/B-VI is light water material, especially the Hydrogen element. Specifying the library of Uranium is necessary in case of using library ENDF/B-IV. On the other hand it is not necessary to specify library of cladding material whatever the used library. Validated libraries are ENDF/BIV, ENDF/B-V and ENDF/B-VI with codes in MCNP 42C, 50C and 60C respectively. The presentation slides have been added to the article

  15. [Is the critical patient competent for decision taking? Psychological and psychopathological reasons of cognitive impairment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernat-Adell, M D; Ballester-Arnal, R; Abizanda-Campos, R

    2012-01-01

    Emotional factors may lead to cognitive impairment that can adversely affect the capacity of patients to reason, and thereby, limit their participation in decision taking. To analyze critical patient aptitude for decision taking, and to identify variables that may influence competence. An observational descriptive study was carried out. Intensive care unit. Participants were 29 critically ill patients. Social, demographic and psychological variables were analyzed. Functional capacities and psychological reactions during stay in the ICU were assessed. The patients are of the firm opinion that they should have the last word in the taking of decisions; they prefer bad news to be given by the physician; and feel that the presence of a psychologist would make the process easier. Failure on the part of the professional to answer their questions is perceived as the greatest stress factor. Increased depression results in lesser cognitive capacity, and for patients with impaired cognitive capacity, participation in the decision taking process constitutes a burden. The variables anxiety and depression are significantly related to decision taking capacity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  16. Psychobiological responses to critically evaluated multitasking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherell, Mark A; Craw, Olivia; Smith, Kenny; Smith, Michael A

    2017-12-01

    In order to understand psychobiological responses to stress it is necessary to observe how people react to controlled stressors. A range of stressors exist for this purpose; however, laboratory stressors that are representative of real life situations provide more ecologically valid opportunities for assessing stress responding. The current study assessed psychobiological responses to an ecologically valid laboratory stressor involving multitasking and critical evaluation. The stressor elicited significant increases in psychological and cardiovascular stress reactivity; however, no cortisol reactivity was observed. Other socially evaluative laboratory stressors that lead to cortisol reactivity typically require a participant to perform tasks that involve verbal responses, whilst standing in front of evaluative others. The current protocol contained critical evaluation of cognitive performance; however, this was delivered from behind a seated participant. The salience of social evaluation may therefore be related to the response format of the task and the method of evaluation. That is, the current protocol did not involve the additional vulnerability associated with in person, face-to-face contact, and verbal delivery. Critical evaluation of multitasking provides an ecologically valid technique for inducing laboratory stress and provides an alternative tool for assessing psychological and cardiovascular reactivity. Future studies could additionally use this paradigm to investigate those components of social evaluation necessary for eliciting a cortisol response.

  17. Determinants of the accuracy of nursing diagnoses: influence of ready knowledge, knowledge sources, disposition toward critical thinking, and reasoning skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paans, Wolter; Sermeus, Walter; Nieweg, Roos; van der Schans, Cees

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how knowledge sources, ready knowledge, and disposition toward critical thinking and reasoning skills influence the accuracy of student nurses' diagnoses. A randomized controlled trial was conducted to determine the influence of knowledge sources. We used the following questionnaires: (a) knowledge inventory, (b) California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory, and (c) Health Science Reasoning Test (HSRT). The use of knowledge sources had very little influence on the accuracy of nursing diagnoses. Accuracy was significantly related to the analysis domain of the HSRT. Students were unable to operationalize knowledge sources to derive accurate diagnoses and did not effectively use reasoning skills. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, B. J.; Dean, V. F.; Pesic, M. P.

    2001-01-01

    In order to properly manage the risk of a nuclear criticality accident, it is important to establish the conditions for which such an accident becomes possible for any activity involving fissile material. Only when this information is known is it possible to establish the likelihood of actually achieving such conditions. It is therefore important that criticality safety analysts have confidence in the accuracy of their calculations. Confidence in analytical results can only be gained through comparison of those results with experimental data. The Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (CSBEP) was initiated in October of 1992 by the US Department of Energy. The project was managed through the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), but involved nationally known criticality safety experts from Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Savannah River Technology Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Y-12 Plant, Hanford, Argonne National Laboratory, and the Rocky Flats Plant. An International Criticality Safety Data Exchange component was added to the project during 1994 and the project became what is currently known as the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP). Representatives from the United Kingdom, France, Japan, the Russian Federation, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Korea, Slovenia, Yugoslavia, Spain, and Israel are now participating on the project In December of 1994, the ICSBEP became an official activity of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development - Nuclear Energy Agency's (OECD-NEA) Nuclear Science Committee. The United States currently remains the lead country, providing most of the administrative support. The purpose of the ICSBEP is to: (1) identify and evaluate a comprehensive set of critical benchmark data; (2) verify the data, to the extent possible, by reviewing original and subsequently revised documentation, and by talking with the

  19. Evaluating predictions of critical oxygen desaturation events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElMoaqet, Hisham; Tilbury, Dawn M; Ramachandran, Satya Krishna

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach for evaluating predictions of oxygen saturation levels in blood ( SpO 2 ). A performance metric based on a threshold is proposed to evaluate  SpO 2 predictions based on whether or not they are able to capture critical desaturations in the  SpO 2 time series of patients. We use linear auto-regressive models built using historical  SpO 2 data to predict critical desaturation events with the proposed metric. In 20 s prediction intervals, 88%–94% of the critical events were captured with positive predictive values (PPVs) between 90% and 99%. Increasing the prediction horizon to 60 s, 46%–71% of the critical events were detected with PPVs between 81% and 97%. In both prediction horizons, more than 97% of the non-critical events were correctly classified. The overall classification capabilities for the developed predictive models were also investigated. The area under ROC curves for 60 s predictions from the developed models are between 0.86 and 0.98. Furthermore, we investigate the effect of including pulse rate (PR) dynamics in the models and predictions. We show no improvement in the percentage of the predicted critical desaturations if PR dynamics are incorporated into the  SpO 2 predictive models (p-value = 0.814). We also show that including the PR dynamics does not improve the earliest time at which critical  SpO 2 levels are predicted (p-value = 0.986). Our results indicate oxygen in blood is an effective input to the PR rather than vice versa. We demonstrate that the combination of predictive models with frequent pulse oximetry measurements can be used as a warning of critical oxygen desaturations that may have adverse effects on the health of patients. (paper)

  20. Reasons For Physicians Not Adopting Clinical Decision Support Systems: Critical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairat, Saif; Marc, David; Crosby, William; Al Sanousi, Ali

    2018-04-18

    Clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) are an integral component of today's health information technologies. They assist with interpretation, diagnosis, and treatment. A CDSS can be embedded throughout the patient safety continuum providing reminders, recommendations, and alerts to health care providers. Although CDSSs have been shown to reduce medical errors and improve patient outcomes, they have fallen short of their full potential. User acceptance has been identified as one of the potential reasons for this shortfall. The purpose of this paper was to conduct a critical review and task analysis of CDSS research and to develop a new framework for CDSS design in order to achieve user acceptance. A critical review of CDSS papers was conducted with a focus on user acceptance. To gain a greater understanding of the problems associated with CDSS acceptance, we conducted a task analysis to identify and describe the goals, user input, system output, knowledge requirements, and constraints from two different perspectives: the machine (ie, the CDSS engine) and the user (ie, the physician). Favorability of CDSSs was based on user acceptance of clinical guidelines, reminders, alerts, and diagnostic suggestions. We propose two models: (1) the user acceptance and system adaptation design model, which includes optimizing CDSS design based on user needs/expectations, and (2) the input-process-output-engagemodel, which reveals to users the processes that govern CDSS outputs. This research demonstrates that the incorporation of the proposed models will improve user acceptance to support the beneficial effects of CDSSs adoption. Ultimately, if a user does not accept technology, this not only poses a threat to the use of the technology but can also pose a threat to the health and well-being of patients. ©Saif Khairat, David Marc, William Crosby, Ali Al Sanousi. Originally published in JMIR Medical Informatics (http://medinform.jmir.org), 18.04.2018.

  1. Development of a transient criticality evaluation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pain, C.C.; Eaton, M.D.; Miles, B.; Ziver, A.K.; Gomes, J.L.M.A.; Umpleby, A.P.; Piggott, M.D.; Goddard, A.J.H.; Oliveira, C.R.E. de

    2005-01-01

    In developing a transient criticality evaluation method we model, in full spatial/temporal detail, the neutron fluxes and consequent power and the evolving material properties - their flows, energies, phase changes etc. These methods are embodied in the generic method FETCH code which is based as far as possible on basic principles and is capable of use in exploring safety-related situations somewhat beyond the range of experiment. FETCH is a general geometry code capable of addressing a range of criticality issues in fissile materials. The code embodies both transient radiation transport and transient fluid dynamics. Work on powders, granular materials, porous media and solutions is reviewed. The capability for modelling transient criticality for chemical plant, waste matrices and advanced reactors is also outlined. (author)

  2. Realistic evaluation of new fuel storage criticality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamasaki, M.; Itahara, K.; Shimada, S.; Etsu, M.; Kuroda, M.; Watanabe, H.; Kuragasaki, M.; Kawaguchi, K.

    1987-01-01

    In the criticality safety design of dry fuel storage facility, the optimum moderation condition which appears at rather low water density (0.05 ∼ 0.1 gH 2 O/cc) has been a barrier to incorporate economical design. In this study we have shown that this optimum moderation does not occur, even in fire-fighting with water supply system, by criticality analyses and experiments. Evaluated critical amount of water in the space has found itself far from the level estimated actually attainable through the experiment with fire-fighting system. In another experiment we have taken the holograms of 0.003 ∼ 0.35 g/cc water which was realized in the very narrow space by the nozzle manufactured for this special purpose. Those holograms demonstrate that the droplets in the low density water are more closely packed than we anticipate they are. (author)

  3. Evaluating and Estimating the WCET Criticality Metric

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    a programmer (or compiler) from targeting optimizations the right way. A possible resort is to use a metric that targets WCET and which can be efficiently computed for all code parts of a program. Similar to dynamic profiling techniques, which execute code with input that is typically expected...... for the application, based on WCET analysis we can indicate how critical a code fragment is, in relation to the worst-case bound. Computing such a metric on top of static analysis, incurs a certain overhead though, which increases with the complexity of the underlying WCET analysis. We present our approach...... to estimate the Criticality metric, by relaxing the precision of WCET analysis. Through this, we can reduce analysis time by orders of magnitude, while only introducing minor error. To evaluate our estimation approach and share our garnered experience using the metric, we evaluate real-time programs, which...

  4. A critical evaluation of the strategy project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, B. J.; Liland, A.; Beresford, N. A.; Andersson, K. G.; Cox, G.; Gil, J. M.; Hunt, J.; Nisbet, A.; Oughton, D. H.; Voigt, G.

    2004-01-01

    The STRATEGY project (sustainable restoration and long-term management of contaminated rural, urban and industrial ecosystems; www.strategy-ec.org.uk) addressed the need for a holistic decision framework for the selection of optimal remediation strategies for long-term sustainable management of contaminated areas in Western Europe. The project considered both technical and social aspects of implementing restoration strategies for urban and rural environments. The importance of considering socially relevant objectives in addition to the dose reduction was emphasised. A critical evaluation was carried out on 101 selected countermeasures, (including rural waste disposal options), a model was developed to aid optimising countermeasure strategies and a method of carrying out participatory decision-making suggested. The outputs of the project are described and critically evaluated. (authors)

  5. [Elaboration and critical evaluation of clinical guidelines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Villar, C

    2015-11-01

    Clinical guidelines are documents to help professionals and patients select the best diagnostic or therapeutic option. Elaborating guidelines requires an efficient literature search and a critical evaluation of the articles found to select the most appropriate ones. After that, the recommendations are formulated and then must be externally evaluated before they can be disseminated. Even when the guidelines are very thorough and rigorous, it is important to know whether they fulfill all the methodological requisites before applying them. With this aim, various scales have been developed to critically appraise guidelines. Of these, the AGREE II instrument is currently the most widely used. This article explains the main steps in elaborating clinical guidelines and the main aspects that should be analyzed to know whether the guidelines are well written. Copyright © 2015 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. A critical evaluation of the STRATEGY project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howard, B.J.; Liland, A.; Beresford, N.A.

    2004-01-01

    The STRATEGY project (sustainable restoration and long-term management of contaminated rural, urban and industrial ecosystems; www.strategy-ec.org.uk) addressed the need for a holistic decision framework for the selection of optimal remediation strategies for long-term sustainable management...... of contaminated areas in Western Europe. The project considered both technical and social aspects of implementing restoration strategies for urban and rural environments. The importance of considering socially relevant objectives in addition to the dose reduction was emphasised. A critical evaluation was carried...... out on 101 selected countermeasures, (including rural waste disposal options), a model was developed to aid optimising countermeasure strategies and a method of carrying out participatory decision-making suggested. The outputs of the project are described and critically evaluated....

  7. Inductive Reasoning and Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooks, Clay; Boyd, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Induction, properly understood, is not merely a game, nor is it a gimmick, nor is it an artificial way of explaining an element of reasoning. Proper understanding of inductive reasoning--and the various types of reasoning that the authors term inductive--enables the student to evaluate critically other people's writing and enhances the composition…

  8. Effects of Instruction in Methodological Reasoning on Information Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshowitz, Barry; DiCerbo, Kristen Eignor; Okun, Morris A.

    2002-01-01

    Describes an instructional program focusing on the application of causal reasoning and related principles of the scientific method to problems that occur in daily life. Reports the results of a capstone exercise that investigated the changes in students' beliefs towards legalization of marijuana after reading persuasive communications. (CMK)

  9. Others and Imagination in Reasoning and Argumentation: Improving our Critical Creative Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Michael D. Baumtrog

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary argumentation theories highlight the importance of Others for contributing to and critiquing an individual’s reasoning and/or argumentation. Reasoners and arguers are encouraged to interact with imagined constructs such as a community of model interlocutors or universal audience. These model interlocutors are theoretically meant to bring to mind reasons and counter-considerations that may not have been conceived of otherwise so as to improve the overall quality of an instance of ...

  10. Experienced and less-experienced nurses' diagnostic reasoning: implications for fostering students' critical thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, Catherine G

    2003-01-01

    To compare the use of mental representations (heuristics) in diagnostic reasoning of expert (> or = 5 years' experience) and novice (thinking and spare cognitive reserves for reasoning needed for complex patients. Faculty need to promote student's cognitive development through strategies that promote active, reflective, and integrative learning.

  11. Others and Imagination in Reasoning and Argumentation: Improving our Critical Creative Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Baumtrog

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary argumentation theories highlight the importance of Others for contributing to and critiquing an individual’s reasoning and/or argumentation. Reasoners and arguers are encouraged to interact with imagined constructs such as a community of model interlocutors or universal audience. These model interlocutors are theoretically meant to bring to mind reasons and counter-considerations that may not have been conceived of otherwise so as to improve the overall quality of an instance of reasoning or argumentation. Overlooked, however, is the impact of differing individual’s imaginative abilities. This paper argues that more important than relying on an Other, real or imagined, reasoners and arguers would do just as well to improve their own creative abilities first. Consulting a real or imagined Other may help in some cases help, but such a strong reliance on Others comes with serious limitations.

  12. The Impact of Humanities-Based Teaching and Learning Strategies on Critical Thinking and Clinical Reasoning Development among BSN Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodhead, Josette

    2016-01-01

    The ability to function effectively in a dynamic, culturally diverse healthcare environment requires both critical thinking and clinical reasoning skills. The American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN, 2008) recognizes the importance of humanities in the baccalaureate nursing curriculum. This quasi-experimental, nonrandomized…

  13. DETERMINANTS OF THE ACCURACY OF NURSING DIAGNOSES : INFLUENCE OF READY KNOWLEDGE, KNOWLEDGE SOURCES, DISPOSITION TOWARD CRITICAL THINKING, AND REASONING SKILLS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paans, Wolter; Sermeus, Walter; Nieweg, Roos; Van der Schans, Cees

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how knowledge sources, ready knowledge, and disposition toward critical thinking and reasoning skills influence the accuracy of student nurses' diagnoses. A randomized controlled trial was conducted to determine the influence of knowledge sources. We used

  14. Determinants of the accuracy of nursing diagnoses : influence of ready knowledge, knowledge sources, disposition toward critical thinking, and reasoning skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paans, Wolter; Sermeus, Walter; Nieweg, Roos; van der Schans, Cees

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how knowledge sources, ready knowledge, and disposition toward critical thinking and reasoning skills influence the accuracy of student nurses' diagnoses. A randomized controlled trial was conducted to determine the influence of knowledge sources. We used

  15. Critical evaluation of sample pretreatment techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyötyläinen, Tuulia

    2009-06-01

    Sample preparation before chromatographic separation is the most time-consuming and error-prone part of the analytical procedure. Therefore, selecting and optimizing an appropriate sample preparation scheme is a key factor in the final success of the analysis, and the judicious choice of an appropriate procedure greatly influences the reliability and accuracy of a given analysis. The main objective of this review is to critically evaluate the applicability, disadvantages, and advantages of various sample preparation techniques. Particular emphasis is placed on extraction techniques suitable for both liquid and solid samples.

  16. Unraveling the Effects of Critical Thinking Instructions, Practice, and Self-Explanation on Students' Reasoning Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijltjes, Anita; van Gog, Tamara; Leppink, Jimmie; Paas, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Acquisition of critical thinking skills is considered an important goal in higher education, but it is still unclear which specific instructional techniques are effective for fostering it. The main aim of this study was to unravel the impact of critical thinking instructions, practice, and self-explanation prompts during practice, on students'…

  17. Unraveling the effects of critical thinking instructions, practice, and self-explanation on students’ reasoning performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijltjes, Anita; van Gog, Tamara; Leppink, Jimmie; Paas, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Acquisition of critical thinking skills is considered an important goal in higher education, but it is still unclear which specific instructional techniques are effective for fostering it. The main aim of this study was to unravel the impact of critical thinking instructions, practice, and

  18. [Critical evaluation of the first draft of DSM-V].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frances, A

    2011-02-16

    Critical evaluation of DSM-V first draft This is an evaluation of the first DSM-V (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-V) draft from the DSM-IV chairman. First, a brief history of DSM is reported. Then, major reasons for present controversies and the threat they raise to APA leadership in the field are discussed. Third point is careful recollection of the several conflicting aspects of the DSM-V draft, paying attention to drawbacks and their implications for future clinical practice, research and forensic activity. Comment is finally provided about APA (American Psychiatric Association) decisions aimed at reaching more consensus about this basic instrument of American psychiatry.

  19. A quantitative risk-based model for reasoning over critical system properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feather, M. S.

    2002-01-01

    This position paper suggests the use of a quantitative risk-based model to help support reeasoning and decision making that spans many of the critical properties such as security, safety, survivability, fault tolerance, and real-time.

  20. Cultivating critical thinking: The effects of instructions on economics students’ reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E.G. Heijltjes (Anita)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Korte, eenvoudig te organiseren instructies leiden al tot betere redeneerprestaties. Dat stelt Anita Heijltjes in haar proefschrift ‘Cultivating Critical Thinking: The Effects of Instructions on Economics Students’ Reasoning’. Heijltjes deed onderzoek naar effectieve

  1. Nurses' intention to leave: critically analyse the theory of reasoned action and organizational commitment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Shwu-Ru

    2009-01-01

    To systematically analyse the Organizational Commitment model and Theory of Reasoned Action and determine concepts that can better explain nurses' intention to leave their job. The Organizational Commitment model and Theory of Reasoned Action have been proposed and applied to understand intention to leave and turnover behaviour, which are major contributors to nursing shortage. However, the appropriateness of applying these two models in nursing was not analysed. Three main criteria of a useful model were used for the analysis: consistency in the use of concepts, testability and predictability. Both theories use concepts consistently. Concepts in the Theory of Reasoned Action are defined broadly whereas they are operationally defined in the Organizational Commitment model. Predictability of the Theory of Reasoned Action is questionable whereas the Organizational Commitment model can be applied to predict intention to leave. A model was proposed based on this analysis. Organizational commitment, intention to leave, work experiences, job characteristics and personal characteristics can be concepts for predicting nurses' intention to leave. Nursing managers may consider nurses' personal characteristics and experiences to increase their organizational commitment and enhance their intention to stay. Empirical studies are needed to test and cross-validate the re-synthesized model for nurses' intention to leave their job.

  2. Using Television to Stimulate Learning and Develop Evaluative Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David M.; Wright, Ian

    1980-01-01

    Poses two questions regarding use of television in the social studies classroom--"How can television be used as motivation for learning?" and "How can teachers assist students to make rational evaluations concerning the issues presented on television?" Answers to these questions focus on teaching methods involving television in the classroom.…

  3. Construction and Evaluation of Reliability and Validity of Reasoning Ability Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Mehraj A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is based on the construction and evaluation of reliability and validity of reasoning ability test at secondary school students. In this paper an attempt was made to evaluate validity, reliability and to determine the appropriate standards to interpret the results of reasoning ability test. The test includes 45 items to measure six types…

  4. Criticality evaluation of long term for spent fuel, using Scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esquivel E, J.; Vargas E, S.; Ramirez S, J. R.

    2013-10-01

    Once carried out the spent fuel discharge, of the reactor core, this continues generating decay heat and diverse fission products, reason why is important to store this fuel inside containers able to dissipate the heat generated by the isotopes decay of the fuel and to maintain the fuels arrangement in subcritical condition. This means that: is necessary to assure the sub-criticality of those fuel assemblies in the time. This work, presents a criticality evaluation of fuel assemblies type PWR in a storage generic container. For this purpose have been used two codes: GeeWiz, to carry out the geometric model of the container with the fuel assemblies, and Keno, with which, the criticality of the full container with fuel is determined until a 10 6 years period. These codes are part of the package Scale. The specifications for each one of the analyzed components are based on a Benchmark document of the Nea/OECD, of where, the results that reports are compared with the obtained results by the realized analysis. (Author)

  5. An Analysis of Informal Reasoning Fallacy and Critical Thinking Dispositions among Malaysian Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Shamala

    2011-01-01

    In this information age, the amount of complex information available due to technological advancement would require undergraduates to be extremely competent in processing information systematically. Critical thinking ability of undergraduates has been the focal point among educators, employers and the public at large. One of the dimensions of…

  6. The Reasons Requirement in International Investment Arbitration: Critical Case Studies (book review)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yi Shin

    2008-01-01

    3. In the article, the Researcher reviews the work of Professors Guillermo A. Alvarez and W. Michael Reisman from Yale Law School, regarding the mechanisms of international investment arbitration and their importance for developing countries. The article provides a critical perspective on the aut...

  7. EFFECTIVENESS OF PROBLEM BASED LEARNING AS A STRATEGY TO FOSTER PROBLEM SOLVING AND CRITICAL REASONING SKILLS AMONG MEDICAL STUDENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asad, Munazza; Iqbal, Khadija; Sabir, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Problem based learning (PBL) is an instructional approach that utilizes problems or cases as a context for students to acquire problem solving skills. It promotes communication skills, active learning, and critical thinking skills. It encourages peer teaching and active participation in a group. It was a cross-sectional study conducted at Al Nafees Medical College, Isra University, Islamabad, in one month duration. This study was conducted on 193 students of both 1st and 2nd year MBBS. Each PBL consists of three sessions, spaced by 2-3 days. In the first session students were provided a PBL case developed by both basic and clinical science faculty. In Session 2 (group discussion), they share, integrate their knowledge with the group and Wrap up (third session), was concluded at the end. A questionnaire based survey was conducted to find out overall effectiveness of PBL sessions. Teaching through PBLs greatly improved the problem solving and critical reasoning skills with 60% students of first year and 71% of 2nd year agreeing that the acquisition of knowledge and its application in solving multiple choice questions (MCQs) was greatly improved by these sessions. They observed that their self-directed learning, intrinsic motivation and skills to relate basic concepts with clinical reasoning which involves higher order thinking have greatly enhanced. Students found PBLs as an effective strategy to promote teamwork and critical thinking skills. PBL is an effective method to improve critical thinking and problem solving skills among medical students.

  8. Investigating the Correlation Between Pharmacy Student Performance on the Health Science Reasoning Test and a Critical Thinking Assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nornoo, Adwoa O; Jackson, Jonathan; Axtell, Samantha

    2017-03-25

    Objective. To determine whether there is a correlation between pharmacy students' scores on the Health Science Reasoning Test (HSRT) and their grade on a package insert assignment designed to assess critical thinking. Methods. The HSRT was administered to first-year pharmacy students during a critical-thinking course in the spring semester. In the same semester, a required package insert assignment was completed in a pharmacokinetics course. To determine whether there was a relationship between HSRT scores and grades on the assignment, a Spearman's rho correlation test was performed. Results. A very weak but significant positive correlation was found between students' grades on the assignment and their overall HSRT score (r=0.19, p critical-thinking skills in pharmacy students.

  9. New Indicators Of Burnished Surface EvaluationReasons Of Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toboła Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern production technology requires new ways of surface examination and a special kind of surface profile parameters. Industrial quality inspection needs to be fast, reliable and inexpensive. In this paper it is shown how stochastic surface examination and its proper parameters could be a solution for many industrial problems not necessarily related with smoothing out a manufactured surface. Burnishing is a modern technology widely used in aircraft and automotive industries to the products as well as to process tools. It gives to the machined surface high smoothness, and good fatigue and wear resistance. Every burnished material behaves in a different manner. Process conditions strongly influence the final properties of any specific product. Optimum burnishing conditions should be preserved for any manufactured product. In this paper we deal with samples made of conventional tool steel – Sverker 21 (X153CrMoV12 and powder metallurgy (P/M tool steel – Vanadis 6. Complete investigations of product properties are impossible to perform (because of constraints related to their cost, time, or lack of suitable equipment. Looking for a global, all-embracing quality indicator it was found that the correlation function and the frequency analysis of burnished surface give useful information for controlling the manufacturing process and evaluating the product quality. We propose three new indicators of burnishing surface quality. Their properties and usefulness are verified with the laboratory measurement of material samples made of the two mentioned kinds of tool steel.

  10. A critical evaluation of the strategy project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, B.J.; Liland, A.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Experience after the Chernobyl accident has shown that remediation strategies need to consider a wide range of different issues to ensure the long-term sustainability of radioactively contaminated areas. The STRATEGY project (Sustainable Restoration And Long-Term Management Of Contaminated Rural, Urban And Industrial Ecosystems (www.strategy-ec.org.uk) had the overall objective of establishing a holistic decision framework for the selection of optimal remediation strategies for long-term sustainable management of contaminated areas in Western Europe. The project carried out a critical evaluation of a series of countermeasures and waste disposal options including a consideration of their technical feasibility and practicality and whether they (i) incur considerable direct or side-effect costs; (ii) have significant environmental side effects; and (iii) are acceptable to society. A main output was a comprehensive, documented evaluation of more than 100 countermeasures (in the form of standardized templates) that would be relevant for off-site nuclear emergency management in the mid to long term. Stakeholder participation is an important mechanism to explore these additional benefits or disadvantages to the use of countermeasures, and is an essential step in developing a decision framework which avoids problems previously experienced in emergency management. Close liaison with the FARMING stakeholder network facilitated evaluation of countermeasure templates for rural ecosystems. Stakeholder opinion suggested that some countermeasures were as likely to be rejected an socio-ethical grounds as technical and economic grounds. Rejection of specific countermeasures would be expected to show site, context and national differences. Suitable approaches for successfully communicating with a wide range of stakeholders were explored. The way in which countermeasure evaluation and selection is carried out is particularly relevant for ethical evaluation of remediation

  11. Comprehensive evaluation of fracture critical bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Two-girder steel bridges are classified as fracture critical bridges based on the definition given in the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. In a fracture critical bridge a failure of a tension member leads to collapse of the bridge. However, ...

  12. Teaching evolution (and all of biology) more effectively: Strategies for engagement, critical reasoning, and confronting misconceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Craig E

    2008-08-01

    The strength of the evidence supporting evolution has increased markedly since the discovery of DNA but, paradoxically, public resistance to accepting evolution seems to have become stronger. A key dilemma is that science faculty have often continued to teach evolution ineffectively, even as the evidence that traditional ways of teaching are inferior has become stronger and stronger. Three pedagogical strategies that together can make a large difference in students' understanding and acceptance of evolution are extensive use of interactive engagement, a focus on critical thinking in science (especially on comparisons and explicit criteria) and using both of these in helping the students actively compare their initial conceptions (and publicly popular misconceptions) with more fully scientific conceptions. The conclusion that students' misconceptions must be dealt with systematically can be difficult for faculty who are teaching evolution since much of the students' resistance is framed in religious terms and one might be reluctant to address religious ideas in class. Applications to teaching evolution are illustrated with examples that address criteria and critical thinking, standard geology versus flood geology, evolutionary developmental biology versus organs of extreme perfection, and the importance of using humans as a central example. It is also helpful to bridge the false dichotomy, seen by many students, between atheistic evolution versus religious creationism. These applications are developed in detail and are intended to be sufficient to allow others to use these approaches in their teaching. Students and other faculty were quite supportive of these approaches as implemented in my classes.

  13. The evaluation of set of criticality parameters using scale system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Alfredo; Sanchez, Andrea; Yamaguchi, Mistuo

    2009-01-01

    In evaluating the criticality safety of the nuclear fuel facility, it is important to apply a consistent methodology, which consider every aspects concerning various types of criticality parameters. Usually, the critical parameters are compiled and arranged into handbooks, and these handbooks are based on experience with nuclear facilities, experimental data from criticality safety research facilities, and theoretical studies performed using numerical simulations. Most of criticality safety evaluation can be addressed using the criticality parameters data directly from handbook, but some critical parameters for a specific chemical mixtures and/or enrichment are not be available. Consequently, not available parameters has to be evaluated. This work present the methodology to evaluate a set of critical parameters using SCALE system for various types of mixtures present at nuclear fuel cycle facilities for two different level of enrichment, the results are verified in the independent calculation using MCNP Monte Carlo Code. (author)

  14. Critical Applied Linguistics: An Evaluative Interdisciplinary Approach in Criticism and Evaluation of Applied Linguistics’ Disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Davari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of some significant critical approaches and directions in the field of applied linguistics from the mid-1980s onwards has met with various positive and opposite reactions. On the basis of their strength and significance, such approaches and directions have challenged some of the mainstream approaches’ claims, principles and assumptions. Among them, critical applied linguistics can be highlighted as a new approach, developed by the Australian applied linguist, Alastair Pennycook. The aspects, domains and concerns of this new approach were introduced in his book in 2001. Due to the undeniable importance of this approach, as well as partial negligence regarding it in Iranian academic setting, this paper first intends to introduce this approach, as an approach that evaluates various disciplines of applied linguistics through its own specific principles and interests. Then, in order to show its step-by-step application in the evaluation of different disciplines of applied linguistics, with a glance at its significance and appropriateness in Iranian society, two domains, namely English language education and language policy and planning, are introduced and evaluated in order to provide readers with a visible and practical picture of its interdisciplinary nature and evaluative functions. The findings indicate the efficacy of applying this interdisciplinary framework in any language-in-education policy and planning in accordance with the political, social and cultural context of the target society.

  15. The benefits of a critical stance: a reflection on past papers on the theories of reasoned action and planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manstead, Antony S R

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, I reflect on past papers published in the British Journal of Social Psychology (BJSP) that have played a role in the development of the theory of reasoned action (TRA) and the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). I focus on seven papers that fall into five categories: (1) those that critique the TRA/TPB for taking insufficient account of social factors; (2) those that critique the models on the grounds that many social behaviours are 'habitual'; (3) those that critically examine the construct of perceived behavioural control; (4) those that argue for the importance of affective factors, which appear to be overlooked in the TRA/TPB; and (5) those that argue for the importance of studying the role of moderating factors and interaction effects in the TRA/TPB. I conclude that BJSP's traditional focus on criticism and theory development is one that benefits the journal and the field. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  16. Life skills, mathematical reasoning and critical thinking: a curriculum for the prevention of problem gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Nigel E; Macdonald, John; Somerset, Matthew

    2008-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that youth are two to three times more likely than adults to report gambling related problems. This paper reports on the development and pilot evaluation of a school-based problem gambling prevention curriculum. The prevention program focused on problem gambling awareness and self-monitoring skills, coping skills, and knowledge of the nature of random events. The results of a controlled experiment evaluating the students learning from the program are reported. We found significant improvement in the students' knowledge of random events, knowledge of problem gambling awareness and self-monitoring, and knowledge of coping skills. The results suggest that knowledge based material on random events, problem gambling awareness and self-monitoring skills, and coping skills can be taught. Future development of the curriculum will focus on content to expand the students' coping skill options.

  17. The impact and applicability of critical experiment evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewer, R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-06-01

    This paper very briefly describes a project to evaluate previously performed critical experiments. The evaluation is intended for use by criticality safety engineers to verify calculations, and may also be used to identify data which need further investigation. The evaluation process is briefly outlined; the accepted benchmark critical experiments will be used as a standard for verification and validation. The end result of the project will be a comprehensive reference document.

  18. Corrado Giaquinto’s Critical Fortune in Rome and the Reasons for His Departure for Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierguidi, Stefano

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Around 1751, Cochin pointed out that the best painters then in Rome were Masucci, Mancini, Battoni and “le chevalier Corado”. Cochin’s statement would seem to be one of the most meaningful indications of the artist’s fame. Modern criticism, however, tends not to distinguish between the nature of Giaquinto’s and Masucci, Mancini and Batoni’s success: while the latter three artists had definitively established themselves as history painters in oil and could work for international patrons without leaving Rome, Giaquinto never succeeded in asserting himself in that capacity and in this medium. Indeed, in his letter Cochin mistook Corrado for the more famous and well-known knight Sebastiano Conca. Being summoned to Madrid was certainly a great achievement for Giaquinto, but leaving Rome was somehow a forced choice because in the 25 years he had spent there since 1727, the painter had never achieved the success to which he aspired.Alrededor de 1751 Cochin indicaba a los que eran considerados los mejores pintores de Roma en la época: Masucci, Mancini, Battoni y “le chevalier Corado”. El pasaje de Cochin representaría una de las demostraciones más significativas de la notoriedad del artista, pero la crítica moderna propende a no distinguir la diferente esencia del éxito de Giaquinto con respecto a lo de los varios Masucci, Mancini y Batoni, citados en la carta de Cochin: mientras que estos últimos habían triunfado definitivamente como pintores de historia al óleo, y podían trabajar para clientela internacional sin dejar Roma, Giaquinto nunca logró imponerse en aquella función. En la carta, de hecho, Cochin confundía y sobreponía Corrado a lo más célebre Sebastiano Conca. La llamada a Madrid fue un gran éxito por Giaquinto, pero la salida fue una elección obligada porque en veinticinco años que pasó en Roma, el pintor nunca obtuvo aquel reconocimiento a lo que ambicionaba.

  19. REBT: A CRITICAL EVALUATION FROM AN ETHICAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    assumpta

    Rational Emotive Behavioural Therapy (REBT): A critical review. Assumptor ... After these irrational thoughts take over a persons thinking, the person is bound to .... support of REBT and fails to consider factors such as those mentioned above. ... This is a strong point in REBT theory since they do not only focus on the present.

  20. Criticality Safety Evaluation of Hanford Tank Farms Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WEISS, E.V.

    2000-12-15

    Data and calculations from previous criticality safety evaluations and analyses were used to evaluate criticality safety for the entire Tank Farms facility to support the continued waste storage mission. This criticality safety evaluation concludes that a criticality accident at the Tank Farms facility is an incredible event due to the existing form (chemistry) and distribution (neutron absorbers) of tank waste. Limits and controls for receipt of waste from other facilities and maintenance of tank waste condition are set forth to maintain the margin subcriticality in tank waste.

  1. Criticality Safety Evaluation of Hanford Tank Farms Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WEISS, E.V.

    2000-01-01

    Data and calculations from previous criticality safety evaluations and analyses were used to evaluate criticality safety for the entire Tank Farms facility to support the continued waste storage mission. This criticality safety evaluation concludes that a criticality accident at the Tank Farms facility is an incredible event due to the existing form (chemistry) and distribution (neutron absorbers) of tank waste. Limits and controls for receipt of waste from other facilities and maintenance of tank waste condition are set forth to maintain the margin subcriticality in tank waste

  2. Evaluating safety-critical organizations - emphasis on the nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiman, Teemu; Oedewald, Pia (VTT, Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland))

    2009-04-15

    - it is understood that safety is a complex phenomenon. Safety is understood as a property of an entire system and not just absence of incidents - people feel personally responsible for the safety of the entire system, they feel they can have an effect on safety - the organizations aims for understanding the hazards and anticipating the risks in their activities - the organization is alert to the possibility of an unanticipated event - good prerequisites for carrying out the daily work exist. An organizational evaluation should aim at reasoning the: - sources of effectiveness in the organizational dimensions - sources of ineffectiveness in the organization dimensions - social processes in the organization - psychological outcomes of the current organization on a personnel level, e.g. motivation, understanding of hazards and sense of control. When drawing inferences from the organizational evaluations and defining development initiatives, it is important to consider actions that will promote and maintain the strengths of the organization as well as actions that will address and develop the weak areas. Issues associated with data collection and choice of methods has been a topic of much discussion in the field of evaluation of safety-critical organizations. We argue that the problem of collecting data is not the most important problem in terms of facilitating valid evaluations. A more important problem concerns the criteria that are used, as well as the operationalization of criteria into something measurable. Too much effort has been spent on methods and too little on contemplating the question of valid evaluation criteria and a valid means of deducing from the data whether the criteria are fulfilled. In order to accomplish this, a valid evaluation framework is needed, which incorporates the idea of organization as a complex sociotechnical system. This report has been an attempt to illustrate the premises and key issues to consider in organizational evaluations. No

  3. Evaluating safety-critical organizations - emphasis on the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiman, Teemu; Oedewald, Pia

    2009-04-01

    understood that safety is a complex phenomenon. Safety is understood as a property of an entire system and not just absence of incidents - people feel personally responsible for the safety of the entire system, they feel they can have an effect on safety - the organizations aims for understanding the hazards and anticipating the risks in their activities - the organization is alert to the possibility of an unanticipated event - good prerequisites for carrying out the daily work exist. An organizational evaluation should aim at reasoning the: - sources of effectiveness in the organizational dimensions - sources of ineffectiveness in the organization dimensions - social processes in the organization - psychological outcomes of the current organization on a personnel level, e.g. motivation, understanding of hazards and sense of control. When drawing inferences from the organizational evaluations and defining development initiatives, it is important to consider actions that will promote and maintain the strengths of the organization as well as actions that will address and develop the weak areas. Issues associated with data collection and choice of methods has been a topic of much discussion in the field of evaluation of safety-critical organizations. We argue that the problem of collecting data is not the most important problem in terms of facilitating valid evaluations. A more important problem concerns the criteria that are used, as well as the operationalization of criteria into something measurable. Too much effort has been spent on methods and too little on contemplating the question of valid evaluation criteria and a valid means of deducing from the data whether the criteria are fulfilled. In order to accomplish this, a valid evaluation framework is needed, which incorporates the idea of organization as a complex sociotechnical system. This report has been an attempt to illustrate the premises and key issues to consider in organizational evaluations. No method can

  4. Providing Nuclear Criticality Safety Analysis Education through Benchmark Experiment Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bess, John D.; Briggs, J. Blair; Nigg, David W.

    2009-01-01

    One of the challenges that today's new workforce of nuclear criticality safety engineers face is the opportunity to provide assessment of nuclear systems and establish safety guidelines without having received significant experience or hands-on training prior to graduation. Participation in the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) and/or the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) provides students and young professionals the opportunity to gain experience and enhance critical engineering skills.

  5. Study Concerning Exercising an Adequate Professional Reasoning in Developing the Evaluation and Audit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vârteiu Daniel Petru

    2017-01-01

    Even though there are regulations which clearly specify the way in which an evaluation process, respectively an adequate audit process must take place, for a good management of encountered situations and difficulties, the evaluator, respectively the auditor must exercise an adequate professional reasoning.

  6. Comparison of Critical Flow Models' Evaluations for SBLOCA Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yeon Sik; Park, Hyun Sik; Cho, Seok

    2016-01-01

    A comparison of critical flow models between the Trapp-Ransom and Henry-Fauske models for all SBLOCA (small break loss of coolant accident) scenarios of the ATLAS (Advanced thermal-hydraulic test loop for accident simulation) facility was performed using the MARS-KS code. For the comparison of the two critical models, the accumulated break mass was selected as the main parameter for the comparison between the analyses and tests. Four cases showed the same respective discharge coefficients between the two critical models, e.g., 6' CL (cold leg) break and 25%, 50%, and 100% DVI (direct vessel injection) breaks. In the case of the 4' CL break, no reasonable results were obtained with any possible Cd values. In addition, typical system behaviors, e.g., PZR (pressurizer) pressure and collapsed core water level, were also compared between the two critical models. Four cases showed the same respective discharge coefficients between the two critical models, e.g., 6' CL break and 25%, 50%, and 100% DVI breaks. In the case of the 4' CL break, no reasonable results were obtained with any possible Cd values. In addition, typical system behaviors, e.g., PZR pressure and collapsed core water level, were also compared between the two critical models. From the comparison between the two critical models for the CL breaks, the Trapp-Ransom model predicted quite well with respect to the other model for the smallest and larger breaks, e.g., 2', 6', and 8.5' CL breaks. In addition, from the comparison between the two critical models for the DVI breaks, the Trapp-Ransom model predicted quite well with respect to the other model for the smallest and larger breaks, e.g., 5%, 50%, and 100% DVI breaks. In the case of the 50% and 100% breaks, the two critical models predicted the test data quite well.

  7. CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF EVALUATION MODEL LOMCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Bernal Agudo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation model that the LOMCE projects sinks its roots into the neoliberal beliefs, reflecting a specific way of understanding the world. What matters is not the process but the results, being the evaluation the center of the education-learning processes. It presents an evil planning, since the theory that justifies the model doesn’t specify upon coherent proposals, where there is an excessive worry for excellence and diversity is left out. A comprehensive way of understanding education should be recovered.

  8. Lower HIV prevalence among Asian/Pacific Islander men who have sex with men: a critical review for possible reasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chongyi; Raymond, H Fisher; Wong, Frank Y; Silvestre, Anthony J; Friedman, Mark S; Documét, Patricia; McFarland, Willi; Stall, Ron

    2011-04-01

    We conducted a critical literature review for possible reasons that may explain the lower HIV prevalence observed among API MSM compared to MSM of other races/ethnicities. Trends emerging from the literature suggest that traditional individual-level factors-unprotected anal intercourse, substance use, STD prevalence, rates and frequency of HIV testing, and utilization of HIV prevention services-do not appear to be related to the lower HIV prevalence among API MSM. Some evidence suggests that socio-cultural and structural factors might be the more critical forces in determining racial/ethnic disparities of HIV among MSM. For API MSM, these factors include structures of sexual networks, access to and reception of medical care and treatment among HIV-positive MSM, and influences of different levels and types of acculturation. Moreover, emerging risk reduction strategies, such as seroadaptive behaviors, could play a role. Future research should address these factors in intervention design. In addition, better theories of resilience and measurement of strengths and protective factors are needed to enhance the efficacy of HIV interventions.

  9. Review of studies on criticality safety evaluation and criticality experiment methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Yoshitaka; Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Misawa, Tsuyoshi; Yamane, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    Since the early 1960s, many studies on criticality safety evaluation have been conducted in Japan. Computer code systems were developed initially by employing finite difference methods, and more recently by using Monte Carlo methods. Criticality experiments have also been carried out in many laboratories in Japan as well as overseas. By effectively using these study results, the Japanese Criticality Safety Handbook was published in 1988, almost the intermediate point of the last 50 years. An increased interest has been shown in criticality safety studies, and a Working Party on Nuclear Criticality Safety (WPNCS) was set up by the Nuclear Science Committee of Organisation Economic Co-operation and Development in 1997. WPNCS has several task forces in charge of each of the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Program (ICSBEP), Subcritical Measurement, Experimental Needs, Burn-up Credit Studies and Minimum Critical Values. Criticality safety studies in Japan have been carried out in cooperation with WPNCS. This paper describes criticality safety study activities in Japan along with the contents of the Japanese Criticality Safety Handbook and the tasks of WPNCS. (author)

  10. Criticality safety benchmark evaluation project: Recovering the past

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trumble, E.F.

    1997-06-01

    A very brief summary of the Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company is provided in this paper. The purpose of the project is to provide a source of evaluated criticality safety experiments in an easily usable format. Another project goal is to search for any experiments that may have been lost or contain discrepancies, and to determine if they can be used. Results of evaluated experiments are being published as US DOE handbooks.

  11. International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) - ICSBEP 2015 Handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bess, John D.

    2015-01-01

    The Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (CSBEP) was initiated in October of 1992 by the United States Department of Energy (DOE). The project quickly became an international effort as scientists from other interested countries became involved. The International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) became an official activity of the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) in 1995. This handbook contains criticality safety benchmark specifications that have been derived from experiments performed at various critical facilities around the world. The benchmark specifications are intended for use by criticality safety engineers to validate calculation techniques used to establish minimum subcritical margins for operations with fissile material and to determine criticality alarm requirements and placement. Many of the specifications are also useful for nuclear data testing. Example calculations are presented; however, these calculations do not constitute a validation of the codes or cross-section data. The evaluated criticality safety benchmark data are given in nine volumes. These volumes span approximately 69000 pages and contain 567 evaluations with benchmark specifications for 4874 critical, near-critical or subcritical configurations, 31 criticality alarm placement/shielding configurations with multiple dose points for each, and 207 configurations that have been categorised as fundamental physics measurements that are relevant to criticality safety applications. New to the handbook are benchmark specifications for neutron activation foil and thermoluminescent dosimeter measurements performed at the SILENE critical assembly in Valduc, France as part of a joint venture in 2010 between the US DOE and the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA). A photograph of this experiment is shown on the front cover. Experiments that are found unacceptable for use as criticality safety benchmark experiments are discussed in these

  12. Evaluation of Critical Thinking in Higher Education in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar.R, Renjith; James, Rajani

    2015-01-01

    The study aims to identify the critical level thinking of students in higher education. It is focused to evaluate the level of critical thinking variables among the students in Nizwa College of Technology and to determine whether these variables are influenced by gender and department. The data for the research is collected from 281 diploma…

  13. Transforming Medical Assessment: Integrating Uncertainty Into the Evaluation of Clinical Reasoning in Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Suzette; Lemay, Jean-Francois

    2017-06-01

    In an age where practicing physicians have access to an overwhelming volume of clinical information and are faced with increasingly complex medical decisions, the ability to execute sound clinical reasoning is essential to optimal patient care. The authors propose two concepts that are philosophically paramount to the future assessment of clinical reasoning in medicine: assessment in the context of "uncertainty" (when, despite all of the information that is available, there is still significant doubt as to the best diagnosis, investigation, or treatment), and acknowledging that it is entirely possible (and reasonable) to have more than "one correct answer." The purpose of this article is to highlight key elements related to these two core concepts and discuss genuine barriers that currently exist on the pathway to creating such assessments. These include acknowledging situations of uncertainty, creating clear frameworks that define progressive levels of clinical reasoning skills, providing validity evidence to increase the defensibility of such assessments, considering the comparative feasibility with other forms of assessment, and developing strategies to evaluate the impact of these assessment methods on future learning and practice. The authors recommend that concerted efforts be directed toward these key areas to help advance the field of clinical reasoning assessment, improve the clinical care decisions made by current and future physicians, and have positive outcomes for patients. It is anticipated that these and subsequent efforts will aid in reaching the goal of making future assessment in medical education more representative of current-day clinical reasoning and decision making.

  14. A critical evaluation of HIPE data.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Callaghan, A

    2012-01-01

    Resource allocation and planning of future services is dependent on current volumes, making it imperative that procedural data is accurately recorded. We sought to evaluate the effectiveness of the information gathered by the Hospital Inpatient Enquiry (HIPE) system in recording such activity. Five index vascular procedures (open\\/endovascular abdominal aneurysm repair, carotid endarterectomy, lower limb angioplasty\\/bypass) were chosen to reflect activity. The Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI), and HIPE databases were interrogated to obtain the regional and hospital specific figures for the years 2005, 2006 and 2009, and then compared with the prospective vascular database in St James\\'s hospital. Data for 2006 (the most recent year available) shows significant discrepancies between the HIPE and vascular database figures for St James\\'s hospital. The HIPE and database figures respectively for; open aneurysm 13\\/30 (-50%), endovascular aneurysm 39\\/31 (+25%), carotid 62\\/48 (+29%), angioplasty 242\\/111 (+100%) and bypass 24\\/10 (+100%) These inaccuracies are likely to be magnified on a regional and national level when pooling data.

  15. Effectiveness of faculty training to enhance clinical evaluation of student competence in ethical reasoning and professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Carole; Bowen, Denise; Paarmann, Carlene

    2007-08-01

    This study evaluated the short- and long-term effectiveness of faculty training to enhance clinical evaluation of ethical reasoning and professionalism in a baccalaureate dental hygiene program. Ethics, values, and professionalism are best measured in contexts comparable to practice; therefore, authentic evaluation is desirable for assessing these areas of competence. Methods were the following: 1) a faculty development workshop implementing a core values-based clinical evaluation system for assessing students' professional judgment; 2) subsequent evaluation of the clinical faculty's use of core values for grading and providing written comments related to students' professional judgment during patient care for three academic years; and 3) evaluation of program outcomes assessments regarding clinical learning experiences related to ethics and professionalism domains. Results revealed the clinical faculty's evaluation of professional judgment during patient care was enhanced by training; written comments more frequently related to core values defined in the American Dental Hygienists' Association (ADHA) Code of Ethics; and faculty members reported more confidence and comfort evaluating professional judgment after implementation of this evaluation system and receiving training in its application. Students were more positive in outcomes assessments about their competency and learning experiences related to professionalism and ethics. This article shares one approach for enhancing clinical faculty's authentic evaluation of student competence in ethical reasoning and professionalism.

  16. Comparison of the dose evaluation methods for criticality accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Yoshio; Oka, Tsutomu

    2004-01-01

    The improvement of the dose evaluation method for criticality accidents is important to rationalize design of the nuclear fuel cycle facilities. The source spectrums of neutron and gamma ray of a criticality accident depend on the condition of the source, its materials, moderation, density and so on. The comparison of the dose evaluation methods for a criticality accident is made. Some methods, which are combination of criticality calculation and shielding calculation, are proposed. Prompt neutron and gamma ray doses from nuclear criticality of some uranium systems have been evaluated as the Nuclear Criticality Slide Rule. The uranium metal source (unmoderated system) and the uranyl nitrate solution source (moderated system) in the rule are evaluated by some calculation methods, which are combinations of code and cross section library, as follows: (a) SAS1X (ENDF/B-IV), (b) MCNP4C (ENDF/B-VI)-ANISN (DLC23E or JSD120), (c) MCNP4C-MCNP4C (ENDF/B-VI). They have consisted of criticality calculation and shielding calculation. These calculation methods are compared about the tissue absorbed dose and the spectrums at 2 m from the source. (author)

  17. The International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, J.B.

    2003-01-01

    The International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) was initiated in 1992 by the United States Department of Energy. The ICSBEP became an official activity of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) - Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) in 1995. Representatives from the United States, United Kingdom, France, Japan, the Russian Federation, Hungary, Republic of Korea, Slovenia, Yugoslavia, Kazakhstan, Israel, Spain, and Brazil are now participating. The purpose of the ICSBEP is to identify, evaluate, verify, and formally document a comprehensive and internationally peer-reviewed set of criticality safety benchmark data. The work of the ICSBEP is published as an OECD handbook entitled 'International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments.' The 2003 Edition of the Handbook contains benchmark model specifications for 3070 critical or subcritical configurations that are intended for validating computer codes that calculate effective neutron multiplication and for testing basic nuclear data. (author)

  18. Critical Applied Linguistics: An Evaluative Interdisciplinary Approach in Criticism and Evaluation of Applied Linguistics’ Disciplines

    OpenAIRE

    H. Davari

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of some significant critical approaches and directions in the field of applied linguistics from the mid-1980s onwards has met with various positive and opposite reactions. On the basis of their strength and significance, such approaches and directions have challenged some of the mainstream approaches’ claims, principles and assumptions. Among them, critical applied linguistics can be highlighted as a new approach, developed by the Australian applied linguist, Alastair Pennycook....

  19. Implementation and evaluation of critical thinking strategies to enhance critical thinking skills in Middle Eastern nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Elaine; Courtney, Mary

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop, implement and evaluate critical thinking strategies to enhance critical thinking skills in Middle Eastern nurses. Critical thinking strategies such as questioning, debate, role play and small group activity were developed and used in a professional development programme, which was trialled on a sample of Middle Eastern nurses (n = 20), to promote critical thinking skills, encourage problem solving, development of clinical judgment making and care prioritization in order to improve patient care and outcomes. Classroom learning was transformed from memorization to interaction and active participation. The intervention programme was successful in developing critical thinking skills in both the nurse educators and student nurses in this programme. This programme successfully integrated critical thinking strategies into a Middle Eastern nursing curriculum. Recommendations are as follows: (1) utilize evidence-based practice and stem questions to encourage the formulation of critical thinking questions; (2) support the needs of nurse educators for them to effectively implement teaching strategies to foster critical thinking skills; and (3) adopt creative approaches to (i) transform students into interactive participants and (ii) open students' minds and stimulate higher-level thinking and problem-solving abilities.

  20. [The evaluation of nursing graduates' scientific reasoning and oral and written communication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demandes, Ingrid; Latrach, Cecilia A; Febre, Naldy Pamela; Muñoz, Claudia; Torres, Pamela; Retamal, Jessica

    2012-08-01

    This descriptive, cross-sectional study was performed in Santiago de Chile, with the objective to evaluate the scientific reasoning and the oral and written communication of nursing graduates. The sample consisted of 37 nursing graduates who participated in the three stages of the study: I) creation and validation of the instrument; II) training the faculty participating in the study to apply the instrument uniformly; and III) application of the instrument and data analysis. The data show different percentages regarding this competency, with the predominance of scientific reasoning (83.16%), followed by oral and written communication (78.37%). In conclusion, this study demonstrates the value for nursing schools to implement a formal evaluation that allows for determining the profile of nursing graduates, guaranteeing the quality of their training and education.

  1. International handbook of evaluated criticality safety benchmark experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (CSBEP) was initiated in October of 1992 by the United States Department of Energy. The project quickly became an international effort as scientists from other interested countries became involved. The International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) became an official activity of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development - Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD-NEA) in 1995. This handbook contains criticality safety benchmark specifications that have been derived from experiments performed at various nuclear critical facilities around the world. The benchmark specifications are intended for use by criticality safety engineers to validate calculational techniques used to establish minimum subcritical margins for operations with fissile material and to determine criticality alarm requirement and placement. Many of the specifications are also useful for nuclear data testing. Example calculations are presented; however, these calculations do not constitute a validation of the codes or cross section data. The evaluated criticality safety benchmark data are given in nine volumes. These volumes span over 55,000 pages and contain 516 evaluations with benchmark specifications for 4,405 critical, near critical, or subcritical configurations, 24 criticality alarm placement / shielding configurations with multiple dose points for each, and 200 configurations that have been categorized as fundamental physics measurements that are relevant to criticality safety applications. Experiments that are found unacceptable for use as criticality safety benchmark experiments are discussed in these evaluations; however, benchmark specifications are not derived for such experiments (in some cases models are provided in an appendix). Approximately 770 experimental configurations are categorized as unacceptable for use as criticality safety benchmark experiments. Additional evaluations are in progress and will be

  2. Criticality evaluation for the 233-S decontamination and decommissioning project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This criticality evaluation document analyzes the potential of a criticality event as a result of decontaminating and decommissioning the 233-S Plutonium Concentration Facility. These calculations supplement the previous set of calculations performed under this same contract, which were performed on March 13, 1996. These calculations were performed using the same MCNP computer code as for the previous set; the validation calculations performed then are valid for this set as well. Hand calculations, using the method of Solid Angle, were also developed

  3. Nuclear criticality safety parameter evaluation for uranium metallic alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Andrea; Abe, Alfredo, E-mail: andreasdpz@hotmail.com, E-mail: abye@uol.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Energia Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear criticality safety during fuel fabrication process, transport and storage of fissile and fissionable materials requires criticality safety analysis. Normally the analysis involves computer calculations and safety parameters determination. There are many different Criticality Safety Handbooks where such safety parameters for several different fissile mixtures are presented. The handbooks have been published to provide data and safety principles for the design, safety evaluation and licensing of operations, transport and storage of fissile and fissionable materials. The data often comprise not only critical values, but also subcritical limits and safe parameters obtained for specific conditions using criticality safety calculation codes such as SCALE system. Although many data are available for different fissile and fissionable materials, compounds, mixtures, different enrichment level, there are a lack of information regarding a uranium metal alloy, specifically UMo and UNbZr. Nowadays uranium metal alloy as fuel have been investigated under RERTR program as possible candidate to became a new fuel for research reactor due to high density. This work aim to evaluate a set of criticality safety parameters for uranium metal alloy using SCALE system and MCNP Monte Carlo code. (author)

  4. Criticality Safety Evaluation for the TACS at DAF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Percher, C. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Heinrichs, D. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-06-10

    Hands-on experimental training in the physical behavior of multiplying systems is one of ten key areas of training required for practitioners to become qualified in the discipline of criticality safety as identified in DOE-STD-1135-99, Guidance for Nuclear Criticality Safety Engineer Training and Qualification. This document is a criticality safety evaluation of the training activities and operations associated with HS-3201-P, Nuclear Criticality 4-Day Training Course (Practical). This course was designed to also address the training needs of nuclear criticality safety professionals under the auspices of the NNSA Nuclear Criticality Safety Program1. The hands-on, or laboratory, portion of the course will utilize the Training Assembly for Criticality Safety (TACS) and will be conducted in the Device Assembly Facility (DAF) at the Nevada Nuclear Security Site (NNSS). The training activities will be conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory following the requirements of an Integrated Work Sheet (IWS) and associated Safety Plan. Students will be allowed to handle the fissile material under the supervision of an LLNL Certified Fissile Material Handler.

  5. CRITICALITY SAFETY LIMIT EVALUATION PROGRAM (CSLEP's) AND QUICK SCREENS: ANSWERS TO EXPEDITED PROCESSING LEGACY CRITICALITY SAFETY LIMITS AND EVALUATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TOFFER, H.

    2006-01-01

    Since the end of the cold war, the need for operating weapons production facilities has faded. Criticality Safety Limits and controls supporting production modes in these facilities became outdated and furthermore lacked the procedure based rigor dictated by present day requirements. In the past, in many instances, the formalism of present day criticality safety evaluations was not applied. Some of the safety evaluations amounted to a paragraph in a notebook with no safety basis and questionable arguments with respect to double contingency criteria. When material stabilization, clean out, and deactivation activities commenced, large numbers of these older criticality safety evaluations were uncovered with limits and controls backed up by tenuous arguments. A dilemma developed: on the one hand, cleanup activities were placed on very aggressive schedules; on the other hand, a highly structured approach to limits development was required and applied to the cleanup operations. Some creative approaches were needed to cope with the limits development process

  6. Evaluation for nuclear safety-critical software reliability of DCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ying

    2015-01-01

    With the development of control and information technology at NPPs, software reliability is important because software failure is usually considered as one form of common cause failures in Digital I and C Systems (DCS). The reliability analysis of DCS, particularly qualitative and quantitative evaluation on the nuclear safety-critical software reliability belongs to a great challenge. To solve this problem, not only comprehensive evaluation model and stage evaluation models are built in this paper, but also prediction and sensibility analysis are given to the models. It can make besement for evaluating the reliability and safety of DCS. (author)

  7. Pareto analysis of critical factors affecting technical institution evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Gambhir

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available With the change of education policy in 1991, more and more technical institutions are being set up in India. Some of these institutions provide quality education, but others are merely concentrating on quantity. These stakeholders are in a state of confusion about decision to select the best institute for their higher educational studies. Although various agencies including print media provide ranking of these institutions every year, but their results are controversial and biased. In this paper, the authors have made an endeavor to find the critical factors for technical institution evaluation from literature survey. A Pareto analysis has also been performed to find the intensity of these critical factors in evaluation. This will not only help the stake holders in taking right decisions but will also help the management of institutions in benchmarking for identifying the most important critical areas to improve the existing system. This will in turn help Indian economy.

  8. The International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project on the Internet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, J.B.; Brennan, S.A.; Scott, L.

    2000-01-01

    The International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) was initiated in October 1992 by the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) defense programs and is documented in the Transactions of numerous American Nuclear Society and International Criticality Safety Conferences. The work of the ICSBEP is documented as an Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) handbook, International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments. The ICSBEP Internet site was established in 1996 and its address is http://icsbep.inel.gov/icsbep. A copy of the ICSBEP home page is shown in Fig. 1. The ICSBEP Internet site contains the five primary links. Internal sublinks to other relevant sites are also provided within the ICSBEP Internet site. A brief description of each of the five primary ICSBEP Internet site links is given

  9. A Critical Evaluation of the Paradigm Approach in Sepedi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Abstract: This article gives a critical evaluation of the paradigm approach of the Groot Noord-. Sotho Woordeboek to the lemmatisation of verbs and nouns derived from verbs. The verb stem -roba. 'break' with its complicated system of derivations will be taken as a case in point. The paradigm presented for -roba will be ...

  10. Recommendations for preparing the criticality safety evaluation of transportation packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, H.R.; Parks, C.V.

    1997-04-01

    This report provides recommendations on preparing the criticality safety section of an application for approval of a transportation package containing fissile material. The analytical approach to the evaluation is emphasized rather than the performance standards that the package must meet. Where performance standards are addressed, this report incorporates the requirements of 10 CFR Part 71. 12 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs

  11. Criticality safety evaluation of the fuel cycle facility electrorefiner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lell, R.M.; Mariani, R.D.; Fujita, E.K.; Benedict, R.W.; Turski, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    The integral Fast Reactor (IFR) being developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) combines the advantages of metal-fueled, liquid-metal cooled reactors and a closed-loop fuel cycle. Some of the primary advantages are passive safety for the reactor and resistance to diversion for the heavy metal in the fuel cycle. in addition, the IFR pyroprocess recycles all the long-lived actinide activation products for casting into new fuel pins so that they may be burned in the reactor. A key component in the Fuel Cycle Facility (FCF) recycling process is the electrorefiner (ER) in which the actinides are separated from the fission products. In the process, the metal fuel is electrochemically dissolved into a high-temperature molten salt, and electrorefined uranium or uranium/plutonium products are deposited at cathodes. This report addresses the new and innovative aspects of the criticality analysis ensuing from processing metallic fuel, rather than metal oxide fuel, and from processing the spent fuel in batch operations. in particular, the criticality analysis employed a mechanistic approach as opposed to a probabilistic one. A probabilistic approach was unsuitable because of a lack of operational experience with some of the processes, rendering the estimation of accident event risk factors difficult. The criticality analysis also incorporated the uncertainties in heavy metal content attending the process items by defining normal operations envelopes (NOES) for key process parameters. The goal was to show that reasonable process uncertainties would be demonstrably safe toward criticality for continuous batch operations provided the key process parameters stayed within their NOES. Consequently the NOEs became the point of departure for accident events in the criticality analysis

  12. Do Different Mental Models Influence Cybersecurity Behavior? Evaluations via Statistical Reasoning Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary L. Brase

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cybersecurity research often describes people as understanding internet security in terms of metaphorical mental models (e.g., disease risk, physical security risk, or criminal behavior risk. However, little research has directly evaluated if this is an accurate or productive framework. To assess this question, two experiments asked participants to respond to a statistical reasoning task framed in one of four different contexts (cybersecurity, plus the above alternative models. Each context was also presented using either percentages or natural frequencies, and these tasks were followed by a behavioral likelihood rating. As in previous research, consistent use of natural frequencies promoted correct Bayesian reasoning. There was little indication, however, that any of the alternative mental models generated consistently better understanding or reasoning over the actual cybersecurity context. There was some evidence that different models had some effects on patterns of responses, including the behavioral likelihood ratings, but these effects were small, as compared to the effect of the numerical format manipulation. This points to a need to improve the content of actual internet security warnings, rather than working to change the models users have of warnings.

  13. Do Different Mental Models Influence Cybersecurity Behavior? Evaluations via Statistical Reasoning Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brase, Gary L; Vasserman, Eugene Y; Hsu, William

    2017-01-01

    Cybersecurity research often describes people as understanding internet security in terms of metaphorical mental models (e.g., disease risk, physical security risk, or criminal behavior risk). However, little research has directly evaluated if this is an accurate or productive framework. To assess this question, two experiments asked participants to respond to a statistical reasoning task framed in one of four different contexts (cybersecurity, plus the above alternative models). Each context was also presented using either percentages or natural frequencies, and these tasks were followed by a behavioral likelihood rating. As in previous research, consistent use of natural frequencies promoted correct Bayesian reasoning. There was little indication, however, that any of the alternative mental models generated consistently better understanding or reasoning over the actual cybersecurity context. There was some evidence that different models had some effects on patterns of responses, including the behavioral likelihood ratings, but these effects were small, as compared to the effect of the numerical format manipulation. This points to a need to improve the content of actual internet security warnings, rather than working to change the models users have of warnings.

  14. Evaluation of subcooled critical heat flux correlations for tubes with and without internal twisted tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inasaka, F.; Nariai, H.

    1996-01-01

    Eleven correlations and models for critical heat flux (CHF) of subcooled flow boiling in water were evaluated. Both a direct substitution method (DSM) and a heat balance condition method (HBM) were compared in the evaluations. The HBM was recommended as a better prediction method in the present study. For straight tubes under uniform heating conditions, the correlations of the Gunther, Knoebel, modified Tong, W-2, and Tong-75, and also the Celata and Weisman-Pei models were confirmed to give reasonably good predictions. Among them, the Celata model was the best with respect to accuracy. For swirl flow under uniform heating conditions, Tong-75-I (involving modification of the water velocity parameter) and Nariai-Inasaka correlations were confirmed to give reasonably good predictions, even though their predictions were too low for the CHF under non-uniform heating conditions. (orig.)

  15. Sensitivity analysis of critical experiments with evaluated nuclear data libraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, D.; Kosaka, S.

    2008-01-01

    Criticality benchmark testing was performed with evaluated nuclear data libraries for thermal, low-enriched uranium fuel rod applications. C/E values for k eff were calculated with the continuous-energy Monte Carlo code MVP2 and its libraries generated from Endf/B-VI.8, Endf/B-VII.0, JENDL-3.3 and JEFF-3.1. Subsequently, the observed k eff discrepancies between libraries were decomposed to specify the source of difference in the nuclear data libraries using sensitivity analysis technique. The obtained sensitivity profiles are also utilized to estimate the adequacy of cold critical experiments to the boiling water reactor under hot operating condition. (authors)

  16. Evaluating Models of Human Performance: Safety-Critical Systems Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feary, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation is part of panel discussion on Evaluating Models of Human Performance. The purpose of this panel is to discuss the increasing use of models in the world today and specifically focus on how to describe and evaluate models of human performance. My presentation will focus on discussions of generating distributions of performance, and the evaluation of different strategies for humans performing tasks with mixed initiative (Human-Automation) systems. I will also discuss issues with how to provide Human Performance modeling data to support decisions on acceptability and tradeoffs in the design of safety critical systems. I will conclude with challenges for the future.

  17. Evaluating Secondary Students' Scientific Reasoning in Genetics Using a Two-Tier Diagnostic Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Chi-Yan; Treagust, David

    2010-05-01

    While genetics has remained as one key topic in school science, it continues to be conceptually and linguistically difficult for students with the concomitant debates as to what should be taught in the age of biotechnology. This article documents the development and implementation of a two-tier multiple-choice instrument for diagnosing grades 10 and 12 students' understanding of genetics in terms of reasoning. The pretest and posttest forms of the diagnostic instrument were used alongside other methods in evaluating students' understanding of genetics in a case-based qualitative study on teaching and learning with multiple representations in three Western Australian secondary schools. Previous studies have shown that a two-tier diagnostic instrument is useful in probing students' understanding or misunderstanding of scientific concepts and ideas. The diagnostic instrument in this study was designed and then progressively refined, improved, and implemented to evaluate student understanding of genetics in three case schools. The final version of the instrument had Cronbach's alpha reliability of 0.75 and 0.64, respectively, for its pretest and the posttest forms when it was administered to a group of grade 12 students (n = 17). This two-tier diagnostic instrument complemented other qualitative data collection methods in this research in generating a more holistic picture of student conceptual learning of genetics in terms of scientific reasoning. Implications of the findings of this study using the diagnostic instrument are discussed.

  18. The script concordance test as a tool to evaluate clinical reasoning in neonatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Hamida, Emira; Ayadi, Imen; Marrakchi, Zahra; Quinton, André

    2017-05-01

    Script concordance test aims to evaluate knowledge organization, which represents an essential component of the clinical competence. To build a script concordance test and demonstrate its relevance in the evaluation of Neonatology skills. A script concordance test including 20 vignettes and 20 items, was provided to 52 fourth year medical students and 11 family medicine interns. Script concordance test scores obtained by experts were higher then those obtained by students and family medicine interns. The scores (out of 100) were 82.52 ± 7.35 CI95% [77.26-87.78] for the experts, 58.52 ± 9.72 CI95% [55.82-61.23] for the students, and 63.17±11.36 IC95%  [55.53-70.81] (p<0.0001) for the interns. Our data suggest that script concordance tests could be used to assess the acquisition of clinical reasoning among fourth year medical students in neonatolgy.

  19. Surgery resident selection and evaluation. A critical incident study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, J C; Currie, M L; Wade, T P; Kaminski, D L

    1993-03-01

    This article reports a study of the process of selecting and evaluating general surgery residents. In personnel psychology terms, a job analysis of general surgery was conducted using the Critical Incident Technique (CIT). The researchers collected 235 critical incidents through structured interviews with 10 general surgery faculty members and four senior residents. The researchers then directed the surgeons in a two-step process of sorting the incidents into categories and naming the categories. The final essential categories of behavior to define surgical competence were derived through discussion among the surgeons until a consensus was formed. Those categories are knowledge/self-education, clinical performance, diagnostic skills, surgical skills, communication skills, reliability, integrity, compassion, organization skills, motivation, emotional control, and personal appearance. These categories were then used to develop an interview evaluation form for selection purposes and a performance evaluation form to be used throughout residency training. Thus a continuum of evaluation was established. The categories and critical incidents were also used to structure the interview process, which has demonstrated increased interview validity and reliability in many other studies. A handbook for structuring the interviews faculty members conduct with applicants was written, and an interview training session was held with the faculty. The process of implementation of the structured selection interviews is being documented currently through qualitative research.

  20. Bowel management systems in critical care: a service evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzema, Jennifer

    2017-01-25

    Aim Many patients who are critically ill develop faecal incontinence associated with diarrhoea, and require a bowel management system (BMS) to prevent skin excoriation. Following guidelines produced by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, early rehabilitation has resulted in a reduction in the number of days that patients receive mechanical ventilation. However, patients with a BMS are potentially mechanically ventilated for longer because they are cared for in bed. The aim of this evaluation was to investigate whether patients with a BMS are mechanically ventilated for longer than those without a BMS. Method This was a retrospective service evaluation, in which a database search was conducted to identify patients admitted to the critical care department in one healthcare organisation during 2013. The search was narrowed to identify patients admitted to the critical care department who had received advanced respiratory support (mechanical ventilation), to compare the mean number of mechanically ventilated days between patients with and without a BMS (n = 122). Data were analysed using the Mann-Whitney U test. Results There was a significant difference in the number of mechanically ventilated days (Pcritically ill patients with a BMS are placed in a sitting position for short periods of time. Further research should explore alternative bowel care options for patients who are critically ill.

  1. SRTC criticality safety technical review: Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation 93-04 enriched uranium receipt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathbun, R.

    1993-01-01

    Review of NMP-NCS-930087, open-quotes Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation 93-04 Enriched Uranium Receipt (U), July 30, 1993, close quotes was requested of SRTC (Savannah River Technology Center) Applied Physics Group. The NCSE is a criticality assessment to determine the mass limit for Engineered Low Level Trench (ELLT) waste uranium burial. The intent is to bury uranium in pits that would be separated by a specified amount of undisturbed soil. The scope of the technical review, documented in this report, consisted of (1) an independent check of the methods and models employed, (2) independent HRXN/KENO-V.a calculations of alternate configurations, (3) application of ANSI/ANS 8.1, and (4) verification of WSRC Nuclear Criticality Safety Manual procedures. The NCSE under review concludes that a 500 gram limit per burial position is acceptable to ensure the burial site remains in a critically safe configuration for all normal and single credible abnormal conditions. This reviewer agrees with that conclusion

  2. Critical Evaluation of Validation Rules Automated Extraction from Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pejcoch

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to critically evaluate a possibility of automatic extraction of such kind of rules which could be later used within a Data Quality Management process for validation of records newly incoming to Information System. For practical demonstration the 4FT-Miner procedure implemented in LISpMiner System was chosen. A motivation for this task is the potential simplification of projects focused on Data Quality Management. Initially, this article is going to critically evaluate a possibility of fully automated extraction with the aim to identify strengths and weaknesses of this approach in comparison to its alternative, when at least some a priori knowledge is available. As a result of practical implementation, this article provides design of recommended process which would be used as a guideline for future projects. Also the question of how to store and maintain extracted rules and how to integrate them with existing tools supporting Data Quality Management is discussed

  3. Development of Learning Management Model Based on Constructivist Theory and Reasoning Strategies for Enhancing the Critical Thinking of Secondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaipichit, Dudduan; Jantharajit, Nirat; Chookhampaeng, Sumalee

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to study issues around the management of science learning, problems that are encountered, and to develop a learning management model to address those problems. The development of that model and the findings of its study were based on Constructivist Theory and literature on reasoning strategies for enhancing…

  4. Seismic evaluation of critical facilities at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, R.C.; Tokarz, F.J.

    1976-01-01

    The performance of critical facilities at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) are being evaluated for severe earthquake loading. Facilities at Livermore, Site-300 and the Nevada Test Site are included in this study. These facilities are identified, the seismic criteria used for the analysis are indicated, the various methods used for structural analysis are discussed and a summary of the results of facilities analyzed to date are presented

  5. Criticality Safety Evaluation of Standard Criticality Safety Requirements #1-520 g Operations in PF-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanaka, Alan Joseph Jr. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-13

    Guidance has been requested from the Nuclear Criticality Safety Division (NCSD) regarding processes that involve 520 grams of fissionable material or less. This Level-3 evaluation was conducted and documented in accordance with NCS-AP-004 (Ref. 1), formerly NCS-GUIDE-01. This evaluation is being written as a generic evaluation for all operations that will be able to operate using a 520-gram mass limit. Implementation for specific operations will be performed using a Level 1 CSED, which will confirm and document that this CSED can be used for the specific operation as discussed in NCS-MEMO-17-007 (Ref. 2). This Level 3 CSED updates and supersedes the analysis performed in NCS-TECH-14-014 (Ref. 3).

  6. [Evaluation and treatment of the critically ill cirrhotic patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Javier; Aracil, Carles; Solà, Elsa; Soriano, Germán; Cinta Cardona, Maria; Coll, Susanna; Genescà, Joan; Hombrados, Manoli; Morillas, Rosa; Martín-Llahí, Marta; Pardo, Albert; Sánchez, Jordi; Vargas, Victor; Xiol, Xavier; Ginès, Pere

    2016-11-01

    Cirrhotic patients often develop severe complications requiring ICU admission. Grade III-IV hepatic encephalopathy, septic shock, acute-on-chronic liver failure and variceal bleeding are clinical decompensations that need a specific therapeutic approach in cirrhosis. The increased effectiveness of the treatments currently used in this setting and the spread of liver transplantation programs have substantially improved the prognosis of critically ill cirrhotic patients, which has facilitated their admission to critical care units. However, gastroenterologists and intensivists have limited knowledge of the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of these complications and of the prognostic evaluation of critically ill cirrhotic patients. Cirrhotic patients present alterations in systemic and splanchnic hemodynamics, coagulation and immune dysfunction what further increase the complexity of the treatment, the risk of developing new complications and mortality in comparison with the general population. These differential characteristics have important diagnostic and therapeutic implications that must be known by general intensivists. In this context, the Catalan Society of Gastroenterology and Hepatology requested a group of experts to draft a position paper on the assessment and treatment of critically ill cirrhotic patients. This article describes the recommendations agreed upon at the consensus meetings and their main conclusions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  7. Critical analysis of science textbooks evaluating instructional effectiveness

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The critical analysis of science textbooks is vital in improving teaching and learning at all levels in the subject, and this volume sets out a range of academic perspectives on how that analysis should be done. Each chapter focuses on an aspect of science textbook appraisal, with coverage of everything from theoretical and philosophical underpinnings, methodological issues, and conceptual frameworks for critical analysis, to practical techniques for evaluation. Contributions from many of the most distinguished scholars in the field give this collection its sure-footed contemporary relevance, reflecting the international standards of UNESCO as well as leading research organizations such as the American Association for the Advancement of Science (whose Project 2061 is an influential waypoint in developing protocols for textbook analysis). Thus the book shows how to gauge aspects of textbooks such as their treatment of controversial issues, graphical depictions, scientific historiography, vocabulary usage, acc...

  8. Evaluating Critical Thinking in Computer Mediated Communication Discussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faizah Mohamad

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation of whether computer mediated communication (CMC can develop critical thinking in language classrooms. The research was conducted at a university branch campus in Malaysia over a period of 12 weeks. It involved three groups of learners in which each group was exposed to different discussion modes. The first group was exposed to a CMC discussion mode, the second group was exposed to a mixed mode of CMC and face-to-face (F2F discussions and the third group had only the face-to-face mode of discussion. The critical thinking development in these three conditions was evaluated based on the content analysis method used by Newman, Johnson, Cochrane and Webb (1995. This research reports the findings which hopefully will give some insight to other teaching practitioners who are interested in incorporating IT in their classrooms

  9. Benchmark test of JEF-1 evaluation by calculating fast criticalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelloni, S.

    1986-06-01

    JEF-1 basic evaluation was tested by calculating fast critical experiments using the cross section discrete-ordinates transport code ONEDANT with P/sub 3/S/sub 16/ approximation. In each computation a spherical one dimensional model was used, together with a 174 neutron group VITAMIN-E structured JEF-1 based nuclear data library, generated at EIR with NJOY and TRANSX-CTR. It is found that the JEF-1 evaluation gives accurate results comparable with ENDF/B-V and that eigenvalues agree well within 10 mk whereas reaction rates deviate by up to 10% from the experiment. U-233 total and fission cross sections seem to be underestimated in the JEF-1 evaluation in the fast energy range between 0.1 and 1 MeV. This confirms previous analysis based on diffusion theory with 71 neutron groups, performed by H. Takano and E. Sartori at NEA Data Bank. (author)

  10. Critical evaluation of oxygen-uptake assessment in swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Ana; Figueiredo, Pedro; Pendergast, David; Kjendlie, Per-Ludvik; Vilas-Boas, João P; Fernandes, Ricardo J

    2014-03-01

    Swimming has become an important area of sport science research since the 1970s, with the bioenergetic factors assuming a fundamental performance-influencing role. The purpose of this study was to conduct a critical evaluation of the literature concerning oxygen-uptake (VO2) assessment in swimming, by describing the equipment and methods used and emphasizing the recent works conducted in ecological conditions. Particularly in swimming, due to the inherent technical constraints imposed by swimming in a water environment, assessment of VO2max was not accomplished until the 1960s. Later, the development of automated portable measurement devices allowed VO2max to be assessed more easily, even in ecological swimming conditions, but few studies have been conducted in swimming-pool conditions with portable breath-by-breath telemetric systems. An inverse relationship exists between the velocity corresponding to VO2max and the time a swimmer can sustain it at this velocity. The energy cost of swimming varies according to its association with velocity variability. As, in the end, the supply of oxygen (whose limitation may be due to central-O2 delivery and transportation to the working muscles-or peripheral factors-O2 diffusion and utilization in the muscles) is one of the critical factors that determine swimming performance, VO2 kinetics and its maximal values are critical in understanding swimmers' behavior in competition and to develop efficient training programs.

  11. Decision aid systems for evaluating sustainability: a critical survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, Norbert; Starkl, Markus

    2004-01-01

    Assessing sustainability in compliance with the EU water framework directive is affected by numerous conflicting interests. As they can no longer be resolved by means of intuitive reasoning, some authors propose the integration of the major fragmented indicators into one common indicator of the overall sustainability by means of a codified multi-criteria decision support methodology (DSM). Practitioners in urban water management, however, usually object to the use of a codified DSM, as in the legal context (negotiations between the stakeholders, tendering procedure) it might jeopardize the feasibility of the decision making process (DMP). Here we show that a feasible implementation of a DSM into the DMP is possible. To this end, we design a cooperative approach, which by means of an axiomatic evaluation helps to select an appropriate DSM. We illustrate it by a hypothetical dialogue between the relevant authority and the developer. It will expose the inherent limitations of the DSM, which are due to their underlying mathematical features

  12. Critical evaluation of substitution of natural gas by biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrendt, F.

    2009-01-01

    Biogas use in Germany's distribution grid is regulated by the federal integrated energy and climate program. The key measures that influence the biogas feed-in include core regulation; changes to the act grating feed-in preference for electricity generated from renewable energies; regulation for heat supply from renewable energies; and regulations regarding biofuels. A critical evaluation of substitution of natural gas by biogas was presented. Specific topics that were discussed included aims and measures; potential; usage pathways for biogas; efficiency criteria of usage pathways; and location analysis. The presentation also discussed the parameters of raw biogas and regular distribution grid; a process chain for biogas upgrading; and criteria for process evaluation. It was concluded that costs and environmental relevance of biogas-processing can be compared over the complete life cycle for various pathways and configurations. This represented an excellent and very flexible planning tool. Subsidies and related measures could be focussed on the most efficient pathways. tabs., figs.

  13. Absolute order-of-magnitude reasoning applied to a social multi-criteria evaluation framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsordegan, A.; Sánchez, M.; Agell, N.; Aguado, J. C.; Gamboa, G.

    2016-03-01

    A social multi-criteria evaluation framework for solving a real-case problem of selecting a wind farm location in the regions of Urgell and Conca de Barberá in Catalonia (northeast of Spain) is studied. This paper applies a qualitative multi-criteria decision analysis approach based on linguistic labels assessment able to address uncertainty and deal with different levels of precision. This method is based on qualitative reasoning as an artificial intelligence technique for assessing and ranking multi-attribute alternatives with linguistic labels in order to handle uncertainty. This method is suitable for problems in the social framework such as energy planning which require the construction of a dialogue process among many social actors with high level of complexity and uncertainty. The method is compared with an existing approach, which has been applied previously in the wind farm location problem. This approach, consisting of an outranking method, is based on Condorcet's original method. The results obtained by both approaches are analysed and their performance in the selection of the wind farm location is compared in aggregation procedures. Although results show that both methods conduct to similar alternatives rankings, the study highlights both their advantages and drawbacks.

  14. The development and psychometric testing of a theory-based instrument to evaluate nurses' perception of clinical reasoning competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Shwu-Ru; Liu, Hsiu-Chen; Tsai, Hsiu-Min; Tsai, Ying-Huang; Lin, Yu-Ching; Chang, Chia-Hao; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop and psychometrically test the Nurses Clinical Reasoning Scale. Clinical reasoning is an essential skill for providing safe and quality patient care. Identifying pre-graduates' and nurses' needs and designing training courses to improve their clinical reasoning competence becomes a critical task. However, there is no instrument focusing on clinical reasoning in the nursing profession. Cross-sectional design was used. This study included the development of the scale, a pilot study that preliminary tested the readability and reliability of the developed scale and a main study that implemented and tested the psychometric properties of the developed scale. The Nurses Clinical Reasoning Scale was developed based on the Clinical Reasoning Model. The scale includes 15 items using a Likert five-point scale. Data were collected from 2013-2014. Two hundred and fifty-one participants comprising clinical nurses and nursing pre-graduates completed and returned the questionnaires in the main study. The instrument was tested for internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Its validity was tested with content, construct and known-groups validity. One factor emerged from the factor analysis. The known-groups validity was confirmed. The Cronbach's alpha for the entire instrument was 0·9. The reliability and validity of the Nurses Clinical Reasoning Scale were supported. The scale is a useful tool and can be easily administered for the self-assessment of clinical reasoning competence of clinical nurses and future baccalaureate nursing graduates. Study limitations and further recommendations are discussed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Midface rejuvenation: a critical evaluation of a 7-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascali, Michele; Botti, Chiara; Cervelli, Valerio; Botti, Giovanni

    2015-05-01

    Although "traditional" face-lifting techniques can achieve excellent improvement along the jawline and neck, they often have little impact on the midface area. Thus, many different types of procedures have been developed to provide rejuvenation in this region, usually contemplating various dissection planes, incisions, and suspension vectors. A 7-year observational study of 350 patients undergoing midface lift was analyzed. The authors suspended the midface flap, anchoring to the deep temporal aponeurosis with a suspender-like suture (superolateral vector), or directly to the lower orbital rim with a belt-like suture (superomedial vector). Subjective and objective methods were used to evaluate the results. The subjective methods included a questionnaire completed by the patients. The objective method involved the evaluation of preoperative and postoperative photographs by a three-member jury instructed to compare the "critical" anatomical areas of the midface region: malar eminence, nasojugal groove, nasolabial fold, and jowls in the lower portion of the cheeks. The average follow-up period was 24 months. High satisfaction was noticeable from the perceptions of both the jury and the patients. Objective evaluation evidenced that midface lift with temporal anchoring was more efficient for the treatment of malar eminence, whereas midface lift with transosseous periorbital anchoring was more efficient for the treatment of nasojugal groove. The most satisfying aspect of the adopted techniques is a dramatic facial rejuvenation and preservation of the patient's original youthful identity. Furthermore, choosing the most suitable technique respects the patient's needs and enables correction of the specific defects. Therapeutic, IV.

  16. Evaluation of neutron flux in the Pool Critical Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippincott, E.P.; Ruddy, F.H.; Gold, R.; Kellogg, L.S.; Roberts, J.H.

    1984-09-01

    A recently completed series of experiments in the Pool Critical Assembly (PCA) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provided extensive neutron flux characterization of a mockup pressure vessel configuration. Considerable effort has been made to understand the uncertainties of the various measurements made in the PCA and to resolve discrepancies in the data. Additional measurements are available for similar configurations in the Oak Ridge Reactor-Poolside Facility (ORR-PSF) at ORNL and in the NESDIP facility in the UK. Comparisons of these results, together with associated neutron field calculations, enable a better evaluation of the actual uncertainties and realistic limits of accuracy to be assessed. Such assessments are especially valuable when the accuracy improvements of benchmark referencing are to be included and extrapolations to new configurations are made

  17. Implementing accountability for reasonableness framework at district level in Tanzania: a realist evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndawi Benedict

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the growing importance of the Accountability for Reasonableness (A4R framework in priority setting worldwide, there is still an inadequate understanding of the processes and mechanisms underlying its influence on legitimacy and fairness, as conceived and reflected in service management processes and outcomes. As a result, the ability to draw scientifically sound lessons for the application of the framework to services and interventions is limited. This paper evaluates the experiences of implementing the A4R approach in Mbarali District, Tanzania, in order to find out how the innovation was shaped, enabled, and constrained by the interaction between contexts, mechanisms and outcomes. Methods This study draws on the principles of realist evaluation -- a largely qualitative approach, chiefly concerned with testing and refining programme theories by exploring the complex interactions of contexts, mechanisms, and outcomes. Mixed methods were used in data collection, including individual interviews, non-participant observation, and document reviews. A thematic framework approach was adopted for the data analysis. Results The study found that while the A4R approach to priority setting was helpful in strengthening transparency, accountability, stakeholder engagement, and fairness, the efforts at integrating it into the current district health system were challenging. Participatory structures under the decentralisation framework, central government's call for partnership in district-level planning and priority setting, perceived needs of stakeholders, as well as active engagement between researchers and decision makers all facilitated the adoption and implementation of the innovation. In contrast, however, limited local autonomy, low level of public awareness, unreliable and untimely funding, inadequate accountability mechanisms, and limited local resources were the major contextual factors that hampered the full

  18. Criticality safety evaluation report for K Basin filter cartridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwinkendorf, K.N.

    1995-01-01

    A criticality safety evaluation of the K Basin filter cartridge assemblies has been completed to support operations without a criticality alarm system. The results show that for normal operation, the filter cartridge assembly is far below the safety limit of k eff = 0.95, which is applied to plutonium systems at the Hanford Site. During normal operating conditions, uranium, plutonium, and fission and corrosion products in solution are continually accumulating in the available void spaces inside the filter cartridge medium. Currently, filter cartridge assemblies are scheduled to be replaced at six month intervals in KE Basin, and at one year intervals in KW Basin. According to available plutonium concentration data for KE Basin and data for the U/Pu ratio, it will take many times the six-month replacement time for sufficient fissionable material accumulation to take place to exceed the safety limit of k eff = 0.95, especially given the conservative assumption that the presence of fission and corrosion products is ignored. Accumulation of sludge with a composition typical of that measured in the sand filter backwash pit will not lead to a k eff = 0.95 value. For off-normal scenarios, it would require at least two unlikely, independent, and concurrent events to take place before the k eff = 0.95 limit was exceeded. Contingencies considered include failure to replace the filter cartridge assemblies at the scheduled time resulting in additional buildup of fissionable material, the loss of geometry control from the filter cartridge assembly breaking apart and releasing the individual filter cartridges into an optimal configuration, and concentrations of plutonium at U/Pu ratios less than measured data for KE Basin, typically close to 400 according to extensive measurements in the sand filter backwash pit and plutonium production information

  19. Criticality evaluations of scrambled fuel in water basin storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast, E.

    1989-01-01

    Fuel stored underwater in the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant basins has been subjected to the usual criticality safety evaluations to assure safe storage configurations. Certain accident or emergency conditions, caused by corrosion or a seismic event, could change the fuel configuration and environment to invalidate previous calculations. Consideration is given here to such contingencies for fuel stored in three storage basins. One basin has fuel stored in racks, on a generally flat floor. In the other two basins, the fuel is stored on yokes and in baskets suspended from a monorail system. The floor is ribbed with 30.48-cm-thick and 80-cm-high concrete barriers across the basin width and spaced 30.48 cm apart. The suspended fuel is typically down to 15 cm above the floor of the channel between the concrete barriers. These basins each have 29 channels of 18 positions maximum per channel for a total of 522 possible positions, which are presently 77 and 49% occupied. The three basins are hydraulically interconnected. Several scenarios indicate possible changes in the fuel configuration. An earthquake could rupture a basin wall or floor, allowing the water to drain from all basins. All levels of water would fall to the completely drained condition. Suspended fuel could drop and fall over within the channel. Corrosion might weaken the support systems or cause leaks in sealed fuel canisters. Calculations were made with the KENO-IV criticality program and the library of mostly Hansen-Roach 16-energy-group neutron cross sections

  20. [Medical hemostasis. II. Systemic hemostatics, a critical evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bogaard, A E

    1989-02-01

    The control of spontaneous and traumatic haemorrhage is a matter of constant concern to veterinary practitioners. In some instances, the control of bleeding may be relatively simple using some topical therapeutic procedure, but when haemostatic defects are present, treatment with topical agents alone might not be sufficient, and more radical and life-saving procedures are indicated: replacement therapy with blood or blood products. As this is not easy to perform in most veterinary clinical situations, any therapeutic agent, which facilitates control of haemorrhage is a welcome addition to the therapeutic armament. Besides vitamin K, blood products and agents for topical use, there are only a few agents having a well-defined action on the mechanism of haemostasis. On the other hand several drugs are propagated in the Netherlands as systemic haemostatics in the treatment of bleeding disorders and prevention of haemorrhage during operation. None of these is of proven clinical value in veterinary practice. The only agent, which possibly showed some clinical effect: ethamsylate, has recently been withdrawn from the Dutch market by the manufacturers. Double-blind prospective trials with quantitation of loss of blood showed that antifibrinolytic agents such as tranexamic acid are clinically effective in certain conditions in humans. Because of their mode of action, it might reasonably be expected that these drugs might have positive results in veterinary medicine. Therefore, clinical trials with antifibrinolytic agents are urgently indicated to evaluate the effectiveness and side-effects of these drugs in animals showing severe bleeding or in the prevention of peroperative haemorrhage.

  1. RISK ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION FOR CRITICAL LOGISTICAL INFRASTRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Düerkop

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Logistical infrastructure builds the backbone of an economy. Without an effective logistical infrastructure in place, the supply for both enterprises and consumers might not be met. But even a high-quality logistical infrastructure can be threatened by risks. Thus, it is important to identify, analyse, and evaluate risks for logistical infrastructure that might threaten logistical processes. Only if those risks are known and their impact estimated, decision makers can implement counteractive measures to reduce risks. In this article, we develop a network-based approach that allows for the evaluation of risks and their consequences onto the logistical network. We will demonstrate the relevance of this approach by applying it to the logistics network of the central German state of Hesse. Even though transport data is extensively tracked and recorded nowadays, typical daily risks, like accidents on a motorway, and extraordinary risks, like a bridge at risk to collapse, terrorist attacks or climate-related catastrophes, are not systematically anticipated. Several studies unveiled recently that the overall impact for an economy of possible failures of single nodes and/or edges in a network are not calculated, and particularly critical edges are not identified in advance. We address this information gap by a method that helps to identify and quantify risks in a given network. To reach this objective, we define a mathematical optimization model that quantifies the current “risk-related costs” of the overall network and quantify the risk by investigating the change of the overall costs in the case a risk is realized.

  2. Evaluation of Critical Parameters to Improve Slope Drainage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Weng Long

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on identifying and evaluating critical parameters of various drainage configurations, arrangement, and filter which affect the efficiency of water draining system in slopes. There are a total of seven experiments with different types of homogeneous soil, drainage envelope, filter material, and quantity of pipes performed utilizing a model box with a dimension of 0.8 m × 0.8 m × 0.6 m. The pipes were orientated at 5 degrees from the horizontal. Rainfall event was introduced via a rainfall simulator with rainfall intensity of 434.1 mm/h. From the experiments performed, the expected outcomes when utilizing double pipes and geotextile as envelope filter were verified in this study. The results obtained from these experiments were reviewed and compared with Chapter 14 “Subsurface Drainage Systems” of DID’s Irrigation and Agricultural Drainage Manual of Malaysia and the European standard. It is recommended that the pipe installed in the slope could be wrapped with geotextile and in tandem with application of granular filter to minimize clogging without affecting the water discharge rate. Terzaghi’s filter criteria could be followed closely when deciding on new materials to act as aggregate filter. A caging system could be introduced as it could maintain the integrity of the drainage system and could ease installation.

  3. Outcome evaluation of a new model of critical care orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Linda L; Pfeifer, Pamela; Catalano, Rene; Fortney, Robert; Nelson, Greta; Rabito, Robb; Harap, Rebecca

    2009-05-01

    The shortage of critical care nurses and the service expansion of 2 intensive care units provided a unique opportunity to create a new model of critical care orientation. The goal was to design a program that assessed critical thinking, validated competence, and provided learning pathways that accommodated diverse experience. To determine the effect of a new model of critical care orientation on satisfaction, retention, turnover, vacancy, preparedness to manage patient care assignment, length of orientation, and cost of orientation. A prospective, quasi-experimental design with both quantitative and qualitative methods. The new model improved satisfaction scores, retention rates, and recruitment of critical care nurses. Length of orientation was unchanged. Cost was increased, primarily because a full-time education consultant was added. A new model for nurse orientation that was focused on critical thinking and competence validation improved retention and satisfaction and serves as a template for orientation of nurses throughout the medical center.

  4. Evaluation of Neutron Response of Criticality Accident Alarm System Detector to Quasi-Monoenergetic 24 keV Neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Norio; Yoshida, Tadayoshi; Yashima, Hiroshi

    The criticality accident alarm system (CAAS), which was recently developed and installed at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency's Tokai Reprocessing Plant, consists of a plastic scintillator combined with a cadmium-lined polyethylene moderator and thereby responds to both neutrons and gamma rays. To evaluate the neutron absorbed dose rate response of the CAAS detector, a 24 keV quasi-monoenergetic neutron irradiation experiment was performed at the B-1 facility of the Kyoto University Research Reactor. The detector's evaluated neutron response was confirmed to agree reasonably well with prior computer-predicted responses.

  5. Evaluation of neutron response of criticality accident alarm system detector to quasi-monoenergetic 24 keV neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujimura, Norio; Yoshida, Tadayoshi; Yashima, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    The criticality accident alarm system (CAAS), which was recently developed and installed at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency's Tokai Reprocessing Plant, consists of a plastic scintillator combined with a cadmium-lined polyethylene moderator and thereby responds to both neutrons and gamma rays. To evaluate the neutron absorbed dose rate response of the CAAS detector, a 24 keV quasi-monoenergetic neutron irradiation experiment was performed at the B-1 facility of the Kyoto University Research Reactor. The detector's evaluated neutron response was confirmed to agree reasonably well with prior computer-predicted responses. (author)

  6. SRTC criticality safety technical review: Nuclear criticality safety evaluation 94-02, uranium solidification facility pencil tank module spacing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathbun, R.

    1994-01-01

    Review of NMP-NCS-94-0087, ''Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation 94-02: Uranium Solidification Facility Pencil Tank Module Spacing (U), April 18, 1994,'' was requested of the SRTC Applied Physics Group. The NCSE is a criticality assessment to show that the USF process module spacing, as given in Non-Conformance Report SHM-0045, remains safe for operation. The NCSE under review concludes that the module spacing as given in Non-Conformance Report SHM-0045 remains in a critically safe configuration for all normal and single credible abnormal conditions. After a thorough review of the NCSE, this reviewer agrees with that conclusion

  7. FLUX SENSOR EVALUATIONS AT THE ATR CRITICAL FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unruh, Troy; Rempe, Joy; Nigg, David; Imel, George; Harris, Jason; Bonebrake, Eric

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and the ATR Critical (ATRC) facilities lack real-time methods for detecting thermal neutron flux and fission reaction rates for irradiation capsules. Direct measurements of the actual power deposited into a test are now possible without resorting to complicated correction factors. In addition, it is possible to directly measure minor actinide fission reaction rates and to provide time-dependent monitoring of the fission reaction rate or fast/thermal flux during transient testing. A joint Idaho State University/Idaho National Laboratory ATR National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) project was recently initiated to evaluate new real-time state-of-the-art in-pile flux detection sensors. Initially, the project is comparing the accuracy, response time, and long duration performance of French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA)-developed miniature fission chambers, specialized self-powered neutron detectors (SPNDs) by the Argentinean National Energy Commission (CNEA), specially developed commercial SPNDs, and back-to-back fission (BTB) chambers developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). As discussed in this paper, specialized fixturing and software was developed by INL to facilitate these joint ISU/INL evaluations. Calculations were performed by ISU to assess the performance of and reduce uncertainties in flux detection sensors and compare data obtained from these sensors with existing integral methods employed at the ATRC. Ultimately, project results will be used to select the detector that can provide the best online regional ATRC power measurement. It is anticipated that project results may offer the potential to increase the ATRC's current power limit and its ability to perform low-level irradiation experiments. In addition, results from this effort will provide insights about the viability of using these detectors in the ATR. Hence, this effort complements current activities to improve ATR software tools, computational protocols

  8. Relations between Inductive Reasoning and Deductive Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heit, Evan; Rotello, Caren M.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important open questions in reasoning research is how inductive reasoning and deductive reasoning are related. In an effort to address this question, we applied methods and concepts from memory research. We used 2 experiments to examine the effects of logical validity and premise-conclusion similarity on evaluation of arguments.…

  9. Evaluation of high-level waste pretreatment processes with an approximate reasoning model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bott, T.F.; Eisenhawer, S.W.; Agnew, S.F.

    1999-01-01

    The development of an approximate-reasoning (AR)-based model to analyze pretreatment options for high-level waste is presented. AR methods are used to emulate the processes used by experts in arriving at a judgment. In this paper, the authors first consider two specific issues in applying AR to the analysis of pretreatment options. They examine how to combine quantitative and qualitative evidence to infer the acceptability of a process result using the example of cesium content in low-level waste. They then demonstrate the use of simple physical models to structure expert elicitation and to produce inferences consistent with a problem involving waste particle size effects

  10. Evaluation of critical storm duration rainfall estimates used in flood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-12-08

    Dec 8, 2010 ... quency (DDF) relationships of design rainfall in South Africa based on the critical storm .... The roughness coefficient (r) depends on the land use or cover ..... then exported as a database file (dbf) to use Microsoft Excel for.

  11. Critical evaluation of international health programs: Reframing global health and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Chunhuei; Tuepker, Anaïs; Schoon, Rebecca; Núñez Mondaca, Alicia

    2018-01-05

    Striking changes in the funding and implementation of international health programs in recent decades have stimulated debate about the role of communities in deciding which health programs to implement. An important yet neglected piece of that discussion is the need to change norms in program evaluation so that analysis of community ownership, beyond various degrees of "participation," is seen as central to strong evaluation practices. This article challenges mainstream evaluation practices and proposes a framework of Critical Evaluation with 3 levels: upstream evaluation assessing the "who" and "how" of programming decisions; midstream evaluation focusing on the "who" and "how" of selecting program objectives; and downstream evaluation, the focus of current mainstream evaluation, which assesses whether the program achieved its stated objectives. A vital tenet of our framework is that a community possesses the right to determine the path of its health development. A prerequisite of success, regardless of technical outcomes, is that programs must address communities' high priority concerns. Current participatory methods still seldom practice community ownership of program selection because they are vulnerable to funding agencies' predetermined priorities. In addition to critiquing evaluation practices and proposing an alternative framework, we acknowledge likely challenges and propose directions for future research. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. The biased use of argument evaluation criteria in motivated reasoning; Does argument quality depend on the evaluators' standpoint?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeken, J.A.L.; Van Vugt, M.

    2016-01-01

    People without a background in argumentation theory possess several criteria to distinguish strong from weak arguments. The fact that people have these criteria does not imply that they will use them to objectively assess the quality of an argument. Research on motivated reasoning suggests that

  13. Connecting mathematics learning through spatial reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Joanne; Woolcott, Geoffrey; Mitchelmore, Michael; Davis, Brent

    2018-03-01

    Spatial reasoning, an emerging transdisciplinary area of interest to mathematics education research, is proving integral to all human learning. It is particularly critical to science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields. This project will create an innovative knowledge framework based on spatial reasoning that identifies new pathways for mathematics learning, pedagogy and curriculum. Novel analytical tools will map the unknown complex systems linking spatial and mathematical concepts. It will involve the design, implementation and evaluation of a Spatial Reasoning Mathematics Program (SRMP) in Grades 3 to 5. Benefits will be seen through development of critical spatial skills for students, increased teacher capability and informed policy and curriculum across STEM education.

  14. Reasons Internalism and the function of normative reasons

    OpenAIRE

    Sinclair, Neil

    2017-01-01

    What is the connection between reasons and motives? According to Reasons Internalism there is a non-trivial conceptual connection between normative reasons and the possibility of rationally accessing relevant motivation. Reasons Internalism is attractive insofar as it captures the thought that reasons are for reasoning with and repulsive insofar as it fails to generate sufficient critical distance between reasons and motives. Rather than directly adjudicate this dispute, I extract from it two...

  15. Critical Factors in the Use of Evaluation in Italian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebora, Gianfranco; Turri, Matteo

    2011-01-01

    The use made of evaluation output is crucial for understanding the position and effectiveness of evaluation systems. This article examines the development of evaluation in the Italian university system from the 1990s onwards where serious problems have been and continue to be addressed in the use of evaluation output to improve academic activities…

  16. Taiwan Teacher Preparation Program Evaluation: Some Critical Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tze-Chang

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the influences and changes of recent Taiwan teacher preparation program evaluation (TTPPE) as one of the national evaluation projects conducted by the Higher Education Evaluation and Accreditation Council of Taiwan. The main concerns are what kind of ideology is transformed through the policy by means of evaluation, and what…

  17. CONFLICTING REASONS

    OpenAIRE

    Parfit, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Sidgwick believed that, when impartial reasons conflict with self-interested reasons, there are no truths about their relative strength. There are such truths, I claim, but these truths are imprecise. Many self-interested reasons are decisively outweighed by conflicting impar-tial moral reasons. But we often have sufficient self-interested reasons to do what would make things go worse, and we sometimes have sufficient self-interested reasons to act wrongly. If we reject Act Consequentialism, ...

  18. Evaluating the habitat of the critically endangered Kipunji monkey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effective conservation of threatened species requires a good understanding of their habitat. Most primates are threatened by tropical forest loss. One population of the critically endangered kipunji monkey Rungwecebus kipunji occurs in a restricted part of one forest in southern Tanzania. This restricted range is something of ...

  19. Critical Evaluation of a Human In Vitro Biotransformation Rate Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical biotransformation is critical information in the understanding of how a chemical may elicit health effects in humans or in the environment. Despite the fundamental value of these data, very relatively few measured in vivo data are available for humans compared to the tho...

  20. Evaluating internal public relations using the critical incident technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, K.H.; de Jong, Menno D.T.; van Vuuren, Hubrecht A.

    2015-01-01

    Although the critical incident technique (CIT) is one of the current methods in communication audits, little is known about the way it works. The validity of the CIT in the context of internal public relations depends on 3 assumptions: that participants can describe discrete communication events,

  1. NEW ASPECTS REGARDING THE EVALUATION OF INVESTMENTS IN CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lupan Mariana

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The additional risks associated to the actual global and contagious crisis put a severe pressure on the investments in critical infrastructure and there is a real need for new valuations especially those regarding the synergic financing strategies in crit

  2. From Knowledge to Wisdom: Critical Evaluation in New Literacy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Phil

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to expose students to a wide array of 21st century literacies, it is easy for teachers to forget the equally important role of leading students in critical inquiry regarding "when" and "why" particular media ought to be used. This results in students who possess knowledge of how to use a medium but lack the wisdom to truly understand…

  3. Evaluating Knowledge and Critical Thinking in International Marketing Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manton, Edgar J.; English, Donald E.; Kernek, Courtney Russ

    2008-01-01

    In view of the increasing business globalization trend, the development and implementation of teaching/learning strategies appropriate for the international marketing curriculum is a critical factor for the success of international business students. Bloom's taxonomy is a useful tool that can assist the teacher in testing and instructional…

  4. Evaluating the Appropriateness and Use of Domain Critical Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad W. Buckendahl

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The consequences associated with the uses and interpretations of scores for many credentialing testing programs have important implications for a range of stakeholders. Within licensure settings specifically, results from examination programs are often one of the final steps in the process of assessing whether individuals will be allowed to enter practice. This article focuses on the concept of domain critical errors and suggests a framework for considering their use in practice. Domain critical errors are defined here as knowledge, skills, abilities, or judgments that are essential to the definition of minimum qualifications in a testing program's pass-'fail decision-making process. Using domain critical errors has psychometric and policy implications, particularly for licensure programs that are mandatory for entry-level practice. Because these errors greatly influence pass-'fail decisions, the measurement community faces an ongoing challenge to promote defensible practices while concurrently providing assessment literacy development about the appropriate design and use of testing methods like domain critical errors.

  5. An Evaluation of Critical Thinking Competencies in Business Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Christopher P.; Boswell, Amy; Elliott, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Although critical thinking (CT) skills are usually considered as domain general (Gabbenesch, 2006; Halpern, 2003), CT ability may benefit from expertise knowledge and skill. The current study examined both general CT ability and CT ability related to business scenarios for individuals (a) expert in business, (b) novice in business, and (c) with no…

  6. Scientific reasoning in early and middle childhood: the development of domain-general evidence evaluation, experimentation, and hypothesis generation skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piekny, Jeanette; Maehler, Claudia

    2013-06-01

    According to Klahr's (2000, 2005; Klahr & Dunbar, 1988) Scientific Discovery as Dual Search model, inquiry processes require three cognitive components: hypothesis generation, experimentation, and evidence evaluation. The aim of the present study was to investigate (a) when the ability to evaluate perfect covariation, imperfect covariation, and non-covariation evidence emerges, (b) when experimentation emerges, (c) when hypothesis generation skills emerge, and (d), whether these abilities develop synchronously during childhood. We administered three scientific reasoning tasks referring to the three components to 223 children of five age groups (from age 4.0 to 13.5 years). Our results show that the three cognitive components of domain-general scientific reasoning emerge asynchronously. The development of domain-general scientific reasoning begins with the ability to handle unambiguous data, progresses to the interpretation of ambiguous data, and leads to a flexible adaptation of hypotheses according to the sufficiency of evidence. When children understand the relation between the level of ambiguity of evidence and the level of confidence in hypotheses, the ability to differentiate conclusive from inconclusive experiments accompanies this development. Implications of these results for designing science education concepts for young children are briefly discussed. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Reasons anglers did not respond to an internet survey and evaluation of data quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliotti, Larry M.; Henderson, Kjetil R.

    2015-01-01

    Natural resource management agencies have traditionally used statewide mail surveys to gather information from anglers, but cost savings and faster returns occur using the internet. This study examined mail or internet fishery survey return rates and associated data by license type of South Dakota resident anglers. Junior anglers (ages 16-18; Junior Combination license) had the lowest internet and mail survey return rates (20% and 28%, respectively), followed by adult anglers (ages 19-64; Adult Fishing and Adult Combination licenses; 30% and 39%, respectively), and senior anglers (ages 65+; Senior Fishing and Senior Combination licenses; 42% and 66%, respectively). The three age groups were significantly different on three email use characteristics (shared email, frequency of use, and comfort level). The primary reason for not responding to the internet survey was not receiving or noticing the email request, and secondarily, being too busy to respond. Although having a relatively low response rate, data collected by the internet compared to follow-up mail surveys of internet non-respondents were similar.

  8. Critical evaluation of the cancer risk of dibromochloropropane (DBCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Heather A; Snedeker, Suzanne M

    2005-01-01

    Dibromochloropropane (1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane, DBCP), a pesticide used widely for over 20 years to control nematodes on crops, turf and in nurseries, was banned by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) in 1977 because of evidence of infertility in men and induction of a variety of tumors in laboratory animals. Despite the ban on the use of DBCP, this pesticide remains persistent in soil and continues to be detected as a groundwater contaminant in areas of past high use, in particular California's Central Valley. In this review, we present a critical evaluation of the available scientific literature on the potential for DBCP to affect cancer risk, including the results of animal cancer bioassays, human epidemiological studies and in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity studies. In addition, we provide updated information on DBCP chemistry and metabolism, production and past use, current regulations, its environmental fate, potential for human exposure and current remediation efforts. Results from long-term cancer bioassays in rodents show a statistically significant increase in the incidence of malignant and benign mammary gland tumors in female rats treated orally with DBCP compared to controls and some evidence of increased incidence of mammary fibroadenomas in DBCP low-dose treated female rats exposed by inhalation. Significantly increased incidence of tumors of the forestomach occurred in both sexes of rats and mice treated orally. Rats exposed to DBCP by inhalation showed significant increases in tumors of the tunica vaginalis in males; tumors of the pharynx and adrenal gland in females; and tumors of the tongue, nasal turbinate and nasal cavity in both sexes compared to controls. Male and female mice exposed to DBCP by inhalation experienced increased tumor incidence in the lungs and nasal cavity compared to controls. Significant increases in tumors of the lung and forestomach have also been reported in female mice treated by a dermal route

  9. A Perspective on Student Evaluations, Teaching Techniques, and Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarun, Prashant; Krueger, Dale

    2016-01-01

    In the United States System of Education the growth of student evaluations from 1973 to 1993 has increased from 29% to 86% which in turn has increased the importance of student evaluations on faculty retention, tenure, and promotion. However, the impact student evaluations have had on student academic development generates complex educational…

  10. What does it take to show that a cognitive training procedure is useful? A critical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby, Nori; Ahissar, Merav

    2013-01-01

    Individuals substantially improve with training, indicating that a large degree of plasticity is retained across ages. In the past 20 years, many studies explored the ability to boost cognitive skills (reasoning, linguistic abilities, working memory, and attention) by training with other tasks that exploit limited cognitive resources. Indeed, individuals with long-term training on challenging skills (musicians and action video gamers) show impressive behavior on related tasks (linguistic and visual attention, respectively). However, a critical evaluation of training studies that last weeks to months shows typically mild effects, mainly with respect to control groups that either did not practice or practiced with less challenging, rewarding, or exciting conditions. These findings suggest that future training studies should evaluate these factors carefully and assess whether they mainly impact the testing sessions or actual longer-term skills, and whether their impact can be further strengthened. The lack of a comprehensive theory of learning that integrates cognitive, motivational, and alertness aspects poses a bottleneck to improving current training procedures. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Critical stroke rate as a parameter for evaluation in swimming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Franken

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the critical stroke rate (CSR compared to the average stroke rate (SR when swimming at the critical speed (CS. Ten competitive swimmers performed five 200 m trials at different velocities relative to their CS (90, 95, 100, 103 and 105% in front crawl. The CSR was significantly higher than the SR at 90% of the CS and lower at 105% of the CS. Stroke length (SL at 103 and 105% of the CS were lower than the SL at 90, 95, and 100% of the CS. The combination of the CS and CSR concepts can be useful for improving both aerobic capacity/power and technique. CS and CSR could be used to reduce the SR and increase the SL, when swimming at the CS pace, or to increase the swimming speed when swimming at the CSR.

  12. Causal explanation, intentionality, and prediction: Evaluating the Criticism of "Deductivism"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Carsten Allan

    2001-01-01

    In a number of influential contributions, Tony Lawson has attacked a view of science that he refers to as deductivism, and criticized economists for implicitly using it in their research. Lawson argues that deductivism is simply the covering-law model, also known as the causal model of scientific...... critisizes the use of universal laws in social science, especially in economics. This view cannot be as easily dismissed as his general criticism of causal explanation. We argue that a number of arguments often used against the existence of (correct) universal laws in the social sciences can be put...... into question. First, it is argued that entities need not be identical, or even remotely alike, to be applicable to the same law. What is necessary is that they have common properties, e.g. mass in physics, and that the law relates to that property (section 6). Second, one might take the so-called model...

  13. Criticality safety evaluation report for FFTF 42% fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, R.F.

    1997-01-01

    An FFTF tritium/isotope production mission will require a new fuel supply. The reference design core will use a mixed oxide fuel nominally enriched to 40 wt% Pu. This enrichment is significantly higher than that of the standard Driver Fuel Assemblies used in past operations. Consequently, criticality safety for handling and storage of this fuel must be addressed. The purpose of this document is to begin the process by determining the minimum critical number for these new fuel assemblies in water, sodium and air. This analysis is preliminary and further work can be done to refine the results reported here. Analysis was initially done using 45 wt 5 PuO. Additionally, a preliminary assessment is done concerning storage of these fuel assemblies in Interim Decay Storage (IDS), Fuel Storage Facility (FSF), and Core Component Containers/Interim Storage Casks (CCC/ISC)

  14. Evaluation and validation of criticality codes for fuel dissolver calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santamarina, A.; Smith, H.J.; Whitesides, G.E.

    1991-01-01

    During the past ten years an OECD/NEA Criticality Working Group has examined the validity of criticality safety computational methods. International calculation tools which were shown to be valid in systems for which experimental data existed were demonstrated to be inadequate when extrapolated to fuel dissolver media. The spread of the results in the international calculation amounted to ± 12,000 pcm in the realistic fuel dissolver exercise n degrees 19 proposed by BNFL, and to ± 25,000 pcm in the benchmark n degrees 20 in which fissile material in solid form is surrounded by fissile material in solution. A theoretical study of the main physical parameters involved in fuel dissolution calculations was performed, i.e. range of moderation, variation of pellet size and the fuel double heterogeneity effect. The APOLLO/P IC method developed to treat latter effect, permits us to supply the actual reactivity variation with pellet dissolution and to propose international reference values. The disagreement among contributors' calculations was analyzed through a neutron balance breakdown, based on three-group microscopic reaction rates solicited from the participants. The results pointed out that fast and resonance nuclear data in criticality codes are not sufficiently reliable. Moreover the neutron balance analysis emphasized the inadequacy of the standard self-shielding formalism (NITAWL in the international SCALE package) to account for 238 U resonance mutual self-shielding in the pellet-fissile liquor interaction. Improvements in the up-dated 1990 contributions, as do recent complementary reference calculations (MCNP, VIM, ultrafine slowing-down CGM calculation), confirm the need to use rigorous self-shielding methods in criticality design-oriented codes. 6 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Evaluation of a potential nuclear fuel repository criticality: Lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, J.R.; Evans, D.

    1995-10-01

    This paper presents lessons learned from a Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of the potential for a criticality in a repository containing spent nuclear fuel with high enriched uranium. The insights gained consisted of remarkably detailed conclusions about design issues, failure mechanisms, frequencies and source terms for events up to 10,000 years in the future. Also discussed are the approaches taken by the analysts in presenting this very technical report to a nontechnical and possibly antagonistic audience.

  16. Evaluation of a potential nuclear fuel repository criticality: Lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.R.; Evans, D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents lessons learned from a Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of the potential for a criticality in a repository containing spent nuclear fuel with high enriched uranium. The insights gained consisted of remarkably detailed conclusions about design issues, failure mechanisms, frequencies and source terms for events up to 10,000 years in the future. Also discussed are the approaches taken by the analysts in presenting this very technical report to a nontechnical and possibly antagonistic audience

  17. Evaluation and validation of criticality codes for fuel dissolver calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santamarina, A.; Smith, H.J.; Whitesides, G.E.

    1991-01-01

    During the past ten years an OECD/NEA Criticality Working Group has examined the validity of criticality safety computational methods. International calculation tools which were shown to be valid in systems for which experimental data existed were demonstrated to be inadequate when extrapolated to fuel dissolver media. A theoretical study of the main physical parameters involved in fuel dissolution calculations was performed, i.e. range of moderation, variation of pellet size and the fuel double heterogeneity effect. The APOLLO/P IC method developed to treat this latter effect permits us to supply the actual reactivity variation with pellet dissolution and to propose international reference values. The disagreement among contributors' calculations was analyzed through a neutron balance breakdown, based on three-group microscopic reaction rates. The results pointed out that fast and resonance nuclear data in criticality codes are not sufficiently reliable. Moreover the neutron balance analysis emphasized the inadequacy of the standard self-shielding formalism to account for 238 U resonance mutual self-shielding in the pellet-fissile liquor interaction. The benchmark exercise has resolved a potentially dangerous inadequacy in dissolver calculations. (author)

  18. [Development of critical thinking skill evaluation scale for nursing students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, So Young; Kim, Nam Cho

    2014-04-01

    To develop a Critical Thinking Skill Test for Nursing Students. The construct concepts were drawn from a literature review and in-depth interviews with hospital nurses and surveys were conducted among students (n=607) from nursing colleges. The data were collected from September 13 to November 23, 2012 and analyzed using the SAS program, 9.2 version. The KR 20 coefficient for reliability, difficulty index, discrimination index, item-total correlation and known group technique for validity were performed. Four domains and 27 skills were identified and 35 multiple choice items were developed. Thirty multiple choice items which had scores higher than .80 on the content validity index were selected for the pre test. From the analysis of the pre test data, a modified 30 items were selected for the main test. In the main test, the KR 20 coefficient was .70 and Corrected Item-Total Correlations range was .11-.38. There was a statistically significant difference between two academic systems (p=.001). The developed instrument is the first critical thinking skill test reflecting nursing perspectives in hospital settings and is expected to be utilized as a tool which contributes to improvement of the critical thinking ability of nursing students.

  19. Tracing the evolution of critical evaluation skills in students' use of the Internet.

    OpenAIRE

    Blumberg, P; Sparks, J

    1999-01-01

    This paper documents the evolving uses of the Internet made by public health graduate students and traces the development of their search methods and critical evaluative criteria. Early in the first semester and again six months later, twenty-four graduate students in a problem-based learning curriculum, which emphasizes evidence-based critical thinking skills, were required to describe their most helpful resources and to evaluate these resources critically. The answers were coded for the typ...

  20. Criticality Safety Evaluation of Hanford Site High Level Waste Storage Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROGERS, C.A.

    2000-02-17

    This criticality safety evaluation covers operations for waste in underground storage tanks at the high-level waste tank farms on the Hanford site. This evaluation provides the bases for criticality safety limits and controls to govern receipt, transfer, and long-term storage of tank waste. Justification is provided that a nuclear criticality accident cannot occur for tank farms operations, based on current fissile material and operating conditions.

  1. Criticality Safety Evaluation of Hanford Site High-Level Waste Storage Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ROGERS, C.A.

    2000-01-01

    This criticality safety evaluation covers operations for waste in underground storage tanks at the high-level waste tank farms on the Hanford site. This evaluation provides the bases for criticality safety limits and controls to govern receipt, transfer, and long-term storage of tank waste. Justification is provided that a nuclear criticality accident cannot occur for tank farms operations, based on current fissile material and operating conditions

  2. Guidelines for preparing criticality safety evaluations at Department of Energy non-reactor nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    This document contains guidelines that should be followed when preparing Criticality Safety Evaluations that will be used to demonstrate the safety of operations performed at DOE non-reactor nuclear facilities. Adherence to these guidelines will provide consistency and uniformity in criticality safety evaluations (CSEs) across the complex and will document compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5480.24

  3. SRTC criticality technical review: Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation 93-18 Uranium Solidification Facility's Waste Handling Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathbun, R.

    1993-01-01

    Separate review of NMP-NCS-930058, open-quotes Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation 93-18 Uranium Solidification Facility's Waste Handling Facility (U), August 17, 1993,close quotes was requested of SRTC Applied Physics Group. The NCSE is a criticality assessment to determine waste container uranium limits in the Uranium Solidification Facility's Waste Handling Facility. The NCSE under review concludes that the NDA room remains in a critically safe configuration for all normal and single credible abnormal conditions. The ability to make this conclusion is highly dependent on array limitation and inclusion of physical barriers between 2x2x1 arrays of boxes containing materials contaminated with uranium. After a thorough review of the NCSE and independent calculations, this reviewer agrees with that conclusion

  4. Teaching Critical Evaluation Skills for World Wide Web Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Marsha; Alexander, Jan

    1996-01-01

    Outlines a lesson plan used by an academic library to evaluate the quality of World Wide Web information. Discusses the traditional evaluation criteria of accuracy, authority, objectivity, currency, and coverage as it applies to the unique characteristics of Web pages: their marketing orientation, variety of information, and instability. The…

  5. Analysis and evaluation of critical experiments for validation of neutron transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazzana, S.; Blaumann, H; Marquez Damian, J.I

    2009-01-01

    The calculation schemes, computational codes and nuclear data used in neutronic design require validation to obtain reliable results. In the nuclear criticality safety field this reliability also translates into a higher level of safety in procedures involving fissile material. The International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project is an OECD/NEA activity led by the United States, in which participants from over 20 countries evaluate and publish criticality safety benchmarks. The product of this project is a set of benchmark experiment evaluations that are published annually in the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments. With the recent participation of Argentina, this information is now available for use by the neutron calculation and criticality safety groups in Argentina. This work presents the methodology used for the evaluation of experimental data, some results obtained by the application of these methods, and some examples of the data available in the Handbook. [es

  6. Inductive reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Brett K; Heit, Evan; Swendsen, Haruka

    2010-03-01

    Inductive reasoning entails using existing knowledge or observations to make predictions about novel cases. We review recent findings in research on category-based induction as well as theoretical models of these results, including similarity-based models, connectionist networks, an account based on relevance theory, Bayesian models, and other mathematical models. A number of touchstone empirical phenomena that involve taxonomic similarity are described. We also examine phenomena involving more complex background knowledge about premises and conclusions of inductive arguments and the properties referenced. Earlier models are shown to give a good account of similarity-based phenomena but not knowledge-based phenomena. Recent models that aim to account for both similarity-based and knowledge-based phenomena are reviewed and evaluated. Among the most important new directions in induction research are a focus on induction with uncertain premise categories, the modeling of the relationship between inductive and deductive reasoning, and examination of the neural substrates of induction. A common theme in both the well-established and emerging lines of induction research is the need to develop well-articulated and empirically testable formal models of induction. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Reasons for 2011 Release of the Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (ENDL2011.0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Escher, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hoffman, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Luu, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ormand, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Summers, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Thompson, I. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-22

    LLNL's Computational Nuclear Physics Group and Nuclear Theory and Modeling Group have collaborated to create the 2011 release of the Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (ENDL2011). ENDL2011 is designed to sup- port LLNL's current and future nuclear data needs. This database is currently the most complete nuclear database for Monte Carlo and deterministic transport of neutrons and charged particles, surpassing ENDL2009.0 [1]. The ENDL2011 release [2] contains 918 transport-ready eval- uations in the neutron sub-library alone. ENDL2011 was assembled with strong support from the ASC program, leveraged with support from NNSA science campaigns and the DOE/Offce of Science US Nuclear Data Pro- gram.

  8. Intuition, Reason, and Metacognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Valerie A.; Prowse Turner, Jamie A.; Pennycook, Gordon

    2011-01-01

    Dual Process Theories (DPT) of reasoning posit that judgments are mediated by both fast, automatic processes and more deliberate, analytic ones. A critical, but unanswered question concerns the issue of monitoring and control: When do reasoners rely on the first, intuitive output and when do they engage more effortful thinking? We hypothesised…

  9. Heuristic reasoning

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    How can we advance knowledge? Which methods do we need in order to make new discoveries? How can we rationally evaluate, reconstruct and offer discoveries as a means of improving the ‘method’ of discovery itself? And how can we use findings about scientific discovery to boost funding policies, thus fostering a deeper impact of scientific discovery itself? The respective chapters in this book provide readers with answers to these questions. They focus on a set of issues that are essential to the development of types of reasoning for advancing knowledge, such as models for both revolutionary findings and paradigm shifts; ways of rationally addressing scientific disagreement, e.g. when a revolutionary discovery sparks considerable disagreement inside the scientific community; frameworks for both discovery and inference methods; and heuristics for economics and the social sciences.

  10. Stark broadening parameter regularities and interpolation and critical evaluation of data for CP star atmospheres research: Stark line shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijevic, M. S.; Tankosic, D.

    1998-04-01

    In order to find out if regularities and systematic trends found to be apparent among experimental Stark line shifts allow the accurate interpolation of new data and critical evaluation of experimental results, the exceptions to the established regularities are analysed on the basis of critical reviews of experimental data, and reasons for such exceptions are discussed. We found that such exceptions are mostly due to the situations when: (i) the energy gap between atomic energy levels within a supermultiplet is equal or comparable to the energy gap to the nearest perturbing levels; (ii) the most important perturbing level is embedded between the energy levels of the supermultiplet; (iii) the forbidden transitions have influence on Stark line shifts.

  11. Podometry: a critical evaluation of its use in Hansen's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Maria D'Andréa Greve

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of podometry to measure the pressure developed over the feet and the value of these findings to help in the prevention of the plantar neuropathic ulcer in patients bearing Hansen's disease. We evaluated 13 patients with impaired plantar pain and touch sensations and 17 normal patients. All the patients were submitted to static evaluation using the podometer. The system employed was the "Midcapteur" commercial podometer composed of a platform for acquisition of analogic data capable of registering the segmental pressures applied to the feet. These data are read by a 386 IBM/PC compatible computer that registers the graphic patterns obtained from the pressures developed and also calculates the modes of pressure distribution in the four quadrants of the foot. These data obtained by means of static podometry were compared to the clinical evaluation of pain and touch sensation of the feet in hansenian patients. The results demonstrate that podometery is an efficient method for evaluating the pressure in impaired feet in Hansen's disease and is a progression of neuropathic ulcer; it is sensitive in the identification of the spots of increased pressure in anesthetic and anomalous areas, asymmetries and in correlating the presence of ulcers with increased pressure.

  12. Evaluation for reasonableness of power conversion system concepts in the gas turbine high temperature reactor (GTHTR300)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minatsuki, I.; Mizokami, Y.

    2007-01-01

    The conceptual design study for the Gas Turbine High Temperature Reactor (GTHTR300) was completed in 2004. In GTHTR300, SECO (Simple, Economical Competitiveness and Originality) is advocated as design philosophy in order to minimize technical and economical requirement. Furthermore the design of the GTHTR300 was developed with reflecting various view points from utilities, manufacturers and research organizations. In GTHTR300, the horizontal turbo machine rotor, the turbo machine in a separated vessel, the turbo machine with single rotor, the generator inside the power conversion vessel, and the power conversion system without inter-coolers were selected as major power conversion system concepts. This paper describes the investigation and analysis about the major concepts of GTHTR300 power conversion system in order to evaluate reasonableness of GTHTR300 design approach and acceptability with using experience and engineering knowledge of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., which were accumulated through the activities of HTGR-GT and HTTR (High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor) designing, manufacturing, fabricating and testing. From the result of the evaluation, it was concluded that the selection of each concept in GTHTR300 was reasonable as based on the original design philosophy SECO. As a conclusion, we expect the GTHTR300 to become one of the most promising concepts for commercialization in near future. (authors)

  13. A software system for evaluation and training of spatial reasoning and neuroanatomical knowledge in a virtual environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Ryan; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Eagleson, Roy

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes the design and development of a software tool for the evaluation and training of surgical residents using an interactive, immersive, virtual environment. Our objective was to develop a tool to evaluate user spatial reasoning skills and knowledge in a neuroanatomical context, as well as to augment their performance through interactivity. In the visualization, manually segmented anatomical surface images of MRI scans of the brain were rendered using a stereo display to improve depth cues. A magnetically tracked wand was used as a 3D input device for localization tasks within the brain. The movement of the wand was made to correspond to movement of a spherical cursor within the rendered scene, providing a reference for localization. Users can be tested on their ability to localize structures within the 3D scene, and their ability to place anatomical features at the appropriate locations within the rendering. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. NITRITE AND NITRATE DETERMINATIONS IN PLASMA - A CRITICAL-EVALUATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MOSHAGE, H; KOK, B; HUIZENGA, [No Value; JANSEN, PLM

    Plasma nitrite and nitrate determinations are increasingly being used in clinical chemistry as markers for the activity of nitric oxide synthase and the production of nitric oxide radicals. However, a systematic evaluation of the determination of nitrite and nitrate in plasma has not been performed.

  15. Nitrite and nitrate determinations in plasma: a critical evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moshage, H.; Kok, B.; Huizenga, J. R.; Jansen, P. L.

    1995-01-01

    Plasma nitrite and nitrate determinations are increasingly being used in clinical chemistry as markers for the activity of nitric oxide synthase and the production of nitric oxide radicals. However, a systematic evaluation of the determination of nitrite and nitrate in plasma has not been performed.

  16. A Critical Evaluation of Nicotine Replacement Therapy for Teenage Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Christi A.

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates the appropriateness and feasibility of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in teenage smokers. Available forms of NRT, theoretical rationale and efficacy of NRT, ethical considerations, and the feasibility of NRT in teenage smokers are addressed. Several characteristics similar to adult nicotine dependent smokers have been found in teen…

  17. A Critical evaluation Of The Nigerian Agricultural Export Financing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluated the effectiveness of export financing in enhancing agricultural export in Nigeria. Secondary time series data covering the period of 1990 to 2000 were used while econometric and statistical analysis were employed to analyze the data. The result showed that high exchange rate, interest rates and ...

  18. Development of a Criticality Evaluation Method Considering the Particulate Behavior of Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Mikio; Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Murazaki, Minoru; Miyoshi, Yoshinori

    2005-01-01

    In conventional criticality evaluations of nuclear powder systems, effects of particulate behavior were not considered. In other words, it is difficult to take into account the particle motion in the criticality evaluations. We have developed a novel criticality evaluation code to resolve this problem. The criticality evaluation code, coupling a discrete element method simulation code with a continuous-energy Monte Carlo transport code, makes it possible to study the effects of the particulate dynamics on criticality. This criticality evaluation code is applied to the mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel powder agitation process. The criticality evaluations are performed while mixing the MOX fuel powder and an additive powder in a stirred vessel to investigate the effects of the powder free surface deformation and the particulate mixture state on the effective multiplication factor. The evaluation results reveal that the effective multiplication factor decreases due to the powder boundary deformation while it increases as the mixture condition of MOX powder and Zn-St powder is close to homogeneous

  19. A Critical Evaluation of IMF History and Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Ahmed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The International Monetary Fund (IMF was originally mandated to maintain exchange rate stability and adjustment of external imbalances in member countries and to act as a lender for countries facing short-term balance-of-payment crises. With the breakdown of the fixed exchange rate system, the IMF had to adjust its role in exchange rate management. The international banking crisis in the 1980s required a recalibration of IMF policies. Most of the policies in the 1980s and 1990s were driven by “Washington Consensus,” a doctrinaire view of economic development that called for structural adjustment through market liberalization and privatizations. However, critics indicate that the IMF, by failing to consider the unique conditions in developing economies and lumping them under a “one size fits all,” category may have caused more damage than good. In addition, it was alleged that IMF loans imposed unrealistic conditions on borrowers. All these policies are under review now in a quest for appropriate policies that will address some of these concerns and aid economic development. This paper provides a brief review of IMF policies from a historical perspective and a critique of IMF policies over the last few decades.

  20. Inductive reasoning 2.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Brett K; Heit, Evan

    2018-05-01

    Inductive reasoning entails using existing knowledge to make predictions about novel cases. The first part of this review summarizes key inductive phenomena and critically evaluates theories of induction. We highlight recent theoretical advances, with a special emphasis on the structured statistical approach, the importance of sampling assumptions in Bayesian models, and connectionist modeling. A number of new research directions in this field are identified including comparisons of inductive and deductive reasoning, the identification of common core processes in induction and memory tasks and induction involving category uncertainty. The implications of induction research for areas as diverse as complex decision-making and fear generalization are discussed. This article is categorized under: Psychology > Reasoning and Decision Making Psychology > Learning. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments - ICSBEP (DVD), Version 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (CSBEP) was initiated in October of 1992 by the United States Department of Energy. The project quickly became an international effort as scientists from other interested countries became involved. The International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) became an official activity of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) in 1995. This handbook contains criticality safety benchmark specifications that have been derived from experiments performed at various nuclear critical experiment facilities around the world. The benchmark specifications are intended for use by criticality safety engineers to validate calculational techniques used to establish minimum subcritical margins for operations with fissile material and to determine criticality alarm requirement and placement. Many of the specifications are also useful for nuclear data testing. Example calculations are presented; however, these calculations do not constitute a validation of the codes or cross section data. The evaluated criticality safety benchmark data are given in nine volumes. These volumes span nearly 66,000 pages and contain 558 evaluations with benchmark specifications for 4,798 critical, near critical or subcritical configurations, 24 criticality alarm placement/shielding configurations with multiple dose points for each and 200 configurations that have been categorised as fundamental physics measurements that are relevant to criticality safety applications. New to the Handbook are benchmark specifications for Critical, Bare, HEU(93.2)- Metal Sphere experiments referred to as ORSphere that were performed by a team of experimenters at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the early 1970's. A photograph of this assembly is shown on the front cover

  2. Critical evaluation of reverse engineering tool Imagix 4D!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Rashmi; Patel, Ravindra; Kothari, Abhay

    2016-01-01

    The comprehension of legacy codes is difficult to understand. Various commercial reengineering tools are available that have unique working styles, and are equipped with their inherent capabilities and shortcomings. The focus of the available tools is in visualizing static behavior not the dynamic one. Therefore, it is difficult for people who work in software product maintenance, code understanding reengineering/reverse engineering. Consequently, the need for a comprehensive reengineering/reverse engineering tool arises. We found the usage of Imagix 4D to be good as it generates the maximum pictorial representations in the form of flow charts, flow graphs, class diagrams, metrics and, to a partial extent, dynamic visualizations. We evaluated Imagix 4D with the help of a case study involving a few samples of source code. The behavior of the tool was analyzed on multiple small codes and a large code gcc C parser. Large code evaluation was performed to uncover dead code, unstructured code, and the effect of not including required files at preprocessing level. The utility of Imagix 4D to prepare decision density and complexity metrics for a large code was found to be useful in getting to know how much reengineering is required. At the outset, Imagix 4D offered limitations in dynamic visualizations, flow chart separation (large code) and parsing loops. The outcome of evaluation will eventually help in upgrading Imagix 4D and posed a need of full featured tools in the area of software reengineering/reverse engineering. It will also help the research community, especially those who are interested in the realm of software reengineering tool building.

  3. Critical evaluation of biodegradable polymers used in nanodrugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Edgar; Briceño, Maria Isabel; Caballero-George, Catherina

    2013-01-01

    Use of biodegradable polymers for biomedical applications has increased in recent decades due to their biocompatibility, biodegradability, flexibility, and minimal side effects. Applications of these materials include creation of skin, blood vessels, cartilage scaffolds, and nanosystems for drug delivery. These biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles enhance properties such as bioavailability and stability, and provide controlled release of bioactive compounds. This review evaluates the classification, synthesis, degradation mechanisms, and biological applications of the biodegradable polymers currently being studied as drug delivery carriers. In addition, the use of nanosystems to solve current drug delivery problems are reviewed. PMID:23990720

  4. Economic evaluation of targeted cancer interventions: critical review and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkin, Elena B; Marshall, Deborah A; Kulin, Nathalie A; Ferrusi, Ilia L; Hassett, Michael J; Ladabaum, Uri; Phillips, Kathryn A

    2011-10-01

    Scientific advances have improved our ability to target cancer interventions to individuals who will benefit most and spare the risks and costs to those who will derive little benefit or even be harmed. Several approaches are currently used for targeting interventions for cancer risk reduction, screening, and treatment, including risk prediction algorithms for identifying high-risk subgroups and diagnostic tests for tumor markers and germline genetic mutations. Economic evaluation can inform decisions about the use of targeted interventions, which may be more costly than traditional strategies. However, assessing the impact of a targeted intervention on costs and health outcomes requires explicit consideration of the method of targeting. In this study, we describe the importance of this principle by reviewing published cost-effectiveness analyses of targeted interventions in breast cancer. Few studies we identified explicitly evaluated the relationships among the method of targeting, the accuracy of the targeting test, and outcomes of the targeted intervention. Those that did found that characteristics of targeting tests had a substantial impact on outcomes. We posit that the method of targeting and the outcomes of a targeted intervention are inextricably linked and recommend that cost-effectiveness analyses of targeted interventions explicitly consider costs and outcomes of the method of targeting.

  5. On the Evaluation of Pebble Bead Reactor Critical Experiments Using the Pebbed Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gougar, Hans D.; Sen, R. Sonat

    2014-01-01

    Critical experiments pose a particular but necessary challenge to validating pebble bed reactor design codes. Fuel and core heterogeneities, impurities in graphite, variable packing of pebbles, and moderately strong neutronic coupling are among the factors that inject uncertainty into the results obtained with lower fidelity core physics models. Some of these are addressed in this study. The PEBBED pebble bed reactor fuel management code under development at the Idaho National Laboratory is designed for rapid design and analysis of pebble bed high temperature reactors (PBRs). Embedded within the code are the THERMIX-KONVEK thermal fluid solver and the COMBINE-7 spectrum generation code for inline cross section homogenization. Because 1D symmetry can be found at each stage of core heterogeneity; spherical at TRISO and pebble levels, and cylindrical at the control rod and core levels, the 1-D transport capability of ANISN is assumed to be sufficient in most cases for generating flux solutions for cross section homogenization. Furthermore, it is fast enough to be executed during the analysis or the equilibrium core. Multi-group diffusion-based design codes such as PEBBED and VSOP are not expected to yield the accuracy and resolution of continuous energy Monte Carlo codes for evaluation of critical experiments. Nonetheless, if the preparation of multigroup cross sections can adequately capture the physics of the mixing of PBR fuel elements and leakage from the core, reasonable results may be obtained. In this paper, results of the application of PEBBED to two critical experiments (HTR Proteus and HTR-10) and associated computational models are presented. The embedded 1-D transport solver is shown to capture the double heterogeneity of the pebble fuel in unit cell calculations. Eigenvalue calculations of a whole core are more challenging, particularly if the boron concentration is uncertain. The sensitivity of major safety parameters to variations in modeling

  6. [A critical evaluation of food programs in Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeyá Gilardon, Enrique O

    2016-01-01

    Argentina has an over 60-year history of food programs which have received few to no evaluations, even considering the highly important epidemiological and social changes that have occurred in the target population. In this article, nationwide State-run food programs with the objective of contributing to the food security of the families in greatest need are reviewed, the nutritional situation of the target population is reassessed, and arguments for analyzing current programs using a typology based in the components of food security are proposed. A general review of the conceptions, content and reach of food programs should be carried out, in order for these programs to cease to act as mere social assistance and instead be transformed in bearers of the right to better food and nutrition.

  7. Cultural heritage evaluation: a reappraisal of some critical concepts involved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela IACOB

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to build a synoptic picture of the facets of the economic category called “value”, with practicality in the tangible cultural heritage field, from the point of view of a traditionally economists-specific approach: concern for the financial sustainability of any decision. Moreover, the methods from the economics literature regarding the valences of the “cultural value” concept prove the obsoleteness of the common opinion according to which the economic approach is primarily interested in financial metrics. In as much as the ultimate goal of the scientific process is to identify the most effective cultural heritage preservation and evaluation methods, the study also reflects the public-private interference in this area.

  8. Evaluation and handling of constipation in critical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sánchez, J; Fernández-Boronat, J; Martínez-Méndez, E; Marín-Cagigas, M L; Mota-Puerto, D; Pérez-Román, M C; Martínez-Estalella, G

    To evaluate the effectiveness of nursing care against constipation and to identify, analyze and evaluate causes and consequences. Observational, descriptive and prospective study in polyvalent ICU tertiary hospital (2013-2015). >18 years, stay >7 days, connected to respiratory support, with nasogastric tube and enteral or mixed nutrition. Patients with gastrointestinal pathology, encephalopathic and jejunostomy/ileostomy were excluded. The studied variables (age, sex, weight, height, pathology, medical treatment, nutrition and volume type, depositional characteristics, quantity and frequency, corrective measures and complications) were collected by ad hoc grill. It is authorized by the CEIC. 139 patients with a mean age of 62 years and average stay of 11 days were analyzed; 63% suffered from constipation. Opiates and antacid were the drugs administered most frequently (99%), even though patients who took muscle relaxants, iron supplements and/or calcium and anti-hypertensive were the ones who suffered most from constipation (77%; 75%; 70%) The fiber free diet was the most widely used (60% constipated), followed by dietary fiber (51% constipated), and the combination of both (85% constipated). 56% used laxatives as a corrective measure, Magnesium Hydroxide being the most widely used; 54% began the first day. Gastric retention was the most relevant complication (49%). Constipation is a real multifactorial problem. We recommend: • Intensified surveillance in patients with drugs that promote constipation. • Use high-fiber diets from the outset. • Apply laxatives and prokinetics early and in combination. We need to create a protocol for prophylaxis and management of constipation. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Enfermería Intensiva y Unidades Coronarias (SEEIUC). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Let’s Talk Critical. Development and Evaluation of a Communication Skills Training Program for Critical Care Fellows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, S. Jean; Howes, Jennifer M.; Keene, Adam B.; Fausto, James A.; Pinto, Priya A.; Gong, Michelle Ng

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Although expert communication between intensive care unit clinicians with patients or surrogates improves patient- and family-centered outcomes, fellows in critical care medicine do not feel adequately trained to conduct family meetings. Objectives: We aimed to develop, implement, and evaluate a communication skills program that could be easily integrated into a U.S. critical care fellowship. Methods: We developed four simulation cases that provided communication challenges that critical care fellows commonly face. For each case, we developed a list of directly observable tasks that could be used by faculty to evaluate fellows during each simulation. We developed a didactic curriculum of lectures/case discussions on topics related to palliative care, end-of-life care, communication skills, and bioethics; this month-long curriculum began and ended with the fellows leading family meetings in up to two simulated cases with direct observation by faculty who were not blinded to the timing of the simulation. Our primary measures of effectiveness were the fellows’ self-reported change in comfort with leading family meetings after the program was completed and the quality of the communication as measured by the faculty evaluators during the family meeting simulations at the end of the month. Measurements and Main Results: Over 3 years, 31 critical care fellows participated in the program, 28 of whom participated in 101 family meeting simulations with direct feedback by faculty facilitators. Our trainees showed high rates of information disclosure during the simulated family meetings. During the simulations done at the end of the month compared with those done at the beginning, our fellows showed significantly improved rates in: (1) verbalizing an agenda for the meeting (64 vs. 41%; Chi-square, 5.27; P = 0.02), (2) summarizing what will be done for the patient (64 vs. 39%; Chi-square, 6.21; P = 0.01), and (3) providing a follow-up plan (60 vs. 37%; Chi

  10. Development and Validation of a Tool to Evaluate the Evolution of Clinical Reasoning in Trauma Using Virtual Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleiszer, David; Hoover, Michael L; Posel, Nancy; Razek, Tarek; Bergman, Simon

    Undergraduate medical students at a large academic trauma center are required to manage a series of online virtual trauma patients as a mandatory exercise during their surgical rotation. Clinical reasoning during undergraduate medical education can be difficult to assess. The purpose of the study was to determine whether we could use components of the students' virtual patient management to measure changes in their clinical reasoning over the course of the clerkship year. In order to accomplish this, we decided to determine if the use of scoring rubrics could change the traditional subjective assessment to a more objective evaluation. Two groups of students, one at the beginning of clerkship (Juniors) and one at the end of clerkship (Seniors), were chosen. Each group was given the same virtual patient case, a clinical scenario based on the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) Primary Trauma Survey, which had to be completed during their trauma rotation. The learner was required to make several key patient management choices based on their clinical reasoning, which would take them along different routes through the case. At the end of the case they had to create a summary report akin to sign-off. These summaries were graded independently by two domain "Experts" using a traditional subjective surgical approach to assessment and by two "Non-Experts" using two internally validated scoring rubrics. One rubric assessed procedural or domain knowledge (Procedural Rubric), while the other rubric highlighted semantic qualifiers (Semantic Rubric). Each of the rubrics was designed to reflect established components of clinical reasoning. Student's t-tests were used to compare the rubric scores for the two groups and Cohen's d was used to determine effect size. Kendall's τ was used to compare the difference between the two groups based on the "Expert's" subjective assessment. Inter-rater reliability (IRR) was determined using Cronbach's alpha. The Seniors did better than the

  11. Teaching clinical reasoning and decision-making skills to nursing students: Design, development, and usability evaluation of a serious game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Hege Mari; Fossum, Mariann; Vivekananda-Schmidt, Pirashanthie; Fruhling, Ann; Slettebø, Åshild

    2016-10-01

    Serious games (SGs) are a type of simulation technology that may provide nursing students with the opportunity to practice their clinical reasoning and decision-making skills in a safe and authentic environment. Despite the growing number of SGs developed for healthcare professionals, few SGs are video based or address the domain of home health care. This paper aims to describe the design, development, and usability evaluation of a video based SG for teaching clinical reasoning and decision-making skills to nursing students who care for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in home healthcare settings. A prototype SG was developed. A unified framework of usability called TURF (Task, User, Representation, and Function) and SG theory were employed to ensure a user-centered design. The educational content was based on the clinical decision-making model, Bloom's taxonomy, and a Bachelor of Nursing curriculum. A purposeful sample of six participants evaluated the SG prototype in a usability laboratory. Cognitive walkthrough evaluations, a questionnaire, and individual interviews were used for the usability evaluation. The data were analyzed using qualitative deductive content analysis based on the TURF framework elements and related usability heuristics. The SG was perceived as being realistic, clinically relevant, and at an adequate level of complexity for the intended users. Usability issues regarding functionality and the user-computer interface design were identified. However, the SG was perceived as being easy to learn, and participants suggested that the SG could serve as a supplement to traditional training in laboratory and clinical settings. Using video based scenarios with an authentic COPD patient and a home healthcare registered nurse as actors contributed to increased realism. Using different theoretical approaches in the SG design was considered an advantage of the design process. The SG was perceived as being useful, usable, and

  12. Evaluation of the Food and Agriculture Sector Criticality Assessment Tool (FASCAT) and the Collected Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Andrew G; Hodges, James S; Kennedy, Shaun P; Kircher, Amy

    2015-08-01

    To protect and secure food resources for the United States, it is crucial to have a method to compare food systems' criticality. In 2007, the U.S. government funded development of the Food and Agriculture Sector Criticality Assessment Tool (FASCAT) to determine which food and agriculture systems were most critical to the nation. FASCAT was developed in a collaborative process involving government officials and food industry subject matter experts (SMEs). After development, data were collected using FASCAT to quantify threats, vulnerabilities, consequences, and the impacts on the United States from failure of evaluated food and agriculture systems. To examine FASCAT's utility, linear regression models were used to determine: (1) which groups of questions posed in FASCAT were better predictors of cumulative criticality scores; (2) whether the items included in FASCAT's criticality method or the smaller subset of FASCAT items included in DHS's risk analysis method predicted similar criticality scores. Akaike's information criterion was used to determine which regression models best described criticality, and a mixed linear model was used to shrink estimates of criticality for individual food and agriculture systems. The results indicated that: (1) some of the questions used in FASCAT strongly predicted food or agriculture system criticality; (2) the FASCAT criticality formula was a stronger predictor of criticality compared to the DHS risk formula; (3) the cumulative criticality formula predicted criticality more strongly than weighted criticality formula; and (4) the mixed linear regression model did not change the rank-order of food and agriculture system criticality to a large degree. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  13. Preliminary Evaluation of Critical Wave Energy Thresholds at Natural and Created Coastal Wetlands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shafer, Deborah

    2003-01-01

    This technical note presents an evaluation of the wave climate at eight natural and created coastal wetland sites in an effort to identify the existence of critical wave energy thresholds for long-term marsh stability...

  14. Non-destructive system to evaluate critical properties of asphalt compaction : [research brief].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The Wisconsin Highway Research Program sponsored a two-stage investigation to develop a non-destructive system to evaluate critical compaction properties and characteristics of asphalt pavements during the densification process. Stage One activities ...

  15. Critical evaluation of lowering the recommended dietary intake of folate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeid, Rima; Koletzko, Berthold; Pietrzik, Klaus

    2014-04-01

    We evaluated the recommendation of the Austrian, German, and Swiss Societies for Nutrition of lowering dietary folate intake from 400 to 300 μg dietary folate equivalents/d. A dose-response relation exists between folate intake or plasma level and disease risk within the normal range. Improving folate status can prevent between 30% and 75% of neural tube defects. A prepregnancy plasma folate of >18.0 nmol/L (mean 26.1 nmol/L) is associated with low total homocysteine (tHcy) (folate intake cannot achieve maximal risk reduction. The Austrian, German, and Swiss Societies for Nutrition recommend that young women should additionally supplement with 400 μg folic acid at least 4 weeks before conception. This short time window is not sufficient to achieve optimal plasma folate and tHcy levels in the majority of women. Factors affecting the relation between folate intake and blood biomarkers are total folate intake, baseline plasma folate, time available for supplement use, dose and form (folic acid or methyl folate), genetic polymorphisms, physiological and lifestyle factors. Lowering the recommended dietary folate intake may have important public health consequences. Elderly people and young women are at risk for diseases related to folate shortage. Reducing birth defects through supplementation of folic acid remains a poor option, as folate intake is crucial for reaching the target protective plasma folate levels in the population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  16. Oklo. A review and critical evaluation of literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zetterstroem, Lena

    2000-10-01

    The Oklo natural fossil fission reactors in Gabon, Equatorial Africa, have been studied as a natural analogue for spent nuclear fuel in a geological environment. For these studies, it is important to know what has happened to these reactors since they formed. This review is focussed on existing geological and geochronological information concerning the Oklo reactors and the surrounding ore. A sequence of geological and geochemical events in the Oklo area, as described in the literature, is given. The data and the studies behind this established geochronology are discussed and evaluated. Of the regional geology, special attention is given to the dating of the Francevillian sediments, and the intrusion of a dolerite dyke swarm. The processes that led to the mineralisation at Oklo, the subsequent formation of the nuclear reactors and later migration of fission products are described. Further discussion concerns the studies of the dolerite dyke swarm, since this appears to be one of the most important events related to fission product migration. A close look at the data related to this event shows that further study of the age of the dolerite dykes, and their effect on the uraninite in the Oklo reactors, is needed

  17. Guidelines for preparing criticality safety evaluations at Department of Energy non-reactor nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This Department of Energy (DOE) is approved for use by all components of DOE. It contains guidelines that should be followed when preparing Criticality Safety Evaluations that will be used to demonstrate the safety of operations performed at DOE Non-Reactor Nuclear Facilities. Adherence with these guidelines will provide consistency and uniformity in Criticality Safety Evaluations (CSEs) across the complex and will document compliance with DOE Order 5480.24 requirements as they pertain to CSEs.

  18. Guidelines for preparing criticality safety evaluations at Department of Energy non-reactor nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-09-01

    This Department of Energy (DOE) is approved for use by all components of DOE. It contains guidelines that should be followed when preparing Criticality Safety Evaluations that will be used to demonstrate the safety of operations performed at DOE Non-Reactor Nuclear Facilities. Adherence with these guidelines will provide consistency and uniformity in Criticality Safety Evaluations (CSEs) across the complex and will document compliance with DOE Order 5480.24 requirements as they pertain to CSEs

  19. Nuclear criticality safety evaluation of Spray Booth Operations in X-705, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheaffer, M.K.; Keeton, S.C.

    1993-01-01

    This report evaluates nuclear criticality safety for Spray Booth Operations in the Decontamination and Recovery Facility, X-705, at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. A general description of current procedures and related hardware/equipment is presented. Control parameters relevant to nuclear criticality safety are explained, and a consolidated listing of administrative controls and safety systems is developed. Based on compliance with DOE Orders and MMES practices, the overall operation is evaluated, and recommendations for enhanced safety are suggested

  20. Critical evaluation of colon submucosal microdialysis in awake, mobile rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Cibicek

    Full Text Available Sensors able to record large bowel physiology and biochemistry in situ in awake rodents are lacking. Microdialysis is a mini-invasive technique that may be utilized to continuously deliver or recover low-molecular substances from various tissues. In this experiment we evaluated the feasibility of in vivo microdialysis to monitor extracellular fluid chemistry in the descending colon submucosa of conscious, freely moving rodents. Following surgical implantation of a microdialysis probe, male Wistar rats were housed in metabolic cages where they were analgized and clinically followed for four days with free access to standard diet and water. To assess local microcirculation and probe function, glucose, lactate, glucose-to-lactate ratio and urea clearance were determined in the dialysates from the three postoperative days with focus on the final 24-h period. In an attempt to mitigate the expected tissue inflammatory response, one group of animals had the catheters perfused with 5-aminosalicylic acid-enriched medium with final concentration 1 μmol/L. For verification of probe position and the assessment of the surrounding foreign body reaction, standard histological and immunohistochemical methods were employed. Microdialysis of rat gut is associated with considerable technical challenges that may lead to the loss of probe function and high drop-out rate. In this setting, limited data did not allow to draw any firm conclusion regarding local anti-inflammatory effectiveness of 5-aminosalicylic acid perfusion. Although intestinal microdialysis may be suitable for larger anesthetized animals, low reproducibility of the presented method compromises its routine experimental use in awake and freely moving small-sized rodents.

  1. Initial evaluation and management of the critical burn patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivó, C; Galeiras, R; del Caz, Ma D P

    2016-01-01

    The major improvement in burn therapy is likely to focus on the early management of hemodynamic and respiratory failures in combination with an aggressive and early surgical excision and skin grafting for full-thickness burns. Immediate burn care by first care providers is important and can vastly alter outcomes, and it can significantly limit burn progression and depth. The goal of prehospital care should be to cease the burning process as well as prevent future complications and secondary injuries for burn shock. Identifying burn patients appropriate for immediate or subacute transfer is an important step in reducing morbidity and mortality. Delays in transport to Burn Unit should be minimized. The emergency management follows the principles of the Advanced Trauma Life Support Guidelines for assessment and stabilization of airway, breathing, circulation, disability, exposure and environment control. All patients with suspected inhalation injury must be removed from the enclosure as soon as possible, and immediately administer high-flow oxygen. Any patient with stridor, shortness of breath, facial burns, singed nasal hairs, cough, soot in the oral cavity, and history of being in a fire in an enclosed space should be strongly considered for early intubation. Fibroscopy may also be useful if airway damage is suspected and to assess known lung damage. Secondary evaluation following admission to the Burn Unit of a burned patient suffering a severe thermal injury includes continuation of respiratory support and management and treatment of inhalation injury, fluid resuscitation and cardiovascular stabilization, pain control and management of burn wound. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  2. A critical evaluation of phosphate retardation and leaching in Hapludults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Thanh

    2016-04-01

    Nutrients used in production agriculture, in particular bioactive phosphorus (P), continue to present challenges in trying to reverse the degradation of fragile aquatic ecosystems. Soils treated with large amounts of nutrient-enriched animal manure have elevated P levels in regions of intensive animal agriculture and the residual effects of past large P additions were found to be long-lived. Mathematical models are increasingly used in the evaluation and development of mitigation strategies and sustainable management practices. A large number of predictive tools are currently used in the U.S. for simulating phosphorus environmental fate, including models such AGNPS (Agricultural Non-Point Source), FHANTM Field Hydrologic And Nutrient Transport Model (Field Hydrologic And Nutrient Transport Model), SWAT (Soil & Water Assessment Tool), or APEX (Agric. Policy/Environmental EXtender). The P routines in these models have had limited changes in spite of the advances in our understanding of speciation and transport of various P forms in soil and water systems that have occurred over the last three decades. We conducted soil sorption isotherm experiments that yielded basic information for estimating the Phosphorus Sorption coefficient (PSP) a key parameter used to allocate mineral P into soil labile, active, and stable pools. We compare these coefficients to parameters derived from breakthrough curves (BTC) for determining the extent of retardation and transport of phosphate supplied as KH2PO4 under a constant hydraulic head. Sigmoidal and multi-reaction rate models were observed in the BTCs of the anion, which undermine the rationale for using an overall simple partition coefficient to describe the transport and dispersal of phosphate in soil. Minimizing such generalities used in estimating nutrient availability and transport gives a more accurate picture of status of P in soil to conserve nutrients and minimize loss of excess P inputs to the environment.

  3. Critical thinking evaluation in reflective writing: Development and testing of Carter Assessment of Critical Thinking in Midwifery (Reflection).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Amanda G; Creedy, Debra K; Sidebotham, Mary

    2017-11-01

    develop and test a tool designed for use by academics to evaluate pre-registration midwifery students' critical thinking skills in reflective writing. a descriptive cohort design was used. a random sample (n = 100) of archived student reflective writings based on a clinical event or experience during 2014 and 2015. a staged model for tool development was used to develop a fifteen item scale involving item generation; mapping of draft items to critical thinking concepts and expert review to test content validity; inter-rater reliability testing; pilot testing of the tool on 100 reflective writings; and psychometric testing. Item scores were analysed for mean, range and standard deviation. Internal reliability, content and construct validity were assessed. expert review of the tool revealed a high content validity index score of 0.98. Using two independent raters to establish inter-rater reliability, good absolute agreement of 72% was achieved with a Kappa coefficient K = 0.43 (pcritical thinking in reflective writing. Validation with large diverse samples is warranted. reflective practice is a key learning and teaching strategy in undergraduate Bachelor of Midwifery programmes and essential for safe, competent practice. There is the potential to enhance critical thinking development by assessingreflective writing with the CACTiM (reflection) tool to provide formative and summative feedback to students and inform teaching strategies. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A Critical Evaluation of Quantitative Measures of the Quality of Arts and Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Trine

    Art and culture i.e. theatre, film, music, visual art, literature, cultural heritage etc. and related institutions and participants, have traditionally not been measured and evaluated in the same way as other sectors. The reason for this is perhaps that art and culture cannot be ‘weighed and meas......Art and culture i.e. theatre, film, music, visual art, literature, cultural heritage etc. and related institutions and participants, have traditionally not been measured and evaluated in the same way as other sectors. The reason for this is perhaps that art and culture cannot be ‘weighed...

  5. Evaluation of kinesthetic-tactual displays using a critical tracking task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagacinski, R. J.; Miller, D. P.; Gilson, R. D.; Ault, R. T.

    1977-01-01

    The study sought to investigate the feasibility of applying the critical tracking task paradigm to the evaluation of kinesthetic-tactual displays. Four subjects attempted to control a first-order unstable system with a continuously decreasing time constant by using either visual or tactual unidimensional displays. Display aiding was introduced in both modalities in the form of velocity quickening. Visual tracking performance was better than tactual tracking, and velocity aiding improved the critical tracking scores for visual and tactual tracking about equally. The results suggest that the critical task methodology holds considerable promise for evaluating kinesthetic-tactual displays.

  6. Learning clinical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnock, Ralph; Welch, Paul

    2014-04-01

    Errors in clinical reasoning continue to account for significant morbidity and mortality, despite evidence-based guidelines and improved technology. Experts in clinical reasoning often use unconscious cognitive processes that they are not aware of unless they explain how they are thinking. Understanding the intuitive and analytical thinking processes provides a guide for instruction. How knowledge is stored is critical to expertise in clinical reasoning. Curricula should be designed so that trainees store knowledge in a way that is clinically relevant. Competence in clinical reasoning is acquired by supervised practice with effective feedback. Clinicians must recognise the common errors in clinical reasoning and how to avoid them. Trainees can learn clinical reasoning effectively in everyday practice if teachers provide guidance on the cognitive processes involved in making diagnostic decisions. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  7. Pertinent reasoning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Britz, K

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors venture beyond one of the fundamental assumptions in the non-monotonic reasoning community, namely that non-monotonic entailment is supra-classical. They investigate reasoning which uses an infra-classical entailment...

  8. Clinical reasoning and critical thinking Raciocinio clínico y pensamiento crítico Raciocínio clínico e pensamento crítico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josinete Aparecida da Silva Bastos Cerullo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study identifies and analyzes nursing literature on clinical reasoning and critical thinking. A bibliographical search was performed in LILACS, SCIELO, PUBMED and CINAHL databases, followed by selection of abstracts and the reading of full texts. Through the review we verified that clinical reasoning develops from scientific and professional knowledge, is permeated by ethical decisions and nurses’ values and also that there are different personal and institutional strategies that might improve the critical thinking and clinical reasoning of nurses. Further research and evaluation of educational programs on clinical reasoning that integrate psychosocial responses to physiological responses of people cared by nurses is needed.El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar y analizar estudios de la literatura de enfermería sobre raciocinio clínico y pensamiento crítico. Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica en las bases de datos LILACS, SciELO, PubMed y CINAHL, selección de resúmenes, con posterior lectura completa de los textos. Esa revisión permitió verificar que el raciocinio clínico se desarrolla a partir de los conocimientos científicos y profesionales, impregnado por decisiones éticas y valores de los enfermeros y, también, que existen diversas estrategias personales e institucionales que pueden perfeccionar el pensamiento crítico y raciocinio clínico de los enfermeros y que existe necesidad de realizar investigaciones y evaluación de programas de formación sobre raciocinio clínico que integren las respuestas psicosociales a las fisiológicas de las personas cuidadas por la enfermería.O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar e analisar estudos da literatura de enfermagem sobre raciocínio clínico e pensamento crítico. Realizou-se busca bibliográfica nas bases de dados LILACS, SciELO, PubMed e CINAHL, escolha de resumos, com posterior leitura dos textos na íntegra. Essa revisão permitiu verificar que o racioc

  9. The Snapping Elbow Syndrome as a Reason for Chronic Elbow Neuralgia in a Tennis Player - MR, US and Sonoelastography Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łasecki, Mateusz; Olchowy, Cyprian; Pawluś, Aleksander; Zaleska-Dorobisz, Urszula

    2014-01-01

    Ulnar neuropathy is the second most common peripheral nerve neuropathy after median neuropathy, with an incidence of 25 cases per 100 000 men and 19 cases per 100 000 women each year. Skipping (snapping) elbow syndrome is an uncommon cause of pain in the posterior-medial elbow area, sometimes complicated by injury of the ulnar nerve. One of the reason is the dislocation of the abnormal insertion of the medial triceps head over the medial epicondyle during flexion and extension movements. Others are: lack of the Osboune fascia leading to ulnar nerve instability and focal soft tissue tumors (fibromas, lipomas, etc). Recurrent subluxation of the nerve at the elbow results in a tractional and frictional neuritis with classical symptoms of peripheral neuralgia. As far as we know snapping triceps syndrome had never been evaluated in sonoelastography. A 28yo semi-professional left handed tennis player was complaining about pain in posterior-medial elbow area. Initial US examination suggest golfers elbow syndrome which occurs quite commonly and has a prevalence of 0.3-0.6% in males and 0-3-1.1% in women and may be associated (approx. 50% of cases) with ulnar neuropathy. However subsequently made MRI revealed unusual distal triceps anatomy, moderate ulnar nerve swelling and lack of medial epicondylitis symptoms. Followed (second) US examination and sonoelastography have detected slipping of the both ulnar nerve and the additional band of the medial triceps head. Snapping elbow syndrome is a poorly known medical condition, sometimes misdiagnosed as the medial epicondylitis. It describes a broad range of pathologies and anatomical abnormalities. One of the most often reasons is the slipping of the ulnar nerve as the result of the Osborne fascia/anconeus epitrochlearis muscle absence. Simultaneously presence of two or more "snapping reasons" is rare but should be always taken under consideration. There are no sonoelastography studies describing golfers elbow syndrome

  10. Evaluating conditional release in not guilty by reason of insanity acquittees: a prospective follow-up study in Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitacco, Michael J; Vauter, Rebecca; Erickson, Steven K; Ragatz, Laurie

    2014-08-01

    Detailed research on treatment and risk management approaches with not guilty by reason of insanity acquittees (NGRI) during their conditional release is needed as states increasingly use community-based services for these individuals. Grounded in case law, and supported by follow-up studies demonstrating low recidivism rates, states have been encouraged in their efforts to conditionally release NGRI acquittees. The authors evaluated a state-wide sample of 127 NGRI acquittees released into the community after spending a mean of 61.63 months (SD = 76.54) in the hospital. One hundred individuals were committed to the hospital for lengthier treatment (M hospital time = 77.23 months, SD = 79.84), but 27 individuals were released to the community after a relatively short hospital stay (M hospital time = 5.60 months, SD = 3.01). Regarding release, 96 individuals (75.6%) maintained their conditional release. After evaluating a host of demographic and standardized risk data, the following variables predicted revocation on conditional release: previous failure on conditional release, nonadherence with hospital treatment, dangerousness to others, and previous violent charges. A multivariate survival analysis determined criminal behavior and previous failure on conditional release predicted time to revocation. The results of this study demonstrate the importance of considering standardized risk variables in the community-based management of forensic patients. In addition, the data are supportive of continued attempts at moving insanity acquittees from the hospital to the community via conditional release.

  11. Relations between inductive reasoning and deductive reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heit, Evan; Rotello, Caren M

    2010-05-01

    One of the most important open questions in reasoning research is how inductive reasoning and deductive reasoning are related. In an effort to address this question, we applied methods and concepts from memory research. We used 2 experiments to examine the effects of logical validity and premise-conclusion similarity on evaluation of arguments. Experiment 1 showed 2 dissociations: For a common set of arguments, deduction judgments were more affected by validity, and induction judgments were more affected by similarity. Moreover, Experiment 2 showed that fast deduction judgments were like induction judgments-in terms of being more influenced by similarity and less influenced by validity, compared with slow deduction judgments. These novel results pose challenges for a 1-process account of reasoning and are interpreted in terms of a 2-process account of reasoning, which was implemented as a multidimensional signal detection model and applied to receiver operating characteristic data. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Pursuing Improvement in Clinical Reasoning: The Integrated Clinical Education Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessee, Mary Ann

    2018-01-01

    The link between clinical education and development of clinical reasoning is not well supported by one theoretical perspective. Learning to reason during clinical education may be best achieved in a supportive sociocultural context of nursing practice that maximizes reasoning opportunities and facilitates discourse and meaningful feedback. Prelicensure clinical education seldom incorporates these critical components and thus may fail to directly promote clinical reasoning skill. Theoretical frameworks supporting the development of clinical reasoning during clinical education were evaluated. Analysis of strengths and gaps in each framework's support of clinical reasoning development was conducted. Commensurability of philosophical underpinnings was confirmed, and complex relationships among key concepts were elucidated. Six key concepts and three tenets comprise an explanatory predictive theory-the integrated clinical education theory (ICET). ICET provides critical theoretical support for inquiry and action to promote clinical education that improves development of clinical reasoning skill. [J Nurs Educ. 2018;57(1):7-13.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Evaluation of selected reasons and analysis of the course of delivery accompanied by a partner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Bąk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : The popularity of family deliveries has been increasing for several years, so it is reasonable to make an evaluation of the factors that influence decisions on choosing this type of delivery as well as an evaluation of the effects of such a decision. Aim of the research : The aim of the research was to define how the age of a woman in labour, her marital status, residence, her and her partner’s education, financial situation, parity, and participation in classes at a childbirth school can affect a decision on having a family delivery. The research also defined the objective indices of the birth-giving process: the method of its completion, the performance of episiotomy, application of painkillers, and the condition of the newborn. The quality of the completed labour was evaluated in the subjective opinions of young mothers. Material and methods: By means of a survey and analysis of medical documentation, 80 women giving birth in the company of their partners were compared with 80 women giving birth in the traditional way. Results : Place of residence, economic status, parity, education, and attendance of a childbirth school are strongly associated with the chosen form of childbirth. Episiotomy was performed more frequently in women who gave birth in the presence of their partners. Newborn babies received similar scores in the Apgar Scale. Painkillers were applied more often in family deliveries than in conventional ones. Conclusions : The main advantages of a family delivery include the feeling of higher self-esteem and safety, and the strengthening of ties between partners. The disadvantages included fear of worsened quality of sexual life.

  14. GROWTH OF THE INTERNATIONAL CRITICALITY SAFETY AND REACTOR PHYSICS EXPERIMENT EVALUATION PROJECTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Blair Briggs; John D. Bess; Jim Gulliford

    2011-09-01

    Since the International Conference on Nuclear Criticality Safety (ICNC) 2007, the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) and the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) have continued to expand their efforts and broaden their scope. Eighteen countries participated on the ICSBEP in 2007. Now, there are 20, with recent contributions from Sweden and Argentina. The IRPhEP has also expanded from eight contributing countries in 2007 to 16 in 2011. Since ICNC 2007, the contents of the 'International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments1' have increased from 442 evaluations (38000 pages), containing benchmark specifications for 3955 critical or subcritical configurations to 516 evaluations (nearly 55000 pages), containing benchmark specifications for 4405 critical or subcritical configurations in the 2010 Edition of the ICSBEP Handbook. The contents of the Handbook have also increased from 21 to 24 criticality-alarm-placement/shielding configurations with multiple dose points for each, and from 20 to 200 configurations categorized as fundamental physics measurements relevant to criticality safety applications. Approximately 25 new evaluations and 150 additional configurations are expected to be added to the 2011 edition of the Handbook. Since ICNC 2007, the contents of the 'International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments2' have increased from 16 different experimental series that were performed at 12 different reactor facilities to 53 experimental series that were performed at 30 different reactor facilities in the 2011 edition of the Handbook. Considerable effort has also been made to improve the functionality of the searchable database, DICE (Database for the International Criticality Benchmark Evaluation Project) and verify the accuracy of the data contained therein. DICE will be discussed in separate papers at ICNC 2011. The status of the

  15. Evaluation of Criticality of Self-Heating of Polymer Composites by Estimating the Heat Dissipation Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katunin, A.

    2018-03-01

    The critical self-heating temperature at which the structural degradation of polymer composites under cyclic loading begins is evaluated by analyzing the heat dissipation rate. The method proposed is an effective tool for evaluating the degradation degree of such structures.

  16. Balancing Linguistic and Social Needs: Evaluating Texts Using a Critical Language Awareness Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Rod E.; Ndura, Elavie; Righettini, Marielena

    2005-01-01

    English as a second language (ESL) content-based texts are often evaluated for their presentation of sound second-language teaching practices. While such reviews are important and valuable, they ignore an examination of the race, class, and gender issues introduced in the texts. A critical perspective on textbook evaluation organized around the…

  17. Reason with me : 'Confabulation' and interpersonal moral reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyholm, S.R.

    2015-01-01

    According to Haidt’s ‘social intuitionist model’, empirical moral psychology supports the following conclusion: intuition comes first, strategic reasoning second. Critics have responded by arguing that intuitions can depend on non-conscious reasons, that not being able to articulate one’s reasons

  18. Non-Science Majors' Critical Evaluation of Websites in a Biotechnology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halverson, Kristy L.; Siegel, Marcelle A.; Freyermuth, Sharyn K.

    2010-12-01

    Helping students develop criteria for judgment and apply examination skills is essential for promoting scientific literacy. With the increasing availability of the Internet, it is even more essential that students learn how to evaluate the science they gather from online resources. This is particularly true because publishing information on the web is not restricted to experts, and content quality can vary greatly across websites. The responsibility of evaluating websites falls upon the user. Little research has examined undergraduates' evaluation of web sites in science classes. The purpose of this study was to investigate on which websites college students selected and how they evaluated the websites used when developing individual positions about stem-cell research. We used a qualitative approach in search of patterns in undergraduates' website selection and evaluation criteria. We found that students used a variety of web resources from eleven types of websites to complete their independent research report. Students also used eleven evaluation criteria to evaluate these sources, some useful (e.g., credibility) and some not useful (e.g., readability). We found that university students struggled with critically evaluating online resources. Undergraduates need prompts to learn how to critically evaluate the science content provided within websites. This type of scaffold can facilitate useful evaluation and promote critical thinking required for becoming scientifically literate.

  19. Criticality safety evaluation of disposing of K Basin sludge in double-shell tank AW-105

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ROGERS, C.A.

    1999-01-01

    A criticality safety evaluation is made of the disposal of K Basin sludge in double-shell tank (DST) AW-105 located in the 200 east area of Hanford Site. The technical basis is provided for limits and controls to be used in the development of a criticality prevention specification (CPS). A model of K Basin sludge is developed to account for fuel burnup. The iron/uranium mass ration required to ensure an acceptable magrin of subcriticality is determined

  20. Priority setting in HIV/AIDS control in West Java Indonesia: an evaluation based on the accountability for reasonableness framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromp, Noor; Prawiranegara, Rozar; Subhan Riparev, Harris; Siregar, Adiatma; Sunjaya, Deni; Baltussen, Rob

    2015-04-01

    Indonesia has insufficient resources to adequately respond to the HIV/AIDS epidemic, and thus faces a great challenge in prioritizing interventions. In many countries, such priority setting processes are typically ad hoc and not transparent leading to unfair decisions. Here, we evaluated the priority setting process in HIV/AIDS control in West Java province against the four conditions of the accountability for reasonableness (A4R) framework: relevance, publicity, appeals and revision, and enforcement. We reviewed government documents and conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews based on the A4R framework with 22 participants of the 5-year HIV/AIDS strategy development for 2008-13 (West Java province) and 2007-11 (Bandung). We found that criteria for priority setting were used implicitly and that the strategies included a wide range of programmes. Many stakeholders were involved in the process but their contribution could be improved and particularly the public and people living with HIV/AIDS could be better engaged. The use of appeal and publicity mechanisms could be more transparent and formally stated. Public regulations are not yet installed to ensure fair priority setting. To increase fairness in HIV/AIDS priority setting, West Java should make improvements on all four conditions of the A4R framework. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2014; all rights reserved.

  1. Evaluating the roles of the inferior frontal gyrus and superior parietal lobule in deductive reasoning: an rTMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujii, Takeo; Sakatani, Kaoru; Masuda, Sayako; Akiyama, Takekazu; Watanabe, Shigeru

    2011-09-15

    This study used off-line repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to examine the roles of the superior parietal lobule (SPL) and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) in a deductive reasoning task. Subjects performed a categorical syllogistic reasoning task involving congruent, incongruent, and abstract trials. Twenty four subjects received magnetic stimulation to the SPL region prior to the task. In the other 24 subjects, TMS was administered to the IFG region before the task. Stimulation lasted for 10min, with an inter-pulse frequency of 1Hz. We found that bilateral SPL (Brodmann area (BA) 7) stimulation disrupted performance on abstract and incongruent reasoning. Left IFG (BA 45) stimulation impaired congruent reasoning performance while paradoxically facilitating incongruent reasoning performance. This resulted in the elimination of the belief-bias. In contrast, right IFG stimulation only impaired incongruent reasoning performance, thus enhancing the belief-bias effect. These findings are largely consistent with the dual-process theory of reasoning, which proposes the existence of two different human reasoning systems: a belief-based heuristic system; and a logic-based analytic system. The present findings suggest that the left language-related IFG (BA 45) may correspond to the heuristic system, while bilateral SPL may underlie the analytic system. The right IFG may play a role in blocking the belief-based heuristic system for solving incongruent reasoning trials. This study could offer an insight about functional roles of distributed brain systems in human deductive reasoning by utilizing the rTMS approach. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. To Reason or Not to Reason: Is Autobiographical Reasoning Always Beneficial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Kate C.; Mansfield, Cade D.

    2011-01-01

    Autobiographical reasoning has been found to be a critical process in identity development; however, the authors suggest that existing research shows that such reasoning may not always be critical to another important outcome: well-being. The authors describe characteristics of people such as personality and age, contexts such as conversations,…

  3. A survey of physicians' reasons to transfuse plasma and platelets in the critically ill: a prospective single-centre cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaar, A. P. J.; in der Maur, A. L.; Binnekade, J. M.; Schultz, M. J.; Juffermans, N. P.

    2009-01-01

    Data on the rationality of transfusion practice of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and platelets in the critically ill are sparse and may contribute to efforts to reduce transfusion rates. To provide insight into determinants of the decision of intensive care unit (ICU)-physicians to transfuse, a survey

  4. Preparation of data for criticality safety evaluation of nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuno, Hiroshi; Suyama, Kenya; Yoshiyama, Hiroshi; Tonoike, Kotaro; Miyoshi, Yoshinori

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear Criticality Safety Handbook/Data Collection, Version 2 was submitted to the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) of Japan as a contract report. In this presentation paper, its outline and related recent works are presented. After an introduction in Chapter 1, useful information to obtain the atomic number densities was collected in Chapter 2. The nuclear characteristic parameters for 11 nuclear fuels were provided in Chapter 3, and subcriticality judgment graphs were given in Chapter 4. The estimated critical and estimated lower-limit critical values were supplied for the 11 nuclear fuels as results of calculations by using the Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library, JENDL-3.2, and the continuous energy Monte Carlo neutron transport code MVP in Chapter 5. The results of benchmark calculations based on the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) Handbook were summarized into six fuel categories in Chapter 6. As for recent works, subcriticality judgment graphs for U-SiO 2 and Pu-SiO 2 were obtained. Benchmark calculations were made with the combination of the latest version of the library JENDL-3.3 and MVP code for a series of STACY experiments and the estimated critical and estimated lower-limit critical values of 10 wt%-enriched uranium nitrate solutions were calculated. (author)

  5. The integrated criticality safety evaluation for the Hanford tank waste treatment and immobilization plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losey, D. C.; Miles, R. E.; Perks, M. F.

    2009-01-01

    The Criticality Safety Evaluation Report (CSER) for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) has been developed as a single, integrated evaluation with a scope that covers all of the planned WTP operations. This integrated approach is atypical, as the scopes of criticality evaluations are usually more narrowly defined. Several adjustments were made in developing the WTP CSER, but the primary changes were to provide introductory overview for the criticality safety control strategy and to provide in-depth analysis of the underlying physical and chemical mechanisms that contribute to ensuring safety. The integrated approach for the CSER allowed a more consistent evaluation of safety and avoided redundancies that occur when evaluation is distributed over multiple documents. While the approach used with the WTP CSER necessitated more coordination and teamwork, it has yielded a report is that more integrated and concise than is typical. The integrated approach with the CSER produced a simple criticality control scheme that uses relatively few controls. (authors)

  6. Proportional reasoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dole, Shelley; Hilton, Annette; Hilton, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    Proportional reasoning is widely acknowledged as a key to success in school mathematics, yet students’ continual difficulties with proportion-related tasks are well documented. This paper draws on a large research study that aimed to support 4th to 9th grade teachers to design and implement tasks...

  7. Verbal Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-31

    Psicologia , 4(3), 183-198. 94 Guyote, M.J. and Sternberg, R.J. (1981). A transitive-chain theory of syllogistic reasoning. Cognitive Psychology, 13(4), 461...personal connections. Journal of Social Psychology, 20, 39-59. Newell, A. (1990). Unified Theories of Cognition. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard

  8. Diagrammatic Reasoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tylén, Kristian; Fusaroli, Riccardo; Stege Bjørndahl, Johanne

    2015-01-01

    of representational artifacts for purposes of thinking and communicating is discussed in relation to C.S. Peirce’s notion of diagrammatical reasoning. We propose to extend Peirce’s original ideas and sketch a conceptual framework that delineates different kinds of diagram manipulation: Sometimes diagrams...

  9. University of São Paulo Reasons for Smoking Scale: a new tool for the evaluation of smoking motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Elisa Sebba Tosta de; Crippa, José Alexandre de Souza; Pasian, Sonia Regina; Martinez, José Antônio Baddini

    2010-01-01

    To develop a new scale aimed at evaluating smoking motivation by incorporating questions and domains from the 68-item Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM-68) into the Modified Reasons for Smoking Scale (MRSS). Nine WISDM-68 questions regarding affiliative attachment, cue exposure/associative processes, and weight control were added to the 21 questions of the MRSS. The new scale, together with the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND), was administered to 311 smokers (214 males; mean age = 37.6 ± 10.8 years; mean number of cigarettes smoked per day = 15.0 ± 9.2), who also provided additional information. We used exploratory factor analysis in order to determine the factor structure of the scale. The influence that certain clinical features had on the scores of the final factor solution was also analyzed. The factor analysis revealed a 21-question solution grouped into nine factors: addiction, pleasure from smoking, tension reduction, stimulation, automatism, handling, social smoking, weight control, and affiliative attachment. For the overall scale, the Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.83. Females scored significantly higher for addiction, tension reduction, handling, weight control, and affiliative attachment than did males. The FTND score correlated positively with addiction, tension reduction, stimulation, automatism, social smoking, and affiliative attachment. The number of cigarettes smoked per day was associated with addiction, tension reduction, stimulation, automatism, affiliative attachment, and handling. The level of exhaled CO correlated positively with addiction, automatism, and affiliative attachment. The new scale provides an acceptable framework of motivational factors for smoking, with satisfactory psychometric properties and reliability.

  10. Damage Evaluation of Critical Components of Tilted Support Spring Nonlinear System under a Rectangular Pulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningning Duan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dimensionless nonlinear dynamical equations of a tilted support spring nonlinear packaging system with critical components were obtained under a rectangular pulse. To evaluate the damage characteristics of shocks to packaged products with critical components, a concept of the damage boundary surface was presented and applied to a titled support spring system, with the dimensionless critical acceleration of the system, the dimensionless critical velocity, and the frequency parameter ratio of the system taken as the three basic parameters. Based on the numerical results, the effects of the frequency parameter ratio, the mass ratio, the dimensionless peak pulse acceleration, the angle of the system, and the damping ratio on the damage boundary surface of critical components were discussed. It was demonstrated that with the increase of the frequency parameter ratio, the decrease of the angle, and/or the increase of the mass ratio, the safety zone of critical components can be broadened, and increasing the dimensionless peak pulse acceleration or the damping ratio may lead to a decrease of the damage zone for critical components. The results may lead to a thorough understanding of the design principles for the tilted support spring nonlinear system.

  11. Critical technical issues and evaluation and comparison studies for inertial fusion energy reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.A.; Ying, A.Y.; Tillack, M.S.; Ghoniem, N.M.; Waganer, L.M.; Driemeyer, D.E.; Linford, G.J.; Drake, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    The critical issues, evaluation and comparison of two inertial fusion energy (IFE) reactor design concepts developed in the Prometheus studies are presented. The objectives were (1) to identify and characterize the critical issues and the R and D required to solve them, and (2) to establish a sound basis for future IFE technical and programmatic decisions by evaluating and comparing the different design concepts. Quantitative evaluation and comparison of the two design options have been made with special focus on physics feasibility, engineering feasibility, economics, safety and environment, and research and development (R and D) requirements. Two key conclusions are made based on the overall evaluation analysis: (1) The heavy-ion driven reactors appear to have an overall advantage over laser-driven reactors; and: (2) The differences in scores are not large and future results of R and D could change the overall ranking of the two IFE concepts

  12. Criticality design evaluation of the White Sands reactor building storage vault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philbin, J.S.; Nelson, W.E.

    1979-03-01

    This report describes the conceptual design and criticality evaluation of a storage vault for components of the fast pulse reactor at White Sands Missile Range. Criticality calculations were performed with the KENO-IV Monte Carlo code for various storage configurations in order to investigate the coupling between the portable reactor and storage arrays of spare reactor rings or other fissile components of similar mass. Abnormal conditions corresponding to pseudo--random arrays of the fuel components, as well as a number of flooded configurations, were also evaluated to assess criticality potential for highly unlikely situations. In a normal, dry configuration, the neutron self-multiplication factor, k/sub eff/, of the fully loaded 3 x 8 planar array plus the reactor is less than 0.87. A completely flooded vault was found to produce self-multiplication factors in excess of 1.2

  13. An evaluation of safety-critical Java on a Java processor

    OpenAIRE

    Rios Rivas, Juan Ricardo; Schoeberl, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The safety-critical Java (SCJ) specification provides a restricted set of the Java language intended for applications that require certification. In order to test the specification, implementations are emerging and the need to evaluate those implementations in a systematic way is becoming important. In this paper we evaluate our SCJ implementation which is based on the Java Optimized Processor JOP and we measure different performance and timeliness criteria relevant to hard real-time systems....

  14. A Critical Evaluation of the Influence of Creative Thinking on Marketing Creativity

    OpenAIRE

    Marius Sebastian RÜCKER

    2017-01-01

    Due to the rapid technological development and a globally competitive business environment, creative marketing methods become increasingly important for a unique value proposition. As a result, the aim of this research paper is to critically evaluate the influence of creative thinking on marketing creativity. In order to evaluate this correlation, examples of creative marketing concepts in traditional marketing and online marketing campaigns are examined and analysed in regards to potentially...

  15. Tracing the evolution of critical evaluation skills in students' use of the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, P; Sparks, J

    1999-04-01

    This paper documents the evolving uses of the Internet made by public health graduate students and traces the development of their search methods and critical evaluative criteria. Early in the first semester and again six months later, twenty-four graduate students in a problem-based learning curriculum, which emphasizes evidence-based critical thinking skills, were required to describe their most helpful resources and to evaluate these resources critically. The answers were coded for the types of resources the students used, how frequently they were used, and why they were used. Student perception of the usefulness of resources, especially the Internet, and ability to evaluate these resources critically changed greatly. Initially, 96% of the students stated that the Internet was their most helpful resource. Six months later, these students continued to use the Internet; however, it was not their most useful source. At the later point, students had very specific uses for the Internet. Their most frequently used evaluation criterion was the reliability and objectivity of the source of the information. By the end of the first year of study, the majority of the students demonstrated an understanding of the principles of evidence-based practice and applied them to their research and analysis of information resources.

  16. Selection and Evaluation of Media for Behavioral Health Interventions Employing Critical Media Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Patrick A; Cherenack, Emily M; Jadwin-Cakmak, Laura; Harper, Gary W

    2018-01-01

    Although a growing number of psychosocial health promotion interventions use the critical analysis of media to facilitate behavior change, no specific guidelines exist to assist researchers and practitioners in the selection and evaluation of culturally relevant media stimuli for intervention development. Mobilizing Our Voices for Empowerment is a critical consciousness-based health enhancement intervention for HIV-positive Black young gay/bisexual men that employs the critical analysis of popular media. In the process of developing and testing this intervention, feedback on media stimuli was collected from youth advisory board members (n = 8), focus group participants (n = 19), intervention participants (n = 40), and intervention facilitators (n = 6). A thematic analysis of qualitative data resulted in the identification of four key attributes of media stimuli and participants' responses to media stimuli that are important to consider when selecting and evaluating media stimuli for use in behavioral health interventions employing the critical analysis of media: comprehension, relevance, emotionality, and action. These four attributes are defined and presented as a framework for evaluating media, and adaptable tools are provided based on this framework to guide researchers and practitioners in the selection and evaluation of media for similar interventions.

  17. Critical Evaluation as an Aid to Improved Report Writing: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Mirabelle; Williams, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Report writing is an important employability skill for Engineers and Technologists, and this case study describes how a Technology degree module took a novel approach to developing students' report writing skills. Students learned how to use a criterion-referenced critical evaluation framework for reports and other technological documents. They…

  18. Assurance Statement Practice in Environmental, Social and Sustainability Reporting: A Critical Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Dwyer, B.; Owen, D.L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on a detailed critical analysis of assurance statements appearing in environmental, social and ‘sustainability’ reports short-listed for the 2002 Association of Chartered Certified Accountants (ACCA) UK and European Sustainability Reporting Awards scheme. Drawing on an evaluative

  19. Intercultural Effectiveness Training in three Western immigrant countries : A cross-cultural evaluation of critical incidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herfst, Selma L.; van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter; Timmerman, Marieke E.

    The purpose of the present study is the evaluation of material for a new intercultural training instrument. More specifically, we examine the validity of 21 critical incidents used in the training. The training programme is targeted at natives in Western immigrant countries dealing - mostly

  20. Critically evaluated rate coefficients for free-radical polymerization, 5. Propagation rate coefficient for butyl acrylate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asua, J.M.; Beuermann, S.; Buback, M.; Castignolles, P.; Charleux, B.; Gilbert, R.G.; Hutchinson, R.A.; Leiza, J.R.; Nikitin, A.N.; Vairon, J.P.; Herk, van A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Propagation rate coefficients, kp, for free-radical polymerization of butyl acrylate (BA) previously reported by several groups are critically evaluated. All data were determined by the combination of pulsed-laser polymerization (PLP) and subsequent polymer analysis by size exclusion (SEC)

  1. Evaluation of Critical Thinking and Reflective Thinking Skills among Science Teacher Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Sibel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and determine the critical thinking and reflective thinking skills of science teacher candidates. The study was performed with the participation of 30 teacher candidates enrolled in the science teaching department of a university in Turkey. Scales administered during the study included the California Critical…

  2. Intentionally Flawed Manuscripts as Means for Teaching Students to Critically Evaluate Scientific Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferenc, Jaroslav; Cervenák, Filip; Bircák, Erik; Juríková, Katarína; Goffová, Ivana; Gorilák, Peter; Huraiová, Barbora; Plavá, Jana; Demecsová, Loriana; Duríková, Nikola; Galisová, Veronika; Gazdarica, Matej; Puškár, Marek; Nagy, Tibor; Nagyová, Sona; Mentelová, Lucia; Slaninová, Miroslava; Ševcovicová, Andrea; Tomáška, Lubomír

    2018-01-01

    As future scientists, university students need to learn how to avoid making errors in their own manuscripts, as well as how to identify flaws in papers published by their peers. Here we describe a novel approach on how to promote students' ability to critically evaluate scientific articles. The exercise is based on instructing teams of students to…

  3. Critical assessment of radioisotopic methods used in the evaluation of pherispheral blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauffman, P.; Camargo, E.E.; Wolosker, M.; Dias Neto, A.L.; Carvalho, N.; Leao, L.E.P.

    1974-01-01

    A critical analysis of the radioisotope methods for studying peripheral blood flow is made. Methods using muscle injection of tracer and other ones using both the venous and the arterial routes of injection are discussed. Emphasys in the use of hippuran- 131 I for evaluating of the peripheral circulation dynamics is given [pt

  4. SECOND WASTE PACKAGE PROBABILISTIC CRITICALITY ANALYSIS: GENERATION AND EVALUATION OF INTERNAL CRITICIALITY CONFIGURATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Gottlieb, J.R. Massari, J.K. McCoy

    1996-03-27

    This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development (WPD) department to provide an evaluation of the criticality potential within a waste package having sonic or all of its contents degraded by corrosion and removal of neutron absorbers. This analysis is also intended to provide an estimate of the consequences of any internal criticality, particularly in terms of any increase in radionuclide inventory. These consequence estimates will be used as part of the WPD input to the Total System Performance Assessment. The ultimate objective of this analysis is to augment the information gained from the Initial Waste Package Probabilistic Criticality Analyses (Ref. 5.8 and 5.9, hereafter referred to as IPA) to a degree which will support preliminary waste package design recommendations intended to reduce the risk of waste package criticality and the risk to total repository system performance posed by the consequences of any criticality. The IPA evaluated the criticality potential under the assumption that the waste package basket retained its structural integrity, so that the assemblies retained their initial separation, even when the neutron absorbers had been leached from the basket. This analysis is based on the more realistic condition that removal of the neutron absorbers is a consequence of the corrosion of the steel in which they are contained, which has the additional consequence of reducing the structural support between assemblies. The result is a set of more reactive configurations having a smaller spacing between assemblies, or no inter-assembly spacing at all. Another difference from the IPA is the minimal attention to probabilistic evaluation given in this study. Although the IPA covered a time horizon to 100,000 years, the lack of consideration of basket degradation modes made it primarily applicable to the first 10,000 years. In contrast, this study, by focusing on the degraded modes of the basket, is primarily

  5. Medical students can learn the basic application, analytic, evaluative, and psychomotor skills of critical care medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, P L; Jacob, H; Thomas, E A; Harwell, M; Willenkin, R L; Pinsky, M R

    2000-02-01

    To determine whether fourth-year medical students can learn the basic analytic, evaluative, and psychomotor skills needed to initially manage a critically ill patient. Student learning was evaluated using a performance examination, the objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Students were randomly assigned to one of two clinical scenarios before the elective. After the elective, students completed the other scenario, using a crossover design. Five surgical intensive care units in a tertiary care university teaching hospital. Forty fourth-year medical students enrolled in the critical care medicine (CCM) elective. All students evaluated a live "simulated critically ill" patient, requested physiologic data from a nurse, ordered laboratory tests, received data in real time, and intervened as they deemed appropriate. Student performance of specific behavioral objectives was evaluated at five stations. They were expected to a) assess airway, breathing, and circulation in appropriate sequence; b) prepare a manikin for intubation, obtain an acceptable airway on the manikin, demonstrate bag-mouth ventilation, and perform acceptable laryngoscopy and intubation; c) provide appropriate mechanical ventilator settings; d) manage hypotension; and e) request and interpret pulmonary artery data and initiate appropriate therapy. OSCEs were videotaped and reviewed by two faculty members masked to time of examination. A checklist of key behaviors was used to evaluate performance. The primary outcome measure was the difference in examination score before and after the rotation. Secondary outcomes included the difference in scores at each rotation. The mean preelective score was 57.0%+/-8.3% compared with 85.9%+/-7.4% (ppsychomotor skills necessary to initially manage critically ill patients. After an appropriate 1-month CCM elective, students' thinking and application skills required to initially manage critically ill patients improved markedly, as demonstrated by an OSCE

  6. Critical evaluation of key evidence on the human health hazards of exposure to bisphenol A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengstler, JG; Foth, H; Gebel, T; Kramer, P-J; Lilienblum, W; Schweinfurth, H; Völkel, W; Wollin, K-M; Gundert-Remy, U

    2011-01-01

    Despite the fact that more than 5000 safety-related studies have been published on bisphenol A (BPA), there seems to be no resolution of the apparently deadlocked controversy as to whether exposure of the general population to BPA causes adverse effects due to its estrogenicity. Therefore, the Advisory Committee of the German Society of Toxicology reviewed the background and cutting-edge topics of this BPA controversy. The current tolerable daily intake value (TDI) of 0.05 mg/kg body weight [bw]/day, derived by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), is mainly based on body weight changes in two- and three-generation studies in mice and rats. Recently, these studies and the derivation of the TDI have been criticized. After having carefully considered all arguments, the Committee had to conclude that the criticism was scientifically not justified; moreover, recently published additional data further support the reliability of the two-and three-generation studies demonstrating a lack of estrogen-dependent effects at and below doses on which the current TDI is based. A frequently discussed topic is whether doses below 5 mg/ kg bw/day may cause adverse health effects in laboratory animals. Meanwhile, it has become clear that positive results from some explorative studies have not been confirmed in subsequent studies with higher numbers of animals or a priori defined hypotheses. Particularly relevant are some recent studies with negative outcomes that addressed effects of BPA on the brain, behavior, and the prostate in rodents for extrapolation to the human situation. The Committee came to the conclusion that rodent data can well be used as a basis for human risk evaluation. Currently published conjectures that rats are insensitive to estrogens compared to humans can be refuted. Data from toxicokinetics studies show that the half-life of BPA in adult human subjects is less than 2 hours and BPA is completely recovered in urine as BPA-conjugates. Tissue deconjugation

  7. Multi-person and multi-attribute design evaluations using evidential reasoning based on subjective safety and cost analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.; Yang, J.B.; Sen, P.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents an approach for ranking proposed design options based on subjective safety and cost analyses. Hierarchical system safety analysis is carried out using fuzzy sets and evidential reasoning. This involves safety modelling by fuzzy sets at the bottom level of a hierarchy and safety synthesis by evidential reasoning at higher levels. Fuzzy sets are also used to model the cost incurred for each design option. An evidential reasoning approach is then employed to synthesise the estimates of safety and cost, which are made by multiple designers. The developed approach is capable of dealing with problems of multiple designers, multiple attributes and multiple design options to select the best design. Finally, a practical engineering example is presented to demonstrate the proposed multi-person and multi-attribute design selection approach

  8. Criticality evaluation and protocol for DOE-owned spent nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cresap, D.A.; Sentieri, P.J.; Wilson, J.R.

    1995-09-01

    This report is a continuation of repository criticality evaluation work. Both the probability and consequences of a criticality were considered. A long-term, low-power, water-moderated criticality was the most likely of those considered. Its probability was low but not low enough to be dismissed. The governing regulation, 40 CFR 191, allows an event to be dismissed if it has less than one chance in 10,000 of occurring in 10,000 years. This implies a regulatory concern threshold of 10-8/yr. Even if such an event occurred, the repository inventory would still be dominated by the disposed fuel and waste and no significant additional releases would be expected. The major categories of criticality investigated were: water-moderated with fast or slow reactivity insertion, dry (hard-spectrum) with fast or slow reactivity insertion, water-moderated on the surface due to human intrusion, and far field. Fault trees were prepared to assess these scenarios. As a result of this study, the probability of a criticality in 10,000 years was revised from 3x10 -3 to 5x10 -4 , primarily through the elimination of conservatism and correction of assumptions. The presence of water is a major concern in criticality studies. The possibility of flooding due to water table rise had been dismissed in previous studies. Conservative models indicate that this is a defensible position. The possibility of a silica moderated criticality was considered briefly. The preliminary study identified isotopes of concern for release and these were verified by several comparative methods. Most isotopes had similar ratios across source categories and those that did not could be accounted for by fuel or waste characteristics. The ORIGEN2 code was validated to be sufficiently accurate for PA purposes for the low-power, long-term scenario considered in the criticality study

  9. Evaluation of Accuracy of Calculational Prediction of Criticality Based on ICSBEP Handbook Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovko, Yury; Rozhikhin, Yevgeniy; Tsibulya, Anatoly; Koscheev, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    Experiments with plutonium, low enriched uranium and uranium-233 from the ICSBEP Handbook are being considered in this paper. Among these experiments it was selected only those, which seem to be the most relevant to the evaluation of uncertainty of critical mass of mixtures of plutonium or low enriched uranium or uranium-233 with light water. All selected experiments were examined and covariance matrices of criticality uncertainties were developed along with some uncertainties were revised. Statistical analysis of these experiments was performed and some contradictions were discovered and eliminated. Evaluation of accuracy of prediction of criticality calculations was performed using the internally consistent set of experiments with plutonium, low enriched uranium and uranium-233 remained after the statistical analyses. The application objects for the evaluation of calculational prediction of criticality were water-reflected spherical systems of homogeneous aqueous mixtures of plutonium or low enriched uranium or uranium-233 of different concentrations which are simplified models of apparatus of external fuel cycle. It is shows that the procedure allows to considerably reduce uncertainty in k eff caused by the uncertainties in neutron cross-sections. Also it is shows that the results are practically independent of initial covariance matrices of nuclear data uncertainties. (authors)

  10. Evaluation of critical indicators in the process of acquiring supplies and services LAC-UFPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, V. F.; Ferreira, C. V.; dos Santos, M. J.; Honorato, F. A.

    2015-01-01

    In laboratories linked to public universities and accredited by the NBR ISO/IEC 17025, to meet efficiently item 4.6 (procurement of supplies and services) is a challenge that can be accomplished by programming based on historical purchases and services. In this study, we evaluated the critical procurement items to meet the quality management system of the LAC-UFPE: reagents, certified reference material, of equipment parts, maintenance and calibration of equipment and instruments. It was found that the most critical item is the certified reference material, the purchase or repair of which must be expedited within 125 days prior to the receipt to occur within the desired period.

  11. Nuclear criticality safety evaluation of large cylinder cleaning operations in X-705, Portsmouth Gaseous diffusion Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheaffer, M.K.; Keeton, S.C.; Lutz, H.F.

    1995-06-01

    This report evaluates nuclear criticality safety for large cylinder cleaning operations in the Decontamination and Recovery Facility, X-705, at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. A general description of current cleaning procedures and required hardware/equipment is presented, and documentation for large cylinder cleaning operations is identified and described. Control parameters, design features, administrative controls, and safety systems relevant to nuclear criticality are discussed individually, followed by an overall assessment based on the Double Contingency Principle. Recommendations for enhanced safety are suggested, and issues for increased efficiency are presented

  12. Critical Thinking: Art Criticism as a Tool for Analysing and Evaluating Art, Instructional Practice and Social Justice Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome, Jeffrey; Pereira, Adriane; Anderson, Tom

    2018-01-01

    Recent educational initiatives have emphasised the importance of fostering critical thinking skills in today's students in order to provide strategies for becoming successful problem solvers throughout life. Other scholars advocate the use of critical thinking skills on the grounds that such tools can be used effectively when considering social…

  13. Evaluation as a critical factor of success in local public health accreditation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremain, Beverly; Davis, Mary; Joly, Brenda; Edgar, Mark; Kushion, Mary L; Schmidt, Rita

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the variety of approaches used to conduct evaluations of performance improvement or accreditation systems, while illustrating the complexity of conducting evaluations to inform local public health practice. We, in addition, hope to inform the Exploring Accreditation Program about relevant experiences involving accreditation and performance assessment processes, specifically evaluation, as it debates and discusses a national voluntary model. A background of each state is given. To further explore these issues, interviews were conducted with each state's evaluator to gain more in-depth information on the many different evaluation strategies and approaches used. On the basis of the interviews, the authors provide several overall themes, which suggest that evaluation is a critical tool and success factor for performance assessment or accreditation programs.

  14. A Critical Evaluation of the Influence of Creative Thinking on Marketing Creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Sebastian RÜCKER

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid technological development and a globally competitive business environment, creative marketing methods become increasingly important for a unique value proposition. As a result, the aim of this research paper is to critically evaluate the influence of creative thinking on marketing creativity. In order to evaluate this correlation, examples of creative marketing concepts in traditional marketing and online marketing campaigns are examined and analysed in regards to potentially required creative thinking processes. This evaluation led to the conclusion that creative thinking influences marketing creativity in a holistic way by creating experiences, forming relationships, and addressing large audiences in a cost-efficient way.

  15. Celebrating the 21st anniversary of empowerment evaluation with our critical friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, David; Wandersman, Abraham

    2017-08-01

    This special topic edition of E&PP presents the insights of luminaries in the field who have helped shape empowerment evaluation with their critiques, concerns, and congratulations. We celebrate their contributions to empowerment evaluation. This special topic edition of E&PP presents their comments about an evaluation approach that, according to president Stewart Donaldson, has "gone viral" across the globe (Donaldson, 2015). To set the stage for these critical friends' comments, additional context for their discussion is provided. In addition, this special topic edition concludes with a brief comment on their thoughts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Criticality safety evaluation for the Advanced Test Reactor enhanced low enriched uranium fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montierth, Leland M.

    2016-01-01

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) convert program is developing a high uranium density fuel based on a low enriched uranium (LEU) uranium-molybdenum alloy. Testing of prototypic GTRI fuel elements is necessary to demonstrate integrated fuel performance behavior and scale-up of fabrication techniques. GTRI Enhanced LEU Fuel (ELF) elements based on the ATR-Standard Size elements (all plates fueled) are to be fabricated for testing in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). While a specific ELF element design will eventually be provided for detailed analyses and in-core testing, this criticality safety evaluation (CSE) is intended to evaluate a hypothetical ELF element design for criticality safety purposes. Existing criticality analyses have analyzed Standard (HEU) ATR elements from which controls have been derived. This CSE documents analysis that determines the reactivity of the hypothetical ELF fuel elements relative to HEU ATR elements and whether the existing HEU ATR element controls bound the ELF element. The initial calculations presented in this CSE analyzed the original ELF design, now referred to as Mod 0.1. In addition, as part of a fuel meat thickness optimization effort for reactor performance, other designs have been evaluated. As of early 2014 the most current conceptual designs are Mk1A and Mk1B, that were previously referred to as conceptual designs Mod 0.10 and Mod 0.11, respectively. Revision 1 evaluates the reactivity of the ATR HEU Mark IV elements for a comparison with the Mark VII elements.

  17. Criticality safety evaluation for the Advanced Test Reactor enhanced low enriched uranium fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montierth, Leland M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-07-19

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) convert program is developing a high uranium density fuel based on a low enriched uranium (LEU) uranium-molybdenum alloy. Testing of prototypic GTRI fuel elements is necessary to demonstrate integrated fuel performance behavior and scale-up of fabrication techniques. GTRI Enhanced LEU Fuel (ELF) elements based on the ATR-Standard Size elements (all plates fueled) are to be fabricated for testing in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). While a specific ELF element design will eventually be provided for detailed analyses and in-core testing, this criticality safety evaluation (CSE) is intended to evaluate a hypothetical ELF element design for criticality safety purposes. Existing criticality analyses have analyzed Standard (HEU) ATR elements from which controls have been derived. This CSE documents analysis that determines the reactivity of the hypothetical ELF fuel elements relative to HEU ATR elements and whether the existing HEU ATR element controls bound the ELF element. The initial calculations presented in this CSE analyzed the original ELF design, now referred to as Mod 0.1. In addition, as part of a fuel meat thickness optimization effort for reactor performance, other designs have been evaluated. As of early 2014 the most current conceptual designs are Mk1A and Mk1B, that were previously referred to as conceptual designs Mod 0.10 and Mod 0.11, respectively. Revision 1 evaluates the reactivity of the ATR HEU Mark IV elements for a comparison with the Mark VII elements.

  18. Critical Zone Services as a Measure for Evaluating the Trade-offs in Intensively Managed Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, M.; Kumar, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Critical Zone includes the range of biophysical processes occurring from the top of the vegetation canopy to the weathering zone below the groundwater table. These services (Field et al. 2015) provide a measure to value processes that support the goods and services from our landscapes. In intensively managed landscapes the provisioning and regulating services are being altered through anthropogenic energy inputs so as to derive more agricultural productivity from the landscapes. Land use change and other alterations to the environment result in positive and/or negative net Critical Zone services. Through studies in the Critical Zone Observatory for Intensively Managed Landscapes (IMLCZO), this research seeks to answer questions such as: Are perennial bioenergy crops or annual replaced crops better for the land and surrounding environment? How do we evaluate the products and services from the land for the energy and resources we put in? Before the economic valuation of Critical Zone services, these questions seemed abstract. However, with developments such as Critical Zone services and life cycle assessments, they are more concrete. To evaluate the trade-offs between positive and negative impacts, life cycle assessments are used to create an inventory of all the energy inputs and outputs in a landscape management system. Total energy is computed by summing the mechanical energy used to construct tile drains, fertilizer, and other processes involved in intensely managed landscapes and the chemical energy gained by the production of biofuels from bioenergy crops. A multi-layer canopy model (MLCan) computes soil, water, and nutrient outputs for each crop type, which can be translated into Critical Zone services. These values are then viewed alongside the energy inputs into the system to show the relationship between agricultural practices and their corresponding ecosystem and environmental impacts.

  19. Registered nurses' clinical reasoning skills and reasoning process: A think-aloud study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, JuHee; Lee, Young Joo; Bae, JuYeon; Seo, Minjeong

    2016-11-01

    As complex chronic diseases are increasing, nurses' prompt and accurate clinical reasoning skills are essential. However, little is known about the reasoning skills of registered nurses. This study aimed to determine how registered nurses use their clinical reasoning skills and to identify how the reasoning process proceeds in the complex clinical situation of hospital setting. A qualitative exploratory design was used with a think-aloud method. A total of 13 registered nurses (mean years of experience=11.4) participated in the study, solving an ill-structured clinical problem based on complex chronic patients cases in a hospital setting. Data were analyzed using deductive content analysis. Findings showed that the registered nurses used a variety of clinical reasoning skills. The most commonly used skill was 'checking accuracy and reliability.' The reasoning process of registered nurses covered assessment, analysis, diagnosis, planning/implementation, and evaluation phase. It is critical that registered nurses apply appropriate clinical reasoning skills in complex clinical practice. The main focus of registered nurses' reasoning in this study was assessing a patient's health problem, and their reasoning process was cyclic, rather than linear. There is a need for educational strategy development to enhance registered nurses' competency in determining appropriate interventions in a timely and accurate fashion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Quick evaluation of the neutron dose following a criticality accident by measurement of sodium 24 activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabardel, R.; Ricourt, A.; Parmentier, N.

    1984-07-01

    In order to quickly sort out the irradiated individuals following a criticality accident, the neutron dose can be evaluated quickly by measuring the sodium-24 activity induced in the human body. The report supplies the information necessary for this evaluation from the response of various detectors of current use in radiation protection. The first part describes the method of evaluation of sodium-24 activity (A) given by the reading (M) of each instrument. The second part describes the method of kerma evaluation from the measured sodium-24 activity. The third part is an experimental application of the method of kerma evaluation from the sodium-24 activity measured in a phantom irradiated in the SILENE reactor flux. The results given by radiation protection instruments are in good agreement with the calculated values for a front exposure and demonstrate the usefulness of measuring the induced sodium-24 activity by radiation protection instruments of current use [fr

  1. A Criticality Evaluation of the GBC-32 Dry Storage Cask in PWR Burnup Credit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hyoungju; Park, Kwangheon; Hong, Ser Gi [Kyung Hee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The current criticality safety evaluation assumes the only unirradiated fresh fuels with the maximum enrichment in a dry storage cask (DSC) for conservatism without consideration of the depletion of fissile nuclides and the generation of neutron-absorbing fission products. However, the large conservatism leads to the significant increase of the storage casks required. Thus, the application of burnup credit which takes credit for the reduction of reactivity resulted from fuel depletion can increase the capacity in storage casks. On the other hand, the burnup credit application introduces lots of complexity into a criticality safety analysis such as the accurate estimation of the isotopic inventories and the burnup of UNFs and the validation of the criticality calculation. The criticality evaluation with an effect of burnup credit was performed for the DSC of GBC-32 by using SCALE 6.1/STARBUCS. keff values were calculated as a function of burnup and cooling time for four initial enrichments of 2, 3, 4, and 5 wt. % 235U. The values were calculated for the burnup range of 0 to 60,000 MWD/MTU, in increments of 10,000 MWD/MTU, and for five cooling times of 0, 5, 10, 20, and 40 years.

  2. Analysis on burnup step effect for evaluating reactor criticality and fuel breeding ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saputra, Geby; Purnama, Aditya Rizki; Permana, Sidik; Suzuki, Mitsutoshi

    2014-01-01

    Criticality condition of the reactors is one of the important factors for evaluating reactor operation and nuclear fuel breeding ratio is another factor to show nuclear fuel sustainability. This study analyzes the effect of burnup steps and cycle operation step for evaluating the criticality condition of the reactor as well as the performance of nuclear fuel breeding or breeding ratio (BR). Burnup step is performed based on a day step analysis which is varied from 10 days up to 800 days and for cycle operation from 1 cycle up to 8 cycles reactor operations. In addition, calculation efficiency based on the variation of computer processors to run the analysis in term of time (time efficiency in the calculation) have been also investigated. Optimization method for reactor design analysis which is used a large fast breeder reactor type as a reference case was performed by adopting an established reactor design code of JOINT-FR. The results show a criticality condition becomes higher for smaller burnup step (day) and for breeding ratio becomes less for smaller burnup step (day). Some nuclides contribute to make better criticality when smaller burnup step due to individul nuclide half-live. Calculation time for different burnup step shows a correlation with the time consuming requirement for more details step calculation, although the consuming time is not directly equivalent with the how many time the burnup time step is divided

  3. Clinical reasoning: concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Barbara

    2010-05-01

    This paper is a report of a concept analysis of clinical reasoning in nursing. Clinical reasoning is an ambiguous term that is often used synonymously with decision-making and clinical judgment. Clinical reasoning has not been clearly defined in the literature. Healthcare settings are increasingly filled with uncertainty, risk and complexity due to increased patient acuity, multiple comorbidities, and enhanced use of technology, all of which require clinical reasoning. Data sources. Literature for this concept analysis was retrieved from several databases, including CINAHL, PubMed, PsycINFO, ERIC and OvidMEDLINE, for the years 1980 to 2008. Rodgers's evolutionary method of concept analysis was used because of its applicability to concepts that are still evolving. Multiple terms have been used synonymously to describe the thinking skills that nurses use. Research in the past 20 years has elucidated differences among these terms and identified the cognitive processes that precede judgment and decision-making. Our concept analysis defines one of these terms, 'clinical reasoning,' as a complex process that uses cognition, metacognition, and discipline-specific knowledge to gather and analyse patient information, evaluate its significance, and weigh alternative actions. This concept analysis provides a middle-range descriptive theory of clinical reasoning in nursing that helps clarify meaning and gives direction for future research. Appropriate instruments to operationalize the concept need to be developed. Research is needed to identify additional variables that have an impact on clinical reasoning and what are the consequences of clinical reasoning in specific situations.

  4. Measuring Reasoning about Teaching for Graduate Admissions in Psychology and Related Disciplines

    OpenAIRE

    Robert J. Sternberg; Karin Sternberg; Rebel J. E. Todhunter

    2017-01-01

    Teaching- and teaching-evaluation skills are critically important to professional success in psychology and related disciplines. We explored the possibility of measuring reasoning-about-teaching skills as a supplementary measure for admissions in psychology and related behavioral-sciences disciplines. We tested 103 students for their reasoning about teaching and their reasoning about research, as well as for their cognitive- (abstract reasoning) and educational skills. We found that women per...

  5. Study on criticality safety evaluation of a system where flood will never occur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Yoshitaka; Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Komuro, Yuichi; Itahara, Kuniyuki.

    1995-03-01

    Criticality safety evaluation for a single unit containing nuclear fuel has usually been performed on the assumption that there is a fully thick water reflector around the unit. For a system where flood will never occur, however, the thick reflector assumption is usually not applied recently. In such cases, a method is proposed, which models surrounding structural material and branch pipes as 2.5cm thick water reflector. This report shows that reactivity worth of structural material and branch pipes is, in many cases, less than that of 2.5cm thick water reflector. Further, another method is shown to evaluate criticality safety for a multiple unit system, using computed results with surrounding structural material and branch pipes neglected. And it is shown with many sample calculations that the method with 2.5cm thick water reflector in place of structural material and pipes gives safety side results to similar systems to real reprocessing plants. (author)

  6. [Team approaches to critical bleeding (massive bleeding and transfusion) - chairmen's introductory remarks. Questionnaire survey on current status of hospital clinical laboratories evaluating critical hemorrhage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kino, Shuichi; Suwabe, Akira

    2014-12-01

    In 2007, "the Guidelines for Actions against Intraoperative Critical Hemorrhage" were established by the Japanese Society of Anaesthesiologists and the Japanese Society of Blood transfusion and Cell Therapy. The documentation of in-hospital procedures for critical hemorrhage, especially about how to select RBC units, has widely standardized hospital practice. Patients with intraoperative critical hemorrhage sometimes suffer from massive blood loss. In this situation, some patients develop coagulopathy. To treat them, we need to evaluate their coagulation status based on laboratory test results. So, we performed a nationwide questionnaire survey on the current status of hospital clinical laboratories evaluating critical hemorrhage. From the results of this survey, it was recommended that central hospital laboratories should try to reduce the turn-around time required to test for coagulation parameters as much as possible for appropriate substitution therapy. (Review).

  7. Critical Evaluation of Basel III as Prudential Regulation and its Consequences in Developing Countries’ Credit Needs

    OpenAIRE

    Dawa Sherpa

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks to critically evaluate the nature and motivation for the regulatory frame sought in the Basel III norms and its consequences on the credit needs of developing countries. After the failure of previous two Basel accords (I and II), to act as the effective prudential regulation of large financial institutions operating on global scale, the new Basel III accord is hailed as the new regulatory rule which has successfully taken into consideration of all the lacunas of earlier accor...

  8. A critical evaluation of risk-return characteristics of environmentally focused stock’s companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Škapa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to critically evaluate and determine risk-return profile environmentally focused stock’s companies which are covered by STOXX Global ESG Environmental Leaders Index and whether this index should be taken in as an independent asset class of investments portfolio for its risk-return improvement. This paper gives an empirical view on the ex-post asset classes characteristics focused mainly on risk side of investment.

  9. Introduction to the nuclear criticality safety evaluation of facility X-705, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheaffer, M.K.; Keeton, S.C.

    1993-01-01

    This report is the first in a series of documents that will evaluate nuclear criticality safety in the Decontamination and Recovery Facility, X-705, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. It provides an overview of the facility, categorizes its functions for future analysis, reviews existing NCS documentation, and explains the follow-on effort planned for X-705. A detailed breakdown of systems, subsystems, and operational areas is presented and cross-referenced to existing NCS documentation

  10. "Critique of intuitive reason"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrijević Aleksandar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The author displays and reexamines Hare’s "two-level theory" of normative moral thinking ("intuitive" level and "critical" level, including goals that are intended by its establishing. Given Hare’s holism, the met ethical level, considered as fundamental or the "third" level, has notable effect on process of normative reasoning, especially if it is taken as one of the determinant of the critical moral thin king. Central part of the analysis is examination of utilitarian character of the theory.

  11. Toward critical bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Árnason, Vilhjálmur

    2015-04-01

    This article deals with the question as to what makes bioethics a critical discipline. It considers different senses of criticism and evaluates their strengths and weaknesses. A primary method in bioethics as a philosophical discipline is critical thinking, which implies critical evaluation of concepts, positions, and arguments. It is argued that the type of analytical criticism that restricts its critical role to critical thinking of this type often suffers from other intellectual flaws. Three examples are taken to demonstrate this: premature criticism, uncritical self-understanding of theoretical assumptions, and narrow framing of bioethical issues. Such flaws can lead both to unfair treatment of authors and to uncritical discussion of topics. In this context, the article makes use of Häyry's analysis of different rationalities in bioethical approaches and argues for the need to recognize the importance of communicative rationality for critical bioethics. A radically different critical approach in bioethics, rooted in social theory, focuses on analyses of power relations neglected in mainstream critical thinking. It is argued that, although this kind of criticism provides an important alternative in bioethics, it suffers from other shortcomings that are rooted in a lack of normative dimensions. In order to complement these approaches and counter their shortcomings, there is a need for a bioethics enlightened by critical hermeneutics. Such hermeneutic bioethics is aware of its own assumptions, places the issues in a wide context, and reflects critically on the power relations that stand in the way of understanding them. Moreover, such an approach is dialogical, which provides both a critical exercise of speech and a normative dimension implied in the free exchange of reasons and arguments. This discussion is framed by Hedgecoe's argument that critical bioethics needs four elements: to be empirically rooted, theory challenging, reflexive, and politely skeptical.

  12. Critical evaluation as an aid to improved report writing: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Mirabelle; Williams, Judith

    2014-05-01

    Report writing is an important employability skill for Engineers and Technologists, and this case study describes how a Technology degree module took a novel approach to developing students' report writing skills. Students learned how to use a criterion-referenced critical evaluation framework for reports and other technological documents. They were given opportunities to practise using the framework both through exemplars and through evaluating the work of their peers. They also carried out self-assessment. The authors' analysis of this novel approach shows that most students responded well to it and benefited from it. Lessons are drawn from this work for others who wish to improve their students' report writing skills.

  13. An evaluation of safety-critical Java on a Java processor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rios Rivas, Juan Ricardo; Schoeberl, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The safety-critical Java (SCJ) specification provides a restricted set of the Java language intended for applications that require certification. In order to test the specification, implementations are emerging and the need to evaluate those implementations in a systematic way is becoming important....... In this paper we evaluate our SCJ implementation which is based on the Java Optimized Processor JOP and we measure different performance and timeliness criteria relevant to hard real-time systems. Our implementation targets Level 0 and Level1 of the specification and to test it we use a series of micro...

  14. Detailed evaluation of ET-RR-2 neutronic design: approach to criticality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashoub, N.; Amin, E.

    2000-01-01

    The ET-RR-2 safety analysis evaluation effort included the assessment of the reactor core nuclear design parameters. The present work complements the previous effort of neutronic calculations using NCNSRC computer code packages. This paper is the first in comprehensive neutronic calculation assessment up to the equilibrium core. It deals with evaluation of neutronic calculation submitted during the early phase of the licensing process; namely the proposal to assemble the first critical core, calculation of power peaking factor and determination of detailed energy group flux distribution in the core particularly in the cobalt irradiation position. The neutronic design criteria are examined qualitatively and quantitatively in the present paper

  15. Mathematical Teaching Strategies: Pathways to Critical Thinking and Metacognition

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Hui Fang Huang " Ricci, Frederick A; Mnatsakanian, Mamikon

    2015-01-01

    A teacher that emphasizes reasoning, logic and validity gives their students access to mathematics as an effective way of practicing critical thinking. All students have the ability to enhance and expand their critical thinking when learning mathematics. Students can develop this ability when confronting mathematical problems, identifying possible solutions and evaluating and justifying their reasons for the results, thereby allowing students to become confident critical thinkers. Critical th...

  16. Validation of the Continuous-Energy Monte Carlo Criticality-Safety Analysis System MVP and JENDL-3.2 Using the Internationally Evaluated Criticality Benchmarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitake, Susumu

    2003-01-01

    Validation of the continuous-energy Monte Carlo criticality-safety analysis system, comprising the MVP code and neutron cross sections based on JENDL-3.2, was examined using benchmarks evaluated in the 'International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments'. Eight experiments (116 configurations) for the plutonium solution and plutonium-uranium mixture systems performed at Valduc, Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories, and other facilities were selected and used in the studies. The averaged multiplication factors calculated with MVP and MCNP-4B using the same neutron cross-section libraries based on JENDL-3.2 were in good agreement. Based on methods provided in the Japanese nuclear criticality-safety handbook, the estimated criticality lower-limit multiplication factors to be used as a subcriticality criterion for the criticality-safety evaluation of nuclear facilities were obtained. The analysis proved the applicability of the MVP code to the criticality-safety analysis of nuclear fuel facilities, particularly to the analysis of systems fueled with plutonium and in homogeneous and thermal-energy conditions

  17. CSER 94-012: Criticality safety evaluation report for 340 Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altschuler, S.J.

    1995-01-01

    This Criticality Safety Evaluation Report (CSER) covers the 340 Facility which acts as a collecting point for liquid and solid waste from various facilities in the 300 Area. Criticality safety is achieved by controlling the amount and concentration of the fissionable material sent to the 340 Facility from the originating facilities in the 300 Area, a method similar to that used elsewhere at Hanford for the waste tank farms. Unlike those, however, the waste received at the 340 Facility will be far less radioactive. It is concluded that present operations meet the two contingency criterion. The facility will still be safely subcritical even after two independent and concurrent failures (either of equipment or administrative controls). The solid waste storage and liquid waste will be managed separately. The solid waste storage area is classified as exempt because it contains less than 15 grams of fissionable materials. The Radioactive Liquid Waste System is classified as isolated because it contains less than one third of a minimum critical mass. The criticality safety of the 340 Facility devoted to the Radioactive Liquid Waste System (RLWS) is assured by the form and concentration of the fissile material and could also be classified as a limited control facility. However, the 340 Facility has been operated as an isolated facility which results in a more conservative limit

  18. A safety-critical decision support system evaluation using situation awareness and workload measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naderpour, Mohsen; Lu, Jie; Zhang, Guangquan

    2016-01-01

    To ensure the safety of operations in safety-critical systems, it is necessary to maintain operators' situation awareness (SA) at a high level. A situation awareness support system (SASS) has therefore been developed to handle uncertain situations [1]. This paper aims to systematically evaluate the enhancement of SA in SASS by applying a multi-perspective approach. The approach consists of two SA metrics, SAGAT and SART, and one workload metric, NASA-TLX. The first two metrics are used for the direct objective and subjective measurement of SA, while the third is used to estimate operator workload. The approach is applied in a safety-critical environment called residue treater, located at a chemical plant in which a poor human-system interface reduced the operator's SA and caused one of the worst accidents in US history. A counterbalanced within-subjects experiment is performed using a virtual environment interface with and without the support of SASS. The results indicate that SASS improves operators' SA, and specifically has benefits for SA levels 2 and 3. In addition, it is concluded that SASS reduces operator workload, although further investigations in different environments with a larger number of participants have been suggested. - Highlights: • The suitability of a cognitive decision support system is investigated. • An evaluation approach considering situation awareness and workload measures is proposed. • A computerized system based on the proposed approach is implemented. • The implemented system is used in a safety-critical environment.

  19. Development and psychometric testing of a Clinical Reasoning Evaluation Simulation Tool (CREST) for assessing nursing students' abilities to recognize and respond to clinical deterioration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Sok Ying; Rashasegaran, Ahtherai; Wong, Lai Fun; Deneen, Christopher Charles; Cooper, Simon; Levett-Jones, Tracy; Goh, Hongli Sam; Ignacio, Jeanette

    2018-03-01

    The development of clinical reasoning skills in recognising and responding to clinical deterioration is essential in pre-registration nursing education. Simulation has been increasingly used by educators to develop this skill. To develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of a Clinical Reasoning Evaluation Simulation Tool (CREST) for measuring clinical reasoning skills in recognising and responding to clinical deterioration in a simulated environment. A scale development with psychometric testing and mixed methods study. Nursing students and academic staff were recruited at a university. A three-phase prospective study was conducted. Phase 1 involved the development and content validation of the CREST; Phase 2 included the psychometric testing of the tool with 15 second-year and 15 third-year nursing students who undertook the simulation-based assessment; Phase 3 involved the usability testing of the tool with nine academic staff through a survey questionnaire and focus group discussion. A 10-item CREST was developed based on a model of clinical reasoning. A content validity of 0.93 was obtained from the validation of 15 international experts. The construct validity was supported as the third-year students demonstrated significantly higher (preasoning scores than the second-year students. The concurrent validity was also supported with significant positive correlations between global rating scores and almost all subscale scores, and the total scores. The predictive validity was supported with an existing tool. The internal consistency was high with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.92. A high inter-rater reliability was demonstrated with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.88. The usability of the tool was rated positively by the nurse educators but the need to ease the scoring process was highlighted. A valid and reliable tool was developed to measure the effectiveness of simulation in developing clinical reasoning skills for recognising and responding to

  20. INTEGRAL BENCHMARKS AVAILABLE THROUGH THE INTERNATIONAL REACTOR PHYSICS EXPERIMENT EVALUATION PROJECT AND THE INTERNATIONAL CRITICALITY SAFETY BENCHMARK EVALUATION PROJECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Blair Briggs; Lori Scott; Enrico Sartori; Yolanda Rugama

    2008-01-01

    Interest in high-quality integral benchmark data is increasing as efforts to quantify and reduce calculational uncertainties accelerate to meet the demands of next generation reactor and advanced fuel cycle concepts. The International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) and the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) continue to expand their efforts and broaden their scope to identify, evaluate, and provide integral benchmark data for method and data validation. Benchmark model specifications provided by these two projects are used heavily by the international reactor physics, nuclear data, and criticality safety communities. Thus far, 14 countries have contributed to the IRPhEP, and 20 have contributed to the ICSBEP. The status of the IRPhEP and ICSBEP is discussed in this paper, and the future of the two projects is outlined and discussed. Selected benchmarks that have been added to the IRPhEP and ICSBEP handbooks since PHYSOR-06 are highlighted, and the future of the two projects is discussed

  1. INTEGRAL BENCHMARKS AVAILABLE THROUGH THE INTERNATIONAL REACTOR PHYSICS EXPERIMENT EVALUATION PROJECT AND THE INTERNATIONAL CRITICALITY SAFETY BENCHMARK EVALUATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Blair Briggs; Lori Scott; Enrico Sartori; Yolanda Rugama

    2008-09-01

    Interest in high-quality integral benchmark data is increasing as efforts to quantify and reduce calculational uncertainties accelerate to meet the demands of next generation reactor and advanced fuel cycle concepts. The International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) and the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) continue to expand their efforts and broaden their scope to identify, evaluate, and provide integral benchmark data for method and data validation. Benchmark model specifications provided by these two projects are used heavily by the international reactor physics, nuclear data, and criticality safety communities. Thus far, 14 countries have contributed to the IRPhEP, and 20 have contributed to the ICSBEP. The status of the IRPhEP and ICSBEP is discussed in this paper, and the future of the two projects is outlined and discussed. Selected benchmarks that have been added to the IRPhEP and ICSBEP handbooks since PHYSOR’06 are highlighted, and the future of the two projects is discussed.

  2. Criticality safety evaluations - a open-quotes stalking horseclose quotes for integrated safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Columbia Fuel Fabrication Facility of the Westinghouse Commercial Nuclear Fuel Division manufactures low-enriched uranium fuel and associated components for use in commercial pressurized water power reactors. To support development of a comprehensive integrated safety assessment (ISA) for the facility, as well as to address increasing U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) expectations regarding such a facility's criticality safety assessments, a project is under way to complete criticality safety evaluations (CSEs) of all plant systems used in processing nuclear materials. Each CSE is made up of seven sections, prepared by a multidisciplinary team of process engineers, systems engineers, safety engineers, maintenance representatives, and operators. This paper provides a cursory outline of the type of information presented in a CSE

  3. Criticality safety evaluations - a {open_quotes}stalking horse{close_quotes} for integrated safety assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, R.A. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Columbia, SC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The Columbia Fuel Fabrication Facility of the Westinghouse Commercial Nuclear Fuel Division manufactures low-enriched uranium fuel and associated components for use in commercial pressurized water power reactors. To support development of a comprehensive integrated safety assessment (ISA) for the facility, as well as to address increasing U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) expectations regarding such a facility`s criticality safety assessments, a project is under way to complete criticality safety evaluations (CSEs) of all plant systems used in processing nuclear materials. Each CSE is made up of seven sections, prepared by a multidisciplinary team of process engineers, systems engineers, safety engineers, maintenance representatives, and operators. This paper provides a cursory outline of the type of information presented in a CSE.

  4. Criticality safety evaluation for TWR-S fuel assembly transportation using TK-S16 containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesic, M.P.; Steljic, M.M.; Antic, D.P.

    2002-01-01

    Criticality safety issues, concerning transportation of fresh high-enriched uranium fuel elements (TWR-S fuel assembly type) with Russian containers TK-S16, are objects of study in this paper. Three-dimensional (3D) models of fuel element and container were made, based upon their well-known geometry and material structure. The way to pack fuel elements in a bundle inside of the container is proposed. Calculations were done by MCNP4B2 computer code. This Monte Carlo criticality code determined the effective multiplication factor from the cross-section data and specific geometry data. This evaluation demonstrated the subcriticality of a single package and an array of packages during normal conditions of transport and various hypothetical accident conditions. (author)

  5. Applicability of simplified methods to evaluate consequences of criticality accident using past accident data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Ken

    2003-01-01

    Applicability of four simplified methods to evaluate the consequences of criticality accident was investigated. Fissions in the initial burst and total fissions were evaluated using the simplified methods and those results were compared with the past accident data. The simplified methods give the number of fissions in the initial burst as a function of solution volume; however the accident data did not show such tendency. This would be caused by the lack of accident data for the initial burst with high accuracy. For total fissions, simplified almost reproduced the upper envelope of the accidents. However several accidents, which were beyond the applicable conditions, resulted in the larger total fissions than the evaluations. In particular, the Tokai-mura accident in 1999 gave in the largest total specific fissions, because the activation of cooling system brought the relatively high power for a long time. (author)

  6. Deconstructing climate misinformation to identify reasoning errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, John; Ellerton, Peter; Kinkead, David

    2018-02-01

    Misinformation can have significant societal consequences. For example, misinformation about climate change has confused the public and stalled support for mitigation policies. When people lack the expertise and skill to evaluate the science behind a claim, they typically rely on heuristics such as substituting judgment about something complex (i.e. climate science) with judgment about something simple (i.e. the character of people who speak about climate science) and are therefore vulnerable to misleading information. Inoculation theory offers one approach to effectively neutralize the influence of misinformation. Typically, inoculations convey resistance by providing people with information that counters misinformation. In contrast, we propose inoculating against misinformation by explaining the fallacious reasoning within misleading denialist claims. We offer a strategy based on critical thinking methods to analyse and detect poor reasoning within denialist claims. This strategy includes detailing argument structure, determining the truth of the premises, and checking for validity, hidden premises, or ambiguous language. Focusing on argument structure also facilitates the identification of reasoning fallacies by locating them in the reasoning process. Because this reason-based form of inoculation is based on general critical thinking methods, it offers the distinct advantage of being accessible to those who lack expertise in climate science. We applied this approach to 42 common denialist claims and find that they all demonstrate fallacious reasoning and fail to refute the scientific consensus regarding anthropogenic global warming. This comprehensive deconstruction and refutation of the most common denialist claims about climate change is designed to act as a resource for communicators and educators who teach climate science and/or critical thinking.

  7. Development and evaluation of a critical care e-learning scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Michael; Tait, Desiree; Thornton, Frances; Edwards, Mark

    2008-11-01

    This paper describes the development and evaluation of a critical care e-learning scenario for student nurses. At present, there are insufficient opportunities in the United Kingdom (UK) for student nurses to experience clinical placements where their skills in care of the critically-ill can be developed. There is therefore a need for new learning materials that help learners recognise the signs of clinical deterioration and rehearse the management of critically-ill patients. One way of meeting this need is by using electronic care scenarios. Several electronic care scenarios have been developed at Swansea University as part of the eWARD project. This article describes the design and evaluation of a critical care scenario that follows the care of a road casualty (John Macadam) after admission to an intensive care unit. The scenario was designed by an advisory team comprising a clinical lecturer and e-learning specialists. After using the scenario, 144 nursing students completed a Web-based questionnaire that collected demographic and attitudinal data for analysis using SPSS. Nursing students had a strongly positive attitude to the scenario with median scores in excess of 20 compared to maxima of 25 for scales measuring ease-of-use, interactivity, realism and confidence. None of the demographic data collected had a significant effect on these attitudes. The positive attitude of student nurses to this scenario strongly supports its use to help learners to (1) acquire knowledge and awareness when real life placements in these settings are not available and (2) extend their knowledge after coming across similar situations in practice.

  8. Scientific Reasoning in Early and Middle Childhood: The Development of Domain-General Evidence Evaluation, Experimentation, and Hypothesis Generation Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piekny, Jeanette; Maehler, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    According to Klahr's (2000, 2005; Klahr & Dunbar, 1988) Scientific Discovery as Dual Search model, inquiry processes require three cognitive components: hypothesis generation, experimentation, and evidence evaluation. The aim of the present study was to investigate (a) when the ability to evaluate perfect covariation, imperfect covariation,…

  9. Stress evaluation of metallic material under steady state based on nonlinear critically refracted longitudinal wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Hanling; Zhang, Yuhua; Mao, Hanying; Li, Xinxin; Huang, Zhenfeng

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents the study of applying the nonlinear ultrasonic wave to evaluate the stress state of metallic materials under steady state. The pre-stress loading method is applied to guarantee components with steady stress. Three kinds of nonlinear ultrasonic experiments based on critically refracted longitudinal wave are conducted on components which the critically refracted longitudinal wave propagates along x, x1 and x2 direction. Experimental results indicate the second and third order relative nonlinear coefficients monotonically increase with stress, and the normalized relationship is consistent with simplified dislocation models, which indicates the experimental result is logical. The combined ultrasonic nonlinear parameter is proposed, and three stress evaluation models at x direction are established based on three ultrasonic nonlinear parameters, which the estimation error is below 5%. Then two stress detection models at x1 and x2 direction are built based on combined ultrasonic nonlinear parameter, the stress synthesis method is applied to calculate the magnitude and direction of principal stress. The results show the prediction error is within 5% and the angle deviation is within 1.5°. Therefore the nonlinear ultrasonic technique based on LCR wave could be applied to nondestructively evaluate the stress of metallic materials under steady state which the magnitude and direction are included.

  10. Evaluated experimental database on critical heat flux in WWER FA models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artamonov, S.; Sergeev, V.; Volkov, S.

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the description of the evaluated experimental database on critical heat flux in WWER FA models of new designs. This database was developed on the basis of the experimental data obtained in the years of 2009-2012. In the course of its development, the database was reviewed in terms of completeness of the information about the experiments and its compliance with the requirements of Rostekhnadzor regulatory documents. The description of the experimental FA model characteristics and experimental conditions was specified. Besides, the experimental data were statistically processed with the aim to reject incorrect ones and the sets of experimental data on critical heat fluxes (CHF) were compared for different FA models. As a result, for the fi rst time, the evaluated database on CHF in FA models of new designs was developed, that was complemented with analysis functions, and its main purpose is to be used in the process of development, verification and upgrading of calculation techniques. The developed database incorporates the data of 4183 experimental conditions obtained in 53 WWER FA models of various designs. Keywords: WWER reactor, fuel assembly, CHF, evaluated experimental data, database, statistical analysis. (author)

  11. Critical technical issues and evaluation and comparison studies for inertial fusion energy reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdou, M.A. (Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering Dept., Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)); Ying, A.Y. (Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering Dept., Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)); Tillack, M.S. (Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering Dept., Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)); Ghoniem, N.M. (Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering Dept., Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)); Waganer, L.M. (McDonnell Douglas Aerospace, St. Louis, MI (United States)); Driemeyer, D.E. (McDonnell Douglas Aerospace, St. Louis, MI (United States)); Linford, G.J. (TRW Space and Electronics Div., Redondo Beach, CA (United States)); Drake, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    Two inertial fusion energy (IFE) reactor design concepts developed in the Prometheus studies were evaluated. Objectives were to identify and characterize critical issues and the R and D required to resolve them, and to establish a sound basis for future IFE technical and programmatic decisions. Each critical issue contains several key physics and engineering issues associated with major reactor components and impacts key aspects of feasibility, safety, and economic potential of IFE reactors. Generic critical issues center around: demonstration of moderate gain at low driver energy, feasibility of direct drive targets, feasibility of indirect drive targets for heavy ions, feasibility of indirect drive targets for lasers, cost reduction strategies for heavy ion drivers, demonstration of higher overall laser driver efficiency, tritium self-sufficiency in IFE reactors, cavity clearing at IFE pulse repetition rates, performance/reliability/lifetime of final laser optics, viability of liquid metal film for first wall protection, fabricability/reliability/lifetime of SiC composite structures, validation of radiation shielding requirements, design tools, and nuclear data, reliability and lifetime of laser and heavy ion drivers, demonstration of large-scale non-linear optical laser driver architecture, demonstration of cost effective KrF amplifiers, and demonstration of low cost, high volume target production techniques. Quantitative evaluation and comparison of the two design options have been made with special focus on physics feasibility, engineering feasibility, economics, safety and environment, and research and development (R and D) requirements. Two key conclusions are made based on the overall evaluation analysis. The heavy-ion driven reactors appear to have an overall advantage over laser-driven reactors.

  12. Evaluations of and reasoning about normative and deviant ingroup and outgroup members: development of the black sheep effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Dominic; Palmer, Sally B; Rutland, Adam; Cameron, Lindsey; Van de Vyver, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Research with adults has demonstrated a "black sheep effect" (BSE) whereby, relative to evaluations of normative group members, ingroup deviants are derogated more than outgroup deviants. The developmental subjective group dynamics (DSGD) model holds that the BSE should develop during middle childhood when children apply wider social norms. Three hundred and thirty-eight children who were between 5 and 12 years old judged a normative (socially desirable) and a deviant (socially undesirable) member from an ingroup or an outgroup school. Results confirmed a developmental increase in the BSE, the first time this has been demonstrated. Children's own evaluations of group members were mediated by their expectations about ingroup peers' evaluations. In line with DSGD and social domain theories, with age, children's explanations of peer evaluations for ingroup deviance focused relatively more on loyalty. Practical and theoretical implications for peer inclusion and exclusion are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. A critical evaluation of methods applicable to the determination of cyanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohlandt, C.; Jones, E.A.; Lee, A.F.

    1983-01-01

    A literature survey of methods suitable for the determination of cyanides in process streams and effluents is presented. Of the large number of methods published, 92 are examined in detail, emphasis being placed on the selectivity of the methods, i.e. the extent to which they enable one to distinguish between ionic cyanide and metal-cyanide complexes. Methods designed for the determination of 'total cyanide' (i.e. ionic cyanide as well as coordinated cyanide) are evaluated critically. Other aspects of the methods are also considered, such as sensitivity, accuracy, speed, and freedom from interferences

  14. CETF Space Station payload pointing system design and analysis feasibility study. [Critical Evaluation Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smagala, Tom; Mcglew, Dave

    1988-01-01

    The expected pointing performance of an attached payload coupled to the Critical Evaluation Task Force Space Station via a payload pointing system (PPS) is determined. The PPS is a 3-axis gimbal which provides the capability for maintaining inertial pointing of a payload in the presence of disturbances associated with the Space Station environment. A system where the axes of rotation were offset from the payload center of mass (CM) by 10 in. in the Z axis was studied as well as a system having the payload CM offset by only 1 inch. There is a significant improvement in pointing performance when going from the 10 in. to the 1 in. gimbal offset.

  15. Development of a new simulation code for evaluation of criticality transients involving fissile solution boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basoglu, Benan; Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Okuno, Hiroshi; Nomura, Yasushi

    1998-03-01

    In this work, we report on the development of a new computer code named TRACE for predicting the excursion characteristics of criticality excursions involving fissile solutions. TRACE employs point neutronics coupled with simple thermal-hydraulics. The temperature, the radiolytic gas effects, and the boiling phenomena are estimated using the transient heat conduction equation, a lumped-parameter energy model, and a simple boiling model, respectively. To evaluate the model, we compared our results with the results of CRAC experiments. The agreement in these comparisons is quite satisfactory. (author)

  16. Criticality safety evaluation for TRU waste in storage at the RWMC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, M.E.; Briggs, J.B.; Atkinson, C.A.; Briscoe, G.J.

    1993-11-01

    Stored containers (drums, boxes, and bins) of transuranic waste at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) facility located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) were evaluated based on inherent neutron absorption characteristics of the waste materials. It was demonstrated that these properties are sufficient to preclude an accidental criticality accident at the actual fissile levels present in the waste stored at the RWMC. Based on the database information available, the results reported herein confirm that the waste drums, boxes, and bins currently stored at the RWMC will remain safely subcritical if rearranged, restacked, or otherwise handled. Acceptance criteria for receiving future drum shipments were established based on fully infinite systems

  17. Management of Holding and Evaluating Comprehensive System of Electronic Clinical Reasoning Exams (Sajab in the Sixth Nationwide Medical Sciences Students Olympiad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manouchehr Khoshbaten

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Nationwide Medical Sciences Students purpose of the Olympiad is to discover student’s talents and encourage them to study. It seems that holding regional Olympiad exams to select students for the National Olympiad can help us to maintain fairness. The aim of this study is Management of Holding and Evaluating Clinical Reasoning Exams Using a Comprehensive System of Electronic Clinical Reasoning Exams. Methods: Study was carried out in 2013 at the University of Medical Sciences on 750 students, 250 question designers, 37 responsibles. The nationwide universities held regional exams for the Student Olympiad in the area of clinical reasoning on specific dates and times. A quality review of the exams was done to study the strengths and weaknesses and to eliminate shortcomings and problems. Therefore, a researcher created a questionnaire with a reliability of R= 0.86 and validity was confirmed by experts, which was then loaded into the system. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS and descriptive statistics (Percent, Average, standard deviation. Results: The multimedia educational quality of the system, with an average of 69.36 ±22.79, the students and faculty members evaluated as good, with averages of 64.30 ±23.48 and 67.28 ± 22.43, respectively. The quality of the exam was evaluated as excellent by faculty members, with an average of 94.63 ±16.60 and 59.52 ±27.46, by the students. Conclusion: Evaluating the quality of the system’s performance and its ability to assess students will lead to a clarification of its strengths and weaknesses. Finally, result in the creation of a high quality evaluation system.

  18. Best estimate approach for the evaluation of critical heat flux phenomenon in the boiling water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaliatka, Tadas; Kaliatka, Algirdas; Uspuras, Eudenijus; Vaisnoras, Mindaugas [Lithuanian Energy Institute, Kaunas (Lithuania); Mochizuki, Hiroyasu; Rooijen, W.F.G. van [Fukui Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. of Nuclear Engineering

    2017-05-15

    Because of the uncertainties associated with the definition of Critical Heat Flux (CHF), the best estimate approach should be used. In this paper the application of best-estimate approach for the analysis of CHF phenomenon in the boiling water reactors is presented. At first, the nodalization of RBMK-1500, BWR-5 and ABWR fuel assemblies were developed using RELAP5 code. Using developed models the CHF and Critical Heat Flux Ratio (CHFR) for different types of reactors were evaluated. The calculation results of CHF were compared with the well-known experimental data for light water reactors. The uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of ABWR 8 x 8 fuel assembly CHFR calculation result was performed using the GRS (Germany) methodology with the SUSA tool. Finally, the values of Minimum Critical Power Ratio (MCPR) were calculated for RBMK-1500, BWR-5 and ABWR fuel assemblies. The paper demonstrate how, using the results of sensitivity analysis, to receive the MCPR values, which covers all uncertainties and remains best estimated.

  19. Evaluation of cognitive load and emotional states during multidisciplinary critical care simulation sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Swapnil; Jacques, Theresa; Deshpande, Kush; Pusapati, Raju; Meguerdichian, Michael J

    2018-04-01

    The simulation in critical care setting involves a heterogeneous group of participants with varied background and experience. Measuring the impacts of simulation on emotional state and cognitive load in this setting is not often performed. The feasibility of such measurement in the critical care setting needs further exploration. Medical and nursing staff with varying levels of experience from a tertiary intensive care unit participated in a standardised clinical simulation scenario. The emotional state of each participant was assessed before and after completion of the scenario using a validated eight-item scale containing bipolar oppositional descriptors of emotion. The cognitive load of each participant was assessed after the completion of the scenario using a validated subjective rating tool. A total of 103 medical and nursing staff participated in the study. The participants felt more relaxed (-0.28±1.15 vs 0.14±1, Pcognitive load for all participants was 6.67±1.41. There was no significant difference in the cognitive loads among medical staff versus nursing staff (6.61±2.3 vs 6.62±1.7; P>0.05). A well-designed complex high fidelity critical care simulation scenario can be evaluated to identify the relative cognitive load of the participants' experience and their emotional state. The movement of learners emotionally from a more negative state to a positive state suggests that simulation can be an effective tool for improved knowledge transfer and offers more opportunity for dynamic thinking.

  20. A probability evaluation method of early deterioration condition for the critical components of wind turbine generator systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Y.; Li, H.; Liao, X

    2016-01-01

    method of early deterioration condition for critical components based only on temperature characteristic parameters. First, the dynamic threshold of deterioration degree function was proposed by analyzing the operational data between temperature and rotor speed. Second, a probability evaluation method...... of early deterioration condition was presented. Finally, two cases showed the validity of the proposed probability evaluation method in detecting early deterioration condition and in tracking their further deterioration for the critical components.......This study determines the early deterioration condition of critical components for a wind turbine generator system (WTGS). Due to the uncertainty nature of the fluctuation and intermittence of wind, early deterioration condition evaluation poses a challenge to the traditional vibration...

  1. Physician satisfaction with a critical care clinical information system using a multimethod evaluation of usability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Darren; Kushniruk, Andre; Borycki, Elizabeth; Zuege, Danny J

    2018-04-01

    Physician satisfaction with electronic medical records has often been poor. Usability has frequently been identified as a source for decreased satisfaction. While surveys can identify many issues, and are logistically easier to administer, they may miss issues identified using other methods This study sought to understand the level of physician satisfaction and usability issues associated with a critical care clinical information system (eCritical Alberta) implemented throughout the province of Alberta, Canada. All critical care attending physicians using the system were invited to participate in an online survey. Questions included components of the User Acceptance of Information Technology and Usability Questionnaire as well as free text feedback on system components. Physicians were also invited to participate in a think aloud test using simulated scenarios. The transcribed think aloud text and questionnaire were subjected to textual analysis. 82% of all eligible physicians completed the on-line survey (n = 61). Eight physicians were invited and seven completed the think aloud test. Overall satisfaction with the system was moderate. Usability was identified as a significant factor contributing to satisfaction. The major usability factors identified were system response time and layout. The think aloud component identified additional factors beyond those identified in the on-line survey. This study found a modestly high level of physician satisfaction with a province-wide clinical critical care information system. Usability continues to be a significant factor in physician satisfaction. Using multiple methods of evaluation can capture the benefits of a large sample size and deeper understanding of the issues. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Telemental health evaluations enhance access and efficiency in a critical access hospital emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southard, Erik P; Neufeld, Jonathan D; Laws, Stephanie

    2014-07-01

    Mentally ill patients in crisis presenting to critical access hospital emergency rooms often face exorbitant wait times to be evaluated by a trained mental health provider. Patients may be discharged from the hospital before receiving an evaluation or boarded in a hospital bed for observation, reducing quality and increasing costs. This study examined the effectiveness of an emergency telemental health evaluation service implemented in a rural hospital emergency room. Retrospective data collection was implemented to consider patients presenting to the emergency room for 212 days prior to telemedicine interventions and for 184 days after. The study compared measures of time to treatment, length of stay (regardless of inpatient or outpatient status), and door-to-consult time. There were 24 patients seen before telemedicine was implemented and 38 seen using telemedicine. All patients had a mental health evaluation ordered by a physician and completed by a mental health specialist. Significant reductions in all three time measures were observed. Mean and median times to consult were reduced from 16.2 h (standard deviation=13.2 h) and 14.2 h, respectively, to 5.4 h (standard deviation =6.4 h) and 2.6 h. Similar reductions in length of stay and door-to-consult times were observed. By t tests, use of telemedicine was associated with a statistically significant reduction in all three outcome measures. Telemedicine appears to be an effective intervention for mentally ill patients by providing more timely access to mental health evaluations in rural hospital emergency departments.

  3. The effectiveness of tools used to evaluate successful critical decision making skills for applicants to healthcare graduate educational programs: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benham, Brian; Hawley, Diane

    2015-05-15

    Students leave healthcare academic programs for a variety of reasons. When they attrite, it is disappointing for the student as well as their faculty. Advanced practice nursing and other healthcare professions require not only extensive academic preparation, but also the ability to critically evaluate patient care situations. The ability to critically evaluate a situation is not innate. Critical decision making skills are high level skills that are difficult to assess. For the purpose of this review, critical decision making and critical thinking skills refer to the same constructs and will be referred to globally as critical decision making skills. The objective of this review was to identify the effectiveness of tools used to evaluate critical decision making skills for applicants to healthcare graduate educational programs. Adult (18 years of age or older) applicants, students enrolled and/or recent graduates (within one year from completion) of healthcare graduate educational programs. Types of interventions: This review considered studies that evaluated the utilization of unique tools as well as standard tools, such as the Graduate Record Exam or grade point average, to evaluate critical decision making skills in graduate healthcare program applicants. Types of studies: Experimental and non-experimental studies were considered for inclusion. Types of outcomes: Successful quantitative evaluations based on specific field of study standards. The search strategy aimed to find both published and unpublished studies. Studies published in English after 1969 were considered for inclusion in this review. Databases that included both published and unpublished (grey) literature were searched. Additionally, reference lists from all articles retrieved were examined for articles for inclusion. Selected papers were assessed by two independent reviewers using standardized critical appraisal instruments from Joanna Briggs Institute. Any disagreement between reviewers was

  4. A critical evaluation of reports associating ayahuasca with life-threatening adverse reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Rafael Guimarāes

    2013-01-01

    Ayahuasca is a botanical hallucinogenic preparation traditionally consumed by Northwestern Amazonian indigenous groups. Scientific evidence suggests good tolerability after acute administration of ayahuasca and also after years or even decades of its ritual consumption. Nevertheless, some scientific and media reports associate ayahuasca or some of its alkaloids with severe intoxications. The purpose of the present text is to do a critical evaluation of these reports. The evaluation of the cases highlights the fact that some lack accurate forensic/toxicological information, while others are not directly relevant to traditional ayahuasca preparations. These limitations reduce the possibility of an accurate risk assessment, which could indicate potential contraindications and susceptibilities for ayahuasca consumption. Nevertheless, even with these limitations, the cases suggest that previous cardiac and hepatic pathologies and current use of serotonergic drugs/medications are contraindications to ayahuasca use, and that caution should be taken when using different botanical species and extracted/synthetic alkaloids to prepare ayahuasca analogues.

  5. Using Relational Reasoning Strategies to Help Improve Clinical Reasoning Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Denis; Torre, Dario M; Durning, Steven J

    2018-05-01

    Clinical reasoning-the steps up to and including establishing a diagnosis and/or therapy-is a fundamentally important mental process for physicians. Unfortunately, mounting evidence suggests that errors in clinical reasoning lead to substantial problems for medical professionals and patients alike, including suboptimal care, malpractice claims, and rising health care costs. For this reason, cognitive strategies by which clinical reasoning may be improved-and that many expert clinicians are already using-are highly relevant for all medical professionals, educators, and learners.In this Perspective, the authors introduce one group of cognitive strategies-termed relational reasoning strategies-that have been empirically shown, through limited educational and psychological research, to improve the accuracy of learners' reasoning both within and outside of the medical disciplines. The authors contend that relational reasoning strategies may help clinicians to be metacognitive about their own clinical reasoning; such strategies may also be particularly well suited for explicitly organizing clinical reasoning instruction for learners. Because the particular curricular efforts that may improve the relational reasoning of medical students are not known at this point, the authors describe the nature of previous research on relational reasoning strategies to encourage the future design, implementation, and evaluation of instructional interventions for relational reasoning within the medical education literature. The authors also call for continued research on using relational reasoning strategies and their role in clinical practice and medical education, with the long-term goal of improving diagnostic accuracy.

  6. An Economic Evaluation of Food Safety Education Interventions: Estimates and Critical Data Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zan, Hua; Lambea, Maria; McDowell, Joyce; Scharff, Robert L

    2017-08-01

    The economic evaluation of food safety interventions is an important tool that practitioners and policy makers use to assess the efficacy of their efforts. These evaluations are built on models that are dependent on accurate estimation of numerous input variables. In many cases, however, there is no data available to determine input values and expert opinion is used to generate estimates. This study uses a benefit-cost analysis of the food safety component of the adult Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) in Ohio as a vehicle for demonstrating how results based on variable values that are not objectively determined may be sensitive to alternative assumptions. In particular, the focus here is on how reported behavioral change is translated into economic benefits. Current gaps in the literature make it impossible to know with certainty how many people are protected by the education (what are the spillover effects?), the length of time education remains effective, and the level of risk reduction from change in behavior. Based on EFNEP survey data, food safety education led 37.4% of participants to improve their food safety behaviors. Under reasonable default assumptions, benefits from this improvement significantly outweigh costs, yielding a benefit-cost ratio of between 6.2 and 10.0. Incorporation of a sensitivity analysis using alternative estimates yields a greater range of estimates (0.2 to 56.3), which highlights the importance of future research aimed at filling these research gaps. Nevertheless, most reasonable assumptions lead to estimates of benefits that justify their costs.

  7. Reason and Less

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod eGoel

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We consider ourselves to be rational beings. We feel that our choices, decisions, and actions are selected from a flexible array of possibilities, based upon reasons. When we vote for a political candidate, it is because they share our views on certain critical issues. When we hire an individual for a job, it is be-cause they are the best qualified. However, if this is true, why does an analysis of the direction of shift in the timbre of the voice of political candidates during an exchange or debate, predict the winner of American presidential elections? Why is it that while only 3% of the American population consists of white men over 6'4 tall, 30% of the CEOs of Fortune 500 companies are white men over 6'4 tall? These are examples of instinctual biases affecting or modulating rational thought processes. I argue that existing theories of reasoning cannot substantively accommodate these ubiquitous, real-world phe-nomena. Failure to recognize and incorporate these types of phenomena into the study of human reasoning results in a distorted understanding of rationality. The goal of the article is to draw attention to these types of phenomena and propose an adulterated rationality account of reasoning to explain them.

  8. Reason and less.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Vinod

    2014-01-01

    We consider ourselves to be rational beings. We feel that our choices, decisions, and actions are selected from a flexible array of possibilities, based upon reasons. When we vote for a political candidate, it is because they share our views on certain critical issues. When we hire an individual for a job, it is because they are the best qualified. However, if this is true, why does an analysis of the direction of shift in the timbre of the voice of political candidates during an exchange or debate, predict the winner of American presidential elections? Why is it that while only 3% of the American population consists of white men over 6'4″ tall, 30% of the CEOs of Fortune 500 companies are white men over 6'4″ tall? These are examples of "instinctual biases" affecting or modulating rational thought processes. I argue that existing theories of reasoning cannot substantively accommodate these ubiquitous, real-world phenomena. Failure to recognize and incorporate these types of phenomena into the study of human reasoning results in a distorted understanding of rationality. The goal of this article is to draw attention to these types of phenomena and propose an "adulterated rationality" account of reasoning as a first step in trying to explain them.

  9. The ORSphere Benchmark Evaluation and Its Potential Impact on Nuclear Criticality Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John D. Bess; Margaret A. Marshall; J. Blair Briggs

    2013-10-01

    In the early 1970’s, critical experiments using an unreflected metal sphere of highly enriched uranium (HEU) were performed with the focus to provide a “very accurate description…as an ideal benchmark for calculational methods and cross-section data files.” Two near-critical configurations of the Oak Ridge Sphere (ORSphere) were evaluated as acceptable benchmark experiments for inclusion in the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments (ICSBEP Handbook). The results from those benchmark experiments were then compared with additional unmoderated and unreflected HEU metal benchmark experiment configurations currently found in the ICSBEP Handbook. For basic geometries (spheres, cylinders, and slabs) the eigenvalues calculated using MCNP5 and ENDF/B-VII.0 were within 3 of their respective benchmark values. There appears to be generally a good agreement between calculated and benchmark values for spherical and slab geometry systems. Cylindrical geometry configurations tended to calculate low, including more complex bare HEU metal systems containing cylinders. The ORSphere experiments do not calculate within their 1s uncertainty and there is a possibility that the effect of the measured uncertainties for the GODIVA I benchmark may need reevaluated. There is significant scatter in the calculations for the highly-correlated ORCEF cylinder experiments, which are constructed from close-fitting HEU discs and annuli. Selection of a nuclear data library can have a larger impact on calculated eigenvalue results than the variation found within calculations of a given experimental series, such as the ORCEF cylinders, using a single nuclear data set.

  10. Properties of inductive reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heit, E

    2000-12-01

    This paper reviews the main psychological phenomena of inductive reasoning, covering 25 years of experimental and model-based research, in particular addressing four questions. First, what makes a case or event generalizable to other cases? Second, what makes a set of cases generalizable? Third, what makes a property or predicate projectable? Fourth, how do psychological models of induction address these results? The key results in inductive reasoning are outlined, and several recent models, including a new Bayesian account, are evaluated with respect to these results. In addition, future directions for experimental and model-based work are proposed.

  11. A Method to Evaluate Critical Factors for Successful Implementation of Clinical Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, W; Huang, Z

    2015-01-01

    Clinical pathways (CPs) have been viewed as a multidisciplinary tool to improve the quality and efficiency of evidence-based care. Despite widespread enthusiasm for CPs, research has shown that many CP initiatives are unsuccessful. To this end, this study provides a methodology to evaluate critical success factors (CSFs) that can aid healthcare organizations to achieve successful CP implementation. This study presents a new approach to evaluate CP implementation CSFs, with the aims being: (1) to identify CSFs for implementation of CPs through a comprehensive literature review and interviews with collaborative experts; (2) to use a filed study data with a robust fuzzy DEMATEL (the decision making trial and evaluation laboratory) approach to visualize the structure of complicated causal relationships between CSFs and obtain the influence level of these factors. The filed study data is provided by ten clinical experts of a Chinese hospital. 23 identified CSF factors which are initially identified through a review of the literature and interviews with collaborative experts. Then, a number of direct and indirect relationships are derived from the data such that different perceptions can be integrated into a compromised cause and effect model of CP implementation. The results indicate that the proposed approach can systematically evaluate CSFs and realize the importance of each factor such that the most common causes of failure of CP implementation could be eliminated or avoided. Therefore, the tool proposed would help healthcare organizations to manage CP implementation in a more effective and proactive way.

  12. Investigation and development of a non-destructive system to evaluate critical properties of asphalt pavements during the compaction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to present findings from a two-stage investigation to develop a non-destructive system to : evaluate critical properties and characteristics of asphalt pavements during the compaction process. The first stage aligned : c...

  13. Evaluation of dose delivered to critical organs during pituitary radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awoda, Marwa Elrashied Mohammed

    2017-12-01

    The selection of an appropriate energy in radiation therapy for tumor and the delivery adequate dose to the tumors to be treated, is very important during the radiation treatment planning. Also the dose received to critical organs surrounding the tumor has be considered. In addition, validation of treatment plan quality is important, so the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of teletherapy cobalt and 6MV linac energies on dose distribution for the pituitary gland tumors and dose delivered to critical organs surrounding the tumor. 10 patients with pituitary adenocarcinomas were selected. For treatment plans with three field technique, verdes and two lateral fields, were used. For the therapeutic area, five organs left and right eye lens left and right optic never and chasms and brain stem, were considered as Organ at risk (OARS). Several physical indices for for planning target volume (PTV) and the organs at risk 9 (OARS) as means dose (MD). 95%, dose (D950), 5% dose (D5) and normal tissue dose (NTID), were calculated, and the homogeneity index and conformity index were also two other evaluation parameters have been taken into account. The comparative evaluation was based on dose volume histogram ( DVH) analysis for both energies plans. After performing the treatment planning with two different energies the dose received to critical organs and dose distribution in PTV were studied. Results showed that the difference between the integral dose received to OARs with Co-60 and 6-MV linac respectively, 2.16±1.48, 1.85±1.55 for Lt eye lens. 3.01±2.52, 1.89±2.09 for Rt eye lens, 18.5±10.97, 19.43±10.65 for Lt optic nerve and chasms, 15.86±11.30, 17.44±15.73 for Rt optic nerve and chasms and 24.03±13.68, 23.77±16.64 for Brain stem case showed higher integral dose for linac than Co-60 than due to using the 6-MV energy as an open field with no beam modifiers such MLCs or shielding blocks. Eventually, it found that using of 6-MV linac provides better

  14. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic evaluation of linezolid for the treatment of staphylococcal infections in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Haiyan; Xie, Jiao; Wang, Taotao; Chen, Lihong; Zeng, Xiaoyan; Sun, Jinyao; Wang, Xue; Dong, Yalin

    2016-09-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that the ideal therapeutic effect of linezolid cannot be achieved in critically ill patients with the recommended standard dosing regimen of 600 mg every 12 h (q12h). Moreover, the optimal strategy for successful treatment is still lacking. This study analysed factors influencing the efficacy of linezolid treatment and determined the target for successful treatment by logistic regression in 27 critically ill patients with staphylococcal infection who received linezolid 600 mg q12h. The results showed that only the 24-h area under the concentration-time curve to minimum inhibitory concentration (AUC24/MIC) ratio was significantly associated with staphylococcal eradication. Reaching 80% bacterial eradication required an AUC24/MIC of 120.5, defining the therapeutic target. Different dosing regimens were evaluated using Monte Carlo simulation to determine the optimal dosage strategy for linezolid. Although the probability of target attainment (PTA) was high (>99.9%) for the standard dosing regimen at MIC ≤ 1 mg/L, the PTA was almost 0 at MIC = 2 mg/L, thus the dosing regimen required adjustment. In addition, if the dosing regimen was adjusted to 600 mg every 8 h or 600 mg every 6 h, the major staphylococci (except for MRSA and MSSA) exhibited a cumulative fraction of response of >80%, showing a higher treatment success. These findings indicate that a strategy of high linezolid dosage may be needed to increase the probability of successful treatment at MIC > 1 mg/L. The role of therapeutic drug monitoring should be encouraged for optimising linezolid exposure in critically ill patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of the 17 June 1997 Criticality Accident at Arzamas-16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris Klein

    1999-01-01

    On June 17, 1997, a critically accident occurred at Arzamas-16, which resulted in the death (within three days) of A. N. Zakharov, a Russian scientist with 20 years' experience conducting multiassembly experiments. In this case, the multiplying assembly was a fast metal system consisting of a 235 U (90% enriched) core and a copper reflector. According to the Russian press, ''Zakharov misjudged the degree of criticality of the breeding system and committed several gross violations of regulations.'' As we see it, there were three major causes of this accident. First, the experiment was flawed by Zakharov's misreading of the appropriate size of the assembly, which he took from a notebook that described the old experiment he was attempting to repeat. Second, he disregarded the appropriate procedures and safety regulations. Third, these two mistakes were compounded by an improperly set audible alarm system and Zakharov's unsafe use of the table. We also discuss our reconstruction of the accident based on information given by the Russians to US scientists and information culled from Russian newspaper and magazine articles. We also describe our thoughts on the behavior of the assembly following the accident and the radiation dose level Zakharov may have received. These levels match values we have lately obtained from translations of Russian news articles. This accident clearly points out the penalty for weak administrative control of work with multiplying systems. Criticality experimentation requires formality of operation. The experimenter, his peers, and a trained safety person need to document that they understand the experiment and how it will be conducted. Knowing that the experiment was successfully run several decades ago does not justify bypassing a safety evaluation

  16. Criticality safety evaluation report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility's process water handling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roblyer, S.D.

    1998-01-01

    This report addresses the criticality concerns associated with process water handling in the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). The controls and limitations on equipment design and operations to control potential criticality occurrences are identified. The effectiveness of equipment design and operation controls in preventing criticality occurrences during normal and abnormal conditions is evaluated and documented in this report. Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is removed from existing canisters in both the K East and K West Basins and loaded into a multicanister overpack (MCO) in the K Basin pool. The MCO is housed in a shipping cask surrounded by clean water in the annulus between the exterior of the MCO and the interior of the shipping cask. The fuel consists of spent N Reactor and some single pass reactor fuel. The MCO is transported to the CVDF near the K Basins to remove process water from the MCO interior and from the shipping cask annulus. After the bulk water is removed from the MCO, any remaining free liquid is removed by drawing a vacuum on the MCO's interior. After cold vacuum drying is completed, the MCO is filled with an inert cover gas, the lid is replaced on the shipping cask, and the MCO is transported to the Canister Storage Building. The process water removed from the MCO contains fissionable materials from metallic uranium corrosion. The process water from the MCO is first collected in a geometrically safe process water conditioning receiver tank. The process water in the process water conditioning receiver tank is tested, then filtered, demineralized, and collected in the storage tank. The process water is finally removed from the storage tank and transported from the CVDF by truck

  17. Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation of the 9965, 9968, 9972, 9973, 9974, and 9975 Shipping Casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, R.L.

    1999-01-01

    A Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation (NCSE) has been performed for the 9965, 9968, 9972, 9973, 9974, and 9975 SRS-designed shipping casks. This was done in support of the recertification effort for the 9965 and 9968, and the certification of the newly designed 9972-9975 series. The analysis supports the use of these packages as Fissile Class I for shipment of fissionable material from the SRS FB-Line, HB-Line, and from Lawrence Livermore national Laboratory. six different types of material were analyzed with varying Isotopic composition, of both oxide and metallic form. The mass limits required to support the fissile Class I rating for each of the envelopes are given in the Table below. These mass limits apply if DOE approves an exception as described in 10 CFR 71.55(c), such that water leakage into the primary containment vessel does not need to be considered in the criticality analysis. If this exception is not granted, the mass limits are lower than those shown below. this issue is discussed in detail in sections 5 and 6 of the report.One finding from this work is important enough to highlight in the abstract. The fire tests performed for this family of shipping casks indicates only minimal charring of the Celotex thermal insulation. Analysis of the casks with no Celotex insulation (assuming it has all burned away), results in values of k-eff that exceed 1.0. Therefore, the Celotex insulation must remain intact in order to guarantee sub criticality of the 9972-9975 family of shipping casks

  18. Diagnostic utility of carotid artery duplex ultrasonography in the evaluation of syncope: a good test ordered for the wrong reason.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadian-Dodov, Daniella; Papolos, Alexander; Olin, Jeffrey W

    2015-06-01

    Syncope refers to a transient loss of consciousness and postural tone secondary to cerebral hypoperfusion. Guidelines recommend against neurovascular testing in cases of syncope without neurologic symptoms; however, many pursue carotid artery duplex ultrasonography (CUS) due to the prognostic implications of identified cerebrovascular disease. Our objective was to determine the diagnostic utility of CUS in the evaluation of syncope and the identification of new or severe atherosclerosis with the potential to change patient management. We reviewed records of 569 patients with CUS ordered for the primary indication of syncope through an accredited vascular laboratory at an academic, urban medical centre. Findings on CUS, patient demographic, clinical and laboratory information, and medications within 6 months of the CUS exam were reviewed. Bivariate relationships between key medical history characteristics and atherosclerosis status (known vs. new disease) were examined. Among 495 patients with complete information, cerebrovascular findings could potentially explain syncope in 2% (10 patients). Optimization of cardiovascular risk factors would benefit patients with known (56.6%) and new atherosclerosis (33.5%) with suboptimal lipid control, (LDL > 70 in 42.2 and 34.9% respectively; LDL > 100 in 15.7 and 20.4%), and those not on high-intensity statin therapy (80 and 87.5%) or antiplatelet medications (13.2 and 50.6%). CUS is a low-yield diagnostic test in the evaluation of syncope, but it is useful in the diagnosis of atherosclerosis and identification of subjects who would benefit from optimal medical therapy. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Baccalaureate Nursing Students' Abilities in Critically Identifying and Evaluating the Quality of Online Health Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theron, Maggie; Redmond, Anne; Borycki, Elizabeth M

    2017-01-01

    Both the Internet and social media have become important tools that patients and health professionals, including health professional students, use to obtain information and support their decision-making surrounding health care. Students in the health sciences require increased competence to select, appraise, and use online sources to adequately educate and support patients and advocate for patient needs and best practices. The purpose of this study was to ascertain if second year nursing students have the ability to critically identify and evaluate the quality of online health information through comparisons between student and expert assessments of selected online health information postings using an adapted Trust in Online Health Information scale. Interviews with experts provided understanding of how experts applied the selected criteria and what experts recommend for implementing nursing informatics literacy in curriculums. The difference between student and expert assessments of the quality of the online information is on average close to 40%. Themes from the interviews highlighted several possible factors that may influence informatics competency levels in students, specifically regarding the critical appraisal of the quality of online health information.

  20. Resting energy expenditure in critically ill patients: Evaluation methods and clinical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia Soncini Sanches

    Full Text Available Summary Patients on intensive care present systemic, metabolic, and hormonal alterations that may adversely affect their nutritional condition and lead to fast and important depletion of lean mass and malnutrition. Several factors and medical conditions can influence the energy expenditure (EE of critically ill patients, such as age, gender, surgery, serious infections, medications, ventilation modality, and organ dysfunction. Clinical conditions that can present with EE change include acute kidney injury, a complex disorder commonly seen in critically ill patients with manifestations that can range from minimum elevations in serum creatinine to renal failure requiring dialysis. The nutritional needs of this population are therefore complex, and determining the resting energy expenditure is essential to adjust the nutritional supply and to plan a proper diet, ensuring that energy requirements are met and avoiding complications associated with overfeeding and underfeeding. Several evaluation methods of EE in this population have been described, but all of them have limitations. Such methods include direct calorimetry, doubly labeled water, indirect calorimetry (IC, various predictive equations, and, more recently, the rule of thumb (kcal/kg of body weight. Currently, IC is considered the gold standard.

  1. Criticality Safety Evaluation for 30B and 48X UF6 Cylinders for Transportation and Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhatri, Homami Zahra; Nematollahi, Mohammadreza; Kamyab, Shahabeddin

    2011-01-01

    30B and 48X cylinders are two standard containers have been used for transportation and storage of uranium hexafluoride with 21/2-ton and 10-ton loading capacity, respectively. For the sake of nuclear safety, the long-term safe storage and transportation of the cylinders are necessary to be concerned. Safe limits in handling and storage of 30B and 48X cylinders from the criticality safety considerations, has been investigated in this paper, by using the MCNP.4C code with ENDF/B-VI library data for the neutron cross sections. An infinite array model (with and without over pack) incorporating an internal H/U ratio of 0.088 was then developed to determine the optimal interstitial moderation. The maximum k eff value for the conditions of optimal interstitial moderation with the premise of no water leakage into the UF 6 cylinder has been shown to be 0.79209 ± 0.0011 for the 30B cylinder and 0.7625±0.0013 for 48X cylinder with 5 wt % 235 U enrichment. Based on this evaluation, the 30B and 48X UF 6 cylinders with 5 wt % 235 U enrichment meet the 10 CFR part 71 criteria for Fissile Class I packages, even in the worst case, and has a Transport Index (TI) of zero for criticality safety purposes

  2. CRITICAL RADAR: TOOL AND METHODOLOGY FOR EVALUATING CURRENT PROJECTS USING MULTIPLE VARIABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André M. Ferrari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Many resources are invested in measurement processes of projects indicators without, however, give a clear view of which projects deserves the right attention at the right time. This paper proposes the use of statistics, through the analysis of multiple variables and their interrelationships, to give better basis to a critical assessment methodology of current projects used in a multinational mining company. The contribution of the research is to report the methodology called Critical Radar which is based on a graphical tool with simple operationalization that can support the decision making in complex environments, and has great flexibility across the different market scenarios and possible changes in companies guidelines. The tool has great potential to help evaluate current projects due to their characteristics of flexible use in different business areas; high degree of freedom for improvement; use of known market tool in its development; ease of viewing the results through charts and notes and user freedom to use any existing indicators in the company if complied with some statistical data quality characteristics.

  3. Evaluation of speech errors in Putonghua speakers with cleft palate: a critical review of methodology issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chenghui; Whitehill, Tara L

    2014-04-01

    Speech errors associated with cleft palate are well established for English and several other Indo-European languages. Few articles describing the speech of Putonghua (standard Mandarin Chinese) speakers with cleft palate have been published in English language journals. Although methodological guidelines have been published for the perceptual speech evaluation of individuals with cleft palate, there has been no critical review of methodological issues in studies of Putonghua speakers with cleft palate. A literature search was conducted to identify relevant studies published over the past 30 years in Chinese language journals. Only studies incorporating perceptual analysis of speech were included. Thirty-seven articles which met inclusion criteria were analyzed and coded on a number of methodological variables. Reliability was established by having all variables recoded for all studies. This critical review identified many methodological issues. These design flaws make it difficult to draw reliable conclusions about characteristic speech errors in this group of speakers. Specific recommendations are made to improve the reliability and validity of future studies, as well to facilitate cross-center comparisons.

  4. Economic evaluation, human immunodeficiency virus infection and screening: a review and critical appraisal of economic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibosa-Osadolor, Onome; Roberts, Tracy

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to review, systematically and critically, evidence used to derive estimates of cost-effectiveness of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) screening. A systematic review was conducted. Searched were three main electronic bibliographic databases from 1993 to 2008 using key words including HIV, mass screening, HAART, economic evaluation, cost-effectiveness analysis, modeling. We included studies of sexually transmitted HIV infection in both sexes, including studies comparing diagnostic testing protocols and partner notification. Outcomes included were cases of HIV infection detected, deterioration to the AIDS state, secondary transmission of HIV, the quality-adjusted life-years/survival, costs, and cost-effectiveness of HIV screening. Eighty-four papers were identified; ten of which were formal economic evaluations, one cost study, three effectiveness studies, and three systematic reviews of HIV prevention programs. The predominant assertion was that HIV screening is cost-effective; methodological problems, such as the preponderance of static models which are inappropriate for infectious diseases, varying perspectives from which the studies were analyzed, and arbitrary threshold incremental cost-effectiveness ratio levels, limited the validity of these findings, and their usefulness in informing health policy decisions. The majority of published economic evaluations are based on inappropriate static models. This flaw renders the results of these studies as inconclusive and the purported cost-effectiveness of HIV screening debatable. The results of this review could form a basis for consideration of further research and analysis by health economists into the cost-effectiveness of HIV screening.

  5. The Usage of Authority in Management Process and Evaluation of Emerged Problems: A Critical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih ARSLAN

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to discuss the role, effect and the problems of ‘authority’ in the management process from a critical perspective. Firstly, the concept of authority is evaluated as a term in social science, then the role and effect of authority in management process is emphasized. The concept of authority is discussed not only in terms of its practical issues in management discipline but also the psychological, political and philosophical aspects of the term are included in discussion. Therefore, it is underlined that the usage of authority causes not only managerial problems but also some humane issues. So, the study professes that a moral authority is required besides other types of authority in management process. In this context, the study aims to test the accordance between theory and practice by comparing the results of the survey, which is implemented on public officers about their perception of authority, with the theoretical discussions.

  6. Critical evaluation of municipal solid waste composting and potential compost markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, M; Jones, D L

    2009-10-01

    Mechanical biological treatment (MBT) of mixed waste streams is becoming increasingly popular as a method for treating municipal solid waste (MSW). Whilst this process can separate many recyclates from mixed waste, the resultant organic residue can contain high levels of heavy metals and physical and biological contaminants. This review assesses the potential end uses and sustainable markets for this organic residue. Critical evaluation reveals that the best option for using this organic resource is in land remediation and restoration schemes. For example, application of MSW-derived composts at acidic heavy metal contaminated sites has ameliorated soil pollution with minimal risk. We conclude that although MSW-derived composts are of low value, they still represent a valuable resource particularly for use in post-industrial environments. A holistic view should be taken when regulating the use of such composts, taking into account the specific situation of application and the environmental pitfalls of alternative disposal routes.

  7. Evaluation of sustainable supply chain risk management using an integrated fuzzy TOPSIS- CRITIC approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostamzadeh, Reza; Ghorabaee, Mehdi Keshavarz; Govindan, Kannan

    2018-01-01

    Supply chain risk management research has mainly mistreated the important of sustainability issues. Moreover, there is little knowledge about sustainable management of risk and supply chain and the way they impose losses for firms. Risk management's duty in the supply chain is to identify, analyze......, and provide solutions for accountability, control and monitor the risks in the economic and production cycle. This study aims to develop a framework for the sustainable supply chain risk management (SSCRM) evaluation. To this end, an integrated fuzzy multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) approach is proposed...... based on the technique in order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) and criteria importance through inter-criteria correlation (CRITIC) methods. The literature was reviewed and the potential criteria were identified. Through an expert panel the criteria were filtered. Seven main...

  8. Evaluation of Electric Vehicle Charging Controllability for Provision of Time Critical Grid Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinenas, Sergejus; Marinelli, Mattia; Andersen, Peter Bach

    2016-01-01

    Replacement of conventional generation by more stochastic renewable generation sources leads to reduction of inertia and controllability in the power system. This introduces the need for more dynamic regulation services. These faster services could potentially be provided by the growing number...... of electric vehicles. EVs are a fast responding energy resource with high availability. This work evaluates and experimentally shows the limits of EV charging controllability with the focus on its suitability for providing ancillary grid services. Three different series produced EVs are tested....... The experimental testing is done by using charging current controllability of built-in AC charger to provide a primary frequency regulation service with very dynamic input frequency. The results show that most the controllability of most EVs is more than suitable for providing time critical grid services...

  9. Evaluation Research as a Mechanism for Critical Inquiry and Knowledge Construction in Architectural and Urban Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf M. Salama

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article responds to the misconceptions that continue to characterize the delivery of knowledge content in architectural courses. Based on reviewing the literature on pedagogy the paper explores the value and benefits of introducing evaluation research as a mechanism for critical inquiry and knowledge construction in theory courses in architecture and urbanism. A framework is developed and employed to demonstrate the way in which this type of learning can be incorporated.   The development and implementation of a series of in-class and off campus exercises in two different contexts reveal that structured actions and experiences help students to be in control over their learning while invigorating their understanding of the body of knowledge delivered in a typical lecture format. It firmly believed that this would offer students multiple learning opportunities while fostering their capabilities to shift from passive listeners to active learners and from knowledge consumers to knowledge producers.

  10. Critical evaluation and thermodynamic optimization of the U-Pb and U-Sb binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jian; Jin, Liling; Chen, Chuchu; Rao, Weifeng; Wang, Cuiping; Liu, Xingjun

    2016-01-01

    A complete literature review, critical evaluation and thermodynamic optimization of the phase diagrams and thermodynamic properties of U-Pb and U-Sb binary systems are presented. The CALculation of PHAse Diagrams (CALPHAD) method was used for the thermodynamic optimization, the results of which can reproduce all available reliable experimental phase equilibria and thermodynamic data. The modified quasi-chemical model in the pair approximation (MQMPA) was used for modeling the liquid solution. The Gibbs energies of all terminal solid solutions and intermetallic compounds were described by the compound energy formalism (CEF) model. All reliable experimental data of the U-Pb and U-Sb systems have been reproduced. A self-consistent thermodynamic database has been constructed for these binary systems; this database can be used in liquid-metal fuel reactor (LMFR) research.

  11. Evaluation of dose equivalent rate distribution in JCO critical accident by radiation transport calculation

    CERN Document Server

    Sakamoto, Y

    2002-01-01

    In the prevention of nuclear disaster, there needs the information on the dose equivalent rate distribution inside and outside the site, and energy spectra. The three dimensional radiation transport calculation code is a useful tool for the site specific detailed analysis with the consideration of facility structures. It is important in the prediction of individual doses in the future countermeasure that the reliability of the evaluation methods of dose equivalent rate distribution and energy spectra by using of Monte Carlo radiation transport calculation code, and the factors which influence the dose equivalent rate distribution outside the site are confirmed. The reliability of radiation transport calculation code and the influence factors of dose equivalent rate distribution were examined through the analyses of critical accident at JCO's uranium processing plant occurred on September 30, 1999. The radiation transport calculations including the burn-up calculations were done by using of the structural info...

  12. Real-World Problems: Engaging Young Learners in Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Bronwyn; McGuire, Margit

    2012-01-01

    Critical thinking is a process that can be taught. It involves "evaluating the accuracy, credibility, and worth of information and lines of reasoning. Critical thinking is reflective, logical, evidence-based, and has a purposeful quality to it--that is, the learner thinks critically in order to achieve a particular goal." The authors have found…

  13. Evaluation of Altered Drug Pharmacokinetics in Critically Ill Adults Receiving Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Michael A; Sieg, Adam C

    2017-02-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a life-support modality used in patients with refractory cardiac and/or respiratory failure. A significant resurgence in the use ECMO has been seen in recent years as a result of substantial improvements in technology and survival benefit. With expanding ECMO use, a better understanding of how ECMO affects drug pharmacokinetics (PK) is necessary. The vast majority of PK studies in patients receiving ECMO have been conducted within neonatal or pediatric populations or within a controlled environment (e.g., in vitro or ex vivo). Because of significant differences in absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion, it may be inappropriate to extrapolate these PK data to adults. Thus, the aims of this review are to evaluate the changes in drug PK during ECMO and to summarize the available PK data for common drugs used in the adult critically ill patients during ECMO support. A search of the PubMed (1965-July 2016), EMBASE (1965-July 2016), and Cochrane Controlled Trial Register databases was performed. All relevant studies describing PK alterations during ECMO in ex vivo experiments and in adults were included. Evaluation of the data indicated that drug PK in adults receiving ECMO support may be significantly altered. Factors influencing these alterations are numerous and have intricate relationships with each other but can generally be classified as ECMO circuit factors, drug factors, and patient factors. Commonly used drugs in these patients include antimicrobials, sedatives, and analgesics. PK data for most of these drugs are generally lacking; however, recent research efforts in this patient population have provided some limited guidance in drug dosing. With an improved understanding of altered drug PK secondary to ECMO therapy, optimization of pharmacotherapy within this critically ill population continues to move forward. © 2016 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  14. Evaluation of the i-STAT point-of-care analyzer in critically ill adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfelder-Visscher, Jacoline; Teerenstra, Steven; Gunnewiek, Jacqueline M T Klein; Weerwind, Patrick W

    2008-03-01

    Point-of-care analyzers may benefit therapeutic decision making by reducing turn-around-time for samples. This is especially true when biochemical parameters exceed the clinical reference range, in which acute and effective treatment is essential. We therefore evaluated the analytical performance of the i-STAT point-of-care analyzer in two critically ill adult patient populations. During a 3-month period, 48 blood samples from patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and 42 blood samples from non-cardiac patients who needed intensive care treatment were analyzed on both the i-STAT analyzer (CPB and non-CPB mode, respectively) and our laboratory analyzers (RapidLab 865/Sysmex XE-2100 instrument). The agreement analysis for quantitative data was used to compare i-STAT to RapidLab for blood gas/electrolytes and for hematocrit with the Sysmex instrument. Point-of-care electrolytes and blood gases had constant deviation, except for pH, pO2, and hematocrit. A clear linear trend in deviation of i-STAT from RapidLab was noticed for pH during CPB (r = 0.32, p = .03) and for pO2 > 10 kPa during CPB (r = -0.59, p pO2 pO2 pO2 range (10.6 pO2 range below 25% (n = 11) using the i-STAT. The i-STAT analyzer is suitable for point-of-care testing of electrolytes and blood gases in critically ill patients, except for high pO2. However, the discrepancy in hematocrit bias shows that accuracy established in one patient population cannot be automatically extrapolated to other patient populations, thus stressing the need for separate evaluation.

  15. Evaluation of metal matrix composite to replace spheroidal graphite iron for a critical component, steering knuckle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayarangan, S.; Rajamanickam, N.; Sivananth, V.

    2013-01-01

    performed on MMC model before and after optimization. The life of the MMC knuckle is evaluated for maximum load case. The results obtained from numerical analysis and experimental testing encouraged using particulate reinforced metal matrix composites for critical component steering knuckle with a weight saving about 55% when compared with currently used SG iron.

  16. An Evaluation of Criticality Margin by an Application of Parallelogram Lattice Arrangement in the Nuclear Fuel Storage Rack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Song Hyun; Kim, Hong Chul; Shin, Chang Ho; Kim, Jong Kyung; Kim, Kyo Youn

    2010-01-01

    The criticality evaluation in the nuclear fuel storage rack is essentially required for the prevention of the criticality accident. The square lattice structure of the storage rack is commonly used because it has a simple structure for the storage of the numerous fuel assemblies as well as the good mechanical strength. For the design of the fuel storage rack, the boron plate is commonly used for the criticality reduction. In this study, an arrangement method with the parallelogram lattice structure is proposed for the reduction of the boron concentration or the rack pitch. The criticality margins by the application of the parallelogram lattice were evaluated with MCNP5 code. From the result, the reduction of the boron concentrated in the borated-Al plate was evaluated

  17. Evaluating the environmental criticality of massive objects in LEO for debris mitigation and remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardini, Carmen; Anselmo, Luciano

    2018-04-01

    Approximately 95% of the mass in Earth orbit is currently concentrated in about 6700 intact objects, of which nearly 80% are abandoned and more than 90% cannot be maneuvered. The intact objects abandoned in low Earth orbit (LEO) above 650 km, i.e. with an average residual lifetime of more than 25 years, represent the main potential mass reservoir for the generation of new detrimental orbital debris in case of mutual collisions with the existing debris environment, taking into account that an 800 g impactor may be sufficient, in principle, to shatter a 1000 kg spacecraft or rocket stage. Since the 1980's, several mitigation measures were promoted and agreed at the international level in order to prevent the occurrence of new breakups in space and put under control the accumulation of mass abandoned in orbit, but unfortunately the level of compliance with such guidelines, requirements or standards is still far from satisfactory. Moreover, the appearance on the scene of space activity of new private and government actors from a growing number of countries makes the proper management of the circumterrestrial space a task of increasing complexity, taking also into account the rapid emerging of new potential applications, disrupting technologies and operational approaches quite different from the past. In this rapidly evolving environment, it might be useful to have a simple and flexible instrument for evaluating the potential criticality for the environment of massive objects placed or abandoned in LEO. With this goal, in the last few years, a particular effort was devoted to the development of various "criticality indexes", then applied for evaluating many families of rocket bodies and selected spacecraft. In this paper, with the underlining ambition to be simple, intuitive and relevant, from an environmental point of view, a couple of the most complete indexes were coherently applied in order to assess the potential criticality of the most massive objects abandoned in

  18. A Critical Assessment of Child Custody Evaluations: Limited Science and a Flawed System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Robert E; Otto, Randy K; O'Donohue, William T

    2005-07-01

    further scientific investigation. We see the system for resolving custody disputes as deeply flawed, for reasons that go beyond the problem of limited science. The coupling of the vague "best interests of the child" test with the American adversary system of justice puts judges in the position of trying to perform an impossible task, and it exacerbates parental conflict and problems in parenting and coparenting, which psychological science clearly shows to be key factors predicting children's psychological difficulties in response to their parents' separation and divorce. Our analysis of the flawed system, together with our desire to sharply limit custody disputes and custody evaluations, leads us to propose three reforms. First, we urge continued efforts to encourage parents to reach custody agreements on their own-in divorce mediation, through collaborative law, in good-faith attorney negotiations, in therapy, and in other forums. Some such efforts have been demonstrated to improve parent-parent and parent-child relationships long after divorce, and they embrace the philosophical position that, in the absence of abuse or neglect, parents themselves should determine their children's best interests after separation, just as they do in marriage. Second, we urge state legislatures to move toward adopting more clear and determinative custody rules, a step that would greatly clarify the terms of the marriage contract, limit the need for custody evaluations, and sharply narrow the scope of the evaluation process. We find particular merit in the proposed "approximation rule" (recently embraced by the American Law Institute), in which postdivorce parenting arrangements would approximate parenting involvement in marriage. Third and finally, we recommend that custody evaluators follow the law and only offer opinions for which there is an adequate scientific basis. Related to this, we urge professional bodies to enact more specific standards of practice on this and related issues

  19. Prospective evaluation of an internet-linked handheld computer critical care knowledge access system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapinsky, Stephen E; Wax, Randy; Showalter, Randy; Martinez-Motta, J Carlos; Hallett, David; Mehta, Sangeeta; Burry, Lisa; Stewart, Thomas E

    2004-12-01

    Critical care physicians may benefit from immediate access to medical reference material. We evaluated the feasibility and potential benefits of a handheld computer based knowledge access system linking a central academic intensive care unit (ICU) to multiple community-based ICUs. Four community hospital ICUs with 17 physicians participated in this prospective interventional study. Following training in the use of an internet-linked, updateable handheld computer knowledge access system, the physicians used the handheld devices in their clinical environment for a 12-month intervention period. Feasibility of the system was evaluated by tracking use of the handheld computer and by conducting surveys and focus group discussions. Before and after the intervention period, participants underwent simulated patient care scenarios designed to evaluate the information sources they accessed, as well as the speed and quality of their decision making. Participants generated admission orders during each scenario, which were scored by blinded evaluators. Ten physicians (59%) used the system regularly, predominantly for nonmedical applications (median 32.8/month, interquartile range [IQR] 28.3-126.8), with medical software accessed less often (median 9/month, IQR 3.7-13.7). Eight out of 13 physicians (62%) who completed the final scenarios chose to use the handheld computer for information access. The median time to access information on the handheld handheld computer was 19 s (IQR 15-40 s). This group exhibited a significant improvement in admission order score as compared with those who used other resources (P = 0.018). Benefits and barriers to use of this technology were identified. An updateable handheld computer system is feasible as a means of point-of-care access to medical reference material and may improve clinical decision making. However, during the study, acceptance of the system was variable. Improved training and new technology may overcome some of the barriers we

  20. Learning in Order to Reason

    OpenAIRE

    Roth, Dan

    1995-01-01

    Any theory aimed at understanding commonsense reasoning, the process that humans use to cope with the mundane but complex aspects of the world in evaluating everyday situations, should account for its flexibility, its adaptability, and the speed with which it is performed. In this thesis we analyze current theories of reasoning and argue that they do not satisfy those requirements. We then proceed to develop a new framework for the study of reasoning, in which a learning component has a princ...

  1. Evaluation of tools used to measure critical thinking development in nursing and midwifery undergraduate students: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Amanda G; Creedy, Debra K; Sidebotham, Mary

    2015-07-01

    Well developed critical thinking skills are essential for nursing and midwifery practices. The development of students' higher-order cognitive abilities, such as critical thinking, is also well recognised in nursing and midwifery education. Measurement of critical thinking development is important to demonstrate change over time and effectiveness of teaching strategies. To evaluate tools designed to measure critical thinking in nursing and midwifery undergraduate students. The following six databases were searched and resulted in the retrieval of 1191 papers: CINAHL, Ovid Medline, ERIC, Informit, PsycINFO and Scopus. After screening for inclusion, each paper was evaluated using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme Tool. Thirty-four studies met the inclusion criteria and quality appraisal. Sixteen different tools that measure critical thinking were reviewed for reliability and validity and extent to which the domains of critical thinking were evident. Sixty percent of studies utilised one of four standardised commercially available measures of critical thinking. Reliability and validity were not consistently reported and there was a variation in reliability across studies that used the same measure. Of the remaining studies using different tools, there was also limited reporting of reliability making it difficult to assess internal consistency and potential applicability of measures across settings. Discipline specific instruments to measure critical thinking in nursing and midwifery are required, specifically tools that measure the application of critical thinking to practise. Given that critical thinking development occurs over an extended period, measurement needs to be repeated and multiple methods of measurement used over time. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Evaluation of pain during mobilization and endotracheal aspiration in critical patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robleda, G; Roche-Campo, F; Membrilla-Martínez, L; Fernández-Lucio, A; Villamor-Vázquez, M; Merten, A; Gich, I; Mancebo, J; Català-Puigbó, E; Baños, J E

    2016-03-01

    1) To assess the prevalence of pain during nursing care procedures, and 2) to evaluate the usefulness of certain vital signs and the bispectral index (BIS) in detecting pain. A prospective, observational analytical study was made of procedures (endotracheal aspiration and mobilization with turning) in critically ill sedated patients on mechanical ventilation. The Behavioral Pain Scale was used to assess pain, with scores of ≥3 indicating pain. Various physiological signs and BIS values were recorded, with changes of >10% being considered clinically relevant. A total of 146 procedures in 70 patients were analyzed. Pain prevalence during the procedures was 94%. Vital signs and BIS values increased significantly during the procedures compared to resting conditions, but only the changes in BIS were considered clinically relevant. In the subgroup of patients receiving preemptive analgesia prior to the procedure, pain decreased significantly compared to the group of patients who received no such analgesia (-2 [IQR: {-5}-0] vs. 3 [IQR: 1-4]; P<.001, respectively). The procedures evaluated in this study are painful. Changes in vital signs are not good indicators of pain. Changes in BIS may provide useful information about pain, but more research is needed. The administration of preemptive analgesia decreases pain during the procedures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  3. Pressure Ulcer Risk Evaluation in Critical Patients: Clinical and Social Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azevedo Macena, Mônica Suêla; da Costa Silva, Rayanne Suely; Dias Fernandes, Maria Isabel Da Conceição; de Almeida Medeiros, Ana Beatriz; Batista Lúcio, Kadyjina Daiane; de Carvalho Lira, Ana Luisa Brandão

    2017-01-01

    Pressure ulcers increase hospital stays and treatment costs due to their complications. Therefore, recognizing factors that contribute to pressure ulcer risk are important to patient safety. To evaluate the association between the scores of the Waterlow, Braden, and Norton scales and clinical and social characteristics in critically ill patients. A cross-sectional study of 78 patients in an adult intensive care unit of a university hospital in Northeastern Brazil was conducted from July to December 2015. Data included social and clinical information and the risk factors of the Braden, Norton and Waterlow scales. Data were analysed by the descriptive and inferential statistics. Most of the participants were female, adults and elderly people with brown skin colour, low education levels and insufficient income. Most of them showed a high risk for developing pressure ulcers using the three evaluated scales. Age, smoking status, diabetes and hypertension were associated with scores on the Waterlow, Braden and Norton scales. Age, use of the tobacco, diabetes and hypertension were associated with the risk of pressure ulcers in ICU patients.

  4. Design and validation of a questionnaire to evaluate the usability of computerized critical care information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Dincklage, Falk; Lichtner, Gregor; Suchodolski, Klaudiusz; Ragaller, Maximilian; Friesdorf, Wolfgang; Podtschaske, Beatrice

    2017-08-01

    The implementation of computerized critical care information systems (CCIS) can improve the quality of clinical care and staff satisfaction, but also holds risks of disrupting the workflow with consecutive negative impacts. The usability of CCIS is one of the key factors determining their benefits and weaknesses. However, no tailored instrument exists to measure the usability of such systems. Therefore, the aim of this study was to design and validate a questionnaire that measures the usability of CCIS. Following a mixed-method design approach, we developed a questionnaire comprising two evaluation models to assess the usability of CCIS: (1) the task-specific model rates the usability individually for several tasks which CCIS could support and which we derived by analyzing work processes in the ICU; (2) the characteristic-specific model rates the different aspects of the usability, as defined by the international standard "ergonomics of human-system interaction". We tested validity and reliability of the digital version of the questionnaire in a sample population. In the sample population of 535 participants both usability evaluation models showed a strong correlation with the overall rating of the system (multiple correlation coefficients ≥0.80) as well as a very high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha ≥0.93). The novel questionnaire is a valid and reliable instrument to measure the usability of CCIS and can be used to study the influence of the usability on their implementation benefits and weaknesses.

  5. Working memory and fluid intelligence are both identical to g?! Reanalyses and critical evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GILLES E. GIGNAC

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, two previously published confirmatory factor analytic studies that separately reported working memory and fluid intelligence higher-order loadings so large as to suggest isomor-phism with g were evaluated critically within the context of internal consistency reliability. Specifi-cally, based on two data analytic approaches, the previously reported higher-order loadings which suggested isomorphism with g were demonstrated to have been achieved via the substantial disattenua-tion effects observed within structural equation modeling, when the latent variable corresponding composite scores are associated with low levels of reliability. The two approaches were: (1 the obverse of the disattenuation procedure for imperfect reliability, and (2 the implied correlation between a corresponding phantom composite variable and a higher-order g factor. The results derived from the two approaches were found to correspond very closely. To allow for a more informative evaluation, researchers are encouraged to report the internal consistency reliabilities associated with the composite scores which correspond to their latent variables, as well as to report both the disattenuated and attenu-ated higher-order loadings within their multi-factor models.

  6. Criticality Safety Evaluation Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility's Process Water Handling System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KESSLER, S.F.

    2000-01-01

    This report addresses the criticality concerns associated with process water handling in the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. The controls and limitations on equipment design and operations to control potential criticality occurrences are identified

  7. Criticality safety evaluation report for the cold vacuum drying facility's process water handling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NELSON, J.V.

    1999-01-01

    This report addresses the criticality concerns associated with process water handling in the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. The controls and limitations on equipment design and operations to control potential criticality occurrences are identified

  8. Integrating critical Web skills and content knowledge: Development and evaluation of a 5th grade educational program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, E.; Volman, M.L.L.; Terwel, J.

    2008-01-01

    Although the Web is almost omnipresent in many children's lives, most children lack adequate Web searching skills as well as skills to process and critically evaluate Web information. In this article, we describe and evaluate an educational program that aimed at acquiring Web skills in the context

  9. Pre-Service Teachers Critically Evaluate Scientific Information on the World-Wide Web: What Makes Information Believable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iding, Marie; Klemm, E. Barbara

    2005-01-01

    The present study addresses the need for teachers to critically evaluate the credibility, validity, and cognitive load associated with scientific information on Web sites, in order to effectively teach students to evaluate scientific information on the World Wide Web. A line of prior research investigating high school and university students'…

  10. IUPAC critical evaluation of the rotational-vibrational spectra of water vapor. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tennyson, Jonathan; Bernath, Peter F.; Brown, Linda R.; Campargue, Alain; Csaszar, Attila G.; Daumont, Ludovic; Gamache, Robert R.; Hodges, Joseph T.; Naumenko, Olga V.; Polyansky, Oleg L.; Rothman, Laurence S.; Toth, Robert A.; Vandaele, Ann Carine; Zobov, Nikolai F.; Fally, Sophie; Fazliev, Alexander Z.; Furtenbacher, Tibor; Gordon, Iouli E.; Hu, Shui-Ming

    2010-01-01

    This is the second of a series of articles reporting critically evaluated rotational-vibrational line positions, transition intensities, pressure dependences, and energy levels, with associated critically reviewed assignments and uncertainties, for all the main isotopologues of water. This article presents energy levels and line positions of the following singly deuterated isotopologues of water: HD 16 O, HD 17 O, and HD 18 O. The MARVEL (measured active rotational-vibrational energy levels) procedure is used to determine the levels, the lines, and their self-consistent uncertainties for the spectral regions 0-22 708, 0-1674, and 0-12 105 cm -1 for HD 16 O, HD 17 O, and HD 18 O, respectively. For HD 16 O, 54 740 transitions were analyzed from 76 sources, the lines come from spectra recorded both at room temperature and from hot samples. These lines correspond to 36 690 distinct assignments and 8818 energy levels. For HD 17 O, only 485 transitions could be analyzed from three sources; the lines correspond to 162 MARVEL energy levels. For HD 18 O, 8729 transitions were analyzed from 11 sources and these lines correspond to 1864 energy levels. The energy levels are checked against ones determined from accurate variational nuclear motion computations employing exact kinetic energy operators. This comparison shows that the measured transitions account for about 86% of the anticipated absorbance of HD 16 O at 296 K and that the transitions predicted by the MARVEL energy levels account for essentially all the remaining absorbance. The extensive list of MARVEL lines and levels obtained are given in the Supplementary Material of this article, as well as in a distributed information system applied to water, W-DIS, where they can easily be retrieved. In addition, the transition and energy level information for H 2 17 O and H 2 18 O, given in the first paper of this series [Tennyson, et al. J Quant Spectr Rad Transfer 2009;110:573-96], has been updated.

  11. THROUGH THE EYES OF THE LEARNER: A CRITICAL EVALUATION OF AN URBAN INDIAN SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Khan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available India, being the second most populated country in the world, a sizable school going population is the result of a positive and proactive response to the governmental efforts on basic education. This has catapulted the responsibility of schools and their environs in shaping young impressionable minds due to their sheer number. This study aims at exploring and investigating qualities and characteristics of an urban Indian school through critical post occupancy evaluation of the school environs through the eyes of the children. To initiate this study, a premier school of Nagpur city, exemplifying a typical urban school, was identified for a pilot study. The methodology encompassed interviewing the Principal, observation by the researchers and interaction with students to understand and critically analyze usage pattern by principal users of the school. The design of the tools for user response was devised keeping in mind the age of the students and their ability to communicate spatial experiences. The paper served as a fact-finding mission and in its outcomes led to an identification of the major variables of the spatial environs of schools. It brought to fore an understanding, which the mandatory prerequisites of school infrastructure lack in a humane vision that is so imperative to educational environments. It facilitated in pinpointing the lacunae existing in the National Curriculum Framework, which is a governmental guideline for all schools in India. In conclusion, the article emphasizes the urgency in the necessary ‘humanization’ of the schools to the happiness and contentment of the young who are nurtured within its spaces.

  12. Criticality evaluation of long term for spent fuel, using Scale; Evaluacion de criticidad a largo plazo para combustible gastado, utilizando SCALE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esquivel E, J.; Vargas E, S.; Ramirez S, J. R., E-mail: jaime.esquivel@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    Once carried out the spent fuel discharge, of the reactor core, this continues generating decay heat and diverse fission products, reason why is important to store this fuel inside containers able to dissipate the heat generated by the isotopes decay of the fuel and to maintain the fuels arrangement in subcritical condition. This means that: is necessary to assure the sub-criticality of those fuel assemblies in the time. This work, presents a criticality evaluation of fuel assemblies type PWR in a storage generic container. For this purpose have been used two codes: GeeWiz, to carry out the geometric model of the container with the fuel assemblies, and Keno, with which, the criticality of the full container with fuel is determined until a 10{sup 6} years period. These codes are part of the package Scale. The specifications for each one of the analyzed components are based on a Benchmark document of the Nea/OECD, of where, the results that reports are compared with the obtained results by the realized analysis. (Author)

  13. Race, Reason and Reasonableness: Toward an "Unreasonable" Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lissovoy, Noah

    2016-01-01

    Starting from the contemporary critical-theoretical notion of an "objective violence" that organizes social reality in capitalism, including processes of systemic racism, as well as from phenomenological inquiries into processes of race and identity, this article explores the relationship between racism and reasonableness in education…

  14. CSER-00-007 Addendum 1 Criticality Safety Evaluation of Shippingport PWR Core 2 Blanket Fuel Assemblies at Lower Exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WITTEKIND, W.D.

    2001-01-01

    This analysis meets the requirements of HNF-7098, Criticality Safety Program, (FH 2001a). HNF-7098 states that before starting a new operation with fissile material or before an existing operation is changed, it shall be determined that the entire process will be subcritical under both normal and credible abnormal conditions. To demonstrate the Incredibility Principle is satisfied, this Criticality Safety Evaluation Report (CSER) shows that the form or distribution is such that criticality is impossible. This evaluation demonstrated, that on the basis of effective 235 U enrichment, criticality is not possible. The minimum blanket assembly exposure is 4,375 MW t d/MTU for fissile material that is shown to fulfill the Incredibility Principle safety criterion on the basis of enrichment

  15. Evaluating social outcomes of HIV/AIDS interventions: a critical assessment of contemporary indicator frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannell, Jenevieve; Cornish, Flora; Russell, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary HIV-related theory and policy emphasize the importance of addressing the social drivers of HIV risk and vulnerability for a long-term response. Consequently, increasing attention is being given to social and structural interventions, and to social outcomes of HIV interventions. Appropriate indicators for social outcomes are needed in order to institutionalize the commitment to addressing social outcomes. This paper critically assesses the current state of social indicators within international HIV/AIDS monitoring and evaluation frameworks. We analyzed the indicator frameworks of six international organizations involved in efforts to improve and synchronize the monitoring and evaluation of the HIV/AIDS response. Our analysis classifies the 328 unique indicators according to what they measure and assesses the degree to which they offer comprehensive measurement across three dimensions: domains of the social context, levels of change and organizational capacity. The majority of indicators focus on individual-level (clinical and behavioural) interventions and outcomes, neglecting structural interventions, community interventions and social outcomes (e.g. stigma reduction; community capacity building; policy-maker sensitization). The main tool used to address social aspects of HIV/AIDS is the disaggregation of data by social group. This raises three main limitations. Indicator frameworks do not provide comprehensive coverage of the diverse social drivers of the epidemic, particularly neglecting criminalization, stigma, discrimination and gender norms. There is a dearth of indicators for evaluating the social impacts of HIV interventions. Indicators of organizational capacity focus on capacity to effectively deliver and manage clinical services, neglecting capacity to respond appropriately and sustainably to complex social contexts. Current indicator frameworks cannot adequately assess the social outcomes of HIV interventions. This limits knowledge about

  16. Design of a Golf Swing Injury Detection and Evaluation open service platform with Ontology-oriented clustering case-based reasoning mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Hao-Hsiang

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, people can easily use a smartphone to get wanted information and requested services. Hence, this study designs and proposes a Golf Swing Injury Detection and Evaluation open service platform with Ontology-oritened clustering case-based reasoning mechanism, which is called GoSIDE, based on Arduino and Open Service Gateway initative (OSGi). GoSIDE is a three-tier architecture, which is composed of Mobile Users, Application Servers and a Cloud-based Digital Convergence Server. A mobile user is with a smartphone and Kinect sensors to detect the user's Golf swing actions and to interact with iDTV. An application server is with Intelligent Golf Swing Posture Analysis Model (iGoSPAM) to check a user's Golf swing actions and to alter this user when he is with error actions. Cloud-based Digital Convergence Server is with Ontology-oriented Clustering Case-based Reasoning (CBR) for Quality of Experiences (OCC4QoE), which is designed to provide QoE services by QoE-based Ontology strategies, rules and events for this user. Furthermore, GoSIDE will automatically trigger OCC4QoE and deliver popular rules for a new user. Experiment results illustrate that GoSIDE can provide appropriate detections for Golfers. Finally, GoSIDE can be a reference model for researchers and engineers.

  17. Measuring Reasoning about Teaching for Graduate Admissions in Psychology and Related Disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Sternberg

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Teaching- and teaching-evaluation skills are critically important to professional success in psychology and related disciplines. We explored the possibility of measuring reasoning-about-teaching skills as a supplementary measure for admissions in psychology and related behavioral-sciences disciplines. We tested 103 students for their reasoning about teaching and their reasoning about research, as well as for their cognitive- (abstract reasoning and educational skills. We found that women performed better than men on our reasoning-about-teaching measure, and that factorially, our reasoning-about-teaching measure clustered with our reasoning-about-research measures but not with our measures of abstract cognitive reasoning and educational skills.

  18. Factors Associated with Participation, Active Refusals and Reasons for Not Taking Part in a Mortality Followback Survey Evaluating End-of-Life Care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Calanzani

    Full Text Available Examination of factors independently associated with participation in mortality followback surveys is rare, even though these surveys are frequently used to evaluate end-of-life care. We aimed to identify factors associated with 1 participation versus non-participation and 2 provision of an active refusal versus a silent refusal; and systematically examine reasons for refusal in a population-based mortality followback survey.Postal survey about the end-of-life care received by 1516 people who died from cancer (aged ≥18, identified through death registrations in London, England (response rate 39.3%. The informant of death (a relative in 95.3% of cases was contacted 4-10 months after the patient died. We used multivariate logistic regression to identify factors associated with participation/active refusals and content analysis to examine refusal reasons provided by 205 nonparticipants.The odds of partaking were higher for patients aged 90+ (AOR 3.48, 95%CI: 1.52-8.00, ref: 20-49yrs and female informants (AOR 1.70, 95%CI: 1.33-2.16. Odds were lower for hospital deaths (AOR 0.62, 95%CI: 0.46-0.84, ref: home and proxies other than spouses/partners (AORs 0.28 to 0.57. Proxies of patients born overseas were less likely to provide an active refusal (AOR 0.49; 95% CI: 0.32-0.77. Refusal reasons were often multidimensional, most commonly study-related (36.0%, proxy-related and grief-related (25.1% each. One limitation of this analysis is the large number of nonparticipants who did not provide reasons for refusal (715/920.Our survey better reached proxies of older patients while those dying in hospitals were underrepresented. Proxy characteristics played a role, with higher participation from women and spouses/partners. More information is needed about the care received by underrepresented groups. Study design improvements may guide future questionnaire development and help develop strategies to increase response rates.

  19. Factors Associated with Participation, Active Refusals and Reasons for Not Taking Part in a Mortality Followback Survey Evaluating End-of-Life Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calanzani, Natalia; Higginson, Irene J; Koffman, Jonathan; Gomes, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Background Examination of factors independently associated with participation in mortality followback surveys is rare, even though these surveys are frequently used to evaluate end-of-life care. We aimed to identify factors associated with 1) participation versus non-participation and 2) provision of an active refusal versus a silent refusal; and systematically examine reasons for refusal in a population-based mortality followback survey. Methods Postal survey about the end-of-life care received by 1516 people who died from cancer (aged ≥18), identified through death registrations in London, England (response rate 39.3%). The informant of death (a relative in 95.3% of cases) was contacted 4–10 months after the patient died. We used multivariate logistic regression to identify factors associated with participation/active refusals and content analysis to examine refusal reasons provided by 205 nonparticipants. Findings The odds of partaking were higher for patients aged 90+ (AOR 3.48, 95%CI: 1.52–8.00, ref: 20–49yrs) and female informants (AOR 1.70, 95%CI: 1.33–2.16). Odds were lower for hospital deaths (AOR 0.62, 95%CI: 0.46–0.84, ref: home) and proxies other than spouses/partners (AORs 0.28 to 0.57). Proxies of patients born overseas were less likely to provide an active refusal (AOR 0.49; 95% CI: 0.32–0.77). Refusal reasons were often multidimensional, most commonly study-related (36.0%), proxy-related and grief-related (25.1% each). One limitation of this analysis is the large number of nonparticipants who did not provide reasons for refusal (715/920). Conclusions Our survey better reached proxies of older patients while those dying in hospitals were underrepresented. Proxy characteristics played a role, with higher participation from women and spouses/partners. More information is needed about the care received by underrepresented groups. Study design improvements may guide future questionnaire development and help develop strategies to increase

  20. Public policy, rationality and reason

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Canto Sáenz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This work suggests the incorporation of practical reason in the design, implementation and evaluation of public policies, alongside instrumental rationality. It takes two proposals that today point in this direction: Rawls distinction between reasonable (practical reason and rational (instrumental reason and what this author calls the CI Procedure (categorical imperative procedure and Habermas model of deliberative democracy. The main conclusion is that the analysis of public policies can not be limited to rather narrow limits of science, but requires the contribution of political and moral philosophy.

  1. Harnessing Information Technology to Improve the Process of Students' Evaluations of Teaching: An Exploration of Students' Critical Success Factors of Online Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevo, Dorit; McClean, Ron; Nevo, Saggi

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the relative advantage offered by online Students' Evaluations of Teaching (SET) and describes a study conducted at a Canadian university to identify critical success factors of online evaluations from students' point of view. Factors identified as important by the students include anonymity, ease of use (of both SET survey…

  2. A Chemistry Concept Reasoning Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloonan, Carrie A.; Hutchinson, John S.

    2011-01-01

    A Chemistry Concept Reasoning Test was created and validated providing an easy-to-use tool for measuring conceptual understanding and critical scientific thinking of general chemistry models and theories. The test is designed to measure concept understanding comparable to that found in free-response questions requiring explanations over…

  3. Assessment of the available {sup 233}U cross-section evaluations in the calculation of critical benchmark experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal, L.C.; Wright, R.Q.

    1996-10-01

    In this report we investigate the adequacy of the available {sup 233}U cross-section data for calculation of experimental critical systems. The {sup 233}U evaluations provided in two evaluated nuclear data libraries, the U.S. Data Bank [ENDF/B (Evaluated Nuclear Data Files)] and the Japanese Data Bank [JENDL (Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library)] are examined. Calculations were performed for six thermal and ten fast experimental critical systems using the S{sub n} transport XSDRNPM code. To verify the performance of the {sup 233}U cross-section data for nuclear criticality safety application in which the neutron energy spectrum is predominantly in the epithermal energy range, calculations of four numerical benchmark systems with energy spectra in the intermediate energy range were done. These calculations serve only as an indication of the difference in calculated results that may be expected when the two {sup 233}U cross-section evaluations are used for problems with neutron spectra in the intermediate energy range. Additionally, comparisons of experimental and calculated central fission rate ratios were also made. The study has suggested that an ad hoc {sup 233}U evaluation based on the JENDL library provides better overall results for both fast and thermal experimental critical systems.

  4. Assessment of the Available (Sup 233)U Cross Sections Evaluations in the Calculation of Critical Benchmark Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal, L.C.

    1993-01-01

    In this report we investigate the adequacy of the available {sup 233}U cross-section data for calculation of experimental critical systems. The {sup 233}U evaluations provided in two evaluated nuclear data libraries, the U. S. Data Bank [ENDF/B (Evaluated Nuclear Data Files)] and the Japanese Data Bank [JENDL (Japanese Evaluated Nuclear Data Library)] are examined. Calculations were performed for six thermal and ten fast experimental critical systems using the Sn transport XSDRNPM code. To verify the performance of the {sup 233}U cross-section data for nuclear criticality safety application in which the neutron energy spectrum is predominantly in the epithermal energy range, calculations of four numerical benchmark systems with energy spectra in the intermediate energy range were done. These calculations serve only as an indication of the difference in calculated results that may be expected when the two {sup 233}U cross-section evaluations are used for problems with neutron spectra in the intermediate energy range. Additionally, comparisons of experimental and calculated central fission rate ratios were also made. The study has suggested that an ad hoc {sup 233}U evaluation based on the JENDL library provides better overall results for both fast and thermal experimental critical systems.

  5. Detecting long-term growth trends using tree rings: a critical evaluation of methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Richard L; Groenendijk, Peter; Vlam, Mart; Zuidema, Pieter A

    2015-05-01

    Tree-ring analysis is often used to assess long-term trends in tree growth. A variety of growth-trend detection methods (GDMs) exist to disentangle age/size trends in growth from long-term growth changes. However, these detrending methods strongly differ in approach, with possible implications for their output. Here, we critically evaluate the consistency, sensitivity, reliability and accuracy of four most widely used GDMs: conservative detrending (CD) applies mathematical functions to correct for decreasing ring widths with age; basal area correction (BAC) transforms diameter into basal area growth; regional curve standardization (RCS) detrends individual tree-ring series using average age/size trends; and size class isolation (SCI) calculates growth trends within separate size classes. First, we evaluated whether these GDMs produce consistent results applied to an empirical tree-ring data set of Melia azedarach, a tropical tree species from Thailand. Three GDMs yielded similar results - a growth decline over time - but the widely used CD method did not detect any change. Second, we assessed the sensitivity (probability of correct growth-trend detection), reliability (100% minus probability of detecting false trends) and accuracy (whether the strength of imposed trends is correctly detected) of these GDMs, by applying them to simulated growth trajectories with different imposed trends: no trend, strong trends (-6% and +6% change per decade) and weak trends (-2%, +2%). All methods except CD, showed high sensitivity, reliability and accuracy to detect strong imposed trends. However, these were considerably lower in the weak or no-trend scenarios. BAC showed good sensitivity and accuracy, but low reliability, indicating uncertainty of trend detection using this method. Our study reveals that the choice of GDM influences results of growth-trend studies. We recommend applying multiple methods when analysing trends and encourage performing sensitivity and reliability

  6. Critical evaluation of the JDO API for the persistence and portability requirements of complex biological databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwieger Michael

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complex biological database systems have become key computational tools used daily by scientists and researchers. Many of these systems must be capable of executing on multiple different hardware and software configurations and are also often made available to users via the Internet. We have used the Java Data Object (JDO persistence technology to develop the database layer of such a system known as the SigPath information management system. SigPath is an example of a complex biological database that needs to store various types of information connected by many relationships. Results Using this system as an example, we perform a critical evaluation of current JDO technology; discuss the suitability of the JDO standard to achieve portability, scalability and performance. We show that JDO supports portability of the SigPath system from a relational database backend to an object database backend and achieves acceptable scalability. To answer the performance question, we have created the SigPath JDO application benchmark that we distribute under the Gnu General Public License. This benchmark can be used as an example of using JDO technology to create a complex biological database and makes it possible for vendors and users of the technology to evaluate the performance of other JDO implementations for similar applications. Conclusions The SigPath JDO benchmark and our discussion of JDO technology in the context of biological databases will be useful to bioinformaticians who design new complex biological databases and aim to create systems that can be ported easily to a variety of database backends.

  7. Comprehensive evaluation on effective leaching of critical metals from spent lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wenfang; Liu, Chenming; Cao, Hongbin; Zheng, Xiaohong; Lin, Xiao; Wang, Haijuan; Zhang, Yi; Sun, Zhi

    2018-05-01

    Recovery of metals from spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) has attracted worldwide attention because of issues from both environmental impacts and resource supply. Leaching, for instance using an acidic solution, is a critical step for effective recovery of metals from spent LIBs. To achieve both high leaching efficiency and selectivity of the targeted metals, improved understanding on the interactive features of the materials and leaching solutions is highly required. However, such understanding is still limited at least caused by the variation on physiochemical properties of different leaching solutions. In this research, a comprehensive investigation and evaluation on the leaching process using acidic solutions to recycle spent LIBs is carried out. Through analyzing two important parameters, i.e. leaching speed and recovery rate of the corresponding metals, the effects of hydrogen ion concentration, acid species and concentration on these two parameters were evaluated. It was found that a leachant with organic acids may leach Co and Li from the cathode scrap and leave Al foil as metallic form with high leaching selectivity, while that with inorganic acids typically leach all metals into the solution. Inconsistency between the leaching selectivity and efficiency during spent LIBs recycling is frequently noticed. In order to achieve an optimal status with both high leaching selectivity and efficiency (especially at high solid-to-liquid ratios), it is important to manipulate the average leaching speed and recovery rate of metals to optimize the leaching conditions. Subsequently, it is found that the leaching speed is significantly dependent on the hydrogen ion concentration and the capability of releasing hydrogen ions of the acidic leachant during leaching. With this research, it is expected to improve understanding on controlling the physiochemical properties of a leaching solution and to potentially design processes for spent LIBs recycling with high industrial

  8. A critical evaluation of worst case optimization methods for robust intensity-modulated proton therapy planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredriksson, Albin; Bokrantz, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To critically evaluate and compare three worst case optimization methods that have been previously employed to generate intensity-modulated proton therapy treatment plans that are robust against systematic errors. The goal of the evaluation is to identify circumstances when the methods behave differently and to describe the mechanism behind the differences when they occur. Methods: The worst case methods optimize plans to perform as well as possible under the worst case scenario that can physically occur (composite worst case), the combination of the worst case scenarios for each objective constituent considered independently (objectivewise worst case), and the combination of the worst case scenarios for each voxel considered independently (voxelwise worst case). These three methods were assessed with respect to treatment planning for prostate under systematic setup uncertainty. An equivalence with probabilistic optimization was used to identify the scenarios that determine the outcome of the optimization. Results: If the conflict between target coverage and normal tissue sparing is small and no dose-volume histogram (DVH) constraints are present, then all three methods yield robust plans. Otherwise, they all have their shortcomings: Composite worst case led to unnecessarily low plan quality in boundary scenarios that were less difficult than the worst case ones. Objectivewise worst case generally led to nonrobust plans. Voxelwise worst case led to overly conservative plans with respect to DVH constraints, which resulted in excessive dose to normal tissue, and less sharp dose fall-off than the other two methods. Conclusions: The three worst case methods have clearly different behaviors. These behaviors can be understood from which scenarios that are active in the optimization. No particular method is superior to the others under all circumstances: composite worst case is suitable if the conflicts are not very severe or there are DVH constraints whereas

  9. Reliability-Based and Cost-Oriented Product Optimization Integrating Fuzzy Reasoning Petri Nets, Interval Expert Evaluation and Cultural-Based DMOPSO Using Crowding Distance Sorting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoxi Hong

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In reliability-based and cost-oriented product optimization, the target product reliability is apportioned to subsystems or components to achieve the maximum reliability and minimum cost. Main challenges to conducting such optimization design lie in how to simultaneously consider subsystem division, uncertain evaluation provided by experts for essential factors, and dynamic propagation of product failure. To overcome these problems, a reliability-based and cost-oriented product optimization method integrating fuzzy reasoning Petri net (FRPN, interval expert evaluation and cultural-based dynamic multi-objective particle swarm optimization (DMOPSO using crowding distance sorting is proposed in this paper. Subsystem division is performed based on failure decoupling, and then subsystem weights are calculated with FRPN reflecting dynamic and uncertain failure propagation, as well as interval expert evaluation considering six essential factors. A mathematical model of reliability-based and cost-oriented product optimization is established, and the cultural-based DMOPSO with crowding distance sorting is utilized to obtain the optimized design scheme. The efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed method are demonstrated by the numerical example of the optimization design for a computer numerically controlled (CNC machine tool.

  10. Retinal vein occlusion and macular edema – critical evaluation of the clinical value of ranibizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keane PA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pearse A Keane1, Srinivas R Sadda21NIHR Biomedical Research Centre for Ophthalmology, Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust and UCL Institute of Ophthalmology, London, UK; 2Doheny Eye Institute, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USAAbstract: Retinal vein occlusions (RVOs constitute the second most common cause of retinal vascular disease after diabetic retinopathy, with a prevalence of between 1% and 2% in persons older than 40 years of age. Despite the existence of numerous potential therapeutic options, none is entirely satisfactory, and many patients with RVO suffer irreversible visual loss. Fortunately however, the recent introduction of antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF agents, such as ranibizumab (Lucentis®, Genentech, South San Francisco, CA and bevacizumab (Avastin®, Genentech, offers a potentially new treatment approach for clinicians managing this disorder. The results of the BRAVO and CRUISE trials have provided the first definitive evidence for the efficacy and safety of ranibizumab in the treatment of RVO. As a result, ranibizumab has recently been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of RVO-associated macular edema. In this review, we provide a critical evaluation of clinical trial data for the safety and efficacy of ranibizumab, and address unresolved issues in the management of this disorder. Keywords: ranibizumab, retinal vein occlusion, vascular endothelial growth factor, macular edema

  11. A critical evaluation of developmental and reproductive toxicology in nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faqi, Ali S

    2012-02-01

    The nonhuman primates (NHPs) are used in many areas of biomedical research where their similarities to humans make them exclusively valuable animal models. The use of NHPs in pre-clinical testing is expected to increase due to the increase in the development of biological compounds for therapeutic uses. The regulatory agencies around the world including Food and Drug Administration (FDA) generally requires developmental and reproductive toxicity (DART) testing of all new drugs to be used by women of childbearing age or men of reproductive potential. NHPs are most frequently used for DART testing when commonly used rodents and/or rabbits are not pharmacologically relevant species. Animal studies are unique in that assessment of reproduction and development as DART studies are not performed in controlled clinical trials; therefore, pre-clinical safety assessment forms the basis for risk assessment for marketed drug products. This paper provides a critical evaluation of developmental and reproductive toxicity studies in NHPs. The manuscript will focus on species selection, limitation of International Conference for Harmonization stages (A-F) using NHPs as a test system, study designs, logistical/technical challenges, and strength, and limitations. It will also pinpoint confounding factors inherent to the test system that may complicate the interpretation of the NHP DART data.

  12. Evaluation of use of human albumin in critically ill dogs: 73 cases (2003-2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trow, Amy V; Rozanski, Elizabeth A; Delaforcade, Armelle M; Chan, Daniel L

    2008-08-15

    To evaluate the use of human albumin in critically ill dogs. Design-Retrospective case series. 73 client-owned hospitalized dogs. Medical records of dogs that received human albumin were reviewed to assess effects of the use of human albumin on serum albumin concentration, colloid osmotic pressure, and total protein concentration; determine the relationships between these variables and outcome; and assess its safety. Data for signalment, diagnoses, physiologic variables, dosage, amount of crystalloid fluid administered prior to human albumin administration, complications, and outcome were reviewed. Additionally, pre- and postadministration values for serum albumin, colloid osmotic pressure, and total protein were recorded. Administration of human albumin resulted in significant changes in serum albumin, colloid osmotic pressure, and total protein. The serum albumin, total protein, degree of improvement in serum albumin, colloid osmotic pressure, and dosage of human albumin were significantly greater in survivors. Seventeen of 73 (23%) dogs had at least 1 complication that could be potentially associated with the administration of human albumin that occurred during or immediately following administration of human albumin. Three of 73 (4%) dogs had severe delayed complications. Administration of human albumin significantly increased serum albumin, and total protein concentrations and colloid osmotic pressure, especially in survivors. Because of the high mortality rate of the study population and other confounding factors, it was uncertain whether complications were associated with the underlying disease or with human albumin administration. Acute and delayed complications may have been under-recognized.

  13. Critical components of odors in evaluating the performance of food waste composting plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, I-F.; Tsai, C.-J.; Shen, S.-H.; Lin, T.-F.; Chen, W.-K.; Chen, M.-L.

    2006-01-01

    The current Taiwan government policy toward food waste management encourages composting for resource recovery. This study used olfactometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas detector tubes to evaluate the ambient air at three of the largest food waste composting plants in Taiwan. Ambient air inside the plants, at exhaust outlets and plant boundaries was examined to determine the comprehensive odor performance, critical components, and odor elimination efficiencies of various odor control engineering. Analytical results identified 29 compounds, including ammonia, amines, acetic acid, and multiple volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (hydrocarbons, ketones, esters, terpenes and S-compounds) in the odor from food waste composting plants. Concentrations of six components - ammonia, amines, dimethyl sulfide, acetic acid, ethyl benzene and p-Cymene - exceeded human olfactory thresholds. Ammonia, amines, dimethyl sulfide and acetic acid accounted for most odors compared to numerous VOCs. The results also show that the biotrickling filter was better at eliminating the concentrations of odor, NH 3 , amines, S-compounds and VOCs than the chemical scrubber and biofilters. All levels measured by olfactometry at the boundaries of food waste composting plants (range, 74-115 Odor Concentration (OC)) exceeded Taiwan's EPA standard of 50 OC. This study indicated that the malodor problem continued to be a significant problem for food waste recovery

  14. Critical components of odors in evaluating the performance of food waste composting plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, I-F. [Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, No. 155, Sec.2, Li-Nong St., Beitou, Taipei, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: ifmao@ym.edu.tw; Tsai, C.-J. [Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, No. 155, Sec.2, Li-Nong St., Beitou, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Shen, S.-H. [Department of Environment Management, Jin Wen Institute of Technology, No. 99, An-Chung Rd., Hsin-Tien City, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, T.-F. [Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, Ta-Hsueh Rd., Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chen, W.-K. [Department of Environment Management, Jin Wen Institute of Technology, No. 99, An-Chung Rd., Hsin-Tien City, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, M.-L. [Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, No. 155, Sec.2, Li-Nong St., Beitou, Taipei, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: mlchen@ym.edu.tw

    2006-11-01

    The current Taiwan government policy toward food waste management encourages composting for resource recovery. This study used olfactometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas detector tubes to evaluate the ambient air at three of the largest food waste composting plants in Taiwan. Ambient air inside the plants, at exhaust outlets and plant boundaries was examined to determine the comprehensive odor performance, critical components, and odor elimination efficiencies of various odor control engineering. Analytical results identified 29 compounds, including ammonia, amines, acetic acid, and multiple volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (hydrocarbons, ketones, esters, terpenes and S-compounds) in the odor from food waste composting plants. Concentrations of six components - ammonia, amines, dimethyl sulfide, acetic acid, ethyl benzene and p-Cymene - exceeded human olfactory thresholds. Ammonia, amines, dimethyl sulfide and acetic acid accounted for most odors compared to numerous VOCs. The results also show that the biotrickling filter was better at eliminating the concentrations of odor, NH{sub 3}, amines, S-compounds and VOCs than the chemical scrubber and biofilters. All levels measured by olfactometry at the boundaries of food waste composting plants (range, 74-115 Odor Concentration (OC)) exceeded Taiwan's EPA standard of 50 OC. This study indicated that the malodor problem continued to be a significant problem for food waste recovery.

  15. Evaluation of critical thinking application in medical ultrasound practice among sonographers in south-eastern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agwu, K.K.; Ogbu, S.O.I.; Okpara, E.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the application of critical thinking (CT) in medical ultrasound by sonographers in south-eastern Nigeria as a measure of the quality of practice. Methods: A semi-structured questionnaire based on six elements of CT was distributed to 82 sonographers selected through a simple random sampling. The questionnaire investigated the application of the elements of interpretation, analysis, evaluation, inference, explanation and self-regulation involved in CT by medical sonographers. The data for each respondent were categorized into age, experience and the elements of CT. Statistical analyses were done using mean and Spearman's Rank correlation. Results: The overall mean score of the practitioners on all the elements of CT application was 8.65 ± 6.76 against a total of 60. The application of CT did not show any correlation with age or clinical experience using Spearman's Rank correlation (r = -0.017; p > 0.05 and r = -0.086; p > 0.05, respectively). Conclusions: The results show that there is poor application of CT by medical sonographers in the locality which may impact negatively on the outcome of this diagnostic process. Increase in the number of formal training programmes in sonography and inclusion of CT skills in the curriculum are recommended

  16. Book Review: Khine Swe, M. (Ed., Critical Analysis of Science Textbooks: Evaluating instructional effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miha Slapničar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Science educators agree that textbooks play a crucial role in teaching and learning processes (Clement, 2008; Koppal & Caldwell, 2004; consequently, numerous research studies have been conducted in the analysis of science textbooks. In 1941, Graham noted that ‘The textbook is an old instrument in learning and teaching processes’ and traced the origin of the textbook back to the classical Greek era. With the invention of the printing press, textbooks became omnipresent in every school. Since textbooks are being used as a major source of information in teaching a particular subject, the quality and accuracy of the content is crucial for their educational effectiveness. Critical Analysis of Science Textbooks: Evaluating instructional effectiveness includes contributions by authors from various backgrounds, theorists and practitioners. In analysing science textbooks, researchers look into the balance between theoretical and practical knowledge, the portrayal of minorities, women and gender fairness, the treatment of socio-scientific and controversial issues, and the depiction of graphical information, vocabulary load, comprehensibility and readability at the intended level, the representation of indigenous knowledge, the role of textbook questions, and cultural and religious sensibility

  17. Antimicrobial resistance programs in canada 1995-2010: a critical evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conly John M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Canada, systematic efforts for controlling antibiotic resistance began in 1997 following a national Consensus Conference. The Canadian strategy produced 27 recommendations, one of which was the formation of the Canadian Committee on Antibiotic Resistance (CCAR. In addition several other organizations began working on a national or provincial basis over the ensuing years on one or more of the 3 identified core areas of the strategy. Critical evaluation of the major programs within Canada which focused on antimicrobial resistance and the identified core components has not been previously conducted. Findings Data was collected from multiple sources to determine the components of four major AMR programs that were considered national based on their scope or in the delivery of their mandates. Assessment of program components was adapted from the report from the International Forum on Antibiotic Resistance colloquium. Most of the programs used similar tools but only the Do Bugs Need Drugs Program (DBND had components directed towards day cares and schools. Surveillance programs for antimicrobial resistant pathogens have limitations and/or significant sources of bias. Overall, there has been a 25.3% decrease in oral antimicrobial prescriptions in Canada since 1995, mainly due to decreases in β lactams, sulphonamides and tetracyclines in temporal association with multiple programs with the most comprehensive and sustained national programs being CCAR and DBND. Conclusions Although there has been a substantial decrease in oral antimicrobial prescriptions in Canada since 1995, there remains a lack of leadership and co-ordination of antimicrobial resistance activities.

  18. Braking wind in Australia. A critical evaluation of the renewable energy target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentine, Scott

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a critical evaluation of Australia's new Renewable Energy Target (RET) program with respect to its capacity to support wind power development. Four structural flaws associated with the RET which undermine its effectiveness as a catalyst for technological change in the electricity sector are discussed: (1) the inclusion of waste coal mine gas (WCMG) as an eligible fuel source which acts as an indirect coal industry subsidy, (2) program duration which is too short and ill-structured, (3) a multiplier that is well-intended to support small-scale renewable technologies but which creates 'phantom capacity', and (4) the capped target of 45,000 GWh which will stymie long-term wind power market investment. The paper concludes with recommendations which stress the importance of passing effective Carbon Pollution Renewable Scheme (CPRS) legislation to offset the weaknesses associated with the RET. If an effective CPRS cannot be implemented, the paper recommends that amendments be made to the RET to (1) remove WCMG from the list of approved alternative energy sources, and (2) extend the RET targets to reach 120,000 GWh by 2030. (author)

  19. The NIH Cognitive and Emotional Health Project. Report of the Critical Evaluation Study Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrie, Hugh C; Albert, Marilyn S; Butters, Meryl A; Gao, Sujuan; Knopman, David S; Launer, Lenore J; Yaffe, Kristine; Cuthbert, Bruce N; Edwards, Emmeline; Wagster, Molly V

    2006-01-01

    The Cognitive and Emotional Health Project (CEHP) seeks to identify the demographic, social, and biological determinants of cognitive and emotional health in the older adult. As part of the CEHP, a critical evaluation study committee was formed to assess the state of epidemiological research on demographic, social, and biological determinants of cognitive and emotional health. Criteria for inclusion in the survey were large cohort studies, longitudinal in design, participants predominantly 65 years or older, with measurements of both cognition and emotion, and information on a wide variety of demographic, psychosocial, and biological factors. North American and European studies, which met these criteria, were selected for the review. Outcome measures included cognition, cognitive decline, and cognitive function. For emotion, symptoms included depression and anxiety, positive and negative affect, subjective well being, mastery, and resilience. Ninety-six papers were identified that addressed cognitive and emotional outcomes. A large variety of risk factors were consistently identified with cognitive outcomes, particularly those previously associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. There was considerable overlap between risk factors for cognitive and emotional outcomes. This review identifies a large number of lifestyle and health behaviors that alter the risk for maintenance of cognitive and emotional health. Large longitudinal cohort studies are a unique source to explore factors associated with cognitive and emotional health. Secondary analyses of these studies should be encouraged as should the development of standardized questionnaires to measure cognitive and emotional health. Future research in this field should study cognitive and emotional health simultaneously.

  20. Evidence-based Critical Evaluation of Glycemic Potential of Cynodon dactylon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Santosh Kumar; Rai, Prashant Kumar; Jaiswal, Dolly

    2008-01-01

    The present study is an extension of our previous work carried out on Cynodon dactylon. This study deals with the critical evaluation of glycemic potential of ethanolic extract of defatted C. dactylon. The doses of 250, 500 and 750 mg kg−1 bw of the extract were administered orally to normal as well as Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats to study its glycemic potential. The effect of repeated oral administration of the same doses of ethanolic extract was also studied on serum lipid profile of severely diabetic (SD) rats. The dose of 500 mg kg−1 bw was identified as the most effective dose as it lowered the blood glucose levels of normal by 42.12% and of diabetic by 43.42% during fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glucose tolerance test respectively. The SD rats were also treated daily with this identified dose of 500 mg kg−1 bw for 2 weeks and a significant reduction of 56.34% was observed in FBG level. Total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein and triglyceride levels were also decreased by 32.94, 64.06 and 48.46% respectively in SD rats whereas, cardioprotective high density lipoprotein increased by 16.45%. The reduced urine sugar level and increased body weight are additional advantages. These evidences clearly indicate that the ethanolic extract of defatted C. dactylon has high antidiabetic potential along with good hypolipidemic profile. PMID:18955211

  1. A case study evaluation of a Critical Care Information System adoption using the socio-technical and fit approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, Maryati Mohd

    2015-07-01

    Clinical information systems have long been used in intensive care units but reports on their adoption and benefits are limited. This study evaluated a Critical Care Information System implementation. A case study summative evaluation was conducted, employing observation, interview, and document analysis in operating theatres and 16-bed adult intensive care units in a 400-bed Malaysian tertiary referral centre from the perspectives of users (nurses and physicians), management, and information technology staff. System implementation, factors influencing adoption, fit between these factors, and the impact of the Critical Care Information System were evaluated after eight months of operation. Positive influences on system adoption were associated with technical factors, including system ease of use, usefulness, and information relevancy; human factors, particularly user attitude; and organisational factors, namely clinical process-technology alignment and champions. Organisational factors such as planning, project management, training, technology support, turnover rate, clinical workload, and communication were barriers to system implementation and use. Recommendations to improve the current system problems were discussed. Most nursing staff positively perceived the system's reduction of documentation and data access time, giving them more time with patients. System acceptance varied among doctors. System use also had positive impacts on timesaving, data quality, and clinical workflow. Critical Care Information Systems is crucial and has great potentials in enhancing and delivering critical care. However, the case study findings showed that the system faced complex challenges and was underutilised despite its potential. The role of socio-technical factors and their fit in realizing the potential of Critical Care Information Systems requires continuous, in-depth evaluation and stakeholder understanding and acknowledgement. The comprehensive and specific evaluation

  2. Critical thinking as an educational outcome: an evaluation of current tools of measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, M H; Whitlow, J F; Stover, L M; Johnson, K W

    1996-01-01

    Critical thinking, an outcome criterion of the National League for Nursing and the Council of Baccalaureate and Higher Degree Programs, is an abstract skill difficult to measure. The authors provide a comprehensive review of four instruments designed to measure critical thinking and summarize research in which the tools were used. Analysis of this information will empower nursing faculty members to select a critical-thinking instrument that is individualized to the needs of their respective nursing programs.

  3. Defeasibility in Legal Reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    SARTOR, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    I shall first introduce the idea of reasoning, and of defeasible reasoning in particular. I shall then argue that cognitive agents need to engage in defeasible reasoning for coping with a complex and changing environment. Consequently, defeasibility is needed in practical reasoning, and in particular in legal reasoning

  4. Two kinds of reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rips, L J

    2001-03-01

    According to one view of reasoning, people can evaluate arguments in at least two qualitatively different ways: in terms of their deductive correctness and in terms of their inductive strength. According to a second view, assessments of both correctness and strength are a function of an argument's position on a single psychological continuum (e.g., subjective conditional probability). A deductively correct argument is one with the maximum value on this continuum; a strong argument is one with a high value. The present experiment tested these theories by asking participants to evaluate the same set of arguments for correctness and strength. The results produced an interaction between type of argument and instructions: In some conditions, participants judged one argument deductively correct more often than a second, but judged the second argument inductively strong more often than the first. This finding supports the view that people have distinct ways to evaluate arguments.

  5. NOISE AS AN INDIRECT CRITERION FOR EVALUATING THE CRITICAL SPEED OF VEHICLE TIRE AT HYDROPLANING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Karpenko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An alternative method for determining the critical rolling speed of automobile tires with various tread patterns during hydroplaning is considered. The critical speed of the car at which the hydroplaning process takes place is determined. This method is based on recording the tire noise emission when driving on a wet road pavement.

  6. Evaluation of coverage of enriched UF6 cylinder storage lots by existing criticality accident alarms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B.L. Jr.; Dobelbower, M.C.; Woollard, J.E.; Sutherland, P.J.; Tayloe, R.W. Jr.

    1995-03-01

    The Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) is leased from the US Department of Energy (DOE) by the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC), a government corporation formed in 1993. PORTS is in transition from regulation by DOE to regulation by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). One regulation is 10 CFR Part 76.89, which requires that criticality alarm systems be provided for the site. PORTS originally installed criticality accident alarm systems in all building for which nuclear criticality accidents were credible. Currently, however, alarm systems are not installed in the enriched uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) cylinder storage lots. This report analyzes and documents the extent to which enriched UF 6 cylinder storage lots at PORTS are covered by criticality detectors and alarms currently installed in adjacent buildings. Monte Carlo calculations are performed on simplified models of the cylinder storage lots and adjacent buildings. The storage lots modelled are X-745B, X-745C, X745D, X-745E, and X-745F. The criticality detectors modelled are located in building X-343, the building X-344A/X-342A complex, and portions of building X-330 (see Figures 1 and 2). These criticality detectors are those located closest to the cylinder storage lots. Results of this analysis indicate that the existing criticality detectors currently installed at PORTS are largely ineffective in detecting neutron radiation from criticality accidents in most of the cylinder storage lots at PORTS, except sometimes along portions of their peripheries

  7. Critical path method applied to research project planning: Fire Economics Evaluation System (FEES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl B. Anderson; R. Stanton Hales

    1986-01-01

    The critical path method (CPM) of network analysis (a) depicts precedence among the many activities in a project by a network diagram; (b) identifies critical activities by calculating their starting, finishing, and float times; and (c) displays possible schedules by constructing time charts. CPM was applied to the development of the Forest Service's Fire...

  8. Technical review of WSRC-TR-93-614 criticality safety evaluation for disassembly basin sand filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    The study documented in WSRC-TR-93-614 performed an evaluation of the criticality potential associated with the Disassembly Basin Sand Filter for K and L Areas. The document reviewed incorporated results of calculations documented in the engineering calculation N-CLC-K-00151. Analyses of the contents of disassembly basin sludge has indicated that the sludge contains fissile material in excess of subcritical mass limits as specified in ANSI/ANS standards. Previous studies had determined that the fissile material can not collect into a critical configuration in the basin. Since the sand filter is intended to remove suspended particles from the basin water and could serve as a mechanism to collect the fissile material into a critical configuration, the study examined conditions under which criticality could occur in the sand filter. The study shows that criticality is not considered possible in the sand filter. This review emphasized the technical accuracy and presentation of the evaluation. The evaluation was also examined for the elements required for NCSEs. The review was performed in accordance with the NRTSC technical review requirements and procedures and the E7 Manual technical review requirements. The technical review (per the E7 manual) of the engineering calculation (N-CLC-K-0 1 5 1) was previously performed by this reviewer

  9. A critical evaluation of the validity of episodic future thinking: A clinical neuropsychology perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Amanda M

    2016-11-01

    Episodic future thinking is defined as the ability to mentally simulate a future event. Although episodic future thinking has been studied extensively in neuroscience, this construct has not been explored in depth from the perspective of clinical neuropsychology. The aim of this critical narrative review is to assess the validity and clinical implications of episodic future thinking. A systematic review of episodic future thinking literature was conducted. PubMed and PsycInfo were searched through July 2015 for review and empirical articles with the following search terms: "episodic future thinking," "future mental simulation," "imagining the future," "imagining new experiences," "future mental time travel," "future autobiographical experience," and "prospection." The review discusses evidence that episodic future thinking is important for adaptive functioning, which has implications for neurological populations. To determine the validity of episodic future thinking, the construct is evaluated with respect to related constructs, such as imagination, episodic memory, autobiographical memory, prospective memory, narrative construction, and working memory. Although it has been minimally investigated, there is evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for episodic future thinking. Research has not addressed the incremental validity of episodic future thinking. Practical considerations of episodic future thinking tasks and related constructs in a clinical neuropsychological setting are considered. The utility of episodic future thinking is currently unknown due to the lack of research investigating the validity of episodic future thinking. Future work is discussed, which could determine whether episodic future thinking is an important missing piece in standard clinical neuropsychological assessment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Critical evaluation of emergency stockpile ventilators in an in vitro model of pediatric lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Jason W; Watson, Christopher M; Dwyer, Joe; Kaczka, David W; Simon, Brett A; Easley, R Blaine

    2011-11-01

    Modern health care systems may be inadequately prepared for mass casualty respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. Current health policy has focused on the "stockpiling" of emergency ventilators, though little is known about the performance of these ventilators under conditions of respiratory failure in adults and children. In this study, we seek to compare emergency ventilator performance characteristics using a test lung simulating pediatric lung injury. Evaluation of ventilator performance using a test lung. Laboratory. None. Six transport/emergency ventilators capable of adult/child application were chosen on the basis of manufacturer specifications, Autovent 3000, Eagle Univent 754, EPV 100, LP-10, LTV 1200, and Parapac 200D. Manufacturer specifications for each ventilator were reviewed and compared with known standards for alarms and functionality for surge capacity ventilators. The delivered tidal volume, gas flow characteristics, and airway pressure waveforms were evaluated in vitro using a mechanical test lung to model pediatric lung injury and integrated software. Test lung and flow meter recordings were analyzed over a range of ventilator settings. Of the six ventilators assessed, only two had the minimum recommended alarm capability. Four of the six ventilators tested were capable of being set to deliver a tidal volume of less than 200 mL. The delivered tidal volume for all ventilators was within 8% of the nominal setting at a positive end expiratory pressure of zero but was reduced significantly with the addition of positive end expiratory pressure (range, ±10% to 30%; p ventilators tested performed comparably at higher set tidal volumes; however, only three of the ventilators tested delivered a tidal volume across the range of ventilator settings that was comparable to that of a standard intensive care unit ventilator. Multiple ventilators are available for the provision of ventilation to children with respiratory failure in a mass

  11. A critical evaluation of the validity and the reliability of global competency constructs for supervisor assessment of junior medical trainees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGill, D.A.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Clarke, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Supervisor assessments are critical for both formative and summative assessment in the workplace. Supervisor ratings remain an important source of such assessment in many educational jurisdictions even though there is ambiguity about their validity and reliability. The aims of this evaluation is to

  12. Evaluation of the 2006 and 2015 Turkish Education Program in Secondary School Curriculum in Turkey in Terms of Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aytan, Talat

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the primary school second stage Turkish Education Curriculum effectuated in 2006 and the secondary school Turkish Education Curriculum effectuated in 2015 comparatively in terms of critical thinking. Of qualitative research designs, document analysis approach and content analysis were adopted for the…

  13. Measurement of Responsibility: A Critical Evaluation of Level of Work Measurement by Time-Span of Discretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laner, S.; And Others

    This report is a critical evaluation based on extended field trials and theoretical analysis of the time-span technique of measuring level of work in organizational hierarchies. It is broadly concluded that the technique does possess many of the desirable features claimed by its originator, but that earlier, less highly structured versions based…

  14. Sensitizing Reasons by Emulating Exemplars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunimasa Sato

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The fostering of rationality has long been endorsed as an educational ideal by some philosophers; in recent years, whereas some have argued for this ideal, others have challenged it, particularly within debates relevant to the study of critical thinking. Harvey Siegel, who has spelled out the philosophical theory of educating for rationality, not only has defended his view from such challenges but also has been deepening his thoughts regarding how rationality can be fostered. This paper centers on the cultivating of sensitivity to reasons in the fostering of rationality by critically examining and extending Siegel’s arguments concerning the notion of what he calls “felt reasons.” By clarifying the notion of felt reasons, I will argue for two ideas: first, teachers, parents, and fictional characters in media such as novels and films can be seen as exemplars that manifest rationality; second, the emotion of admiring exemplars may act as a motivating force for children—including small children who are still not sensitive to reasons and thus are not moved by reasons—to be critical thinkers.

  15. A critical evaluation of the local-equilibrium assumption in modeling NAPL-pool dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seagren, Eric A.; Rittmann, Bruce E.; Valocchi, Albert J.

    1999-07-01

    of the contaminant source strength from mass exchange processes at the petroleum-ground-water interface in shallow aquifer systems. In: Proceedings of the NWWA/API Conference on Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Organic Chemicals in Ground Water—Prevention, Detection, and Restoration, Houston, TX. Natl. Water Well Assoc., Worthington, OH, Nov. 1984, pp. 111-129.]. The results of the modeling analyses were evaluated by comparing pool dissolution fluxes from the literature to each other and to the corresponding LE and NE model predictions. The LE model described most of the pool dissolution flux data reasonably well, given the uncertainty in some of the model parameter estimates, suggesting that the LE model can be a useful tool for describing steady-state NAPL pool dissolution under some conditions. However, a conclusive test of the LE assumption was difficult due to the limited range of experimental conditions covered and the uncertainties in some of the model input parameters, including the mass-transfer coefficient correlation required for the NE model.

  16. Evaluation of re-criticality potential in Fukushima Dai-ichi reactors following core damage accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The re-criticality potential of the debris-bed, formed of the degraded core materials, cannot be ruled out during the cooling-down procedure of the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPPs. In this study the re-criticality potential has systematically investigated based on the core disruption phase analysis using a IMPACT-SAMPSON code prepared by The Institute of Applied Energy (IAE). The results obtained for the re-criticality potential, characterized by the eigen-values k-eff dependent on the debris composition formed at the core, RPV bottom, and PCV pedestal, are reflected to the arguments on the re-criticality prevention measures, such as timing and concentration of boron-compounds, during the cooling-down process of the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPPs. (author)

  17. Criticality safety evaluation report for MKIA fuel pertaining to consolidating fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwinkendorf, K.N.

    1994-10-01

    Irradiated fuel criticality calculations are performed for MKIA fuel, 1.25 wt% 235 U, and 1.15 wt% 235 U fuel pieces and solutions. Comparisons are made between WIMS and MCNP. WIMS and MCNP calculations are documented

  18. Criticality evaluations with moderators other than water for uranium metal fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toffer, H.; Tollefson, D.A.; Finfrock, S.H.

    1986-01-01

    Occasionally, nuclear criticality safety analyses of fissile material handling operations or transport situations require consideration of moderation other than water. Such moderators could be oils, plastics, wood, concrete, carbon, or even wet sand. All of these materials contain either hydrogen, carbon, or mixtures of the two elements as the principal moderators. Other elements as part of the compounds or mixtures contribute less to the neutron slowing down process and can possibly be significant parasitic neutron absorbers. Results of a series of calculations are presented illustrating the impact of various moderators on critical masses or critical parameters as a function of lattice pitch for different uranium metal fuel elements at low 235 U enrichments. Several nuclear criticality safety analyses performed at the Hanford N Reactor, operated by UNC Nuclear Industries for the US Department of Energy, have considered alternative moderators to assure that water moderation represented the most limiting case

  19. Analyzing social policy: multiple perspectives for critically understanding and evaluating policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Connor, Mary Katherine; Netting, F. Ellen

    2011-01-01

    "This unique volume outlines the different frameworks of policy analysis and explains how readers can use research and critical thinking skills to understand the different models from their formation...

  20. Assessment of criticality safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, R.C.; Heaberlin, S.W.; Clayton, E.D.; Carter, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    A study was made of 100 violations of criticality safety specifications reported over a 10-y period in the operations of fuel reprocessing plants. The seriousness of each rule violation was evaluated by assigning it a severity index value. The underlying causes or reasons, for the violations were identified. A criticality event tree was constructed using the parameters, causes, and reasons found in the analysis of the infractions. The event tree provides a means for visualizing the paths to an accidental criticality. Some 65% of the violations were caused by misinterpretation on the part of the operator, being attributed to a lack of clarity in the specification and insufficient training; 33% were attributed to lack of care, whereas only 2% were caused by mechanical failure. A fault tree was constructed by assembling the events that could contribute to an accident. With suitable data on the probabilities of contributing events, the probability of the accident's occurrence can be forecast. Estimated probabilities for criticality were made, based on the limited data available, that in this case indicate a minimum time span of 244 y of plant operation per accident ranging up to approx. 3000 y subject to the various underlying assumptions made. Some general suggestions for improvement are formulated based on the cases studied. Although conclusions for other plants may differ in detail, the general method of analysis and the fault tree logic should prove applicable. 4 figures, 8 tables

  1. Theoretical Derivation of Simplified Evaluation Models for the First Peak of a Criticality Accident in Nuclear Fuel Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Yasushi

    2000-01-01

    In a reprocessing facility where nuclear fuel solutions are processed, one could observe a series of power peaks, with the highest peak right after a criticality accident. The criticality alarm system (CAS) is designed to detect the first power peak and warn workers near the reacting material by sounding alarms immediately. Consequently, exposure of the workers would be minimized by an immediate and effective evacuation. Therefore, in the design and installation of a CAS, it is necessary to estimate the magnitude of the first power peak and to set up the threshold point where the CAS initiates the alarm. Furthermore, it is necessary to estimate the level of potential exposure of workers in the case of accidents so as to decide the appropriateness of installing a CAS for a given compartment.A simplified evaluation model to estimate the minimum scale of the first power peak during a criticality accident is derived by theoretical considerations only for use in the design of a CAS to set up the threshold point triggering the alarm signal. Another simplified evaluation model is derived in the same way to estimate the maximum scale of the first power peak for use in judging the appropriateness for installing a CAS. Both models are shown to have adequate margin in predicting the minimum and maximum scale of criticality accidents by comparing their results with French CRiticality occurring ACcidentally (CRAC) experimental data

  2. Darwin's "strange inversion of reasoning".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennett, Daniel

    2009-06-16

    Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection unifies the world of physics with the world of meaning and purpose by proposing a deeply counterintuitive "inversion of reasoning" (according to a 19th century critic): "to make a perfect and beautiful machine, it is not requisite to know how to make it" [MacKenzie RB (1868) (Nisbet & Co., London)]. Turing proposed a similar inversion: to be a perfect and beautiful computing machine, it is not requisite to know what arithmetic is. Together, these ideas help to explain how we human intelligences came to be able to discern the reasons for all of the adaptations of life, including our own.

  3. Critical thinking in nurse managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zori, Susan; Morrison, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Formal education and support is needed for nurse managers to effectively function in their role in the current health care environment. Many nurse managers assume their positions based on expertise in a clinical role with little expertise in managerial and leadership skills. Operating as a manager and leader requires ongoing development of critical thinking skills and the inclination to use those skills. Critical thinking can have a powerful influence on the decision making and problem solving that nurse managers are faced with on a daily basis. The skills that typify critical thinking include analysis, evaluation, inference, and deductive and inductive reasoning. It is intuitive that nurse managers require both the skills and the dispositions of critical thinking to be successful in this pivotal role at a time of transformation in health care. Incorporating critical thinking into education and support programs for the nurse manager is necessary to position the nurse manager for success.

  4. Continued Evaluation of the Pulse-Echo Ultrasonic Instrument for Critical Velocity Determination during Hanford Tank Waste Transfer Operations - 12518

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denslow, Kayte M.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Adkins, Harold E.; Jenks, Jeromy W.J.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Hopkins, Derek F. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States); Thien, Michael G.; Wooley, Theodore A. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The delivery of Hanford double-shell tank waste to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will be governed by specific Waste Acceptance Criteria that are identified in ICD 19 - Interface Control Document for Waste Feed. Waste must be certified as acceptable before it can be delivered to the WTP. The fluid transfer velocity at which solid particulate deposition occurs in waste slurry transport piping (critical velocity) is a key waste parameter that must be accurately characterized to determine if the waste is acceptable for transfer to the WTP. In 2010 Washington River Protection Solutions and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory began evaluating the ultrasonic PulseEcho instrument to accurately identify critical velocities in a horizontal slurry transport pipeline for slurries containing particles with a mean particle diameter of >50 micrometers. In 2011 the PulseEcho instrument was further evaluated to identify critical velocities for slurries containing fast-settling, high-density particles with a mean particle diameter of <15 micrometers. This two-year evaluation has demonstrated the ability of the ultrasonic PulseEcho instrument to detect the onset of critical velocity for a broad range of physical and rheological slurry properties that are likely encountered during the waste feed transfer operations between the Hanford tank farms and the WTP. (authors)

  5. An evaluation method of critical velocity for self-excited vibration of cross-shaped tube bundle in cross flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inada, Fumio; Nishihara, Takashi; Yasuo, Akira; Morita, Ryo

    2002-01-01

    The applicability of the cross-shaped tube bundle as a lower plenum component of pressure vessel is examined to develop a next generation LWR in Japanese electric utilities. The flow-induced vibration characteristics are not understood well. Methods to evaluate turbulence induced vibration and vortex induced vibration were proposed by CRIEPI. In this study, vibration response is obtained experimentally to propose a method to evaluate self-excited vibration of cross-shaped tube bundle. The self-excited vibration was found to be generated when nondimensional flow velocity was above a critical value. The nondimensional critical velocity of normal configuration is 15% smaller than that of staggered configuration, which means that the nondimensional critical velocity of normal configuration can give conservative evaluation. The result of Reynolds number Re=6.2 x 10 4 agrees well with that of Re=6.8 x 10 5 , in which region, the effect of Reynolds number on the critical velocity is small. (author)

  6. Performance Evaluation and Analysis of Critical Interface Features of the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freudenberg, Kevin D.; Litherland, P. Steve; Cole, Michael J.; Williamson, David E.; Goranson, Paul L.; Nelson, Brad E.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Myatt, R.

    2009-01-01

    The (18) modular coils for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) are joined at assembly by interfaces to form a toroidal shell which serves as the structural backbone of the device. There are six each of three coil types (A, B, and C); consequently, there are 4 distinct interface designs (A-A, A-B, B-C, C-C). This paper describes the performance evaluations and analyses used in the development of these critical interfaces. Initial analyses indicated that the baseline interface designs did not provide adequate shear capability along the inner (unbolted) legs between the modular coils and did not adequately address assembly tolerance requirements. Consequently a design effort was undertaken to develop interfaces with adequate shear capability and which would facilitate the achievement of assembly tolerances. Analyses indicated that a friction coefficient of 0.3 is necessary for 'no-slip' joints with a preload value of ∼320 kN in the outboard regions. Two types of compatible segmented friction shims were developed to meet the friction requirement. One type uses alumina coated stainless steel shims and the other uses G-10/ stainless steel/ G-10 'sandwich shims.' Analyses indicated that the time constant requirements for induced currents in the shell could still be achieved with welds along all the inner (unbolted) legs except at the C-C interface. Consequently, welded interfaces utilizing alternating MIG fillet welds on each end of shims between coil castings were developed to react the shear loads. This configuration minimizes distortion since it avoids direct weld shrinkage stress across the interfaces. Analyses indicates that a 12.7 mm fillet weld has adequate shear capability, with average stress through the welds of 90-125 MPa, compared to a static limit of 217 MPa. Custom sized compression pucks located in the middle of the welded shims react the compressive loads and have average stresses less than 137 MPa. Fatigue acceptability of the welded

  7. Critical evaluation of contemporary management in a new Pelvic Exenteration Unit: The first 25 consecutive cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Min Hoe; Yeh, Yu-Ting; Toh, Ee-Lin; Sumarli, Stephen Aditya; Chew, Ghee Kheng; Lee, Lui Shiong; Tan, Mann Hong; Hennedige, Tiffany Priyanthi; Ng, Shin Yi; Lee, Say Kiat; Chong, Tze Tec; Abdullah, Hairil Rizal; Goh, Terence Lin Hon; Rasheed, Mohamed Zulfikar; Tan, Kok Chai; Tang, Choong Leong

    2017-05-15

    To critically appraise short-term outcomes in patients treated in a new Pelvic Exenteration (PE) Unit. This retrospective observational study was conducted by analysing prospectively collected data for the first 25 patients (16 males, 9 females) who underwent PE for advanced pelvic tumours in our PE Unit between January 2012 and October 2016. Data evaluated included age, co-morbidities, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) status, preoperative adjuvant treatment, intra-operative blood loss, procedural duration, perioperative adverse event, lengths of intensive care unit (ICU) stay and hospital stay, and oncological outcome. Quantitative data were summarized as percentage or median and range, and statistically assessed by the χ 2 test or Fisher's exact test, as applicable. All 25 patients received comprehensive preoperative assessment via our dedicated multidisciplinary team approach. Long-course neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy was provided, if indicated. The median age of the patients was 61.9-year-old. The median ASA and ECOG scores were 2 and 0, respectively. The indications for PE were locally invasive rectal adenocarcinoma ( n = 13), advanced colonic adenocarcinoma ( n = 5), recurrent cervical carcinoma ( n = 3) and malignant sacral chordoma ( n = 3). The procedures comprised 10 total PEs, 4 anterior PEs, 7 posterior PEs and 4 isolated lateral PEs. The median follow-up period was 17.6 mo. The median operative time was 11.5 h. The median volume of blood loss was 3306 mL, and the median volume of red cell transfusion was 1475 mL. The median lengths of ICU stay and of hospital stay were 1 d and 21 d, respectively. There was no case of mortality related to surgery. There were a total of 20 surgical morbidities, which occurred in 12 patients. The majority of the complications were grade 2 Clavien-Dindo. Only 2 patients experienced grade 3 Clavien-Dindo complications, and both required procedural interventions

  8. Geomorfological Study on the Evaluation of Critical Land in Cepogo, Boyolali, Central Java Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taryono Taryono

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Land is natural resources within processing needs to the wise action in order to give good returns for human and being prevented it’s conservation. In the utility of it’s land this land is proper to the agriculture land have sometime emergedthe environment problems, namely the balance of nature is disturbed. It doesn’t mean that land is forbidden to use, but in the it’s utility purposes this land must be considered it’s capability or it’s balance. If form and manner of using this land doesn’t disturb the natural balance, it means to be guaranted. In the countrary, if form and remain to be guaranted. In the contrary, if form and manner of  using this land disregard with it’s capability, then the natural balance is disturbed, the land is called asland within dangerous condition or critical land. The coresponding  problem that arises in Kecamatan Cepogo under Boyolali district on the surface level land and southern land resembles the critical land that the most erosion appearance can be found assuch sheet erosion, gully erosion, erosion in the other side, vallage forest, settlement land. Mixing estate and the infertile land. This recent exploration purpose is to understand physical factor that affects the critical land as well as to collect and to clarity the critical land. The used method is survey and laboratory analysis by land unit approach ascartography unit. The adopted data of this research is used the effectively width of soil, texture, soil permeability, soil slope, and soil appearance. From this research is understood that the explorated land has three critical land levels, namely; the medium critical land level is 4411,09 are or 17,48%, the wight critical soil level is 7909,74 are or 12,86% of the whole exploration area wide.

  9. Evaluating the impact of method bias in health behaviour research: a meta-analytic examination of studies utilising the theories of reasoned action and planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Máirtín S; Sharma, Rajeev

    2017-12-01

    The methods employed to measure behaviour in research testing the theories of reasoned action/planned behaviour (TRA/TPB) within the context of health behaviours have the potential to significantly bias findings. One bias yet to be examined in that literature is that due to common method variance (CMV). CMV introduces a variance in scores attributable to the method used to measure a construct, rather than the construct it represents. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of method bias on the associations of health behaviours with TRA/TPB variables. Data were sourced from four meta-analyses (177 studies). The method used to measure behaviour for each effect size was coded for susceptibility to bias. The moderating impact of method type was assessed using meta-regression. Method type significantly moderated the associations of intentions, attitudes and social norms with behaviour, but not that between perceived behavioural control and behaviour. The magnitude of the moderating effect of method type appeared consistent between cross-sectional and prospective studies, but varied across behaviours. The current findings strongly suggest that method bias significantly inflates associations in TRA/TPB research, and poses a potentially serious validity threat to the cumulative findings reported in that field.

  10. Stereotypical Reasoning: Logical Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Stereotypical reasoning assumes that the situation at hand is one of a kind and that it enjoys the properties generally associated with that kind of situation. It is one of the most basic forms of nonmonotonic reasoning. A formal model for stereotypical reasoning is proposed and the logical properties of this form of reasoning are studied. Stereotypical reasoning is shown to be cumulative under weak assumptions.

  11. A Novel Method of Evaluating Key Factors for Success in a Multifaceted Critical Care Fellowship Using Data Envelopment Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Vikram; Kumar, Avinash B

    2018-01-01

    The current system of summative multi-rater evaluations and standardized tests to determine readiness to graduate from critical care fellowships has limitations. We sought to pilot the use of data envelopment analysis (DEA) to assess what aspects of the fellowship program contribute the most to an individual fellow's success. DEA is a nonparametric, operations research technique that uses linear programming to determine the technical efficiency of an entity based on its relative usage of resources in producing the outcome. Retrospective cohort study. Critical care fellows (n = 15) in an Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) accredited fellowship at a major academic medical center in the United States. After obtaining institutional review board approval for this retrospective study, we analyzed the data of 15 anesthesiology critical care fellows from academic years 2013-2015. The input-oriented DEA model develops a composite score for each fellow based on multiple inputs and outputs. The inputs included the didactic sessions attended, the ratio of clinical duty works hours to the procedures performed (work intensity index), and the outputs were the Multidisciplinary Critical Care Knowledge Assessment Program (MCCKAP) score and summative evaluations of fellows. A DEA efficiency score that ranged from 0 to 1 was generated for each of the fellows. Five fellows were rated as DEA efficient, and 10 fellows were characterized in the DEA inefficient group. The model was able to forecast the level of effort needed for each inefficient fellow, to achieve similar outputs as their best performing peers. The model also identified the work intensity index as the key element that characterized the best performers in our fellowship. DEA is a feasible method of objectively evaluating peer performance in a critical care fellowship beyond summative evaluations alone and can potentially be a powerful tool to guide individual performance during the fellowship.

  12. Critical appraisal of scientific articles: part 1 of a series on evaluation of scientific publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Prel, Jean-Baptist; Röhrig, Bernd; Blettner, Maria

    2009-02-01

    In the era of evidence-based medicine, one of the most important skills a physician needs is the ability to analyze scientific literature critically. This is necessary to keep medical knowledge up to date and to ensure optimal patient care. The aim of this paper is to present an accessible introduction into critical appraisal of scientific articles. Using a selection of international literature, the reader is introduced to the principles of critical reading of scientific articles in medicine. For the sake of conciseness, detailed description of statistical methods is omitted. Widely accepted principles for critically appraising scientific articles are outlined. Basic knowledge of study design, structuring of an article, the role of different sections, of statistical presentations as well as sources of error and limitation are presented. The reader does not require extensive methodological knowledge. As far as necessary for critical appraisal of scientific articles, differences in research areas like epidemiology, clinical, and basic research are outlined. Further useful references are presented. Basic methodological knowledge is required to select and interpret scientific articles correctly.

  13. Assessing Probabilistic Reasoning in Verbal-Numerical and Graphical-Pictorial Formats: An Evaluation of the Psychometric Properties of an Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agus, Mirian; Penna, Maria Pietronilla; Peró-Cebollero, Maribel; Guàrdia-Olmos, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Research on the graphical facilitation of probabilistic reasoning has been characterised by the effort expended to identify valid assessment tools. The authors developed an assessment instrument to compare reasoning performances when problems were presented in verbal-numerical and graphical-pictorial formats. A sample of undergraduate psychology…

  14. Improving practical reasoning and argumentation

    OpenAIRE

    Baumtrog, Michael David

    2015-01-01

    This thesis justifies the need for and develops a new integrated model of practical reasoning and argumentation. After framing the work in terms of what is reasonable rather than what is rational (chapter 1), I apply the model for practical argumentation analysis and evaluation provided by Fairclough and Fairclough (2012) to a paradigm case of unreasonable individual practical argumentation provided by mass murderer Anders Behring Breivik (chapter 2). The application shows that by following t...

  15. The Snapping Elbow Syndrome as a Reason for Chronic Elbow Neuralgia in a Tennis Player – MR, US and Sonoelastography Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Łasecki, Mateusz; Olchowy, Cyprian; Pawluś, Aleksander; Zaleska-Dorobisz, Urszula

    2014-01-01

    Ulnar neuropathy is the second most common peripheral nerve neuropathy after median neuropathy, with an incidence of 25 cases per 100 000 men and 19 cases per 100 000 women each year. Skipping (snapping) elbow syndrome is an uncommon cause of pain in the posterior-medial elbow area, sometimes complicated by injury of the ulnar nerve. One of the reason is the dislocation of the abnormal insertion of the medial triceps head over the medial epicondyle during flexion and extension movements. Others are: lack of the Osboune fascia leading to ulnar nerve instability and focal soft tissue tumors (fibromas, lipomas, etc). Recurrent subluxation of the nerve at the elbow results in a tractional and frictional neuritis with classical symptoms of peripheral neuralgia. As far as we know snapping triceps syndrome had never been evaluated in sonoelastography. A 28yo semi-professional left handed tennis player was complaining about pain in posterior-medial elbow area. Initial US examination suggest golfers elbow syndrome which occurs quite commonly and has a prevalence of 0.3–0.6% in males and 0–3–1.1% in women and may be associated (approx. 50% of cases) with ulnar neuropathy. However subsequently made MRI revealed unusual distal triceps anatomy, moderate ulnar nerve swelling and lack of medial epicondylitis symptoms. Followed (second) US examination and sonoelastography have detected slipping of the both ulnar nerve and the additional band of the medial triceps head. Snapping elbow syndrome is a poorly known medical condition, sometimes misdiagnosed as the medial epicondylitis. It describes a broad range of pathologies and anatomical abnormalities. One of the most often reasons is the slipping of the ulnar nerve as the result of the Osborne fascia/anconeus epitrochlearis muscle absence. Simultaneously presence of two or more “snapping reasons” is rare but should be always taken under consideration. There are no sonoelastography studies describing golfers elbow syndrome

  16. Evaluations of the CCFL and critical flow models in TRACE for PWR LBLOCA analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jung-Hua; Lin, Hao Tzu [National Tsing Hua Univ., HsinChu, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Engineering and System Science; Wang, Jong-Rong [Atomic Energy Council, Taoyuan County, Taiwan (China). Inst. of Nuclear Energy Research; Shih, Chunkuan [National Tsing Hua Univ., HsinChu, Taiwan (China). Inst. of Nuclear Engineering and Science

    2012-12-15

    This study aims to develop the Maanshan Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) analysis model by using the TRACE (TRAC/RELAP Advanced Computational Engine) code. By analyzing the Large Break Loss of Coolant Accident (LBLOCA) sequence, the results are compared with the Maanshan Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) data. The critical flow and Counter Current Flow Limitation (CCFL) play an important role in the overall performance of TRACE LBLOCA prediction. Therefore, the sensitivity study on the discharge coefficients of critical flow model and CCFL modeling among different regions are also discussed. The current conclusions show that modeling CCFL in downcomer has more significant impact on the peak cladding temperature than modeling CCFL in hot-legs does. No CCFL phenomena occurred in the pressurizer surge line. The best value for the multipliers of critical flow model would be 0.5 and the TRACE could consistently predict the break flow rate in the LBLOCA analysis as shown in FSAR. (orig.)

  17. A Market Model for Evaluating Technologies That Impact Critical-Material Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Ananth V.; Vedantam, Aditya

    2016-07-01

    A recent Critical Materials Strategy report highlighted the supply chain risk associated with neodymium and dysprosium, which are used in the manufacturing of neodymium-iron-boron permanent magnets (PM). In response, the Critical Materials Institute is developing innovative strategies to increase and diversify primary production, develop substitutes, reduce material intensity and recycle critical materials. Our goal in this paper is to propose an economic model to quantify the impact of one of these strategies, material intensity reduction. Technologies that reduce material intensity impact the economics of magnet manufacturing in multiple ways because of: (1) the lower quantity of critical material required per unit PM, (2) more efficient use of limited supply, and (3) the potential impact on manufacturing cost. However, the net benefit of these technologies to a magnet manufacturer is an outcome of an internal production decision subject to market demand characteristics, availability and resource constraints. Our contribution in this paper shows how a manufacturer's production economics moves from a region of being supply-constrained, to a region enabling the market optimal production quantity, to a region being constrained by resources other than critical materials, as the critical material intensity changes. Key insights for engineers and material scientists are: (1) material intensity reduction can have a significant market impact, (2) benefits to manufacturers are non-linear in the material intensity reduction, (3) there exists a threshold value for material intensity reduction that can be calculated for any target PM application, and (4) there is value for new intellectual property (IP) when existing manufacturing technology is IP-protected.

  18. Study on burnup credit evaluation method at JAERI towards securing criticality safety rationale for management of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Y.

    1998-01-01

    Lately, due to massive accumulation of spent fuel discharged from light water reactors in Japan, it is gradually demanded to introduce the so-called burnup credit methodology into criticality safety design for nuclear fuel cycle facilities, such as spent fuel storage pools and transport casks. In order to save space in the spent fuel storage pool of the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant, the burnup credit design has been firstly implemented for its criticality safety evaluation. Here, its design conditions and operational control procedures are briefly shown and research using burned fuel at JAERI is explained to support its licensing safety review, focusing on the relevant content of the Nuclear Criticality Safety Handbook of Japan, which has been prepared so far and planned in the near future. Finally, international co-operation for study on burnup credit issues practiced by JAERI is addressed. (author)

  19. Analysis and evaluation of the nuclear criticality accident in JCO CO. LTD in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hua; Liu Xinhua; Li Bing

    2001-01-01

    The author describes JCO criticality accident situation including the background, process chronology and emergency countermeasures taken of the accident and its radiation consequence. The analysis about the direct and root causes of the accident and some conclusions are also showed. The direct cause of the accident is the use of geometrically unsafe process equipment and personnel violation. However, the root cause is lack of efficient technical management. Therefore, it is necessary to emphasize the criticality safety in nuclear fuel cycle installations and enhance safety culture of regulatory and operational personnel

  20. Effect of mixing state on criticality safety evaluation in MOX powder and additive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Miyoshi, Yoshinori

    2005-01-01

    Criticality safety analyses are discussed in which MOX powder and additive (e.g. zinc-stearate) are mixed in a powder treatment process of MOX fuel fabrication. The multiplication factor k eff is largely affected by how they are mixed, i.e., how the density and volume change with the mixing. In general, k eff increases when MOX powder is mixed with zinc-stearate. However, plutonium content and density of MOX powder make a difference in the k eff 's changes. Especially, MOX powder with a higher plutonium content and a higher density is not always unsafe in terms of criticality if it is mixed with zinc-stearate. (author)

  1. CSER 98-003: criticality safety evaluation report for PFP glovebox HC-21A with button can opening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ERICKSON, D.G.

    1999-01-01

    Glovebox HC-21A is an enclosure where cans containing plutonium metal buttons or other plutonium bearing materials are prepared for thermal stabilization in the muffle furnaces. The Inert Atmosphere Confinement (IAC), a new feature added to Glovebox HC-21 A, allows the opening of containers suspected of containing hydrided plutonium metal. The argon atmosphere in the IAC prevents an adverse reaction between oxygen and the hydride. The hydride is then stabilized in a controlled manner to prevent glovebox over pressurization. After removal from the containers, the plutonium metal buttons or plutonium bearing materials will be placed into muffle furnace boats and then be sent to one of the muffle furnace gloveboxes for stabilization. The materials allowed to be brought into Glovebox HC-21A are limited to those with a hydrogen to fissile atom ratio (H/X) ≤ 20. Glovebox HC-21A is classified as a DRY glovebox, meaning it has no internal liquid lines, and no free liquids or solutions are allowed to be introduced. The double contingency principle states that designs shall incorporate sufficient factors of safety to require at least two unlikely, independent, and concurrent changes in process conditions before a criticality accident is possible. This criticality safety evaluation report (CSER) shows that the operations to be performed in this glovebox are safe from a criticality standpoint. No single identified event that causes criticality controls to be lost exceeded the criticality safety limit of k eff = 0.95 (including uncertainties). Therefore, this CSER meets the requirements for a criticality analysis contained in the Hanford Site Nuclear Criticality Safety Manual, HNF-PRO-334, and meets the double contingency principle

  2. CSER 98-003: Criticality safety evaluation report for PFP glovebox HC-21A with button can opening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ERICKSON, D.G.

    1999-01-01

    Glovebox HC-21A is an enclosure where cans containing plutonium metal buttons or other plutonium bearing materials are prepared for thermal stabilization in the muffle furnaces. The Inert Atmosphere Confinement (IAC), a new feature added to Glovebox HC-21A, allows the opening of containers suspected of containing hydrided plutonium metal. The argon atmosphere in the IAC prevents an adverse reaction between oxygen and the hydride. The hydride is then stabilized in a controlled manner to prevent glovebox over pressurization. After removal from the containers, the plutonium metal buttons or plutonium bearing materials will be placed into muffle furnace boats and then be sent to one of the muffle furnace gloveboxes for stabilization. The materials allowed to be brought into GloveboxHC-21 A are limited to those with a hydrogen to fissile atom ratio (H/X) ≤ 20. Glovebox HC-21A is classified as a DRY glovebox, meaning it has no internal liquid lines, and no free liquids or solutions are allowed to be introduced. The double contingency principle states that designs shall incorporate sufficient factors of safety to require at least two unlikely, independent, and concurrent changes in process conditions before a criticality accident is possible. This criticality safety evaluation report (CSER) shows that the operations to be performed in this glovebox are safe from a criticality standpoint. No single identified event that causes criticality controls to be lost exceeded the criticality safety limit of k eff = 0.95. Therefore, this CSER meets the requirements for a criticality analysis contained in the Hanford Site Nuclear Criticality Safety Manual, HNF-PRO-334, and meets the double contingency principle

  3. Evaluation of critical temperatures for heat damage in northern highbush blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overhead sprinklers are often used to cool blueberry fields in the Pacific Northwest, but more information is needed to determine exactly when cooling is needed. The objective of this study was to identify the critical temperatures for heat damage in northern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum...

  4. Critical Religious Education (CRE) in Practice: Evaluating the Reception of an Introductory Scheme of Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Angela

    2018-01-01

    Critical Religious Education (CRE) is a contemporary pedagogy of religious education developed by Andrew Wright and various colleagues over the past two decades. There has been widespread academic discourse about the pedagogy in theory but increasingly commentators have called for examples of it in practice. Over the past seven years a writing…

  5. Teaching and Evaluation of Critical Appraisal Skills to Postgraduate ESL Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melles, Gavin

    2009-01-01

    Enrolments in postgraduate engineering in Australia include a significant proportion of Asian ESL (English as a Second Language) students, and there is some debate in the literature about whether they are capable of critical appraisal. Content-based discipline-specific EAP (English for Academic Purposes) courses provide an environment for…

  6. Critical Thinking Skill Acquisition in Accelerated LVN to RN Nursing Programs: An Evaluative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Billy Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Accelerated transitional nursing programs (ATNPs) designed specifically for licensed vocational nurses (LVNs) to transition to become registered nurses (RNs) are graduating novice nurses who need critical thinking skills to solve patient problems. The health care industry and patient outcomes depend on graduate nurses to be proficient with quality…

  7. SLSF loop handling system. Volume III. AISC code evaluations and analysis of critical attachments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, H.; Cowie, A.; Malek, R.A.; Rafer, A.; Ma, D.; Tebo, F.

    1978-10-01

    SLSF loop handling system was analyzed for deadweight and postulated dynamic loading conditions using a linear elastic static equivalent method of stress analysis. Stress computations of Cradle and critical attachments per AISC Code guidelines are presented. HFEF is credited with in-depth review of initial phase of work

  8. Comparing Six Video Chat Tools: A Critical Evaluation by Language Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroz-Tuga, Betil; Sadler, Randall

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a critical comparison of the usefulness and practicality of six CMC video chat tools (CUworld, ICQ, MSN Messenger, Paltalk, Skype, and Yahoo Messenger) from the perspective of language teaching professionals. This comparison is based on the results of a semester-long project between graduate students at an American university…

  9. A critical evaluation of depositional parameters controlling the variability of organic carbon in Arabian Sea sediments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Paropkari, A.L.; PrakashBabu, C.; Mascarenhas, A.

    source of organic matter. However, a critical examination reveals that the organic enrichment on the slope of the Indian margin is two to four fold higher (max. 16.71%) than on the slope of the Arabian Peninsula (max. 7.54%) while the productivity...

  10. Evaluation of criticality criteria for fissile class II packages in transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.T.

    1976-01-01

    The nuclear criticality safety of packages in transportation is explored systematically by a surface density representation of reflected array criticality of air-spaced units. Typical perturbations to arrays are shown to be related analytically to the corresponding reactivity changes they produce. The reactivity change associated with the removal of three reflecting surfaces from a totally water reflected array is shown to depend upon the fissile material loading of the packages. For U(93.2) metal, the expected reactivity loss can range from 2 to 21%. Replacement of a three-sided reflector of water on a critical array by one of concrete results in a reactivity increase ranging from 0 to 6%. Mass limits established by criticality data for reflected arrays of air-spaced units can provide a minimum, uniform margin of safety, expressible in terms of reactivity, to more reliably specify subcriticality in transport. Mass limits less than those defined by air-spaced units in water-reflected arrays are unnecessary for Fissile Class II packages. (author)

  11. Designing Instruction for Critical Thinking: A Case of a Graduate Course on Evaluation of Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabi, Aubteen; Arrington, Thomas Logan

    2017-01-01

    As students graduate and enter the workforce, they face the job market's demand for critical thinking (CT) skills. The demand is caused by the market's increasing need for providing professional services that require performing complex tasks. In response to this demand, institutions of higher education are expected to prepare their graduate…

  12. A retrospective evaluation of critically ill patients infected with H1N1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    partment of Uludag University Hospital on the 12th of. November 2009, and then admitted ..... Mexico. JAMA 2009;302(17):1880-1887. 8. Kumar A, Zarychanski R, Pinto R et al. Critically ill ... za-like illnesses. http:// www.who.int /csr/resources/.

  13. Analytic evaluation of a new glucose meter system in 15 different critical care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsios, John V; Ashby, Lori A; Haverstick, Doris M; Bruns, David E; Scott, Mitchell G

    2013-09-01

    Maintaining appropriate glycemic control in critically ill patients reduces morbidity and mortality. The use of point-of-care (POC) glucose devices is necessary to obtain rapid results at the patient's bedside. However, the devices should be thoroughly tested in the intended population before implementation. The use of POC glucose meters in critically ill patients has been questioned both in the literature and by regulatory agencies. The aim of this study was to determine if the ACCU-CHEK® Inform II system (Roche Diagnostics) POC glucose meter demonstrated the desired accuracy and precision, as defined by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guideline POCT12-A3, in a large number of critically ill patients from multiple intensive care settings at two academic medical centers. A total of 1200 whole blood meter results from 600 patients were compared with central laboratory plasma values. Whole blood aliquots from venous samples were used to obtain duplicate meter results with the remaining sample being processed to obtain plasma for central laboratory testing within 5 min of meter testing. A total of 1185 (98.8%) of the new meter's glucose values were within ± 12.5% (± 12 mg/dl for values ≥ 100 mg/dl) of the comparative laboratory glucose values, and 1198 (99.8%) were within ± 20% (± 20 mg/dl for values meter system appears to have sufficient analytic accuracy for use in critically ill patients. © 2013 Diabetes Technology Society.

  14. Study of source term evaluation from fuel solution under simulated nuclear criticality accident in TRACY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Hitoshi; Tashiro, Shinsuke; Nagai, Hitoshi; Koike, Tadao; Okagawa, Seigo; Murata, Mikio

    1999-01-01

    In a accident at the dissolver in a reprocessing plant, various fission products and radiolysis gases will be produced in the fuel solution and volatile radioactive nuclides and radiolysis gases and nitrogen oxide will be released into vent-gas spontaneously. Moreover other on-volatile nuclide will be releases as radioactive aerosol (mist) with bursting bubbles at surface of the solution. Therefore quantitative estimation of release and transport behavior of the radioactive material from solution as source term is very important. TRACY is a transient criticality experimental facility for studying the transient criticality characteristics of low enriched uranium. In this paper, experiment methods and results about the release behavior of the hydrogen, radioactive aerosol and iodine species from the fuel solutions are reported. As the results of the experiments, release patterns of H 2 , 140 Ba and 131 I could be grasped. Concentrations of H 2 in the vent-gas and 140 Ba in the gas phase in the core tank attained to the peak just after the transient criticality and decreased exponentially with time. On the other hand, concentrations of 131 I in the gas phase of the tank began to increase with a time lag of several minutes from the transient criticality and attained approximately constant values. (J.P.N.)

  15. Development of a digital reactivity meter for criticality prediction and control rod worth evaluation in pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuramoto, Renato Y.R.; Miranda, Anselmo F.; Valladares, Gastao Lommez; Prado, Adelk C.

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we have proposed the development of a digital reactivity meter in order to monitor subcriticality continuously during criticality approach in a PWR. A subcritical reactivity meter can provide an easy prediction of the estimated critical point prior to reactor criticality, without complicated hand calculation. Moreover, in order to reduce the interval of the Physics Tests from the economical point of view, a subcritical reactivity meter can evaluate the control rod worth from direct subcriticality measurement. In other words, count rate of Source Range (SR) detector recorded during the criticality approach could be used for subcriticality evaluation or control rod worth evaluation. Basically, a digital reactivity meter is based on the inverse solution of the kinetic equations of a reactor with the external neutron source in one-point reactor model. There are some difficulties in the direct application of a digital reactivity meter to the subcriticality measurement. When the Inverse Kinetic method is applied to a sufficiently high power level or to a core without an external neutron source, the neutron source term may be neglected. When applied to a lower power level or in the sub-critical domain, however, the source effects must be taken in account. Furthermore, some treatments are needed in using the count rate of Source Range (SR) detector as input signal to the digital reactivity meter. To overcome these difficulties, we have proposed a digital reactivity meter combined with a methodology of the modified Neutron Source Multiplication (NSM) method with correction factors for subcriticality measurements in PWR. (author)

  16. Development of a digital reactivity meter for criticality prediction and control rod worth evaluation in pressurized water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuramoto, Renato Y.R.; Miranda, Anselmo F.; Valladares, Gastao Lommez; Prado, Adelk C. [Eletrobras Termonuclear S.A. - ELETRONUCLEAR, Angra dos Reis, RJ (Brazil). Central Nuclear Almirante Alvaro Alberto], e-mail: kuramot@eletronuclear.gov.br

    2009-07-01

    In this work, we have proposed the development of a digital reactivity meter in order to monitor subcriticality continuously during criticality approach in a PWR. A subcritical reactivity meter can provide an easy prediction of the estimated critical point prior to reactor criticality, without complicated hand calculation. Moreover, in order to reduce the interval of the Physics Tests from the economical point of view, a subcritical reactivity meter can evaluate the control rod worth from direct subcriticality measurement. In other words, count rate of Source Range (SR) detector recorded during the criticality approach could be used for subcriticality evaluation or control rod worth evaluation. Basically, a digital reactivity meter is based on the inverse solution of the kinetic equations of a reactor with the external neutron source in one-point reactor model. There are some difficulties in the direct application of a digital reactivity meter to the subcriticality measurement. When the Inverse Kinetic method is applied to a sufficiently high power level or to a core without an external neutron source, the neutron source term may be neglected. When applied to a lower power level or in the sub-critical domain, however, the source effects must be taken in account. Furthermore, some treatments are needed in using the count rate of Source Range (SR) detector as input signal to the digital reactivity meter. To overcome these difficulties, we have proposed a digital reactivity meter combined with a methodology of the modified Neutron Source Multiplication (NSM) method with correction factors for subcriticality measurements in PWR. (author)

  17. A study on the quantitative evaluation of the reliability for safety critical software using Bayesian belief nets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eom, H. S.; Jang, S. C.; Ha, J. J.

    2003-01-01

    Despite the efforts to avoid undesirable risks, or at least to bring them under control in the world, new risks that are highly difficult to manage continue to emerge from the use of new technologies, such as the use of digital instrumentation and control (I and C) components in nuclear power plant. Whenever new risk issues came out by now, we have endeavored to find the most effective ways to reduce risks, or to allocate limited resources to do this. One of the major challenges is the reliability analysis of safety-critical software associated with digital safety systems. Though many activities such as testing, verification and validation (V and V) techniques have been carried out in the design stage of software, however, the process of quantitatively evaluating the reliability of safety-critical software has not yet been developed because of the irrelevance of the conventional software reliability techniques to apply for the digital safety systems. This paper focuses on the applicability of Bayesian Belief Net (BBN) techniques to quantitatively estimate the reliability of safety-critical software adopted in digital safety system. In this paper, a typical BBN model was constructed using the dedication process of the Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) installed by KAERI. In conclusion, the adoption of BBN technique can facilitate the process of evaluating the safety-critical software reliability in nuclear power plant, as well as provide very useful information (e.g., 'what if' analysis) associated with software reliability in the viewpoint of practicality

  18. Stress and burnout among critical care fellows: preliminary evaluation of an educational intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kianoush Kashani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite a demanding work environment, information on stress and burnout of critical care fellows is limited. Objectives: To assess 1 levels of burnout, perceived stress, and quality of life in critical care fellows, and 2 the impact of a brief stress management training on these outcomes. Methods: In a tertiary care academic medical center, 58 critical care fellows of varying subspecialties and training levels were surveyed to assess baseline levels of stress and burnout. Twenty-one of the 58 critical care fellows who were in the first year of training at the time of this initial survey participated in a pre-test and 1-year post-test to determine the effects of a brief, 90-min stress management intervention. Results: Based on responses (n=58 to the abbreviated Maslach Burnout Inventory, reported burnout was significantly lower in Asian fellows (p=0.04 and substantially higher among graduating fellows (versus new and transitioning fellows (p=0.02. Among the intervention cohort, burnout did not significantly improve – though two-thirds of fellows reported using the interventional techniques to deal with stressful situations. Fellows who participated in the intervention rated the effectiveness of the course as 4 (IQR=3.75–5 using the 5-point Likert scale. Conclusions: In comparison with the new and transitioning trainees, burnout was highest among graduating critical care fellows. Although no significant improvements were found in first-year fellows’ burnout scores following the single, 90-min training intervention, participants felt the training did provide them with tools to apply during stressful situations.

  19. Stress and burnout among critical care fellows: preliminary evaluation of an educational intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashani, Kianoush; Carrera, Perliveh; De Moraes, Alice Gallo; Sood, Amit; Onigkeit, James A; Ramar, Kannan

    2015-01-01

    Despite a demanding work environment, information on stress and burnout of critical care fellows is limited. To assess 1) levels of burnout, perceived stress, and quality of life in critical care fellows, and 2) the impact of a brief stress management training on these outcomes. In a tertiary care academic medical center, 58 critical care fellows of varying subspecialties and training levels were surveyed to assess baseline levels of stress and burnout. Twenty-one of the 58 critical care fellows who were in the first year of training at the time of this initial survey participated in a pre-test and 1-year post-test to determine the effects of a brief, 90-min stress management intervention. Based on responses (n=58) to the abbreviated Maslach Burnout Inventory, reported burnout was significantly lower in Asian fellows (p=0.04) and substantially higher among graduating fellows (versus new and transitioning fellows) (p=0.02). Among the intervention cohort, burnout did not significantly improve--though two-thirds of fellows reported using the interventional techniques to deal with stressful situations. Fellows who participated in the intervention rated the effectiveness of the course as 4 (IQR=3.75-5) using the 5-point Likert scale. In comparison with the new and transitioning trainees, burnout was highest among graduating critical care fellows. Although no significant improvements were found in first-year fellows' burnout scores following the single, 90-min training intervention, participants felt the training did provide them with tools to apply during stressful situations.

  20. Development of Critical Spatial Thinking through GIS Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minsung; Bednarz, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This study developed an interview-based critical spatial thinking oral test and used the test to investigate the effects of Geographic Information System (GIS) learning on three components of critical spatial thinking: evaluating data reliability, exercising spatial reasoning, and assessing problem-solving validity. Thirty-two students at a large…

  1. Citizens' perceptions of political processes. A critical evaluation of preference consistency and survey items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengtsson, Åsa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The current state of research does not tell us much about citizens’ expectations of political decision making. Most surveys allow respondents to evaluate how the current system is working, but do not inquire about alternative political decision-making procedures. The lack of established survey items can be explained by the fact that radical changes in decision-making procedures have been hard to envisage, but also by a general scepticism regarding people’s ability to form opinions on these matters. Political processes are, without doubt, complex matters that do not lend themselves very well to simplistic survey questions. Moreover, previous research has convincingly shown that most people in general have difficulties forming single, coherent and stable attitudes even towards far more straightforward political issues. In order to determine if trying to grasp attitudes towards political decision-making in future empirical studies can be considered a fruitful endeavour, this study sets out to critically assess the extent to which people express coherent preferences on these matters, and if preferences are in line with expectations in previous, rather scattered research. The study is based on the Finnish National Election Study 2011; a study which, contrary to most other election studies, includes a rich variety of survey items on the topic, and utilises a combination of strategies in order to explore patterns in the opinions held by citizens.

    El estado actual de las investigaciones no nos dice mucho sobre las expectativas de los ciudadanos con respecto a la toma de decisiones políticas. La mayoría de las encuestas permiten que quienes las responden evalúen cómo funciona el sistema actual, pero no preguntan por procedimientos alternativos de decisión política. La falta de preguntas de encuesta contrastadas se puede explicar tanto por el hecho de que los cambios en los procedimientos de toma de decisiones han resultado difíciles de

  2. A fitness-for-purpose evaluation of fracture critical electro-slag welds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    A fitness-for-purpose evaluation was performed on the electro-slag flange welds of the West Fremont bridge approach : superstructures, per the request of FHWA. This evaluation required gathering knowledge of the material properties, fabrication : def...

  3. Using Medical Dictionaries to Teach the Critical Evaluation of Information Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Alistair S.

    1995-01-01

    A course-integrated bibliographic instruction session was designed to develop skills in evaluating biomedical information sources. Students in small groups evaluated and ranked medical and nursing dictionaries and defended ratings to the class. (SK)

  4. Assessing Analysis and Reasoning in Bioethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Roger S.

    2008-01-01

    Developing critical thinking is a perceived weakness in current education. Analysis and reasoning are core skills in bioethics making bioethics a useful vehicle to address this weakness. Assessment is widely considered to be the most influential factor on learning (Brown and Glasner, 1999) and this piece describes how analysis and reasoning in…

  5. Promoting Reasoning through the Magic V Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Leicha A.; Widjaja, Wanty; Loong, Esther Yook-Kin; Vale, Colleen; Herbert, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Reasoning in mathematics plays a critical role in developing mathematical understandings. In this article, Bragg, Loong, Widjaja, Vale & Herbert explore an adaptation of the Magic V Task and how it was used in several classrooms to promote and develop reasoning skills.

  6. Connecting Mathematics Learning through Spatial Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Joanne; Woolcott, Geoffrey; Mitchelmore, Michael; Davis, Brent

    2018-01-01

    Spatial reasoning, an emerging transdisciplinary area of interest to mathematics education research, is proving integral to all human learning. It is particularly critical to science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields. This project will create an innovative knowledge framework based on spatial reasoning that identifies new…

  7. Language-Based Reasoning in Primary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackling, Mark; Sherriff, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Language is critical in the mediation of scientific reasoning, higher-order thinking and the development of scientific literacy. This study investigated how an exemplary primary science teacher scaffolds and supports students' reasoning during a Year 4 materials unit. Lessons captured on video, teacher and student interviews and micro-ethnographic…

  8. Therapeutic reasoning: from hiatus to hypothetical model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bissessur, S.; Geijteman, E.C.T.; Al-Dulaimy, M.; Teunissen, P.W.; Richir, M.C.; Arnold, A.E.R.; Vries, de T.P.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale Extensive research has been conducted on clinical reasoning to gain better understanding of this process. Clinical reasoning has been defined as the process of thinking critically about the diagnosis and patient management. However, most research has focused on the process of diagnostic

  9. Preliminary design of CERN Future Circular Collider tunnel: first evaluation of the radiation environment in critical areas for electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infantino, Angelo; Alía, Rubén García; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Brugger, Markus; Cerutti, Francesco

    2017-09-01

    As part of its post-LHC high energy physics program, CERN is conducting a study for a new proton-proton collider, called Future Circular Collider (FCC-hh), running at center-of-mass energies of up to 100 TeV in a new 100 km tunnel. The study includes a 90-350 GeV lepton collider (FCC-ee) as well as a lepton-hadron option (FCC-he). In this work, FLUKA Monte Carlo simulation was extensively used to perform a first evaluation of the radiation environment in critical areas for electronics in the FCC-hh tunnel. The model of the tunnel was created based on the original civil engineering studies already performed and further integrated in the existing FLUKA models of the beam line. The radiation levels in critical areas, such as the racks for electronics and cables, power converters, service areas, local tunnel extensions was evaluated.

  10. Preliminary design of CERN Future Circular Collider tunnel: first evaluation of the radiation environment in critical areas for electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Infantino Angelo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of its post-LHC high energy physics program, CERN is conducting a study for a new proton-proton collider, called Future Circular Collider (FCC-hh, running at center-of-mass energies of up to 100 TeV in a new 100 km tunnel. The study includes a 90-350 GeV lepton collider (FCC-ee as well as a lepton-hadron option (FCC-he. In this work, FLUKA Monte Carlo simulation was extensively used to perform a first evaluation of the radiation environment in critical areas for electronics in the FCC-hh tunnel. The model of the tunnel was created based on the original civil engineering studies already performed and further integrated in the existing FLUKA models of the beam line. The radiation levels in critical areas, such as the racks for electronics and cables, power converters, service areas, local tunnel extensions was evaluated.

  11. Overcoming structural constraints to patient utilization of electronic medical records: a critical review and proposal for an evaluation framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelman, Warren J; Leonard, Kevin J

    2004-01-01

    There are constraints embedded in medical record structure that limit use by patients in self-directed disease management. Through systematic review of the literature from a critical perspective, four characteristics that either enhance or mitigate the influence of medical record structure on patient utilization of an electronic patient record (EPR) system have been identified: environmental pressures, physician centeredness, collaborative organizational culture, and patient centeredness. An evaluation framework is proposed for use when considering adaptation of existing EPR systems for online patient access. Exemplars of patient-accessible EPR systems from the literature are evaluated utilizing the framework. From this study, it appears that traditional information system research and development methods may not wholly capture many pertinent social issues that arise when expanding access of EPR systems to patients. Critically rooted methods such as action research can directly inform development strategies so that these systems may positively influence health outcomes.

  12. Growth and Expansion of the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project and the Newly Organized International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Blair Briggs; Lori Scott; Yolanda Rugama; Enrico Satori

    2007-01-01

    Since ICNC 2003, the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) has continued to expand its efforts and broaden its scope. Criticality-alarm/shielding type benchmarks and fundamental physics measurements that are relevant to criticality safety applications are not only included in the scope of the project, but benchmark data are also included in the latest version of the handbook. A considerable number of improvements have been made to the searchable database, DICE and the criticality-alarm/shielding benchmarks and fundamental physics measurements have been included in the database. There were 12 countries participating on the ICSBEP in 2003. That number has increased to 18 with recent contributions of data and/or resources from Brazil, Czech Republic, Poland, India, Canada, and China. South Africa, Germany, Argentina, and Australia have been invited to participate. Since ICNC 2003, the contents of the ''International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments'' have increased from 350 evaluations (28,000 pages) containing benchmark specifications for 3070 critical or subcritical configurations to 442 evaluations (over 38,000 pages) containing benchmark specifications for 3957 critical or subcritical configurations, 23 criticality-alarm-placement/shielding configurations with multiple dose points for each, and 20 configurations that have been categorized as fundamental physics measurements that are relevant to criticality safety applications in the 2006 Edition of the ICSBEP Handbook. Approximately 30 new evaluations and 250 additional configurations are expected to be added to the 2007 Edition of the Handbook. Since ICNC 2003, a reactor physics counterpart to the ICSBEP, The International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) was initiated. Beginning in 1999, the IRPhEP was conducted as a pilot activity by the by the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Nuclear Energy Agency

  13. Growth and Expansion of the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project and the Newly Organized International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Blair Briggs; Lori Scott; Yolanda Rugama; Enrico Satori

    2007-05-01

    Since ICNC 2003, the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) has continued to expand its efforts and broaden its scope. Criticality-alarm / shielding type benchmarks and fundamental physics measurements that are relevant to criticality safety applications are not only included in the scope of the project, but benchmark data are also included in the latest version of the handbook. A considerable number of improvements have been made to the searchable database, DICE and the criticality-alarm / shielding benchmarks and fundamental physics measurements have been included in the database. There were 12 countries participating on the ICSBEP in 2003. That number has increased to 18 with recent contributions of data and/or resources from Brazil, Czech Republic, Poland, India, Canada, and China. South Africa, Germany, Argentina, and Australia have been invited to participate. Since ICNC 2003, the contents of the “International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments” have increased from 350 evaluations (28,000 pages) containing benchmark specifications for 3070 critical or subcritical configurations to 442 evaluations (over 38,000 pages) containing benchmark specifications for 3957 critical or subcritical configurations, 23 criticality-alarm-placement / shielding configurations with multiple dose points for each, and 20 configurations that have been categorized as fundamental physics measurements that are relevant to criticality safety applications in the 2006 Edition of the ICSBEP Handbook. Approximately 30 new evaluations and 250 additional configurations are expected to be added to the 2007 Edition of the Handbook. Since ICNC 2003, a reactor physics counterpart to the ICSBEP, The International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) was initiated. Beginning in 1999, the IRPhEP was conducted as a pilot activity by the by the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Nuclear Energy

  14. A novel evaluation of microvascular damage in critically ill polytrauma patients by using circulating microRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedreag Ovidiu Horea

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The management of the critically ill polytrauma patient is complex due to the multiple complications and biochemical and physiopathological imbalances. This happened due to the direct traumatic injury, or due to the post-traumatic events. One of the most complex physiopathology associated to the multiple traumas is represented by microvascular damage, subsequently responsible for a series of complications induced through the imbalance of the redox status, severe molecular damage, reduction of the oxygen delivery to the cell and tissues, cell and mitochondrial dead, augmentation of the inflammatory response and finally the installation of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in this type of patients. A gold goal in the intensive care units is represented by the evaluation and intense monitoring of the molecular and physiopathological dysfunctions of the critically ill patients. Recently, it was intensely researched the use of microRNAs as biomarkers for the specific physiopathological dysfunctions. In this paper we wish to present a series of microRNAs that can serve as biomarkers for the evaluation of microvascular damage, as well as for the evaluation of other specific physiopathology for the critically ill polytrauma patient.

  15. Investigation of burnup credit allowance in the criticality safety evaluation of spent fuel casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lake, W.H.; Sanders, T.L.; Parks, C.V.

    1990-01-01

    This presentation discusses work in progress on criticality analysis verification for designs which take account of the burnup and age of transported fuel. The work includes verification of cross section data, correlation with experiments, proper extension of the methods into regimes not covered by experiments, establishing adequate reactivity margins, and complete documentation of the project. Recommendations for safe operational procedures are included, as well as a discussion of the economic and safety benefits of such designs

  16. Criticality safety evaluation of Rocky Flats Plant one-gallon shipping containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, M.E.

    1991-12-01

    Criticality safety calculations have been performed to provide an analytical basis for handling, storage and transport of Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) one-gallon shipping containers. A mass limit was establish for metal (solid uranium or plutonium) and slurries (undissolved U or Pu solids in a ''mud,'' ''sludge,'' or ''slurry''). A separate volume limit was developed for plutonium solutions (liquids, either aqueous or organic, containing no visible undissolved solids)

  17. Criticality safety evaluation of Rocky Flats Plant one-gallon shipping containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, M.E.

    1991-12-01

    Criticality safety calculations have been performed to provide an analytical basis for handling, storage and transport of Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) one-gallon shipping containers. A mass limit was establish for metal (solid uranium or plutonium) and slurries (undissolved U or Pu solids in a ``mud,`` ``sludge,`` or ``slurry``). A separate volume limit was developed for plutonium solutions (liquids, either aqueous or organic, containing no visible undissolved solids).

  18. Criticality safety evaluation of Rocky Flats Plant one-gallon shipping containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, M.E.

    1991-12-01

    Criticality safety calculations have been performed to provide an analytical basis for handling, storage and transport of Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) one-gallon shipping containers. A mass limit was establish for metal (solid uranium or plutonium) and slurries (undissolved U or Pu solids in a mud,'' sludge,'' or slurry''). A separate volume limit was developed for plutonium solutions (liquids, either aqueous or organic, containing no visible undissolved solids).

  19. Evidence based evaluation of immuno-coagulatory interventions in critical care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshari, Arash

    2011-01-01

    Cochrane systematic reviews with meta-analyses of randomised trials provide guidance for clinical practice and health-care decision-making. In case of disagreements between research evidence and clinical practice, high quality systematic reviews can facilitate implementation or deimplementation o...... of medical interventions into clinical practice. This applies especially to treatment of critically ill patients where interventions are most often costly and the clinical conditions are associated with high mortality....

  20. The Prompt Fission Neutron Spectrum: From Experiment to the Evaluated Data and its Impact on Critical Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rising, Michael Evan [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2015-06-10

    After a brief introduction concerning nuclear data, prompt fission neutron spectrum (PFNS) evaluations and the limited PFNS covariance data in the ENDF/B-VII library, and the important fact that cross section uncertainties ~ PFNS uncertainties, the author presents background information on the PFNS (experimental data, theoretical models, data evaluation, uncertainty quantification) and discusses the impact on certain well-known critical assemblies with regard to integral quantities, sensitivity analysis, and uncertainty propagation. He sketches recent and ongoing research and concludes with some final thoughts.