WorldWideScience

Sample records for real-time ultrasound system

  1. Real-Time Implementation of Medical Ultrasound Strain Imaging System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Mok Kun; Kwon, Sung Jae; Bae, Moo Ho

    2008-01-01

    Strain imaging in a medical ultrasound imaging system can differentiate the cancer or tumor in a lesion that is stiffer than the surrounding tissue. In this paper, a strain imaging technique using quasistatic compression is implemented that estimates the displacement between pre- and postcompression ultrasound echoes and obtains strain by differentiating it in the spatial direction. Displacements are computed from the phase difference of complex baseband signals obtained using their autocorrelation, and errors associated with converting the phase difference into time or distance are compensated for by taking into the center frequency variation. Also, to reduce the effect of operator's hand motion, the displacements of all scanlines are normalized with the result that satisfactory strain image quality has been obtained. These techniques have been incorporated into implementing a medical ultrasound strain imaging system that operates in real time.

  2. Experimental ultrasound system for real-time synthetic imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Holm, Ole; Jensen, Lars Joost

    1999-01-01

    Digital signal processing is being employed more and more in modern ultrasound scanners. This has made it possible to do dynamic receive focusing for each sample and implement other advanced imaging methods. The processing, however, has to be very fast and cost-effective at the same time. Dedicated...... for synthetic aperture imaging, 2D and 3D B-mode and velocity imaging. The system can be used with 128 element transducers and can excite 128 channels and receive and sample data from 64 channels simultaneously at 40 MHz with 12 bits precision. Data can be processed in real time using the system's 80 signal...... chips are used in order to do real time processing. This often makes it difficult to implement radically different imaging strategies on one platform and makes the scanners less accessible for research purposes. Here flexibility is the prime concern, and the storage of data from all transducer elements...

  3. System Architecture of an Experimental Synthetic Aperture Real-Time Ultrasound System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Hansen, Martin; Tomov, Borislav Gueorguiev

    2007-01-01

    is done using a parametric beam former. Code synthesized for a Xilinx V4FX100 speed grade 11 FPGA can operate at a maximum clock frequency of 167.8 MHz producing 1 billion I and Q samples/second sufficient for real time SA imaging. The system is currently in production, and all boards have been laid out......Synthetic Aperture (SA) ultrasound imaging has many advantages in terms of flexibility and accuracy. One of the major drawbacks is, however, that no system exists, which can implement SA imaging in real time due to the very high number of calculations amounting to roughly 1 billion complex focused...... samples per second per receive channel. Real time imaging is a key aspect in ultrasound, and to truly demonstrate the many advantages of SA imaging, a system usable in the clinic should be made. The paper describes a system capable of real time SA B-mode and vector flow imaging. The Synthetic Aperture...

  4. Performance Evaluation of a Synthetic Aperture Real-Time Ultrasound System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stuart, Matthias Bo; Tomov, Borislav Gueorguiev; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2011-01-01

    This paper evaluates the signal-to-noise ratio, the time stability, and the phase difference of the sampling in the experimental ultrasound scanner SARUS: A synthetic aperture, real-time ultrasound system. SARUS has 1024 independent transmit and receive channels and is capable of handling 2D probes...... arrays (FPGAs) making it very flexible and allowing implementation of other real-time ultrasound processing methods in the future. For conventional B-mode imaging, a penetration depth around 7 cm for a 7 MHz transducer is obtained (signal-tonoise ratio of 0 dB), which is comparable to commercial...... for 3D ultrasound imaging. It samples at 12 bits per sample and has a sampling rate of 70 MHz with the possibility of decimating the sampling frequency at the input. SARUS is capable of advanced real-time computations such as synthetic aperture imaging. The system is built using fieldprogrammable gate...

  5. SARUS: A Synthetic Aperture Real-Time Ultrasound System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Holten-Lund, Hans; Nilsson, Ronnie Thorup

    2013-01-01

    -resolution images/s. Both RF element data and beamformed data can be stored in the system for later storage and processing. The stored data can be transferred in parallel using the system’s sixty-four 1-Gbit Ethernet interfaces at a theoretical rate of 3.2 GB/s to a 144-core Linux cluster....

  6. Multi-processor system for real-time deconvolution and flow estimation in medical ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Lomborg; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Stetson, Paul F.

    1996-01-01

    of the algorithms. Many of the algorithms can only be properly evaluated in a clinical setting with real-time processing, which generally cannot be done with conventional equipment. This paper therefore presents a multi-processor system capable of performing 1.2 billion floating point operations per second on RF...... filter is used with a second time-reversed recursive estimation step. Here it is necessary to perform about 70 arithmetic operations per RF sample or about 1 billion operations per second for real-time deconvolution. Furthermore, these have to be floating point operations due to the adaptive nature...... interfaced to our previously-developed real-time sampling system that can acquire RF data at a rate of 20 MHz and simultaneously transmit the data at 20 MHz to the processing system via several parallel channels. These two systems can, thus, perform real-time processing of ultrasound data. The advantage...

  7. Real-time systems

    OpenAIRE

    Badr, Salah M.; Bruztman, Donald P.; Nelson, Michael L.; Byrnes, Ronald Benton

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an introduction to the basic issues involved in real-time systems. Both real-time operating sys and real-time programming languages are explored. Concurrent programming and process synchronization and communication are also discussed. The real-time requirements of the Naval Postgraduate School Autonomous Under Vehicle (AUV) are then examined. Autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV), hard real-time system, real-time operating system, real-time programming language, real-time sy...

  8. Toward a real-time system for temporal enhanced ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Shekoofeh; Van Woudenberg, Nathan; Sojoudi, Samira; Li, Ming; Xu, Sheng; Abu Anas, Emran M; Yan, Pingkun; Tahmasebi, Amir; Kwak, Jin Tae; Turkbey, Baris; Choyke, Peter; Pinto, Peter; Wood, Bradford; Mousavi, Parvin; Abolmaesumi, Purang

    2018-03-27

    We have previously proposed temporal enhanced ultrasound (TeUS) as a new paradigm for tissue characterization. TeUS is based on analyzing a sequence of ultrasound data with deep learning and has been demonstrated to be successful for detection of cancer in ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy. Our aim is to enable the dissemination of this technology to the community for large-scale clinical validation. In this paper, we present a unified software framework demonstrating near-real-time analysis of ultrasound data stream using a deep learning solution. The system integrates ultrasound imaging hardware, visualization and a deep learning back-end to build an accessible, flexible and robust platform. A client-server approach is used in order to run computationally expensive algorithms in parallel. We demonstrate the efficacy of the framework using two applications as case studies. First, we show that prostate cancer detection using near-real-time analysis of RF and B-mode TeUS data and deep learning is feasible. Second, we present real-time segmentation of ultrasound prostate data using an integrated deep learning solution. The system is evaluated for cancer detection accuracy on ultrasound data obtained from a large clinical study with 255 biopsy cores from 157 subjects. It is further assessed with an independent dataset with 21 biopsy targets from six subjects. In the first study, we achieve area under the curve, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 0.94, 0.77, 0.94 and 0.92, respectively, for the detection of prostate cancer. In the second study, we achieve an AUC of 0.85. Our results suggest that TeUS-guided biopsy can be potentially effective for the detection of prostate cancer.

  9. Interlaced photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging system with real-time coregistration for ovarian tissue characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqasemi, Umar; Li, Hai; Yuan, Guangqian; Kumavor, Patrick; Zanganeh, Saeid; Zhu, Quing

    2014-07-01

    Coregistered ultrasound (US) and photoacoustic imaging are emerging techniques for mapping the echogenic anatomical structure of tissue and its corresponding optical absorption. We report a 128-channel imaging system with real-time coregistration of the two modalities, which provides up to 15 coregistered frames per second limited by the laser pulse repetition rate. In addition, the system integrates a compact transvaginal imaging probe with a custom-designed fiber optic assembly for in vivo detection and characterization of human ovarian tissue. We present the coregistered US and photoacoustic imaging system structure, the optimal design of the PC interfacing software, and the reconfigurable field programmable gate array operation and optimization. Phantom experiments of system lateral resolution and axial sensitivity evaluation, examples of the real-time scanning of a tumor-bearing mouse, and ex vivo human ovaries studies are demonstrated.

  10. The feasibility of an infrared system for real-time visualization and mapping of ultrasound fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, Adam; Nunn, John, E-mail: adam.shaw@npl.co.u [National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, Middlesex, TW11 0LW (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-07

    In treatment planning for ultrasound therapy, it is desirable to know the 3D structure of the ultrasound field. However, mapping an ultrasound field in 3D is very slow, with even a single planar raster scan taking typically several hours. Additionally, hydrophones that are used for field mapping are expensive and can be damaged in some therapy fields. So there is value in rapid methods which enable visualization and mapping of the ultrasound field in about 1 min. In this note we explore the feasibility of mapping the intensity distribution by measuring the temperature distribution produced in a thin sheet of absorbing material. A 0.2 mm thick acetate sheet forms a window in the wall of a water tank containing the transducer. The window is oriented at 45{sup 0} to the beam axis, and the distance from the transducer to the window can be varied. The temperature distribution is measured with an infrared camera; thermal images of the inclined plane could be viewed in real time or images could be captured for later analysis and 3D field reconstruction. We conclude that infrared thermography can be used to gain qualitative information about ultrasound fields. Thermal images are easily visualized with good spatial and thermal resolutions (0.044 mm and 0.05 {sup 0}C in our system). The focus and field structure such as side lobes can be identified in real time from the direct video output. 3D maps and image planes at arbitrary orientations to the beam axis can be obtained and reconstructed within a few minutes. In this note we are primarily interested in the technique for characterization of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) fields, but other applications such as physiotherapy fields are also possible. (note)

  11. The feasibility of an infrared system for real-time visualization and mapping of ultrasound fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, Adam; Nunn, John

    2010-01-01

    In treatment planning for ultrasound therapy, it is desirable to know the 3D structure of the ultrasound field. However, mapping an ultrasound field in 3D is very slow, with even a single planar raster scan taking typically several hours. Additionally, hydrophones that are used for field mapping are expensive and can be damaged in some therapy fields. So there is value in rapid methods which enable visualization and mapping of the ultrasound field in about 1 min. In this note we explore the feasibility of mapping the intensity distribution by measuring the temperature distribution produced in a thin sheet of absorbing material. A 0.2 mm thick acetate sheet forms a window in the wall of a water tank containing the transducer. The window is oriented at 45 0 to the beam axis, and the distance from the transducer to the window can be varied. The temperature distribution is measured with an infrared camera; thermal images of the inclined plane could be viewed in real time or images could be captured for later analysis and 3D field reconstruction. We conclude that infrared thermography can be used to gain qualitative information about ultrasound fields. Thermal images are easily visualized with good spatial and thermal resolutions (0.044 mm and 0.05 0 C in our system). The focus and field structure such as side lobes can be identified in real time from the direct video output. 3D maps and image planes at arbitrary orientations to the beam axis can be obtained and reconstructed within a few minutes. In this note we are primarily interested in the technique for characterization of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) fields, but other applications such as physiotherapy fields are also possible. (note)

  12. Real time expert systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asami, Tohru; Hashimoto, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Seiichi

    1992-01-01

    Recently, aiming at the application to the plant control for nuclear reactors and traffic and communication control, the research and the practical use of the expert system suitable to real time processing have become conspicuous. In this report, the condition for the required function to control the object that dynamically changes within a limited time is presented, and the technical difference between the real time expert system developed so as to satisfy it and the expert system of conventional type is explained with the actual examples and from theoretical aspect. The expert system of conventional type has the technical base in the problem-solving equipment originating in STRIPS. The real time expert system is applied to the fields accompanied by surveillance and control, to which conventional expert system is hard to be applied. The requirement for the real time expert system, the example of the real time expert system, and as the techniques of realizing real time processing, the realization of interruption processing, dispersion processing, and the mechanism of maintaining the consistency of knowledge are explained. (K.I.)

  13. Multi-processor system for real-time flow estimation in medical ultrasound imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stetson, Paul F.; Jensen, Jesper Lomborg; Antonius, Peter

    1997-01-01

    the processed data. The generous bandwidth of the links makes it easy to balance the computational load among the processors.In order to manage the shared system memory and to make use of the parallel processing capabilities of the system, a real-time multitasking kernel has been developed. The kernel uses...

  14. [Mobile hospital -real time mobile telehealthcare system with ultrasound and CT van using high-speed satellite communication-].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Masaomi; Miyashita, Toyohisa; Murase, Sumio; Kanda, Hirohito; Karaki, Yoshiaki; Yagi, Kazuo; Ohue, Toru

    2003-01-01

    A real-time telescreening system is developed to detect early diseases for rural area residents using two types of mobile vans with a portable satellite station. The system consists of a satellite communication system with 1.5Mbps of the JCSAT-1B satellite, a spiral CT van, an ultrasound imaging van with two video conference system, a DICOM server and a multicast communication unit. The video image and examination image data are transmitted from the van to hospitals and the university simultaneously. Physician in the hospital observes and interprets exam images from the van and watches the video images of the position of ultrasound transducer on screenee in the van. After the observation images, physician explains a results of the examination by the video conference system. Seventy lung CT screening and 203 ultrasound screening were done from March to June 2002. The trial of this real time screening suggested that rural residents are given better healthcare without visit to the hospital. And it will open the gateway to reduce the medical cost and medical divide between city area and rural area.

  15. Real Time Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Knud Smed

    2000-01-01

    Describes fundamentals of parallel programming and a kernel for that. Describes methods for modelling and checking parallel problems. Real time problems.......Describes fundamentals of parallel programming and a kernel for that. Describes methods for modelling and checking parallel problems. Real time problems....

  16. Real-time co-registered ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging system based on FPGA and DSP architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqasemi, Umar; Li, Hai; Aguirre, Andres; Zhu, Quing

    2011-03-01

    Co-registering ultrasound (US) and photoacoustic (PA) imaging is a logical extension to conventional ultrasound because both modalities provide complementary information of tumor morphology, tumor vasculature and hypoxia for cancer detection and characterization. In addition, both modalities are capable of providing real-time images for clinical applications. In this paper, a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and Digital Signal Processor (DSP) module-based real-time US/PA imaging system is presented. The system provides real-time US/PA data acquisition and image display for up to 5 fps* using the currently implemented DSP board. It can be upgraded to 15 fps, which is the maximum pulse repetition rate of the used laser, by implementing an advanced DSP module. Additionally, the photoacoustic RF data for each frame is saved for further off-line processing. The system frontend consists of eight 16-channel modules made of commercial and customized circuits. Each 16-channel module consists of two commercial 8-channel receiving circuitry boards and one FPGA board from Analog Devices. Each receiving board contains an IC† that combines. 8-channel low-noise amplifiers, variable-gain amplifiers, anti-aliasing filters, and ADC's‡ in a single chip with sampling frequency of 40MHz. The FPGA board captures the LVDSξ Double Data Rate (DDR) digital output of the receiving board and performs data conditioning and subbeamforming. A customized 16-channel transmission circuitry is connected to the two receiving boards for US pulseecho (PE) mode data acquisition. A DSP module uses External Memory Interface (EMIF) to interface with the eight 16-channel modules through a customized adaptor board. The DSP transfers either sub-beamformed data (US pulse-echo mode or PAI imaging mode) or raw data from FPGA boards to its DDR-2 memory through the EMIF link, then it performs additional processing, after that, it transfer the data to the PC** for further image processing. The PC code

  17. Dependable Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-30

    0196 or 413 545-0720 PI E-mail Address: krithi@nirvan.cs.umass.edu, stankovic(ocs.umass.edu Grant or Contract Title: Dependable Real - Time Systems Grant...Dependable Real - Time Systems " Grant or Contract Number: N00014-85-k-0398 L " Reporting Period: 1 Oct 87 - 30 Sep 91 , 2. Summary of Accomplishments ’ 2.1 Our...in developing a sound approach to scheduling tasks in complex real - time systems , (2) developed a real-time operating system kernel, a preliminary

  18. Dual-mode photoacoustic and ultrasound system for real-time in-vivo ovarian cancer imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Atahar; Nandy, Sreyankar; Amidi, Eghbal; Zhu, Quing

    2018-02-01

    More than 80% of the ovarian cancers are diagnosed at late stages and the survival rate is less than 50%. Currently, there is no effective screening technique available and transvaginal US can only tell if the ovaries are enlarged or not. We have developed a new real-time co-registered US and photoacoustic system for in vivo imaging and characterization of ovaries. US is used to localize ovaries and photoacoustic imaging provides functional information about ovarian tissue angiogenesis and oxygenation saturation. The system consists of a tunable laser and a commercial US system from Alpinion Inc. The Alpinion system is cable of providing channel data for both US pulse-echo and photoacoustic imaging and can be programmed as a computer terminal for display US and photoacoustic images side by side or in coregistered mode. A transvaginal ultrasound probe of 6-MHz center frequency and bandwidth of 3-10 MHz is coupled with four optical fibers surrounded the US probe to deliver the light to tissue. The light from optical fibers is homogenized to ensure the power delivered to the tissue surface is below the FDA required limit. Physicians can easily navigate the probe and use US to look for ovaries and then turn on photoacoustic mode to provide real-time tumor vasculature and So2 saturation maps. With the optimized system, we have successfully imaged first group of 7 patients of malignant, abnormal and benign ovaries. The results have shown that both photoacoustic signal strength and spatial distribution are different between malignant and abnormal and benign ovaries.

  19. Prototyping real-time systems

    OpenAIRE

    Clynch, Gary

    1994-01-01

    The traditional software development paradigm, the waterfall life cycle model, is defective when used for developing real-time systems. This thesis puts forward an executable prototyping approach for the development of real-time systems. A prototyping system is proposed which uses ESML (Extended Systems Modelling Language) as a prototype specification language. The prototyping system advocates the translation of non-executable ESML specifications into executable LOOPN (Language of Object ...

  20. Real-time vision systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.; Hernandez, J.E.; Lu, Shin-yee [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    Many industrial and defence applications require an ability to make instantaneous decisions based on sensor input of a time varying process. Such systems are referred to as `real-time systems` because they process and act on data as it occurs in time. When a vision sensor is used in a real-time system, the processing demands can be quite substantial, with typical data rates of 10-20 million samples per second. A real-time Machine Vision Laboratory (MVL) was established in FY94 to extend our years of experience in developing computer vision algorithms to include the development and implementation of real-time vision systems. The laboratory is equipped with a variety of hardware components, including Datacube image acquisition and processing boards, a Sun workstation, and several different types of CCD cameras, including monochrome and color area cameras and analog and digital line-scan cameras. The equipment is reconfigurable for prototyping different applications. This facility has been used to support several programs at LLNL, including O Division`s Peacemaker and Deadeye Projects as well as the CRADA with the U.S. Textile Industry, CAFE (Computer Aided Fabric Inspection). To date, we have successfully demonstrated several real-time applications: bullet tracking, stereo tracking and ranging, and web inspection. This work has been documented in the ongoing development of a real-time software library.

  1. In Vivo Real Time Volumetric Synthetic Aperture Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouzari, Hamed; Rasmussen, Morten Fischer; Brandt, Andreas Hjelm

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic aperture (SA) imaging can be used to achieve real-time volumetric ultrasound imaging using 2-D array transducers. The sensitivity of SA imaging is improved by maximizing the acoustic output, but one must consider the limitations of an ultrasound system, both technical and biological....... This paper investigates the in vivo applicability and sensitivity of volumetric SA imaging. Utilizing the transmit events to generate a set of virtual point sources, a frame rate of 25 Hz for a 90° x 90° field-of-view was achieved. Data were obtained using a 3.5 MHz 32 x 32 elements 2-D phased array...... transducer connected to the experimental scanner (SARUS). Proper scaling is applied to the excitation signal such that intensity levels are in compliance with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration regulations for in vivo ultrasound imaging. The measured Mechanical Index and spatial-peak- temporal...

  2. Real-time image fusion involving diagnostic ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewertsen, Caroline; Săftoiu, Adrian; Gruionu, Lucian G

    2013-01-01

    The aim of our article is to give an overview of the current and future possibilities of real-time image fusion involving ultrasound. We present a review of the existing English-language peer-reviewed literature assessing this technique, which covers technical solutions (for ultrasound...

  3. Mobile real time radiography system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil, J.; Taggart, D.; Betts, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-11-01

    A 450-keV Mobile Real Time Radiography (RTR) System was delivered to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in January 1996. It was purchased to inspect containers of radioactive waste produced at (LANL). Since its delivery it has been used to radiograph more than 600 drums of radioactive waste at various LANL sites. It has the capability of inspecting waste containers of various sizes from <1-gal. buckets up to standard waste boxes (SWB, dimensions 54.5 in. x 71 in. x 37 in.). It has three independent x-ray acquisition formats. The primary system used is a 12- in. image intensifier, the second is a 36-in. linear diode array (LDA) and the last is an open system. It is fully self contained with on board generator, HVAC, and a fire suppression system. It is on a 53-ft long x 8-ft. wide x 14-ft. high trailer that can be moved over any highway requiring only an easily obtainable overweight permit because it weights {approximately}38 tons. It was built to conform to industry standards for a cabinet system which does not require an exclusion zone. The fact that this unit is mobile has allowed us to operate where the waste is stored, rather than having to move the waste to a fixed facility.

  4. Mobile real time radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigil, J.; Taggart, D.; Betts, S.

    1997-01-01

    A 450-keV Mobile Real Time Radiography (RTR) System was delivered to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in January 1996. It was purchased to inspect containers of radioactive waste produced at (LANL). Since its delivery it has been used to radiograph more than 600 drums of radioactive waste at various LANL sites. It has the capability of inspecting waste containers of various sizes from <1-gal. buckets up to standard waste boxes (SWB, dimensions 54.5 in. x 71 in. x 37 in.). It has three independent x-ray acquisition formats. The primary system used is a 12- in. image intensifier, the second is a 36-in. linear diode array (LDA) and the last is an open system. It is fully self contained with on board generator, HVAC, and a fire suppression system. It is on a 53-ft long x 8-ft. wide x 14-ft. high trailer that can be moved over any highway requiring only an easily obtainable overweight permit because it weights ∼38 tons. It was built to conform to industry standards for a cabinet system which does not require an exclusion zone. The fact that this unit is mobile has allowed us to operate where the waste is stored, rather than having to move the waste to a fixed facility

  5. A real time monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontanini, Horacio; Galdoz, Erwin

    1989-01-01

    A real time monitoring system is described. It was initially developed to be used as a man-machine interface between a basic principles simulator of the Embalse Nuclear Power Plant and the operators. This simulator is under construction at the Bariloche Atomic Center's Process Control Division. Due to great design flexibility, this system can also be used in real plants. The system is designed to be run on a PC XT or AT personal computer with high resolution graphics capabilities. Three interrelated programs compose the system: 1) Graphics Editor, to build static image to be used as a reference frame where to show dynamically updated data. 2) Data acquisition and storage module. It is a memory resident module to acquire and store data in background. Data can be acquired and stored without interference with the operating system, via serial port or through analog-to-digital converter attached to the personal computer. 3) Display module. It shows the acquired data according to commands received from configuration files prepared by the operator. (Author) [es

  6. Real-Time Laser Ultrasound Tomography for Profilometry of Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarubin, V. P.; Bychkov, A. S.; Karabutov, A. A.; Simonova, V. A.; Kudinov, I. A.; Cherepetskaya, E. B.

    2018-01-01

    We studied the possibility of applying laser ultrasound tomography for profilometry of solids. The proposed approach provides high spatial resolution and efficiency, as well as profilometry of contaminated objects or objects submerged in liquids. The algorithms for the construction of tomograms and recognition of the profiles of studied objects using the parallel programming technology NDIVIA CUDA are proposed. A prototype of the real-time laser ultrasound profilometer was used to obtain the profiles of solid surfaces of revolution. The proposed method allows the real-time determination of the surface position for cylindrical objects with an approximation accuracy of up to 16 μm.

  7. Modular specification of real-time systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inal, Recep

    1994-01-01

    Duration Calculus, a real-time interval logic, has been embedded in the Z specification language to provide a notation for real-time systems that combines the modularisation and abstraction facilities of Z with a logic suitable for reasoning about real-time properties. In this article the notation...

  8. Wireless communication of real-time ultrasound data and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Richard J.

    2015-03-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is expected to grow to 26 billion connected devices by 2020, plus the PC, smart phone, and tablet segment that includes mobile Health (mHealth) connected devices is projected to account for another 7.3 billion units by 2020. This paper explores some of the real-time constraints on the data-flow and control of a wireless connected ultrasound machine. The paper will define an ultrasound server and the capabilities necessary for real-time use of the device. The concept of an ultrasound server wirelessly (or over any network) connected to multiple lightweight clients on devices like an iPad, iPhone, or Android-based tablet, smartphone and other network-attached displays (i.e., Google Glass) is explored. Latency in the ultrasound data stream is one of the key areas to measure and to focus on keeping as small as possible (20 frames-per-second on a properly configured wireless network. The ultrasound server needs to be designed to accept multiple ultrasound data clients and multiple control clients. A description of the server and some of its key features will be described.

  9. Research in Distributed Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukkamala, R.

    1997-01-01

    This document summarizes the progress we have made on our study of issues concerning the schedulability of real-time systems. Our study has produced several results in the scalability issues of distributed real-time systems. In particular, we have used our techniques to resolve schedulability issues in distributed systems with end-to-end requirements. During the next year (1997-98), we propose to extend the current work to address the modeling and workload characterization issues in distributed real-time systems. In particular, we propose to investigate the effect of different workload models and component models on the design and the subsequent performance of distributed real-time systems.

  10. Archtecture of distributed real-time systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wing Leung, Cheuk

    2013-01-01

    CRAFTERS (Constraint and Application Driven Framework for Tailoring Embedded Real-time System) project aims to address the problem of uncertainty and heterogeneity in a distributed system by providing seamless, portable connectivity and middleware. This thesis contributes to the project by investigating the techniques that can be used in a distributed real-time embedded system. The conclusion is that, there is a list of specifications to be meet in order to provide a transparent and real-time...

  11. Research Directions in Real-Time Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-09-01

    This report summarizes a survey of published research in real time systems . Material is presented that provides an overview of the topic, focusing on...communications protocols and scheduling techniques. It is noted that real - time systems deserve special attention separate from other areas because of...formal tools for design and analysis of real - time systems . The early work on applications as well as notable theoretical advances are summarized

  12. A Real-Time Systems Symposium Preprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    Real - Time Systems Symposium Preprint Interim Tech...estimate of the occurence of the error. Unclassii ledSECUqITY CLASSIF’ICA T" NO MI*IA If’ inDI /’rrd erter for~~ble. ’Corrputnqg A REAL - TIME SYSTEMS SYMPOSIUM...ABSTRACT This technical report contains a preprint of a paper accepted for presentation at the REAL - TIME SYSTEMS SYMPOSIUM, Arlington,

  13. Portable high-intensity focused ultrasound system with 3D electronic steering, real-time cavitation monitoring, and 3D image reconstruction algorithms: a preclinical study in pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jin Woo; Lee, Jae Young; Hwang, Eui Jin; Hwang, In Pyeong; Woo, Sung Min; Lee, Chang Joo; Park, Eun Joo; Choi, Byung Ihn

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and accuracy of a new portable ultrasonography-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (USg-HIFU) system with a 3-dimensional (3D) electronic steering transducer, a simultaneous ablation and imaging module, real-time cavitation monitoring, and 3D image reconstruction algorithms. To address the accuracy of the transducer, hydrophones in a water chamber were used to assess the generation of sonic fields. An animal study was also performed in five pigs by ablating in vivo thighs by single-point sonication (n=10) or volume sonication (n=10) and ex vivo kidneys by single-point sonication (n=10). Histological and statistical analyses were performed. In the hydrophone study, peak voltages were detected within 1.0 mm from the targets on the y- and z-axes and within 2.0-mm intervals along the x-axis (z-axis, direction of ultrasound propagation; y- and x-axes, perpendicular to the direction of ultrasound propagation). Twenty-nine of 30 HIFU sessions successfully created ablations at the target. The in vivo porcine thigh study showed only a small discrepancy (width, 0.5-1.1 mm; length, 3.0 mm) between the planning ultrasonograms and the pathological specimens. Inordinate thermal damage was not observed in the adjacent tissues or sonic pathways in the in vivo thigh and ex vivo kidney studies. Our study suggests that this new USg-HIFU system may be a safe and accurate technique for ablating soft tissues and encapsulated organs.

  14. Portable high-intensity focused ultrasound system with 3D electronic steering, real-time cavitation monitoring, and 3D image reconstruction algorithms: a preclinical study in pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin Woo; Lee, Jae Young; Hwang, Eui Jin; Hwang, In Pyeong; Woo, Sung Min; Lee, Chang Joo; Park, Eun Joo; Choi, Byung Ihn [Dept. of Radiology and Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and accuracy of a new portable ultrasonography-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (USg-HIFU) system with a 3-dimensional (3D) electronic steering transducer, a simultaneous ablation and imaging module, real-time cavitation monitoring, and 3D image reconstruction algorithms. To address the accuracy of the transducer, hydrophones in a water chamber were used to assess the generation of sonic fields. An animal study was also performed in five pigs by ablating in vivo thighs by single-point sonication (n=10) or volume sonication (n=10) and ex vivo kidneys by single-point sonication (n=10). Histological and statistical analyses were performed. In the hydrophone study, peak voltages were detected within 1.0 mm from the targets on the y- and z-axes and within 2.0-mm intervals along the x-axis (z-axis, direction of ultrasound propagation; y- and x-axes, perpendicular to the direction of ultrasound propagation). Twenty-nine of 30 HIFU sessions successfully created ablations at the target. The in vivo porcine thigh study showed only a small discrepancy (width, 0.5-1.1 mm; length, 3.0 mm) between the planning ultrasonograms and the pathological specimens. Inordinate thermal damage was not observed in the adjacent tissues or sonic pathways in the in vivo thigh and ex vivo kidney studies. Our study suggests that this new USg-HIFU system may be a safe and accurate technique for ablating soft tissues and encapsulated organs.

  15. Heterogeneous Embedded Real-Time Systems Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    AFRL-IF-RS-TR-2003-290 Final Technical Report December 2003 HETEROGENEOUS EMBEDDED REAL - TIME SYSTEMS ENVIRONMENT Integrated...HETEROGENEOUS EMBEDDED REAL - TIME SYSTEMS ENVIRONMENT 6. AUTHOR(S) Cosmo Castellano and James Graham 5. FUNDING NUMBERS C - F30602-97-C-0259

  16. Making real-time reactive systems reliable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzullo, Keith; Wood, Mark

    1990-01-01

    A reactive system is characterized by a control program that interacts with an environment (or controlled program). The control program monitors the environment and reacts to significant events by sending commands to the environment. This structure is quite general. Not only are most embedded real time systems reactive systems, but so are monitoring and debugging systems and distributed application management systems. Since reactive systems are usually long running and may control physical equipment, fault tolerance is vital. The research tries to understand the principal issues of fault tolerance in real time reactive systems and to build tools that allow a programmer to design reliable, real time reactive systems. In order to make real time reactive systems reliable, several issues must be addressed: (1) How can a control program be built to tolerate failures of sensors and actuators. To achieve this, a methodology was developed for transforming a control program that references physical value into one that tolerates sensors that can fail and can return inaccurate values; (2) How can the real time reactive system be built to tolerate failures of the control program. Towards this goal, whether the techniques presented can be extended to real time reactive systems is investigated; and (3) How can the environment be specified in a way that is useful for writing a control program. Towards this goal, whether a system with real time constraints can be expressed as an equivalent system without such constraints is also investigated.

  17. Real Time Advanced Clustering System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Spampinato

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a system to gather information from a stationary camera to identify moving objects. The proposed solution makes only use of motion vectors between adjacent frames, obtained from any algorithm. Starting from them, the system is able to retrieve clusters of moving objects in a scene acquired by an image sensor device. Since all the system is only based on optical flow, it is really simple and fast, to be easily integrated directly in low cost cameras. The experimental results show fast and robust performance of our method. The ANSI-C code has been tested on the ARM Cortex A15 CPU @2.32GHz, obtaining an impressive fps, about 3000 fps, excluding optical flow computation and I/O. Moreover, the system has been tested for different applications, cross traffic alert and video surveillance, in different conditions, indoor and outdoor, and with different lenses.

  18. Real-time systems architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sendall, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore some of the design issues in online data acquisition and monitoring systems for high-energy physics experiments. In particular it concentrates on the multi-processor aspects of the design of existing and planned experiments. The central problem to be solved by these systems is the readout and checking of the apparatus, and the recording and perhaps some processing of the data. (Auth.)

  19. Multiprocessor scheduling for real-time systems

    CERN Document Server

    Baruah, Sanjoy; Buttazzo, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of both theoretical and pragmatic aspects of resource-allocation and scheduling in multiprocessor and multicore hard-real-time systems.  The authors derive new, abstract models of real-time tasks that capture accurately the salient features of real application systems that are to be implemented on multiprocessor platforms, and identify rules for mapping application systems onto the most appropriate models.  New run-time multiprocessor scheduling algorithms are presented, which are demonstrably better than those currently used, both in terms of run-time efficiency and tractability of off-line analysis.  Readers will benefit from a new design and analysis framework for multiprocessor real-time systems, which will translate into a significantly enhanced ability to provide formally verified, safety-critical real-time systems at a significantly lower cost.

  20. Scala for Real-Time Systems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Java served well as a general-purpose language. However, during its two decades of constant change it has gotten some weight and legacy in the language syntax and the libraries. Furthermore, Java's success for real-time systems is mediocre. Scala is a modern object-oriented and functional language...... with interesting new features. Although a new language, it executes on a Java virtual machine, reusing that technology. This paper explores Scala as language for future real-time systems....

  1. Failure analysis of real-time systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalashgar, A.; Stoelen, K.

    1998-01-01

    This paper highlights essential aspects of real-time software systems that are strongly related to the failures and their course of propagation. The significant influence of means-oriented and goal-oriented system views in the description, understanding and analysing of those aspects is elaborated. The importance of performing failure analysis prior to reliability analysis of real-time systems is equally addressed. Problems of software reliability growth models taking the properties of such systems into account are discussed. Finally, the paper presents a preliminary study of a goal-oriented approach to model the static and dynamic characteristics of real-time systems, so that the corresponding analysis can be based on a more descriptive and informative picture of failures, their effects and the possibility of their occurrence. (author)

  2. REAL TIME SYSTEM OPERATIONS 2006-2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Parashar, Manu; Lewis, Nancy Jo

    2008-08-15

    The Real Time System Operations (RTSO) 2006-2007 project focused on two parallel technical tasks: (1) Real-Time Applications of Phasors for Monitoring, Alarming and Control; and (2) Real-Time Voltage Security Assessment (RTVSA) Prototype Tool. The overall goal of the phasor applications project was to accelerate adoption and foster greater use of new, more accurate, time-synchronized phasor measurements by conducting research and prototyping applications on California ISO's phasor platform - Real-Time Dynamics Monitoring System (RTDMS) -- that provide previously unavailable information on the dynamic stability of the grid. Feasibility assessment studies were conducted on potential application of this technology for small-signal stability monitoring, validating/improving existing stability nomograms, conducting frequency response analysis, and obtaining real-time sensitivity information on key metrics to assess grid stress. Based on study findings, prototype applications for real-time visualization and alarming, small-signal stability monitoring, measurement based sensitivity analysis and frequency response assessment were developed, factory- and field-tested at the California ISO and at BPA. The goal of the RTVSA project was to provide California ISO with a prototype voltage security assessment tool that runs in real time within California ISO?s new reliability and congestion management system. CERTS conducted a technical assessment of appropriate algorithms, developed a prototype incorporating state-of-art algorithms (such as the continuation power flow, direct method, boundary orbiting method, and hyperplanes) into a framework most suitable for an operations environment. Based on study findings, a functional specification was prepared, which the California ISO has since used to procure a production-quality tool that is now a part of a suite of advanced computational tools that is used by California ISO for reliability and congestion management.

  3. Real-time ISEE data system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurutani, B. T.; Baker, D. N.

    1979-01-01

    A real-time ISEE data system directed toward predicting geomagnetic substorms and storms is discussed. Such a system may allow up to 60+ minutes advance warning of magnetospheric substorms and up to 30 minute warnings of geomagnetic storms (and other disturbances) induced by high-speed streams and solar flares. The proposed system utilizes existing capabilities of several agencies (NASA, NOAA, USAF), and thereby minimizes costs. This same concept may be applicable to data from other spacecraft, and other NASA centers; thus, each individual experimenter can receive quick-look data in real time at his or her base institution.

  4. Strain measurement of abdominal aortic aneurysm with real-time 3D ultrasound speckle tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihari, P; Shelke, A; Nwe, T H; Mularczyk, M; Nelson, K; Schmandra, T; Knez, P; Schmitz-Rixen, T

    2013-04-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture is caused by mechanical vascular tissue failure. Although mechanical properties within the aneurysm vary, currently available ultrasound methods assess only one cross-sectional segment of the aorta. This study aims to establish real-time 3-dimensional (3D) speckle tracking ultrasound to explore local displacement and strain parameters of the whole abdominal aortic aneurysm. Validation was performed on a silicone aneurysm model, perfused in a pulsatile artificial circulatory system. Wall motion of the silicone model was measured simultaneously with a commercial real-time 3D speckle tracking ultrasound system and either with laser-scan micrometry or with video photogrammetry. After validation, 3D ultrasound data were collected from abdominal aortic aneurysms of five patients and displacement and strain parameters were analysed. Displacement parameters measured in vitro by 3D ultrasound and laser scan micrometer or video analysis were significantly correlated at pulse pressures between 40 and 80 mmHg. Strong local differences in displacement and strain were identified within the aortic aneurysms of patients. Local wall strain of the whole abdominal aortic aneurysm can be analysed in vivo with real-time 3D ultrasound speckle tracking imaging, offering the prospect of individual non-invasive rupture risk analysis of abdominal aortic aneurysms. Copyright © 2013 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Real-time systems scheduling 2 focuses

    CERN Document Server

    Chetto, Maryline

    2014-01-01

    Real-time systems are used in a wide range of applications, including control, sensing, multimedia, etc. Scheduling is a central problem for these computing/communication systems since it is responsible for software execution in a timely manner. This book, the second of two volumes on the subject, brings together knowledge on specific topics and discusses the recent advances for some of them.  It addresses foundations as well as the latest advances and findings in real-time scheduling, giving comprehensive references to important papers, but the chapters are short and not overloaded with co

  6. Mobile waste inspection real time radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigil, J.; Taggart, D.; Betts, S.; Rael, C.; Martinez, F.; Mendez, J.

    1995-01-01

    The 450-KeV Mobile Real Time Radiography System was designed and purchased to inspect containers of radioactive waste produced at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The Mobile Real Time Radiography System has the capability of inspecting waste containers of various sizes from 5-gal. buckets to standard waste boxes (SWB, dimensions 54.5 in. x 71 in. x 37 in.). The fact that this unit is mobile makes it an attractive alternative to the costly road closures associated with moving waste from the waste generator to storage or disposal facilities

  7. Real-time systems scheduling fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Chetto, Maryline

    2014-01-01

    Real-time systems are used in a wide range of applications, including control, sensing, multimedia, etc.  Scheduling is a central problem for these computing/communication systems since responsible of software execution in a timely manner. This book provides state of knowledge in this domain with special emphasis on the key results obtained within the last decade. This book addresses foundations as well as the latest advances and findings in Real-Time Scheduling, giving all references to important papers. But nevertheless the chapters will be short and not overloaded with confusing details.

  8. Advances in Real-Time Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Samarjit

    2012-01-01

    This volume contains the lectures given in honor to Georg Farber as tribute to his contributions in the area of real-time and embedded systems. The chapters of many leading scientists cover a wide range of aspects, like robot or automotive vision systems or medical aspects.

  9. Real-time systems design and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Laplante, Phillip A

    2004-01-01

    "Real-Time Systems Design and Analysis, Third Edition is essential for students and practicing software engineers who want improved designs, faster computation, and ultimate cost savings. Chapters discuss hardware considerations and software requirements, software systems design, the software production process, performance estimation and optimization, and engineering considerations."--Jacket.

  10. Real-Time Operating System/360

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, R. L.; Kopp, R. S.; Mueller, H. H.; Pollan, W. D.; Van Sant, B. W.; Weiler, P. W.

    1969-01-01

    RTOS has a cost savings advantage for real-time applications, such as those with random inputs requiring a flexible data routing facility, display systems simplified by a device independent interface language, and complex applications needing added storage protection and data queuing.

  11. Model Checking Real-Time Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouyer, Patricia; Fahrenberg, Uli; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2018-01-01

    This chapter surveys timed automata as a formalism for model checking real-time systems. We begin with introducing the model, as an extension of finite-state automata with real-valued variables for measuring time. We then present the main model-checking results in this framework, and give a hint...

  12. Testing Real-Time Systems Using UPPAAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessel, Anders; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Mikucionis, Marius

    2008-01-01

    This chapter presents principles and techniques for model-based black-box conformance testing of real-time systems using the Uppaal model-checking tool-suite. The basis for testing is given as a network of concurrent timed automata specified by the test engineer. Relativized input...

  13. Compiling models into real-time systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormoy, J.L.; Cherriaux, F.; Ancelin, J.

    1992-08-01

    This paper presents an architecture for building real-time systems from models, and model-compiling techniques. This has been applied for building a real-time model-based monitoring system for nuclear plants, called KSE, which is currently being used in two plants in France. We describe how we used various artificial intelligence techniques for building it: a model-based approach, a logical model of its operation, a declarative implementation of these models, and original knowledge-compiling techniques for automatically generating the real-time expert system from those models. Some of those techniques have just been borrowed from the literature, but we had to modify or invent other techniques which simply did not exist. We also discuss two important problems, which are often underestimated in the artificial intelligence literature: size, and errors. Our architecture, which could be used in other applications, combines the advantages of the model-based approach with the efficiency requirements of real-time applications, while in general model-based approaches present serious drawbacks on this point

  14. Compiling models into real-time systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormoy, J.L.; Cherriaux, F.; Ancelin, J.

    1992-08-01

    This paper presents an architecture for building real-time systems from models, and model-compiling techniques. This has been applied for building a real-time model-base monitoring system for nuclear plants, called KSE, which is currently being used in two plants in France. We describe how we used various artificial intelligence techniques for building it: a model-based approach, a logical model of its operation, a declarative implementation of these models, and original knowledge-compiling techniques for automatically generating the real-time expert system from those models. Some of those techniques have just been borrowed from the literature, but we had to modify or invent other techniques which simply did not exist. We also discuss two important problems, which are often underestimated in the artificial intelligence literature: size, and errors. Our architecture, which could be used in other applications, combines the advantages of the model-based approach with the efficiency requirements of real-time applications, while in general model-based approaches present serious drawbacks on this point

  15. Real Time Deconvolution of In-Vivo Ultrasound Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2013-01-01

    and two wavelengths. This can be improved by deconvolution, which increase the bandwidth and equalizes the phase to increase resolution under the constraint of the electronic noise in the received signal. A fixed interval Kalman filter based deconvolution routine written in C is employed. It uses a state...... resolution has been determined from the in-vivo liver image using the auto-covariance function. From the envelope of the estimated pulse the axial resolution at Full-Width-Half-Max is 0.581 mm corresponding to 1.13 l at 3 MHz. The algorithm increases the resolution to 0.116 mm or 0.227 l corresponding...... to a factor of 5.1. The basic pulse can be estimated in roughly 0.176 seconds on a single CPU core on an Intel i5 CPU running at 1.8 GHz. An in-vivo image consisting of 100 lines of 1600 samples can be processed in roughly 0.1 seconds making it possible to perform real-time deconvolution on ultrasound data...

  16. Real-time ISEE data system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsurutani, B.T.; Baker, D.N.

    1979-01-01

    Prediction of geomagnetic substorms and storms would be of great scientific and commercial interest. A real-time ISEE data system directed toward this purpose is discussed in detail. Such a system may allow up to 60+ minutes advance warning of magnetospheric substorms and up to 30 minute warnings of geomagnetic storms (and other disturbances) induced by high-speed streams and solar flares. The proposed system utilizes existing capabilities of several agencies (NASA, NOAA, USAF), and thereby minimizes costs. This same concept may be applicable to data from other spacecraft, and other NASA centers; thus, each individual experimenter can receive quick-look data in real time at his or her base institution. 6 figures, 1 table

  17. Comparison of a GPS needle-tracking system, multiplanar imaging and 2D imaging for real-time ultrasound-guided epidural anaesthesia: A randomized, comparative, observer-blinded study on phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menacé, Cécilia; Choquet, Olivier; Abbal, Bertrand; Bringuier, Sophie; Capdevila, Xavier

    2017-04-01

    The real-time ultrasound-guided paramedian sagittal oblique approach for neuraxial blockade is technically demanding. Innovative technologies have been developed to improve nerve identification and the accuracy of needle placement. The aim of this study was to evaluate three types of ultrasound scans during ultrasound-guided epidural lumbar punctures in a spine phantom. Eleven sets of 20 ultrasound-guided epidural punctures were performed with 2D, GPS, and multiplanar ultrasound machines (660 punctures) on a spine phantom using an in-plane approach. For all punctures, execution time, number of attempts, bone contacts, and needle redirections were noted by an independent physician. Operator comfort and visibility of the needle (tip and shaft) were measured using a numerical scale. The use of GPS significantly decreased the number of punctures, needle repositionings, and bone contacts. Comfort of the physician was also significantly improved with the GPS system compared with the 2D and multiplanar systems. With the multiplanar system, the procedure was not facilitated and execution time was longer compared with 2D imaging after Bonferroni correction but interaction between the type of ultrasound system and mean execution time was not significant in a linear mixed model. There were no significant differences regarding needle tip and shaft visibility between the systems. Multiplanar and GPS needle-tracking systems do not reduce execution time compared with 2D imaging using a real-time ultrasound-guided paramedian sagittal oblique approach in spine phantoms. The GPS needle-tracking system can improve performance in terms of operator comfort, the number of attempts, needle redirections and bone contacts. Copyright © 2016 Société française d'anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Telepositional portable real time radiation monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talpalariu, Jeni; Matei, Corina; Popescu, Oana

    2010-01-01

    Technology development for complex portable networks is on going to meet the area dosimetry challenge, improving the basic design using new telepositional GPS satellite methods and GSM terrestrial civil radio transmission networks. The system and devices proposed overcome the limitations of fixed and portable dosimeters, providing wireless real time radiations data and geospatial information's means, using many portable dosimeter stations and a mobile dosimeter computerised central console. (authors)

  19. A real-time remote video streaming platform for ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mehdi; Gross, Warren J; Kadoury, Samuel

    2016-08-01

    Ultrasound is a viable imaging technology in remote and resources-limited areas. Ultrasonography is a user-dependent skill which depends on a high degree of training and hands-on experience. However, there is a limited number of skillful sonographers located in remote areas. In this work, we aim to develop a real-time video streaming platform which allows specialist physicians to remotely monitor ultrasound exams. To this end, an ultrasound stream is captured and transmitted through a wireless network into remote computers, smart-phones and tablets. In addition, the system is equipped with a camera to track the position of the ultrasound probe. The main advantage of our work is using an open source platform for video streaming which gives us more control over streaming parameters than the available commercial products. The transmission delays of the system are evaluated for several ultrasound video resolutions and the results show that ultrasound videos close to the high-definition (HD) resolution can be received and displayed on an Android tablet with the delay of 0.5 seconds which is acceptable for accurate real-time diagnosis.

  20. Towards real-time 3D ultrasound planning and personalized 3D printing for breast HDR brachytherapy treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulin, Eric; Gardi, Lori; Fenster, Aaron; Pouliot, Jean; Beaulieu, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Two different end-to-end procedures were tested for real-time planning in breast HDR brachytherapy treatment. Both methods are using a 3D ultrasound (3DUS) system and a freehand catheter optimization algorithm. They were found fast and efficient. We demonstrated a proof-of-concept approach for personalized real-time guidance and planning to breast HDR brachytherapy treatments

  1. Temporal logics and real time expert systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, J A

    1996-10-01

    This paper introduces temporal logics. Due to the eternal compromise between expressive adequacy and reasoning efficiency that must decided upon in any application, full (first order logic or modal logic based) temporal logics are frequently not suitable. This is especially true in real time expert systems, where a fixed (and usually small) response time must be guaranteed. One such expert system, Fagan's VM, is reviewed, and a delineation is given of how to formally describe and reason with time in medical protocols. It is shown that Petri net theory is a useful tool to check the correctness of formalised protocols.

  2. A real-time radiation mapping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scoggins, W.A.; VanEtten, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    A prototype of a real-time radiation mapping system, Ranger, was developed to respond to an accident involving the release of plutonium for the Department of Energy's Accident Response Group. In 1987 Ranger demonstrated that it can provide an efficient method of monitoring large areas of land for radioactive contamination. With the experience gained from the operation of the prototype, the external computer and software are being upgraded in order to obtain a fully operational system. The new system uses the prototype's commercially available line-of-sight microwave system for determining position and the same radiation detection instruments. The data obtained from the radiation detection instrument(s) are linked back to the external computer along with the relative position of the measurement through the ranging system. The data are displayed on a gridded map as colored circles and permanently stored in real-time. The different colors represent different contamination levels. Contours can be drawn using the permanently stored data. 4 figs

  3. Non-linear Imaging using an Experimental Synthetic Aperture Real Time Ultrasound Scanner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Joachim; Du, Yigang; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the first non-linear B-mode image of a wire phantom using pulse inversion attained via an experimental synthetic aperture real-time ultrasound scanner (SARUS). The purpose of this study is to implement and validate non-linear imaging on SARUS for the further development of new...... non-linear techniques. This study presents non-linear and linear B-mode images attained via SARUS and an existing ultrasound system as well as a Field II simulation. The non-linear image shows an improved spatial resolution and lower full width half max and -20 dB resolution values compared to linear...

  4. Embedded and real-time operating systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, K C

    2017-01-01

    This book covers the basic concepts and principles of operating systems, showing how to apply them to the design and implementation of complete operating systems for embedded and real-time systems. It includes all the foundational and background information on ARM architecture, ARM instructions and programming, toolchain for developing programs, virtual machines for software implementation and testing, program execution image, function call conventions, run-time stack usage and link C programs with assembly code. It describes the design and implementation of a complete OS for embedded systems in incremental steps, explaining the design principles and implementation techniques. For Symmetric Multiprocessing (SMP) embedded systems, the author examines the ARM MPcore processors, which include the SCU and GIC for interrupts routing and interprocessor communication and synchronization by Software Generated Interrupts (SGIs). Throughout the book, complete working sample systems demonstrate the design principles and...

  5. A distributed real-time operating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuynman, F.; Hertzberger, L.O.

    1984-07-01

    A distributed real-time operating system, Fados, has been developed for an embedded multi-processor system. The operating system is based on a host target approach and provides for communication between arbitrary processes on host and target machine. The facilities offered are, apart from process communication, access to the file system on the host by programs on the target machine and monitoring and debugging of programs on the target machine from the host. The process communication has been designed in such a way that the possibilities are the same as those offered by the Ada programming language. The operating system is implemented on a MC 68000 based multiprocessor system in combination with a Unix host. (orig.)

  6. Software Design Methods for Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    This module describes the concepts and methods used in the software design of real time systems . It outlines the characteristics of real time systems , describes...the role of software design in real time system development, surveys and compares some software design methods for real - time systems , and

  7. Performance evaluation of real time radiographic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatraman, B.; Saravanan, S.; Jayakumar, T.; Kalyanasundaram, P.; Baldev Raj

    1996-01-01

    The Real Time Radiography (RTR) system can be studied completely by knowing the modulation transfer function (MTF) of the whole system. The MTF curve is a special form of contrast/detail-size diagram in which the image contrast is plotted against the spatial frequency of a test object measured in line-pairs per millimetre (lp/mm). MTF curves are widely used to measure the characteristics of optical equipment, particularly for assessing the contribution of individual items in a complex imaging transfer system. Codes of practice indicate that the image intensifier systems should be checked periodically to assess its performance through the use of MTF curves and step wedges for contrast ratio. Authors, instead, suggest the use of performance curves which are simple to obtain and can be easily interpreted by radiographers. (author)

  8. Development of the real time monitor system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Katsumi [Research Organization for Information Science and Technology, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Watanabe, Tadashi; Kaburaki, Hideo

    1996-10-01

    Large-scale simulation technique is studied at the Center for Promotion of Computational Science and Engineering (CCSE) for the computational science research in nuclear fields. Visualization and animation processing technique are studied and developed for efficient understanding of simulation results. The real time monitor system, in which on-going simulation results are transferred from a supercomputer or workstation to a graphic workstation and are visualized and recorded, is described in this report. This system is composed of the graphic workstation and the video equipment connected to the network. The control shell programs are the job-execution shell for simulations on supercomputers, the file-transfer shell for output files for visualization, and the shell for starting visualization tools. Special image processing technique and hardware are not necessary in this system and the standard visualization tool AVS and the UNIX commands are used, so that this system can be implemented and applied in various computer environments. (author)

  9. The RHIC real time data link system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, H.

    1997-01-01

    The RHIC Real Time Data Link (RTDL) System distributes to all locations around the RHIC ring machine parameters of general interest to accelerator systems and users. The system, along with supporting host interface, is centrally located. The RTDL System is comprised of two module types: the Encoder Module (V105) and the Input Module (V106). There is only one V105 module, but many (up to 128) Input Modules. Multiple buffered outputs are provided for use locally or for retransmission to other RHIC equipment locations. Machine parameters are generated from the V115 Waveform Generator Module (WFG) or from machine hardware and coupled directly through a fiber optic serial link to one of the V106 input channels

  10. Memory controllers for real-time embedded systems predictable and composable real-time systems

    CERN Document Server

    Akesson, Benny

    2012-01-01

      Verification of real-time requirements in systems-on-chip becomes more complex as more applications are integrated. Predictable and composable systems can manage the increasing complexity using formal verification and simulation.  This book explains the concepts of predictability and composability and shows how to apply them to the design and analysis of a memory controller, which is a key component in any real-time system. This book is generally intended for readers interested in Systems-on-Chips with real-time applications.   It is especially well-suited for readers looking to use SDRAM memories in systems with hard or firm real-time requirements. There is a strong focus on real-time concepts, such as predictability and composability, as well as a brief discussion about memory controller architectures for high-performance computing. Readers will learn step-by-step how to go from an unpredictable SDRAM memory, offering highly variable bandwidth and latency, to a predictable and composable shared memory...

  11. Robust synthesis for real-time systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Legay, Axel; Traonouez, Luois-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Specification theories for real-time systems allow reasoning about interfaces and their implementation models, using a set of operators that includes satisfaction, refinement, logical and parallel composition. To make such theories applicable throughout the entire design process from an abstract...... of introducing small perturbations into formal models. We address this problem of robust implementations in timed specification theories. We first consider a fixed perturbation and study the robustness of timed specifications with respect to the operators of the theory. To this end we synthesize robust...... specification to an implementation, we need to reason about the possibility to effectively implement the theoretical specifications on physical systems, despite their limited precision. In the literature, this implementation problem has been linked to the robustness problem that analyzes the consequences...

  12. Real-time ultrasound elastography: an assessment of enlarged cervical lymph nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Wu-Chia; Cheng, Po-Wen; Wang, Chi-Te; Liao, Li-Jen

    2013-09-01

    To determine the efficacy of real-time elastography (RTE), compared with our previously proposed prediction model, in the detection of malignancy in cervical lymph nodes (LNs). One hundred and thirty-one patients underwent ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy (ultrasound FNAB) after ultrasound and RTE evaluation. The formula of the RTE scoring system was a four-point visual scale, based on a previously determined model. The formula of the prediction model was: [Formula: see text]. An extended model was constructed with four previous predictors and elasticity scores, using a logistic regression model. Final histology revealed 77 benign and 54 malignant LNs. In the elasticity score system, sensitivity was 66.7 %, specificity was 57.1 %, the positive predictive value (PPV) was 52.2 % and the negative predictive value (NPV) was 71.0 %. In the prediction model system, sensitivity was 79.6 %, specificity was 92.2 %, the PPV was 87.8 % and the NPV was 86.6 %. When the extended and the original model were compared, the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (c-statistic) was 0.94 and 0.95, respectively (P > 0.05). Qualitative RTE offers no additional value over conventional ultrasound in predicting malignancy in cervical LNs. • An ultrasound system can help in the assessment of cervical lymph nodes. • Grey-scale and power Doppler ultrasound remain fundamental for neck nodal evaluation. • Qualitative real-time elastography provided no additional value compared with current prediction models.

  13. Real-time petroleum spill detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dakin, D.T.

    2001-01-01

    A real-time autonomous oil and fuel spill detection system has been developed to rapidly detect of a wide range of petroleum products floating on, or suspended in water. The system consists of an array of spill detection buoys distributed within the area to be monitored. The buoys are composed of a float and a multispectral fluorometer, which looks up through the top 5 cm of water to detect floating and suspended petroleum products. The buoys communicate to a base station computer that controls the sampling of the buoys and analyses the data from each buoy to determine if a spill has occurred. If statistically significant background petroleum levels are detected, the system raises an oil spill alarm. The system is useful because early detection of a marine oil spill allows for faster containment, thereby minimizing the contaminated area and reducing cleanup costs. This paper also provided test results for biofouling, various petroleum product detection, water turbidity and wave tolerance. The technology has been successfully demonstrated. The UV light source keeps the optic window free from biofouling, and the electronics are fully submerged so there is no risk that the unit could ignite the vapours of a potential oil spill. The system can also tolerate moderately turbid waters and can therefore be used in many rivers, harbours, water intakes and sumps. The system can detect petroleum products with an average thickness of less than 3 micrometers floating on the water surface. 3 refs., 15 figs

  14. Real time detecting system for turning force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaobin, Yue [China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang (China). Inst. of Machinery Manufacturing Technology

    2001-07-01

    How to get the real-time value of forces dropped on the tool in the course of processing by piezoelectric sensors is introduced. First, the analog signals of the cutting force were achieved by these sensors, amplified and transferred into digital signals by A/D transferring card. Then real-time software reads the information, put it into its own coordinate, drew the curve of forces, displayed it on the screen by the real time and saved it for the technicians to analyze the situation of the tool. So the cutting parameter can be optimized to improve surface quality of the pieces.

  15. Real Time Earthquake Information System in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, K.; Kato, T.

    2003-12-01

    An early earthquake notification system in Japan had been developed by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) as a governmental organization responsible for issuing earthquake information and tsunami forecasts. The system was primarily developed for prompt provision of a tsunami forecast to the public with locating an earthquake and estimating its magnitude as quickly as possible. Years after, a system for a prompt provision of seismic intensity information as indices of degrees of disasters caused by strong ground motion was also developed so that concerned governmental organizations can decide whether it was necessary for them to launch emergency response or not. At present, JMA issues the following kinds of information successively when a large earthquake occurs. 1) Prompt report of occurrence of a large earthquake and major seismic intensities caused by the earthquake in about two minutes after the earthquake occurrence. 2) Tsunami forecast in around three minutes. 3) Information on expected arrival times and maximum heights of tsunami waves in around five minutes. 4) Information on a hypocenter and a magnitude of the earthquake, the seismic intensity at each observation station, the times of high tides in addition to the expected tsunami arrival times in 5-7 minutes. To issue information above, JMA has established; - An advanced nationwide seismic network with about 180 stations for seismic wave observation and about 3,400 stations for instrumental seismic intensity observation including about 2,800 seismic intensity stations maintained by local governments, - Data telemetry networks via landlines and partly via a satellite communication link, - Real-time data processing techniques, for example, the automatic calculation of earthquake location and magnitude, the database driven method for quantitative tsunami estimation, and - Dissemination networks, via computer-to-computer communications and facsimile through dedicated telephone lines. JMA operationally

  16. Real-Time Operating Systems for Multicore Embedded Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Tomiyama, Hiroyuki; Honda, Shinya; Takada, Hiroaki

    2008-01-01

    Multicore systems-on-chip have become popular inthe design of embedded systems in order to simultaneously achieve high performance and low power consumption. On the software side, real-time operating systems are necessary in orderto handle growing complexity of embedded software. This paper describes requirements, design principles and implementation techniques for real-time operating systems to be used inasymmetric multicore systems.

  17. Real-time 3-dimensional contrast-enhanced ultrasound in detecting hemorrhage of blunt renal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rui-Xue; Li, Ye-Kuo; Li, Ting; Wang, Sha-Sha; Yuan, Gui-Zhong; Zhou, Qun-Fang; Zheng, Hai-Rong; Yan, Fei

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic value of real-time 3-dimensional contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the hemorrhage of blunt renal trauma. Eighteen healthy New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups. Blunt renal trauma was performed on each group by using minitype striker. Ultrasonography, color Doppler flow imaging, and contrast-enhanced 2-dimensional and real-time 3-dimensional ultrasound were applied before and after the strike. The time to shock and blood pressure were subjected to statistical analysis. Then, a comparative study of ultrasound and pathology was carried out. All the struck kidneys were traumatic. In the ultrasonography, free fluid was found under the renal capsule. In the color Doppler flow imaging, active hemorrhage was not identified. In 2-dimensional contrast-enhanced ultrasound, active hemorrhage of the damaged kidney was characterized. Real-time 3-dimensional contrast-enhanced ultrasound showed a real-time and stereoscopic ongoing bleeding of the injured kidney. The wider the hemorrhage area in 4-dimensional contrast-enhanced ultrasound was, the faster the blood pressure decreased. Real-time 3-dimensional contrast-enhanced ultrasound is a promising noninvasive tool for stereoscopically and vividly detecting ongoing hemorrhage of blunt renal trauma in real time. © 2013.

  18. On Real-Time Systems Using Local Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-01

    87-35 July, 1987 CS-TR-1892 On Real - Time Systems Using Local Area Networks*I VShem-Tov Levi Department of Computer Science Satish K. Tripathit...1892 On Real - Time Systems Using Local Area Networks* Shem-Tov Levi Department of Computer Science Satish K. Tripathit Department of Computer Science...constraints and the clock systems that feed the time to real - time systems . A model for real-time system based on LAN communication is presented in

  19. Real-time ultrasonic weld evaluation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katragadda, Gopichand; Nair, Satish; Liu, Harry; Brown, Lawrence M.

    1996-11-01

    Ultrasonic testing techniques are currently used as an alternative to radiography for detecting, classifying,and sizing weld defects, and for evaluating weld quality. Typically, ultrasonic weld inspections are performed manually, which require significant operator expertise and time. Thus, in recent years, the emphasis is to develop automated methods to aid or replace operators in critical weld inspections where inspection time, reliability, and operator safety are major issues. During this period, significant advances wee made in the areas of weld defect classification and sizing. Very few of these methods, however have found their way into the market, largely due to the lack of an integrated approach enabling real-time implementation. Also, not much research effort was directed in improving weld acceptance criteria. This paper presents an integrated system utilizing state-of-the-art techniques for a complete automation of the weld inspection procedure. The modules discussed include transducer tracking, classification, sizing, and weld acceptance criteria. Transducer tracking was studied by experimentally evaluating sonic and optical position tracking techniques. Details for this evaluation are presented. Classification is obtained using a multi-layer perceptron. Results from different feature extraction schemes, including a new method based on a combination of time and frequency-domain signal representations are given. Algorithms developed to automate defect registration and sizing are discussed. A fuzzy-logic acceptance criteria for weld acceptance is presented describing how this scheme provides improved robustness compared to the traditional flow-diagram standards.

  20. An improved real time superresolution FPGA system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi Narasimha, Pramod; Mudigoudar, Basavaraj; Yue, Zhanfeng; Topiwala, Pankaj

    2009-05-01

    In numerous computer vision applications, enhancing the quality and resolution of captured video can be critical. Acquired video is often grainy and low quality due to motion, transmission bottlenecks, etc. Postprocessing can enhance it. Superresolution greatly decreases camera jitter to deliver a smooth, stabilized, high quality video. In this paper, we extend previous work on a real-time superresolution application implemented in ASIC/FPGA hardware. A gradient based technique is used to register the frames at the sub-pixel level. Once we get the high resolution grid, we use an improved regularization technique in which the image is iteratively modified by applying back-projection to get a sharp and undistorted image. The algorithm was first tested in software and migrated to hardware, to achieve 320x240 -> 1280x960, about 30 fps, a stunning superresolution by 16X in total pixels. Various input parameters, such as size of input image, enlarging factor and the number of nearest neighbors, can be tuned conveniently by the user. We use a maximum word size of 32 bits to implement the algorithm in Matlab Simulink as well as in FPGA hardware, which gives us a fine balance between the number of bits and performance. The proposed system is robust and highly efficient. We have shown the performance improvement of the hardware superresolution over the software version (C code).

  1. Internet-accessible real-time weather information system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, R.G.P.; Joseph, A.; Desa, E.; Mehra, P.; Desa, E.; Gouveia, A.D.

    An internet-accessible real-time weather information system has been developed. This system provides real-time accessibility to weather information from a multitude of spatially distributed weather stations. The Internet connectivity also offers...

  2. Simulation Study of Real Time 3-D Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming for Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Rasmussen, Morten Fischer; Stuart, Matthias Bo

    2014-01-01

    in the main system. The real-time imaging capability is achieved using a synthetic aperture beamforming technique, utilizing the transmit events to generate a set of virtual elements that in combination can generate an image. The two core capabilities in combination is named Synthetic Aperture Sequential......This paper presents a new beamforming method for real-time three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound imaging using a 2-D matrix transducer. To obtain images with sufficient resolution and contrast, several thousand elements are needed. The proposed method reduces the required channel count from...... Beamforming (SASB). Simulations are performed to evaluate the image quality of the presented method in comparison to Parallel beamforming utilizing 16 receive beamformers. As indicators for image quality the detail resolution and Cystic resolution are determined for a set of scatterers at a depth of 90mm...

  3. Real time PV manufacturing diagnostic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochergin, Vladimir [MicroXact Inc., Blacksburg, VA (United States); Crawford, Michael A. [MicroXact Inc., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The main obstacle Photovoltaic (PV) industry is facing at present is the higher cost of PV energy compared to that of fossil energy. While solar cell efficiencies continue to make incremental gains these improvements are so far insufficient to drive PV costs down to match that of fossil energy. Improved in-line diagnostics however, has the potential to significantly increase the productivity and reduce cost by improving the yield of the process. On this Phase I/Phase II SBIR project MicroXact developed and demonstrated at CIGS pilot manufacturing line a high-throughput in-line PV manufacturing diagnostic system, which was verified to provide fast and accurate data on the spatial uniformity of thickness, an composition of the thin films comprising the solar cell as the solar cell is processed reel-to-reel. In Phase II project MicroXact developed a stand-alone system prototype and demonstrated the following technical characteristics: 1) ability of real time defect/composition inconsistency detection over 60cm wide web at web speeds up to 3m/minute; 2) Better than 1mm spatial resolution on 60cm wide web; 3) an average better than 20nm spectral resolution resulting in more than sufficient sensitivity to composition imperfections (copper-rich and copper-poor regions were detected). The system was verified to be high vacuum compatible. Phase II results completely validated both technical and economic feasibility of the proposed concept. MicroXact’s solution is an enabling technique for in-line PV manufacturing diagnostics to increase the productivity of PV manufacturing lines and reduce the cost of solar energy, thus reducing the US dependency on foreign oil while simultaneously reducing emission of greenhouse gasses.

  4. Real Time Wide Area Radiation Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biafore, M.

    2012-04-01

    We present the REWARD project, financed within the FP7 programme, theme SEC-2011.1.5-1 (Development of detection capabilities of difficult to detect radioactive sources and nuclear materials - Capability Project). Within this project, we propose a novel mobile system for real time, wide area radiation surveillance. The system is based on the integration of new miniaturized solid-state radiation sensors: a CdZnTe detector for gamma radiation and a high efficiency neutron detector based on novel silicon technologies. The sensing unit will include a wireless communication interface to send the data remotely to a monitoring base station which also uses a GPS system to calculate the position of the tag. The system will also incorporate middleware and high level software to provide web-service interfaces for the exchange of information, and that will offer top level functionalities as management of users, mobile tags and environment data and alarms, database storage and management and a web-based graphical user interface. Effort will be spent to ensure that the software is modular and re-usable across as many architectural levels as possible. Finally, an expert system will continuously analyze the information from the radiation sensor and correlate it with historical data from the tag location in order to generate an alarm when an abnormal situation is detected. The system will be useful for many different scenarios, including such lost radioactive sources and radioactive contamination. It will be possible to deploy in emergency units and in general in any type of mobile or static equipment. The sensing units will be highly portable thanks to their low size and low energy consumption. The complete system will be scalable in terms of complexity and cost and will offer very high precision on both the measurement and the location of the radiation. The modularity and flexibility of the system will allow for a realistic introduction to the market. Authorities may start with a

  5. Temporal Specification and Verification of Real-Time Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-30

    of concrete real - time systems can be modeled adequately. Specification: We present two conservative extensions of temporal logic that allow for the...logic. We present both model-checking algorithms for the automatic verification of finite-state real - time systems and proof methods for the deductive verification of real - time systems .

  6. Temporal logics and real time expert systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper introduces temporal logics. Due to the eternal compromise between expressive adequacy and reasoning efficiency that must decided upon in any application, full (first order logic or modal logic based) temporal logics are frequently not suitable. This is especially true in real time expert

  7. Real-time images of tidal recruitment using lung ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tusman, Gerardo; Acosta, Cecilia M; Nicola, Marco; Esperatti, Mariano; Bohm, Stephan H; Suarez-Sipmann, Fernando

    2015-12-01

    Ventilator-induced lung injury is a form of mechanical damage leading to a pulmonary inflammatory response related to the use of mechanical ventilation enhanced by the presence of atelectasis. One proposed mechanism of this injury is the repetitive opening and closing of collapsed alveoli and small airways within these atelectatic areas-a phenomenon called tidal recruitment. The presence of tidal recruitment is difficult to detect, even with high-resolution images of the lungs like CT scan. The purpose of this article is to give evidence of tidal recruitment by lung ultrasound. A standard lung ultrasound inspection detected lung zones of atelectasis in mechanically ventilated patients. With a linear probe placed in the intercostal oblique position. We observed tidal recruitment within atelectasis as an improvement in aeration at the end of inspiration followed by the re-collapse at the end of expiration. This mechanism disappeared after the performance of a lung recruitment maneuver. Lung ultrasound was helpful in detecting the presence of atelectasis and tidal recruitment and in confirming their resolution after a lung recruitment maneuver.

  8. An integrated technique for developing real-time systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooman, J.J.M.; Vain, J.

    1995-01-01

    The integration of conceptual modeling techniques, formal specification, and compositional verification is considered for real time systems within the knowledge engineering context. We define constructive transformations from a conceptual meta model to a real time specification language and give

  9. Virtual timers in hierarchical real-time systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, van den M.M.H.P.; Holenderski, M.J.; Cools, W.A.; Bril, R.J.; Lukkien, J.J.; Zhu, D.

    2009-01-01

    Hierarchical scheduling frameworks (HSFs) provide means for composing complex real-time systems from welldefined subsystems. This paper describes an approach to provide hierarchically scheduled real-time applications with virtual event timers, motivated by the need for integrating priority

  10. Improving Timeliness in Real-Time Secure Database Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Son, Sang H; David, Rasikan; Thuraisingham, Bhavani

    2006-01-01

    .... In addition to real-time requirements, security is usually required in many applications. Multilevel security requirements introduce a new dimension to transaction processing in real-time database systems...

  11. Real-Time Wireless Data Acquisition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Emilio J.; Perotti, Jose; Lucena, Angel; Mata, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    Current and future aerospace requirements demand the creation of a new breed of sensing devices, with emphasis on reduced weight, power consumption, and physical size. This new generation of sensors must possess a high degree of intelligence to provide critical data efficiently and in real-time. Intelligence will include self-calibration, self-health assessment, and pre-processing of raw data at the sensor level. Most of these features are already incorporated in the Wireless Sensors Network (SensorNet(TradeMark)), developed by the Instrumentation Group at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). A system based on the SensorNet(TradeMark) architecture consists of data collection point(s) called Central Stations (CS) and intelligent sensors called Remote Stations (RS) where one or more CSs can be accommodated depending on the specific application. The CS's major function is to establish communications with the Remote Stations and to poll each RS for data and health information. The CS also collects, stores and distributes these data to the appropriate systems requiring the information. The system has the ability to perform point-to-point, multi-point and relay mode communications with an autonomous self-diagnosis of each communications link. Upon detection of a communication failure, the system automatically reconfigures to establish new communication paths. These communication paths are automatically and autonomously selected as the best paths by the system based on the existing operating environment. The data acquisition system currently under development at KSC consists of the SensorNet(TradeMark) wireless sensors as the remote stations and the central station called the Radio Frequency Health Node (RFHN). The RFF1N is the central station which remotely communicates with the SensorNet(TradeMark) sensors to control them and to receive data. The system's salient feature is the ability to provide deterministic sensor data with accurate time stamps for both time critical and non

  12. Army Secure Operating System: Information Security for Real Time Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anderson, Eric

    1984-01-01

    The Army Secure Operating System (ASOS) project, under the management of the U.S. Army CECOM organization, will provide real time systems software necessary for fielding modern Battlefield Automation Systems...

  13. Mixed - mode Operating System for Real - time Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan M. M.; Sultana S.; Foo C.K.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the mixed-mode system research is to handle devices with the accuracy of real-time systems and at the same time, having all the benefits and facilities of a matured Graphic User Interface(GUI)operating system which is typicallynon-real-time. This mixed-mode operating system comprising of a real-time portion and a non-real-time portion was studied and implemented to identify the feasibilities and performances in practical applications (in the context of scheduled the real-time e...

  14. A deep learning approach for real time prostate segmentation in freehand ultrasound guided biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anas, Emran Mohammad Abu; Mousavi, Parvin; Abolmaesumi, Purang

    2018-06-01

    Targeted prostate biopsy, incorporating multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI) and its registration with ultrasound, is currently the state-of-the-art in prostate cancer diagnosis. The registration process in most targeted biopsy systems today relies heavily on accurate segmentation of ultrasound images. Automatic or semi-automatic segmentation is typically performed offline prior to the start of the biopsy procedure. In this paper, we present a deep neural network based real-time prostate segmentation technique during the biopsy procedure, hence paving the way for dynamic registration of mp-MRI and ultrasound data. In addition to using convolutional networks for extracting spatial features, the proposed approach employs recurrent networks to exploit the temporal information among a series of ultrasound images. One of the key contributions in the architecture is to use residual convolution in the recurrent networks to improve optimization. We also exploit recurrent connections within and across different layers of the deep networks to maximize the utilization of the temporal information. Furthermore, we perform dense and sparse sampling of the input ultrasound sequence to make the network robust to ultrasound artifacts. Our architecture is trained on 2,238 labeled transrectal ultrasound images, with an additional 637 and 1,017 unseen images used for validation and testing, respectively. We obtain a mean Dice similarity coefficient of 93%, a mean surface distance error of 1.10 mm and a mean Hausdorff distance error of 3.0 mm. A comparison of the reported results with those of a state-of-the-art technique indicates statistically significant improvement achieved by the proposed approach. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Mixed - mode Operating System for Real - time Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan M. M.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the mixed-mode system research is to handle devices with the accuracy of real-time systems and at the same time, having all the benefits and facilities of a matured Graphic User Interface(GUIoperating system which is typicallynon-real-time. This mixed-mode operating system comprising of a real-time portion and a non-real-time portion was studied and implemented to identify the feasibilities and performances in practical applications (in the context of scheduled the real-time events. In this research an i8751 microcontroller-based hardware was used to measure the performance of the system in real-time-only as well as non-real-time-only configurations. The real-time portion is an 486DX-40 IBM PC system running under DOS-based real-time kernel and the non-real-time portion is a Pentium IIIbased system running under Windows NT. It was found that mixed-mode systems performed as good as a typical real-time system and in fact, gave many additional benefits such as simplified/modular programming and load tolerance.

  16. Integration of MDSplus in real-time systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luchetta, A.; Manduchi, G.; Taliercio, C.

    2006-01-01

    RFX-mod makes extensive usage of real-time systems for feedback control and uses MDSplus to interface them to the main Data Acquisition system. For this purpose, the core of MDSplus has been ported to VxWorks, the operating system used for real-time control in RFX. Using this approach, it is possible to integrate real-time systems, but MDSplus is used only for non-real-time tasks, i.e. those tasks which are executed before and after the pulse and whose performance does not affect the system time constraints. More extensive use of MDSplus in real-time systems is foreseen, and a real-time layer for MDSplus is under development, which will provide access to memory-mapped pulse files, shared by the tasks running on the same CPU. Real-time communication will also be integrated in the MDSplus core to provide support for distributed memory-mapped pulse files

  17. Real-Time MRI Navigated Ultrasound for Preoperative Tumor Evaluation in Breast Cancer Patients: Technique and Clinical Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ah Young; Seo, Bo Kyoung [Department of Radiology, Korea University Ansan Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Ansan 15355 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) navigated ultrasound is an image fusion technique to display the results of both MRI and ultrasonography on the same monitor. This system is a promising technique to improve lesion detection and analysis, to maximize advantages of each imaging modality, and to compensate the disadvantages of both MRI and ultrasound. In evaluating breast cancer stage preoperatively, MRI and ultrasound are the most representative imaging modalities. However, sometimes difficulties arise in interpreting and correlating the radiological features between these two different modalities. This pictorial essay demonstrates the technical principles of the real-time MRI navigated ultrasound, and clinical implementation of the system in preoperative evaluation of tumor extent, multiplicity, and nodal status in breast cancer patients.

  18. Real-time MRI navigated ultrasound for preoperative tumor evaluation in breast cancer patients: Technique and clinical implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ah Young; Seo, Bo Kyoung [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Ansan Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) navigated ultrasound is an image fusion technique to display the results of both MRI and ultrasonography on the same monitor. This system is a promising technique to improve lesion detection and analysis, to maximize advantages of each imaging modality, and to compensate the disadvantages of both MRI and ultrasound. In evaluating breast cancer stage preoperatively, MRI and ultrasound are the most representative imaging modalities. However, sometimes difficulties arise in interpreting and correlating the radiological features between these two different modalities. This pictorial essay demonstrates the technical principles of the real-time MRI navigated ultrasound, and clinical implementation of the system in preoperative evaluation of tumor extent, multiplicity, and nodal status in breast cancer patients.

  19. Applicable value of real time interventional ultrasound guidance in family planning reproduction operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Guoping; Zou Dongfang; Sun Jian; Dong Weihua

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine the clinical value of real time interventional ultrasound guidance in family planning reproduction operation. Methods: Under the guidance of ultrasound monitoring, 522 cases with high risk and difficult uterine operation were undertaken in our department. Results: The abdominal endoscopic contraceptive uterine operation under real time ultrasound monitoring was carried out for 522 cases in 4 years, with successful rates for high risk pregnancy as 287/289 cases, high risk troublesome withdrawal of contraceptive ring as 129/130 cases and puzzling uterine operation as 103/103 cases. The total successful rate reached 99.42%, without uterine rupture and other complications. Conclusion: The former complex, blind and difficult uterine operations turn to be simple, safe and reliable under the guidance of real time ultrasound. (authors)

  20. Systems Analyze Water Quality in Real Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    A water analyzer developed under Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Kennedy Space Center now monitors treatment processes at water and wastewater facilities around the world. Originally designed to provide real-time detection of nutrient levels in hydroponic solutions for growing plants in space, the ChemScan analyzer, produced by ASA Analytics Inc., of Waukesha, Wisconsin, utilizes spectrometry and chemometric algorithms to automatically analyze multiple parameters in the water treatment process with little need for maintenance, calibration, or operator intervention. The company has experienced a compound annual growth rate of 40 percent over its 15-year history as a direct result of the technology's success.

  1. A 4D ultrasound real-time tracking system for external beam radiotherapy of upper abdominal lesions under breath-hold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sihono, Dwi Seno Kuncoro; Vogel, Lena; Thoelking, Johannes; Wenz, Frederik; Boda-Heggemann, Judit; Wertz, Hansjoerg [University of Heidelberg, Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany); Weiss, Christel [University of Heidelberg, Department of Biomathematics and Medical Statistics, University Medical Center Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany); Lohr, Frank [University of Heidelberg, Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany); Az. Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Modena, Struttura Complessa di Radioterapia, Dipartimento di Oncologia, Modena (Italy)

    2017-03-15

    To evaluate a novel four-dimensional (4D) ultrasound (US) tracking system for external beam radiotherapy of upper abdominal lesions under computer-controlled deep-inspiration breath-hold (DIBH). The tracking accuracy of the research 4D US system was evaluated using two motion phantoms programmed with sinusoidal and breathing patterns to simulate free breathing and DIBH. Clinical performance was evaluated with five healthy volunteers. US datasets were acquired in computer-controlled DIBH with varying angular scanning angles. Tracked structures were renal pelvis (spherical structure) and portal/liver vein branches (non-spherical structure). An external marker was attached to the surface of both phantoms and volunteers as a secondary object to be tracked by an infrared camera for comparison. Phantom measurements showed increased accuracy of US tracking with decreasing scanning range/increasing scanning frequency. The probability of lost tracking was higher for small scanning ranges (43.09% for 10 and 13.54% for 20 ).The tracking success rates in healthy volunteers during DIBH were 93.24 and 89.86% for renal pelvis and portal vein branches, respectively. There was a strong correlation between marker motion and US tracking for the majority of analyzed breath-holds: 84.06 and 88.41% of renal pelvis target results and 82.26 and 91.94% of liver vein target results in anteroposterior and superoinferior directions, respectively; Pearson's correlation coefficient was between 0.71 and 0.99. The US system showed a good tracking performance in 4D motion phantoms. The tracking capability of surrogate structures for upper abdominal lesions in DIBH fulfills clinical requirements. Further investigation in a larger cohort of patients is underway. (orig.) [German] Evaluation eines neuen vierdimensionalen (4D) Ultraschall(US)-Tracking-Systems fuer die externe Strahlentherapie von Oberbauchlaesionen unter computergesteuertem tiefem Atemanhalt (DIBH). Die Tracking-Genauigkeit des 4D-US-Systems

  2. PERTS: A Prototyping Environment for Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jane W. S.; Lin, Kwei-Jay; Liu, C. L.

    1993-01-01

    PERTS is a prototyping environment for real-time systems. It is being built incrementally and will contain basic building blocks of operating systems for time-critical applications, tools, and performance models for the analysis, evaluation and measurement of real-time systems and a simulation/emulation environment. It is designed to support the use and evaluation of new design approaches, experimentations with alternative system building blocks, and the analysis and performance profiling of prototype real-time systems.

  3. Online 4D ultrasound guidance for real-time motion compensation by MLC tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipsen, Svenja; Bruder, Ralf; O'Brien, Rick; Keall, Paul J; Schweikard, Achim; Poulsen, Per R

    2016-10-01

    With the trend in radiotherapy moving toward dose escalation and hypofractionation, the need for highly accurate targeting increases. While MLC tracking is already being successfully used for motion compensation of moving targets in the prostate, current real-time target localization methods rely on repeated x-ray imaging and implanted fiducial markers or electromagnetic transponders rather than direct target visualization. In contrast, ultrasound imaging can yield volumetric data in real-time (3D + time = 4D) without ionizing radiation. The authors report the first results of combining these promising techniques-online 4D ultrasound guidance and MLC tracking-in a phantom. A software framework for real-time target localization was installed directly on a 4D ultrasound station and used to detect a 2 mm spherical lead marker inside a water tank. The lead marker was rigidly attached to a motion stage programmed to reproduce nine characteristic tumor trajectories chosen from large databases (five prostate, four lung). The 3D marker position detected by ultrasound was transferred to a computer program for MLC tracking at a rate of 21.3 Hz and used for real-time MLC aperture adaption on a conventional linear accelerator. The tracking system latency was measured using sinusoidal trajectories and compensated for by applying a kernel density prediction algorithm for the lung traces. To measure geometric accuracy, static anterior and lateral conformal fields as well as a 358° arc with a 10 cm circular aperture were delivered for each trajectory. The two-dimensional (2D) geometric tracking error was measured as the difference between marker position and MLC aperture center in continuously acquired portal images. For dosimetric evaluation, VMAT treatment plans with high and low modulation were delivered to a biplanar diode array dosimeter using the same trajectories. Dose measurements with and without MLC tracking were compared to a static reference dose using 3%/3 mm and 2

  4. Static Schedulers for Embedded Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    Because of the need for having efficient scheduling algorithms in large scale real time systems , software engineers put a lot of effort on developing...provide static schedulers for he Embedded Real Time Systems with single processor using Ada programming language. The independent nonpreemptable...support the Computer Aided Rapid Prototyping for Embedded Real Time Systems so that we determine whether the system, as designed, meets the required

  5. Design Recovery Technology for Real-Time Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-01

    RL-TR-95-208 Final Technical Report October 1995 DESIGN RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY FOR REAL TIME SYSTEMS The MITRE Corporation Lester J. Holtzblatt...92 - Jan 95 4. TTTLE AND SUBTITLE DESIGN RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY FOR REAL - TIME SYSTEMS 6. AUTHOR(S) Lester J. Holtzblatt, Richard Piazza, and Susan...behavior of real - time systems in general, our initial efforts have centered on recovering this information from one system in particular, the Modular

  6. A Programmable Microkernel for Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    A Programmable Microkernel for Real - Time Systems Christoph M. Kirsch Thomas A. Henzinger Marco A.A. Sanvido Report No. UCB/CSD-3-1250 June 2003...TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Programmable Microkernel for Real - Time Systems 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 A Programmable Microkernel for Real - Time Systems ∗ Christoph M

  7. Design Specifications for Adaptive Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    TICfl \\ E CT E Design Specifications for JAN’\\ 1992 Adaptive Real - Time Systems fl Randall W. Lichota U, Alice H. Muntz - December 1991 \\ \\\\/ 0 / r...268-2056 Technical Report CMU/SEI-91-TR-20 ESD-91-TR-20 December 1991 Design Specifications for Adaptive Real - Time Systems Randall W. Lichota Hughes...Design Specifications for Adaptive Real - Time Systems Abstract: The design specification method described in this report treats a software

  8. Proceedings of the Real-Time Systems Engineering Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-08-01

    real - time systems engineering. The workshop was held as part of the SEI Symposium in...Washington, DC, during September 2000. The objective of the workshop was to identify key issues and obtain feedback from attendees concerning real - time systems engineering...and interoperability. This report summarizes the workshop in terms of foundation, management, and technical topics, and it contains a discussion related to developing a community of interest for real - time systems

  9. Mixed-mode Operating System for Real-time Performance

    OpenAIRE

    M.M. Hasan; S. Sultana; C.K. Foo

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the mixed-mode system research is to handle devices with the accuracy of real-time systems and at the same time, having all the benefits and facilities of a matured Graphic User Interface (GUI) operating system which is typically nonreal-time. This mixed-mode operating system comprising of a real-time portion and a non-real-time portion was studied and implemented to identify the feasibilities and performances in practical applications (in the context of scheduled the real-time...

  10. Verifying real-time systems against scenario-based requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Li, Shuhao; Nielsen, Brian

    2009-01-01

    We propose an approach to automatic verification of real-time systems against scenario-based requirements. A real-time system is modeled as a network of Timed Automata (TA), and a scenario-based requirement is specified as a Live Sequence Chart (LSC). We define a trace-based semantics for a kernel...... subset of the LSC language. By equivalently translating an LSC chart into an observer TA and then non-intrusively composing this observer with the original system model, the problem of verifying a real-time system against a scenario-based requirement reduces to a classical real-time model checking...

  11. Temporal Proof Methodologies for Real-Time Systems,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    real time systems that communicate either through shared variables or by message passing and real time issues such as time-outs, process priorities (interrupts) and process scheduling. The authors exhibit two styles for the specification of real - time systems . While the first approach uses bounded versions of temporal operators the second approach allows explicit references to time through a special clock variable. Corresponding to two styles of specification the authors present and compare two fundamentally different proof

  12. Real-time control of focused ultrasound heating based on rapid MR thermometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimeux, F C; De Zwart, J A; Palussiére, J; Fawaz, R; Delalande, C; Canioni, P; Grenier, N; Moonen, C T

    1999-03-01

    Real-time control of the heating procedure is essential for hyperthermia applications of focused ultrasound (FUS). The objective of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of MRI-controlled FUS. An automatic control system was developed using a dedicated interface between the MR system control computer and the FUS wave generator. Two algorithms were used to regulate FUS power to maintain the focal point temperature at a desired level. Automatic control of FUS power level was demonstrated ex vivo at three target temperature levels (increase of 5 degrees C, 10 degrees C, and 30 degrees C above room temperature) during 30-minute hyperthermic periods. Preliminary in vivo results on rat leg muscle confirm that necrosis estimate, calculated on-line during FUS sonication, allows prediction of tissue damage. CONCLUSIONS. The feasibility of fully automatic FUS control based on MRI thermometry has been demonstrated.

  13. 76 FR 42536 - Real-Time System Management Information Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ...-Time System Management Information Program AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION... Real-Time System Management Information Program and general information about current and planned... establishing requirements for the Real-Time System Management Information Program on November 8, 2010, at 75 FR...

  14. 75 FR 68418 - Real-Time System Management Information Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ...-Time System Management Information Program AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION...) to establish a Real-Time System Management Information Program that provides, in all States, the... traveler information. The purposes of the Real-Time System Management Information Program are to: (1...

  15. Issues Involved in Developing Ada Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-15

    expensive modifications to the compiler or Ada runtime system to fit a particular application. Whether we can solve the problems of programming real - time systems in...lock in solutions to problems that are not yet well understood in standards as rigorous as the Ada language. Moreover, real - time systems typically have

  16. The Synthesis of Intelligent Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-11-09

    Synthesis of Intelligent Real - Time Systems . The purpose of the effort was to develop and extend theories and techniques that facilitate the design and...implementation of intelligent real - time systems . In particular, Teleos has extended situated-automata theory to apply to situations in which the system has

  17. Mixed-mode Operating System for Real-time Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Hasan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the mixed-mode system research is to handle devices with the accuracy of real-time systems and at the same time, having all the benefits and facilities of a matured Graphic User Interface (GUI operating system which is typically nonreal-time. This mixed-mode operating system comprising of a real-time portion and a non-real-time portion was studied and implemented to identify the feasibilities and performances in practical applications (in the context of scheduled the real-time events. In this research an i8751 microcontroller-based hardware was used to measure the performance of the system in real-time-only as well as non-real-time-only configurations. The real-time portion is an 486DX-40 IBM PC system running under DOS-based realtime kernel and the non-real-time portion is a Pentium III based system running under Windows NT. It was found that mixed-mode systems performed as good as a typical realtime system and in fact, gave many additional benefits such as simplified/modular programming and load tolerance.

  18. Performance evaluation of near-real-time accounting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    Examples are given illustrating the application of near-real-time accounting concepts and principles to actual nuclear facilities. Experience with prototypical systems at the AGNS reprocessing plant and the Los Alamos plutonium facility is described using examples of actual data to illustrate the performance and effectiveness of near-real-time systems. The purpose of the session is to enable participants to: (1) identify the major components of near-real-time accounting systems; (2) describe qualitatively the advantages, limitations, and performance of such systems in real nuclear facilities; (3) identify process and facility design characteristics that affect the performance of near-real-time systems; and (4) describe qualitatively the steps necessary to implement a near-real-time accounting and control system in a nuclear facility

  19. Self-Organization in Embedded Real-Time Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brinkschulte, Uwe; Rettberg, Achim

    2013-01-01

    This book describes the emerging field of self-organizing, multicore, distributed and real-time embedded systems.  Self-organization of both hardware and software can be a key technique to handle the growing complexity of modern computing systems. Distributed systems running hundreds of tasks on dozens of processors, each equipped with multiple cores, requires self-organization principles to ensure efficient and reliable operation. This book addresses various, so-called Self-X features such as self-configuration, self-optimization, self-adaptation, self-healing and self-protection. Presents open components for embedded real-time adaptive and self-organizing applications; Describes innovative techniques in: scheduling, memory management, quality of service, communications supporting organic real-time applications; Covers multi-/many-core embedded systems supporting real-time adaptive systems and power-aware, adaptive hardware and software systems; Includes case studies of open embedded real-time self-organizi...

  20. A real-time photogrammetry system based on embedded architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Y. Zheng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to meet the demand of real-time spatial data processing and improve the online processing capability of photogrammetric system, a kind of real-time photogrammetry method is proposed in this paper. According to the proposed method, system based on embedded architecture is then designed: using FPGA, ARM+DSP and other embedded computing technology to build specialized hardware operating environment, transplanting and optimizing the existing photogrammetric algorithm to the embedded system, and finally real-time photogrammetric data processing is realized. At last, aerial photogrammetric experiment shows that the method can achieve high-speed and stable on-line processing of photogrammetric data. And the experiment also verifies the feasibility of the proposed real-time photogrammetric system based on embedded architecture. It is the first time to realize real-time aerial photogrammetric system, which can improve the online processing efficiency of photogrammetry to a higher level and broaden the application field of photogrammetry.

  1. Real-time Testing of Operating Systems on Raspberry Pi

    OpenAIRE

    Murstad, Amund

    2016-01-01

    A subset of operating systems are called ``real time'' operating systems. While a general operating system like Windows or OSX can make no guarantee when a process gets to run, a real time one has the ability to do so. They are used for systems where the quality of the results from the operating system is not only defined by their correctness, but also by when they arrive. These kinds of systems are called Real-time Systems and can be divided into soft, hard and firm. If a deadline is missed ...

  2. Real time computer system with distributed microprocessors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heger, D.; Steusloff, H.; Syrbe, M.

    1979-01-01

    The usual centralized structure of computer systems, especially of process computer systems, cannot sufficiently use the progress of very large-scale integrated semiconductor technology with respect to increasing the reliability and performance and to decreasing the expenses especially of the external periphery. This and the increasing demands on process control systems has led the authors to generally examine the structure of such systems and to adapt it to the new surroundings. Computer systems with distributed, optical fibre-coupled microprocessors allow a very favourable problem-solving with decentralized controlled buslines and functional redundancy with automatic fault diagnosis and reconfiguration. A fit programming system supports these hardware properties: PEARL for multicomputer systems, dynamic loader, processor and network operating system. The necessary design principles for this are proved mainly theoretically and by value analysis. An optimal overall system of this new generation of process control systems was established, supported by results of 2 PDV projects (modular operating systems, input/output colour screen system as control panel), for the purpose of testing by apllying the system for the control of 28 pit furnaces of a steel work. (orig.) [de

  3. Distributed, Embedded and Real-time Java Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wellings, Andy

    2012-01-01

    Research on real-time Java technology has been prolific over the past decade, leading to a large number of corresponding hardware and software solutions, and frameworks for distributed and embedded real-time Java systems.  This book is aimed primarily at researchers in real-time embedded systems, particularly those who wish to understand the current state of the art in using Java in this domain.  Much of the work in real-time distributed, embedded and real-time Java has focused on the Real-time Specification for Java (RTSJ) as the underlying base technology, and consequently many of the Chapters in this book address issues with, or solve problems using, this framework. Describes innovative techniques in: scheduling, memory management, quality of service and communication systems supporting real-time Java applications; Includes coverage of multiprocessor embedded systems and parallel programming; Discusses state-of-the-art resource management for embedded systems, including Java’s real-time garbage collect...

  4. Expert systems for real-time monitoring and fault diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, S. J.; Caglayan, A. K.

    1989-01-01

    Methods for building real-time onboard expert systems were investigated, and the use of expert systems technology was demonstrated in improving the performance of current real-time onboard monitoring and fault diagnosis applications. The potential applications of the proposed research include an expert system environment allowing the integration of expert systems into conventional time-critical application solutions, a grammar for describing the discrete event behavior of monitoring and fault diagnosis systems, and their applications to new real-time hardware fault diagnosis and monitoring systems for aircraft.

  5. Real-time communication for distributed plasma control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luchetta, A. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, Padova 35127 (Italy)], E-mail: adriano.luchetta@igi.cnr.it; Barbalace, A.; Manduchi, G.; Soppelsa, A.; Taliercio, C. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, Padova 35127 (Italy)

    2008-04-15

    Real-time control applications will benefit in the near future from the enhanced performance provided by multi-core processor architectures. Nevertheless real-time communication will continue to be critical in distributed plasma control systems where the plant under control typically is distributed over a wide area. At RFX-mod real-time communication is crucial for hard real-time plasma control, due to the distributed architecture of the system, which consists of several VMEbus stations. The system runs under VxWorks and uses Gigabit Ethernet for sub-millisecond real-time communication. To optimize communication in the system, a set of detailed measurements has been carried out on the target platforms (Motorola MVME5100 and MVME5500) using either the VxWorks User Datagram Protocol (UDP) stack or raw communication based on the data link layer. Measurements have been carried out also under Linux, using its UDP stack or, in alternative, RTnet, an open source hard real-time network protocol stack. RTnet runs under Xenomai or RTAI, two popular real-time extensions based on the Linux kernel. The paper reports on the measurements carried out and compares the results, showing that the performance obtained by using open source code is suitable for sub-millisecond real-time communication in plasma control.

  6. Innovative tools for real-time simulation of dynamic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palli, Gianluca; Carloni, Raffaella; Melchiorri, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present a software architecture, based on RTAI-Linux, for the real-time simulation of dynamic systems and for the rapid prototyping of digital controllers. Our aim is to simplify the testing phase of digital controllers by providing the real-time simulation of the plant with the

  7. Real time control engineering systems and automation

    CERN Document Server

    Ng, Tian Seng

    2016-01-01

    This book covers the two broad areas of the electronics and electrical aspects of control applications, highlighting the many different types of control systems of relevance to real-life control system design. The control techniques presented are state-of-the-art. In the electronics section, readers will find essential information on microprocessor, microcontroller, mechatronics and electronics control. The low-level assembly programming language performs basic input/output control techniques as well as controlling the stepper motor and PWM dc motor. In the electrical section, the book addresses the complete elevator PLC system design, neural network plant control, load flow analysis, and process control, as well as machine vision topics. Illustrative diagrams, circuits and programming examples and algorithms help to explain the details of the system function design. Readers will find a wealth of computer control and industrial automation practices and applications for modern industries, as well as the educat...

  8. Dense time discretization technique for verification of real time systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makackas, Dalius; Miseviciene, Regina

    2016-01-01

    Verifying the real-time system there are two different models to control the time: discrete and dense time based models. This paper argues a novel verification technique, which calculates discrete time intervals from dense time in order to create all the system states that can be reached from the initial system state. The technique is designed for real-time systems specified by a piece-linear aggregate approach. Key words: real-time system, dense time, verification, model checking, piece-linear aggregate

  9. Data Acquisition and Real-Time Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, D. E., Ed.; Fenwick, P. M., Ed.

    The first group of papers starts with a tutorial paper which surveys the methods used in data acquisition systems. Other papers in this group describe: (1) some problems involved in the computer acquisition of high-speed randomly-occurring data and the protection of this data from accidental corruption, (2) an input/output bus to allow an IBM…

  10. A reliable information management for real-time systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishihara, Takuo; Tomita, Seiji

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a system configuration suitable for the hard realtime systems in which integrity and durability of information are important. On most hard real-time systems, where response time constraints are critical, the data which program access are volatile, and may be lost in case the systems are down. But for some real-time systems, the value-added intelligent network (IN) systems, e.g., integrity and durability of the stored data are very important. We propose a distributed system configuration for such hard real-time systems, comprised of service control modules and data management modules. The service control modules process transactions and responses based on deadline control, and the data management modules deal the stored data based on information recovery schemes well-restablished in fault real-time systems. (author)

  11. Design a Fault Tolerance for Real Time Distributed System

    OpenAIRE

    Ban M. Khammas

    2012-01-01

    This paper designed a fault tolerance for soft real time distributed system (FTRTDS). This system is designed to be independently on specific mechanisms and facilities of the underlying real time distributed system. It is designed to be distributed on all the computers in the distributed system and controlled by a central unit.Besides gathering information about a target program spontaneously, it provides information about the target operating system and the target hardware in order to diagno...

  12. Evaluation of real time operating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Cheol Hoon; Cho, Moon Heang; Choi, In Bum; Lee, Jung Won; Kang, Hui Sung

    2006-02-01

    An hard RTOS used in the Nuclear Power Plants must satisfy severe performance requirements even in a worst case scenario. Since operating systems are becoming more complicated, it is not an easy job to evaluate them. So it becomes more important how to evaluate the RTOS's used in the Nuclear Power Plants. The purpose of this work is to survey design examples and performance models of RTOS's used in the nuclear power plants and based on this survey, develop a evaluation technologies

  13. Developments in architecture for real-time data systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, R.L.; Myers, W.R.

    1975-01-01

    Real-time data systems typically operate at two levels: a fast-response instrument-oriented level for data acquisition and control, and a slow human-oriented level for interaction and computation. Traditional minicomputer data systems support real-time applications by implementation of background/foreground software. Recent developments in computer technology including microprocessors enable the functional organization of hardware in distributed or hierarchical form to provide new system structures for real-time requirements. Examples of systems with distributed architecture will be discussed in detail

  14. Real-time beam profile imaging system for actinotherapy accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Yong; Wang Jingjin; Song Zheng; Zheng Putang; Wang Jianguo

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a real-time beam profile imaging system for actinotheraphy accelerator. With the flash X-ray imager and the technique of digital image processing, a real-time 3-dimension dosage image is created from the intensity profile of the accelerator beam in real time. This system helps to obtain all the physical characters of the beam in any section plane, such as FWHM, penumbra, peak value, symmetry and homogeneity. This system has been used to acquire a 3-dimension dosage distribution of dynamic wedge modulator and the transient process of beam dosage. The system configure and the tested beam profile images are also presented

  15. Evaluation of real time operating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Cheol Hoon; Cho, Moon Heang; Choi, In Bum; Lee, Jung Won; Kang, Hui Sung [Chungnam National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-02-15

    An hard RTOS used in the Nuclear Power Plants must satisfy severe performance requirements even in a worst case scenario. Since operating systems are becoming more complicated, it is not an easy job to evaluate them. So it becomes more important how to evaluate the RTOS's used in the Nuclear Power Plants. The purpose of this work is to survey design examples and performance models of RTOS's used in the nuclear power plants and based on this survey, develop a evaluation technologies.

  16. On Real-Time Operating Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    1Ri2 193 ONREAL-TIME OPERATING SYS EMS(U MAYLAN UN V COLLG PARK DEPT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE S LEVI ET AL APR 87 CS-TR-1838 NOSO14-87-K-9124 UNCLASSIFIED...and processes. In each instance the abstraction takes the form of some non- physical resource and benefits both the system and the user. ...The...service, which is important as an inter-process service (for physical synchronization) as well as an internal service for a process. A time service in a

  17. Features of real-time systems

    OpenAIRE

    Зинченко, Сергей Валериевич; Зинченко, Валерий Петрович

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the work is to analyze the features and functioning of the RTS, RT operating systems (RTOS) and the development of applied programs (AP) for RTS; RTS standards; characteristics and analysis of the RTOS; problems of extensions of RT based on Linux and Windows.The main differences between the RTOS and the general purpose OS are shown: the main task is to have time to react to events at the site; an RTOS is a tool for creating a specific SRT. The following characteristic functions...

  18. Real-time wideband holographic surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, D.M.; Collins, H.D.; Hall, T.E.; McMakin, D.L.; Gribble, R.P.; Severtsen, R.H.; Prince, J.M.; Reid, L.D.

    1996-09-17

    A wideband holographic surveillance system including a transceiver for generating a plurality of electromagnetic waves; antenna for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; the transceiver also receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; a computer for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and a display for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The computer has instructions to apply a three dimensional backward wave algorithm. 28 figs.

  19. Design principles of a resource sharing real-time-system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gliss, B.

    1978-01-01

    Criteria for developing a resource sharing real time system are given. Resource sharing necessitates extra precautions for guaranteeing stable operating conditions. Some relevant measures to insure reliability and maintainability of the system are discussed. (Auth.)

  20. Cluster Computing for Embedded/Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, D.; Kepner, J.

    1999-01-01

    Embedded and real-time systems, like other computing systems, seek to maximize computing power for a given price, and thus can significantly benefit from the advancing capabilities of cluster computing.

  1. A Process For Performance Evaluation Of Real-Time Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Kornecki

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Real-time developers and engineers must not only meet the system functional requirements, but also the stringent timing requirements. One of the critical decisions leading to meeting these timing requirements is the selection of an operating system under which the software will be developed and run. Although there is ample documentation on real-time systems performance and evaluation, little can be found that combines such information into an efficient process for use by developers. As the software industry moves towards clearly defined processes, creation of appropriate guidelines describing a process for performance evaluation of real-time system would greatly benefit real-time developers. This technology transition research focuses on developing such a process. PROPERT (PROcess for Performance Evaluation of Real Time systems - the process described in this paper - is based upon established techniques for evaluating real-time systems. It organizes already existing real-time performance criteria and assessment techniques in a manner consistent with a well-formed process, based on the Personal Software Process concepts.

  2. Survey of real-time processing systems for big data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiufeng; Lftikhar, Nadeem; Xie, Xike

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, real-time processing and analytics systems for big data–in the context of Business Intelligence (BI)–have received a growing attention. The traditional BI platforms that perform regular updates on daily, weekly or monthly basis are no longer adequate to satisfy the fast......-changing business environments. However, due to the nature of big data, it has become a challenge to achieve the real-time capability using the traditional technologies. The recent distributed computing technology, MapReduce, provides off-the-shelf high scalability that can significantly shorten the processing time...... for big data; Its open-source implementation such as Hadoop has become the de-facto standard for processing big data, however, Hadoop has the limitation of supporting real-time updates. The improvements in Hadoop for the real-time capability, and the other alternative real-time frameworks have been...

  3. Real-time embedded systems design principles and engineering practices

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Xiaocong

    2015-01-01

    This book integrates new ideas and topics from real time systems, embedded systems, and software engineering to give a complete picture of the whole process of developing software for real-time embedded applications. You will not only gain a thorough understanding of concepts related to microprocessors, interrupts, and system boot process, appreciating the importance of real-time modeling and scheduling, but you will also learn software engineering practices such as model documentation, model analysis, design patterns, and standard conformance. This book is split into four parts to help you

  4. Distributed Issues for Ada Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-23

    NUMBERS Distributed Issues for Ada Real - Time Systems MDA 903-87- C- 0056 S. AUTHOR(S) Thomas E. Griest 7. PERFORMING ORGANiZATION NAME(S) AND ADORESS(ES) 8...considerations. I Adding to the problem of distributed real - time systems is the issue of maintaining a common sense of time among all of the processors...because -omeone is waiting for the final output of a very large set of computations. However in real - time systems , consistent meeting of short-term

  5. A Distributed Computing Network for Real-Time Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-03

    7 ) AU2 o NAVA TUNDEWATER SY$TEMS CENTER NEWPORT RI F/G 9/2 UIS RIBUT E 0 COMPUTIN G N LTWORK FOR REAL - TIME SYSTEMS .(U) UASSIFIED NOV Al 6 1...MORAIS - UT 92 dLEVEL c A Distributed Computing Network for Real - Time Systems . 11 𔃺-1 Gordon E/Morson I7 y tm- ,r - t "en t As J 2 -p .. - 7 I’ cNaval...NUMBER TD 5932 / N 4. TITLE mand SubotI. S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED A DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING NETWORK FOR REAL - TIME SYSTEMS 6. PERFORMING ORG

  6. Wireless Sensor Network Metrics for Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-20

    Wireless Sensor Network Metrics for Real-Time Systems Phoebus Wei-Chih Chen Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences University of California at...3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Wireless Sensor Network Metrics for Real-Time Systems 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b... wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is moving from studies of WSNs in isolation toward studies where the WSN is treated as a component of a larger system

  7. Research and application of embedded real-time operating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, based on the analysis of existing embedded real-time operating system, the architecture of an operating system is designed and implemented. The experimental results show that the design fully complies with the requirements of embedded real-time operating system, can achieve the purposes of reducing the complexity of embedded software design and improving the maintainability, reliability, flexibility. Therefore, this design program has high practical value.

  8. Overview of real-time operating systems on microprocessor platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luong, T.T.

    1994-01-01

    This paper attempts to overview the real-time operating systems on microprocessor platforms in the field of experimental physics facility controls. The key issues regarding operating systems as well as standards and development environment are discussed. As an illustration, some current industrial products are indicated. Also, real-time systems operating in some institutes of the EPS/EPCS inter divisional group are reviewed. (author). 3 refs., 4 figs

  9. Games and Scenarios for Real-Time System Validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Shuhao

    This thesis presents research on the validation of real-time embedded software systems in the context of model-based development. The thesis proposes scenario-based and game-theoretic approaches to system analysis, verification, synthesis and testing to address the challenges that arise from....... By linking our prototype translators with existing model checker Uppaal and game solver Uppaal-Tiga, we show that these methods contribute to the interaction correctness and timeliness of early system designs. The thesis also shows that testing a real-time reactive system can be viewed as playing a timed...... communicating real-time systems can be modeled and specified with LSC. By translating LSC to timed automata (TAs), we reduce scenario-based model consistency checking and property verification to CTL real-time model checking problems, and reduce scenario-based synthesis to a timed game solving problem...

  10. Reviewing real-time performance of nuclear reactor safety systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preckshot, G.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to recommend regulatory guidance for reviewers examining real-time performance of computer-based safety systems used in nuclear power plants. Three areas of guidance are covered in this report. The first area covers how to determine if, when, and what prototypes should be required of developers to make a convincing demonstration that specific problems have been solved or that performance goals have been met. The second area has recommendations for timing analyses that will prove that the real-time system will meet its safety-imposed deadlines. The third area has description of means for assessing expected or actual real-time performance before, during, and after development is completed. To ensure that the delivered real-time software product meets performance goals, the paper recommends certain types of code-execution and communications scheduling. Technical background is provided in the appendix on methods of timing analysis, scheduling real-time computations, prototyping, real-time software development approaches, modeling and measurement, and real-time operating systems.

  11. Reviewing real-time performance of nuclear reactor safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preckshot, G.G.

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to recommend regulatory guidance for reviewers examining real-time performance of computer-based safety systems used in nuclear power plants. Three areas of guidance are covered in this report. The first area covers how to determine if, when, and what prototypes should be required of developers to make a convincing demonstration that specific problems have been solved or that performance goals have been met. The second area has recommendations for timing analyses that will prove that the real-time system will meet its safety-imposed deadlines. The third area has description of means for assessing expected or actual real-time performance before, during, and after development is completed. To ensure that the delivered real-time software product meets performance goals, the paper recommends certain types of code-execution and communications scheduling. Technical background is provided in the appendix on methods of timing analysis, scheduling real-time computations, prototyping, real-time software development approaches, modeling and measurement, and real-time operating systems

  12. Novel Real-Time Flight Envelope Monitoring System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is an aircraft flight envelope monitoring system that will provide real-time in-cockpit estimations of aircraft flight envelope boundaries....

  13. Real-time personal dose measurement and management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhiyong; Cheng Chang; Liu Zhengshan; Yang Huating; Deng Changming; Zhang Xiu; Guo Zhanjie

    2001-01-01

    The composition and design of a real-time personal dose measurement and management system are described. Accordingly, some pertinent hardware circuits and software codes including their operation modes are presented

  14. Analysis and Synthesis of Distributed Real-Time Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru; Peng, Zebo

    like automotive electronics, real-time multimedia, avionics, medical equipment, and factory systems. The proposed analysis and synthesis techniques derive optimized implementations that fulfill the imposed design constraints. An important part of the implementation process is the synthesis...

  15. Processor tradeoffs in distributed real-time systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, C. M.; Shin, Kang G.; Bhandari, Inderpal S.

    1987-01-01

    The problem of the optimization of the design of real-time distributed systems is examined with reference to a class of computer architectures similar to the continuously reconfigurable multiprocessor flight control system structure, CM2FCS. Particular attention is given to the impact of processor replacement and the burn-in time on the probability of dynamic failure and mean cost. The solution is obtained numerically and interpreted in the context of real-time applications.

  16. Formal methods for dependable real-time systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushby, John

    1993-01-01

    The motivation for using formal methods to specify and reason about real time properties is outlined and approaches that were proposed and used are sketched. The formal verifications of clock synchronization algorithms are concluded as showing that mechanically supported reasoning about complex real time behavior is feasible. However, there was significant increase in the effectiveness of verification systems since those verifications were performed, at it is to be expected that verifications of comparable difficulty will become fairly routine. The current challenge lies in developing perspicuous and economical approaches to the formalization and specification of real time properties.

  17. Real-time ultrasound image classification for spine anesthesia using local directional Hadamard features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesteie, Mehran; Abolmaesumi, Purang; Ashab, Hussam Al-Deen; Lessoway, Victoria A; Massey, Simon; Gunka, Vit; Rohling, Robert N

    2015-06-01

    Injection therapy is a commonly used solution for back pain management. This procedure typically involves percutaneous insertion of a needle between or around the vertebrae, to deliver anesthetics near nerve bundles. Most frequently, spinal injections are performed either blindly using palpation or under the guidance of fluoroscopy or computed tomography. Recently, due to the drawbacks of the ionizing radiation of such imaging modalities, there has been a growing interest in using ultrasound imaging as an alternative. However, the complex spinal anatomy with different wave-like structures, affected by speckle noise, makes the accurate identification of the appropriate injection plane difficult. The aim of this study was to propose an automated system that can identify the optimal plane for epidural steroid injections and facet joint injections. A multi-scale and multi-directional feature extraction system to provide automated identification of the appropriate plane is proposed. Local Hadamard coefficients are obtained using the sequency-ordered Hadamard transform at multiple scales. Directional features are extracted from local coefficients which correspond to different regions in the ultrasound images. An artificial neural network is trained based on the local directional Hadamard features for classification. The proposed method yields distinctive features for classification which successfully classified 1032 images out of 1090 for epidural steroid injection and 990 images out of 1052 for facet joint injection. In order to validate the proposed method, a leave-one-out cross-validation was performed. The average classification accuracy for leave-one-out validation was 94 % for epidural and 90 % for facet joint targets. Also, the feature extraction time for the proposed method was 20 ms for a native 2D ultrasound image. A real-time machine learning system based on the local directional Hadamard features extracted by the sequency-ordered Hadamard transform for

  18. Quantification of complex blood flow using real-time in vivo vector flow ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads Møller; Pihl, Michael Johannes; Haugaard, Per

    2010-01-01

    A quantitative method for distinguishing complex from non-complex flow patterns in ultrasound is presented. A new commercial BK Medical ultrasound scanner uses the Transverse Oscillation vector flow technique for visualising flow patterns in real-time. In vivo vector flow data of the blood flow...... patterns of the common carotid artery and the carotid bulb were obtained simultaneously as the basis for quantifying complex flow. The carotid bifurcation of two healthy volunteers were scanned. The presence of complex flow patterns from eight cardiac cycles were evaluated by three experts in medical...... for automatic detection of complex flow patterns....

  19. Real-time ultrasound-guided spinal anaesthesia: a prospective observational study of a new approach.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Conroy, P H

    2013-01-01

    Identification of the subarachnoid space has traditionally been achieved by either a blind landmark-guided approach or using prepuncture ultrasound assistance. To assess the feasibility of performing spinal anaesthesia under real-time ultrasound guidance in routine clinical practice we conducted a single center prospective observational study among patients undergoing lower limb orthopaedic surgery. A spinal needle was inserted unassisted within the ultrasound transducer imaging plane using a paramedian approach (i.e., the operator held the transducer in one hand and the spinal needle in the other). The primary outcome measure was the success rate of CSF acquisition under real-time ultrasound guidance with CSF being located in 97 out of 100 consecutive patients within median three needle passes (IQR 1-6). CSF was not acquired in three patients. Subsequent attempts combining landmark palpation and pre-puncture ultrasound scanning resulted in successful spinal anaesthesia in two of these patients with the third patient requiring general anaesthesia. Median time from spinal needle insertion until intrathecal injection completion was 1.2 minutes (IQR 0.83-4.1) demonstrating the feasibility of this technique in routine clinical practice.

  20. Preoperative magnetic resonance and intraoperative ultrasound fusion imaging for real-time neuronavigation in brain tumor surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prada, F; Del Bene, M; Mattei, L; Lodigiani, L; DeBeni, S; Kolev, V; Vetrano, I; Solbiati, L; Sakas, G; DiMeco, F

    2015-04-01

    Brain shift and tissue deformation during surgery for intracranial lesions are the main actual limitations of neuro-navigation (NN), which currently relies mainly on preoperative imaging. Ultrasound (US), being a real-time imaging modality, is becoming progressively more widespread during neurosurgical procedures, but most neurosurgeons, trained on axial computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) slices, lack specific US training and have difficulties recognizing anatomic structures with the same confidence as in preoperative imaging. Therefore real-time intraoperative fusion imaging (FI) between preoperative imaging and intraoperative ultrasound (ioUS) for virtual navigation (VN) is highly desirable. We describe our procedure for real-time navigation during surgery for different cerebral lesions. We performed fusion imaging with virtual navigation for patients undergoing surgery for brain lesion removal using an ultrasound-based real-time neuro-navigation system that fuses intraoperative cerebral ultrasound with preoperative MRI and simultaneously displays an MRI slice coplanar to an ioUS image. 58 patients underwent surgery at our institution for intracranial lesion removal with image guidance using a US system equipped with fusion imaging for neuro-navigation. In all cases the initial (external) registration error obtained by the corresponding anatomical landmark procedure was below 2 mm and the craniotomy was correctly placed. The transdural window gave satisfactory US image quality and the lesion was always detectable and measurable on both axes. Brain shift/deformation correction has been successfully employed in 42 cases to restore the co-registration during surgery. The accuracy of ioUS/MRI fusion/overlapping was confirmed intraoperatively under direct visualization of anatomic landmarks and the error was surgery and is less expensive and time-consuming than other intraoperative imaging techniques, offering high precision and

  1. Facial Expression Emotion Detection for Real-Time Embedded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Turabzadeh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, real-time facial expression recognition has attracted more and more research. In this study, an automatic facial expression real-time system was built and tested. Firstly, the system and model were designed and tested on a MATLAB environment followed by a MATLAB Simulink environment that is capable of recognizing continuous facial expressions in real-time with a rate of 1 frame per second and that is implemented on a desktop PC. They have been evaluated in a public dataset, and the experimental results were promising. The dataset and labels used in this study were made from videos, which were recorded twice from five participants while watching a video. Secondly, in order to implement in real-time at a faster frame rate, the facial expression recognition system was built on the field-programmable gate array (FPGA. The camera sensor used in this work was a Digilent VmodCAM — stereo camera module. The model was built on the Atlys™ Spartan-6 FPGA development board. It can continuously perform emotional state recognition in real-time at a frame rate of 30. A graphical user interface was designed to display the participant’s video in real-time and two-dimensional predict labels of the emotion at the same time.

  2. Real Time Fire Reconnaissance Satellite Monitoring System Failure Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nino Prieto, Omar Ariosto; Colmenares Guillen, Luis Enrique

    2013-09-01

    In this paper the Real Time Fire Reconnaissance Satellite Monitoring System is presented. This architecture is a legacy of the Detection System for Real-Time Physical Variables which is undergoing a patent process in Mexico. The methodologies for this design are the Structured Analysis for Real Time (SA- RT) [8], and the software is carried out by LACATRE (Langage d'aide à la Conception d'Application multitâche Temps Réel) [9,10] Real Time formal language. The system failures model is analyzed and the proposal is based on the formal language for the design of critical systems and Risk Assessment; AltaRica. This formal architecture uses satellites as input sensors and it was adapted from the original model which is a design pattern for physical variation detection in Real Time. The original design, whose task is to monitor events such as natural disasters and health related applications, or actual sickness monitoring and prevention, as the Real Time Diabetes Monitoring System, among others. Some related work has been presented on the Mexican Space Agency (AEM) Creation and Consultation Forums (2010-2011), and throughout the International Mexican Aerospace Science and Technology Society (SOMECYTA) international congress held in San Luis Potosí, México (2012). This Architecture will allow a Real Time Fire Satellite Monitoring, which will reduce the damage and danger caused by fires which consumes the forests and tropical forests of Mexico. This new proposal, permits having a new system that impacts on disaster prevention, by combining national and international technologies and cooperation for the benefit of humankind.

  3. Robotic 4D ultrasound solution for real-time visualization and teleoperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Badri Mohammed

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Automation of the image acquisition process via robotic solutions offer a large leap towards resolving ultrasound’s user-dependency. This paper, as part of a larger project aimed to develop a multipurpose 4d-ultrasonic force-sensitive robot for medical applications, focuses on achieving real-time remote visualisation for 4d ultrasound image transfer. This was possible through implementing our software modification on a GE Vivid 7 Dimension workstation, which operates a matrix array probe controlled by a KUKA LBR iiwa 7 7-DOF robotic arm. With the help of robotic positioning and the matrix array probe, fast volumetric imaging of target regions was feasible. By testing ultrasound volumes, which were roughly 880 kB in size, while using gigabit Ethernet connection, a latency of ∼57 ms was achievable for volume transfer between the ultrasound station and a remote client application, which as a result allows a frame count of 17.4 fps. Our modification thus offers for the first time real-time remote visualization, recording and control of 4d ultrasound data, which can be implemented in teleoperation.

  4. GNSS global real-time augmentation positioning: Real-time precise satellite clock estimation, prototype system construction and performance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Zhao, Qile; Hu, Zhigang; Jiang, Xinyuan; Geng, Changjiang; Ge, Maorong; Shi, Chuang

    2018-01-01

    Lots of ambiguities in un-differenced (UD) model lead to lower calculation efficiency, which isn't appropriate for the high-frequency real-time GNSS clock estimation, like 1 Hz. Mixed differenced model fusing UD pseudo-range and epoch-differenced (ED) phase observations has been introduced into real-time clock estimation. In this contribution, we extend the mixed differenced model for realizing multi-GNSS real-time clock high-frequency updating and a rigorous comparison and analysis on same conditions are performed to achieve the best real-time clock estimation performance taking the efficiency, accuracy, consistency and reliability into consideration. Based on the multi-GNSS real-time data streams provided by multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) and Wuhan University, GPS + BeiDou + Galileo global real-time augmentation positioning prototype system is designed and constructed, including real-time precise orbit determination, real-time precise clock estimation, real-time Precise Point Positioning (RT-PPP) and real-time Standard Point Positioning (RT-SPP). The statistical analysis of the 6 h-predicted real-time orbits shows that the root mean square (RMS) in radial direction is about 1-5 cm for GPS, Beidou MEO and Galileo satellites and about 10 cm for Beidou GEO and IGSO satellites. Using the mixed differenced estimation model, the prototype system can realize high-efficient real-time satellite absolute clock estimation with no constant clock-bias and can be used for high-frequency augmentation message updating (such as 1 Hz). The real-time augmentation message signal-in-space ranging error (SISRE), a comprehensive accuracy of orbit and clock and effecting the users' actual positioning performance, is introduced to evaluate and analyze the performance of GPS + BeiDou + Galileo global real-time augmentation positioning system. The statistical analysis of real-time augmentation message SISRE is about 4-7 cm for GPS, whlile 10 cm for Beidou IGSO/MEO, Galileo and about 30 cm

  5. Developing infrared array controller with software real time operating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sako, Shigeyuki; Miyata, Takashi; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Motohara, Kentaro; Uchimoto, Yuka Katsuno; Onaka, Takashi; Kataza, Hirokazu

    2008-07-01

    Real-time capabilities are required for a controller of a large format array to reduce a dead-time attributed by readout and data transfer. The real-time processing has been achieved by dedicated processors including DSP, CPLD, and FPGA devices. However, the dedicated processors have problems with memory resources, inflexibility, and high cost. Meanwhile, a recent PC has sufficient resources of CPUs and memories to control the infrared array and to process a large amount of frame data in real-time. In this study, we have developed an infrared array controller with a software real-time operating system (RTOS) instead of the dedicated processors. A Linux PC equipped with a RTAI extension and a dual-core CPU is used as a main computer, and one of the CPU cores is allocated to the real-time processing. A digital I/O board with DMA functions is used for an I/O interface. The signal-processing cores are integrated in the OS kernel as a real-time driver module, which is composed of two virtual devices of the clock processor and the frame processor tasks. The array controller with the RTOS realizes complicated operations easily, flexibly, and at a low cost.

  6. Specifying and verifying requirements of real-time systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Anders P.; Rischel, Hans; Hansen, Kirsten Mark

    1993-01-01

    , a real-time interval logic, where predicates define durations of states. Requirements define safety and functionality constraints on the system or a component. A top-level design is given by a control law: a predicate that defines an automation controlling the transition between phases of operation. Each......An approach to specification of requirements and verification of design for real-time systems is presented. A system is defined by a conventional mathematical model for a dynamic system where application specific states denote functions of real time. Specifications are formulas in duration calculus...... phase maintains certain relations among the system states; this is analogous to the control functions known from conventional control theory. The top-level design is decomposed into an architecture for a distributed system with specifications for sensor, actuator, and program components. Programs...

  7. Real-time alerts and reminders using information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanderer, Jonathan P; Sandberg, Warren S; Ehrenfeld, Jesse M

    2011-09-01

    Adoption of information systems throughout the hospital environment has enabled the development of real-time physiologic alerts and clinician reminder systems. These clinical tools can be made available through the deployment of anesthesia information management systems (AIMS). Creating usable alert systems requires understanding of technical considerations. Various successful implementations are reviewed, encompassing cost reduction, improved revenue capture, timely antibiotic administration, and postoperative nausea and vomiting prophylaxis. Challenges to the widespread use of real-time alerts and reminders include AIMS adoption rates and the difficulty in choosing appropriate areas and approaches for information systems support. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Real-Time Imaging System for the OpenPET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashima, Hideaki; Yoshida, Eiji; Kinouchi, Shoko; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Inadama, Naoko; Murayama, Hideo; Suga, Mikio; Haneishi, Hideaki; Yamaya, Taiga

    2012-02-01

    The OpenPET and its real-time imaging capability have great potential for real-time tumor tracking in medical procedures such as biopsy and radiation therapy. For the real-time imaging system, we intend to use the one-pass list-mode dynamic row-action maximum likelihood algorithm (DRAMA) and implement it using general-purpose computing on graphics processing units (GPGPU) techniques. However, it is difficult to make consistent reconstructions in real-time because the amount of list-mode data acquired in PET scans may be large depending on the level of radioactivity, and the reconstruction speed depends on the amount of the list-mode data. In this study, we developed a system to control the data used in the reconstruction step while retaining quantitative performance. In the proposed system, the data transfer control system limits the event counts to be used in the reconstruction step according to the reconstruction speed, and the reconstructed images are properly intensified by using the ratio of the used counts to the total counts. We implemented the system on a small OpenPET prototype system and evaluated the performance in terms of the real-time tracking ability by displaying reconstructed images in which the intensity was compensated. The intensity of the displayed images correlated properly with the original count rate and a frame rate of 2 frames per second was achieved with average delay time of 2.1 s.

  9. Complex blood flow quantification using real-time in vivo vector flow ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads Møller; Pihl, Michael Johannes; Per, Haugaard

    A new method to define and quantify complex blood flow is presented. The standard deviations of real-time in vivo vector flow angle estimates are used. Using vector flow ultrasound imaging both carotid bifurcations of two healthy volunteers were scanned. Scanning was performed with a 7.6 MHz linear...... transducer (8670, B-K Medical, Denmark) and a commercial vector flow ultrasound scanner (ProFocus 2202, B-K Medical). Eight video sequences of one cardiac cycle were obtained. In every frame boxes were placed to define the common carotid artery(box1) and the carotid bulb(box2). The standard deviation...... for the vector angle estimates was calculated for each box in every frame. For comparison three ultrasound experts evaluated the presence of complex flow in every box. The trial was blinded. For every sequence the mean standard deviation of the vector angle estimates were calculated for box1 {39...

  10. The design of a real-time distributed system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertzberger, L.O.; Tuynman, F.; Mullender, S.J.; Poletiek, G.; Vermeulen, J.C.; Renesse, R. van; Tanenbaum, A.S.

    1986-01-01

    In modern physics experiments an increasing number and variety of programmable processors is used. As a consequence, a software environment is needed that provides an integrated approach to development, testing and use of real-time distributed software. This contribution is based on work being done in the AMOEBA Distributed Operating System Project and the FADOS Real-Time Distributed Operating System Project. A short description of both systems is presented as an example of how basic real-time operating system services can be organized. AMOEBA is the result of fundamental research in the field of distributed operating systems, while FADOS has been designed for applications as encountered in experimental high-energy physics. (Auth.)

  11. Real-time personal exposure and health condition monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saitou, Isamu; Kanda, Hiroaki; Asai, Akio; Takeishi, Naoki; Ota, Yoshito [Hitachi Aloka Medical, Ltd., Measuring Systems Engineering Dept., Tokyo (Japan); Hanawa, Nobuhiro; Ueda, Hisao; Kusunoki, Tsuyoshi; Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Kawamura, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Oarai Research and Development Center, Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2012-03-15

    JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency) and HAM (Hitachi Aloka Medical, Ltd) have proposed novel monitoring system for workers of nuclear facility. In these facilities, exposure management for workers is mainly used access control and personal exposure recordings. This system is currently only for reports management but is not confirmative for surveillance when work in progress. Therefore, JAEA and HAM integrate access control and personal exposure recordings and two real-time monitoring systems which are position sensing and vital sign monitor. Furthermore change personal exposure management to real-time management, this system integration prevents workers from risk of accidents, and makes possible take appropriate action quickly. This novel system is going to start for tentative operation, using position sensing and real-time personal dosimeter with database in Apr. 2012. (author)

  12. A framework for building real-time expert systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. Daniel

    1991-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom is an example of complex systems that require both traditional and artificial intelligence (AI) real-time methodologies. It was mandated that Ada should be used for all new software development projects. The station also requires distributed processing. Catastrophic failures on the station can cause the transmission system to malfunction for a long period of time, during which ground-based expert systems cannot provide any assistance to the crisis situation on the station. This is even more critical for other NASA projects that would have longer transmission delays (e.g., the lunar base, Mars missions, etc.). To address these issues, a distributed agent architecture (DAA) is proposed that can support a variety of paradigms based on both traditional real-time computing and AI. The proposed testbed for DAA is an autonomous power expert (APEX) which is a real-time monitoring and diagnosis expert system for the electrical power distribution system of the space station.

  13. Upgrade of the COMPASS tokamak real-time control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janky, F., E-mail: filip.janky.work@gmail.com [Institute of Plasma Physics, AS CR, v.v.i., Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, 18200 Prague (Czech Republic); Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, V Holesovickach 2, 18000 Prague (Czech Republic); Havlicek, J. [Institute of Plasma Physics, AS CR, v.v.i., Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, 18200 Prague (Czech Republic); Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, V Holesovickach 2, 18000 Prague (Czech Republic); Batista, A.J.N. [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Kudlacek, O.; Seidl, J. [Institute of Plasma Physics, AS CR, v.v.i., Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, 18200 Prague (Czech Republic); Neto, A.C. [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Pipek, J.; Hron, M. [Institute of Plasma Physics, AS CR, v.v.i., Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, 18200 Prague (Czech Republic); Mikulin, O. [Institute of Plasma Physics, AS CR, v.v.i., Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, 18200 Prague (Czech Republic); Czech Technical University, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, V Holesovickach 2, 18000 Prague (Czech Republic); and others

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • An upgrade of the COMPASS real-time system has been made to generally improve the plasma performance. • Stability of discharges in SNT configuration has been increased. • Plasma flat-top phase length has been extended. • Central solenoid protection has been developed. • Plasma position estimation has been improved. - Abstract: The COMPASS plasma control system is based on the MARTe real-time framework. Thanks to MARTe modularity and flexibility new algorithms have been developed for plasma diagnostic (plasma position calculation), control (shaping field control), and protection systems (central solenoid protection). Moreover, the MARTe framework itself was modified to broaden the communication capabilities via Aurora. This paper presents the recent upgrades and improvements made to the COMPASS real-time plasma control system, focusing on the issues related to precision of the real-time calculations, and discussing the improvements in terms of discharge parameters and stability. In particular, the new real-time system has given the possibility to analyze and to minimize the transport delays of each control loop.

  14. Integration of Real-Time Data Into Building Automation Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark J. Stunder; Perry Sebastian; Brenda A. Chube; Michael D. Koontz

    2003-04-16

    The project goal was to investigate the possibility of using predictive real-time information from the Internet as an input to building management system algorithms. The objectives were to identify the types of information most valuable to commercial and residential building owners, managers, and system designers. To comprehensively investigate and document currently available electronic real-time information suitable for use in building management systems. Verify the reliability of the information and recommend accreditation methods for data and providers. Assess methodologies to automatically retrieve and utilize the information. Characterize equipment required to implement automated integration. Demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of using the information in building management systems. Identify evolutionary control strategies.

  15. Development of real-time x-ray microtomography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, H; Morikawa, M; Konishi, S; Azuma, H; Shimomura, S; Tsusaka, Y; Kagoshima, Y; Nakano, S; Kosaka, N; Yamamoto, K

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a four-dimensional (4D) x-ray microcomputed tomography (CT) system that can obtain time-lapse CT volumes in real time. The system consists of a high-speed sample rotation system and a high-frame-rate x-ray imager, which are installed at a synchrotron radiation x-ray beamline. As a result of system optimization and introduction of a 'zoom resolution' procedure, a real-time 4D CT movie with a frame rate of 30 was obtained with a voxel size of 2.5 μm using 10 keV x-rays

  16. The evolution of real-time control systems at JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodyear, A.; Dorling, S.; Felton, R

    2001-07-01

    Real-time feedback control of the JET experiment is based upon a collection of diagnostics providing signals which are processed by various controllers that manipulate actuator parameters for plasma current, shape and heating. The real-time data network (RTDN) connects the diagnostic, controller and actuator systems to form a flexible feedback and protection system for plasma monitoring and control. The controllers are mainly VME systems based on the Motorola 680X0 (68K) processor with some computationally intensive systems utilising Texas Instruments TMS320C40 (C40) digital signal processors (DSP), though lately there has been a move towards PowerPC 750 based processors. The majority of 68K VME systems use VxWorks, a hard real time operating system. There is an ongoing requirement to improve the efficiency of the real-time control systems at JET. This is driven by a desire to either add more input signals, reduce the feedback cycle time or increase algorithm complexity. New technology has a major role to play in the upgrade of the real-time control systems but the novel redeployment of existing equipment can also be used to enhance performance. This paper examines the configuration of existing systems, both hardware and software, and how new technology can be gradually integrated without jeopardising the current functionality. The adoption of Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) as the connection medium for the RTDN is key to the evolutional development of the control systems. The ATM network is extremely flexible to configure and benefits from low message latency and deterministic delivery time, essential properties for a real-time network. (author)

  17. Real-time three-dimensional ultrasound-assisted axillary plexus block defines soft tissue planes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clendenen, Steven R; Riutort, Kevin; Ladlie, Beth L; Robards, Christopher; Franco, Carlo D; Greengrass, Roy A

    2009-04-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound is commonly used for regional block of the axillary brachial plexus. In this technical case report, we described a real-time three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound-guided axillary block. The difference between 2D and 3D ultrasound is similar to the difference between plain radiograph and computer tomography. Unlike 2D ultrasound that captures a planar image, 3D ultrasound technology acquires a 3D volume of information that enables multiple planes of view by manipulating the image without movement of the ultrasound probe. Observation of the brachial plexus in cross-section demonstrated distinct linear hyperechoic tissue structures (loose connective tissue) that initially inhibited the flow of the local anesthesia. After completion of the injection, we were able to visualize the influence of arterial pulsation on the spread of the local anesthesia. Possible advantages of this novel technology over current 2D methods are wider image volume and the capability to manipulate the planes of the image without moving the probe.

  18. Designing a fuzzy scheduler for hard real-time systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, John; Lee, Jonathan; Pfluger, Nathan; Natarajan, Swami

    1992-01-01

    In hard real-time systems, tasks have to be performed not only correctly, but also in a timely fashion. If timing constraints are not met, there might be severe consequences. Task scheduling is the most important problem in designing a hard real-time system, because the scheduling algorithm ensures that tasks meet their deadlines. However, the inherent nature of uncertainty in dynamic hard real-time systems increases the problems inherent in scheduling. In an effort to alleviate these problems, we have developed a fuzzy scheduler to facilitate searching for a feasible schedule. A set of fuzzy rules are proposed to guide the search. The situation we are trying to address is the performance of the system when no feasible solution can be found, and therefore, certain tasks will not be executed. We wish to limit the number of important tasks that are not scheduled.

  19. Simultaneous real-time monitoring of multiple cortical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Disha; Jeremy Hill, N; Brunner, Peter; Gunduz, Aysegul; Ritaccio, Anthony L; Schalk, Gerwin

    2014-10-01

    Real-time monitoring of the brain is potentially valuable for performance monitoring, communication, training or rehabilitation. In natural situations, the brain performs a complex mix of various sensory, motor or cognitive functions. Thus, real-time brain monitoring would be most valuable if (a) it could decode information from multiple brain systems simultaneously, and (b) this decoding of each brain system were robust to variations in the activity of other (unrelated) brain systems. Previous studies showed that it is possible to decode some information from different brain systems in retrospect and/or in isolation. In our study, we set out to determine whether it is possible to simultaneously decode important information about a user from different brain systems in real time, and to evaluate the impact of concurrent activity in different brain systems on decoding performance. We study these questions using electrocorticographic signals recorded in humans. We first document procedures for generating stable decoding models given little training data, and then report their use for offline and for real-time decoding from 12 subjects (six for offline parameter optimization, six for online experimentation). The subjects engage in tasks that involve movement intention, movement execution and auditory functions, separately, and then simultaneously. Main Results: Our real-time results demonstrate that our system can identify intention and movement periods in single trials with an accuracy of 80.4% and 86.8%, respectively (where 50% would be expected by chance). Simultaneously, the decoding of the power envelope of an auditory stimulus resulted in an average correlation coefficient of 0.37 between the actual and decoded power envelopes. These decoders were trained separately and executed simultaneously in real time. This study yielded the first demonstration that it is possible to decode simultaneously the functional activity of multiple independent brain systems. Our

  20. Embedded real-time operating system micro kernel design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiao-hui; Li, Ming-qiang; Wang, Xin-zheng

    2005-12-01

    Embedded systems usually require a real-time character. Base on an 8051 microcontroller, an embedded real-time operating system micro kernel is proposed consisting of six parts, including a critical section process, task scheduling, interruption handle, semaphore and message mailbox communication, clock managent and memory managent. Distributed CPU and other resources are among tasks rationally according to the importance and urgency. The design proposed here provides the position, definition, function and principle of micro kernel. The kernel runs on the platform of an ATMEL AT89C51 microcontroller. Simulation results prove that the designed micro kernel is stable and reliable and has quick response while operating in an application system.

  1. Testing power system controllers by real-time simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venne, Philippe; Guillaud, Xavier; Sirois, Frédéric

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present a number of state-of-the art methods for testing power system controllers based on the use of a real-time power system simulator. After introducing Hypersim, we list and discuss the different means of connection between the controller under tests and the power system...

  2. Design Aids for Real-Time Systems (DARTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulewski, P. A.

    1982-01-01

    Design-Aids for Real-Time Systems (DARTS) is a tool that assists in defining embedded computer systems through tree structured graphics, military standard documentation support, and various analyses including automated Software Science parameter counting and metrics calculation. These analyses provide both static and dynamic design quality feedback which can potentially aid in producing efficient, high quality software systems.

  3. Coordinated scheduling for dynamic real-time systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Swaminathan; Zhao, Wei

    1994-01-01

    In this project, we addressed issues in coordinated scheduling for dynamic real-time systems. In particular, we concentrated on design and implementation of a new distributed real-time system called R-Shell. The design objective of R-Shell is to provide computing support for space programs that have large, complex, fault-tolerant distributed real-time applications. In R-shell, the approach is based on the concept of scheduling agents, which reside in the application run-time environment, and are customized to provide just those resource management functions which are needed by the specific application. With this approach, we avoid the need for a sophisticated OS which provides a variety of generalized functionality, while still not burdening application programmers with heavy responsibility for resource management. In this report, we discuss the R-Shell approach, summarize the achievement of the project, and describe a preliminary prototype of R-Shell system.

  4. Modelling and analysis of real-time and hybrid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivero, A

    1994-09-29

    This work deals with the modelling and analysis of real-time and hybrid systems. We first present the timed-graphs as model for the real-time systems and we recall the basic notions of the analysis of real-time systems. We describe the temporal properties on the timed-graphs using TCTL formulas. We consider two methods for property verification: in one hand we study the symbolic model-checking (based on backward analysis) and in the other hand we propose a verification method derived of the construction of the simulation graph (based on forward analysis). Both methods have been implemented within the KRONOS verification tool. Their application for the automatic verification on several real-time systems confirms the practical interest of our approach. In a second part we study the hybrid systems, systems combining discrete components with continuous ones. As in the general case the analysis of this king of systems is not decidable, we identify two sub-classes of hybrid systems and we give a construction based method for the generation of a timed-graph from an element into the sub-classes. We prove that in one case the timed-graph obtained is bi-similar with the considered system and that there exists a simulation in the other case. These relationships allow the application of the described technics on the hybrid systems into the defined sub-classes. (authors). 60 refs., 43 figs., 8 tabs., 2 annexes.

  5. Can Real-Time Systems Benefit from Dynamic Partial Reconfiguration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pezzarossa, Luca; Kristensen, Andreas Toftegaard; Schoeberl, Martin

    2017-01-01

    In real-time systems, a solution where hardware accelerators are used to implement computationally intensive tasks can be easier to analyze, in terms of worst-case execution time (WCET), than a pure software solution. However, when using FPGAs, the amount and the complexity of the hardware...... hardware accelerators in real-time systems and presents an experimental analysis of the trade-offs between hardware utilization and WCET increase due to the reconfiguration time overhead of DPR. We also investigate the trade-off between the use of multiple specialized accelerators combined with DPR instead...

  6. Real-time control systems: feedback, scheduling and robustness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Daniel; Seuret, Alexandre; Sename, Olivier

    2017-08-01

    The efficient control of real-time distributed systems, where continuous components are governed through digital devices and communication networks, needs a careful examination of the constraints arising from the different involved domains inside co-design approaches. Thanks to the robustness of feedback control, both new control methodologies and slackened real-time scheduling schemes are proposed beyond the frontiers between these traditionally separated fields. A methodology to design robust aperiodic controllers is provided, where the sampling interval is considered as a control variable of the system. Promising experimental results are provided to show the feasibility and robustness of the approach.

  7. An approach to a real-time distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittle, Frank P., Jr.; Paddock, Eddie J.; Pocklington, Tony; Wang, Lui

    1990-01-01

    The requirements of a real-time data distribution system are to provide fast, reliable delivery of data from source to destination with little or no impact to the data source. In this particular case, the data sources are inside an operational environment, the Mission Control Center (MCC), and any workstation receiving data directly from the operational computer must conform to the software standards of the MCC. In order to supply data to development workstations outside of the MCC, it is necessary to use gateway computers that prevent unauthorized data transfer back to the operational computers. Many software programs produced on the development workstations are targeted for real-time operation. Therefore, these programs must migrate from the development workstation to the operational workstation. It is yet another requirement for the Data Distribution System to ensure smooth transition of the data interfaces for the application developers. A standard data interface model has already been set up for the operational environment, so the interface between the distribution system and the application software was developed to match that model as closely as possible. The system as a whole therefore allows the rapid development of real-time applications without impacting the data sources. In summary, this approach to a real-time data distribution system provides development users outside of the MCC with an interface to MCC real-time data sources. In addition, the data interface was developed with a flexible and portable software design. This design allows for the smooth transition of new real-time applications to the MCC operational environment.

  8. Evaluation of Real-time operating systems for FGC controls

    CERN Document Server

    Chalas, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Power Converter Control for various experiments at CERN, is con- ducted using a machine called Function Generator Controller. The cur- rent generation of FGCs being deployed is FGC3. A certain number of FGCs require very fast and precise control, and for these systems, there is uncertainty of whether the existing hardware will be able to provide the level of determinism required. I have worked in the CCS section as a summer student on a project to study the potential of ARM-based CPUs to provide a real time behaviour fit for a future high-performance FGC4. In this paper, i will present the results of my research into real-time vari- ants of Linux and other real-time operating systems on two different ARM CPUs.

  9. Does the real-time ultrasound guidance provide safer venipuncture in implantable venous port implantation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, İlknur; Tütüncü, Ayşe Çiğdem; Bademler, Süleyman; Özgür, İlker; Demiray, Mukaddes; Karanlık, Hasan

    2018-03-01

    To examine whether the real-time ultrasound-guided venipuncture for implantable venous port placement is safer than the traditional venipuncture. The study analyzed the results of 2153 venous ports placed consecutively from January 2009 to January 2016. A total of 922 patients in group 1 and 1231 patients in group 2 were admitted with venous port placed using the traditional landmark subclavian approach and real-time ultrasound-guided axillary approach, respectively. Sociodemographic characteristics of patients, early (pneumothorax, pinch-off syndrome, arterial puncture, hematoma, and malposition arrhythmia) and late (deep vein thrombosis, obstruction, infection, erosion-dehiscence, and rotation of the port chamber) complications and the association of these complications with the implantation method were evaluated. There were no significant differences in the sociodemographic characteristics of the patients between the two groups. The overall and early complications in group 2 were significantly lower than those in group 1. Pinch-off syndrome only developed in group 1. Seven patients and two patients had pneumothorax in groups 1 and 2, respectively. Puncture number was significantly associated with the development of the overall complications. The ultrasound-guided axillary approach may be preferred as a method to reduce the risk of both early and late complications. Large, randomized, controlled prospective trials will be helpful in determining a safer implantable venous port implantation technique.

  10. DRAM selection and configuration for real-time mobile systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomony, M.D.; Weis, C.; Akesson, K.B.; Wehn, N.; Goossens, K.G.W.

    2012-01-01

    The performance and power consumption of mobile DRAMs (LPDDRs) depend on the configuration of system-level parameters, such as operating frequency, interface width, request size, and memory map. In mobile systems running both realtime and non-real-time applications, the memory configuration must

  11. Real-time thermal neutron radiographic detection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, H.; Bracher, D.A.

    1976-01-01

    Systems for real-time detection of thermal neutron images are reviewed. Characteristics of one system are presented; the data include contrast, resolution and speed of response over the thermal neutron intensity range 2.5 10 3 n/cm 2 -sec to 10 7 n/cm 2 -sec

  12. Modeling and Analyzing Real-Time Multiprocessor Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiggers, M.H.; Thiele, Lothar; Lee, Edward A.; Schlieker, Simon; Bekooij, Marco Jan Gerrit

    2010-01-01

    Researchers have proposed approaches to verify that real-time multiprocessor systems meet their timeliness constraints. These approaches make assumptions on the model of computation, the load placed on the multiprocessor system, and the faults that can arise. This heterogeneous set of assumptions

  13. An advanced real time energy management system for microgrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsied, Moataz; Oukaour, Amrane; Youssef, Tarek; Gualous, Hamid; Mohammed, Osama

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an advanced Real-Time Energy Management System (RT-EMS) for Microgrid (MG) systems. The proposed strategy of RT-EMS capitalizes on the power of Genetic Algorithms (GAs) to minimize the energy cost and carbon dioxide emissions while maximizing the power of the available renewable energy resources. MATLAB-dSPACE Real-Time Interface Libraries (MLIB/MTRACE) are used as new tools to run the optimization code in Real-Time Operation (RTO). The communication system is developed based on ZigBee communication network which is designed to work in harsh radio environment where the control system is developed based on Advanced Lead-Lag Compensator (ALLC) which its parameters are tuned online to achieve fast convergence and good tracking response. The proposed RT-EMS along with its control and communication systems is experimentally tested to validate the results obtained from the optimization algorithm in a real MG testbed. The simulation and experimental results using real-world data highlight the effectiveness of the proposed RT-EMS for MGs applications. - Highlights: • Real-time energy management system of a typical MG is developed, and analyzed. • RT-EMS considered the nonlinear cost function and emission constraints. • MLIB/MTRACE libraries in dSPACE are used as new tools to run the optimization code. • The communication system is developed based on a Zigbee communication network. • Control system parameters are tuned online to achieve good tracking response.

  14. DSP Based System for Real time Voice Synthesis Applications Development

    OpenAIRE

    Arsinte, Radu; Ferencz, Attila; Miron, Costin

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental system designed for development of real time voice synthesis applications. The system is composed from a DSP coprocessor card, equipped with an TMS320C25 or TMS320C50 chip, voice acquisition module (ADDA2),host computer (IBM-PC compatible), software specific tools.

  15. A real-time BWR stability measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    March-Leuba, J.; King, W.T.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the characteristics of a portable, real-time system used for nonperturbational measurements of stability in boiling water reactors. The algorithm used in this system estimates the closed-loop asymptotic decay ratio using only the naturally occurring neutron noise and it is based on the univariate autoregressive methodology. (author)

  16. A Model for Industrial Real-Time Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bin Waez, Md Tawhid; Wasowski, Andrzej; Dingel, Juergen

    2015-01-01

    Introducing automated formal methods for large industrial real-time systems is an important research challenge. We propose timed process automata (TPA) for modeling and analysis of time-critical systems which can be open, hierarchical, and dynamic. The model offers two essential features for large...

  17. Scheduling and Communication Synthesis for Distributed Real-Time Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul

    2000-01-01

    on aspects of scheduling and communication for embedded real-time systems. Special emphasis has been placed on the impact of the communication infrastructure and protocol on the overall system performance. The scheduling and communication strategies proposed are based on an abstract graph representation...

  18. BENEFITS OF SEWERAGE SYSTEM REAL-TIME CONTROL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real-time control (RTC) is a custom-designed computer-assisted management system for a specific urban sewerage network that is activated during a wet-weather flow event. Though uses of RTC systems had started in the mid 60s, recent developments in computers, telecommunication, in...

  19. Cystic change in thyroid nodules: A confounding factor for real-time qualitative thyroid ultrasound elastography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatia, K.S.S.; Rasalkar, D.P.; Lee, Y.P.; Wong, K.T.; King, A.D.; Yuen, H.Y. [Department of Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin N.T, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Ahuja, A.T., E-mail: aniltahuja@cuhk.edu.hk [Department of Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin N.T, Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    2011-09-15

    Objective: To evaluate real-time qualitative ultrasound elastography for focal thyroid masses undergoing fine-needle aspiration in a routine thyroid ultrasound clinic. Materials and methods: Ninety-four thyroid nodules scheduled for fine-needle aspiration cytology in a thyroid ultrasound clinic also underwent real-time freehand elastography. Colour-scaled elastograms were graded visually on the stiffness of the solid component of nodules relative to thyroid parenchyma using an elastography score (ES) scale from 1 (soft) to 4 (stiff). The ES for benign and malignant nodules and the influence of cystic change on ES were analysed using Chi-square with trend and Fishers exact tests, with a p < 0.05 used to indicate statistical significance. Results: There were 19 papillary carcinomas, five metastases, 57 hyperplastic nodules, and four follicular adenomas based on definitive cytology (n = 54) or histology (n = 31). Nine nodules were excluded due to indeterminate cytology and no histology. Of malignancies (all solid), two were ES = 1, four were ES = 2, eight were ES = 3, and 10 were ES = 4. Of benign nodules, 17 were ES = 1, 17 were ES = 2, 16 were ES = 3, and 11 were ES = 4. An ES > 2 was more common in benign nodules with predominant cystic components (17/18) than mildly cystic (3/12) or completely solid (7/31) benign nodules (p = 0.0004, p < 0.0001). The ES was not significantly different between benign and malignant nodules (p = 0.09) unless partially cystic nodules were excluded (p = 0.005). For solid nodules, an ES > 2 optimally predicted malignancy, achieving 74% sensitivity, 77% specificity, and 76% accuracy. Conclusion: Qualitative real-time thyroid elastography predicts malignancy only if predominantly cystic nodules are excluded, which may limit its utility in routine clinical practice.

  20. Pseudo real-time imaging systems with nonredundant pinhole arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, K.S.; Berzins, G.J.; Roach, W.H.

    1976-01-01

    Coded aperture techniques, because of their efficiency and three-dimensional information content, represent potentially powerful tools for LMFBR safety experiment diagnostics. These techniques should be even more powerful if the data can be interpreted in real time or in pseudo real time. For example, to satisfy the stated goals for LMFBR diagnostics (1-ms time resolution and 1-mm spatial resolution), it is conceivable that several hundred frames of coded data would be recorded. To unscramble all of this information into reconstructed images could be a laborious, time-consuming task. A way to circumvent the tedium is with the use of the described hybrid digital/analog real-time imaging system. Some intermediate results are described briefly

  1. Magneto-optical system for high speed real time imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baziljevich, M.; Barness, D.; Sinvani, M.; Perel, E.; Shaulov, A.; Yeshurun, Y.

    2012-08-01

    A new magneto-optical system has been developed to expand the range of high speed real time magneto-optical imaging. A special source for the external magnetic field has also been designed, using a pump solenoid to rapidly excite the field coil. Together with careful modifications of the cryostat, to reduce eddy currents, ramping rates reaching 3000 T/s have been achieved. Using a powerful laser as the light source, a custom designed optical assembly, and a high speed digital camera, real time imaging rates up to 30 000 frames per seconds have been demonstrated.

  2. Diaphragmatic paralysis evaluated by phrenic nerve stimulation during fluoroscopy or real-time ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCauley, R.G.K.; Labib, K.B.

    1984-10-01

    Stimulation of the phrenic nerve by supplying an electrical impulse to the neck during fluoroscopy or real-time ultrasound (sonoscopy) of the diaphragm allows more precise functional evaluation than fluoroscopy and/or sonoscopy alone. This is especially true of patients who are unable to cooperate because the are on a ventilator, unconscious, or very young. The authors cite cases in which diaphragmatic paralysis was diagnosed by conventional methods but stimulation of the phrenic nerve demonstrated good diaphragmatic motion, leading to a change in prognosis in some cases and a change in therapy in others.

  3. Diaphragmatic paralysis evaluated by phrenic nerve stimulation during fluoroscopy or real-time ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCauley, R.G.K.; Labib, K.B.

    1984-01-01

    Stimulation of the phrenic nerve by supplying an electrical impulse to the neck during fluoroscopy or real-time ultrasound (sonoscopy) of the diaphragm allows more precise functional evaluation than fluoroscopy and/or sonoscopy alone. This is especially true of patients who are unable to cooperate because the are on a ventilator, unconscious, or very young. The authors cite cases in which diaphragmatic paralysis was diagnosed by conventional methods but stimulation of the phrenic nerve demonstrated good diaphragmatic motion, leading to a change in prognosis in some cases and a change in therapy in others

  4. Rapidly-steered single-element ultrasound for real-time volumetric imaging and guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauber, Mark; Western, Craig; Solek, Roman; Salisbury, Kenneth; Hristov, Dmitre; Schlosser, Jeffrey

    2016-03-01

    Volumetric ultrasound (US) imaging has the potential to provide real-time anatomical imaging with high soft-tissue contrast in a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic guidance applications. However, existing volumetric US machines utilize "wobbling" linear phased array or matrix phased array transducers which are costly to manufacture and necessitate bulky external processing units. To drastically reduce cost, improve portability, and reduce footprint, we propose a rapidly-steered single-element volumetric US imaging system. In this paper we explore the feasibility of this system with a proof-of-concept single-element volumetric US imaging device. The device uses a multi-directional raster-scan technique to generate a series of two-dimensional (2D) slices that were reconstructed into three-dimensional (3D) volumes. At 15 cm depth, 90° lateral field of view (FOV), and 20° elevation FOV, the device produced 20-slice volumes at a rate of 0.8 Hz. Imaging performance was evaluated using an US phantom. Spatial resolution was 2.0 mm, 4.7 mm, and 5.0 mm in the axial, lateral, and elevational directions at 7.5 cm. Relative motion of phantom targets were automatically tracked within US volumes with a mean error of -0.3+/-0.3 mm, -0.3+/-0.3 mm, and -0.1+/-0.5 mm in the axial, lateral, and elevational directions, respectively. The device exhibited a mean spatial distortion error of 0.3+/-0.9 mm, 0.4+/-0.7 mm, and -0.3+/-1.9 in the axial, lateral, and elevational directions. With a production cost near $1000, the performance characteristics of the proposed system make it an ideal candidate for diagnostic and image-guided therapy applications where form factor and low cost are paramount.

  5. Real time operating system for a nuclear power plant computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alger, L.S.; Lala, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    A quadruply redundant synchronous fault tolerant processor (FTP) is now under fabrication at the C.S. Draper Laboratory to be used initially as a trip monitor for the Experimental Breeder Reactor EBR-II operated by the Argonne National Laboratory in Idaho Falls, Idaho. The real time operating system for this processor is described

  6. Real-time resource allocation for tracking systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Satsangi, Y.; Whiteson, S.; Oliehoek, F.A.; Bouma, H.

    2017-01-01

    Automated tracking is key to many computer vision applications. However, many tracking systems struggle to perform in real-time due to the high computational cost of detecting people, especially in ultra high resolution images. We propose a new algorithm called PartiMax that greatly reduces this

  7. A distributed real-time Java system based on CSP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakkers, André; Hilderink, G.H.; Broenink, Johannes F.

    1999-01-01

    Real-time embedded systems in general require a reliability that is orders of magnitude higher than what is presently obtainable with state of the art C programs. The reason for the poor reliability of present day software is the unavailability of a formalism to design sequential C programs. The use

  8. Real-time system for processing regime diagnostic on accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeran, L.V.; Karasyov, S.P.; Uvarov, V.L.; Shlyakhov, I.N.

    2004-01-01

    The automatic real-time system operating at the LU-10 linac and providing measurements of the parameters such as the beam current (average and pulse values), the electron energy, the linear density distribution of beam current, and also the conveyor speed is described in the paper

  9. Resource-Parameterized Timing Analysis of Real-Time Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Jin Hyun; Legay, Axel; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2015-01-01

    on a specic platform. For the same reason, a configuration of platforms cannot be independent from applications in most cases. This paper proposes a new analysis framework of real-time systems where an application and a platform can be analyzed in a fully independent way such that not only the application...

  10. A Stack Cache for Real-Time Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin; Nielsen, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Real-time systems need time-predictable computing platforms to allowfor static analysis of the worst-case execution time. Caches are important for good performance, but data caches arehard to analyze for the worst-case execution time. Stack allocated data has different properties related...

  11. Online Testing of Real-time Systems Using Uppaal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Mikucionis, Marius; Nielsen, Brian

    2005-01-01

    We present T-Uppaal{} -- a new tool for online black-box testing of real-time embedded systems from non-deterministic timed automata specifications. We describe a sound and complete randomized online testing algorithm and how to implement it using symbolic state representation and manipulation te...

  12. A Software Managed Stack Cache for Real-Time Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordan, Alexander; Abbaspourseyedi, Sahar; Schoeberl, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In a real-time system, the use of a scratchpad memory can mitigate the difficulties related to analyzing data caches, whose behavior is inherently hard to predict. We propose to use a scratchpad memory for stack allocated data. While statically allocating stack frames for individual functions...

  13. 2D array transducers for real-time 3D ultrasound guidance of interventional devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Edward D.; Smith, Stephen W.

    2009-02-01

    We describe catheter ring arrays for real-time 3D ultrasound guidance of devices such as vascular grafts, heart valves and vena cava filters. We have constructed several prototypes operating at 5 MHz and consisting of 54 elements using the W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc. micro-miniature ribbon cables. We have recently constructed a new transducer using a braided wiring technology from Precision Interconnect. This transducer consists of 54 elements at 4.8 MHz with pitch of 0.20 mm and typical -6 dB bandwidth of 22%. In all cases, the transducer and wiring assembly were integrated with an 11 French catheter of a Cook Medical deployment device for vena cava filters. Preliminary in vivo and in vitro testing is ongoing including simultaneous 3D ultrasound and x-ray fluoroscopy.

  14. Imaging of implant needles for real-time HDR-brachytherapy prostate treatment using biplane ultrasound transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, Frank-André; Hirt, Markus; Niehoff, Peter; Kovács, György

    2009-08-01

    Ultrasound imaging is becoming increasingly important in prostate brachytherapy. In high-dose-rate (HDR) real-time planning procedures the definition of the implant needles is often performed by transrectal ultrasound. This article describes absolute measurements of the visibility and accuracy of manual detection of implant needle tips and compares measurement results of different biplane ultrasound systems in transversal and longitudinal (i.e., sagittal) ultrasound modes. To obtain a fixed coordinate system and stable conditions the measurements were carried out in a water tank using a dedicated marker system. Needles were manually placed in the phantom until the observer decided by the real-time ultrasound image that the zero position was reached. A comparison of three different ultrasound systems yielded an offset between 0.8 and 3.1 mm for manual detection of the needle tip in ultrasound images by one observer. The direction of the offset was discovered to be in the proximal direction, i.e., the actual needle position was located more distally compared to the ultrasound-based definition. In the second part of the study, the ultrasound anisotropy of trocar implant needles is reported. It was shown that the integrated optical density in a region of interest around the needle tip changes with needle rotation. Three peaks were observed with a phase angle of 120 degrees. Peaks appear not only in transversal but also in longitudinal ultrasound images, with a phase shift of 60 degrees. The third section of this study shows results of observer dependent influences on needle tip detection in sagittal ultrasound images considering needle rotation. These experiments were carried out using the marker system in a water tank. The needle tip was placed exactly at the position z=0 mm. It was found that different users tend to differently interpret the same ultrasound images. The needle tip was manually detected five times in the ultrasound images by three experienced observers

  15. Computer-assisted assessment of ultrasound real-time elastography: initial experience in 145 breast lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue; Xiao, Yang; Zeng, Jie; Qiu, Weibao; Qian, Ming; Wang, Congzhi; Zheng, Rongqin; Zheng, Hairong

    2014-01-01

    To develop and evaluate a computer-assisted method of quantifying five-point elasticity scoring system based on ultrasound real-time elastography (RTE), for classifying benign and malignant breast lesions, with pathologic results as the reference standard. Conventional ultrasonography (US) and RTE images of 145 breast lesions (67 malignant, 78 benign) were performed in this study. Each lesion was automatically contoured on the B-mode image by the level set method and mapped on the RTE image. The relative elasticity value of each pixel was reconstructed and classified into hard or soft by the fuzzy c-means clustering method. According to the hardness degree inside lesion and its surrounding tissue, the elasticity score of the RTE image was computed in an automatic way. Visual assessments of the radiologists were used for comparing the diagnostic performance. Histopathologic examination was used as the reference standard. The Student's t test and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis were performed for statistical analysis. Considering score 4 or higher as test positive for malignancy, the diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were 93.8% (136/145), 92.5% (62/67), 94.9% (74/78), 93.9% (62/66), and 93.7% (74/79) for the computer-assisted scheme, and 89.7% (130/145), 85.1% (57/67), 93.6% (73/78), 92.0% (57/62), and 88.0% (73/83) for manual assessment. Area under ROC curve (Az value) for the proposed method was higher than the Az value for visual assessment (0.96 vs. 0.93). Computer-assisted quantification of classical five-point scoring system can significantly eliminate the interobserver variability and thereby improve the diagnostic confidence of classifying the breast lesions to avoid unnecessary biopsy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Computer-assisted assessment of ultrasound real-time elastography: Initial experience in 145 breast lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xue; Xiao, Yang [Shenzhen Key Lab for Molecular Imaging, Paul C. Lauterbur Research Center for Biomedical Imaging, Institute of Biomedical and Health Engineering, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen (China); Zeng, Jie [Department of Medical Ultrasonics, Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Qiu, Weibao; Qian, Ming; Wang, Congzhi [Shenzhen Key Lab for Molecular Imaging, Paul C. Lauterbur Research Center for Biomedical Imaging, Institute of Biomedical and Health Engineering, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen (China); Zheng, Rongqin, E-mail: zhengronggin@hotmail.com [Department of Medical Ultrasonics, Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China); Zheng, Hairong, E-mail: hr.zheng@siat.ac.cn [Shenzhen Key Lab for Molecular Imaging, Paul C. Lauterbur Research Center for Biomedical Imaging, Institute of Biomedical and Health Engineering, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen (China)

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: To develop and evaluate a computer-assisted method of quantifying five-point elasticity scoring system based on ultrasound real-time elastography (RTE), for classifying benign and malignant breast lesions, with pathologic results as the reference standard. Materials and methods: Conventional ultrasonography (US) and RTE images of 145 breast lesions (67 malignant, 78 benign) were performed in this study. Each lesion was automatically contoured on the B-mode image by the level set method and mapped on the RTE image. The relative elasticity value of each pixel was reconstructed and classified into hard or soft by the fuzzy c-means clustering method. According to the hardness degree inside lesion and its surrounding tissue, the elasticity score of the RTE image was computed in an automatic way. Visual assessments of the radiologists were used for comparing the diagnostic performance. Histopathologic examination was used as the reference standard. The Student's t test and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis were performed for statistical analysis. Results: Considering score 4 or higher as test positive for malignancy, the diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were 93.8% (136/145), 92.5% (62/67), 94.9% (74/78), 93.9% (62/66), and 93.7% (74/79) for the computer-assisted scheme, and 89.7% (130/145), 85.1% (57/67), 93.6% (73/78), 92.0% (57/62), and 88.0% (73/83) for manual assessment. Area under ROC curve (A{sub z} value) for the proposed method was higher than the A{sub z} value for visual assessment (0.96 vs. 0.93). Conclusion: Computer-assisted quantification of classical five-point scoring system can significantly eliminate the interobserver variability and thereby improve the diagnostic confidence of classifying the breast lesions to avoid unnecessary biopsy.

  17. FTA real-time transit information assessment : white paper on literature review of real-time transit information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real-time transit information systems are key technology applications within the transit industry designed to provide better customer service by disseminating timely and accurate information. Riders use this information to make various decisions abou...

  18. Real-time variables dictionary (RTVD), and expert system for development of real-time applications in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senra Martinez, A.; Schirru, R.; Dutra Thome Filho, Z.

    1990-01-01

    It is presented in this paper a computerized methodology based on a data dictionary managed by an expert system called Real-Time Variables Dictionary (RTVD). This system is very usefull for development of real-time applications in nuclear power plants. It is described in details the RTVD functions and its implantation in a VAX 8600 computer. It is also pointed out the concepts of artificial intelligence used in teh RTVD

  19. A Real-Time Simulation Platform for Power System Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cha, Seung-Tae; Østergaard, Jacob; Wu, Qiuwei

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the real-time digital simulation platform that can be used for power system operation, analysis, and power system modeling. This particular platform gives grid operators, planners and researchers the opportunity to observe how a power system behaves and can be used...... in real time. Various phenomena commonly encountered when dealing with the two-area system is studied. Despite its small size, it mimics very closely the behavior of typical systems in actual operation. The electromagnetic transient type of simulation made in RSCAD enables the study of fast and detailed...... phenomena like single-phase faults in the two-area network and to observe their effects on a larger time scale. Also, the case study of 11 bus system with 5 generators has been also used and the results are presented....

  20. GSM based real time remote radiation monitoring and mapping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodiya, Kamal; Gupta, Ashutosh; Padmanabhan, N.; Chaudhury, Probal; Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2014-01-01

    Mobile Radiological Impact Assessment Laboratory (M-RIAL) has been developed in Radiation Safety Systems Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre for carrying out assessment of radioactive contamination following a nuclear or radiological emergency in a nuclear facility or in public domain. During such situations a large area is to be monitored for radiological impact assessment and availability of the monitored data in real-time to a control centre is a great advantage for the decision makers. Development and application of such a system has been described in this paper. The system can transmit real-time radiological data, acquired by the universal counting system of M-RIAL and tagged with positional information, wirelessly to an Emergency Response Centre (ERC) using Global System for Mobile (GSM) communication. The radiological profile of the affected area is then superimposed on Geographical Information System (GIS) at the ERC and which can be used for the generation of radiological impact maps for use as decision support

  1. Analysis and optimisation of heterogeneous real-time embedded systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru; Peng, Zebo

    2005-01-01

    . The success of such new design methods depends on the availability of analysis and optimisation techniques. Analysis and optimisation techniques for heterogeneous real-time embedded systems are presented in the paper. The authors address in more detail a particular class of such systems called multi...... of application messages to frames. Optimisation heuristics for frame packing aimed at producing a schedulable system are presented. Extensive experiments and a real-life example show the efficiency of the frame-packing approach....

  2. Analysis and optimisation of heterogeneous real-time embedded systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru; Peng, Zebo

    2006-01-01

    . The success of such new design methods depends on the availability of analysis and optimisation techniques. Analysis and optimisation techniques for heterogeneous real-time embedded systems are presented in the paper. The authors address in more detail a particular class of such systems called multi...... of application messages to frames. Optimisation heuristics for frame packing aimed at producing a schedulable system are presented. Extensive experiments and a real-life example show the efficiency of the frame-packing approach....

  3. Analysis and Optimization of Heterogeneous Real-Time Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru; Peng, Zebo

    2005-01-01

    . The success of such new design methods depends on the availability of analysis and optimization techniques. In this paper, we present analysis and optimization techniques for heterogeneous real-time embedded systems. We address in more detail a particular class of such systems called multi-clusters, composed...... to frames. Optimization heuristics for frame packing aiming at producing a schedulable system are presented. Extensive experiments and a real-life example show the efficiency of the frame-packing approach....

  4. Method of parallel processing in SANPO real time system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrovnoj, A.I.; Salamatin, I.M.

    1981-01-01

    A method of parellel processing in SANPO real time system is described. Algorithms of data accumulation and preliminary processing in this system as a parallel processes using a specialized high level programming language are described. Hierarchy of elementary processes are also described. It provides the synchronization of concurrent processes without semaphors. The developed means are applied to the systems of experiment automation using SM-3 minicomputers [ru

  5. Architecture of the APS real-time orbit feedback system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carwardine, J. A.; Lenkszus, F. R.

    1997-01-01

    The APS Real-Time Orbit Feedback System is designed to stabilize the orbit of the stored positron beam against low-frequency sources such as mechanical vibration and power supply ripple. A distributed array of digital signal processors is used to measure the orbit and compute corrections at a 1kHz rate. The system also provides extensive beam diagnostic tools. This paper describes the architectural aspects of the system and describes how the orbit correction algorithms are implemented

  6. Study on real-time elevator brake failure predictive system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jun; Fan, Jinwei

    2013-10-01

    This paper presented a real-time failure predictive system of the elevator brake. Through inspecting the running state of the coil by a high precision long range laser triangulation non-contact measurement sensor, the displacement curve of the coil is gathered without interfering the original system. By analyzing the displacement data using the diagnostic algorithm, the hidden danger of the brake system can be discovered in time and thus avoid the according accident.

  7. Architecture of the APS real-time orbit feedback system.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carwardine, J. A.; Lenkszus, F. R.

    1997-11-21

    The APS Real-Time Orbit Feedback System is designed to stabilize the orbit of the stored positron beam against low-frequency sources such as mechanical vibration and power supply ripple. A distributed array of digital signal processors is used to measure the orbit and compute corrections at a 1kHz rate. The system also provides extensive beam diagnostic tools. This paper describes the architectural aspects of the system and describes how the orbit correction algorithms are implemented.

  8. Data processing system for real-time control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oasa, K.; Mochizuki, O.; Toyokawa, R.; Yahiro, K.

    1983-01-01

    Real-time control, for large Tokamak JT-60, requires various data processings between diagnostic devices to control system. These processings require to high speed performance so that it aims at giving information necessary for feedback control during discharges. Then, the architecture of this system has hierachical structure of processors. These processors are connected each other by the CAMAC modules and the optical communication network, which is the 5 M bytes/second CAMAC serial highway. This system has two kinds of intelligences for this purpose. One is ACM-PU pairs in some torus hall crates which has a microcomputerized auxiliary controller and a preprocessing unit. Other is real-time processor which has a minicomputer and preprocessing unit. Most of the real-time processing, for example Abel inversion are characteristic to the diagnostic devices. Such a processing is carried out by an ACM-PU pair in the crate dedicated to the diagnostic device. Some processings, however, are also necessary which compute secondary parameters as functions of primary parameters. A typical example is Zeff, which is a function of Te, Ne and bremsstrahluny intensity. The real-time processor is equipped for such secondary processings and transfer the results. Preprocessing unit -PU- attached to ACM and real-time processor contains a signal processor, which executes in parallel such function as move, add and multiply during one micro-instruction cycle of 200 nsec. According to the progress of the experiment, more high speed processing are required, so the authors developed the PU-X module that contains multi signal processors. After a shot, inter-shot-processor which consists of general-purpose computers, gathers data into the database, then analyze them, and improve these processes to more effective

  9. Microcomputer-based real-time optical signal processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, F. T. S.; Cao, M. F.; Ludman, J. E.

    1986-01-01

    A microcomputer-based real-time programmable optical signal processing system utilizing a Magneto-Optic Spatial Light Modulator (MOSLM) and a Liquid Crystal Light Valve (LCLV) is described. This system can perform a myriad of complicated optical operations, such as image correlation, image subtraction, matrix multiplication and many others. The important assets of this proposed system must be the programmability and the capability of real-time addressing. The design specification and the progress toward practical implementation of this proposed system are discussed. Some preliminary experimental demonstrations are conducted. The feasible applications of this proposed system to image correlation for optical pattern recognition, image subtraction for IC chip inspection and matrix multiplication for optical computing are demonstrated.

  10. Specification and Test of Real-Time Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Brian

    of the system, and a set of constraint patterns which describes and enforces the timing and synchronization constraints among components. We propose new techniques for automated black box conformance testing of real-time systems against densely timed speci cations. A test generator tool examines a specification......Distributed real-time computer based systems are very complex and intrinsically difficult to specify and implement correctly; in part this is caused by the overwhelming number of possible interactions between system components, but especially by a lack of adequate methods and tools to deal...... of the desired system behavior and generates the necessary test cases. A main problem is to construct a reasonably small test suite that can be executed within allotted resources, while having a high likelihood of detecting unknown errors. Our goal has been to treat the time dimension of this problem thoroughly...

  11. Real-time information and processing system for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oprea, I.; Oprea, M.; Stoica, M.; Badea, E.; Guta, V.

    1999-01-01

    The real-time information and processing system has as main task to record, collect, process and transmit the radiation level and weather data, being proposed for radiation protection, environmental monitoring around nuclear facilities and for civil defence. Such a system can offer information in order to provide mapping, data base, modelling and communication and to assess the consequences of nuclear accidents. The system incorporates a number of stationary or mobile radiation monitoring equipment, weather parameter measuring station, a GIS-based information processing center and the communication network, all running on a real-time operating system. It provides the automatic data collection on-line and off-line, remote diagnostic, advanced presentation techniques, including a graphically oriented executive support, which has the ability to respond to an emergency by geographical representation of the hazard zones on the map.The system can be integrated into national or international environmental monitoring systems, being based on local intelligent measuring and transmission units, simultaneous processing and data presentation using a real-time operating system for PC and geographical information system (GIS). Such an integrated system is composed of independent applications operating under the same computer, which is capable to improve the protection of the population and decision makers efforts, updating the remote GIS data base. All information can be managed directly from the map by multilevel data retrieving and presentation by using on-line dynamic evolution of the events, environment information, evacuation optimization, image and voice processing

  12. High Performance Embedded System for Real-Time Pattern Matching

    CERN Document Server

    Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; The ATLAS collaboration; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Citraro, Saverio; Giannetti, Paola; Dell'Orso, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    We present an innovative and high performance embedded system for real-time pattern matching. This system is based on the evolution of hardware and algorithms developed for the field of High Energy Physics (HEP) and more specifically for the execution of extremely fast pattern matching for tracking of particles produced by proton-proton collisions in hadron collider experiments. A miniaturized version of this complex system is being developed for pattern matching in generic image processing applications. The design uses the flexibility of Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) and the powerful Associative Memory Chip (ASIC) to achieve real-time performance. The system works as a contour identifier able to extract the salient features of an image. It is based on the principles of cognitive image processing, which means that it executes fast pattern matching and data reduction mimicking the operation of the human brain.

  13. Case for real-time systems development - Quo vadis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erb, Dona M.

    1991-01-01

    The paper focuses on the distinctive issues of computer-aided software engineering (CASE) products for the development of real-time systems. CASE technologies and associated standardization efforts are evolving from sets of conflicting interests. The majority of case products are intended for use in the development of management information systems. CASE products to support the development of large, complex real-time systems must provide additional capabilities. Generic concerns include the quality of the implementation of the required method for the phase of the system's development and whether the vendor is stable and committed to evolving the products in parallel with nonproprietary standards. The CASE market is undergoing considerable consolidation. The paper describes the major forces, cooperating entities, and remaining uncertainties that need to be weighed in near-term CASE procurements to limit risk of loss of investment in project time, trianing, and money.

  14. Highly reconfigurable production systems controlled by real-time agents

    OpenAIRE

    Schütz, D.;Schraufstetter, M.;Folmer, J.;Vogel-Heuser, B.;Gmeiner, T.;Shea, K.

    2017-01-01

    Flexible plant components can significantly increase the flexibility of manufacturing systems and enable concepts like mass-customized production. This paper presents an approach for production planning and execution for flexible manufacturing system components, based on software agents. The agents are implemented directly on a PLC, making them capable of real-time operation. Additionally, a service-interface contributes to the vertical integration of the approach into the higher level planni...

  15. Real-time emergency forecasting technique for situation management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopytov, V. V.; Kharechkin, P. V.; Naumenko, V. V.; Tretyak, R. S.; Tebueva, F. B.

    2018-05-01

    The article describes the real-time emergency forecasting technique that allows increasing accuracy and reliability of forecasting results of any emergency computational model applied for decision making in situation management systems. Computational models are improved by the Improved Brown’s method applying fractal dimension to forecast short time series data being received from sensors and control systems. Reliability of emergency forecasting results is ensured by the invalid sensed data filtering according to the methods of correlation analysis.

  16. Neuromorphic VLSI vision system for real-time texture segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimonomura, Kazuhiro; Yagi, Tetsuya

    2008-10-01

    The visual system of the brain can perceive an external scene in real-time with extremely low power dissipation, although the response speed of an individual neuron is considerably lower than that of semiconductor devices. The neurons in the visual pathway generate their receptive fields using a parallel and hierarchical architecture. This architecture of the visual cortex is interesting and important for designing a novel perception system from an engineering perspective. The aim of this study is to develop a vision system hardware, which is designed inspired by a hierarchical visual processing in V1, for real time texture segregation. The system consists of a silicon retina, orientation chip, and field programmable gate array (FPGA) circuit. The silicon retina emulates the neural circuits of the vertebrate retina and exhibits a Laplacian-Gaussian-like receptive field. The orientation chip selectively aggregates multiple pixels of the silicon retina in order to produce Gabor-like receptive fields that are tuned to various orientations by mimicking the feed-forward model proposed by Hubel and Wiesel. The FPGA circuit receives the output of the orientation chip and computes the responses of the complex cells. Using this system, the neural images of simple cells were computed in real-time for various orientations and spatial frequencies. Using the orientation-selective outputs obtained from the multi-chip system, a real-time texture segregation was conducted based on a computational model inspired by psychophysics and neurophysiology. The texture image was filtered by the two orthogonally oriented receptive fields of the multi-chip system and the filtered images were combined to segregate the area of different texture orientation with the aid of FPGA. The present system is also useful for the investigation of the functions of the higher-order cells that can be obtained by combining the simple and complex cells.

  17. Documentation Driven Development for Complex Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for development of complex real - time systems , called the documentation-driven development (DDD) approach. This... time systems . DDD will also support automated software generation based on a computational model and some relevant techniques. DDD includes two main...stakeholders to be easily involved in development processes and, therefore, significantly improve the agility of software development for complex real

  18. Integrating Security in Real-Time Embedded Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-26

    Operations and Reports (0704-0188), 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arl ington, VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that... operate without impacting the tinting and safety constraints of the control logic. Besides, the embedded nature of these systems limits the...only during slack times when no other real-time tasks are rwming. We propose to measure the security of the system by means of the achievable periodic

  19. Real-time multi-task operators support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang He; Peng Minjun; Wang Hao; Cheng Shouyu

    2005-01-01

    The development in computer software and hardware technology and information processing as well as the accumulation in the design and feedback from Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) operation created a good opportunity to develop an integrated Operator Support System. The Real-time Multi-task Operator Support System (RMOSS) has been built to support the operator's decision making process during normal and abnormal operations. RMOSS consists of five system subtasks such as Data Collection and Validation Task (DCVT), Operation Monitoring Task (OMT), Fault Diagnostic Task (FDT), Operation Guideline Task (OGT) and Human Machine Interface Task (HMIT). RMOSS uses rule-based expert system and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The rule-based expert system is used to identify the predefined events in static conditions and track the operation guideline through data processing. In dynamic status, Back-Propagation Neural Network is adopted for fault diagnosis, which is trained with the Genetic Algorithm. Embedded real-time operation system VxWorks and its integrated environment Tornado II are used as the RMOSS software cross-development. VxGUI is used to design HMI. All of the task programs are designed in C language. The task tests and function evaluation of RMOSS have been done in one real-time full scope simulator. Evaluation results show that each task of RMOSS is capable of accomplishing its functions. (authors)

  20. Design of real-time operating system software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stafford, D.L.; Hulbert, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    Design of real-time data collection and control systems is complicated by problems not found in common sequential programming projects. Timing and synchronization are critical; data collection equipment is often completely foreign to mainframe programming facilities; operating system response to real-time events may be far too slow or too cumbersome. The philosophy at the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute (ITRI) is to allow the investigators to do as much of their own programming as possible. Inasmuch as programming is not their primary responsibility or area of training, it is unreasonable to assume that they are familiar with the subtleties involved. The problem, therefore, has been to develop a system whereby investigators are able, with minimal consultation, to write, modify and otherwise maintain their own data collection and control programs and to do so with a minimum of destructive interaction with other data collection and control tasks

  1. Implementing real-time robotic systems using CHIMERA II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, David B.; Schmitz, Donald E.; Khosla, Pradeep K.

    1990-01-01

    A description is given of the CHIMERA II programming environment and operating system, which was developed for implementing real-time robotic systems. Sensor-based robotic systems contain both general- and special-purpose hardware, and thus the development of applications tends to be a time-consuming task. The CHIMERA II environment is designed to reduce the development time by providing a convenient software interface between the hardware and the user. CHIMERA II supports flexible hardware configurations which are based on one or more VME-backplanes. All communication across multiple processors is transparent to the user through an extensive set of interprocessor communication primitives. CHIMERA II also provides a high-performance real-time kernel which supports both deadline and highest-priority-first scheduling. The flexibility of CHIMERA II allows hierarchical models for robot control, such as NASREM, to be implemented with minimal programming time and effort.

  2. RT-Syn: A real-time software system generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setliff, Dorothy E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents research into providing highly reusable and maintainable components by using automatic software synthesis techniques. This proposal uses domain knowledge combined with automatic software synthesis techniques to engineer large-scale mission-critical real-time software. The hypothesis centers on a software synthesis architecture that specifically incorporates application-specific (in this case real-time) knowledge. This architecture synthesizes complex system software to meet a behavioral specification and external interaction design constraints. Some examples of these external constraints are communication protocols, precisions, timing, and space limitations. The incorporation of application-specific knowledge facilitates the generation of mathematical software metrics which are used to narrow the design space, thereby making software synthesis tractable. Success has the potential to dramatically reduce mission-critical system life-cycle costs not only by reducing development time, but more importantly facilitating maintenance, modifications, and extensions of complex mission-critical software systems, which are currently dominating life cycle costs.

  3. Upgrade of the RFX-mod real time control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manduchi, G., E-mail: gabriele.manduchi@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA Association, Corso Stati Uniti 4, Padova 35127 (Italy); Barbalace, A.; Luchetta, A.; Soppelsa, A.; Taliercio, C.; Zampiva, E. [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA Association, Corso Stati Uniti 4, Padova 35127 (Italy)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The paper describes the experience in running the real-time control system of RFX-mod. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It proposes a new architecture based multicore technology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It analyzes two different solutions for data acquisition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It discusses the effect of non simultaneous sampling in acquisition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It provides some preliminary performance measurements. - Abstract: The real-time control system of RFX-mod, in operation since 2005, has been successful and has allowed several important achievements in the RFX physics research program. As a consequence of this fact, new control algorithms are under investigation, which are more demanding in terms of both enhanced computing power and reduced system latency, currently around 1.5 ms. For this reason, a major upgrade of the system is being considered, and a new architecture has been proposed, taking advantage of the rapid evolution of computer technology in the last years. The central component of the new architecture is a Linux-based multicore server, where individual cores replace the VME computers. The server is connected to the I/O via PCI-e based bus extenders, and every PCI-e connection is managed by a separate core. The system is supervised by MARTe, a software framework for real-time applications written in C++ and developed at JET and currently used for the JET vertical stabilization and in other fusion devices.

  4. Upgrade of the RFX-mod real time control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manduchi, G.; Barbalace, A.; Luchetta, A.; Soppelsa, A.; Taliercio, C.; Zampiva, E.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The paper describes the experience in running the real-time control system of RFX-mod. ► It proposes a new architecture based multicore technology. ► It analyzes two different solutions for data acquisition. ► It discusses the effect of non simultaneous sampling in acquisition. ► It provides some preliminary performance measurements. - Abstract: The real-time control system of RFX-mod, in operation since 2005, has been successful and has allowed several important achievements in the RFX physics research program. As a consequence of this fact, new control algorithms are under investigation, which are more demanding in terms of both enhanced computing power and reduced system latency, currently around 1.5 ms. For this reason, a major upgrade of the system is being considered, and a new architecture has been proposed, taking advantage of the rapid evolution of computer technology in the last years. The central component of the new architecture is a Linux-based multicore server, where individual cores replace the VME computers. The server is connected to the I/O via PCI-e based bus extenders, and every PCI-e connection is managed by a separate core. The system is supervised by MARTe, a software framework for real-time applications written in C++ and developed at JET and currently used for the JET vertical stabilization and in other fusion devices.

  5. Wide-area, real-time monitoring and visualization system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budhraja, Vikram S.; Dyer, James D.; Martinez Morales, Carlos A.

    2013-03-19

    A real-time performance monitoring system for monitoring an electric power grid. The electric power grid has a plurality of grid portions, each grid portion corresponding to one of a plurality of control areas. The real-time performance monitoring system includes a monitor computer for monitoring at least one of reliability metrics, generation metrics, transmission metrics, suppliers metrics, grid infrastructure security metrics, and markets metrics for the electric power grid. The data for metrics being monitored by the monitor computer are stored in a data base, and a visualization of the metrics is displayed on at least one display computer having a monitor. The at least one display computer in one said control area enables an operator to monitor the grid portion corresponding to a different said control area.

  6. Real-time performance monitoring and management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budhraja, Vikram S [Los Angeles, CA; Dyer, James D [La Mirada, CA; Martinez Morales, Carlos A [Upland, CA

    2007-06-19

    A real-time performance monitoring system for monitoring an electric power grid. The electric power grid has a plurality of grid portions, each grid portion corresponding to one of a plurality of control areas. The real-time performance monitoring system includes a monitor computer for monitoring at least one of reliability metrics, generation metrics, transmission metrics, suppliers metrics, grid infrastructure security metrics, and markets metrics for the electric power grid. The data for metrics being monitored by the monitor computer are stored in a data base, and a visualization of the metrics is displayed on at least one display computer having a monitor. The at least one display computer in one said control area enables an operator to monitor the grid portion corresponding to a different said control area.

  7. Paradigms and building tools for real-time expert systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, U.; Flasinski, M.; Hagge, L.; Ohrenberg, K.

    1994-01-01

    An expert system is a software which can simulate the problem solving behavior of a human expert. The rule-based paradigm is chosen to describe the different aspects involved in expert system development. Differences between expert systems and common procedural or object-oriented programs are investigated. Expert system shells are introduced as a building tool for expert systems, together with some guidelines on the evaluation of such shells. A discussion of special needs for real-time expert system development concludes the paper

  8. A distributed agent architecture for real-time knowledge-based systems: Real-time expert systems project, phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. Daniel

    1990-01-01

    We propose a distributed agent architecture (DAA) that can support a variety of paradigms based on both traditional real-time computing and artificial intelligence. DAA consists of distributed agents that are classified into two categories: reactive and cognitive. Reactive agents can be implemented directly in Ada to meet hard real-time requirements and be deployed on on-board embedded processors. A traditional real-time computing methodology under consideration is the rate monotonic theory that can guarantee schedulability based on analytical methods. AI techniques under consideration for reactive agents are approximate or anytime reasoning that can be implemented using Bayesian belief networks as in Guardian. Cognitive agents are traditional expert systems that can be implemented in ART-Ada to meet soft real-time requirements. During the initial design of cognitive agents, it is critical to consider the migration path that would allow initial deployment on ground-based workstations with eventual deployment on on-board processors. ART-Ada technology enables this migration while Lisp-based technologies make it difficult if not impossible. In addition to reactive and cognitive agents, a meta-level agent would be needed to coordinate multiple agents and to provide meta-level control.

  9. An open real-time tele-stethoscopy system

    OpenAIRE

    Foche-Perez, Ignacio; Ramirez-Payba, Rodolfo; Hirigoyen-Emparanza, German; Balducci-Gonzalez, Fernando; Simo-Reigadas, Francisco-Javier; Seoane-Pascual, Joaquin; Corral-Peñafiel, Jaime; Martinez-Fernandez, Andres

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Acute respiratory infections are the leading cause of childhood mortality. The lack of physicians in rural areas of developing countries makes difficult their correct diagnosis and treatment. The staff of rural health facilities (health-care technicians) may not be qualified to distinguish respiratory diseases by auscultation. For this reason, the goal of this project is the development of a tele-stethoscopy system that allows a physician to receive real-time cardio-respir...

  10. Real-time flood monitoring and warning system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirapon Sunkpho

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Flooding is one of the major disasters occurring in various parts of the world. The system for real-time monitoring ofwater conditions: water level; flow; and precipitation level, was developed to be employed in monitoring flood in Nakhon SiThammarat, a southern province in Thailand. The two main objectives of the developed system is to serve 1 as informationchannel for flooding between the involved authorities and experts to enhance their responsibilities and collaboration and2 as a web based information source for the public, responding to their need for information on water condition and flooding.The developed system is composed of three major components: sensor network, processing/transmission unit, and database/application server. These real-time data of water condition can be monitored remotely by utilizing wireless sensors networkthat utilizes the mobile General Packet Radio Service (GPRS communication in order to transmit measured data to theapplication server. We implemented a so-called VirtualCOM, a middleware that enables application server to communicatewith the remote sensors connected to a GPRS data unit (GDU. With VirtualCOM, a GDU behaves as if it is a cable directlyconnected the remote sensors to the application server. The application server is a web-based system implemented usingPHP and JAVA as the web application and MySQL as its relational database. Users can view real-time water conditionas well as the forecasting of the water condition directly from the web via web browser or via WAP. The developed systemhas demonstrated the applicability of today’s sensors in wirelessly monitor real-time water conditions.

  11. On-line diagnostics for a real time system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreenivasan, P.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of an on-line diagnostics is to infuse the ability of self diagnosing in an online computer to enhance its dependability in a real time system. Such a diagnostics evolved for the CDPS of the Fast Breeder Test Reactor at Kalpakkam is reported. The two phases of the diagnostics, i.e., the malfunction detection and post detection action are described in some detail. (A.K.)

  12. An Optimization Framework for Dynamic, Distributed Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Klaus; Juedes, David; Welch, Lonnie; Chelberg, David; Bruggerman, Carl; Drews, Frank; Fleeman, David; Parrott, David; Pfarr, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    Abstract. This paper presents a model that is useful for developing resource allocation algorithms for distributed real-time systems .that operate in dynamic environments. Interesting aspects of the model include dynamic environments, utility and service levels, which provide a means for graceful degradation in resource-constrained situations and support optimization of the allocation of resources. The paper also provides an allocation algorithm that illustrates how to use the model for producing feasible, optimal resource allocations.

  13. Comparison of Component Frameworks for Real-Time Embedded Systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pop, T.; Hnětynka, P.; Hošek, P.; Malohlava, M.; Bureš, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 1 (2014), s. 127-170 ISSN 0219-1377 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) GAP202/11/0312; GA UK(CZ) Project 378111; UK(CZ) SVV-2013- 267312 Keywords : component-based development * component frameworks * real-time and embedded systems Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software Impact factor: 1.782, year: 2014

  14. System Integration for Real-Time Mobile Manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Oftadeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mobile manipulators are one of the most complicated types of mechatronics systems. The performance of these robots in performing complex manipulation tasks is highly correlated with the synchronization and integration of their low-level components. This paper discusses in detail the mechatronics design of a four wheel steered mobile manipulator. It presents the manipulator's mechanical structure and electrical interfaces, designs low-level software architecture based on embedded PC-based controls, and proposes a systematic solution based on code generation products of MATLAB and Simulink. The remote development environment described here is used to develop real-time controller software and modules for the mobile manipulator under a POSIX-compliant, real-time Linux operating system. Our approach enables developers to reliably design controller modules that meet the hard real-time constraints of the entire low-level system architecture. Moreover, it provides a systematic framework for the development and integration of hardware devices with various communication mediums and protocols, which facilitates the development and integration process of the software controller.

  15. Quality assurance test of a real time radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, R.K.; Rama, R.; Sharma, A.; Kannan, R.

    2005-01-01

    Any radiation generating equipment can be used and marketed in India only after obtaining specific type approval certificate from the Competent Authority i.e. Chairman, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB), Mumbai. Recently AERB has enforced a directive that the Industrial X-ray machines should also be permitted to use only after getting NOC or type approval. Type approval is granted based upon the satisfactory QA test report of the radiation generating equipment. X-ray machines with Real Time Radiography (RTR) facility are used in industrial radiography for faster inspection of equipment's and products online. A standard test protocol was developed for QA tests of a real time radiography system. This will be helpful for evaluation of an industrial X-ray machine. Also above procedure can be used to check a RTR system each day or a system-qualification can be done when the image quality diminishes as recommended by American Society of Testing Material (ASTM). Various tests carried out on a constant potential 450 kV, 10 mA industrial X-ray machine having real time radiography facility to monitor the products online, is described in this paper. (author)

  16. An SDRAM controller for real-time systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lakis, Edgar; Schoeberl, Martin

    2013-01-01

    For real-time systems we need to statically determine worst-case execution times (WCET) of tasks to proof the schedulability of the system. To enable static WCET analysis, the platform needs to be time-predictable. The platform includes the processor, the caches, the memory system, the operating...... system, and the application software itself. All those components need to be timing analyzable. Current computers use DRAM as a cost effective main memory. However, these DRAM chips have timing requirements that depend on former accesses and also need to be refreshed to retain their content. Standard...... a base of the memory hierarchy for time-predictable systems....

  17. Real-Time Visualization System for Deep-Sea Surveying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujie Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Remote robotic exploration holds vast potential for gaining knowledge about extreme environments, which is difficult to be accessed by humans. In the last two decades, various underwater devices were developed for detecting the mines and mine-like objects in the deep-sea environment. However, there are some problems in recent equipment, like poor accuracy of mineral objects detection, without real-time processing, and low resolution of underwater video frames. Consequently, the underwater objects recognition is a difficult task, because the physical properties of the medium, the captured video frames, are distorted seriously. In this paper, we are considering use of the modern image processing methods to determine the mineral location and to recognize the mineral actually within a little computation complex. We firstly analyze the recent underwater imaging models and propose a novel underwater optical imaging model, which is much closer to the light propagation model in the underwater environment. In our imaging system, we remove the electrical noise by dual-tree complex wavelet transform. And then we solve the nonuniform illumination of artificial lights by fast guided trilateral bilateral filter and recover the image color through automatic color equalization. Finally, a shape-based mineral recognition algorithm is proposed for underwater objects detection. These methods are designed for real-time execution on limited-memory platforms. This pipeline is suitable for detecting underwater objects in practice by our experiences. The initial results are presented and experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed real-time visualization system.

  18. [Real-time feedback systems for improvement of resuscitation quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, R P; Van Aken, H; Engel, P; Bohn, A

    2011-07-01

    The quality of chest compression is a determinant of survival after cardiac arrest. Therefore, the European Resuscitation Council (ERC) 2010 guidelines on resuscitation strongly focus on compression quality. Despite its impact on survival, observational studies have shown that chest compression quality is not reached by professional rescue teams. Real-time feedback devices for resuscitation are able to measure chest compression during an ongoing resuscitation attempt through a sternal sensor equipped with a motion and pressure detection system. In addition to the electrocardiograph (ECG) ventilation can be detected by transthoracic impedance monitoring. In cases of quality deviation, such as shallow chest compression depth or hyperventilation, feedback systems produce visual or acoustic alarms. Rescuers can thereby be supported and guided to the requested quality in chest compression and ventilation. Feedback technology is currently available both as a so-called stand-alone device and as an integrated feature in a monitor/defibrillator unit. Multiple studies have demonstrated sustainable enhancement in the education of resuscitation due to the use of real-time feedback technology. There is evidence that real-time feedback for resuscitation combined with training and debriefing strategies can improve both resuscitation quality and patient survival. Chest compression quality is an independent predictor for survival in resuscitation and should therefore be measured and documented in further clinical multicenter trials.

  19. Real-time expert systems and deep knowledge models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felkel, L.

    1990-01-01

    To guide operators in normal and disturbed plant conditions expert systems are feasible. These, however, must be on-line and real-time systems. The knowledge contained in such a system cannot be represented in a 'classical' role-based manner. The paper describes problems and solutions with regard to process reference models as these are important in order to provide so-called deep-knowledge for the operators. The system described is being implemented and is meant to support both diagnosis and prediction

  20. Real time elastography endoscopic ultrasound (RTE-EUS), a comprehensive review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, C.F., E-mail: christoph.dietrich@ckbm.de [Med. Klinik 2, Caritas-Krankenhaus Bad Mergentheim (Germany); Department of Gastroenterology, Research Center of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova (Romania); Klinik für Innere Medizin, Krankenhaus Märkisch Oderland (Germany); Săftoiu, A.; Jenssen, C. [Med. Klinik 2, Caritas-Krankenhaus Bad Mergentheim (Germany); Department of Gastroenterology, Research Center of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova (Romania); Klinik für Innere Medizin, Krankenhaus Märkisch Oderland (Germany)

    2014-03-15

    Real-time elastography (RTE) performed during endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is a relatively new technique which allows the evaluation of tissue stiffness, with the intent of better characterising lesions during EUS examinations. The aim of this comprehensive review was to describe the technique of RTE-EUS, as well as the clinical applications, including the study of pancreatic lesions, but also hepatobiliary, gastrointestinal (GI) tract pathology (including anal canal), lymph nodes, adrenal glands, lung and mediastinum, as well as urogenital applications. One of the advantages of the RTE-EUS technique is especially the possibility to be used in various locations accessible from the GI tract. Future developments are also briefly discussed, as elastography is a tissue characterising technique that will certainly not replace biopsy, but will rather be an adjunct during EUS examinations, due to its ease of use and low cost.

  1. Real time elastography endoscopic ultrasound (RTE-EUS), a comprehensive review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, C.F.; Săftoiu, A.; Jenssen, C.

    2014-01-01

    Real-time elastography (RTE) performed during endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is a relatively new technique which allows the evaluation of tissue stiffness, with the intent of better characterising lesions during EUS examinations. The aim of this comprehensive review was to describe the technique of RTE-EUS, as well as the clinical applications, including the study of pancreatic lesions, but also hepatobiliary, gastrointestinal (GI) tract pathology (including anal canal), lymph nodes, adrenal glands, lung and mediastinum, as well as urogenital applications. One of the advantages of the RTE-EUS technique is especially the possibility to be used in various locations accessible from the GI tract. Future developments are also briefly discussed, as elastography is a tissue characterising technique that will certainly not replace biopsy, but will rather be an adjunct during EUS examinations, due to its ease of use and low cost

  2. Visual detectability of elastic contrast in real-time ultrasound images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Naomi R.; Bamber, Jeffery C.; Doyley, Marvin M.; Leach, Martin O.

    1997-04-01

    Elasticity imaging (EI) has recently been proposed as a technique for imaging the mechanical properties of soft tissue. However, dynamic features, known as compressibility and mobility, are already employed to distinguish between different tissue types in ultrasound breast examination. This method, which involves the subjective interpretation of tissue motion seen in real-time B-mode images during palpation, is hereafter referred to as differential motion imaging (DMI). The purpose of this study was to develop the methodology required to perform a series of perception experiments to measure elastic lesion detectability by means of DMI and to obtain preliminary results for elastic contrast thresholds for different lesion sizes. Simulated sequences of real-time B-scans of tissue moving in response to an applied force were generated. A two-alternative forced choice (2-AFC) experiment was conducted and the measured contrast thresholds were compared with published results for lesions detected by EI. Although the trained observer was found to be quite skilled at the task of differential motion perception, it would appear that lesion detectability is improved when motion information is detected by computer processing and converted to gray scale before presentation to the observer. In particular, for lesions containing fewer than eight speckle cells, a signal detection rate of 100% could not be achieved even when the elastic contrast was very high.

  3. Reflexive reasoning for distributed real-time systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, David

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the implementation and use of reflexive reasoning in real-time, distributed knowledge-based applications. Recently there has been a great deal of interest in agent-oriented systems. Implementing such systems implies a mechanism for sharing knowledge, goals and other state information among the agents. Our techniques facilitate an agent examining both state information about other agents and the parameters of the knowledge-based system shell implementing its reasoning algorithms. The shell implementing the reasoning is the Distributed Artificial Intelligence Toolkit, which is a derivative of CLIPS.

  4. A distributed scheduling algorithm for heterogeneous real-time systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeineldine, Osman; El-Toweissy, Mohamed; Mukkamala, Ravi

    1991-01-01

    Much of the previous work on load balancing and scheduling in distributed environments was concerned with homogeneous systems and homogeneous loads. Several of the results indicated that random policies are as effective as other more complex load allocation policies. The effects of heterogeneity on scheduling algorithms for hard real time systems is examined. A distributed scheduler specifically to handle heterogeneities in both nodes and node traffic is proposed. The performance of the algorithm is measured in terms of the percentage of jobs discarded. While a random task allocation is very sensitive to heterogeneities, the algorithm is shown to be robust to such non-uniformities in system components and load.

  5. Real-time deformation measurement using a transportable shearography system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijers, A. L.; van Brug, Hedser H.; Frankena, Hans J.

    1997-03-01

    A new system for deformation visualization has been developed, being a real time phase stepped shearing speckle interferometer. This system provides the possibility to measure quantitatively deformations of diffusely reflecting objects in an industrial environment. The main characteristics of this interferometer are its speed of operation and its reduced sensitivity to external disturbances. Apart from its semiconductor laser source, this system has a shoe-box size and is mounted on a tripod for easy handling during inspection. This paper describes the shearing speckle interferometry set-up, as it is developed at our laboratory and its potential for detecting defects.

  6. Merged Real Time GNSS Solutions for the READI System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillan, V. M.; Geng, J.

    2014-12-01

    Real-time measurements from increasingly dense Global Navigational Satellite Systems (GNSS) networks located throughout the western US offer a substantial, albeit largely untapped, contribution towards the mitigation of seismic and other natural hazards. Analyzed continuously in real-time, currently over 600 instruments blanket the San Andreas and Cascadia fault systems of the North American plate boundary and can provide on-the-fly characterization of transient ground displacements highly complementary to traditional seismic strong-motion monitoring. However, the utility of GNSS systems depends on their resolution, and merged solutions of two or more independent estimation strategies have been shown to offer lower scatter and higher resolution. Towards this end, independent real time GNSS solutions produced by Scripps Inst. of Oceanography and Central Washington University (PANGA) are now being formally combined in pursuit of NASA's Real-Time Earthquake Analysis for Disaster Mitigation (READI) positioning goals. CWU produces precise point positioning (PPP) solutions while SIO produces ambiguity resolved PPP solutions (PPP-AR). The PPP-AR solutions have a ~5 mm RMS scatter in the horizontal and ~10mm in the vertical, however PPP-AR solutions can take tens of minutes to re-converge in case of data gaps. The PPP solutions produced by CWU use pre-cleaned data in which biases are estimated as non-integer ambiguities prior to formal positioning with GIPSY 6.2 using a real time stream editor developed at CWU. These solutions show ~20mm RMS scatter in the horizontal and ~50mm RMS scatter in the vertical but re-converge within 2 min. or less following cycle-slips or data outages. We have implemented the formal combination of the CWU and SCRIPPS ENU displacements using the independent solutions as input measurements to a simple 3-element state Kalman filter plus white noise. We are now merging solutions from 90 stations, including 30 in Cascadia, 39 in the Bay Area, and 21

  7. Real-time application of knowledge-based systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumbaugh, Randal W.; Duke, Eugene L.

    1989-01-01

    The Rapid Prototyping Facility (RPF) was developed to meet a need for a facility which allows flight systems concepts to be prototyped in a manner which allows for real-time flight test experience with a prototype system. This need was focused during the development and demonstration of the expert system flight status monitor (ESFSM). The ESFSM was a prototype system developed on a LISP machine, but lack of a method for progressive testing and problem identification led to an impractical system. The RPF concept was developed, and the ATMS designed to exercise its capabilities. The ATMS Phase 1 demonstration provided a practical vehicle for testing the RPF, as well as a useful tool. ATMS Phase 2 development continues. A dedicated F-18 is expected to be assigned for facility use in late 1988, with RAV modifications. A knowledge-based autopilot is being developed using the RPF. This is a system which provides elementary autopilot functions and is intended as a vehicle for testing expert system verification and validation methods. An expert system propulsion monitor is being prototyped. This system provides real-time assistance to an engineer monitoring a propulsion system during a flight.

  8. Optimal transcostal high-intensity focused ultrasound with combined real-time 3D movement tracking and correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquet, F; Aubry, J F; Pernot, M; Fink, M; Tanter, M

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the feasibility of transcostal high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment in liver. However, two factors limit thermal necrosis of the liver through the ribs: the energy deposition at focus is decreased by the respiratory movement of the liver and the energy deposition on the skin is increased by the presence of highly absorbing bone structures. Ex vivo ablations were conducted to validate the feasibility of a transcostal real-time 3D movement tracking and correction mode. Experiments were conducted through a chest phantom made of three human ribs immersed in water and were placed in front of a 300 element array working at 1 MHz. A binarized apodization law introduced recently in order to spare the rib cage during treatment has been extended here with real-time electronic steering of the beam. Thermal simulations have been conducted to determine the steering limits. In vivo 3D-movement detection was performed on pigs using an ultrasonic sequence. The maximum error on the transcostal motion detection was measured to be 0.09 ± 0.097 mm on the anterior–posterior axis. Finally, a complete sequence was developed combining real-time 3D transcostal movement correction and spiral trajectory of the HIFU beam, allowing the system to treat larger areas with optimized efficiency. Lesions as large as 1 cm in diameter have been produced at focus in excised liver, whereas no necroses could be obtained with the same emitted power without correcting the movement of the tissue sample.

  9. Real-Time System for Water Modeling and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Zhao, T.; David, C. H.; Minsker, B.

    2012-12-01

    Working closely with the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) and the University of Texas at Austin (UT-Austin), we are developing a real-time system for water modeling and management using advanced cyberinfrastructure, data integration and geospatial visualization, and numerical modeling. The state of Texas suffered a severe drought in 2011 that cost the state $7.62 billion in agricultural losses (crops and livestock). Devastating situations such as this could potentially be avoided with better water modeling and management strategies that incorporate state of the art simulation and digital data integration. The goal of the project is to prototype a near-real-time decision support system for river modeling and management in Texas that can serve as a national and international model to promote more sustainable and resilient water systems. The system uses National Weather Service current and predicted precipitation data as input to the Noah-MP Land Surface model, which forecasts runoff, soil moisture, evapotranspiration, and water table levels given land surface features. These results are then used by a river model called RAPID, along with an error model currently under development at UT-Austin, to forecast stream flows in the rivers. Model forecasts are visualized as a Web application for TCEQ decision makers, who issue water diversion (withdrawal) permits and any needed drought restrictions; permit holders; and reservoir operation managers. Users will be able to adjust model parameters to predict the impacts of alternative curtailment scenarios or weather forecasts. A real-time optimization system under development will help TCEQ to identify optimal curtailment strategies to minimize impacts on permit holders and protect health and safety. To develop the system we have implemented RAPID as a remotely-executed modeling service using the Cyberintegrator workflow system with input data downloaded from the North American Land Data Assimilation System. The

  10. An open real-time tele-stethoscopy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foche-Perez, Ignacio; Ramirez-Payba, Rodolfo; Hirigoyen-Emparanza, German; Balducci-Gonzalez, Fernando; Simo-Reigadas, Francisco-Javier; Seoane-Pascual, Joaquin; Corral-Peñafiel, Jaime; Martinez-Fernandez, Andres

    2012-08-23

    Acute respiratory infections are the leading cause of childhood mortality. The lack of physicians in rural areas of developing countries makes difficult their correct diagnosis and treatment. The staff of rural health facilities (health-care technicians) may not be qualified to distinguish respiratory diseases by auscultation. For this reason, the goal of this project is the development of a tele-stethoscopy system that allows a physician to receive real-time cardio-respiratory sounds from a remote auscultation, as well as video images showing where the technician is placing the stethoscope on the patient's body. A real-time wireless stethoscopy system was designed. The initial requirements were: 1) The system must send audio and video synchronously over IP networks, not requiring an Internet connection; 2) It must preserve the quality of cardiorespiratory sounds, allowing to adapt the binaural pieces and the chestpiece of standard stethoscopes, and; 3) Cardiorespiratory sounds should be recordable at both sides of the communication. In order to verify the diagnostic capacity of the system, a clinical validation with eight specialists has been designed. In a preliminary test, twelve patients have been auscultated by all the physicians using the tele-stethoscopy system, versus a local auscultation using traditional stethoscope. The system must allow listen the cardiac (systolic and diastolic murmurs, gallop sound, arrhythmias) and respiratory (rhonchi, rales and crepitations, wheeze, diminished and bronchial breath sounds, pleural friction rub) sounds. The design, development and initial validation of the real-time wireless tele-stethoscopy system are described in detail. The system was conceived from scratch as open-source, low-cost and designed in such a way that many universities and small local companies in developing countries may manufacture it. Only free open-source software has been used in order to minimize manufacturing costs and look for alliances to

  11. An open real-time tele-stethoscopy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foche-Perez Ignacio

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute respiratory infections are the leading cause of childhood mortality. The lack of physicians in rural areas of developing countries makes difficult their correct diagnosis and treatment. The staff of rural health facilities (health-care technicians may not be qualified to distinguish respiratory diseases by auscultation. For this reason, the goal of this project is the development of a tele-stethoscopy system that allows a physician to receive real-time cardio-respiratory sounds from a remote auscultation, as well as video images showing where the technician is placing the stethoscope on the patient’s body. Methods A real-time wireless stethoscopy system was designed. The initial requirements were: 1 The system must send audio and video synchronously over IP networks, not requiring an Internet connection; 2 It must preserve the quality of cardiorespiratory sounds, allowing to adapt the binaural pieces and the chestpiece of standard stethoscopes, and; 3 Cardiorespiratory sounds should be recordable at both sides of the communication. In order to verify the diagnostic capacity of the system, a clinical validation with eight specialists has been designed. In a preliminary test, twelve patients have been auscultated by all the physicians using the tele-stethoscopy system, versus a local auscultation using traditional stethoscope. The system must allow listen the cardiac (systolic and diastolic murmurs, gallop sound, arrhythmias and respiratory (rhonchi, rales and crepitations, wheeze, diminished and bronchial breath sounds, pleural friction rub sounds. Results The design, development and initial validation of the real-time wireless tele-stethoscopy system are described in detail. The system was conceived from scratch as open-source, low-cost and designed in such a way that many universities and small local companies in developing countries may manufacture it. Only free open-source software has been used in order to

  12. Real-time implementation of an interactive jazz accompaniment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Nikhil

    Modern computational algorithms and digital signal processing (DSP) are able to combine with human performers without forced or predetermined structure in order to create dynamic and real-time accompaniment systems. With modern computing power and intelligent algorithm layout and design, it is possible to achieve more detailed auditory analysis of live music. Using this information, computer code can follow and predict how a human's musical performance evolves, and use this to react in a musical manner. This project builds a real-time accompaniment system to perform together with live musicians, with a focus on live jazz performance and improvisation. The system utilizes a new polyphonic pitch detector and embeds it in an Ableton Live system - combined with Max for Live - to perform elements of audio analysis, generation, and triggering. The system also relies on tension curves and information rate calculations from the Creative Artificially Intuitive and Reasoning Agent (CAIRA) system to help understand and predict human improvisation. These metrics are vital to the core system and allow for extrapolated audio analysis. The system is able to react dynamically to a human performer, and can successfully accompany the human as an entire rhythm section.

  13. Integrated systems for real time data acquisition and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oprea, I.; Oprea, M.

    1995-01-01

    The continuous measuring of all the nuclear and dosimetric parameters in a nuclear facility is essential for personnel and environment protection. Considering the vast amount of information and data required to keep an updated overview of a situation the need for an efficient acquisition processing and information system is evident. The paper analyses the special requirements as concerning the real time inter-process communication and proposes a modern concept based on the last trends existing in the field of computer technology and operating systems. (author)

  14. Quantitative analysis of real-time radiographic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, M.D.; Condon, P.E.; Barry, R.C.; Betz, R.A.; Klynn, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    A method was developed which yields quantitative information on the spatial resolution, contrast sensitivity, image noise, and focal spot size from real time radiographic images. The method uses simple image quality indicators and computer programs which make it possible to readily obtain quantitative performance measurements of single or multiple radiographic systems. It was used for x-ray and optical images to determine which component of the system was not operating up to standard. Focal spot size was monitored by imaging a bar pattern. This paper constitutes the second progress report on the development of the camera and radiation image quality indicators

  15. Wide area surveillance real-time motion detection systems

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The book describes a system for visual surveillance using intelligent cameras. The camera uses robust techniques for detecting and tracking moving objects. The real time capture of the objects is then stored int he database. The tracking data stored in the database is analysed to study the camera view, detect and track objects, and study object behavior. These set of models provide a robust framework for coordinating the tracking of objects between overlapping and non-overlapping cameras, and recording the activity of objects detected by the system.

  16. Continuous data recording on fast real-time systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabeo, L., E-mail: lzabeo@jet.u [Euratom-CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Sartori, F. [Euratom-CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Neto, A. [Associacao Euratom-IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Piccolo, F. [Euratom-CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Alves, D. [Associacao Euratom-IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Vitelli, R. [Dipartimento di Informatica, Sistemi e Produzione, Universita di Roma, Tor Vergata, Via del Politecnico, 1-00133 Roma (Italy); Barbalace, A. [Euratom-ENEA Association, Consorzio RFX, 35127 Padova (Italy); De Tommasi, G. [Associazione EURATOM/ENEA/CREATE, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Napoli (Italy)

    2010-07-15

    The PCU-Project launched for the enhancement of the vertical stabilisation system at JET required the design of a new real-time control system with the challenging specifications of 2Gops and a cycle time of 50 {mu}s. The RTAI based architecture running on an x86 multi-core processor technology demonstrated to be the best platform for meeting the high requirements. Moreover, on this architecture thanks to the smart allocation of the interrupts it was possible to demonstrate simultaneous data streaming at 50 MBs on Ethernet while handling a real-time 100 kHz interrupt source with a maximum jitter of just 3 {mu}s. Because of the memory limitation imposed by 32 bit version Linux running in kernel mode, the RTAI-based new controller allows a maximum practical data storage of 800 MB per pulse. While this amount of data can be accepted for JET normal operation it posed some limitations in the debugging and commissioning of the system. In order to increase the capability of the data acquisition of the system we have designed a mechanism that allows continuous full bandwidth (56 MB/s) data streaming from the real-time task (running in kernel mode) to either a data collector (running in user mode) or an external data acquisition server. The exploited architecture involves a peer to peer mechanisms where the sender running in RTAI kernel mode broadcasts large chunks of data using UDP packets, implemented using the 'fcomm' RTAI extension , to a receiver that will store the data. The paper will present the results of the initial RTAI operating system tests, the design of the streaming architecture and the first experimental results.

  17. Real-time interpolation for true 3-dimensional ultrasound image volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Songbai; Roberts, David W; Hartov, Alex; Paulsen, Keith D

    2011-02-01

    We compared trilinear interpolation to voxel nearest neighbor and distance-weighted algorithms for fast and accurate processing of true 3-dimensional ultrasound (3DUS) image volumes. In this study, the computational efficiency and interpolation accuracy of the 3 methods were compared on the basis of a simulated 3DUS image volume, 34 clinical 3DUS image volumes from 5 patients, and 2 experimental phantom image volumes. We show that trilinear interpolation improves interpolation accuracy over both the voxel nearest neighbor and distance-weighted algorithms yet achieves real-time computational performance that is comparable to the voxel nearest neighbor algrorithm (1-2 orders of magnitude faster than the distance-weighted algorithm) as well as the fastest pixel-based algorithms for processing tracked 2-dimensional ultrasound images (0.035 seconds per 2-dimesional cross-sectional image [76,800 pixels interpolated, or 0.46 ms/1000 pixels] and 1.05 seconds per full volume with a 1-mm(3) voxel size [4.6 million voxels interpolated, or 0.23 ms/1000 voxels]). On the basis of these results, trilinear interpolation is recommended as a fast and accurate interpolation method for rectilinear sampling of 3DUS image acquisitions, which is required to facilitate subsequent processing and display during operating room procedures such as image-guided neurosurgery.

  18. Real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound in diagnosing of focal spleen lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xiaoling; Yu Jie; Liang Ping; Liu Fangyi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the features of focal spleen lesions (FSLs) on contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) imaging. Materials and methods: CEUS with a blot injection of SonoVue was performed in 48 patients with 75 FSLs (median diameter 2.6 cm) and their perfusion characteristics were analyzed by using contrast pulse sequences (CPS) technique. Results: Among 19 malignant lesions (10 metastases, 7 lymphoma, 1 hemangiosarcoma, 1 epithelioid hemangioendothelioma) and 56 benign lesion (23 hemangiomas, 14 cysts, 8 infarctions, 4 splenic ruptures, 3 tuberculosis, 2 abscess, 1 pseudoaneurysm, 1 lymphangioma), 25 benign lesions were demonstrated nonenhancement. For malignancy, 50.0% (5/10) metastases and 57.1% (4/7) lymphomas were showed hypoenhancement in the arterial phase, and 18 (94.7%) of malignant lesions were hypo-enhancement in the parenchymal phase. Among 31 benign lesions with enhancement, 27 (87.1%) were showed isoenhancement or hyperenhancement in the arterial phase and 22 (71.0%) lesions were isoenhancement or hyperenhancement in the parenchymal phase. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of diagnosis for FSLs were 91.1%, 95.0% and 92.0% for CEUS and 75.0%, 84.2% and 77.3% respectively, for the conventional baseline ultrasound (BUS). Conclusion: Real-time CEUS can provide valuable information for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of FSLs.

  19. Real-Time Alpine Measurement System Using Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami A. Malek

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring the snow pack is crucial for many stakeholders, whether for hydro-power optimization, water management or flood control. Traditional forecasting relies on regression methods, which often results in snow melt runoff predictions of low accuracy in non-average years. Existing ground-based real-time measurement systems do not cover enough physiographic variability and are mostly installed at low elevations. We present the hardware and software design of a state-of-the-art distributed Wireless Sensor Network (WSN-based autonomous measurement system with real-time remote data transmission that gathers data of snow depth, air temperature, air relative humidity, soil moisture, soil temperature, and solar radiation in physiographically representative locations. Elevation, aspect, slope and vegetation are used to select network locations, and distribute sensors throughout a given network location, since they govern snow pack variability at various scales. Three WSNs were installed in the Sierra Nevada of Northern California throughout the North Fork of the Feather River, upstream of the Oroville dam and multiple powerhouses along the river. The WSNs gathered hydrologic variables and network health statistics throughout the 2017 water year, one of northern Sierra’s wettest years on record. These networks leverage an ultra-low-power wireless technology to interconnect their components and offer recovery features, resilience to data loss due to weather and wildlife disturbances and real-time topological visualizations of the network health. Data show considerable spatial variability of snow depth, even within a 1 km 2 network location. Combined with existing systems, these WSNs can better detect precipitation timing and phase in, monitor sub-daily dynamics of infiltration and surface runoff during precipitation or snow melt, and inform hydro power managers about actual ablation and end-of-season date across the landscape.

  20. Real-Time Alpine Measurement System Using Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Sami A; Avanzi, Francesco; Brun-Laguna, Keoma; Maurer, Tessa; Oroza, Carlos A; Hartsough, Peter C; Watteyne, Thomas; Glaser, Steven D

    2017-11-09

    Monitoring the snow pack is crucial for many stakeholders, whether for hydro-power optimization, water management or flood control. Traditional forecasting relies on regression methods, which often results in snow melt runoff predictions of low accuracy in non-average years. Existing ground-based real-time measurement systems do not cover enough physiographic variability and are mostly installed at low elevations. We present the hardware and software design of a state-of-the-art distributed Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)-based autonomous measurement system with real-time remote data transmission that gathers data of snow depth, air temperature, air relative humidity, soil moisture, soil temperature, and solar radiation in physiographically representative locations. Elevation, aspect, slope and vegetation are used to select network locations, and distribute sensors throughout a given network location, since they govern snow pack variability at various scales. Three WSNs were installed in the Sierra Nevada of Northern California throughout the North Fork of the Feather River, upstream of the Oroville dam and multiple powerhouses along the river. The WSNs gathered hydrologic variables and network health statistics throughout the 2017 water year, one of northern Sierra's wettest years on record. These networks leverage an ultra-low-power wireless technology to interconnect their components and offer recovery features, resilience to data loss due to weather and wildlife disturbances and real-time topological visualizations of the network health. Data show considerable spatial variability of snow depth, even within a 1 km 2 network location. Combined with existing systems, these WSNs can better detect precipitation timing and phase in, monitor sub-daily dynamics of infiltration and surface runoff during precipitation or snow melt, and inform hydro power managers about actual ablation and end-of-season date across the landscape.

  1. An Embedded Real-Time System on ATLAS ROBIN

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Maoyuan

    2012-01-01

    ATLAS is the largest particle detector at the Large Hadron Collider for high energy physics experiments that produces over 40 TB/s event data. The ATLAS Readout Buffer INput(ROBIN) subsystem is an essential device to buffer and reduce the data, which has a IBM PowerPC core for the control functionalities. This dissertation addresses the software design of an embedded real-time system centering on the PowerPC micro-controller, as the management core of the ROBIN. A page-based solution is pr...

  2. Real-time inventory system for special nuclear material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuckertz, T.H.; Ethridge, C.D.; Nicholson, N.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes a special purpose peripheral device for a minicomputer that can monitor SNM in vault storage in real time and give timely indication of any tampering with the material. This device, called a shelf monitor, is designed around a single-chip microcomputer, and can be manufactured in quantity for about $100. A typical system of shelf monitors controlled by a minicomputer is described. The minicomputer is used to acquire data associated with the weight and gamma activity of the sample of SNM under observation. Significant deviations in the weight and gamma activity are cause for a tampering alarm.

  3. Real-time inventory system for special nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuckertz, T.H.; Ethridge, C.D.; Nicholson, N.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes a special purpose peripheral device for a minicomputer that can monitor SNM in vault storage in real time and give timely indication of any tampering with the material. This device, called a shelf monitor, is designed around a single-chip microcomputer, and can be manufactured in quantity for about $100. A typical system of shelf monitors controlled by a minicomputer is described. The minicomputer is used to acquire data associated with the weight and gamma activity of the sample of SNM under observation. Significant deviations in the weight and gamma activity are cause for a tampering alarm

  4. A Real-Time Apple Grading System Using Multicolor Space

    OpenAIRE

    Toylan, Hayrettin; Kuscu, Hilmi

    2014-01-01

    This study was focused on the multicolor space which provides a better specification of the color and size of the apple in an image. In the study, a real-time machine vision system classifying apples into four categories with respect to color and size was designed. In the analysis, different color spaces were used. As a result, 97% identification success for the red fields of the apple was obtained depending on the values of the parameter “a” of CIE L*a*b*color space. Similarly, 94% identific...

  5. SCI-Clone/32 - a distributed real time simulation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilks, C.F.

    1986-01-01

    Advances in engineering and in particular digital computers has enabled the simulation manufacturers to deliver a realism of a kind undreamt of a decade ago. 32-bit computers ranging in processor power from several hundred thousand instructions per second to many millions are at the heart of each simulator. Gould has pioneered digital computers in simulation with real time systems using shared memory, parallel processors, 64KByte cache, and shadow memory. The market is planning for higher iteration rates, lower life cycle costs, and the development of part task products. These can be met by distributing the tasks amongst nodal computers having a unique architecture for sharing data variables with minimal contention. (Auth.)

  6. Randomized Caches Considered Harmful in Hard Real-Time Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Reineke

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the suitability of caches with randomized placement and replacement in the context of hard real-time systems. Such caches have been claimed to drastically reduce the amount of information required by static worst-case execution time (WCET analysis, and to be an enabler for measurement-based probabilistic timing analysis. We refute these claims and conclude that with prevailing static and measurement-based analysis techniques caches with deterministic placement and least-recently-used replacement are preferable over randomized ones.

  7. Progress in real-time feedback control systems in RFX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barana, O.; Luchetta, A. E-mail: adriano.luchetta@igi.cnr.it; Manduchi, G.; Taliercio, C

    2004-06-01

    Major modifications of the RFX load assembly and power supplies are in progress to allow extensive active control schemes, such as equilibrium and plasma position control and innovative control of the MHD modes. The digital control system is implemented in VME64 using a distributed architecture. The use of a 'stable' operating system that is likely to survive some generations of processors can help coping with evolution of technology. PowerPC and Pentium processors were thus considered as candidates and tested and the first one has been selected due to the better performance in floating point computation. Wind River VxWorks has been chosen as real-time operating system. 100 Mbit switched Ethernet has been evaluated for real-time communication by using the user datagram protocol (UDP). Measurements have been executed on a prototype system to assess data transfer latency, jitter and reliability and the results confirm that the solution is suitable for the application. The paper describes in detail the reasons for the choice in the hardware components. Results from several tests comparing the performance of different solutions are also provided.

  8. Unmanned airborne system in real-time radiological monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafrir, H.; Pernick, A.; Yaffe, U.; Grushka, A.

    1993-01-01

    The unmanned airborne vehicle (UAV) platform, equipped with an appropriate payload and capable of carrying a variety of modular sensors, is an effective tool for real-time control of environmental disasters of different types (e.g. nuclear or chemical accidents). The suggested payloads consist of a miniaturised self-collimating nuclear spectrometry sensor and electro-optical sensors for day and night imagery. The system provides means of both real-time field data acquisition in an endangered environment and on-line hazard assessment computation from the down link raw data. All the processing, including flight planning using an expert system, is performed by a dedicated microcomputer located in a Mobile Ground Control Station (MGCS) situated outside the hazardous area. The UAV equipment is part of a system designed especially for the critically important early phase of emergency response. Decisions by the Emergency Response Manager (ERM) are also based on the ability to estimate the potential dose to individuals and the mitigation of dose when protection measures are implemented. (author)

  9. MO-FG-CAMPUS-JeP3-04: Feasibility Study of Real-Time Ultrasound Monitoring for Abdominal Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Lin; Kien Ng, Sook; Zhang, Ying; Herman, Joseph; Wong, John; Ding, Kai [Department of Radiation Oncology, John Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Ji, Tianlong [Department of Radiation Oncology, The First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning (China); Iordachita, Iulian [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Tutkun Sen, H.; Kazanzides, Peter; Lediju Bell, Muyinatu A. [Department of Computer Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Ultrasound is ideal for real-time monitoring in radiotherapy with high soft tissue contrast, non-ionization, portability, and cost effectiveness. Few studies investigated clinical application of real-time ultrasound monitoring for abdominal stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). This study aims to demonstrate the feasibility of real-time monitoring of 3D target motion using 4D ultrasound. Methods: An ultrasound probe holding system was designed to allow clinician to freely move and lock ultrasound probe. For phantom study, an abdominal ultrasound phantom was secured on a 2D programmable respiratory motion stage. One side of the stage was elevated than another side to generate 3D motion. The motion stage made periodic breath-hold movement. Phantom movement tracked by infrared camera was considered as ground truth. For volunteer study three healthy subjects underwent the same setup for abdominal SBRT with active breath control (ABC). 4D ultrasound B-mode images were acquired for both phantom and volunteers for real-time monitoring. 10 breath-hold cycles were monitored for each experiment. For phantom, the target motion tracked by ultrasound was compared with motion tracked by infrared camera. For healthy volunteers, the reproducibility of ABC breath-hold was evaluated. Results: Volunteer study showed the ultrasound system fitted well to the clinical SBRT setup. The reproducibility for 10 breath-holds is less than 2 mm in three directions for all three volunteers. For phantom study the motion between inspiration and expiration captured by camera (ground truth) is 2.35±0.02 mm, 1.28±0.04 mm, 8.85±0.03 mm in LR, AP, SI directly, respectively. The motion monitored by ultrasound is 2.21±0.07 mm, 1.32±0.12mm, 9.10±0.08mm, respectively. The motion monitoring error in any direction is less than 0.5 mm. Conclusion: The volunteer study proved the clinical feasibility of real-time ultrasound monitoring for abdominal SBRT. The phantom and volunteer ABC

  10. MO-FG-CAMPUS-JeP3-04: Feasibility Study of Real-Time Ultrasound Monitoring for Abdominal Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Lin; Kien Ng, Sook; Zhang, Ying; Herman, Joseph; Wong, John; Ding, Kai; Ji, Tianlong; Iordachita, Iulian; Tutkun Sen, H.; Kazanzides, Peter; Lediju Bell, Muyinatu A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Ultrasound is ideal for real-time monitoring in radiotherapy with high soft tissue contrast, non-ionization, portability, and cost effectiveness. Few studies investigated clinical application of real-time ultrasound monitoring for abdominal stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). This study aims to demonstrate the feasibility of real-time monitoring of 3D target motion using 4D ultrasound. Methods: An ultrasound probe holding system was designed to allow clinician to freely move and lock ultrasound probe. For phantom study, an abdominal ultrasound phantom was secured on a 2D programmable respiratory motion stage. One side of the stage was elevated than another side to generate 3D motion. The motion stage made periodic breath-hold movement. Phantom movement tracked by infrared camera was considered as ground truth. For volunteer study three healthy subjects underwent the same setup for abdominal SBRT with active breath control (ABC). 4D ultrasound B-mode images were acquired for both phantom and volunteers for real-time monitoring. 10 breath-hold cycles were monitored for each experiment. For phantom, the target motion tracked by ultrasound was compared with motion tracked by infrared camera. For healthy volunteers, the reproducibility of ABC breath-hold was evaluated. Results: Volunteer study showed the ultrasound system fitted well to the clinical SBRT setup. The reproducibility for 10 breath-holds is less than 2 mm in three directions for all three volunteers. For phantom study the motion between inspiration and expiration captured by camera (ground truth) is 2.35±0.02 mm, 1.28±0.04 mm, 8.85±0.03 mm in LR, AP, SI directly, respectively. The motion monitored by ultrasound is 2.21±0.07 mm, 1.32±0.12mm, 9.10±0.08mm, respectively. The motion monitoring error in any direction is less than 0.5 mm. Conclusion: The volunteer study proved the clinical feasibility of real-time ultrasound monitoring for abdominal SBRT. The phantom and volunteer ABC

  11. Distributed digital real-time control system for TCV tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, H.B. [École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), Association EURATOM-Confédération Suisse, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Felici, F. [Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Paley, J.I.; Duval, B.P.; Moret, J.-M.; Coda, S.; Sauter, O.; Fasel, D.; Marmillod, P. [École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), Association EURATOM-Confédération Suisse, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • A new distributed digital control system for the TCV tokamak has been commissioned. • Data is shared in real-time between all nodes using the reflective memory. • The customised Linux OS allows achieving deterministic and low latency behaviour. • The control algorithm design in Simulink together with the automatic code generation using Embedded Coder allow rapid algorithm development. • Controllers designed outside the TCV environment can be ported easily. • The previous control system functions have been emulated and improved. • New capabilities include MHD control, profile control, equilibrium reconstruction. - Abstract: A new digital feedback control system (named the SCD “Système de Contrôle Distribué”) has been developed, integrated and used successfully to control TCV (Tokamak à Configuration Variable) plasmas. The system is designed to be modular, distributed, and scalable, accommodating hundreds of diagnostic inputs and actuator outputs. With many more inputs and outputs available than previously possible, it offers the possibility to design advanced control algorithms with better knowledge of the plasma state and to coherently control all TCV actuators, including poloidal field (PF) coils, gas valves, the gyrotron powers and launcher angles of the electron cyclotron heating and current drive system (ECRH/ECCD) together with diagnostic triggering signals. The system consists of multiple nodes; each is a customised Linux desktop or embedded PC which may have local ADC and DAC cards. Each node is also connected to a memory network (reflective memory) providing a reliable, deterministic method of sharing memory between all nodes. Control algorithms are programmed as block diagrams in Matlab-Simulink providing a powerful environment for modelling and control design. The C code is generated automatically from the Simulink block diagram and compiled, with the Simulink Embedded Coder (SEC, formerly Real-Time Workshop Embedded

  12. Real-time multi-function entry / exit management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiyama, Kazuhisa; Kurosawa, Akihiko; Asano, Norikazu; Onoue, Ryuji; Eguchi, Shohei; Hanawa, Nobuhiro; Hori, Naohiko; Ueda, Hisao; Kanda, Hiroaki

    2012-01-01

    In order to prevent radiation accident and its expansion, more integrated management system is required to safety management for radiation workers in the nuclear facilities. Therefore, JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency) and HAM (Hitachi Aloka Medical, Ltd) have developed innovative real-time multi-function entry/exit management system which managed worker's exposed dose and position under the joint developed patent. This system is sharing worker's data among workers and server manager who is inside of or outside of building, such as worker's positing, health condition and exposed dose. It consists of mobile equipments, receivers, LAN, and servers system. This report summarizes the system to be installed in the JMTR. (author)

  13. Ultrasound Research Scanner for Real-time Synthetic Aperture Data Acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Holm, Ole; Jensen, Lars Joost

    2005-01-01

    Conventional ultrasound systems acquire ultrasound data sequentially one image line at a time. The architecture of these systems is therefore also sequential in nature and processes most of the data in a sequential pipeline. This often makes it difficult to implement radically different imaging...... and 3D B-mode and velocity imaging using advanced coded emissions. The system can be used with 128 element transducers and can excite 128 transducer elements and receive and sample data from 64 channels simultaneously at 40 MHz with 12 bits precision. Two-to-one multiplexing in receive can be used...

  14. Monitoring and Acquisition Real-time System (MARS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Corbin

    2013-01-01

    MARS is a graphical user interface (GUI) written in MATLAB and Java, allowing the user to configure and control the Scalable Parallel Architecture for Real-Time Acquisition and Analysis (SPARTAA) data acquisition system. SPARTAA not only acquires data, but also allows for complex algorithms to be applied to the acquired data in real time. The MARS client allows the user to set up and configure all settings regarding the data channels attached to the system, as well as have complete control over starting and stopping data acquisition. It provides a unique "Test" programming environment, allowing the user to create tests consisting of a series of alarms, each of which contains any number of data channels. Each alarm is configured with a particular algorithm, determining the type of processing that will be applied on each data channel and tested against a defined threshold. Tests can be uploaded to SPARTAA, thereby teaching it how to process the data. The uniqueness of MARS is in its capability to be adaptable easily to many test configurations. MARS sends and receives protocols via TCP/IP, which allows for quick integration into almost any test environment. The use of MATLAB and Java as the programming languages allows for developers to integrate the software across multiple operating platforms.

  15. Runtime verification of embedded real-time systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinbacher, Thomas; Függer, Matthias; Brauer, Jörg

    We present a runtime verification framework that allows on-line monitoring of past-time Metric Temporal Logic (ptMTL) specifications in a discrete time setting. We design observer algorithms for the time-bounded modalities of ptMTL, which take advantage of the highly parallel nature of hardware designs. The algorithms can be translated into efficient hardware blocks, which are designed for reconfigurability, thus, facilitate applications of the framework in both a prototyping and a post-deployment phase of embedded real-time systems. We provide formal correctness proofs for all presented observer algorithms and analyze their time and space complexity. For example, for the most general operator considered, the time-bounded Since operator, we obtain a time complexity that is doubly logarithmic both in the point in time the operator is executed and the operator's time bounds. This result is promising with respect to a self-contained, non-interfering monitoring approach that evaluates real-time specifications in parallel to the system-under-test. We implement our framework on a Field Programmable Gate Array platform and use extensive simulation and logic synthesis runs to assess the benefits of the approach in terms of resource usage and operating frequency.

  16. Real-Time EEG-Based Happiness Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noppadon Jatupaiboon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose to use real-time EEG signal to classify happy and unhappy emotions elicited by pictures and classical music. We use PSD as a feature and SVM as a classifier. The average accuracies of subject-dependent model and subject-independent model are approximately 75.62% and 65.12%, respectively. Considering each pair of channels, temporal pair of channels (T7 and T8 gives a better result than the other area. Considering different frequency bands, high-frequency bands (Beta and Gamma give a better result than low-frequency bands. Considering different time durations for emotion elicitation, that result from 30 seconds does not have significant difference compared with the result from 60 seconds. From all of these results, we implement real-time EEG-based happiness detection system using only one pair of channels. Furthermore, we develop games based on the happiness detection system to help user recognize and control the happiness.

  17. Real-time fetal ECG system design using embedded microprocessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Baese, Uwe; Muddu, Harikrishna; Schinhaerl, Sebastian; Kumm, Martin; Zipf, Peter

    2016-05-01

    The emphasis of this project lies in the development and evaluation of new robust and high fidelity fetal electrocardiogram (FECG) systems to determine the fetal heart rate (FHR). Recently several powerful algorithms have been suggested to improve the FECG fidelity. Until now it is unknown if these algorithms allow a real-time processing, can be used in mobile systems (low power), and which algorithm produces the best error rate for a given system configuration. In this work we have developed high performance, low power microprocessor-based biomedical systems that allow a fair comparison of proposed, state-of-the-art FECG algorithms. We will evaluate different soft-core microprocessors and compare these solutions to other commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardcore solutions in terms of price, size, power, and speed.

  18. High Performance Embedded System for Real-Time Pattern Matching

    CERN Document Server

    Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; The ATLAS collaboration; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Citraro, Saverio; Giannetti, Paola; Dell'Orso, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present an innovative and high performance embedded system for real-time pattern matching. This system is based on the evolution of hardware and algorithms developed for the field of High Energy Physics (HEP) and more specifically for the execution of extremely fast pattern matching for tracking of particles produced by proton-proton collisions in hadron collider experiments. A miniaturised version of this complex system is being developed for pattern matching in generic image processing applications. The system works as a contour identifier able to extract the salient features of an image. It is based on the principles of cognitive image processing, which means that it executes fast pattern matching and data reduction mimicking the operation of the human brain. The pattern matching can be executed by a custom designed Associative Memory (AM) chip. The reference patterns are chosen by a complex training algorithm implemented on an FPGA device. Post processing algorithms (e.g. pixel clustering...

  19. Optimal Real-time Dispatch for Integrated Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.; Rahimi-Kian, Ashkan

    2016-01-01

    With the emerging of small-scale integrated energy systems (IESs), there are significant potentials to increase the functionality of a typical demand-side management (DSM) strategy and typical implementation of building-level distributed energy resources (DERs). By integrating DSM and DERs...... into a cohesive, networked package that fully utilizes smart energy-efficient end-use devices, advanced building control/automation systems, and integrated communications architectures, it is possible to efficiently manage energy and comfort at the end-use location. In this paper, an ontology-driven multi......-agent control system with intelligent optimizers is proposed for optimal real-time dispatch of an integrated building and microgrid system considering coordinated demand response (DR) and DERs management. The optimal dispatch problem is formulated as a mixed integer nonlinear programing problem (MINLP...

  20. Prototype Real-time ATCA-based LLRF Control System

    CERN Document Server

    Makowski, Dariusz; Jezynski, Tomasz; Piotrowski, Adam; Jablonski, Grzegorz; Jalmuzna, Wojciech; Czuba, Krzysztof; Predki, Paweł; Simrock, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The linear accelerators employed to drive Free Electron Lasers (FELs), such as the X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) currently being built in Hamburg, require sophisticated control systems. The Low Level Radio Frequency (LLRF) control system should stabilize the phase and amplitude of the electromagnetic field in accelerating modules with tolerances below 0.02 % for amplitude and 0.01 degree for phase to produce ultra-stable electron beam that meets the conditions required for Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE). The LLRF control system of 32-cavity accelerating module of the XFEL accelerator requires acquisition of more than 100 analogue signals sampled with frequency around 100 MHz. Data processing in real-time loop should complete within a few hundreds of nanoseconds. Moreover, the LLRF control system should be reliable, upgradable and serviceable. The Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA) standard, developed for telecommunication applications, can fulfil all of the above mentione...

  1. Development of a real time chemistry monitoring and diagnostic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudreau, T.M.; Millett, P.J.; Bates, J.; Burns, G.

    1998-01-01

    EPRI has developed SMART chem WORKS, which is capable of operating as a real time chemistry diagnostic and monitoring system. A high degree of plant-specific customization is possible which allows discrimination between normal chemistry and off-normal conditions. The initial implementation of the system has been very successful. State of the art technology has been employed which allows remote administration of the system, a flexible, web page display of the output from the system and instant notification of excursions using email and pagers. The second installation of SMART chem WORKS is currently underway at a BWR plant, Grand Gulf. The SMART chem WORKS techniques can be applied to monitor PWR Primary Chemistry, PWR Secondary Chemistry and BWR steam cycle chemistry. A fossil steam cycle simulator will also be developed for application to fossil plants. (J.P.N.)

  2. Ultrasound contrast agent imaging: Real-time imaging of the superharmonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peruzzini, D.; Viti, J. [MSD lab, Department of Information Engineering, Univ of Florence, Via S.Marta, 3, 50139 Firenze (Italy); Erasmus MC, ’s-Gravendijkwal 230, Faculty Building, Ee 2302, 3015 CE Rotterdam (Netherlands); Tortoli, P. [MSD lab, Department of Information Engineering, Univ of Florence, Via S.Marta, 3, 50139 Firenze (Italy); Verweij, M. D. [Acoustical Wavefield Imaging, ImPhys, Delft Univ Technology, van der Waalsweg 8, 2628 CH Delft (Netherlands); Jong, N. de; Vos, H. J., E-mail: h.vos@erasmusmc.nl [Erasmus MC, ’s-Gravendijkwal 230, Faculty Building, Ee 2302, 3015 CE Rotterdam (Netherlands); Acoustical Wavefield Imaging, ImPhys, Delft Univ Technology, van der Waalsweg 8, 2628 CH Delft (Netherlands)

    2015-10-28

    Currently, in medical ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) imaging the second harmonic scattering of the microbubbles is regularly used. This scattering is in competition with the signal that is caused by nonlinear wave propagation in tissue. It was reported that UCA imaging based on the third or higher harmonics, i.e. “superharmonic” imaging, shows better contrast. However, the superharmonic scattering has a lower signal level compared to e.g. second harmonic signals. This study investigates the contrast-to-tissue ratio (CTR) and signal to noise ratio (SNR) of superharmonic UCA scattering in a tissue/vessel mimicking phantom using a real-time clinical scanner. Numerical simulations were performed to estimate the level of harmonics generated by the microbubbles. Data were acquired with a custom built dual-frequency cardiac phased array probe. Fundamental real-time images were produced while beam formed radiofrequency (RF) data was stored for further offline processing. The phantom consisted of a cavity filled with UCA surrounded by tissue mimicking material. The acoustic pressure in the cavity of the phantom was 110 kPa (MI = 0.11) ensuring non-destructivity of UCA. After processing of the acquired data from the phantom, the UCA-filled cavity could be clearly observed in the images, while tissue signals were suppressed at or below the noise floor. The measured CTR values were 36 dB, >38 dB, and >32 dB, for the second, third, and fourth harmonic respectively, which were in agreement with those reported earlier for preliminary contrast superharmonic imaging. The single frame SNR values (in which ‘signal’ denotes the signal level from the UCA area) were 23 dB, 18 dB, and 11 dB, respectively. This indicates that noise, and not the tissue signal, is the limiting factor for the UCA detection when using the superharmonics in nondestructive mode.

  3. Hybrid Photoacoustic/Ultrasound Tomograph for Real-Time Finger Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeri, Milan; Bost, Wolfgang; Sénégond, Nicolas; Tretbar, Steffen; Fournelle, Marc

    2017-10-01

    We report a target-enclosing, hybrid tomograph with a total of 768 elements based on capacitive micromachined ultrasound transducer technology and providing fast, high-resolution 2-D/3-D photoacoustic and ultrasound tomography tailored to finger imaging. A freely programmable ultrasound beamforming platform sampling data at 80 MHz was developed to realize plane wave transmission under multiple angles. A multiplexing unit enables the connection and control of a large number of elements. Fast image reconstruction is provided by GPU processing. The tomograph is composed of four independent and fully automated movable arc-shaped transducers, allowing imaging of all three finger joints. The system benefits from photoacoustics, yielding high optical contrast and enabling visualization of finger vascularization, and ultrasound provides morphologic information on joints and surrounding tissue. A diode-pumped, Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and an optical parametric oscillator are used to broaden the spectrum of emitted wavelengths to provide multispectral imaging. Custom-made optical fiber bundles enable illumination of the region of interest in the plane of acoustic detection. Precision in positioning of the probe in motion is ensured by use of a motor-driven guide slide. The current position of the probe is encoded by the stage and used to relate ultrasound and photoacoustic signals to the corresponding region of interest of the suspicious finger joint. The system is characterized in phantoms and a healthy human finger in vivo. The results obtained promise to provide new opportunities in finger diagnostics and establish photoacoustic/ultrasound-tomography in medical routine. Copyright © 2017 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. An Analysis of Input/Output Paradigms for Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    timing and concurrency aspects of real - time systems . This paper illustrates how to build a mathematical model of the schedulability of a real-time...various design alternatives. The primary characteristic that distinguishes real-time system from non- real - time systems is the importance of time. The

  5. High performance embedded system for real-time pattern matching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotiropoulou, C.-L.; Luciano, P.; Gkaitatzis, S.; Citraro, S.; Giannetti, P.; Dell'Orso, M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we present an innovative and high performance embedded system for real-time pattern matching. This system is based on the evolution of hardware and algorithms developed for the field of High Energy Physics and more specifically for the execution of extremely fast pattern matching for tracking of particles produced by proton–proton collisions in hadron collider experiments. A miniaturized version of this complex system is being developed for pattern matching in generic image processing applications. The system works as a contour identifier able to extract the salient features of an image. It is based on the principles of cognitive image processing, which means that it executes fast pattern matching and data reduction mimicking the operation of the human brain. The pattern matching can be executed by a custom designed Associative Memory chip. The reference patterns are chosen by a complex training algorithm implemented on an FPGA device. Post processing algorithms (e.g. pixel clustering) are also implemented on the FPGA. The pattern matching can be executed on a 2D or 3D space, on black and white or grayscale images, depending on the application and thus increasing exponentially the processing requirements of the system. We present the firmware implementation of the training and pattern matching algorithm, performance and results on a latest generation Xilinx Kintex Ultrascale FPGA device. - Highlights: • A high performance embedded system for real-time pattern matching is proposed. • It is based on a system developed for High Energy Physics experiment triggers. • It mimics the operation of the human brain (cognitive image processing). • The process can be executed on 2D and 3D, black and white or grayscale images. • The implementation uses FPGAs and custom designed associative memory (AM) chips.

  6. High performance embedded system for real-time pattern matching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotiropoulou, C.-L., E-mail: c.sotiropoulou@cern.ch [University of Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN-Pisa Section, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Luciano, P. [University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Gaetano di Biasio 43, Cassino 03043 (Italy); INFN-Pisa Section, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Gkaitatzis, S. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Citraro, S. [University of Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN-Pisa Section, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Giannetti, P. [INFN-Pisa Section, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Dell' Orso, M. [University of Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN-Pisa Section, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2017-02-11

    In this paper we present an innovative and high performance embedded system for real-time pattern matching. This system is based on the evolution of hardware and algorithms developed for the field of High Energy Physics and more specifically for the execution of extremely fast pattern matching for tracking of particles produced by proton–proton collisions in hadron collider experiments. A miniaturized version of this complex system is being developed for pattern matching in generic image processing applications. The system works as a contour identifier able to extract the salient features of an image. It is based on the principles of cognitive image processing, which means that it executes fast pattern matching and data reduction mimicking the operation of the human brain. The pattern matching can be executed by a custom designed Associative Memory chip. The reference patterns are chosen by a complex training algorithm implemented on an FPGA device. Post processing algorithms (e.g. pixel clustering) are also implemented on the FPGA. The pattern matching can be executed on a 2D or 3D space, on black and white or grayscale images, depending on the application and thus increasing exponentially the processing requirements of the system. We present the firmware implementation of the training and pattern matching algorithm, performance and results on a latest generation Xilinx Kintex Ultrascale FPGA device. - Highlights: • A high performance embedded system for real-time pattern matching is proposed. • It is based on a system developed for High Energy Physics experiment triggers. • It mimics the operation of the human brain (cognitive image processing). • The process can be executed on 2D and 3D, black and white or grayscale images. • The implementation uses FPGAs and custom designed associative memory (AM) chips.

  7. Real Time Decoding of Color Symbol for Optical Positioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Waheed Malik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and real-time decoding of a color symbol that can be used as a reference marker for optical navigation. The designed symbol has a circular shape and is printed on paper using two distinct colors. This pair of colors is selected based on the highest achievable signal to noise ratio. The symbol is designed to carry eight bit information. Real time decoding of this symbol is performed using a heterogeneous combination of Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA and a microcontroller. An image sensor having a resolution of 1600 by 1200 pixels is used to capture images of symbols in complex backgrounds. Dynamic image segmentation, component labeling and feature extraction was performed on the FPGA. The region of interest was further computed from the extracted features. Feature data belonging to the symbol was sent from the FPGA to the microcontroller. Image processing tasks are partitioned between the FPGA and microcontroller based on data intensity. Experiments were performed to verify the rotational independence of the symbols. The maximum distance between camera and symbol allowing for correct detection and decoding was analyzed. Experiments were also performed to analyze the number of generated image components and sub-pixel precision versus different light sources and intensities. The proposed hardware architecture can process up to 55 frames per second for accurate detection and decoding of symbols at two Megapixels resolution. The power consumption of the complete system is 342mw.

  8. Real-Time System Verification by Kappa-Induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Lee S.

    2005-01-01

    We report the first formal verification of a reintegration protocol for a safety-critical, fault-tolerant, real-time distributed embedded system. A reintegration protocol increases system survivability by allowing a node that has suffered a fault to regain state consistent with the operational nodes. The protocol is verified in the Symbolic Analysis Laboratory (SAL), where bounded model checking and decision procedures are used to verify infinite-state systems by k-induction. The protocol and its environment are modeled as synchronizing timeout automata. Because k-induction is exponential with respect to k, we optimize the formal model to reduce the size of k. Also, the reintegrator's event-triggered behavior is conservatively modeled as time-triggered behavior to further reduce the size of k and to make it invariant to the number of nodes modeled. A corollary is that a clique avoidance property is satisfied.

  9. SU-G-JeP4-12: Real-Time Organ Motion Monitoring Using Ultrasound and KV Fluoroscopy During Lung SBRT Delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omari, E; Tai, A; Li, X; Cooper, D; Lachaine, M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Real-time ultrasound monitoring during SBRT is advantageous in understanding and identifying motion irregularities which may cause geometric misses. In this work, we propose to utilize real-time ultrasound to track the diaphragm in conjunction with periodical kV fluoroscopy to monitor motion of tumor or landmarks during SBRT delivery. Methods: Transabdominal Ultrasound (TAUS) b-mode images were collected from 10 healthy volunteers using the Clarity Autoscan System (Elekta). The autoscan transducer, which has a center frequency of 5 MHz, was utilized for the scans. The acquired images were contoured using the Clarity Automatic Fusion and Contouring workstation software. Monitoring sessions of 5 minute length were observed and recorded. The position correlation between tumor and diaphragm could be established with periodic kV fluoroscopy periodically acquired during treatment with Elekta XVI. We acquired data using a tissue mimicking ultrasound phantom with embedded spheres placed on a motion stand using ultrasound and kV Fluoroscopy. MIM software was utilized for image fusion. Correlation of diaphragm and target motion was also validated using 4D-MRI and 4D-CBCT. Results: The diaphragm was visualized as a hyperechoic region on the TAUS b-mode images. Volunteer set-up can be adjusted such that TAUS probe will not interfere with treatment beams. A segment of the diaphragm was contoured and selected as our tracking structure. Successful monitoring sessions of the diaphragm were recorded. For some volunteers, diaphragm motion over 2 times larger than the initial motion has been observed during tracking. For the phantom study, we were able to register the 2D kV Fluoroscopy with the US images for position comparison. Conclusion: We demonstrated the feasibility of tracking the diaphragm using real-time ultrasound. Real-time tracking can help in identifying such irregularities in the respiratory motion which is correlated to tumor motion. We also showed the

  10. A multimodal instrument for real-time in situ study of ultrasound and cavitation mediated drug delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Bian, S; Seth, A; Daly, D; Carlisle, R; Stride, E

    2017-01-01

    The development of a multimodal instrument capable of real-time in situ measurements of cavitation activity and effect in tissue mimicking phantoms during ultrasound and cavitation mediated drug delivery experiments is described here. The instrument features an acoustic arm that can expose phantoms to high-intensity focused-ultrasound while measuring cavitation activity and an optical arm that monitors cavitation effect using confocal microscopy. This combination of modalities allows real-tim...

  11. Real-time monitoring of drowsiness through wireless nanosensor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Mouli; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2016-04-01

    Detection of sleepiness and drowsiness in human beings has been a daunting task for both engineering and medical technologies. Accuracy, precision and promptness of detection have always been an issue that has to be dealt by technologists. Generally, the bio potential signals - ECG, EOG, EEG and EMG are used to classify and discriminate sleep from being awake. However, the potential drawbacks may be high false detections, low precision, obtrusiveness, aftermath analysis, etc. To overcome the disadvantages, this paper reviews the design aspects of a wireless and a real time monitoring system to track sleep and detect fatigue. This concept involves the use of EOG and EEG to measure the blink rate and asses the person's condition. In this user friendly and intuitive approach, EOG and EEG signals are obtained by the textile based nanosensors mounted on the inner side of a flexible headband. The acquired signals are then electrically transmitted to the data processing and transmission unit, which transmits the processed data to the receiver/monitoring module through ZigBee communication. This system is equipped with a software program to process, feature extract, analyze, display and store the information. Thereby, immediate detection of a person falling asleep is made feasible and, tracking the sleep cycle continuously provides an insight about the fatigue level. This approach of using a wireless, real time, dry sensor on a flexible substrate mitigates obtrusiveness that is expected from a wearable system. We have previously presented the results of the aforementioned wearable systems. This paper aims to extend our work conceptually through a review of engineering and medical techniques involved in wearable systems to detect drowsiness.

  12. A real-time monitoring system for night glare protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Ni, Xuxiang

    2010-11-01

    When capturing a dark scene with a high bright object, the monitoring camera will be saturated in some regions and the details will be lost in and near these saturated regions because of the glare vision. This work aims at developing a real-time night monitoring system. The system can decrease the influence of the glare vision and gain more details from the ordinary camera when exposing a high-contrast scene like a car with its headlight on during night. The system is made up of spatial light modulator (The liquid crystal on silicon: LCoS), image sensor (CCD), imaging lens and DSP. LCoS, a reflective liquid crystal, can modular the intensity of reflective light at every pixel as a digital device. Through modulation function of LCoS, CCD is exposed with sub-region. With the control of DSP, the light intensity is decreased to minimum in the glare regions, and the light intensity is negative feedback modulated based on PID theory in other regions. So that more details of the object will be imaging on CCD and the glare protection of monitoring system is achieved. In experiments, the feedback is controlled by the embedded system based on TI DM642. Experiments shows: this feedback modulation method not only reduces the glare vision to improve image quality, but also enhances the dynamic range of image. The high-quality and high dynamic range image is real-time captured at 30hz. The modulation depth of LCoS determines how strong the glare can be removed.

  13. Timeliness and Predictability in Real-Time Database Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Son, Sang H

    1998-01-01

    The confluence of computers, communications, and databases is quickly creating a globally distributed database where many applications require real time access to both temporally accurate and multimedia data...

  14. A Real-Time Apple Grading System Using Multicolor Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayrettin Toylan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was focused on the multicolor space which provides a better specification of the color and size of the apple in an image. In the study, a real-time machine vision system classifying apples into four categories with respect to color and size was designed. In the analysis, different color spaces were used. As a result, 97% identification success for the red fields of the apple was obtained depending on the values of the parameter “a” of CIE L*a*b*color space. Similarly, 94% identification success for the yellow fields was obtained depending on the values of the parameter y of CIE XYZ color space. With the designed system, three kinds of apples (Golden, Starking, and Jonagold were investigated by classifying them into four groups with respect to two parameters, color and size. Finally, 99% success rate was achieved in the analyses conducted for 595 apples.

  15. SABA: A Testbed for a Real-Time MIMO System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brühl Lars

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing demand for high data rates for wireless communication systems leads to the development of new technologies to increase the channel capacity thus increasing the data rate. MIMO (multiple-input multiple-output systems are best qualified for these applications. In this paper, we present a MIMO test environment for high data rate transmissions in frequency-selective environments. An overview of the testbed is given, including the analyzed algorithms, the digital signal processing with a new highly parallel processor to perform the algorithms in real time, as well as the analog front-ends. A brief overview of the influence of polarization on the channel capacity is given as well.

  16. Real-time dynamics of dissipative quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, K.S.

    1988-01-01

    The first part of this thesis motivates a real time approach to the dynamics of dissipative quantum systems. We review previous imaginary time methods for calculating escape rates and discuss their applications to the analysis of data in macroscopic quantum tunneling experiments. In tunneling experiments on heavily damped Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices, the instanton method gave results that compare reasonably well with data. In tunneling experiments on weakly damped Current Biased Josephson Junctions, two problems arise. First, the classical limit of the instanton result disagrees with the classical rate of thermal activation. Second, the instanton method cannot predict the microwave enhancement of escape rates. In the third chapter, we discuss our real time approach to the dynamics of dissipative systems in terms of a kinetic equation for the reduced density matrix. We demonstrate some known equilibrium properties of dissipative systems through the kinetic equation and derived the bath induced widths and energy shifts. In the low damping limit, the kinetic equation reduces to a much simpler master equation. The classical limit of the master equation is completely equivalent to the Fokker-Planck equation that describes thermal activation. In the fourth chapter, we apply the master equation to the problem of tunneling and resonance enhancement of tunneling in weakly damped current biased Josephson junctions. In the classical regime, microwaves of the appropriate frequency induce resonances between many neighboring levels and an asymmetrical resonance peak is measured. We can calibrate the junction parameters by fitting the stationary solution of the master equation to the classical resonance data. In the quantum regime, the stationary solution of the master equation, predicts well-resolved resonance peaks which agree very well with the observed data

  17. A PEMFC hybrid electric vehicle real time control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongqiao

    In recent years, environmental friendly technologies and alternative energy solutions have drawn a lot of public attentions due to global energy crisis and pollution issues. Fuel cell (FC), a technology invented almost at the same time as the internal combustion (IC) engine, is now the focus of the automotive industry again. The fuel cell vehicle (FCV) has zero emission and its efficiency is significantly higher than the conventional IC engine power vehicles. Among a variety of FCV technologies, proton exchange membrane (PEM) FC vehicle appears to be far more attractive and mature. The prototype PEMFC vehicle has been developed and demonstrated to the public by nearly all the major automotive manufacturers in recent years. However, to the interest of the public research, publications and documentations on the PEMFC vehicle technology are rarely available due to its proprietary nature, which essentially makes it a secured technology. This dissertation demonstrates a real world application of a PEMFC hybrid electric vehicle. Through presenting the vehicle design concept, developing the real time control system and generating generic operation principles, this dissertation targets at establishing the public knowledge base on this new technology. A complete PEMFC hybrid electric vehicle design, including vehicle components layout, process flow diagram, real time control system architecture, subsystem structures and control algorithms, is presented in order to help understand the whole vehicle system. The design concept is validated through the vehicle demonstration. Generic operating principles are established along with the validation process, which helps populate this emerging technology. Thereafter, further improvements and future research directions are discussed.

  18. Portable real time analysis system for regional cerebral blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiernan, T.; Entine, G.; Stump, D.A.; Prough, D.S.

    1988-01-01

    A very portable, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) analysis instrument system suitable for use in the operating theater during surgery is under development. Cadmium telluride (CdTe) solid state radiation detectors, an 8086 based data acquisition and communications module and a DEC Microvax computer are used so that the instrument is very compact, yet has the computational power to provide real time data analysis in the clinical environment. The instrument is currently being used at Bowman Gray School of Medicine to study rCBF during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery (CPB). Preliminary studies indicate that monitoring rCBF during this surgical procedure may provide insights into the mechanism that causes a significant fraction of these patients to suffer post operative neuropsychological deficit

  19. A real time S-parameter imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naik, P.S.; Cheung, C.K.; Beling, C.D.; Fung, S.

    2005-01-01

    Obtaining a lateral S-parameter image scan from positrons implanted into semiconductor devices can be a helpful research tool both for localizing device structures and in diagnosing defect patterns that could help interpret function. S-parameter images can be obtained by electromagnetically rastering a variable energy positron beam of small spot size across the sample. Here we describe a general hardware and software architecture of relatively low cost that has recently been developed in our laboratory which allows the whole sub-surface S-parameter image of a sample or device to be obtained in real time. This system has the advantage over more conventional sequential scanning techniques of allowing the operator to terminate data collection once the quality of the image is deemed sufficient. As an example of the usefulness of this type of imaging architecture, S-parameter images of a representative sample are presented at two different position implantation energies. (author)

  20. SUPRA: open-source software-defined ultrasound processing for real-time applications : A 2D and 3D pipeline from beamforming to B-mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göbl, Rüdiger; Navab, Nassir; Hennersperger, Christoph

    2018-06-01

    Research in ultrasound imaging is limited in reproducibility by two factors: First, many existing ultrasound pipelines are protected by intellectual property, rendering exchange of code difficult. Second, most pipelines are implemented in special hardware, resulting in limited flexibility of implemented processing steps on such platforms. With SUPRA, we propose an open-source pipeline for fully software-defined ultrasound processing for real-time applications to alleviate these problems. Covering all steps from beamforming to output of B-mode images, SUPRA can help improve the reproducibility of results and make modifications to the image acquisition mode accessible to the research community. We evaluate the pipeline qualitatively, quantitatively, and regarding its run time. The pipeline shows image quality comparable to a clinical system and backed by point spread function measurements a comparable resolution. Including all processing stages of a usual ultrasound pipeline, the run-time analysis shows that it can be executed in 2D and 3D on consumer GPUs in real time. Our software ultrasound pipeline opens up the research in image acquisition. Given access to ultrasound data from early stages (raw channel data, radiofrequency data), it simplifies the development in imaging. Furthermore, it tackles the reproducibility of research results, as code can be shared easily and even be executed without dedicated ultrasound hardware.

  1. Real time control of plasmas and ECRH systems on TCV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paley, J.I.; Felici, F.; Berrino, J.; Coda, S.; Cruz, N.; Duval, B.P.; Goodman, T.P.; Martin, Y.; Moret, J.-M.; Piras, F.; Rodrigues, A.P.; Santos, B.; Varandas, C.A.F.

    2008-01-01

    Developments in the real time control hardware on TCV paired with the flexibility of plasma shaping and ECRH actuators are opening many opportunities to perform real time experiments and develop algorithms and methods for fusion applications. The ability to control MHD instabilities is particularly

  2. Real time control of plasmas and ECRH systems on TCV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paley, J.I.; Berrino, J.; Coda, S.; Cruz, N.; Duval, B.P.; Felici, F.; Goodman, T.P.; Martin, Y.; Moret, J.-M.; Piras, F.; Rodriques, A.P.; Santos, B.; Varandas, C.A.F.

    2009-01-01

    Developments in the real time control hardware on Tokamak Configuration Variable (TCV) coupled with the flexibility of plasma shaping and electron cyclotron (EC) heating and current drive actuators are opening many opportunities to perform real time experiments and develop algorithms and methods for

  3. Real-time elastography in autonomously functioning thyroid nodules: relationship with TSH levels, scintigraphy, and ultrasound patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimboli, Pierpaolo; Paone, Gaetano; Zatelli, Maria Chiara; Ceriani, Luca; Giovanella, Luca

    2017-12-01

    Real-time elastography has been proposed to increase the sensitivity of ultrasound and improve the detection of thyroid nodules at risk of malignancy. To date sparse data on real-time elastography assessment of autonomously functioning thyroid nodules exist. Here, we investigated the potential role of real-time elastography in autonomously functioning thyroid nodule assessment. Specifically, the correlation between serum hormones and real-time elastography score, as well as other clinical and ultrasound features, was analyzed. Patients with autonomously functioning thyroid nodule identified by I-123 scintigraphy from September 2015 to July 2016 and undergoing ultrasound, real-time elastography, and thyroid function evaluation were selected. All autonomously functioning thyroid nodule were classified as RTE I (prevalence of red or green color with blue in up to 25% of the nodule area), RTE II (blue in 25-75%), or RTE III (blue in more than 75%). The association between suppressed thyroid stimulating hormone and patient's age, nodule's size, ultrasound presentation, and real-time elastography scoring was analyzed by Odds Ratio in univariate fashion and multivariate model. A number of 47 subjects with single autonomously functioning thyroid nodule were enrolled. Median age of 63 years, median size of 2.0 cm, and suppressed thyroid stimulating hormone levels in 32% of cases were found. Those nodules classified by ultrasound at high risk underwent fine-needle aspiration cytology and cancer was excluded. At real-time elastography evaluation, a 45% of autonomously functioning thyroid nodule had a hard appearance (RTE III) and had thyroid stimulating hormone significantly lower than the other (p < 0.0001). A model of multivariate logistic regression including nodule's size, ultrasound characteristics, and elastographic presentation showed that only RTE III was significantly associated with suppressed thyroid stimulating hormone (Odds Ratio of 50). Autonomously

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound and real-time ultrasound elastography of the thigh muscles in congenital muscle dystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drakonaki, Eleni E. [University of Crete, Radiology Department, Heraklion (Greece); Allen, Gina M. [Green Templeton College, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    Congenital muscle dystrophy includes a range of genetic disorders characterized by muscle weakness and contractures. We report the magnetic resonance (MR), ultrasound (US) and real-time sonoelastography (RTE) imaging findings of the thigh muscles of a 15-year-old boy with Bethlem myopathy diagnosed with clinical, electromyographic and histopathological criteria. Ultrasound and MR showed hyperechoic appearance and high signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted sequences respectively at the periphery of the vastus lateralis and the long head of the biceps femoris muscles, and at a central area within the rectus femoris muscles. RTE was employed to examine the elastic properties of the muscle. The elastograms were presented as colour-coded maps superimposed on the B-mode images and revealed that the elastographic pattern correlated with the MR and US pattern of involvement. The abnormal muscle areas were stiffer (blue) than the normal-appearing areas (green), a finding that probably correlates with the presence of dystrophic collagen at the affected areas. This report suggests that RTE could be used as an additional imaging tool to evaluate the pattern of muscle changes in congenital myopathy. Further studies are needed to investigate the specificity and clinical value of RTE in the diagnosis and monitoring of neuromuscular disease. (orig.)

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound and real-time ultrasound elastography of the thigh muscles in congenital muscle dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drakonaki, Eleni E.; Allen, Gina M.

    2010-01-01

    Congenital muscle dystrophy includes a range of genetic disorders characterized by muscle weakness and contractures. We report the magnetic resonance (MR), ultrasound (US) and real-time sonoelastography (RTE) imaging findings of the thigh muscles of a 15-year-old boy with Bethlem myopathy diagnosed with clinical, electromyographic and histopathological criteria. Ultrasound and MR showed hyperechoic appearance and high signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted sequences respectively at the periphery of the vastus lateralis and the long head of the biceps femoris muscles, and at a central area within the rectus femoris muscles. RTE was employed to examine the elastic properties of the muscle. The elastograms were presented as colour-coded maps superimposed on the B-mode images and revealed that the elastographic pattern correlated with the MR and US pattern of involvement. The abnormal muscle areas were stiffer (blue) than the normal-appearing areas (green), a finding that probably correlates with the presence of dystrophic collagen at the affected areas. This report suggests that RTE could be used as an additional imaging tool to evaluate the pattern of muscle changes in congenital myopathy. Further studies are needed to investigate the specificity and clinical value of RTE in the diagnosis and monitoring of neuromuscular disease. (orig.)

  6. DESIGN OF A REAL TIME REMOTE VEHICLE LOCATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Emir DİRİK

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a low-cost, real-time vehicle location system is developed. The vehicle location system includes three main modules, i.e. positioning, wireless communication and digital map modules. The positioning module used in location systems computes position of the mobile vehicle. These vehicle location data are transmitted through a wireless communication system to host. The host has a capability to monitor a fleet of vehicles by analyzing data collected from wireless communication system. In this project, mobile vehicle location positions can be computed in a range of 10m position error and by using these position data, its possible to monitor the fleet of mobile vehicles on a digital map in the observation and control center. In this study, vehicle analog mobile radios are used to establish wireless communication system. Thus, there is no need to use satellite or GSM systems for communication and a low-cost and high-performance vehicle location system is realized.

  7. Reconfigurable vision system for real-time applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Huitzil, Cesar; Arias-Estrada, Miguel

    2002-03-01

    Recently, a growing community of researchers has used reconfigurable systems to solve computationally intensive problems. Reconfigurability provides optimized processors for systems on chip designs, and makes easy to import technology to a new system through reusable modules. The main objective of this work is the investigation of a reconfigurable computer system targeted for computer vision and real-time applications. The system is intended to circumvent the inherent computational load of most window-based computer vision algorithms. It aims to build a system for such tasks by providing an FPGA-based hardware architecture for task specific vision applications with enough processing power, using the minimum amount of hardware resources as possible, and a mechanism for building systems using this architecture. Regarding the software part of the system, a library of pre-designed and general-purpose modules that implement common window-based computer vision operations is being investigated. A common generic interface is established for these modules in order to define hardware/software components. These components can be interconnected to develop more complex applications, providing an efficient mechanism for transferring image and result data among modules. Some preliminary results are presented and discussed.

  8. ULA-OP 256: A 256-Channel Open Scanner for Development and Real-Time Implementation of New Ultrasound Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boni, Enrico; Bassi, Luca; Dallai, Alessandro; Guidi, Francesco; Meacci, Valentino; Ramalli, Alessandro; Ricci, Stefano; Tortoli, Piero

    2016-10-01

    Open scanners offer an increasing support to the ultrasound researchers who are involved in the experimental test of novel methods. Each system presents specific performance in terms of number of channels, flexibility, processing power, data storage capability, and overall dimensions. This paper reports the design criteria and hardware/software implementation details of a new 256-channel ultrasound advanced open platform. This system is organized in a modular architecture, including multiple front-end boards, interconnected by a high-speed (80 Gb/s) ring, capable of finely controlling all transmit (TX) and receive (RX) signals. High flexibility and processing power (equivalent to 2500 GFLOP) are guaranteed by the possibility of individually programming multiple digital signal processors and field programmable gate arrays. Eighty GB of on-board memory are available for the storage of prebeamforming, postbeamforming, and baseband data. The use of latest generation devices allowed to integrate all needed electronics in a small size ( 34 cm ×30 cm ×26 cm). The system implements a multiline beamformer that allows obtaining images of 96 lines by 2048 depths at a frame rate of 720 Hz (expandable to 3000 Hz). The multiline beamforming capability is also exploited to implement a real-time vector Doppler scheme in which a single TX and two independent RX apertures are simultaneously used to maintain the analysis over a full pulse repetition frequency range.

  9. Real-time image restoration for iris recognition systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Byung Jun; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2007-12-01

    In the field of biometrics, it has been reported that iris recognition techniques have shown high levels of accuracy because unique patterns of the human iris, which has very many degrees of freedom, are used. However, because conventional iris cameras have small depth-of-field (DOF) areas, input iris images can easily be blurred, which can lead to lower recognition performance, since iris patterns are transformed by the blurring caused by optical defocusing. To overcome these problems, an autofocusing camera can be used. However, this inevitably increases the cost, size, and complexity of the system. Therefore, we propose a new real-time iris image-restoration method, which can increase the camera's DOF without requiring any additional hardware. This paper presents five novelties as compared to previous works: 1) by excluding eyelash and eyelid regions, it is possible to obtain more accurate focus scores from input iris images; 2) the parameter of the point spread function (PSF) can be estimated in terms of camera optics and measured focus scores; therefore, parameter estimation is more accurate than it has been in previous research; 3) because the PSF parameter can be obtained by using a predetermined equation, iris image restoration can be done in real-time; 4) by using a constrained least square (CLS) restoration filter that considers noise, performance can be greatly enhanced; and 5) restoration accuracy can also be enhanced by estimating the weight value of the noise-regularization term of the CLS filter according to the amount of image blurring. Experimental results showed that iris recognition errors when using the proposed restoration method were greatly reduced as compared to those results achieved without restoration or those achieved using previous iris-restoration methods.

  10. A Real-Time Offshore Weather Risk Advisory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolivet, Samuel; Zemskyy, Pavlo; Mynampati, Kalyan; Babovic, Vladan

    2015-04-01

    Offshore oil and gas operations in South East Asia periodically face extended downtime due to unpredictable weather conditions, including squalls that are accompanied by strong winds, thunder, and heavy rains. This downtime results in financial losses. Hence, a real time weather risk advisory system is developed to provide the offshore Oil and Gas (O&G) industry specific weather warnings in support of safety and environment security. This system provides safe operating windows based on sensitivity of offshore operations to sea state. Information products for safety and security include area of squall occurrence for the next 24 hours, time before squall strike, and heavy sea state warning for the next 3, 6, 12 & 24 hours. These are predicted using radar now-cast, high resolution Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) and Data Assimilation (DA). Radar based now-casting leverages the radar data to produce short term (up to 3 hours) predictions of severe weather events including squalls/thunderstorms. A sea state approximation is provided through developing a translational model based on these predictions to risk rank the sensitivity of operations. A high resolution Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF, an open source NWP model) is developed for offshore Brunei, Malaysia and the Philippines. This high resolution model is optimized and validated against the adaptation of temperate to tropical met-ocean parameterization. This locally specific parameters are calibrated against federated data to achieve a 24 hour forecast of high resolution Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE). CAPE is being used as a proxy for the risk of squall occurrence. Spectral decomposition is used to blend the outputs of the now-cast and the forecast in order to assimilate near real time weather observations as an implementation of the integration of data sources. This system uses the now-cast for the first 3 hours and then the forecast prediction horizons of 3, 6, 12 & 24 hours. The output is

  11. New real-time image processing system for IRFPA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bing-jian; LIU Shang-qian; CHENG Yu-bao

    2006-01-01

    Influenced by detectors' material,manufacturing technology etc,every detector in infrared focal plane array (IRFPA) will output different voltages even if their input radiation flux is the same.And this is called non-uniformity of IRFPA.At the same time,the high background temperature,low temperature difference between targets and background and the low responsivity of IRFPA result in low contrast of infrared images.So non-uniformity correction and image enhancement are important techniques for IRFPA imaging system.This paper proposes a new real-time infrared image processing system based on Field Programmable Gate Array(FPGA).The system implements non-uniformity correction,image enhancement and video synthesization etc.By using parallel architecture and pipeline technique,the system processing speed is as high as 50Mx12bits per second.It is appropriate greatly to a large IRFPA and a high frame frequency IRFPA imaging system.The system is miniatured in one FPGA.

  12. Real-time non-rigid target tracking for ultrasound-guided clinical interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachiu, C.; Ries, M.; Ramaekers, P.; Guey, J.-L.; Moonen, C. T. W.; de Senneville, B. Denis

    2017-10-01

    Biological motion is a problem for non- or mini-invasive interventions when conducted in mobile/deformable organs due to the targeted pathology moving/deforming with the organ. This may lead to high miss rates and/or incomplete treatment of the pathology. Therefore, real-time tracking of the target anatomy during the intervention would be beneficial for such applications. Since the aforementioned interventions are often conducted under B-mode ultrasound (US) guidance, target tracking can be achieved via image registration, by comparing the acquired US images to a separate image established as positional reference. However, such US images are intrinsically altered by speckle noise, introducing incoherent gray-level intensity variations. This may prove problematic for existing intensity-based registration methods. In the current study we address US-based target tracking by employing the recently proposed EVolution registration algorithm. The method is, by construction, robust to transient gray-level intensities. Instead of directly matching image intensities, EVolution aligns similar contrast patterns in the images. Moreover, the displacement is computed by evaluating a matching criterion for image sub-regions rather than on a point-by-point basis, which typically provides more robust motion estimates. However, unlike similar previously published approaches, which assume rigid displacements in the image sub-regions, the EVolution algorithm integrates the matching criterion in a global functional, allowing the estimation of an elastic dense deformation. The approach was validated for soft tissue tracking under free-breathing conditions on the abdomen of seven healthy volunteers. Contact echography was performed on all volunteers, while three of the volunteers also underwent standoff echography. Each of the two modalities is predominantly specific to a particular type of non- or mini-invasive clinical intervention. The method demonstrated on average an accuracy of

  13. The Soft X-ray real time fast trigger system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackler, K.; Edwards, A.; Holm, J.

    1992-05-01

    Most current diagnostics are limited to recording data either at fixed times and data rates, or in response to certain predefined events - such as the injection of a pellet. The previous Soft X-Ray trigger system at Joint European Torus Joint Undertaking (JET)(A.W. Edwards et al., Rev Sci Instrum. 57(8), p2142, 1986) improved upon this by using Analogue Signal Processors to monitor the analogue data in real time and to provide 'triggers' to the data acquisition system in response to an event such as a sawtooth collapse. This system was however limited in the type of events that could be detected. It was also incapable of being rapidly re-configured. Advances in digital electronics caused a study to be undertaken to see if this situation could be improved. The system described below is the result of this study and has successfully run at JET since the summer of 1990, providing a greatly increased quality of data as well as recording some new phenomena such as the spontaneous snake. This note has been produced to describe the function and operation of the trigger system. (author)

  14. Real-time implementation of a color sorting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikanteswara, Srikathyanyani; Lu, Qiang O.; King, William; Drayer, Thomas H.; Conners, Richard W.; Kline, D. Earl; Araman, Philip A.

    1997-09-01

    Wood edge glued panels are used extensively in the furniture and cabinetry industries. They are used to make doors, tops, and sides of solid wood furniture and cabinets. Since lightly stained furniture and cabinets are gaining in popularity, there is an increasing demand to color sort the parts used to make these edge glued panels. The goal of the sorting processing is to create panels that are uniform in both color and intensity across their visible surface. If performed manually, the color sorting of edge-glued panel parts is very labor intensive and prone to error. This paper describes a complete machine vision system for performing this sort. This system uses two color line scan cameras for image input and a specially designed custom computing machine to allow real-time implementation. Users define the number of color classes that are to be used. An 'out' class is provided to handle unusually colored parts. The system removes areas of character mark, e.g., knots, mineral streak, etc., from consideration when assigning a color class to a part. The system also includes a better face algorithm for determining which part face would be the better to put on the side of the panel that will show. The throughput is two linear feet per second. Only a four inch between part spacing is required. This system has undergone extensive in plant testing and will be commercially available in the very near future. The results of this testing will be presented.

  15. Los Alamos National Laboratory's Mobile Real Time Radiography System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigil, J.; Taggart, D.; Betts, S.; Mendez, J.; Rael, C.; Martinez, F.

    1997-01-01

    A 450-KeV Mobile Real Time Radiography (RTR) System was delivered to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in January 1996. It was purchased to inspect containers of radioactive waste produced at (LANL). Since its delivery it has been used to radiograph greater than 600 drums of radioactive waste at various LANL sites. It has the capability of inspecting waste containers of various sizes. It has three independent X-Ray acquisition formats. The primary system used is a 12 in. image intensifier, the second is a 36 in. linear diode array (LDA) and the last is an open system. It is fully self contained with on board generator, HVAC and a fire suppression system. It is on a 53 ft long X 8 ft. wide X 14 ft. high trailer that can be moved over any highway requiring only a easily obtainable overweight permit because it weighs approximately 38 tons. It was built to conform to industry standards for a cabinet system which does not require an exclusion zone. The fact that this unit is mobile has allowed us to operate where the waste is stored, rather than having to move the waste to a fixed facility

  16. A multimodal instrument for real-time in situ study of ultrasound and cavitation mediated drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Shuning; Seth, Anjali; Daly, Dan; Carlisle, Robert; Stride, Eleanor

    2017-03-01

    The development of a multimodal instrument capable of real-time in situ measurements of cavitation activity and effect in tissue mimicking phantoms during ultrasound and cavitation mediated drug delivery experiments is described here. The instrument features an acoustic arm that can expose phantoms to high-intensity focused-ultrasound while measuring cavitation activity and an optical arm that monitors cavitation effect using confocal microscopy. This combination of modalities allows real-time in situ characterisation of drug delivery in tissue and tissue mimicking phantoms during ultrasound and cavitation mediated drug delivery experiments. A representative result, obtained with a tissue mimicking phantom and acoustically activated droplets, is presented here as a demonstration of the instrument's capabilities and potential applications.

  17. Development of a real-time radiological dose assessment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Moon Hee; Lee, Young Bok; Kim, Eun Han; Suh, Kyung Suk; Hwang, Won Tae; Choi, Young Gil

    1997-07-01

    A radiological dose assessment system named FADAS has been developed. This system is necessary to estimated the radiological consequences against a nuclear accident. Mass-consistent wind field module was adopted for the generation of wind field over the whole domain using the several measured wind data. Random-walk dispersion module is used for the calculation of the distribution of radionuclides in the atmosphere. And volume-equivalent numerical integration method has been developed for the assessment of external gamma exposure given from a randomly distributed radioactive materials and a dose data library has been made for rapid calculation. Field tracer experiments have been carried out for the purpose of analyzing the site-specific meteorological characteristics and increasing the accuracy of wind field generation and atmospheric dispersion module of FADAS. At first, field tracer experiment was carried out over flat terrain covered with rice fields using the gas samplers which were designed and manufactured by the staffs of KAERI. The sampled gas was analyzed using gas chromatograph. SODAR and airsonde were used to measure the upper wind. Korean emergency preparedness system CARE was integrated at Kori 4 nuclear power plants in 1995. One of the main functions of CARE is to estimate the radiological dose. The developed real-time dose assessment system FADAS was adopted in CARE as a tool for the radiological dose assessment. (author). 79 refs., 52 tabs., 94 figs.

  18. Real-time personal dose monitoring and management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhiyong; Cheng Chang; Yang Huating; Liu Zhengshan; Deng Changming; Li Mei

    2000-01-01

    This paper mainly describes a real-time personal dose monitoring and management system. The system is composed of three parts that include SDM-98 semiconductor detector personal dosimeters, Data Readers and a Management System Software. It can be used for personal dose monitoring and management and other controlling actions in a radioactive controlled area. Adopting semiconductor detector and microcontroller, SDM-98 Personal Dosimeter is used to measure personal accumulated dose equivalent and dose rate caused by X-ray and Gamma ray. The results can be read directly on LCD. All the data stored in dosimeter can be transmitted into a data reader by infrared optical link. The alarm threshold can be adjusted successively in whole range of dose or dose rate. The Data Reader is an intelligent interface between the dosimeter and master computer. The data received from dosimeter will be sent to a master computer through RS-232 serial interface. According to the master computer's order, the Data Reader can turn on the dosimeter's power at entrance and shutdown it at exit. The Management System Software which written by Visual BASIC 5.0 runs on MS Win95. All the measuring data from dosimeters can be analyzed and treated according to requirements and stored in database. Therefore, some figures and tables relative to dose or rate can be shown on screen or printed out. (author)

  19. Real-time virtual EAST physical experiment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Dan, E-mail: lidan@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China); Xiao, B.J., E-mail: bjxiao@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui (China); Xia, J.Y., E-mail: jyxia@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China); Yang, Fei, E-mail: fyang@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China); Department of Computer Science, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui (China)

    2014-05-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • 3D model of experimental advanced superconducting tokamak is established. • Interaction behavior is created that the users can get information from database. • The system integrates data acquisition, plasma shape visualization and simulation. • Browser-oriented system is web-based and more interactive, immersive and convenient. • The system provides the framework for virtual physical experimental environment. - Abstract: As a large fusion reaction device, experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST)’s internal structure is complicated and not easily accessible. Moreover, various diagnostic systems and complicated configuration bring about the inconveniency to the scientists who are unfamiliar with the system but interested in the data. We propose a virtual system to display the 3D model of EAST facility and enable people to view its inner structure and get access to the information of its components in various view sights. We would also provide most of the diagnostic configuration details together with their signal names and physical properties. Compared to the previous ways of viewing information by reference to collected drawings and videos, virtual EAST system is more interactive and immersive. We constructed the browser-oriented virtual EAST physical experiment system, integrated real-time experiment data acquisition, plasma shape visualization and experiment result simulation in order to reproduce physical experiments in a web browser. This system used B/S (Browser/Server) structure in combination with the technology of virtual reality – VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language) and Java 3D. In order to avoid the bandwidth limit across internet, we balanced the rendering speed and the precision of the virtual model components. Any registered user can view the experimental information visually and efficiently by logining the system through a web browser. The establishment of the system provides the

  20. Real-time virtual EAST physical experiment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Dan; Xiao, B.J.; Xia, J.Y.; Yang, Fei

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • 3D model of experimental advanced superconducting tokamak is established. • Interaction behavior is created that the users can get information from database. • The system integrates data acquisition, plasma shape visualization and simulation. • Browser-oriented system is web-based and more interactive, immersive and convenient. • The system provides the framework for virtual physical experimental environment. - Abstract: As a large fusion reaction device, experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST)’s internal structure is complicated and not easily accessible. Moreover, various diagnostic systems and complicated configuration bring about the inconveniency to the scientists who are unfamiliar with the system but interested in the data. We propose a virtual system to display the 3D model of EAST facility and enable people to view its inner structure and get access to the information of its components in various view sights. We would also provide most of the diagnostic configuration details together with their signal names and physical properties. Compared to the previous ways of viewing information by reference to collected drawings and videos, virtual EAST system is more interactive and immersive. We constructed the browser-oriented virtual EAST physical experiment system, integrated real-time experiment data acquisition, plasma shape visualization and experiment result simulation in order to reproduce physical experiments in a web browser. This system used B/S (Browser/Server) structure in combination with the technology of virtual reality – VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language) and Java 3D. In order to avoid the bandwidth limit across internet, we balanced the rendering speed and the precision of the virtual model components. Any registered user can view the experimental information visually and efficiently by logining the system through a web browser. The establishment of the system provides the

  1. Real-time safety risk assessment based on a real-time location system for hydropower construction sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hanchen; Lin, Peng; Fan, Qixiang; Qiang, Maoshan

    2014-01-01

    The concern for workers' safety in construction industry is reflected in many studies focusing on static safety risk identification and assessment. However, studies on real-time safety risk assessment aimed at reducing uncertainty and supporting quick response are rare. A method for real-time safety risk assessment (RTSRA) to implement a dynamic evaluation of worker safety states on construction site has been proposed in this paper. The method provides construction managers who are in charge of safety with more abundant information to reduce the uncertainty of the site. A quantitative calculation formula, integrating the influence of static and dynamic hazards and that of safety supervisors, is established to link the safety risk of workers with the locations of on-site assets. By employing the hidden Markov model (HMM), the RTSRA provides a mechanism for processing location data provided by the real-time location system (RTLS) and analyzing the probability distributions of different states in terms of false positives and negatives. Simulation analysis demonstrated the logic of the proposed method and how it works. Application case shows that the proposed RTSRA is both feasible and effective in managing construction project safety concerns.

  2. Real-Time Trajectory Generation for Autonomous Nonlinear Flight Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Larsen, Michael; Beard, Randal W; McLain, Timothy W

    2006-01-01

    ... to mobile threats such as radar, jammers, and unfriendly aircraft. In Phase 1 of this STTR project, real-time path planning and trajectory generation techniques for two dimensional flight were developed and demonstrated in software simulation...

  3. Real-time evolution of quenched quantum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeckel, Michael

    2009-06-24

    Detailed geometries in heterostructures allow for nonequilibrium transport measurements in correlated systems, pump-probe experiments for time-resolved study of many-body relaxation in molecules and solids and ultracold atom gases loaded onto optical lattices for high control of system parameters in real time. In all of these fields of research the nonequilibrium properties of a Fermi liquid can be relevant. A first approach to their understanding is the main content of this thesis. At the beginning I collect a variety of nonequilibrium phenomena and introduce to basic questions and concepts for their study. The key observation of this thesis, namely a characteristic mismatch of expectation values in equilibrium and nonequilibrium, is first illustrated for the squeezed oscillator. Afterwards, these observations are generalized to a larger class of one-particle models. Then the nonequilibrium behavior of a Fermi liquid is examined by analyzing the Fermi liquid phase of the Hubbard model in more than one dimension. After a sudden switch-on of a weak two-particle interaction to the noninteracting Fermi gas the relaxation of the many-body system is observed. For this purpose, the flow equation transformation is implemented for the Hubbard Hamiltonian. Then the discussion of the momentum distribution function and of the kinetic energy displays a three-step relaxation behavior of the Fermi liquid from the initial perturbation until thermalization is reached. In order to extend the study of sudden switching to arbitrary switching processes the calculation is repeated using the Keldysh perturbation theory. (orig.)

  4. Caire - A real-time feedback system for emergency response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, H.; Brenk, H.D.; de Witt, H.

    1991-01-01

    In cases of nuclear emergencies it is the primary task of emergency response forces and decision making authorities to act properly. Whatever the specific reason for the contingency may be, a quick and most accurate estimate of the radiation exposure in consequence of the emergency must be made. This is a necessary prerequisite for decisions on protective measures and off-site emergency management. With respect to this fact ant the recent experience of the Chernobyl accident, remote monitoring systems have increased their importance as an inherent part of environmental surveillance installations in the FRG and in other countries. The existing systems in Germany are designed to cover both, routine operation and emergency situations. They provide site specific meteorological data, gross effluent dose rates, and dose rate measurements at on-site and approximately 30 off-site locations in the vicinity of a plant. Based on such telemetric surveillance networks an advanced automatic on-line system named CAIRE (Computer Aided Response to Emergencies) has been developed as a real time emergency response tool for nuclear facilities. this tool is designed to provide decision makers with most relevant radiation exposure data of the population at risk. The development phase of CAIRE has already been finished. CAIRE is now in an operational status and available for applications in emergency planning and response

  5. Real time physics analysis with the ATLAS tau trigger system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casado Lechuga, M. P.

    2009-01-01

    The scope of the ATLAS tau trigger system at the LHC is most ambitious. It aims at reconstructing in real time, a matter of seconds, a detailed picture of the high energy proton proton collisions at the LHC. Such system is mandatory in order to select efficiently data needed for discovery of new physics in a proton proton collision environment where the rates of jets observed in the detector are high and the tau identification is difficult. New physics scenarios targeted specifically by the the ATLAS tau trigger system are Standard Model or Supersymmetric Higgs production, and production of new exotic resonances. This contribution will detail how the analysis techniques developed offline for efficient data analysis have been implemented in the algorithms which run online at the trigger. In particular, the focus will be on how to satisfy the requirements imposed by the physics goals while addressing the limitations from the overall event rate and latency allowed. The prospects for early running during the first LHC collisions and trigger evolution from first collisions to stable running will be also summarized, following change of trigger goals from commissioning of detector to measurement of Standard Model physics and discoveries. (author)

  6. Real-time evolution of quenched quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeckel, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Detailed geometries in heterostructures allow for nonequilibrium transport measurements in correlated systems, pump-probe experiments for time-resolved study of many-body relaxation in molecules and solids and ultracold atom gases loaded onto optical lattices for high control of system parameters in real time. In all of these fields of research the nonequilibrium properties of a Fermi liquid can be relevant. A first approach to their understanding is the main content of this thesis. At the beginning I collect a variety of nonequilibrium phenomena and introduce to basic questions and concepts for their study. The key observation of this thesis, namely a characteristic mismatch of expectation values in equilibrium and nonequilibrium, is first illustrated for the squeezed oscillator. Afterwards, these observations are generalized to a larger class of one-particle models. Then the nonequilibrium behavior of a Fermi liquid is examined by analyzing the Fermi liquid phase of the Hubbard model in more than one dimension. After a sudden switch-on of a weak two-particle interaction to the noninteracting Fermi gas the relaxation of the many-body system is observed. For this purpose, the flow equation transformation is implemented for the Hubbard Hamiltonian. Then the discussion of the momentum distribution function and of the kinetic energy displays a three-step relaxation behavior of the Fermi liquid from the initial perturbation until thermalization is reached. In order to extend the study of sudden switching to arbitrary switching processes the calculation is repeated using the Keldysh perturbation theory. (orig.)

  7. Limited Preemptive Scheduling in Real-time Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Thekkilakattil, Abhilash

    2016-01-01

    Preemptive and non-preemptive scheduling paradigms typically introduce undesirable side effects when scheduling real-time tasks, mainly in the form of preemption overheads and blocking, that potentially compromise timeliness guarantees. The high preemption overheads in preemptive real-time scheduling may imply high resource utilization, often requiring significant over-provisioning, e.g., pessimistic Worst Case Execution Time (WCET) approximations. Non-preemptive scheduling, on the other hand...

  8. A Metrics-Based Approach to Intrusion Detection System Evaluation for Distributed Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-04-01

    Based Approach to Intrusion Detection System Evaluation for Distributed Real - Time Systems Authors: G. A. Fink, B. L. Chappell, T. G. Turner, and...Distributed, Security. 1 Introduction Processing and cost requirements are driving future naval combat platforms to use distributed, real - time systems of...distributed, real - time systems . As these systems grow more complex, the timing requirements do not diminish; indeed, they may become more constrained

  9. Real Time Environmental Radiation Monitoring System in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Teofilo Y.

    2015-01-01

    The widespread release of radioactive materials caused by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident that occurred on 11 March 2011 raised concerns on the environmental radiation monitoring Presently, the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) can only perform limited incident. Country-wide radiation measurements by carrying out field-works in the different provinces of the country. This is due to limitation in the availability of appropriate equipment to carry-out the task of conducting radiation measurements, especially in remote and hart to access areas of the country. Although no nuclear reactor is currently operating in the Philippines, it is situated in a region surrounded by neighboring countries with several existing or planned nuclear power plants. While nuclear power has tremendous benefits in meeting the electricity needs of growing populations, and does not have the adverse environmental effects associated with burning of fossil fuels, there are potential risks from releases of radio nuclides into the environment. The PNRI, through the support of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), is establishing an on-line environmental radiation monitoring system that can provide real-time environmental during emergencies that lead to extensive spread of radioactive materials, such as nuclear power plant accidents, an on-line radiation monitoring system will enable the immediate detection of radiological emergencies affecting the country and will provide important information of authorities for appropriate emergency response. (author)

  10. Imprecise results: Utilizing partial computations in real-time systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kwei-Jay; Natarajan, Swaminathan; Liu, Jane W.-S.

    1987-01-01

    In real-time systems, a computation may not have time to complete its execution because of deadline requirements. In such cases, no result except the approximate results produced by the computations up to that point will be available. It is desirable to utilize these imprecise results if possible. Two approaches are proposed to enable computations to return imprecise results when executions cannot be completed normally. The milestone approach records results periodically, and if a deadline is reached, returns the last recorded result. The sieve approach demarcates sections of code which can be skipped if the time available is insufficient. By using these approaches, the system is able to produce imprecise results when deadlines are reached. The design of the Concord project is described which supports imprecise computations using these techniques. Also presented is a general model of imprecise computations using these techniques, as well as one which takes into account the influence of the environment, showing where the latter approach fits into this model.

  11. Cybersecurity through Real-Time Distributed Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisner, Roger A [ORNL; Manges, Wayne W [ORNL; MacIntyre, Lawrence Paul [ORNL; Nutaro, James J [ORNL; Munro Jr, John K [ORNL; Ewing, Paul D [ORNL; Howlader, Mostofa [ORNL; Kuruganti, Phani Teja [ORNL; Wallace, Richard M [ORNL; Olama, Mohammed M [ORNL

    2010-04-01

    Critical infrastructure sites and facilities are becoming increasingly dependent on interconnected physical and cyber-based real-time distributed control systems (RTDCSs). A mounting cybersecurity threat results from the nature of these ubiquitous and sometimes unrestrained communications interconnections. Much work is under way in numerous organizations to characterize the cyber threat, determine means to minimize risk, and develop mitigation strategies to address potential consequences. While it seems natural that a simple application of cyber-protection methods derived from corporate business information technology (IT) domain would lead to an acceptable solution, the reality is that the characteristics of RTDCSs make many of those methods inadequate and unsatisfactory or even harmful. A solution lies in developing a defense-in-depth approach that ranges from protection at communications interconnect levels ultimately to the control system s functional characteristics that are designed to maintain control in the face of malicious intrusion. This paper summarizes the nature of RTDCSs from a cybersecurity perspec tive and discusses issues, vulnerabilities, candidate mitigation approaches, and metrics.

  12. Reduced computational cost in the calculation of worst case response time for real time systems

    OpenAIRE

    Urriza, José M.; Schorb, Lucas; Orozco, Javier D.; Cayssials, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    Modern Real Time Operating Systems require reducing computational costs even though the microprocessors become more powerful each day. It is usual that Real Time Operating Systems for embedded systems have advance features to administrate the resources of the applications that they support. In order to guarantee either the schedulability of the system or the schedulability of a new task in a dynamic Real Time System, it is necessary to know the Worst Case Response Time of the Real Time tasks ...

  13. Highly reliable computer network for real time system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, F.A.; Omar, A.A.; Ayad, N.M.A.; Madkour, M.A.I.; Ibrahim, M.K.

    1988-01-01

    Many of computer networks have been studied different trends regarding the network architecture and the various protocols that govern data transfers and guarantee a reliable communication among all a hierarchical network structure has been proposed to provide a simple and inexpensive way for the realization of a reliable real-time computer network. In such architecture all computers in the same level are connected to a common serial channel through intelligent nodes that collectively control data transfers over the serial channel. This level of computer network can be considered as a local area computer network (LACN) that can be used in nuclear power plant control system since it has geographically dispersed subsystems. network expansion would be straight the common channel for each added computer (HOST). All the nodes are designed around a microprocessor chip to provide the required intelligence. The node can be divided into two sections namely a common section that interfaces with serial data channel and a private section to interface with the host computer. This part would naturally tend to have some variations in the hardware details to match the requirements of individual host computers. fig 7

  14. The Development of a Course Sequence in Real-Time Systems Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-01

    This project deals with the development of a senior level course sequence in software intensive real - time systems . The sequence consists of a course...for an engineering industrial career in real - time systems development. The course sequence emphasizes practical standards, techniques, and tools for...system development. Few universities include real - time systems development in their undergraduate Computer Engineering or Computer Science curriculum

  15. Advanced Hard Real-Time Operating System, the Maruti Project. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Real - Time Operating System , The Maruti Project DASG-60-92-C-0055 5b. Program Element # 62301E 6. Author(s...The maruti hard real - time " operating system . A CM SIGOPS, Operating Systems Review. 23:90-106, July 1989. 254 !1 110) C. L. Liu and J. Layland...February 14, 1995 Abstract The Maruti Real - Time Operating System was developed for applications that must meet hard real-time constraints. In order

  16. Real-time drought forecasting system for irrigation managment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceppi, Alessandro; Ravazzani, Giovanni; Corbari, Chiara; Masseroni, Daniele; Meucci, Stefania; Pala, Francesca; Salerno, Raffaele; Meazza, Giuseppe; Chiesa, Marco; Mancini, Marco

    2013-04-01

    In recent years frequent periods of water scarcity have enhanced the need to use water more carefully, even in in European areas traditionally rich of water such as the Po Valley. In dry periods, the problem of water shortage can be enhanced by conflictual use of water such as irrigation, industrial and power production (hydroelectric and thermoelectric). Further, over the last decade the social perspective on this issue is increasing due to climate change and global warming scenarios which come out from the last IPCC Report. The increased frequency of dry periods has stimulated the improvement of irrigation and water management. In this study we show the development and implementation of the real-time drought forecasting system Pre.G.I., an Italian acronym that stands for "Hydro-Meteorological forecast for irrigation management". The system is based on ensemble prediction at long range (30 days) with hydrological simulation of water balance to forecast the soil water content in every parcel over the Consorzio Muzza basin. The studied area covers 74,000 ha in the middle of the Po Valley, near the city of Lodi. The hydrological ensemble forecasts are based on 20 meteorological members of the non-hydrostatic WRF model with 30 days as lead-time, provided by Epson Meteo Centre, while the hydrological model used to generate the soil moisture and water table simulations is the rainfall-runoff distributed FEST-WB model, developed at Politecnico di Milano. The hydrological model was validated against measurements of latent heat flux and soil moisture acquired by an eddy-covariance station. Reliability of the forecasting system and its benefits was assessed on some cases-study occurred in the recent years.

  17. Real time control of plasmas and ECRH systems on TCV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paley, J.I.; Berrino, J.; Coda, S.; Duval, B.P.; Felici, F.; Goodman, T.P.; Martin, Y.; Moret, J.M.; Piras, F.; Cruz, N.; Rodriques, A.P.; Santos, B.; Varandas, C.A.F.

    2009-01-01

    Developments in the real time control hardware on Tokamak a Configuration Variable (TCV) coupled with the flexibility of plasma shaping and electron cyclotron (EC) heating and current drive actuators are opening many opportunities to perform real time experiments and develop algorithms and methods for fusion applications. The ability to control magnetohydrodynamic instabilities is particularly important for achieving high performance fusion plasmas and EC is envisaged as a key actuator in maintaining high performance. We have successfully demonstrated control of the sawtooth instability using the EC launcher injection angle to modify the current profile around the q =1 surface. This paper presents an overview of recent real time control experiments on TCV, developments in the hardware and algorithms together with plans for the future.

  18. Building flexible real-time systems using the Flex language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Kevin B.; Lin, Kwei-Jay

    1991-01-01

    The design and implementation of a real-time programming language called Flex, which is a derivative of C++, are presented. It is shown how different types of timing requirements might be expressed and enforced in Flex, how they might be fulfilled in a flexible way using different program models, and how the programming environment can help in making binding and scheduling decisions. The timing constraint primitives in Flex are easy to use yet powerful enough to define both independent and relative timing constraints. Program models like imprecise computation and performance polymorphism can carry out flexible real-time programs. In addition, programmers can use a performance measurement tool that produces statistically correct timing models to predict the expected execution time of a program and to help make binding decisions. A real-time programming environment is also presented.

  19. Upgrade of the COMPASS tokamak real-time control system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janky, Filip; Havlíček, Josef; Batista, A.J.N.; Kudláček, Ondřej; Seidl, Jakub; Neto, A.C.; Pipek, Jan; Hron, Martin; Mikulín, Ondřej; Duarte, A.S.; Carvalho, B.B.; Stöckel, Jan; Pánek, Radomír

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 3 (2014), s. 186-194 ISSN 0920-3796 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/11/2470; GA MŠk 7G10072; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011021 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Real-time * Feedback control * Real-time framework * MARTe * COMPASS tokamak Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.152, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0920379613007564

  20. Competitive On-Line Scheduling for Overloaded Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    Real - Time Systems by Gilad Koren a dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements...Overloaded Real - Time Systems 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK...1.1 Introduction : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 2 1.1.1 Real - Time Systems : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :

  1. The Case For Prediction-based Best-effort Real-time Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Real - time Systems Peter A. Dinda Loukas Kallivokas January...DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A Approved for Public Release Distribution Unlimited DTIG QUALBR DISSECTED X The Case For Prediction-based Best-effort Real - time Systems Peter...Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213 A version of this paper appeared in the Seventh Workshop on Parallel and Distributed Real - Time Systems

  2. Optimal Real-time Dispatch for Integrated Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firestone, Ryan Michael [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2007-05-31

    This report describes the development and application of a dispatch optimization algorithm for integrated energy systems (IES) comprised of on-site cogeneration of heat and electricity, energy storage devices, and demand response opportunities. This work is intended to aid commercial and industrial sites in making use of modern computing power and optimization algorithms to make informed, near-optimal decisions under significant uncertainty and complex objective functions. The optimization algorithm uses a finite set of randomly generated future scenarios to approximate the true, stochastic future; constraints are included that prevent solutions to this approximate problem from deviating from solutions to the actual problem. The algorithm is then expressed as a mixed integer linear program, to which a powerful commercial solver is applied. A case study of United States Postal Service Processing and Distribution Centers (P&DC) in four cities and under three different electricity tariff structures is conducted to (1) determine the added value of optimal control to a cogeneration system over current, heuristic control strategies; (2) determine the value of limited electric load curtailment opportunities, with and without cogeneration; and (3) determine the trade-off between least-cost and least-carbon operations of a cogeneration system. Key results for the P&DC sites studied include (1) in locations where the average electricity and natural gas prices suggest a marginally profitable cogeneration system, optimal control can add up to 67% to the value of the cogeneration system; optimal control adds less value in locations where cogeneration is more clearly profitable; (2) optimal control under real-time pricing is (a) more complicated than under typical time-of-use tariffs and (b) at times necessary to make cogeneration economic at all; (3) limited electric load curtailment opportunities can be more valuable as a compliment to the cogeneration system than alone; and

  3. Performance of Real-time Earthquake Information System in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, H.; Horiuchi, S.; Wu, C.; Yamamoto, S.

    2008-12-01

    Horiuchi et al. (2005) developed a real-time earthquake information system (REIS) using Hi-net, a densely deployed nationwide seismic network, which consists of about 800 stations operated by NIED, Japan. REIS determines hypocenter locations and earthquake magnitudes automatically within a few seconds after P waves arrive at the closest station and calculates focal mechanisms within about 15 seconds. Obtained hypocenter parameters are transferred immediately by using XML format to a computer in Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), who started the service of EEW to special users in June 2005. JMA also developed EEW using 200 stations. The results by the two systems are merged. Among all the first issued EEW reports by both systems, REIS information accounts for about 80 percent. This study examines the rapidity and credibility of REIS by analyzing the 4050 earthquakes which occurred around the Japan Islands since 2005 with magnitude larger than 3.0. REIS re-determines hypocenter parameters every one second according to the revision of waveform data. Here, we discuss only about the results by the first reports. On rapidness, our results show that about 44 percent of the first reports are issued within 5 seconds after the P waves arrives at the closest stations. Note that this 5-second time window includes time delay due to data package and transmission delay of about 2 seconds. REIS waits till two stations detect P waves for events in the network but four stations outside the network so as to get reliable solutions. For earthquakes with hypocentral distance less than 100km, 55 percent of earthquakes are warned in 5 seconds and 87 percent are warned in 10 seconds. Most of events having long time delay are small and triggered by S wave arrivals. About 80 percent of events have difference in epicenter distances less than 20km relative to JMA manually determined locations. Because of the existence of large lateral heterogeneity in seismic velocity, the difference depends

  4. Real-time registration of 3D to 2D ultrasound images for image-guided prostate biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Derek J; Gardi, Lori; De Silva, Tharindu; Zhao, Shuang-Ren; Fenster, Aaron

    2017-09-01

    During image-guided prostate biopsy, needles are targeted at tissues that are suspicious of cancer to obtain specimen for histological examination. Unfortunately, patient motion causes targeting errors when using an MR-transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) fusion approach to augment the conventional biopsy procedure. This study aims to develop an automatic motion correction algorithm approaching the frame rate of an ultrasound system to be used in fusion-based prostate biopsy systems. Two modes of operation have been investigated for the clinical implementation of the algorithm: motion compensation using a single user initiated correction performed prior to biopsy, and real-time continuous motion compensation performed automatically as a background process. Retrospective 2D and 3D TRUS patient images acquired prior to biopsy gun firing were registered using an intensity-based algorithm utilizing normalized cross-correlation and Powell's method for optimization. 2D and 3D images were downsampled and cropped to estimate the optimal amount of image information that would perform registrations quickly and accurately. The optimal search order during optimization was also analyzed to avoid local optima in the search space. Error in the algorithm was computed using target registration errors (TREs) from manually identified homologous fiducials in a clinical patient dataset. The algorithm was evaluated for real-time performance using the two different modes of clinical implementations by way of user initiated and continuous motion compensation methods on a tissue mimicking prostate phantom. After implementation in a TRUS-guided system with an image downsampling factor of 4, the proposed approach resulted in a mean ± std TRE and computation time of 1.6 ± 0.6 mm and 57 ± 20 ms respectively. The user initiated mode performed registrations with in-plane, out-of-plane, and roll motions computation times of 108 ± 38 ms, 60 ± 23 ms, and 89 ± 27 ms, respectively, and corresponding

  5. Research of real-time performance based on VxWorks embedded system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Daming; Li Haiming

    2011-01-01

    In the research of mechanism and heating efficiency of Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) heating, data acquisition system with high real-time performance needed. By the means of system logic analyzer, SPY and other relevant software on VxWorks embedded operating system for real-time testing gives real-time data of the system. Real-time level to achieve balances used time and processor idle time, real-time data acquisition, and minimize the interference of external to the system, ensure the system work in its own set of scheduling trajectory. Interrupt switching time and task context switching time meet the system requirements. (authors)

  6. The Design of a Real-Time Distributed System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hertzberger, L.O.; Mullender, S.J.; Poletiek, G.; van Renesse, R.; Tanenbaum, A.S.; Tuynman, F.; Vermeulen, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    In modern physics experiments an increasing number and variety of programmable processors is used. As a consequence, a software environment is needed that provides an integrated approach to development, testing and use of real-time distributed software. This contribution is based on work being done

  7. Comparison of Real-Time Intraoperative Ultrasound-Based Dosimetry With Postoperative Computed Tomography-Based Dosimetry for Prostate Brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nag, Subir; Shi Peipei; Liu Bingren; Gupta, Nilendu; Bahnson, Robert R.; Wang, Jian Z.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether real-time intraoperative ultrasound (US)-based dosimetry can replace conventional postoperative computed tomography (CT)-based dosimetry in prostate brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Between December 2001 and November 2002, 82 patients underwent 103 Pd prostate brachytherapy. An interplant treatment planning system was used for real-time intraoperative transrectal US-guided treatment planning. The dose distribution was updated according to the estimated seed position to obtain the dose-volume histograms. Postoperative CT-based dosimetry was performed a few hours later using the Theraplan-Plus treatment planning system. The dosimetric parameters obtained from the two imaging modalities were compared. Results: The results of this study revealed correlations between the US- and CT-based dosimetry. However, large variations were found in the implant-quality parameters of the two modalities, including the doses covering 100%, 90%, and 80% of the prostate volume and prostate volumes covered by 100%, 150%, and 200% of the prescription dose. The mean relative difference was 38% and 16% for doses covering 100% and 90% of the prostate volume and 10% and 21% for prostate volumes covered by 100% and 150% of the prescription dose, respectively. The CT-based volume covered by 200% of the prescription dose was about 30% greater than the US-based one. Compared with CT-based dosimetry, US-based dosimetry significantly underestimated the dose to normal organs, especially for the rectum. The average US-based maximal dose and volume covered by 100% of the prescription dose for the rectum was 72 Gy and 0.01 cm 3 , respectively, much lower than the 159 Gy and 0.65 cm 3 obtained using CT-based dosimetry. Conclusion: Although dosimetry using intraoperative US-based planning provides preliminary real-time information, it does not accurately reflect the postoperative CT-based dosimetry. Until studies have determined whether US-based dosimetry or

  8. Real-time Seismic Alert System of NIED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, S.; Fujinawa, Y.; Negishi, H.; Matsumoto, T.; Fujiwara, H.; Kunugi, T.; Hayashi, Y.

    2001-12-01

    An extensive seismic network has been constructed nationwide composed of hi-sensitivity seismographic network, broadband seismographic network and strong motion seismographic network. All these data from some 3,000 sites belonging to NIED, JMA and universities are to be accumulated and distributed through NIED to any scientists and engineering through INTERNET under the coordination of the National Seismic Research Committee of MEXT. As a practical application of those data we are now developing a real-time seismic alert information system for the purpose of providing short-term warning of imminent strong grounds motions from major earthquakes from several seconds to a few days. The contents of information are seismic focal parameters (several seconds), seismic fault plane solutions (some 10 seconds), after-shock activities (several minutes-a few days ). The fundamental fault parameters are used to build specific information at sites for particular users for use of triggering automated and /or half-automated responses. The most important application is an immediate estimate of expected shaking distribution and damages in a district using synthetic database and site effects for local governments to initial proper measures of hazard mitigation. Another application is estimation of arrival time and shaking strength at any individual site for human lives to be safeguarded. The system could also start an automatic electrical isolation and protection of computer systems, protection of hazardous chronic systems, transportation systems and so on. The information are corrected successively as seismic ground motion are received at a larger number of sites in time with the result that more accurate and more sophisticated earthquake information is transmitted to any user. Besides the rapid determination of seismic parameters, one of essential items in this alert system is the data transmission means. The data transmission is chosen to assure negligibly small delay of data

  9. Real-time operation without a real-time operating system for instrument control and data acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Randolf; Poglitsch, Albrecht; Fumi, Fabio; Geis, Norbert; Hamidouche, Murad; Hoenle, Rainer; Looney, Leslie; Raab, Walfried; Viehhauser, Werner

    2004-09-01

    We are building the Field-Imaging Far-Infrared Line Spectrometer (FIFI LS) for the US-German airborne observatory SOFIA. The detector read-out system is driven by a clock signal at a certain frequency. This signal has to be provided and all other sub-systems have to work synchronously to this clock. The data generated by the instrument has to be received by a computer in a timely manner. Usually these requirements are met with a real-time operating system (RTOS). In this presentation we want to show how we meet these demands differently avoiding the stiffness of an RTOS. Digital I/O-cards with a large buffer separate the asynchronous working computers and the synchronous working instrument. The advantage is that the data processing computers do not need to process the data in real-time. It is sufficient that the computer can process the incoming data stream on average. But since the data is read-in synchronously, problems of relating commands and responses (data) have to be solved: The data is arriving at a fixed rate. The receiving I/O-card buffers the data in its buffer until the computer can access it. To relate the data to commands sent previously, the data is tagged by counters in the read-out electronics. These counters count the system's heartbeat and signals derived from that. The heartbeat and control signals synchronous with the heartbeat are sent by an I/O-card working as pattern generator. Its buffer gets continously programmed with a pattern which is clocked out on the control lines. A counter in the I/O-card keeps track of the amount of pattern words clocked out. By reading this counter, the computer knows the state of the instrument or knows the meaning of the data that will arrive with a certain time-tag.

  10. Experiments with the Sun Java Real-Time System -- Part 2

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Auguston, Mikhail; Cook, Thomas S; Drusinsky, Doron; Michael, James B; Otani, Thomas W; Shing, Man-Tak

    2007-01-01

    In the authors' first report on the Sun Java Real-Time System (RTS), they concluded that it is preferable to use real-time Java threads that use heap memory rather than no-heap real-time threads (NHRTTs...

  11. Distributed management system of a scanning robot programmed real time in APL language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liabot, M.-J.

    1980-08-01

    The aim of this work is to propose an original solution in order to implement the control operating system of a robot designed to travel between the main tank and the safety tank of the SUPERPHENIX reactor for scanning up the welding by ultrasound measurements. The system consists of: - a MITRA mini-computer programmed in APL, that manages the driving unit and defines the scanning strategy (visual unit, cheking board...). - a microprocessor that realizes the connection between the MITRA and the robot on wich the motor commands and the safety fonctions are placed. Such a solution allows to limit input output volume in the MITRA and gives the possibility to program the system in real time in APL language [fr

  12. Non-invasive and real-time passive acoustic mapping of ultrasound-mediated drug delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, James J; Carlisle, Robert C; Coviello, Christian; Coussios, Constantin-C; Seymour, Len

    2014-01-01

    New classes of biologically active materials, such as viruses, siRNA, antibodies and a wide range of engineered nanoparticles have emerged as potent agents for diagnosing and treating diseases, yet many of these agents fail because there is no effective route of delivery to their intended targets. Focused ultrasound and its ability to drive microbubble-seeded cavitation have been shown to facilitate drug delivery. However, cavitation is difficult to control temporally and spatially, making prediction of therapeutic outcomes deep in the body difficult. Here, we utilized passive acoustic mapping in vivo to understand how ultrasound parameters influence cavitation dynamics and to correlate spatial maps of cavitation to drug delivery. Focused ultrasound (center frequency: 0.5 MHz, peak-rarefactional pressure: 1.2 MPa, pulse length: 25 cycles or 50,000 cycles, pulse repetition interval: 0.02, 0.2, 1 or 3 s, number of pulses: 80 pulses) was applied to murine xenograft-model tumors in vivo during systemic injection of microbubbles with and without cavitation-sensitive liposomes or type 5 adenoviruses. Analysis of in vivo cavitation dynamics through several pulses revealed that cavitation was more efficiently produced at a lower pulse repetition frequency of 1 Hz than at 50 Hz. Within a pulse, inertial cavitation activity was shown to persist but reduced to 50% and 25% of its initial magnitude in 4.3 and 29.3 ms, respectively. Both through several pulses and within a pulse, the spatial distribution of cavitation was shown to change in time due to variations in microbubble distribution present in tumors. Finally, we demonstrated that the centroid of the mapped cavitation activity was within 1.33  ±  0.6 mm and 0.36 mm from the centroid location of drug release from liposomes and expression of the reporter gene encoded by the adenovirus, respectively. Thus passive acoustic mapping not only unraveled key mechanisms whereby a successful outcome is

  13. TH-AB-202-05: BEST IN PHYSICS (JOINT IMAGING-THERAPY): First Online Ultrasound-Guided MLC Tracking for Real-Time Motion Compensation in Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ipsen, S; Bruder, R; Schweikard, A [University of Luebeck, Luebeck, DE (United States); O’Brien, R; Keall, P [University of Sydney, Sydney (Australia); Poulsen, P [Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: While MLC tracking has been successfully used for motion compensation of moving targets, current real-time target localization methods rely on correlation models with x-ray imaging or implanted electromagnetic transponders rather than direct target visualization. In contrast, ultrasound imaging yields volumetric data in real-time (4D) without ionizing radiation. We report the first results of online 4D ultrasound-guided MLC tracking in a phantom. Methods: A real-time tracking framework was installed on a 4D ultrasound station (Vivid7 dimension, GE) and used to detect a 2mm spherical lead marker inside a water tank. The volumetric frame rate was 21.3Hz (47ms). The marker was rigidly attached to a motion stage programmed to reproduce nine tumor trajectories (five prostate, four lung). The 3D marker position from ultrasound was used for real-time MLC aperture adaption. The tracking system latency was measured and compensated by prediction for lung trajectories. To measure geometric accuracy, anterior and lateral conformal fields with 10cm circular aperture were delivered for each trajectory. The tracking error was measured as the difference between marker position and MLC aperture in continuous portal imaging. For dosimetric evaluation, 358° VMAT fields were delivered to a biplanar diode array dosimeter using the same trajectories. Dose measurements with and without MLC tracking were compared to a static reference dose using a 3%/3 mm γ-test. Results: The tracking system latency was 170ms. The mean root-mean-square tracking error was 1.01mm (0.75mm prostate, 1.33mm lung). Tracking reduced the mean γ-failure rate from 13.9% to 4.6% for prostate and from 21.8% to 0.6% for lung with high-modulation VMAT plans and from 5% (prostate) and 18% (lung) to 0% with low modulation. Conclusion: Real-time ultrasound tracking was successfully integrated with MLC tracking for the first time and showed similar accuracy and latency as other methods while holding the

  14. Design and implementation of real-time wireless projection system based on ARM embedded system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Zhaohua; Tang, Hao; Huang, Junhua

    2018-04-01

    Aiming at the shortage of existing real-time screen sharing system, a real-time wireless projection system is proposed in this paper. Based on the proposed system, a weight-based frame deletion strategy combined sampling time period and data variation is proposed. By implementing the system on the hardware platform, the results show that the system can achieve good results. The weight-based strategy can improve the service quality, reduce the delay and optimize the real-time customer service system [1].

  15. RANA, a real-time multi-agent system simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Søren Vissing; Demazeau, Yves; Hallam, John

    2016-01-01

    for individualisation and abstraction while retaining efficiency. Events are managed by the C++ simulator core. Full run state can be recorded for post-processed visualisation or analysis. The new tool is demonstrated in three different cases: a mining robot simulation, which is purely action based; an agent......-based setup that is verifies the high precision exhibited by RANAs simulation core; and a state-based firefly-like agent simulation that models real-time responses to fellow agents' signals, in which event propagation and reception affect the result of the simulation....

  16. Specifying real-time systems with interval logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushby, John

    1988-01-01

    Pure temporal logic makes no reference to time. An interval temporal logic and an extension to that logic which includes real time constraints are described. The application of this logic by giving a specification for the well-known lift (elevator) example is demonstrated. It is shown how interval logic can be extended to include a notion of process. How the specification language and verification environment of EHDM could be enhanced to support this logic is described. A specification of the alternating bit protocol in this extended version of the specification language of EHDM is given.

  17. Loss pattern identification in near-real-time accounting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argentesi, F.

    1983-01-01

    To maximize the benefits from an advanced safeguards technique such as near-real-time accounting, sophisticated methods of analysing sequential material accounting data are necessary. The methods must be capable of controlling the overall false-alarm rate while assuring good power of detection against all possible diversion scenarios. A method drawn from the field of pattern recognition and related to the alarm-sequence chart appears to be promising. Power curves based on Monte Carlo calculations illustrate the improvements over more conventional methods. (author)

  18. SonoNet: Real-Time Detection and Localisation of Fetal Standard Scan Planes in Freehand Ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Christian F; Kamnitsas, Konstantinos; Matthew, Jacqueline; Fletcher, Tara P; Smith, Sandra; Koch, Lisa M; Kainz, Bernhard; Rueckert, Daniel

    2017-11-01

    Identifying and interpreting fetal standard scan planes during 2-D ultrasound mid-pregnancy examinations are highly complex tasks, which require years of training. Apart from guiding the probe to the correct location, it can be equally difficult for a non-expert to identify relevant structures within the image. Automatic image processing can provide tools to help experienced as well as inexperienced operators with these tasks. In this paper, we propose a novel method based on convolutional neural networks, which can automatically detect 13 fetal standard views in freehand 2-D ultrasound data as well as provide a localization of the fetal structures via a bounding box. An important contribution is that the network learns to localize the target anatomy using weak supervision based on image-level labels only. The network architecture is designed to operate in real-time while providing optimal output for the localization task. We present results for real-time annotation, retrospective frame retrieval from saved videos, and localization on a very large and challenging dataset consisting of images and video recordings of full clinical anomaly screenings. We found that the proposed method achieved an average F1-score of 0.798 in a realistic classification experiment modeling real-time detection, and obtained a 90.09% accuracy for retrospective frame retrieval. Moreover, an accuracy of 77.8% was achieved on the localization task.

  19. Real-time non-rigid target tracking for ultrasound-guided clinical interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zachiu, Cornel; Ries, Mario G; Ramaekers, Pascal; Guey, Jean-Luc; Moonen, Chrit T W; de Senneville, Baudouin Denis

    2017-01-01

    Biological motion is a problem for non- or mini-invasive interventions when conducted in mobile/deformable organs due to the targeted pathology moving/deforming with the organ. This may lead to high miss rates and/or incomplete treatment of the pathology. Therefore, real-time tracking of the target

  20. Real-time reactor coolant system pressure/temperature limit system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, D.G.; Schemmel, R.R.; Van Scooter, W.E. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes an system, used in controlling the operating of a nuclear reactor coolant system, which automatically calculates and displays allowable reactor coolant system pressure/temperature limits within the nuclear reactor coolant system based upon real-time inputs. It comprises: means for producing signals representative of real-time operating parameters of the nuclear reactor cooling system; means for developing pressure and temperature limits relating the real-time operating parameters of the nuclear reactor coolant system, for normal and emergency operation thereof; means for processing the signals representative of real-time operating parameters of the nuclear reactor coolant system to perform calculations of a best estimate of signals, check manual inputs against permissible valves and test data acquisition hardware for validity and over/under range; and means for comparing the representative signals with limits for the real-time operating parameters to produce a signal for a real-time display of the pressure and temperature limits and of the real-time operating parameters use an operator in controlling the operation of the nuclear reactor coolant system

  1. Verus: A Tool for Quantitative Analysis of Finite-State Real-Time Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-08-12

    Symbolic model checking is a technique for verifying finite-state concurrent systems that has been extended to handle real - time systems . Models with...up to 10(exp 30) states can often be verified in minutes. In this paper, we present a new tool to analyze real - time systems , based on this technique...We have designed a language, called Verus, for the description of real - time systems . Such a description is compiled into a state-transition graph and

  2. Comparative Evaluations of Four Specification Methods for Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    December 1989 Comparative Evaluations of Four Specification Methods for Real - Time Systems David P. Wood William G. Wood Specification and Design Methods...Methods for Real - Time Systems Abstract: A number of methods have been proposed in the last decade for the specification of system and software requirements...and software specification for real - time systems . Our process for the identification of methods that meet the above criteria is described in greater

  3. Real-time ultrasound-tagging to track the 2D motion of the common carotid artery wall in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahnd, Guillaume, E-mail: g.zahnd@erasmusmc.nl [Biomedical Imaging Group Rotterdam, Departments of Radiology and Medical Informatics, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam 3000 CA (Netherlands); Salles, Sébastien; Liebgott, Hervé; Vray, Didier [Université de Lyon, CREATIS, CNRS UMR 5220, INSERM U1044, INSA-Lyon, Université Lyon 1, Lyon 69100 (France); Sérusclat, André [Department of Radiology, Louis Pradel Hospital, Lyon 69500 (France); Moulin, Philippe [Department of Endocrinology, Louis Pradel Hospital, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, Lyon 69100, France and INSERM UMR 1060, Lyon 69500 (France)

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Tracking the motion of biological tissues represents an important issue in the field of medical ultrasound imaging. However, the longitudinal component of the motion (i.e., perpendicular to the beam axis) remains more challenging to extract due to the rather coarse resolution cell of ultrasound scanners along this direction. The aim of this study is to introduce a real-time beamforming strategy dedicated to acquire tagged images featuring a distinct pattern in the objective to ease the tracking. Methods: Under the conditions of the Fraunhofer approximation, a specific apodization function was applied to the received raw channel data, in real-time during image acquisition, in order to introduce a periodic oscillations pattern along the longitudinal direction of the radio frequency signal. Analytic signals were then extracted from the tagged images, and subpixel motion tracking of the intima–media complex was subsequently performed offline, by means of a previously introduced bidimensional analytic phase-based estimator. Results: The authors’ framework was applied in vivo on the common carotid artery from 20 young healthy volunteers and 6 elderly patients with high atherosclerosis risk. Cine-loops of tagged images were acquired during three cardiac cycles. Evaluated against reference trajectories manually generated by three experienced analysts, the mean absolute tracking error was 98 ± 84 μm and 55 ± 44 μm in the longitudinal and axial directions, respectively. These errors corresponded to 28% ± 23% and 13% ± 9% of the longitudinal and axial amplitude of the assessed motion, respectively. Conclusions: The proposed framework enables tagged ultrasound images of in vivo tissues to be acquired in real-time. Such unconventional beamforming strategy contributes to improve tracking accuracy and could potentially benefit to the interpretation and diagnosis of biomedical images.

  4. Advanced Hard Real-Time Operating System, The Maruti Project. Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    REAL - TIME OPERATING SYSTEM , THE MARUTI PROJECT Part 1 of 2 Ashok K. Agrawala Satish K. Tripathi Department of Computer Science University of Maryland...Hard Real - Time Operating System , The Maruti Project DASG-60-92-C-0055 5b. Program Element # 62301E 6. Author(s) 5c. Project # DRPB Ashok K. Agrawala...SdSA94), a real - time operating system developed at the I3nversity of Maryland, and conducted extensive experiments under various task

  5. VEST: An Aspect-Based Composition Tool for Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    VEST: An Aspect-Based Composition Tool for Real - Time Systems * John A. Stankovic Ruiqing Zhu Ram Poornalingam Chenyang Lu Zhendong Yu Marty Humphrey...Composition Tool for Real - Time Systems 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK...it is obvious that designers of embedded real - time systems face many difficult problems. By working through various product scenarios with avionics

  6. A Benchmark for Comparing Different Approaches for Specifying and Verifying Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    To be considered correct or useful, real - time systems must deliver results within specified time intervals, either without exception or with high...probability. Recently, a large number of formal methods have been invented for specifying and verifying real - time systems . It has been suggested that...these formal methods need to be tested out on actual real - time systems . Such testing will allow the scalability of the methods to be assessed and also

  7. NOAA’s Physical Oceanographic Real-Time Systems (PORTS(Registered))

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    1 NOAA’s Physical Oceanographic Real - Time Systems (PORTS®) Darren Wright and Robert Bassett National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration...operation of several Physical Oceanographic Real - Time Systems (PORTS®). 0-933957-38-1 ©2009 MTS Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188...TITLE AND SUBTITLE NOAAs Physical Oceanographic Real - Time Systems (PORTS®) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  8. Dynamic I/O Power Management for Hard Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    recently emerged as an attractive alternative to inflexible hardware solutions. DPM for hard real - time systems has received relatively little attention...In particular, energy-driven I/O device scheduling for real - time systems has not been considered before. We present the first online DPM algorithm...which we call Low Energy Device Scheduler (LEDES), for hard real - time systems . LEDES takes as inputs a predetermined task schedule and a device-usage

  9. A Quantitative Approach to the Formal Verification of Real-Time Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Computer Science A Quantitative Approach to the Formal Verification of Real - Time Systems Sergio Vale Aguiar Campos September 1996 CMU-CS-96-199...ptisiic raieaiSI v Diambimos Lboiamtad _^ A Quantitative Approach to the Formal Verification of Real - Time Systems Sergio Vale Aguiar Campos...implied, of NSF, the Semiconduc- tor Research Corporation, ARPA or the U.S. government. Keywords: real - time systems , formal verification, symbolic

  10. Development and demonstration of near-real-time accounting systems for reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, D.D.; Hakkila, E.A.; Dayem, H.A.; Shipley, J.P.; Baker, A.L.

    1981-01-01

    A program to develop and demonstrate near-real-time accounting systems for reprocessing plants has been active at Los Alamos since 1976. The technology has been developed through modeling and simulation of process operation and measurement systems and evaluation of these data using decision analysis techniques. Aspects of near-real-time systems have been demonstrated successfully at the AGNS reprocessng plant as part of a joint study of near-real-time accounting

  11. High speed real-time wavefront processing system for a solid-state laser system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Yang, Ping; Chen, Shanqiu; Ma, Lifang; Xu, Bing

    2008-03-01

    A high speed real-time wavefront processing system for a solid-state laser beam cleanup system has been built. This system consists of a core2 Industrial PC (IPC) using Linux and real-time Linux (RT-Linux) operation system (OS), a PCI image grabber, a D/A card. More often than not, the phase aberrations of the output beam from solid-state lasers vary fast with intracavity thermal effects and environmental influence. To compensate the phase aberrations of solid-state lasers successfully, a high speed real-time wavefront processing system is presented. Compared to former systems, this system can improve the speed efficiently. In the new system, the acquisition of image data, the output of control voltage data and the implementation of reconstructor control algorithm are treated as real-time tasks in kernel-space, the display of wavefront information and man-machine conversation are treated as non real-time tasks in user-space. The parallel processing of real-time tasks in Symmetric Multi Processors (SMP) mode is the main strategy of improving the speed. In this paper, the performance and efficiency of this wavefront processing system are analyzed. The opened-loop experimental results show that the sampling frequency of this system is up to 3300Hz, and this system can well deal with phase aberrations from solid-state lasers.

  12. Real time pressure signal system for a rotary engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, W. J. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A real-time IMEP signal which is a composite of those produced in any one chamber of a three-lobed rotary engine is developed by processing the signals of four transducers positioned in a Wankel engine housing such that the rotor overlaps two of the transducers for a brief period during each cycle. During the overlap period of any two transducers, their output is compared and sampled for 10 microseconds per 0.18 degree of rotation by a sampling switch and capacitive circuit. When the switch is closed, the instantaneous difference between the value of the transducer signals is provided while with the switch open the average difference is produced. This combined signal, along with the original signal of the second transducer, is fed through a multiplexer to a pressure output terminal. Timing circuits, controlled by a crank angle encoder on the engine, determine which compared transducer signals are applied to the output terminal and when, as well as the open and closed periods of the switches.

  13. Real-time numerical simulation with high efficiency for an experimental reactor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Shuling; Li Fu; Li Sifeng; Chu Xinyuan

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents a systematic and efficient method for numerical real-time simulation of an experimental reactor. The reactor models were built based on the physical characteristics of the experimental reactor, and several real-time simulation approaches were discussed and compared in the paper. How to implement the real-time reactor simulation system in Windows platform for the sake of hardware-in-loop experiment for the reactor power control system was discussed. (authors)

  14. MINIX4RT: a real-time operating system based on MINIX

    OpenAIRE

    Pessolani, Pablo Andrés

    2006-01-01

    Tanenbaum's MINIX Operating System was extended with a Real-Time microkernel and services to conform MINIX4RT, a Real-Time Operating System for academic uses that includes more flexible Interprocess Communications facilities supporting basic priority inheritance protocol, a fixed priority scheduler, timer and event driven interrupt management, statistics and Real-Time metrics gathering keeping backward compatibility with standard MINIX versions. Facultad de Informática

  15. The IPERMOB System for Effective Real-Time Road Travel Time Measurement and Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Martelli, Francesca; Renda, Maria Elena; Santi, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Accurate, real-time measurement and estimation of road travel time is considered a central problem in the design of advanced Intelligent Transportation Systems. In particular, whether eective, real-time collection of travel time measurements in a urban area is possible is, to the best of our knowledge, still an open problem. In this paper, we introduce the IPERMOB system for efficient, real-time collection of travel time measurements in urban areas through vehicular networks. We demonstrate t...

  16. Comparative studies on permanent prostate brachytherapy: pre-plan and real-time transrectal ultrasound guided iodine-125 seed implants at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalolo, L.T.

    2013-06-01

    This research was carried out to investigate and compare the real-time and pre-plan implant at the Radiotherapy Department of the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, Ghana. Prowess Panther 4.5 treatment planning system and variseed 7.2 software were used for pre-plan and real-time implant respectively. The study was conducted for eighty three (83) patients treated for prostate cancer through real-time implant brachytherapy between september, 2008 to April, 2013. Thirty one patients (31) patients whose ultrasound images were available were selected for the pre-plan study. The slices of ultrasound images were re-drawn on transparent A-4 sheets and later on scanned, contoured and registered in the treatment planning system (prowess 4.5). After planning, the volume to be implanted, total number of needles, seeds and the total activity of the source were displayed. Comparison was done withe the pre-plan and real-time implant. In both cases the variation was below 5% as recommended in dosimetry. About 30% - 40% of the imported seeds were left un-used due to over-estimation of seeds ordered from the manufacturer (BARD Company-USA). Hence this work (pre-plan) aims to solve this problem. The comparison for dosimetric parameters was assessed for prostate, urethra and rectum as (V 95%, V 100%, V 150%, D90Gy, D90%), (D90Gy, D90%, D30Gy, D30% ) and (V 100%, D30Gy and D30%) respectively and the variation were within the limit of ± 5%. Comparison of dosimetric values for this work were done with other institutions, like Karolinska university hospital, Sweden, The institute of Curie/ hospital Cochin Group Paris-France and European recommendations. The values reported at Korle - Bu teaching hospital (this work) were in good agreement with the international guidelines. (au)

  17. Real-Time Systems: Reflections on higher education in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    File, Jonathan M.; Goedegebuure, Leo; Goedegebuure, L.C.J.

    2003-01-01

    Real-time systems (An ICT definition) In real-time multiprocessing there is the extra requirement that the system complete its response to any input within a certain critical time. This poses additional problems, particularly in situations where the system is heavily loaded and is subject to many

  18. A Conceptual Level Design for a Static Scheduler for Hard Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    The design of hard real - time systems is gaining a great deal of attention in the software engineering field as more and more real-world processes are...for these hard real - time systems . PSDL, as an executable design language, is supported by an execution support system consisting of a static scheduler, dynamic scheduler, and translator.

  19. A Lecture Supporting System Based on Real-Time Learning Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Atsushi; Konomi, Shin'ichi

    2017-01-01

    A new lecture supporting system based on real-time learning analytics is proposed. Our target is on-site classrooms where teachers give their lectures, and a lot of students listen to teachers' explanation, conduct exercises etc. We utilize not only an e-Learning system, but also an e-Book system to collect real-time learning activities during the…

  20. Computer tomography urography assisted real-time ultrasound-guided percutaneous nephrolithotomy on renal calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, You-Qiang; Wu, Jie-Ying; Li, Teng-Cheng; Zheng, Hao-Feng; Liang, Guan-Can; Chen, Yan-Xiong; Hong, Xiao-Bin; Cai, Wei-Zhong; Zang, Zhi-Jun; Di, Jin-Ming

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to assess the role of pre-designed route on computer tomography urography (CTU) in the ultrasound-guided percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) for renal calculus.From August 2013 to May 2016, a total of 100 patients diagnosed with complex renal calculus in our hospital were randomly divided into CTU group and control group (without CTU assistance). CTU was used to design a rational route for puncturing in CTU group. Ultrasound was used in both groups to establish a working trace in the operation areas. Patients' perioperative parameters and postoperative complications were recorded.All operations were successfully performed, without transferring to open surgery. Time of channel establishment in CTU group (6.5 ± 4.3 minutes) was shorter than the control group (10.0 ± 6.7 minutes) (P = .002). In addition, there was shorter operation time, lower rates of blood transfusion, secondary operation, and less establishing channels. The incidence of postoperative complications including residual stones, sepsis, severe hemorrhage, and perirenal hematoma was lower in CTU group than in control group.Pre-designing puncture route on CTU images would improve the puncturing accuracy, lessen establishing channels as well as improve the security in the ultrasound-guided PCNL for complex renal calculus, but at the cost of increased radiation exposure.

  1. Design of the first optical system for real-time tomographic holography (RTTH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeotti, John M.; Siegel, Mel; Rallison, Richard D.; Stetten, George

    2008-08-01

    The design of the first Real-Time-Tomographic-Holography (RTTH) optical system for augmented-reality applications is presented. RTTH places a viewpoint-independent real-time (RT) virtual image (VI) of an object into its actual location, enabling natural hand-eye coordination to guide invasive procedures, without requiring tracking or a head-mounted device. The VI is viewed through a narrow-band Holographic Optical Element (HOE) with built-in power that generates the largest possible near-field, in-situ VI from a small display chip without noticeable parallax error or obscuring direct view of the physical world. Rigidly fixed upon a medical-ultrasound probe, RTTH could show the scan in its actual location inside the patient, because the VI would move with the probe. We designed the image source along with the system-optics, allowing us to ignore both planer geometric distortions and field curvature, respectively compensated by using RT pre-processing software and attaching a custom-surfaced fiber-optic-faceplate (FOFP) to our image source. Focus in our fast, non-axial system was achieved by placing correcting lenses near the FOFP and custom-optically-fabricating our volume-phase HOE using a recording beam that was specially shaped by extra lenses. By simultaneously simulating and optimizing the system's playback performance across variations in both the total playback and HOE-recording optical systems, we derived and built a design that projects a 104x112 mm planar VI 1 m from the HOE using a laser-illuminated 19x16 mm LCD+FOFP image-source. The VI appeared fixed in space and well focused. Viewpoint-induced location errors were <3 mm, and unexpected first-order astigmatism produced 3 cm (3% of 1 m) ambiguity in depth, typically unnoticed by human observers.

  2. Run-time middleware to support real-time system scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, K.; Koedam, M.; Sinha, S.; Nelson, A.; Geilen, M.

    2015-01-01

    Systems on Chip (SOC) are powerful multiprocessor systems capable of running multiple independent applications, often with both real-time and non-real-time requirements. Scenarios exist at two levels: first, combinations of independent applications, and second, different states of a single

  3. Real-Time Target Motion Animation for Missile Warning System Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    T. Perkins, R. Sundberg, J. Cordell, Z. Tun , and M. Owen, Real-time Target Motion Animation for Missile Warning System Testing, Proc. SPIE Vol 6208...Z39-18 Real-time target motion animation for missile warning system testing Timothy Perkins*a, Robert Sundberga, John Cordellb, Zaw Tunb, Mark

  4. Grasp: Tracing, visualizing and measuring the behavior of real-time systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holenderski, M.J.; Heuvel, van den M.M.H.P.; Bril, R.J.; Lukkien, J.J.; Lipari, G.; Cucinotta, T.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding and validating the timing behavior of real-time systems is not trivial. Many real-time operating systems and their development environments do not provide tracing support, and provide only limited visualization, measurements and analysis tools. This paper presents Grasp, a tool for

  5. Embedded and real time system development a software engineering perspective concepts, methods and principles

    CERN Document Server

    Saeed, Saqib; Darwish, Ashraf; Abraham, Ajith

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays embedded and real-time systems contain complex software. The complexity of embedded systems is increasing, and the amount and variety of software in the embedded products are growing. This creates a big challenge for embedded and real-time software development processes and there is a need to develop separate metrics and benchmarks. “Embedded and Real Time System Development: A Software Engineering Perspective: Concepts, Methods and Principles” presents practical as well as conceptual knowledge of the latest tools, techniques and methodologies of embedded software engineering and real-time systems. Each chapter includes an in-depth investigation regarding the actual or potential role of software engineering tools in the context of the embedded system and real-time system. The book presents state-of-the art and future perspectives with industry experts, researchers, and academicians sharing ideas and experiences including surrounding frontier technologies, breakthroughs, innovative solutions and...

  6. The use of real time ultrasound scanning as a teaching method of anatomy in an undergraduate sonography and medical imaging degree in an Australian university

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, A.; Lawson, C.; McKillup, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Real-time ultrasound scanning is increasing in popularity as a teaching tool for human anatomy because it is non-invasive, offers real-time 3-D anatomy and is cheaper than dissections. Aim: To assess real-time ultrasound scanning as a teaching method of human anatomy, and to determine what teaching methods medical imaging and sonography students consider effective for understanding human anatomy. Method: Surveys were distributed to two consecutive cohorts of first year medical imaging and medical sonography students at CQUniversity. Participation was voluntary. Comparisons among teaching methods were made using repeated measures ANOVA. Results: Real-time ultrasound scanning was the most preferred method of delivery for anatomy classes overall especially compared to computer programs, videos, 3-D radiological images and dissection. Specifically, students indicated that ultrasound scanning was the preferred method to encourage learning from experience (F 7,231  = 2.942, p = 0.006), to develop team skills (F 7,231  = 4.550, p < 0.006), to follow complex instructions (F 7,231  = 4.656 p < 0.001) and to appreciate anatomical variation (F 7,231  = 2.067, p = 0.048). Dissection was the least favoured teaching method. Conclusion: Real-time ultrasound scanning is a useful tool for teaching anatomy, and animal dissections are a poor substitute for the use of human cadavers. - Highlights: • Real-time ultrasound scanning is a valid teaching tool for human anatomy. • Real-time ultrasound is preferred by students compared to other teaching methods. • Dissection is the least favoured method to learn anatomy. • Ultrasound encourages learning from experience and develops team skills.

  7. A curriculum for real-time computer and control systems engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halang, Wolfgang A.

    1990-01-01

    An outline of a syllabus for the education of real-time-systems engineers is given. This comprises the treatment of basic concepts, real-time software engineering, and programming in high-level real-time languages, real-time operating systems with special emphasis on such topics as task scheduling, hardware architectures, and especially distributed automation structures, process interfacing, system reliability and fault-tolerance, and integrated project development support systems. Accompanying course material and laboratory work are outlined, and suggestions for establishing a laboratory with advanced, but low-cost, hardware and software are provided. How the curriculum can be extended into a second semester is discussed, and areas for possible graduate research are listed. The suitable selection of a high-level real-time language and supporting operating system for teaching purposes is considered.

  8. Real-time operating system for selected Intel processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, W. R.

    1980-01-01

    The rationale for system development is given along with reasons for not using vendor supplied operating systems. Although many system design and performance goals were dictated by problems with vendor supplied systems, other goals surfaced as a result of a design for a custom system able to span multiple projects. System development and management problems and areas that required redesign or major code changes for system implementation are examined as well as the relative successes of the initial projects. A generic description of the actual project is provided and the ongoing support requirements and future plans are discussed.

  9. Real time modeling, simulation and control of dynamical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mughal, Asif Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    This book introduces modeling and simulation of linear time invariant systems and demonstrates how these translate to systems engineering, mechatronics engineering, and biomedical engineering. It is organized into nine chapters that follow the lectures used for a one-semester course on this topic, making it appropriate for students as well as researchers. The author discusses state space modeling derived from two modeling techniques and the analysis of the system and usage of modeling in control systems design. It also contains a unique chapter on multidisciplinary energy systems with a special focus on bioengineering systems and expands upon how the bond graph augments research in biomedical and bio-mechatronics systems.

  10. Real-time Ultrasound Assessment of Astronaut Spinal Anatomy and Disorders on the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Kathleen M; Harrison, Michael F; Sargsyan, Ashot E; Ebert, Douglas; Dulchavsky, Scott A

    2018-04-01

    Back pain is one of the most common conditions of astronauts during spaceflight and is hypothesized to be attributed to pathologic anatomic changes. Ultrasound (US) represents the only available imaging modality on the International Space Station, but a formal US protocol for imaging the structures of the spinal column does not exist. This investigation developed a method of acquiring diagnostic-quality images of the anterior lumbar and cervical regions of the spine during long-duration spaceflight. Comprehensive spinal US examinations were conducted on 7 long-duration spaceflight astronauts before flight, in flight, and after flight and compared to preflight and postflight magnetic resonance imaging data. In-flight scans were conducted after just-in-time training assisted by remote expert tele-US guidance. Novice users were able to obtain diagnostic-quality spinal images with a 92.5% success rate. Thirty-three anomalous or pathologic findings were identified during the preflight US analysis, and at least 14 new findings or progressions were identified during the postflight US analysis. Common findings included disk desiccation, osteophytes, and qualitative changes in the intervertebral disk height and angle. Ultrasound has proven efficacy as a portable and versatile diagnostic imaging modality under austere conditions. We demonstrated a potential role for US to evaluate spinal integrity and alterations in the extreme environment of space on the International Space Station. Further investigations should be performed to corroborate this imaging technique and to create a larger database related to in-flight spinal conditions during long-duration spaceflight. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  11. Ultrasound-Guided real-time pterygopalatine block for analgesia in an oral cancer patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishkarsh Gupta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancers are one of the most common cancers in India. These patients have pain during the course of the disease. Various drugs including opioid and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug have been used to manage pain. However, these are associated with side effects such as constipation and vomiting. An early interventional block may decrease the requirement for analgesics and improve the overall quality of life. We describe a case of oral carcinoma successfully managed with ultrasound-guided pterygopalatine block.

  12. Database application research in real-time data access of accelerator control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guanghua; Chen Jianfeng; Wan Tianmin

    2012-01-01

    The control system of Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) is a large-scale distributed real-time control system, It involves many types and large amounts of real-time data access during the operating. Database system has wide application prospects in the large-scale accelerator control system. It is the future development direction of the accelerator control system, to replace the differently dedicated data structures with the mature standardized database system. This article discusses the application feasibility of database system in accelerators based on the database interface technology, real-time data access testing, and system optimization research and to establish the foundation of the wide scale application of database system in the SSRF accelerator control system. Based on the database interface technology, real-time data access testing and system optimization research, this article will introduce the application feasibility of database system in accelerators, and lay the foundation of database system application in the SSRF accelerator control system. (authors)

  13. Hybrid systems: a real-time interface to control engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Thomas Juul; Heilmann, Søren; Holdgaard, Michael

    1996-01-01

    are usually investigated by control engineers that base their work on the theory of dynamic systems. The mathematical tool for this work is thus mathematical analysis, in particular the theory of differential equations. The paper gives an introduction to a general hybrid systems model for definition of system...

  14. Supporting Development of Energy-Optimised Java Real-Time Systems using TetaSARTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luckow, Kasper Søe; Bøgholm, Thomas; Thomsen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents how the tool TetaSARTS can be used to support the development of embedded hard real-time systems written in Java using the emerging Safety Critical Java (SCJ) profile. TetaSARTS facilitates control-flow sensitive schedulability analysis of a set of real-time tasks, and features...

  15. The Necessity of Real-Time: Fact and Fiction in Digital Reference Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankes, R. David; Shostack, Pauline

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of digital reference services and the use of real-time versus asynchronous services such as email focuses on data from the AskERIC digital reference service to demonstrate that asynchronous services are not only useful but may have greater utility than real-time systems. (Author/LRW)

  16. Using real time traveler demand data to optimize commuter rail feeder systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    "This report focuses on real time optimization of the Commuter Rail Circulator Route Network Design Problem (CRCNDP). The route configuration of the circulator system where to stop and the route among the stops is determined on a real-time ba...

  17. An Environment for Incremental Development of Distributed Extensible Asynchronous Real-time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Charles K.; Burleigh, Scott; Briggs, Hugh C.; Auernheimer, Brent

    1996-01-01

    Incremental parallel development of distributed real-time systems is difficult. Architectural techniques and software tools developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL's) Flight System Testbed make feasible the integration of complex systems in various stages of development.

  18. Real time kernel performance monitoring with SystemTap

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    SystemTap is a dynamic method of monitoring and tracing the operation of a running Linux kernel. In this talk I will present a few practical use cases where SystemTap allowed me to turn otherwise complex userland monitoring tasks in simple kernel probes.

  19. Modeling and validating distributed embedded real-time control systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, M.H.G.

    2009-01-01

    The development of complex embedded control systems can be improved significantly by applying formal techniques from control engineering and software engineering. It is shown how these approaches can be combined to improve the design and analysis of high-tech systems, both in theory and practice.

  20. Sharing Real-Time Objects in Distributed Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erland Ketil; Havn, Ib

    2015-01-01

    microcontrollers connected by a RS-485 bus. The demo system shows that it is relatively simple to implement a distributed embedded system with the provided API, and the latency of the communication service is predictable. A low coupling to hardware makes it easy to port to another platform and/or another network...

  1. REAL-TIME INTELLIGENT MULTILAYER ATTACK CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Subbhulakshmi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS takes the lion’s share of the current security infrastructure. Detection of intrusions is vital for initiating the defensive procedures. Intrusion detection was done by statistical and distance based methods. A threshold value is used in these methods to indicate the level of normalcy. When the network traffic crosses the level of normalcy then above which it is flagged as anomalous. When there are occurrences of new intrusion events which are increasingly a key part of system security, the statistical techniques cannot detect them. To overcome this issue, learning techniques are used which helps in identifying new intrusion activities in a computer system. The objective of the proposed system designed in this paper is to classify the intrusions using an Intelligent Multi Layered Attack Classification System (IMLACS which helps in detecting and classifying the intrusions with improved classification accuracy. The intelligent multi layered approach contains three intelligent layers. The first layer involves Binary Support Vector Machine classification for detecting the normal and attack. The second layer involves neural network classification to classify the attacks into classes of attacks. The third layer involves fuzzy inference system to classify the attacks into various subclasses. The proposed IMLACS can be able to detect an intrusion behavior of the networks since the system contains a three intelligent layer classification and better set of rules. Feature selection is also used to improve the time of detection. The experimental results show that the IMLACS achieves the Classification Rate of 97.31%.

  2. Low-cost real-time automatic wheel classification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabestari, Behrouz N.; Miller, John W. V.; Wedding, Victoria

    1992-11-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a low-cost machine vision system for identifying various types of automotive wheels which are manufactured in several styles and sizes. In this application, a variety of wheels travel on a conveyor in random order through a number of processing steps. One of these processes requires the identification of the wheel type which was performed manually by an operator. A vision system was designed to provide the required identification. The system consisted of an annular illumination source, a CCD TV camera, frame grabber, and 386-compatible computer. Statistical pattern recognition techniques were used to provide robust classification as well as a simple means for adding new wheel designs to the system. Maintenance of the system can be performed by plant personnel with minimal training. The basic steps for identification include image acquisition, segmentation of the regions of interest, extraction of selected features, and classification. The vision system has been installed in a plant and has proven to be extremely effective. The system properly identifies the wheels correctly up to 30 wheels per minute regardless of rotational orientation in the camera's field of view. Correct classification can even be achieved if a portion of the wheel is blocked off from the camera. Significant cost savings have been achieved by a reduction in scrap associated with incorrect manual classification as well as a reduction of labor in a tedious task.

  3. A Diagnostic Ultrasound Imaging System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seong Woo

    1999-01-01

    The ability to see the internal organs of the human body in a noninvasive way is a powerful diagnostic tool of modern medicine. Among these imaging modalities such as X-ray, MRI, and ultrasound. MRI and ultrasound are presenting much less risk of undesirable damage of both patient and examiner. In fact, no deleterious effects have been reported as a result of clinical examination by using MRI and ultrasound diagnostic equipment. As a result, their market volume has been rapidly increased. MRI has a good resolution. but there are a few disadvantages such as high price. non-real-time imaging capability. and expensive diagnostic cost. On the other hand, the ultrasound imaging system has inherently poor resolution as compared with X-ray and MRI. In spite of its poor resolution, the ultrasound diagnostic equipment is lower in price and has an ability of real-time imaging as compared with the others. As a result, the ultrasound imaging system has become general and essential modality for imaging the internal organs of human body. In this review various researches and developments to enhance the resolution of the ultrasound images are explained and future trends of the ultrasound imaging technology are described

  4. Analysis and Optimization of Distributed Real-Time Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru; Peng, Zebo

    2006-01-01

    and scheduling policies. In this context, the task of designing such systems is becoming increasingly difficult. The success of new adequate design methods depends on the availability of efficient analysis as well as optimization techniques. In this paper, we present both analysis and optimization approaches...... characteristic to this class of systems: mapping of functionality, the optimization of the access to the communication channel, and the assignment of scheduling policies to processes. Optimization heuristics aiming at producing a schedulable system, with a given amount of resources, are presented....

  5. A real time knowledge-based alarm system EXTRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancelin, J.; Gaussot, J.P.; Legaud, P.

    1987-01-01

    EXTRA is an experimental expert system for industrial process control. The main objectives are the diagnosis and operation aids. From a methodological point of view, EXTRA is based on a deep knowledge of the plant operation and on qualitative simulation principles. The application concerns all the electric power and the Chemical and Volume Control System of a P.W.R. nuclear plant. The tests conducted on a full-scope simulator representative of the real plant yielded excellent results and taught the authors a number of lessons. The main lesson concerns the efficiency and flexibility provided by the combination of a knowledge-based system and of an advanced mini-computer

  6. Formal Verification of Real-Time System Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Szpyrka

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The methodology of system requirements verification presented in this paper is a proposition of a practical procedure for reducing some negatives of the specification of requirements. The main problem that is considered is to create a complete description of the system requirements without any negatives. Verification of the initially defined requirements is based on the coloured Petri nets. Those nets are useful for testing some properties of system requirements such as completeness, consistency and optimality. An example ofthe litt controller is presented.

  7. Concept of Operations for Real-time Airborne Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, Jonathan L.; Taira, Randal Y.; Orr, Heather M.

    2013-03-04

    The purpose of this document is to describe the operating concepts, capabilities, and benefits of RAMS including descriptions of how the system implementations can improve emergency response, damage assessment, task prioritization, and situation awareness. This CONOPS provides general information on operational processes and procedures required to utilize RAMS, and expected performance benefits of the system. The primary audiences for this document are the end users of RAMS (including flight operators and incident commanders) and the RAMS management team. Other audiences include interested offices within the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and officials from other state and local jurisdictions who want to implement similar systems.

  8. LOGIC SIMULATION OF LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEM COMPONENT IN REAL TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Marchenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The article proposed the use of simulation methods for evaluating the effectiveness of a stepped fan engine speed control while maintaining the air flow volume in the set boundaries of the «fan-filter» system. A detailed algorithm of the program made on the basis of an Any Logic software package. Is analyzed the possibility of using the proposed method in the design of ventilation systems.The proposed method allows at the design stage to determine the maximum replacement intervals of the systems filter elements, as well as to predict the time to switch the fan motor speeds. Using of the technique allows to refuse the complex air flow systems and maximize the life of the filter elements set.Methods of logical processes modeling allows to reduce construction costs and improve energy efficiency of buildings. 

  9. A Prototype SSVEP Based Real Time BCI Gaming System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martišius, Ignas; Damaševičius, Robertas

    2016-01-01

    Although brain-computer interface technology is mainly designed with disabled people in mind, it can also be beneficial to healthy subjects, for example, in gaming or virtual reality systems. In this paper we discuss the typical architecture, paradigms, requirements, and limitations of electroencephalogram-based gaming systems. We have developed a prototype three-class brain-computer interface system, based on the steady state visually evoked potentials paradigm and the Emotiv EPOC headset. An online target shooting game, implemented in the OpenViBE environment, has been used for user feedback. The system utilizes wave atom transform for feature extraction, achieving an average accuracy of 78.2% using linear discriminant analysis classifier, 79.3% using support vector machine classifier with a linear kernel, and 80.5% using a support vector machine classifier with a radial basis function kernel.

  10. Real Time Space Radiation Effects in Electronic Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The effects that solar particle events can have on operational electronic systems is a significant concern for all missions, but especially for those beyond Low...

  11. Telecontrol - Expert systems. Real-time monitoring and remote diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, A.

    1996-09-01

    The role of expert systems in programming simple and complex tasks in utilities companies was discussed with examples from B.C. Hydro, where expert systems have been used in such diverse applications as an in-house programmable logic controller (PLC) training course, and a machine audit on a 150 MW steam turbine generating unit at their Burrard Thermal Generating Plant. The PLC tutoring program uses expert system technology for the air blast circuit breakers` air drier system, for individualized on-site training. The steam turbine audits (an eight-month long project) were performed remotely by dialing an on-site computer configured with customized expert software. Details of these, and other potential applications, such as transformer monitoring and diagnostics, circuit breaker performance analysis, and information management, were described.

  12. Real-Time Analytics Test System for Distributed Spacecraft Missions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Upcoming DSM missions will produce unprecedented amounts of data during both I&T and flight, overwhelming current command/telemetry systems. The amount of data,...

  13. Commissioning of the APS real-time orbit feedback system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carwardine, J.; Decker, G.; Evans, K. Jr.; Hillman, A.; Lenkszus, F.; Merl, R.; Pietryla, A.

    1997-01-01

    A unified global and local closed-orbit feedback system has been implemented at the Advanced Photon Source in order to stabilize both particle and photon beams. Beam stability requirements in the band up to 50 Hz are 17 microm in the horizontal plane and 4.4 microm vertically. Orbit feedback algorithms are implemented digitally using multiple digital signal processors, with computing power distributed in 20 VME crates around the storage ring. Each crate communicates with all others via a fast reflective memory network. The system has access to 320 rf beam position monitors together with x-ray beam position monitors in both insertion device and bending magnet beamlines. Up to 317 corrector magnets are available to the system. The global system reduces horizontal rms beam motion at the x-ray source points by more than a factor of two in the frequency band from 10 mHz to 50 Hz

  14. A Prototype SSVEP Based Real Time BCI Gaming System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignas Martišius

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although brain-computer interface technology is mainly designed with disabled people in mind, it can also be beneficial to healthy subjects, for example, in gaming or virtual reality systems. In this paper we discuss the typical architecture, paradigms, requirements, and limitations of electroencephalogram-based gaming systems. We have developed a prototype three-class brain-computer interface system, based on the steady state visually evoked potentials paradigm and the Emotiv EPOC headset. An online target shooting game, implemented in the OpenViBE environment, has been used for user feedback. The system utilizes wave atom transform for feature extraction, achieving an average accuracy of 78.2% using linear discriminant analysis classifier, 79.3% using support vector machine classifier with a linear kernel, and 80.5% using a support vector machine classifier with a radial basis function kernel.

  15. IMPLEMENTATION OF IMAGE PROCESSING IN REAL TIME CAR PARKING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    SAYANTI BANERJEE,; PALLAVI CHOUDEKAR,; M.K.MUJU

    2011-01-01

    Car parking lots are an important object class in many traffic and civilian applications. With the problems of increasing urban trafficcongestion and the ever increasing shortage of space, these car parking lots are needed to be well equipped with automatic parkingInformation and Guidance systems. Goals of intelligent parking lot management include counting the number of parked cars, and identifyingthe available location. This work proposes a new system for providing parking information and g...

  16. Implementation of real-time digital endoscopic image processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chul Gyu; Lee, Young Mook; Lee, Sang Min; Kim, Won Ky; Lee, Jae Ho; Lee, Myoung Ho

    1997-10-01

    Endoscopy has become a crucial diagnostic and therapeutic procedure in clinical areas. Over the past four years, we have developed a computerized system to record and store clinical data pertaining to endoscopic surgery of laparascopic cholecystectomy, pelviscopic endometriosis, and surgical arthroscopy. In this study, we developed a computer system, which is composed of a frame grabber, a sound board, a VCR control board, a LAN card and EDMS. Also, computer system controls peripheral instruments such as a color video printer, a video cassette recorder, and endoscopic input/output signals. Digital endoscopic data management system is based on open architecture and a set of widely available industry standards; namely Microsoft Windows as an operating system, TCP/IP as a network protocol and a time sequential database that handles both images and speech. For the purpose of data storage, we used MOD and CD- R. Digital endoscopic system was designed to be able to store, recreate, change, and compress signals and medical images. Computerized endoscopy enables us to generate and manipulate the original visual document, making it accessible to a virtually unlimited number of physicians.

  17. Integrated active sensor system for real time vibration monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qijie; Yan, Xiaoqin; Liao, Xinqin; Cao, Shiyao; Lu, Shengnan; Zheng, Xin; Zhang, Yue

    2015-11-05

    We report a self-powered, lightweight and cost-effective active sensor system for vibration monitoring with multiplexed operation based on contact electrification between sensor and detected objects. The as-fabricated sensor matrix is capable of monitoring and mapping the vibration state of large amounts of units. The monitoring contents include: on-off state, vibration frequency and vibration amplitude of each unit. The active sensor system delivers a detection range of 0-60 Hz, high accuracy (relative error below 0.42%), long-term stability (10000 cycles). On the time dimension, the sensor can provide the vibration process memory by recording the outputs of the sensor system in an extend period of time. Besides, the developed sensor system can realize detection under contact mode and non-contact mode. Its high performance is not sensitive to the shape or the conductivity of the detected object. With these features, the active sensor system has great potential in automatic control, remote operation, surveillance and security systems.

  18. Power System Real-Time Monitoring by Using PMU-Based Robust State Estimation Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Junbo; Zhang, Gexiang; Das, Kaushik

    2016-01-01

    Accurate real-time states provided by the state estimator are critical for power system reliable operation and control. This paper proposes a novel phasor measurement unit (PMU)-based robust state estimation method (PRSEM) to real-time monitor a power system under different operation conditions...... the system real-time states with good robustness and can address several kinds of BD.......-based bad data (BD) detection method, which can handle the smearing effect and critical measurement errors, is presented. We evaluate PRSEM by using IEEE benchmark test systems and a realistic utility system. The numerical results indicate that, in short computation time, PRSEM can effectively track...

  19. Operating system for a real-time multiprocessor propulsion system simulator. User's manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, G. L.

    1985-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center is developing and evaluating experimental hardware and software systems to help meet future needs for real-time, high-fidelity simulations of air-breathing propulsion systems. Specifically, the real-time multiprocessor simulator project focuses on the use of multiple microprocessors to achieve the required computing speed and accuracy at relatively low cost. Operating systems for such hardware configurations are generally not available. A real time multiprocessor operating system (RTMPOS) that supports a variety of multiprocessor configurations was developed at Lewis. With some modification, RTMPOS can also support various microprocessors. RTMPOS, by means of menus and prompts, provides the user with a versatile, user-friendly environment for interactively loading, running, and obtaining results from a multiprocessor-based simulator. The menu functions are described and an example simulation session is included to demonstrate the steps required to go from the simulation loading phase to the execution phase.

  20. Real-time supervision of building HVAC system performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djuric, Natasa

    2008-07-01

    This thesis presents techniques for improving building HVAC system performance in existing buildings generated using simulation-based tools and real data. Therefore, one of the aims has been to research the needs and possibilities to assess and improve building HVAC system performance. In addition, this thesis aims at an advanced utilization of building energy management system (BEMS) and the provision of useful information to building operators using simulation tools. Buildings are becoming more complex systems with many elements, while BEMS provide many data about the building systems. There are, however, many faults and issues in building performance, but there are legislative and cost-benefit forces induced by energy savings. Therefore, both BEMS and the computer-based tools have to be utilized more efficiently to improve building performance. The thesis consists of four main parts that can be read separately. The first part explains the term commissioning and the commissioning tool work principal based on literature reviews. The second part presents practical experiences and issues introduced through the work on this study. The third part deals with the computer-based tools application in design and operation. This part is divided into two chapters. The first deals with improvement in the design, and the second deals with the improvement in the control strategies. The last part of the thesis gives several rules for fault diagnosis developed using simulation tools. In addition, this part aims at the practical explanation of the faults in the building HVAC systems. The practical background for the thesis was obtained though two surveys. The first survey was carried out with the aim to find the commissioning targets in Norwegian building facilities. In that way, an overview of the most typical buildings, HVAC equipment, and their related problems was obtained. An on-site survey was carried out on an example building, which was beneficial for introducing the

  1. GPUs for real-time processing in HEP trigger systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ammendola, R; Deri, L; Fiorini, M; Frezza, O; Lamanna, G; Lo Cicero, F; Lonardo, A; Messina, A; Sozzi, M; Pantaleo, F; Paolucci, Ps; Rossetti, D; Simula, F; Tosoratto, L; Vicini, P

    2014-01-01

    We describe a pilot project (GAP - GPU Application Project) for the use of GPUs (Graphics processing units) for online triggering applications in High Energy Physics experiments. Two major trends can be identied in the development of trigger and DAQ systems for particle physics experiments: the massive use of general-purpose commodity systems such as commercial multicore PC farms for data acquisition, and the reduction of trigger levels implemented in hardware, towards a fully software data selection system (\\trigger-less"). The innovative approach presented here aims at exploiting the parallel computing power of commercial GPUs to perform fast computations in software not only in high level trigger levels but also in early trigger stages. General-purpose computing on GPUs is emerging as a new paradigm in several elds of science, although so far applications have been tailored to the specic strengths of such devices as accelerators in oine computation. With the steady reduction of GPU latencies, and the incre...

  2. Architecture for Multi-Technology Real-Time Location Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodas, Javier; Barral, Valentín; Escudero, Carlos J.

    2013-01-01

    The rising popularity of location-based services has prompted considerable research in the field of indoor location systems. Since there is no single technology to support these systems, it is necessary to consider the fusion of the information coming from heterogeneous sensors. This paper presents a software architecture designed for a hybrid location system where we can merge information from multiple sensor technologies. The architecture was designed to be used by different kinds of actors independently and with mutual transparency: hardware administrators, algorithm developers and user applications. The paper presents the architecture design, work-flow, case study examples and some results to show how different technologies can be exploited to obtain a good estimation of a target position. PMID:23435050

  3. Architecture for multi-technology real-time location systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodas, Javier; Barral, Valentín; Escudero, Carlos J

    2013-02-07

    The rising popularity of location-based services has prompted considerable research in the field of indoor location systems. Since there is no single technology to support these systems, it is necessary to consider the fusion of the information coming from heterogeneous sensors. This paper presents a software architecture designed for a hybrid location system where we can merge information from multiple sensor technologies. The architecture was designed to be used by different kinds of actors independently and with mutual transparency: hardware administrators, algorithm developers and user applications. The paper presents the architecture design, work-flow, case study examples and some results to show how different technologies can be exploited to obtain a good estimation of a target position.

  4. Earthquake early warning system using real-time signal processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, R.R. Jr.; Dowla, F.U.

    1996-02-01

    An earthquake warning system has been developed to provide a time series profile from which vital parameters such as the time until strong shaking begins, the intensity of the shaking, and the duration of the shaking, can be derived. Interaction of different types of ground motion and changes in the elastic properties of geological media throughout the propagation path result in a highly nonlinear function. We use neural networks to model these nonlinearities and develop learning techniques for the analysis of temporal precursors occurring in the emerging earthquake seismic signal. The warning system is designed to analyze the first-arrival from the three components of an earthquake signal and instantaneously provide a profile of impending ground motion, in as little as 0.3 sec after first ground motion is felt at the sensors. For each new data sample, at a rate of 25 samples per second, the complete profile of the earthquake is updated. The profile consists of a magnitude-related estimate as well as an estimate of the envelope of the complete earthquake signal. The envelope provides estimates of damage parameters, such as time until peak ground acceleration (PGA) and duration. The neural network based system is trained using seismogram data from more than 400 earthquakes recorded in southern California. The system has been implemented in hardware using silicon accelerometers and a standard microprocessor. The proposed warning units can be used for site-specific applications, distributed networks, or to enhance existing distributed networks. By producing accurate, and informative warnings, the system has the potential to significantly minimize the hazards of catastrophic ground motion. Detailed system design and performance issues, including error measurement in a simple warning scenario are discussed in detail.

  5. Diagnostic systems of electric motors in real time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В.Ю. Кучерук

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available  Thesis is devoted to development and research of system of electromotor diagnosis, which is working on increasing angular velocity. The methods of electromotor diagnosis with complexly taking into account faults by special testing and continuous inspection based on neural-fuzzy methods are developed. Based on offered methods formed hardware and software, which are used in developed system of electromotor diagnosis. The analog neuralcontroller using is offered. The main preferences of such approach are accuracy and speed of diagnoses receiving due to data processing with analog measurement channel.

  6. A Real-Time Nearshore Wave and Current Prediction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    this component of the The Dclfl3D system, developed by Delft Hydraulics nearshorc modeling system was tailored specifically tbr ( htp :,’www.wldelft.nl...Walstra. DA-., 2004. Keeping it simple by using Tolman. ILL., 2002. U.ser Manual and Systrn [Documentation of complex models, The 6th tnt. Conf. an...Stelling, 6.S., Van Kester, J.A.TM., 1994. Otil the approximation of WL D)elft I lvdratifis. 2001. User Manual l)MIUD-FLIAW. horizontal gradients in

  7. Real-time plutonium accountability and inventory control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarich, J.P.

    An on-line inventory system for a large storage and processing facility is planned. A terminal system will provide for interactive updating and information retrieval. The data base will contain information on inventory items and transactions, as well as process monitoring information and laboratory bookkeeping data. Access to the terminals, as well as the storage vaults, will be controlled by fingerprint comparison with a personnel identification data base. Bar code labels attached to each inventory item will be read by a light pen during physical inventories and when materials are transferred. The use of devices to continuously monitor and control storage locations within the vaults is planned. (U.S.)

  8. Real-time plutonium accountability and inventory control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarich, J.P.

    1975-01-01

    An on-line inventory system for a large storage and processing facility is planned. A terminal system will provide for interactive updating and information retrieval. The data base will contain information on inventory items and transactions, as well as process monitoring information and laboratory bookkeeping data. Access to the terminals, as well as the storage vaults, will be controlled by fingerprint comparison with a personnel identification data base. Bar code labels attached to each inventory item will be read by a light pen during physical inventories and when material is transferred. The use of devices to continuously monitor and control s locations within the vaults is planned

  9. Real-Time Measurements for Adaptive and Cognitive Radio Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Arslan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive and cognitive radios (CR have been becoming popular for optimizing mobile radio system transmission and reception. One of the most important elements of the adaptive radio and CR concepts is the ability to measure, sense, learn about, and be aware of parameters related to the radio channel characteristics, availability of spectrum and power, interference and noise temperature, operational environment of radio, user requirements and applications, available networks and infrastructures, local policies, other operating restrictions, and so on. This paper discusses some of the important measurement parameters for enabling adaptive radio and CR systems along with their relationships and impacts on the performance including relevant challenges.

  10. A New Generation of Real-Time Systems in the JET Tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Diogo; Neto, Andre C.; Valcarcel, Daniel F.; Felton, Robert; Lopez, Juan M.; Barbalace, Antonio; Boncagni, Luca; Card, Peter; De Tommasi, Gianmaria; Goodyear, Alex; Jachmich, Stefan; Lomas, Peter J.; Maviglia, Francesco; McCullen, Paul; Murari, Andrea; Rainford, Mark; Reux, Cedric; Rimini, Fernanda; Sartori, Filippo; Stephen, Adam V.; Vega, Jesus; Vitelli, Riccardo; Zabeo, Luca; Zastrow, Klaus-Dieter

    2014-04-01

    Recently, a new recipe for developing and deploying real-time systems has become increasingly adopted in the JET tokamak. Powered by the advent of x86 multi-core technology and the reliability of JET's well established Real-Time Data Network (RTDN) to handle all real-time I/O, an official Linux vanilla kernel has been demonstrated to be able to provide real-time performance to user-space applications that are required to meet stringent timing constraints. In particular, a careful rearrangement of the Interrupt ReQuests' (IRQs) affinities together with the kernel's CPU isolation mechanism allows one to obtain either soft or hard real-time behavior depending on the synchronization mechanism adopted. Finally, the Multithreaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe) framework is used for building applications particularly optimised for exploring multi-core architectures. In the past year, four new systems based on this philosophy have been installed and are now part of JET's routine operation. The focus of the present work is on the configuration aspects that enable these new systems' real-time capability. Details are given about the common real-time configuration of these systems, followed by a brief description of each system together with results regarding their real-time performance. A cycle time jitter analysis of a user-space MARTe based application synchronizing over a network is also presented. The goal is to compare its deterministic performance while running on a vanilla and on a Messaging Real time Grid (MRG) Linux kernel.

  11. System security assessment in real-time using synchrophasor measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Wache, Markus

    2013-01-01

    The increasing amount of renewable power from wind and solar generation causes higher fluctuation in power generation and in general increased distances between generation and load. Both aspects influence the system stability of electricity transmission in a negative way. Therefore, additional me...

  12. Real-time control of power systems using nodal prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jokic, A.; Lazar, M.; Bosch, van den P.P.J.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a novel control scheme for achieving optimal power balancing and congestion management in electrical power systems via nodal prices. We develop a dynamic controller that guarantees economically optimal steady-state operation while respecting all line flow constraints in

  13. Real-Time Strap Pressure Sensor System for Powered Exoskeletons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Tamez-Duque

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Assistive and rehabilitative powered exoskeletons for spinal cord injury (SCI and stroke subjects have recently reached the clinic. Proper tension and joint alignment are critical to ensuring safety. Challenges still exist in adjustment and fitting, with most current systems depending on personnel experience for appropriate individual fastening. Paraplegia and tetraplegia patients using these devices have impaired sensation and cannot signal if straps are uncomfortable or painful. Excessive pressure and blood-flow restriction can lead to skin ulcers, necrotic tissue and infections. Tension must be just enough to prevent slipping and maintain posture. Research in pressure dynamics is extensive for wheelchairs and mattresses, but little research has been done on exoskeleton straps. We present a system to monitor pressure exerted by physical human-machine interfaces and provide data about levels of skin/body pressure in fastening straps. The system consists of sensing arrays, signal processing hardware with wireless transmission, and an interactive GUI. For validation, a lower-body powered exoskeleton carrying the full weight of users was used. Experimental trials were conducted with one SCI and one able-bodied subject. The system can help prevent skin injuries related to excessive pressure in mobility-impaired patients using powered exoskeletons, supporting functionality, independence and better overall quality of life.

  14. Real-time qualitative reasoning for telerobotic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pin, Eancois G.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the sensor-based telerobotic driving of a car in a-priori unknown environments using 'human-like' reasoning schemes implemented on custom-designed VLSI fuzzy inferencing boards. These boards use the Fuzzy Set theoretic framework to allow very vast (30 kHz) processing of full sets of information that are expressed in qualitative form using membership functions. The sensor-based and fuzzy inferencing system was incorporated on an outdoor test-bed platform to investigate two control modes for driving a car on the basis of very sparse and imprecise range data. In the first mode, the car navigates fully autonomously to a goal specified by the operator, while in the second mode, the system acts as a telerobotic driver's aid providing the driver with linguistic (fuzzy) commands to turn left or right, speed up, slow down, stop, or back up depending on the obstacles perceived by the sensors. Indoor and outdoor experiments with both modes of control are described in which the system uses only three acoustic range (sonar) sensor channels to perceive the environment. Sample results are presented that illustrate the feasibility of developing autonomous navigation modules and robust, safety-enhancing driver's aids for telerobotic systems using the new fuzzy inferencing VLSI hardware and 'human-like' reasoning schemes.

  15. Real-time embedded systems open-source operating systems perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Bertolotti, Ivan Cibrario

    2012-01-01

    From the Foreword: "!the presentation of real-time scheduling is probably the best in terms of clarity I have ever read in the professional literature. Easy to understand, which is important for busy professionals keen to acquire (or refresh) new knowledge without being bogged down in a convoluted narrative and an excessive detail overload. The authors managed to largely avoid theoretical-only presentation of the subject, which frequently affects books on operating systems. ! an indispensable [resource] to gain a thorough understanding of the real-time systems from the operating systems p

  16. Online, real-time corrosion monitoring in district heating systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Thorarinsdottir, R.I.

    2005-01-01

    The corrosion control in district heating systems is today performed primarily with control of the water quality. The corrosion rate is kept low by assuring low dissolved oxygen concentration, high pH and low conductivity. Corrosion failures can occur, e.g. as a result of unknown oxygen ingress, ......, precipitation of deposits or crevices. The authors describe methods used for on-line monitoring of corrosion, cover the complications and the main results of a Nordic project.......The corrosion control in district heating systems is today performed primarily with control of the water quality. The corrosion rate is kept low by assuring low dissolved oxygen concentration, high pH and low conductivity. Corrosion failures can occur, e.g. as a result of unknown oxygen ingress...

  17. A design approach for ultrareliable real-time systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lala, Jaynarayan H.; Harper, Richard E.; Alger, Linda S.

    1991-01-01

    A design approach developed over the past few years to formalize redundancy management and validation is described. Redundant elements are partitioned into individual fault-containment regions (FCRs). An FCR is a collection of components that operates correctly regardless of any arbitrary logical or electrical fault outside the region. Conversely, a fault in an FCR cannot cause hardware outside the region to fail. The outputs of all channels are required to agree bit-for-bit under no-fault conditions (exact bitwise consensus). Synchronization, input agreement, and input validity conditions are discussed. The Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS), which is a fault-tolerant distributed architecture based on this approach, is described. A brief overview of recent applications of these systems and current research is presented.

  18. A real-time high level trigger system for CALIFA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gernhaeuser, Roman; Heiss, Benjamin; Klenze, Philipp; Remmels, Patrick; Winkel, Max [Physik Department, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The CALIFA calorimeter with its about 2600 scintillator crystals is a key component of the R{sup 3}B setup. For many experiments CALIFA will have to perform complex trigger decisions depending on the total energy deposition, γ multiplicities or geometrical patterns with a minimal latency. This selection is an essential tool for the accurate preselection of relevant events and provides a significant data reduction. The challenge is to aggregate local trigger information from up to 200 readout modules. The trigger tree transport protocol (T{sup 3}P) will use dedicated FPGA boards and bus systems to collect trigger information and perform hierarchical summations to ensure a trigger decision within 1 μs. The basic concept and implementation of T{sup 3}P are presented together with first tests on a prototype system.

  19. Structure and Hierarchy in Real-Time Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Michael Oliver

    The development of digital systems is particularly challenging, if their correctness depends on the right timing of operations. One approach to enhance the reliability of such systems is model-based development. This allows for a formal analysis throughout all stages of design. Model......-based development is hindered mainly by the lack of adequate modeling languages and the high computational cost of the analysis. In this thesis we improve the situation along both axes. First, we bring the mathematical model closer to the human designer. This we achieve by casting hierarchical structures--as known...... that have the potential to reduce time and memory consumption drastically. The first technique makes use of structural information, in particular loops, to exploit regularities in the reachable state space. Via shortcut-like additions to the model we avoid repetition of similar states during an exhaustive...

  20. System Integration for Real-time Mobile Manipulation

    OpenAIRE

    Oftadeh, Reza; Aref, Mohammad M.; Ghabcheloo, Reza; Mattila, Jouni

    2014-01-01

    Mobile manipulators are one of the most complicated types of mechatronics systems. The performance of these robots in performing complex manipulation tasks is highly correlated with the synchronization and integration of their low-level components. This paper discusses in detail the mechatronics design of a four wheel steered mobile manipulator. It presents the manipulator ’s mechanical structure and electrical interfaces, designs low-level software architecture based on embedded PC-based con...

  1. Usable, Real-Time, Interactive Spoken Language Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Similarly, we included derivations (mostly plurals and possessives) of many open-class words in the domnain. We also added about 400 concatenated word...UueraiCe’l~ usinig a system of’ ’realization 1111C, %%. hiCh map) thle gr-aimmlatcal relation anl argumlent bears to the head onto thle semantic relatio ...syntactic categories as well. Representations of this form contain significantly more internal structure than specialized sublanguage models. This can be

  2. Design and implementation of real-time diagnostic expert system in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yan; Zhou Zhiwei; Dong Xiuchen

    2006-01-01

    In order to decrease the probability of malfunctions in nuclear power plant, a real-time expert system to be applied to malfunction diagnosis was designed. Based on the expert system theory the system converts the expert knowledge for diagnosing failures into the rules stored in database, and it can display real-time information of the abnormal symptoms, perform real-time diagnosis of malfunctions and suggest the operation actions related to malfunctions, etc. The results indicate that several typical malfunctions in nuclear power plant are diagnosed automatically and the corresponding operation schedules are given out by present expert system. (authors)

  3. Augmented reality based real-time subcutaneous vein imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Danni; Yang, Jian; Fan, Jingfan; Zhao, Yitian; Song, Xianzheng; Shen, Jianbing; Shao, Ling; Wang, Yongtian

    2016-07-01

    A novel 3D reconstruction and fast imaging system for subcutaneous veins by augmented reality is presented. The study was performed to reduce the failure rate and time required in intravenous injection by providing augmented vein structures that back-project superimposed veins on the skin surface of the hand. Images of the subcutaneous vein are captured by two industrial cameras with extra reflective near-infrared lights. The veins are then segmented by a multiple-feature clustering method. Vein structures captured by the two cameras are matched and reconstructed based on the epipolar constraint and homographic property. The skin surface is reconstructed by active structured light with spatial encoding values and fusion displayed with the reconstructed vein. The vein and skin surface are both reconstructed in the 3D space. Results show that the structures can be precisely back-projected to the back of the hand for further augmented display and visualization. The overall system performance is evaluated in terms of vein segmentation, accuracy of vein matching, feature points distance error, duration times, accuracy of skin reconstruction, and augmented display. All experiments are validated with sets of real vein data. The imaging and augmented system produces good imaging and augmented reality results with high speed.

  4. Inverse Flush Air Data System (FADS) for Real Time Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavanpillai, Jayakumar; Dhoaya, Jayanta; Balakrishnan, Vidya Saraswathi; Narayanan, Remesh; Chacko, Finitha Kallely; Narayanan, Shyam Mohan

    2017-12-01

    Flush Air Data Sensing System (FADS) forms a mission critical sub system in future reentry vehicles. FADS makes use of surface pressure measurements from the nose cap of the vehicle for deriving the air data parameters of the vehicle such as angle of attack, angle of sideslip, Mach number, etc. These parameters find use in the flight control and guidance systems, and also assist in the overall mission management. The FADS under consideration in this paper makes use of nine pressure ports located in the nose cap of a technology demonstrator vehicle. In flight, the air data parameters are obtained from the FADS estimation algorithm using the pressure data at the nine pressure ports. But, these pressure data will not be available, for testing the FADS package during ground simulation. So, an inverse software to FADS which estimates the pressure data at the pressure ports for a given flight condition is developed. These pressure data at the nine ports will go as input to the FADS package during ground simulation. The software is run to generate the pressure data for the descent phase trajectory of the technology demonstrator. This data is used again to generate the air data parameters from FADS algorithm. The computed results from FADS algorithm match well with the trajectory data.

  5. Telerobotic system concept for real-time soft-tissue imaging during radiotherapy beam delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Jeffrey; Salisbury, Kenneth; Hristov, Dimitre

    2010-12-01

    The curative potential of external beam radiation therapy is critically dependent on having the ability to accurately aim radiation beams at intended targets while avoiding surrounding healthy tissues. However, existing technologies are incapable of real-time, volumetric, soft-tissue imaging during radiation beam delivery, when accurate target tracking is most critical. The authors address this challenge in the development and evaluation of a novel, minimally interfering, telerobotic ultrasound (U.S.) imaging system that can be integrated with existing medical linear accelerators (LINACs) for therapy guidance. A customized human-safe robotic manipulator was designed and built to control the pressure and pitch of an abdominal U.S. transducer while avoiding LINAC gantry collisions. A haptic device was integrated to remotely control the robotic manipulator motion and U.S. image acquisition outside the LINAC room. The ability of the system to continuously maintain high quality prostate images was evaluated in volunteers over extended time periods. Treatment feasibility was assessed by comparing a clinically deployed prostate treatment plan to an alternative plan in which beam directions were restricted to sectors that did not interfere with the transabdominal U.S. transducer. To demonstrate imaging capability concurrent with delivery, robot performance and U.S. target tracking in a phantom were tested with a 15 MV radiation beam active. Remote image acquisition and maintenance of image quality with the haptic interface was successfully demonstrated over 10 min periods in representative treatment setups of volunteers. Furthermore, the robot's ability to maintain a constant probe force and desired pitch angle was unaffected by the LINAC beam. For a representative prostate patient, the dose-volume histogram (DVH) for a plan with restricted sectors remained virtually identical to the DVH of a clinically deployed plan. With reduced margins, as would be enabled by real-time

  6. Telerobotic system concept for real-time soft-tissue imaging during radiotherapy beam delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlosser, Jeffrey; Salisbury, Kenneth; Hristov, Dimitre

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The curative potential of external beam radiation therapy is critically dependent on having the ability to accurately aim radiation beams at intended targets while avoiding surrounding healthy tissues. However, existing technologies are incapable of real-time, volumetric, soft-tissue imaging during radiation beam delivery, when accurate target tracking is most critical. The authors address this challenge in the development and evaluation of a novel, minimally interfering, telerobotic ultrasound (U.S.) imaging system that can be integrated with existing medical linear accelerators (LINACs) for therapy guidance. Methods: A customized human-safe robotic manipulator was designed and built to control the pressure and pitch of an abdominal U.S. transducer while avoiding LINAC gantry collisions. A haptic device was integrated to remotely control the robotic manipulator motion and U.S. image acquisition outside the LINAC room. The ability of the system to continuously maintain high quality prostate images was evaluated in volunteers over extended time periods. Treatment feasibility was assessed by comparing a clinically deployed prostate treatment plan to an alternative plan in which beam directions were restricted to sectors that did not interfere with the transabdominal U.S. transducer. To demonstrate imaging capability concurrent with delivery, robot performance and U.S. target tracking in a phantom were tested with a 15 MV radiation beam active. Results: Remote image acquisition and maintenance of image quality with the haptic interface was successfully demonstrated over 10 min periods in representative treatment setups of volunteers. Furthermore, the robot's ability to maintain a constant probe force and desired pitch angle was unaffected by the LINAC beam. For a representative prostate patient, the dose-volume histogram (DVH) for a plan with restricted sectors remained virtually identical to the DVH of a clinically deployed plan. With reduced margins, as

  7. Compositional verification of real-time systems using Ecdar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Legay, Axel

    2012-01-01

    We present a specification theory for timed systems implemented in the Ecdar tool. We illustrate the operations of the specification theory on a running example, showing the models and verification checks. To demonstrate the power of the compositional verification, we perform an in depth case study...... of a leader election protocol; Modeling it in Ecdar as Timed input/output automata Specifications and performing both monolithic and compositional verification of two interesting properties on it. We compare the execution time of the compositional to the classical verification showing a huge difference...

  8. Expert system of real time for support of operators of atomic power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashlykov, A.A.; Davidenko, N.N.; Dumshev, V.G.; Kislov, G.I.; Pavlova, E.V.; Prozorovskij, E.D.; Bashlykov, A.A.

    1994-01-01

    The problems of construction and introdution of an intellectual system for information support of operators at nuclear power plants are discussed. This system is used for operator assisstance during real time decision making for NPP operational regime control

  9. Cooperating Expert Systems for the Next Generation of Real-time Monitoring Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwuttke, U.; Veregge, J.; Quan, A.

    1995-01-01

    A distributed monitoring and diagnosis system has been developed and successfully applied to real-time monitoring of interplanetary spacecraft at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This system uses a combination of conventional processing and artificial intelligence.

  10. The database system of the real-time dose appreciation for Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Li; Chai Luquan

    1993-01-01

    The paper is about the data base system of the real-time dose appreciation for Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant and describes in detail the design of the system, the data structure, the programming and the characteristics

  11. Enabling real-time ultrasound imaging of soft tissue mechanical properties by simplification of the shear wave motion equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Aaron J; Bashford, Gregory R

    2015-08-01

    Ultrasound based shear wave elastography (SWE) is a technique used for non-invasive characterization and imaging of soft tissue mechanical properties. Robust estimation of shear wave propagation speed is essential for imaging of soft tissue mechanical properties. In this study we propose to estimate shear wave speed by inversion of the first-order wave equation following directional filtering. This approach relies on estimation of first-order derivatives which allows for accurate estimations using smaller smoothing filters than when estimating second-order derivatives. The performance was compared to three current methods used to estimate shear wave propagation speed: direct inversion of the wave equation (DIWE), time-to-peak (TTP) and cross-correlation (CC). The shear wave speed of three homogeneous phantoms of different elastic moduli (gelatin by weight of 5%, 7%, and 9%) were measured with each method. The proposed method was shown to produce shear speed estimates comparable to the conventional methods (standard deviation of measurements being 0.13 m/s, 0.05 m/s, and 0.12 m/s), but with simpler processing and usually less time (by a factor of 1, 13, and 20 for DIWE, CC, and TTP respectively). The proposed method was able to produce a 2-D speed estimate from a single direction of wave propagation in about four seconds using an off-the-shelf PC, showing the feasibility of performing real-time or near real-time elasticity imaging with dedicated hardware.

  12. Real-Time 3-Dimensional Ultrasound-Assisted Infraclavicular Brachial Plexus Catheter Placement: Implications of a New Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven R. Clendenen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There are a variety of techniques for targeting placement of an infraclavicular blockade; these include eliciting paresthesias, nerve stimulation, and 2-dimensional (2D ultrasound (US guidance. Current 2D US allows direct visualization of a “flat” image of the advancing needle and neurovascular structures but without the ability to extensively analyze multidimensional data and allow for real-time manipulation. Three-dimensional (3D ultrasonography has gained popularity and usefulness in many clinical specialties such as obstetrics and cardiology. We describe some of the potential clinical applications of 3D US in regional anesthesia. Methods. This case represents an infraclavicular catheter placement facilitated by 3D US, which demonstrates 360-degree spatial relationships of the entire anatomic region. Results. The block needle, peripheral nerve catheter, and local anesthetic diffusion were observed in multiple planes of view without manipulation of the US probe. Conclusion. Advantages of 3D US may include the ability to confirm correct needle and catheter placement prior to the injection of local anesthetic. The spread of local anesthetic along the length of the nerve can be easily observed while manipulating the 3D images in real-time by simply rotating the trackball on the US machine to provide additional information that cannot be identified with 2D US alone.

  13. ARAC: A flexible real-time dose consequence assessment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.S.; Sullivan, T.J.

    1993-01-01

    Since its beginning, the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC), an emergency radiological dose assessment service of the US Government, has been called on to do consequence assessments for releases into the atmosphere of radionuclides and a variety of other substances. Some of the more noteworthy emergency responses have been for the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl nuclear power reactor accidents, and more recently, for a cloud of gases from a rail-car spill into the Sacramento river of the herbicide metam sodium, smoke from hundreds of burning oil wells in Kuwait, and ash clouds from the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo. The spatial scales of these responses range from local, to regional, to global, and the response periods from hours, to weeks, to months. Because of the variety of requirements of each unique assessment, ARAC has developed and maintains a flexible system of people, computer software and hardware

  14. Design and simulation for real-time distributed processing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legrand, I.C.; Gellrich, A.; Gensah, U.; Leich, H.; Wegner, P.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this work is to provide a proper framework for the simulation and the optimization of the event building, the on-line third level trigger, and complete event reconstruction processor farm for the future HERA-B experiment. A discrete event, process oriented, simulation developed in concurrent μC++ is used for modelling the farm nodes running with multi-tasking constraints and different types of switching elements and digital signal processors interconnected for distributing the data through the system. An adequate graphic interface to the simulation part which allows to monitor features on-line and to analyze trace files, provides a powerful development tool for evaluating and designing parallel processing architectures. Control software and data flow protocols for event building and dynamic processor allocation are presented for two architectural models. (author)

  15. Development of a method for measuring femoral torsion using real-time ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafiz, Eliza; Hiller, Claire E; Nightingale, E Jean; Eisenhuth, John P; Refshauge, Kathryn M; Nicholson, Leslie L; Clarke, Jillian L; Grimaldi, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Excessive femoral torsion has been associated with various musculoskeletal and neurological problems. To explore this relationship, it is essential to be able to measure femoral torsion in the clinic accurately. Computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are thought to provide the most accurate measurements but CT involves significant radiation exposure and MRI is expensive. The aim of this study was to design a method for measuring femoral torsion in the clinic, and to determine the reliability of this method. Details of design process, including construction of a jig, the protocol developed and the reliability of the method are presented. The protocol developed used ultrasound to image a ridge on the greater trochanter, and a customized jig placed on the femoral condyles as reference points. An inclinometer attached to the customized jig allowed quantification of the degree of femoral torsion. Measurements taken with this protocol had excellent intra- and inter-rater reliability (ICC 2,1  = 0.98 and 0.97, respectively). This method of measuring femoral torsion also permitted measurement of femoral torsion with a high degree of accuracy. This method is applicable to the research setting and, with minor adjustments, will be applicable to the clinical setting. (paper)

  16. Industrial Raman gas sensing for real-time system control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buric, M.; Mullen, J.; Chorpening, B.; Woodruff, S.

    2014-06-01

    Opportunities exist to improve on-line process control in energy applications with a fast, non-destructive measurement of gas composition. Here, we demonstrate a Raman sensing system which is capable of reporting the concentrations of numerous species simultaneously with sub-percent accuracy and sampling times below one-second for process control applications in energy or chemical production. The sensor is based upon a hollow-core capillary waveguide with a 300 micron bore with reflective thin-film metal and dielectric linings. The effect of using such a waveguide in a Raman process is to integrate Raman photons along the length of the sample-filled waveguide, thus permitting the acquisition of very large Raman signals for low-density gases in a short time. The resultant integrated Raman signals can then be used for quick and accurate analysis of a gaseous mixture. The sensor is currently being tested for energy applications such as coal gasification, turbine control, well-head monitoring for exploration or production, and non-conventional gas utilization. In conjunction with an ongoing commercialization effort, the researchers have recently completed two prototype instruments suitable for hazardous area operation and testing. Here, we report pre-commercialization testing of those field prototypes for control applications in gasification or similar processes. Results will be discussed with respect to accuracy, calibration requirements, gas sampling techniques, and possible control strategies of industrial significance.

  17. Establish and Evaluate Ada Runtime Features of Interest for Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-15

    Runtime Features of Interest for Real - Time Systems -,-. CLEARED POR :)E,4 pUEL tCATLON SEP 2 0 19E19 ,CETM ORP t ’R RE LOO O Nt-U~HM- ANDQ SECURITY...ESTABLISH AND EVALUATE py ADA RUNTIME FEATURES OF INTEREST FOR REAL - TIME SYSTEMS CONTRACT NUMBER: MDA 903-87-D-0056 IITRI PROJECT NUMBER: T06168 PREPARED...2 2.0 SELECTION PROCESS OVERVIEW .................................... 3 2.1 REAL - TIME SYSTEMS IDENTIFICATION ........................... 4 2.2

  18. QoS Negotiation in Real-Time Systems and its Application to Automated Flight Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-11-01

    QoS Negotiation in Real - Time Systems and Its Application to Automated Flight Control Tarek F. Abdelzaher, Member, IEEE, Ella M. Atkins, Member, IEEE...been committed to those that arrived earlier. In hard- real - time systems , a static analysis may be performed to guarantee a priori that all requests be...DATE 2000 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2000 to 00-00-2000 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE QoS Negotiation in Real - Time Systems and its

  19. Example of an in-plant near-real-time accountancy/process control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    This session describes an existing computerized in-plant near-real-time accounting and process monitoring system at the Allied-General Nuclear Services (AGNS) Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP). Details of the system performance, objectives, hardware, plant instrumentation, and system functions are presented. Examples of actual programs for accounting and monitoring are described and system benefits will be discussed. The purpose of this session is to enable participants to: (1) identify the major computer hardware components of functional near-real-time accounting systems; (2) identify the types of process instrumentation necessary to perform near-real-time accounting; (3) describe the major nuclear material control and accounting functions of the AGNS computer system; and (4) assess the benefits to safeguards and plant operations of a computerized near-real-time accounting system

  20. Real-time electricity pricing mechanism in China based on system dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Yongxiu; Zhang, Jixiang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The system dynamics is used to research the real-time electricity pricing mechanism. • Four kinds of the real-time electricity pricing models are carried out and simulated. • It analysed the electricity price, the user satisfaction and the social benefits under the different models. • Market pricing is the trend of the real-time electricity pricing mechanism. • Initial development path of the real-time price mechanism for China is designed between 2015 and 2030. - Abstract: As an important means of demand-side response, the reasonable formulation of the electricity price mechanism will have an important impact on the balance between the supply and demand of electric power. With the introduction of Chinese intelligence apparatus and the rapid development of smart grids, real-time electricity pricing, as the frontier electricity pricing mechanism in the smart grid, will have great significance on the promotion of energy conservation and the improvement of the total social surplus. From the perspective of system dynamics, this paper studies different real-time electricity pricing mechanisms based on load structure, cost structure and bidding and analyses the situation of user satisfaction and the total social surplus under different pricing mechanisms. Finally, through the comparative analysis of examples under different real-time pricing scenarios, this paper aims to explore and design the future dynamic real-time electricity pricing mechanism in China, predicts the dynamic real-time pricing level and provides a reference for real-time electricity price promotion in the future

  1. Evaluation of real-time operating system for small-scale embedded systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayang Norhayati Abang Jawawi; Rosbi Mamat

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, the performance of some real-time operating systems for small-scale embedded systems are evaluated based on some criteria. The evaluation is performed qualitatively and quantitatively. The evaluation results based on a case study on an engineering application will be presented. (author)

  2. A real-time networked camera system : a scheduled distributed camera system reduces the latency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karatoy, H.

    2012-01-01

    This report presents the results of a Real-time Networked Camera System, com-missioned by the SAN Group in TU/e. Distributed Systems are motivated by two reasons, the first reason is the physical environment as a requirement and the second reason is to provide a better Quality of Service (QoS). This

  3. Reproducibility of phantom-based quality assurance parameters in real-time ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipilä, Outi; Blomqvist, Päivi; Jauhiainen, Mervi; Kilpeläinen, Tiina; Malaska, Paula; Mannila, Vilma; Vinnurva-Jussila, Tuula; Virsula, Sari

    2011-07-01

    In a large radiological center, the ultrasound (US) quality assurance (QA) program involves several professionals. Although the operator and the parameters utilized can contribute to the results, the selected QA parameters should still reflect the quality of the US scanner, not the measuring process. To evaluate the reproducibility of recommended phantom-based US QA parameters in a realistic environment. Six sonographers measured six high-end US scanners with 20 transducers using a general purpose phantom. Every transducer was measured altogether seven times, using one frequency per transducer. The QA parameters studied were homogeneity, visualization depth, vertical and horizontal distance measurements, axial and lateral resolution, and the correct visibility of anechoic and high-contrast masses. The evaluation of the homogeneity was based on visual observations. Inter-observer interquartile ranges were computed for the grading of the masses. For the other QA parameters, the mean inter- and intra-observer coefficients of variation (CoV) were calculated. In addition, the symmetry of the reverberations when imaging air with a clean transducer was checked. The mean inter-observer CoVs were: visualization depth 11 ± 4%, vertical distance 1.7 ± 0.4%, horizontal distance 1.4 ± 0.6%, axial resolution 22 ± 7%, and lateral resolution 16 ± 8%. The mean intra-observer values were about half of these values with similar standard deviations. The visual evaluation of the homogeneity and the symmetry of the reverberations produced false-positive findings in 5% of the cases, but were found useful in detecting a defective transducer. The grading of the masses had mean interquartile ranges of 20-30% of the grading scale. The inter-observer variability in measuring phantom-based QA parameters can be relatively high. This should be considered when implementing a phantom-based QA protocol and evaluating the results.

  4. Real-Time and Real-Fast Performance of General-Purpose and Real-Time Operating Systems in Multithreaded Physical Simulation of Complex Mechanical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Garre

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical simulation is a valuable tool in many fields of engineering for the tasks of design, prototyping, and testing. General-purpose operating systems (GPOS are designed for real-fast tasks, such as offline simulation of complex physical models that should finish as soon as possible. Interfacing hardware at a given rate (as in a hardware-in-the-loop test requires instead maximizing time determinism, for which real-time operating systems (RTOS are designed. In this paper, real-fast and real-time performance of RTOS and GPOS are compared when simulating models of high complexity with large time steps. This type of applications is usually present in the automotive industry and requires a good trade-off between real-fast and real-time performance. The performance of an RTOS and a GPOS is compared by running a tire model scalable on the number of degrees-of-freedom and parallel threads. The benchmark shows that the GPOS present better performance in real-fast runs but worse in real-time due to nonexplicit task switches and to the latency associated with interprocess communication (IPC and task switch.

  5. Time-critical multirate scheduling using contemporary real-time operating system services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, D. E., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Although real-time operating systems provide many of the task control services necessary to process time-critical applications (i.e., applications with fixed, invariant deadlines), it may still be necessary to provide a scheduling algorithm at a level above the operating system in order to coordinate a set of synchronized, time-critical tasks executing at different cyclic rates. The scheduling requirements for such applications and develops scheduling algorithms using services provided by contemporary real-time operating systems.

  6. Design of Real Time Data Acquisition System Framework for Production Workshop Based on OPC Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue-xin Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the low level of production management information in a hydraulic torque converter enterprise is presented. It is needed to develop a digital assembly shop MES to solve this problem. There is a high demand for the real-time data acquisition of the production line in the digital assembly shop MES. According to the actual needs of MES in digital assembly workshop, a real time data acquisition system framework based on OPC technology and database technology is proposed. The framework can be used to meet the actual needs of the real time monitoring system and production business information processing in MES.

  7. Arrow-bot: A Teaching Tool for Real-Time Embedded System Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria Mohamad Fauzi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a line following Arduino-based mobile robot for Real-Time Embedded System course at Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia. The real-time system (RTS concept was implementing is based on rate monotonic scheduling (RMS on an ATmega328P microcontroller. Three infrared line sensors were used as input for controlling two direct current (DC motors. A RTS software was programmed in Arduino IDE which relied on a real-time operating system (RTOS of ChibiOS/RT library. Three independent tasks of software functions were created for testing real-time scheduling capability and the result of temporal scope was collected. The microcontroller succeeded to handle multiple tasks without missed their dateline. This implementation of the RTOS in embedded system for mobile robotics system is hoped to increase students understanding and learning capability.

  8. Dynamic Reconfiguration in Real-Time Systems Energy, Performance, and Thermal Perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Weixun; Ranka, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    Given the widespread use of real-time multitasking systems, there are tremendous optimization opportunities if reconfigurable computing can be effectively incorporated while maintaining performance and other design constraints of typical applications. The focus of this book is to describe the dynamic reconfiguration techniques that can be safely used in real-time systems. This book provides comprehensive approaches by considering synergistic effects of computation, communication as well as storage together to significantly improve overall performance, power, energy and temperature.  Provides a comprehensive introduction to optimization and dynamic reconfiguration techniques in real-time embedded systems; Covers state-of-the-art techniques and ongoing research in reconfigurable architectures; Focuses on algorithms tuned for dynamic reconfiguration techniques in real-time systems;  Provides reference for anyone designing low-power systems, energy-/temperature-constrained devices, and power-performance efficie...

  9. Real time computer control of a nonlinear Multivariable System via Linearization and Stability Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raza, K.S.M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that if a complicated nonlinear, non-square, state-coupled multi variable system is smartly linearized and subjected to a thorough stability analysis then we can achieve our design objectives via a controller which will be quite simple (in term of resource usage and execution time) and very efficient (in terms of robustness). Further the aim is to implement this controller via computer in a real time environment. Therefore first a nonlinear mathematical model of the system is achieved. An intelligent work is done to decouple the multivariable system. Linearization and stability analysis techniques are employed for the development of a linearized and mathematically sound control law. Nonlinearities like the saturation in actuators are also been catered. The controller is then discretized using Runge-Kutta integration. Finally the discretized control law is programmed in a computer in a real time environment. The programme is done in RT -Linux using GNU C for the real time realization of the control scheme. The real time processes, like sampling and controlled actuation, and the non real time processes, like graphical user interface and display, are programmed as different tasks. The issue of inter process communication, between real time and non real time task is addressed quite carefully. The results of this research pursuit are presented graphically. (author)

  10. Real-time image-based B-mode ultrasound image simulation of needles using tensor-product interpolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mengchen; Salcudean, Septimiu E

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, we propose an interpolation-based method for simulating rigid needles in B-mode ultrasound images in real time. We parameterize the needle B-mode image as a function of needle position and orientation. We collect needle images under various spatial configurations in a water-tank using a needle guidance robot. Then we use multidimensional tensor-product interpolation to simulate images of needles with arbitrary poses and positions using collected images. After further processing, the interpolated needle and seed images are superimposed on top of phantom or tissue image backgrounds. The similarity between the simulated and the real images is measured using a correlation metric. A comparison is also performed with in vivo images obtained during prostate brachytherapy. Our results, carried out for both the convex (transverse plane) and linear (sagittal/para-sagittal plane) arrays of a trans-rectal transducer indicate that our interpolation method produces good results while requiring modest computing resources. The needle simulation method we present can be extended to the simulation of ultrasound images of other wire-like objects. In particular, we have shown that the proposed approach can be used to simulate brachytherapy seeds.

  11. Real-Time Forecasting System of Winds, Waves and Surge in Tropical Cyclones

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Graber, Hans C; Donelan, Mark A; Brown, Michael G; Slinn, Donald N; Hagen, Scott C; Thompson, Donald R; Jensen, Robert E; Black, Peter G; Powell, Mark D; Guiney, John L

    2004-01-01

    .... The results of this forecasting system would provide real-time information to the National Hurricane Center during the tropical cyclone season in the Atlantic for establishing improved advisories...

  12. Real-Time Forecasting System of Winds, Waves and Surge in Tropical Cyclones

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Graber, Hans C; Donelan, Mark A; Brown, Michael G; Slinn, Donald N; Hagen, Scott C; Thompson, Donald R; Jensen, Robert E; Black, Peter G; Powell, Mark D; Guiney, John L; Cardone, Vincent J; Cox, Andrew T; Augustus, Ellsworth H; Colonnese, Christopher P

    2003-01-01

    .... The results of this forecasting system would provide real-time information to the National Hurricane Center during the tropical cyclone season in the Atlantic for establishing improved advisories...

  13. Real-Time Forecasting System of Winds, Waves and Surge in Tropical Cyclones

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Graber, Hans C; Donelan, Mark A; Brown, Michael G; Slinn, Donald N; Hagen, Scott C; Thompson, Donald R; Jensen, Robert E; Black, Peter G; Powell, Mark D; Guiney, John L

    2005-01-01

    .... The results of this forecasting system would provide real-time information to the National Hurricane Center during the tropical cyclone season in the Atlantic for establishing improved advisories...

  14. On Modelling Real-time and Security properties of Distributed Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corin, Ricardo; Etalle, Sandro; Hartel, Pieter H.; Mader, Angelika H.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss a simplified version of the timing attack to illustrate a connection between security and real-time properties of distributed systems. We suggest several avenues for further research on this and similar connections.

  15. Providing Survivable Real-Time Communication Service for Distributed Mission Critical Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhao, Wei; Bettati, Riccardo; Vaidya, Nitin

    2005-01-01

    This document is the final report for Providing Survivable Real-Time Communication Service for Distributed Mission Critical Systems, a Texas A AND M project funded through the DARPA Fault Tolerant Networks Program...

  16. Scenario-based verification of real-time systems using UPPAAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Shuhao; Belaguer, Sandie; David, Alexandre

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This paper proposes two approaches to tool-supported automatic verification of dense real-time systems against scenario-based requirements, where a system is modeled as a network of timed automata (TAs) or as a set of driving live sequence charts (LSCs), and a requirement is specified...... as a separate monitored LSC chart. We make timed extensions to a kernel subset of the LSC language and define a trace-based semantics. By translating a monitored LSC chart to a behavior-equivalent observer TA and then non-intrusively composing this observer with the original TA modeled real-time system......, the problem of scenario-based verification reduces to a computation tree logic (CTL) real-time model checking problem. In case the real time system is modeled as a set of driving LSC charts, we translate these driving charts and the monitored chart into a behavior-equivalent network of TAs by using a “one...

  17. Towards Real-Time Distributed Planning in Multi-Robot Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelkader, Mohamed

    2018-01-01

    of extensive information exchange (communication). The extensive communication between robots can result in decision delays because of which distributed architecture is often impractical for systems with strict real-time constraints, e.g. when decisions have

  18. A Distributed Framework for Real Time Path Planning in Practical Multi-agent Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelkader, Mohamed; Jaleel, Hassan; Shamma, Jeff S.

    2017-01-01

    We present a framework for distributed, energy efficient, and real time implementable algorithms for path planning in multi-agent systems. The proposed framework is presented in the context of a motivating example of capture the flag which

  19. Semantic-Based Concurrency Control for Object-Oriented Database Systems Supporting Real-Time Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Juhnyoung; Son, Sang H

    1994-01-01

    .... This paper investigates major issues in designing semantic-based concurrency control for object-oriented database systems supporting real-time applications, and it describes approaches to solving...

  20. Evaluating effectiveness of real-time advanced traveler information systems using a small test vehicle fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    ADVANCE was an in-vehicle advanced traveler information system (ATIS) providing route guidance in real time that operated in the northwestern portion and northwest suburbs of Chicago, Illinois. It used probe vehicles to generate dynamically travel ti...