WorldWideScience

Sample records for real-time radiation monitoring

  1. Real Time Radiation Monitoring Using Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing (Inventor); Wilkins, Richard T. (Inventor); Hanratty, James J. (Inventor); Lu, Yijiang (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    System and method for monitoring receipt and estimating flux value, in real time, of incident radiation, using two or more nanostructures (NSs) and associated terminals to provide closed electrical paths and to measure one or more electrical property change values .DELTA.EPV, associated with irradiated NSs, during a sequence of irradiation time intervals. Effects of irradiation, without healing and with healing, of the NSs, are separately modeled for first order and second order healing. Change values.DELTA.EPV are related to flux, to cumulative dose received by NSs, and to radiation and healing effectivity parameters and/or.mu., associated with the NS material and to the flux. Flux and/or dose are estimated in real time, based on EPV change values, using measured .DELTA.EPV values. Threshold dose for specified changes of biological origin (usually undesired) can be estimated. Effects of time-dependent radiation flux are analyzed in pre-healing and healing regimes.

  2. Optical Real-Time Space Radiation Monitor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Real-time dosimetry is needed to provide immediate feedback, so astronauts can minimize their exposure to ionizing radiation during periods of high solar activity....

  3. Network-based real-time radiation monitoring system in Synchrotron Radiation Research Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, R J; Wang, J P; Chen, C R; Liu, J; Chang, F D; Jiang, S H

    2003-10-01

    The real-time radiation monitoring system (RMS) in the Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (SRRC) has been upgraded significantly during the past years. The new framework of the RMS is built on the popular network technology, including Ethernet hardware connections and Web-based software interfaces. It features virtually no distance limitations, flexible and scalable equipment connections, faster response time, remote diagnosis, easy maintenance, as well as many graphic user interface software tools. This paper briefly describes the radiation environment in SRRC and presents the system configuration, basic functions, and some operational results of this real-time RMS. Besides the control of radiation exposures, it has been demonstrated that a variety of valuable information or correlations could be extracted from the measured radiation levels delivered by the RMS, including the changes of operating conditions, beam loss pattern, radiation skyshine, and so on. The real-time RMS can be conveniently accessed either using the dedicated client program or World Wide Web interface. The address of the Web site is http:// www-rms.srrc.gov.tw.

  4. Real-time fibre optic radiation dosimeters for nuclear environment monitoring around thermonuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, A. Fernandez; Brichard, B. [SCK .CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); O' Keeffe, S.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Lewis, E. [Electronic and Computer Engineering Department, University of Limerick, Limerick (Ireland); Vaille, J.-R.; Dusseau, L. [CEM2-Universite Montpellier II, cc083 place E. Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 05 (France); Jackson, D.A. [School of Physical Sciences, University of Kent, Kent CT2 7NR (United Kingdom); Ravotti, F.; Glaser, M. [European Organization for Nuclear Research CERN, TS-LEA-RAD/PH-DT2-SD, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); El-Rabii, H. [Laboratoire de Combustion et de Detonique, ENSMA/CNRS, 1 av. Clement Ader, 86961 Chasseneuil-Futuroscope (France)], E-mail: afernand@sckcen.be

    2008-01-15

    The ability of fibre optic sensors to operate in hazardous nuclear environments and their intrinsic immunity to electro-magnetic interference make fibre optic sensing a very promising technology for the future ITER thermonuclear fusion reactor. In this paper, we evaluate fibre optic sensing technology for monitoring radiation dose in the vicinity of ITER during its operation and during the maintenance periods. First, the performance of an OSL dosimeter interrogated remotely using radiation tolerant optical fibres is evaluated both for real-time and integrating measurements for doses exceeding 100 Gy. We demonstrate its satisfactory operation in a mixed gamma neutron field. Second, we discuss the successful calibration of a new scintillating fibre optic radiation probe based on CsI(TI) crystals for operation in the dose-rate range 0.3-3000 mGy/h. The CsI(TI) crystal scintillator is mounted at the end of a 10-m long multimode fibre transceiver link to allow for remote deployment. The probes can detect and measure gamma dose rates ranging from 1 to 1000 mGy/h. Finally, we investigate the possible use of commercially available PMMA plastic optical fibres as on-line dosimeters up to 34 kGy. The dose measurement is derived from the radiation-induced attenuation in the optical fibre itself. A novel interrogation scheme based on a ratiometric technique is proposed for real-time dosimetry.

  5. Radiation damping in real time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, A C; Takakura, F I

    2001-11-01

    We study the nonequilibrium dynamics of a charge interacting with its own radiation, which originates the radiation damping. The real-time equation of motion for the charge and the associated Langevin equation is found in classical limit. The equation of motion for the charge allows one to obtain the frequency-dependent coefficient of friction. In the lowest order we find that although the coefficient of static friction vanishes, there is dynamical dissipation represented by a non-Markovian dissipative kernel.

  6. Radiation dosimetry measurements with real time radiation monitoring device (RRMD)-II in Space Shuttle STS-79.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, T; Doke, T; Hayashi, T; Kikuchi, J; Hasebe, N; Kashiwagi, T; Takashima, T; Takahashi, K; Nakano, T; Nagaoka, S; Takahashi, S; Yamanaka, H; Yamaguchi, K; Badhwar, G D

    1997-12-01

    The real-time measurement of radiation environment was made with an improved real-time radiation monitoring device (RRMD)-II onboard Space Shuttle STS-79 (S/MM#4: 4th Shuttle MIR Mission, at an inclination angle of 51.6 degrees and an altitude of 250-400km) for 199 h during 17-25 September, 1996. The observation of the detector covered the linear energy transfer (LET) range of 3.5-6000 keV/micrometer. The Shuttle orbital profile in this mission was equivalent to that of the currently planned Space Station, and provided an opportunity to investigate variations in count rate and dose equivalent rate depending on altitude, longitude, and latitude in detail. Particle count rate and dose equivalent rate were mapped geographically during the mission. Based on the map of count rate, an analysis was made by dividing whole region into three regions: South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) region, high latitude region and other regions. The averaged absorbed dose rate during the mission was 39.3 microGy/day for a LET range of 3.5-6000 keV/micrometer. The corresponding average dose equivalent rates during the mission are estimated to be 293 microSv/day with quality factors from International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP)-Pub. 60 and 270 microSv/day with quality factors from ICRP-Pub. 26. The effective quality factors for ICRP-Pub. 60 and 26 are 7.45 and 6.88, respectively. From the present data for particles of LET > 3.5keV/micrometer, we conclude that the average dose equivalent rate is dominated by the contribution of galactic cosmic ray (GCR) particles. The dose-detector depth dependence was also investigated.

  7. Real Time Radiation Exposure And Health Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shaowen; Barzilla, Janet E.; Semones, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation from solar particle events (SPEs) poses a serious threat to future manned missions outside of low Earth orbit (LEO). Accurate characterization of the radiation environment in the inner heliosphere and timely monitoring the health risks to crew are essential steps to ensure the safety of future Mars missions. In this project we plan to develop an approach that can use the particle data from multiple satellites and perform near real-time simulations of radiation exposure and health risks for various exposure scenarios. Time-course profiles of dose rates will be calculated with HZETRN and PDOSE from the energy spectrum and compositions of the particles archived from satellites, and will be validated from recent radiation exposure measurements in space. Real-time estimation of radiation risks will be investigated using ARRBOD. This cross discipline integrated approach can improve risk mitigation by providing critical information for risk assessment and medical guidance to crew during SPEs.

  8. Biosensors for Real-Time Monitoring of Radiation-Induced Biologic Effects in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, James R.; Balogh, Lajos; Majoros, Istvan; Keszler, Balazs; Myc, Andrzej; Kukowska-Latallo, Jolanta; Norris, Theodore; delaiglesia, Felix; Beeson, Nicholas W. (Compiler)

    2002-01-01

    This work seeks to develop cellular biosensors based on dendritic polymers. Nanoscale polymer structures less than 20 nm in diameter will be used as the basis of the biosensors. The structures will be designed to target into specific cells of an astronaut and be able to monitor health issues such as exposure to radiation. Multiple components can be assembled on the polymers including target directors, analytical devices (such as molecular probes), and reporting agents. The reporting will be accomplished through fluorescence signal monitoring, with the use of multispectral analysis for signal interpretation. These nanosensors could facilitate the success and increase the safety of extended space flight. The design and assembly of these devices has been pioneered at the Center for Biologic Nanotechnology in the University of Michigan. This period, synthesis of the test-bed biosensors continued. Studies were performed on the candidate fluorescent dyes to determine which might be suitable for the biosensor under development. Development continued on producing an artificial capillary bed as a tool for the use in the production of the fluorescence signal monitor. Work was also done on the in vitro multispectral analysis system, which uses the robotic microscope.

  9. Biosensors for Real-Time Monitoring of Radiation-Induced Biologic Effects in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, James R., Jr.; Balogh, Lajos; Majoros, Istvan; Keszler, Balazs; Myc, Andrzej; Kukowska-Latallo, Jolanta; Norris, Theodore; delaIglesia, Felix; Beeson, Nicholas W. (Compiler)

    2002-01-01

    This proposal seeks to develop cellular biosensors based on dendritic polymers. Nanoscale polymer structures less than 20 nm in diameter will be used as the basis of the sensor/actuators. The structures will be designed to target into specific cells of an astronaut and be able to monitor health issues such as the exposure to radiation or infectious agents. Multiple components can be assembled on the polymers including target directors, analytical devices (such as molecular probes), magnetic particles and metals, and imaging agents. The design and assembly of these devices has been pioneered at the Center for Biologic Nanotechnology in the University of Michigan. These molecules would also be able to administer therapeutics in response to the needs of the astronaut, and act as actuators to remotely manipulate an astronaut as necessary to ensure their safety. The reporting will be accomplished either through fluorescence signal monitoring, with the use of multispectral analysis for signal interpretation, or through functional MRI. These nanosensors coupled to NEMS devices could facilitate the success and increase the safety of extended space flight.

  10. RadNet Map Interface for Near-Real-Time Radiation Monitoring Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — RadNet is a national network of monitoring stations that regularly collect air, precipitation, drinking water, and milk samples for analysis of radioactivity. The...

  11. Space Weather and Real-Time Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Recent advance of information and communications technology enables to collect a large amount of ground-based and space-based observation data in real-time. The real-time data realize nowcast of space weather. This paper reports a history of space weather by the International Space Environment Service (ISES) in association with the International Geophysical Year (IGY) and importance of real-time monitoring in space weather.

  12. Space Weather and Real-Time Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Watari

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent advance of information and communications technology enables to collect a large amount of ground-based and space-based observation data in real-time. The real-time data realize nowcast of space weather. This paper reports a history of space weather by the International Space Environment Service (ISES in association with the International Geophysical Year (IGY and importance of real-time monitoring in space weather.

  13. Cherenkov imaging during volumetric modulated arc therapy for real-time radiation beam tracking and treatment response monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreozzi, Jacqueline M.; Zhang, Rongxiao; Glaser, Adam K.; Gladstone, David J.; Jarvis, Lesley A.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2016-03-01

    External beam radiotherapy utilizes high energy radiation to target cancer with dynamic, patient-specific treatment plans. The otherwise invisible radiation beam can be observed via the optical Cherenkov photons emitted from interaction between the high energy beam and tissue. Using a specialized camera-system, the Cherenkov emission can thus be used to track the radiation beam on the surface of the patient in real-time, even for complex cases such as volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Two patients undergoing VMAT of the head and neck were imaged and analyzed, and the viability of the system to provide clinical feedback was established.

  14. Real Time Wide Area Radiation Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biafore, M.

    2012-04-01

    We present the REWARD project, financed within the FP7 programme, theme SEC-2011.1.5-1 (Development of detection capabilities of difficult to detect radioactive sources and nuclear materials - Capability Project). Within this project, we propose a novel mobile system for real time, wide area radiation surveillance. The system is based on the integration of new miniaturized solid-state radiation sensors: a CdZnTe detector for gamma radiation and a high efficiency neutron detector based on novel silicon technologies. The sensing unit will include a wireless communication interface to send the data remotely to a monitoring base station which also uses a GPS system to calculate the position of the tag. The system will also incorporate middleware and high level software to provide web-service interfaces for the exchange of information, and that will offer top level functionalities as management of users, mobile tags and environment data and alarms, database storage and management and a web-based graphical user interface. Effort will be spent to ensure that the software is modular and re-usable across as many architectural levels as possible. Finally, an expert system will continuously analyze the information from the radiation sensor and correlate it with historical data from the tag location in order to generate an alarm when an abnormal situation is detected. The system will be useful for many different scenarios, including such lost radioactive sources and radioactive contamination. It will be possible to deploy in emergency units and in general in any type of mobile or static equipment. The sensing units will be highly portable thanks to their low size and low energy consumption. The complete system will be scalable in terms of complexity and cost and will offer very high precision on both the measurement and the location of the radiation. The modularity and flexibility of the system will allow for a realistic introduction to the market. Authorities may start with a

  15. Integrated real-time roof monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Bao-tang; GUO Hua; KING Andrew

    2009-01-01

    CSIRO has recently developed a real-time roof monitoring system for under-ground coal mines and successfully tried the system in gate roads at Ulan Mine. The sys-tem integrated displacement monitoring, stress monitoring and seismic monitoring in one package. It included GEL multianchor extensometers, vibrating wire uniaxial stress meters, ESG seismic monitoring system with microseismic sensors and high-frequency AE sen-sors. The monitoring system automated and the data can be automatically collected by a central computer located in an underground nonhazardous area. The data are then trans-ferred to the surface via an optical fiber cable. The real-time data were accessed at any location with an Internet connection. The trials of the system in two tailgates at Ulan Mine demonstrate that the system is effective for monitoring the behavior and stability of read-ways during Iongwall mining. The continuous roof displacement/stress data show clear precursors of roof falls. The seismic data (event count and locations) provide insights into the roof failure process during roof fall.

  16. Terbium-doped gadolinium oxysulfide (Gd2O2S:Tb) scintillation-based polymer optical fibre sensor for real time monitoring of radiation dose in oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, E.; O'Keeffe, S.; Grattan, M.; Hounsell, A.; McCarthy, D.; Woulfe, P.; Cronin, J.; Mihai, L.; Sporea, D.; Santhanam, A.; Agazaryan, N.

    2014-05-01

    A PMMA based plastic optical fibre sensor for use in real time radiotherapy dosimetry is presented. The optical fibre tip is coated with a scintillation material, terbium-doped gadolinium oxysulfide (Gd2O2S:Tb), which fluoresces when exposed to ionising radiation (X-Ray). The emitted visible light signal penetrates the sensor optical fibre and propagates along the transmitting fibre at the end of which it is remotely monitored using a fluorescence spectrometer. The results demonstrate good repeatability, with a maximum percentage error of 0.5% and the response is independent of dose rate.

  17. Real time water chemistry monitoring and diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudreau, T.M.; Choi, S.S. [EPRIsolutions, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2002-07-01

    EPRI has produced a real time water chemistry monitoring and diagnostic system. This system is called SMART ChemWorks and is based on the EPRI ChemWorks codes. System models, chemistry parameter relationships and diagnostic approaches from these codes are integrated with real time data collection, an intelligence engine and Internet technologies to allow for automated analysis of system chemistry. Significant data management capabilities are also included which allow the user to evaluate data and create automated reporting. Additional features have been added to the system in recent years including tracking and evaluation of primary chemistry as well as the calculation and tracking of primary to secondary leakage in PWRs. This system performs virtual sensing, identifies normal and upset conditions, and evaluates the consistency of on-line monitor and grab sample readings. The system also makes use of virtual fingerprinting to identify the cause of any chemistry upsets. This technology employs plant-specific data and models to determine the chemical state of the steam cycle. (authors)

  18. Terrestrial Real-Time Volcano Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, M.

    2013-12-01

    As volcano monitoring involves more and different sensors from seismic to GPS receivers, from video and thermal cameras to multi-parameter probes measuring temperature, ph values and humidity in the ground and the air, it becomes important to design real-time networks that integrate and leverage the multitude of available parameters. In order to do so some simple principles need to be observed: a) a common time base for all measurements, b) a packetized general data communication protocol for acquisition and distribution, c) an open and well documented interface to the data permitting standard and emerging innovative processing, and d) an intuitive visualization platform for scientists and civil defense personnel. Although mentioned as simple principles, the list above does not necessarily lead to obvious solutions or integrated systems, which is, however, required to take advantage of the available data. Only once the different data streams are put into context to each other in terms of time and location can a broader view be obtained and additional information extracted. The presentation is a summary of currently available technologies and how they can achieve the goal of an integrated real-time volcano monitoring system. A common time base are standard for seismic and GPS networks. In different projects we extended this to video feeds and time-lapse photography. Other probes have been integrated with vault interface enclosures (VIE) as used in the Transportable Array (TA) of the USArray. The VIE can accommodate the sensors employed in volcano monitoring. The TA has shown that Antelope is a versatile and robust middleware. It provides the required packetized general communication protocol that is independent from the actual physical communication link leaving the network design to adopt appropriate and possible hybrid solutions. This applies for the data acquisition and the data/information dissemination providing both a much needed collaboration platform, as

  19. Real-time optoacoustic monitoring of stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneipp, Moritz; Turner, Jake; Hambauer, Sebastian; Krieg, Sandro M.; Lehmberg, Jens; Lindauer, Ute; Razansky, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Characterizing disease progression and identifying possible therapeutic interventions in stroke is greatly aided by the use of longitudinal function imaging studies. In this study, we investigate the applicability of real-time multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) as a tool for non-invasive monitoring of the progression of stroke in the whole brain. The middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) method was used to induce stroke. Mice were imaged under isoflurane anesthesia preoperatively and at several time points during and after the 60-minute occlusion. The animals were sacrificed after 24 hours and their excised brains frozen at -80°C for sectioning. The cryosection were stained using H&E staining to identify the ischemic lesion. Major vessels are readily identifiable in the whole mouse head in the in vivo optoacoustic scans. During ischemia, a reduction in cerebral blood volume is detectable in the cortex. Post ischemia, spectral unmixing of the optoacoustic signals shows an asymmetry of the deoxygenated hemoglobin in the hemisphere affected by MCAO. This hypoxic area was mainly located around the boundary of the ischemic lesion and was therefore identified as the ischemic penumbra. Non-invasive functional MSOT imaging is able to visualize the hypoxic penumbra in brains affected by stroke. Stopping the spread of the infarct area and revitalizing the penumbra is central in stroke research, this new imaging technique may therefore prove to be a valuable tool in the monitoring and developing new treatments.

  20. Instrumentation development for real time brainwave monitoring.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Lawrence Frederick; Clough, Benjamin W.

    2005-12-01

    The human brain functions through a chemically-induced biological process which operates in a manner similar to electrical systems. The signal resulting from this biochemical process can actually be monitored and read using tools and having patterns similar to those found in electrical and electronics engineering. The primary signature of this electrical activity is the ''brain wave'', which looks remarkably similar to the output of many electrical systems. Likewise, the device currently used in medical arenas to read brain electrical activity is the electroencephalogram (EEG) which is synonymous with a multi-channel oscilloscope reading. Brain wave readings and recordings for medical purposes are traditionally taken in clinical settings such as hospitals, laboratories or diagnostic clinics. The signal is captured via externally applied scalp electrodes using semi-viscous gel to reduce impedance. The signal will be in the 10 to 100 microvolt range. In other instances, where surgeons are attempting to isolate particular types of minute brain signals, the electrodes may actually be temporarily implanted in the brain during a preliminary procedure. The current configurations of equipment required for EEGs involve large recording instruments, many electrodes, wires, and large amounts of hard disk space devoted to storing large files of brain wave data which are then eventually analyzed for patterns of concern. Advances in sensors, signal processing, data storage and microelectronics over the last decade would seem to have paved the way for the realization of devices capable of ''real time'' external monitoring, and possible assessment, of brain activity. A myriad of applications for such a capability are likewise presenting themselves, including the ability to assess brain functioning, level of functioning and malfunctioning. Our plan is to develop the sensors, signal processing, and portable instrumentation package which could

  1. Real-time animation of synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shintake, Tsumoru E-mail: shintake@spring8.or.jp

    2003-07-11

    New mathematical method has been developed to compute radiation field from a moving charge in free space. It is not based on the retarded potential or its derivation [R.Y. Tsien, Picture of dynamic electric fields, Am. J. Phys. 40, 1972]. It solves conformal mapping of electric field lines based on the following two facts: (1) once a wave is emitted from a particle, it propagates as a spherical wave. The wavelet (a part of the wave-front) runs with speed of the light, and does not change its direction, (2) the initial direction of the wavelet is determined by the Lorentz transformation between the electron-rest-frame to the laboratory frame, which gives the light aberration effect. 2D radiation simulator has been developed based on this method, which simulates synchrotron, undulator and dipole radiation in time domain [T. Shintake, Simulation of field lines generated by a moving charge, private note 1984 March 19 at KEK, not published].

  2. Moball-Buoy Network: A Near-Real-Time Ground-Truth Distributed Monitoring System to Map Ice, Weather, Chemical Species, and Radiations, in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoodi, F.; Shahabi, C.; Burdick, J.; Rais-Zadeh, M.; Menemenlis, D.

    2014-12-01

    control system. This control system will ensure arctic-wide coverage, will optimize Moball-buoys monitoring efforts according to their available resources and the priority of local areas of high scientific value within the Arctic region. Moball-buoy Network is expected to be the first robust and persistent Arctic-wide environment monitoring system capable of providing reliable readings in near real time

  3. RadNet Real-Time Monitoring Spectrometry Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The RadNet Real-Time Monitoring Spectrometry Data Inventory contains measured data used to identify and measure specific radioactive materials in the atmosphere at...

  4. Novel Real-Time Flight Envelope Monitoring System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is an aircraft flight envelope monitoring system that will provide real-time in-cockpit estimations of aircraft flight envelope boundaries,...

  5. Novel Real-Time Flight Envelope Monitoring System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is an aircraft flight envelope monitoring system that will provide real-time in-cockpit estimations of aircraft flight envelope boundaries....

  6. A Remote Real-Time Monitoring System for Power Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄治清; 贺建闽

    2003-01-01

    An introduction is made to the composition, design method and engineering application of a remote real-time monitoring system of power quality in substations based on internet. With virtual instrument and network technique adopted, this system is characterized by good real-time property, high reliability, plentiful functions, and so on. It also can be used to monitor the load of a substation, such as electric locomotives.

  7. Near-Core and In-Core Neutron Radiation Monitors for Real Time Neutron Flux Monitoring and Reactor Power Level Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas S. McGregor; Marvin L. Adams; Igor Carron; Paul Nelson

    2006-06-12

    MPFDs are a new class of detectors that utilize properties from existing radiation detector designs. A majority of these characteristics come from fission chamber designs. These include radiation hardness, gamma-ray background insensitivity, and large signal output.

  8. Real-time water quality monitoring and providing water quality ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have initiated the “Village Blue” research project to provide real-time water quality monitoring data to the Baltimore community and increase public awareness about local water quality in Baltimore Harbor and the Chesapeake Bay. The Village Blue demonstration project complements work that a number of state and local organizations are doing to make Baltimore Harbor “swimmable and fishable” 2 by 2020. Village Blue is designed to build upon EPA’s “Village Green” project which provides real-time air quality information to communities in six locations across the country. The presentation, “Real-time water quality monitoring and providing water quality information to the Baltimore Community”, summarizes the Village Blue real-time water quality monitoring project being developed for the Baltimore Harbor.

  9. Organic semiconductors as real-time radiation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, T., E-mail: tsuzuki@hep.sc.niigata-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Miyata, H., E-mail: miyata@hep.sc.niigata-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Katsumata, M. [Department of Physics, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Nakano, S.; Matsuda, K. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Tamura, M. [Carlit Holdings Co., Ltd., Tokyo 104-0031 (Japan)

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the possibility of using π-conjugated organic semiconducting polymers as real-time radiation detectors was explored. Polyaniline (PAni) was used to fabricate radiation sensors because of its relative long-term stability in air. Each fabricated sensor was then subjected to irradiation by α- and β-particles, and the real-time response was measured. The multichannel analyzer (MCA) data of the response signal for each irradiation was acquired and the detection efficiency, relative to the electrode bias voltage of the detector, was extracted.

  10. Real-time performance monitoring and management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budhraja, Vikram S.; Dyer, James D.; Martinez Morales, Carlos A.

    2007-06-19

    A real-time performance monitoring system for monitoring an electric power grid. The electric power grid has a plurality of grid portions, each grid portion corresponding to one of a plurality of control areas. The real-time performance monitoring system includes a monitor computer for monitoring at least one of reliability metrics, generation metrics, transmission metrics, suppliers metrics, grid infrastructure security metrics, and markets metrics for the electric power grid. The data for metrics being monitored by the monitor computer are stored in a data base, and a visualization of the metrics is displayed on at least one display computer having a monitor. The at least one display computer in one said control area enables an operator to monitor the grid portion corresponding to a different said control area.

  11. Real Time Fire Reconnaissance Satellite Monitoring System Failure Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nino Prieto, Omar Ariosto; Colmenares Guillen, Luis Enrique

    2013-09-01

    In this paper the Real Time Fire Reconnaissance Satellite Monitoring System is presented. This architecture is a legacy of the Detection System for Real-Time Physical Variables which is undergoing a patent process in Mexico. The methodologies for this design are the Structured Analysis for Real Time (SA- RT) [8], and the software is carried out by LACATRE (Langage d'aide à la Conception d'Application multitâche Temps Réel) [9,10] Real Time formal language. The system failures model is analyzed and the proposal is based on the formal language for the design of critical systems and Risk Assessment; AltaRica. This formal architecture uses satellites as input sensors and it was adapted from the original model which is a design pattern for physical variation detection in Real Time. The original design, whose task is to monitor events such as natural disasters and health related applications, or actual sickness monitoring and prevention, as the Real Time Diabetes Monitoring System, among others. Some related work has been presented on the Mexican Space Agency (AEM) Creation and Consultation Forums (2010-2011), and throughout the International Mexican Aerospace Science and Technology Society (SOMECYTA) international congress held in San Luis Potosí, México (2012). This Architecture will allow a Real Time Fire Satellite Monitoring, which will reduce the damage and danger caused by fires which consumes the forests and tropical forests of Mexico. This new proposal, permits having a new system that impacts on disaster prevention, by combining national and international technologies and cooperation for the benefit of humankind.

  12. Radioluminescence characterization of in situ x-ray nanodosimeters: Potential real-time monitors and modulators of external beam radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souris, Jeffrey S.; La Riviere, Patrick; Chen, Chin-Tu [Department of Radiology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Cheng, Shih-Hsun; Chen, Nai-Tzu; Lo, Leu-Wei, E-mail: lwlo@nhri.org.tw [Department of Radiology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Nanomedicine, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Mioli 35053, Taiwan (China); Pelizzari, Charles [Deaprtment of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    2014-11-17

    Europium-doped yttrium oxide (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu) has garnered considerable interest recently for its use as a highly efficient, red phosphor in a variety of lighting applications that include fluorescent lamps, plasma, and field emission display panels, light emitting diodes (LEDs), and lasers. In the present work, we describe the development of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu nanoparticles for a very different application: in situ, in vivo x-ray dosimetry. Spectroscopic analyses of these nanoparticles during x-ray irradiation reveal surprisingly bright and stable radioluminescence at near-infrared wavelengths, with markedly linear response to changes in x-ray flux and energy. Monte Carlo modeling of incident flux and broadband, wide-field imaging of mouse phantoms bearing both Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Eu nanoparticles and calibrated LEDs of similar spectral emission demonstrated significant transmission of radioluminescence, in agreement with spectroscopic studies; with approximately 15 visible photons being generated for every x-ray photon incident. Unlike the dosimeters currently employed in clinical practice, these nanodosimeters can sample both dose and dose rate rapidly enough as to provide real-time feedback for x-ray based external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). The technique's use of remote sensing and absence of supporting structures enable perturbation-free dosing of the targeted region and complete sampling from any direction. With the conjugation of pathology-targeting ligands onto their surfaces, these nanodosimeters offer a potential paradigm shift in the real-time monitoring and modulation of delivered dose in the EBRT of cancer in situ.

  13. Real-time optoacoustic monitoring of temperature in tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larina, Irina V [Center for Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0456 (United States); Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0456 (United States); Larin, Kirill V [Center for Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0456 (United States); Esenaliev, Rinat O [Center for Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0456 (United States); Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0456 (United States); Department of Anesthesiology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0456 (United States)

    2005-08-07

    To improve the safety and efficacy of thermal therapy, it is necessary to map tissue temperature in real time with submillimetre spatial resolution. Accurate temperature maps may provide the necessary control of the boundaries of the heated regions and minimize thermal damage to surrounding normal tissues. Current imaging modalities fail to monitor tissue temperature in real time with high resolution and accuracy. We investigated a non-invasive optoacoustic method for accurate, real-time monitoring of tissue temperature during thermotherapy. In this study, we induced temperature gradients in tissue and tissue-like samples and monitored the temperature distribution using the optoacoustic technique. The fundamental harmonic of a Q-switched Nd : YAG laser ({lambda} = 1064 nm) was used for optoacoustic wave generation and probing of tissue temperature. The tissue temperature was also monitored with a multi-sensor temperature probe inserted in the samples. Good agreement between optoacoustically measured and actual tissue temperatures was obtained. The accuracy of temperature monitoring was better than 1{sup 0}C, while the spatial resolution was about 1 mm. These data suggest that the optoacoustic technique has the potential to be used for non-invasive, real-time temperature monitoring during thermotherapy.

  14. Real-time vehicle emission monitoring along roadsides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelwagen, U.; Lange, R. de; Ligterink, N.E.; Klunder, G.A.; Bigazzi, A.; Duyzer, J.H.; Baalen, J. van; Katwijk, R.T. van; Kruithof, M.C.; Ratingen, S. van; Weststrate, J.H.; Wilmink, I.R.

    2010-01-01

    In the worldwide efforts to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gasses in general and those emitted by vehicles in particular, vehicle emission monitoring is important. It provides accurate knowledge of real-world emissions of vehicles as input for vehicle emission models. Real-time emission monitori

  15. Simultaneous real-time monitoring of multiple cortical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Disha; Hill, N. Jeremy; Brunner, Peter; Gunduz, Aysegul; Ritaccio, Anthony L.; Schalk, Gerwin

    2014-10-01

    Objective. Real-time monitoring of the brain is potentially valuable for performance monitoring, communication, training or rehabilitation. In natural situations, the brain performs a complex mix of various sensory, motor or cognitive functions. Thus, real-time brain monitoring would be most valuable if (a) it could decode information from multiple brain systems simultaneously, and (b) this decoding of each brain system were robust to variations in the activity of other (unrelated) brain systems. Previous studies showed that it is possible to decode some information from different brain systems in retrospect and/or in isolation. In our study, we set out to determine whether it is possible to simultaneously decode important information about a user from different brain systems in real time, and to evaluate the impact of concurrent activity in different brain systems on decoding performance. Approach. We study these questions using electrocorticographic signals recorded in humans. We first document procedures for generating stable decoding models given little training data, and then report their use for offline and for real-time decoding from 12 subjects (six for offline parameter optimization, six for online experimentation). The subjects engage in tasks that involve movement intention, movement execution and auditory functions, separately, and then simultaneously. Main results. Our real-time results demonstrate that our system can identify intention and movement periods in single trials with an accuracy of 80.4% and 86.8%, respectively (where 50% would be expected by chance). Simultaneously, the decoding of the power envelope of an auditory stimulus resulted in an average correlation coefficient of 0.37 between the actual and decoded power envelopes. These decoders were trained separately and executed simultaneously in real time. Significance. This study yielded the first demonstration that it is possible to decode simultaneously the functional activity of multiple

  16. Intelligent data management for real-time spacecraft monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwuttke, Ursula M.; Gasser, Les; Abramson, Bruce

    1992-01-01

    Real-time AI systems have begun to address the challenge of restructuring problem solving to meet real-time constraints by making key trade-offs that pursue less than optimal strategies with minimal impact on system goals. Several approaches for adapting to dynamic changes in system operating conditions are known. However, simultaneously adapting system decision criteria in a principled way has been difficult. Towards this end, a general technique for dynamically making such trade-offs using a combination of decision theory and domain knowledge has been developed. Multi-attribute utility theory (MAUT), a decision theoretic approach for making one-time decisions is discussed and dynamic trade-off evaluation is described as a knowledge-based extension of MAUT that is suitable for highly dynamic real-time environments, and provides an example of dynamic trade-off evaluation applied to a specific data management trade-off in a real-world spacecraft monitoring application.

  17. Real-time moving object detection for video monitoring systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhiqiang; Ji Xiaopeng; Wang Peng

    2006-01-01

    Moving object detection is one of the challenging problems in video monitoring systems, especially when the illumination changes and shadow exists. A method for real-time moving object detection is described. A new background model is proposed to handle the illumination varition problem. With optical flow technology and background subtraction, a moving object is extracted quickly and accurately. An effective shadow elimination algorithm based on color features is used to refine the moving objects. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can update the background exactly and quickly along with the varition of illumination, and the shadow can be eliminated effectively. The proposed algorithm is a real-time one which the foundation for further object recognition and understanding of video monitoring systems.

  18. Real-Time Monitoring of Trace Gas Concentrations in Syngas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbig J.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS was used for the analysis of syngas in an industrial Fischer-Tropsch process. A PTR-MS can detect a variety of volatile organic and inorganic compounds in real-time and with high sensitivity. Together with a multiplexer, this allows for online (real-time monitoring of the trace contaminations at different stages of a Fischer-Tropsch process. Several volatile compounds, such as HCN, H2S, RSH, carbonyls, acids, alcohols and others have been measured in Syngas. This paper describes the setup to monitor syngas using PTR-MS and summarizes the result of this proof-of-principle project.

  19. In Brief: Underwater volcano gets real-time monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2007-05-01

    A real-time underwater earthquake monitoring system was installed on the top of Kick'em Jenny, an underwater volcano located off the north coast of Grenada, on 6 May. The Real Time Offshore Seismic Station (RTOSS) consists of an ocean-bottom seismometer connected by a stretchy hose to a buoy on the ocean surface. The buoy is powered by solar panels and transmits seismic data by high-frequency radio to an observatory in Sauteurs, Grenada. The RTOSS research team, led by scientists from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, is coordinating with the Grenadian National Disaster Management Agency and the Seismic Unit of the University of the West Indies to incorporate the RTOSS data into existing regional monitoring. Kick'em Jenny, the only `live' submarine volcano in the West Indies, last erupted in 2001.

  20. Real-time trend monitoring of gas compressor stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hardeveld, T. (Nova, an Alberta Corp., AB (Canada))

    1991-02-01

    The authors' company has developed a machinery health monitoring system (MHealth) for short-term and long-term historical trending and analysis of data from its 40 gas compressor stations. The author discusses the benefits of real-time trending in troubleshooting operations, in preventative maintenance scheduling and cites specific applications in the startup operations of several new gas compressor/centrifugal compressor units.

  1. Real-time monitoring of phase maps of digital shearography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lianqing; Wang, Yonghong; Xu, Nan; Wu, Sijin; Dong, Mingli; Yang, Lianxiang

    2013-10-01

    Digital shearography has demonstrated great potential in direct strain measurement and, thus, has become an industrial tool for nondestructive testing (NDT), especially for NDT of delaminations and detection of impact damage in composite materials such as carbon fiber reinforced plastics and honeycomb structures. The increasing demand for high measurement sensitivity has led to the need for real-time monitoring of a digital shearographic phase map. Phase maps can be generated by applying a temporal, or spatial, phase shift technique. The temporal phase shift technique is simpler and more reliable for industry applications and, thus, has widely been utilized in practical shearographic inspection systems. This paper presents a review of the temporal phase shift digital shearography method with different algorithms and the possibility for real-time monitoring of phase maps for NDT. Quantitative and real-time monitoring of full-field strain information, using different algorithms, is presented. The potentials and limitations for each algorithm are discussed and demonstrated through examples of shearographic testing.

  2. Real-time GNSS volcano deformation monitoring (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisowski, M.; Langbein, J. O.; Hudnut, K. W.

    2013-12-01

    We present comparisons of the precision obtained from several alternative real-time GNSS processing methods, and show how offsets caused by snow and ice on an antenna can be automatically identified in real time using signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) data. We monitor ground deformation using continuous GNSS stations installed on several volcanoes in the Cascade Range and elsewhere, and many of these stations transmit high-rate (1s) data in real-time. We examine real-time, high-rate station position solutions obtained with two implementations of centralized RTNet (GPS Solutions, Inc.) processing, and find that the precision is roughly the same for ambiguity-fixed network solutions and for ambiguity-fixed precise point position solutions (PPPAR). The PPPAR method uses satellite clock corrections provided by GPS Solutions from a network of Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) stations in western Oregon. The precision of network solutions that include GPS and GLONASS data is similar to the GPS-only solutions, except at stations with a relatively poor view of the sky. An alternative method of processing the real-time GPS data uses clock corrections transmitted directly to the receiver, which then autonomously calculates and transmits positions. We will compare our RTNet results with autonomous point position solutions calculated using Trimble's CenterPoint RTX corrections. RTX performance in repeated, controlled, large antenna-motion tests by USGS and UNAVCO indicates that it meets requirements of USGS volcano-monitoring applications; more thorough testing and performance checks on an ongoing basis would be desirable. GNSS antennas on volcanoes often become temporarily coated with ice or buried by snow in the winter. In these situations, signal delays introduce an apparent offset in the monitoring station's position. We address this problem by implementing in real time a technique developed by Kristine Larson that uses changes in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of GNSS signals

  3. Network Based Real Time Condition Monitoring of Rotating Machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a network based real time condition monitoring system of rotating machinery. The system is built up in a double net structure consisting of local net (including client and server) and intranet. The client serves as a field data collector and processor that samples the vibration signals and process parameters of a machine monitored in the net and processes the sampled data. The data collected by the client are transmitted to the server that processes the data further and provides the results of the diagnosis of each machine to any distant terminals through intranet or internet. Such a structure of the monitoring system is advantageous in safety, reliability and reasonably shares the existing net resources. In order to ensure real time transmission of the data, two procedures of data transmission, virtual channel and data pool, are developed and applied in the monitoring system. The experimental results show that the monitoring system works well and is suitable to monitor a large group of rotating machines.

  4. Real-Time Aircraft Engine-Life Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This project developed an inservice life-monitoring system capable of predicting the remaining component and system life of aircraft engines. The embedded system provides real-time, inflight monitoring of the engine's thrust, exhaust gas temperature, efficiency, and the speed and time of operation. Based upon this data, the life-estimation algorithm calculates the remaining life of the engine components and uses this data to predict the remaining life of the engine. The calculations are based on the statistical life distribution of the engine components and their relationship to load, speed, temperature, and time.

  5. Reporter nanoparticle that monitors its anticancer efficacy in real time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Ashish; Rao, Poornima; Natarajan, Siva; Goldman, Aaron; Sabbisetti, Venkata S; Khater, Yashika; Korimerla, Navya; Chandrasekar, Vineethkrishna; Mashelkar, Raghunath A; Sengupta, Shiladitya

    2016-04-12

    The ability to monitor the efficacy of an anticancer treatment in real time can have a critical effect on the outcome. Currently, clinical readouts of efficacy rely on indirect or anatomic measurements, which occur over prolonged time scales postchemotherapy or postimmunotherapy and may not be concordant with the actual effect. Here we describe the biology-inspired engineering of a simple 2-in-1 reporter nanoparticle that not only delivers a cytotoxic or an immunotherapy payload to the tumor but also reports back on the efficacy in real time. The reporter nanoparticles are engineered from a novel two-staged stimuli-responsive polymeric material with an optimal ratio of an enzyme-cleavable drug or immunotherapy (effector elements) and a drug function-activatable reporter element. The spatiotemporally constrained delivery of the effector and the reporter elements in a single nanoparticle produces maximum signal enhancement due to the availability of the reporter element in the same cell as the drug, thereby effectively capturing the temporal apoptosis process. Using chemotherapy-sensitive and chemotherapy-resistant tumors in vivo, we show that the reporter nanoparticles can provide a real-time noninvasive readout of tumor response to chemotherapy. The reporter nanoparticle can also monitor the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibition in melanoma. The self-reporting capability, for the first time to our knowledge, captures an anticancer nanoparticle in action in vivo.

  6. Real-Time Beam Loss Monitor Display Using FPGA Technology

    CERN Document Server

    North, Matt R W

    2005-01-01

    This paper outlines the design of a Real-time Beam Loss Monitor Display for the ISIS Synchrotron based at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (Oxon, UK). Beam loss is monitored using 39 argon filled ionisation chambers positioned around the synchrotron, the levels of which are sampled four times in each cycle. The new BLM display acquires the signals and displays four histograms, each relating to an individual sample period; the data acquisition and signal processing required to build the display fields are completed within each machine cycle (50 Hz). Attributes of the new system include setting limits for individual monitors; displaying over-limit detection, and freezing the display field when a beam trip has occurred. The design is based around a reconfigurable Field Programmable Gate Array, interfacing to a desktop monitor via the VGA standard. Results gained using simulated monitor signals have proven the system.

  7. Real-time vehicle tracking for traffic monitoring systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡硕

    2016-01-01

    A real-time vehicle tracking method is proposed for traffic monitoring system at road intersec-tions, and the vehicle tracking module consists of an initialization stage and a tracking stage .Li-cense plate location based on edge density and color analysis is used to detect the license plate re -gion for tracking initialization .In the tracking stage , covariance matching is employed to track the license plate .Genetic algorithm is used to reduce the computational cost .Real-time image tracking of multi-lane vehicles is achieved .In the experiment , test videos are recorded in advance by record-ers of actual E-police systems at several different city intersections .In the tracking module , the av-erage false detection rate and missed plates rate are 1.19%, and 1.72%, respectively.

  8. Microcirculation monitoring with real time spatial frequency domain imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinlin; Cao, Zili; Lin, Weihao; Zhu, Danfeng; Zhu, Xiuwei; Zeng, Bixin; Xu, M.

    2017-01-01

    We present a spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) study of local hemodynamics in the forearm of healthy volunteers performing paced breathing. Real time Single Snapshot Multiple Frequency Demodulation - Spatial Frequency Domain Imaging (SSMD-SFDI) was used to map the optical properties of the subsurface of the forearm continuously. The oscillations of the concentrations of deoxy- and oxyhemoglobin at the subsurface of the forearm induced by paced breathing are found to be close to out-of-phase, attributed to the dominance of the blood flow modulation by paced breathing. The properties of local microcirculation including the blood transit times through capillaries and venules are extracted by fitting to Simplified Hemodynamics Model. Our preliminary results suggest that the real time SSMD-SFDI platform may serve as one effective imaging modality for microcirculation monitoring.

  9. Task 1. Monitoring real time materials degradation. NRC extended In-situ and real-time Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhtiari, Sasan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2012-03-01

    The overall objective of this project was to perform a scoping study to identify, in concert with the nuclear industry, those sensors and techniques that have the most promising commercial viability and fill a critical inspection or monitoring need. Candidates to be considered include sensors to monitor real-time material degradation, characterize residual stress, monitor and inspect component fabrication, assess radionuclide and associated chemical species concentrations in ground water and soil, characterize fuel properties, and monitor severe accident conditions. Under Task 1—Monitoring Real-Time Materials Degradation—scoping studies were conducted to assess the feasibility of potential inspection and monitoring technologies (i.e., a combination of sensors, advanced signal processing techniques, and data analysis methods) that could be utilized in LWR and/or advanced reactor applications for continuous monitoring of degradation in-situ. The goal was to identify those techniques that appear to be the most promising, i.e., those that are closest to being both technically and commercially viable and that the nuclear industry is most likely to pursue. Current limitations and associated issues that must be overcome before commercial application of certain techniques have also been addressed.

  10. Real-time expert system monitors complex air regs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasbach, A.

    1995-07-01

    The South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) in southern California monitors NO{sub x} emissions in real time from a total of 60 boilers at the area`s five electric utilities. SCAQMD accomplishes this with an application developed using G2, an expert system from Gensym Corp., Cambridge, Mass., interfaced to monitoring equipment at each remote facility. In 1991, the SCAQMD board passed Rule 1135 requiring monitoring of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from electric-power generating systems. The rule requires utilities to transmit boiler emissions data in near real-time to SCAQMD. Each utility had to install a continuous emission monitoring system (CEMS) to measure emissions from each boiler and a remote terminal unit (RTU) to telecommunicate emissions data to SCAQMD. The CEMS acquires data from sensing devices for each boiler. The RTU collects the data, performs calculations, and transmits formatted information to the Central Station Compliance Advisory Expert System at SCAQMD. This information includes NO{sub x} emissions, power generation, fuel usage, stack gas flow and equipment status.

  11. Monitor for displaying the status of Real-Time simulation.

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a design and implementation of a monitor to display the status of real-time simulation and modelling for discrete event dynamic systems, DEDS. The modelling and simulation of DEDS in this thesis are implemented using two kinds tools called Petri net and GpenSIM. Petri Nets are tools that are widely used now a day to model and simulate discrete events of concurrent and dynamic systems. [1] Petri net has a graphical formalism that is getting popularity in recent years as a t...

  12. Asbestos real-time monitor in an atmospheric environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiromoto, N; Hashiguchi, K; Ito, S; Itabe, T

    1997-12-20

    The concentration of asbestos fiber aerosols can be monitored by measuring the polarization of laser light scattered by asbestos fibers. The principle of discriminating asbestos fibers is based on the theoretically expected difference in polarization at a scattering angle of 170 deg between cylindrical and spherical airborne particles; polarization at this scattering angle should be positive for cylindrical particles such as asbestos fibers but should be negative or close to zero for spherical mineral particles. We constructed an experimental asbestos real-time monitor that uses a strong electric field to align the airborne particles, that uses lasers having linear polarization with an equal amplitude in parallel and perpendicular components to the aligned long axis of particles, and that simultaneously detects the two components of the linear polarization of light scattered at 170 deg, i.e., close to the backscatter. Experiments that were performed to detect the light scattered from airborne standard asbestos fibers showed that the measured polarization fits theoretical prediction. The concentrations of airborne asbestos fibers obtained by the asbestos real-time monitor were consistent with those estimated by the standard phase contrast microscope method.

  13. Real-Time Monitoring of Psychotherapeutic Processes: Concept and Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guenter Karl Schiepek

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective. The feasibility of a high-frequency real-time monitoring approach to psychotherapy is outlined and tested for patients’ compliance to evaluate its integration to everyday practice. Criteria concern the ecological momentary assessment, the assessment of therapy-related cognitions and emotions, equidistant time sampling, real-time nonlinear time series analysis, continuous participative process control by client and therapist, and the application of idiographic (person-specific surveys. Methods. The process-outcome monitoring is technically realized by an internet-based device for data collection and data analysis, the Synergetic Navigation System. Its feasibility is documented by a compliance study on 151 clients treated in an inpatient and a day-treatment clinic. Results. We found high compliance rates (mean: 78.3%, median: 89.4% amongst the respondents, independent of the severity of symptoms or the degree of impairment. Compared to other diagnoses, the compliance rate was lower in the group diagnosed with personality disorders. Conclusion. The results support the feasibility of high-frequency monitoring in routine psychotherapy settings. Daily collection of psychological surveys allows for assessment of highly resolved, equidistant time series data which gives insight into the nonlinear qualities of therapeutic change processes (e.g., pattern transitions, critical instabilities.

  14. Real-Time Monitoring of Psychotherapeutic Processes: Concept and Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiepek, Günter; Aichhorn, Wolfgang; Gruber, Martin; Strunk, Guido; Bachler, Egon; Aas, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The feasibility of a high-frequency real-time monitoring approach to psychotherapy is outlined and tested for patients' compliance to evaluate its integration to everyday practice. Criteria concern the ecological momentary assessment, the assessment of therapy-related cognitions and emotions, equidistant time sampling, real-time nonlinear time series analysis, continuous participative process control by client and therapist, and the application of idiographic (person-specific) surveys. Methods: The process-outcome monitoring is technically realized by an internet-based device for data collection and data analysis, the Synergetic Navigation System. Its feasibility is documented by a compliance study on 151 clients treated in an inpatient and a day-treatment clinic. Results: We found high compliance rates (mean: 78.3%, median: 89.4%) amongst the respondents, independent of the severity of symptoms or the degree of impairment. Compared to other diagnoses, the compliance rate was lower in the group diagnosed with personality disorders. Conclusion: The results support the feasibility of high-frequency monitoring in routine psychotherapy settings. Daily collection of psychological surveys allows for the assessment of highly resolved, equidistant time series data which gives insight into the nonlinear qualities of therapeutic change processes (e.g., pattern transitions, critical instabilities). PMID:27199837

  15. Real-Time Supernova Neutrino Burst Monitor at Super-Kamiokande

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, K; Hayato, Y; Ikeda, M; Iyogi, K; Kameda, J; Kishimoto, Y; Miura, M; Moriyama, S; Nakahata, M; Nakano, Y; Nakayama, S; Sekiya, H; Shiozawa, M; Suzuki, Y; Takeda, A; Tanaka, H; Tomura, T; Ueno, K; Wendell, R A; Yokozawa, T; Irvine, T; Kajita, T; Kametani, I; Kaneyuki, K; Lee, K P; McLachlan, T; Nishimura, Y; Richard, E; Okumura, K; Labarga, L; Fernandez, P; Berkman, S; Tanaka, H A; Tobayama, S; Gustafson, J; Kearns, E; Raaf, J L; Stone, J L; Sulak, L R; Goldhaber, M; Carminati, G; Kropp, W R; Mine, S; Weatherly, P; Renshaw, A; Smy, M B; Sobel, H W; Takhistov, V; Ganezer, K S; Hartfiel, B L; Hill, J; Keig, W E; Hong, N; Kim, J Y; Lim, I T; Akiri, T; Himmel, A; Scholberg, K; Walter, C W; Wongjirad, T; Ishizuka, T; Tasaka, S; Jang, J S; Learned, J G; Matsuno, S; Smith, S N; Hasegawa, T; Ishida, T; Ishii, T; Kobayashi, T; Nakadaira, T; Nakamura, K; Oyama, Y; Sakashita, K; Sekiguchi, T; Tsukamoto, T; Suzuki, A T; Takeuchi, Y; Bronner, C; Hirota, S; Huang, K; Ieki, K; Kikawa, T; Minamino, A; Murakami, A; Nakaya, T; Suzuki, K; Takahashi, S; Tateishi, K; Fukuda, Y; Choi, K; Itow, Y; Mitsuka, G; Mijakowski, P; Hignight, J; Imber, J; Jung, C K; Yanagisawa, C; Wilking, M J; Ishino, H; Kibayashi, A; Koshio, Y; Mori, T; Sakuda, M; Yamaguchi, R; Yano, T; Kuno, Y; Tacik, R; Kim, S B; Okazawa, H; Choi, Y; Nishijima, K; Koshiba, M; Suda, Y; Totsuka, Y; Yokoyama, M; Martens, K; Marti, Ll; Vagins, M R; Martin, J F; de Perio, P; Konaka, A; Chen, S; Zhang, Y; Connolly, K; Wilkes, R J

    2016-01-01

    We present a real-time supernova neutrino burst monitor at Super-Kamiokande (SK). Detecting supernova explosions by neutrinos in real time is crucial for giving a clear picture of the explosion mechanism. Since the neutrinos are expected to come earlier than light, a fast broadcasting of the detection may give astronomers a chance to make electromagnetic radiation observations of the explosions right at the onset. The role of the monitor includes a fast announcement of the neutrino burst detection to the world and a determination of the supernova direction. We present the online neutrino burst detection system and studies of the direction determination accuracy based on simulations at SK.

  16. [Real-time monitoring in psychotherapy - methodology and casuistics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Gabriele; Aichhorn, Wolfgang; Leeb, Wilfried; Matschi, Brigitte; Schiepek, Günter

    2011-01-01

    Real-Time Monitoring in psychotherapy is a new method to increase quality and efficacy in psychotherapy. This internet-based information technology offers an online collection of psychotherapy-related data and allows insights into therapeutic patterns of change without any time-delay. The classical pre-post-evaluation is completed by an assessment of therapeutic processes. Besides an internet-based data collection the Synergetic Navigation System (SNS) integrates different methods of nonlinear time series analysis and provides a visualization of results. SNS is a new internet-based technology of data collection and data analysis. For illustration we present a single case study (avoidant personality disorder (DSM IV 301.82) with recurrent major depressive episodes) where SNS was applied in clinical practice (in-patient treatment). SNS results are used for therapy planning by repeated feedback interviews with the patients. Critical phases and nonlinearities of the ongoing self-organization processes can be identified. In addition to the practical impact of real-time monitoring SNS allows for continuous process-outcome-research in naturalistic settings. Models of change processes (e.g. sudden gains) can be tested but also used as a interpretation frame of idiographic results. In every day practice SNS enhances transparency, self-efficacy of patients, and supports the motivation to change. Compliance of patients is high, and the data show high validity. Therefore as a future perspective SNS should become routine in clinical practice and be integrated in professional psychotherapy training.

  17. Real time video analysis to monitor neonatal medical condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirvaikar, Mukul; Paydarfar, David; Indic, Premananda

    2017-05-01

    One in eight live births in the United States is premature and these infants have complications leading to life threatening events such as apnea (pauses in breathing), bradycardia (slowness of heart) and hypoxia (oxygen desaturation). Infant movement pattern has been hypothesized as an important predictive marker for these life threatening events. Thus estimation of movement along with behavioral states, as a precursor of life threatening events, can be useful for risk stratification of infants as well as for effective management of disease state. However, more important and challenging is the determination of the behavioral state of the infant. This information includes important cues such as sleep position and the status of the eyes, which are important markers for neonatal neurodevelopment state. This paper explores the feasibility of using real time video analysis to monitor the condition of premature infants. The image of the infant can be segmented into regions to localize and focus on specific areas of interest. Analysis of the segmented regions can be performed to identify different parts of the body including the face, arms, legs and torso. This is necessary due to real-time processing speed considerations. Such a monitoring system would be of great benefit as an aide to medical staff in neonatal hospital settings requiring constant surveillance. Any such system would have to satisfy extremely stringent reliability and accuracy requirements, before it can be deployed in a hospital care unit, due to obvious reasons. The effect of lighting conditions and interference will have to be mitigated to achieve such performance.

  18. Real Time Monitoring and Wear Out of Power Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghimire, Pramod

    the expected lifetime of converters. Real time monitoring of power modules is very important together with a smart control and a driving technique in a converter. This ensures to operate the device within a safe operating area and also to protect from a catastrophic failure. Furthermore, the inherent physical...... parameters that deviate by thermo-mechanical stress need to be identified and also measured during operation. Major stressors for high power multi-chip IGBT modules are identified as maximum junction temperature, temperature cycle, over-voltage, over-current, humidity, vibration etc. In addition, finding...... out is monitored online and also the evolution of degradation in interconnects are studied extensively in order to understand the failure process in high power modules under sinusoidal loading conditions. A number of power modules are tested in active power or thermal cycling for different number...

  19. GEM voltage supply and real-time monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Karaventzas, Vasilios Dimitris

    2015-01-01

    The operation of a GEM requires strong electrical fields that are able to initiate an electron avalanche. These electrical fields are generated by the application of high voltage in µm gaps. The scope of this project was to monitor the electrical parameters of the applied voltages, such as level and current flowing towards the detector. Therefore a real-time monitoring scheme was implemented. Additionally, a scheme for having all the voltages required for the operation of a GEM controllable, is proposed. The work conducted during this time-frame was targeted into developing the necessary parts for the operation of such device, whereas the integration of those into one functional circuit is to be conducted in a future work.

  20. Real-time monitoring for human clinical trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harker, Y.D. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-11-01

    On August 3-4, 1994, an INEL team made measurements related to a real-time monitoring system for use on the epithermal beam facility at the BMRR. BNL has installed two fission chambers in front of the beam collimator, which are to monitor the beam coming from the reactor. These two monitors are located with one just above the 16-cm dia. front aperture and the other is just below. The fission chambers contain depleted uranium, but because of the small amount of U-235 present, they respond to thermal and near thermal neutrons rather than fast neutrons. This feature combined with their relatively small size (0.6 cm dia x 4 cm long) makes them very good monitors in the BMRR epithermal neutron beam. The INEL team worked with H.B. Lui (BNL) in performing initial tests of these monitors and established the settings to achieve stable operation. The main purpose of the measurement studies was to establish a basis for a monitoring method that tracks the dose the patient is receiving rather than the neutron fluence being delivered down the beam line.

  1. Measurement of linear energy transfer distribution at CERN-EU high- energy reference field facility with real-time radiation monitoring device III and its comparison with dosimetric telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Doke, T; Hara, K; Hayashi, T; Kikuchi, J; Suzuki, S; Terasawa, K

    2004-01-01

    The distributions of linear energy transfer for LET (LET/sub water/) in front of the 80-cm-thick concrete side shield at the CERN-EU high- energy reference field (CERF) facility were measured with a Si detector telescope named real-time radiation monitoring device-III (RRMD-III) covered with and without a 1 cm-thick acrylic plate. In these measurements, a difference of about 20% in the absorbed dose between the two LET/sub water/ distributions was observed as a result of protons, deuterons and tritons recoiled by neutrons. The LET/sub water/ distribution obtained using RRMD-III without the 1-cm-thick acrylic plate is compared with lineal energy distributions obtained using the dosimetric telescope (DOSTEL) detector under the same conditions. These dose equivalents are also compared with that obtained using HANDI TEPC which is used as the standard at the CERF facility. (26 refs).

  2. Real-time dosimetry in external beam radiation therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramachandran; Prabhakar

    2013-01-01

    With growing complexity in radiotherapy treatment delivery,it has become mandatory to check each and every treatment plan before implementing clinically.This process is currently administered by an independent secondary check of all treatment parameters and as a pre-treatment quality assurance (QA) check for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy treatment plans.Although pre-treatment IMRT QA is aimed to ensure the correct dose is delivered to the patient,it does not necessarily predict the clinically relevant patient dose errors.During radiotherapy,treatment uncertainties can affect tumor control and may increase complications to surrounding normal tissues.To combat this,image guided radiotherapy is employed to help ensure the plan conditions are mimicked on the treatment machine.However,it does not provide information on actual delivered dose to the tumor volume.Knowledge of actual dose delivered during treatment aid in confirming the prescribed dose and also to replan/reassess the treatment in situations where the planned dose is not delivered as expected by the treating physician.Major accidents in radiotherapy would have been averted if real time dosimetry is incorporated as part of the routine radiotherapy procedure.Of late real-time dosimetry is becoming popular with complex treatments in radiotherapy.Realtime dosimetry can be either in the form of point doses or planar doses or projected on to a 3D image dataset to obtain volumetric dose.They either provide entrance dose or exit dose or dose inside the natural cavities of a patient.In external beam radiotherapy,there are four different established platforms whereby the delivered dose information can be obtained:(1)Collimator;(2)Patient;(3)Couch;and(4)Electronic Portal Imaging Device.Current real-time dosimetric techniques available in radiotherapy have their own advantages and disadvantages and a combination of one or more of these methods provide vital information

  3. Embedded Triboelectric Active Sensors for Real-Time Pneumatic Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xian Peng; Bu, Tian Zhao; Xi, Feng Ben; Cheng, Ting Hai; Zhang, Chi; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-09-20

    Pneumatic monitoring sensors have great demands for power supply in cylinder systems. Here, we present an embedded sliding triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) in air cylinder as active sensors for position and velocity monitoring. The embedded TENG is composed of a circular poly(tetrafluoroethylene) polymer and a triangular copper electrode. The working mechanism as triboelectric active sensors and electric output performance are systematically investigated. By integrating into the pneumatic system, the embedded triboelectric active sensors have been used for real-time air pressure/flow monitoring and energy storage. Air pressures are measured from 0.04 to 0.12 MPa at a step of 0.02 MPa with a sensitivity of 49.235 V/MPa, as well as airflow from 50 to 250 L/min at a step of 50 L/min with a sensitivity of 0.002 μA·min/L. This work has first demonstrated triboelectric active sensors for pneumatic monitoring and may promote the development of TENG in intelligent pneumatic system.

  4. Real-time monitoring of drowsiness through wireless nanosensor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Mouli; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2016-04-01

    Detection of sleepiness and drowsiness in human beings has been a daunting task for both engineering and medical technologies. Accuracy, precision and promptness of detection have always been an issue that has to be dealt by technologists. Generally, the bio potential signals - ECG, EOG, EEG and EMG are used to classify and discriminate sleep from being awake. However, the potential drawbacks may be high false detections, low precision, obtrusiveness, aftermath analysis, etc. To overcome the disadvantages, this paper reviews the design aspects of a wireless and a real time monitoring system to track sleep and detect fatigue. This concept involves the use of EOG and EEG to measure the blink rate and asses the person's condition. In this user friendly and intuitive approach, EOG and EEG signals are obtained by the textile based nanosensors mounted on the inner side of a flexible headband. The acquired signals are then electrically transmitted to the data processing and transmission unit, which transmits the processed data to the receiver/monitoring module through ZigBee communication. This system is equipped with a software program to process, feature extract, analyze, display and store the information. Thereby, immediate detection of a person falling asleep is made feasible and, tracking the sleep cycle continuously provides an insight about the fatigue level. This approach of using a wireless, real time, dry sensor on a flexible substrate mitigates obtrusiveness that is expected from a wearable system. We have previously presented the results of the aforementioned wearable systems. This paper aims to extend our work conceptually through a review of engineering and medical techniques involved in wearable systems to detect drowsiness.

  5. Real-time monitoring of seismic data using satellite telemetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Merucci

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the ARGO Satellite Seismic Network (ARGO SSN as a reliable system for monitoring, collection, visualisation and analysis of seismic and geophysical low-frequency data, The satellite digital telemetry system is composed of peripheral geophysical stations, a centraI communications node (master sta- tion located in CentraI Italy, and a data collection and processing centre located at ING (Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica, Rome. The task of the peripheral stations is to digitalise and send via satellite the geophysical data collected by the various sensors to the master station. The master station receives the data and forwards them via satellite to the ING in Rome; it also performs alI the monitoring functions of satellite communications. At the data collection and processing centre of ING, the data are received and analysed in real time, the seismic events are identified and recorded, the low-frequency geophysical data are stored. In addition, the generaI sta- tus of the satellite network and of each peripheral station connected, is monitored. The procedure for analysjs of acquired seismic signals allows the automatic calculation of local magnitude and duration magnitude The communication and data exchange between the seismic networks of Greece, Spain and Italy is the fruit of a recent development in the field of technology of satellite transmission of ARGO SSN (project of European Community "Southern Europe Network for Analysis of Seismic Data"

  6. Real-time bioacoustics monitoring and automated species identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrada-Bravo, Carlos; Campos-Cerqueira, Marconi; Milan, Carlos; Vega, Giovany; Alvarez, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, animal species diversity and abundance is assessed using a variety of methods that are generally costly, limited in space and time, and most importantly, they rarely include a permanent record. Given the urgency of climate change and the loss of habitat, it is vital that we use new technologies to improve and expand global biodiversity monitoring to thousands of sites around the world. In this article, we describe the acoustical component of the Automated Remote Biodiversity Monitoring Network (ARBIMON), a novel combination of hardware and software for automating data acquisition, data management, and species identification based on audio recordings. The major components of the cyberinfrastructure include: a solar powered remote monitoring station that sends 1-min recordings every 10 min to a base station, which relays the recordings in real-time to the project server, where the recordings are processed and uploaded to the project website (arbimon.net). Along with a module for viewing, listening, and annotating recordings, the website includes a species identification interface to help users create machine learning algorithms to automate species identification. To demonstrate the system we present data on the vocal activity patterns of birds, frogs, insects, and mammals from Puerto Rico and Costa Rica. PMID:23882441

  7. Real-time bioacoustics monitoring and automated species identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Mitchell Aide

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, animal species diversity and abundance is assessed using a variety of methods that are generally costly, limited in space and time, and most importantly, they rarely include a permanent record. Given the urgency of climate change and the loss of habitat, it is vital that we use new technologies to improve and expand global biodiversity monitoring to thousands of sites around the world. In this article, we describe the acoustical component of the Automated Remote Biodiversity Monitoring Network (ARBIMON, a novel combination of hardware and software for automating data acquisition, data management, and species identification based on audio recordings. The major components of the cyberinfrastructure include: a solar powered remote monitoring station that sends 1-min recordings every 10 min to a base station, which relays the recordings in real-time to the project server, where the recordings are processed and uploaded to the project website (arbimon.net. Along with a module for viewing, listening, and annotating recordings, the website includes a species identification interface to help users create machine learning algorithms to automate species identification. To demonstrate the system we present data on the vocal activity patterns of birds, frogs, insects, and mammals from Puerto Rico and Costa Rica.

  8. Windrum: a program for monitoring seismic signals in real time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giudicepietro, Flora

    2017-04-01

    Windrum is a program devote to monitor seismic signals arriving from remote stations in real time. Since 2000, the Osservatorio Vesuviano (INGV) uses the first version of Windrum to monitor the seismic activity of Mt. Vesuvius, Campi Flegrei, Ischia and Stromboli volcano. The program has been also used at the Observatory of Bukittinggi (Indonesia), at the offices of the Italian National Civil Protection, at the COA in Stromboli and at the Civil Protection Center of the municipality of Pozzuoli (Napoli, Italy). In addition, the Osservatorio Vesuviano regularly uses Windrum in educational events such as the Festival of Science in Genova (Italy), FuturoRemoto and other events organized by Città della Scienza in Naples (Italy). The program displays the seismic trace of one station on a monitor, using short packet of data (typically 1 or 2 seconds) received through UTC Internet protocol. The data packets are in Trace_buffer format, a native protocol of Earthworm seismic system that is widely used for the data transmission on Internet. Windrum allows the user to visualize 24 hours of signals, to zoom selected windows of data, in order to estimate the duration Magnitude (Md) of an earthquake, in an intercative way, and to generate graphic images for the web. Moreover, Windrum can exchange Internet messages with other copies of the same program to synchronize actions, such as to zoom the same window of data or mark the beginning of an earthquake on all active monitors simultaneously. Originally, in 2000, Windrum was developed in VB6. I have now developed a new version in VB.net, which goes beyond the obsolescence problems that were appearing. The new version supports the decoding of binary packets received by soket in a more flexible way, allowing the generation of graphic images in different formats. In addition, the new version allows a more flexible layout configuration, suitable for use on large screens with high resolution. Over the past 17 years the use of Windrum

  9. Real-time satellite monitoring of volcanic hot spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Andrew J. L.; Flynn, Luke P.; Dean, Ken; Pilger, Eric; Wooster, Martin; Okubo, Chris; Mouginis-Mark, Peter; Garbeil, Harold; Thornber, Carl; De la Cruz-Reyna, Servando; Rothery, Dave; Wright, Robert

    Direct satellite data reception at high temporal frequencies and automated processing enable near-real-time, near-continuous thermal monitoring of volcanoes. We review what has been achieved in terms of turning this capability into real-time tools of use to volcano monitoring agencies. Current capabilities focus on 2 instruments: the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) imager. Collection of lO AVHRR images per day covering Alaska, the Aleutians, and Kamchatka allows routine, on-reception analysis of volcanic hot spots across this region. Data collected between 1996 and 1998 detected 302 hot spots due to lava flows, lava domes, pyroclastic flows, fumaroles, and geothermally heated lakes at 12 different volcanoes. Information was used for hazard mitigation by the Alaskan Volcano Observatory. GOES provides data for North and South American volcanoes every 15-30 minutes. Automated processing allows eruption information and alerts to be posted on the Internet within 15-60 minutes of reception. We use June 1998 to demonstrate the frequency of data acquisition. During this month 2879 GOES images were collected from which 14,832 sub-images of 6 active volcanoes were processed. Although 82% (12,200) of these sub-images were cloud covered, hot spots were still evident on 11% (1634) of the sub-images. Analysis of GOES data for 1998 identified hot spots due to (1) lava flows at Kilauea and Cerro Azul, (2) dome extrusion and explosive activity at Lascar, Popocatepetl, Colima and Pacaya, and (3) dome cooling and collapse at Soufriere Hills. We were also able to suggest that reports of lava flow activity at Cerro Negro were false. This information was supplied to, and used by, various agencies whose task it is to monitor these volcanoes. Global thermal monitoring will become a reality with the launch of the Earth Observing System's moderate resolution imaging spectrometer (MODIS). An automated thermal

  10. Enhancements and Evolution of the Real Time Mission Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, M.; Blakeslee, R.; Hardin, D.; Hall, J.; He, Y.; Regner, K.

    2008-12-01

    The Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) is a visualization and information system that fuses multiple Earth science data sources, to enable real time decision-making for airborne and ground validation experiments. Developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center, RTMM is a situational awareness, decision-support system that integrates satellite imagery, radar, surface and airborne instrument data sets, model output parameters, lightning location observations, aircraft navigation data, soundings, and other applicable Earth science data sets. The integration and delivery of this information is made possible using data acquisition systems, network communication links, network server resources, and visualizations through the Google Earth virtual earth application. RTMM has proven extremely valuable for optimizing individual Earth science airborne field experiments. Flight planners, mission scientists, instrument scientists and program managers alike appreciate the contributions that RTMM makes to their flight projects. RTMM has received numerous plaudits from a wide variety of scientists who used RTMM during recent field campaigns including the 2006 NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (NAMMA), 2007 Tropical Composition, Cloud, and Climate Coupling (TC4), 2008 Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) missions, the 2007-2008 NOAA-NASA Aerosonde Hurricane flights and the 2008 Soil Moisture Active-Passive Validation Experiment (SMAP-VEX). Improving and evolving RTMM is a continuous process. RTMM recently integrated the Waypoint Planning Tool, a Java-based application that enables aircraft mission scientists to easily develop a pre-mission flight plan through an interactive point-and-click interface. Individual flight legs are automatically calculated for altitude, latitude, longitude, flight leg distance, cumulative distance, flight leg time, cumulative time, and

  11. Real-Time monitoring of intracellular wax ester metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karp Matti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wax esters are industrially relevant molecules exploited in several applications of oleochemistry and food industry. At the moment, the production processes mostly rely on chemical synthesis from rather expensive starting materials, and therefore solutions are sought from biotechnology. Bacterial wax esters are attractive alternatives, and especially the wax ester metabolism of Acinetobacter sp. has been extensively studied. However, the lack of suitable tools for rapid and simple monitoring of wax ester metabolism in vivo has partly restricted the screening and analyses of potential hosts and optimal conditions. Results Based on sensitive and specific detection of intracellular long-chain aldehydes, specific intermediates of wax ester synthesis, bacterial luciferase (LuxAB was exploited in studying the wax ester metabolism in Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1. Luminescence was detected in the cultivation of the strain producing wax esters, and the changes in signal levels could be linked to corresponding cell growth and wax ester synthesis phases. Conclusions The monitoring system showed correlation between wax ester synthesis pattern and luminescent signal. The system shows potential for real-time screening purposes and studies on bacterial wax esters, revealing new aspects to dynamics and role of wax ester metabolism in bacteria.

  12. Capability of a Mobile Monitoring System to Provide Real-Time Data Broadcasting and Near Real-Time Source Attribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, M.; Olaguer, J.; Wijesinghe, A.; Colvin, J.; Neish, B.; Williams, J.

    2014-12-01

    It is becoming increasingly important to understand the emissions and health effects of industrial facilities. Many areas have no or limited sustained monitoring capabilities, making it difficult to quantify the major pollution sources affecting human health, especially in fence line communities. Developments in real-time monitoring and micro-scale modeling offer unique ways to tackle these complex issues. This presentation will demonstrate the capability of coupling real-time observations with micro-scale modeling to provide real-time information and near real-time source attribution. The Houston Advanced Research Center constructed the Mobile Acquisition of Real-time Concentrations (MARC) laboratory. MARC consists of a Ford E-350 passenger van outfitted with a Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS) and meteorological equipment. This allows for the fast measurement of various VOCs important to air quality. The data recorded from the van is uploaded to an off-site database and the information is broadcast to a website in real-time. This provides for off-site monitoring of MARC's observations, which allows off-site personnel to provide immediate input to the MARC operators on how to best achieve project objectives. The information stored in the database can also be used to provide near real-time source attribution. An inverse model has been used to ascertain the amount, location, and timing of emissions based on MARC measurements in the vicinity of industrial sites. The inverse model is based on a 3D micro-scale Eulerian forward and adjoint air quality model known as the HARC model. The HARC model uses output from the Quick Urban and Industrial Complex (QUIC) wind model and requires a 3D digital model of the monitored facility based on lidar or industrial permit data. MARC is one of the instrument platforms deployed during the 2014 Benzene and other Toxics Exposure Study (BEE-TEX) in Houston, TX. The main goal of the study is to quantify and explain the

  13. Real-time monitoring of cisplatin-induced cell death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Alborzinia

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of cisplatin more than 40 years ago and its clinical introduction in the 1970s an enormous amount of research has gone into elucidating the mechanism of action of cisplatin on tumor cells. With a novel cell biosensor chip system allowing continuous monitoring of respiration, glycolysis, and impedance we followed cisplatin treatment of different cancer cell lines in real-time. Our measurements reveal a first effect on respiration, in all cisplatin treated cell lines, followed with a significant delay by interference with glycolysis in HT-29, HCT-116, HepG2, and MCF-7 cells but not in the cisplatin-resistant cell line MDA-MB-231. Most strikingly, cell death started in all cisplatin-sensitive cell lines within 8 to 11 h of treatment, indicating a clear time frame from exposure, first response to cisplatin lesions, to cell fate decision. The time points of most significant changes were selected for more detailed analysis of cisplatin response in the breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Phosphorylation of selected signal transduction mediators connected with cellular proliferation, as well as changes in gene expression, were analyzed in samples obtained directly from sensor chips at the time points when changes in glycolysis and impedance occurred. Our online cell biosensor measurements reveal for the first time the time scale of metabolic response until onset of cell death under cisplatin treatment, which is in good agreement with models of p53-mediated cell fate decision.

  14. The 2nd Generation Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, R. J.; Goodman, M.; Hardin, D. M.; Hall, J.; Yubin He, M.; Regner, K.; Conover, H.; Smith, T.; Meyer, P.; Lu, J.; Garrett, M.

    2009-12-01

    The NASA Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) is a visualization and information system that fuses multiple Earth science data sources, to enable real time decision-making for airborne and ground validation experiments. Developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center, RTMM is a situational awareness, decision-support system that integrates satellite imagery and orbit data, radar and other surface observations (e.g., lightning location network data), airborne navigation and instrument data sets, model output parameters, and other applicable Earth science data sets. The integration and delivery of this information is made possible using data acquisition systems, network communication links, network server resources, and visualizations through the Google Earth virtual globe application. In order to improve the usefulness and efficiency of the RTMM system, capabilities are being developed to allow the end-user to easily configure RTMM applications based on their mission-specific requirements and objectives. This second generation RTMM is being redesigned to take advantage of the Google plug-in capabilities to run multiple applications in a web browser rather than the original single application Google Earth approach. Currently RTMM employs a limited Service Oriented Architecture approach to enable discovery of mission specific resources. We are expanding the RTMM architecture such that it will more effectively utilize the Open Geospatial Consortium Sensor Web Enablement services and other new technology software tools and components. These modifications and extensions will result in a robust, versatile RTMM system that will greatly increase flexibility of the user to choose which science data sets and support applications to view and/or use. The improvements brought about by RTMM 2nd generation system will provide mission planners and airborne scientists with enhanced decision-making tools and capabilities to more

  15. FPGA Based Real Time Monitoring System for Agricultural Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dinesh,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The most important factors for the quality and productivity of plant growth are temperature, humidity, light and the level of the carbon dioxide. Continuous monitoring of these environmental variables gives information to the grower to better understand, how each factor affects growth and how to manage maximal crop productiveness .The optimal greenhouse climate adjustment can enable us to improve productivity and to achieve remarkable energy savings - especially during the winter in northern countries. The system itself was usually simple without opportunities to control locally heating, lights, ventilation or some other activity, which was affecting the greenhouse interior climate. This all has changed in the modern greenhouses. The typical size of the greenhouse itself is much bigger what it was before, and the greenhouse facilities provide several options to make local adjustments to the lights, ventilation, heating and other greenhouse support systems.However, more measurement data is also needed to make this kind of automation system work properly. Increased number of measurement points should not dramatically increase the automation system cost. It should also be possible to easily change the location of the measurement points according to the particular needs, which depend on the specific plant, on the possible changes in the external weather or greenhouse structure and on the plant placement in the greenhouse. For the implementation of agricultural technologies, low cost and real time remote monitoring are needed, in this sense, programmable Logic Devices (PLDs present as a good option for the technology development and implementation, because PLDs allow fast development of prototypes and the design of complex hardware systems using FPGAs (Field Programmable Gate Arrays and Complex Programmable Logic Devices.

  16. Cherenkov Video Imaging Allows for the First Visualization of Radiation Therapy in Real Time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, Lesley A., E-mail: Lesley.a.jarvis@hitchcock.org [Department of Medicine, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire (United States); Norris Cotton Cancer Center at the Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire (United States); Zhang, Rongxiao [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire (United States); Gladstone, David J. [Department of Medicine, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire (United States); Norris Cotton Cancer Center at the Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire (United States); Jiang, Shudong [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire (United States); Hitchcock, Whitney [Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire (United States); Friedman, Oscar D.; Glaser, Adam K.; Jermyn, Michael [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire (United States); Pogue, Brian W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire (United States); Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: To determine whether Cherenkov light imaging can visualize radiation therapy in real time during breast radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: An intensified charge-coupled device (CCD) camera was synchronized to the 3.25-μs radiation pulses of the clinical linear accelerator with the intensifier set × 100. Cherenkov images were acquired continuously (2.8 frames/s) during fractionated whole breast irradiation with each frame an accumulation of 100 radiation pulses (approximately 5 monitor units). Results: The first patient images ever created are used to illustrate that Cherenkov emission can be visualized as a video during conditions typical for breast radiation therapy, even with complex treatment plans, mixed energies, and modulated treatment fields. Images were generated correlating to the superficial dose received by the patient and potentially the location of the resulting skin reactions. Major blood vessels are visible in the image, providing the potential to use these as biological landmarks for improved geometric accuracy. The potential for this system to detect radiation therapy misadministrations, which can result from hardware malfunction or patient positioning setup errors during individual fractions, is shown. Conclusions: Cherenkoscopy is a unique method for visualizing surface dose resulting in real-time quality control. We propose that this system could detect radiation therapy errors in everyday clinical practice at a time when these errors can be corrected to result in improved safety and quality of radiation therapy.

  17. Multisensor Instrument for Real-Time Biological Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sean (Zhanxiang); Xu, Guoda; Qiu, Wei; Lin, Freddie

    2004-01-01

    The figure schematically depicts an instrumentation system, called a fiber optic-based integration system (FOBIS), that is undergoing development to enable real-time monitoring of fluid cell cultures, bioprocess flows, and the like. The FOBIS design combines a micro flow cytometer (MFC), a microphotometer (MP), and a fluorescence-spectrum- or binding-force-measuring micro-sensor (MS) in a single instrument that is capable of measuring multiple biological parameters simultaneously or sequentially. The fiber-optic-based integration system is so named because the MFC, the MP, and the MS are integrated into a single optical system that is coupled to light sources and photometric equipment via optical fibers. The optical coupling components also include a wavelength-division multiplexer and diffractive optical elements. The FOBIS includes a laserdiode- and fiber-optic-based optical trapping subsystem (optical tweezers ) with microphotometric and micro-sensing capabilities for noninvasive confinement and optical measurement of relevant parameters of a single cell or other particle. Some of the measurement techniques implemented together by the FOBIS have long been used separately to obtain basic understanding of the optical properties of individual cells and other organisms, the optical properties of populations of organisms, and the interrelationships among these properties, physiology of the organisms, and physical processes that govern the media that surround the organisms. For example, flow cytometry yields information on numerical concentrations, cross-sectional areas, and types of cells or other particles. Micro-sensing can be used to measure pH and concentrations of oxygen, carbon dioxide, glucose, metabolites, calcium, and antigens in a cell-culture fluid, thereby providing feedback that can be helpful in improving control over a bioprocess. Microphotometry (including measurements of scattering and fluorescence) can yield further information about optically

  18. Educating Families on Real Time Continuous Glucose Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messer, Laurel; Ruedy, Katrina; Xing, Dongyuan; Coffey, Julie; Englert, Kimberly; Caswell, Kimberly; Ives, Brett

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this article is to describe the process of educating families and children with type 1 diabetes on real time continuous glucose monitoring (RT-CGM) and to note the similarities and differences of training patients using continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) versus multiple daily injections (MDI). Methods A total of 30 CSII participants and 27 MDI participants were educated using the Navigator RT-CGM in a clinical trial. Time spent with families for visits and calls was tracked and compared between patient groups. The Diabetes Research in Children Network (DirecNet) educators were surveyed to assess the most crucial, time intensive, and difficult educational concepts related to CGM. Results Of the 27 MDI families, an average of 9.6 hours was spent on protocol-prescribed visits and calls (not measured in CSII) and 2 hours on participant-initiated contacts over 3 months. MDI families required an average of 5.4 more phone contacts over 3 months than CSII families. According to the DirecNet educators, lag time and calibrations were the most crucial teaching concepts for successful RT-CGM use. The most time was spent on teaching technical aspects, troubleshooting, and insulin dosing. The most unanticipated difficulties were skin problems including irritation and the sensor not adhering well. Conclusion Educators who teach RT-CGM should emphasize lag time and calibration techniques, technical device training, and sensor insertion. Follow-up focus should include insulin dosing adjustments and skin issues. The time and effort required to introduce RT-CGM provided an opportunity for the diabetes educators to reemphasize good diabetes care practices and promote self-awareness and autonomy to patients and families. PMID:19244568

  19. Towards real-time regional earthquake simulation I: real-time moment tensor monitoring (RMT) for regional events in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shiann-Jong; Liang, Wen-Tzong; Cheng, Hui-Wen; Tu, Feng-Shan; Ma, Kuo-Fong; Tsuruoka, Hiroshi; Kawakatsu, Hitoshi; Huang, Bor-Shouh; Liu, Chun-Chi

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a real-time moment tensor monitoring system (RMT) which takes advantage of a grid-based moment tensor inversion technique and real-time broad-band seismic recordings to automatically monitor earthquake activities in the vicinity of Taiwan. The centroid moment tensor (CMT) inversion technique and a grid search scheme are applied to obtain the information of earthquake source parameters, including the event origin time, hypocentral location, moment magnitude and focal mechanism. All of these source parameters can be determined simultaneously within 117 s after the occurrence of an earthquake. The monitoring area involves the entire Taiwan Island and the offshore region, which covers the area of 119.3°E to 123.0°E and 21.0°N to 26.0°N, with a depth from 6 to 136 km. A 3-D grid system is implemented in the monitoring area with a uniform horizontal interval of 0.1° and a vertical interval of 10 km. The inversion procedure is based on a 1-D Green's function database calculated by the frequency-wavenumber (fk) method. We compare our results with the Central Weather Bureau (CWB) catalogue data for earthquakes occurred between 2010 and 2012. The average differences between event origin time and hypocentral location are less than 2 s and 10 km, respectively. The focal mechanisms determined by RMT are also comparable with the Broadband Array in Taiwan for Seismology (BATS) CMT solutions. These results indicate that the RMT system is realizable and efficient to monitor local seismic activities. In addition, the time needed to obtain all the point source parameters is reduced substantially compared to routine earthquake reports. By connecting RMT with a real-time online earthquake simulation (ROS) system, all the source parameters will be forwarded to the ROS to make the real-time earthquake simulation feasible. The RMT has operated offline (2010-2011) and online (since January 2012 to present) at the Institute of Earth Sciences (IES), Academia Sinica

  20. Analysis of real-time reservoir monitoring : reservoirs, strategies, & modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mani, Seethambal S.; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; Cooper, Scott Patrick; Jakaboski, Blake Elaine; Normann, Randy Allen; Jennings, Jim (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Gilbert, Bob (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Lake, Larry W. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Weiss, Chester Joseph; Lorenz, John Clay; Elbring, Gregory Jay; Wheeler, Mary Fanett (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Thomas, Sunil G. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Rightley, Michael J.; Rodriguez, Adolfo (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Klie, Hector (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Banchs, Rafael (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Nunez, Emilio J. (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX); Jablonowski, Chris (University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX)

    2006-11-01

    The project objective was to detail better ways to assess and exploit intelligent oil and gas field information through improved modeling, sensor technology, and process control to increase ultimate recovery of domestic hydrocarbons. To meet this objective we investigated the use of permanent downhole sensors systems (Smart Wells) whose data is fed real-time into computational reservoir models that are integrated with optimized production control systems. The project utilized a three-pronged approach (1) a value of information analysis to address the economic advantages, (2) reservoir simulation modeling and control optimization to prove the capability, and (3) evaluation of new generation sensor packaging to survive the borehole environment for long periods of time. The Value of Information (VOI) decision tree method was developed and used to assess the economic advantage of using the proposed technology; the VOI demonstrated the increased subsurface resolution through additional sensor data. Our findings show that the VOI studies are a practical means of ascertaining the value associated with a technology, in this case application of sensors to production. The procedure acknowledges the uncertainty in predictions but nevertheless assigns monetary value to the predictions. The best aspect of the procedure is that it builds consensus within interdisciplinary teams The reservoir simulation and modeling aspect of the project was developed to show the capability of exploiting sensor information both for reservoir characterization and to optimize control of the production system. Our findings indicate history matching is improved as more information is added to the objective function, clearly indicating that sensor information can help in reducing the uncertainty associated with reservoir characterization. Additional findings and approaches used are described in detail within the report. The next generation sensors aspect of the project evaluated sensors and packaging

  1. Simulation study of real-time monitor for BEPC-Ⅱ luminosity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A fast and real time luminosity monitor system will be used in the BEPC-Ⅱ(Beijing Electron Positron Collider,China).Photons generated in radiative Bhabha scattering at the interaction point are transformed into charged particles,and then the luminosity of each bunch pair is measured through collecting the Cherenkov light produced by charged particles in fused silica.The whole process happening in the detector is simulated.The physics acceptance and detection threshold with the monitor accu-racy of 1% are set based on the simulation spectra of photoelectron yield calibrated by e-beam data.

  2. NOAA Satellite Based Real Time Forest Fire Monitoring System for Russia and North Asian Region

    OpenAIRE

    Kalpoma,Kazi A. / Kawano,Koichi / Kudoh,Jun-ichi; / カワノ,コウイチ / クドウ,ジュンイチ

    2007-01-01

    Forest fires cause severe damages to natural resources and human lives all over the world. Though a lot of forest fires occur in Russia and North Asia every year, there is no system available that monitors forest fire in real time processing. However the MODIS Land Rapid Response System provides near-real time fire observations globally, currently forest fire monitoring techniques are not efficient enough to optimally monitor this disaster. For a real-time forest fire monitor system an effici...

  3. Real-time eye lens dose monitoring during cerebral angiography procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, M J; Wong, J H D; Kadir, K A A; Thorpe, N K; Cutajar, D L; Petasecca, M; Lerch, M L F; Rosenfeld, A B; Ng, K H

    2016-01-01

    To develop a real-time dose-monitoring system to measure the patient's eye lens dose during neuro-interventional procedures. Radiation dose received at left outer canthus (LOC) and left eyelid (LE) were measured using Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor dosimeters on 35 patients who underwent diagnostic or cerebral embolization procedures. The radiation dose received at the LOC region was significantly higher than the dose received by the LE. The maximum eye lens dose of 1492 mGy was measured at LOC region for an AVM case, followed by 907 mGy for an aneurysm case and 665 mGy for a diagnostic angiography procedure. Strong correlations (shown as R(2)) were observed between kerma-area-product and measured eye doses (LOC: 0.78, LE: 0.68). Lateral and frontal air-kerma showed strong correlations with measured dose at LOC (AKL: 0.93, AKF: 0.78) and a weak correlation with measured dose at LE. A moderate correlation was observed between fluoroscopic time and dose measured at LE and LOC regions. The MOSkin dose-monitoring system represents a new tool enabling real-time monitoring of eye lens dose during neuro-interventional procedures. This system can provide interventionalists with information needed to adjust the clinical procedure to control the patient's dose. Real-time patient dose monitoring helps interventionalists to monitor doses. Strong correlation was observed between kerma-area-product and measured eye doses. Radiation dose at left outer canthus was higher than at left eyelid.

  4. Real-time evolvable pulse shaper for radiation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanchares, Juan, E-mail: julandan@dacya.ucm.es [Facultad de Informática, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), C/Prof. José García Santesmases s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Garnica, Oscar, E-mail: ogarnica@dacya.ucm.es [Facultad de Informática, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), C/Prof. José García Santesmases s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Risco-Martín, José L., E-mail: jlrisco@dacya.ucm.es [Facultad de Informática, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), C/Prof. José García Santesmases s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Ignacio Hidalgo, J., E-mail: hidalgo@dacya.ucm.es [Facultad de Informática, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), C/Prof. José García Santesmases s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Regadío, Alberto, E-mail: alberto.regadio@insa.es [Área de Tecnologías Electrónicas, Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial (INTA), 28850 Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-11-01

    In the last two decades, recursive algorithms for real-time digital pulse shaping in pulse height measurements have been developed and published in number of articles and textbooks. All these algorithms try to synthesize in real time optimum or near optimum shapes in the presence of noise. Even though some of these shapers can be considered effective designs, some side effects like aging cannot be ignored. We may observe that after sensors degradation, the signal obtained is not valid. In this regard, we present in this paper a novel technique that, based on evolvable hardware concepts, is able to evolve the degenerated shaper into a new design with better performance than the original one under the new sensor features.

  5. Heterogeneous computing for a real-time pig monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Younchang; Kim, Jinseong; Kim, Jaehak; Chung, Yeonwoo; Chung, Yongwha; Park, Daihee; Kim, Hakjae

    2017-06-01

    Video sensor data has been widely used in automatic surveillance applications. In this study, we present a method that automatically detects pigs in a pig room by using depth information obtained from a Kinect sensor. For a real-time implementation, we propose a means of reducing the execution time by applying parallel processing techniques. In general, most parallel processing techniques have been used to parallelize a specific task. In this study, we consider parallelization of an entire system that consists of several tasks. By applying a scheduling strategy to identify a computing device for each task and implementing it with OpenCL, we can reduce the total execution time efficiently. Experimental results reveal that the proposed method can automatically detect pigs using a CPU-GPU hybrid system in real time, regardless of the relative performance between the CPU and GPU.

  6. Monitoring gene expression: quantitative real-time rt-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Elke M

    2013-01-01

    Two-step quantitative real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR), also known as real-time RT-PCR, kinetic RT-PCR, or quantitative fluorescent RT-PCR, has become the method of choice for gene expression analysis during the last few years. It is a fast and convenient PCR method that combines traditional RT-PCR with the phenomenon of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) using fluorogenic primers. The detection of changes in fluorescence intensity during the reaction enables the user to follow the PCR reaction in real time.RT-qPCR comprises several steps: (1) RNA is isolated from target tissue/cells; (2) mRNA is reverse-transcribed to cDNA; (3) modified gene-specific PCR primers are used to amplify a segment of the cDNA of interest, following the reaction in real time; and (4) the initial concentration of the selected transcript in a specific tissue or cell type is calculated from the exponential phase of the reaction. Relative quantification or absolute quantification compared to standards that are run in parallel can be performed.This chapter describes the entire procedure from isolation of total RNA from liver and fatty tissues/cells to the use of RT-qPCR to study gene expression in these tissues. We perform relative quantification of transcripts to calculate the fold-difference of a certain mRNA level between different samples. In addition, tips for choosing primers and performing analyses are provided to help the beginner in understanding the technique.

  7. Radiation exposure in nuclear medicine: real-time measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iara Sylvain

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available French regulations have introduced the use of electronic dosimeters for personal monitoring of workers. In order to evaluate the exposure from diagnostic procedures to nuclear medicine staff, individual whole-body doses were measured daily with electronic (digital personal dosimeters during 20 consecutive weeks and correlated with the work load of each day. Personal doses remained always below 20 µSv/d under normal working conditions. Radiation exposure levels were highest to tech staff, nurses and stretcher-bearers. The extrapolated annual cumulative doses for all staff remained less than 10 % of the maximum legal limit for exposed workers (2 mSv/yr. Electronic dosimeters are not technically justified for routine survey of staff. The high sensitivity and immediate reading of electronic semiconductor dosimeters may become very useful for exposure control under risky working conditions. It may become an important help for optimising radiation protection.A legislação francesa introduziu o uso de dosímetros eletrônicos para monitoração da exposição do trabalhador. Afim de avaliar a exposição do trabalhador proveniente de exames diagnósticos em medicina nuclear, doses individuais do corpo inteiro foram medidas diariamente com dosímetros eletrônicos (digitais durante 20 semanas consecutivas e correlatas com as atividades de trabalho de cada dia. As doses foram sempre inferiores à 20 µSv por dia em condições normais de trabalho. Os níveis de exposição de radiação mais elevados foram para os enfermeiros, manipuladores e maqueiros. A extrapolação da dose anual para todos os trabalhadores foi menos que 10 % do limite máximo legal para os trabalhadores expostos (2 mSv/ano. Dosímetros eletrônicos não são tecnicamente justificados para a o controle de rotina da exposição dos trabalhadores, mas a alta sensibilidade e a leitura imediata desses dosímetros podem vir a serem muito úteis para o controle da exposição em condi

  8. The new Athens center on data processing from the neutron monitor network in real time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavromichalaki

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The ground-based neutron monitors (NMs record galactic and solar relativistic cosmic rays which can play a useful key role in space weather forecasting, as a result of their interaction with interplanetary disturbances. The Earth's-based neutron monitor network has been used in order to produce a real-time prediction of space weather phenomena. Therefore, the Athens Neutron Monitor Data Processing Center (ANMODAP takes advantage of this unique multi-directional device to solve problems concerning the diagnosis and forecasting of space weather. At this moment there has been a multi-sided use of neutron monitors. On the one hand, a preliminary alert for ground level enhancements (GLEs may be provided due to relativistic solar particles and can be registered around 20 to 30 min before the arrival of the main part of lower energy particles responsible for radiation hazard. To make a more reliable prognosis of these events, real time data from channels of lower energy particles and X-ray intensity from the GOES satellite are involved in the analysis. The other possibility is to search in real time for predictors of geomagnetic storms when they occur simultaneously with Forbush effects, using hourly, on-line accessible neutron monitor data from the worldwide network and applying a special method of processing. This chance of prognosis is only being elaborated and considered here as one of the possible uses of the Neutron Monitor Network for forecasting the arrival of interplanetary disturbance to the Earth. The achievements, the processes and the future results, are discussed in this work.

  9. Dynamic Modeling and Real-Time Monitoring of Froth Flotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khushaal Popli

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic fundamental model was developed linking processes from the microscopic scale to the equipment scale for batch froth flotation. State estimation, fault detection, and disturbance identification were implemented using the extended Kalman filter (EKF, which reconciles real-time measurements with dynamic models. The online measurements for the EKF were obtained through image analysis of froth images that were captured and analyzed using the commercial package VisioFroth (Metsor Minerals. The extracted image features were then correlated to recovery using principal component analysis and partial least squares regression. The performance of real-time state estimation and fault detection was validated using batch flotation of pure galena at various operating conditions. The image features that were strongly representative of recovery were identified, and calibration and validation were performed against off-line measurements of recovery. The EKF successfully captured the dynamics of the process by updating the model states and parameters using the online measurements. Finally, disturbances in the air flow rate and impeller speed were introduced into the system, and the dynamic behavior of the flotation process was successfully tracked and the disturbances were identified using state estimation.

  10. Monitoring and Acquisition Real-time System (MARS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Corbin

    2013-01-01

    MARS is a graphical user interface (GUI) written in MATLAB and Java, allowing the user to configure and control the Scalable Parallel Architecture for Real-Time Acquisition and Analysis (SPARTAA) data acquisition system. SPARTAA not only acquires data, but also allows for complex algorithms to be applied to the acquired data in real time. The MARS client allows the user to set up and configure all settings regarding the data channels attached to the system, as well as have complete control over starting and stopping data acquisition. It provides a unique "Test" programming environment, allowing the user to create tests consisting of a series of alarms, each of which contains any number of data channels. Each alarm is configured with a particular algorithm, determining the type of processing that will be applied on each data channel and tested against a defined threshold. Tests can be uploaded to SPARTAA, thereby teaching it how to process the data. The uniqueness of MARS is in its capability to be adaptable easily to many test configurations. MARS sends and receives protocols via TCP/IP, which allows for quick integration into almost any test environment. The use of MATLAB and Java as the programming languages allows for developers to integrate the software across multiple operating platforms.

  11. Real-time eye lens dose monitoring during cerebral angiography procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safari, M.J.; Wong, J.H.D.; Kadir, K.A.A.; Ng, K.H. [University of Malaya, Department of Biomedical Imaging, Faculty of Medicine, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); University of Malaya, University of Malaya Research Imaging Centre (UMRIC), Faculty of Medicine, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Thorpe, N.K.; Cutajar, D.L.; Petasecca, M.; Lerch, M.L.F.; Rosenfeld, A.B. [University of Wollongong, Centre for Medical Radiation Physics (CMRP), Wollongong, NSW (Australia)

    2016-01-15

    To develop a real-time dose-monitoring system to measure the patient's eye lens dose during neuro-interventional procedures. Radiation dose received at left outer canthus (LOC) and left eyelid (LE) were measured using Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor dosimeters on 35 patients who underwent diagnostic or cerebral embolization procedures. The radiation dose received at the LOC region was significantly higher than the dose received by the LE. The maximum eye lens dose of 1492 mGy was measured at LOC region for an AVM case, followed by 907 mGy for an aneurysm case and 665 mGy for a diagnostic angiography procedure. Strong correlations (shown as R{sup 2}) were observed between kerma-area-product and measured eye doses (LOC: 0.78, LE: 0.68). Lateral and frontal air-kerma showed strong correlations with measured dose at LOC (AK{sub L}: 0.93, AK{sub F}: 0.78) and a weak correlation with measured dose at LE. A moderate correlation was observed between fluoroscopic time and dose measured at LE and LOC regions. The MOSkin dose-monitoring system represents a new tool enabling real-time monitoring of eye lens dose during neuro-interventional procedures. This system can provide interventionalists with information needed to adjust the clinical procedure to control the patient's dose. (orig.)

  12. Real-time self-networking radiation detector apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Edward; Lemley, James; Tsang, Thomas Y.; Milian, Laurence W.

    2007-06-12

    The present invention is for a radiation detector apparatus for detecting radiation sources present in cargo shipments. The invention includes the features of integrating a bubble detector sensitive to neutrons and a GPS system into a miniaturized package that can wirelessly signal the presence of radioactive material in shipping containers. The bubble density would be read out if such indicated a harmful source.

  13. Quantitative in situ and real-time monitoring of mechanochemical reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halasz, Ivan; Friščić, Tomislav; Kimber, Simon A J; Užarević, Krunoslav; Puškarić, Andreas; Mottillo, Cristina; Julien, Patrick; Strukil, Vjekoslav; Honkimäki, Veijo; Dinnebier, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    An experimental technique for in situ and real-time monitoring of mechanochemical reactions in a shaker ball mill was recently described, which utilises highly penetrating X-ray radiation available at the ID15B beamline of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. Herein, we describe the first attempts to perform such reaction monitoring in a quantitative fashion, by introducing an internal X-ray diffraction standard. The use of silicon as an internal standard resolved the issue with variations of the amount of the sample in the X-ray beam due to the non-uniform distribution of the sample in the reaction jar and allowed, via Rietveld analysis, the first quantitative estimate of the amorphous phase content in a mechanochemical reaction as it is being milled. We also highlight problems associated with the non-ideal mixing of the reaction mixture.

  14. Development of Real-Time Coal Monitoring Instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajan Gurjar, Ph.D.

    2010-06-17

    Relying on coal for energy requires optimizing the extraction of heat content from various blends of coal fuel and reducing harmful constituents and byproducts. Having a real-time measurement instrument provides relevant information about toxic constituents released in the atmosphere from burning coal and optimizes the performance of a power plant. A few commercial instruments exist and have been in operation for more than a decade. However, most of these instruments are based on radioactive sources and are bulky, expensive and time-consuming. The proposed instrument is based on the Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). The advantage of LIBS is that it is a standoff instrument, does not require sample preparation and provides precise information about sample constituents.

  15. Real-time bus location monitoring using Arduino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohammad Y. M.; Audah, Lukman

    2017-09-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is the network of objects, such as a vehicles, mobile devices, and buildings that have electronic components, software, and network connectivity that enable them to collect data, run commands, and be controlled through the Internet. Controlling physical items from the Internet will increase efficiency and save time. The growing number of devices used by people increases the practicality of having IoT devices on the market. The IoT is also an opportunity to develop products that can save money and time and increase work efficiency. Initially, they need more efficiency for real-time bus location systems, especially in university campuses. This system can easily find the accurate locations of and distances between each bus stop and the estimated time to reach a new location. This system has been separated into two parts, which are the hardware and the software. The hardware parts are the Arduino Uno and the Global Positioning System (GPS), while Google Earth and GpsGate are the software parts. The GPS continuously takes input data from the satellite and stores the latitude and longitude values in the Arduino Uno. If we want to track the vehicle, we need to send the longitude and latitude as a message to the Google Earth software to convert these into maps for navigation. Once the Arduino Uno is activated, it takes the last received latitude and longitude positions' values from GpsGate and sends a message to Google Earth. Once the message has been sent to Google Earth, the current location will be shown, and navigation will be activated automatically. Then it will be broadcast using ManyCam, Google+ Hangouts, and YouTube, as well as Facebook, and appear to users. The additional features use Google Forms for determining problems faced by students, who can also take immediate action against the responsible department. Then after several successful simulations, the results will be shown in real time on a map.

  16. The effect of real-time continuous glucose monitoring in pregnant women with diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Anna L; Ringholm, Lene; Damm, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    To assess whether intermittent real-time continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) improves glycemic control and pregnancy outcome in unselected women with pregestational diabetes.......To assess whether intermittent real-time continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) improves glycemic control and pregnancy outcome in unselected women with pregestational diabetes....

  17. Gun Launch System: efficient and low-cost means of research and real-time monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degtyarev, Alexander; Ventskovsky, Oleg; Korostelev, Oleg; Yakovenko, Peter; Kanevsky, Valery; Tselinko, Alexander

    2005-08-01

    The Gun Launch System with a reusable sub-orbital launch vehicle as a central element is proposed by a consortium of several Ukrainian high-tech companies as an effective, fast-response and low-cost means of research and real-time monitoring. The system is described in details, with the emphasis on its most important advantages. Multiple applications of the system are presented, including ones for the purposes of microgravity research; chemical, bacteriological and radiation monitoring and research of atmosphere and ionosphere; operational monitoring of natural and man-made disasters, as well as for some other areas of great practical interest. The current level of the system development is given, and the way ahead towards full system's implementation is prescribed.

  18. Research on Web-based Real-time Monitoring System on SVG and Comet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuehui Xian

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available For the lack of real-time performance of browser technology in existing Web-based real-time monitoring system, takes use of SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics and the Comet to design a new Web-based real-time monitoring system. In this system, JSON (JavaScript Object Notation is the data transmission carrier, Comet is the key technology for system communication and data transmission, and SVG is a chart drawing tool in the browser side. So this system has a good real-time and is rich in the form of show.

  19. Aircraft Engine Life-Consumption Monitoring for Real-Time Reliability Determination Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A real-time life-use consumption monitor is proposed for aircraft engine systems. The life monitor will process power data available on the aircraft to calculate the...

  20. A real-time applicator position monitoring system for gynecologic intracavitary brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Junyi, E-mail: junyi-xia@uiowa.edu; Waldron, Timothy; Kim, Yusung [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: To develop a real-time applicator position monitoring system (RAPS) for intracavitary brachytherapy using an infrared camera and reflective markers. Methods: 3D image-guided brachytherapy requires high accuracy of applicator localization; however, applicator displacement can happen during patient transfer for imaging and treatment delivery. No continuous applicator position monitoring system is currently available. The RAPS system was developed for real-time applicator position monitoring without additional radiation dose to patients. It includes an infrared camera, reflective markers, an infrared illuminator, and image processing software. After reflective markers are firmly attached to the applicator and the patient body, applicator displacement can be measured by computing the relative change in distance between the markers. The reflective markers are magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compatible, which is suitable for MRI-guided HDR brachytherapy paradigm. In our prototype, a Microsoft Kinect sensor with a resolution of 640 by 480 pixels is used as an infrared camera. A phantom study was carried out to compare RAPS' measurements with known displacements ranging from −15 to +15 mm. A reproducibility test was also conducted. Results: The RAPS can achieve 4 frames/s using a laptop with Intel{sup ®} Core™2 Duo processor. When the pixel size is 0.95 mm, the difference between RAPS' measurements and known shift values varied from 0 to 0.8 mm with the mean value of 0.1 mm and a standard deviation of 0.44 mm. The system reproducibility was within 0.6 mm after ten reposition trials. Conclusions: This work demonstrates the feasibility of a real-time infrared camera based gynecologic intracavitary brachytherapy applicator monitoring system. Less than 1 mm accuracy is achieved when using an off-the-shelf infrared camera.

  1. Monitoring Ion Channel Function In Real Time Through Quantum Decoherence

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, L T; Cole, J H; Städler, B; Caruso, F; Mulvaney, P; Wrachtrup, J; Hollenberg, L C L

    2009-01-01

    In drug discovery research there is a clear and urgent need for non-invasive detection of cell membrane ion channel operation with wide-field capability. Existing techniques are generally invasive, require specialized nano structures, or are only applicable to certain ion channel species. We show that quantum nanotechnology has enormous potential to provide a novel solution to this problem. The nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centre in nano-diamond is currently of great interest as a novel single atom quantum probe for nanoscale processes. However, until now, beyond the use of diamond nanocrystals as fluorescence markers, nothing was known about the quantum behaviour of a NV probe in the complex room temperature extra-cellular environment. For the first time we explore in detail the quantum dynamics of a NV probe in proximity to the ion channel, lipid bilayer and surrounding aqueous environment. Our theoretical results indicate that real-time detection of ion channel operation at millisecond resolution is possible by d...

  2. Fast Real-Time Digital Monitoring of Signal Waveform Quality Using an FPGA

    OpenAIRE

    S. Talha Ahsan; Hugh McCann

    2013-01-01

    The real-time or offline monitoring of signal waveform quality is important in many applications, such as electrical power quality monitoring, measurement of waveform distortion in recording systems and monitoring of electrical excitation in active measurement systems. This study presents a signal monitoring system based on a Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), which receives digitized samples of analogue voltage developed across a sense resistor and performs signal processing in real time....

  3. Real-time monitoring system of composite aircraft wings utilizing Fibre Bragg Grating sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorathin, E.; Hafizi, Z. M.; Che Ghani, S. A.; Lim, K. S.

    2016-10-01

    Embedment of Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) sensor in composite aircraft wings leads to the advancement of structural condition monitoring. The monitored aircraft wings have the capability to give real-time response under critical loading circumstances. The main objective of this paper is to develop a real-time FBG monitoring system for composite aircraft wings to view real-time changes when the structure undergoes some static loadings and dynamic impact. The implementation of matched edge filter FBG interrogation system to convert wavelength variations to strain readings shows that the structure is able to response instantly in real-time when undergoing few loadings and dynamic impact. This smart monitoring system is capable of updating the changes instantly in real-time and shows the weight induced on the composite aircraft wings instantly without any error. It also has a good agreement with acoustic emission (AE) sensor in the dynamic test.

  4. Theoretical research on construction quality real-time monitoring and system integration of core rockfill dam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    With the enlargement of core rockfill dam construction scale and the improvement of construction mechanization level, the traditional manual construction quality control method is now difficult to meet the quality and safety demands of modern dam construction, so automatic and real-time dam construction quality monitoring with high-techs is urgently needed. The paper makes theoretical research on construction quality real-time monitoring and system integration of core rockfill dam, proposes implementation method and integrated solution of construction quality real-time monitoring of core rockfill dam construction process, realizes refining, all-whether, entire-process and real-time control and analysis on key links of dam construction, and introduces the application of the construction quality real-time monitoring and system integration technology to a practical core rockfill dam project.

  5. Theoretical research on construction quality real-time monitoring and system integration of core rockfill dam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG DengHua; CUI Bo; LIU DongHai; TONG DaWei

    2009-01-01

    With the enlargement of core rockfill dam construction scale and the Improvement of construction mechanization level, the traditional manual construction quality control method is now difficult to meet the quality and safety demands of modern dam construction, so automatic and real-time dam con-struction quality monitoring with high-techs is urgently needed.The paper makes theoretical research on construction quality real-time monitoring and system integration of core rock/ill dam, proposes im-plementation method and integrated solution of construction quality real-time monitoring of core rock-fill dam construction process, realizes refining, all-whether, entire-process and real-time control and analysis on key links of dam construction, and introduces the application of the construction quality real-time monitoring and system integration technology to a practical core rockfill dam project.

  6. Non-invasive physiological wearable sensor real time monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Alharbi, Samah

    2015-01-01

    This project presents the implementation of reflectance Photoplethysmography (PPG) and thermo-chip sensor-¬based wireless architecture for a human health monitoring system. The thermo-¬‐chip sensor is used to continuously monitor the body temperature, while the reflectance PPG sensor is used to measure the heart rate by an optical technique that senses the blood volume change in the tissues and vessels. The sensors outputs are then given to the signal conditioning circuit used to filter the n...

  7. Remote Real-Time Monitoring of Subsurface Landfill Gas Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan F. Smeaton

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The cost of monitoring greenhouse gas emissions from landfill sites is of major concern for regulatory authorities. The current monitoring procedure is recognised as labour intensive, requiring agency inspectors to physically travel to perimeter borehole wells in rough terrain and manually measure gas concentration levels with expensive hand-held instrumentation. In this article we present a cost-effective and efficient system for remotely monitoring landfill subsurface migration of methane and carbon dioxide concentration levels. Based purely on an autonomous sensing architecture, the proposed sensing platform was capable of performing complex analytical measurements in situ and successfully communicating the data remotely to a cloud database. A web tool was developed to present the sensed data to relevant stakeholders. We report our experiences in deploying such an approach in the field over a period of approximately 16 months.

  8. RadMonitor: radiology operations data mining in real time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Richard; Mongkolwat, Pattanasak; Channin, David S

    2008-09-01

    This paper describes the web-based visualization interface of RadMonitor, a platform-independent web application designed to help manage the complexity of information flow within a health care enterprise. The system eavesdrops on Health Layer 7 traffic and parses statistical operational information into a database. The information is then presented to the user as a treemap--a graphical visualization scheme that simplifies the display of hierarchical information. While RadMonitor has been implemented for the purpose of analyzing radiology operations, its XML backend allows it to be reused for virtually any other hierarchical data set.

  9. Fiber Optics Deliver Real-Time Structural Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    To alter the shape of aircraft wings during flight, researchers at Dryden Flight Research Center worked on a fiber optic sensor system with Austin-based 4DSP LLC. The company has since commercialized a new fiber optic system for monitoring applications in health and medicine, oil and gas, and transportation, increasing company revenues by 60 percent.

  10. Real Time Distributed Embedded Oscillator Operating Frequency Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Julie (Inventor); Oliver, Brett D. (Inventor); Brickner, Christopher (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method for clock monitoring in a network is provided. The method comprises receiving a first network clock signal at a network device and comparing the first network clock signal to a local clock signal from a primary oscillator coupled to the network device.

  11. Real-Time Distributed Embedded Oscillator Operating Frequency Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Julie; Oliver, Brett; Brickner, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    A document discusses the utilization of embedded clocks inside of operating network data links as an auxiliary clock source to satisfy local oscillator monitoring requirements. Modem network interfaces, typically serial network links, often contain embedded clocking information of very tight precision to recover data from the link. This embedded clocking data can be utilized by the receiving device to monitor the local oscillator for tolerance to required specifications, often important in high-integrity fault-tolerant applications. A device can utilize a received embedded clock to determine if the local or the remote device is out of tolerance by using a single link. The local device can determine if it is failing, assuming a single fault model, with two or more active links. Network fabric components, containing many operational links, can potentially determine faulty remote or local devices in the presence of multiple faults. Two methods of implementation are described. In one method, a recovered clock can be directly used to monitor the local clock as a direct replacement of an external local oscillator. This scheme is consistent with a general clock monitoring function whereby clock sources are clocking two counters and compared over a fixed interval of time. In another method, overflow/underflow conditions can be used to detect clock relationships for monitoring. These network interfaces often provide clock compensation circuitry to allow data to be transferred from the received (network) clock domain to the internal clock domain. This circuit could be modified to detect overflow/underflow conditions of the buffering required and report a fast or slow receive clock, respectively.

  12. Online, real-time corrosion monitoring in district heating systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Thorarinsdottir, R.I.

    2005-01-01

    The corrosion control in district heating systems is today performed primarily with control of the water quality. The corrosion rate is kept low by assuring low dissolved oxygen concentration, high pH and low conductivity. Corrosion failures can occur, e.g. as a result of unknown oxygen ingress......, precipitation of deposits or crevices. The authors describe methods used for on-line monitoring of corrosion, cover the complications and the main results of a Nordic project....

  13. Integrated active sensor system for real time vibration monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qijie; Yan, Xiaoqin; Liao, Xinqin; Cao, Shiyao; Lu, Shengnan; Zheng, Xin; Zhang, Yue

    2015-11-05

    We report a self-powered, lightweight and cost-effective active sensor system for vibration monitoring with multiplexed operation based on contact electrification between sensor and detected objects. The as-fabricated sensor matrix is capable of monitoring and mapping the vibration state of large amounts of units. The monitoring contents include: on-off state, vibration frequency and vibration amplitude of each unit. The active sensor system delivers a detection range of 0-60 Hz, high accuracy (relative error below 0.42%), long-term stability (10000 cycles). On the time dimension, the sensor can provide the vibration process memory by recording the outputs of the sensor system in an extend period of time. Besides, the developed sensor system can realize detection under contact mode and non-contact mode. Its high performance is not sensitive to the shape or the conductivity of the detected object. With these features, the active sensor system has great potential in automatic control, remote operation, surveillance and security systems.

  14. Prostate Intrafraction Translation Margins for Real-Time Monitoring and Correction Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale W. Litzenberg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to determine appropriate radiation therapy beam margins to account for intrafraction prostate translations for use with real-time electromagnetic position monitoring and correction strategies. Motion was measured continuously in 35 patients over 1157 fractions at 5 institutions. This data was studied using van Herk's formula of (αΣ+γσ' for situations ranging from no electromagnetic guidance to automated real-time corrections. Without electromagnetic guidance, margins of over 10 mm are necessary to ensure 95% dosimetric coverage while automated electromagnetic guidance allows the margins necessary for intrafraction translations to be reduced to submillimeter levels. Factors such as prostate deformation and rotation, which are not included in this analysis, will become the dominant concerns as margins are reduced. Continuous electromagnetic monitoring and automated correction have the potential to reduce prostate margins to 2-3 mm, while ensuring that a higher percentage of patients (99% versus 90% receive a greater percentage (99% versus 95% of the prescription dose.

  15. Real Time Flame Monitoring of Gasifier and Injectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelepouga, Serguei; Saveliev, Alexei

    2011-12-31

    This project is a multistage effort with the final goal to develop a practical and reliable nonintrusive gasifier injector monitor to assess burner wear and need for replacement. The project team included the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Gas Technology Institute (GTI), North Carolina State University, and ConocoPhillips. This report presents the results of the sensor development and testing initially at GTI combustion laboratory with natural gas flames, then at the Canada Energy Technology Center (CANMET), Canada in the atmospheric coal combustor as well as in the pilot scale pressurized entrained flow gasifier, and finally the sensor capabilities were demonstrated at the Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) Gasifier and the Wabash River Repowering plant located in West Terre Haute, IN. The initial tests demonstrated that GTI gasifier sensor technology was capable of detecting shape and rich/lean properties of natural gas air/oxygen enriched air flames. The following testing at the Vertical Combustor Research Facility (VCRF) was a logical transition step from the atmospheric natural gas flames to pressurized coal gasification environment. The results of testing with atmospheric coal flames showed that light emitted by excited OH* and CH* radicals in coal/air flames can be detected and quantified. The maximum emission intensities of OH*, CH*, and black body (char combustion) occur at different axial positions along the flame length. Therefore, the excitation rates of CH* and OH* are distinct at different stages of coal combustion and can be utilized to identify and characterize processes which occur during coal combustion such as devolatilization, char heating and burning. To accomplish the goals set for Tasks 4 and 5, GTI utilized the CANMET Pressurized Entrained Flow Gasifier (PEFG). The testing parameters of the PEFG were selected to simulate optimum gasifier operation as well as gasifier conditions normally resulting from improper operation or

  16. Smart sensors for real-time water quality monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Mason, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Sensors are being utilised to increasing degrees in all forms of industry.  Researchers and industrial practitioners in all fields seek to obtain a better understanding of appropriate processes so as to improve quality of service and efficiency.  The quality of water is no exception, and the water industry is faced with a wide array of water quality issues being present world-wide.  Thus, the need for sensors to tackle this diverse subject is paramount.  The aim of this book is to combine, for the first time, international expertise in the area of water quality monitoring using smart sensors and systems in order that a better understanding of the challenges faced and solutions posed may be available to all in a single text.

  17. A real time dose monitoring and dose reconstruction tool for patient specific VMAT QA and delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyagi, Neelam; Yang Kai; Gersten, David; Yan Di [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, 3601 West Thirteen Mile Road, Royal Oak, Michigan 48073 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To develop a real time dose monitoring and dose reconstruction tool to identify and quantify sources of errors during patient specific volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) delivery and quality assurance. Methods: The authors develop a VMAT delivery monitor tool called linac data monitor that connects to the linac in clinical mode and records, displays, and compares real time machine parameters with the planned parameters. A new measure, called integral error, keeps a running total of leaf overshoot and undershoot errors in each leaf pair, multiplied by leaf width, and the amount of time during which the error exists in monitor unit delivery. Another tool reconstructs Pinnacle{sup 3} Trade-Mark-Sign format delivered plan based on the saved machine logfile and recalculates actual delivered dose in patient anatomy. Delivery characteristics of various standard fractionation and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) VMAT plans delivered on Elekta Axesse and Synergy linacs were quantified. Results: The MLC and gantry errors for all the treatment sites were 0.00 {+-} 0.59 mm and 0.05 {+-} 0.31 Degree-Sign , indicating a good MLC gain calibration. Standard fractionation plans had a larger gantry error than SBRT plans due to frequent dose rate changes. On average, the MLC errors were negligible but larger errors of up to 6 mm and 2.5 Degree-Sign were seen when dose rate varied frequently. Large gantry errors occurred during the acceleration and deceleration process, and correlated well with MLC errors (r= 0.858, p= 0.0004). PTV mean, minimum, and maximum dose discrepancies were 0.87 {+-} 0.21%, 0.99 {+-} 0.59%, and 1.18 {+-} 0.52%, respectively. The organs at risk (OAR) doses were within 2.5%, except some OARs that showed up to 5.6% discrepancy in maximum dose. Real time displayed normalized total positive integral error (normalized to the total monitor units) correlated linearly with MLC (r= 0.9279, p < 0.001) and gantry errors (r= 0.742, p= 0.005). There

  18. Alternate Data Acquisition and Real-time Monitoring System on HT-7 Tokamak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Peijie; Luo Jiarong; Wang Hua; Li Guiming

    2005-01-01

    A new system called alternate data acquisition and real-time monitoring system has been developed for long-time discharge in tokamak operation. It can support continuous on-line data acquisition at a high sampling rate and a graphic display of the plasma parameters during the discharge. Thus operators can monitor and control the plasma state in real time. An application of this system has been demonstrated on the HT-7 tokamak.

  19. A Statistical Approach to Performance Monitoring in Soft Real-Time Distributed Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bickson, Danny; Hoch, Ezra N; Shagin, Konstantin

    2009-01-01

    Soft real-time applications require timely delivery of messages conforming to the soft real-time constraints. Satisfying such requirements is a complex task both due to the volatile nature of distributed environments, as well as due to numerous domain-specific factors that affect message latency. Prompt detection of the root-cause of excessive message delay allows a distributed system to react accordingly. This may significantly improve compliance with the required timeliness constraints. In this work, we present a novel approach for distributed performance monitoring of soft-real time distributed systems. We propose to employ recent distributed algorithms from the statistical signal processing and learning domains, and to utilize them in a different context of online performance monitoring and root-cause analysis, for pinpointing the reasons for violation of performance requirements. Our approach is general and can be used for monitoring of any distributed system, and is not limited to the soft real-time dom...

  20. Brainstem Monitoring in the Neurocritical Care Unit: A Rationale for Real-Time, Automated Neurophysiological Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, James L; Bailes, Julian E; Hassan, Ahmed N; Sindelar, Brian; Patel, Vimal; Fino, John

    2017-02-01

    Patients with severe traumatic brain injury or large intracranial space-occupying lesions (spontaneous cerebral hemorrhage, infarction, or tumor) commonly present to the neurocritical care unit with an altered mental status. Many experience progressive stupor and coma from mass effects and transtentorial brain herniation compromising the ascending arousal (reticular activating) system. Yet, little progress has been made in the practicality of bedside, noninvasive, real-time, automated, neurophysiological brainstem, or cerebral hemispheric monitoring. In this critical review, we discuss the ascending arousal system, brain herniation, and shortcomings of our current management including the neurological exam, intracranial pressure monitoring, and neuroimaging. We present a rationale for the development of nurse-friendly-continuous, automated, and alarmed-evoked potential monitoring, based upon the clinical and experimental literature, advances in the prognostication of cerebral anoxia, and intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring.

  1. Automation of the monitoring in real time of the absorbed dose rate in air due to the environmental gamma radiation in Cuba; Automatizacion del monitoreo en tiempo real de la tasa de dosis absorbida en aire debido a la radiacion gamma ambiental en Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez L, O.; Capote F, E.; Carrazana G, J.A.; Manzano de Armas, J.F.; Alonso A, D.; Prendes A, M.; Zerquera, J.T.; Caveda R, C.A. [CPHR, Calle 20, No. 4113 e/41 y 47, Playa, La Habana, 11300, A.P. 6195 C.P. 10600 (Cuba); Kalberg, O. [Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI) (Sweden); Fabelo B, O.; Montalvan E, A. [CIAC, Camaguey (Cuba); Cartas A, H. [CEAC, Cienfuegos (Cuba); Leyva F, J.C. [CISAT (Cuba)]. e-mail: orlando@cphr.edu.cu

    2006-07-01

    The Center of Protection and Hygiene of the Radiations (CPHR) like center rector of the National Net of Environmental Radiological Surveillance (RNVRA), it has strengthened their detection capacity and of answer before a situation of radiological emergency. The measurements of the absorbed dose rate in air due to the environmental gamma radiation in the main stations of the Net are obtained in real time and the CPHR receives the data coming from these posts at one time relatively short. To improve the operability of the RNVRA it was necessary to complete the facilities of existent monitoring using 4 automatic measurement stations with probes of gamma detection, implementing in this way a measurement system on real time. On the other hand the software were developed: GenironProbeFech, to obtain the data of the probes, DataMail for the shipment of the same ones by electronic mail and GammaRed that receives and processes the data in the rector center. (Author)

  2. Monitor of dynamic parameters in real time; Monitor de parametros dinamicos en tiempo real

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas S, A.S.; Ruiz E, J.A. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    In the complex physical systems exist parameters that are necessary for monitoring in real time. In the nuclear industry, particularly in a reactor this surveillance is important, where the times of the reactions are almost instantaneous. Although many of these parameters are monitored, given the advance of the computer systems the monitoring could either be enlarged direct or indirect of other parameters. The analysis of the neutron noise in the nuclear reactors, plays an important role, the noise signal it contains information about the operation conditions of a system, when analyzing it with analysis methodologies of analogical signals to provide important information for the early detection of possible flaws and to indicate the permissible operation levels. To show the characteristics of the operation of the system of Monitoring of Dynamic Parameters in Real Time, oscillations of neutron noise of the TRIGA Mark III of the ININ were analyzed, these were caused with the control bar to a power of 10 Watts, the oscillations were carried out to a frequency of 1Hz, signal of low frequency. In this work a virtual instrument that allows by means of the spectral analysis method in frequency point by point is presented, to indicate in real time periodic variations that could be presented in the neutron noise signal, visualizing in advance the dynamic behavior of the system or nuclear plant. Another of the tests of the monitoring system presented is that of the oscillatory event happened in the reactor of Laguna Verde Nucleo electric Central, would be convenient to have an instrument of surveillance for monitoring through the neutron noise signal the behavior of some important parameter to predict and to indicate in an immediate way an abnormal condition in the reactor operation or in the plant system. These parameters can be the power, the recirculation water flow, etc. The monitor is based on a personal computer (PC), a data acquisition card (ADC) and a computer program

  3. Novel opportunities for wildlife conservation and research with real-time monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Jake; Wittemyer, George; Klinkenberg, Brian; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain

    2014-06-01

    The expansion of global communication networks and advances in animal-tracking technology make possible the real-time telemetry of positional data as recorded by animal-attached tracking units. When combined with continuous, algorithm-based analytical capability, unique opportunities emerge for applied ecological monitoring and wildlife conservation. We present here four broad approaches for algorithmic wildlife monitoring in real time--proximity, geofencing, movement rate, and immobility--designed to examine aspects of wildlife spatial activity and behavior not possible with conventional tracking systems. Application of these four routines to the real-time monitoring of 94 African elephants was made. We also provide details of our cloud-based monitoring system including infrastructure, data collection, and customized software for continuous tracking data analysis. We also highlight future directions of real-time collection and analysis of biological, physiological, and environmental information from wildlife to encourage further development of needed algorithms and monitoring technology. Real-time processing of remotely collected, animal biospatial data promises to open novel directions in ecological research, applied species monitoring, conservation programs, and public outreach and education.

  4. Real-Time Management of Multimodal Streaming Data for Monitoring of Epileptic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafyllopoulos, Dimitrios; Korvesis, Panagiotis; Mporas, Iosif; Megalooikonomou, Vasileios

    2016-03-01

    New generation of healthcare is represented by wearable health monitoring systems, which provide real-time monitoring of patient's physiological parameters. It is expected that continuous ambulatory monitoring of vital signals will improve treatment of patients and enable proactive personal health management. In this paper, we present the implementation of a multimodal real-time system for epilepsy management. The proposed methodology is based on a data streaming architecture and efficient management of a big flow of physiological parameters. The performance of this architecture is examined for varying spatial resolution of the recorded data.

  5. Design and implementation of an interactive web-based near real-time forest monitoring system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pratihast, Arun Kumar; Vries, de Ben; Avitabile, Valerio; Bruin, De Sytze; Herold, Martin; Bergsma, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes an interactive web-based near real-time (NRT) forest monitoring system using four levels of geographic information services: 1) the acquisition of continuous data streams from satellite and community-based monitoring using mobile devices, 2) NRT forest disturbance detection base

  6. Real-time automatic interpolation of ambient gamma dose rates from the Dutch radioactivity monitoring network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, P.H.; Pebesma, E.J.; Twenhöfel, C.J.W.; Heuvelink, G.B.M.

    2009-01-01

    Detection of radiological accidents and monitoring the spread of the contamination is of great importance. Following the Chernobyl accident many European countries have installed monitoring networks to perform this task. Real-time availability of automatically interpolated maps showing the spread of

  7. TYPES, USES, AND LOCATIONS OF REAL-TIME BIOLOGICAL MONITORING IN EUROPE AND THE US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many dffferent types of real-time biological monitoring (fish behavior and current, daphnid dynamic and toximeter, clam monitors, algae, and luminescent bacteria) have been used in several countries (Germany, Netherlands, France, England( and many locations in Europe. Only a few ...

  8. Real-time Monitoring of our Warfighters Health State: The Good, The Bad, and The Ugly

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-05

    time Monitoring of our Warfighters Health State: The Good , The Bad , and The Ugly 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...Status Physiological Monitor Concept 98 The GOOD Technologies & a solution framework have been greatly advanced. Health state monitoring is no...Medical Monitoring Telemetry System – In Action Results – Physiology, Real Time Display Th e GO OD The BAD Unique challenges make the creation and

  9. MS-BWME: a wireless real-time monitoring system for brine well mining equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xinqing; Zhu, Tianyu; Qi, Lin; Moga, Liliana Mihaela; Zhang, Xiaoshuan

    2014-10-23

    This paper describes a wireless real-time monitoring system (MS-BWME) to monitor the running state of pumps equipment in brine well mining and prevent potential failures that may produce unexpected interruptions with severe consequences. MS-BWME consists of two units: the ZigBee Wireless Sensors Network (WSN) unit and the real-time remote monitoring unit. MS-BWME was implemented and tested in sampled brine wells mining in Qinghai Province and four kinds of indicators were selected to evaluate the performance of the MS-BWME, i.e., sensor calibration, the system's real-time data reception, Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) and sensor node lifetime. The results show that MS-BWME can accurately judge the running state of the pump equipment by acquiring and transmitting the real-time voltage and electric current data of the equipment from the spot and provide real-time decision support aid to help workers overhaul the equipment in a timely manner and resolve failures that might produce unexpected production down-time. The MS-BWME can also be extended to a wide range of equipment monitoring applications.

  10. MS-BWME: A Wireless Real-Time Monitoring System for Brine Well Mining Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinqing Xiao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a wireless real-time monitoring system (MS-BWME to monitor the running state of pumps equipment in brine well mining and prevent potential failures that may produce unexpected interruptions with severe consequences. MS-BWME consists of two units: the ZigBee Wireless Sensors Network (WSN unit and the real-time remote monitoring unit. MS-BWME was implemented and tested in sampled brine wells mining in Qinghai Province and four kinds of indicators were selected to evaluate the performance of the MS-BWME, i.e., sensor calibration, the system’s real-time data reception, Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI and sensor node lifetime. The results show that MS-BWME can accurately judge the running state of the pump equipment by acquiring and transmitting the real-time voltage and electric current data of the equipment from the spot and provide real-time decision support aid to help workers overhaul the equipment in a timely manner and resolve failures that might produce unexpected production down-time. The MS-BWME can also be extended to a wide range of equipment monitoring applications.

  11. Real-Time Monitoring System and Advanced Characterization Technique for Civil Infrastructure Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Bennett

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Real-time monitoring of civil infrastructure provides valuable information to assess the health and condition of the associated systems. This paper presents the recently developed shape acceleration array (SAA and local system identification (SI technique, which constitute a major step toward long-term effective health monitoring and analysis of soil and soil-structure systems. The SAA is based on triaxial micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS sensors to measure in situ deformation (angles relative to gravity and dynamic accelerations up to a depth of one hundred meters. This paper provides an assessment of this array's performance for geotechnical instrumentation applications by reviewing the recorded field data from a bridge replacement site and a full-scale levee test facility. The SI technique capitalizes on the abundance of static and dynamic measurements from the SAA. The geotechnical properties and constitutive response of soil contained within a locally instrumented zone are analyzed and identified independently of adjacent soil strata.

  12. Miniaturized and Wireless Optical Neurotransmitter Sensor for Real-Time Monitoring of Dopamine in the Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min H. Kim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Real-time monitoring of extracellular neurotransmitter concentration offers great benefits for diagnosis and treatment of neurological disorders and diseases. This paper presents the study design and results of a miniaturized and wireless optical neurotransmitter sensor (MWONS for real-time monitoring of brain dopamine concentration. MWONS is based on fluorescent sensing principles and comprises a microspectrometer unit, a microcontroller for data acquisition, and a Bluetooth wireless network for real-time monitoring. MWONS has a custom-designed application software that controls the operation parameters for excitation light sources, data acquisition, and signal processing. MWONS successfully demonstrated a measurement capability with a limit of detection down to a 100 nanomole dopamine concentration, and high selectivity to ascorbic acid (90:1 and uric acid (36:1.

  13. [Study on real-time wearable monitoring system for human heat and cold stresses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yuhong; Wang, Tianhao; Li, Chenming

    2013-02-01

    In order to study the way of evaluating human performance under heat and cold stresses, we developed a wearable physiological monitoring system-intelligent belt system, capable of providing real-time, continuous and dynamic monitoring of multiple physiological parameters. The system has following features: multiuser communication, high integration, strong environment adaptability, dynamic features and real time physiological monitoring ability. The system uses sensing belts and elastic belts to acquire physiological parameters, uses WIFI to build wireless network monitoring for multiuser, and uses Delphi to develop data processing software capable of real-time viewing, storagng, processing, and alerting. With four different intensity-activity trials on six subjects and compared with standard laboratory human physiological acquisition instruments, the system was proved to be able to acquire accu-rate physiological parameters such as ECG, respiration, multi-point body temperatures, and body movement. The system worked steadily and reliably. This wearable real-time monitoring system for human heat and cold stresses can solve the problem facing our country that human heat stress and cold stress monitoring technology is insufficient, provide new methods and new ways for monitoring and evaluation of human heat and cold stresses under real task or stress environment, and provide technical platform for the study on human ergonomics.

  14. Real-time quantification and display of skin radiation during coronary angiography and intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. de Feijter (Pim); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); J.R.T.C. Roelandt (Jos); A. den Boer (Ad)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Radiographically guided investigations may be associated with excessive radiation exposure, which may cause skin injuries. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a system that measures in real time the dose applied to each 1-cm(2) area of skin, taking into account

  15. Autonomous global sky monitoring with real-time robotic follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vestrand, W Thomas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Davis, H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wren, J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wozniak, P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Norman, B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; White, R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bloch, J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fenimore, E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hodge, Barry [AFRL; Jah, Moriba [AFRL; Rast, Richard [AFRL

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the development of prototypes for a global grid of advanced 'thinking' sky sentinels and robotic follow-up telescopes that observe the full night sky to provide real-time monitoring of the night sky by autonomously recognizing anomalous behavior, selecting targets for detailed investigation, and making real-time anomaly detection to enable rapid recognition and a swift response to transients as they emerge. This T3 global EO grid avoids the limitations imposed by geography and weather to provide persistent monitoring of the night sky.

  16. Real-time Stack Monitoring at the BaTek Medical Isotope Production Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIntyre, Justin I.; Agusbudiman, A.; Cameron, Ian M.; Dumais, Johannes R.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Gheddou, A.; Khrustalev, Kirill; Marsoem, Pujadi; Miley, Harry S.; Nikkinen, Mika; Prinke, Amanda M.; Ripplinger, Mike D.; Schrom, Brian T.; Sliger, William A.; Stoehlker, Ulrich; Suhariyono, G.; Warren, Glen A.; Widodo, Susilo; Woods, Vincent T.

    2016-04-01

    Radioxenon emissions from radiopharmaceutical production are a major source of background concentrations affecting the radioxenon detection systems of the International Monitoring System (IMS). Collection of real-time emissions data from production facilities makes it possible to screen out some medical isotope signatures from the IMS radioxenon data sets. This paper describes an effort to obtain and analyze real-time stack emissions data with the design, construction and installation of a small stack monitoring system developed by a joint CTBTO-IDC, BATAN, and PNNL team at the BaTek medical isotope production facility near Jakarta, Indonesia.

  17. Real-Time Grouting Monitoring and Visualization Analysis System for Dam Foundation Curtain Grouting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊贵超; 钟登华; 任炳昱; 崔博; 李晓超; 岳攀

    2016-01-01

    A real-time monitoring and 3D visualization analysis system is proposed for dam foundation curtain grouting. Based on the real-time control technology, the optimization method and the set theory, a mathematical model of the system is established. The real-time collection and transmission technology of the grouting data pro-vides a data foundation for the system. The real-time grouting monitoring and dynamic alarming method helps the system control the grouting quality during the grouting process, thus, the abnormalities of grouting, such as jacking and hydraulic uplift, can be effectively controlled. In addition, the 3D grouting visualization analysis technology is proposed to establish the grouting information model(GIM). The GIM provides a platform to visualize and ana-lyze the grouting process and results. The system has been applied to a hydraulic project of China as a case study, and the application results indicate that the real-time grouting monitoring and 3D visualization analysis for the grouting process can help engineers control the grouting quality more efficiently.

  18. Substrate-Coated Illumination Droplet Spray Ionization: Real-Time Monitoring of Photocatalytic Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Li, Na; Zhao, Dandan; Jiang, Jie; You, Hong

    2017-09-01

    Real-time monitoring of photocatalytic reactions facilitates the elucidation of the mechanisms of the reactions. However, suitable tools for real-time monitoring are lacking. Herein, a novel method based on droplet spray ionization named substrate-coated illumination droplet spray ionization (SCI-DSI) for direct analysis of photocatalytic reaction solution is reported. SCI-DSI addresses many of the analytical limitations of electrospray ionization (ESI) for analysis of photocatalytic-reaction intermediates, and has potential for both in situ analysis and real-time monitoring of photocatalytic reactions. In SCI-DSI-mass spectrometry (MS), a photocatalytic reaction occurs by loading sample solutions onto the substrate-coated cover slip and by applying UV light above the modified slip; one corner of this slip adjacent to the inlet of a mass spectrometer is the high-electric-field location for launching a charged-droplet spray. After both testing and optimizing the performance of SCI-DSI, the value of this method for in situ analysis and real-time monitoring of photocatalytic reactions was demonstrated by the removal of cyclophosphamide (CP) in TiO2/UV. Reaction times ranged from seconds to minutes, and the proposed reaction intermediates were captured and identified by tandem mass spectrometry. Moreover, the free hydroxyl radical (·OH) was identified as the main radicals for CP removal. These results show that SCI-DSI is suitable for in situ analysis and real-time monitoring of CP removal under TiO2-based photocatalytic reactions. SCI-DSI is also a potential tool for in situ analysis and real-time assessment of the roles of radicals during CP removal under TiO2-based photocatalytic reactions. Graphical Abstract[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  19. Real-time alpha monitoring of a radioactive liquid waste stream at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.D.; Whitley, C.R.; Rawool-Sullivan, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This poster display concerns the development, installation, and testing of a real-time radioactive liquid waste monitor at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The detector system was designed for the LANL Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility so that influent to the plant could be monitored in real time. By knowing the activity of the influent, plant operators can better monitor treatment, better segregate waste (potentially), and monitor the regulatory compliance of users of the LANL Radioactive Liquid Waste Collection System. The detector system uses long-range alpha detection technology, which is a nonintrusive method of characterization that determines alpha activity on the liquid surface by measuring the ionization of ambient air. Extensive testing has been performed to ensure long-term use with a minimal amount of maintenance. The final design was a simple cost-effective alpha monitor that could be modified for monitoring influent waste streams at various points in the LANL Radioactive Liquid Waste Collection System.

  20. Real-time monitoring of genetically modified Chlamydomonas reinhardtii during the Foton M3 space mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambreva, M.; Rea, G.; Antonacci, A.; Serafini, A.; Damasso, M.; Pastorelli, S.; Margonelli, A.; Johanningmeier, U.; Bertalan, I.; Pezzotti, G.; Giardi, M. T.

    2008-09-01

    Long-term space exploration, colonization or habitation requires biological life support systems capable to cope with the deleterious space environment. The use of oxygenic photosynthetic microrganisms is an intriguing possibility mainly for food, O2 and nutraceutical compounds production. The critical points of utilizing plants- or algae-based life support systems are the microgravity and the ionizing radiation, which can influence the performance of these organisms. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of space environment on the photosynthetic activity of various microrganisms and to select space stresstolerant strains. Photosystem II D1 protein sitedirected and random mutants of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii [1] were used as a model system to test and select the amino acid substitutions capable to account for space stress tolerance. We focussed our studies also on the accumulation of the Photosystem II photoprotective carotenoids (the xantophylls violaxanthin, anteraxanthin and zeaxanthin), powerful antioxidants that epidemiological studies demonstrated to be human vision protectors. For this purpose some mutants modified at the level of enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of xanthophylls were included in the study [2]. To identify the consequences of the space environment on the photosynthetic apparatus the changes in the Photosystem II efficiency were monitored in real time during the ESA-Russian Foton- M3 mission in September 2007. For the space flight a high-tech, multicell fluorescence detector, Photo-II, was designed and built by the Centre for Advanced Research in Space Optics in collaboration with Kayser-Italy, Biosensor and DAS. Photo-II is an automatic device developed to measure the chlorophyll fluorescence and to provide a living conditions for several different algae strains (Fig.1). Twelve different C. reinhardti strains were analytically selected and two replications for each strain were brought to space

  1. Ubiquitous health monitoring and real-time cardiac arrhythmias detection: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Zhou, Haiying; Zuo, Decheng; Hou, Kun-Mean; De Vaulx, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    As the symptoms and signs of heart diseases that cause sudden cardiac death, cardiac arrhythmia has attracted great attention. Due to limitations in time and space, traditional approaches to cardiac arrhythmias detection fail to provide a real-time continuous monitoring and testing service applicable in different environmental conditions. Integrated with the latest technologies in ECG (electrocardiograph) analysis and medical care, the pervasive computing technology makes possible the ubiquitous cardiac care services, and thus brings about new technical challenges, especially in the formation of cardiac care architecture and realization of the real-time automatic ECG detection algorithm dedicated to care devices. In this paper, a ubiquitous cardiac care prototype system is presented with its architecture framework well elaborated. This prototype system has been tested and evaluated in all the clinical-/home-/outdoor-care modes with a satisfactory performance in providing real-time continuous cardiac arrhythmias monitoring service unlimitedly adaptable in time and space.

  2. New and Emerging Technologies for Real-Time Air and Surface Beryllium Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phifer, B.E. Jr.; Churnetski, E.L.; Cooke, L.E.; Reed, J.J.; Howell, M.L.; Smith, V.D.

    2001-09-01

    In this study, five emerging technologies were identified for real-time monitoring of airborne beryllium: Microwave-Induced Plasma Spectroscopy (MIPS), Aerosol Beam-Focused Laser-Induced Plasma Spectroscopy (ABFLIPS), Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), Surfaced-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) Spectroscopy, and Micro-Calorimetric Spectroscopy (CalSpec). Desired features of real-time air beryllium monitoring instrumentation were developed from the Y-12 CBDPP. These features were used as guidelines for the identification of potential technologies as well as their unique demonstrated capability to provide real-time monitoring of similar materials. However, best available technologies were considered, regardless of their ability to comply with the desired features. None of the five technologies have the capability to measure the particle size of airborne beryllium. Although reducing the total concentration of airborne beryllium is important, current literature suggests that reducing or eliminating the concentration of respirable beryllium is critical for worker health protection. Eight emerging technologies were identified for surface monitoring of beryllium. CalSpec, MIPS, SERS, LIBS, Laser Ablation, Absorptive Stripping Voltametry (ASV), Modified Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) Spectroscopy, and Gamma BeAST. Desired features of real-time surface beryllium monitoring were developed from the Y-12 CBDPP. These features were used as guidelines for the identification of potential technologies. However, the best available technologies were considered regardless of their ability to comply with the desired features.

  3. Noninvasive Strategy Based on Real-Time in Vivo Cataluminescence Monitoring for Clinical Breath Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Runkun; Huang, Wanting; Li, Gongke; Hu, Yufei

    2017-03-21

    The development of noninvasive methods for real-time in vivo analysis is of great significant, which provides powerful tools for medical research and clinical diagnosis. In the present work, we described a new strategy based on cataluminescence (CTL) for real-time in vivo clinical breath analysis. To illustrate such strategy, a homemade real-time CTL monitoring system characterized by coupling an online sampling device with a CTL sensor for sevoflurane (SVF) was designed, and a real-time in vivo method for the monitoring of SVF in exhaled breath was proposed. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by analyzing the real exhaled breath samples, and the results were compared with those obtained by GC/MS. The measured data obtained by the two methods were in good agreement. Subsequently, the method was applied to real-time monitoring of SVF in exhaled breath from rat models of the control group to investigate elimination pharmacokinetics. In order to further probe the potential of the method for clinical application, the elimination pharmacokinetics of SVF from rat models of control group, liver fibrosis group alcohol liver group, and nonalcoholic fatty liver group were monitored by the method. The raw data of pharmacokinetics of different groups were normalized and subsequently subjected to linear discriminant analysis (LDA). These data were transformed to canonical scores which were visualized as well-clustered with the classification accuracy of 100%, and the overall accuracy of leave-one-out cross-validation procedure is 88%, thereby indicating the utility of the potential of the method for liver disease diagnosis. Our strategy undoubtedly opens up a new door for real-time clinical analysis in a pain-free and noninvasive way and also guides a promising development direction for CTL.

  4. Real-time condition monitoring and fault diagnosis in switched reluctance motors with Kohonen neural network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali UYSAL; Raif BAYIR

    2013-01-01

    The faults in switched reluctance motors (SRMs) were detected and diagnosed in real time with the Kohonen neural network. When a fault happens, both financial losses and undesired situations may occur. For these reasons, it is important to detect the incipient faults of SRMs and to diagnose which faults have occurred. In this study, a test rig was realized to determine the healthy and faulty conditions of SRMs. A data set for the Kohonen neural network was created with implemented measurements. A graphical user interface (GUI) was created in Matlab to test the performance of the Kohonen artificial neural network in real time. The data of the SRM was transferred to this software with a data acquisition card. The condition of the motor was monitored by marking the data measured in real time on the weight position graph of the Kohonen neural network. This test rig is capable of real-time monitoring of the condition of SRMs, which are used with intermittent or continuous operation, and is capable of de-tecting and diagnosing the faults that may occur in the motor. The Kohonen neural network used for detection and diagnosis of faults of the SRM in real time with Matlab GUI was embedded in an STM32 processor. A prototype with the STM32 processor was developed to detect and diagnose the faults of SRMs independent of computers.

  5. Real Time Monitor and Control of MBE Growth of HgCdTe by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    The primary goal of this contract develop a real-time monitoring capability for HgCdTe composition during MBE growth . This goal was realized by...methodology for acquiring and analyzing insitu SE data in the MBE growth environment. These improvements and developments are part of an extensive

  6. Real-time processing of interferograms for monitoring protein crystal growth on the Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudry, A.; Dupuis, N.

    1988-01-01

    The possibility of using microscopic interferometric techniques to monitor the growth of protein crystals on the Space Station is studied. Digital image processing techniques are used to develop a system for the real-time analysis of microscopic interferograms of nucleation sites during protein crystal growth. Features of the optical setup and the image processing system are discussed and experimental results are presented.

  7. A method for real-time condition monitoring of haul roads based on Bayesian parameter estimation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Heyns, T

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available and to the vehicles. A recent idea is that vehicle on-board data collection systems could be used to monitor haul roads on a real-time basis by means of vibration signature analysis. This paper proposes a methodology based on Bayesian regression to isolate the effect...

  8. Performance Evaluation of a Low-Cost, Real-Time Community Air Monitoring Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US EPA’s Village Green Project (VGP) is an example of using innovative technology to enable community-level low-cost real-time air pollution measurements. The VGP is an air monitoring system configured as a park bench located outside of a public library in Durham, NC. It co...

  9. Real-time water quality monitoring and providing water quality information to the Baltimore Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have initiated the “Village Blue” research project to provide real-time water quality monitoring data to the Baltimore community and increase public awareness about local water quality in Baltimore Harbor and the Chesapeake Ba...

  10. 4g-Based Specialty Vehicles Real-Time Monitoring System Design and Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuang Yu-Feng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the future development of natural gas transportation industry, emerging ITS technology will be applied more and more, aiming at integrating precise positioning technology, geographic information system technology, database technology, multimedia technology and modern communication technology, sensor network technology and video capture technology, so as to achieve the transport steam (oil vehicles in real time monitoring and management. The main research content of this paper is to design and research the monitoring and locating system of luck (oil vehicle based on 4G on Android System. Real-time monitoring and alarming by sensor module, real-time video recording and uploading through camera module, real-time position recording and uploading through GPS module, vehicle navigation module and quick alarm module, which is composed of five parts. The system is the application of new intelligent transport technology in the field of special vehicle transport. It apply electronic information technology and internet of things technology to the vehicle system, so we can monitor natural gas and other special dangerous goods anytime, anywhere.

  11. Real-time processing of interferograms for monitoring protein crystal growth on the Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudry, A.; Dupuis, N.

    1988-01-01

    The possibility of using microscopic interferometric techniques to monitor the growth of protein crystals on the Space Station is studied. Digital image processing techniques are used to develop a system for the real-time analysis of microscopic interferograms of nucleation sites during protein crystal growth. Features of the optical setup and the image processing system are discussed and experimental results are presented.

  12. Accuracy evaluation of a new real-time continuous glucose monitoring algorithm in hypoglycemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmoudi, Zeinab; Jensen, Morten Hasselstrøm; Johansen, Mette Dencker;

    2014-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Abstract Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of a new continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) calibration algorithm and to compare it with the Guardian(®) REAL-Time (RT) (Medtronic Diabetes, Northridge, CA) calibration algorithm in hypoglycemia. SUBJECTS...

  13. Characterization and calibration of a novel detection system for real time monitoring of radioactive contamination in water processed at water treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carconi, P; De Felice, P; Fazio, A; Petrucci, A; Lunardon, M; Moretto, S; Stevanato, L; Cester, D; Pastore, P

    2017-08-01

    Characterization and calibration measurements were carried out at the National Institute of Ionizing Radiation Metrology of ENEA on the TAp WAter RAdioactivity (TAWARA) Real Time Monitor system recently developed for real time monitoring of radioactive contamination in water processed at water treatment facilities. Reference radiations and radionuclides were chosen in order to reflect energy ranges and radiation types of the major water radioactive contaminants possibly arising from environmental, industrial or terroristic origin. The following instrument parameters were tested: sensitivity, selectivity, background, short/long term stability, linearity with respect to activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A study on real-time fault monitoring detection method of bearing using the infrared thermography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Won Tae [School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Kongju National University, Kongju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ho Jong; Hong, Dong Pyo [School of Mechanical System Engineering, Chonbuk Nationa University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    Since real-time monitoring system like a fault early detection has been very important, infrared thermography technique as a new diagnosis method was proposed. This study is focused on the damage detection and temperature characteristic analysis of ball bearing using the non-destructive infrared thermography method. In this paper, for the reliability assessment, infrared experimental data were compared with the frequency data of the existing. As results, the temperature characteristics of ball bearing were analyzed under various loading conditions. Finally it was confirmed that the infrared technique was useful for real-time detection of the bearing damages.

  15. Real-time radiative divertor feedback control development for the NSTX-U tokamak using a vacuum ultraviolet spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukhanovskii, V. A.; Kaita, R.; Stratton, B.

    2016-11-01

    A radiative divertor technique is planned for the NSTX-U tokamak to prevent excessive erosion and thermal damage of divertor plasma-facing components in H-mode plasma discharges with auxiliary heating up to 12 MW. In the radiative (partially detached) divertor, extrinsically seeded deuterium or impurity gases are used to increase plasma volumetric power and momentum losses. A real-time feedback control of the gas seeding rate is planned for discharges of up to 5 s duration. The outer divertor leg plasma electron temperature Te estimated spectroscopically in real time will be used as a control parameter. A vacuum ultraviolet spectrometer McPherson Model 251 with a fast charged-coupled device detector is developed for temperature monitoring between 5 and 30 eV, based on the Δn = 0, 1 line intensity ratios of carbon, nitrogen, or neon ion lines in the spectral range 300-1600 Å. A collisional-radiative model-based line intensity ratio will be used for relative calibration. A real-time Te-dependent signal within a characteristic divertor detachment equilibration time of ˜10-15 ms is expected.

  16. Prostate tumor alignment and continuous, real-time adaptive radiation therapy using electromagnetic fiducials: clinical and cost-utility analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Martin M; Mate, Timothy P; Sylvester, John E

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the accuracy, utility, and cost effectiveness of a new electromagnetic patient positioning and continuous, real-time monitoring system, which uses permanently implanted resonant transponders in the target (Calypso 4D Localization System and Beacon transponders, Seattle, WA) to continuously monitor tumor location and movement during external beam radiation therapy of the prostate. This clinical trial studied 43 patients at 5 sites. All patients were implanted with 3 transponders each. In 41 patients, the system was used for initial alignment at each therapy session. Thirty-five patients had continuous monitoring during their radiation treatment. Over 1,000 alignment comparisons were made to a commercially available kV X-ray positioning system (BrainLAB ExacTrac, Munich, Germany). Using decision analysis and Markov processes, the outcomes of patients were simulated over a 5-year period and measured in terms of costs from a payer's perspective and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). All patients had satisfactory transponder implantations for monitoring purposes. In over 75% of the treatment sessions, the correction to conventional positioning (laser and tattoos) directed by an electromagnetic patient positioning and monitoring system was greater than 5 mm. Ninety-seven percent (34/35) of the patients who underwent continuous monitoring had target motion that exceeded preset limits at some point during the course of their radiation therapy. Exceeding preset thresholds resulted in user intervention at least once during the therapy in 80% of the patients (28/35). Compared with localization using ultrasound, electronic portal imaging devices (EPID), or computed tomography (CT), localization with the electromagnetic patient positioning and monitoring system yielded superior gains in QALYs at comparable costs. Most patients positioned with conventional tattoos and lasers for prostate radiation therapy were found by use of the electromagnetic patient positioning

  17. An inkjet-printed buoyant 3-D lagrangian sensor for real-time flood monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Farooqui, Muhammad Fahad

    2014-06-01

    A 3-D (cube-shaped) Lagrangian sensor, inkjet printed on a paper substrate, is presented for the first time. The sensor comprises a transmitter chip with a microcontroller completely embedded in the cube, along with a $1.5 \\\\lambda 0 dipole that is uniquely implemented on all the faces of the cube to achieve a near isotropic radiation pattern. The sensor has been designed to operate both in the air as well as water (half immersed) for real-time flood monitoring. The sensor weighs 1.8 gm and measures 13 mm$\\\\,\\\\times\\\\,$ 13 mm$\\\\,\\\\times\\\\,$ 13 mm, and each side of the cube corresponds to only $0.1 \\\\lambda 0 (at 2.4 GHz). The printed circuit board is also inkjet-printed on paper substrate to make the sensor light weight and buoyant. Issues related to the bending of inkjet-printed tracks and integration of the transmitter chip in the cube are discussed. The Lagrangian sensor is designed to operate in a wireless sensor network and field tests have confirmed that it can communicate up to a distance of 100 m while in the air and up to 50 m while half immersed in water. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

  18. Real-time monitoring of DNAzyme cleavage process using fluorescent assay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Xian Meng; Xiao Hai Yang; Ke Min Wang; Wei Hong Tan; Qiu Ping Guo

    2009-01-01

    Detection of deoxyribozyme (DNAzyme) cleavage process usually needs complex and time-consuming radial labeling, gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. This paper reported an approach to detect DNAzyme cleavage process in real time using a fluorescence probe. The probe was employed as DNAzyme substrate to convert directly the cleavage information into fluorescence signal in real time. Compared with traditional approach, this non-isotope method not only brought a convenient means to monitor the DNAzyme cleavage reaction, but also offered abundant dynamic data for choosing potential gene therapeutic agents. It provides a new tool for DNAzyme research, as well as a new insight into research on human disease diagnosis. Based on this method, 8-17deoxyribozyme (8-17DNAzyme) against hepatitis C virus RNA (HCV-RNA) was designed and the cleavage process was studied in real time.

  19. Monitoring Natural Events Globally in Near Real-Time Using NASA's Open Web Services and Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boller, Ryan A.; Ward, Kevin Alan; Murphy, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    Since 1960, NASA has been making global measurements of the Earth from a multitude of space-based missions, many of which can be useful for monitoring natural events. In recent years, these measurements have been made available in near real-time, making it possible to use them to also aid in managing the response to natural events. We present the challenges and ongoing solutions to using NASA satellite data for monitoring and managing these events.

  20. Real-time Diesel Particulate Matter ambient monitoring in underground mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gillies A D S

    2011-01-01

    A real-time Diesel Particulate Matter (DPM) monitor has been developed on the base of the successful National Institute of Occupational Health and Safety (NIOSH) designed Personal Dust Monitor (PDM) unit.The objectives of a recently completed Australian Coal Association Research Program (ACARP) study was to modify the PDM to measure the submicrometre fraction of the aerosol in a real-time monitoring underground instrunent.Mine testing focused on use of the monitor in engineering evaluations of Longwall (LW) moves demonstrated how DPM concentrations from vehicles fluctuate under varying ventilation and operational conditions.The strong influence of mine ventilation systems is reviewed.Correlation between the current SKC DPM measurement system and real-time DPM monitors were conducted and results from eight mines show a correlation between elemental carbon (EC) and the new monitor DPM mass ranging from 0.45 to 0.82 with R2>0.86 in all but two cases.This differences in suspected to be due to variations from mine to mine in aspects such as mine atmospheric contamination,vehicle fleet variations,fuel type,engine maintenance,engine combustion efficiency,engine behavior or interference from other submicrometre aerosol.Real-time monitoring clearly reflects the movement of individual diesel vehicles and allows pin-pointing of high exposure zones such as those encountered where various vehicles engage in intense work in areas of constrained or difficult ventilation.DPM shift average monitoring approaches do not readily allow successful engineering evaluation exercises to determine acceptability of pollution levels.Identification of high DPM concentration zones allows efficient modification of mine ventilation,operator positioning and other work practices to reduce miners' exposures without waiting for laboratory analysis results.

  1. Real-time monitoring for fast deformations using GNSS low-cost receivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bellone

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Landslides are one of the major geo-hazards which have constantly affected Italy especially over the last few years. In fact 82% of the Italian territory is affected by this phenomenon which destroys the environment and often causes deaths: therefore it is necessary to monitor these effects in order to detect and prevent these risks. Nowadays, most of this type of monitoring is carried out by using traditional topographic instruments (e.g. total stations or satellite techniques such as global navigation satellite system (GNSS receivers. The level of accuracy obtainable with these instruments is sub-centimetrical in post-processing and centimetrical in real-time; however, the costs are very high (many thousands of euros. The rapid diffusion of GNSS networks has led to an increase of using mass-market receivers for real-time positioning. In this paper, the performances of GNSS mass-market receiver are reported with the aim of verifying if this type of sensor can be used for real-time landslide monitoring: for this purpose a special slide was used for simulating a landslide, since it enabled us to give manual displacements thanks to a micrometre screw. These experiments were also carried out by considering a specific statistical test (a modified Chow test which enabled us to understand if there were any displacements from a statistical point of view in real time. The tests, the algorithm and results are reported in this paper.

  2. Real time monitoring of accelerated chemical reactions by ultrasonication-assisted spray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Hsuan; Lo, Ta-Ju; Kuo, Fang-Yin; Chen, Yu-Chie

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasonication has been used to accelerate chemical reactions. It would be ideal if ultrasonication-assisted chemical reactions could be monitored by suitable detection tools such as mass spectrometry in real time. It would be helpful to clarify reaction intermediates/products and to have a better understanding of reaction mechanism. In this work, we developed a system for ultrasonication-assisted spray ionization mass spectrometry (UASI-MS) with an ~1.7 MHz ultrasonic transducer to monitor chemical reactions in real time. We demonstrated that simply depositing a sample solution on the MHz-based ultrasonic transducer, which was placed in front of the orifice of a mass spectrometer, the analyte signals can be readily detected by the mass spectrometer. Singly and multiply charged ions from small and large molecules, respectively, can be observed in the UASI mass spectra. Furthermore, the ultrasonic transducer used in the UASI setup accelerates the chemical reactions while being monitored via UASI-MS. The feasibility of using this approach for real-time acceleration/monitoring of chemical reactions was demonstrated. The reactions of Girard T reagent and hydroxylamine with steroids were used as the model reactions. Upon the deposition of reactant solutions on the ultrasonic transducer, the intermediate/product ions are readily generated and instantaneously monitored using MS within 1 s. Additionally, we also showed the possibility of using this reactive UASI-MS approach to assist the confirmation of trace steroids from complex urine samples by monitoring the generation of the product ions.

  3. Monitoring and Diagnostics for C/C++ Real-Time Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Yves

    Knowledge about the internal state of computational processes is essential for problem diagnostics as well as for constant monitoring and pre-failure recognition. The CMX li- brary provides monitoring capabilities similiar to the Java Management Extensions (JMX) for C and C++ applications. This thesis provides a detailed analysis of the requirements for monitoring and diagnos- tics of the C/C++ processes at CERN. The developed CMX library enables real-time C/C++ processes to expose values with- out harming their normal execution. CMX is portable and can be integrated in different monitoring architectures.

  4. Real time n/γ discrimination for the JET neutron profile monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riva, M., E-mail: marco.riva@enea.it [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.P. 65, Frascati I-00044, Roma (Italy); Esposito, B.; Marocco, D.; Belli, F. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.P. 65, Frascati I-00044, Roma (Italy); Syme, B. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); Giacomelli, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CNR, 20100 Milano (Italy); JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► Development of a pulse oriented acquisition system able for the JET neutron profile monitor to separate neutron and gamma pulses. ► Description of the FPGA hardware architecture. ► Comparison between the off-line and real time neutron count rates from the last JET experimental campaign. ► Estimate of the maximum sustainable count rate of the system. ► Statistical analysis of neutron measurements from JET neutron profile monitor and neutron monitors. -- Abstract: The JET neutron profile monitor provides the measurement of the neutron flux along 19 collimated lines of sight from which the neutron emissivity profile can be obtained through reconstruction based on inversion methods. The neutron detectors are liquid organic scintillators featuring n/γ pulse shape discrimination. A recent digital upgrade of the neutron profile monitor acquisition system (200 MSamples/s sampling rate per channel, 14 bit resolution) offers new real-time capabilities. An algorithm performing real-time n/γ discrimination by means of the charge comparison method is implemented in the acquisition system FPGA. The algorithm produces two distinct count rates (n and γ) that are sent to the JET real time network ready for control applications and are simultaneously stored into the JET archive together with all the samples of each pulse. The paper describes the architecture of the FPGA implementation and reports the analysis of data collected during the 2011–2012 JET campaigns. The comparison between the real-time and post-processed (off-line) neutron count rates shows an agreement within 5% for all 19 detectors. Moreover, it is shown that the maximum count rate sustainable by the acquisition system when storing raw data (∼900 kHz as evaluated in laboratory tests) can be extended up to 5 MHz when using the real-time implementation with no local data storage. Finally, a statistical analysis of the ratio between the line-integrated measurements from the neutron profile

  5. Camera selection for real-time in vivo radiation treatment verification systems using Cherenkov imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreozzi, Jacqueline M., E-mail: Jacqueline.M.Andreozzi.th@dartmouth.edu; Glaser, Adam K. [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States); Zhang, Rongxiao [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States); Jarvis, Lesley A.; Gladstone, David J. [Department of Medicine, Geisel School of Medicine and Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire 03766 (United States); Pogue, Brian W., E-mail: Brian.W.Pogue@dartmouth.edu [Thayer School of Engineering and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: To identify achievable camera performance and hardware needs in a clinical Cherenkov imaging system for real-time, in vivo monitoring of the surface beam profile on patients, as novel visual information, documentation, and possible treatment verification for clinicians. Methods: Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS), charge-coupled device (CCD), intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD), and electron multiplying-intensified charge coupled device (EM-ICCD) cameras were investigated to determine Cherenkov imaging performance in a clinical radiotherapy setting, with one emphasis on the maximum supportable frame rate. Where possible, the image intensifier was synchronized using a pulse signal from the Linac in order to image with room lighting conditions comparable to patient treatment scenarios. A solid water phantom irradiated with a 6 MV photon beam was imaged by the cameras to evaluate the maximum frame rate for adequate Cherenkov detection. Adequate detection was defined as an average electron count in the background-subtracted Cherenkov image region of interest in excess of 0.5% (327 counts) of the 16-bit maximum electron count value. Additionally, an ICCD and an EM-ICCD were each used clinically to image two patients undergoing whole-breast radiotherapy to compare clinical advantages and limitations of each system. Results: Intensifier-coupled cameras were required for imaging Cherenkov emission on the phantom surface with ambient room lighting; standalone CMOS and CCD cameras were not viable. The EM-ICCD was able to collect images from a single Linac pulse delivering less than 0.05 cGy of dose at 30 frames/s (fps) and pixel resolution of 512 × 512, compared to an ICCD which was limited to 4.7 fps at 1024 × 1024 resolution. An intensifier with higher quantum efficiency at the entrance photocathode in the red wavelengths [30% quantum efficiency (QE) vs previous 19%] promises at least 8.6 fps at a resolution of 1024 × 1024 and lower monetary

  6. Laser intensity modulated real time monitoring cell growth sensor for bioprocess applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, P.; Babu, P. Ravindra; Devi, V. Rama; Maunika, T.; Soujanya, P.; Kishore, P. V. N.; Dinakar, D.

    2016-04-01

    This article proposes an optical method for monitoring the growth of Escherichia coli in Luria Bertani medium and Saccharomyces cereviciae in YPD. Suitable light is selected which on interaction with the analyte under consideration, gets adsorption / scattered. Required electronic circuitry is designed to drive the laser source and to detect the intensity of light using Photo-detector. All these components are embedded and arranged in a proper way and monitored the growth of the microbs in real time. The sensors results are compared with standard techniques such as colorimeter, Nephelometer and hemocytometer. The experimental results are in good agreement with the existed techniques and well suitable for real time monitoring applications of the growth of the microbs.

  7. STUDY OF REAL-TIME EXPERT SYSTEM TOOL FOR INDUSTRIAL FAULT MONITORING AND DIAGNOSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢桂林; 周建荣

    1992-01-01

    From the requirements ot industrial production,an integrated fault monitoring,diagnosis and repairing system is suggested in this paper. This new scheme of fault monitoring and diagnosis system is realized by a master-slave real-time expert system,and a real-time expert system tool for this system is also developed accordingly. As an example of application of this tool,a realtime expert system for fault monitoring and diagnosis on DC mine hoist is developed. Experiments show that this tool possesses better supporting environment,strong knowledge acquisition ability, and convenience for use. The system developed by this tool not only meets the realtime requirement of DC hoist,but also can give correct diagnosis results.

  8. Real Time Corrosion Monitoring in Lead and Lead-Bismuth Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James F. Stubbins; Alan Bolind; Ziang Chen

    2010-02-25

    The objective of this research program is to develop a real-time, in situ corrosion monitoring technique for flowing liquid Pb and eutectic PbBi (LBE) systems in a temperature range of 400 to 650 C. These conditions are relevant to future liquid metal cooled fast reactor operating parameters. THis program was aligned with the Gen IV Reactor initiative to develp technologies to support the design and opertion of a Pb or LBE-cooled fast reactor. The ability to monitor corrosion for protection of structural components is a high priority issue for the safe and prolonged operation of advanced liquid metal fast reactor systems. In those systems, protective oxide layers are intentionally formed and maintained to limit corrosion rates during operation. This program developed a real time, in situ corrosion monitoring tecnique using impedance spectroscopy (IS) technology.

  9. Real-time measurement of dust in the workplace using video exposure monitoring: Farming to pharmaceuticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, P. T.; Forth, A. R.; Clark, R. D. R.; Dowker, K. P.; Thorpe, A.

    2009-02-01

    Real-time, photometric, portable dust monitors have been employed for video exposure monitoring (VEM) to measure and highlight dust levels generated by work activities, illustrate dust control techniques, and demonstrate good practice. Two workplaces, presenting different challenges for measurement, were used to illustrate the capabilities of VEM: (a) poultry farming activities and (b) powder transfer operations in a pharmaceutical company. For the poultry farm work, the real-time monitors were calibrated with respect to the respirable and inhalable dust concentrations using cyclone and IOM reference samplers respectively. Different rankings of exposure for typical activities were found on the small farm studied here compared to previous exposure measurements at larger poultry farms: these were mainly attributed to the different scales of operation. Large variations in the ratios of respirable, inhalable and real-time monitor TWA concentrations of poultry farm dust for various activities were found. This has implications for the calibration of light-scattering dust monitors with respect to inhalable dust concentration. In the pharmaceutical application, the effectiveness of a curtain barrier for dust control when dispensing powder in a downflow booth was rapidly demonstrated.

  10. Real-time fracture monitoring in Engineered Geothermal Systems with seismic waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jose A. Rial; Jonathan Lees

    2009-03-31

    As proposed, the main effort in this project is the development of software capable of performing real-time monitoring of micro-seismic activity recorded by an array of sensors deployed around an EGS. The main milestones are defined by the development of software to perform the following tasks: • Real-time micro-earthquake detection and location • Real-time detection of shear-wave splitting • Delayed-time inversion of shear-wave splitting These algorithms, which are discussed in detail in this report, make possible the automatic and real-time monitoring of subsurface fracture systems in geothermal fields from data collected by an array of seismic sensors. Shear wave splitting (SWS) is parameterized in terms of the polarization of the fast shear wave and the time delay between the fast and slow shear waves, which are automatically measured and stored. The measured parameters are then combined with previously measured SWS parameters at the same station and used to invert for the orientation (strike and dip) and intensity of cracks under that station. In addition, this grant allowed the collection of seismic data from several geothermal regions in the US (Coso) and Iceland (Hengill) to use in the development and testing of the software.

  11. Potentiometric Sensor for Real-Time Monitoring of Multivalent Ion Concentrations in Molten Salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter A. Zink; Jan-Fong Jue; Brenda E. Serrano; Guy L. Fredrickson; Ben F. Cowan; Steven D. Herrmann; Shelly X. Li

    2010-07-01

    Electrorefining of spent metallic nuclear fuel in high temperature molten salt systems is a core technology in pyroprocessing, which in turn plays a critical role in the development of advanced fuel cycle technologies. In electrorefining, spent nuclear fuel is treated electrochemically in order to effect separations between uranium, noble metals, and active metals, which include the transuranics. The accumulation of active metals in a lithium chloride-potassium chloride (LiCl-KCl) eutectic molten salt electrolyte occurs at the expense of the UCl3-oxidant concentration in the electrolyte, which must be periodically replenished. Our interests lie with the accumulation of active metals in the molten salt electrolyte. The real-time monitoring of actinide concentrations in the molten salt electrolyte is highly desirable for controlling electrochemical operations and assuring materials control and accountancy. However, real-time monitoring is not possible with current methods for sampling and chemical analysis. A new solid-state electrochemical sensor is being developed for real-time monitoring of actinide ion concentrations in a molten salt electrorefiner. The ultimate function of the sensor is to monitor plutonium concentrations during electrorefining operations, but in this work gadolinium was employed as a surrogate material for plutonium. In a parametric study, polycrystalline sodium beta double-prime alumina (Na-ß?-alumina) discs and tubes were subject to vapor-phase exchange with gadolinium ions (Gd3+) using a gadolinium chloride salt (GdCl3) as a precursor to produce gadolinium beta double-prime alumina (Gd-ß?-alumina) samples. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and microstructural analysis were performed on the ion-exchanged discs to determine the relationship between ion exchange and Gd3+ ion conductivity. The ion-exchanged tubes were configured as potentiometric sensors in order to monitor real-time Gd3+ ion concentrations in mixtures of gadolinium

  12. A GPS-based Real-time Road Traffic Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanti, Kamal Kumar

    In recent years, monitoring systems are astonishingly inclined towards ever more automatic; reliably interconnected, distributed and autonomous operation. Specifically, the measurement, logging, data processing and interpretation activities may be carried out by separate units at different locations in near real-time. The recent evolution of mobile communication devices and communication technologies has fostered a growing interest in the GIS & GPS-based location-aware systems and services. This paper describes a real-time road traffic monitoring system based on integrated mobile field devices (GPS/GSM/IOs) working in tandem with advanced GIS-based application software providing on-the-fly authentications for real-time monitoring and security enhancement. The described system is developed as a fully automated, continuous, real-time monitoring system that employs GPS sensors and Ethernet and/or serial port communication techniques are used to transfer data between GPS receivers at target points and a central processing computer. The data can be processed locally or remotely based on the requirements of client’s satisfaction. Due to the modular architecture of the system, other sensor types may be supported with minimal effort. Data on the distributed network & measurements are transmitted via cellular SIM cards to a Control Unit, which provides for post-processing and network management. The Control Unit may be remotely accessed via an Internet connection. The new system will not only provide more consistent data about the road traffic conditions but also will provide methods for integrating with other Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). For communication between the mobile device and central monitoring service GSM technology is used. The resulting system is characterized by autonomy, reliability and a high degree of automation.

  13. Potentiometric Sensor for Real-Time Monitoring of Multivalent Ion Concentrations in Molten Salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter A. Zink; Jan-Fong Jue; Brenda E. Serrano; Guy L. Fredrickson; Ben F. Cowan; Steven D. Herrmann; Shelly X. Li

    2010-07-01

    Electrorefining of spent metallic nuclear fuel in high temperature molten salt systems is a core technology in pyroprocessing, which in turn plays a critical role in the development of advanced fuel cycle technologies. In electrorefining, spent nuclear fuel is treated electrochemically in order to effect separations between uranium, noble metals, and active metals, which include the transuranics. The accumulation of active metals in a lithium chloride-potassium chloride (LiCl-KCl) eutectic molten salt electrolyte occurs at the expense of the UCl3-oxidant concentration in the electrolyte, which must be periodically replenished. Our interests lie with the accumulation of active metals in the molten salt electrolyte. The real-time monitoring of actinide concentrations in the molten salt electrolyte is highly desirable for controlling electrochemical operations and assuring materials control and accountancy. However, real-time monitoring is not possible with current methods for sampling and chemical analysis. A new solid-state electrochemical sensor is being developed for real-time monitoring of actinide ion concentrations in a molten salt electrorefiner. The ultimate function of the sensor is to monitor plutonium concentrations during electrorefining operations, but in this work gadolinium was employed as a surrogate material for plutonium. In a parametric study, polycrystalline sodium beta double-prime alumina (Na-ß?-alumina) discs and tubes were subject to vapor-phase exchange with gadolinium ions (Gd3+) using a gadolinium chloride salt (GdCl3) as a precursor to produce gadolinium beta double-prime alumina (Gd-ß?-alumina) samples. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and microstructural analysis were performed on the ion-exchanged discs to determine the relationship between ion exchange and Gd3+ ion conductivity. The ion-exchanged tubes were configured as potentiometric sensors in order to monitor real-time Gd3+ ion concentrations in mixtures of gadolinium

  14. Real-time kinematic PPP GPS for structure monitoring applied on the Severn Suspension Bridge, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xu; Roberts, Gethin Wyn; Li, Xingxing; Hancock, Craig Matthew

    2017-09-01

    GPS is widely used for monitoring large civil engineering structures in real time or near real time. In this paper the use of PPP GPS for monitoring large structures is investigated. The bridge deformation results estimated using double differenced measurements is used as the truth against which the performance of kinematic PPP in a real-time scenario for bridge monitoring is assessed. The towers' datasets with millimetre level movement and suspension cable dataset with centimetre/decimetre level movement were processed by both PPP and DD data processing methods. The consistency of tower PPP time series indicated that the wet tropospheric delay is the major obstacle for small deflection extraction. The results of suspension cable survey points indicate that an ionospheric-free linear measurement is competent for bridge deformation by PPP kinematic model, the frequency domain analysis yields very similar results using either PPP or DD. This gives evidence that PPP can be used as an alternative method to DD for large structure monitoring when DD is difficult or impossible because of large baseline lengths, power outages or natural disasters. The PPP residual tropospheric wet delays can be applied to improve the capacity of small movement extraction.

  15. Real-time PM10 concentration monitoring on Penang Bridge by using traffic monitoring CCTV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, K. L.; Lim, H. S.; MatJafri, M. Z.; Abdullah, K.; Wong, C. J.

    2007-04-01

    For this study, an algorithm was developed to determine concentration of particles less than 10μm (PM10) from still images captured by a CCTV camera on the Penang Bridge. The objective of this study is to remotely monitor the PM10 concentrations on the Penang Bridge through the internet. So, an algorithm was developed based on the relationship between the atmospheric reflectance and the corresponding air quality. By doing this, the still images were separated into three bands namely red, green and blue and their digital number values were determined. A special transformation was then performed to the data. Ground PM10 measurements were taken by using DustTrak TM meter. The algorithm was calibrated using a regression analysis. The proposed algorithm produced a high correlation coefficient (R) and low root-mean-square error (RMS) between the measured and produced PM10. Later, a program was written by using Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0 to download still images from the camera over the internet and implement the newly developed algorithm. Meanwhile, the program is running in real time and the public will know the air pollution index from time to time. This indicates that the technique using the CCTV camera images can provide a useful tool for air quality studies.

  16. Remote real-time monitoring soil water potential system based on GSM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongming Zhao; Xin Lu; Haijiang Wang

    2008-01-01

    Aiming at the limitation of traditional measuring soil water potential, the paper presents an information system based GSM to real-time monitor data coming from multiple data sources. The monitoring system, which consisted of monitoring center, GSM transmission channel and data detection terminal, was given. The detection terminal included the measuring station and TS-2 negative pressure meter, which was applied to measure soil water potential. Nowadays the system has been successfully applied to drip irrigation in the cotton field on farm in Xinjiang region. The system provides a feasible technology frame-work for collecting and processing wide geographical distribution data in farmland.

  17. A NEAR REAL-TIME BERYLLIUM MONITOR WITH CAM AND WIPE ANALYSIS CAPABILITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.T. Kendrick; Steven Saggese

    2002-12-01

    Science & Engineering Associates, Inc. (SEA), under contract No. DE-AC26-00NT40768, was tasked by the US Department of Energy--National Energy Technology Laboratory to develop and test a near real-time beryllium monitor for airborne and surface measurements. Recent public awareness of the health risks associated with exposure to beryllium has underscored the need for better, faster beryllium monitoring capabilities within the DOE. A near real-time beryllium monitor will offer significant improvements over the baseline monitoring technology currently in use. Whereas the baseline technology relies upon collecting an air sample on a filter and the subsequent analysis of the filter by an analytical laboratory, this effort developed a monitor that offers near real-time measurement results while work is in progress. Since the baseline typically only offers after-the-fact documentation of exposure levels, the near real-time capability provides a significant increase in worker protection. The beryllium monitor developed utilizes laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, or LIBS as the fundamental measurement technology. LIBS has been used in a variety of laboratory and field based instrumentation to provide real-time, and near-real-time elemental analysis capabilities. LIBS is an analytical technique where a pulsed high energy laser beam is focused to a point on the sample to be interrogated. The high energy density produces a small high temperature plasma plume, sometimes called a spark. The conditions within this plasma plume result in the constituent atoms becoming excited and emitting their characteristic optical emissions. The emission light is collected and routed to an optical spectrometer for quantitative spectral analysis. Each element has optical emissions, or lines, of a specific wavelength that can be used to uniquely identify that element. In this application, the intensity of the beryllium emission is used to provide a quantitative measure of the abundance of the

  18. Mobile Embedded Real Time System (RTTCS for Monitoring and Controlling in Telemedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basim Mohammed

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A real time system embedded in mobile phone was designed In this work, called (Real Time Telemonitoring and Controlling System RTTCS to telemonitor and control a patient's case in level two of telemedicine. The signals (ECG, Arterial Oxygen Saturation and Blood Pressure were transferred out of the patient's monitoring equipments to NOKIA12 unit. Then they were send wirelessly through GPRS to be received by the mobile phone interpreted by the specialist physician who is far a way from the patient. By which the physician can evaluate the patient's case through parameters displaced on the mobile phone screen, so he can provide the necessary medical orders. The suggested system consists of three units. The first is the NOKIA12 unit (T-Box N12 R which contains an embedded real time program works as its operating system. That depends upon two principles multithreading and preemptive and uses a proposed dynamic scheduling algorithm called (RTT with real time constraints to schedule the signals and to send them according to identified priorities to meet the deadline of signals. The second unit represents a web site which is the middle storage for the patient's data. The third unit is a mobile unit (mobile phone which receives the coming signals from the patient monitor accordingly through the previously mentioned first and second units, then the physician can evaluate and diagnose the patient’s case and order the necessary interventions. The system was applied on many cases of abnormal cardiac rhythm cases, where it had been send successfully to a mobile phone in it's real time, and had been read by the physician where it was clear and reliable for the medical diagnosis.

  19. Coordinator Traffic Diffusion for Data-Intensive Zigbee Transmission in Real-time Electrocardiography Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chinyang Henry

    2013-12-01

    Zigbee is expected to have an explosive growth in wireless medical monitoring systems because it possesses the advantages of low cost, safe power strength, and easy deployment. However, limited work focuses on solving the bottleneck issue at the Zigbee coordinator in a data-intensive system to guarantee transmission reliability of life-critical data. This paper proposes coordinator traffic diffusion (CTD) method to redirect excessive traffic from coordinator to the sink in electrocardiography (ECG) medical application. CTD router, which implements CTD design, automatically redirects ECG data traffic to the sink node without involving the coordinator, and thus reliable real-time ECG monitoring service can be delivered precisely. CTD design is tested in both TI CC2530 Zigbee platform and NS2 simulation. Experimental result demonstrates that a CTD design can assist routers in successfully delivering real-time ECG data samples reliably with the best transmission rate, 24 kb/s. This performance cannot be achieved by the original Zigbee design.

  20. Real-time Alarm Monitoring System for Detecting Driver Fatigue in Wireless Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongrong Fu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to develop a real-time alarm monitoring system that can detect the fatigue driving state through wireless communication. The drivers’ electroencephalogram (EEG signals were recorded from occipital electrodes. Seven EEG rhythms with different frequency bands as gamma, hbeta, beta, sigma, alpha, theta and delta waves were extracted. They were simultaneously assessed using relative operating characteristic (ROC curves and grey relational analysis to select one as the fatigue feature. The research results showed that the performance of theta wave was the best one. Therefore, theta wave was used as fatigue feature in the following alarm device. The real-time alarm monitoring system based on the result has been developed, once the threshold was settled by using the data of the first ten minutes driving period. The developed system can detect driver fatigue and give alarm to indicate the onset of fatigue automatically.

  1. Broadband spectroscopic sensor for real-time monitoring of industrial SO(2) emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng; Zhang, Yungang; Somesfalean, Gabriel; Wang, Huashan; Wu, Shaohua; Zhang, Zhiguo

    2007-05-01

    A spectroscopic system for continuous real-time monitoring of SO(2) concentrations in industrial emissions was developed. The sensor is well suited for field applications due to simple and compact instrumental design, and robust data evaluation based on ultraviolet broadband absorption without the use of any calibration cell. The sensor has a detection limit of 1 ppm, and was employed both for gas-flow simulations with and without suspended particles, and for in situ measurement of SO(2) concentrations in the flue gas emitted from an industrial coal-fired boiler. The price/performance ratio of the instrument is expected to be superior to other comparable real-time monitoring systems.

  2. Global near real-time disturbance monitoring using MODIS satellite image time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbesselt, J.; Kalomenopoulos, M.; de Jong, R.; Zeileis, A.; Herold, M.

    2012-12-01

    Global disturbance monitoring in forested ecosystems is critical to retrieve information on carbon storage dynamics, biodiversity, and other socio-ecological processes. Satellite remote sensing provides a means for cost-effective monitoring at frequent time steps over large areas. However, for information about current change processes, it is required to analyse image time series in a fast and accurate manner and to detect abnormal change in near real time. An increasing number of change detection techniques have become available that are able to process historical satellite image time series data to detect changes in the past. However, methods that detect changes near real-time, i.e. analysing newly acquired data with respect to the historical series, are lacking. We propose a statistical technique for monitoring change in near-real time by comparing current data with a seasonal-trend model fitted onto the historical time series. As such, identification of consistent and abnormal change in near-real time becomes possible as soon as new image data is captured. The method is based on the "Break For Additive Seasonal Trend" (BFAST) concept (http://bfast.r-forge.r-project.org/). Disturbances are detected by analysing 16-daily MODIS combined vegetation and temperature indices. Validation is carried out by comparing the detected disturbances with available disturbance data sets (e.g. deforestation in Brazil and MODIS fire products). Preliminary results demonstrated that abrupt changes at the end of time series can be successfully detected while the method remains robust for strong seasonality and atmospheric noise. Cloud masking, however, was identified as a critical issue since periods of persistent cloudiness can be detected as abnormal change. The proposed method is an automatic and robust change detection approach that can be applied on different types of data (e.g. future sensors like the Sentinel constellation that provide higher spatial resolution at regular time

  3. Real time monitoring of Pb2+-induced formation of G-quadruplex DNA with LPFG sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Z.; Latifi, H.; Ranjbar, B.; Zibaii, M. I.; Behroodi, E.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper the potential of real time monitoring of AS1411 Guanine-quadruplex folding by using long period fiber grating (LPFG) biosensor was described. AS1411 ss-DNA folds into parallel bimolecular quadruplex in solution containing metal ions. While immobilized AS1411 folds, molecular crowding of sensing area will increase and cause change the refractive index (RI) around the sensor. In addition RI change is absolutely dependent on G-quadruplex factor concentration.

  4. Cyber security Considerations for Real Time Physiological Status Monitoring: Threats, Goals, and Use Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Cyber - security Considerations for Real-Time Physiological Status Monitoring: Threats, Goals, and Use Cases John Holliman, Michael Zhivich, Roger...Spins: Security protocols for sensor networks,” Secaucus, NJ, USA, pp. 521– 534, Sep. 2002. [8] DoD, Resilient Military Systems and the Advanced Cyber ...2012. [10] W. Trappe, R. Howard, and R. S. Moore, “Low-energy security : Limits and opportunities in the internet of things,” IEEE Security Privacy, vol

  5. Real-time oil-saturation monitoring in rock cores with low-field NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, J; Howe, A M; Clarke, A

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) provides a powerful suite of tools for studying oil in reservoir core plugs at the laboratory scale. Low-field magnets are preferred for well-log calibration and to minimize magnetic-susceptibility-induced internal gradients in the porous medium. We demonstrate that careful data processing, combined with prior knowledge of the sample properties, enables real-time acquisition and interpretation of saturation state (relative amount of oil and water in the pores of a rock). Robust discrimination of oil and brine is achieved with diffusion weighting. We use this real-time analysis to monitor the forced displacement of oil from porous materials (sintered glass beads and sandstones) and to generate capillary desaturation curves. The real-time output enables in situ modification of the flood protocol and accurate control of the saturation state prior to the acquisition of standard NMR core analysis data, such as diffusion-relaxation correlations. Although applications to oil recovery and core analysis are demonstrated, the implementation highlights the general practicality of low-field NMR as an inline sensor for real-time industrial process control.

  6. [Near infrared spectroscopy and multivariate statistical process analysis for real-time monitoring of production process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Ma, Xiang; Wen, Ya-Dong; Zou, Quan; Wang, Jun; Tu, Jia-Run; Cai, Wen-Sheng; Shao, Xue-Guang

    2013-05-01

    Near infrared diffusive reflectance spectroscopy has been applied in on-site or on-line analysis due to its characteristics of fastness, non-destruction and the feasibility for real complex sample analysis. The present work reported a real-time monitoring method for industrial production by using near infrared spectroscopic technique and multivariate statistical process analysis. In the method, the real-time near infrared spectra of the materials are collected on the production line, and then the evaluation of the production process can be achieved by a statistic Hotelling T2 calculated with the established model. In this work, principal component analysis (PCA) is adopted for building the model, and the statistic is calculated by projecting the real-time spectra onto the PCA model. With an application of the method in a practical production, it was demonstrated that a real-time evaluation of the variations in the production can be realized by investigating the changes in the statistic, and the comparison of the products in different batches can be achieved by further statistics of the statistic. Therefore, the proposed method may provide a practical way for quality insurance of production processes.

  7. A label-free bioluminescent sensor for real-time monitoring polynucleotide kinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jiao; Xu, Qinfeng; Lu, Xiaoquan; Zhang, Chun-yang

    2014-08-19

    Polynucleotide kinase (PNK) plays a crucial role in maintaining the genomic stability of cells and is becoming a potential target in the radio-therapeutic treatment of cancers. The fluorescent method is usually used to measure the PNK activity, but it is impossible to obtain the real-time monitoring without the employment of the labeled DNA probes. Here, we report a label-free bioluminescent sensor for PNK activity assay through real-time monitoring of the phosphorylation-dependent DNA ligation reaction. In this bioluminescent sensor, two hairpin DNA probes with 5'-protruding terminal are designed as the phosphate acceptor, and the widely used phosphate donor of ATP is substituted by dCTP. In the absence of PNK, the ligation reaction cannot be triggered due to the lack of 5'-phosphoryl groups in the probes, and the background signal is negligible. With the addition of PNK, the phosphorylation-ligation reaction of the probes is initiated with the release of AMP, and the subsequent conversion of AMP to ATP leads to the generation of distinct bioluminescence signal. The PNK activity assay can be performed in real time by continuously monitoring the bioluminescence signal. This bioluminescent sensor is much simpler, label-free, cost-effective, and free from the autofluorescence interference of biological matrix, and can be further used for quantitative, kinetic, and inhibition assay.

  8. A framework for real-time glycosylation monitoring (RT-GM) in mammalian cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharmalingam, Tharmala; Wu, Chao-Hsiang; Callahan, Susan; T Goudar, Chetan

    2015-06-01

    Glycosylation is a critical characteristic of biotherapeutics because of its central role in in vivo efficacy. Multiple factors including medium composition and process conditions impact protein glycosylation and characterizing cellular response to these changes is essential to understand the underlying relationships. Current practice typically involves glycosylation characterization at the end of a fed-batch culture, which in addition to being an aggregate of the process, reflects a bias towards the end of the culture where a majority of the product is made. In an attempt to rigorously characterize the entire time-course of a fed-batch culture, a real-time glycosylation monitoring (RT-GM) framework was developed. It involves using the micro sequential injection (μSI) system as a sample preparation platform coupled with an ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) system for real-time monitoring of the antibody glycan profile. Automated sampling and sample preparations were performed using the μSI system and this framework was used to study manganese (Mn)-induced glycosylation changes over the course of a fed-batch culture. As expected, Mn-supplemented cultures exhibited higher galactosylation levels compared to control while the fucosylation and mannosylation were consistent for both supplemented and control cultures. Overall, the approach presented in the study allows real time monitoring of glycosylation changes and this information can be rapidly translated into process control and/or process optimization decisions to accelerate process development. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Real-time electrochemical monitoring of isothermal helicase-dependent amplification of nucleic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivlehan, Francine; Mavré, François; Talini, Luc; Limoges, Benoît; Marchal, Damien

    2011-09-21

    We described an electrochemical method to monitor in real-time the isothermal helicase-dependent amplification of nucleic acids. The principle of detection is simple and well-adapted to the development of portable, easy-to-use and inexpensive nucleic acids detection technologies. It consists of monitoring a decrease in the electrochemical current response of a reporter DNA intercalating redox probe during the isothermal DNA amplification. The method offers the possibility to quantitatively analyze target nucleic acids in less than one hour at a single constant temperature, and to perform at the end of the isothermal amplification a DNA melt curve analysis for differentiating between specific and non-specific amplifications. To illustrate the potentialities of this approach for the development of a simple, robust and low-cost instrument with high throughput capability, the method was validated with an electrochemical system capable of monitoring up to 48 real-time isothermal HDA reactions simultaneously in a disposable microplate consisting of 48-electrochemical microwells. Results obtained with this approach are comparable to that obtained with a well-established but more sophisticated and expensive fluorescence-based method. This makes for a promising alternative detection method not only for real-time isothermal helicase-dependent amplification of nucleic acid, but also for other isothermal DNA amplification strategies.

  10. Real-time capability of GEONET system and its application to crust monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagiwa, Atsushi; Hatanaka, Yuki; Yutsudo, Toru; Miyahara, Basara

    2006-03-01

    The GPS Earth Observation Network system (GEONET) has been playing an important role in monitoring the crustal deformation of Japan. Since its start of operation, the requirements for accuracy and timeliness have become higher and higher. On the other hand, recent broadband communication infrastructure has had capability to realize real-time crust monitoring and to aid the development of a location-based service. In early 2003, the Geographical Survey Institute (GSI) upgraded the GEONET system to meet new requirements. The number of stations became 1200 in total by March, 2003. The antennas were unified to the choke ring antennas of Dorne Margolin T-type and the receivers were replaced with new ones that are capable of real-time observation and data transfer. The new system uses IP-connection through IP-VPN (Internet Protocol Virtual Private Network) for data transfer, which is provided by communication companies. The Data Processing System, which manages the observation data and analyses in GEONET, has 7 units. GEONET carries out three kinds of routine analyses and an analysis of RTK-type for emergencies. The new system has shown its capability for real-time crust monitoring, for example, the precise and rapid detection of coseismic (and post-seismic) motion caused by 2003 Tokachi-Oki earthquake.

  11. Developing a Real Time Sensing System to Monitor Bacteria in Wound Dressings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Connolly

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Infection control is a key aspect of wound management strategies. Infection results in chemical imbalances and inflammation in the wound and may lead to prolonged healing times and degradation of the wound surface. Frequent changing of wound dressings may result in damage to healing tissues and an increased risk of infection. This paper presents the first results from a monitoring system that is being developed to detect presence and growth of bacteria in real time. It is based on impedance sensors that could be placed at the wound-dressing interface and potentially monitor bacterial growth in real time. As wounds can produce large volumes of exudate, the initial system reported here was developed to test for the presence of bacteria in suspension. Impedance was measured using disposable silver-silver chloride electrodes. The bacteria Staphylococcus aureus were chosen for the study as a species commonly isolated from wounds. The growth of bacteria was confirmed by plate counting methods and the impedance data were analysed for discernible differences in the impedance profiles to distinguish the absence and/or presence of bacteria. The main findings were that the impedance profiles obtained by silver-silver chloride sensors in bacterial suspensions could detect the presence of high cell densities. However, the presence of the silver-silver chloride electrodes tended to inhibit the growth of bacteria. These results indicate that there is potential to create a real time infection monitor for wounds based upon impedance sensing.

  12. KERMA-based radiation dose management system for real-time patient dose measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyo-Tae; Heo, Ye-Ji; Oh, Kyung-Min; Nam, Sang-Hee; Kang, Sang-Sik; Park, Ji-Koon; Song, Yong-Keun; Park, Sung-Kwang

    2016-07-01

    Because systems that reduce radiation exposure during diagnostic procedures must be developed, significant time and financial resources have been invested in constructing radiation dose management systems. In the present study, the characteristics of an existing ionization-based system were compared to those of a system based on the kinetic energy released per unit mass (KERMA). Furthermore, the feasibility of using the KERMA-based system for patient radiation dose management was verified. The ionization-based system corrected the effects resulting from radiation parameter perturbations in general radiography whereas the KERMA-based system did not. Because of this difference, the KERMA-based radiation dose management system might overestimate the patient's radiation dose due to changes in the radiation conditions. Therefore, if a correction factor describing the correlation between the systems is applied to resolve this issue, then a radiation dose management system can be developed that will enable real-time measurement of the patient's radiation exposure and acquisition of diagnostic images.

  13. A real-time virtual delivery system for photon radiotherapy delivery monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Shi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Treatment delivery monitoring is important for radiotherapy, which enables catching dosimetric error at the earliest possible opportunity. This project develops a virtual delivery system to monitor the dose delivery process of photon radiotherapy in real-time using GPU-based Monte Carlo (MC method.Methods: The simulation process consists of 3 parallel CPU threads. A thread T1 is responsible for communication with a linac, which acquires a set of linac status parameters, e.g. gantry angles, MLC configurations, and beam MUs every 20 ms. Since linac vendors currently do not offer interface to acquire data in real time, we mimic this process by fetching information from a linac dynalog file at the set frequency. Instantaneous beam fluence map (FM is calculated based. A FM buffer is also created in T1 and the instantaneous FM is accumulated to it. This process continues, until a ready signal is received from thread T2 on which an in-house developed MC dose engine executes on GPU. At that moment, the accumulated FM is transferred to T2 for dose calculations, and the FM buffer in T1 is cleared. Once the dose calculation finishes, the resulting 3D dose distribution is directed to thread T3, which displays it in three orthogonal planes in color wash overlaid on the CT image. This process continues to monitor the 3D dose distribution in real-time.Results: An IMRT and a VMAT cases used in our patient-specific QA are studied. Maximum dose differences between our system and treatment planning system are 0.98% and 1.58% for the IMRT and VMAT cases, respectively. The update frequency is >10Hz and the relative uncertainty level is 2%.Conclusion: By embedding a GPU-based MC code in a novel data/work flow, it is possible to achieve real-time MC dose calculations to monitor delivery process.------------------------------Cite this article as: Shi F, Gu X, Graves YJ, Jiang S, Jia X. A real-time virtual delivery system for photon radiotherapy delivery

  14. Real-Time Aircraft Cosmic Ray Radiation Exposure Predictions from the NAIRAS Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, C. J.; Tobiska, W.; Kress, B. T.; Xu, X.

    2012-12-01

    The Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) is a prototype operational model for predicting commercial aircraft radiation exposure from galactic and solar cosmic rays. NAIRAS predictions are currently streaming live from the project's public website, and the exposure rate nowcast is also available on the SpaceWx smartphone app for iPhone, IPad, and Android. Cosmic rays are the primary source of human exposure to high linear energy transfer radiation at aircraft altitudes, which increases the risk of cancer and other adverse health effects. Thus, the NAIRAS model addresses an important national need with broad societal, public health and economic benefits. There is also interest in extending NAIRAS to the LEO environment to address radiation hazard issues for the emerging commercial spaceflight industry. The processes responsible for the variability in the solar wind, interplanetary magnetic field, solar energetic particle spectrum, and the dynamical response of the magnetosphere to these space environment inputs, strongly influence the composition and energy distribution of the atmospheric ionizing radiation field. Real-time observations are required at a variety of locations within the geospace environment. The NAIRAS model is driven by real-time input data from ground-, atmospheric-, and space-based platforms. During the development of the NAIRAS model, new science questions and observational data gaps were identified that must be addressed in order to obtain a more reliable and robust operational model of atmospheric radiation exposure. The focus of this talk is to present the current capabilities of the NAIRAS model, discuss future developments in aviation radiation modeling and instrumentation, and propose strategies and methodologies of bridging known gaps in current modeling and observational capabilities.

  15. Real-time geomagnetic monitoring for space weather-related applications: Opportunities and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Finn, Carol A.

    2017-07-01

    An examination is made of opportunities and challenges for enhancing global, real-time geomagnetic monitoring that would be beneficial for a variety of operational projects. This enhancement in geomagnetic monitoring can be attained by expanding the geographic distribution of magnetometer stations, improving the quality of magnetometer data, increasing acquisition sampling rates, increasing the promptness of data transmission, and facilitating access to and use of the data. Progress will benefit from new partnerships to leverage existing capacities and harness multisector, cross-disciplinary, and international interests.

  16. Combining real-time monitoring and knowledge-based analysis in MARVEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwuttke, Ursula M.; Quan, A. G.; Angelino, R.; Veregge, J. R.

    1993-01-01

    Real-time artificial intelligence is gaining increasing attention for applications in which conventional software methods are unable to meet technology needs. One such application area is the monitoring and analysis of complex systems. MARVEL, a distributed monitoring and analysis tool with multiple expert systems, was developed and successfully applied to the automation of interplanetary spacecraft operations at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. MARVEL implementation and verification approaches, the MARVEL architecture, and the specific benefits that were realized by using MARVEL in operations are described.

  17. Design of Wearable Breathing Sound Monitoring System for Real-Time Wheeze Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shih-Hong; Lin, Bor-Shing; Tsai, Chen-Han; Yang, Cheng-Ta; Lin, Bor-Shyh

    2017-01-01

    In the clinic, the wheezing sound is usually considered as an indicator symptom to reflect the degree of airway obstruction. The auscultation approach is the most common way to diagnose wheezing sounds, but it subjectively depends on the experience of the physician. Several previous studies attempted to extract the features of breathing sounds to detect wheezing sounds automatically. However, there is still a lack of suitable monitoring systems for real-time wheeze detection in daily life. In this study, a wearable and wireless breathing sound monitoring system for real-time wheeze detection was proposed. Moreover, a breathing sounds analysis algorithm was designed to continuously extract and analyze the features of breathing sounds to provide the objectively quantitative information of breathing sounds to professional physicians. Here, normalized spectral integration (NSI) was also designed and applied in wheeze detection. The proposed algorithm required only short-term data of breathing sounds and lower computational complexity to perform real-time wheeze detection, and is suitable to be implemented in a commercial portable device, which contains relatively low computing power and memory. From the experimental results, the proposed system could provide good performance on wheeze detection exactly and might be a useful assisting tool for analysis of breathing sounds in clinical diagnosis. PMID:28106747

  18. Rainfall estimation for real time flood monitoring using geostationary meteorological satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerakachen, Watcharee; Raksapatcharawong, Mongkol

    2015-09-01

    Rainfall estimation by geostationary meteorological satellite data provides good spatial and temporal resolutions. This is advantageous for real time flood monitoring and warning systems. However, a rainfall estimation algorithm developed in one region needs to be adjusted for another climatic region. This work proposes computationally-efficient rainfall estimation algorithms based on an Infrared Threshold Rainfall (ITR) method calibrated with regional ground truth. Hourly rain gauge data collected from 70 stations around the Chao-Phraya river basin were used for calibration and validation of the algorithms. The algorithm inputs were derived from FY-2E satellite observations consisting of infrared and water vapor imagery. The results were compared with the Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMaP) near real time product (GSMaP_NRT) using the probability of detection (POD), root mean square error (RMSE) and linear correlation coefficient (CC) as performance indices. Comparison with the GSMaP_NRT product for real time monitoring purpose shows that hourly rain estimates from the proposed algorithm with the error adjustment technique (ITR_EA) offers higher POD and approximately the same RMSE and CC with less data latency.

  19. Reservoir Characterization during Underbalanced Drilling of Horizontal Wells Based on Real-Time Data Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a methodology for characterizing reservoir pore pressure and permeability during underbalanced drilling of horizontal wells was presented. The methodology utilizes a transient multiphase wellbore flow model that is extended with a transient well influx analytical model during underbalanced drilling of horizontal wells. The effects of the density behavior of drilling fluid and wellbore heat transfer are considered in our wellbore flow model. Based on Kneissl’s methodology, an improved method with a different testing procedure was used to estimate the reservoir pore pressure by introducing fluctuations in the bottom hole pressure. To acquire timely basic data for reservoir characterization, a dedicated fully automated control real-time data monitoring system was established. The methodology is applied to a realistic case, and the results indicate that the estimated reservoir pore pressure and permeability fit well to the truth values from well test after drilling. The results also show that the real-time data monitoring system is operational and can provide accurate and complete data set in real time for reservoir characterization. The methodology can handle reservoir characterization during underbalanced drilling of horizontal wells.

  20. A real-time phoneme counting algorithm and application for speech rate monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharonson, Vered; Aharonson, Eran; Raichlin-Levi, Katia; Sotzianu, Aviv; Amir, Ofer; Ovadia-Blechman, Zehava

    2017-03-01

    Adults who stutter can learn to control and improve their speech fluency by modifying their speaking rate. Existing speech therapy technologies can assist this practice by monitoring speaking rate and providing feedback to the patient, but cannot provide an accurate, quantitative measurement of speaking rate. Moreover, most technologies are too complex and costly to be used for home practice. We developed an algorithm and a smartphone application that monitor a patient's speaking rate in real time and provide user-friendly feedback to both patient and therapist. Our speaking rate computation is performed by a phoneme counting algorithm which implements spectral transition measure extraction to estimate phoneme boundaries. The algorithm is implemented in real time in a mobile application that presents its results in a user-friendly interface. The application incorporates two modes: one provides the patient with visual feedback of his/her speech rate for self-practice and another provides the speech therapist with recordings, speech rate analysis and tools to manage the patient's practice. The algorithm's phoneme counting accuracy was validated on ten healthy subjects who read a paragraph at slow, normal and fast paces, and was compared to manual counting of speech experts. Test-retest and intra-counter reliability were assessed. Preliminary results indicate differences of -4% to 11% between automatic and human phoneme counting. Differences were largest for slow speech. The application can thus provide reliable, user-friendly, real-time feedback for speaking rate control practice.

  1. Connection with seismic networks and construction of real time earthquake monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi, Heon Cheol; Lee, H. I.; Shin, I. C.; Lim, I. S.; Park, J. H.; Lee, B. K.; Whee, K. H.; Cho, C. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-15

    It is natural to use the nuclear power plant seismic network which have been operated by KEPRI(Korea Electric Power Research Institute) and local seismic network by KIGAM(Korea Institute of Geology, Mining and Material). The real time earthquake monitoring system is composed with monitoring module and data base module. Data base module plays role of seismic data storage and classification and the other, monitoring module represents the status of acceleration in the nuclear power plant area. This research placed the target on the first, networking the KIN's seismic monitoring system with KIGAM and KEPRI seismic network and the second, construction the KIN's Independent earthquake monitoring system.

  2. Advanced Engine Health Management Applications of the SSME Real-Time Vibration Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorucci, Tony R.; Lakin, David R., II; Reynolds, Tracy D.; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Real Time Vibration Monitoring System (RTVMS) is a 32-channel high speed vibration data acquisition and processing system developed at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). It Delivers sample rates as high as 51,200 samples/second per channel and performs Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) processing via on-board digital signal processing (DSP) chips in a real-time format. Advanced engine health assessment is achieved by utilizing the vibration spectra to provide accurate sensor validation and enhanced engine vibration redlines. Discrete spectral signatures (such as synchronous) that are indicators of imminent failure can be assessed and utilized to mitigate catastrophic engine failures- a first in rocket engine health assessment. This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  3. Refolding of ribonuclease A monitored by real-time photo-CIDNP NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, Iain J. [University of Sussex, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences (United Kingdom); Maeda, Kiminori; Paisley, Howard J. [University of Oxford, Department of Chemistry, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory (United Kingdom); Mok, K. Hun [University of Dublin, Trinity College, School of Biochemistry and Immunology (Ireland)], E-mail: mok1@tcd.ie; Hore, P. J. [University of Oxford, Department of Chemistry, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory (United Kingdom)], E-mail: peter.hore@chem.ox.ac.uk

    2009-06-15

    Photo-CIDNP NMR spectroscopy is a powerful method for investigating the solvent accessibility of histidine, tyrosine and tryptophan residues in a protein. When coupled to real-time NMR, this technique allows changes in the environments of these residues to be used as a probe of protein folding. In this paper we describe experiments performed to monitor the refolding of ribonuclease A following dilution from a high concentration of chemical denaturant. These experiments provide a good example of the utility of this technique which provides information that is difficult to obtain by other biophysical methods. Real-time photo-CIDNP measurements yield residue-specific kinetic data pertaining to the folding reaction, interpreted in terms of current knowledge of the folding of bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A.

  4. Real-time monitoring and operational control of drinking-water systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ocampo-Martínez, Carlos; Pérez, Ramon; Cembrano, Gabriela; Quevedo, Joseba; Escobet, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a set of approaches for the real-time monitoring and control of drinking-water networks based on advanced information and communication technologies. It shows the reader how to achieve significant improvements in efficiency in terms of water use, energy consumption, water loss minimization, and water quality guarantees. The methods and approaches presented are illustrated and have been applied using real-life pilot demonstrations based on the drinking-water network in Barcelona, Spain. The proposed approaches and tools cover: • decision-making support for real-time optimal control of water transport networks, explaining how stochastic model predictive control algorithms that take explicit account of uncertainties associated with energy prices and real demand allow the main flow and pressure actuators—pumping stations and pressure regulation valves—and intermediate storage tanks to be operated to meet demand using the most sustainable types of source and with minimum electricity costs;...

  5. Real time monitoring to the odour of excrement for health of infants and elderly completely bedridden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jiancheng; Huang, Guoliang

    2017-01-01

    In the domain of biomedical signals measurements, monitoring human physiological parameters is an important issue. With the rapid development of wireless body area network, it makes monitor, transmit and record physiological parameters faster and more convenient. Infants and the elderly completely bedridden are two special groups of the society who need more medical care. According to researches investigating current frontier domains and the market products, the detection of physiological parameters from the excrement is rare. However, urine and faeces contain a large number of physiological information, which are high relative to health. The mainly distributed odour from urine is NH4 and the distributed odour from feces is mainly H2S, which are both could be detected by the sensors. In this paper, we introduce the design and implementation of a portable wireless device based on body area network for real time monitoring to the odour of excrement for health of infants and the elderly completely bedridden. The device not only could monitor in real time the emitted odour of faeces and urine for health analysis, but also measures the body temperature and environment humidity, and send data to the mobile phone of paramedics to alarm or the server for storage and process, which has prospect to monitoring infants and the paralysis elderly.

  6. CIB: an improved communication architecture for real-time monitoring of aerospace materials, instruments, and sensors on the ISS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasowski, Michael J; Prokop, Norman F; Flatico, Joseph M; Greer, Lawrence C; Jenkins, Phillip P; Neudeck, Philip G; Chen, Liangyu; Spina, Danny C

    2013-01-01

    The Communications Interface Board (CIB) is an improved communications architecture that was demonstrated on the International Space Station (ISS). ISS communication interfaces allowing for real-time telemetry and health monitoring require a significant amount of development. The CIB simplifies the communications interface to the ISS for real-time health monitoring, telemetry, and control of resident sensors or experiments. With a simpler interface available to the telemetry bus, more sensors or experiments may be flown. The CIB accomplishes this by acting as a bridge between the ISS MIL-STD-1553 low-rate telemetry (LRT) bus and the sensors allowing for two-way command and telemetry data transfer. The CIB was designed to be highly reliable and radiation hard for an extended flight in low Earth orbit (LEO) and has been proven with over 40 months of flight operation on the outside of ISS supporting two sets of flight experiments. Since the CIB is currently operating in flight on the ISS, recent results of operations will be provided. Additionally, as a vehicle health monitoring enabling technology, an overview and results from two experiments enabled by the CIB will be provided. Future applications for vehicle health monitoring utilizing the CIB architecture will also be discussed.

  7. On-line, real-time monitoring for petrochemical and pipeline process control applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, Russell D.; Eden, D.C.; Cayard, M.S.; Eden, D.A.; Mclean, D.T. [InterCorr International, Inc., 14503 Bammel N. Houston, Suite 300, Houston Texas 77014 (United States); Kintz, J. [BASF Corporation, 602 Copper Rd., Freeport, Texas 77541 (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Corrosion problems in petroleum and petrochemical plants and pipeline may be inherent to the processes, but costly and damaging equipment losses are not. With the continual drive to increase productivity, while protecting both product quality, safety and the environment, corrosion must become a variable that can be continuously monitored and assessed. This millennium has seen the introduction of new 'real-time', online measurement technologies and vast improvements in methods of electronic data handling. The 'replace when it fails' approach is receding into a distant memory; facilities management today is embracing new technology, and rapidly appreciating the value it has to offer. It has offered the capabilities to increase system run time between major inspections, reduce the time and expense associated with turnaround or in-line inspections, and reduce major upsets which cause unplanned shut downs. The end result is the ability to know on a practical basis of how 'hard' facilities can be pushed before excessive corrosion damage will result, so that process engineers can understand the impact of their process control actions and implement true asset management. This paper makes reference to use of a online, real-time electrochemical corrosion monitoring system - SmartCET 1- in a plant running a mostly organic process media. It also highlights other pertinent examples where similar systems have been used to provide useful real-time information to detect system upsets, which would not have been possible otherwise. This monitoring/process control approach has operators and engineers to see, for the first time, changes in corrosion behavior caused by specific variations in process parameters. Process adjustments have been identified that reduce corrosion rates while maintaining acceptable yields and quality. The monitoring system has provided a new window into the chemistry of the process, helping chemical engineers improve their process

  8. Real-time monitoring of controllable cavitation erosion in a vessel phantom with passive acoustic mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shukuan; Shi, Aiwei; Jing, Bowen; Du, Xuan; Wan, Mingxi

    2017-11-01

    Cavitation erosion in blood vessel plays an important role in ultrasound thrombolysis, drug delivery, and other clinical applications. The controllable superficial vessel erosion based on ultrasonic standing wave (USW) has been used to effectively prevent vessel ruptures and haemorrhages, and optical method is used to observe the experiments. But optical method can only work in transparent media. Compared with standard B-mode imaging, passive acoustic mapping (PAM) can monitor erosion in real time and has better sensitivity of cavitation detection. However, the conventionally used PAM has limitations in imaging resolution and artifacts. In this study, a unique PAM method that combined the robust Capon beamformer (RCB) with the sign coherence factor (SCF) was proposed to monitor the superficial vessel erosion in real time. The performance of the proposed method was validated by simulations. In vitro experiments showed that the lateral (axial) resolution of the proposed PAM was 2.31±0.51 (3.19±0.38) times higher than time exposure acoustics (TEA)-based PAM and 1.73±0.38 (1.76±0.48) times higher than RCB-based PAM, and the cavitation-to-artifact ratio (CAR) of the proposed PAM could be improved by 22.5±3.2dB and 7.1±1.2dB compared with TEA and RCB-based PAM. These results showed that the proposed PAM can precisely monitor the superficial vessel erosion and the erosion shift after USW modulation. This work may have the potential of developing a useful tool for precise spatial control and real-time monitoring of the superficial vessel erosion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Soil Monitor: an open source web application for real-time soil sealing monitoring and assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langella, Giuliano; Basile, Angelo; Giannecchini, Simone; Iamarino, Michela; Munafò, Michele; Terribile, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    Soil sealing is one of the most important causes of land degradation and desertification. In Europe, soil covered by impermeable materials has increased by about 80% from the Second World War till nowadays, while population has only grown by one third. There is an increasing concern at the high political levels about the need to attenuate imperviousness itself and its effects on soil functions. European Commission promulgated a roadmap (COM(2011) 571) by which the net land take would be zero by 2050. Furthermore, European Commission also published a report in 2011 providing best practices and guidelines for limiting soil sealing and imperviousness. In this scenario, we developed an open source and an open source based Soil Sealing Geospatial Cyber Infrastructure (SS-GCI) named as "Soil Monitor". This tool merges a webGIS with parallel geospatial computation in a fast and dynamic fashion in order to provide real-time assessments of soil sealing at high spatial resolution (20 meters and below) over the whole Italy. Common open source webGIS packages are used to implement both the data management and visualization infrastructures, such as GeoServer and MapStore. The high-speed geospatial computation is ensured by a GPU parallelism using the CUDA (Computing Unified Device Architecture) framework by NVIDIA®. This kind of parallelism required the writing - from scratch - all codes needed to fulfil the geospatial computation built behind the soil sealing toolbox. The combination of GPU computing with webGIS infrastructures is relatively novel and required particular attention at the Java-CUDA programming interface. As a result, Soil Monitor is smart because it can perform very high time-consuming calculations (querying for instance an Italian administrative region as area of interest) in less than one minute. The web application is embedded in a web browser and nothing must be installed before using it. Potentially everybody can use it, but the main targets are the

  10. Application of rule-based data mining techniques to real time ATLAS Grid job monitoring data

    CERN Document Server

    Ahrens, R; The ATLAS collaboration; Kalinin, S; Maettig, P; Sandhoff, M; dos Santos, T; Volkmer, F

    2012-01-01

    The Job Execution Monitor (JEM) is a job-centric grid job monitoring software developed at the University of Wuppertal and integrated into the pilot-based “PanDA” job brokerage system leveraging physics analysis and Monte Carlo event production for the ATLAS experiment on the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG). With JEM, job progress and grid worker node health can be supervised in real time by users, site admins and shift personnel. Imminent error conditions can be detected early and countermeasures can be initiated by the Job’s owner immideatly. Grid site admins can access aggregated data of all monitored jobs to infer the site status and to detect job and Grid worker node misbehaviour. Shifters can use the same aggregated data to quickly react to site error conditions and broken production tasks. In this work, the application of novel data-centric rule based methods and data-mining techniques to the real time monitoring data is discussed. The usage of such automatic inference techniques on monitorin...

  11. Real time remote monitoring and pre-warning system for Highway landslide in mountain area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yonghui; Li, Hongxu; Sheng, Qian; Wu, Kai; Chen, Guoliang

    2011-06-01

    The wire-pulling trigger displacement meter with precision of 1 mm and the grid pluviometer with precision of 0.1 mm are used to monitor the surface displacement and rainfall for Highway slope, and the measured data are transferred to the remote computer in real time by general packet radio service (GPRS) net of China telecom. The wire-pulling trigger displacement meter, grid pluviometer, data acquisition and transmission unit, and solar power supply device are integrated to form a comprehensive monitoring hardware system for Highway landslide in mountain area, which proven to be economical, energy-saving, automatic and high efficient. Meantime, based on the map and geographic information system (MAPGIS) platform, the software system is also developed for three dimensional (3D) geology modeling and visualization, data inquiring and drawing, stability calculation, displacement forecasting, and real time pre-warning. Moreover, the pre-warning methods based on monitoring displacement and rainfall are discussed. The monitoring and forecasting system for Highway landslide has been successfully applied in engineering practice to provide security for Highway transportation and construction and reduce environment disruption. Copyright © 2011 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Technologies for Real-Time Monitoring and Surveillance of High-Valued Assets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickett, Chris A [ORNL; Richardson, Dave [ORNL; Stinson, Brad J [ORNL; Younkin, James R [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been working on technologies that can provide real-time monitoring and surveillance of high-valued assets. It is hoped through effective system design that some of these technologies can be utilized as the technical equivalent for the "two person rule" (required for many domestic safeguards operations). The major efforts associated with this work to date involve the integration and adaptation of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) radio frequency-based technologies into basic system elements that can be effectively layered into integrated unobtrusive monitoring systems that are specifically designed to detect unauthorized asset movements. Each system element is designed to provide real-time monitoring and surveillance of both protected assets and the people who have access to them. The goal is to accomplish up-to-the-minute status of monitored assets using site-specific, rules-based algorithms. The overall system concepts focus on early detection (of theft or diversion) at the asset, followed by appropriate alarms or notifications that can be used to initiate appropriate response(s).

  13. Real-time Model Development of Core Protection and Monitoring System for SMART Simulator Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Bonseung; Hwang, Daehyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Important features of the software models are described for the application to SMART simulator. A real-time performance of the models was examined for various simulation scenarios. Areal-time model development of core protection and monitoring algorithms for SMART simulator is being studied. Software algorithms as well as design bases and requirements for core protection and monitoring are developed and various performance tests are done. From test results, it is judged that SCOPS{sub S}SIM and SCOMS{sub S}SIM algorithms and calculational capabilities are appropriate for core protection and monitoring program in SMART simulator. A multi-purpose best-estimate simulator for the SMART is being established which is purposed to be used as a tool to evaluate the impacts of design changes on the safety performance, and to improve and/or optimize the operating procedure of the SMART. In keeping with these purposes, a real-time model of the digital core protection and monitoring systems was developed on the basis of SCOPS and SCOMS algorithms of SMART.

  14. Application of rule-based data mining techniques to real time ATLAS Grid job monitoring data

    CERN Document Server

    Ahrens, R; The ATLAS collaboration; Kalinin, S; Maettig, P; Sandhoff, M; dos Santos, T; Volkmer, F

    2012-01-01

    The Job Execution Monitor (JEM) is a job-centric grid job monitoring software developed at the University of Wuppertal and integrated into the pilot-based “PanDA” job brokerage system leveraging physics analysis and Monte Carlo event production for the ATLAS experiment on the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG). With JEM, job progress and grid worker node health can be supervised in real time by users, site admins and shift personnel. Imminent error conditions can be detected early and countermeasures can be initiated by the Job’s owner immideatly. Grid site admins can access aggregated data of all monitored jobs to infer the site status and to detect job and Grid worker node misbehaviour. Shifters can use the same aggregated data to quickly react to site error conditions and broken production tasks. In this work, the application of novel data-centric rule based methods and data-mining techniques to the real time monitoring data is discussed. The usage of such automatic inference techniques on monitorin...

  15. REAL-TIME TRACER MONITORING OF RESERVOIR STIMULATION PROCEDURES VIA ELECTRONIC WIRELINE AND TELEMETRY DATA TRANSMISSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George L. Scott III

    2005-01-01

    Finalized Phase 2-3 project work has field-proven two separate real-time reservoir processes that were co-developed via funding by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Both technologies are presently patented in the United States and select foreign markets; a downhole-commingled reservoir stimulation procedure and a real-time tracer-logged fracturing diagnostic system. Phase 2 and early Phase 3 project work included the research, development and well testing of a U.S. patented gamma tracer fracturing diagnostic system. This stimulation logging process was successfully field-demonstrated; real-time tracer measurement of fracture height while fracturing was accomplished and proven technically possible. However, after the initial well tests, there were several licensing issues that developed between service providers that restricted and minimized Realtimezone's (RTZ) ability to field-test the real-time gamma diagnostic system as was originally outlined for this project. Said restrictions were encountered after when one major provider agreed to license their gamma logging tools to another. Both of these companies previously promised contributory support toward Realtimezone's DE-FC26-99FT40129 project work, however, actual support was less than desired when newly-licensed wireline gamma logging tools from one company were converted by the other from electric wireline into slickline, batter-powered ''memory'' tools for post-stimulation logging purposes. Unfortunately, the converted post-fracture measurement memory tools have no applications in experimentally monitoring real-time movement of tracers in the reservoir concurrent with the fracturing treatment. RTZ subsequently worked with other tracer gamma-logging tool companies for basic gamma logging services, but with lessened results due to lack of multiple-isotope detection capability. In addition to real-time logging system development and well testing, final Phase 2 and

  16. Gold-nanobeacons for real-time monitoring of RNA synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, João; Conde, João; de la Fuente, Jesus M; Lima, João C; Baptista, Pedro V

    2012-01-01

    Measuring RNA synthesis and, when required, the level of inhibition, is crucial towards the development of practical strategies to evaluate silencing efficiency of gene silencing approaches. We developed a direct method to follow RNA synthesis in real time based on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) functionalized with a fluorophore labeled hairpin-DNA, i.e. gold-nanobeacon (Au-nanobeacon). Under hairpin configuration, proximity to gold nanoparticles leads to fluorescence quenching; hybridization to a complementary target restores fluorescence emission due to the Au-nanobeacons' conformational reorganization that causes the fluorophore and the AuNP to part from each other, yielding a quantitative response. With this reporter Au-nanobeacon we were able to measure the rate of in vitro RNA synthesis (~10.3 fmol of RNA per minute). Then, we designed a second Au-nanobeacon targeting the promoter sequence (inhibitor) so as to inhibit transcription whilst simultaneously monitor the number of promoters being silenced. Using the two Au-nanobeacons in the same reaction mixture, we are capable of quantitatively assess in real time the synthesis of RNA and the level of inhibition. The biosensor concept can easily be extended and adapted to situations when real-time quantitative assessment of RNA synthesis and determination of the level of inhibition are required. In fact, this biosensor may assist the in vitro evaluation of silencing potential of a given sequence to be later used for in vivo gene silencing.

  17. New Products for Near Real-Time Enhanced Landslide Identification and Precipitation Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts-Pierel, J.; Ahamed, A.; Fayne, J.; Rumsey, A.

    2015-12-01

    Nepal and the Himalayan region are hotspots for landslide activity due to mountainous topography, complex terrain, and monsoon rains. Current research in landslide modeling and detection generally requires high resolution imagery with software aided classification or manual digitization by analysts. These methods are plagued by low spatial and temporal accuracy. Addressing issues in conventional measurement, this study combined optical data from Landsat 8, a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) generated from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), and precipitation data from the Global Precipitation Measurement Mission (GPM) to create two products. The Sudden Landslide Identification Product (SLIP) uses Landsat 8 and the ASTER DEM to identify landslides in near real-time, and provides damage assessments by mapping landslides triggered by precipitation. Detecting Real-time Increased Precipitation (DRIP) monitors precipitation levels extracted from the GPM-IMERG 30-minute product to create alerts in near real-time when current rainfall levels exceed regional threshold values. After a landslide detection is made by SLIP, historical rainfall data from DRIP is analyzed to estimate a date for the detected landslide. Together, DRIP and SLIP will be used by local and regional organizations in Nepal such as the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), as well as the international scientific community to protect lives, preserve infrastructure, and manage local ecosystems.

  18. The NASA Real Time Mission Monitor - A Situational Awareness Tool for Conducting Tropical Cyclone Field Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Michael; Blakeslee, Richard; Hall, John; Parker, Philip; He, Yubin

    2008-01-01

    The NASA Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) is a situational awareness tool that integrates satellite, aircraft state information, airborne and surface instruments, and weather state data in to a single visualization package for real time field experiment management. RTMM optimizes science and logistic decision-making during field experiments by presenting timely data and graphics to the users to improve real time situational awareness of the experiment's assets. The RTMM is proven in the field as it supported program managers, scientists, and aircraft personnel during the NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (investigated African easterly waves and Tropical Storm Debby and Helene) during August-September 2006 in Cape Verde, the Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling experiment during July-August 2007 in Costa Rica, and the Hurricane Aerosonde mission into Hurricane Noel in 2-3 November 2007. The integration and delivery of this information is made possible through data acquisition systems, network communication links, and network server resources built and managed by collaborators at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC). RTMM is evolving towards a more flexible and dynamic combination of sensor ingest, network computing, and decision-making activities through the use of a service oriented architecture based on community standards and protocols. Each field experiment presents unique challenges and opportunities for advancing the functionality of RTMM. A description of RTMM, the missions it has supported, and its new features that are under development will be presented.

  19. REAL-TIME MONITORING SYSTEM USING UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE INTEGRATED WITH SENSOR OBSERVATION SERVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Witayangkurn

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV is an emerging technology being adapted for a wide range of applications. Real-time monitoring is essential to enhance the effectiveness of UAV applications. Sensor networks are networks constructed from various sensor nodes. International standard such as OGC's SOS (Sensor Observation Service makes it possible to share sensor data with other systems as well as to provide accessibility to globally distributed users. In this paper, we propose a system combining UAV technology and sensor network technology to use an UAV as a mobile node of sensor network so that the sensor data from UAV is published and shared real-time. A UAV can extend the observation range of a sensor network to remote areas where it is usually difficult to access such as disaster area. We constructed a UAV system using remote-controlled helicopter and various sensors such as GPS, gyrocompass, laser range finder, Digital camera and Thermometer. Furthermore, we extended the Sensor Observation Service (SOS and Sensor Service Grid (SSG to support mobile sensor nodes. Then, we conducted experiments of flying the helicopter over an area of the interest. During the flight, the system measured environmental data using its sensors and captured images of the ground. The data was sent to a SOS node as the ground station via Wi-Fi which was published using SSG to give real- time access to globally distributed users.

  20. A first near real-time seismology-based landquake monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Wei-An; Wu, Yih-Min; Zhao, Li; Chen, Hongey; Chen, Yue-Gau; Chang, Jui-Ming; Lin, Che-Min

    2017-01-01

    Hazards from gravity-driven instabilities on hillslope (termed ‘landquake’ in this study) are an important problem facing us today. Rapid detection of landquake events is crucial for hazard mitigation and emergency response. Based on the real-time broadband data in Taiwan, we have developed a near real-time landquake monitoring system, which is a fully automatic process based on waveform inversion that yields source information (e.g., location and mechanism) and identifies the landquake source by examining waveform fitness for different types of source mechanisms. This system has been successfully tested offline using seismic records during the passage of the 2009 Typhoon Morakot in Taiwan and has been in online operation during the typhoon season in 2015. In practice, certain levels of station coverage (station gap 106 m3 and area > 0.20 km2) are required to ensure good performance (fitness > 0.6 for successful source identification) of the system, which can be readily implemented in other places in the world with real-time seismic networks and high landquake activities. PMID:28252039

  1. Pipeline Implementation of Real Time Event Cross Correlation for Nuclear Treaty Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junek, W. N.; Wehlen, J. A., III

    2014-12-01

    The United States National Data Center (US NDC) is responsible for monitoring international compliance to nuclear test ban treaties. This mission is performed through real time acquisition, processing, and evaluation of data acquired by a global network of seismic, hydroacoustic, and infrasonic sensors. Automatic and human reviewed event solutions are stored in a data warehouse which contains over 15 years of alphanumeric information and waveform data. A significant effort is underway to employ the data warehouse in real time processing to improve the quality of automatic event solutions, reduce analyst burden, and supply decision makers with information regarding relevant historic events. To this end, the US NDC processing pipeline has been modified to automatically recognize events built in the past. Event similarity information and the most relevant historic solution are passed to the human analyst to assist their evaluation of automatically formed events. This is achieved through real time cross correlation of selected seismograms from automatically formed events against those stored in the data warehouse. Historic events used in correlation analysis are selected based on a set of user defined parameters, which are tuned to maintain pipeline timeliness requirements. Software architecture and database infrastructure were modified using a multithreaded design for increased processing speed, database connection pools for parallel queries, and Oracle spatial indexing to enhance query efficiency. This functionality allows the human analyst to spend more time studying anomalous events and less time rebuilding routine events.

  2. Towards Online Visualization and Interactive Monitoring of Real-Time CFD Simulations on Commodity Hardware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Koliha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Real-time rendering in the realm of computational fluid dynamics (CFD in particular and scientific high performance computing (HPC in general is a comparably young field of research, as the complexity of most problems with practical relevance is too high for a real-time numerical simulation. However, recent advances in HPC and the development of very efficient numerical techniques allow running first optimized numerical simulations in or near real-time, which in return requires integrated and optimized visualization techniques that do not affect performance. In this contribution, we present concepts, implementation details and several application examples of a minimally-invasive, efficient visualization tool for the interactive monitoring of 2D and 3D turbulent flow simulations on commodity hardware. The numerical simulations are conducted with ELBE, an efficient lattice Boltzmann environment based on NVIDIA CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture, which provides optimized numerical kernels for 2D and 3D computational fluid dynamics with fluid-structure interactions and turbulence.

  3. Effect of ionizing radiation on the quantitative detection of Salmonella using real-time PCR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Sangyong; Jung, Jinwoo [Radiation Research Center for Biotechnology, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Minjeong; Ryu, Sangryeol [Department of Food and Animal Biotechnology, School of Agricultural Biotechnology, Center for Agricultural Biomaterials, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dongho [Radiation Research Center for Biotechnology, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: fungikim@kaeri.re.kr

    2008-09-15

    Food irradiation is an economically viable technology for inactivating foodborne pathogens, but irradiation can mask pathogens in unhygienically prepared food. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of irradiation treatment on the detection of Salmonella using real-time PCR. Three commercially available kits were tested, of which the InstaGene Matrix procedure was most effective in preparing template DNA from Salmonella exposed to radiation in broth culture. The minimum level of detection by real-time PCR combined with InstaGene Matrix was 3 log units of Salmonella per milliliter. However, when pure cultures of Salmonella were irradiated at 3 and 5 kGy, the cycle threshold (C{sub T}) increased 1-1.5-fold compared to irradiation at 0 and 1 kGy. This indicated that irradiation treatment may result in an underestimation of bacterial counts due to radiation-induced DNA lesions. We also compared C{sub T} values in inoculated chicken homogenates before and after irradiation, which in this model caused a 1.3-3.3-fold underestimation of bacterial counts with respect to irradiation dose.

  4. Near-real-time acoustic monitoring of beaked whales and other cetaceans using a Seaglider™.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Klinck

    Full Text Available In most areas, estimating the presence and distribution of cryptic marine mammal species, such as beaked whales, is extremely difficult using traditional observational techniques such as ship-based visual line transect surveys. Because acoustic methods permit detection of animals underwater, at night, and in poor weather conditions, passive acoustic observation has been used increasingly often over the last decade to study marine mammal distribution, abundance, and movements, as well as for mitigation of potentially harmful anthropogenic effects. However, there is demand for new, cost-effective tools that allow scientists to monitor areas of interest autonomously with high temporal and spatial resolution in near-real time. Here we describe an autonomous underwater vehicle--a glider--equipped with an acoustic sensor and onboard data processing capabilities to passively scan an area for marine mammals in near-real time. The glider was tested extensively off the west coast of the Island of Hawai'i, USA. The instrument covered approximately 390 km during three weeks at sea and collected a total of 194 h of acoustic data. Detections of beaked whales were successfully reported to shore in near-real time. Manual analysis of the recorded data revealed a high number of vocalizations of delphinids and sperm whales. Furthermore, the glider collected vocalizations of unknown origin very similar to those made by known species of beaked whales. The instrument developed here can be used to cost-effectively screen areas of interest for marine mammals for several months at a time. The near-real-time detection and reporting capabilities of the glider can help to protect marine mammals during potentially harmful anthropogenic activities such as seismic exploration for sub-sea fossil fuels or naval sonar exercises. Furthermore, the glider is capable of under-ice operation, allowing investigation of otherwise inaccessible polar environments that are critical

  5. Near-real-time acoustic monitoring of beaked whales and other cetaceans using a Seaglider™.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinck, Holger; Mellinger, David K; Klinck, Karolin; Bogue, Neil M; Luby, James C; Jump, William A; Shilling, Geoffrey B; Litchendorf, Trina; Wood, Angela S; Schorr, Gregory S; Baird, Robin W

    2012-01-01

    In most areas, estimating the presence and distribution of cryptic marine mammal species, such as beaked whales, is extremely difficult using traditional observational techniques such as ship-based visual line transect surveys. Because acoustic methods permit detection of animals underwater, at night, and in poor weather conditions, passive acoustic observation has been used increasingly often over the last decade to study marine mammal distribution, abundance, and movements, as well as for mitigation of potentially harmful anthropogenic effects. However, there is demand for new, cost-effective tools that allow scientists to monitor areas of interest autonomously with high temporal and spatial resolution in near-real time. Here we describe an autonomous underwater vehicle--a glider--equipped with an acoustic sensor and onboard data processing capabilities to passively scan an area for marine mammals in near-real time. The glider was tested extensively off the west coast of the Island of Hawai'i, USA. The instrument covered approximately 390 km during three weeks at sea and collected a total of 194 h of acoustic data. Detections of beaked whales were successfully reported to shore in near-real time. Manual analysis of the recorded data revealed a high number of vocalizations of delphinids and sperm whales. Furthermore, the glider collected vocalizations of unknown origin very similar to those made by known species of beaked whales. The instrument developed here can be used to cost-effectively screen areas of interest for marine mammals for several months at a time. The near-real-time detection and reporting capabilities of the glider can help to protect marine mammals during potentially harmful anthropogenic activities such as seismic exploration for sub-sea fossil fuels or naval sonar exercises. Furthermore, the glider is capable of under-ice operation, allowing investigation of otherwise inaccessible polar environments that are critical habitats for many

  6. Development of an intelligent hydroinformatic system for real-time monitoring and assessment of civil infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Paul; Michalis, Panagiotis; Solman, Hrvoje; Kerin, Igor; Bekic, Damir; Pakrashi, Vikram; McKeogh, Eamon

    2017-04-01

    With the effects of climate change becoming more apparent, extreme weather events are now occurring with greater frequency throughout the world. Such extreme events have resulted in increased high intensity flood events which are having devastating consequences on hydro-structures, especially on bridge infrastructure. The remote and often inaccessible nature of such bridges makes inspections problematic, a major concern if safety assessments are required during and after extreme flood events. A solution to this is the introduction of smart, low cost sensing solutions at locations susceptible to hydro-hazards. Such solutions can provide real-time information on the health of the bridge and its environments, with such information aiding in the mitigation of the risks associated with extreme weather events. This study presents the development of an intelligent system for remote, real-time monitoring of hydro-hazards to bridge infrastructure. The solution consists of two types of remote monitoring stations which have the capacity to monitor environmental conditions and provide real-time information to a centralized, big data database solution, from which an intelligent decision support system will accommodate the results to control and manage bridge, river and catchment assets. The first device developed as part of the system is the Weather Information Logging Device (WILD), which monitors rainfall, temperature and air and soil moisture content. The ability of the WILD to monitor rainfall in real time enables flood early warning alerts and predictive river flow conditions, thereby enabling decision makers the ability to make timely and effective decisions about critical infrastructures in advance of extreme flood events. The WILD is complemented by a second monitoring device, the Bridge Information Recording Device (BIRD), which monitors water levels at a given location in real-time. The monitoring of water levels of a river allows for, among other applications

  7. Feasibility of real-time location systems in monitoring recovery after major abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorrell, Robert D; Vermillion, Sarah A; Clark, Clancy J

    2017-06-07

    Early mobilization after major abdominal surgery decreases postoperative complications and length of stay, and has become a key component of enhanced recovery pathways. However, objective measures of patient movement after surgery are limited. Real-time location systems (RTLS), typically used for asset tracking, provide a novel approach to monitoring in-hospital patient activity. The current study investigates the feasibility of using RTLS to objectively track postoperative patient mobilization. The real-time location system employs a meshed network of infrared and RFID sensors and detectors that sample device locations every 3 s resulting in over 1 million data points per day. RTLS tracking was evaluated systematically in three phases: (1) sensitivity and specificity of the tracking device using simulated patient scenarios, (2) retrospective passive movement analysis of patient-linked equipment, and (3) prospective observational analysis of a patient-attached tracking device. RTLS tracking detected a simulated movement out of a room with sensitivity of 91% and specificity 100%. Specificity decreased to 75% if time out of room was less than 3 min. All RTLS-tagged patient-linked equipment was identified for 18 patients, but measurable patient movement associated with equipment was detected for only 2 patients (11%) with 1-8 out-of-room walks per day. Ten patients were prospectively monitored using RTLS badges following major abdominal surgery. Patient movement was recorded using patient diaries, direct observation, and an accelerometer. Sensitivity and specificity of RTLS patient tracking were both 100% in detecting out-of-room ambulation and correlated well with direct observation and patient-reported ambulation. Real-time location systems are a novel technology capable of objectively and accurately monitoring patient movement and provide an innovative approach to promoting early mobilization after surgery.

  8. Real-time ischemic condition monitoring in normoglycemic and hyperglycemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Samjin; Kang, Sung Wook; Lee, Gi-Ja; Choi, Seok Keun; Chae, Su-Jin; Park, Hun-Kuk; Chung, Joo-Ho

    2010-03-01

    An increase in excitotoxic amino acid glutamate (GLU) concentration associated with neuronal damage might be the cause of the ischemic damage observed in stroke patients suffering from hyperglycemia. However, the effect has never been investigated by real-time in vivo monitoring. Therefore, this study examined the effects of the functional responses of ischemia-evoked electroencephalography (EEG), cerebral blood flow (%CBF) and DeltaGLU in hyperglycemia through real-time in vivo monitoring. Five Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with streptozocin (hyperglycemia) and five normal rats were used as the controls. Global ischemia was induced using an 11-vessel occlusion model. The experimental protocols consisting of 10 min pre-ischemic, 10 min ischemic and 40 min reperfusion periods were applied to both groups. Under these conditions, the responses of the ischemia-evoked EEG, %CBF and DeltaGLU were monitored in real time. The EEG showed flat patterns during ischemia followed by poor recovery during reperfusion. The peak reperfusion %CBF was decreased significantly in the hyperglycemia group compared to the control group (p < 0.05, n = 5). The extracellular DeltaGLU releases increased significantly during ischemia (p < 0.0001, n = 5) and reperfusion (p < 0.001, n = 5) in the hyperglycemia group compared to the control group. The decrease in reperfusion %CBF during short-term hyperglycemia might be related to the increased plasma osmolality, decreased adenosine levels and swollen endothelial cells with decreased vascular luminal diameters under hyperglycemic conditions. And, the increase in DeltaGLU during short-term hyperglycemia might be related to the neurotoxic effects of the high extracellular concentrations of DeltaGLU and the inhibition of GLU uptake.

  9. A real-time multi-channel monitoring system for stem cell culture process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xicai Yue; Drakakis, E M; Lim, M; Radomska, A; Hua Ye; Mantalaris, A; Panoskaltsis, N; Cass, A

    2008-06-01

    A novel, up to 128 channels, multi-parametric physiological measurement system suitable for monitoring hematopoietic stem cell culture processes and cell cultures in general is presented in this paper. The system aims to measure in real-time the most important physical and chemical culture parameters of hematopoietic stem cells, including physicochemical parameters, nutrients, and metabolites, in a long-term culture process. The overarching scope of this research effort is to control and optimize the whole bioprocess by means of the acquisition of real-time quantitative physiological information from the culture. The system is designed in a modular manner. Each hardware module can operate as an independent gain programmable, level shift adjustable, 16 channel data acquisition system specific to a sensor type. Up to eight such data acquisition modules can be combined and connected to the host PC to realize the whole system hardware. The control of data acquisition and the subsequent management of data is performed by the system's software which is coded in LabVIEW. Preliminary experimental results presented here show that the system not only has the ability to interface to various types of sensors allowing the monitoring of different types of culture parameters. Moreover, it can capture dynamic variations of culture parameters by means of real-time multi-channel measurements thus providing additional information on both temporal and spatial profiles of these parameters within a bioreactor. The system is by no means constrained in the hematopoietic stem cell culture field only. It is suitable for cell growth monitoring applications in general.

  10. Failure of Real-time Passive Notification about Radiation Exposure to Influence Physician Ordering Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polen, Lauren A; Rossi, Jennifer K; Berg, Cameron K; Balise, Raymond R; Herfkens, Robert J; Auerbach, Paul S

    2016-07-15

    Objectives  To determine whether real-time passive notification of patient radiation exposure via a computerized physician order entry system would alter the number of computed tomography scans ordered by physicians in the Emergency Department (ED) setting. Methods  When a practitioner ordered a computed tomography scan, a passive notification was immediately and prominently displayed via the computerized physician order entry system. The notification stated the following: the amount of estimated radiation in millisieverts (mSv), the equivalent number of single-view chest radiographs, and equivalent days of average environmental background radiation to which a patient during a specific computed tomography scan would be exposed. The primary outcome was changed in the number of computed tomography scans ordered when comparing data collected before and after the addition of the notification. Results  Before the dosimetry notification ("intervention") was instituted, 1,747 computed tomography scans were performed on patients during 11,709 Emergency Department visits (14.9% computed tomography scan rate). After the intervention had been instituted, 1,827 computed tomography scans were performed on patients during 11,582 Emergency Department patient visits (15.8% computed tomography scan rate). No statistically significant difference was found for all chief complaints combined (p = 0.17), or for any individual chief complaint, between the number of computed tomography scans performed on Emergency Department patients before versus after the intervention. Conclusions  Passive real-time notification of patient radiation exposure displayed in a computerized physician order entry system at the time of computed tomography scan ordering in the Emergency Department did not significantly change the number of ordered scans.

  11. Analysis of Real-Time Monitoring Technology andDynamic Rating method of Transmission Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐峰; 刘聪

    2015-01-01

    Transmission line dynamic rating method as an important part of the inteligent transmission technical system can effectively solve the problem of insufficient power supply capacity of transmission lines. In this paper,the overal scheme of the dynamic rating method is briefly ilustrated. Next,transmission lines real-time monitoring technology and transmission line dynamic rating method are described respectively. Finaly,the influence of external factors on carrying capacity of transmission lines is analysed. Numerical results show that the proposed dynamic rating method is very effective.

  12. A Real-Time Spectroscopic Sensor for Monitoring Laser Welding Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibillano, Teresa; Ancona, Antonio; Berardi, Vincenzo; Lugarà, Pietro Mario

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we report on the development of a sensor for real time monitoring of laser welding processes based on spectroscopic techniques. The system is based on the acquisition of the optical spectra emitted from the laser generated plasma plume and their use to implement an on-line algorithm for both the calculation of the plasma electron temperature and the analysis of the correlations between selected spectral lines. The sensor has been patented and it is currently available on the market. PMID:22412317

  13. Assessment of the accuracy of real-time continuous glucose monitoring system and its correlated factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洛佩

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the factors that influence the accuracy of real-time continuous glucose monitoring system(RT-CGM).Methods A total of 79 diabetic patients wore RT-CGM for three days continuously while calibrating by interphalangeal glucose values 4-8 times a day.We counted matching rate of interphalangeal glucose values and RT-CGM probe value,and analyzed correlation of the matching rate with MAGE,SDBG,MBG,AUC10,AUC3.9,and NGE by Pearson correlation analysis and multiple linear

  14. Real-time In-Flight Strain and Deflection Monitoring with Fiber Optic Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Lance; Parker, Allen R.; Ko, William L.; Piazza, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews Dryden's efforts to develop in-flight monitoring based on Fiber Optics. One of the motivating factors for this development was the breakup of the Helios aircraft. On Ikhana the use of fiber optics for wing shape sensing is being developed. They are being used to flight validate fiber optic sensor measurements and real-time wing shape sensing predictions on NASA's Ikhana vehicle; validate fiber optic mathematical models and design tools; Assess technical viability and, if applicable, develop methodology and approach to incorporate wing shape measurements within the vehicle flight control system, and develop and flight validate advanced approaches to perform active wing shape control.

  15. In-Situ Real Time Monitoring and Control of Mold Making and Filling Processes: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed Abdelrahman; Kenneth Currie

    2010-12-22

    This project presents a model for addressing several objectives envisioned by the metal casting industries through the integration of research and educational components. It provides an innovative approach to introduce technologies for real time characterization of sand molds, lost foam patterns and monitoring of the mold filling process. The technology developed will enable better control over the casting process. It is expected to reduce scrap and variance in the casting quality. A strong educational component is integrated into the research plan to utilize increased awareness of the industry professional, the potential benefits of the developed technology, and the potential benefits of cross cutting technologies.

  16. Real-Time Telemetry System for Monitoring Motion of Ships Based on Inertial Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    José M. Núñez; Marta G. Araújo; I. García-Tuñón

    2017-01-01

    A telemetry system for real-time monitoring of the motions, position, speed and course of a ship at sea is presented in this work. The system, conceived as a subsystem of a radar cross-section measurement unit, could also be used in other applications as ships dynamics characterization, on-board cranes, antenna stabilizers, etc. This system was designed to be stand-alone, reliable, easy to deploy, low-cost and free of requirements related to stabilization procedures. In order to achieve such ...

  17. Global real-time dose measurements using the Automated Radiation Measurements for Aerospace Safety (ARMAS) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiska, W. Kent; Bouwer, D.; Smart, D.; Shea, M.; Bailey, J.; Didkovsky, L.; Judge, K.; Garrett, H.; Atwell, W.; Gersey, B.; Wilkins, R.; Rice, D.; Schunk, R.; Bell, D.; Mertens, C.; Xu, X.; Wiltberger, M.; Wiley, S.; Teets, E.; Jones, B.; Hong, S.; Yoon, K.

    2016-11-01

    The Automated Radiation Measurements for Aerospace Safety (ARMAS) program has successfully deployed a fleet of six instruments measuring the ambient radiation environment at commercial aircraft altitudes. ARMAS transmits real-time data to the ground and provides quality, tissue-relevant ambient dose equivalent rates with 5 min latency for dose rates on 213 flights up to 17.3 km (56,700 ft). We show five cases from different aircraft; the source particles are dominated by galactic cosmic rays but include particle fluxes for minor radiation periods and geomagnetically disturbed conditions. The measurements from 2013 to 2016 do not cover a period of time to quantify galactic cosmic rays' dependence on solar cycle variation and their effect on aviation radiation. However, we report on small radiation "clouds" in specific magnetic latitude regions and note that active geomagnetic, variable space weather conditions may sufficiently modify the magnetospheric magnetic field that can enhance the radiation environment, particularly at high altitudes and middle to high latitudes. When there is no significant space weather, high-latitude flights produce a dose rate analogous to a chest X-ray every 12.5 h, every 25 h for midlatitudes, and every 100 h for equatorial latitudes at typical commercial flight altitudes of 37,000 ft ( 11 km). The dose rate doubles every 2 km altitude increase, suggesting a radiation event management strategy for pilots or air traffic control; i.e., where event-driven radiation regions can be identified, they can be treated like volcanic ash clouds to achieve radiation safety goals with slightly lower flight altitudes or more equatorial flight paths.

  18. Development of on package indicator sensor for real-time monitoring of meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Shukla

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to develop an indicator sensor for real-time monitoring of meat quality and to compare the response of indicator sensor with meat quality parameters at ambient temperature. Materials and Methods: Indicator sensor was prepared using bromophenol blue (1% w/v as indicator solution and filter paper as indicator carrier. Indicator sensor was fabricated by coating indicator solution onto carrier by centrifugation. To observe the response of indicator sensor buffalo meat was packed in polystyrene foam trays covered with PVC film and indicator sensor was attached to the inner side of packaging film. The pattern of color change in indicator sensor was monitored and compared with meat quality parameters viz. total volatile basic nitrogen, D-glucose, standard plate count and tyrosine value to correlate ability of indicator sensor for its suitability to predict the meat quality and storage life. Results: The indicator sensor changed its color from yellow to blue starting from margins during the storage period of 24 h at ambient temperature and this correlated well with changes in meat quality parameters. Conclusions: The indicator sensor can be used for real-time monitoring of meat quality as the color of indicator sensor changed from yellow to blue starting from margins when meat deteriorates with advancement of the storage period. Thus by observing the color of indicator sensor quality of meat and shelf life can be predicted.

  19. Near Real-Time Monitoring of Global Evapotranspiration and its Application to Water Resource Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halverson, G. H.; Fisher, J.; Jewell, L. A.; Moore, G.; Verma, M.; McDonald, T.; Kim, S.; Muniz, A.

    2016-12-01

    Water scarcity and its impact on agriculture is a pressing world concern. At the heart of this crisis is the balance of water exchange between the land and the atmosphere. The ability to monitor evapotranspiration provides a solution by enabling sustainable irrigation practices. The Priestley-Taylor Jet Propulsion Laboratory model of evapotranspiration has been implemented to meet this need as a daily MODIS product with 1 to 5 km resolution. An automated data pipeline for this model implementation provides daily data with global coverage and near real-time latency using the Geospatial Data Abstraction Library. An interactive map providing on-demand statistical analysis enables water resource managers to monitor rates of water loss. To demonstrate the application of remotely-sensed evapotranspiration to water resource management, a partnership has been arranged with the New Mexico Office of the State Engineer (NMOSE). The online water research management tool was developed to meet the specifications of NMOSE using the Leaflet, GeoServer, and Django frameworks. NMOSE will utilize this tool to monitor drought and fire risk and manage irrigation. Through this test-case, it is hoped that real-time, user-friendly remote sensing tools will be adopted globally to make resource management decisions informed by the NASA Earth Observation System.

  20. 3D Road Scene Monitoring Based on Real-Time Panorama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuezhou Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Road monitoring helps to control the regional traffic situation so as to adjust the traffic flow. Real-time panorama is conducive to timely treat traffic accidents and to greatly improve traffic capacity. This paper designs a 3D road scene monitoring framework based on real-time panorama. The system is the combination of large scale panorama, satellite map textures, and 3D scene model, in which users can ramble freely. This paper has the following contributions. Firstly, land-points were extracted followed by motion detection, then comotion algorithm was applied to land-points from adjacent cameras, and homography matrix was constructed. Secondly, reference camera was chosen and transformed to overhead viewpoint; subsequently multiviews were morphed to the same viewpoint and stitched to panorama. Finally, the registration based on high-precision GPS information between 2D road panorama and 3D scene model was also proposed. The proposed framework has been successfully applied to a large road intersection monitoring. Experimental results are furnished at the end of the paper.

  1. Real-Time Monitoring of Occupants’ Thermal Comfort through Infrared Imaging: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Pavlin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Thermally comfortable indoor environments are of great importance, as modern lifestyles often require people to spend more than 20 h per day indoors. Since most of the thermal comfort models use a variety of different environmental and personal factors that need to be measured or estimated, real-time and continuous assessment of thermal comfort is often not practically feasible. This work presents a cheap and non-invasive approach based on infrared imaging for monitoring the occupants’ thermal sensation and comfort in real time. Thanks to a mechatronic device developed by the authors, the imaging is performed on the forehead skin, selected because it is always exposed to the environment and, thus, facilitating the monitoring activity in a non-invasive manner. Tests have been performed in controlled conditions on ten subjects to assess the hypothesis that the forehead temperature is correlated with subjects’ thermal sensation. This allows the exploitation of this quantity as a base for a simple monitoring of thermal comfort, which could later be tuned with an extensive experimental campaign.

  2. Study of weld quality real-time monitoring system for auto-body assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Li, Yong-Bing; Chen, Guan-Long

    2005-12-01

    Resistance spot welding (RSW) is widely used for the auto-body assembly in automotive industry. But RSW suffers from a major problem of inconsistent quality from weld to weld. The major problem is the complexity of the basic process that may involve material coatings, electrode force, electrode wear, fit up, etc. Therefore weld quality assurance is still a big challenge and goal. Electrode displacement has proved to be a particularly useful signal which correlates well with weld quality. This paper introduces a novel auto-body spot weld quality monitoring system which uses electrode displacement as the quality parameter. This system chooses the latest laser displacement sensor with high resolution to measure the real-time electrode displacement. It solves the interference problem of sensor mounting by designing special fixture, and can be successfully applied on the portable welding machine. It is capable of evaluating weld quality and making diagnosis of process variations such as surface asperities, shunting, worn electrode and weld expansion with real-time electrode displacement. As proved by application in the workshop, the monitoring system has good stability and reliability, and is qualified for monitoring weld quality in process.

  3. A Real-Time Monitoring System of Industry Carbon Monoxide Based on Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiachen Yang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO burns or explodes at over-standard concentration. Hence, in this paper, a Wifi-based, real-time monitoring of a CO system is proposed for application in the construction industry, in which a sensor measuring node is designed by low-frequency modulation method to acquire CO concentration reliably, and a digital filtering method is adopted for noise filtering. According to the triangulation, the Wifi network is constructed to transmit information and determine the position of nodes. The measured data are displayed on a computer or smart phone by a graphical interface. The experiment shows that the monitoring system obtains excellent accuracy and stability in long-term continuous monitoring.

  4. Monitoring Acidophilic Microbes with Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank F. Roberto

    2008-08-01

    Many techniques that are used to characterize and monitor microbial populations associated with sulfide mineral bioleaching require the cultivation of the organisms on solid or liquid media. Chemolithotrophic species, such as Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Leptospirillum ferrooxidans, or thermophilic chemolithotrophs, such as Acidianus brierleyi and Sulfolobus solfataricus can grow quite slowly, requiring weeks to complete efforts to identify and quantify these microbes associated with bioleach samples. Real-time PCR (polymerase chain reaction) assays in which DNA targets are amplified in the presence of fluorescent oligonucleotide primers, allowing the monitoring and quantification of the amplification reactions as they progress, provide a means of rapidly detecting the presence of microbial species of interest, and their relative abundance in a sample. This presentation will describe the design and use of such assays to monitor acidophilic microbes in the environment and in bioleaching operations. These assays provide results within 2-3 hours, and can detect less than 100 individual microbial cells.

  5. A Real-Time Monitoring System of Industry Carbon Monoxide Based on Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiachen; Zhou, Jianxiong; Lv, Zhihan; Wei, Wei; Song, Houbing

    2015-11-20

    Carbon monoxide (CO) burns or explodes at over-standard concentration. Hence, in this paper, a Wifi-based, real-time monitoring of a CO system is proposed for application in the construction industry, in which a sensor measuring node is designed by low-frequency modulation method to acquire CO concentration reliably, and a digital filtering method is adopted for noise filtering. According to the triangulation, the Wifi network is constructed to transmit information and determine the position of nodes. The measured data are displayed on a computer or smart phone by a graphical interface. The experiment shows that the monitoring system obtains excellent accuracy and stability in long-term continuous monitoring.

  6. Real-time monitoring of plutonium content in uranium-plutonium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shelly Xiaowei; Westphal, Brian Robert; Herrmann, Steven Douglas

    2015-09-01

    A method and device for the real-time, in-situ monitoring of Plutonium content in U--Pu Alloys comprising providing a crucible. The crucible has an interior non-reactive to a metallic U--Pu alloy within said interior of said crucible. The U--Pu alloy comprises metallic uranium and plutonium. The U--Pu alloy is heated to a liquid in an inert or reducing atmosphere. The heated U--Pu alloy is then cooled to a solid in an inert or reducing atmosphere. As the U--Pu alloy is cooled, the temperature of the U--Pu alloy is monitored. A solidification temperature signature is determined from the monitored temperature of the U--Pu alloy during the step of cooling. The amount of Uranium and the amount of Plutonium in the U--Pu alloy is then determined from the determined solidification temperature signature.

  7. Experiences and recommendations in deploying a real-time, water quality monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Flynn, B.; Regan, F.; Lawlor, A.; Wallace, J.; Torres, J.; O'Mathuna, C.

    2010-12-01

    Monitoring of water quality at a river basin level to meet the requirements of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) using conventional sampling and laboratory-based techniques poses a significant financial burden. Wireless sensing systems offer the potential to reduce these costs considerably, as well as provide more useful, continuous monitoring capabilities by giving an accurate idea of the changing environmental and water quality in real time. It is unlikely that the traditional spot/grab sampling will provide a reasonable estimate of the true maximum and/or mean concentration for a particular physicochemical variable in a water body with marked temporal variability. When persistent fluctuations occur, it is likely only to be detected through continuous measurements, which have the capability of detecting sporadic peaks of concentration. Thus, in situ sensors capable of continuous sampling of parameters required under the WFD would therefore provide more up-to-date information, cut monitoring costs and provide better coverage representing long-term trends in fluctuations of pollutant concentrations. DEPLOY is a technology demonstration project, which began planning and station selection and design in August 2008 aiming to show how state-of-the-art technology could be implemented for cost-effective, continuous and real-time monitoring of a river catchment. The DEPLOY project is seen as an important building block in the realization of a wide area autonomous network of sensors capable of monitoring the spatial and temporal distribution of important water quality and environmental target parameters. The demonstration sites chosen are based in the River Lee, which flows through Ireland's second largest city, Cork, and were designed to include monitoring stations in five zones considered typical of significant river systems--these monitor water quality parameters such as pH, temperature, depth, conductivity, turbidity and dissolved oxygen. Over one million data points

  8. Chemically unassisted phototherapy: dose effects via real-time optical monitoring of cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Sylvie; Keeler, Werden

    2010-03-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) light and short wavelength visible (VIS) light have been used to kill pathogens for many years. Although the adverse effects of UV radiation on living cells have been extensively studied using biochemical and biomolecular techniques, most of the light therapies used for medical treatment are chemically assisted (i.e., photodynamic therapy). However, the use of light alone could prove both cost and therapeutically effective as an alternative treatment modality for localized diseases. In this study, real-time oblique incidence reflection (OIR) microscopy and image analysis were used to visualize and quantify the effects of chemically unassisted light therapy on untagged live cancer cells in vitro. The incident radiation fluence (in mJ/cm^2) required to induce cell death was determined for selected quasi-monochromatic UV to VIS wavelengths ranging from 275nm to 460nm. A predictive mathematical equation quantifying the lethal fluence as a function of wavelength will be discussed.

  9. Real-time Environmental Monitoring from a Wind Farm Platform in the Texas Hypoxic Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, R. L.; Dimarco, S. F.; Walpert, J. N.; Guinasso, N. L.; Howard, M. K.

    2009-12-01

    Ocean observing systems (OOS) provide coastal managers with data for informed decision-making. OOS are designed to monitor oceanographic and atmospheric conditions from a variety of offshore platforms. In the summer of 2009, a multi-disciplinary system, the Galveston Instrument Garden for Environmental Monitoring (GIGEM), was deployed off the coast of Galveston, Texas (Location: 29o 08’ 29.654’’N, 94o 44’ 51.339’’W) to monitor coastal waters and provide real-time observations for investigating processes responsible for coastal Texas hypoxia. Hypoxia occurs in the Gulf of Mexico over the continental shelf and refers to low dissolved oxygen concentrations in the bottom waters caused by a combination of environmental and physical parameters. Events form rapidly, last for a few days to weeks, and commonly occur along the Louisiana and Texas coasts; however, little research has been conducted to investigate the processes responsible for Texas hypoxia formation. GIGEM was designed to study this problem by contributing real-time measurements to compare with historical coastal data series. Unlike most coastal OOS, GIGEM is installed on an experimental wind farm platform operated by Wind Energy System Technologies Inc. This platform is the first executed offshore wind energy lease in the United States. GIGEM is comprised of two components, the subsurface mooring and a nearby bottom package. The data telemetry system includes a unique design of underwater and surface inductive modems. GIGEM is the only coastal OOS currently collecting real-time environmental water quality measurements on the Texas shelf. The work presented describes: the obstacles and challenges associated with deploying GIGEM, the flow of information from the water column to the user, and how this type of OOS fulfills the societal goals for protecting coastal ecosystems and improving coastal weather and ocean predictions envisioned by the Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS). Data and

  10. Ultrasonic Real-Time Quality Monitoring Of Aluminum Spot Weld Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Regalado, Waldo Josue

    The real-time ultrasonic spot weld monitoring system, introduced by our research group, has been designed for the unsupervised quality characterization of the spot welding process. It comprises the ultrasonic transducer (probe) built into one of the welding electrodes and an electronics hardware unit which gathers information from the transducer, performs real-time weld quality characterization and communicates with the robot programmable logic controller (PLC). The system has been fully developed for the inspection of spot welds manufactured in steel alloys, and has been mainly applied in the automotive industry. In recent years, a variety of materials have been introduced to the automotive industry. These include high strength steels, magnesium alloys, and aluminum alloys. Aluminum alloys have been of particular interest due to their high strength-to-weight ratio. Resistance spot welding requirements for aluminum vary greatly from those of steel. Additionally, the oxide film formed on the aluminum surface increases the heat generation between the copper electrodes and the aluminum plates leading to accelerated electrode deterioration. Preliminary studies showed that the real-time quality inspection system was not able to monitor spot welds manufactured with aluminum. The extensive experimental research, finite element modelling of the aluminum welding process and finite difference modeling of the acoustic wave propagation through the aluminum spot welds presented in this dissertation, revealed that the thermodynamics and hence the acoustic wave propagation through an aluminum and a steel spot weld differ significantly. For this reason, the hardware requirements and the algorithms developed to determine the welds quality from the ultrasonic data used on steel, no longer apply on aluminum spot welds. After updating the system and designing the required algorithms, parameters such as liquid nugget penetration and nugget diameter were available in the ultrasonic data

  11. Diffusion-sensitive optical coherence tomography for real-time monitoring of mucus thinning treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmon, Richard L.; Kreda, Silvia M.; Sears, Patrick R.; Ostrowski, Lawrence E.; Hill, David B.; Chapman, Brian S.; Tracy, Joseph B.; Oldenburg, Amy L.

    2016-03-01

    Mucus hydration (wt%) has become an increasingly useful metric in real-time assessment of respiratory health in diseases like cystic fibrosis and COPD, with higher wt% indicative of diseased states. However, available in vivo rheological techniques are lacking. Gold nanorods (GNRs) are attractive biological probes whose diffusion through tissue is sensitive to the correlation length of comprising biopolymers. Through employment of dynamic light scattering theory on OCT signals from GNRs, we find that weakly-constrained GNR diffusion predictably decreases with increasing wt% (more disease-like) mucus. Previously, we determined this method is robust against mucus transport on human bronchial epithelial (hBE) air-liquid interface cultures (R2=0.976). Here we introduce diffusion-sensitive OCT (DS-OCT), where we collect M-mode image ensembles, from which we derive depth- and temporally-resolved GNR diffusion rates. DS-OCT allows for real-time monitoring of changing GNR diffusion as a result of topically applied mucus-thinning agents, enabling monitoring of the dynamics of mucus hydration never before seen. Cultured human airway epithelial cells (Calu-3 cell) with a layer of endogenous mucus were doped with topically deposited GNRs (80x22nm), and subsequently treated with hypertonic saline (HS) or isotonic saline (IS). DS-OCT provided imaging of the mucus thinning response up to a depth of 600μm with 4.65μm resolution, over a total of 8 minutes in increments of >=3 seconds. For both IS and HS conditions, DS-OCT captured changes in the pattern of mucus hydration over time. DS-OCT opens a new window into understanding mechanisms of mucus thinning during treatment, enabling real-time efficacy feedback needed to optimize and tailor treatments for individual patients.

  12. On-line near-infrared spectrometer to monitor urea removal in real time during hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, David S; Olesberg, Jonathon T; Flanigan, Michael J; Arnold, Mark A

    2008-08-01

    The ex vivo removal of urea during hemodialysis treatments is monitored in real time with a noninvasive near-infrared spectrometer. The spectrometer uses a temperature-controlled acousto optical tunable filter (AOFT) in conjunction with a thermoelectrically cooled extended wavelength InGaAs detector to provide spectra with a 20 cm(-1) resolution over the combination region (4000-5000 cm(-1)) of the near-infrared spectrum. Spectra are signal averaged over 15 seconds to provide root mean square noise levels of 24 micro-absorbance units for 100% lines generated over the 4600-4500 cm(-1) spectral range. Combination spectra of the spent dialysate stream are collected in real-time as a portion of this stream passes through a sample holder constructed from a 1.1 mm inner diameter tube of Teflon. Real-time spectra are collected during 17 individual dialysis sessions over a period of 10 days. Reference samples were extracted periodically during each session to generate 87 unique samples with corresponding reference concentrations for urea, glucose, lactate, and creatinine. A series of calibration models are generated for urea by using the partial least squares (PLS) algorithm and each model is optimized in terms of number of factors and spectral range. The best calibration model gives a standard error of prediction (SEP) of 0.30 mM based on a random splitting of spectra generated from all 87 reference samples collected across the 17 dialysis sessions. PLS models were also developed by using spectra collected in early sessions to predict urea concentrations from spectra collected in subsequent sessions. SEP values for these prospective models range from 0.37 mM to 0.52 mM. Although higher than when spectra are pooled from all 17 sessions, these prospective SEP values are acceptable for monitoring the hemodialysis process. Selectivity for urea is demonstrated and the selectivity properties of the PLS calibration models are characterized with a pure component selectivity

  13. Introduction of Drought Monitoring and Forecasting System based on Real-time Water Information Using ICT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y., II; Kim, H. S.; Chun, G.

    2016-12-01

    There were severe damages such as restriction on water supply caused by continuous drought from 2014 to 2015 in South Korea. Through this drought event, government of South Korea decided to establish National Drought Information Analysis Center in K-water(Korea Water Resources Corporation) and introduce a national drought monitoring and early warning system to mitigate those damages. Drought index such as SPI(Standard Precipitation Index), PDSI(Palmer Drought Severity Index) and SMI(Soil Moisture Index) etc. have been developed and are widely used to provide drought information in many countries. However, drought indexes are not appropriate for drought monitoring and early warning in civilized countries with high population density such as South Korea because it could not consider complicated water supply network. For the national drought monitoring and forecasting of South Korea, `Drought Information Analysis System' (D.I.A.S) which is based on the real time data(storage, flowrate, waterlevel etc.) was developed. Based on its advanced methodology, `DIAS' is changing the paradigm of drought monitoring and early warning systems. Because `D.I.A.S' contains the information of water supply network from water sources to the people across the nation and provides drought information considering the real-time hydrological conditions of each and every water source. For instance, in case the water level of a specific dam declines to predetermined level of caution, `D.I.A.S' will notify people who uses the dam as a source of residential or industrial water. It is expected to provide credible drought monitoring and forecasting information with a strong relationship between drought information and the feelings of people rely on water users by `D.I.A.S'.

  14. Real-time health monitoring of civil infrastructure systems in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Peter; Marulanda Casas, Johannio; Marulanda Arbelaez, Johannio; Caicedo, Juan

    2001-08-01

    Colombia's topography, climatic conditions, intense seismic activity and acute social problems place high demands on the nations deteriorating civil infrastructure. Resources that are available for maintenance of the road and railway networks are often misdirected and actual inspection methods are limited to a visual examination. New techniques for inspection and evaluation of safety and serviceability of civil infrastructure, especially bridges, must be developed. Two cases of civil structures with health monitoring systems in Colombia are presented in this paper. Construction of the Pereria-Dos Quebradas Viaduct was completed in 1997 with a total cost of 58 million dollars, including 1.5 million dollars in health monitoring instrumentation provided and installed by foreign companies. This health monitoring system is not yet fully operational due to the lack of training of national personnel in system operation and extremely limited technical documentation. In contrast to the Pereria-Dos Quebradas Viaduct monitoring system, the authors have proposed a relatively low cost health monitoring system via telemetry. This system has been implemented for real-time monitoring of accelerations of El Hormiguero Bridge spanning the Cauca River using the Colombian Southwest Earthquake Observatory telemetry systems. This two span metallic bridge, located along a critical road between the cities of Puerto Tejada and Cali in the Cauca Valley, was constructed approximately 50 years ago. Experiences with this system demonstrate how effective low cost systems can be used to remotely monitor the structural integrity of deteriorating structures that are continuously subject to high loading conditions.

  15. Real time in-line monitoring of large scale Bacillus fermentations with near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Rausch, José; Bienert, Roland; Grimm, Christian; Bergmaier, Dirk

    2014-11-10

    NIR spectroscopy was used to monitor Bacillus fermentations in 50 m(3) reactors under harsh industrial conditions. The BioPAT(®) Spectro NIR sensor was attached directly to the bioreactor and provided fast, sensitive, non-destructive and robust measurements without interfering with the microorganism metabolism. Multivariate data analysis techniques related the spectra collected in real time during the fermentation with reference analyte concentrations. Analyte concentrations of future batches can be determined in real time with these models. The SugarSUM parameter was modeled with a SEP of 1.33 g/L in a range of 0-35 g/L. The models for AnalyteSUM (SEP = 0.81 g/L in 0.5-43 g/L range), OD(600) (SEP = 2.88 OD in 3.5-50 OD range), dry mass (SEP = 0.09 in 0.4-1.7% range) and Acetoin (SEP = 0.94 g/L in 0-11 g/L range) also show a great prediction performance in the complex media matrix. Sophisticated process control strategies such as a feeding control of the sugar source can be implemented in the future, potentially increasing spore yield due to a reduction of carbon overflow mechanisms. Media classification with PCA identified media formulation errors. Batch evolution models, built with spectra data only, monitored the evolution of new batches by comparing it with a "golden batch" trajectory.

  16. Real-Time Monitoring System for a Utility-Scale Photovoltaic Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel M. Moreno-Garcia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available There is, at present, considerable interest in the storage and dispatchability of photovoltaic (PV energy, together with the need to manage power flows in real-time. This paper presents a new system, PV-on time, which has been developed to supervise the operating mode of a Grid-Connected Utility-Scale PV Power Plant in order to ensure the reliability and continuity of its supply. This system presents an architecture of acquisition devices, including wireless sensors distributed around the plant, which measure the required information. It is also equipped with a high-precision protocol for synchronizing all data acquisition equipment, something that is necessary for correctly establishing relationships among events in the plant. Moreover, a system for monitoring and supervising all of the distributed devices, as well as for the real-time treatment of all the registered information, is presented. Performances were analyzed in a 400 kW transformation center belonging to a 6.1 MW Utility-Scale PV Power Plant. In addition to monitoring the performance of all of the PV plant’s components and detecting any failures or deviations in production, this system enables users to control the power quality of the signal injected and the influence of the installation on the distribution grid.

  17. Real-Time Monitoring System for a Utility-Scale Photovoltaic Power Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Garcia, Isabel M; Palacios-Garcia, Emilio J; Pallares-Lopez, Victor; Santiago, Isabel; Gonzalez-Redondo, Miguel J; Varo-Martinez, Marta; Real-Calvo, Rafael J

    2016-05-26

    There is, at present, considerable interest in the storage and dispatchability of photovoltaic (PV) energy, together with the need to manage power flows in real-time. This paper presents a new system, PV-on time, which has been developed to supervise the operating mode of a Grid-Connected Utility-Scale PV Power Plant in order to ensure the reliability and continuity of its supply. This system presents an architecture of acquisition devices, including wireless sensors distributed around the plant, which measure the required information. It is also equipped with a high-precision protocol for synchronizing all data acquisition equipment, something that is necessary for correctly establishing relationships among events in the plant. Moreover, a system for monitoring and supervising all of the distributed devices, as well as for the real-time treatment of all the registered information, is presented. Performances were analyzed in a 400 kW transformation center belonging to a 6.1 MW Utility-Scale PV Power Plant. In addition to monitoring the performance of all of the PV plant's components and detecting any failures or deviations in production, this system enables users to control the power quality of the signal injected and the influence of the installation on the distribution grid.

  18. Multi-level Simulation of a Real Time Vibration Monitoring System Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Bryan A.; Wilkerson, Delisa

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a custom built Digital Signal Processing (DSP) printed circuit board designed to implement the Advanced Real Time Vibration Monitoring Subsystem proposed by Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Transportation Directorate in 2000 for the Space Shuttle Main Engine Advanced Health Management System (AHMS). This Real Time Vibration Monitoring System (RTVMS) is being developed for ground use as part of the AHMS Health Management Computer-Integrated Rack Assembly (HMC-IRA). The HMC-IRA RTVMS design contains five DSPs which are highly interconnected through individual communication ports, shared memory, and a unique communication router that allows all the DSPs to receive digitized data fiom two multi-channel analog boards simultaneously. This paper will briefly cover the overall board design but will focus primarily on the state-of-the-art simulation environment within which this board was developed. This 16-layer board with over 1800 components and an additional mezzanine card has been an extremely challenging design. Utilization of a Mentor Graphics simulation environment provided the unique board and system level simulation capability to ascertain any timing or functional concerns before production. By combining VHDL, Synopsys Software and Hardware Models, and the Mentor Design Capture Environment, multiple simulations were developed to verify the RTVMS design. This multi-level simulation allowed the designers to achieve complete operability without error the first time the RTVMS printed circuit board was powered. The HMC-IRA design has completed all engineering and deliverable unit testing. P

  19. Image Corruption Detection in Diffusion Tensor Imaging for Post-Processing and Real-Time Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Shea, Steven M.; Lorenz, Christine H.; Jiang, Hangyi; Chou, Ming-Chung; Mori, Susumu

    2013-01-01

    Due to the high sensitivity of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to physiological motion, clinical DTI scans often suffer a significant amount of artifacts. Tensor-fitting-based, post-processing outlier rejection is often used to reduce the influence of motion artifacts. Although it is an effective approach, when there are multiple corrupted data, this method may no longer correctly identify and reject the corrupted data. In this paper, we introduce a new criterion called “corrected Inter-Slice Intensity Discontinuity” (cISID) to detect motion-induced artifacts. We compared the performance of algorithms using cISID and other existing methods with regard to artifact detection. The experimental results show that the integration of cISID into fitting-based methods significantly improves the retrospective detection performance at post-processing analysis. The performance of the cISID criterion, if used alone, was inferior to the fitting-based methods, but cISID could effectively identify severely corrupted images with a rapid calculation time. In the second part of this paper, an outlier rejection scheme was implemented on a scanner for real-time monitoring of image quality and reacquisition of the corrupted data. The real-time monitoring, based on cISID and followed by post-processing, fitting-based outlier rejection, could provide a robust environment for routine DTI studies. PMID:24204551

  20. Publicly Available Online Tool Facilitates Real-Time Monitoring Of Vaccine Conversations And Sentiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahk, Chi Y; Cumming, Melissa; Paushter, Louisa; Madoff, Lawrence C; Thomson, Angus; Brownstein, John S

    2016-02-01

    Real-time monitoring of mainstream and social media can inform public health practitioners and policy makers about vaccine sentiment and hesitancy. We describe a publicly available platform for monitoring vaccination-related content, called the Vaccine Sentimeter. With automated data collection from 100,000 mainstream media sources and Twitter, natural-language processing for automated filtering, and manual curation to ensure accuracy, the Vaccine Sentimeter offers a global real-time view of vaccination conversations online. To assess the system's utility, we followed two events: polio vaccination in Pakistan after a news story about a Central Intelligence Agency vaccination ruse and subsequent attacks on health care workers, and a controversial episode in a television program about adverse events following human papillomavirus vaccination. For both events, increased online activity was detected and characterized. For the first event, Twitter response to the attacks on health care workers decreased drastically after the first attack, in contrast to mainstream media coverage. For the second event, the mainstream and social media response was largely positive about the HPV vaccine, but antivaccine conversations persisted longer than the provaccine reaction. Using the Vaccine Sentimeter could enable public health professionals to detect increased online activity or sudden shifts in sentiment that could affect vaccination uptake. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  1. Real-time and in situ monitoring of mechanochemical milling reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friščić, Tomislav; Halasz, Ivan; Beldon, Patrick J; Belenguer, Ana M; Adams, Frank; Kimber, Simon A J; Honkimäki, Veijo; Dinnebier, Robert E

    2013-01-01

    Chemical and structural transformations have long been carried out by milling. Such mechanochemical steps are now ubiquitous in a number of industries (such as the pharmaceutical, chemical and metallurgical industries), and are emerging as excellent environmentally friendly alternatives to solution-based syntheses. However, mechanochemical transformations are typically difficult to monitor in real time, which leaves a large gap in the mechanistic understanding required for their development. We now report the real-time study of mechanochemical transformations in a ball mill by means of in situ diffraction of high-energy synchrotron X-rays. Focusing on the mechanosynthesis of metal-organic frameworks, we have directly monitored reaction profiles, the formation of intermediates, and interconversions of framework topologies. Our results reveal that mechanochemistry is highly dynamic, with reaction rates comparable to or greater than those in solution. The technique also enabled us to probe directly how catalytic additives recently introduced in the mechanosynthesis of metal-organic frameworks, such as organic liquids or ionic species, change the reactivity pathways and kinetics.

  2. Image corruption detection in diffusion tensor imaging for post-processing and real-time monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Shea, Steven M; Lorenz, Christine H; Jiang, Hangyi; Chou, Ming-Chung; Mori, Susumu

    2013-01-01

    Due to the high sensitivity of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to physiological motion, clinical DTI scans often suffer a significant amount of artifacts. Tensor-fitting-based, post-processing outlier rejection is often used to reduce the influence of motion artifacts. Although it is an effective approach, when there are multiple corrupted data, this method may no longer correctly identify and reject the corrupted data. In this paper, we introduce a new criterion called "corrected Inter-Slice Intensity Discontinuity" (cISID) to detect motion-induced artifacts. We compared the performance of algorithms using cISID and other existing methods with regard to artifact detection. The experimental results show that the integration of cISID into fitting-based methods significantly improves the retrospective detection performance at post-processing analysis. The performance of the cISID criterion, if used alone, was inferior to the fitting-based methods, but cISID could effectively identify severely corrupted images with a rapid calculation time. In the second part of this paper, an outlier rejection scheme was implemented on a scanner for real-time monitoring of image quality and reacquisition of the corrupted data. The real-time monitoring, based on cISID and followed by post-processing, fitting-based outlier rejection, could provide a robust environment for routine DTI studies.

  3. Development of a real time activity monitoring Android application utilizing SmartStep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Nagaraj; Melanson, Edward; Sazonov, Edward

    2016-08-01

    Footwear based activity monitoring systems are becoming popular in academic research as well as consumer industry segments. In our previous work, we had presented developmental aspects of an insole based activity and gait monitoring system-SmartStep, which is a socially acceptable, fully wireless and versatile insole. The present work describes the development of an Android application that captures the SmartStep data wirelessly over Bluetooth Low energy (BLE), computes features on the received data, runs activity classification algorithms and provides real time feedback. The development of activity classification methods was based on the the data from a human study involving 4 participants. Participants were asked to perform activities of sitting, standing, walking, and cycling while they wore SmartStep insole system. Multinomial Logistic Discrimination (MLD) was utilized in the development of machine learning model for activity prediction. The resulting classification model was implemented in an Android Smartphone. The Android application was benchmarked for power consumption and CPU loading. Leave one out cross validation resulted in average accuracy of 96.9% during model training phase. The Android application for real time activity classification was tested on a human subject wearing SmartStep resulting in testing accuracy of 95.4%.

  4. 4D Near Real-Time Environmental Monitoring Using Highly Temporal LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfle, Bernhard; Canli, Ekrem; Schmitz, Evelyn; Crommelinck, Sophie; Hoffmeister, Dirk; Glade, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The last decade has witnessed extensive applications of 3D environmental monitoring with the LiDAR technology, also referred to as laser scanning. Although several automatic methods were developed to extract environmental parameters from LiDAR point clouds, only little research has focused on highly multitemporal near real-time LiDAR (4D-LiDAR) for environmental monitoring. Large potential of applying 4D-LiDAR is given for landscape objects with high and varying rates of change (e.g. plant growth) and also for phenomena with sudden unpredictable changes (e.g. geomorphological processes). In this presentation we will report on the most recent findings of the research projects 4DEMON (http://uni-heidelberg.de/4demon) and NoeSLIDE (https://geomorph.univie.ac.at/forschung/projekte/aktuell/noeslide/). The method development in both projects is based on two real-world use cases: i) Surface parameter derivation of agricultural crops (e.g. crop height) and ii) change detection of landslides. Both projects exploit the "full history" contained in the LiDAR point cloud time series. One crucial initial step of 4D-LiDAR analysis is the co-registration over time, 3D-georeferencing and time-dependent quality assessment of the LiDAR point cloud time series. Due to the high amount of datasets (e.g. one full LiDAR scan per day), the procedure needs to be performed fully automatically. Furthermore, the online near real-time 4D monitoring system requires to set triggers that can detect removal or moving of tie reflectors (used for co-registration) or the scanner itself. This guarantees long-term data acquisition with high quality. We will present results from a georeferencing experiment for 4D-LiDAR monitoring, which performs benchmarking of co-registration, 3D-georeferencing and also fully automatic detection of events (e.g. removal/moving of reflectors or scanner). Secondly, we will show our empirical findings of an ongoing permanent LiDAR observation of a landslide (Gresten

  5. Real-time monitoring of weld penetration quality in roboticarc welding process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Chuansong; Jia Chuanbao; Duan Xiaoning

    2008-01-01

    It is of great significance to develop an intelligent monitoring system for weld penetration defects such as incomplete penetration and burn-through in real-time during robotic arc welding process. In this paper, robotic gas metal arc welding experiments are carried out on the mild steel test pieces with Vee-type groove. Through-the-arc sensing method is used to capture the transient values of the welding voltage and current. The raw data of the captured welding current and voltage are processed statistically, and the feature vector S10 is extracted to correlate the welding conditions to the weld penetration information. It lays foundation for intelligent monitoring of weld quality in robotic arc welding.

  6. Extremely high resolution corrosion monitoring of pipelines: retrofittable, non-invasive and real-time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baltzersen, Oeystein; Tveit, Edd [Sensorlink AS, Trondheim (Norway); Verley, Richard [StatoilHydro ASA, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-07-01

    The Ultramonit unit is a clamp-on tool (removable) that uses an array of sensors to provide online, real-time, reliable and repeatable high accuracy ultrasonic wall thickness measurements and corrosion monitoring at selected locations along the pipeline. The unit can be installed on new or existing pipelines by diver or ROV. The system is based on the well-established ultrasonic pulse-echo method (A-scan). Special processing methods, and the fact that the unit is fixed to the pipeline, enable detection of changes in wall thickness in the micro-meter range. By utilizing this kind of resolution, it is possible to project corrosion rates in hours or days. The tool is used for calibration of corrosion inhibitor programs, verification and calibration of inspection pig data and general corrosion monitoring of new and existing pipelines. (author)

  7. A Real time Data Acquisition and Monitoring Device for Medical Applications based on Android Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jithin Krishnan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available An android based real time data acquisition and monitoring device is presented here. The system finds its initial application in medical field .it serves as a remote monitor for measuring and analysing along with logging of data from patients. The system comprises of two parts. A data acquisition (DaQ part connected to patient side and an android based display device on the receiving end. The Data Acquisition part contains sensors for picking up the vital signs from the patients, signal conditioning circuits and a Bluetooth transceiver to transmit data wirelessly to the display device. The Display Device then displays the data received from the transmitter in a readable form and also logs the data into a excel form so that it can be taken out digitally and analysed.

  8. Generic Raman-based calibration models enabling real-time monitoring of cell culture bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdizadeh, Hamidreza; Lauri, David; Karry, Krizia M; Moshgbar, Mojgan; Procopio-Melino, Renee; Drapeau, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Raman-based multivariate calibration models have been developed for real-time in situ monitoring of multiple process parameters within cell culture bioreactors. Developed models are generic, in the sense that they are applicable to various products, media, and cell lines based on Chinese Hamster Ovarian (CHO) host cells, and are scalable to large pilot and manufacturing scales. Several batches using different CHO-based cell lines and corresponding proprietary media and process conditions have been used to generate calibration datasets, and models have been validated using independent datasets from separate batch runs. All models have been validated to be generic and capable of predicting process parameters with acceptable accuracy. The developed models allow monitoring multiple key bioprocess metabolic variables, and hence can be utilized as an important enabling tool for Quality by Design approaches which are strongly supported by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

  9. A UAV based system for real time flash flood monitoring in desert environments using Lagrangian microsensors

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelkader, Mohamed

    2013-05-01

    Floods are the most common natural disasters, causing thousands of casualties every year in the world. In particular, flash flood events are particularly deadly because of the short timescales on which they occur. Most casualties could be avoided with advance warning, for which real time monitoring is critical. While satellite-based high resolution weather forecasts can help predict floods to a certain extent, they are not reliable enough, as flood models depend on a large number of parameters that cannot be estimated beforehand. In this article, we present a novel flood sensing architecture to monitor large scale desert hydrological basins surrounding metropolitan areas, based on unmanned air vehicles. The system relies on Lagrangian (mobile) microsensors, that are released by a swarm of UAVs. A preliminary testbed implementing this technology is briefly described, and future research directions and problems are discussed. © 2013 IEEE.

  10. Real-time electrochemical monitoring of the polymerase chain reaction by mediated redox catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deféver, Thibaut; Druet, Michel; Rochelet-Dequaire, Murielle; Joannes, Martine; Grossiord, Céline; Limoges, Benoit; Marchal, Damien

    2009-08-19

    We described the proof-of-principle of a nonoptical real-time PCR that uses cyclic voltammetry for indirectly monitoring the amplified DNA product generated in the PCR reaction solution after each PCR cycle. To enable indirect measurement of the amplicon produced throughout PCR, we monitor electrochemically the progressive consumption (i.e., the decrease of concentration) of free electroactive deoxynucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) used for DNA synthesis. This is accomplished by exploiting the fast catalytic oxidation of native deoxyguanosine triphosphate (dGTP) or its unnatural analogue 7-deaza-dGTP by the one-electron redox catalysts Ru(bpy)(3)(3+) (with bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) or Os(bpy)(3)(3+) generated at an electrode. To demonstrate the feasibility of the method, a disposable array of eight miniaturized self-contained electrochemical cells (working volume of 50 microL) has been developed and implemented in a classical programmable thermal cycler and then tested with the PCR amplification of two illustrated examples of real-world biological target DNA sequences (i.e., a relatively long 2300-bp sequence from the bacterial genome of multidrug-resistant Achromobacter xylosoxidans and a shorter 283-bp target from the human cytomegalovirus). Although the method works with both mediator/base couples, the catalytic peak current responses recorded with the Ru(bpy)(3)(3+)/dGTP couple under real-time PCR conditions are significantly affected by a continuous current drift and interference with the background solvent discharge, thus leading to poorly reproducible data. Much more reproducible and reliable results are finally obtained with the Os(bpy)(3)(3+)/7-deaza-dGTP, a result that is attributed to the much lower anodic potential at which the catalytic oxidation of 7-deaza-dGTP by Os(bpy)(3)(3+) is detected. Under these conditions, an exponential decrease of the catalytic signal as a function of the number of PCR cycles is obtained, allowing definition of a cycle

  11. [Methods Used for Monitoring Cure Reactions in Real-time in an Autoclave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John B.; Wise, Kent L.; Jensen, Brian J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The goal of the research was to investigate methods for monitoring cure reactions in real-time in an autoclave. This is of particular importance to NASA Langley Research Center because polyimides were proposed for use in the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) program. Understanding the cure chemistry behind the polyimides would allow for intelligent processing of the composites made from their use. This work has led to two publications in peer-reviewed journals and a patent. The journal articles are listed as Appendix A which is on the instrument design of the research and Appendix B which is on the cure chemistry. Also, a patent has been awarded for the instrumental design developed under this grant which is given as Appendix C. There has been a significant amount of research directed at developing methods for monitoring cure reactions in real-time within the autoclave. The various research efforts can be categorized as methods providing either direct chemical bonding information or methods that provide indirect chemical bonding information. Methods falling into the latter category are fluorescence, dielectric loss, ultrasonic and similar type methods. Correlation of such measurements with the underlying chemistry is often quite difficult since these techniques do not allow monitoring of the curing chemistry which is ultimately responsible for material properties. Direct methods such as vibrational spectroscopy, however, can often be easily correlated with the underlying chemistry of a reaction. Such methods include Raman spectroscopy, mid-IR absorbance, and near-IR absorbance. With the recent advances in fiber-optics, these spectroscopic techniques can be applied to remote on-line monitoring.

  12. Quasi-real-time photon pulse duration measurement by analysis of FEL radiation spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, Robin, E-mail: robin.engel@uni-oldenburg.de [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Notkestrasse 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany); Institut für Physik, Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Institut für Laser und Optik, Hochschule Emden/Leer, University of Applied Sciences, Constantiaplatz 4, D-26723 Emden (Germany); Düsterer, Stefan; Brenner, Günter [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Notkestrasse 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany); Teubner, Ulrich [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Notkestrasse 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany); Institut für Physik, Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Institut für Laser und Optik, Hochschule Emden/Leer, University of Applied Sciences, Constantiaplatz 4, D-26723 Emden (Germany)

    2016-01-01

    Considering the second-order spectral correlation function of SASE-FEL radiation allows a real-time observation of the photon pulse duration during spectra acquisition. For photon diagnostics at free-electron lasers (FELs), the determination of the photon pulse duration is an important challenge and a complex task. This is especially true for SASE FELs with strongly fluctuating pulse parameters. However, most techniques require an extensive experimental setup, data acquisition and evaluation time, limiting the usability in all-day operation. In contrast, the presented work uses an existing approach based on the analysis of statistical properties of measured SASE FEL spectra and implements it as a software tool, integrated in FLASH’s data acquisition system. This allows the calculation of the average pulse durations from a set of measured spectral distributions with only seconds of delay, whenever high-resolution spectra are recorded.

  13. Integrating SAR with Optical and Thermal Remote Sensing for Operational Near Real-Time Volcano Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, F. J.; Webley, P.; Dehn, J.; Arko, S. A.; McAlpin, D. B.

    2013-12-01

    multiple observation geometries in change detection procedures. Additionally, it will be shown how SAR-based hazard information can be integrated with data from optical satellites, thermal sensors, webcams and models to create near-real time volcano hazard information. We will introduce a prototype monitoring system that integrates SAR-based hazard information into the near real-time volcano hazard monitoring system of the Alaska Volcano Observatory. This prototype system was applied to historic eruptions of the volcanoes Okmok and Augustine, both located in the North Pacific. We will show that for these historic eruptions, the addition of SAR data lead to a significant improvement in activity detection and eruption monitoring, and improved the accuracy and timeliness of eruption alerts.

  14. Integrating and Visualizing Tropical Cyclone Data Using the Real Time Mission Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, H. Michael; Blakeslee, Richard; Conover, Helen; Hall, John; He, Yubin; Regner, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    The Real Time Mission Monitor (RTMM) is a visualization and information system that fuses multiple Earth science data sources, to enable real time decision-making for airborne and ground validation experiments. Developed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, RTMM is a situational awareness, decision-support system that integrates satellite imagery, radar, surface and airborne instrument data sets, model output parameters, lightning location observations, aircraft navigation data, soundings, and other applicable Earth science data sets. The integration and delivery of this information is made possible using data acquisition systems, network communication links, network server resources, and visualizations through the Google Earth virtual globe application. RTMM is extremely valuable for optimizing individual Earth science airborne field experiments. Flight planners, scientists, and managers appreciate the contributions that RTMM makes to their flight projects. A broad spectrum of interdisciplinary scientists used RTMM during field campaigns including the hurricane-focused 2006 NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (NAMMA), 2007 NOAA-NASA Aerosonde Hurricane Noel flight, 2007 Tropical Composition, Cloud, and Climate Coupling (TC4), plus a soil moisture (SMAP-VEX) and two arctic research experiments (ARCTAS) in 2008. Improving and evolving RTMM is a continuous process. RTMM recently integrated the Waypoint Planning Tool, a Java-based application that enables aircraft mission scientists to easily develop a pre-mission flight plan through an interactive point-and-click interface. Individual flight legs are automatically calculated "on the fly". The resultant flight plan is then immediately posted to the Google Earth-based RTMM for interested scientists to view the planned flight track and subsequently compare it to the actual real time flight progress. We are planning additional capabilities to RTMM including collaborations with the Jet Propulsion

  15. Efficient near-real-time monitoring of 3D surface displacements in complex landslide scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allasia, Paolo; Manconi, Andrea; Giordan, Daniele; Baldo, Marco; Lollino, Giorgio

    2013-04-01

    Ground deformation measurements play a key role in monitoring activities of landslides. A wide spectrum of instruments and methods is nowadays available, going from in-situ to remote sensing approaches. In emergency scenarios, monitoring is often based on automated instruments capable to achieve accurate measurements, possibly with a very high temporal resolution, in order to achieve the best information about the evolution of the landslide in near-real-time, aiming at early warning purposes. However, the available tools for a rapid and efficient exploitation, understanding and interpretation of the retrieved measurements is still a challenge. This issue is particularly relevant in contexts where monitoring is fundamental to support early warning systems aimed at ensuring safety to people and/or infrastructures. Furthermore, in many cases the results obtained might be of difficult reading and divulgation, especially when people of different backgrounds are involved (e.g. scientists, authorities, civil protection operators, decision makers, etc.). In this work, we extend the concept of automatic and near real time from the acquisition of measurements to the data processing and divulgation, in order to achieve an efficient monitoring of surface displacements in landslide scenarios. We developed an algorithm that allows to go automatically and in near-real-time from the acquisition of 3D displacements on a landslide area to the efficient divulgation of the monitoring results via WEB. This set of straightforward procedures is called ADVICE (ADVanced dIsplaCement monitoring system for Early warning), and has been already successfully applied in several emergency scenarios. The algorithm includes: (i) data acquisition and transfer protocols; (ii) data collection, filtering, and validation; (iii) data analysis and restitution through a set of dedicated software, such as ©3DA [1]; (iv) recognition of displacement/velocity threshold and early warning (v) short term

  16. Near-Real-Time Sismo-acoustic Submarine Station for offshore monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Anna, Giuseppe; D'Alessandro, Antonino; Fertitta, Gioacchino; Fraticelli, Nicola; Calore, Daniele

    2016-04-01

    From the early 1980's, Italian seismicity is monitored by the National Seismic Network (NSN). The network has been considerably enhanced by INGV since 2005 by 24-bit digital stations equipped with broad-band sensors. The NSN is nowadays constituted by about 300 on-land seismic station able to detect and locate also small magnitude earthquake in the whole Italian peninsula. However, the lack of offshore seismic stations does not allow the accurate estimation of hypocentral and focal parameters of small magnitude earthquakes occurring in offshore areas. As in the Mediterranean area there is an intense offshore seismic activity, an extension of the seismic monitoring to the sea would be beneficial. There are two types of stations that could be used to extend the network towards the sea: the first type is connected to the coast though a cable, the second type is isolated (or stand alone) and works autonomously. Both solutions have serious limitations: the first one, for several technical and economic problems, linked to the indispensable transmission/alimentation cable, cannot be installed far from the coast; the second one, allows access to the recorded data, only after they are recovered from the seabed. It is clear that these technical solutions are not suitable for the real time monitoring of the offshore seismicity or for the realization of a tsunami warning system. For this reason, in early 2010, the OBSLab of Gibilmanna begins the design of a submarine station able to overcome the limitations of the two systems above. The station isbuilt under the project EMSO-MedIT. The two stations built have already been tested in dock and ready for installation. One of this station will be installed, in few time, in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea, near the epicentre of the Palermo 2002 main shock. The sea bottom station will be equipped with 2 very broadband 3C seismometers, a broad band hydrophone, a differential and an absolute pressure gauge. The station includes a submarine

  17. Transfer of Real-time Dynamic Radiation Environment Assimilation Model; Research to Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, K. S. F.; Hwang, J.; Shin, D. K.; Kim, G. J.; Morley, S.; Henderson, M. G.; Friedel, R. H.; Reeves, G. D.

    2015-12-01

    Real-time Dynamic Radiation Environment Assimilation Model (rtDREAM) was developed by LANL for nowcast of energetic electrons' flux at the radiation belt to quantify potential risks from radiation damage at the satellites. Assimilated data are from multiple sources including LANL assets (GEO, GPS). For transfer from research to operation of the rtDREAM code, LANL/KSWC/NOAA makes a Memorandum Of Understanding (MOU) on the collaboration between three parts. By this MOU, KWSC/RRA provides all the support for transitioning the research version of DREAM to operations. KASI is primarily responsible for providing all the interfaces between the current scientific output formats of the code and useful space weather products that can be used and accessed through the web. In the second phase, KASI will be responsible in performing the work needed to transform the Van Allen Probes beacon data into "DREAM ready" inputs. KASI will also provide the "operational" code framework and additional data preparation, model output, display and web page codes back to LANL and SWPC. KASI is already a NASA partnering ground station for the Van Allen Probes' space weather beacon data and can here show use and utility of these data for comparison between rtDREAM and observations by web. NOAA has offered to take on some of the data processing tasks specific to the GOES data.

  18. The Utility of the Real-Time NASA Land Information System Data for Drought Monitoring Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kristopher D.; Case, Jonathan L.

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of soil moisture are a crucial component for the proper monitoring of drought conditions. The large spatial variability of soil moisture complicates the problem. Unfortunately, in situ soil moisture observing networks typically consist of sparse point observations, and conventional numerical model analyses of soil moisture used to diagnose drought are of coarse spatial resolution. Decision support systems such as the U.S. Drought Monitor contain drought impact resolution on sub-county scales, which may not be supported by the existing soil moisture networks or analyses. The NASA Land Information System, which is run with 3 km grid spacing over the eastern United States, has demonstrated utility for monitoring soil moisture. Some of the more useful output fields from the Land Information System are volumetric soil moisture in the 0-10 cm and 40-100 cm layers, column-integrated relative soil moisture, and the real-time green vegetation fraction derived from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) swath data that are run within the Land Information System in place of the monthly climatological vegetation fraction. While these and other variables have primarily been used in local weather models and other operational forecasting applications at National Weather Service offices, the use of the Land Information System for drought monitoring has demonstrated utility for feedback to the Drought Monitor. Output from the Land Information System is currently being used at NWS Huntsville to assess soil moisture, and to provide input to the Drought Monitor. Since feedback to the Drought Monitor takes place on a weekly basis, weekly difference plots of column-integrated relative soil moisture are being produced by the NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition Center and analyzed to facilitate the process. In addition to the Drought Monitor, these data are used to assess drought conditions for monthly feedback to the Alabama Drought Monitoring

  19. A Dynamic Vegetation Senescence Indicator for Near-Real-Time Desert Locust Habitat Monitoring with MODIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Renier

    2015-06-01

    both time and space and is affected by several factors, such as vegetation density, the north-south climatic gradient and the relief. Smoothing the vegetation time series resulted in an increase of the overall accuracy of about 5% at the expense of a loss in timeliness of ten days. To simulate near-real-time monitoring conditions, the decision tree was applied to the decade of 2010. Overall, the seasonal vegetation cycle appeared clear and consistent. The results obtained pave the way for an operational implementation of the senescence dynamic mapping and, consequently, to further strengthen the capacity of the locust control management.

  20. The first clinical treatment with kilovoltage intrafraction monitoring (KIM): A real-time image guidance method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keall, Paul J., E-mail: paul.keall@sydney.edu.au; O’Brien, Ricky; Huang, Chen-Yu [Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Camperdown, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); Aun Ng, Jin [Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Camperdown, New South Wales 2006, Australia and School of Physics, University of Sydney, Camperdown, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); Colvill, Emma [Radiation Physics Laboratory, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Camperdown, New South Wales 2006, Australia and Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales 2065 (Australia); Rugaard Poulsen, Per; Fledelius, Walther [Department of Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark and Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, 8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Juneja, Prabhjot; Booth, Jeremy T. [School of Physics, University of Sydney, Camperdown, New South Wales 2006, Australia and Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales 2065 (Australia); Simpson, Emma; Bell, Linda; Alfieri, Florencia; Eade, Thomas; Kneebone, Andrew [Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales 2065 (Australia)

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: Kilovoltage intrafraction monitoring (KIM) is a real-time image guidance method that uses widely available radiotherapy technology, i.e., a gantry-mounted x-ray imager. The authors report on the geometric and dosimetric results of the first patient treatment using KIM which occurred on September 16, 2014. Methods: KIM uses current and prior 2D x-ray images to estimate the 3D target position during cancer radiotherapy treatment delivery. KIM software was written to process kilovoltage (kV) images streamed from a standard C-arm linear accelerator with a gantry-mounted kV x-ray imaging system. A 120° pretreatment kV imaging arc was acquired to build the patient-specific 2D to 3D motion correlation. The kV imager was activated during the megavoltage (MV) treatment, a dual arc VMAT prostate treatment, to estimate the 3D prostate position in real-time. All necessary ethics, legal, and regulatory requirements were met for this clinical study. The quality assurance processes were completed and peer reviewed. Results: During treatment, a prostate position offset of nearly 3 mm in the posterior direction was observed with KIM. This position offset did not trigger a gating event. After the treatment, the prostate motion was independently measured using kV/MV triangulation, resulting in a mean difference of less than 0.6 mm and standard deviation of less than 0.6 mm in each direction. The accuracy of the marker segmentation was visually assessed during and after treatment and found to be performing well. During treatment, there were no interruptions due to performance of the KIM software. Conclusions: For the first time, KIM has been used for real-time image guidance during cancer radiotherapy. The measured accuracy and precision were both submillimeter for the first treatment fraction. This clinical translational research milestone paves the way for the broad implementation of real-time image guidance to facilitate the detection and correction of geometric and

  1. Real-Time Monitoring and Prediction of the Pilot Vehicle System (PVS) Closed-Loop Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Tanmay Kumar

    Understanding human control behavior is an important step for improving the safety of future aircraft. Considerable resources are invested during the design phase of an aircraft to ensure that the aircraft has desirable handling qualities. However, human pilots exhibit a wide range of control behaviors that are a function of external stimulus, aircraft dynamics, and human psychological properties (such as workload, stress factor, confidence, and sense of urgency factor). This variability is difficult to address comprehensively during the design phase and may lead to undesirable pilot-aircraft interaction, such as pilot-induced oscillations (PIO). This creates the need to keep track of human pilot performance in real-time to monitor the pilot vehicle system (PVS) stability. This work focused on studying human pilot behavior for the longitudinal axis of a remotely controlled research aircraft and using human-in-the-loop (HuIL) simulations to obtain information about the human controlled system (HCS) stability. The work in this dissertation is divided into two main parts: PIO analysis and human control model parameters estimation. To replicate different flight conditions, this study included time delay and elevator rate limiting phenomena, typical of actuator dynamics during the experiments. To study human control behavior, this study employed the McRuer model for single-input single-output manual compensatory tasks. McRuer model is a lead-lag controller with time delay which has been shown to adequately model manual compensatory tasks. This dissertation presents a novel technique to estimate McRuer model parameters in real-time and associated validation using HuIL simulations to correctly predict HCS stability. The McRuer model parameters were estimated in real-time using a Kalman filter approach. The estimated parameters were then used to analyze the stability of the closed-loop HCS and verify them against the experimental data. Therefore, the main contribution of

  2. Real time processing of neutron monitor data using the edge editor algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavromichalaki Helen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The nucleonic component of the secondary cosmic rays is measured by the worldwide network of neutron monitors (NMs. In most cases, a NM station publishes the measured data in a real time basis in order to be available for instant use from the scientific community. The space weather centers and the online applications such as the ground level enhancement (GLE alert make use of the online data and are highly dependent on their quality. However, the primary data in some cases are distorted due to unpredictable instrument variations. For this reason, the real time primary data processing of the measured data of a station is necessary. The general operational principle of the correction algorithms is the comparison between the different channels of a NM, taking advantage of the fact that a station hosts a number of identical detectors. Median editor, Median editor plus and Super editor are some of the correction algorithms that are being used with satisfactory results. In this work an alternative algorithm is proposed and analyzed. The new algorithm uses a statistical approach to define the distribution of the measurements and introduces an error index which is used for the correction of the measurements that deviate from this distribution.

  3. Real-time Monitoring and Simulating of Urban Flood, a Case Study in Guangzhou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H.; Wang, X.; Zhang, S.; Liu, Y.

    2014-12-01

    In recent years urban flood frequently occurred and seriously impacted city's normal operation, particular on transportation. The increase of urban flood could be attributed to many factors, such as the increase of impervious land surface and extreme precipitation, the decrease of surface storage capacity, poor maintenance of drainage utilities, and so on. In order to provide accurate and leading prediction on urban flooding, this study acquires precise urban topographic data via air-borne Lidar system, collects detailed underground drainage pipes, and installs in-situ monitoring networks on precipitation, water level, video record and traffic speed in the downtown area of Panyu District, Guangzhou, China. Based on the above data acquired, a urban flood model with EPA SWMM5 is established to simulate the flooding and inundation processes in the study area of 20 km2. The model is driven by the real-time precipitation data and calibrated by the water level data, which are converted to flooding volume with precise topographic data. After calibration, the model could be employed to conduct sensitivity analysis for investigating primary factors of urban flooding, and to simulate the flooding processes in different scenarios, which are beneficial to assessment of flooding risk and drainage capacity. This model is expected to provide real-time forecasting in emergency management.

  4. Real-time determination and monitoring of the auroral electrojet boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnsen Magnar Gullikstad

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A method for nowcasting of the auroral electrojet location from real-time geomagnetic data in the European sector is presented. Along the auroral ovals strong electrojet currents are flowing. The variation in the geomagnetic field caused by these auroral electrojets is observed on a routine basis at high latitudes using ground-based magnetometers. From latitude profiles of the vertical component of these variations it is possible to identify the boundaries of the electrojets. Using realtime data from ground magnetometer chains is the only existing method for continuous monitoring and nowcasting of the location and strength of the auroral electrojets in a given sector. This is an important aspect of any space weather programme. The method for obtaining the electrojet boundaries is described and assessed in a controlled environment using modelling. Furthermore a provisional, real-time electrojet tracker for the European sector based on data from the Tromsø Geophyiscal Observatory magnetometer chain is presented. The relationship between the electrojet and the diffuse auroral oval is discussed, and it is concluded that although there may exist time-dependent differences in boundary locations, there exists a general coincidence. Furthermore, it is pointed out that knowledge about the latitudinal location of the geomagnetic activity, that is the electrojets, is more critical for space weather sensitive, ground-based technology than the location of the aurora.

  5. Imaging technique for real-time temperature monitoring during cryotherapy of lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Elena; Liopo, Anton; Nadvoretskiy, Vyacheslav; Ermilov, Sergey

    2016-11-01

    Noninvasive real-time temperature imaging during thermal therapies is able to significantly improve clinical outcomes. An optoacoustic (OA) temperature monitoring method is proposed for noninvasive real-time thermometry of vascularized tissue during cryotherapy. The universal temperature-dependent optoacoustic response (ThOR) of red blood cells (RBCs) is employed to convert reconstructed OA images to temperature maps. To obtain the temperature calibration curve for intensity-normalized OA images, we measured ThOR of 10 porcine blood samples in the range of temperatures from 40°C to -16°C and analyzed the data for single measurement variations. The nonlinearity (ΔTmax) and the temperature of zero OA response (T0) of the calibration curve were found equal to 11.4±0.1°C and -13.8±0.1°C, respectively. The morphology of RBCs was examined before and after the data collection confirming cellular integrity and intracellular compartmentalization of hemoglobin. For temperatures below 0°C, which are of particular interest for cryotherapy, the accuracy of a single temperature measurement was ±1°C, which is consistent with the clinical requirements. Validation of the proposed OA temperature imaging technique was performed for slow and fast cooling of blood samples embedded in tissue-mimicking phantoms.

  6. A real-time monitoring system for airborne particle shape and size analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, P. H.; Alexander-Buckley, K.; Hirst, E.; Saunders, S.; Clark, J. M.

    1996-08-01

    This paper describes a new instrument for the study of airborne particles. The instrument performs a rapid analysis of the transient spatial intensity distribution of laser-light scattered by individual aerosol particles drawn from an ambient environment and uses this to characterize the particles in terms of both size and shape parameters. Analyses are carried out at peak particle throughput rates of up to 10,000 particles per second, and semiquantitative data relating to the size and shape (or more correctly asymmetry) spectra of the sampled particles are provided to the user via a graphical display which is refreshed or updated at 5-s intervals. In addition to the real-time display of data, continuous data recording allows subsequent replay of measurements at either normal or high speed. Preliminary experimental results are given for aerosols of both spherical and nonspherical particle types, and these suggest the instrument may find use in environmental monitoring of aerosols or clouds where some real-time semiquantitative assessment of particulate size and shape spectra may be desirable as an aid to characterizing the aerosol and its constituent particulate species.

  7. MOBLAB: a mobile laboratory for testing real-time vision-based systems in path monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumani, Aldo; Denasi, Sandra; Grattoni, Paolo; Guiducci, Antonio; Pettiti, Giuseppe; Quaglia, Giorgio

    1995-01-01

    In the framework of the EUREKA PROMETHEUS European Project, a Mobile Laboratory (MOBLAB) has been equipped for studying, implementing and testing real-time algorithms which monitor the path of a vehicle moving on roads. Its goal is the evaluation of systems suitable to map the position of the vehicle within the environment where it moves, to detect obstacles, to estimate motion, to plan the path and to warn the driver about unsafe conditions. MOBLAB has been built with the financial support of the National Research Council and will be shared with teams working in the PROMETHEUS Project. It consists of a van equipped with an autonomous power supply, a real-time image processing system, workstations and PCs, B/W and color TV cameras, and TV equipment. This paper describes the laboratory outline and presents the computer vision system and the strategies that have been studied and are being developed at I.E.N. `Galileo Ferraris'. The system is based on several tasks that cooperate to integrate information gathered from different processes and sources of knowledge. Some preliminary results are presented showing the performances of the system.

  8. Real-time spectroscopic monitoring of photocatalytic activity promoted by graphene in a microfluidic reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yifan; Lin, Beichen; Ge, Likai; Guo, Hongchen; Chen, Xinyi; Lu, Miao

    2016-06-01

    Photocatalytic microreactors have been utilized as rapid, versatile platforms for the characterization of photocatalysts. In this work, a photocatalytic microreactor integrated with absorption spectroscopy was proposed for the real-time monitoring of photocatalytic activity using different catalysts. The validity of this method was investigated by the rapid screening on the photocatalytic performance of a titanium oxide (TiO2)-decorated graphene oxide (GO) sheet for the degradation of methylene blue under monochromatic visible irradiation. The sampling interval time could be minimized to 10 s for achieving real-time detection. The best photocatalytic activity was observed for an optimized TiO2/GO weight mixing ratio of 7:11, with a reaction rate constant up to 0.067 min‑1. The addition of GO into TiO2 enhances photocatalytic activity and adsorption of MB molecules. The synthetic reaction rate constant was up to approximately 0.11 min‑1, which was also the highest among the catalysts. The microreactor exhibited good sensitivity and reproducibility without weakening the performance of the photocatalysts. Consequently, the photocatalytic microreactor is promising as a simple, portable, and rapid screening tool for new photocatalysts.

  9. Real-Time Personalized Monitoring to Estimate Occupational Heat Stress in Ambient Assisted Working

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Pancardo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ambient Assisted Working (AAW is a discipline aiming to provide comfort and safety in the workplace through customization and technology. Workers’ comfort may be compromised in many labor situations, including those depending on environmental conditions, like extremely hot weather conduces to heat stress. Occupational heat stress (OHS happens when a worker is in an uninterrupted physical activity and in a hot environment. OHS can produce strain on the body, which leads to discomfort and eventually to heat illness and even death. Related ISO standards contain methods to estimate OHS and to ensure the safety and health of workers, but they are subjective, impersonal, performed a posteriori and even invasive. This paper focuses on the design and development of real-time personalized monitoring for a more effective and objective estimation of OHS, taking into account the individual user profile, fusing data from environmental and unobtrusive body sensors. Formulas employed in this work were taken from different domains and joined in the method that we propose. It is based on calculations that enable continuous surveillance of physical activity performance in a comfortable and healthy manner. In this proposal, we found that OHS can be estimated by satisfying the following criteria: objective, personalized, in situ, in real time, just in time and in an unobtrusive way. This enables timely notice for workers to make decisions based on objective information to control OHS.

  10. Real-time monitoring of progression towards renal failure in primary care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggle, Peter J; Sousa, Inês; Asar, Özgür

    2015-07-01

    Chronic renal failure is a progressive condition that, typically, is asymptomatic for many years. Early detection of incipient kidney failure enables ameliorative treatment that can slow the rate of progression to end-stage renal failure, at which point expensive and invasive renal replacement therapy (dialysis or transplantation) is required. We use routinely collected clinical data from a large sample of primary care patients to develop a system for real-time monitoring of the progression of undiagnosed incipient renal failure. Progression is characterized as the rate of change in a person's kidney function as measured by the estimated glomerular filtration rate, an adjusted version of serum creatinine level in a blood sample. Clinical guidelines in the UK suggest that a person who is losing kidney function at a relative rate of at least 5% per year should be referred to specialist secondary care. We model the time-course of a person's underlying kidney function through a combination of explanatory variables, a random intercept and a continuous-time, non-stationary stochastic process. We then use the model to calculate for each person the predictive probability that they meet the clinical guideline for referral to secondary care. We suggest that probabilistic predictive inference linked to clinical criteria can be a useful component of a real-time surveillance system to guide, but not dictate, clinical decision-making.

  11. Cell membrane-anchored biosensors for real-time monitoring of the cellular microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Liping; Zhang, Tao; Jiang, Jianhui; Wu, Cuichen; Zhu, Guizhi; You, Mingxu; Chen, Xigao; Zhang, Liqin; Cui, Cheng; Yu, Ruqin; Tan, Weihong

    2014-09-24

    Cell membrane-anchored biochemical sensors that allow real-time monitoring of the interactions of cells with their microenvironment would be powerful tools for studying the mechanisms underlying various biological processes, such as cell metabolism and signaling. Despite the significance of these techniques, unfortunately, their development has lagged far behind due to the lack of a desirable membrane engineering method. Here, we propose a simple, efficient, biocompatible, and universal strategy for one-step self-construction of cell-surface sensors using diacyllipid-DNA conjugates as the building and sensing elements. The sensors exploit the high membrane-insertion capacity of a diacyllipid tail and good sensing performance of the DNA probes. Based on this strategy, we have engineered specific DNAzymes on the cell membrane for metal ion assay in the extracellular microspace. The immobilized DNAzyme showed excellent performance for reporting and semiquantifying both exogenous and cell-extruded target metal ions in real time. This membrane-anchored sensor could also be used for multiple target detection by having different DNA probes inserted, providing potentially useful tools for versatile applications in cell biology, biomedical research, drug discovery, and tissue engineering.

  12. Real-time monitoring of carbonarius DNA structured biochip by surface plasmon resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manera, M. G.; Rella, R.; Spadavecchia, J.; Moreau, J.; Canva, M.

    2008-06-01

    Surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRI) studies, performed on a specially designed system exploiting the Kretschmann configuration, have been carried out to develop a DNA sensor for the detection of gene mutations accounting for the analysis of a fungin species which can proliferate especially in cereals, producing toxic compounds such as mycotoxins. The SPRI system has been used in order to study the hybridization process of ssDNA carbonarius probes immobilized onto a bio-functionalized Au surface in order to detect in real time the mutations in a DNA fragment. The SPRI system is a good choice for real-time monitoring of hybridization dynamics on an array of immobilized oligonucleotide probes because of the high sensitivity in characterization of ultra-thin films adsorbed onto gold or other noble metal surfaces. Using this technique, local changes in the reflectivity of a thin metal film describe the hybridization process between the molecules tethered to the surface and those sent in solution in the test chamber. The increase in the greyscale levels of the images (representing the functionalized gold traps) during the hybridization process demonstrated the occurrence of the binding event. The process has been proven to be reversible and specific for the investigated probes, since no signal has been detected in the presence of a negative control which is a non-complementary target.

  13. Real-Time Telemetry System for Monitoring Motion of Ships Based on Inertial Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, José M; Araújo, Marta G; García-Tuñón, I

    2017-04-25

    A telemetry system for real-time monitoring of the motions, position, speed and course of a ship at sea is presented in this work. The system, conceived as a subsystem of a radar cross-section measurement unit, could also be used in other applications as ships dynamics characterization, on-board cranes, antenna stabilizers, etc. This system was designed to be stand-alone, reliable, easy to deploy, low-cost and free of requirements related to stabilization procedures. In order to achieve such a unique combination of functionalities, we have developed a telemetry system based on redundant inertial and magnetic sensors and GPS (Global Positioning System) measurements. It provides a proper data storage and also has real-time radio data transmission capabilities to an on-shore station. The output of the system can be used either for on-line or off-line processing. Additionally, the system uses dual technologies and COTS (Commercial Off-The-Shelf) components. Motion-positioning measurements and radio data link tests were successfully carried out in several ships of the Spanish Navy, proving the compliance with the design targets and validating our telemetry system.

  14. Real-Time Telemetry System for Monitoring Motion of Ships Based on Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Núñez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A telemetry system for real-time monitoring of the motions, position, speed and course of a ship at sea is presented in this work. The system, conceived as a subsystem of a radar cross-section measurement unit, could also be used in other applications as ships dynamics characterization, on-board cranes, antenna stabilizers, etc. This system was designed to be stand-alone, reliable, easy to deploy, low-cost and free of requirements related to stabilization procedures. In order to achieve such a unique combination of functionalities, we have developed a telemetry system based on redundant inertial and magnetic sensors and GPS (Global Positioning System measurements. It provides a proper data storage and also has real-time radio data transmission capabilities to an on-shore station. The output of the system can be used either for on-line or off-line processing. Additionally, the system uses dual technologies and COTS (Commercial Off-The-Shelf components. Motion-positioning measurements and radio data link tests were successfully carried out in several ships of the Spanish Navy, proving the compliance with the design targets and validating our telemetry system.

  15. Real-Time Personalized Monitoring to Estimate Occupational Heat Stress in Ambient Assisted Working.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancardo, Pablo; Acosta, Francisco D; Hernández-Nolasco, José Adán; Wister, Miguel A; López-de-Ipiña, Diego

    2015-07-13

    Ambient Assisted Working (AAW) is a discipline aiming to provide comfort and safety in the workplace through customization and technology. Workers' comfort may be compromised in many labor situations, including those depending on environmental conditions, like extremely hot weather conduces to heat stress. Occupational heat stress (OHS) happens when a worker is in an uninterrupted physical activity and in a hot environment. OHS can produce strain on the body, which leads to discomfort and eventually to heat illness and even death. Related ISO standards contain methods to estimate OHS and to ensure the safety and health of workers, but they are subjective, impersonal, performed a posteriori and even invasive. This paper focuses on the design and development of real-time personalized monitoring for a more effective and objective estimation of OHS, taking into account the individual user profile, fusing data from environmental and unobtrusive body sensors. Formulas employed in this work were taken from different domains and joined in the method that we propose. It is based on calculations that enable continuous surveillance of physical activity performance in a comfortable and healthy manner. In this proposal, we found that OHS can be estimated by satisfying the following criteria: objective, personalized, in situ, in real time, just in time and in an unobtrusive way. This enables timely notice for workers to make decisions based on objective information to control OHS.

  16. Real time monitoring for nowcasting and forecasting ionospheric space weatherin Europe with ground digisondes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Belehaki

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The Earth's ionosphere largely determines space weather effects on radio wave communications, navigation and surveillance systems. Lately there has been an increasing demand for ionospheric nowcast and accurate forecast services by various groups of users, including European industry. The paper reviews research activities in Europe based on the exploitation of real-time ground digisondes for the provision of nowcasting and forecasting ionospheric space weather information and useful products and services to support operational applications. During the last few years, important progress in databasing, modelling and forecasting ionospheric disturbances based on real-time data from ground digisondes was achieved in the frames of COST Action 271 «Effects of the Upper Atmosphere on Terrestrial and Earth-Space Communications». Further developments are expected to be deployed with the new COST Action 724 on «Developing the basis for monitoring, modelling and predicting space weather», as well as through the Space Weather Pilot Project of the European Space Agency and through projects funded by the European Commission programmes.

  17. A high-resolution mini-microscope system for wireless real-time monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zongjie; Boddeda, Akash; Parker, Benjamin; Samanipour, Roya; Ghosh, Sanjoy; Menard, Frederic; Kim, Keekyoung

    2017-09-04

    Compact, cost-effective and high-performance microscope that enables the real-time imaging of cells and lab-on-a-chip devices is highly demanded for cell biology and biomedical engineering. This paper aims to present the design and application of an inexpensive wireless mini-microscope with resolution up to 2592 × 1944 pixels and speed up to 90 fps. The mini-microscope system was built on a commercial embedded system (Raspberry Pi). We modified a camera module and adopted an inverse dual lens system to obtain the clear field of view and appropriate magnification for tens of micrometer objects. The system was capable of capturing time-lapse images and transferring image data wirelessly. The entire system can be operated wirelessly and cordlessly in a conventional cell culturing incubator. The developed mini-microscope was used to monitor the attachment and proliferation of NIH-3T3 and HEK 293 cells inside an incubator for 50 hours. In addition, the mini-microscope was used to monitor a droplet generation process in a microfluidic device. The high-quality images captured by the mini-microscope enabled us an automated analysis of experimental parameters. The successful applications prove the great potential of the developed mini-microscope for monitoring various biological samples and microfluidic devices. This paper presents the design of a high resolution mini-microscope system that enables the wireless real-time imaging of cells inside the incubator. This system has been verified to be a useful tool to obtain high-quality images and videos for the automated quantitative analysis of biological samples and lab-on-a-chip devices in the long term.

  18. Towards near-real time daily GRACE gravity field solutions for global monitoring of hydrological extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouweleeuw, B.; Kvas, A.; Gruber, C.; Schumacher, M.; Mayer-Gürr, T.; Flechtner, F.; Kusche, J.; Guntner, A.

    2016-12-01

    Water storage anomalies from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission (2002-present) have been shown to be a unique descriptor of large-scale hydrological extreme events. However, possibly due to its coarse temporal (weekly to monthly), spatial (> 150.000 km2) resolution and the latency of standard products of about 2 months, the comprehensive information from GRACE on total water storage variations has rarely been evaluated for near-real time flood or drought monitoring or forecasting so far. The Horizon 2020 funded EGSIEM (European Gravity Service for Improved Emergency Management) project is scheduled to launch a near-real time test run of GRACE gravity field data, which will provide daily solutions with a latency of 5 days. This fast availability allows the monitoring of total water storage variations related to hydrological extreme events as they occur, as opposed to a 'confirmation after occurrence', which is the current situation. A first hydrological evaluation of daily GRACE gravity field solutions for floods in the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta in 2004 and 2007 confirms their potential for gravity-based large-scale flood monitoring. This particularly applies to short-lived, high-volume floods, as they occur in Bangladesh with a 4-5 year return period. The subsequent assimilation of daily GRACE data into a (global) hydrological model - carried out jointly within the framework of the Belmont Forum funded BanD-AID project - decomposes total water storage into its individual components (e.g., surface water), increases the spatial resolution and opens up the possibility of flood early warning and forecasting.

  19. Multichannel lens-free CMOS sensors for real-time monitoring of cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ko-Tung; Chang, Yu-Jen; Chen, Chia-Ling; Wang, Yao-Nan

    2015-02-01

    A low-cost platform is proposed for the growth and real-time monitoring of biological cells. The main components of the platform include a PMMA cell culture microchip and a multichannel lens-free CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) / LED imaging system. The PMMA microchip comprises a three-layer structure and is fabricated using a low-cost CO2 laser ablation technique. The CMOS / LED monitoring system is controlled using a self-written LabVIEW program. The platform has overall dimensions of just 130 × 104 × 115 mm(3) and can therefore be placed within a commercial incubator. The feasibility of the proposed system is demonstrated using HepG2 cancer cell samples with concentrations of 5000, 10 000, 20 000, and 40 000 cells/mL. In addition, cell cytotoxicity tests are performed using 8, 16, and 32 mM cyclophosphamide. For all of the experiments, the cell growth is observed over a period of 48 h. The cell growth rate is found to vary in the range of 44∼52% under normal conditions and from 17.4∼34.5% under cyclophosphamide-treated conditions. In general, the results confirm the long-term cell growth and real-time monitoring ability of the proposed system. Moreover, the magnification provided by the lens-free CMOS / LED observation system is around 40× that provided by a traditional microscope. Consequently, the proposed system has significant potential for long-term cell proliferation and cytotoxicity evaluation investigations.

  20. Real time health monitoring and control system methodology for flexible space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaram, Sanjay

    This dissertation is concerned with the Near Real-time Autonomous Health Monitoring of Flexible Space Structures. The dynamics of multi-body flexible systems is uncertain due to factors such as high non-linearity, consideration of higher modal frequencies, high dimensionality, multiple inputs and outputs, operational constraints, as well as unexpected failures of sensors and/or actuators. Hence a systematic framework of developing a high fidelity, dynamic model of a flexible structural system needs to be understood. The fault detection mechanism that will be an integrated part of an autonomous health monitoring system comprises the detection of abnormalities in the sensors and/or actuators and correcting these detected faults (if possible). Applying the robust control law and the robust measures that are capable of detecting and recovering/replacing the actuators rectifies the actuator faults. The fault tolerant concept applied to the sensors will be in the form of an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF). The EKF is going to weigh the information coming from multiple sensors (redundant sensors used to measure the same information) and automatically identify the faulty sensors and weigh the best estimate from the remaining sensors. The mechanization is comprised of instrumenting flexible deployable panels (solar array) with multiple angular position and rate sensors connected to the data acquisition system. The sensors will give position and rate information of the solar panel in all three axes (i.e. roll, pitch and yaw). The position data corresponds to the steady state response and the rate data will give better insight on the transient response of the system. This is a critical factor for real-time autonomous health monitoring. MATLAB (and/or C++) software will be used for high fidelity modeling and fault tolerant mechanism.

  1. Monitoring beryllium during site cleanup and closure using a real-time analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlager, R.J.; Sappey, A.D.; French, P.D. [ADA Technologies, Inc., Englewood, CO (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Beryllium metal has a number of unique properties that have been exploited for use in commercial and government applications. Airborne beryllium particles can represent a significant human health hazard if deposited in the lungs. These particles can cause immunologically-mediated chronic granulomatous lung disease (chronic beryllium disease). Traditional methods of monitoring airborne beryllium involve collecting samples of air within the work area using a filter. The filter then undergoes chemical analysis to determine the amount of beryllium collected during the sampling period. These methods are time-consuming and results are known only after a potential exposure has occurred. The need for monitoring exposures in real time has prompted government and commercial companies to develop instrumentation that will allow for the real time assessment of short-term exposures so that adequate protection for workers in contaminated environments can be provided. Such an analyzer provides a tool that will allow government and commercial sites to be cleaned up in a more safe and effective manner since exposure assessments can be made instantaneously. This paper describes the development and initial testing of an analyzer for monitoring airborne beryllium using a technique known as Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS). Energy from a focused, pulsed laser is used to vaporize a sample and create an intense plasma. The light emitted from the plasma is analyzed to determine the quantity of beryllium in the sampled air. A commercial prototype analyzer has been fabricated and tested in a program conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, and ADA Technologies, Inc. Design features of the analyzer and preliminary test results are presented.

  2. Real-Time Detection Methods to Monitor TRU Compositions in UREX+Process Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDeavitt, Sean; Charlton, William; Indacochea, J Ernesto; taleyarkhan, Rusi; Pereira, Candido

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has developed advanced methods for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel. The majority of this development was accomplished under the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), building on the strong legacy of process development R&D over the past 50 years. The most prominent processing method under development is named UREX+. The name refers to a family of processing methods that begin with the Uranium Extraction (UREX) process and incorporate a variety of other methods to separate uranium, selected fission products, and the transuranic (TRU) isotopes from dissolved spent nuclear fuel. It is important to consider issues such as safeguards strategies and materials control and accountability methods. Monitoring of higher actinides during aqueous separations is a critical research area. By providing on-line materials accountability for the processes, covert diversion of the materials streams becomes much more difficult. The importance of the nuclear fuel cycle continues to rise on national and international agendas. The U.S. Department of Energy is evaluating and developing advanced methods for safeguarding nuclear materials along with instrumentation in various stages of the fuel cycle, especially in material balance areas (MBAs) and during reprocessing of used nuclear fuel. One of the challenges related to the implementation of any type of MBA and/or reprocessing technology (e.g., PUREX or UREX) is the real-time quantification and control of the transuranic (TRU) isotopes as they move through the process. Monitoring of higher actinides from their neutron emission (including multiplicity) and alpha signatures during transit in MBAs and in aqueous separations is a critical research area. By providing on-line real-time materials accountability, diversion of the materials becomes much more difficult. The objective of this consortium was to develop real time detection methods to monitor the efficacy of the UREX+ process and to safeguard the separated

  3. Real-time monitoring of intracellular signal transduction in PC12 cells by non-adiabatic tapered optical fiber biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zibaii, M. I.; Latifi, H.; Asadollahi, A.; Noraeipoor, Z.; Dargahi, L.

    2014-05-01

    Real-time observation of intracellular process of signal transduction is very useful for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications as well as for basic research work of cell biology. For feasible and reagentless observation of intracellular alterations in real time, we examined the use of a nonadiabatic tapered optical fiber (NATOF) biosensor for monitoring of intracellular signal transduction that was mainly translocation of protein kinase C via refractive index change in PC12 cells adhered on tapered fiber sensor without any indicator reagent. PC12 cells were stimulated with KCl . Our results suggest that complex intracellular reactions could be real-time monitored and characterized by NATOF biosensor.

  4. A study on the real-time radiation dosimetry measurement system based on optically stimulated luminescence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan-Ping; CHEN Zhao-Yang; BA Wei-Zhen; FAN Yan-Wei; DU Yan-Zhao; PAN Shi-Lie; GUO Qi

    2008-01-01

    The optically stimulated luminescent (OSL) radiation dosimeter technically surveys a wide dynamic measurement range and a high sensitivity.Optical fiber dosimeters provide capability for remote monitoring of the radiation in the locations which are difficult-to-acoess and hazardous.In addition.optical fiber dosimeters are immune to electrical and radio-frequency interference.In this paper,a novel remote optical fiber radiation dosimeter is described.The optical fiber dosimeter takes advantage of the charge trapping materials CaS:Ce, Sm that exhibit OSL.The measuring range of the dosimeter is from 0.1 to 100 Gy.The equipment is relatively simple and small in size,and has low power consumption.This device is suitable for measuring the space radiation dose and also can be used in high radiation dose condition and other dangerous radiation occasions.

  5. Real-time monitoring of cisplatin cytotoxicity on three-dimensional spheroid tumor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baek NH

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available NamHuk Baek,1,* Ok Won Seo,1,* Jaehwa Lee,1 John Hulme,2 Seong Soo A An2 1Department of Research and Development, NanoEntek Inc., Seoul, 2Department of BioNano Technology, Gachon University, Gyeonggi-do, Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Three-dimensional (3D cell cultivation is a powerful technique for monitoring and understanding diverse cellular mechanisms in developmental cancer and neuronal biology, tissue engineering, and drug development. 3D systems could relate better to in vivo models than two-dimensional (2D cultures. Several factors, such as cell type, survival rate, proliferation rate, and gene and protein expression patterns, determine whether a particular cell line can be adapted to a 3D system. The 3D system may overcome some of the limitations of 2D cultures in terms of cell–cell communication and cell networks, which are essential for understanding differentiation, structural organization, shape, and extended connections with other cells or organs. Here, the effect of the anticancer drug cisplatin, also known as cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II or CDDP, on adenosine triphosphate (ATP generation was investigated using 3D spheroid-forming cells and real-time monitoring for 7 days. First, 12 cell lines were screened for their ability to form 3D spheroids: prostate (DU145, testis (F9, embryonic fibroblast (NIH-3T3, muscle (C2C12, embryonic kidney (293T, neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y, adenocarcinomic alveolar basal epithelial cell (A549, cervical cancer (HeLa, HeLa contaminant (HEp2, pituitary epithelial-like cell (GH3, embryonic cell (PA317, and osteosarcoma (U-2OS cells. Of these, eight cell lines were selected: NIH-3T3, C2C12, 293T, SH-SY5Y, A549, HeLa, PA317, and U-2OS; and five underwent real-time monitoring of CDDP cytotoxicity: HeLa, A549, 293T, SH-SY5Y, and U-2OS. ATP generation was blocked 1 day after addition of 50 µM CDDP, but cytotoxicity in HeLa, A549, SH-SY5Y, and U-2OS cells could be

  6. A real time status monitor for transistor bank driver power limit resistor in boost injection kicker power supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mi, J.; Tan, Y.; Zhang, W.

    2011-03-28

    For years suffering of Booster Injection Kicker transistor bank driver regulator troubleshooting, a new real time monitor system has been developed. A simple and floating circuit has been designed and tested. This circuit monitor system can monitor the driver regulator power limit resistor status in real time and warn machine operator if the power limit resistor changes values. This paper will mainly introduce the power supply and the new designed monitoring system. This real time resistor monitor circuit shows a useful method to monitor some critical parts in the booster pulse power supply. After two years accelerator operation, it shows that this monitor works well. Previously, we spent a lot of time in booster machine trouble shooting. We will reinstall all 4 PCB into Euro Card Standard Chassis when the power supply system will be updated.

  7. Research of a real-time overload monitoring and response system of bridges and roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan; Shi, Yan; Zhao, Xuefeng; Ou, Jinping

    2012-04-01

    Due to the general overloading of vehicles, premature failure of bridges and roads are more and more obvious. Structural behaviors of engineering structures need real-time monitoring and diagnosis, timely detection of structural damage, evaluation of their safety, and necessary precautions, in order to prevent major accident such as the collapse of bridges and roads. But the existing monitoring system, which is very expensive, does not apply to the low budget structures. Therefore, a potable, low-cost, low-power structural monitoring system, which consists of electric resistance strain gauge, collection and execution unit, graph collection system and analysis software, is designed in this paper. The system can collect the critical data about the force of pavement to take the certain judge algorithm. The alarm will be given and the overburden data will be transmitted to IDC to make the further analysis when the pavement is overburden. At the same time, the plates of overweight vehicles can be collected and sent to the relevant departments. The system has the features of simple structure, easy realization, and low cost, which fills the application gaps in structural health monitoring of low-budget project.

  8. Real-time monitoring of emissions from monoethanolamine-based industrial scale carbon capture facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liang; Schade, Gunnar Wolfgang; Nielsen, Claus Jørgen

    2013-12-17

    We demonstrate the capabilities and properties of using Proton Transfer Reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS) to real-time monitor gaseous emissions from industrial scale amine-based carbon capture processes. The benchmark monoethanolamine (MEA) was used as an example of amines needing to be monitored from carbon capture facilities, and to describe how the measurements may be influenced by potentially interfering species in CO2 absorber stack discharges. On the basis of known or expected emission compositions, we investigated the PTR-ToF-MS MEA response as a function of sample flow humidity, ammonia, and CO2 abundances, and show that all can exhibit interferences, thus making accurate amine measurements difficult. This warrants a proper sample pretreatment, and we show an example using a dilution with bottled zero air of 1:20 to 1:10 to monitor stack gas concentrations at the CO2 Technology Center Mongstad (TCM), Norway. Observed emissions included many expected chemical species, dominantly ammonia and acetaldehyde, but also two new species previously not reported but emitted in significant quantities. With respect to concerns regarding amine emissions, we show that accurate amine quantifications in the presence of water vapor, ammonia, and CO2 become feasible after proper sample dilution, thus making PTR-ToF-MS a viable technique to monitor future carbon capture facility emissions, without conventional laborious sample pretreatment.

  9. DESIGN OF ARM BASED REAL TIME PERSONNEL MONITORING SYSTEM USING WI-FI TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha George

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays we constantly come across the need to transfer remote data to monitor center which will be far away from the place of data acquisition. Traditional data acquisition system using wires cannot satisfy these requirements due to its heavy cost and impracticability. Embedded devices with network communication which makes it more powerful and easier to monitor and control remote data, is one of the major outcomes of the developments in the field of communication and networking technologies. This study presents the design of a real time personnel monitoring system based on wireless technology. ARM embedded processor and Wi-Fi module are used as hardware platform in this project. Data transfer over the wireless network is based on the TCP/IP protocol which is a part of the Wi-Fi module. Using this designed system an officer can monitor the personnel in the organization by opening a web page from a place that is geographically far. This system is based on the conversion of serial to wireless data which could be transferred over the wireless network to the server and also over the internet. At the completion of the design, the result shows that data is transferred between the ARM processor and the host system using the wireless network.

  10. Near-Real-Time Monitoring of Insect Defoliation Using Landsat Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie J. Pasquarella

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduced insects and pathogens impact millions of acres of forested land in the United States each year, and large-scale monitoring efforts are essential for tracking the spread of outbreaks and quantifying the extent of damage. However, monitoring the impacts of defoliating insects presents a significant challenge due to the ephemeral nature of defoliation events. Using the 2016 gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar outbreak in Southern New England as a case study, we present a new approach for near-real-time defoliation monitoring using synthetic images produced from Landsat time series. By comparing predicted and observed images, we assessed changes in vegetation condition multiple times over the course of an outbreak. Initial measures can be made as imagery becomes available, and season-integrated products provide a wall-to-wall assessment of potential defoliation at 30 m resolution. Qualitative and quantitative comparisons suggest our Landsat Time Series (LTS products improve identification of defoliation events relative to existing products and provide a repeatable metric of change in condition. Our synthetic-image approach is an important step toward using the full temporal potential of the Landsat archive for operational monitoring of forest health over large extents, and provides an important new tool for understanding spatial and temporal dynamics of insect defoliators.

  11. Real-time Web GIS to monitor marine water quality using wave glider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneesa Amiruddin, Siti

    2016-06-01

    In the past decade, Malaysia has experienced unprecedented economic development and associated socioeconomic changes. As environmentalists anticipate these changes could have negative impacts on the marine and coastal environment, a comprehensive, continuous and long term marine water quality monitoring programme needs to be strengthened to reflect the government's aggressive mind-set of enhancing its authority in protection, preservation, management and enrichment of vast resources of the ocean. Wave Glider, an autonomous, unmanned marine vehicle provides continuous ocean monitoring at all times and is durable in any weather condition. Geographic Information System (GIS) technology is ideally suited as a tool for the presentation of data derived from continuous monitoring of locations, and used to support and deliver information to environmental managers and the public. Combined with GeoEvent Processor, an extension from ArcGIS for Server, it extends the Web GIS capabilities in providing real-time data from the monitoring activities. Therefore, there is a growing need of Web GIS for easy and fast dissemination, sharing, displaying and processing of spatial information which in turn helps in decision making for various natural resources based applications.

  12. Fiber Bragg grating sensors for real-time monitoring of evacuation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guru Prasad, A. S.; Hegde, Gopalkrishna M.; Asokan, S.

    2010-03-01

    Fiber bragg grating (FBG) sensors have been widely used for number of sensing applications like temperature, pressure, acousto-ultrasonic, static and dynamic strain, refractive index change measurements and so on. Present work demonstrates the use of FBG sensors in in-situ measurement of vacuum process with simultaneous leak detection capability. Experiments were conducted in a bell jar vacuum chamber facilitated with conventional Pirani gauge for vacuum measurement. Three different experiments have been conducted to validate the performance of FBG sensor in monitoring vacuum creating process and air bleeding. The preliminary results of FBG sensors in vacuum monitoring have been compared with that of commercial Pirani gauge sensor. This novel technique offers a simple alternative to conventional method for real time monitoring of evacuation process. Proposed FBG based vacuum sensor has potential applications in vacuum systems involving hazardous environment such as chemical and gas plants, automobile industries, aeronautical establishments and leak monitoring in process industries, where the electrical or MEMS based sensors are prone to explosion and corrosion.

  13. Capacitance-based assay for real-time monitoring of endocytosis and cell viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Rimi; Kim, Jihun; Kim, Sook Young; Jang, Seon Mi; Lee, Sun-Mi; Choi, In-Hong; Park, Seung Woo; Shin, Jeon-Soo; Yoo, Kyung-Hwa

    2012-07-07

    Label-free cell-based assays have emerged as a promising means for high-throughput screening. Most label-free sensors are based on impedance measurements that reflect the passive electrical properties of cells. Here we introduce a capacitance-based assay that measures the dielectric constant (capacitance) of biological cells, and demonstrate the feasibility of analyzing endocytosis and screening chemotherapeutic agents with this assay. Endocytosis induces a change in the zeta potential, leading to a change in the dielectric constant which enables real-time endocytosis monitoring using the capacitance sensor. Additionally, since the dielectric constant is proportional to cell radius and cell volume, cell viability can be estimated from the change in capacitance. Therefore, the capacitance sensor array can also be used for cytotoxicity testing for large-scale chemotherapeutic screening.

  14. The optothermal approach to a real time monitoring of glucose content during fermentation by brewers' yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favier, J P; Bicanic, D; Helander, P; van Iersel, M

    1997-06-01

    During production of both normal and low-alcohol beers, sugar is fermented to ethanol, carbon dioxide and several flavour products. Tight control of fermentation is necessary in order to keep production costs low, and to prevent formation of excessive ethanol in low-alcohol beer. Several types of control devices based on, e.g., determination of carbon dioxide, ethanol, and extract have been developed so far; the main disadvantage of these devices is their unsuitability for on-line applications. Here, the optothermal window was used in a laboratory experiment as a new sensor for real time monitoring fermentation of glucose by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the results were compared to those obtained by conventional techniques.

  15. Real-Time Payload Control and Monitoring on the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Charles; Windrem, May; Givens, John J. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    World Wide Web (W3) technologies such as the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and the Java object-oriented programming environment offer a powerful, yet relatively inexpensive, framework for distributed application software development. This paper describes the design of a real-time payload control and monitoring system that was developed with W3 technologies at NASA Ames Research Center. Based on Java Development Toolkit (JDK) 1.1, the system uses an event-driven "publish and subscribe" approach to inter-process communication and graphical user-interface construction. A C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) compatible inference engine provides the back-end intelligent data processing capability, while Oracle Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) provides the data management function. Preliminary evaluation shows acceptable performance for some classes of payloads, with Java's portability and multimedia support identified as the most significant benefit.

  16. Status report on a real time Engine Diagnostics Console for rocket engine exhaust plume monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bircher, F. E.; Gardner, D. G.; Vandyke, D. B.; Harris, A. B.; Chenevert, D. J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the work done on the Engine Diagnostics Console during the past year of development at Stennis Space Center. The Engine Diagnostics Console (EDC) is a hardware and software package which provides near real time monitoring of rocket engine exhaust plume emissions during ground testing. The long range goal of the EDC development program is to develop an instrument that can detect engine degradation leading to catastrophic failure, and respond by taking preventative measures. The immediate goal for the past year's effort is the ability to process spectral data, taken from a rocket engine's exhaust plume, and to identify in an automated and high speed manner, the elemental species and multielemental materials that are present in the exhaust plume.

  17. Wearable autonomous microsystem with electrochemical gas sensor array for real-time health and safety monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haitao; Mu, Xiaoyi; Wang, Zhe; Liu, Xiaowen; Guo, Min; Jin, Rong; Zeng, Xiangqun; Mason, Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    Airborne pollution and explosive gases threaten human health and occupational safety, therefore generating high demand for a wearable autonomous multi-analyte gas sensor system for real-time environmental monitoring. This paper presents a system level solution through synergistic integration of sensors, electronics, and data analysis algorithms. Electrochemical sensors featuring ionic liquids were chosen to provide low-power room-temperature operation, rapid response, high sensitivity, good selectivity, and a long operating life with low maintenance. The system utilizes a multi-mode electrochemical instrumentation circuit that combines all signal condition functions within a single microelectronics chip to minimize system cost, size and power consumption. Embedded sensor array signal processing algorithms enable gas classification and concentration estimation within a real-world mixture of analytes. System design and integration methodologies are described, and preliminary results are shown for a first generation SO(2) sensor and a thumb-drive sized prototype system.

  18. MyNewsFlash: A System for Near Real-Time Variable Star Monitoring and Alerts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, A.; Turner, R.; Malatesta, K.; Simonsen, M. A.

    2004-12-01

    MyNewsFlash is an automated and customizable system for distributing timely variable star data. It supplies near real-time reports to the user of the latest activity of a variable star or class of stars. The stars it monitors, the frequency of report delivery, the delivery format, and more features are all completely customizable so the reader receives only reports of information he or she wants and nothing more or less. In addition, manually-generated alerts called Special MyNewsFlashes are occasionally sent out with additional information on special or abnormal behavior of a variable star. MyNewsFlash evolved from the AAVSO News Flash, an electronic publication dedicated to outbursts of popular cataclysmic variable stars

  19. Real-time dielectric-film thickness measurement system for plasma processing chamber wall monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Yong; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2015-12-01

    An in-situ real-time processing chamber wall monitoring system was developed. In order to measure the thickness of the dielectric film, two frequencies of small sinusoidal voltage (∼1 V) signals were applied to an electrically floated planar type probe, which is positioned at chamber wall surface, and the amplitudes of the currents and the phase differences between the voltage and current were measured. By using an equivalent sheath circuit model including a sheath capacitance, the dielectric thickness can be obtained. Experiments were performed in various plasma condition, and reliable dielectric film thickness was obtained regardless of the plasma properties. In addition, availability in commercial chamber for plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition was verified. This study is expected to contribute to the control of etching and deposition processes and optimization of periodic maintenance in semiconductor manufacturing process.

  20. Real-time monitoring of laser hot-wire cladding of Inconel 625

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuang; Liu, Wei; Harooni, Masoud; Ma, Junjie; Kovacevic, Radovan

    2014-10-01

    Laser hot-wire cladding (LHWC), characterized by resistance heating of the wire, largely increases the productivity and saves the laser energy. However, the main issue of applying this method is the occurrence of arcing which causes spatters and affects the stability of the process. In this study, an optical spectrometer was used for real-time monitoring of the LHWC process. The corresponding plasma intensity was analyzed under various operating conditions. The electron temperature of the plasma was calculated for elements of nickel and chromium that mainly comprised the plasma plume. There was a correlation between the electron temperature and the stability of the process. The characteristics of the resulted clad were also investigated by measuring the dilution, hardness and microstructure.

  1. Stretchable Electrochemical Sensor for Real-Time Monitoring of Cells and Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Ling; Jin, Zi-He; Liu, Yan-Hong; Hu, Xue-Bo; Qin, Yu; Xu, Jia-Quan; Fan, Cui-Fang; Huang, Wei-Hua

    2016-03-24

    Stretchable electrochemical sensors are conceivably a powerful technique that provides important chemical information to unravel elastic and curvilinear living body. However, no breakthrough was made in stretchable electrochemical device for biological detection. Herein, we synthesized Au nanotubes (NTs) with large aspect ratio to construct an effective stretchable electrochemical sensor. Interlacing network of Au NTs endows the sensor with desirable stability against mechanical deformation, and Au nanostructure provides excellent electrochemical performance and biocompatibility. This allows for the first time, real-time electrochemical monitoring of mechanically sensitive cells on the sensor both in their stretching-free and stretching states as well as sensing of the inner lining of blood vessels. The results demonstrate the great potential of this sensor in electrochemical detection of living body, opening a new window for stretchable electrochemical sensor in biological exploration.

  2. Multichannel bipotentiostat integrated with a microfluidic platform for electrochemical real-time monitoring of cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergani, Marco; Carminati, Marco; Ferrari, Giorgio; Landini, Ettore; Caviglia, Claudia; Heiskanen, Arto; Comminges, Clément; Zór, Kinga; Sabourin, David; Dufva, Martin; Dimaki, Maria; Raiteri, Roberto; Wollenberger, Ulla; Emneus, Jenny; Sampietro, Marco

    2012-10-01

    An electrochemical detection system specifically designed for multi-parameter real-time monitoring of stem cell culturing/differentiation in a microfluidic system is presented. It is composed of a very compact 24-channel electronic board, compatible with arrays of microelectrodes and coupled to a microfluidic cell culture system. A versatile data acquisition software enables performing amperometry, cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy in each of the 12 independent chambers over a 100 kHz bandwidth with current resolution down to 5 pA for 100 ms measuring time. The design of the platform, its realization and experimental characterization are reported, with emphasis on the analysis of impact of input capacitance (i.e., microelectrode size) and microfluidic pump operation on current noise. Programmable sequences of successive injections of analytes (ferricyanide and dopamine) and rinsing buffer solution as well as the impedimetric continuous tracking for seven days of the proliferation of a colony of PC12 cells are successfully demonstrated.

  3. Real-time nutrient monitoring in rivers: adaptive sampling strategies, technological challenges and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaen, Phillip; Khamis, Kieran; Lloyd, Charlotte; Bradley, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Excessive nutrient concentrations in river waters threaten aquatic ecosystem functioning and can pose substantial risks to human health. Robust monitoring strategies are therefore required to generate reliable estimates of river nutrient loads and to improve understanding of the catchment processes that drive spatiotemporal patterns in nutrient fluxes. Furthermore, these data are vital for prediction of future trends under changing environmental conditions and thus the development of appropriate mitigation measures. In recent years, technological developments have led to an increase in the use of continuous in-situ nutrient analysers, which enable measurements at far higher temporal resolutions than can be achieved with discrete sampling and subsequent laboratory analysis. However, such instruments can be costly to run and difficult to maintain (e.g. due to high power consumption and memory requirements), leading to trade-offs between temporal and spatial monitoring resolutions. Here, we highlight how adaptive monitoring strategies, comprising a mixture of temporal sample frequencies controlled by one or more 'trigger variables' (e.g. river stage, turbidity, or nutrient concentration), can advance our understanding of catchment nutrient dynamics while simultaneously overcoming many of the practical and economic challenges encountered in typical in-situ river nutrient monitoring applications. We present examples of short-term variability in river nutrient dynamics, driven by complex catchment behaviour, which support our case for the development of monitoring systems that can adapt in real-time to rapid environmental changes. In addition, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of current nutrient monitoring techniques, and suggest new research directions based on emerging technologies and highlight how these might improve: 1) monitoring strategies, and 2) understanding of linkages between catchment processes and river nutrient fluxes.

  4. Real-time 3D radiation risk assessment supporting simulation of work in nuclear environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szőke, I; Louka, M N; Bryntesen, T R; Bratteli, J; Edvardsen, S T; RøEitrheim, K K; Bodor, K

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the latest developments at the Institute for Energy Technology (IFE) in Norway, in the field of real-time 3D (three-dimensional) radiation risk assessment for the support of work simulation in nuclear environments. 3D computer simulation can greatly facilitate efficient work planning, briefing, and training of workers. It can also support communication within and between work teams, and with advisors, regulators, the media and public, at all the stages of a nuclear installation's lifecycle. Furthermore, it is also a beneficial tool for reviewing current work practices in order to identify possible gaps in procedures, as well as to support the updating of international recommendations, dissemination of experience, and education of the current and future generation of workers.IFE has been involved in research and development into the application of 3D computer simulation and virtual reality (VR) technology to support work in radiological environments in the nuclear sector since the mid 1990s. During this process, two significant software tools have been developed, the VRdose system and the Halden Planner, and a number of publications have been produced to contribute to improving the safety culture in the nuclear industry.This paper describes the radiation risk assessment techniques applied in earlier versions of the VRdose system and the Halden Planner, for visualising radiation fields and calculating dose, and presents new developments towards implementing a flexible and up-to-date dosimetric package in these 3D software tools, based on new developments in the field of radiation protection. The latest versions of these 3D tools are capable of more accurate risk estimation, permit more flexibility via a range of user choices, and are applicable to a wider range of irradiation situations than their predecessors.

  5. The analysis of complex mixed-radiation fields using near real-time imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Jonathan; Mellor, Matthew P; Joyce, Malcolm J

    2014-10-01

    A new mixed-field imaging system has been constructed at Lancaster University using the principles of collimation and back projection to passively locate and assess sources of neutron and gamma-ray radiation. The system was set up at the University of Manchester where three radiation sources: (252)Cf, a lead-shielded (241)Am/Be and a (22)Na source were imaged. Real-time discrimination was used to find the respective components of the neutron and gamma-ray fields detected by a single EJ-301 liquid scintillator, allowing separate images of neutron and gamma-ray emitters to be formed. (252)Cf and (22)Na were successfully observed and located in the gamma-ray image; however, the (241)Am/Be was not seen owing to surrounding lead shielding. The (252)Cf and (241)Am/Be neutron sources were seen clearly in the neutron image, demonstrating the advantage of this mixed-field technique over a gamma-ray-only image where the (241)Am/Be source would have gone undetected.

  6. Real time radiation dosimeters based on vertically aligned multiwall carbon nanotubes and graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funaro, Maria; Sarno, Maria; Ciambelli, Paolo; Altavilla, Claudia; Proto, Antonio

    2013-02-01

    Measurements of the absorbed dose and quality assurance programs play an important role in radiotherapy. Ionization chambers (CIs) are considered the most important dosimeters for their high accuracy, practicality and reliability, allowing absolute dose measurements. However, they have a relative large physical size, which limits their spatial resolution, and require a high bias voltage to achieve an acceptable collection of charges, excluding their use for in vivo dosimetry. In this paper, we propose new real time radiation detectors with electrodes based on graphene or vertically aligned multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). We have investigated their charge collection efficiency and compared their performance with electrodes made of a conventional material. Moreover, in order to highlight the effect of nanocarbons, reference radiation detectors were also tested. The proposed dosimeters display an excellent linear response to dose and collect more charge than reference ones at a standard bias voltage, permitting the construction of miniaturized CIs. Moreover, an MWCNT based CI gives the best charge collection efficiency and it enables working also to lower bias voltages and zero volts, allowing in vivo applications. Graphene based CIs show better performance with respect to reference dosimeters at a standard bias voltage. However, at decreasing bias voltage the charge collection efficiency becomes worse if compared to a reference detector, likely due to graphene’s semiconducting behavior.

  7. Real-time monitoring of volatile organic compounds using chemical ionization mass spectroscopy: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornberg, S.M.; Mowry, C.D.; Keenan, M.R.; Bender, S.F.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Gas Analysis Lab.; Owen, T. [Intel Corp., Rio Rancho, NM (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) emission to the atmosphere is of great concern to semiconductor manufacturing industries, research laboratories, the public, and regulatory agencies. Some industries are seeking ways to reduce emissions by reducing VOCs at the point of use (or generation). This paper discusses the requirements, design, calibration, and use of a sampling inlet/quadrupole mass spectrometer system for monitoring VOCs in a semiconductor manufacturing production line. The system uses chemical ionization to monitor compounds typically found in the lithography processes used to manufacture semiconductor devices (e.g., acetone, photoresist). The system was designed to be transportable from tool to tool in the production line and to give the operator real-time feedback so the process(es) can be adjusted to minimize VOC emissions. Detection limits ranging from the high ppb range for acetone to the low ppm range fore other lithography chemicals were achieved using chemical ionization mass spectroscopy at a data acquisition rate of approximately 1 mass spectral scan (30 to 200 daltons) per second. A demonstration of exhaust VOC monitoring was performed at a working semiconductor fabrication facility during actual wafer processing.

  8. Design and Implementation of an Interactive Web-Based Near Real-Time Forest Monitoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratihast, Arun Kumar; DeVries, Ben; Avitabile, Valerio; de Bruin, Sytze; Herold, Martin; Bergsma, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes an interactive web-based near real-time (NRT) forest monitoring system using four levels of geographic information services: 1) the acquisition of continuous data streams from satellite and community-based monitoring using mobile devices, 2) NRT forest disturbance detection based on satellite time-series, 3) presentation of forest disturbance data through a web-based application and social media and 4) interaction of the satellite based disturbance alerts with the end-user communities to enhance the collection of ground data. The system is developed using open source technologies and has been implemented together with local experts in the UNESCO Kafa Biosphere Reserve, Ethiopia. The results show that the system is able to provide easy access to information on forest change and considerably improves the collection and storage of ground observation by local experts. Social media leads to higher levels of user interaction and noticeably improves communication among stakeholders. Finally, an evaluation of the system confirms the usability of the system in Ethiopia. The implemented system can provide a foundation for an operational forest monitoring system at the national level for REDD+ MRV applications.

  9. A design proposal of real-time monitoring stations: implementation and performance in contrasting environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose González

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of creating a real-time monitoring network for both oceanographic and meteorological data, a monitoring station conceptual design was developed. A common framework for software and electronics was adapted to different environmental conditions using two buoy approaches: one intended for oceanic waters, to be moored up to 30-40 m depth, where waves are the critical design factor, and one for continental waters (rivers, lakes and the inner part of estuaries, where currents are the critical design factor. When structures such as bridges are present in the area, the monitoring station can be installed on these structures, thus reducing its impact and increasing safety. In this paper, the design, implementation, operation and performance of these stations are described. A reliability index is calculated for the longest time series of the three related deployment options on the Galician coast: Cíes (oceanic buoy in front of the Ría de Vigo, Catoira (continental buoy in the Ulla river and Cortegada (installation in a bed in the Ría de Arousa.

  10. High-Performance Bioinstrumentation for Real-Time Neuroelectrochemical Traumatic Brain Injury Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Konstantinos I.; Wang, Chu; Rogers, Michelle L.; Gowers, Sally A. N.; Leong, Chi L.; Boutelle, Martyn G.; Drakakis, Emmanuel M.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been identified as an important cause of death and severe disability in all age groups and particularly in children and young adults. Central to TBIs devastation is a delayed secondary injury that occurs in 30–40% of TBI patients each year, while they are in the hospital Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Secondary injuries reduce survival rate after TBI and usually occur within 7 days post-injury. State-of-art monitoring of secondary brain injuries benefits from the acquisition of high-quality and time-aligned electrical data i.e., ElectroCorticoGraphy (ECoG) recorded by means of strip electrodes placed on the brains surface, and neurochemical data obtained via rapid sampling microdialysis and microfluidics-based biosensors measuring brain tissue levels of glucose, lactate and potassium. This article progresses the field of multi-modal monitoring of the injured human brain by presenting the design and realization of a new, compact, medical-grade amperometry, potentiometry and ECoG recording bioinstrumentation. Our combined TBI instrument enables the high-precision, real-time neuroelectrochemical monitoring of TBI patients, who have undergone craniotomy neurosurgery and are treated sedated in the ICU. Electrical and neurochemical test measurements are presented, confirming the high-performance of the reported TBI bioinstrumentation. PMID:27242477

  11. Design and Implementation of an Interactive Web-Based Near Real-Time Forest Monitoring System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar Pratihast

    Full Text Available This paper describes an interactive web-based near real-time (NRT forest monitoring system using four levels of geographic information services: 1 the acquisition of continuous data streams from satellite and community-based monitoring using mobile devices, 2 NRT forest disturbance detection based on satellite time-series, 3 presentation of forest disturbance data through a web-based application and social media and 4 interaction of the satellite based disturbance alerts with the end-user communities to enhance the collection of ground data. The system is developed using open source technologies and has been implemented together with local experts in the UNESCO Kafa Biosphere Reserve, Ethiopia. The results show that the system is able to provide easy access to information on forest change and considerably improves the collection and storage of ground observation by local experts. Social media leads to higher levels of user interaction and noticeably improves communication among stakeholders. Finally, an evaluation of the system confirms the usability of the system in Ethiopia. The implemented system can provide a foundation for an operational forest monitoring system at the national level for REDD+ MRV applications.

  12. Real-Time Optical Monitoring of Pt Catalyst Under the Potentiodynamic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyeon Don; Lee, Minzae; Kim, Gil-Pyo; Choi, Inhee; Yi, Jongheop

    2016-12-01

    In situ monitoring of electrode materials reveals detailed physicochemical transition in electrochemical device. The key challenge is to explore the localized features of electrode surfaces, since the performance of an electrochemical device is determined by the summation of local architecture of the electrode material. Adaptive in situ techniques have been developed for numerous investigations; however, they require restricted measurement environments and provide limited information, which has impeded their widespread application. In this study, we realised an optics-based electrochemical in situ monitoring system by combining a dark-field micro/spectroscopy with an electrochemical workstation to investigate the physicochemical behaviours of Pt catalyst. We found that the localized plasmonic trait of a Pt-decorated Au nanoparticle as a model system varied in terms of its intensity and wavelength during the iterations of a cyclic voltammetry test. Furthermore, we show that morphological and compositional changes of the Pt catalyst can be traced in real time using changes in quantified plasmonic characteristics, which is a distinct advantage over the conventional electrochemistry-based in situ monitoring systems. These results indicate the substantial promise of online operando observation in a wide range of electrical energy conversion systems and electrochemical sensing areas.

  13. A Wireless Sensor System for Real-Time Monitoring and Fault Detection of Motor Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-García, Jonathan; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Trinidad; Galán, Juan Antonio Gómez; Delgado, Aránzazu; Gómez-Bravo, Fernando; Jiménez, Raúl

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a wireless fault detection system for industrial motors that combines vibration, motor current and temperature analysis, thus improving the detection of mechanical faults. The design also considers the time of detection and further possible actions, which are also important for the early detection of possible malfunctions, and thus for avoiding irreversible damage to the motor. The remote motor condition monitoring is implemented through a wireless sensor network (WSN) based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. The deployed network uses the beacon-enabled mode to synchronize several sensor nodes with the coordinator node, and the guaranteed time slot mechanism provides data monitoring with a predetermined latency. A graphic user interface offers remote access to motor conditions and real-time monitoring of several parameters. The developed wireless sensor node exhibits very low power consumption since it has been optimized both in terms of hardware and software. The result is a low cost, highly reliable and compact design, achieving a high degree of autonomy of more than two years with just one 3.3 V/2600 mAh battery. Laboratory and field tests confirm the feasibility of the wireless system. PMID:28245623

  14. Real time monitoring of urban surface water quality using a submersible, tryptophan-like fluorescence sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamis, Kieran; Bradley, Chris; Hannah, David; Stevens, Rob

    2014-05-01

    Due to the recent development of field-deployable optical sensor technology, continuous quantification and characterization of surface water dissolved organic matter (DOM) is possible now. Tryptophan-like (T1) fluorescence has the potential to be a particularly useful indicator of human influence on water quality as T1 peaks are associated with the input of labial organic carbon (e.g. sewage or farm waste) and its microbial breakdown. Hence, real-time recording of T1 fluorescence could be particular useful for monitoring waste water infrastructure, treatment efficiency and the identification of contamination events at higher temporal resolution than available hitherto. However, an understanding of sensor measurement repeatability/transferability and interaction with environmental parameters (e.g. turbidity) is required. Here, to address this practical knowledge gap, we present results from a rigorous test of a commercially available submersible tryptophan fluorometer (λex 285, λem 350). Sensor performance was first examined in the laboratory by incrementally increasing turbidity under controlled conditions. Further to this the sensor was integrated into a multi-parameter sonde and field tests were undertaken involving: (i) a spatial sampling campaign across a range of surface water sites in the West Midlands, UK; and (ii) collection of high resolution (sub-hourly) samples from an urban stream (Bournbrook, Birmingham, U.K). To determine the ability of the sensor to capture spatiotemporal dynamics of urban waters DOM was characterized for each site or discrete time step using Excitation Emission Matrix spectroscopy and PARAFAC. In both field and laboratory settings fluorescence intensity was attenuated at high turbidity due to suspended particles increasing absorption and light scattering. For the spatial survey, instrument readings were compared to those obtained by a laboratory grade fluorometer (Varian Cary Eclipse) and a strong, linear relationship was apparent

  15. Real-time earthquake monitoring for tsunami warning in the Indian Ocean and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Hanka

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Mw = 9.3 Sumatra earthquake of 26 December 2004 generated a tsunami that affected the entire Indian Ocean region and caused approximately 230 000 fatalities. In the response to this tragedy the German government funded the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS Project. The task of the GEOFON group of GFZ Potsdam was to develop and implement the seismological component. In this paper we describe the concept of the GITEWS earthquake monitoring system and report on its present status. The major challenge for earthquake monitoring within a tsunami warning system is to deliver rapid information about location, depth, size and possibly other source parameters. This is particularly true for coast lines adjacent to the potential source areas such as the Sunda trench where these parameters are required within a few minutes after the event in order to be able to warn the population before the potential tsunami hits the neighbouring coastal areas. Therefore, the key for a seismic monitoring system with short warning times adequate for Indonesia is a dense real-time seismic network across Indonesia with densifications close to the Sunda trench. A substantial number of supplementary stations in other Indian Ocean rim countries are added to strengthen the teleseismic monitoring capabilities. The installation of the new GITEWS seismic network – consisting of 31 combined broadband and strong motion stations – out of these 21 stations in Indonesia – is almost completed. The real-time data collection is using a private VSAT communication system with hubs in Jakarta and Vienna. In addition, all available seismic real-time data from the other seismic networks in Indonesia and other Indian Ocean rim countries are acquired also directly by VSAT or by Internet at the Indonesian Tsunami Warning Centre in Jakarta and the resulting "virtual" network of more than 230 stations can jointly be used for seismic data processing. The

  16. PEP725: real time monitoring of phenological events in Austria, Germany, Sweden and Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungersboeck, Markus; Bolmgren, Kjell; Huebner, Thomas; Kaspar, Frank; Langvall, Ola; Paul, Anita; Pietragalla, Barbara; Scheifinger, Helfried; Koch, Elisabeth

    2017-04-01

    The main objective of PEP725 (Pan European Phenological database; http://www.pep725.eu/) is to promote and facilitate phenological research by delivering a pan European phenological database with an open, unrestricted data access for science, research and education. The first datasets in PEP725 date back to 1868; however, there are only a few observations available until 1950. From 1951 onwards, the phenological networks all over Europe developed rapidly. So far more than 11 923 489 of observations of 121 different plants are now available in the PEP725 database. Approximately 40 % of all data are flowering records, 10 % are fruit ripeness observations and also 10 % are leaf unfolding observations. The PEP725 database is updated annually. But since recently Deutscher Wetterdienst and MeteoSwiss offer their observers to upload their observations via web in real time mode, ZAMG introduced this web-based feature already in 2007 (phenowatch.at) and the observers of SWE-NPN (the Swedish National Phenology Network) can submit their observations through the web application naturenskalender.se since the start in 2008. Since spring 2016 one you can find a real time animated monitoring tool showing how the "green wave" in spring is moving from 46° northern latitude up to the Arctic Circle and the "brown wave" in autumn in the opposite direction. In 2015 the "green wave" speeds up from app. 4.4 days/degree latitude for hazel flowering to 2.9 days/ degree latitude for willow flowering and 2.25 days/degree latitude for birch leaf unfolding. There are other European countries as for instance Italy, The Netherlands, UK that have been doing visualizations of ground phenology in real time for some years, but these efforts always end at the national borders. PEP725 is funded by ZAMG, the Austrian ministry of science, research and economy and EUMETNET, the network of European meteorological services. So far 21 European meteorological services and 7 partners from different

  17. Preliminary Results from Real-Time GPS Monitoring in the San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langbein, J. O.; Guillemot, C.

    2013-12-01

    A web-based monitoring system has been implemented to display displacement estimates in real-time for various combinations of USGS, Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) and Bay Area Regional Deformation (BARD) network stations in the San Francisco Bay area. Tools and utilities developed in-house are used to visually analyze the quality of estimated positions and gain a better understanding of the challenges involved in integrating displacement data into earthquake early warning (EEW) algorithms. Comparisons of results between differential and precise position estimates obtained from a variety of software packages have led to a closer examination of the epoch-per-epoch latencies, or delays with which those estimates are generated. For example, although position estimates from precise point positioning, with ambiguity resolution, (PPP-AR) computed in real-time are reasonably stable over short-time scales, latencies of 50 seconds or more currently preclude their useful incorporation into EEW algorithms. On the other hand, the latencies for differential position range between less than a second to 10 seconds. The large latencies for PPP-AR are partly due to the fact that displacement estimates obtained from GPS cannot yet be generated at the source but must rely on centralized processing that incorporates instantaneous clock corrections which, in turn must be obtained from external agencies. The latencies, however, are not as critical for the study of post-seismic deformation that occurs minutes to hours following an earthquake. Computation of the power spectra of time series provides a quantitative means to compare the precision of estimated positions that are obtained from various software that process the data in real-time. To first order, the current set of processing algorithms, including those using differential position and PPP-AR, provides nearly equal performance in terms of temporal correlations which is represented by their power spectra. At the shortest periods

  18. Real-time water and wastewater quality monitoring using LED-based fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgeman, John; Zakharova, Yulia

    2016-04-01

    In recent years there have been a number of attempts to design and introduce into water management tools that are capable of measuring organic and microbial matter in real time and in situ. This is important, as the delivery of safe water to customers, and the discharge of good quality effluent to rivers are primary concerns to water undertakers. A novel, LED-based portable fluorimeter 'Duo Fluor' has been designed and constructed at the University of Birmingham to monitor the quality of (waste)water continuously and in real time, and its performance has been assessed in a range of environments. To be of use across a range of environments, special attention must be paid to two crucially important characteristics of such instruments, i.e. their sensitivity and robustness. Thus, the objectives of this study were: 1. To compare the performance (in terms of their sensitivity and robustness) of the Duo Fluor and two other commercial fluorescence devices in laboratory conditions. 2. To assess the performance of the Duo Fluor in situ, in real time at a 450,000PE WwTW. Initially, the impact of quinine sulphate (QS), a highly fluorescent alkaloid with high quantum fluorescence yield, on peak T fluorescence in environmental waters was examined for the Duo Fluor and two commercially available, chamber-based fluorimeters, (F1) and (F2). The instruments' responses to three scenarios were assessed: 1. Deionised water (DW) spiked with QS (from 0.05 to 0.4 mg/L); 2. Environmental water (pond water, PW) spiked with QS (from 0.05 to 0.4 mg/L); 3. Different water samples from various environmental source. The results show that the facility to amend gain settings and the suitable choice of gain are crucial to obtaining reliable data on both peaks T and C in a wide range of water types. The Duo Fluor offers both of these advantages whilst commercially available instruments currently do not. The Duo Fluor was subsequently fixed at the final effluent (FE) discharge point of a WwTW and FE

  19. A HyperSpectral Imaging (HSI) approach for bio-digestate real time monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Fabbri, Andrea; Serranti, Silvia

    2014-05-01

    One of the key issues in developing Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) is represented by the optimal utilisation of fertilisers and herbicidal to reduce the impact of Nitrates in soils and the environment. In traditional agriculture practises, these substances were provided to the soils through the use of chemical products (inorganic/organic fertilizers, soil improvers/conditioners, etc.), usually associated to several major environmental problems, such as: water pollution and contamination, fertilizer dependency, soil acidification, trace mineral depletion, over-fertilization, high energy consumption, contribution to climate change, impacts on mycorrhizas, lack of long-term sustainability, etc. For this reason, the agricultural market is more and more interested in the utilisation of organic fertilisers and soil improvers. Among organic fertilizers, there is an emerging interest for the digestate, a sub-product resulting from anaerobic digestion (AD) processes. Several studies confirm the high properties of digestate if used as organic fertilizer and soil improver/conditioner. Digestate, in fact, is somehow similar to compost: AD converts a major part of organic nitrogen to ammonia, which is then directly available to plants as nitrogen. In this paper, new analytical tools, based on HyperSpectral Imaging (HSI) sensing devices, and related detection architectures, is presented and discussed in order to define and apply simple to use, reliable, robust and low cost strategies finalised to define and implement innovative smart detection engines for digestate characterization and monitoring. This approach is finalized to utilize this "waste product" as a valuable organic fertilizer and soil conditioner, in a reduced impact and an "ad hoc" soil fertilisation perspective. Furthermore, the possibility to contemporary utilize the HSI approach to realize a real time physicalchemical characterisation of agricultural soils (i.e. nitrogen, phosphorus, etc., detection) could

  20. Real-Time Monitoring of Placental Oxygenation during Maternal Hypoxia and Hyperoxygenation Using Photoacoustic Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthuis, Chloé J.; Novell, Anthony; Raes, Florian; Escoffre, Jean-Michel; Lerondel, Stéphanie; Le Pape, Alain; Bouakaz, Ayache; Perrotin, Franck

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This preclinical study aimed to evaluate placental oxygenation in pregnant rats by real-time photoacoustic (PA) imaging on different days of gestation and to specify variations in placental oxygen saturation under conditions of maternal hypoxia and hyperoxygenation. Material and methods Placentas of fifteen Sprague-Dawley rats were examined on days 14, 17, and 20 of pregnancy with a PA imaging system coupled to high-resolution ultrasound imaging. Pregnant rats were successively exposed to hyperoxygenated and hypoxic conditions by changing the oxygen concentration in inhaled gas. Tissue oxygen saturation was quantitatively analyzed by real-time PA imaging in the skin and 3 regions of the placenta. All procedures were performed in accordance with applicable ethical guidelines and approved by the animal care committee. Results Maternal hypoxia was associated with significantly greater decrease in blood oxygen saturation (ΔO2 Saturation) in the skin (70.74% ±7.65) than in the mesometrial triangle (32.66% ±5.75) or other placental areas (labyrinth: 18.58% ± 6.61; basal zone: 13.13% ±5.72) on different days of pregnancy (P<0.001). ΔO2 Saturation did not differ significantly between the labyrinth, the basal zone, and the decidua. After the period of hypoxia, maternal hyperoxygenation led to a significant rise in oxygen saturation, which returned to its initial values in the different placental regions (P<0.001). Conclusions PA imaging enables the variation of blood oxygen saturation to be monitored in the placenta during maternal hypoxia or hyperoxygenation. This first preclinical study suggests that the placenta plays an important role in protecting the fetus against maternal hypoxia. PMID:28081216

  1. Near real-time GRACE gravity field solutions for hydrological monitoring applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvas, Andreas; Gouweleeuw, Ben; Mayer-Gürr, Torsten; Güntner, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Within the EGSIEM (European Gravity Service for Improved Emergency Management) project, a demonstrator for a near real-time (NRT) gravity field service which provides daily GRACE gravity field solutions will be established. Compared to the official GRACE gravity products, these NRT solutions will increase the temporal resolution from one month to one day and reduce the latency from currently two months to five days. This fast availability allows the monitoring of total water storage variations and of hydrological extreme events as they occur, in contrast to a 'confirmation after occurrence' as is the situation today. The service will be jointly run by GFZ (German Research Centre for Geosciences) and Graz University of Technology, with each analysis center providing an independent solution. A Kalman filter framework, in which GRACE data is combined with prior information, serves as basis for the gravity field recovery in order to increase the redundancy of the gravity field estimates. The on-line nature of the NRT service necessitates a tailored smoothing algorithm as opposed to post-processing applications, where forward-backward smoothing can be applied. This contribution gives an overview on the near real-time processing chain and highlights differences between the computed NRT solutions and the standard GRACE products. We discuss the special characteristics of the Kalman filtered gravity field models as well as derived products and give an estimate of the expected error levels. Additionally, we show the added value of the NRT solutions through comparison of the first results of the pre-operational phase with in-situ data and monthly GRACE gravity field models.

  2. Wearable real-time direct reading naphthalene and VOC personal exposure monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, W. F.; Bhartia, R.; Reid, R. D.; Reid, M. R.; Oswal, P.; Lane, A. L.; Sijapati, K.; Sullivan, K.; Hulla, J. E.; Snawder, J.; Proctor, S. P.

    2012-06-01

    Naphthalene has been identified by the National Research Council as a serious health hazard for personnel working with jet fuels and oil-based sealants containing naphthalene. We are developing a family of miniature, self-contained, direct reading personal exposure monitors (PEMs) to detect, differentiate, quantify, and log naphthalene and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the breathing zone of the wearer or in the hands of an industrial hygienist with limits of detection in the low parts per billion (ppb) range. The VOC Dosimeter (VOCDos) described here is a PEM that provides real-time detection and data logging of exposure as well as accumulated dose, with alarms addressing long term and immediate exposure limits. We will describe the sensor, which employs optical methods with a unique excitation source and rapidly refreshable vapor concentrator. This paper addresses the rapidly increasing awareness of the health risks of inhaling jet fuel vapors by Department of Defense (DOD) personnel engaged in or around jet fueling operations. Naphthalene is a one to three percent component of the 5 billion gallons of jet fuels used annually by DOD. Naphthalene is also a component of many other petroleum products such as asphalt and other oil-based sealants. The DOD is the single largest user of petroleum fuels in the United States (20% of all petroleum fuel used). The VOCDos wearable sensor provides real-time detection and data logging of exposure as well as accumulated dose. We will describe the sensor, which employs endogenous fluorescence from VOCs accumulated on a unique, rapidly refreshable, patent-pending concentrator, excited by a unique deep ultraviolet excitation source.

  3. Development of real-time monitoring system for printing registration based on μC/OS-Ⅱ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马志艳

    2009-01-01

    After analyzing the basic composition and principles of multicolor printing system,we presented a design of real-time monitoring system for printing registration based on multitask real-time operating system μC/OS-Ⅱ.According to functional requirements of registration system and the target development platform,we described the detailed process of task division, priority assignment,and synchronization and communication,and optimized the real-time performance of system in the premise of stability assurance.Fi...

  4. FPGA implementation of a hybrid on-line process monitoring in PC based real-time systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Bojan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents one way of FPGA implementation of hybrid (hardware-software based on-line process monitoring in Real-Time systems (RTS. The reasons for RTS monitoring are presented at the beginning. The summary of different RTS monitoring approaches along with its advantages and drawbacks are also exposed. Finally, monitoring module is described in details. Also, FPGA implementation results and some useful monitoring system applications are mentioned.

  5. Real-time monitoring of auxin vesicular exocytotic efflux from single plant protoplasts by amperometry at microelectrodes decorated with nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun-Tao; Hu, Liang-Sheng; Liu, Yan-Ling; Chen, Rong-Sheng; Cheng, Zhi; Chen, Shi-Jing; Amatore, Christian; Huang, Wei-Hua; Huo, Kai-Fu

    2014-03-01

    Recent biochemical results suggest that auxin (IAA) efflux is mediated by a vesicular cycling mechanism, but no direct detection of vesicular IAA release from single plant cells in real-time has been possible up to now. A TiC@C/Pt-QANFA micro-electrochemical sensor has been developed with high sensitivity in detection of IAA, and it allows real-time monitoring and quantification of the quantal release of auxin from single plant protoplast by exocytosis.

  6. Development of a real-time scour monitoring system for bridge safety evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Kang; Chang, Yu-Shian

    2017-01-01

    The fact that hydraulic problems are major factors in bridge collapse has made bridge scour monitoring an important research topic. In view of the complex nonlinear behavior of bridge structure/soil/water interactions, the fundamental frequency of the bridge may gradually change as the height of the bed drops during scour. With an insufficient embedded depth, the bridge may collapse or sink unexpectedly without warning. As experimental investigation in past research has shown that bridge failure may be governed by rigid body motion, a real-time bridge scour monitoring system to distinguish the influence of rigid body motion from the vibration frequency of the bridge is proposed. The signal measured from the superstructure of the bridge is decomposed into a structural vibration set controlling the fundamental frequency change and a rigid body motion set controlling the rigid body motion, and an instability index to examine the safety condition of the bridge is further proposed. Following a successful preliminary single-pile scour experiment, the method is applied to a series of full-bridge testing. According to analysis result, the instability index deviated considerably from its original range before the bridge piles began tilting significantly, allowing an early warning alert for bridge safety evaluation.

  7. Real-Time Monitoring of Membrane-Protein Reconstitution by Isothermal Titration Calorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Phase diagrams offer a wealth of thermodynamic information on aqueous mixtures of bilayer-forming lipids and micelle-forming detergents, providing a straightforward means of monitoring and adjusting the supramolecular state of such systems. However, equilibrium phase diagrams are of very limited use for the reconstitution of membrane proteins because of the occurrence of irreversible, unproductive processes such as aggregation and precipitation that compete with productive reconstitution. Here, we exemplify this by dissecting the effects of the K+ channel KcsA on the process of bilayer self-assembly in a mixture of Escherichia coli polar lipid extract and the nonionic detergent octyl-β-d-glucopyranoside. Even at starting concentrations in the low micromolar range, KcsA has a tremendous impact on the supramolecular organization of the system, shifting the critical lipid/detergent ratios at the onset and completion of vesicle formation by more than 2-fold. Thus, equilibrium phase diagrams obtained for protein-free lipid/detergent mixtures would be misleading when used to guide the reconstitution process. To address this issue, we demonstrate that, even under such nonequilibrium conditions, high-sensitivity isothermal titration calorimetry can be exploited to monitor the progress of membrane-protein reconstitution in real time, in a noninvasive manner, and at high resolution to yield functional proteoliposomes with a narrow size distribution for further downstream applications. PMID:24354292

  8. All-IP wireless sensor networks for real-time patient monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaonan; Le, Deguang; Cheng, Hongbin; Xie, Conghua

    2014-12-01

    This paper proposes the all-IP WSNs (wireless sensor networks) for real-time patient monitoring. In this paper, the all-IP WSN architecture based on gateway trees is proposed and the hierarchical address structure is presented. Based on this architecture, the all-IP WSN can perform routing without route discovery. Moreover, a mobile node is always identified by a home address and it does not need to be configured with a care-of address during the mobility process, so the communication disruption caused by the address change is avoided. Through the proposed scheme, a physician can monitor the vital signs of a patient at any time and at any places, and according to the IPv6 address he can also obtain the location information of the patient in order to perform effective and timely treatment. Finally, the proposed scheme is evaluated based on the simulation, and the simulation data indicate that the proposed scheme might effectively reduce the communication delay and control cost, and lower the packet loss rate.

  9. Real-Time Virtual Instruments for Remote Sensor Monitoring Using Low Bandwidth Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biruk Gebre

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of a peer-to-peer virtual instrumentation system for remote acquisition, analysis and transmission of data on low bandwidth networks is described. The objective of this system is to collect high frequency/high bandwidth data from multiple sensors placed at remote locations and adaptively adjust the resolution of this data so that it can be transmitted on bandwidth limited networks to a central monitoring and command center. This is achieved by adaptively re-sampling (decimating the data from the sensors at the remote location before transmission. The decimation is adjusted to the available bandwidth of the communications network which is characterized in real-time. As a result, the system allows users at the remote command center to view high bandwidth data (at a lower resolution with user-aware and minimized latency. This technique is applied to an eight hydrophone data acquisition system that requires a 25.6 Mbps connection for the transmission of the full data set using a wireless connection with 1 – 3.5 Mbps variable bandwidth. This technique can be used for applications that require monitoring of high bandwidth data from remote sensors in research and education fields such as remote scientific instruments and visually driven control applications.

  10. ON-LINE THERMAL BARRIER COATING MONITORING FOR REAL-TIME FAILURE PROTECTION AND LIFE MAXIMIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis H. LeMieux

    2003-10-01

    Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation proposes a four year program titled, ''On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) Monitor for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization,'' to develop, build and install the first generation of an on-line TBC monitoring system for use on land-based advanced gas turbines (AGT). Federal deregulation in electric power generation has accelerated power plant owner's demand for improved reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) of the land-based advanced gas turbines. As a result, firing temperatures have been increased substantially in the advanced turbine engines, and the TBCs have been developed for maximum protection and life of all critical engine components operating at these higher temperatures. Losing TBC protection can, therefore, accelerate the degradation of substrate component materials and eventually lead to a premature failure of critical components and costly unscheduled power outages. This program seeks to substantially improve the operating life of high cost gas turbine components using TBC; thereby, lowering the cost of maintenance leading to lower cost of electricity. Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation has teamed with Indigo Systems, a supplier of state-of-the-art infrared camera systems, and Wayne State University, a leading research organization in the field of infrared non-destructive examination (NDE), to complete the program.

  11. On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating Monitoring for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis H. LeMieux

    2005-04-01

    Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation proposes a four year program titled, ''On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) Monitor for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization'', to develop, build and install the first generation of an on-line TBC monitoring system for use on land-based advanced gas turbines (AGT). Federal deregulation in electric power generation has accelerated power plant owner's demand for improved reliability availability maintainability (RAM) of the land-based advanced gas turbines. As a result, firing temperatures have been increased substantially in the advanced turbine engines, and the TBCs have been developed for maximum protection and life of all critical engine components operating at these higher temperatures. Losing TBC protection can therefore accelerate the degradation of substrate components materials and eventually lead to a premature failure of critical component and costly unscheduled power outages. This program seeks to substantially improve the operating life of high cost gas turbine components using TBC; thereby, lowering the cost of maintenance leading to lower cost of electricity. Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation has teamed with Indigo Systems, a supplier of state-of-the-art infrared camera systems, and Wayne State University, a leading research organization in the field of infrared non-destructive examination (NDE), to complete the program.

  12. On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating Monitoring for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis H. LeMieux

    2004-10-01

    Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation proposes a four year program titled, ''On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) Monitor for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization'', to develop, build and install the first generation of an on-line TBC monitoring system for use on land -based advanced gas turbines (AGT). Federal deregulation in electric power generation has accelerated power plant owner's demand for improved reliability availability maintainability (RAM) of the land-based advanced gas turbines. As a result, firing temperatures have been increased substantially in the advanced turbine engines, and the TBCs have been developed for maximum protection and life of all critical engine components operating at these higher temperatures. Losing TBC protection can therefore accelerate the degradation of substrate components materials and eventually lead to a premature failure of critical component and costly unscheduled power outages. This program seeks to substantially improve the operating life of high cost gas turbine components using TBC; thereby, lowering the cost of maintenance leading to lower cost of electricity. Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation has teamed with Indigo Systems; a supplier of state-of-the-art infrared camera systems, and Wayne State University, a leading research organization.

  13. ON-LINE THERMAL BARRIER COATING MONITORING FOR REAL-TIME FAILURE PROTECTION AND LIFE MAXIMIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis H. LeMieux

    2003-07-01

    Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Laboratory, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation proposes a four year program titled, ''On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) Monitor for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization,'' to develop, build and install the first generation of an on-line TBC monitoring system for use on land-based advanced gas turbines (AGT). Federal deregulation in electric power generation has accelerated power plant owner's demand for improved reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) of the land-based advanced gas turbines. As a result, firing temperatures have been increased substantially in the advanced turbine engines, and the TBCs have been developed for maximum protection and life of all critical engine components operating at these higher temperatures. Losing TBC protection can, therefore, accelerate the degradation of substrate component materials and eventually lead to a premature failure of critical components and costly unscheduled power outages. This program seeks to substantially improve the operating life of high cost gas turbine components using TBC; thereby, lowering the cost of maintenance leading to lower cost of electricity. Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation has teamed with Indigo Systems, a supplier of state-of-the-art infrared camera systems, and Wayne State University, a leading research organization in the field of infrared non-destructive examination (NDE), to complete the program.

  14. Real Time Apnoea Monitoring of Children Using the Microsoft Kinect Sensor: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Naji, Ali; Gibson, Kim; Lee, Sang-Heon; Chahl, Javaan

    2017-02-03

    The objective of this study was to design a non-invasive system for the observation of respiratory rates and detection of apnoea using analysis of real time image sequences captured in any given sleep position and under any light conditions (even in dark environments). A Microsoft Kinect sensor was used to visualize the variations in the thorax and abdomen from the respiratory rhythm. These variations were magnified, analyzed and detected at a distance of 2.5 m from the subject. A modified motion magnification system and frame subtraction technique were used to identify breathing movements by detecting rapid motion areas in the magnified frame sequences. The experimental results on a set of video data from five subjects (3 h for each subject) showed that our monitoring system can accurately measure respiratory rate and therefore detect apnoea in infants and young children. The proposed system is feasible, accurate, safe and low computational complexity, making it an efficient alternative for non-contact home sleep monitoring systems and advancing health care applications.

  15. Real Time Apnoea Monitoring of Children Using the Microsoft Kinect Sensor: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Al-Naji

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to design a non-invasive system for the observation of respiratory rates and detection of apnoea using analysis of real time image sequences captured in any given sleep position and under any light conditions (even in dark environments. A Microsoft Kinect sensor was used to visualize the variations in the thorax and abdomen from the respiratory rhythm. These variations were magnified, analyzed and detected at a distance of 2.5 m from the subject. A modified motion magnification system and frame subtraction technique were used to identify breathing movements by detecting rapid motion areas in the magnified frame sequences. The experimental results on a set of video data from five subjects (3 h for each subject showed that our monitoring system can accurately measure respiratory rate and therefore detect apnoea in infants and young children. The proposed system is feasible, accurate, safe and low computational complexity, making it an efficient alternative for non-contact home sleep monitoring systems and advancing health care applications.

  16. Real-time seismic monitoring of the integrated cape girardeau bridge array and recorded earthquake response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebi, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the state of the art, real-time and broad-band seismic monitoring network implemented for the 1206 m [3956 ft] long, cable-stayed Bill Emerson Memorial Bridge in Cape Girardeau (MO), a new Mississippi River crossing, approximately 80 km from the epicentral region of the 1811-1812 New Madrid earthquakes. The bridge was designed for a strong earthquake (magnitude 7.5 or greater) during the design life of the bridge. The monitoring network comprises a total of 84 channels of accelerometers deployed on the superstructure, pier foundations and at surface and downhole free-field arrays of the bridge. The paper also presents the high quality response data obtained from the network. Such data is aimed to be used by the owner, researchers and engineers to assess the performance of the bridge, to check design parameters, including the comparison of dynamic characteristics with actual response, and to better design future similar bridges. Preliminary analyses of ambient and low amplitude small earthquake data reveal specific response characteristics of the bridge and the free-field. There is evidence of coherent tower, cable, deck interaction that sometimes results in amplified ambient motions. Motions at the lowest tri-axial downhole accelerometers on both MO and IL sides are practically free from any feedback from the bridge. Motions at the mid-level and surface downhole accelerometers are influenced significantly by feedback due to amplified ambient motions of the bridge. Copyright ASCE 2006.

  17. Real-Time Monitoring of Catheter-Related Biofilm Infection in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Yin, Hong; Xu, Xianxing; Cheng, Yuanguo; Cai, Yun; Wang, Rui

    2015-10-01

    This study was done to establish a mouse model for catheter-related biofilm infection suitable to bioluminescence imaging (BLI). Biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) Xen5 grown on catheter disks in vitro and in an implanted mouse model was real-time monitored during a 7-day study period using BLI. The numbers of integrated brightness (IB) and viable bacterial count (VBC) in the biofilm disks in vitro were highest at 24 h after inoculation; the IB of biofilm in vivo was increased until 24 h after implantation. A statistical correlation was observed between IB and VBC in vitro by linear regression analysis. The actual VBC value in vivo can be estimated accurately by IB without sacrifice. In addition, we monitored the change in white blood cells (WBCs) during infection. The number of WBCs on day 7 was significantly higher in the infection group than in the control group. This study indicates that BLI is a simple, fast, and sensitive method to measure catheter biofilm infection in mice.

  18. Real-Time Plasmonic Monitoring of Single Gold Amalgam Nanoalloy Electrochemical Formation and Stripping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Gang; Fossey, John S; Li, Meng; Xie, Tao; Long, Yi-Tao

    2016-03-01

    Direct electrodeposition of mercury onto gold nanorods on an ITO substrate, without reducing agents, is reported. The growth of single gold amalgam nanoalloy particles and subsequent stripping was monitored in real-time monitoring by plasmonic effects and single-nanoparticle dark-field spectroelectrochemistry techniques. Time-dependent scattering spectral information conferred insight into the growth and stripping mechanism of a single nanoalloy particle. Four critical stages were observed: First, rapid deposition of Hg atoms onto Au nanorods; second, slow diffusion of Hg atoms into Au nanorods; third, prompt stripping of Hg atoms from Au nanorods; fourth, moderate diffusion from the inner core of Au nanorods. Under high Hg(2+) concentrations, homogeneous spherical gold amalgam nanoalloys were obtained. These results demonstrate that the morphology and composition of individual gold amalgam nanoalloys can be precisely regulated electrochemically. Moreover, gold amalgam nanoalloys with intriguing optical properties, such as modulated plasmonic lifetimes and quality factor Q, could be obtained. This may offer opportunities to extend applications in photovoltaic energy conversion and chemical sensing.

  19. Approach towards sensor placement, selection and fusion for real-time condition monitoring of precision machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Poi Voon; Teo, Chek Sing; Tan, Kok Kiong

    2016-02-01

    Moving mechanical parts in a machine will inevitably generate vibration profiles reflecting its operating conditions. Vibration profile analysis is a useful tool for real-time condition monitoring to avoid loss of performance and unwanted machine downtime. In this paper, we propose and validate an approach for sensor placement, selection and fusion for continuous machine condition monitoring. The main idea is to use a minimal series of sensors mounted at key locations of a machine to measure and infer the actual vibration spectrum at a critical point where it is not suitable to mount a sensor. The locations for sensors' mountings which are subsequently used for vibration inference are identified based on sensitivity calibration at these locations moderated with normalized Fisher Information (NFI) associated with the measurement quality of the sensor at that location. Each of the identified sensor placement location is associated with one or more sensitive frequencies for which it ranks top in terms of the moderated sensitivities calibrated. A set of Radial Basis Function (RBF), each of them associated with a range of sensitive frequencies, is used to infer the vibration at the critical point for that frequency. The overall vibration spectrum of the critical point is then fused from these components. A comprehensive set of experimental results for validation of the proposed approach is provided in the paper.

  20. Real-Time 3D Microwave Monitoring of Interstitial Thermal Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guanbo; Stang, John; Haynes, Mark; Leuthardt, Eric; Moghaddam, Mahta

    2017-05-08

    We report a method for real-time 3D monitoring of thermal therapy through the use of non-contact microwave imaging. This method is predicated on using microwaves to image changes in the dielectric properties of tissue with changing temperature. Instead of the precomputed linear Born approximation that was used in prior work to speed up the frameto- frame inversions, here we use the nonlinear Distorted Born Iterative Method (DBIM) to solve the electric volume integral equation to image the temperature change. This is made possible by using a recently developed GPU accelerated conformal finite difference time domain (CFDTD) method to solve the forward problem and update the electric field in the monitored region in each DBIM iteration. Compared to our previous work, this approach provides a far superior approximation of the electric field within the volume integral equation (VIE), and thus yields a more accurate reconstruction of tissue temperature change. The proposed method is validated using a realistic numerical model of interstitial thermal therapy for a deep seated brain lesion. With the new DBIM, we reduced the average estimation error of the mean temperature within the region of interest from 2.5 to 1.0 degrees for the noise-free case, and from 2.9 to 1.7 degrees for the 2% background noise case.

  1. Real-time monitoring of the laser hot-wire welding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Liu, Shuang; Ma, Junjie; Kovacevic, Radovan

    2014-04-01

    The laser hot-wire welding process was investigated in this work. The dynamics of the molten pool during welding was visualized by using a high-speed charge-coupled device (CCD) camera assisted by a green laser as an illumination source. It was found that the molten pool is formed by the irradiation of the laser beam on the filler wire. The effect of the hot-wire voltage on the stability of the welding process was monitored by using a spectrometer that captured the emission spectrum of the laser-induced plasma plume. The spectroscopic study showed that when the hot-wire voltage is above 9 V a great deal of spatters occur, resulting in the instability of the plasma plume and the welding process. The effect of spatters on the plasma plume was shown by the identified spectral lines of the element Mn I. The correlation between the Fe I electron temperature and the weld-bead shape was studied. It was noted that the electron temperature of the plasma plume can be used to real-time monitor the variation of the weld-bead features and the formation of the weld defects.

  2. On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating Monitoring for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis H. LeMieux

    2005-10-01

    Under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Energy's National Energy Laboratory, Siemens Power Generation, Inc proposed a four year program titled, ''On-Line Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) Monitor for Real-Time Failure Protection and Life Maximization'', to develop, build and install the first generation of an on-line TBC monitoring system for use on land-based advanced gas turbines (AGT). Federal deregulation in electric power generation has accelerated power plant owner's demand for improved reliability availability maintainability (RAM) of the land-based advanced gas turbines. As a result, firing temperatures have been increased substantially in the advanced turbine engines, and the TBCs have been developed for maximum protection and life of all critical engine components operating at these higher temperatures. Losing TBC protection can therefore accelerate the degradation of substrate components materials and eventually lead to a premature failure of critical component and costly unscheduled power outages. This program seeks to substantially improve the operating life of high cost gas turbine components using TBC; thereby, lowering the cost of maintenance leading to lower cost of electricity. Siemens Power Generation, Inc. has teamed with Indigo Systems, a supplier of state-of-the-art infrared camera systems, and Wayne State University, a leading research organization in the field of infrared non-destructive examination (NDE), to complete the program.

  3. Real-Time Virtual Instruments for Remote Sensor Monitoring Using Low Bandwidth Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biruk Gebre

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of a peer-to-peer virtual instrumentation system for remote acquisition, analysis and transmission of data on low bandwidth networks is described. The objective of this system is to collect high frequency/high bandwidth data from multiple sensors placed at remote locations and adaptively adjust the resolution of this data so that it can be transmitted on bandwidth limited networks to a central monitoring and command center. This is achieved by adaptively re-sampling (decimating the data from the sensors at the remote location before transmission. The decimation is adjusted to the available bandwidth of the communications network which is characterized in real-time. As a result, the system allows users at the remote command center to view high bandwidth data (at a lower resolution with user-aware and minimized latency. This technique is applied to an eight hydrophone data acquisition system that requires a 25.6 Mbps connection for the transmission of the full data set using a wireless connection with 1 – 3.5 Mbps variable bandwidth. This technique can be used for applications that require monitoring of high bandwidth data from remote sensors in research and education fields such as remote scientific instruments and visually driven control applications.

  4. Self-Powered Real-Time Arterial Pulse Monitoring Using Ultrathin Epidermal Piezoelectric Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dae Yong; Joe, Daniel J; Kim, Dong Hyun; Park, Hyewon; Han, Jae Hyun; Jeong, Chang Kyu; Park, Hyelim; Park, Jung Gyu; Joung, Boyoung; Lee, Keon Jae

    2017-10-01

    Continuous monitoring of an arterial pulse using a pressure sensor attached on the epidermis is an important technology for detecting the early onset of cardiovascular disease and assessing personal health status. Conventional pulse sensors have the capability of detecting human biosignals, but have significant drawbacks of power consumption issues that limit sustainable operation of wearable medical devices. Here, a self-powered piezoelectric pulse sensor is demonstrated to enable in vivo measurement of radial/carotid pulse signals in near-surface arteries. The inorganic piezoelectric sensor on an ultrathin plastic achieves conformal contact with the complex texture of the rugged skin, which allows to respond to the tiny pulse changes arising on the surface of epidermis. Experimental studies provide characteristics of the sensor with a sensitivity (≈0.018 kPa(-1) ), response time (≈60 ms), and good mechanical stability. Wireless transmission of detected arterial pressure signals to a smart phone demonstrates the possibility of self-powered and real-time pulse monitoring system. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system for real-time monitoring of integrated-constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzakpasu, Mawuli; Scholz, Miklas; McCarthy, Valerie; Jordan, Siobhán; Sani, Abdulkadir

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring large-scale treatment wetlands is costly and time-consuming, but required by regulators. Some analytical results are available only after 5 days or even longer. Thus, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) models were developed to predict the effluent concentrations of 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and NH4-N from a full-scale integrated constructed wetland (ICW) treating domestic wastewater. The ANFIS models were developed and validated with a 4-year data set from the ICW system. Cost-effective, quicker and easier to measure variables were selected as the possible predictors based on their goodness of correlation with the outputs. A self-organizing neural network was applied to extract the most relevant input variables from all the possible input variables. Fuzzy subtractive clustering was used to identify the architecture of the ANFIS models and to optimize fuzzy rules, overall, improving the network performance. According to the findings, ANFIS could predict the effluent quality variation quite strongly. Effluent BOD5 and NH4-N concentrations were predicted relatively accurately by other effluent water quality parameters, which can be measured within a few hours. The simulated effluent BOD5 and NH4-N concentrations well fitted the measured concentrations, which was also supported by relatively low mean squared error. Thus, ANFIS can be useful for real-time monitoring and control of ICW systems.

  6. Real-time monitoring of brake shoe keys in freight cars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong ZOU; Zhen-ying XU; Jin-yang LI; Fu-qiang ZHOU

    2015-01-01

    Condition monitoring ensures the safety of freight railroad operations. With the development of machine vision technology, visual inspection has become a principal means of condition monitoring. The brake shoe key (BSK) is an important component in the brake system, and its absence will lead to serious accidents. This paper presents a novel method for automated visual inspection of the BSK condition in freight cars. BSK images are first acquired by hardware devices. The subsequent in-spection process is divided into three stages:first, the region-of-interest (ROI) is segmented from the source image by an im-proved spatial pyramid matching scheme based on multi-scale census transform (MSCT). To localize the BSK in the ROI, cen-sus transform (CT) on gradient images is developed in the second stage. Then gradient encoding histogram (GEH) features and linear support vector machines (SVMs) are used to generate a BSK localization classifier. In the last stage, a condition classifier is trained by SVM, but the features are extracted from gray images. Finally, the ROI, BSK localization, and condition classifiers are cascaded to realize a completely automated inspection system. Experimental results show that the system achieves a correct inspection rate of 99.2%and a speed of 5 frames/s, which represents a good real-time performance and high recognition accuracy.

  7. Real Time Apnoea Monitoring of Children Using the Microsoft Kinect Sensor: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Naji, Ali; Gibson, Kim; Lee, Sang-Heon; Chahl, Javaan

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to design a non-invasive system for the observation of respiratory rates and detection of apnoea using analysis of real time image sequences captured in any given sleep position and under any light conditions (even in dark environments). A Microsoft Kinect sensor was used to visualize the variations in the thorax and abdomen from the respiratory rhythm. These variations were magnified, analyzed and detected at a distance of 2.5 m from the subject. A modified motion magnification system and frame subtraction technique were used to identify breathing movements by detecting rapid motion areas in the magnified frame sequences. The experimental results on a set of video data from five subjects (3 h for each subject) showed that our monitoring system can accurately measure respiratory rate and therefore detect apnoea in infants and young children. The proposed system is feasible, accurate, safe and low computational complexity, making it an efficient alternative for non-contact home sleep monitoring systems and advancing health care applications. PMID:28165382

  8. Leveraging the Power of Smartphones: Real Time Monitoring of Water Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ally S. Nyamawe

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the world has become more sophisticated. Different aspects of today’s life has been digitized, this include; business, education, health, communication and numerous community services. With the existing extended coverage of cellular networks, most services are constantly deployed to be accessed via mobile phones, as they are also the most pervasive pocket carried devices. Though, both regular and smartphone can be used to convey the basics of mobile based services such as mobile banking, calling and text messaging, smartphone goes extra mile. While regular phones are still the better choice for some, smartphones are tremendously taking over the cellphone market. Smartphones are powered by the vast amount of mobile apps available today which offer unprecedented features and functionalities and as well more advanced internet connectivity. To ensure reliable, sufficient and safe water supply to public, the installed water points need to be well monitored. Quality and quantity parameters of water produced from the water points are constantly tracked to determine if they are within the acceptable range. In case of acute condition, the identified parameters need to be instantly communicated to the District Water Engineer (DWE for prompt intervention. In this paper we explore the popularity and advantages of smartphones and present a proposed prototype that exploit the power of smartphones in real time monitoring of water points.

  9. Warning navigation system using real-time safe region monitoring for otologic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Byunghyun; Oka, Masamichi; Matsumoto, Nozomu; Ouchida, Riichi; Hong, Jaesung; Hashizume, Makoto

    2013-05-01

    We developed a surgical navigation system that warns the surgeon with auditory and visual feedback to protect the facial nerve with real-time monitoring of the safe region during drilling. Warning navigation modules were developed and integrated into a free open source software platform. To obtain high registration accuracy, we used a high-precision laser-sintered template of the patient's bone surface to register the computed tomography (CT) images. We calculated the closest distance between the drill tip and the surface of the facial nerve during drilling. When the drill tip entered the safe regions, the navigation system provided an auditory and visual signal which differed in each safe region. To evaluate the effectiveness of the system, we performed phantom experiments for maintaining a given safe margin from the facial nerve when drilling bone models, with and without the navigation system. The error of the safe margin was measured on postoperative CT images. In real surgery, we evaluated the feasibility of the system in comparison with conventional facial nerve monitoring. The navigation accuracy was submillimeter for the target registration error. In the phantom study, the task with navigation ([Formula: see text] mm) was more successful with smaller error, than the task without navigation ([Formula: see text] mm, [Formula: see text]). The clinical feasibility of the system was confirmed in three real surgeries. This system could assist surgeons in preserving the facial nerve and potentially contribute to enhanced patient safety in the surgery.

  10. Assessment of two portable real-time particle monitors used in nanomaterial workplace exposure evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuewei; Beaucham, Catherine C; Pearce, Terri A; Zhuang, Ziqing

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticle emission assessment technique was developed to semi-quantitatively evaluate nanomaterial exposures and employs a combination of filter based samples and portable real-time particle monitors, including a condensation particle counter (CPC) and an optical particle counter (OPC), to detect nanomaterial releases. This laboratory study evaluated the results from CPC and OPC simultaneously measuring a polydisperse aerosol to assess their variability and accuracy. Two CPCs and two OPCs were used to evaluate a polydisperse sodium chloride aerosol within an enclosed chamber. The measurement results for number concentration versus time were compared between paired particle monitors of the same type, and to results from the Scanning Mobility Particle Spectrometer (SMPS) which was widely used to measure concentration of size-specific particles. According to analyses by using the Bland-Altman method, the CPCs displayed a constant mean percent difference of -3.8% (95% agreement limits: -9.1 to 1.6%; range of 95% agreement limit: 10.7%) with the chamber particle concentration below its dynamic upper limit (100,000 particles per cubic centimeter). The mean percent difference increased from -3.4% to -12.0% (range of 95% agreement limits: 7.1%) with increasing particle concentrations that were above the dynamic upper limit. The OPC results showed the percent difference within 15% for measurements in particles with size ranges of 300 to 500 and 500 to 1000 regardless of the particle concentration. Compared with SMPS measurements, the CPC gave a mean percent difference of 22.9% (95% agreement limits: 10.5% to 35.2%); whereas the measurements from OPC were not comparable. This study demonstrated that CPC and OPC are useful for measuring nanoparticle exposures but the results from an individual monitor should be interpreted based upon the instrument's technical parameters. Future research should challenge these monitors with particles of different sizes, shapes, or

  11. Wavelength-dependent backscattering measurements for quantitative real-time monitoring of apoptosis in living cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Christine S.; Sherwood, Carly A.; Bigio, Irving J.

    2009-11-01

    Apoptosis-programmed cell death-is a cellular process exhibiting distinct biochemical and morphological changes. An understanding of the early morphological changes that a cell undergoes during apoptosis can provide the opportunity to monitor apoptosis in tissue, yielding diagnostic and prognostic information. There is avid interest regarding the involvement of apoptosis in cancer. The initial response of a tumor to successful cancer treatment is often massive apoptosis. Current apoptosis detection methods require cell culture disruption. Our aim is to develop a nondisruptive optical method to monitor apoptosis in living cells and tissues. This would allow for real-time evaluation of apoptotic progression of the same cell culture over time without alteration. Elastic scattering spectroscopy (ESS) is used to monitor changes in light-scattering properties of cells in vitro due to apoptotic morphology changes. We develop a simple instrument capable of wavelength-resolved ESS measurements from cell cultures in the backward direction. Using Mie theory, we also develop an algorithm that extracts the size distribution of scatterers in the sample. The instrument and algorithm are validated with microsphere suspensions. For cell studies, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are cultured to confluence on plates and are rendered apoptotic with staurosporine. Backscattering measurements are performed on pairs of treated and control samples at a sequence of times up to 6-h post-treatment. Initial results indicate that ESS is capable of discriminating between treated and control samples as early as 10- to 15-min post-treatment, much earlier than is sensed by standard assays for apoptosis. Extracted size distributions from treated and control samples show a decrease in Rayleigh and 150-nm scatterers, relative to control samples, with a corresponding increase in 200-nm particles. Work continues to correlate these size distributions with underlying morphology. To our knowledge, this

  12. Assessment of two portable real-time particle monitors used in nanomaterial workplace exposure evaluations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuewei Liu

    Full Text Available Nanoparticle emission assessment technique was developed to semi-quantitatively evaluate nanomaterial exposures and employs a combination of filter based samples and portable real-time particle monitors, including a condensation particle counter (CPC and an optical particle counter (OPC, to detect nanomaterial releases. This laboratory study evaluated the results from CPC and OPC simultaneously measuring a polydisperse aerosol to assess their variability and accuracy.Two CPCs and two OPCs were used to evaluate a polydisperse sodium chloride aerosol within an enclosed chamber. The measurement results for number concentration versus time were compared between paired particle monitors of the same type, and to results from the Scanning Mobility Particle Spectrometer (SMPS which was widely used to measure concentration of size-specific particles. According to analyses by using the Bland-Altman method, the CPCs displayed a constant mean percent difference of -3.8% (95% agreement limits: -9.1 to 1.6%; range of 95% agreement limit: 10.7% with the chamber particle concentration below its dynamic upper limit (100,000 particles per cubic centimeter. The mean percent difference increased from -3.4% to -12.0% (range of 95% agreement limits: 7.1% with increasing particle concentrations that were above the dynamic upper limit. The OPC results showed the percent difference within 15% for measurements in particles with size ranges of 300 to 500 and 500 to 1000 regardless of the particle concentration. Compared with SMPS measurements, the CPC gave a mean percent difference of 22.9% (95% agreement limits: 10.5% to 35.2%; whereas the measurements from OPC were not comparable.This study demonstrated that CPC and OPC are useful for measuring nanoparticle exposures but the results from an individual monitor should be interpreted based upon the instrument's technical parameters. Future research should challenge these monitors with particles of different sizes, shapes

  13. Direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry, a process analytical technology tool for real-time process monitoring in botanical drug manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Zeng, Shanshan; Chen, Teng; Qu, Haibin

    2014-03-01

    A promising process analytical technology (PAT) tool has been introduced for batch processes monitoring. Direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS), a means of rapid fingerprint analysis, was applied to a percolation process with multi-constituent substances for an anti-cancer botanical preparation. Fifteen batches were carried out, including ten normal operations and five abnormal batches with artificial variations. The obtained multivariate data were analyzed by a multi-way partial least squares (MPLS) model. Control trajectories were derived from eight normal batches, and the qualification was tested by R(2) and Q(2). Accuracy and diagnosis capability of the batch model were then validated by the remaining batches. Assisted with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) determination, process faults were explained by corresponding variable contributions. Furthermore, a batch level model was developed to compare and assess the model performance. The present study has demonstrated that DART-MS is very promising in process monitoring in botanical manufacturing. Compared with general PAT tools, DART-MS offers a particular account on effective compositions and can be potentially used to improve batch quality and process consistency of samples in complex matrices.

  14. Real-Time Monitoring of TP Load in a Mississippi Delta Stream Using a Dynamic Data Driven Application System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Y.; Leininger, T.; Hatten, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    Elevated phosphorus (P) in surface waters can cause eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems and can impair water for drinking, industry, agriculture, and recreation. Currently, little effort has been devoted to monitoring real-time variation and load of total P (TP) in surface waters due to the lack of suitable and/or cost-effective wireless sensors. However, when considering human health, drinking water supply, and rapidly developing events such as algal blooms, the availability of timely P information is very critical. In this study, we developed a new approach in the form of a dynamic data driven application system (DDDAS) for monitoring the real-time variation and load of TP in surface water. This DDDAS consisted of the following three major components: (1) a User Control that interacts with Schedule Run to implement the DDDAS with starting and ending times; (2) a Schedule Run that activates the Hydstra model; and (3) a Hydstra model that downloads the real-time data from a US Geological Survey (USGS) website that is updated every 15 minutes with data from USGS monitoring stations, predicts real-time variation and load of TP, graphs the variables in real-time on a computer screen, and sends email alerts when the TP exceeds a certain value. The DDDAS was applied to monitor real-time variation and load of TP for 30 days in Deer Creek, a stream located east of Leland, Mississippi, USA. Results showed that the TP contents in the stream ranged from 0.24 to 0.48 mg L-1 with an average of 0.30 mg L-1 for a 30-day monitoring period, whereas the cumulative load of TP from the stream was about 2.8kg for the same monitoring period. Our study suggests that the DDDAS developed in this study was useful for estimating the real-time variation and load of TP in surface water ecosystems.

  15. Real-time Performance Verification of Core Protection and Monitoring System with Integrated Model for SMART Simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Bon-Seung; Kim, Sung-Jin; Hwang, Dae-Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In keeping with these purposes, a real-time model of the digital core protection and monitoring systems for simulator implementation was developed on the basis of SCOPS and SCOMS algorithms. In addition, important features of the software models were explained for the application to SMART simulator, and the real-time performance of the models linked with DLL was examined for various simulation scenarios. In this paper, performance verification of core protection and monitoring software is performed with integrated simulator model. A real-time performance verification of core protection and monitoring software for SMART simulator was performed with integrated simulator model. Various DLL connection tests were done for software algorithm change. In addition, typical accident scenarios of SMART were simulated with 3KEYMASTER and simulated results were compared with those of DLL linked core protection and monitoring software. Each calculational result showed good agreements.

  16. Real-time monitoring and short-term forecasting of drought in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok Wong, Wai; Hisdal, Hege

    2013-04-01

    Drought is considered to be one of the most costly natural disasters. Drought monitoring and forecasting are thus important for sound water management. In this study hydrological drought characteristics applicable for real-time monitoring and short-term forecasting of drought in Norway were developed. A spatially distributed hydrological model (HBV) implemented in a Web-based GIS framework provides a platform for drought analyses and visualizations. A number of national drought maps can be produced, which is a simple and effective way to communicate drought conditions to decision makers and the public. The HBV model is driven by precipitation and air temperature data. On a daily time step it calculates the water balance for 1 x 1 km2 grid cells characterized by their elevation and land use. Drought duration and areal drought coverage for runoff and subsurface storage (sum of soil moisture and groundwater) were derived. The threshold level method was used to specify drought conditions on a grid cell basis. The daily 10th percentile thresholds were derived from seven-day windows centered on that calendar day from the reference period 1981-2010 (threshold not exceeded 10% of the time). Each individual grid cell was examined to determine if it was below its respective threshold level. Daily drought-stricken areas can then be easily identified when visualized on a map. The drought duration can also be tracked and calculated by a retrospective analysis. Real-time observations from synoptic stations interpolated to a regular grid of 1 km resolution constituted the forcing data for the current situation. 9-day meteorological forecasts were used as input to the HBV model to obtain short-term hydrological drought forecasts. Downscaled precipitation and temperature fields from two different atmospheric models were applied. The first two days of the forecast period adopted the forecasts from Unified Model (UM4) while the following seven days were based on the 9-day forecasts

  17. Real-time corrosion monitoring of steel influenced by microbial activity (SRB) under controlled seawater injection conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, Russell D. [InterCorr International, Inc., 14503 Bammel N. Houston Road, Suite 300, Houston, TX 77019 (United States); Campbell, Scott [Commercial Microbiology Inc., 10400 Westoffice Drive Suite 107, Houston, TX 77042 (United States)

    2004-07-01

    An experimental study of microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) was conducted involving online, real-time monitoring of a bio-film loop under controlled conditions simulating oil field water handling and injection. Bio-film growth, MIC and biocide efficacy were monitored using an automated, multi-technique monitoring system including linear polarization resistance, electrochemical noise and harmonic distortion analysis. This data was correlated with conventional off-line methods to differentiate conditions of varying MIC activity in real-time to facilitate quick assessment and operator intervention. (authors)

  18. Near real-time qualitative monitoring of lake water chlorophyll globally using GoogleEarth Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlinszky, András; Supan, Peter; Koma, Zsófia

    2017-04-01

    Monitoring ocean chlorophyll and suspended sediment has been made possible using optical satellite imaging, and has contributed immensely to our understanding of the Earth and its climate. However, lake water quality monitoring has limitations due to the optical complexity of shallow, sediment- and organic matter-laden waters. Meanwhile, timely and detailed information on basic lake water quality parameters would be essential for sustainable management of inland waters. Satellite-based remote sensing can deliver area-covering, high resolution maps of basic lake water quality parameters, but scientific application of these datasets for lake monitoring has been hindered by limitations to calibration and accuracy evaluation, and therefore access to such data has been the privilege of scientific users. Nevertheless, since for many inland waters satellite imaging is the only source of monitoring data, we believe it is urgent to make map products of chlorophyll and suspended sediment concentrations available to a wide range of users. Even if absolute accuracy can not be validated, patterns, processes and qualitative information delivered by such datasets in near-real time can act as an early warning system, raise awareness to water quality processes and serve education, in addition to complementing local monitoring activities. By making these datasets openly available on the internet through an easy to use framework, dialogue between stakeholders, management and governance authorities can be facilitated. We use GoogleEarthEngine to access and process archive and current satellite data. GoogleEarth Engine is a development and visualization framework that provides access to satellite datasets and processing capacity for analysis at the Petabyte scale. Based on earlier investigations, we chose the fluorescence line height index to represent water chlorophyll concentration. This index relies on the chlorophyll fluorescence peak at 680 nm, and has been tested for open ocean

  19. Remote monitoring of building oscillation modes by means of real-time Mid Infrared Digital Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggi, Pasquale; Locatelli, Massimiliano; Pugliese, Eugenio; Delle Donne, Dario; Lacanna, Giorgio; Meucci, Riccardo; Ripepe, Maurizio

    2016-04-01

    Non-destructive measurements of deformations are a quite common application of holography but due to the intrinsic limits in the interferometric technique, those are generally confined only to small targets and in controlled environment. Here we present an advanced technique, based on Mid Infrared Digital Holography (MIR DH), which works in outdoor conditions and provides remote and real-time information on the oscillation modes of large engineering structures. Thanks to the long wavelength of the laser radiation, large areas of buildings can be simultaneously mapped with sub-micrometric resolution in terms of their amplitude and frequency oscillation modes providing all the modal parameters vital for all the correct prevention strategies when the functionality and the health status of the structures have to be evaluated. The existing experimental techniques used to evaluate the fundamental modes of a structure are based either on seismometric sensors or on Ground-based Synthetic Aperture Radar (GbSAR). Such devices have both serious drawbacks, which prevent their application at a large scale or in the short term. We here demonstrate that the MIR DH based technique can fully overcome these limitations and has the potential to represent a breakthrough advance in the field of dynamic characterization of large structures.

  20. TU-EF-210-03: Real-Time Ablation Monitoring and Lesion Quantification Using Harmonic Motion Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konofagou, E. [Columbia University (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The use of therapeutic ultrasound to provide targeted therapy is an active research area that has a broad application scope. The invited talks in this session will address currently implemented strategies and protocols for both hyperthermia and ablation applications using therapeutic ultrasound. The role of both ultrasound and MRI in the monitoring and assessment of these therapies will be explored in both pre-clinical and clinical applications. Katherine Ferrara: High Intensity Focused Ultrasound, Drug Delivery, and Immunotherapy Rajiv Chopra: Translating Localized Doxorubicin Delivery to Pediatric Oncology using MRI-guided HIFU Elisa Konofagou: Real-time Ablation Monitoring and Lesion Quantification using Harmonic Motion Imaging Keyvan Farahani: AAPM Task Groups in Interventional Ultrasound Imaging and Therapy Learning Objectives: Understand the role of ultrasound in localized drug delivery and the effects of immunotherapy when used in conjunction with ultrasound therapy. Understand potential targeted drug delivery clinical applications including pediatric oncology. Understand the technical requirements for performing targeted drug delivery. Understand how radiation-force approaches can be used to both monitor and assess high intensity focused ultrasound ablation therapy. Understand the role of AAPM task groups in ultrasound imaging and therapies. Chopra: Funding from Cancer Prevention and Research Initiative of Texas (CPRIT), Award R1308 Evelyn and M.R. Hudson Foundation; Research Support from Research Contract with Philips Healthcare; COI are Co-founder of FUS Instruments Inc Ferrara: Supported by NIH, UCDavis and California (CIRM and BHCE) Farahani: In-kind research support from Philips Healthcare.

  1. Real-time Prescription Surveillance and its Application to Monitoring Seasonal Influenza Activity in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkusa, Yasushi; Ibuka, Yoko; Kawanohara, Hirokazu; Taniguchi, Kiyosu; Okabe, Nobuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Background Real-time surveillance is fundamental for effective control of disease outbreaks, but the official sentinel surveillance in Japan collects information related to disease activity only weekly and updates it with a 1-week time lag. Objective To report on a prescription surveillance system using electronic records related to prescription drugs that was started in 2008 in Japan, and to evaluate the surveillance system for monitoring influenza activity during the 2009–2010 and 2010–2011 influenza seasons. Methods We developed an automatic surveillance system using electronic records of prescription drug purchases collected from 5275 pharmacies through the application service provider’s medical claims service. We then applied the system to monitoring influenza activity during the 2009–2010 and 2010–2011 influenza seasons. The surveillance system collected information related to drugs and patients directly and automatically from the electronic prescription record system, and estimated the number of influenza cases based on the number of prescriptions of anti-influenza virus medication. Then it shared the information related to influenza activity through the Internet with the public on a daily basis. Results During the 2009–2010 influenza season, the number of influenza patients estimated by the prescription surveillance system between the 28th week of 2009 and the 12th week of 2010 was 9,234,289. In the 2010–2011 influenza season, the number of influenza patients between the 36th week of 2010 and the 12th week of 2011 was 7,153,437. The estimated number of influenza cases was highly correlated with that predicted by the official sentinel surveillance (r = .992, P prescription surveillance system produced a good approximation of activity patterns. Conclusions Our prescription surveillance system presents great potential for monitoring influenza activity and for providing early detection of infectious disease outbreaks. PMID:22249906

  2. Packaged FBG sensors for real-time stress monitoring on deep-water riser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Yang, Dexing; Jiang, Yajun; Wang, Meirong; Zhai, Huailun; Bai, Yang

    2014-11-01

    The safety of under-water risers in drilling platform is of great significance. A packaged fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor for real-time stress monitoring is designed for the applications on oil drilling risers under 3000 meters deep water. A copper tube which is the main component of the sensor has a small hole along its axes and a groove at its each end. The bare FBG is passed through the small hole and fixed to its ends by epoxy resin. Then the copper tube is packaged by filling the groove with structural adhesive. In order to avoid that the outer water-pressure is applied on the epoxy resin through the structural adhesive, a gap between the two types of glues is left. The relationships between the stress of the riser and the tension, pressure, temperature of the single sensor are discussed, respectively. The measured tension sensitivity is 136.75 pm/KN while the minimum R-square value is 0.99997. The experimental results also show that there is a good linear response between water-pressure and the Bragg wavelength from 0 to 30MPa, and the sensor can even survive under the pressure more than 30MPa. In addition, the Bragg wavelength shifts linearly with the increasing temperature from 0 to 40°C. So, the pressure and temperature can be easily compensated if another sensor without tension is used.

  3. Real-time machine vision FPGA implementation for microfluidic monitoring on Lab-on-Chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiropoulou, Calliope-Louisa; Voudouris, Liberis; Gentsos, Christos; Demiris, Athanasios M; Vassiliadis, Nikolaos; Nikolaidis, Spyridon

    2014-04-01

    A machine vision implementation on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) device for real-time microfluidic monitoring on Lab-On-Chips is presented in this paper. The machine vision system is designed to follow continuous or plug flows, for which the menisci of the fluids are always visible. The system discriminates between the front or "head" of the flow and the back or "tail" and is able to follow flows with a maximum speed of 20 mm/sec in circular channels of a diameter of 200 μm (corresponding to approx. 60 μl/sec ). It is designed to be part of a complete Point-of-Care system, which will be portable and operate in non-ideal laboratory conditions. Thus, it is able to cope with noise due to lighting conditions and small LoC displacements during the experiment execution. The machine vision system can be used for a variety of LoC devices, without the need for fiducial markers (such as redundancy patterns) for its operation. The underlying application requirements called for a complete hardware implementation. The architecture uses a variety of techniques to improve performance and minimize memory access requirements. The system input is 8 bit grayscale uncompressed video of up to 1 Mpixel resolution. The system uses an operating frequency of 170 Mhz and achieves a computational time of 13.97 ms (worst case), which leads to a throughput of 71.6 fps for 1 Mpixel video resolution.

  4. Real-time model based process monitoring of enzymatic biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Jason; Nordblad, Mathias; Woodley, John M; Huusom, Jakob K

    2015-01-01

    In this contribution we extend our modelling work on the enzymatic production of biodiesel where we demonstrate the application of a Continuous-Discrete Extended Kalman Filter (a state estimator). The state estimator is used to correct for mismatch between the process data and the process model for Fed-batch production of biodiesel. For the three process runs investigated, using a single tuning parameter, qx  = 2 × 10(-2) which represents the uncertainty in the process model, it was possible over the entire course of the reaction to reduce the overall mean and standard deviation of the error between the model and the process data for all of the five measured components (triglycerides, diglycerides, monoglycerides, fatty acid methyl esters, and free fatty acid). The most significant reduction for the three process runs, were for the monoglyceride and free fatty acid concentration. For those components, there was over a ten-fold decrease in the overall mean error for the state estimator prediction compared with the predictions from the pure model simulations. It is also shown that the state estimator can be used as a tool for detection of outliers in the measurement data. For the enzymatic biodiesel process, given the infrequent and sometimes uncertain measurements obtained we see the use of the Continuous-Discrete Extended Kalman Filter as a viable tool for real time process monitoring.

  5. Real time monitoring of water distribution in an operando fuel cell during transient states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, N.; Peng, Z.; Morin, A.; Porcar, L.; Gebel, G.; Lyonnard, S.

    2017-10-01

    The water distribution of an operating proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) was monitored in real time by using Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS). The formation of liquid water was obtained simultaneously with the evolution of the water content inside the membrane. Measurements were performed when changing current with a time resolution of 10 s, providing insights on the kinetics of water management prior to the stationary phase. We confirmed that water distribution is strongly heterogeneous at the scale at of the whole Membrane Electrode Assembly. As already reported, at the local scale there is no straightforward link between the amounts of water present inside and outside the membrane. However, we show that the temporal evolutions of these two parameters are strongly correlated. In particular, the local membrane water content is nearly instantaneously correlated to the total liquid water content, whether it is located at the anode or cathode side. These results can help in optimizing 3D stationary diphasic models used to predict PEMFC water distribution.

  6. Autonomously Bioluminescent Mammalian Cells for Continuous and Real-time Monitoring of Cytotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tingting; Close, Dan M.; Webb, James D.; Ripp, Steven A.; Sayler, Gary S.

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian cell-based in vitro assays have been widely employed as alternatives to animal testing for toxicological studies but have been limited due to the high monetary and time costs of parallel sample preparation that are necessitated due to the destructive nature of firefly luciferase-based screening methods. This video describes the utilization of autonomously bioluminescent mammalian cells, which do not require the destructive addition of a luciferin substrate, as an inexpensive and facile method for monitoring the cytotoxic effects of a compound of interest. Mammalian cells stably expressing the full bacterial bioluminescence (luxCDABEfrp) gene cassette autonomously produce an optical signal that peaks at 490 nm without the addition of an expensive and possibly interfering luciferin substrate, excitation by an external energy source, or destruction of the sample that is traditionally performed during optical imaging procedures. This independence from external stimulation places the burden for maintaining the bioluminescent reaction solely on the cell, meaning that the resultant signal is only detected during active metabolism. This characteristic makes the lux-expressing cell line an excellent candidate for use as a biosentinel against cytotoxic effects because changes in bioluminescent production are indicative of adverse effects on cellular growth and metabolism. Similarly, the autonomous nature and lack of required sample destruction permits repeated imaging of the same sample in real-time throughout the period of toxicant exposure and can be performed across multiple samples using existing imaging equipment in an automated fashion. PMID:24193545

  7. Monitoring the Dissolution Mechanisms of Amorphous Bicalutamide Solid Dispersions via Real-Time Raman Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tres, Francesco; Patient, Jamie D; Williams, Philip M; Treacher, Kevin; Booth, Jonathan; Hughes, Leslie P; Wren, Stephen A C; Aylott, Jonathan W; Burley, Jonathan C

    2015-05-04

    Real-time in situ Raman mapping has been employed to monitor, during dissolution, the crystallization transitions of amorphous bicalutamide formulated as a molecular dispersion in a copovidone VA64 matrix. The dissolution performance was also investigated using the rotating disc dissolution rate methodology, which allows simultaneous determination of the dissolution rate of both active ingredient and polymer. The dissolution behavior of two bicalutamide:copovidone VA64 dispersion formulations, containing 5% (w/w) and 50% (w/w) bicalutamide, respectively, was investigated, with the aim of exploring the effect of increasing the bicalutamide loading on the dissolution performance. Spatially time-resolved Raman maps generated using multivariate curve resolution indicated the simultaneous transformation of amorphous bicalutamide present in the 50% drug-loaded extrudate into metastable polymorphic form II and low-energy polymorphic form I. Fitting a kinetic model and spatially correlating the data extracted from the Raman maps also allowed us to understand the re-crystallization mechanisms by which the low-energy form I appears. Form I was shown to crystallize mainly directly from the amorphous solid dispersion, with crystallization from the metastable form II being a minor contribution.

  8. A Real-Time Kinect Signature-Based Patient Home Monitoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumrosen, Gaddi; Miron, Yael; Intrator, Nathan; Plotnik, Meir

    2016-11-23

    Assessment of body kinematics during performance of daily life activities at home plays a significant role in medical condition monitoring of elderly people and patients with neurological disorders. The affordable and non-wearable Microsoft Kinect ("Kinect") system has been recently used to estimate human subject kinematic features. However, the Kinect suffers from a limited range and angular coverage, distortion in skeleton joints' estimations, and erroneous multiplexing of different subjects' estimations to one. This study addresses these limitations by incorporating a set of features that create a unique "Kinect Signature". The Kinect Signature enables identification of different subjects in the scene, automatically assign the kinematics feature estimations only to the subject of interest, and provide information about the quality of the Kinect-based estimations. The methods were verified by a set of experiments, which utilize real-time scenarios commonly used to assess motor functions in elderly subjects and in subjects with neurological disorders. The experiment results indicate that the skeleton based Kinect Signature features can be used to identify different subjects in high accuracy. We demonstrate how these capabilities can be used to assign the Kinect estimations to the Subject of Interest, and exclude low quality tracking features. The results of this work can help in establishing reliable kinematic features, which can assist in future to obtain objective scores for medical analysis of patient condition at home while not restricted to perform daily life activities.

  9. Label-free molecular beacon for real-time monitoring of DNA polymerase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Changbei; Liu, Haisheng; Wang, Jun; Jin, Shunxin; Wang, Kemin

    2016-05-01

    Traditional methods for assaying DNA polymerase activity are discontinuous, time consuming, and laborious. Here, we report a new approach for label-free and real-time monitoring of DNA polymerase activity using a Thioflavin T (ThT) probe. In the presence of DNA polymerase, the DNA primer could be elongated through polymerase reaction to open MB1, leading to the release of the G-quartets. These then bind to ThT to form ThT/G-quadruplexes with an obvious fluorescence generation. It exhibits a satisfying detection result for the activity of DNA polymerase with a low detection limit of 0.05 unit/ml. In addition, no labeling with a fluorophore or a fluorophore-quencher pair is required; this method is fairly simple, fast, and low cost. Furthermore, the proposed method was also applied to assay the inhibition of DNA polymerase activity. This approach may offer potential applications in drug screening, clinical diagnostics, and some other related biomedical research.

  10. Water monitoring: automated and real time identification and classification of algae using digital microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coltelli, Primo; Barsanti, Laura; Evangelista, Valtere; Frassanito, Anna Maria; Gualtieri, Paolo

    2014-11-01

    Microalgae are unicellular photoautotrophs that grow in any habitat from fresh and saline water bodies, to hot springs and ice. Microalgae can be used as indicators to monitor water ecosystem conditions. These organisms react quickly and predictably to a broad range of environmental stressors, thus providing early signals of a changing environment. When grown extensively, microalgae may produce harmful effects on marine or freshwater ecology and fishery resources. Rapid and accurate recognition and classification of microalgae is one of the most important issues in water resource management. In this paper, a methodology for automatic and real time identification and enumeration of microalgae by means of image analysis is presented. The methodology is based on segmentation, shape feature extraction, pigment signature determination and neural network grouping; it attained 98.6% accuracy from a set of 53,869 images of 23 different microalgae representing the major algal phyla. In our opinion this methodology partly overcomes the lack of automated identification systems and is on the forefront of developing a computer-based image processing technique to automatically detect, recognize, identify and enumerate microalgae genera and species from all the divisions. This methodology could be useful for an appropriate and effective water resource management.

  11. Real-time monitoring of human blood clotting using a lateral excited film bulk acoustic resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Da; Wang, Jingjng; Wang, Peng; Guo, Qiuquan; Zhang, Zhen; Ma, Jilong

    2017-04-01

    Frequent assay of hemostatic status is an essential issue for the millions of patients using anticoagulant drugs. In this paper, we presented a micro-fabricated film bulk acoustic sensor for the real-time monitoring of blood clotting and the measurement of hemostatic parameters. The device was made of an Au/ZnO/Si3N4 film stack and excited by a lateral electric field. It operated under a shear mode resonance with the frequency of 1.42 GHz and had a quality factor of 342 in human blood. During the clotting process of blood, the resonant frequency decreased along with the change of blood viscosity and showed an apparent step-ladder curve, revealing the sequential clotting stages. An important hemostatic parameter, prothrombin time, was quantitatively determined from the frequency response for different dilutions of the blood samples. The effect of a typical anticoagulant drug (heparin) on the prothrombin time was exemplarily shown. The proposed sensor displayed a good consistency and clinical comparability with the standard coagulometric methods. Thanks to the availability of direct digital signals, excellent potentials of miniaturization and integration, the proposed sensor has promising application for point-of-care coagulation technologies.

  12. The RAPTOR Experiment A System for Monitoring the Optical Sky in Real Time

    CERN Document Server

    Vestrand, W T; Brumby, S; Casperson, D E; Fenimore, E E; Galassi, M; McGowan, K; Perkins, S; Priedhorsky, W; Starr, D; White, R; Wozniak, P R; Wren, J

    2002-01-01

    The Rapid Telescopes for Optical Response (RAPTOR) experiment is a spatially distributed system of autonomous robotic telescopes that is designed to monitor the sky for optical transients. The core of the system is composed of two telescope arrays, separated by 38 kilometers, that stereoscopically view the same 1500 square-degree field with a wide-field imaging array and a central 4 square-degree field with a more sensitive narrow-field "fovea" imager. Coupled to each telescope array is a real-time data analysis pipeline that is designed to identify interesting transients on timescales of seconds and, when a celestial transient is identified, to command the rapidly slewing robotic mounts to point the narrow-field ``fovea'' imagers at the transient. The two narrow-field telescopes then image the transient with higher spatial resolution and at a faster cadence to gather light curve information. Each "fovea" camera also images the transient through a different filter to provide color information. This stereoscop...

  13. Real-time continuous glucose monitoring systems in the classroom/school environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benassi, Kari; Drobny, Jessica; Aye, Tandy

    2013-05-01

    Children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) spend 4-7 h/day in school with very little supervision of their diabetes management. Therefore, families have become more dependent on technology, such as use of real-time continuous glucose monitoring (RT-CGM), to provide increased supervision of their diabetes management. We sought to assess the impact of RT-CGM use in the classroom/school environment. Children with T1D using RT-CGM, their parents, and teachers completed a questionnaire about RT-CGM in the classroom/school environment. The RT-CGM was tolerated well in the classroom/school environment. Seventy percent of parents, 75% of students, and 51% of teachers found RT-CGM useful in the classroom/school environment. The students found the device to be more disruptive than did their parents and teachers. However, all three groups agreed that RT-CGM increased their comfort with diabetes management at school. Our study suggests that RT-CGM is useful and not disruptive in the classroom/school environment. The development of education materials for teachers could further increase its acceptance in the classroom/school environment.

  14. Distributed Multi-Sensor Real-Time Building Environmental Parameters Monitoring System with Remote Data Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beinarts Ivars

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the advanced monitoring system of multiple environmental parameters is presented. The purpose of the system is a long-term estimation of energy efficiency and sustainability for the research test stands which are made of different building materials. Construction of test stands, and placement of main sensors are presented in the first chapter. The structure of data acquisition system includes a real-time interface with sensors and a data logger that allows to acquire and log data from all sensors with fixed rate. The data logging system provides a remote access to the processing of the acquired data and carries out periodical saving at a remote FTP server using an Internet connection. The system architecture and the usage of sensors are explained in the second chapter. In the third chapter implementation of the system, different interfaces of sensors and energy measuring devices are discussed and several examples of data logger program are presented. Each data logger is reading data from analog and digital channels. Measurements can be displayed directly on a screen using WEB access or using data from FTP server. Measurements and acquired data graphical results are presented in the fourth chapter in the selected diagrams. The benefits of the developed system are presented in the conclusion.

  15. Real time monitoring of reticle etch process tool to investigate and predict critical dimension performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Rick; Yung, Karmen; Guglielmana, Mark; Bald, Dan; Baik, Kiho; Abboud, Frank

    2007-03-01

    As mask pattern feature sizes shrink the need for tighter control of factors affecting critical dimensions (CD) increases at all steps in the mask manufacturing process. To support this requirement Intel Mask Operation is expanding its process and equipment monitoring capability. We intend to better understand the factors affecting the process and enhance our ability to predict reticle health and critical dimension performance. This paper describes a methodology by which one can predict the contribution of the dry etch process equipment to overall CD performance. We describe the architecture used to collect critical process related information from various sources both internal and external to the process equipment and environment. In addition we discuss the method used to assess the significance of each parameter and to construct the statistical model used to generate the predictions. We further discuss the methodology used to turn this model into a functioning real time prediction of critical dimension performance. Further, these predictions will be used to modify the manufacturing decision support system to provide early detection for process excursion.

  16. Real-time monitoring of the optical spectrum in laser welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robert E.; Duley, Walter W.

    1997-03-01

    Laser welding has become a standard manufacturing technique, particularly in industries where weld quality and performance are critical, such as the aerospace, nuclear, medical devices and automotive sectors. In many laser welding applications, flaws are not acceptable in the final product, so every weld must be inspected. Post-process inspection is time-consuming and, if a systematic problem develops, many flawed parts could be produced before the problem is identified and corrected. The preferred approach is therefore to perform in-process inspection as the weld is produced. This paper describes a weld process inspection system based on a compact, computer controlled optical spectrometer, which observes the laser welding plume in real time. From the plume spectrum, one is able to determine the temperature of the weld site and the elements present in the fusion zone. A sudden change in weld temperature may indicate a weld flaw, either from a loss of laser energy coupling and therefore a loss of fusion, or from excess energy input and burn-through. An indication of the elements present in the fusion zone can be used for seam tracking or penetration monitoring when dissimilar materials are being joined in the butt or lap configurations, respectively.

  17. [Construction and analysis of a monitoring system with remote real-time multiple physiological parameters based on cloud computing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lingyun; Li, Lianjie; Meng, Chunyan

    2014-12-01

    There have been problems in the existing multiple physiological parameter real-time monitoring system, such as insufficient server capacity for physiological data storage and analysis so that data consistency can not be guaranteed, poor performance in real-time, and other issues caused by the growing scale of data. We therefore pro posed a new solution which was with multiple physiological parameters and could calculate clustered background data storage and processing based on cloud computing. Through our studies, a batch processing for longitudinal analysis of patients' historical data was introduced. The process included the resource virtualization of IaaS layer for cloud platform, the construction of real-time computing platform of PaaS layer, the reception and analysis of data stream of SaaS layer, and the bottleneck problem of multi-parameter data transmission, etc. The results were to achieve in real-time physiological information transmission, storage and analysis of a large amount of data. The simulation test results showed that the remote multiple physiological parameter monitoring system based on cloud platform had obvious advantages in processing time and load balancing over the traditional server model. This architecture solved the problems including long turnaround time, poor performance of real-time analysis, lack of extensibility and other issues, which exist in the traditional remote medical services. Technical support was provided in order to facilitate a "wearable wireless sensor plus mobile wireless transmission plus cloud computing service" mode moving towards home health monitoring for multiple physiological parameter wireless monitoring.

  18. The SMARTER pilot study: Testing feasibility of real-time feedback for dietary self-monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lora E. Burke

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Self-monitoring (SM of food intake is central to weight loss treatment. Technology makes it possible to reinforce this behavior change strategy by providing real-time feedback (FB tailored to the diary entry. To test the feasibility of providing 1–4 daily FB messages tailored to dietary recordings via a smartphone, we conducted a 12-week pilot randomized clinical trial in Pittsburgh, PA in US in 2015. We compared 3 groups: SM using the Lose It! smartphone app (Group 1; SM + FB (Group 2; and SM + FB + attending three in-person group sessions (Group 3. The sample (N = 39 was mostly white and female with a mean body mass index of 33.76 kg/m2. Adherence to dietary SM was recorded daily, weight was assessed at baseline and 12 weeks. The mean percentage of days adherent to dietary SM was similar among Groups 1, 2, and 3 (p = 0.66 at 53.50% vs. 55.86% vs. 65.33%, respectively. At 12 weeks, all groups had a significant percent weight loss (p < 0.05, with no differences among groups (−2.85% vs. −3.14% vs. −3.37% (p = 0.95; 26% of the participants lost ≥ 5% of their baseline weight. Mean retention was 74% with no differences among groups (p = 0.37. All groups adhered to SM at levels comparable to or better than other weight loss studies and lost acceptable amounts of weight, with minimal intervention contact over 12 weeks. These preliminary findings suggest this 3-group approach testing SM alone vs. SM with real-time FB messages alone or supplemented with limited in-person group sessions warrants further testing in a larger, more diverse sample and for a longer intervention period.

  19. Global Near Real-Time Satellite-based Flood Monitoring and Product Dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M.; Slayback, D. A.; Policelli, F.; Brakenridge, G. R.; Tokay, M.

    2012-12-01

    Flooding is among the most destructive, frequent, and costly natural disasters faced by modern society, with several major events occurring each year. In the past few years, major floods have devastated parts of China, Thailand, Pakistan, Australia, and the Philippines, among others. The toll of these events, in financial costs, displacement of individuals, and deaths, is substantial and continues to rise as climate change generates more extreme weather events. When these events do occur, the disaster management community requires frequently updated and easily accessible information to better understand the extent of flooding and better coordinate response efforts. With funding from NASA's Applied Sciences program, we have developed, and are now operating, a near real-time global flood mapping system to help provide critical flood extent information within 24-48 hours after flooding events. The system applies a water detection algorithm to MODIS imagery received from the LANCE (Land Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS) system at NASA Goddard. The LANCE system typically processes imagery in less than 3 hours after satellite overpass, and our flood mapping system can output flood products within ½ hour of acquiring the LANCE products. Using imagery from both the Terra (10:30 AM local time overpass) and Aqua (1:30 PM) platforms allows an initial assessment of flooding extent by late afternoon, every day, and more robust assessments after accumulating imagery over a longer period; the MODIS sensors are optical, so cloud cover remains an issue, which is partly overcome by using multiple looks over one or more days. Other issues include the relatively coarse scale of the MODIS imagery (250 meters), the difficulty of detecting flood waters in areas with continuous canopy cover, confusion of shadow (cloud or terrain) with water, and accurately identifying detected water as flood as opposed to normal water extents. We have made progress on some of these issues

  20. The MODIS Rapid Response Project: Near-Real-Time Processing for Fire Monitoring and Other Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descloitres, J.; Justice, C.; Sohlberg, R.; Giglio, L.; Schmaltz, J.; Seaton, J.; Davies, D.; Anyamba, A.; Hansen, M.; Carroll, M.; Sullivan, M.

    2003-12-01

    recently developed to generate near-real-time MODIS data for crop monitoring and forecasting applications. A rapid Vegetation Index product was created to that effect.

  1. Real-time monitoring of abnormal conditions based on Fuzzy Kohonen clustering network in gas metal arc welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jinqiang; WU Chuansong; HU Jiakun

    2007-01-01

    A real-time monitoring system based on through-the-arc sensing is developed for detecting abnormal conditions in gas metal arc welding. The transient signals of welding voltage and current during the welding process are sampled and processed by statistical analysis methods. It is found that three statistical parameters (the standard deviation,variance, and kurtosis of welding current) show obvious variations during the step disturbance, which is intentionally introduced into the T-joint test pieces by cutting a gap in the vertical plane. A Fuzzy Kohonen clustering network (FKCN) is put forward to monitor the abnormal conditions in real-time. Ten robotic welding experiments are conducted to verify the real-time monitoring system. It is found that the correct identification rate is above 90%.

  2. Development of novel algorithm and real-time monitoring ambulatory system using Bluetooth module for fall detection in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, J Y; Kang, J M; Jang, Y W; Kim, H

    2004-01-01

    Novel algorithm and real-time ambulatory monitoring system for fall detection in elderly people is described. Our system is comprised of accelerometer, tilt sensor and gyroscope. For real-time monitoring, we used Bluetooth. Accelerometer measures kinetic force, tilt sensor and gyroscope estimates body posture. Also, we suggested algorithm using signals which obtained from the system attached to the chest for fall detection. To evaluate our system and algorithm, we experimented on three people aged over 26 years. The experiment of four cases such as forward fall, backward fall, side fall and sit-stand was repeated ten times and the experiment in daily life activity was performed one time to each subject. These experiments showed that our system and algorithm could distinguish between falling and daily life activity. Moreover, the accuracy of fall detection is 96.7%. Our system is especially adapted for long-time and real-time ambulatory monitoring of elderly people in emergency situation.

  3. Real-time measurement of outdoor worker's exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation in Pretoria, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mmathapelo Makgabutlane

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The city of Pretoria in South Africa receives considerable solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR because of its low latitude (22–35°S and relatively clear skies. Certain meteorological factors affect the amount of solar UVR that reaches the ground; the most dominant factors being stratospheric ozone, cloud cover and solar zenith angle. It is known that overexposure to solar UVR may lead to the development of adverse health conditions, the most significant being skin cancer. Outdoor workers spend a significant amount of time outside and are thus susceptible to this risk. In this case study, we estimated, for the first time, the real-time solar UVR exposure of an outdoor worker in Pretoria. Measurements were made on 27 and 28 May 2013 using a handheld ultraviolet index (UVI meter calibrated against a science-grade biometer at the South African Weather Service in Pretoria. Personal exposure estimation was used to discern the pattern in diurnal and annual sunburn risk for the outdoor worker. Ambient UVR levels ranged from 0 UVI to 4.66 UVI and the outdoor worker’s potential exposure estimates regularly exceeded 80% of these levels depending on the time of day. The risk of sunburn was evident; however, actual incidents would depend on individual skin photosensitivity and melanin content, as well as sun protection used. Further research is needed to determine the personal exposure estimations of outdoor workers in other provinces in which solar UVR levels may be equally high, or higher than those in Pretoria.

  4. Clinical Studies of Real-Time Monitoring of Lithotripter Performance Using Passive Acoustic Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighton, T. G.; Fedele, F.; Coleman, A. J.; McCarthy, C.; Ryves, S.; Hurrell, A. M.; De Stefano, A.; White, P. R.

    2008-09-01

    This paper describes the development and clinical testing of a passive device which monitors the passive acoustic emissions generated within the patient's body during Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL). Designed and clinically tested so that it can be operated by a nurse, the device analyses the echoes generated in the body in response to each ESWL shock, and so gives real time shock-by-shock feedback on whether the stone was at the focus of the lithotripter, and if so whether the previous shock contributed to stone fragmentation when that shock reached the focus. A shock is defined as being `effective' if these two conditions are satisfied. Not only can the device provide real-time feedback to the operator, but the trends in shock `effectiveness' can inform treatment. In particular, at any time during the treatment (once a statistically significant number of shocks have been delivered), the percentage of shocks which were `effective' provides a treatment score TS(t) which reflects the effectiveness of the treatment up to that point. The TS(t) figure is automatically delivered by the device without user intervention. Two clinical studies of the device were conducted, the ethics guidelines permitting only use of the value of TS(t) obtained at the end of treatment (this value is termed the treatment score TS0). The acoustically-derived treatment score was compared with the treatment score CTS2 given by the consultant urologist at the three-week patient's follow-up appointment. In the first clinical study (phase 1), records could be compared for 30 out of the 118 patients originally recruited, and the results of phase 1 were used to refine the parameter values (the `rules') with which the acoustic device provides its treatment score. These rules were tested in phase 2, for which records were compared for 49 of the 85 patients recruited. Considering just the phase 2 results (since the phase 1 data were used to draw up the `rules' under which phase 2 operated

  5. Project of a Near-Real-Time Sismo-acoustic Submarine Station for offshore monitoring (NRTSSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Anna, G.; Calore, D.; Mangano, G.; D'Alessandro, A.; Favali, P.

    2011-12-01

    The INGV seismic network ensures reliable and continuous monitoring of the Italian territory. However, the peculiarity of the Italian peninsula, characterised by an intense offshore geodynamic and seismic activity, requires the extension of the seismic monitoring to the sea. The aim of this project is: - to identify bottleneck is related to the construction, installation and use of underwater seismic station; - to define the most appropriate and low-cost architecture to guarantee the minimum functionality required for a seismic station. In order to obtain reliable seafloor seismic signals integrated to land-based network, the requirements to be fulfill are: - an acceptable coupling with the seabed; - the orientation of the components with respect to the magnetic North and to the verticality; - the correct time stamp of the data; - the data transfer to the land for the integration. Currently, the optimal solution for offshore seismic station is a cable connection to power and real-time data transfer, like the case of Western Ionian Sea cabled observatory, one of the operative node of the EMSO research infrastructure (European Multidisciplinary Seafloor and water column Observatory, http://emso-eu.org). But in the Mediterranean many seismic areas are located a few tens-hundreds of miles from the coast and cabled solutions are not feasible essentially for economic reasons. For this kind of installations EMSO research infrastructure foresees no-cabled solution, that requires a surface buoy deployed in the vicinity seafloor modules.This project plans to develop a surface buoy equipped with autonomous power supply system to power also the seafloor platforms and two-way communication system enabling the data transfer through latest generation of broadband radio communication or satellite link (Fig. 1). All the components of the prototype system are described.

  6. A novel system for continuous, real-time monitoring of heart motion signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dori, Guy; Schliamser, Jorge E; Lichtenstein, Oscar; Anshelevich, Ilia; Flugelman, Moshe Y

    2017-03-29

    Understanding cardiac mechanics is important for developing cardiac therapies. Current modalities for assessing cardiac mechanics sample patient's heart at specific heart rate, contractility, preload, and afterload. The objective of this study was to test the feasibility of a novel system composed of intra-cardiac leads equipped with an inertial module chip (3D accelerometers and 3D gyroscopes) in monitoring continuous heart motion. In this descriptive study, four healthy pigs were anesthetized and instrumented with motion-sensitive intra-cardiac leads; the temporal correlation between signals from motion sensors and tissue Doppler from the chest wall were studied; changes in real-time heart accelerations (ACC) and angular velocity (ANGV) were reported as percentages of change from baseline. Heart motion signals were sensed continuously from the right ventricular apex (RVa) and coronary sinus (CS). Volume expansion did not produce significant changes in the ACC and ANGV signals. Increasing heart rate increased the peak systolic ACC signal recorded from RVa and CS by 94 and 76%, respectively, and increased both peak systolic (61% RVa and 27% CS) and diastolic ANGV (200% CS vs. 31% RVa). Epinephrine administration increased peak systolic ACC signals at both sites (246% RVa; 331% CS). Peak systolic and diastolic ANGV increased in response to epinephrine (systolic: 198% RVa and 175% CS; diastolic: 723% CS and 89% RVa) (p = 0.125 for all changes expressed in percent). Temporal correlation between the ANGV signal and tissue Doppler signal was detected throughout all interventions. A novel system for continuously monitoring heart motion signals from within the heart was presented. Heart motion signals in response to physiologic manipulations were characterized.

  7. Real-Time Seismic Monitoring of Thenewcape Girardeau (mo) Bridge and Recorded Earthquake Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    çelebi, Mehmet

    This paper introduces the state of the art, real-time and broad-band seismic monitoring network implemented for the 1206 m [3956 ft] long, cable-stayed Bill Emerson Memorial Bridge in Cape Girardeau (MO), a new Mississippi River crossing, approximately 80 km from the epicentral region of the 1811-1812 New Madrid earthquakes. Design of the bridge accounted for the possibility of a strong earthquake (magnitude 7.5 or greater) during the design life of the bridge. The monitoring network consists of a superstructure and two free-field arrays and comprises a total of 84 channels of accelerometers deployed on the superstructure, pier foundations and free-field in the vicinity of the bridge. The paper also introduces the high quality response data obtained from the network. Such data is aimed to be used by the owner, researchers and engineers to (1) assess the performance of the bridge, (2) check design parameters, including the comparison of dynamic characteristics with actual response, and (3) better design future similar bridges. Preliminary analyses of low-amplitude ambient vibration data and that from a small earthquake reveal specific response characteristics of this new bridge and the free-field in its proximity. There is coherent tower-cabledeck interaction that sometimes results in amplified ambient motions. Also, while the motions at the lowest (tri-axial) downhole accelerometers on both MO and IL sides are practically free-from any feedback from the bridge, the motions at the middle downhole and surface accelerometers are significantly influenced by amplified ambient motions of the bridge.

  8. Competitive Reporter Monitored Amplification (CMA) - Quantification of Molecular Targets by Real Time Monitoring of Competitive Reporter Hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Thomas; Ermantraut, Eugen; Schulz, Torsten; Steinmetzer, Katrin

    2012-01-01

    Background State of the art molecular diagnostic tests are based on the sensitive detection and quantification of nucleic acids. However, currently established diagnostic tests are characterized by elaborate and expensive technical solutions hindering the development of simple, affordable and compact point-of-care molecular tests. Methodology and Principal Findings The described competitive reporter monitored amplification allows the simultaneous amplification and quantification of multiple nucleic acid targets by polymerase chain reaction. Target quantification is accomplished by real-time detection of amplified nucleic acids utilizing a capture probe array and specific reporter probes. The reporter probes are fluorescently labeled oligonucleotides that are complementary to the respective capture probes on the array and to the respective sites of the target nucleic acids in solution. Capture probes and amplified target compete for reporter probes. Increasing amplicon concentration leads to decreased fluorescence signal at the respective capture probe position on the array which is measured after each cycle of amplification. In order to observe reporter probe hybridization in real-time without any additional washing steps, we have developed a mechanical fluorescence background displacement technique. Conclusions and Significance The system presented in this paper enables simultaneous detection and quantification of multiple targets. Moreover, the presented fluorescence background displacement technique provides a generic solution for real time monitoring of binding events of fluorescently labelled ligands to surface immobilized probes. With the model assay for the detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and 2 (HIV 1/2), we have been able to observe the amplification kinetics of five targets simultaneously and accommodate two additional hybridization controls with a simple instrument set-up. The ability to accommodate multiple controls and targets into a

  9. Competitive reporter monitored amplification (CMA--quantification of molecular targets by real time monitoring of competitive reporter hybridization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Ullrich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: State of the art molecular diagnostic tests are based on the sensitive detection and quantification of nucleic acids. However, currently established diagnostic tests are characterized by elaborate and expensive technical solutions hindering the development of simple, affordable and compact point-of-care molecular tests. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The described competitive reporter monitored amplification allows the simultaneous amplification and quantification of multiple nucleic acid targets by polymerase chain reaction. Target quantification is accomplished by real-time detection of amplified nucleic acids utilizing a capture probe array and specific reporter probes. The reporter probes are fluorescently labeled oligonucleotides that are complementary to the respective capture probes on the array and to the respective sites of the target nucleic acids in solution. Capture probes and amplified target compete for reporter probes. Increasing amplicon concentration leads to decreased fluorescence signal at the respective capture probe position on the array which is measured after each cycle of amplification. In order to observe reporter probe hybridization in real-time without any additional washing steps, we have developed a mechanical fluorescence background displacement technique. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The system presented in this paper enables simultaneous detection and quantification of multiple targets. Moreover, the presented fluorescence background displacement technique provides a generic solution for real time monitoring of binding events of fluorescently labelled ligands to surface immobilized probes. With the model assay for the detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and 2 (HIV 1/2, we have been able to observe the amplification kinetics of five targets simultaneously and accommodate two additional hybridization controls with a simple instrument set-up. The ability to accommodate multiple controls

  10. Near real-time monitoring of surface deformation at Long Valley Caldera, California (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, K.; Llenos, A. L.; Herring, T.

    2013-12-01

    Continuous monitoring of volcanic activity enables us to detect changes from usual activity, issue alerts of impending eruptions and thereby reduce volcanic risk. We have developed a near real-time monitoring tool for surface deformation: the Targeted Projection Operator (TPO). TPO is simple, fast, and easily applied whenever new data are available. With Global Positioning System (GPS) data, we have used TPO for continuous monitoring of surface deformation in the Long Valley Caldera (LVC) region in eastern California. TPO projects GPS position time series onto a target spatial pattern and obtains the amplitude of the projection at each epoch. For this, we assume that a deformation event (i.e., an inflationary or deflationary event) has the same spatial pattern as past events but with possibly different amplitude. This assumption is reasonable for the recent quiet phase in LVC because the 2007-2009 inflation is similar to the 2009-2010 deflation with respect to the deformation pattern. We selected horizontal pattern of the 2009-2010 event along which the GPS data are projected to recover the time-varying amplitudes. Large changes in amplitude imply changes in strength of the event. An anomalous change can be detected by comparing with amplitudes during relatively quiet time periods. Growing misfits between the TPO spatial pattern and the spatial variations of the GPS pattern, indicate changes in the deformation mechanism which can then be explored to assess whether potentially new mechanisms are developing. So far this has not been the case for LVC; the current spatial patterns of deformation match the shape deduced for the 2007-2009 inflation event. TPO shows that LVC has experienced inflation since late 2011 although the rate briefly slowed down in May and October 2012 and has started to slow again since June 2013. The rate of this event is about four times faster than the 2007-2009 inflation event and is consistent with a Mogi source located beneath the resurgent

  11. Real-time Monitoring Network to Characterize Anthropogenic and Natural Events Affecting the Hudson River, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M. S.; Bonner, J. S.; Fuller, C.; Kirkey, W.; Ojo, T.

    2011-12-01

    The Hudson River watershed spans 34,700 km2 predominantly in New York State, including agricultural, wilderness, and urban areas. The Hudson River supports many activities including shipping, supplies water for municipal, commercial, and agricultural uses, and is an important recreational resource. As the population increases within this watershed, so does the anthropogenic impact on this natural system. To address the impacts of anthropogenic and natural activities on this ecosystem, the River and Estuary Observatory Network (REON) is being developed through a joint venture between the Beacon Institute, Clarkson University, General Electric Inc. and IBM Inc. to monitor New York's Hudson and Mohawk Rivers in real-time. REON uses four sensor platform types with multiple nodes within the network to capture environmentally relevant episodic events. Sensor platform types include: 1) fixed robotic vertical profiler (FRVP); 2) mobile robotic undulating platform (MRUP); 3) fixed acoustic Doppler current profiler (FADCP) and 4) Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV). The FRVP periodically generates a vertical profile with respect to water temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, particle concentration and size distribution, and fluorescence. The MRUP utilizes an undulating tow-body tethered behind a research vessel to measure the same set of water parameters as the FRVP, but does so 'synchronically' over a highly-resolved spatial regime. The fixed ADCP provides continuous water current profiles. The AUV maps four-dimensional (time, latitude, longitude, depth) variation of water quality, water currents and bathymetry along a pre-determined transect route. REON data can be used to identify episodic events, both anthropogenic and natural, that impact the Hudson River. For example, a strong heat signature associated with cooling water discharge from the Indian Point nuclear power plant was detected with the MRUP. The FRVP monitoring platform at Beacon, NY, located in the

  12. A Statewide Private Microwave Wide Area Network for Real-time Natural Hazard Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M. C.; Kent, G.; Smith, K. D.; Plank, G.; Slater, D.; Torrisi, J.; Presser, R.; Straley, K.

    2013-12-01

    datalogger in our seismic network not only for data collection, but also for maintenance and quality control. This has resulted in several partnerships with other agencies. In addition to our seismic station network for earthquake monitoring, we currently manage ~400 more channels of data (many running at 500 Hz) for the National Center for Nuclear Security (NCNS) Source Physics Experiments, a series of chemical explosions at the Nevada National Security Site. Some of our mountaintop stations have been experimentally equipped with near-infrared high-definition fire cameras for wildfire monitoring, and have recently recorded the Bison and Pedlar fires in northwest Nevada. Data for the Nevada EPSCor climate program also utilizes the NSL WAN. Real-time access to data for these experiments greatly reduces the effort required for data archival, quality control, and monitoring equipment failures. Future plans include increasing density of stations in urban areas such as Reno and Las Vegas, and expanding coverage to Tahoe and eastern Nevada.

  13. Real-time Molecular Study of Bystander Effects of Low dose Low LET radiation Using Living Cell Imaging and Nanoparticale Optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natarajan, Mohan [UT Health Science Center at San Antonio; Xu, Nancy R [Old Dominion University; Mohan, Sumathy [UT Health Science Center at San Antonio

    2013-06-03

    In this study two novel approaches are proposed to investigate precisely the low dose low LET radiation damage and its effect on bystander cells in real time. First, a flow shear model system, which would provide us a near in vivo situation where endothelial cells in the presence of extra cellular matrix experiencing continuous flow shear stress, will be used. Endothelial cells on matri-gel (simulated extra cellular matrix) will be subjected to physiological flow shear (that occurs in normal blood vessels). Second, a unique tool (Single nano particle/single live cell/single molecule microscopy and spectroscopy; Figure A) will be used to track the molecular trafficking by single live cell imaging. Single molecule chemical microscopy allows one to single out and study rare events that otherwise might be lost in assembled average measurement, and monitor many target single molecules simultaneously in real-time. Multi color single novel metal nanoparticle probes allow one to prepare multicolor probes (Figure B) to monitor many single components (events) simultaneously and perform multi-complex analysis in real-time. These nano-particles resist to photo bleaching and hence serve as probes for unlimited timeframe of analysis. Single live cell microscopy allows one to image many single cells simultaneously in real-time. With the combination of these unique tools, we will be able to study under near-physiological conditions the cellular and sub-cellular responses (even subtle changes at one molecule level) to low and very low doses of low LET radiation in real time (milli-second or nano-second) at sub-10 nanometer spatial resolution. This would allow us to precisely identify, at least in part, the molecular mediators that are responsible of radiation damage in the irradiated cells and the mediators that are responsible for initiating the signaling in the neighboring cells. Endothelial cells subjected to flow shear (2 dynes/cm2 or 16 dynes/cm2) and exposed to 0.1, 1 and 10

  14. A Wearable Real-Time and Non-Invasive Thoracic Cavity Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Safa

    A surgery-free on-body monitoring system is proposed to evaluate the dielectric constant of internal body tissues (especially lung and heart) and effectively determine irregularities in real-time. The proposed surgery-free on-body monitoring system includes a sensor, a post-processing technique, and an automated data collection circuit. Data are automatically collected from the sensor electrodes and then post processed to extract the electrical properties of the underlying biological tissue(s). To demonstrate the imaging concept, planar and wrap-around sensors are devised. These sensors are designed to detect changes in the dielectric constant of inner tissues (lung and heart). The planar sensor focuses on a single organ while the wrap-around sensors allows for imaging of the thoracic cavity's cross section. Moreover, post-processing techniques are proposed to complement sensors for a more complete on-body monitoring system. The idea behind the post-processing technique is to suppress interference from the outer layers (skin, fat, muscle, and bone). The sensors and post-processing techniques yield high signal (from the inner layers) to noise (from the outer layers) ratio. Additionally, data collection circuits are proposed for a more robust and stand-alone system. The circuit design aims to sequentially activate each port of the sensor and portions of the propagating signal are to be received at all passive ports in the form of a voltage at the probes. The voltages are converted to scattering parameters which are then used in the post-processing technique to obtain epsilonr. The concept of wearability is also considered through the use of electrically conductive fibers (E-fibers). These fibers show matching performance to that of copper, especially at low frequencies making them a viable substitute. For the cases considered, the proposed sensors show promising results in recovering the permittivity of deep tissues with a maximum error of 13.5%. These sensors

  15. Real time simulation application to monitor the stability limit of power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartono, Kuo, Ming-Tse

    2017-06-01

    If the power system falls into an unsteady state, there will be voltage collapse in which the power system will be separated into small systems. Identifying the stability reserve in conformity with a certain practical operation condition is very important for the system management and operation. In fact, the global power system issue has caused serious outages due to voltage collapse such as in the United States-Canada in August 14, 2003; South London in August 28, 2003; southern Sweden and eastern Denmark in September 23, 2003; and Italy on September 28, 2003, and in Vietnam where power system problem led to power loss on 17 May 2005, 27 December 2006, 20 July 2007, and 10 September 2007. The analysis shows that the phenomenon is related to the loss of system stability. Thus, the operational system as well as the power system designs should be studied related to the issue of the system stability. To study the static stability of the power system, different approximate standards, called pragmatic criteria, were examined. Markovits has investigated the application of the standard of dP/dd to test the stability of the power button and dq/dU to check the voltage stability of the load button [1]. However, the storage stability when calculating standard dP/d d is usually much larger than the reserves when calculating standard dq/dU [1]. This paper presents a method to build a possible operation region in the power plane of load bus which works in comply with the stability limit to evaluate the stability reserve of the power system. This method is used to build a program to monitor the stability reserve of IEEE 39 Bus Power System in real time. To monitor the stability reserve of IEEE 39 nodes power system, articles based on the standard dq/dU was used to calculate the assessment. When using standard dq/dU to check for voltage stability load button, the amount of storage stability can be calculated by the following steps: first, transformed replacement scheme Masonry on

  16. Further Evaluation of a Satellite-based Real-time Global Flood Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H.; Adler, R. F.; Tian, Y.; Hong, Y.; Policelli, F.

    2011-12-01

    A real-time global flood monitoring system (GFMS) driven by Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) rainfall was further developed with a relatively more physically based hydrological model. The performance in flood detection of this new version of the GFMS was evaluated against available flood event archives (Wu et al, 2011). This new GFMS is quantitatively evaluated in terms of flood event detection during the TRMM era (1998-2010) using a global retrospective simulation (3-hourly and 1/8 degree spatial resolution) with the TMPA 3B42V6 rainfall. Four methods were explored to define flood events from the model results, including three percentile-based statistic methods and a Log Pearson-III flood frequency curve method. The evaluation showed the GFMS detection performance improves with longer flood durations and larger affected areas. The impact of dams was detected in the validation statistics. The presence of dams tends to result in more false alarms and false alarm duration. The GFMS statistics for flood durations > 3 days and for areas without dams vary across the four identification methods, but center around a POD of ~ 0.70 and a FAR of ~ 0.65. When both flood events-based categorical verification metrics and flood duration metrics are considered, a method using the 95th percentile runoff depth plus two parameters related to variability and basin size (method 3) may be more suitable for application to our routine, real-time flood calculations. The evaluation showed the GFMS detection performance improves with longer flood durations and larger affected areas. The new GFMS (operationally available at http://trmm.gsfc.nasa.gov/) improved not only the flood detection performance, but also in the presentation of flood evolution (start, development and recession) in the drainage network. The new GFMS is further evaluated with more quantitative flood properties including flood peak timing, peak stage, peak volumes

  17. Real time monitoring in-vivo micro-environment through the wound heal mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jack

    2013-02-01

    One of the In-vivo system's challenge is real time display the sensing information. Usually Ultrasound, CT, MRI, PET are used to get the internal information, this thesis proposed another approach to address the display challenge. Special nano-particles are in-taken or injected to living subject (usually into blood circulation) to sense and collect psychological information when the active particles pass through the tissues of interest. Using the wound healing mechanism, these activated particles (Information collected) can be drifted out to the wound area and adhibited close to the skin, then skin can show different color if the activated particles are concentrated enough in the specific area to create a skin screen. The skin screen can display the blood status, internal organ's temperature, pressure depending the nano-particles' function and their pathway. This approach can also be used to display in-body video if the particles are sensitive and selective enough. In the future, the skin screen can be bio-computer's monitor. The wound healing in an animal model normally divides in four phase: Hemostasis, Inflammation, Proliferation and Maturation. Hemostasis phase is to form a stable clot sealing the damaged vessel. Inflammation phase causes the blood vessels to become leaky releasing plasma and PMN's (polymorphonucleocytes) into the surrounding tissue and provide the first line of defense against infection. Proliferation phase involves replacement of dermal tissues and sometimes subdermal tissues in deeper wounds as well as contraction of the wound. Maturation phase remodels the dermal tissues mainly by fibroblast to produce greater tensile strength. The skin screen wound will be carefully controlled to be triggered at dermis layer.

  18. Quantitative detection of Vibrio cholera toxin by real-time and dynamic cytotoxicity monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Dazhi; Luo, Yun; Zheng, Min; Li, Haijing; Zhang, Jing; Stampfl, Melinda; Xu, Xiao; Ding, Gangqiang; Zhang, Yanjun; Tang, Yi-Wei

    2013-12-01

    We report here the quantitative detection of Vibrio cholerae toxin (CT) in isolates and stool specimens by dynamic monitoring of the full course of CT-mediated cytotoxicity in a real-time cell analysis (RTCA) system. Four cell lines, including Y-1 mouse adrenal tumor cells, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, small intestine epithelial (FHs74Int) cells, and mouse adrenal gland (PC12-Adh) cells, were evaluated for their suitability for CT-induced cytotoxicity testing. Among them, the Y-1 line was demonstrated to be the most sensitive for CT-mediated cytotoxicity, with limits of detection of 7.0 pg/ml for purified CT and 0.11 ng/ml for spiked CT in pooled negative stool specimens. No CT-mediated cytotoxicity was observed for nontoxigenic V. cholerae, non-V. cholerae species, or non-V. cholerae enterotoxins. The CT-RTCA assay was further validated with 100 stool specimens consecutively collected from patients with diarrhea and 200 V. cholerae isolates recovered from patients and the environment, in comparison to a reference using three detection methods. The CT-RTCA assay had sensitivities and specificities of 97.5% and 100.0%, respectively, for V. cholerae isolates and 90.0% and 97.2% for stool specimens. For stool specimens spiked with CT concentrations ranging from 3.5 pg/ml to 1.8 ng/ml, the inoculation-to-detection time was 1.12 ± 0.38 h, and the values were inversely correlated with CT concentrations (ρ = -1; P = 0.01). The results indicate that the CT-RTCA assay with the Y-1 cell line provides a rapid and sensitive tool for the quantitative detection of CT activities in clinical specimens.

  19. Proposition of novel classification approach and features for improved real-time arrhythmia monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon Jae; Heo, Jeong; Park, Kwang Suk; Kim, Sungwan

    2016-08-01

    Arrhythmia refers to a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, fast, or slow due to abnormal electrical activity in the heart. Some types of arrhythmia such as ventricular fibrillation may result in cardiac arrest or death. Thus, arrhythmia detection becomes an important issue, and various studies have been conducted. Additionally, an arrhythmia detection algorithm for portable devices such as mobile phones has recently been developed because of increasing interest in e-health care. This paper proposes a novel classification approach and features, which are validated for improved real-time arrhythmia monitoring. The classification approach that was employed for arrhythmia detection is based on the concept of ensemble learning and the Taguchi method and has the advantage of being accurate and computationally efficient. The electrocardiography (ECG) data for arrhythmia detection was obtained from the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database (n=48). A novel feature, namely the heart rate variability calculated from 5s segments of ECG, which was not considered previously, was used. The novel classification approach and feature demonstrated arrhythmia detection accuracy of 89.13%. When the same data was classified using the conventional support vector machine (SVM), the obtained accuracy was 91.69%, 88.14%, and 88.74% for Gaussian, linear, and polynomial kernels, respectively. In terms of computation time, the proposed classifier was 5821.7 times faster than conventional SVM. In conclusion, the proposed classifier and feature showed performance comparable to those of previous studies, while the computational complexity and update interval were highly reduced.

  20. Real-time monitoring of calcification process by Sporosarcina pasteurii biofilm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Dustin; Ummadi, Jyothir Ganesh; Thurber, Andrew R.; Allau, Yvan; Verba, Circe; Colwell, Frederick; Torres, Marta E.; Koley, Dipankar

    2016-01-01

    Sporosarcina pasteurii is known to produce calcite or biocement in the presence of urea and Ca2+. Herein, we report the use of novel ultramicrosensors such as pH, Ca2+, and redox sensors, along with a scanning electrochemical microscope (SECM), to monitor a real-time, bacteria-mediated urea hydrolysis process and subsequent changes in morphology due to CaCO3 precipitation. We report that the surface pH of a live biofilm changed rapidly from 7.4 to 9.2 within 2 min, whereas similar fast depletion (10 min) of Ca2+ was observed from 85 mM to 10 mM in the presence of a high urea (10 g L-1) brine solution at 23 °C. Both the pH and the Ca2+ concentration profiles were extended up to 600 μm from the biofilm surface, whereas the bulk chemical composition of the brine solution remained constant over the entire 4 h of SECM experiments. In addition, we observed a change in biofilm surface morphology and an increase in overall biofilm height of 50 μm after 4 h of precipitation. Electron microscopy confirmed the changes in surface morphology and formation of CaCO3 crystals. Development of the Ca2+ profile took 10 min, whereas that of the pH profile took 2 min. This finding indicates that the initial urea hydrolysis process is fast and limited by urease or number of bacteria, whereas later CaCO3 formation and growth of crystals is a slow chemical process. The ultramicrosensors and approaches employed here are capable of accurately characterizing bioremediation on temporal and spatial scales pertinent to the microbial communities and the processes they mediate.

  1. Real-Time, In Vivo Monitoring, and Quantitative Assessment of Intra-Arterial Vasospasm Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gölitz, Philipp; Kaschka, Iris; Lang, Stefan; Roessler, Karl; Knossalla, Frauke; Doerfler, Arnd

    2016-08-01

    Our study aimed to evaluate whether the effect of an intra-arterial vasospasm therapy can be assessed quantitatively by in vivo blood flow analysis using the postprocessing algorithm parametric color coding (PCC). We evaluated 17 patients presenting with acute clinical deterioration due to vasospasm following subarachnoidal hemorrhage treated with intra-arterial nimodipine application. Pre- and post-interventional DSA series were post-processed by PCC. The relative time to maximum opacification (rTmax) was calculated in 14 arterially and venously located points of interest. From that data, the pre- and post-interventional cerebral circulation time (CirT) was calculated. Additionally, the arterial vessel diameters were measured. Pre- and post-interventional values were compared and tested for significance, respectively. Flow analysis revealed in all arterial vessel segments a non-statistically significant prolongation of rTmax after treatment. The mean CirT was 5.62 s (±1.19 s) pre-interventionally and 5.16 s (±0.81 s) post-interventionally, and the difference turned out as statistically significant (p = 0.039). A significantly increased diameter was measurable in all arterial segments post-interventionally. PCC is a fast applicable imaging technique that allows via real-time and in vivo blood flow analysis a quantitative assessment of the effect of intra-arterial vasospasm therapy. Our results seem to validate in vivo that an intra-arterial nimodipine application induces not only vasodilatation of the larger vessels, but also improves the microcirculatory flow, leading to a shortened cerebral CirT that reaches normal range post-interventionally. Procedural monitoring via PCC offers the option to compare quantitatively different therapy regimes, which allows optimization of existing approaches and implementation of individualized treatment strategies.

  2. Microelectrode chip based real time monitoring of vital MCF-7 mamma carcinoma cells by impedance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Peter; Rothermel, Andrée; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G; Robitzki, Andrea A

    2008-10-15

    Sensorchip based impedance spectroscopy can detect inhibitory effects of human neuropeptide Y (hNPY) on living cells in a non-invasive labelling free way in real time without the need of supporting reagents. Since the discovery that neoplasmatic transformations in breast cancer are correlated with a change of the receptor subtype expression of hNPY in the affected tissue, the hNPY receptor-ligand system has come to the fore of cancer research. Today there are different methods detecting hNPY receptor interactions like fluorescent and radioactive labelling or detecting hNPY-pathway activation like cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-assays. For all these assays it is necessary to either label related proteins with additional substances, which can affect the nature state of the cell, or the need of producing cell lysate which allows only a snapshot of the investigated cells. To overcome these problems we established a new method to detect hNPY-receptor interactions. Therefore, we monitor the complex electric resistance (impedance) of cells attached to a microelectrode over a wide frequency range. Cell alterations are detected as changes in the impedance spectra. After application of the adenylyl cyclase-stimulating reagent forskolin, impedance is decreased at 5 kHz frequency within minutes. This effect can be inhibited by preincubating the cells with hNPY for a time range of 20 min. The inhibitory effect of hNPY can be washed out and the same cells can be stimulated by forskolin again.

  3. [Research and implementation of a real-time monitoring system for running status of medical monitors based on the internet of things].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiming; Qian, Mingli; Li, Long; Li, Bin

    2014-07-01

    This paper proposed a real-time monitoring system for running status of medical monitors based on the internet of things. In the aspect of hardware, a solution of ZigBee networks plus 470 MHz networks is proposed. In the aspect of software, graphical display of monitoring interface and real-time equipment failure alarm is implemented. The system has the function of remote equipment failure detection and wireless localization, which provides a practical and effective method for medical equipment management.

  4. Real-time on-line ultrasonic monitoring for bubbles in ceramic 'slip' in pottery pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Geun Tae; Leighton, Timothy G

    2010-01-01

    When casting ceramic items in potteries, liquid 'slip' is passed from a settling tank, through overhead pipelines, before being pumped manually into the moulds. It is not uncommon for bubbles to be introduced into the slip as it passes through the complex piping network, and indeed the presence of bubbles is a major source of financial loss to the ceramics industry worldwide. This is because the bubbles almost always remain undetected until after the ceramic items have been fired in a kiln, during which process bubbles expand and create unwanted holes in the pottery. Since there it is usually an interval of several hours between the injection of the slip into the moulds, and the inspection of the items after firing, such bubble generation goes undetected on the production line during the manufacture of hundreds or even thousands of ceramic units. Not only does this mean hours of wasted staff time, power consumption and production line time: the raw material which makes up these faulty items cannot even be recycled, as fired ceramic cannot be converted back into slip. Currently, the state-of-the-art method for detecting bubbles in the opaque ceramic slip is slow and invasive, can only be used off-line, and requires expertise which is rarely available. This paper describes the invention, engineering and in-factory testing across Europe of an ultrasonic system for real-time monitoring for the presence of bubbles in casting slip. It interprets changes in the scattering statistics accompanying the presence of the bubbles, the latter being detected through perturbations in the received signal when a narrow-band ultrasonic probing wave is transmitted through the slip. The device can be bolted onto the outside of the pipeline, or used in-line. It is automated, and requires no special expertise. The acoustic problems which had to be solved were severe, and included making the system capable of monitoring the slip regardless of the material of pipe (plastic, steel, etc.) and

  5. Near-Real-Time Detection and Monitoring of Intense Pyroconvection from Geostationary Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, D. A.; Fromm, M. D.; Hyer, E. J.; Surratt, M. L.; Solbrig, J. E.; Campbell, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    Intense fire-triggered thunderstorms, known as pyrocumulonimbus (or pyroCb), can alter fire behavior, influence smoke plume trajectories, and hinder fire suppression efforts. PyroCb are also known for injecting a significant quantity of aerosol mass into the upper-troposphere and lower-stratosphere (UTLS). Near-real-time (NRT) detection and monitoring of pyroCb is highly desirable for a variety of forecasting and research applications. The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) recently developed the first automated NRT pyroCb detection algorithm for geostationary satellite sensors. The algorithm uses multispectral infrared observations to isolate deep convective clouds with the distinct microphysical signal of pyroCb. Application of this algorithm to 88 intense wildfires observed during the 2013 fire season in western North America resulted in detection of individual intense events, pyroCb embedded within traditional convection, and multiple, short-lived pulses of activity. Comparisons with a community inventory indicate that this algorithm captures the majority of pyroCb. The primary limitation of the current system is that pyroCb anvils can be small relative to satellite pixel size, especially in in regions with large viewing angles. The algorithm is also sensitive to some false positives from traditional convection that either ingests smoke or exhibits extreme updraft velocities. This algorithm has been automated using the GeoIPS processing system developed at NRL, which produces a variety of imagery products and statistical output for rapid analysis of potential pyroCb events. NRT application of this algorithm has been extended to the majority of regions worldwide known to have a high frequency of pyroCb occurrence. This involves a constellation comprised of GOES-East, GOES-West, and Himawari-8. Imagery is posted immediately to an NRL-maintained web page. Alerts are generated by the system and disseminated via email. This detection system also has potential to serve

  6. St. Patrick's Day 2015 geomagnetic storm analysis based on Real Time Ionosphere Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rigo, Alberto

    2017-04-01

    Ionosphere Monitoring (RTIM) is a new Working Group within the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) Sub-Commission 4.3 "Atmosphere Remote Sensing". The complementary expertise of the participating research groups allows to analyse the ionospheric behaviour from a broad perspective, taking benefit of comparing multiple independent real time and near real time ionospheric approaches. In this context, a detailed analysis will be presented for the days in March, 2015 surrounding St. Patrick's Day 2015 geomagnetic storm, based on the existing ionospheric models (global or regional) within the group, which are mainly based on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and ionosonde data. For this purpose, a variety of ionospheric parameters will be considered, including Total Electron Content (TEC), F2 layer critical frequency (foF2), F2 layer peak (hmF2), bottomside half-thickness (B0) and ionospheric disturbance W-index. Also, ionospheric high-frequency perturbations such as Travelling Ionospheric Disturbances (TIDs), scintillations and the impact of solar flares facing the Earth will be presented to derive a clear picture of the ionospheric dynamics. Among other sources of information to take part in the comparisons, there will be (1) scintillation results -from MONITOR ESA/ESTEC-funded project- derived by means of S4 index and Sigma Phi (IEEA), specially significant in the African sector and European high latitudes, (2) dynamics of the global maps of W-index with 1h resolution derived from JPL Global Ionospheric Maps (GIMs; IZMIRAN), (3) deviations from expected quiet-time behavior analysed in terms of foF2, hmF2, B0 and B1 based on IRTAM and GIRO network of digisondes (Lowell), showing F2 layer peculiar changes due to the storm, (4) statistics based on the median of the VTEC for the 15 previous days considering VTEC european regional maps (ROB), (5) time series of VTEC data that are derived by running the NRT ionosphere model of DGFI-TUM in offline mode, which show

  7. Real-Time Distribution Feeder Performance Monitoring, Advisory Control, and Health Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoupis, James; Mousavi, Mirrasoul

    2014-09-30

    New data collection system equipment was installed in Xcel Energy substations and data was collected from 6 substations and 20 feeders. During Phase I, ABB collected and analyzed 793 real-time events to date from 6 Xcel Energy substations and continues today. The development and integration of several applications was completed during the course of this project, including a model-based faulted segment identification algorithm, with very positive results validated with field-gathered data discussed and included in this report. For mostly underground feeders, the success rate is 90% and the overreach rate is 90%. For mostly overhead feeders, the success rate is 74% and the overreach rate is 50%. The developed method is producing very accurate results for mostly underground feeders. For mostly overhead feeders, due to the bad OMS data quality and varying fault resistance when arcing, the developed method is producing good results but with much room for improvement. One area where the algorithm can be improved is the accuracy for sub-cycle fault events. In these cases, the accuracy of the conventional signal processing methods suffers due to most of these methods being based on a one-cycle processing window. By improving the signal processing accuracy, the accuracy of the faulted segment identification algorithm will also improve significantly. ABB intends to devote research in this area in the near future to help solve this problem. Other new applications developed during the course of the project include volt/VAR monitoring, unbalanced capacitor switching detection, unbalanced feeder loading detection, and feeder overloading detection. An important aspect of the demonstration phase of the project is to show the ability to provide adequate “heads-up” time ahead of customer calls or AMI reports so that the operators are provided with the much needed time to collect information needed to address an outage. The advance notification feature of the demonstration system

  8. The effects of real-time continuous glucose monitoring on oxidative stress and mortality in critically ill patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱武强

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of real-time continuous glucose monitoring(RT-CGM) system on oxidative stress and mortality in critically ill patients and to explore the correlation between glucose index,oxidative stress and mortality. Methods 123 selected cases of

  9. Monitoring radiofrequency ablation using real-time ultrasound Nakagami imaging combined with frequency and temporal compounding techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhuhuang; Wu, Shuicai; Wang, Chiao-Yin; Ma, Hsiang-Yang; Lin, Chung-Chih; Tsui, Po-Hsiang

    2015-01-01

    Gas bubbles induced during the radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of tissues can affect the detection of ablation zones (necrosis zone or thermal lesion) during ultrasound elastography. To resolve this problem, our previous study proposed ultrasound Nakagami imaging for detecting thermal-induced bubble formation to evaluate ablation zones. To prepare for future applications, this study (i) created a novel algorithmic scheme based on the frequency and temporal compounding of Nakagami imaging for enhanced ablation zone visualization, (ii) integrated the proposed algorithm into a clinical scanner to develop a real-time Nakagami imaging system for monitoring RFA, and (iii) investigated the applicability of Nakagami imaging to various types of tissues. The performance of the real-time Nakagami imaging system in visualizing RFA-induced ablation zones was validated by measuring porcine liver (n = 18) and muscle tissues (n = 6). The experimental results showed that the proposed algorithm can operate on a standard clinical ultrasound scanner to monitor RFA in real time. The Nakagami imaging system effectively monitors RFA-induced ablation zones in liver tissues. However, because tissue properties differ, the system cannot visualize ablation zones in muscle fibers. In the future, real-time Nakagami imaging should be focused on the RFA of the liver and is suggested as an alternative monitoring tool when advanced elastography is unavailable or substantial bubbles exist in the ablation zone.

  10. A Satellite-Based Surface Radiation Climatology Derived by Combining Climate Data Records and Near-Real-Time Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodo Ahrens

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a method for adjusting long-term climate data records (CDRs for the integrated use with near-real-time data using the example of surface incoming solar irradiance (SIS. Recently, a 23-year long (1983–2005 continuous SIS CDR has been generated based on the visible channel (0.45–1 μm of the MVIRI radiometers onboard the geostationary Meteosat First Generation Platform. The CDR is available from the EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM SAF. Here, it is assessed whether a homogeneous extension of the SIS CDR to the present is possible with operationally generated surface radiation data provided by CM SAF using the SEVIRI and GERB instruments onboard the Meteosat Second Generation satellites. Three extended CM SAF SIS CDR versions consisting of MVIRI-derived SIS (1983–2005 and three different SIS products derived from the SEVIRI and GERB instruments onboard the MSG satellites (2006 onwards were tested. A procedure to detect shift inhomogeneities in the extended data record (1983–present was applied that combines the Standard Normal Homogeneity Test (SNHT and a penalized maximal T-test with visual inspection. Shift detection was done by comparing the SIS time series with the ground stations mean, in accordance with statistical significance. Several stations of the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN and about 50 stations of the Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA over Europe were used as the ground-based reference. The analysis indicates several breaks in the data record between 1987 and 1994 probably due to artefacts in the raw data and instrument failures. After 2005 the MVIRI radiometer was replaced by the narrow-band SEVIRI and the broadband GERB radiometers and a new retrieval algorithm was applied. This induces significant challenges for the homogenisation across the satellite generations. Homogenisation is performed by applying a mean-shift correction depending on the shift size of

  11. Radiation Monitoring Equipment Dosimeter Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Kenneth A.; Golightly, Michael J.; Quam, William

    1992-01-01

    Spacecraft crews risk exposure to relatively high levels of ionizing radiation. This radiation may come from charged particles trapped in the Earth's magnetic fields, charged particles released by solar flare activity, galactic cosmic radiation, energetic photons and neutrons generated by interaction of these primary radiations with spacecraft and crew, and man-made sources (e.g., nuclear power generators). As missions are directed to higher radiation level orbits, viz., higher altitudes and inclinations, longer durations, and increased flight frequency, radiation exposure could well become a major factor for crew stay time and career lengths. To more accurately define the radiological exposure and risk to the crew, real-time radiation monitoring instrumentation, which is capable of identifying and measuring the various radiation components, must be flown. This presentation describes a radiation dosimeter instrument which was successfully flown on the Space Shuttle, the RME-3.

  12. Performance of data acceptance criteria over 50 months from an automatic real-time environmental radiation surveillance network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casanovas, R., E-mail: ramon.casanovas@urv.cat [Unitat de Fisica Medica, Facultat de Medicina i Ciencies de la Salut, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, ES-43201 Reus (Tarragona) (Spain); Morant, J.J. [Servei de Proteccio Radiologica, Facultat de Medicina i Ciencies de la Salut, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, ES-43201 Reus (Tarragona) (Spain); Lopez, M. [Unitat de Fisica Medica, Facultat de Medicina i Ciencies de la Salut, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, ES-43201 Reus (Tarragona) (Spain); Servei de Proteccio Radiologica, Facultat de Medicina i Ciencies de la Salut, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, ES-43201 Reus (Tarragona) (Spain); Hernandez-Giron, I. [Unitat de Fisica Medica, Facultat de Medicina i Ciencies de la Salut, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, ES-43201 Reus (Tarragona) (Spain); Batalla, E. [Servei de Coordinacio d' Activitats Radioactives, Departament d' Economia i Finances, Generalitat de Catalunya, ES-08018 Barcelona (Spain); Salvado, M. [Unitat de Fisica Medica, Facultat de Medicina i Ciencies de la Salut, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, ES-43201 Reus (Tarragona) (Spain)

    2011-08-15

    The automatic real-time environmental radiation surveillance network of Catalonia (Spain) comprises two subnetworks; one with 9 aerosol monitors and the other with 8 Geiger monitors together with 2 water monitors located in the Ebre river. Since September 2006, several improvements were implemented in order to get better quality and quantity of data, allowing a more accurate data analysis. However, several causes (natural causes, equipment failure, artificial external causes and incidents in nuclear power plants) may produce radiological measured values mismatched with the own station background, whether spurious without significance or true radiological values. Thus, data analysis for a 50-month period was made and allowed to establish an easily implementable statistical criterion to find those values that require special attention. This criterion proved a very useful tool for creating a properly debugged database and to give a quick response to equipment failures or possible radiological incidents. This paper presents the results obtained from the criterion application, including the figures for the expected, raw and debugged data, percentages of missing data grouped by causes and radiological measurements from the networks. Finally, based on the discussed information, recommendations for the improvement of the network are identified to obtain better radiological information and analysis capabilities. - Highlights: > Causes producing data mismatching with the own stations background are described. > Causes may be natural, equipment failure, external or nuclear plants incidents. > These causes can produce either spurious or true radiological data. > A criterion to find these data was implemented and tested for a 50-month period. > Recommendations for the improvement of the network are identified.

  13. A scientific database for real-time Neutron Monitor measurements - taking Neutron Monitors into the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigies, Christian

    2012-07-01

    The Neutron Monitor Database project, www.nmdb.eu, has been funded in 2008 and 2009 by the European Commission's 7th framework program (FP7). Neutron monitors (NMs) have been in use worldwide since the International Geophysical Year (IGY) in 1957 and cosmic ray data from the IGY and the improved NM64 NMs has been distributed since this time, but a common data format existed only for data with one hour resolution. This data was first distributed in printed books, later via the World Data Center ftp server. In the 1990's the first NM stations started to record data at higher resolutions (typically 1 minute) and publish in on their webpages. However, every NM station chose their own format, making it cumbersome to work with this distributed data. In NMDB all European and some neighboring NM stations came together to agree on a common format for high-resolution data and made this available via a centralized database. The goal of NMDB is to make all data from all NM stations available in real-time. The original NMDB network has recently been joined by the Bartol Research Institute (Newark DE, USA), the National Autonomous University of Mexico and the North-West University (Potchefstroom, South Africa). The data is accessible to everyone via an easy to use webinterface, but expert users can also directly access the database to build applications like real-time space weather alerts. Even though SQL databases are used today by most webservices (blogs, wikis, social media, e-commerce), the power of an SQL database has not yet been fully realized by the scientific community. In training courses, we are teaching how to make use of NMDB, how to join NMDB, and how to ensure the data quality. The present status of the extended NMDB will be presented. The consortium welcomes further data providers to help increase the scientific contributions of the worldwide neutron monitor network to heliospheric physics and space weather.

  14. Real-time, continuous water-quality monitoring in Indiana and Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoda, Megan E.; Lathrop, Timothy R.; Risch, Martin R.

    2015-01-01

    Water-quality “super” gages (also known as “sentry” gages) provide real-time, continuous measurements of the physical and chemical characteristics of stream water at or near selected U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamgages in Indiana and Kentucky. A super gage includes streamflow and water-quality instrumentation and representative stream sample collection for laboratory analysis. USGS scientists can use statistical surrogate models to relate instrument values to analyzed chemical concentrations at a super gage. Real-time, continuous and laboratory-analyzed concentration and load data are publicly accessible on USGS Web pages.

  15. Real-time image processing for non-contact monitoring of dynamic displacements using smartphone technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Jae-Hong; Gelo, Nikolas J.; Jo, Hongki

    2016-04-01

    The newly developed smartphone application, named RINO, in this study allows measuring absolute dynamic displacements and processing them in real time using state-of-the-art smartphone technologies, such as high-performance graphics processing unit (GPU), in addition to already powerful CPU and memories, embedded high-speed/ resolution camera, and open-source computer vision libraries. A carefully designed color-patterned target and user-adjustable crop filter enable accurate and fast image processing, allowing up to 240fps for complete displacement calculation and real-time display. The performances of the developed smartphone application are experimentally validated, showing comparable accuracy with those of conventional laser displacement sensor.

  16. Comparison of FEA with condition monitoring for real-time damage detection of bearing using infrared thermography techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yoon Jae; Ranjit, Shrestha; Kim, Won Tae [Dept. of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Kongju National University, Cheonan(Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Since real-time monitoring systems, such as early fault detection, have been very important, an infrared thermography technique was proposed as a new diagnosis method. This study focused on damage detection and temperature characteristic analysis of ball bearings using the non-destructive, infrared thermography method. In this paper, for the reliability assessment, infrared experimental data were compared with finite element analysis (FEA) results from ANSYS. In this investigation, the temperature characteristics of ball bearing were analyzed under various loading conditions. Finally, it was confirmed that the infrared thermography technique was useful for the real-time detection of damage to bearings.

  17. Development of real-time monitoring system using wired and wireless networks in a full-scale ship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bu-Geun Paik

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the real-time monitoring system is developed based on the wireless sensor network (WSN and power line communication (PLC employed in the 3,000-ton-class training ship. The WSN consists of sensor nodes, router, gateway and middleware. The PLC is composed of power lines, modems, Ethernet gateway and phase-coupler. The basic tests show that the ship has rather good environments for the wired and wireless communications. The developed real-time monitoring system is applied to recognize the thermal environments of main-engine room and one cabin in the ship. The main-engine room has lots of heat sources and needs careful monitoring to satisfy safe operation condition or detect any human errors beforehand. The monitoring is performed in two regions near the turbocharger and cascade tank, considered as heat sources. The cabin on the second deck is selected to monitor the thermal environments because it is close to the heat source of main engine. The monitoring results of the cabin show the thermal environment is varied by the human activity. The real-time monitoring for the thermal environment would be useful for the planning of the ventilation strategy based on the traces of the human activity against inconvenient thermal environments as well as the recognizing the temperature itself in each cabin.

  18. Real-time monitoring and manipulation of single bio-molecules in free solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hung-Wing [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The observation and manipulation of single biomolecules allow their dynamic behaviors to be studied to provide insight into molecular genetics, biochip assembly, biosensor design, DNA biophysics. In a PDMS/glass microchannel, a nonuniform electroosmotic flow (EOF) was created. By using a scanning confocal fluorescence microscope and total internal-reflection fluorescence microscope (TIRFM), we demonstrated that negatively charged DNA molecules were focused by the nonuniform EOF into a thin layer at the glass surface. This phenomenon was applied to selectively detect target DNA molecules without requiring the separation of excessive probes and can be applied continuously to achieve high throughput. A variable-angle-TIRFM was constructed for imaging single DNA molecule dynamics at a solid/liquid interface. Implications we have are that the measured intensities cannot be used directly to determine the distances of molecules from the surface and the experimental counting results depict the distance-dependent dynamics of molecules near the surface; Molecules at low ionic strengths experience electrostatic repulsion at distances much further away from the surface than the calculated thickness of the electrical double layer. {delta}-DNA was employed as a nanoprobe for different functionalized surfaces to elucidate adsorption in chromatography. The 12-base unpaired ends of this DNA provide exposed purine and pyrimidine groups for adsorption. Patterns of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) and patterns of metal oxides are generated. By recording the real-time dynamic motion of DNA molecules at the SAMs/aqueous interface, the various parameters governing the retention of an analyte during chromatographic separation can be studied. Even subtle differences among adsorptive forces can be revealed. Dynamic conformational changes of the prosthetic group, flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), in flavoprotein NADH peroxidase, in thioredoxin reductase, and in free solution were monitored

  19. The in vitro real-time oscillation monitoring system identifies potential entrainment factors for circadian clocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuda Akio

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Circadian rhythms are endogenous, self-sustained oscillations with approximately 24-hr rhythmicity that are manifested in various physiological and metabolic processes. The circadian organization of these processes in mammals is governed by the master oscillator within the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN of the hypothalamus. Recent findings revealed that circadian oscillators exist in most organs, tissues, and even in immortalized cells, and that the oscillators in peripheral tissues are likely to be coordinated by SCN, the master oscillator. Some candidates for endogenous entrainment factors have sporadically been reported, however, their details remain mainly obscure. Results We developed the in vitro real-time oscillation monitoring system (IV-ROMS by measuring the activity of luciferase coupled to the oscillatory gene promoter using photomultiplier tubes and applied this system to screen and identify factors able to influence circadian rhythmicity. Using this IV-ROMS as the primary screening of entrainment factors for circadian clocks, we identified 12 candidates as the potential entrainment factor in a total of 299 peptides and bioactive lipids. Among them, four candidates (endothelin-1, all-trans retinoic acid, 9-cis retinoic acid, and 13-cis retinoic acid have already been reported as the entrainment factors in vivo and in vitro. We demonstrated that one of the novel candidates, 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2, a natural ligand of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ, triggers the rhythmic expression of endogenous clock genes in NIH3T3 cells. Furthermore, we showed that 15d-PGJ2 transiently induces Cry1, Cry2, and Rorα mRNA expressions and that 15d-PGJ2-induced entrainment signaling pathway is PPAR-γ – and MAPKs (ERK, JNK, p38MAPK-independent. Conclusion Here, we identified 15d-PGJ2 as an entrainment factor in vitro. Using our developed IV-ROMS to screen 299 compounds, we found eight

  20. Real-time monitoring and structural control of a wind turbine using a rocking system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caterino, Nicola; Spizzuoco, Mariacristina; Georgakis, Christos T.

    2016-01-01

    The design of a semi-active (SA) control system to mitigate wind induced structural demand to high wind turbine towers is discussed herein. A variable restraint at the base, able to modify in real time its mechanical properties according to the instantaneous response of the tower, is proposed...

  1. The first clinical treatment with kilovoltage intrafraction monitoring (KIM): A real-time image guidance method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keall, Paul J.; Aun Ng, Jin; O'Brien, Ricky;

    2015-01-01

    system. A 120° pretreatment kV imaging arc was acquired to build the patient-specific 2D to 3D motion correlation. The kV imager was activated during the megavoltage (MV) treatment, a dual arc VMAT prostate treatment, to estimate the 3D prostate position in real-time. All necessary ethics, legal...

  2. The Real time Monitoring Of Technological Processes based on www technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roškanin Martin

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with the possibilities of acquisition information of technological process development in the real time. The ways and methods of representation of this information on client site in the www page form are discussed. The application of one of this method is illustrated.

  3. Real-time Series Resistance Monitoring in PV Systems; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deceglie, M. G.; Silverman, T. J.; Marion, B.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2015-06-14

    We apply the physical principles of a familiar method, suns-Voc, to a new application: the real-time detection of series resistance changes in modules and systems operating outside. The real-time series resistance (RTSR) method that we describe avoids the need for collecting IV curves or constructing full series-resistance-free IV curves. RTSR is most readily deployable at the module level on apply the physical principles of a familiar method, suns-Voc, to a new application: the real-time detection of series resistance changes in modules and systems operating outside. The real-time series resistance (RTSR) method that we describe avoids the need for collecting IV curves or constructing full series-resistance-free IV curves. RTSR is most readily deployable at the module level on micro-inverters or module-integrated electronics, but it can also be extended to full strings. Automated detection of series resistance increases can provide early warnings of some of the most common reliability issues, which also pose fire risks, including broken ribbons, broken solder bonds, and contact problems in the junction or combiner box. We describe the method in detail and describe a sample application to data collected from modules operating in the field.

  4. Evaluation of Select Sensors for Real-Time Monitoring of Escherichia coli in Water Distribution Systems▿

    OpenAIRE

    Miles, Syreeta L.; Sinclair, Ryan G.; Riley, Mark R; Pepper, Ian L

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated real-time sensing of Escherichia coli as a microbial contaminant in water distribution systems. Most sensors responded to increased E. coli concentrations, showing that select sensors can detect microbial water quality changes and be utilized as part of a contaminant warning system.

  5. Monitoring the catalytic synthesis of glycerol carbonate by real-time attenuated total reflection FTIR spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calvino-Casilda, V.; Mul, G.; Fernandez, J.F.; Rubio-Marcos, F.; Banares, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    In situ Attenuated Total Reflectance FTIR spectroscopy was used to study the carbonylation of glycerol with urea. Cobalt oxide nanoparticles, Co3O4, hierarchically dispersed on zinc oxide microparticles, ZnO, were used as catalysts. The present work demonstrates that in situ real-time attenuated tot

  6. Real time continuous oxygen concentration monitoring system during malaxation for the production of Virgin Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiello, G.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available During the mechanical extraction process of Virgin Olive Oil (VOO some important physical phenomena and enzymatic transformations occur which influence the quality of the final product. The control of process parameters is crucial to ensure the quality of VOO, therefore process monitoring and control is a fundamental requirement in the modern VOO processing industry. The present work proposes an innovative Real-Time Monitoring System (RTMS aimed at continuously measuring the oxygen concentration during the malaxation process in order to establish a correlation with the quality of the final product obtained. This monitoring system is based on an oxygen concentration sensor directly connected to the malaxation chamber and a data acquisition system to analyze and store the measured values in a process database. The experimental results obtained show that the use of oxygen during malaxation improves some qualitative parameters of VOO such as free fatty acids and total polyphenols while others (peroxide values and spectrophotometric indexes worsen. These results are similar to those obtained by employing nitrogen, which is the traditional technique to avoid the wellknown oxidation processes studied by several researchers, thus demonstrating that the presence of oxygen during the malaxation process can have beneficial effects on the quality of VOO when its concentration is properly controlled.

    Durante el proceso de extracción mecánica del aceite de oliva virgen ocurren importantes fenómenos físicos y transformaciones enzimáticas que influyen en la calidad del producto final. El control de los parámetros del proceso es crucial para garantizar la calidad del aceite de oliva virgen, por tanto la monitorización y el control del proceso son requisitos fundamentales en el moderno tratamiento industrial del aceite de oliva virgen. El presente trabajo propone un sistema de monitorización innovador en tiempo real dirigido a medir continuamente

  7. A novel reagentless glutamate microband biosensor for real-time cell toxicity monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, G.; Pemberton, R.M. [Centre for Research in Biosciences, Faculty of Health and Applied Sciences, University of the West of England, Bristol, Coldharbour Lane, Bristol, BS16 1QY (United Kingdom); Fielden, P.R. [Department of Chemistry, Lancaster University, Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4YB (United Kingdom); Hart, J.P., E-mail: john.hart@uwe.ac.uk [Centre for Research in Biosciences, Faculty of Health and Applied Sciences, University of the West of England, Bristol, Coldharbour Lane, Bristol, BS16 1QY (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-24

    A reagentless glutamate biosensor was applied to the determination of glutamate released from liver hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) in response to toxic challenge from various concentrations of paracetamol. A screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE) containing the electrocatalyst Meldola's Blue (MB-SPCE) served as the electron mediator for the oxidation of NADH. A mixture of the enzyme glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH), cofactor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD{sup +}) and the biopolymer chitosan (CHIT) were drop-coated onto the surface of the transducer (MB-SPCE) in a simple one step fabrication process. The reagentless biosensor was used with amperometry in stirred solution at an applied potential of +0.1 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). All experiments were carried out at the following conditions: pH 7, temperature 37 °C, atmosphere 5% CO{sub 2}. The linear range of the device was found to be 25–125 μM in phosphate buffer (75 mM, containing 0.05 M NaCl) and 25–150 μM in cell culture medium. The limits of detection (LOD) were found to be 1.2 μM and 4.2 μM based on three times signal to noise, using PBS and culture medium respectively. The sensitivity was calculated to be 106 nA μM{sup −1} cm{sup −2} and 210 nA μM{sup −1} cm{sup −2} in PBS and cell medium respectively. The response time was ∼60 s in an agitated solution. HepG2 cells were exposed to various concentrations of paracetamol (1 mM, 5 mM and 10 mM) in order to investigate the drug-induced release of glutamate into the culture medium in real time. Two toxicity studies were investigated using different methods of exposure and analysis. The first method consisted of a single measurement of the glutamate concentration, using the method of standard addition, after 24 h incubation. The concentrations of glutamate were found to be 52 μM, 93 μM and 177 μM, released on exposure to 1 mM, 5 mM and 10 mM paracetamol respectively. The second method involved the

  8. A virtual remote sensing observation network for continuous, near-real-time monitoring of atmospheric instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toporov, Maria; Löhnert, Ulrich; Potthast, Roland; Cimini, Domenico; De Angelis, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    Short-term forecasts of current high-resolution numerical weather prediction models still have large deficits in forecasting the exact temporal and spatial location of severe, locally influenced weather such as summer-time convective storms or cool season lifted stratus or ground fog. Often, the thermodynamic instability - especially in the boundary layer - plays an essential role in the evolution of weather events. While the thermodynamic state of the atmosphere is well measured close to the surface (i.e. 2 m) by in-situ sensors and in the upper troposphere by satellite sounders, the planetary boundary layer remains a largely under-sampled region of the atmosphere where only sporadic information from radiosondes or aircraft observations is available. The major objective of the presented DWD-funded project ARON (Extramural Research Programme) is to overcome this observational gap and to design an optimized network of ground based microwave radiometers (MWR) and compact Differential Absorption Lidars (DIAL) for a continuous, near-real-time monitoring of temperature and humidity in the atmospheric boundary layer in order to monitor thermodynamic (in)stability. Previous studies showed, that microwave profilers are well suited for continuously monitoring the temporal development of atmospheric stability (i.e. Cimini et al., 2015) before the initiation of deep convection, especially in the atmospheric boundary layer. However, the vertical resolution of microwave temperature profiles is best in the lowest kilometer above the surface, decreasing rapidly with increasing height. In addition, humidity profile retrievals typically cannot be resolved with more than two degrees of freedom for signal, resulting in a rather poor vertical resolution throughout the troposphere. Typical stability indices used to assess the potential of convection rely on temperature and humidity values not only in the region of the boundary layer but also in the layers above. Therefore, satellite

  9. Global system for hydrological monitoring and forecasting in real time at high resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Enrique; De Michele, Carlo; Todini, Ezio; Cifres, Enrique

    2016-04-01

    This project presented at the EGU 2016 born of solidarity and the need to dignify the most disadvantaged people living in the poorest countries (Africa, South America and Asia, which are continually exposed to changes in the hydrologic cycle suffering events of large floods and/or long periods of droughts. It is also a special year this 2016, Year of Mercy, in which we must engage with the most disadvantaged of our Planet (Gaia) making available to them what we do professionally and scientifically. The project called "Global system for hydrological monitoring and forecasting in real time at high resolution" is Non-Profit and aims to provide at global high resolution (1km2) hydrological monitoring and forecasting in real time and continuously coupling Weather Forecast of Global Circulation Models, such us GFS-0.25° (Deterministic and Ensembles Run) forcing a physically based distributed hydrological model computationally efficient, such as the latest version extended of TOPKAPI model, named TOPKAPI-eXtended. Finally using the MCP approach for the proper use of ensembles for Predictive Uncertainty assessment essentially based on a multiple regression in the Normal space, can be easily extended to use ensembles to represent the local (in time) smaller or larger conditional predictive uncertainty, as a function of the ensemble spread. In this way, each prediction in time accounts for both the predictive uncertainty of the ensemble mean and that of the ensemble spread. To perform a continuous hydrological modeling with TOPKAPI-X model and have hot start of hydrological status of watersheds, the system assimilated products of rainfall and temperature derived from remote sensing, such as product 3B42RT of TRMM NASA and others.The system will be integrated into a Decision Support System (DSS) platform, based on geographical data. The DSS is a web application (For Pc, Tablet/Mobile phone): It does not need installation (all you need is a web browser and an internet

  10. The Highly Miniaturised Radiation Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Mitchell, E F; Daly, E; Guerrini, N; Gunes-Lasnet, S; Griffin, D; Marshall, A; Menicucci, A; Morse, T; Poyntz-Wright, O; Turchetta, R; Woodward, S

    2014-01-01

    We present the design and preliminary calibration results of a novel highly miniaturised particle radiation monitor (HMRM) for spacecraft use. The HMRM device comprises a telescopic configuration of active pixel sensors enclosed in a titanium shield, with an estimated total mass of 52 g and volume of 15 cm$^3$. The monitor is intended to provide real-time dosimetry and identification of energetic charged particles in fluxes of up to 10$^8$ cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ (omnidirectional). Achieving this capability with such a small instrument could open new prospects for radiation detection in space.

  11. Real time determination of dose radiation through artificial intelligence and virtual reality; Determinacao de dose de radiacao, em tempo real, atraves de inteligencia artificial e realidade virtual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Victor Goncalves Gloria

    2009-07-01

    In the last years, a virtual environment of Argonauta research reactor, sited in the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (Brazil), has been developed. Such environment, called here Argonauta Virtual (AV), is a 3D model of the reactor hall, in which virtual people (avatar) can navigate. In AV, simulations of nuclear sources and doses are possible. In a recent work, a real time monitoring system (RTMS) was developed to provide (by means of Ethernet TCP/I P) the information of area detectors situated in the reactor hall. Extending the scope of AV, this work is intended to provide a continuous determination of gamma radiation dose in the reactor hall, based in several monitored parameters. To accomplish that a module based in artificial neural network (ANN) was developed. The ANN module is able to predict gamma radiation doses using as inputs: the avatar position (from virtual environment), the reactor power (from RTMS) and information of fixed area detectors (from RTMS). The ANN training data has been obtained by measurements of gamma radiation doses in a mesh of points, with previously defined positions, for different power levels. Through the use of ANN it is possible to estimate, in real time, the dose received by a person at any position in Argonauta reactor hall. Such approach allows tasks simulations and training of people inside the AV system, without exposing them to radiation effects. (author)

  12. Real-time airborne gamma-ray background estimation using NASVD with MLE and radiation transport for calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulisek, J.A., E-mail: Jonathan.Kulisek@pnnl.gov; Schweppe, J.E.; Stave, S.C.; Bernacki, B.E.; Jordan, D.V.; Stewart, T.N.; Seifert, C.E.; Kernan, W.J.

    2015-06-01

    Helicopter-mounted gamma-ray detectors can provide law enforcement officials the means to quickly and accurately detect, identify, and locate radiological threats over a wide geographical area. The ability to accurately distinguish radiological threat-generated gamma-ray signatures from background gamma radiation in real time is essential in order to realize this potential. This problem is non-trivial, especially in urban environments for which the background may change very rapidly during flight. This exacerbates the challenge of estimating background due to the poor counting statistics inherent in real-time airborne gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements. To address this challenge, we have developed a new technique for real-time estimation of background gamma radiation from aerial measurements without the need for human analyst intervention. The method can be calibrated using radiation transport simulations along with data from previous flights over areas for which the isotopic composition need not be known. Over the examined measured and simulated data sets, the method generated accurate background estimates even in the presence of a strong, {sup 60}Co source. The potential to track large and abrupt changes in background spectral shape and magnitude was demonstrated. The method can be implemented fairly easily in most modern computing languages and environments.

  13. Real-time airborne gamma-ray background estimation using NASVD with MLE and radiation transport for calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulisek, J. A.; Schweppe, J. E.; Stave, S. C.; Bernacki, B. E.; Jordan, D. V.; Stewart, T. N.; Seifert, C. E.; Kernan, W. J.

    2015-06-01

    Helicopter-mounted gamma-ray detectors can provide law enforcement officials the means to quickly and accurately detect, identify, and locate radiological threats over a wide geographical area. The ability to accurately distinguish radiological threat-generated gamma-ray signatures from background gamma radiation in real time is essential in order to realize this potential. This problem is non-trivial, especially in urban environments for which the background may change very rapidly during flight. This exacerbates the challenge of estimating background due to the poor counting statistics inherent in real-time airborne gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements. To address this challenge, we have developed a new technique for real-time estimation of background gamma radiation from aerial measurements without the need for human analyst intervention. The method can be calibrated using radiation transport simulations along with data from previous flights over areas for which the isotopic composition need not be known. Over the examined measured and simulated data sets, the method generated accurate background estimates even in the presence of a strong, 60Co source. The potential to track large and abrupt changes in background spectral shape and magnitude was demonstrated. The method can be implemented fairly easily in most modern computing languages and environments.

  14. In vivo real-time monitoring of aphrodisiac pheromone release of small white cabbage butterflies (Pieris rapae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Mathews, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    The study of insect behavior is of practical importance for developing possible control methods in Integrated Pest Management. Currently, one model of butterfly mating behavior suggests that the initial location of potential mates occurs visually followed by the release of one or more short-range male aphrodisiac pheromones. This model is supported by data obtained from field observations and inferences based on the behavioral effects of chemicals extracted or isolated using indirect and offline techniques. In this study, we performed in vivo real-time monitoring of the male aphrodisiac pheromones released by the small white cabbage male butterfly (Pieris rapae Linnaeus) using confined direct analysis in real time (cDART) mass spectrometry. cDART is a new method easily adapted to the study in real time of chemicals released into the environment by virtually any insect. The major compound released by the male Pieris rapae was identified as ferrulactone. The experimental results reported here indicate that the release of ferrulactone occurs less than 1s after the male visualizes its partner, and reaches a maximum after about one half minute. This study is the first reported in vivo detection and monitoring of butterfly male aphrodisiac pheromones in real time.

  15. Five-Axis Machine Tool Condition Monitoring Using dSPACE Real-Time System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztendel, S.; Pislaru, C.; Longstaff, A. P.; Fletcher, S.; Myers, A.

    2012-05-01

    This paper presents the design, development and SIMULINK implementation of the lumped parameter model of C-axis drive from GEISS five-axis CNC machine tool. The simulated results compare well with the experimental data measured from the actual machine. Also the paper describes the steps for data acquisition using ControlDesk and hardware-in-the-loop implementation of the drive models in dSPACE real-time system. The main components of the HIL system are: the drive model simulation and input - output (I/O) modules for receiving the real controller outputs. The paper explains how the experimental data obtained from the data acquisition process using dSPACE real-time system can be used for the development of machine tool diagnosis and prognosis systems that facilitate the improvement of maintenance activities.

  16. Applications of real-time GPS for science and hazard monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mencin, David; Hammond, William C.; Langbein, John

    2012-12-01

    Real-Time GPS Position Data Products and Formats Boulder, Colorado, 26-28 March 2012 Recent advances in GPS technology and data processing are providing position solutions with centimeter-level precision at a high rate (1 hertz) and low latency (i.e., the time required for data to arrive for analysis, in this case less than 1 second). These data will have the potential to improve scientists' understanding in diverse areas of geophysics including properties of seismic, volcanic, magmatic, and tsunami sources, and profoundly transform rapid event characterization and warning. Scientific and operational applications also include glacier and ice sheet motions, tropospheric modeling, and space weather. Processed Real-Time GPS (RT-GPS) data will require formats and standards that allow this broad community to utilize these data and associated metadata in existing research infrastructure.

  17. Real-Time Series Resistance Monitoring in PV Systems Without the Need for IV Curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deceglie, Michael G.; Silverman, Timothy J.; Marion, Bill; Kurtz, Sarah R.

    2015-06-14

    We apply the physical principles of a familiar method, suns-Voc, to a new application: the real-time detection of series resistance changes in modules and systems operating outside. The real-time series resistance (RTSR) method that we describe avoids the need for collecting IV curves or constructing full series-resistance-free IV curves. RTSR is most readily deployable at the module level on micro-inverters or module-integrated electronics, but it can also be extended to full strings. Automated detection of series resistance increases can provide early warnings of some of the most common reliability issues, which also pose fire risks, including broken ribbons, broken solder bonds, and contact problems in the junction or combiner box. We describe the method in detail and describe a sample application to data collected from modules operating in the field.

  18. Near "real" time magnetic resonance images as a monitoring system for interstitial laser therapy: experimental protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Dan J.; Farahani, Keyvan; Soudant, Jacques; Zwarun, Andrew A.; Lufkin, Robert B.

    1992-06-01

    The failure rate of cancer treatment remains unacceptably high, still being a leading cause of mortality in adults and children despite major advances over the past 50 years in the fields of surgery, radiation therapy and, more recently, chemo and immunotherapy. Surgical access to some deep tumors of the head and neck and other areas often require extensive dissections with residual functional and cosmetic deformities. Repeated treatment is not possible after maximum dose radiotherapy and chemotherapy is still limited by its systemic toxicity. An attractive solution to these problems would be the development of a new adjunctive method combining the best features of interstitial laser therapy for selective tumor destruction via minimally invasive techniques for access and 3-D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a monitoring system for laser-tissue interactions. Interstitial laser therapy (ILT) via fiberoptics allow laser energy to be delivered directly into deeper tissues. However, this concept will become clinically useful only when noninvasive, accurate, and reproducible monitoring methods are developed to measure energy delivery to tissues. MRI has numerous advantages in evaluating the irreversible effects of laser treatment in tissues, since laser energy includes changes not only in the thermal motions of hydrogen protons within the tissue, but also in the distribution and mobility of water and lipids. These techniques should greatly improve the use of ILT in combination with MRI to allow treatment of deeper, more difficult to reach tumors of head and neck and other anatomical areas with a single needle stick.

  19. REAL-TIME TRACER MONITORING OF RESERVOIR STIMULATION PROCEDURES VIA ELECTRONIC WIRELINE AND TELEMETRY DATA TRANSMISSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Scott III

    2003-08-01

    Ongoing Phase 2-3 work comprises the final development and field-testing of two complementary real-time reservoir technologies; a stimulation process and a tracer fracturing diagnostic system. Initial DE-FC26-99FT40129 project work included research, development, and testing of the patented gamma tracer fracturing diagnostic system. This process was field-proven to be technically useful in providing tracer measurement of fracture height while fracturing; however, technical licensing restrictions blocked Realtimezone from fully field-testing this real-time gamma diagnostic system, as originally planned. Said restrictions were encountered during Phase 2 field test work as result of licensing limitations and potential conflicts between service companies participating in project work, as related to their gamma tracer logging tool technology. Phase 3 work principally demonstrated field-testing of Realtimezone (RTZ) and NETL's Downhole-mixed Reservoir Stimulation process. Early on, the simplicity of and success of downhole-mixing was evident from well tests, which were made commercially productive. A downhole-mixed acid stimulation process was tested successfully and is currently commercially used in Canada. The fourth well test was aborted due to well bore conditions, and an alternate test project is scheduled April, 2004. Realtimezone continues to effectuate ongoing patent protection in the United States and foreign markets. In 2002, Realtimezone and the NETL licensed their United States patent to Halliburton Energy Services (HES). Additional licensing arrangements with other industry companies are anticipated in 2004-2005. Ongoing Phase 2 and Phase 3 field-testing continues to confirm applications of both real-time technologies. Technical data transfer to industry is ongoing via Internet tech-transfer and various industry presentations and publications including Society of Petroleum Engineers. These real-time enhanced stimulation procedures should significantly

  20. New Near-Real Time Monitoring of the Ionosphere over Europe Available On-line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, J. M.; Bergeot, N.; Bruyninx, C.; Pottiaux, E.; Aerts, W.; Baire, Q.; Legrand, J.; Defraigne, P.

    2012-04-01

    With the beginning of the 24th Solar cycle, the increased Solar activity requires having a close eye on the ionosphere for better understanding Space Weather physics and its effects on radio communications. In that frame, near-real time ionospheric models over Europe are now routinely generated at the Royal Observatory of Belgium (ROB). These models are made available to the public through new interactive web pages at the web site of the GNSS team (www.gnss.be) and the Solar Influences Data Analysis Center (www.sidc.be) of ROB. The models are ionospheric Vertical Total Electron Content (VTEC) maps estimated every 15 minutes on a 0.5°x0.5° grid. They use the high-rate GPS observations of the real-time stations in the EUREF Permanent Network (EPN) provided by the ROB NTRIP broadcaster. The maps are published on the ROB web site with a latency of 7-15 minutes with respect to the last GPS measurement included in the 15-minute observation files. In a first step, this paper presents the processing strategy used to generate the VTEC maps: input data, parameter estimation, data cleaning and interpolation method. In addition, the tools developed to further exploit the product are introduced, e.g. on-demand animated VTEC maps. In a second step, the VTEC maps are compared with external ionospheric products and models such as Global Ionospheric Maps and IRI 2011. These new near-real time VTEC maps will allow any user within the geographical scope of the maps to estimate in near-real time the ionospheric delay induced along the signal of any observed satellite. In the future, the web site will continuously be updated in response to evolving user needs. This paper opens doors to discussions with the user community to target their needs.

  1. Demonstration of a real-time interferometer as a bunch-lenght monitor in a high-current electron beam accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thangaraj, J.; Thurman-Keup, R.; Ruan, J.; Johnson, A.S.; Lumpkin, A; Santucci, J.; Maxwell, T.; /Fermilab; Andonian, G.; /UCLA /RadiaBeam Tech.; Murokh, A.; Ruelas, M.; Ovodenko, A.; /RadiaBeam Tech.

    2012-03-01

    A real-time interferometer (RTI) has been developed to monitor the bunch length of an electron beam in an accelerator. The RTI employs spatial autocorrelation, reflective optics, and a fast response pyro-detector array to obtain a real-time autocorrelation trace of the coherent radiation from an electron beam thus providing the possibility of online bunch-length diagnostics. A complete RTI system has been commissioned at the A0 photoinjector facility to measure sub-mm bunches at 13 MeV. Bunch length variation (FWHM) between 0.8 ps (-0.24 mm) and 1.5 ps (-0.45 mm) has been measured and compared with a Martin-Puplett interferometer and a streak camera. The comparisons show that RTI is a viable, complementary bunch length diagnostic for sub-mm electron bunches.

  2. Research overview of real-time monitoring system for micro leak of three-dimensional pipe network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaofeng WANG

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the key technical problems encountered by domestic and foreign scholars in building the real-time monitoring system for the micro leak of three-dimensional pipe networks, the paper classifies the problems into three aspects: 1 in the extraction of fault signal frequency, how to avoid the effect of the mixed echo stack and improve the delay estimation accuracy of the correlation; 2 in network bifurcation structure, how to discern the signal propagation path, and how to locate the leak source; 3 under the uncertainly delay in transmitting and receiving information data, how to ensure the time synchronization accuracy of the real-time monitoring system for the three-dimensional pipe network leakage. Through the comparison of the monitoring technologies for the pipe network leakage at home and abroad, it shows that the acoustic emission sensor network based three-dimensional pipeline leak real-time monitoring has great advantages in detecting the weak leakage of flammable and explosive gas/liquid transportation pipelines.

  3. The aquatic real-time monitoring network; in-situ optical sensors for monitoring the nation's water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerin, Brian A.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Murdoch, Peter S.; Downing, Bryan D.; Saraceno, John Franco; Aiken, George R.; Striegl, Robert G.

    2011-01-01

    Floods, hurricanes, and longer-term changes in climate and land use can have profound effects on water quality due to shifts in hydrologic flow paths, water residence time, precipitation patterns, connectivity between rivers and uplands, and many other factors. In order to understand and respond to changes in hydrology and water quality, resource managers and policy makers have a need for accurate and early indicators, as well as the ability to assess possible mechanisms and likely outcomes. In-situ optical sensors-those making continuous measurements of constituents by absorbance or fluorescence properties in the environment at timescales of minutes to years-have a long history in oceanography for developing highly resolved concentrations and fluxes, but are not commonly used in freshwater systems. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) has developed the Aquatic Real-Time Monitoring Network, with high-resolution optical data collection for organic carbon, nutrients, and sediment in large coastal rivers, along with continuous measurements of discharge, water temperature, and dissolved inorganic carbon. The collecting of continuous water-quality data in the Nation?s waterways has revealed temporal trends and spatial patterns in constituents that traditional sampling approaches fail to capture, and will serve a critical role in monitoring, assessment and decision-making in a rapidly changing landscape.

  4. Adaptive Radiation Therapy for Postprostatectomy Patients Using Real-Time Electromagnetic Target Motion Tracking During External Beam Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Mingyao [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri (United States); Bharat, Shyam [Philips Research North America, Briarcliff Manor, New York (United States); Michalski, Jeff M.; Gay, Hiram A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri (United States); Hou, Wei-Hsien [St Louis University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Parikh, Parag J., E-mail: pparikh@radonc.wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: Using real-time electromagnetic (EM) transponder tracking data recorded by the Calypso 4D Localization System, we report inter- and intrafractional target motion of the prostate bed, describe a strategy to evaluate treatment adequacy in postprostatectomy patients receiving intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and propose an adaptive workflow. Methods and Materials: Tracking data recorded by Calypso EM transponders was analyzed for postprostatectomy patients that underwent step-and-shoot IMRT. Rigid target motion parameters during beam delivery were calculated from recorded transponder positions in 16 patients with rigid transponder geometry. The delivered doses to the clinical target volume (CTV) were estimated from the planned dose matrix and the target motion for the first 3, 5, 10, and all fractions. Treatment adequacy was determined by comparing the delivered minimum dose (D{sub min}) with the planned D{sub min} to the CTV. Treatments were considered adequate if the delivered CTV D{sub min} is at least 95% of the planned CTV D{sub min}. Results: Translational target motion was minimal for all 16 patients (mean: 0.02 cm; range: −0.12 cm to 0.07 cm). Rotational motion was patient-specific, and maximum pitch, yaw, and roll were 12.2, 4.1, and 10.5°, respectively. We observed inadequate treatments in 5 patients. In these treatments, we observed greater target rotations along with large distances between the CTV centroid and transponder centroid. The treatment adequacy from the initial 10 fractions successfully predicted the overall adequacy in 4 of 5 inadequate treatments and 10 of 11 adequate treatments. Conclusion: Target rotational motion could cause underdosage to partial volume of the postprostatectomy targets. Our adaptive treatment strategy is applicable to post-prostatectomy patients receiving IMRT to evaluate and improve radiation therapy delivery.

  5. Adaptive radiation therapy for postprostatectomy patients using real-time electromagnetic target motion tracking during external beam radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingyao; Bharat, Shyam; Michalski, Jeff M; Gay, Hiram A; Hou, Wei-Hsien; Parikh, Parag J

    2013-03-15

    Using real-time electromagnetic (EM) transponder tracking data recorded by the Calypso 4D Localization System, we report inter- and intrafractional target motion of the prostate bed, describe a strategy to evaluate treatment adequacy in postprostatectomy patients receiving intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and propose an adaptive workflow. Tracking data recorded by Calypso EM transponders was analyzed for postprostatectomy patients that underwent step-and-shoot IMRT. Rigid target motion parameters during beam delivery were calculated from recorded transponder positions in 16 patients with rigid transponder geometry. The delivered doses to the clinical target volume (CTV) were estimated from the planned dose matrix and the target motion for the first 3, 5, 10, and all fractions. Treatment adequacy was determined by comparing the delivered minimum dose (Dmin) with the planned Dmin to the CTV. Treatments were considered adequate if the delivered CTV Dmin is at least 95% of the planned CTV Dmin. Translational target motion was minimal for all 16 patients (mean: 0.02 cm; range: -0.12 cm to 0.07 cm). Rotational motion was patient-specific, and maximum pitch, yaw, and roll were 12.2, 4.1, and 10.5°, respectively. We observed inadequate treatments in 5 patients. In these treatments, we observed greater target rotations along with large distances between the CTV centroid and transponder centroid. The treatment adequacy from the initial 10 fractions successfully predicted the overall adequacy in 4 of 5 inadequate treatments and 10 of 11 adequate treatments. Target rotational motion could cause underdosage to partial volume of the postprostatectomy targets. Our adaptive treatment strategy is applicable to post-prostatectomy patients receiving IMRT to evaluate and improve radiation therapy delivery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The multi-isotope process monitor: Non-destructive, near-real-time nuclear safeguards monitoring at a reprocessing facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Christopher Robert

    The IAEA will require advanced technologies to effectively safeguard nuclear material at envisioned large scale nuclear reprocessing plants. This dissertation describes results from simulations and experiments designed to test the Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor, a novel safeguards approach for process monitoring in reprocessing plants. The MIP Monitor combines the detection of intrinsic gamma ray signatures emitted from process solutions with multivariate analysis to detect off-normal conditions in process streams, nondestructively and in near-real time (NRT). Three different models were used to predict spent nuclear fuel composition, estimate chemical distribution during separation, and simulate spectra from a variety of gamma detectors in product and raffinate streams for processed fuel. This was done for fuel with various irradiation histories and under a variety of plant operating conditions. Experiments were performed to validate the results from the model. Three segments of commercial spent nuclear fuel with variations in burnup and cooling time were dissolved and subjected to a batch PUREX method to separate the uranium and plutonium from fission and activation products. Gamma spectra were recorded by high purity germanium (HPGe) and cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) detectors. Hierarchal Cluster Analysis (HCA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were applied to spectra from both model and experiment to investigate spectral variations as a function of acid concentration, burnup level and cooling time. Partial Least Squares was utilized to extract quantitative information about process variables, such as acid concentration or burnup. The MIP Monitor was found to be sensitive to the induced variations of the process and was capable of extracting quantitative process information from the analyzed spectra.

  7. The study of key issues about integration of GNSS and strong-motion records for real-time earthquake monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Rui; Zhang, Pengfei; Zhang, Rui; Liu, Jinhai

    2016-08-01

    This paper has studied the key issues about integration of GNSS and strong-motion records for real-time earthquake monitoring. The validations show that the consistence of the coordinate system must be considered firstly to exclude the system bias between GNSS and strong-motion. The GNSS sampling rate is suggested about 1-5 Hz, and we should give the strong-motion's baseline shift with a larger dynamic noise as its variation is very swift. The initialization time of solving the baseline shift is less than one minute, and ambiguity resolution strategy is not greatly improved the solution. The data quality is very important for the solution, we advised to use multi-frequency and multi-system observations. These ideas give an important guide for real-time earthquake monitoring and early warning by the tight integration of GNSS and strong-motion records.

  8. Real-timely monitoring the interaction between bovine serum albumin and drugs in aqueous with terahertz metamaterial biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Fangrong; Guo, Enze; Xu, Xin; Li, Peng; Xu, Xinlong; Yin, Shan; Wang, Yuee; Chen, Tao; Yin, Xianhua; Zhang, Wentao

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, a metamaterial (M