Sample records for real-time merging traffic

  1. Real Time Traffic Models, Decision Support for Traffic Management

    Wismans, L.; De Romph, E.; Friso, K.; Zantema, K.


    Reliable and accurate short-term traffic state prediction can improve the performance of real-time traffic management systems significantly. Using this short-time prediction based on current measurements delivered by advanced surveillance systems will support decision-making processes on various

  2. Real time traffic models, decision support for traffic management

    Wismans, Luc Johannes Josephus; de Romph, E.; Friso, K.; Zantema, K.


    Reliable and accurate short-term traffic state prediction can improve the performance of real-time traffic management systems significantly. Using this short-time prediction based on current measurements delivered by advanced surveillance systems will support decision-making processes on various

  3. Real time traffic models, decision support for traffic management

    Wismans, L.J.J.; Romph, de E.; Friso, K.; Zantema, K.


    Reliable and accurate short-term traffic state prediction can improve the performance of real-time traffic management systems significantly. Using this short-time prediction based on current measurements delivered by advanced surveillance systems will support decision-making processes on various con

  4. Real Time Traffic Models, Decision Support for Traffic Management

    Wismans, L.; De Romph, E.; Friso, K.; Zantema, K.


    Reliable and accurate short-term traffic state prediction can improve the performance of real-time traffic management systems significantly. Using this short-time prediction based on current measurements delivered by advanced surveillance systems will support decision-making processes on various con

  5. Real time traffic models, decision support for traffic management

    Wismans, L.; De Romph, E.; Friso, K.; Zantema, K.


    Reliable and accurate short-term traffic state prediction can improve the performance of real-time traffic management systems significantly. Using this short-time prediction based on current measurements delivered by advanced surveillance systems will support decision-making processes on various control strategies and enhance the performance of the overall network. By taking proactive action deploying traffic management measures, congestion may be prevented or its effects limited. An approach...

  6. Screening and reconstruction of real-time traffic data

    裴玉龙; 马骥


    The quality of real-time traffic information is of the great importance, therefore the factors having effect on traffic characteristics are analyzed in general, and the necessities of real-time data processing are summarized. The identification and reconstruction of real-time traffic data are analyzed using Kalman filter equation and statistical approach. Four methods for ITS (Intelligent transportation system) detector data screening in traffic management systems are discussed in detail. Meanwhile traffic data examinations are discussed with solutions formulated through analysis, and recommendations are made for information collection and data management in future.

  7. Ambiguity and Concepts in Real Time Online Internet Traffic Classification

    Hamza Awad Hamza Ibrahim


    Full Text Available Internet traffic classification gained significant attention in the last few years. Identifying the Internet applications in the real time is one of the most significant challenges in network traffic classification. Most of the proposed classification methods are limited to offline classification and cannot support online classification. This paper aims to highlight the ambiguity in the definition of online classification. Therefore, some of the previous online classification works are discussed and analyzed. This analysing is to check how far the real time online classification was achieved. The results indicate that most of the previous works consider a real Internet traffic but did not consider a real time online classification. In addition, the paper provides a real time classifier which was proposed and used in [1] [2] [3], to show how to perform a real time online classification.




    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to design and implement traffic control system. The system developed is able to sense the presence of vehicles within certain range by setting the appropriate duration for the traffic signals to react accordingly. By employing logical functions to calculate the appropriate timing for the signals toilluminate, the system can help to solve the problem of traffic congestion. The use of FPGAs (Field Programmable Gate Arrays is an interesting new phenomenon in VLSI development. FPGAs offer all of thefeatures needed to implement most complex designs. Hardware simulation tests were successfully performed on the algorithm implemented into a FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Arrays. The main object of the paper is to design a Real Time Traffic Light Controller (RTTLC using VHDL and implement the RTTLC in XILINX SPARTAN - 3 FPGA.

  9. Hierarchical Real-time Network Traffic Classification Based on ECOC

    Yaou Zhao


    Full Text Available Classification of network traffic is basic and essential for manynetwork researches and managements. With the rapid development ofpeer-to-peer (P2P application using dynamic port disguisingtechniques and encryption to avoid detection, port-based and simplepayload-based network traffic classification methods were diminished.An alternative method based on statistics and machine learning hadattracted researchers' attention in recent years. However, most ofthe proposed algorithms were off-line and usually used a single classifier.In this paper a new hierarchical real-time model was proposed which comprised of a three tuple (source ip, destination ip and destination portlook up table(TT-LUT part and layered milestone part. TT-LUT was used to quickly classify short flows whichneed not to pass the layered milestone part, and milestones in layered milestone partcould classify the other flows in real-time with the real-time feature selection and statistics.Every milestone was a ECOC(Error-Correcting Output Codes based model which was usedto improve classification performance. Experiments showed that the proposedmodel can improve the efficiency of real-time to 80%, and themulti-class classification accuracy encouragingly to 91.4% on the datasets which had been captured from the backbone router in our campus through a week.

  10. Real-time vehicle tracking for traffic monitoring systems



    A real-time vehicle tracking method is proposed for traffic monitoring system at road intersec-tions, and the vehicle tracking module consists of an initialization stage and a tracking stage .Li-cense plate location based on edge density and color analysis is used to detect the license plate re -gion for tracking initialization .In the tracking stage , covariance matching is employed to track the license plate .Genetic algorithm is used to reduce the computational cost .Real-time image tracking of multi-lane vehicles is achieved .In the experiment , test videos are recorded in advance by record-ers of actual E-police systems at several different city intersections .In the tracking module , the av-erage false detection rate and missed plates rate are 1.19%, and 1.72%, respectively.

  11. Real-Time Communication Support for Cooperative, Infrastructure-Based Traffic Safety Applications

    Annette Böhm


    Full Text Available The implementation of ITS (Intelligent Transport Systems services offers great potential to improve the level of safety, efficiency and comfort on our roads. Although cooperative traffic safety applications rely heavily on the support for real-time communication, the Medium Access Control (MAC mechanism proposed for the upcoming IEEE 802.11p standard, intended for ITS applications, does not offer deterministic real-time support, that is, the access delay to the common radio channel is not upper bounded. To address this problem, we present a framework for a vehicle-to-infrastructure-based (V2I communication solution extending IEEE 802.11p by introducing a collision-free MAC phase assigning each vehicle an individual priority based on its geographical position, its proximity to potential hazards and the overall road traffic density. Our solution is able to guarantee the timely treatment of safety-critical data, while minimizing the required length of this real-time MAC phase and freeing bandwidth for best-effort services (targeting improved driving comfort and traffic efficiency. Furthermore, we target fast connection setup, associating a passing vehicle to an RSU (Road Side Unit, and proactive handover between widely spaced RSUs. Our real-time MAC concept is evaluated analytically and by simulation based on a realistic task set from a V2I highway merge assistance scenario.

  12. Real-Time Corrected Traffic Correlation Model for Traffic Flow Forecasting

    Hua-pu Lu


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the problems of short-term traffic flow forecasting. The main goal is to put forward traffic correlation model and real-time correction algorithm for traffic flow forecasting. Traffic correlation model is established based on the temporal-spatial-historical correlation characteristic of traffic big data. In order to simplify the traffic correlation model, this paper presents correction coefficients optimization algorithm. Considering multistate characteristic of traffic big data, a dynamic part is added to traffic correlation model. Real-time correction algorithm based on Fuzzy Neural Network is presented to overcome the nonlinear mapping problems. A case study based on a real-world road network in Beijing, China, is implemented to test the efficiency and applicability of the proposed modeling methods.

  13. Scheduling Non-stationary Bursts of Real-time and Non-real-time Traffic in ATM Networks


    The problem of scheduling real-time and non-real-time traffic in an ATM switch multiplexor when bursts of either type of traffic occur is studied. The scheduling algorithms studied are: Queue Length Threshold (QLT) and Minimum Laxity Threshold (MLT). Analytic results based on Markov Chains are used. In addition the results are compared with an optimal (but impractical) scheduling determined via dynamic programming. Dynamic programming is used in this paper to show that MLT gives a near optimal performance trade-off between real-time and non-real-time traffic for constant arrival rates. The trade-off QLT allows is not close to optimal. For non-real-time bursts MLT still gives a close to optimal trade-off. For real-time bursts the trade-off MLT allows between real-time and non-real-time traffic is not as close to optimal, but even where the MLT trade-off is not near optimal, the QLT trade-off is much worse than the MLT trade-off.

  14. Real-time Capturing and Measurement of Traffic Flow Based on WinPcap

    HU Wen-jing; LI Ming; QIU Run-he; LIU Jin-gao


    In order to understand how a network is being used or whether it is being abused, an administrator needs to inspect the flow of the traffic and "infers" the intent of the users and applications. So the network traffic measurement and analysis are crucial to network monitoring, reliable DDoS detecting and attack source locating as well[1-4]. In this paper, we discuss the principle of real-time network traffic measurement and analysis through embedding a traffic measurement and analysis engine into IP packet-decoding module, and emphasize the implementation of visualizing the real-time network traffic, which are helpful to network monitoring and network traffic modeling.

  15. Real-time Detection of Road Traffic Incidents

    Pero Škorput


    KEY WORDS: intelligent transport system, incident management system, traffic model in the status space, theory of estimation, extended Kalman filter, automatic incident detection, decision support system

  16. A Real-Time System for Abusive Network Traffic Detection


    modular architecture, SpamAssassin can be extended to include other filtering techniques, such as real-time blackhole lists (RBLs), whitelists...lookups in blackhole lists (RBL), collaborative filtering with Ryzor [30], Pyzor [53], and DCC [33]), because our virtual environment was insulated from...realtime blackhole list (RBL). Available: [13] J. Postel. (1981, September). Internet

  17. A Sarsa(λ-Based Control Model for Real-Time Traffic Light Coordination

    Xiaoke Zhou


    Full Text Available Traffic problems often occur due to the traffic demands by the outnumbered vehicles on road. Maximizing traffic flow and minimizing the average waiting time are the goals of intelligent traffic control. Each junction wants to get larger traffic flow. During the course, junctions form a policy of coordination as well as constraints for adjacent junctions to maximize their own interests. A good traffic signal timing policy is helpful to solve the problem. However, as there are so many factors that can affect the traffic control model, it is difficult to find the optimal solution. The disability of traffic light controllers to learn from past experiences caused them to be unable to adaptively fit dynamic changes of traffic flow. Considering dynamic characteristics of the actual traffic environment, reinforcement learning algorithm based traffic control approach can be applied to get optimal scheduling policy. The proposed Sarsa(λ-based real-time traffic control optimization model can maintain the traffic signal timing policy more effectively. The Sarsa(λ-based model gains traffic cost of the vehicle, which considers delay time, the number of waiting vehicles, and the integrated saturation from its experiences to learn and determine the optimal actions. The experiment results show an inspiring improvement in traffic control, indicating the proposed model is capable of facilitating real-time dynamic traffic control.

  18. Traffic Analysis for Real-Time Communication Networks onboard Ships

    Schiøler, Henrik; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Jørgensen, N.


    The paper presents a novel method for establishing worst case estimates of queue lenghts and transmission delays in networks of interconnected segments each of ring topology as defined by the ATOMOS project for marine automation. A non probalistic model for describing traffic is introduced as well...

  19. Traffic Analysis for Real-Time Communication Networks onboard Ships

    Schiøler, Henrik; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Jørgensen, N.

    The paper presents a novel method for establishing worst case estimates of queue lenghts and transmission delays in networks of interconnected segments each of ring topology as defined by the ATOMOS project for marine automation. A non probalistic model for describing traffic is introduced as well...

  20. Traffic Analysis for Real-Time Communication Networks onboard Ships

    Schiøler, Henrik; Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Jørgensen, N.


    The paper presents a novel method for establishing worst case estimates of queue lenghts and transmission delays in networks of interconnected segments each of ring topology as defined by the ATOMOS project for marine automation. A non probalistic model for describing traffic is introduced as well...

  1. Real-time traffic sign recognition based on a general purpose GPU and deep-learning

    Hong, Yongwon; Choi, Yeongwoo; Byun, Hyeran


    We present a General Purpose Graphics Processing Unit (GPGPU) based real-time traffic sign detection and recognition method that is robust against illumination changes. There have been many approaches to traffic sign recognition in various research fields; however, previous approaches faced several limitations when under low illumination or wide variance of light conditions. To overcome these drawbacks and improve processing speeds, we propose a method that 1) is robust against illumination changes, 2) uses GPGPU-based real-time traffic sign detection, and 3) performs region detecting and recognition using a hierarchical model. This method produces stable results in low illumination environments. Both detection and hierarchical recognition are performed in real-time, and the proposed method achieves 0.97 F1-score on our collective dataset, which uses the Vienna convention traffic rules (Germany and South Korea). PMID:28264011

  2. A Comprehensive Real-Time Traffic Map for Geographic Routing in VANETs

    Chi-Fu Huang


    Full Text Available Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs have attracted a lot of attention during the last decade. VANETs can not only improve driving safety, but also convenience, and support most future Intelligent Transportation System (ITS. Due to the highly dynamic network topology of VANETs, many geographic routing protocols have been proposed and use real-time traffic information as an important metric to select a reliable forwarding path. However, most of the existing works do not describe how to gather real-time traffic. They either assume this information is already available, or can query an existing traffic center. Few studies have noticed this issue but the proposed solutions only consider a small region. In this paper, we propose a Comprehensive Real-Time Traffic Map (CRT Map to collect wide-ranging real-time traffic information with low overhead. In the design of a CRT Map, the concept of Crowdsensing is adopted. Vehicles cooperatively gather traffic information and share it with each other to construct an overview of the whole road network traffic. In addition, we design a CRT Map Based Routing (CBR, which takes into account the connectivity of consecutive roads in routing decisions. Simulation results show that the CBR can achieve a lower end-to-end delay and a higher packet delivery ratio.

  3. Parallel Switch System with QoS Guarantee for Real-Time Traffic

    Wen-Jie Li; Bin Liu; Yang Xu; Heng Liao


    This paper studies the load-balancing algorithm and quality of service (QoS) control mechanism in a 320Gb/s switch system, which incorporates four packet-level parallel switch planes. Eight priorities for both unicast and multicast traffic are implemented, and the highest priority with strict QoS guarantee is designed for real-time traffic. Through performance analysis under multi-priority burst traffic, we demonstrate that the load-balancing algorithm is efficient, and the switch system not only provides excellent performance to real-time traffic, but also efficiently allocates bandwidth among other traffic of lower priorities. As a result, this parallel switch system is more scalable towards next generation core routers with QoS guarantee, as well as ensures in-order delivery of IP packets.

  4. 320-Gb/s switch system to guarantee QoS of real-time traffic

    Li, Wenjie; Liu, Bin; Xu, Yang


    To provide QoS control for real time traffic in core routers, this paper designs and evaluates a 320 Gb/s switch system, which supports 16 line cards, each operating at OC192c line rate (10 Gb/s). This switch system contains a high performance switch fabric and supports variable-length IP packet interface. These two characters provide advantages over traditional switch fabrics with a cell interface. This switch system supports eight priorities to both unicast and multicast traffic. The highest priority with strict QoS guarantee is for real time traffic, and other seven lower priorities with weighted round-robin (WRR) service discipline are for other common data traffic. Through simulation under multi-priority burst traffic model, we demonstrate this switch system not only can provide excellent performance for real time traffic, but also can efficiently allocate bandwidth among all kinds of traffic. As a result, this switch system can serve as a key node in high-speed networks, and it can also meet the challenge of multimedia traffic to the next generation Internet.

  5. Improved Quality of Service Protocol for Real Time Traffic in MANET

    Iftikhar Ahmad


    Full Text Available The technologies like Wi-Fi, Blue tooth, WiMax etc. have made Mobile Ad hoc Networks common in ourReal life. Multi-media applications need to be supported on MANET. A certain level of QoS (Quality ofService support is essential for Real time data. Our proposed protocol provides the required QoS withouthaving negative impact on Best Effort data traffic. An efficient rout discovery mechanism for AODV routingprotocol as well as transmission technique for real time data are proposed. This technique gives moretransmission opportunities to real time data traffic results in decreasing transmission delay and increasingthroughput. A modified version of the popular AODV routing protocol to provide QoS guarantee for realtime traffic in MANETs is proposed. The simulation shows better performanceresults for proposedprotocol over the basic AODV

  6. Uplink Scheduling for Supporting Real Time Voice Traffic in IEEE 802.16 Backhaul Networks

    Lizhong Dai; Dongmei Zhao


    In this paper we propose simple enhancements to the bandwidth (BW) request messages in IEEE 802.16 for supporting real-time packet voice traffic. Three different BW request formats are proposed, each requiring a different amount of latency information about the buffered packets at the SS. On this basis, packet scheduling schemes are proposed for the BS to make resource allocations for real-time traffic. Our results show that the proposed BW request and scheduling schemes achieve significantly lower packet loss probability than the standard IEEE 802.16 BW request with round robin scheduling.The results further show that there is an optimum point about how much delay information the SS should report to the BS in order to best utilize the uplink resources while the SS provides satisfactory real-time performance for the voice traffic.

  7. Impact analysis of traffic-related air pollution based on real-time traffic and basic meteorological information.

    Pan, Long; Yao, Enjian; Yang, Yang


    With the rapid development of urbanization and motorization in China, traffic-related air pollution has become a major component of air pollution which constantly jeopardizes public health. This study proposes an integrated framework for estimating the concentration of traffic-related air pollution with real-time traffic and basic meteorological information and also for further evaluating the impact of traffic-related air pollution. First, based on the vehicle emission factor models sensitive to traffic status, traffic emissions are calculated according to the real-time link-based average traffic speed, traffic volume, and vehicular fleet composition. Then, based on differences in meteorological conditions, traffic pollution sources are divided into line sources and point sources, and the corresponding methods to determine the dynamic affecting areas are also proposed. Subsequently, with basic meteorological data, Gaussian dispersion model and puff integration model are applied respectively to estimate the concentration of traffic-related air pollution. Finally, the proposed estimating framework is applied to calculate the distribution of CO concentration in the main area of Beijing, and the population exposure is also calculated to evaluate the impact of traffic-related air pollution on public health. Results show that there is a certain correlation between traffic indicators (i.e., traffic speed and traffic intensity) of the affecting area and traffic-related CO concentration of the target grid, which indicates the methods to determine the affecting areas are reliable. Furthermore, the reliability of the proposed estimating framework is verified by comparing the predicted and the observed ambient CO concentration. In addition, results also show that the traffic-related CO concentration is higher in morning and evening peak hours, and has a heavier impact on public health within the Fourth Ring Road of Beijing due to higher population density and higher CO

  8. Enhancing the Quality of Service for Real Time Traffic over Optical Burst Switching (OBS) Networks with Ensuring the Fairness for Other Traffics.

    Al-Shargabi, Mohammed A; Shaikh, Asadullah; Ismail, Abdulsamad S


    Optical burst switching (OBS) networks have been attracting much consideration as a promising approach to build the next generation optical Internet. A solution for enhancing the Quality of Service (QoS) for high priority real time traffic over OBS with the fairness among the traffic types is absent in current OBS' QoS schemes. In this paper we present a novel Real Time Quality of Service with Fairness Ratio (RT-QoSFR) scheme that can adapt the burst assembly parameters according to the traffic QoS needs in order to enhance the real time traffic QoS requirements and to ensure the fairness for other traffic. The results show that RT-QoSFR scheme is able to fulfill the real time traffic requirements (end to end delay, and loss rate) ensuring the fairness for other traffics under various conditions such as the type of real time traffic and traffic load. RT-QoSFR can guarantee that the delay of the real time traffic packets does not exceed the maximum packets transfer delay value. Furthermore, it can reduce the real time traffic packets loss, at the same time guarantee the fairness for non real time traffic packets by determining the ratio of real time traffic inside the burst to be 50-60%, 30-40%, and 10-20% for high, normal, and low traffic loads respectively.

  9. A real-time traffic scheduling algorithm in CDMA packet networks

    Zan, Lei; Heijenk, Geert; El Zarki, Magda; Gong, K.; Niu, Z.


    The demands for multimedia and packet data services over wireless devices have increased over the past few years. The direct impact on performance makes scheduling for real-time traffic important. This paper presents a novel scheduling algorithm called fair channel-dependent scheduling which schedul

  10. Real-Time Traffic Information for Emergency Evacuation Operations: Phase A Final Report

    Franzese, Oscar [ORNL; Zhang, Li [Mississippi State University (MSU); Mahmoud, Anas M. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Lascurain, Mary Beth [ORNL; Wen, Yi [Mississippi State University (MSU)


    There are many instances in which it is possible to plan ahead for an emergency evacuation (e.g., an explosion at a chemical processing facility). For those cases, if an accident (or an attack) were to happen, then the best evacuation plan for the prevailing network and weather conditions would be deployed. In other cases (e.g., the derailment of a train transporting hazardous materials), there may not be any previously developed plan to be implemented and decisions must be made ad-hoc on how to proceed with an emergency evacuation. In both situations, the availability of real-time traffic information plays a critical role in the management of the evacuation operations. To improve public safety during a vehicular emergency evacuation it is necessary to detect losses of road capacity (due to incidents, for example) as early as possible. Once these bottlenecks are identified, re-routing strategies must be determined in real-time and deployed in the field to help dissipate the congestion and increase the efficiency of the evacuation. Due to cost constraints, only large urban areas have traffic sensor deployments that permit access to some sort of real-time traffic information; any evacuation taking place in any other areas of the country would have to proceed without real-time traffic information. The latter was the focus of this SERRI/DHS (Southeast Region Research Initiative/Department of Homeland Security) sponsored project. That is, the main objective on the project was to improve the operations during a vehicular emergency evacuation anywhere by using newly developed real-time traffic-information-gathering technologies to assess traffic conditions and therefore to potentially detect incidents on the main evacuation routes. Phase A of the project consisted in the development and testing of a prototype system composed of sensors that are engineered in such a way that they can be rapidly deployed in the field where and when they are needed. Each one of these sensors

  11. A Near Real-time IP Traffic Classification Using Machine Learning

    Kuldeep Singh


    Full Text Available With drastic increase in internet traffic over last few years due to increase in number of internet users, IP traffic classification has gained significant importance for research community as well as various internet service providers for optimization of their network performance and for governmental intelligence organizations. Today, traditional IP traffic classification techniques such as port number and payload based direct packet inspection techniques are rarely used because of use of dynamic port number instead of well-known port number in packet headers and various cryptographic techniques which inhibit inspection of packet payload. Current trends are use of machine learning (ML techniques for IP traffic classification. In this research paper, a real time internet traffic dataset has been developed using packet capturing tool for 2 second packet capturing duration and other datasets have been developed by reducing number of features of 2 second duration dataset using Correlation and Consistency based Feature Selection (FS Algorithms. Then, five ML algorithms MLP, RBF, C4.5, Bayes Net and Naïve Bayes are employed for IP traffic classification with these datasets. This experimental analysis shows that Bayes Net is an effective ML technique for near real time and online IP traffic classification with reduction in packet capture duration and reduction in number of features characterizing each application sample with Correlation based FS Algorithm.

  12. Coordinator Traffic Diffusion for Data-Intensive Zigbee Transmission in Real-time Electrocardiography Monitoring.

    Tseng, Chinyang Henry


    Zigbee is expected to have an explosive growth in wireless medical monitoring systems because it possesses the advantages of low cost, safe power strength, and easy deployment. However, limited work focuses on solving the bottleneck issue at the Zigbee coordinator in a data-intensive system to guarantee transmission reliability of life-critical data. This paper proposes coordinator traffic diffusion (CTD) method to redirect excessive traffic from coordinator to the sink in electrocardiography (ECG) medical application. CTD router, which implements CTD design, automatically redirects ECG data traffic to the sink node without involving the coordinator, and thus reliable real-time ECG monitoring service can be delivered precisely. CTD design is tested in both TI CC2530 Zigbee platform and NS2 simulation. Experimental result demonstrates that a CTD design can assist routers in successfully delivering real-time ECG data samples reliably with the best transmission rate, 24 kb/s. This performance cannot be achieved by the original Zigbee design.

  13. Real-time network traffic classification technique for wireless local area networks based on compressed sensing

    Balouchestani, Mohammadreza


    Network traffic or data traffic in a Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) is the amount of network packets moving across a wireless network from each wireless node to another wireless node, which provide the load of sampling in a wireless network. WLAN's Network traffic is the main component for network traffic measurement, network traffic control and simulation. Traffic classification technique is an essential tool for improving the Quality of Service (QoS) in different wireless networks in the complex applications such as local area networks, wireless local area networks, wireless personal area networks, wireless metropolitan area networks, and wide area networks. Network traffic classification is also an essential component in the products for QoS control in different wireless network systems and applications. Classifying network traffic in a WLAN allows to see what kinds of traffic we have in each part of the network, organize the various kinds of network traffic in each path into different classes in each path, and generate network traffic matrix in order to Identify and organize network traffic which is an important key for improving the QoS feature. To achieve effective network traffic classification, Real-time Network Traffic Classification (RNTC) algorithm for WLANs based on Compressed Sensing (CS) is presented in this paper. The fundamental goal of this algorithm is to solve difficult wireless network management problems. The proposed architecture allows reducing False Detection Rate (FDR) to 25% and Packet Delay (PD) to 15 %. The proposed architecture is also increased 10 % accuracy of wireless transmission, which provides a good background for establishing high quality wireless local area networks.

  14. Big Data-Driven Based Real-Time Traffic Flow State Identification and Prediction

    Hua-pu Lu


    Full Text Available With the rapid development of urban informatization, the era of big data is coming. To satisfy the demand of traffic congestion early warning, this paper studies the method of real-time traffic flow state identification and prediction based on big data-driven theory. Traffic big data holds several characteristics, such as temporal correlation, spatial correlation, historical correlation, and multistate. Traffic flow state quantification, the basis of traffic flow state identification, is achieved by a SAGA-FCM (simulated annealing genetic algorithm based fuzzy c-means based traffic clustering model. Considering simple calculation and predictive accuracy, a bilevel optimization model for regional traffic flow correlation analysis is established to predict traffic flow parameters based on temporal-spatial-historical correlation. A two-stage model for correction coefficients optimization is put forward to simplify the bilevel optimization model. The first stage model is built to calculate the number of temporal-spatial-historical correlation variables. The second stage model is present to calculate basic model formulation of regional traffic flow correlation. A case study based on a real-world road network in Beijing, China, is implemented to test the efficiency and applicability of the proposed modeling and computing methods.

  15. Crash risk analysis during fog conditions using real-time traffic data.

    Wu, Yina; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Lee, Jaeyoung


    This research investigates the changes of traffic characteristics and crash risks during fog conditions. Using real-time traffic flow and weather data at two regions in Florida, the traffic patterns at the fog duration were compared to the traffic patterns at the clear duration. It was found that the average 5-min speed and the average 5-min volume were prone to decreasing during fog. Based on previous studies, a "Crash Risk Increase Indicator (CRII)" was proposed to explore the differences of crash risk between fog and clear conditions. A binary logistic regression model was applied to link the increase of crash risks with traffic flow characteristics. The results suggested that the proposed indicator worked well in evaluating the increase of crash risk under fog condition. It was indicated that the crash risk was prone to increase at ramp vicinities in fog conditions. Also, the average 5-min volume during fog and the lane position are important factors for crash risk increase. The differences between the regions were also explored in this study. The results indicated that the locations with heavier traffic or locations at the lanes that were closest to the median in Region 2 were more likely to observe an increase in crash risks in fog conditions. It is expected that the proposed indicator can help identify the dangerous traffic status under fog conditions and then proper ITS technologies can be implemented to enhance traffic safety when the visibility declines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis of the LTE Access Reservation Protocol for Real-Time Traffic

    Thomsen, Henning; Kiilerich Pratas, Nuno; Stefanovic, Cedomir;


    LTE is increasingly seen as a system for serving real-time Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communication needs. The asynchronous M2M user access in LTE is obtained through a two-phase access reservation protocol (contention and data phase). Existing analysis related to these protocols is based on the fo......LTE is increasingly seen as a system for serving real-time Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communication needs. The asynchronous M2M user access in LTE is obtained through a two-phase access reservation protocol (contention and data phase). Existing analysis related to these protocols is based...... of available data resources caused by variable load, and (2) detection of collisions in contention phase may not be possible. All of this affects transmission of real-time M2M traffic, where data packets have to be sent within a deadline and may have only one contention opportunity. We analyze the features...

  17. Crash Frequency Modeling Using Real-Time Environmental and Traffic Data and Unbalanced Panel Data Models.

    Chen, Feng; Chen, Suren; Ma, Xiaoxiang


    Traffic and environmental conditions (e.g., weather conditions), which frequently change with time, have a significant impact on crash occurrence. Traditional crash frequency models with large temporal scales and aggregated variables are not sufficient to capture the time-varying nature of driving environmental factors, causing significant loss of critical information on crash frequency modeling. This paper aims at developing crash frequency models with refined temporal scales for complex driving environments, with such an effort providing more detailed and accurate crash risk information which can allow for more effective and proactive traffic management and law enforcement intervention. Zero-inflated, negative binomial (ZINB) models with site-specific random effects are developed with unbalanced panel data to analyze hourly crash frequency on highway segments. The real-time driving environment information, including traffic, weather and road surface condition data, sourced primarily from the Road Weather Information System, is incorporated into the models along with site-specific road characteristics. The estimation results of unbalanced panel data ZINB models suggest there are a number of factors influencing crash frequency, including time-varying factors (e.g., visibility and hourly traffic volume) and site-varying factors (e.g., speed limit). The study confirms the unique significance of the real-time weather, road surface condition and traffic data to crash frequency modeling.

  18. A Model of Federated Evidence Fusion for Real-time Urban Traffic State Estimation


    In order to make full use of heterogeneous multi-sensor data to serve urban intelligent transportation systems, a real-time urban traffic state fusion model was proposed, named federated evidence fusion model. The model improves conventional D-S evidence theory in temporal domain, such that it can satisfy the requirement of real-time processing and utilize traffic detection information more efficaciously. The model frame and computational procedures are given. In addition, a generalized reliability weight matrix of evidence is also presented to increase the accuracy of estimation. After that, a simulation test is presented to explain the advantage of the proposed method in comparison with conventional D-S evidence theory. Besides, the validity of the model is proven by the use of the data of loop detectors and GPS probe vehicles collected from an urban link in Shanghai. Results of the experiment show that the proposed approach can well embody and track traffic state at character level in real-time conditions.

  19. Real-time routing control design for traffic networks with multi-route choices

    罗莉华; 葛颖恩; 陈继红; 张方伟


    This work considers those road networks in which there are multi-route choices for bifurcation-destination (or origin-destination) pairs, and designs a real-time variable message sign (VMS)-based routing control strategy in the model predictive control (MPC) framework. The VMS route recommendation provided by the traffic management authority is directly considered as the control variable, and the routing control model is established, in which a multi-dimensional control vector is introduced to describe the influence of route recommendations on flow distribution. In the MPC framework, a system optimum routing strategy with the constraints regarding drivers’ acceptability with recommended routes is designed, which can not only meet the traffic management authority’s control requirement but also improve drivers’ satisfaction with the route guidance system. The simulation carried out shows that the proposed routing control can effectively mitigate traffic congestion, reduces followers’ time delay, and improves drivers’ satisfaction with routing control in road networks.

  20. Development and Validation in Air Traffic Control by Means of Real-Time Simulations

    Stephan Herr


    Full Text Available The airspace in Central Europe is already one of the busiest airspaces in the world and the forecasts predict further traffic increases. The current air transport system is reaching its capacity limits, not only at airports but also in parts of the en-route area. This is mainly due to the workload constraints of air traffic controllers. In the past, many technical system functionalities were developed with the aim of reducing controller workload and thus enabling the safe handling of the predicted traffic growth. But these new functionalities alone will not provide adequate relief to air traffic controllers. Their working procedures and the airspace structure will have to be adapted accordingly. In order to obtain real operational benefits, these technical innovations must be integrated into an overall concept which – in addition to the above-mentioned factors – also takes account of ergonomic aspects and human-machine interfaces. When developing such an overall concept, additional evaluation and validation measures are indispensable to ensure that the desired operational benefits are achieved. This is why DFS has for many years used fast- and real-time simulations to assess and optimise any changes to be made to the air traffic control system. The working methods of DFS in this context are in keeping with the European Operational Concept Validation Methodology of 2007, in short E-OCVM. This paper outlines the development and validation activities of DFS using the MSP D/L project as an example. The project deals with the introduction of the new role of air traffic controllers as multi-sector planners (MSP and new system functionalities, such as air/ground data link (D/L. The project included the development of an operational concept for using the new functionalities as well as for defining working procedures and the airspace structure. This concept was subsequently evaluated by means of a fast-time simulation and two real-time simulations

  1. Design and Implementation of Real-Time Vehicular Camera for Driver Assistance and Traffic Congestion Estimation.

    Son, Sanghyun; Baek, Yunju


    As society has developed, the number of vehicles has increased and road conditions have become complicated, increasing the risk of crashes. Therefore, a service that provides safe vehicle control and various types of information to the driver is urgently needed. In this study, we designed and implemented a real-time traffic information system and a smart camera device for smart driver assistance systems. We selected a commercial device for the smart driver assistance systems, and applied a computer vision algorithm to perform image recognition. For application to the dynamic region of interest, dynamic frame skip methods were implemented to perform parallel processing in order to enable real-time operation. In addition, we designed and implemented a model to estimate congestion by analyzing traffic information. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated using images of a real road environment. We found that the processing time improved by 15.4 times when all the proposed methods were applied in the application. Further, we found experimentally that there was little or no change in the recognition accuracy when the proposed method was applied. Using the traffic congestion estimation model, we also found that the average error rate of the proposed model was 5.3%.

  2. Basic study on a simulation model for the traffic stream on urban expressway merging area

    Makigami, Y. [Ritsumeikan Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Science and Engineering; Sakai, T. [Ritsumeikan Univ., Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan). Civil and Environmental SystemsJP; Ishizuka, T.


    In this study a merging traffic simulation model was developed on the results of a traffic survey covering a merging section which is located on the Central Loop of the Hanshin Expressway and often causes congestion during heavy traffic period. The merging traffic simulation model is a kind of microscopic model treating the merging model flow as compressible fluid. The merging simulation model gives very appropriate and reliable results indicating the effect of improvement plan for reducing traffic congestion. (orig.)

  3. A GPS-based Real-time Road Traffic Monitoring System

    Tanti, Kamal Kumar

    In recent years, monitoring systems are astonishingly inclined towards ever more automatic; reliably interconnected, distributed and autonomous operation. Specifically, the measurement, logging, data processing and interpretation activities may be carried out by separate units at different locations in near real-time. The recent evolution of mobile communication devices and communication technologies has fostered a growing interest in the GIS & GPS-based location-aware systems and services. This paper describes a real-time road traffic monitoring system based on integrated mobile field devices (GPS/GSM/IOs) working in tandem with advanced GIS-based application software providing on-the-fly authentications for real-time monitoring and security enhancement. The described system is developed as a fully automated, continuous, real-time monitoring system that employs GPS sensors and Ethernet and/or serial port communication techniques are used to transfer data between GPS receivers at target points and a central processing computer. The data can be processed locally or remotely based on the requirements of client’s satisfaction. Due to the modular architecture of the system, other sensor types may be supported with minimal effort. Data on the distributed network & measurements are transmitted via cellular SIM cards to a Control Unit, which provides for post-processing and network management. The Control Unit may be remotely accessed via an Internet connection. The new system will not only provide more consistent data about the road traffic conditions but also will provide methods for integrating with other Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). For communication between the mobile device and central monitoring service GSM technology is used. The resulting system is characterized by autonomy, reliability and a high degree of automation.

  4. A Karaoke System with Real-Time Media Merging and Sharing Functions for a Cloud-Computing-Integrated Mobile Device

    Her-Tyan Yeh


    Full Text Available Mobile devices such as personal digital assistants (PDAs, smartphones, and tablets have increased in popularity and are extremely efficient for work-related, social, and entertainment uses. Popular entertainment services have also attracted substantial attention. Thus, relevant industries have exerted considerable efforts in establishing a method by which mobile devices can be used to develop excellent and convenient entertainment services. Because cloud-computing technology is mature and possesses a strong computing processing capacity, integrating this technology into the entertainment service function in mobile devices can reduce the data load on a system and maintain mobile device performances. This study combines cloud computing with a mobile device to design a karaoke system that contains real-time media merging and sharing functions. This system enables users to download music videos (MVs from their mobile device and sing and record their singing by using the device. They can upload the recorded song to the cloud server where it is merged with real-time media. Subsequently, by employing a media streaming technology, users can store their personal MVs in their mobile device or computer and instantaneously share these videos with others on the Internet. Through this process, people can instantly watch shared videos, enjoy the leisure and entertainment effects of mobile devices, and satisfy their desire for singing.

  5. Intelligent transportation system real time traffic speed prediction with minimal data

    Luana Georgescu


    Full Text Available Purpose: An Intelligent Transportation System (ITS must be able to predict traffic speed for short time intervals into the future along the branches between the many nodes in a traffic network in near real time using as few observed and stored speed values as possible.  Such predictions support timely ITS reactions to changing traffic conditions such as accidents or volume-induced slowdowns and include re-routing advice and time-to-destination estimations.Design/methodology/approach: Traffic sensors are embedded in the interstate highway system in Detroit, Michigan, USA, and metropolitan area.  The set of sensors used in this project is along interstate highway 75 (I-75 southbound from the intersection with interstate highway 696 (I-696. Data from the sensors including speed, volume, and percent of sensor occupancy, were supplied in one minute intervals by the Michigan Intelligent Transportation Systems Center (MITSC.  Hierarchical linear regression was used to develop a speed prediction model that requires only the current and one previous speed value to predict speed up to 30 minutes in the future.  The model was validated by comparison to collected data with the mean relative error and the median error as the primary metrics.Findings and Originality/value: The model was a better predicator of speed than the minute by minute averages alone.  The relative error between the observed and predicted values was found to range from 5.9% for 1 minute into the future predictions to 10.9% for 30 minutes into the future predictions for the 2006 data set.  The corresponding median errors were 4.0% to 5.4%.  Thus, the predictive capability of the model was deemed sufficient for application.Research limitations/implications: The model has not yet been embedded in an ITS, so a final test of its effectiveness has not been accomplished.Social implications: Travel delays due to traffic incidents, volume induced congestion or other reasons are annoying to

  6. Dynamic Subcarrier Allocation for Real-Time Traffic over Multiuser OFDM Systems

    Li VictorOK


    Full Text Available A dynamic resource allocation algorithm to satisfy the packet delay requirements for real-time services, while maximizing the system capacity in multiuser orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM systems is introduced. Our proposed cross-layer algorithm, called Dynamic Subcarrier Allocation algorithm for Real-time Traffic (DSA-RT, consists of two interactive components. In the medium access control (MAC layer, the users' expected transmission rates in terms of the number of subcarriers per symbol and their corresponding transmission priorities are evaluated. With the above MAC-layer information and the detected subcarriers' channel gains, in the physical (PHY layer, a modified Kuhn-Munkres algorithm is developed to minimize the system power for a certain subcarrier allocation, then a PHY-layer resource allocation scheme is proposed to optimally allocate the subcarriers under the system signal-to-noise ratio (SNR and power constraints. In a system where the number of mobile users changes dynamically, our developed MAC-layer access control and removal schemes can guarantee the quality of service (QoS of the existing users in the system and fully utilize the bandwidth resource. The numerical results show that DSA-RT significantly improves the system performance in terms of the bandwidth efficiency and delay performance for real-time services.

  7. Real-time optical path control method that utilizes multiple support vector machines for traffic prediction

    Kawase, Hiroshi; Mori, Yojiro; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Sato, Ken-ichi


    An effective solution to the continuous Internet traffic expansion is to offload traffic to lower layers such as the L2 or L1 optical layers. One possible approach is to introduce dynamic optical path operations such as adaptive establishment/tear down according to traffic variation. Path operations cannot be done instantaneously; hence, traffic prediction is essential. Conventional prediction techniques need optimal parameter values to be determined in advance by averaging long-term variations from the past. However, this does not allow adaptation to the ever-changing short-term variations expected to be common in future networks. In this paper, we propose a real-time optical path control method based on a machinelearning technique involving support vector machines (SVMs). A SVM learns the most recent traffic characteristics, and so enables better adaptation to temporal traffic variations than conventional techniques. The difficulty lies in determining how to minimize the time gap between optical path operation and buffer management at the originating points of those paths. The gap makes the required learning data set enormous and the learning process costly. To resolve the problem, we propose the adoption of multiple SVMs running in parallel, trained with non-overlapping subsets of the original data set. The maximum value of the outputs of these SVMs will be the estimated number of necessary paths. Numerical experiments prove that our proposed method outperforms a conventional prediction method, the autoregressive moving average method with optimal parameter values determined by Akaike's information criterion, and reduces the packet-loss ratio by up to 98%.

  8. Real Time Experimental Analysis of Mobile Ad-Hoc Traffic in Indoor and Outdoor Environment

    P.C.Kishore Raja


    Full Text Available The use of mobile ad hoc network varies from collaborative computing to time critical applications in indoor and outdoor environment. Mobility of ad hoc network makes very attractive in all areas of mobile applications. Connection sustainability is the main problem in wireless ad hoc network. This paper analyse straight up, flat topologies of mobile ad hoc traffic in indoor and outdoor environment in real time campus network and evaluate the scenarios based on performance metrics. The results show that the mobiles nodes in straight up and flat topologies are affected by connection, mobility and obstacles with all other topologies. It is also observed that straight up static topology for indoor shows better performance in all metrics.

  9. Cross layer scheduling for real-time traffic in multiuser MIMO-OFDMA systems

    SUN Qiao-yun; TIAN Hui; DONG Kun; ZHANG Ping


    A novel cross layer scheduling algorithm is proposed for real-time (RT) traffic in multiuser downlink multiple-input multiple-output orthogonal frequency division multiple access (MIMO-OFDMA) wireless systems. The algorithm dynamically allocates resources in space, time and frequency domain based on channel state information (CSI), users' quality of service (QoS) requirements and queue state information (QSI). To provide higher data rate and spectrum efficiency, adaptive modulation and coding (AMC) is employed. The proposed algorithm can improve cell throughput and increase the number of users that can be supported while guaranteeing users' QoS requirements and fairness among all users. Simulation results indicate that the proposed algorithm can achieve superior performance.

  10. A heuristic path-estimating algorithm for large-scale real-time traffic information calculating


    As the original Global Position System (GPS) data in Floating Car Data have the accuracy problem,this paper proposes a heuristic path-estimating algorithm for large-scale real-time traffic information calculating. It uses the heuristic search method,imports the restriction with geometric operation,and makes comparison between the vectors composed of the vehicular GPS points and the special road network model to search the set of vehicular traveling route candidates. Finally,it chooses the most optimal one according to weight. Experimental results indicate that the algorithm has considerable efficiency in accuracy (over 92.7%) and com-putational speed (max 8000 GPS records per second) when handling the GPS tracking data whose sampling rate is larger than 1 min even under complex road network conditions.

  11. System for Road Vehicle Energy Optimization Using Real Time Road and Traffic Information

    Felipe Jiménez


    Full Text Available Nowadays, reducing the energy and fuel consumption of road vehicles is a key issue. Different strategies have been proposed. One of them is to promote Eco-driving behaviour among drivers. Most Eco-driving tips take into account only the road stretch where the vehicle is located. However, larger improvements could be achieved if information from subsequent stretches is used. The main objective of this work is to develop a system to warn the driver in real time of the optimal speed that should be maintained on every road segment in order to optimize the energy used and the fuel consumed while observing a time schedule. The system takes into account the road vertical profile, the fixed and variable speed limits and the traffic information retrieved using V2V and V2I communications. The system has been tested on real road sections with satisfactory results in fuel savings.

  12. Real-time data fusion of road traffic and ETC data for road network monitoring

    de Mouzon, Olivier; El Faouzi, Nour-Eddin


    In our present work we introduce the use of data fusion in the field of Transportation and more precisely for motorway travel time estimation. We present an Ad-hoc approach as the operational foundation for the development of a novel travel time estimation algorithm, called Modified Cumulative Traffic Counts Method (MCTC). Based on a data fusion paradigm, we combine in real time multiple evidence derived from two complementary sources to feed our MCTC inference engine and attempt to best estimate prevailing travel time. Our approach has as its main advantages the modeling power of Theory of Evidence in expressing beliefs in some hypotheses, the ability to add the notions of uncertainty in terms of confidence interval. We evaluate our travel estimation algorithm prototype through a set of experiments that were conducted with real network traffic. We conclude that data fusion is a promising approach as it increases the estimation and prediction capability of our MCTC algorithm and increase the robustness of the estimation process.

  13. Large-scale machine learning and evaluation platform for real-time traffic surveillance

    Eichel, Justin A.; Mishra, Akshaya; Miller, Nicholas; Jankovic, Nicholas; Thomas, Mohan A.; Abbott, Tyler; Swanson, Douglas; Keller, Joel


    In traffic engineering, vehicle detectors are trained on limited datasets, resulting in poor accuracy when deployed in real-world surveillance applications. Annotating large-scale high-quality datasets is challenging. Typically, these datasets have limited diversity; they do not reflect the real-world operating environment. There is a need for a large-scale, cloud-based positive and negative mining process and a large-scale learning and evaluation system for the application of automatic traffic measurements and classification. The proposed positive and negative mining process addresses the quality of crowd sourced ground truth data through machine learning review and human feedback mechanisms. The proposed learning and evaluation system uses a distributed cloud computing framework to handle data-scaling issues associated with large numbers of samples and a high-dimensional feature space. The system is trained using AdaBoost on 1,000,000 Haar-like features extracted from 70,000 annotated video frames. The trained real-time vehicle detector achieves an accuracy of at least 95% for 1/2 and about 78% for 19/20 of the time when tested on ˜7,500,000 video frames. At the end of 2016, the dataset is expected to have over 1 billion annotated video frames.

  14. Real-Time Station Grouping under Dynamic Traffic for IEEE 802.11ah.

    Tian, Le; Khorov, Evgeny; Latré, Steven; Famaey, Jeroen


    IEEE 802.11ah, marketed as Wi-Fi HaLow, extends Wi-Fi to the sub-1 GHz spectrum. Through a number of physical layer (PHY) and media access control (MAC) optimizations, it aims to bring greatly increased range, energy-efficiency, and scalability. This makes 802.11ah the perfect candidate for providing connectivity to Internet of Things (IoT) devices. One of these new features, referred to as the Restricted Access Window (RAW), focuses on improving scalability in highly dense deployments. RAW divides stations into groups and reduces contention and collisions by only allowing channel access to one group at a time. However, the standard does not dictate how to determine the optimal RAW grouping parameters. The optimal parameters depend on the current network conditions, and it has been shown that incorrect configuration severely impacts throughput, latency and energy efficiency. In this paper, we propose a traffic-adaptive RAW optimization algorithm (TAROA) to adapt the RAW parameters in real time based on the current traffic conditions, optimized for sensor networks in which each sensor transmits packets with a certain (predictable) frequency and may change the transmission frequency over time. The TAROA algorithm is executed at each target beacon transmission time (TBTT), and it first estimates the packet transmission interval of each station only based on packet transmission information obtained by access point (AP) during the last beacon interval. Then, TAROA determines the RAW parameters and assigns stations to RAW slots based on this estimated transmission frequency. The simulation results show that, compared to enhanced distributed channel access/distributed coordination function (EDCA/DCF), the TAROA algorithm can highly improve the performance of IEEE 802.11ah dense networks in terms of throughput, especially when hidden nodes exist, although it does not always achieve better latency performance. This paper contributes with a practical approach to optimizing

  15. Analysis of real-time crash risk for expressway ramps using traffic, geometric, trip generation, and socio-demographic predictors.

    Wang, Ling; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Lee, Jaeyoung; Shi, Qi


    There have been numerous studies on real-time crash prediction seeking to link real-time crash likelihood with traffic and environmental predictors. Nevertheless, none has explored the impact of socio-demographic and trip generation parameters on real-time crash risk. This study analyzed the real-time crash risk for expressway ramps using traffic, geometric, socio-demographic, and trip generation predictors. Two Bayesian logistic regression models were utilized to identify crash precursors and their impact on ramp crash risk. Meanwhile, four Support Vector Machines (SVM) were applied to predict crash occurrence. Bayesian logistic regression models and SVMs commonly showed that the models with the socio-demographic and trip generation variables outperform their counterparts without those parameters. It indicates that the socio-demographic and trip generation parameters have significant impact on the real-time crash risk. The Bayesian logistic regression model results showed that the logarithm of vehicle count, speed, and percentage of home-based-work production had positive impact on crash risk. Meanwhile, off-ramps or non-diamond-ramps experienced higher crash potential than on-ramps or diamond-ramps, respectively. Though the SVMs provided good model performance, the SVM model with all variables (i.e., all traffic, geometric, socio-demographic, and trip generation variables) had an overfitting problem. Therefore, it is recommended to build SVM models based on significant variables identified by other models, such as logistic regression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Incorporating real-time traffic and weather data to explore road accident likelihood and severity in urban arterials.

    Theofilatos, Athanasios


    The effective treatment of road accidents and thus the enhancement of road safety is a major concern to societies due to the losses in human lives and the economic and social costs. The investigation of road accident likelihood and severity by utilizing real-time traffic and weather data has recently received significant attention by researchers. However, collected data mainly stem from freeways and expressways. Consequently, the aim of the present paper is to add to the current knowledge by investigating accident likelihood and severity by exploiting real-time traffic and weather data collected from urban arterials in Athens, Greece. Random Forests (RF) are firstly applied for preliminary analysis purposes. More specifically, it is aimed to rank candidate variables according to their relevant importance and provide a first insight on the potential significant variables. Then, Bayesian logistic regression as well finite mixture and mixed effects logit models are applied to further explore factors associated with accident likelihood and severity respectively. Regarding accident likelihood, the Bayesian logistic regression showed that variations in traffic significantly influence accident occurrence. On the other hand, accident severity analysis revealed a generally mixed influence of traffic variations on accident severity, although international literature states that traffic variations increase severity. Lastly, weather parameters did not find to have a direct influence on accident likelihood or severity. The study added to the current knowledge by incorporating real-time traffic and weather data from urban arterials to investigate accident occurrence and accident severity mechanisms. The identification of risk factors can lead to the development of effective traffic management strategies to reduce accident occurrence and severity of injuries in urban arterials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  17. A Prototype System for Real Time Computer Animation of Slow Traffic in a Driving Simulator

    Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.; Delden, Mattijs J.B. van; Hin, Andrea J.S.; Wolffelaar, Peter C. van


    The Traffic Research Centre (TRC) of the University of Groningen in the Netherlands has developed a driving simulator with ‘intelligent’ computer-controlled traffic, consisting at the moment only of saloon cars. The range of possible applications would be greatly enhanced if other traffic

  18. A prototype system for real time computer animation of slow traffic in a driving simulator

    Roerdink, JBTM; van Delden, MJB; Hin, AJS; van Wolffelaar, PC; Thalmann, NM; Skala,


    The Traffic Research Centre (TRC) of the University of Groningen in the Netherlands has developed a driving simulator with 'intelligent' computer-controlled traffic, consisting at the moment only of saloon cars. The range of possible applications would be greatly enhanced if other traffic

  19. Impact of real-time traffic characteristics on freeway crash occurrence: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Roshandel, Saman; Zheng, Zuduo; Washington, Simon


    The development of methods for real-time crash prediction as a function of current or recent traffic and roadway conditions is gaining increasing attention in the literature. Numerous studies have modeled the relationships between traffic characteristics and crash occurrence, and significant progress has been made. Given the accumulated evidence on this topic and the lack of an articulate summary of research status, challenges, and opportunities, there is an urgent need to scientifically review these studies and to synthesize the existing state-of-the-art knowledge. This paper addresses this need by undertaking a systematic literature review to identify current knowledge, challenges, and opportunities, and then conducts a meta-analysis of existing studies to provide a summary impact of traffic characteristics on crash occurrence. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess quality, publication bias, and outlier bias of the various studies; and the time intervals used to measure traffic characteristics were also considered. As a result of this comprehensive and systematic review, issues in study designs, traffic and crash data, and model development and validation are discussed. Outcomes of this study are intended to provide researchers focused on real-time crash prediction with greater insight into the modeling of this important but extremely challenging safety issue.

  20. Investigation of powered 2-wheeler accident involvement in urban arterials by considering real-time traffic and weather data.

    Theofilatos, Athanasios; Yannis, George


    Understanding the various factors that affect accident risk is of particular concern to decision makers and researchers. The incorporation of real-time traffic and weather data constitutes a fruitful approach when analyzing accident risk. However, the vast majority of relevant research has no specific focus on vulnerable road users such as powered 2-wheelers (PTWs). Moreover, studies using data from urban roads and arterials are scarce. This study aims to add to the current knowledge by considering real-time traffic and weather data from 2 major urban arterials in the city of Athens, Greece, in order to estimate the effect of traffic, weather, and other characteristics on PTW accident involvement. Because of the high number of candidate variables, a random forest model was applied to reveal the most important variables. Then, the potentially significant variables were used as input to a Bayesian logistic regression model in order to reveal the magnitude of their effect on PTW accident involvement. The results of the analysis suggest that PTWs are more likely to be involved in multivehicle accidents than in single-vehicle accidents. It was also indicated that increased traffic flow and variations in speed have a significant influence on PTW accident involvement. On the other hand, weather characteristics were found to have no effect. The findings of this study can contribute to the understanding of accident mechanisms of PTWs and reduce PTW accident risk in urban arterials.

  1. Bayesian random effect models incorporating real-time weather and traffic data to investigate mountainous freeway hazardous factors.

    Yu, Rongjie; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Ahmed, Mohamed


    Freeway crash occurrences are highly influenced by geometric characteristics, traffic status, weather conditions and drivers' behavior. For a mountainous freeway which suffers from adverse weather conditions, it is critical to incorporate real-time weather information and traffic data in the crash frequency study. In this paper, a Bayesian inference method was employed to model one year's crash data on I-70 in the state of Colorado. Real-time weather and traffic variables, along with geometric characteristics variables were evaluated in the models. Two scenarios were considered in this study, one seasonal and one crash type based case. For the methodology part, the Poisson model and two random effect models with a Bayesian inference method were employed and compared in this study. Deviance Information Criterion (DIC) was utilized as a comparison factor. The correlated random effect models outperformed the others. The results indicate that the weather condition variables, especially precipitation, play a key role in the crash occurrence models. The conclusions imply that different active traffic management strategies should be designed based on seasons, and single-vehicle crashes have different crash mechanism compared to multi-vehicle crashes.

  2. 3D Markov Process for Traffic Flow Prediction in Real-Time

    Eunjeong Ko


    Full Text Available Recently, the correct estimation of traffic flow has begun to be considered an essential component in intelligent transportation systems. In this paper, a new statistical method to predict traffic flows using time series analyses and geometric correlations is proposed. The novelty of the proposed method is two-fold: (1 a 3D heat map is designed to describe the traffic conditions between roads, which can effectively represent the correlations between spatially- and temporally-adjacent traffic states; and (2 the relationship between the adjacent roads on the spatiotemporal domain is represented by cliques in MRF and the clique parameters are obtained by example-based learning. In order to assess the validity of the proposed method, it is tested using data from expressway traffic that are provided by the Korean Expressway Corporation, and the performance of the proposed method is compared with existing approaches. The results demonstrate that the proposed method can predict traffic conditions with an accuracy of 85%, and this accuracy can be improved further.

  3. Real-Time Risk Assessment Framework for Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Traffic Management (UTM)

    Ancel, Ersin; Capristan, Francisco M.; Foster, John V.; Condotta, Ryan


    The new Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Small Unmanned Aircraft rule (Part 107) marks the first national regulations for commercial operation of small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) under 55 pounds within the National Airspace System (NAS). Although sUAS flights may not be performed beyond visual line-of-sight or over non- participant structures and people, safety of sUAS operations must still be maintained and tracked at all times. Moreover, future safety-critical operation of sUAS (e.g., for package delivery) are already being conceived and tested. NASA's Unmanned Aircraft System Trac Management (UTM) concept aims to facilitate the safe use of low-altitude airspace for sUAS operations. This paper introduces the UTM Risk Assessment Framework (URAF) which was developed to provide real-time safety evaluation and tracking capability within the UTM concept. The URAF uses Bayesian Belief Networks (BBNs) to propagate off -nominal condition probabilities based on real-time component failure indicators. This information is then used to assess the risk to people on the ground by calculating the potential impact area and the effects of the impact. The visual representation of the expected area of impact and the nominal risk level can assist operators and controllers with dynamic trajectory planning and execution. The URAF was applied to a case study to illustrate the concept.

  4. Design and implementation of a differentiated service based qos model for real-time interactive traffic on constrained bandwidth ip networks

    Chaudhuri, Sruti Gan


    In this thesis work, a QoS model for real-time interactive traffic on a real network with constrained bandwidth and real-time traffic has been proposed. The model supports tight guarantees of QoS to real-time interactive traffic without over provisioning of bandwidth. A dynamic scheduling model which is adaptive to input data rate of traffic has been proposed. In this model, A Differentiated Service (DiffServ) based approach is proposed for QoS provisioning. The packets are classified and distributed among finite number of queues with limited buffer based on different priorities and total available bandwidth. The model proposes a mechanism to derive the weighted service rates and queue length distribution so as to meet the requirement of low packet loss and delay for real time interactive traffic in the QoS engineered network. An adaptive queuing strategy is proposed so that minimum bandwidth in used for real time traffic. This ensures maximizing availability to best effort traffic. The model assumes constrai...


    Ofyar Z. TAMIN


    One of the most important information is the best routes from each origin zone to each destination zone which have already considered the effect of congestion. This information will be the main data for the development of the Route Guidance System (RGS so that each driver can choose his best route through the road network. The best route information will be changed in a short-time-interval basis depending on the traffic condition. Moreover, this approach can also be extended to provide the short-time-interval environmental information. The system has been tested and validated in Bandung and it showed remarkably good results for Bandung condition.

  6. Highly Dynamic and Adaptive Traffic Congestion Avoidance in Real-Time Inspired by Honey Bee Behavior

    Wedde, Horst F.; Lehnhoff, Sebastian; van Bonn, Bernhard; Bay, Z.; Becker, S.; Böttcher, S.; Brunner, C.; Büscher, A.; Fürst, T.; Lazarescu, A. M.; Rotaru, E.; Senge, S.; Steinbach, B.; Yilmaz, F.; Zimmermann, T.

    Traffic congestions have become a major problem in metropolitan areas world-wide, within and between cities, to an extent where they make driving and transportation times largely unpredictable. Due to the highly dynamic character of congestion building and dissolving this phenomenon appears even to resist a formal treatment. Static approaches, and even more their global management, have proven counterproductive in practice. Given the latest progress in VANET technology and the remarkable commercially driven efforts like in the European C2C consortium, or the VSC Project in the US, allow meanwhile to tackle various aspects of traffic regulation through VANET communication. In this paper we introduce a novel, completely decentralized multi-agent routing algorithm (termed BeeJamA) which we have derived from the foraging behavior of honey bees. It is highly dynamic, adaptive, robust, and scalable, and it allows for both avoiding congestions, and minimizing traveling times to individual destinations. Vehicle guidance is provided well ahead of every intersection, depending on the individual speeds. Thus strict deadlines are imposed on, and respected by, the BeeJamA algorithm. We report on extensive simulation experiments which show the superior performance of BeeJamA over conventional approaches.

  7. A SIP-based Real-time Traffic Mobility Support Scheme in Named Data Networking

    Haibo li


    Full Text Available With the development of hardware and software technologies, mobile computing has become popular and pervasive. As a result, user-created mobile contents overwhelmingly increase, and cont sharing becomes the most popular application in communication networks. In order to accommodate this technical trend, a new networking architecture - named data networking (NDN -was proposed to optimize the performance of content sharing. However, NDN has little design consideration for mobile applications, especially for the real-time multimedia applications which are very sensitive to the end-to-end network delay. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a SIP-based mobility-enabled scheme for supporting mobile multimedia applications in NDN. We will give a new description based on SIP message exchange to support mobility in NDN. Then, two enhanced approaches are proposed to further improve the handoff performance in NDN for fast handoff and the low complexity of terminal. We evaluate the proposed scheme with the OPNET simulator. The results show that the proposed SIP-based scheme can well support mobility in NDN.

  8. Real-time PM10 concentration monitoring on Penang Bridge by using traffic monitoring CCTV

    Low, K. L.; Lim, H. S.; MatJafri, M. Z.; Abdullah, K.; Wong, C. J.


    For this study, an algorithm was developed to determine concentration of particles less than 10μm (PM10) from still images captured by a CCTV camera on the Penang Bridge. The objective of this study is to remotely monitor the PM10 concentrations on the Penang Bridge through the internet. So, an algorithm was developed based on the relationship between the atmospheric reflectance and the corresponding air quality. By doing this, the still images were separated into three bands namely red, green and blue and their digital number values were determined. A special transformation was then performed to the data. Ground PM10 measurements were taken by using DustTrak TM meter. The algorithm was calibrated using a regression analysis. The proposed algorithm produced a high correlation coefficient (R) and low root-mean-square error (RMS) between the measured and produced PM10. Later, a program was written by using Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0 to download still images from the camera over the internet and implement the newly developed algorithm. Meanwhile, the program is running in real time and the public will know the air pollution index from time to time. This indicates that the technique using the CCTV camera images can provide a useful tool for air quality studies.

  9. A real-time traffic control method for the intersection with pre-signals under the phase swap sorting strategy

    Bie, Yiming; Wang, Yinhai


    To deal with the conflicts between left-turn and through traffic streams and increase the discharge capacity, this paper addresses the pre-signal which is implemented at a signalized intersection. Such an intersection with pre-signal is termed as a tandem intersection. For the tandem intersection, phase swap sorting strategy is deemed as the most effective phasing scheme in view of some exclusive merits, such as easier compliance of drivers, and shorter sorting area. However, a major limitation of the phase swap sorting strategy is not considered in previous studies: if one or more vehicle is left at the sorting area after the signal light turns to red, the capacity of the approach would be dramatically dropped. Besides, previous signal control studies deal with a fixed timing plan that is not adaptive with the fluctuation of traffic flows. Therefore, to cope with these two gaps, this paper firstly takes an in-depth analysis of the traffic flow operations at the tandem intersection. Secondly, three groups of loop detectors are placed to obtain the real-time vehicle information for adaptive signalization. The lane selection behavior in the sorting area is considered to set the green time for intersection signals. With the objective of minimizing the vehicle delay, the signal control parameters are then optimized based on a dynamic programming method. Finally, numerical experiments show that average vehicle delay and maximum queue length can be reduced under all scenarios. PMID:28531198

  10. Real-time monitoring of railway traffic using fiber Bragg gratings

    Filograno, M. L.; Rodriguez-Barrios, A.; Corredera, P.; Martin-Lopez, S.; Rodriguez-Plaza, M.; Andres-Alguacil, A.; Gonzalez-Herraez, M.


    In this work we present field tests concerning the application of Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors for the monitoring of railway traffic. The test campaigns are performed on the Spanish high speed line Madrid-Barcelona, with different types of trains (S-102 TALGO-BOMBARDIER, S-103 SIEMENS-VELARO and S-120 CAF). We located the FBG sensors in the rail track at 70 km from Madrid in the country side, where the trains primarily are tested during commercial operation with maximum speeds between 250-300 km/h. The FBG sensor interrogation system used allows the simultaneous monitoring of four FBG sensors at 8000 samples/s. The different position of the FBG sensors in relation with the rail can be used with different purposes such as train identification, axle counting, speed and acceleration detection, wheel imperfections monitoring and dynamic load calculation.

  11. CAGE100: Real-Time Multi-Port Packet Capture System for 100 Gigabit Ethernet Traffic

    Namazi, Ali; Azimi-Sadjadi, Babak; Lin, Chujen


    Future large scale sciences are anticipated to use massive amount of data in their experiments. DOE's ESnet (Energy Science Network) is developing a 100 Gbps backbone based on this state-of-the-art 100 Gigabit Ethernet standard. ESnet will serve thousands of DOE and non-DOE scientists with its high bandwidth backbone, and connect several national laboratories. Current Ethernet test and debug solutions, such as network traffic capturer/analyzer tools, support up to 10 Gbps speed, and the very few capable of handling 100 Gbps are extremely costly. Such tools are essential in the development of high speed devices and routers, and ultimately the success of 100 Gigabit Ethernet.



    Recent traffic measurements in corporate LANs, Variable-Bit-Rate (VBR) video sources, ISDN control channels, and other communication systems, have indicated traffic behavior of self-similar nature, which has implications for design, control and analysis of high-speed networks. Merging and splitting are two basic networking operations. This paper gave the necessary and sufficient conditions for that merging of second-order self-similar traffic streams also results in a second-order self-similar stream. It shows that splitting traffic streams of the second-order self-similar stream are still self-similar streams by the independent splitting operation.

  13. Real time network traffic monitoring for wireless local area networks based on compressed sensing

    Balouchestani, Mohammadreza


    A wireless local area network (WLAN) is an important type of wireless networks which connotes different wireless nodes in a local area network. WLANs suffer from important problems such as network load balancing, large amount of energy, and load of sampling. This paper presents a new networking traffic approach based on Compressed Sensing (CS) for improving the quality of WLANs. The proposed architecture allows reducing Data Delay Probability (DDP) to 15%, which is a good record for WLANs. The proposed architecture is increased Data Throughput (DT) to 22 % and Signal to Noise (S/N) ratio to 17 %, which provide a good background for establishing high qualified local area networks. This architecture enables continuous data acquisition and compression of WLAN's signals that are suitable for a variety of other wireless networking applications. At the transmitter side of each wireless node, an analog-CS framework is applied at the sensing step before analog to digital converter in order to generate the compressed version of the input signal. At the receiver side of wireless node, a reconstruction algorithm is applied in order to reconstruct the original signals from the compressed signals with high probability and enough accuracy. The proposed algorithm out-performs existing algorithms by achieving a good level of Quality of Service (QoS). This ability allows reducing 15 % of Bit Error Rate (BER) at each wireless node.

  14. Application of Real-Time Automated Traffic Incident Response Plan Management System: A Web Structure for the Regional Highway Network in China

    Yongfeng Ma


    Full Text Available Traffic incidents, caused by various factors, may lead to heavy traffic delay and be harmful to traffic capacity of downstream sections. Traffic incident management (TIM systems have been developed widely to respond to traffic incidents intelligently and reduce the losses. Traffic incident response plans, as an important component of TIM, can effectively guide responders as to what and how to do in traffic incidents. In the paper, a real-time automated traffic incident response plan management system was developed, which could generate and manage traffic incident response plans timely and automatically. A web application structure and a physical structure were designed to implement and show these functions. A standard framework of data storage was also developed to save information about traffic incidents and generated response plans. Furthermore, a conformation survey and case-based reasoning (CBR were introduced to identify traffic incident and generate traffic incident response plans automatically, respectively. Twenty-three traffic crash-related incidents were selected and three indicators were used to measure the system performance. Results showed that 20 of 23 cases could be retrieved effectively and accurately. The system is practicable to generate traffic incident response plans and has been implemented in China.

  15. Capacity of Freeway Merge Areas with Different On-Ramp Traffic Flow

    Jinxing Shen


    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at investigating the influence of different types of traffic flows on the capacity of freeway merge areas. Based on the classical gap-acceptance model, two calculating models were established specifically considering randomly arriving vehicles and individual difference in driving behaviours. Monte-Carlo simulation was implemented to reproduce the maximum traffic volume on the designed freeway merge area under different situations. The results demonstrated that the proposed calculating models have better performance than the conventional gap-acceptance theory on accurately predicting the capacity of freeway merge areas. The findings of research could be helpful to improve the microscopic traffic flow simulation model from a more practical perspective and support the designing of freeway merge areas as well.

  16. Near-real-time trace element measurements in a rural, traffic-influenced environment with some fireworks

    Furger, Markus; Slowik, Jay G.; Cruz Minguillón, María; Hueglin, Christoph; Koch, Chris; Prévôt, André S. H.; Baltensperger, Urs


    Aerosol-bound trace elements can affect the environment in significant ways especially when they are toxic. Characterizing the trace element spatial and temporal variability is a prerequisite for human exposure studies. The requirement for high time resolution and consequently the low sample masses asked for analysis methods not easily accessible, such as synchrotron radiation-induced X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (SR-XRF). In recent years, instrumentation that samples and analyzes airborne particulate matter with time resolutions of less than an hour in near real time has entered the market. We present the results of a three-week campaign in a rural environment close to a freeway. The measurement period included the fireworks of the Swiss National Day. The XRF instrument was set up at the monitoring station Härkingen of the Swiss Monitoring Network for Air Pollution (NABEL). It was configured to sample and analyze ambient PM10 aerosols in 1-hour intervals. Sample analysis with XRF was performed by the instrument immediately after collection, i.e. during the next sampling interval. 24 elements were analyzed and quantified (Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba, Pt, Hg, Pb, Bi). The element concentrations obtained by the XRF instrument were compared to those determined by ICP-AES and ICP-MS in PM10 samples collected by NABEL high volume samplers. The results demonstrate the capability of the instrument to measure over a wide range of concentrations, from a few ng m-3 to μg m-3, under ambient conditions. The time resolution allows for the characterization of diurnal variations of element concentrations, which provides information on the contribution of emission sources, such as road traffic, soil, or fireworks. Some elements (V, Co, As, Pt) were below their detection limit during most of the time, but As could be quantified during the fireworks. Transition metals Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn could be attributed to freeway traffic. K, S

  17. Online Optimal Control of Connected Vehicles for Efficient Traffic Flow at Merging Roads

    Rios-Torres, Jackeline [ORNL; Malikopoulos, Andreas [ORNL; Pisu, Pierluigi [Clemson University


    This paper addresses the problem of coordinating online connected vehicles at merging roads to achieve a smooth traffic flow without stop-and-go driving. We present a framework and a closed-form solution that optimize the acceleration profile of each vehicle in terms of fuel economy while avoiding collision with other vehicles at the merging zone. The proposed solution is validated through simulation and it is shown that coordination of connected vehicles can reduce significantly fuel consumption and travel time at merging roads.

  18. Hybrid Ant Colony Optimization for Real-World Delivery Problems Based on Real Time and Predicted Traffic in Wide Area Road Network

    Junichi Ochiai


    Full Text Available This paper presents a solution to real-world delive ry problems for home delivery services where a large number of roads exist in cities and the tra ffic on the roads rapidly changes with time. The methodology for finding the shortest-travel-tim e tour includes a hybrid meta-heuristic that combines ant colony optimization with Dijkstra’s al gorithm, a search technique that uses both real-time traffic and predicted traffic, and a way to use a real-world road map and measured traffic in Japan. Experimental results using a map of central Tokyo and historical traffic data indicate that the proposed method can find a better solution than conventional methods.

  19. Delivery performance of conventional aircraft by terminal-area, time-based air traffic control: A real-time simulation evaluation

    Credeur, Leonard; Houck, Jacob A.; Capron, William R.; Lohr, Gary W.


    A description and results are presented of a study to measure the performance and reaction of airline flight crews, in a full workload DC-9 cockpit, flying in a real-time simulation of an air traffic control (ATC) concept called Traffic Intelligence for the Management of Efficient Runway-scheduling (TIMER). Experimental objectives were to verify earlier fast-time TIMER time-delivery precision results and obtain data for the validation or refinement of existing computer models of pilot/airborne performance. Experimental data indicated a runway threshold, interarrival-time-error standard deviation in the range of 10.4 to 14.1 seconds. Other real-time system performance parameters measured include approach speeds, response time to controller turn instructions, bank angles employed, and ATC controller message delivery-time errors.

  20. An integrated user-oriented weather forecast system for air traffic using real-time observations and model data

    Forster, Caroline; Tafferner, Arnold


    This paper presents the Weather Forecast User-oriented System Including Object Nowcasting (WxFUSION), an integrated weather forecast system for air traffic. The system is currently under development within a new project named “Weather and Flying” under the leadership of the Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IPA) at the German Aerospace Center (DLR). WxFUSION aims at combining data from various sources, as there are weather observations, remote sensing, nowcasting and numerical model forecast ...

  1. A Routing Filter for the Real-time Railway Traffic Management Problem Based on Ant Colony Optimization

    SAMA, Marcella; Pellegrini, Paola; D'Ariano, Andrea; Rodriguez, Joaquin; Pacciarelli, Dario


    The growth in transport demand of the last years is a trend expected to continue in the coming years. In railways, the difficulties in building new infrastructures due to high costs or physical obstacles have translated into the need to utilize the already existing infrastructures at their full capacity. During the daily operations disturbances may happen, creating overlapping requests for the same tracks at the same time by multiple trains. Traffic controllers are thus required to solve thes...

  2. Delay-bound Admission Control for Real-time Traffic in Fourth Generation IMT-Advanced Networks based on 802.16m



    Full Text Available In this paper a novel schedulability criteria is developed to provide Quality of Service (QoS guarantees in terms of both minimum available bandwidth and maximum tolerated packet delay as required by the real-time traffic class. The contribution makes use of a measurement based admission control scheme at the base station of the 802.16m based 4G IMT�advanced network by considering the effects of various kinds of delays including the channel access delay, queuing delay and MAC layer transmission delay on the system's end to end delay. The paper also provides a way for the mobile station to proactively increase the chances of success of bandwidth grants by predicting in advance whether its bandwidth request will be approved by the base station, and then modifying or suspending its bandwidth request in case the chances of success is not favorable at that instant.

  3. Calibration of crash risk models on freeways with limited real-time traffic data using Bayesian meta-analysis and Bayesian inference approach.

    Xu, Chengcheng; Wang, Wei; Liu, Pan; Li, Zhibin


    This study aimed to develop a real-time crash risk model with limited data in China by using Bayesian meta-analysis and Bayesian inference approach. A systematic review was first conducted by using three different Bayesian meta-analyses, including the fixed effect meta-analysis, the random effect meta-analysis, and the meta-regression. The meta-analyses provided a numerical summary of the effects of traffic variables on crash risks by quantitatively synthesizing results from previous studies. The random effect meta-analysis and the meta-regression produced a more conservative estimate for the effects of traffic variables compared with the fixed effect meta-analysis. Then, the meta-analyses results were used as informative priors for developing crash risk models with limited data. Three different meta-analyses significantly affect model fit and prediction accuracy. The model based on meta-regression can increase the prediction accuracy by about 15% as compared to the model that was directly developed with limited data. Finally, the Bayesian predictive densities analysis was used to identify the outliers in the limited data. It can further improve the prediction accuracy by 5.0%.

  4. Dynamic Traffic Assignment Method for Real-time Traffic Management under Emergency Evacuation%基于动态交通分配的实时应急疏散交通管理

    陈岳明; 萧德云


    实施科学有效的应急疏散策略对提高城市交通应急响应能力、节约救援时间和降低灾害带来的生命财产损失具有重要的作用.实时应急疏散交通管理的目的是紧急疏散情况下制定某种目标如疏散时间最短来对交通流实行动态控制.采用动态交通分配方法来进行应急疏散.首先,提出基于疏散时间最短的系统优化交通分配模型.然后运用庞特里亚金最小值定理来获得模型最优解的优化解.仿真算例表明所提出的模型能较好地进行交通应急疏散.%A scientific and effective emergency evacuation traffic management plays an important part in improving event reaction ability of urban traffic system, saving rescue time and reducing property losses.The well-studied evacuation planning, real-time traffic management for evacuation aims is carriedout dynamically controlling traffic flow under emergency evacuation in such a way that certain system objective like minimization of evacuation time could be achieved. The proposed approach is based on dynamic traffic assignment by considering the traffic network under evacuation as a dynamic system. First, the dynamic system optimal traffic assignment model based on the shortest emergency evacuation time is established. Second, the optimal solution to the optimal problem is obtained by using Pontryagin minimum principle. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate that the proposed approach can be effectively carried out in emergency evacuation.

  5. Overview of the Brooklyn traffic real-time ambient pollutant penetration and environmental dispersion (B-TRAPPED) study: theoretical background and model for design of field experiments.

    Hahn, Intaek; Wiener, Russell W; Richmond-Bryant, Jennifer; Brixey, Laurie A; Henkle, Stacy W


    The Brooklyn traffic real-time ambient pollutant penetration and environmental dispersion (B-TRAPPED) study was a multidisciplinary field research project that investigated the transport, dispersion, and infiltration processes of traffic emission particulate matter (PM) pollutants in a near-highway urban residential area. The urban PM transport, dispersion, and infiltration processes were described mathematically in a theoretical model that was constructed to develop the experimental objectives of the B-TRAPPED study. In the study, simultaneous and continuous time-series PM concentration and meteorological data collected at multiple outdoor and indoor monitoring locations were used to characterize both temporal and spatial patterns of the PM concentration movements within microscale distances (dispersion of PM; (3) studying the influence of meteorological variables on the transport, dispersion, and infiltration processes; (4) characterizing the relationships between the building parameters and the infiltration mechanisms; (5) establishing a cause-and-effect relationship between outdoor-released PM and indoor PM concentrations and identifying the dominant mechanisms involved in the infiltration process; (6) evaluating the effectiveness of a shelter-in-place area for protection against outdoor-released PM pollutants; and (7) understanding the predominant airflow and pollutant dispersion patterns within the neighborhood using wind tunnel and CFD simulations. The 10 papers in this first set of papers presenting the results from the B-TRAPPED study address these objectives. This paper describes the theoretical background and models representing the interrelated processes of transport, dispersion, and infiltration. The theoretical solution for the relationship between the time-dependent indoor PM concentration and the initial PM concentration at the outdoor source was obtained. The theoretical models and solutions helped us to identify important parameters in the

  6. A Novel Component Carrier Configuration and Switching Scheme for Real-Time Traffic in a Cognitive-Radio-Based Spectrum Aggregation System.

    Fu, Yunhai; Ma, Lin; Xu, Yubin


    In spectrum aggregation (SA), two or more component carriers (CCs) of different bandwidths in different bands can be aggregated to support a wider transmission bandwidth. The scheduling delay is the most important design constraint for the broadband wireless trunking (BWT) system, especially in the cognitive radio (CR) condition. The current resource scheduling schemes for spectrum aggregation become questionable and are not suitable for meeting the challenge of the delay requirement. Consequently, the authors propose a novel component carrier configuration and switching scheme for real-time traffic (RT-CCCS) to satisfy the delay requirement in the CR-based SA system. In this work, the authors consider a sensor-network-assisted CR network. The authors first introduce a resource scheduling structure for SA in the CR condition. Then the proposed scheme is analyzed in detail. Finally, simulations are carried out to verify the analysis on the proposed scheme. Simulation results prove that our proposed scheme can satisfy the delay requirement in the CR-based SA system.

  7. A Novel Component Carrier Configuration and Switching Scheme for Real-Time Traffic in a Cognitive-Radio-Based Spectrum Aggregation System

    Yunhai Fu


    Full Text Available In spectrum aggregation (SA, two or more component carriers (CCs of different bandwidths in different bands can be aggregated to support a wider transmission bandwidth. The scheduling delay is the most important design constraint for the broadband wireless trunking (BWT system, especially in the cognitive radio (CR condition. The current resource scheduling schemes for spectrum aggregation become questionable and are not suitable for meeting the challenge of the delay requirement. Consequently, the authors propose a novel component carrier configuration and switching scheme for real-time traffic (RT-CCCS to satisfy the delay requirement in the CR-based SA system. In this work, the authors consider a sensor-network-assisted CR network. The authors first introduce a resource scheduling structure for SA in the CR condition. Then the proposed scheme is analyzed in detail. Finally, simulations are carried out to verify the analysis on the proposed scheme. Simulation results prove that our proposed scheme can satisfy the delay requirement in the CR-based SA system.

  8. Real-time systems

    Badr, Salah M.; Bruztman, Donald P.; Nelson, Michael L.; Byrnes, Ronald Benton


    This paper presents an introduction to the basic issues involved in real-time systems. Both real-time operating sys and real-time programming languages are explored. Concurrent programming and process synchronization and communication are also discussed. The real-time requirements of the Naval Postgraduate School Autonomous Under Vehicle (AUV) are then examined. Autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV), hard real-time system, real-time operating system, real-time programming language, real-time sy...

  9. 利用实时路况数据聚类方法检测城市交通拥堵点%Urban Traffic Congestion Detection Based on Clustering Analysis of Real-time Traffic Data

    鲁小丫; 宋志豪; 徐柱; 李木梓; 李婷; 孙维亚


    城市交通拥堵严重制约其网络总体效率.开展检测交通拥堵点可有效识别网络瓶颈,以整治交通拥堵现象.对此,本文提出一种新的城市交通时空拥堵点检测的方法:即采用实时路况数据,通过定义时空关联,检测时空意义上长期性、规律性交通拥堵点.本文基于DBSCAN(Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise)算法,以成都市为试验区,实现了这种拥堵点检测方法.试验表明,该方法可快速、有效、准确地检测出城市道路严重拥堵路段,并确定其拥堵时空范围,为交通管理、交通拥堵机理分析、交通拥堵预测等提供参考.%Traffic congestion in urban road network heavily restricts transportation efficiency. Detecting traffic congestions in the spatio-temporal sense and identifying network bottlenecks become an important task in transportation management. Up to now, many traffic congestion detection methods have been proposed, which have focused on the detection of momentary local congestions. Larger-scale, longer-time and regular congestions can't be detected using these methods. That is because congestions have different tem-poro-spatial scales, and a characteristic is not considered in those methods. This paper proposes a new kind of urban traffic congestion detection method that deals with spatio-temporal extension of congestion. It is based on spatio-temporal clustering analysis of real-time traffic data. By defining a proper spatio-temporal correlation, the classic DBSCAN algorithm is adapted to tackle spatio-temporal clustering. With it we can detect longer time and regular traffic congestion in the spatio-temporal sense. Experiments have been conducted using real traffic condition data of Chengdu to validate the effectiveness of the method. The experiment shows that the proposed method can detect the congestion areas and identify the spatio-temporal extent of congestions accurately. The detected congestion areas were

  10. Crash Risk Prediction Modeling Based on the Traffic Conflict Technique and a Microscopic Simulation for Freeway Interchange Merging Areas.

    Li, Shen; Xiang, Qiaojun; Ma, Yongfeng; Gu, Xin; Li, Han


    This paper evaluates the traffic safety of freeway interchange merging areas based on the traffic conflict technique. The hourly composite risk indexes (HCRI) was defined. By the use of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) photography and video processing techniques, the conflict type and severity was judged. Time to collision (TTC) was determined with the traffic conflict evaluation index. Then, the TTC severity threshold was determined. Quantizing the weight of the conflict by direct losses of different severities of freeway traffic accidents, the calculated weight of the HCRI can be obtained. Calibration of the relevant parameters of the micro-simulation simulator VISSIM is conducted by the travel time according to the field data. Variables are placed into orthogonal tables at different levels. On the basis of this table, the trajectory file of every traffic condition is simulated, and then submitted into a surrogate safety assessment model (SSAM), identifying the number of hourly traffic conflicts in the merging area, a statistic of HCRI. Moreover, the multivariate linear regression model was presented and validated to study the relationship between HCRI and the influencing variables. A comparison between the HCRI model and the hourly conflicts ratio (HCR), without weight, shows that the HCRI model fitting degree was obviously higher than the HCR. This will be a reference to design and implement operational planners.

  11. Crash Risk Prediction Modeling Based on the Traffic Conflict Technique and a Microscopic Simulation for Freeway Interchange Merging Areas

    Shen Li


    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the traffic safety of freeway interchange merging areas based on the traffic conflict technique. The hourly composite risk indexes (HCRI was defined. By the use of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV photography and video processing techniques, the conflict type and severity was judged. Time to collision (TTC was determined with the traffic conflict evaluation index. Then, the TTC severity threshold was determined. Quantizing the weight of the conflict by direct losses of different severities of freeway traffic accidents, the calculated weight of the HCRI can be obtained. Calibration of the relevant parameters of the micro-simulation simulator VISSIM is conducted by the travel time according to the field data. Variables are placed into orthogonal tables at different levels. On the basis of this table, the trajectory file of every traffic condition is simulated, and then submitted into a surrogate safety assessment model (SSAM, identifying the number of hourly traffic conflicts in the merging area, a statistic of HCRI. Moreover, the multivariate linear regression model was presented and validated to study the relationship between HCRI and the influencing variables. A comparison between the HCRI model and the hourly conflicts ratio (HCR, without weight, shows that the HCRI model fitting degree was obviously higher than the HCR. This will be a reference to design and implement operational planners.

  12. Using hierarchical Bayesian binary probit models to analyze crash injury severity on high speed facilities with real-time traffic data.

    Yu, Rongjie; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed


    Severe crashes are causing serious social and economic loss, and because of this, reducing crash injury severity has become one of the key objectives of the high speed facilities' (freeway and expressway) management. Traditional crash injury severity analysis utilized data mainly from crash reports concerning the crash occurrence information, drivers' characteristics and roadway geometric related variables. In this study, real-time traffic and weather data were introduced to analyze the crash injury severity. The space mean speeds captured by the Automatic Vehicle Identification (AVI) system on the two roadways were used as explanatory variables in this study; and data from a mountainous freeway (I-70 in Colorado) and an urban expressway (State Road 408 in Orlando) have been used to identify the analysis result's consistence. Binary probit (BP) models were estimated to classify the non-severe (property damage only) crashes and severe (injury and fatality) crashes. Firstly, Bayesian BP models' results were compared to the results from Maximum Likelihood Estimation BP models and it was concluded that Bayesian inference was superior with more significant variables. Then different levels of hierarchical Bayesian BP models were developed with random effects accounting for the unobserved heterogeneity at segment level and crash individual level, respectively. Modeling results from both studied locations demonstrate that large variations of speed prior to the crash occurrence would increase the likelihood of severe crash occurrence. Moreover, with considering unobserved heterogeneity in the Bayesian BP models, the model goodness-of-fit has improved substantially. Finally, possible future applications of the model results and the hierarchical Bayesian probit models were discussed.

  13. Analysis of Air Traffic Controller Workload Reduction Based on the Solution Space for the Merging Task

    Mercado Velasco, G.A.; Mulder, M.; Van Paassen, M.M.


    Air traffic controller workload is considered to be an important limiting factor to the growth of air traffic. The difficulty of an air traffic control task can be analyzed through examining the problem’s solution space, that is, all possible vector commands that satisfy the constraints of safety, p

  14. Analysis of Air Traffic Controller Workload Reduction Based on the Solution Space for the Merging Task

    Mercado Velasco, G.A.; Mulder, M.; Van Paassen, M.M.


    Air traffic controller workload is considered to be an important limiting factor to the growth of air traffic. The difficulty of an air traffic control task can be analyzed through examining the problem’s solution space, that is, all possible vector commands that satisfy the constraints of safety, p

  15. Real-Time Adaptive Traffic S ignal Countdown Display Control Method%实时自适应交通信号倒计时显示控制方法

    杨照峰; 张睿哲


    Aiming at the present city’s growing traffic jams, the traditional method of traffic control is inflexible and difficulty to adapt because of the current traffic demand. This paper presents a real-time adaptive traffic signal countdown display control method, which can be throughout the countdown, no transitions, timing and consistent focus on an actual time. According to real-time traffic conditions for each phase adjustment target phase green countdown time, this method not only allows people to learn the real countdown time, but also effectively relieves traffic congestion, with good practicality.%针对目前各城市的交通堵塞现象日益严重,传统的定配时交通控制方法因不够灵活而难以适应当前交通需求,提出了一种实时自适应交通信号倒计时显示控制方法,该方法能够将全程倒计时、无跳变、计时与实际时间相符合集中于一身,可根据各相位车流情况实时调整目标相位绿灯倒计时时间,不仅可使人们获知真实的倒计时时间,还能有效缓解交通拥堵,具有良好的实用性。

  16. DynaMIT2.0: architecture design and preliminary results on real-time data fusion for traffic prediction and crisis management

    Lu, Yang; Pereira, Francisco Camara; Seshadri, Ravi


    . Paradoxically, it is in the latter case that such tools can make the difference. Therefore, the dynamic traffic assignment and simulation based prediction system such as DynaMIT (1) demonstrates high effectiveness in the context of sudden network disturbance or demand pattern changes. This paper presents...

  17. Real-time context aware reasoning in on-board intelligent traffic systems: An Architecture for Ontology-based Reasoning using Finite State Machines

    Stoter, Arjan; Dalmolen, Simon; Drenth, Eduard; Cornelisse, Erik; Mulder, Wico


    In-vehicle information management is vital in intelligent traffic systems. In this paper we motivate an architecture for ontology-based context-aware reasoning for in-vehicle information management. An ontology is essential for system standardization and communication, and ontology-based reasoning

  18. Real Time Systems

    Christensen, Knud Smed


    Describes fundamentals of parallel programming and a kernel for that. Describes methods for modelling and checking parallel problems. Real time problems.......Describes fundamentals of parallel programming and a kernel for that. Describes methods for modelling and checking parallel problems. Real time problems....

  19. Real Time Systems

    Christensen, Knud Smed


    Describes fundamentals of parallel programming and a kernel for that. Describes methods for modelling and checking parallel problems. Real time problems.......Describes fundamentals of parallel programming and a kernel for that. Describes methods for modelling and checking parallel problems. Real time problems....

  20. Performances and recent evolutions of EMSC Real Time Information services

    Mazet-Roux, G.; Godey, S.; Bossu, R.


    The EMSC ( operates Real Time Earthquake Information services for the public and the scientific community which aim at providing rapid and reliable information on the seismic-ity of the Euro-Mediterranean region and on significant earthquakes worldwide. These services are based on parametric data rapidly provided by 66 seismological networks which are automatically merged and processed at EMSC. A web page which is updated every minute displays a list and a map of the latest earthquakes as well as additional information like location maps, moment tensors solutions or past regional seismicity. Since 2004, the performances and the popularity of these services have dramatically increased. The number of messages received from the contributors and the number of published events have been multiplied by 2 since 2004 and by 1.6 since 2005 respectively. The web traffic and the numbers of users of the Earthquake Notification Service (ENS) have been multiplied by 15 and 7 respectively. In terms of performances of the ENS, the median dissemination time for Euro-Med events is minutes in 2008. In order to further improve its performances and especially the speed and robustness of the reception of real time data, EMSC has recently implemented a software named QWIDS (Quake Watch Information Distribution System) which provides a quick and robust data exchange system through permanent TCP connections. At the difference with emails that can sometimes be delayed or lost, QWIDS is an actual real time communication system that ensures the data delivery. In terms of hardware, EMSC imple-mented a high availability, dynamic load balancing, redundant and scalable web servers infrastructure, composed of two SUN T2000 and one F5 BIG-IP switch. This will allow coping with constantly increas-ing web traffic and the occurrence of huge peaks of traffic after widely felt earthquakes.

  1. Real-time shadows

    Eisemann, Elmar; Assarsson, Ulf; Wimmer, Michael


    Important elements of games, movies, and other computer-generated content, shadows are crucial for enhancing realism and providing important visual cues. In recent years, there have been notable improvements in visual quality and speed, making high-quality realistic real-time shadows a reachable goal. Real-Time Shadows is a comprehensive guide to the theory and practice of real-time shadow techniques. It covers a large variety of different effects, including hard, soft, volumetric, and semi-transparent shadows.The book explains the basics as well as many advanced aspects related to the domain

  2. Execution of a High Level Real-Time Language

    Luqi; Berzins, Valdis


    Prototype System Description Language (PSDL) is a high level real-time language with special features for hard real-time system specification and design. It can be used to firm up requirements through execution of its software prototypes The language is designed based on a real-time model merging data and control flow and its implementation is beyond conventional compiler technology because of the need to meet real-time constraints. In this paper we describe and illustrate our research result...

  3. Emissions of CO2 and criteria air pollutants from mobile sources: Insights from integrating real-time traffic data into local air quality models

    Gately, Conor; Hutyra, Lucy


    In 2013, on-road mobile sources were responsible for over 26% of U.S. fossil fuel carbon dioxide (ffCO2) emissions, and over 34% of both CO and NOx emissions. However, accurate representations of these emissions at the scale of urban areas remains a difficult challenge. Quantifying emissions at the scale of local streets and highways is critical to provide policymakers with the information needed to develop appropriate mitigation strategies and to guide research into the underlying process that drive mobile emissions. Quantification of vehicle ffCO2 emissions at high spatial and temporal resolutions requires a detailed synthesis of data on traffic activity, roadway attributes, fleet characteristics and vehicle speeds. To accurately characterize criteria air pollutant emissions, information on local meteorology is also critical, as the temperature and relative humidity can affect emissions rates of these pollutants by as much as 400%. As the health impacts of air pollutants are more severe for residents living in close proximity (congestion, sporting and civic events, and weather anomalies. We discuss the advantages and challenges of using highly-resolved source data to quantify emissions at a roadway scale, and the potential of this methodology for forecasting the air quality impacts of changes in infrastructure, urban planning policies, and regional climate.

  4. Real-time arrow traffic light recognition in urban scenes%城市环境中箭头型交通信号灯的实时识别算法

    谷明琴; 蔡自兴; 黄振威; 何芬芬


    提出一种检测和识别城市环境中箭头型交通信号灯的新方法.首先,用图像颜色分割和形态滤波来定位交通信号灯的灯板位置;其次,将交通信号灯的灯板区域彩色图像转换到YCbCr空间,对Cb和Cr通道进行阈值分割,判断形态及交通信号灯与灯板的相对位置来确定红色、黄色和绿色交通信号灯候选区域.然后,用二维Gabor小波变换和二维独立分量分析来提取交通信号灯候选区域的特征;最后,用最近邻分类器识别交通信号灯的箭头方向.实验结果表明:该算法的总体识别率超过91%,每帧图像的处理时间为152 ms,能够为行驶的车辆提供实时、稳定和准确箭头型交通信号灯信息.%A novel approach for detecting and recognizing arrow traffic lights in urban scenes was proposed. Firstly, the boards of arrow traffic lights were localized by image segmentation and morphology processing. Secondly, color image of traffic light board region was converted to YCbCr color space. Candidates of traffic lights (red, yellow, green) were obtained through threshold segmentation in Cb and Cr channels, by judging morphology and relative position between candidate and its board. Thirdly, Gabor wavelet transform and 2D independent component analysis (2DICA) were used to extract traffic light candidate's features, and finally nearest neighbor classifier identifies arrow direction. Experimental results indicate that the overall recognition rates of the proposed method are over 91%, and computation time of each frame is 152 ms. So the proposed algorithm will provide real-time, robust and accurate arrow traffic lights information to moving vehicles.

  5. Real-time radiography

    Bossi, R.H.; Oien, C.T.


    Real-time radiography is used for imaging both dynamic events and static objects. Fluorescent screens play an important role in converting radiation to light, which is then observed directly or intensified and detected. The radiographic parameters for real-time radiography are similar to conventional film radiography with special emphasis on statistics and magnification. Direct-viewing fluoroscopy uses the human eye as a detector of fluorescent screen light or the light from an intensifier. Remote-viewing systems replace the human observer with a television camera. The remote-viewing systems have many advantages over the direct-viewing conditions such as safety, image enhancement, and the capability to produce permanent records. This report reviews real-time imaging system parameters and components.

  6. Real-time Cosmology

    Quercellini, Claudia; Balbi, Amedeo; Cabella, Paolo; Quartin, Miguel


    In recent years the possibility of measuring the temporal change of radial and transverse position of sources in the sky in real time have become conceivable thanks to the thoroughly improved technique applied to new astrometric and spectroscopic experiments, leading to the research domain we call Real-time cosmology. We review for the first time great part of the work done in this field, analysing both the theoretical framework and some endeavor to foresee the observational strategies and their capability to constrain models. We firstly focus on real time measurements of the overall redshift drift and angular separation shift in distant source, able to trace background cosmic expansion and large scale anisotropy, respectively. We then examine the possibility of employing the same kind of observations to probe peculiar and proper acceleration in clustered systems and therefore the gravitational potential. The last two sections are devoted to the short time future change of the cosmic microwave background, as ...

  7. Real-Time Shading

    Olano, Marc


    This book covers real-time shading systems, their design and how they work. Procedural shading, long valued for off-line rendering and production animation is now possible on interactive graphics hardware. These developments are important for areas such as game development, product design, and scientific visualization, among others. The authors include examples of techniques for achieving common effects efficiently in a real-time shading language ranging from full procedural shading on advanced specialized hardware to limited, yet surprisingly flexible shading on unextended OpenGL, to modern P

  8. Real-Time Evaluations



    Full Text Available A real-time evaluation (RTE is a timely, rapid andinteractive review of a fast evolving humanitarianoperation undertaken at an early phase. Its broadobjectives are to gauge the effectiveness and impactof a given UNHCR response and to ensure that itsfindings are used as an immediate catalyst fororganisational and operational change.

  9. 基于图像引导的交通事故现场实时测绘方法%Real Time Mapping Method for Traffic Accident Scene Based on Image Guide

    苗新强; 金先龙; 韩学源; 侯心一


    In order to meet the needs of mapping the accident scene diagram on the scene for traffic police, a real time mapping method for traffic accident scene investigation based on image guide was proposed. The proposed procedure consists of a transformation which transforms a single photo of the accident scene from perspective image to orthographic image using direct linear transformation method, followed by mapping accident scene information such as vehicles, bodies, fall out objects, braking traces and so on directly over the orthographic image, and finally printing out the accident scene diagram, which needs to be signed by interested parties. A typical traffic accident case was used to validate the proposed method. Compared with the traditional hands-on measurement, the proposed method can not only improve the accuracy of site investigation, but also can considerably reduce the time of on-scene data processing and drawing, which contributes to satisfying the requirement of printing out the accident scene diagram in real time.%为了满足交警现场绘制事故现场图的实际需要,提出了基于图像引导的交通事故现场实时测绘方法.首先根据直接线性变换法将事故现场照片由透视图转换为正投影图像;然后直接在正投影图像上进行车辆、人体、散落物和刹车痕迹等事故现场信息的绘制和相关尺寸的标注;最后实现现场图的打印输出并由当事人签字确认.通过典型交通事故案例验证了该方法的有效性.和传统手工测绘相比,该方法在提高事故现场勘测精度的同时,还能大大缩短数据处理和现场绘图时间,满足实时打印输出现场图的要求.

  10. 基于视频投影法的交通拥挤实时检测算法%Video-based projecting algorithm for real-time traffic congestion detection

    张新; 常云涛; 郭佳宁; 谢平红


    Aiming at the growing problem of urban traffic congestion,a video-based projecting algorithm to detect the real-time traffic congestion on the urban road is proposed.Firstly by video projecting method,two-dimensional lane is transformed into one-dimensional line segment,the scanning line method is used to obtain lane occupation rate,and the exponential smoothing formula is used to remove the noise in the source data.Then considering the lane occupation rate and its variance as the traffic characteristic parameters,the traffic congestion detection model is established and used to process three sections of traffic video.The results detected by the model are compared with those detected by artificial judgment,and it is showed that the correct detecting rate is above 92% by the proposed algorithm,thus demonstrating the validity of the algorithm.%针对日益严重的城市道路交通拥挤问题,文章提出了基于视频检测技术实时判断道路交通拥挤的算法.首先通过视频投影法将二维车道转化为一维线段,再通过扫描线段方法获取车道占有率,然后用指数平滑公式对提取出的车道占有率进行去噪处理,接着以道路占有率、占有率方差为交通特征参数,建立交通拥挤识别模型,最后使用模型对3段实例视频进行处理,用模型识别出的结果与人工判断的结果进行对比分析,得出使用模型进行拥挤识别的正确率在92%以上,证明了模型的有效性.

  11. Real Time Processing

    CERN. Geneva; ANDERSON, Dustin James; DOGLIONI, Caterina


    The LHC provides experiments with an unprecedented amount of data. Experimental collaborations need to meet storage and computing requirements for the analysis of this data: this is often a limiting factor in the physics program that would be achievable if the whole dataset could be analysed. In this talk, I will describe the strategies adopted by the LHCb, CMS and ATLAS collaborations to overcome these limitations and make the most of LHC data: data parking, data scouting, and real-time analysis.

  12. Real Time Econometrics

    Pesaran, M. Hashem; Timmermann, Allan


    This paper considers the problems facing decision makers using econometric models in real time. It identifies the key stages involved and highlights the role of automated systems in reducing the effect of data snooping. It sets out many choices that researchers face in construction of automated systems and discusses some of the possible ways advanced in the literature for dealing with them. The role of feedbacks from the decision maker?s actions to the data generating process is also discusse...

  13. 基于收费数据的高速公路实时网络状态估计研究%Traffic Real-time Network States Estimation of Expressway Based on Toll Data

    李树彬; 党文修; 傅白白


    With the accelerated pace of expressway construction, a series of derivative issues such as traffic safety, traffic congestion and environmental pollution also have been triggered. To acquire the real-time state of expressway network is one of the methods that can reduce congestion delays and can ensure the fast and smooth of the expressway. However, the obtaining data method is relatively simple, so the expressway network state estimation aspect still lack of scientific guidance. In this paper, the pay data of toll stations are explored, the all network state estimates can be generated by loaded dynamic OD using simulation method based on the improved traffic simulation model. The real expressway network of Shandong province is used in an example. The results show that this method can be more accurate estimate, the real-time network states, traffic flow speed, density, flow and other information can be acquired in any segment of the network, which can help expressway management department to release induced information dynamically and also can help planning detector settings.%随着高速公路建设速度的加快,引发了诸如交通安全、交通拥堵、环境污染等一系列衍生问题.高速公路实时网络状态的获知就是减少拥堵延迟、保障高速公路快捷通畅的方法之一,但是由于基础数据获取的渠道还比较单一,因此在高速公路网络状态估计方面还缺乏科学的指导.本文利用高速公路进出口收费站数据,通过统计技术得到路网的OD量,在改进中观交通仿真模型的基础上,采用仿真手段将动态OD进行网络加载,从而产生实时的高速公路全路网无缝覆盖的网络状态估计.通过真实的山东省域高速公路全网络进行例证,结果表明,本文方法可以比较准确地估计出实时的网络状态,可以得到网络中任意路段的交通流速度、密度、流量等信息,可以为高速公路管理部门发布动态诱导信息、规划检

  14. The Model about Travel Route in Consideration of the Real-time Traffic%考虑实时路况的出行路线选择模型

    李倩; 赵思雨; 李安娜; 李波


    In order to relieve the increasingly serious traffic congestion, the authors put forward a new method on the basis of existing navigation. In view of the real -time road condition, this new method could help residents choose a route with the shortest time and less congestion. This paper mainly includes two aspects:firstly,the authors established a travel route model based on traffic flow,which was suitable for the situation of no congestion. Taking the demand of real flow into consideration,the authors used the Maximal Flow Model to calculate the traffic flow. Then,the authors figured up the shortest route with less congestion which meant the real flow did not exceed the maximum flow . Finally,some suggestions about the choice of travel routes were given. Secondly,the authors found it is difficult to avoid the congestion in many cases,therefore the authors strengthened the connection with the actual road condition and optimized the first study . To begin with,the condition of roads could be divided into three kinds:serious congestion, slight congestion and no congestion. Then,according to the real-time traffic flow,the authors used the G-LN speed-flow model to calculate the average speed of lane and combined it with distance to find a route with the shortest time.%为了缓解交通拥堵问题,本文在现有的导航仪基础上,考虑到道路的实时情况,设计新的导航仪,帮助居民选择出用时最短且能尽量避免拥堵的路线。研究主要包括两方面:首先,在存在不拥堵路线的情况下,利用最大流模型计算出道路流量,结合实际流量,在尽量避免拥堵(实际流量不超过最大流量)的情况下,求出最短路程,给出建议。然后,考虑拥堵问题难以避免,加强了与实际道路状况的联系,对道路出行选择模型进行了优化,先将道路分为非常拥堵、存在拥堵、畅通三种情况,然后再根据道路实时流量,利用G-LN的模型计算出

  15. Real time Faraday spectrometer

    Smith, Jr., Tommy E.; Struve, Kenneth W.; Colella, Nicholas J.


    This invention uses a dipole magnet to bend the path of a charged particle beam. As the deflected particles exit the magnet, they are spatially dispersed in the bend-plane of the magnet according to their respective momenta and pass to a plurality of chambers having Faraday probes positioned therein. Both the current and energy distribution of the particles is then determined by the non-intersecting Faraday probes located along the chambers. The Faraday probes are magnetically isolated from each other by thin metal walls of the chambers, effectively providing real time current-versus-energy particle measurements.

  16. Feedback strategy on real-time multiple target tracking in cognitive vision system

    Shao, Jie; Jia, Zhen; Li, Zhipeng; Liu, Fuqiang; Zhao, Jianwei; Peng, Pei-Yuan


    Under pedestrian and vehicle mixed traffic conditions, the potential accident rate is high due to a complex traffic environment. In order to solve this problem, we present a real-time cognitive vision system. In the scene-capture level, foreground objects are extracted based on the combination of spatial and temporal information. Then, a coarse-to-fine algorithm is employed in tracking. After filtering-based normal tracking, problems of the target blob missing, merging, and splitting are resolved by the adaptive tracking modification method in fine tracking. For greater robustness, the key idea of our approach is adaptively adjusting the classification sensibility of each pixel by employing tracking results as feedback cues for target detection in the next frame. On the basis of the target trajectories, behavior models are evaluated according to a decision logic table in the behavior-evaluation level. The decision logic table is set based on rules of real scenes. The resulting system interprets different kinds of traffic behavior and warns in advance. Experiments show robust and accurate results of abnormality detection and forewarning under different conditions. All the experimental results run at real-time frame rates (>=25 fps) on standard hardware. Therefore, the system is suitable for actual Intelligent Traffic System applications.

  17. Real time production optimization

    Saputelli, Luigi; Otavio, Joao; Araujo, Turiassu; Escorcia, Alvaro [Halliburton, Houston, TX (United States). Landmark Division


    Production optimization encompasses various activities of measuring, analyzing, modeling, prioritizing and implementing actions to enhance productivity of a field. We present a state-of-the-art framework for optimizing production on a continuous basis as new sensor data is acquired in real time. Permanently acquired data is modeled and analyzed in order to create predictive models. A model based control strategy is used to regulate well and field instrumentation. The optimum field operating point, which changes with time, satisfies the maximum economic return. This work is a starting point for further development in automatic, intelligent reservoir technologies which get the most out of the abilities of permanent, instrumented wells and remotely activated downhole completions. The strategy, tested with history-matched data from a compartmentalised giant field, proved to reduce operating costs while increasing oil recovery by 27% in this field. (author)

  18. Real time production optimization

    Saputelli, Luigi; Otavio, Joao; Araujo, Turiassu; Escorcia, Alvaro [Halliburton, Houston, TX (United States). Landmark Division


    Production optimization encompasses various activities of measuring, analyzing, modeling, prioritizing and implementing actions to enhance productivity of a field. We present a state-of-the-art framework for optimizing production on a continuous basis as new sensor data is acquired in real time. Permanently acquired data is modeled and analyzed in order to create predictive models. A model based control strategy is used to regulate well and field instrumentation. The optimum field operating point, which changes with time, satisfies the maximum economic return. This work is a starting point for further development in automatic, intelligent reservoir technologies which get the most out of the abilities of permanent, instrumented wells and remotely activated downhole completions. The strategy, tested with history-matched data from a compartmentalised giant field, proved to reduce operating costs while increasing oil recovery by 27% in this field. (author)

  19. Ovation Prime Real-Time

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ovation Prime Real-Time (OPRT) product is a real-time forecast and nowcast model of auroral power and is an operational implementation of the work by Newell et...

  20. Designing Real Time Assistive Technologies

    Sonne, Tobias; Obel, Carsten; Grønbæk, Kaj


    design criteria in relation to three core components (sensing, recognizing, and assisting) for designing real time assistive technologies for children with ADHD. Based on these design criteria, we designed the Child Activity Sensing and Training Tool (CASTT), a real time assistive prototype that captures...... activities and assists the child in maintaining attention. From a preliminary evaluation of CASTT with 20 children in several schools, we and found that: 1) it is possible to create a wearable sensor system for children with ADHD that monitors physical and physiological activities in real time; and that 2......) real time assistive technologies have potential to assist children with ADHD in regaining attention in critical school situations....

  1. Designing Real Time Assistive Technologies

    Sonne, Tobias; Obel, Carsten; Grønbæk, Kaj

    design criteria in relation to three core components (sensing, recognizing, and assisting) for designing real time assistive technologies for children with ADHD. Based on these design criteria, we designed the Child Activity Sensing and Training Tool (CASTT), a real time assistive prototype that captures...... activities and assists the child in maintaining attention. From a preliminary evaluation of CASTT with 20 children in several schools, we and found that: 1) it is possible to create a wearable sensor system for children with ADHD that monitors physical and physiological activities in real time; and that 2......) real time assistive technologies have potential to assist children with ADHD in regaining attention in critical school situations....

  2. Real-time volume graphics

    Engel, Klaus; Kniss, Joe; Rezk-Salama, Christof; Weiskopf, Daniel


    Based on course notes of SIGGRAPH course teaching techniques for real-time rendering of volumetric data and effects; covers both applications in scientific visualization and real-time rendering. Starts with the basics (texture-based ray casting) and then improves and expands the algorithms incrementally. Book includes source code, algorithms, diagrams, and rendered graphics.

  3. Motorcycles entering from access points and merging with traffic on primary roads in Malaysia: behavioral and road environment influence on the occurrence of traffic conflicts.

    Abdul Manan, Muhammad Marizwan


    This paper uses data from an observational study, conducted at access points in straight sections of primary roads in Malaysia in 2012, to investigate the effects of motorcyclists' behavior and road environment attributes on the occurrence of serious traffic conflicts involving motorcyclists entering primary roads via access points. In order to handle the unobserved heterogeneity in the small sample data size, this study applies mixed effects logistic regression with multilevel bootstrapping. Two statistically significant models (Model 2 and Model 3) are produced, with 2 levels of random effect parameters, i.e. motorcyclists' attributes and behavior at Level 1, and road environment attributes at Level 2. Among all the road environment attributes tested, the traffic volume and the speed limit are found to be statistically significant, only contributing to 26-29% of the variations affecting the traffic conflict outcome. The implication is that 71-74% of the unmeasured or undescribed attributes and behavior of motorcyclists still have an importance in predicting the outcome: a serious traffic conflict. As for the fixed effect parameters, both models show that the risk of motorcyclists being involved in a serious traffic conflict is 2-4 times more likely if they accept a shorter gap to a single approaching vehicle (time lag road from the access point. A road environment factor, such as a narrow lane (seen in Model 2), and a behavioral factor, such as stopping at the stop line (seen in Model 3), also influence the occurrence of a serious traffic conflict compared to those entering into a wider lane road and without stopping at the stop line, respectively. A discussion of the possible reasons for this seemingly strange result, including a recommendation for further research, concludes the paper.

  4. A Simulated System for Traffic Signal Management Based on Integrating GIS & WSN Techniques

    Ahmed S. Elmotelb


    Full Text Available Traffic signals management systems (TSMS are traffic systems based on cameras, infrared sensors and satellite systems. Such systems have been lacking the ability of real-time data collection and support. This paper proposes a solution to the traffic signal management problem using combined techniques that combines both GIS information with WSN based techniques. This combination provide appropriate techniques and tools that will enhance the capabilities of traffic jam prevention, early detection, efficient surveillance, efficient spread control, and fast termination of possible hazards. Consequently, this work proposes a new methodology thrown merging WSN and GIS techniques to produce valuable information for traffic signals management systems purposes.

  5. Real-time vision systems

    Johnson, R.; Hernandez, J.E.; Lu, Shin-yee [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)


    Many industrial and defence applications require an ability to make instantaneous decisions based on sensor input of a time varying process. Such systems are referred to as `real-time systems` because they process and act on data as it occurs in time. When a vision sensor is used in a real-time system, the processing demands can be quite substantial, with typical data rates of 10-20 million samples per second. A real-time Machine Vision Laboratory (MVL) was established in FY94 to extend our years of experience in developing computer vision algorithms to include the development and implementation of real-time vision systems. The laboratory is equipped with a variety of hardware components, including Datacube image acquisition and processing boards, a Sun workstation, and several different types of CCD cameras, including monochrome and color area cameras and analog and digital line-scan cameras. The equipment is reconfigurable for prototyping different applications. This facility has been used to support several programs at LLNL, including O Division`s Peacemaker and Deadeye Projects as well as the CRADA with the U.S. Textile Industry, CAFE (Computer Aided Fabric Inspection). To date, we have successfully demonstrated several real-time applications: bullet tracking, stereo tracking and ranging, and web inspection. This work has been documented in the ongoing development of a real-time software library.

  6. Evaluating real-time forecasts in real-time

    D.J.C. van Dijk (Dick); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); F. Ravazzolo (Francesco)


    textabstractThe accuracy of real-time forecasts of macroeconomic variables that are subject to revisions may crucially depend on the choice of data used to compare the forecasts against. We put forward a flexible time-varying parameter regression framework to obtain early estimates of the final valu

  7. Towards Real-Time Argumentation

    Vicente JULIÁN


    Full Text Available In this paper, we deal with the problem of real-time coordination with the more general approach of reaching real-time agreements in MAS. Concretely, this work proposes a real-time argumentation framework in an attempt to provide agents with the ability of engaging in argumentative dialogues and come with a solution for their underlying agreement process within a bounded period of time. The framework has been implemented and evaluated in the domain of a customer support application. Concretely, we consider a society of agents that act on behalf of a group of technicians that must solve problems in a Technology Management Centre (TMC within a bounded time. This centre controls every process implicated in the provision of technological and customer support services to private or public organisations by means of a call centre. The contract signed between the TCM and the customer establishes penalties if the specified time is exceeded.

  8. A real time vehicles detection algorithm for vision based sensors

    Płaczek, Bartłomiej


    A vehicle detection plays an important role in the traffic control at signalised intersections. This paper introduces a vision-based algorithm for vehicles presence recognition in detection zones. The algorithm uses linguistic variables to evaluate local attributes of an input image. The image attributes are categorised as vehicle, background or unknown features. Experimental results on complex traffic scenes show that the proposed algorithm is effective for a real-time vehicles detection.

  9. Real Time Sonic Boom Display

    Haering, Ed


    This presentation will provide general information about sonic boom mitigation technology to the public in order to supply information to potential partners and licensees. The technology is a combination of flight data, atmospheric data and terrain information implemented into a control room real time display for flight planning. This research is currently being performed and as such, any results and conclusions are ongoing.

  10. Real Time Conference 2016 Overview

    Luchetta, Adriano


    This is a special issue of the IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science containing papers from the invited, oral, and poster presentation of the 20th Real Time Conference (RT2016). The conference was held June 6-10, 2016, at Centro Congressi Padova “A. Luciani,” Padova, Italy, and was organized by Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA) and the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare. The Real Time Conference is multidisciplinary and focuses on the latest developments in real-time techniques in high-energy physics, nuclear physics, astrophysics and astroparticle physics, nuclear fusion, medical physics, space instrumentation, nuclear power instrumentation, general radiation instrumentation, and real-time security and safety. Taking place every second year, it is sponsored by the Computer Application in Nuclear and Plasma Sciences technical committee of the IEEE Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society. RT2016 attracted more than 240 registrants, with a large proportion of young researchers and engineers. It had an attendance of 67 students from many countries.

  11. Real time automatic scene classification

    Israël, Menno; Broek, van den Egon L.; Putten, van der Peter; Uyl, den Marten J.; Verbrugge, R.; Taatgen, N.; Schomaker, L.


    This work has been done as part of the EU VICAR (IST) project and the EU SCOFI project (IAP). The aim of the first project was to develop a real time video indexing classification annotation and retrieval system. For our systems, we have adapted the approach of Picard and Minka [3], who categorized

  12. Decentralized Real-Time Scheduling


    917-932, August, 1987. [ Daniels 86] D. C. Daniels and H. F. Wedde. Real-Time Performance of a Completely Distributed Operating System. In Proceedings...imnmediate execuoon The schedule c.-eated by the SeltctPhaseProcfj procedure is an ordere-d lis t of mocl -phnise pairs, each placed according to the

  13. Real time automatic scene classification

    Verbrugge, R.; Israël, Menno; Taatgen, N.; van den Broek, Egon; van der Putten, Peter; Schomaker, L.; den Uyl, Marten J.


    This work has been done as part of the EU VICAR (IST) project and the EU SCOFI project (IAP). The aim of the first project was to develop a real time video indexing classification annotation and retrieval system. For our systems, we have adapted the approach of Picard and Minka [3], who categorized

  14. ISTTOK real-time architecture

    Carvalho, Ivo S., E-mail:; Duarte, Paulo; Fernandes, Horácio; Valcárcel, Daniel F.; Carvalho, Pedro J.; Silva, Carlos; Duarte, André S.; Neto, André; Sousa, Jorge; Batista, António J.N.; Hekkert, Tiago; Carvalho, Bernardo B.


    Highlights: • All real-time diagnostics and actuators were integrated in the same control platform. • A 100 μs control cycle was achieved under the MARTe framework. • Time-windows based control with several event-driven control strategies implemented. • AC discharges with exception handling on iron core flux saturation. • An HTML discharge configuration was developed for configuring the MARTe system. - Abstract: The ISTTOK tokamak was upgraded with a plasma control system based on the Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA) standard. This control system was designed to improve the discharge stability and to extend the operational space to the alternate plasma current (AC) discharges as part of the ISTTOK scientific program. In order to accomplish these objectives all ISTTOK diagnostics and actuators relevant for real-time operation were integrated in the control system. The control system was programmed in C++ over the Multi-threaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe) which provides, among other features, a real-time scheduler, an interrupt handler, an intercommunications interface between code blocks and a clearly bounded interface with the external devices. As a complement to the MARTe framework, the BaseLib2 library provides the foundations for the data, code introspection and also a Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) server service. Taking advantage of the modular nature of MARTe, the algorithms of each diagnostic data processing, discharge timing, context switch, control and actuators output reference generation, run on well-defined blocks of code named Generic Application Module (GAM). This approach allows reusability of the code, simplified simulation, replacement or editing without changing the remaining GAMs. The ISTTOK control system GAMs run sequentially each 100 μs cycle on an Intel{sup ®} Q8200 4-core processor running at 2.33 GHz located in the ATCA crate. Two boards (inside the ATCA crate) with 32 analog

  15. Rattlesnake: a network for real-time Multimedia Communication

    Smit, Gerard J.M.; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Smit, Michel J.P.


    In this extended abstract we describe the design of a local area network suitable for distributed multimedia communications. Multimedia applications require a communication infrastructure with capabilities beyond the current state of the art : real-time stream traffic, small end-to-end latency with

  16. Rattlesnake: a Network for Real-time Multimedia Communication

    Smit, Gerard J.M.; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Smit, Michel J.P.


    In this extended abstract we describe the design of a local area network suitable for distributed multimedia communications. Multimedia applications require a communication infrastructure with capabilities beyond the current state of the art : real-time stream traffic, small end-to-end latency with

  17. Radiation damping in real time.

    Mendes, A C; Takakura, F I


    We study the nonequilibrium dynamics of a charge interacting with its own radiation, which originates the radiation damping. The real-time equation of motion for the charge and the associated Langevin equation is found in classical limit. The equation of motion for the charge allows one to obtain the frequency-dependent coefficient of friction. In the lowest order we find that although the coefficient of static friction vanishes, there is dynamical dissipation represented by a non-Markovian dissipative kernel.

  18. The VLT Real Time Display

    Herlin, T.; Brighton, A.; Biereichel, P.

    The VLT Real-Time Display (RTD) software was developed in order to support image display in real-time, providing a tool for users to display video like images from a camera or detector as fast as possible on an X-Server. The RTD software is implemented as a package providing a Tcl/Tk image widget written in C++ and an independent image handling library and can be used as a building block, adding display capabilities to dedicated VLT control applications. The RTD widget provides basic image display functionality like: panning, zooming, color scaling, colormaps, intensity changes, pixel query, overlaying of line graphics. A large set of assisting widgets, e.g., colorbar, zoom window, spectrum plot are provided to enable the building of image applications. The support for real-time is provided by an RTD image event mechanism used for camera or detector subsystems to pass images to the RTD widget. Image data are passed efficiently via shared memory. This paper describes the architecture of the RTD software and summarizes the features provided by RTD.

  19. Real-time streamflow conditions

    Graczyk, David J.; Gebert, Warren A.


    Would you like to know streamflow conditions before you go fishing in Wisconsin or in more distant locations? Real-time streamflow data throughout Wisconsin and the United States are available on the Internet from the U.S. Geological Survey. You can see if the stream you are interested in fishing is high due to recent rain or low because of an extended dry spell. Flow conditions at more than 100 stream-gaging stations located throughout Wisconsin can be viewed by accessing the Wisconsin District Home Page at:

  20. Real-time flutter analysis

    Walker, R.; Gupta, N.


    The important algorithm issues necessary to achieve a real time flutter monitoring system; namely, the guidelines for choosing appropriate model forms, reduction of the parameter convergence transient, handling multiple modes, the effect of over parameterization, and estimate accuracy predictions, both online and for experiment design are addressed. An approach for efficiently computing continuous-time flutter parameter Cramer-Rao estimate error bounds were developed. This enables a convincing comparison of theoretical and simulation results, as well as offline studies in preparation for a flight test. Theoretical predictions, simulation and flight test results from the NASA Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Test (DAST) Program are compared.

  1. Can Real-Time Data Also Be Climate Quality?

    Brewer, M.; Wentz, F. J.


    GMI, AMSR-2 and WindSat herald a new era of highly accurate and timely microwave data products. Traditionally, there has been a large divide between real-time and re-analysis data products. What if these completely separate processing systems could be merged? Through advanced modeling and physically based algorithms, Remote Sensing Systems (RSS) has narrowed the gap between real-time and research-quality. Satellite microwave ocean products have proven useful for a wide array of timely Earth science applications. Through cloud SST capabilities have enormously benefited tropical cyclone forecasting and day to day fisheries management, to name a few. Oceanic wind vectors enhance operational safety of shipping and recreational boating. Atmospheric rivers are of import to many human endeavors, as are cloud cover and knowledge of precipitation events. Some activities benefit from both climate and real-time operational data used in conjunction. RSS has been consistently improving microwave Earth Science Data Records (ESDRs) for several decades, while making near real-time data publicly available for semi-operational use. These data streams have often been produced in 2 stages: near real-time, followed by research quality final files. Over the years, we have seen this time delay shrink from months or weeks to mere hours. As well, we have seen the quality of near real-time data improve to the point where the distinction starts to blur. We continue to work towards better and faster RFI filtering, adaptive algorithms and improved real-time validation statistics for earlier detection of problems. Can it be possible to produce climate quality data in real-time, and what would the advantages be? We will try to answer these questions…

  2. Real time analysis under EDS

    Schneberk, D.


    This paper describes the analysis component of the Enrichment Diagnostic System (EDS) developed for the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation Program (AVLIS) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Four different types of analysis are performed on data acquired through EDS: (1) absorption spectroscopy on laser-generated spectral lines, (2) mass spectrometer analysis, (3) general purpose waveform analysis, and (4) separation performance calculations. The information produced from this data includes: measures of particle density and velocity, partial pressures of residual gases, and overall measures of isotope enrichment. The analysis component supports a variety of real-time modeling tasks, a means for broadcasting data to other nodes, and a great degree of flexibility for tailoring computations to the exact needs of the process. A particular data base structure and program flow is common to all types of analysis. Key elements of the analysis component are: (1) a fast access data base which can configure all types of analysis, (2) a selected set of analysis routines, (3) a general purpose data manipulation and graphics package for the results of real time analysis. Each of these components are described with an emphasis upon how each contributes to overall system capability. 3 figs.

  3. Real-time analysis keratometer

    Adachi, Iwao P. (Inventor); Adachi, Yoshifumi (Inventor); Frazer, Robert E. (Inventor)


    A computer assisted keratometer in which a fiducial line pattern reticle illuminated by CW or pulsed laser light is projected on a corneal surface through lenses, a prismoidal beamsplitter quarterwave plate, and objective optics. The reticle surface is curved as a conjugate of an ideal corneal curvature. The fiducial image reflected from the cornea undergoes a polarization shift through the quarterwave plate and beamsplitter whereby the projected and reflected beams are separated and directed orthogonally. The reflected beam fiducial pattern forms a moire pattern with a replica of the first recticle. This moire pattern contains transverse aberration due to differences in curvature between the cornea and the ideal corneal curvature. The moire pattern is analyzed in real time by computer which displays either the CW moire pattern or a pulsed mode analysis of the transverse aberration of the cornea under observation, in real time. With the eye focused on a plurality of fixation points in succession, a survey of the entire corneal topography is made and a contour map or three dimensional plot of the cornea can be made as a computer readout in addition to corneal radius and refractive power analysis.

  4. Evaluation of Real-Time Services in Mobile WIMAX

    Z. Naumoski


    Full Text Available In this paper we provide a performance analysis for real-time services with a limited bandwidth in a single-cell Mobile WiMAX network. We analyze the most critical performance parameters for real-time services, such as voice over IP. Since the throughput is a given constraint for a real-time service, the focus is on delay and jitter introduced by the Mobile WiMAX technology. We have used different user velocities, including nomadic users as well as mobile users. The main contribution of this paper is that we have shown that Mobile WiMAX can be efficiently used for real-time services with applied admission control and priority over non-real-time traffic, because it is adding a very small portion to the delay budget for the real-time service, as well as it keeps the jitter far below the end-to-end jitter threshold for telephony in a Mobile WiMAX network.

  5. Autonomous Real Time Requirements Tracing

    Plattsmier, George; Stetson, Howard


    One of the more challenging aspects of software development is the ability to verify and validate the functional software requirements dictated by the Software Requirements Specification (SRS) and the Software Detail Design (SDD). Insuring the software has achieved the intended requirements is the responsibility of the Software Quality team and the Software Test team. The utilization of Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Auto- Procedures for relocating ground operations positions to ISS automated on-board operations has begun the transition that would be required for manned deep space missions with minimal crew requirements. This transition also moves the auto-procedures from the procedure realm into the flight software arena and as such the operational requirements and testing will be more structured and rigorous. The autoprocedures would be required to meet NASA software standards as specified in the Software Safety Standard (NASASTD- 8719), the Software Engineering Requirements (NPR 7150), the Software Assurance Standard (NASA-STD-8739) and also the Human Rating Requirements (NPR-8705). The Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) test-bed utilizes the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Language for development of autonomous command and control software. The Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) system has the unique feature of providing the current line of the statement in execution during real-time execution of the software. The feature of execution line number internal reporting unlocks the capability of monitoring the execution autonomously by use of a companion Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) sequence as the line number reporting is embedded inside the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) execution engine. This negates I/O processing of this type data as the line number status of executing sequences is built-in as a function reference. This paper will outline the design and capabilities of the AFTS Autonomous Requirements Tracker, which traces and logs SRS requirements as they are being met during real-time execution of the

  6. Real-time flood forecasting

    Lai, C.; Tsay, T.-K.; Chien, C.-H.; Wu, I.-L.


    Researchers at the Hydroinformatic Research and Development Team (HIRDT) of the National Taiwan University undertook a project to create a real time flood forecasting model, with an aim to predict the current in the Tamsui River Basin. The model was designed based on deterministic approach with mathematic modeling of complex phenomenon, and specific parameter values operated to produce a discrete result. The project also devised a rainfall-stage model that relates the rate of rainfall upland directly to the change of the state of river, and is further related to another typhoon-rainfall model. The geographic information system (GIS) data, based on precise contour model of the terrain, estimate the regions that were perilous to flooding. The HIRDT, in response to the project's progress, also devoted their application of a deterministic model to unsteady flow of thermodynamics to help predict river authorities issue timely warnings and take other emergency measures.


    Yash Sakaria


    Full Text Available On a business level, everyone wants to get hold of the business value and other organizational advantages that big data has to offer. Analytics has arisen as the primitive path to business value from big data. Hadoop is not just a storage platform for big data; it’s also a computational and processing platform for business analytics. Hadoop is, however, unsuccessful in fulfilling business requirements when it comes to live data streaming. The initial architecture of Apache Hadoop did not solve the problem of live stream data mining. In summary, the traditional approach of big data being co-relational to Hadoop is false; focus needs to be given on business value as well. Data Warehousing, Hadoop and stream processing complement each other very well. In this paper, we have tried reviewing a few frameworks and products which use real time data streaming by providing modifications to Hadoop.

  8. Real-Time SCADA Cyber Protection Using Compression Techniques

    Lyle G. Roybal; Gordon H Rueff


    The Department of Energy’s Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE-OE) has a critical mission to secure the energy infrastructure from cyber attack. Through DOE-OE’s Cybersecurity for Energy Delivery Systems (CEDS) program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed a method to detect malicious traffic on Supervisory, Control, and Data Acquisition (SCADA) network using a data compression technique. SCADA network traffic is often repetitive with only minor differences between packets. Research performed at the INL showed that SCADA network traffic has traits desirable for using compression analysis to identify abnormal network traffic. An open source implementation of a Lempel-Ziv-Welch (LZW) lossless data compression algorithm was used to compress and analyze surrogate SCADA traffic. Infected SCADA traffic was found to have statistically significant differences in compression when compared against normal SCADA traffic at the packet level. The initial analyses and results are clearly able to identify malicious network traffic from normal traffic at the packet level with a very high confidence level across multiple ports and traffic streams. Statistical differentiation between infected and normal traffic level was possible using a modified data compression technique at the 99% probability level for all data analyzed. However, the conditions tested were rather limited in scope and need to be expanded into more realistic simulations of hacking events using techniques and approaches that are better representative of a real-world attack on a SCADA system. Nonetheless, the use of compression techniques to identify malicious traffic on SCADA networks in real time appears to have significant merit for infrastructure protection.

  9. Explaining How to Play Real-Time Strategy Games

    Metoyer, Ronald; Stumpf, Simone; Neumann, Christoph; Dodge, Jonathan; Cao, Jill; Schnabel, Aaron

    Real-time strategy games share many aspects with real situations in domains such as battle planning, air traffic control, and emergency response team management which makes them appealing test-beds for Artificial Intelligence (AI) and machine learning. End user annotations could help to provide supplemental information for learning algorithms, especially when training data is sparse. This paper presents a formative study to uncover how experienced users explain game play in real-time strategy games. We report the results of our analysis of explanations and discuss their characteristics that could support the design of systems for use by experienced real-time strategy game users in specifying or annotating strategy-oriented behavior.

  10. Real-Time Walk Light Detection with a Mobile Phone.

    Ivanchenko, Volodymyr; Coughlan, James; Shen, Huiying


    Crossing an urban traffic intersection is one of the most dangerous activities of a blind or visually impaired person's travel. Building on past work by the authors on the issue of proper alignment with the crosswalk, this paper addresses the complementary issue of knowing when it is time to cross. We describe a prototype portable system that alerts the user in real time once the Walk light is illuminated. The system runs as a software application on an off-the-shelf Nokia N95 mobile phone, using computer vision algorithms to analyze video acquired by the built-in camera to determine in real time if a Walk light is currently visible. Once a Walk light is detected, an audio tone is sounded to alert the user. Experiments with a blind volunteer subject at urban traffic intersections demonstrate proof of concept of the system, which successfully alerted the subject when the Walk light appeared.

  11. Clinical virology in real time.

    Niesters, Hubert G M


    The ability to detect nucleic acids has had and still has a major impact on diagnostics in clinical virology. Both quantitative and qualitative techniques, whether signal or target amplification based systems, are currently used routinely in most if not all virology laboratories. Technological improvements, from automated sample isolation to real time amplification technology, have given the ability to develop and introduce systems for most viruses of clinical interest, and to obtain clinical relevant information needed for optimal antiviral treatment options. Both polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) can currently be used together with real time detection to generate results in a short turn-around time and to determine whether variants relevant for antiviral resistance are present. These new technologies enable the introduction of an individual patient disease management concept. Within our clinical setting, we have introduced this e.g. for quantitative detection of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) in T-dell depleted allogeneic stem cell transplant patients. This enabled us to develop models for pre-emptive anti B-cell immunotherapy for EBV reactivation, thereby effectively reducing not the incidence of EBV-lymphoproliferative disease but the virus related mortality. Furthermore, additional clinically relevant viruses can now easily be detected simultaneously. It also becomes more feasible to introduce molecular testing for those viruses that can easily be detected using classical virological methods, like culture techniques or antigen detection. Prospective studies are needed to evaluate the clinical importance of the additional positive samples detected. It should however be made clear that a complete exchange of technologies is unlikely to occur, and that some complementary technologies should stay operational enabling the discovery of new viruses. The implementation of these molecular diagnostic technologies furthermore

  12. Comparison of real-time relative workload measurements in rail signallers

    Broekhoven, R. van; Siegel, A.W.; Schraagen, J.M.C.; Noordzij, M.L.


    This exploratory field study investigated the weak resilience signals of workload in a rail traffic control room. The goals of this research are to see whether real-time system information of a rail control post can be used to predict workload of a rail signaller in real-time, and to further improve

  13. RTnet: a distributed real-time protocol for broadcast-capable networks

    Hanssen, Ferdy; Jansen, Pierre G.; Scholten, Hans; Mullender, Sape


    RTnet is a distributed real-time network protocol, to be used on fully-connected local area networks with a broadcast capability. It supports on-the-fly addition and removal of network nodes, resource-lavish and resourcelean devices, streaming real-time and regular non-realtime traffic. It allows th

  14. Mobile real time radiography system

    Vigil, J.; Taggart, D.; Betts, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others


    A 450-keV Mobile Real Time Radiography (RTR) System was delivered to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in January 1996. It was purchased to inspect containers of radioactive waste produced at (LANL). Since its delivery it has been used to radiograph more than 600 drums of radioactive waste at various LANL sites. It has the capability of inspecting waste containers of various sizes from <1-gal. buckets up to standard waste boxes (SWB, dimensions 54.5 in. x 71 in. x 37 in.). It has three independent x-ray acquisition formats. The primary system used is a 12- in. image intensifier, the second is a 36-in. linear diode array (LDA) and the last is an open system. It is fully self contained with on board generator, HVAC, and a fire suppression system. It is on a 53-ft long x 8-ft. wide x 14-ft. high trailer that can be moved over any highway requiring only an easily obtainable overweight permit because it weights {approximately}38 tons. It was built to conform to industry standards for a cabinet system which does not require an exclusion zone. The fact that this unit is mobile has allowed us to operate where the waste is stored, rather than having to move the waste to a fixed facility.

  15. Students Collecting Real time Data

    Miller, P.


    Students Collecting Real-Time Data The Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary has created opportunities for middle and high school students to become Student Researchers and to be involved in real-time marine data collection. It is important that we expose students to different fields of science and encourage them to enter scientific fields of study. The Humpback Whale Sanctuary has an education visitor center in Kihei, Maui. Located right on the beach, the site has become a living classroom facility. There is a traditional Hawaiian fishpond fronting the property. The fishpond wall is being restored, using traditional methods. The site has the incredible opportunity of incorporating Hawaiian cultural practices with scientific studies. The Sanctuary offers opportunities for students to get involved in monitoring and data collection studies. Invasive Seaweed Study: Students are collecting data on invasive seaweed for the University of Hawaii. They pull a large net through the shallow waters. Seaweed is sorted, identified and weighed. The invasive seaweeds are removed. The data is recorded and sent to UH. Remote controlled monitoring boats: The sanctuary has 6 boogie board sized remote controlled boats used to monitor reefs. Boats have a camera with lights on the underside. The boats have water quality monitoring devices and GPS units. The video from the underwater camera is transmitted via a wireless transmission. Students are able to monitor the fish, limu and invertebrate populations on the reef and collect water quality data via television monitors or computers. The boat can also pull a small plankton tow net. Data is being compiled into data bases. Artificial Reef Modules: The Sanctuary has a scientific permit from the state to build and deploy artificial reef modules. High school students are designing and building modules. These are deployed out in the Fishpond fronting the Sanctuary site and students are monitoring them on a weekly basis

  16. A new real-time ethernet MAC protocol for time-critical applications

    沈钢; 许晓鸣; 蔡云泽; 何星; 张卫东


    The authors propose a new persistent transmission-based real-time Ethernet MAC protocol that provides a predictable upper bound for the delivery delay of real-time frames. Moreover, it is compatible with the protocol used by the existing Ethernet controllers for conventional datagram traffic and thus standard Ethernet stations can be used in the system without any modification. The paper describes the protocol in detail and analyses the maximum delivery delay for real-time traffic and the efficiency of the channel.

  17. Real-time micro-modelling of city evacuations

    Löhner, Rainald; Haug, Eberhard; Zinggerling, Claudio; Oñate, Eugenio


    A methodology to integrate geographical information system (GIS) data with large-scale pedestrian simulations has been developed. Advances in automatic data acquisition and archiving from GIS databases, automatic input for pedestrian simulations, as well as scalable pedestrian simulation tools have made it possible to simulate pedestrians at the individual level for complete cities in real time. An example that simulates the evacuation of the city of Barcelona demonstrates that this is now possible. This is the first step towards a fully integrated crowd prediction and management tool that takes into account not only data gathered in real time from cameras, cell phones or other sensors, but also merges these with advanced simulation tools to predict the future state of the crowd.

  18. Real Time Seismic Prediction while Drilling

    Schilling, F. R.; Bohlen, T.; Edelmann, T.; Kassel, A.; Heim, A.; Gehring, M.; Lüth, S.; Giese, R.; Jaksch, K.; Rechlin, A.; Kopf, M.; Stahlmann, J.; Gattermann, J.; Bruns, B.


    Efficient and safe drilling is a prerequisite to enhance the mobility of people and goods, to improve the traffic as well as utility infrastructure of growing megacities, and to ensure the growing energy demand while building geothermal and in hydroelectric power plants. Construction within the underground is often building within the unknown. An enhanced risk potential for people and the underground building may arise if drilling enters fracture zones, karsts, brittle rocks, mixed solid and soft rocks, caves, or anthropogenic obstacles. Knowing about the material behavior ahead of the drilling allows reducing the risk during drilling and construction operation. In drilling operations direct observations from boreholes can be complemented with geophysical investigations. In this presentation we focus on “real time” seismic prediction while drilling which is seen as a prerequisite while using geophysical methods in modern drilling operations. In solid rocks P- and S-wave velocity, refraction and reflection as well as seismic wave attenuation can be used for the interpretation of structures ahead of the drilling. An Integrated Seismic Imaging System (ISIS) for exploration ahead of a construction is used, where a pneumatic hammer or a magnetostrictive vibration source generate repetitive signals behind the tunneling machine. Tube waves are generated which travel along the tunnel to the working face. There the tube waves are converted to mainly S- but also P-Waves which interact with the formation ahead of the heading face. The reflected or refracted waves travel back to the working front are converted back to tube waves and recorded using three-component geophones which are fit into the tips of anchor rods. In near real time, the ISIS software allows for an integrated 3D imaging and interpretation of the observed data, geological and geotechnical parameters. Fracture zones, heterogeneities, and variations in the rock properties can be revealed during the drilling

  19. Space Weather and Real-Time Monitoring


    Recent advance of information and communications technology enables to collect a large amount of ground-based and space-based observation data in real-time. The real-time data realize nowcast of space weather. This paper reports a history of space weather by the International Space Environment Service (ISES) in association with the International Geophysical Year (IGY) and importance of real-time monitoring in space weather.

  20. Space Weather and Real-Time Monitoring

    S Watari


    Full Text Available Recent advance of information and communications technology enables to collect a large amount of ground-based and space-based observation data in real-time. The real-time data realize nowcast of space weather. This paper reports a history of space weather by the International Space Environment Service (ISES in association with the International Geophysical Year (IGY and importance of real-time monitoring in space weather.

  1. Real-time graphics rendering engine

    Bao, Hujun


    ""Real-Time Graphics Rendering Engine"" reveals the software architecture of the modern real-time 3D graphics rendering engine and the relevant technologies based on the authors' experience developing this high-performance, real-time system. The relevant knowledge about real-time graphics rendering such as the rendering pipeline, the visual appearance and shading and lighting models are also introduced. This book is intended to offer well-founded guidance for researchers and developers who are interested in building their own rendering engines. Hujun Bao is a professor at the State Key Lab of

  2. Research in Distributed Real-Time Systems

    Mukkamala, R.


    This document summarizes the progress we have made on our study of issues concerning the schedulability of real-time systems. Our study has produced several results in the scalability issues of distributed real-time systems. In particular, we have used our techniques to resolve schedulability issues in distributed systems with end-to-end requirements. During the next year (1997-98), we propose to extend the current work to address the modeling and workload characterization issues in distributed real-time systems. In particular, we propose to investigate the effect of different workload models and component models on the design and the subsequent performance of distributed real-time systems.

  3. Real-time Pricing in Power Markets

    Boom, Anette; Schwenen, Sebastian

    We examine welfare eects of real-time pricing in electricity markets. Before stochastic energy demand is known, competitive retailers contract with nal consumers who exogenously do not have real-time meters. After demand is realized, two electricity generators compete in a uniform price auction...... to satisfy demand from retailers acting on behalf of subscribed customers and from consumers with real-time meters. Increasing the number of consumers on real-time pricing does not always increase welfare since risk-averse consumers dislike uncertain and high prices arising through market power...

  4. Real-time Pricing in Power Markets

    Boom, Anette; Schwenen, Sebastian

    We examine welfare e ects of real-time pricing in electricity markets. Before stochastic energy demand is known, competitive retailers contract with nal consumers who exogenously do not have real-time meters. After demand is realized, two electricity generators compete in a uniform price auction...... to satisfy demand from retailers acting on behalf of subscribed customers and from consumers with real-time meters. Increasing the number of consumers on real-time pricing does not always increase welfare since risk-averse consumers dislike uncertain and high prices arising through market power...

  5. A time-consistent video segmentation algorithm designed for real-time implementation

    Elhassani, Mohammed; Rivasseau, Delphine; Jehan-Besson, Stéphanie; Revenu, Marinette; Tschumperlé, David; Brun, Luc; Duranton, Marc


    International audience; In this paper, we propose a time consistent video segmentation algorithm designed for real-time implementation. Our segmentation algorithm is based on a region merging process that combines both spatial and motion information. The spatial segmentation takes benefit of an adaptive decision rule and a specific order of merging. Our method has proven to be efficient for the segmentation of natural images (flat or textured regions) with few parameters to be set. Temporal c...

  6. Storm real-time processing cookbook

    Anderson, Quinton


    A Cookbook with plenty of practical recipes for different uses of Storm.If you are a Java developer with basic knowledge of real-time processing and would like to learn Storm to process unbounded streams of data in real time, then this book is for you.

  7. Interactive Real-time Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Brix, Lau

    Real-time acquisition, reconstruction and interactively changing the slice position using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been possible for years. However, the current clinical use of interactive real-time MRI is limited due to an inherent low spatial and temporal resolution. This PhD proje...

  8. Validation of RNAi by real time PCR

    Josefsen, Knud; Lee, Ying Chiu


    Real time PCR is the analytic tool of choice for quantification of gene expression, while RNAi is concerned with downregulation of gene expression. Together, they constitute a powerful approach in any loss of function studies of selective genes. We illustrate here the use of real time PCR to veri...

  9. Real-time communication protocols: an overview

    Hanssen, Ferdy; Jansen, Pierre G.


    This paper describes several existing data link layer protocols that provide real-time capabilities on wired networks, focusing on token-ring and Carrier Sense Multiple Access based networks. Existing modifications to provide better real-time capabilities and performance are also described. Finally

  10. Real-time communication protocols: an overview

    Hanssen, Ferdy; Jansen, Pierre G.


    This paper describes several existing data link layer protocols that provide real-time capabilities on wired networks, focusing on token-ring and Carrier Sense Multiple Access based networks. Existing modifications to provide better real-time capabilities and performance are also described. Finally the pros and cons regarding the At-Home Anywhere project are discussed.

  11. Real-time Pricing in Power Markets

    Boom, Anette; Schwenen, Sebastian

    to satisfy demand from retailers acting on behalf of subscribed customers and from consumers with real-time meters. Increasing the number of consumers on real-time pricing does not always increase welfare since risk-averse consumers dislike uncertain and high prices arising through market power...

  12. Interactive Real-time Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Brix, Lau

    Real-time acquisition, reconstruction and interactively changing the slice position using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been possible for years. However, the current clinical use of interactive real-time MRI is limited due to an inherent low spatial and temporal resolution. This PhD proje...

  13. A distributed scheduling algorithm for heterogeneous real-time systems

    Zeineldine, Osman; El-Toweissy, Mohamed; Mukkamala, Ravi


    Much of the previous work on load balancing and scheduling in distributed environments was concerned with homogeneous systems and homogeneous loads. Several of the results indicated that random policies are as effective as other more complex load allocation policies. The effects of heterogeneity on scheduling algorithms for hard real time systems is examined. A distributed scheduler specifically to handle heterogeneities in both nodes and node traffic is proposed. The performance of the algorithm is measured in terms of the percentage of jobs discarded. While a random task allocation is very sensitive to heterogeneities, the algorithm is shown to be robust to such non-uniformities in system components and load.

  14. The ALMA Real Time Control System

    Kern, Jeffrey S.; Juerges, Thomas A.; Marson, Ralph G.


    The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is a revolutionary millimeter and submillimeter array being developed on the Atacama plateau of northern Chile. An international partnership lead by NRAO, ESO, and NAOJ this powerful and flexible telescope will provide unprecedented observations of this relatively unexplored frequency range. The control subsystem for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array must coordinate the monitor and control of at least sixty six antennas (in four different styles), two correlators, and all of the ancillary equipment (samplers, local oscillators, front ends, etc.). This equipment will be spread over tens of kilometers and operated remotely. Operation of the array requires a robust, scalable, and maintainable real time control system. The real time control system is responsible for monitoring and control of any devices where there are fixed deadlines. Examples in the ALMA context are antenna pointing and fringe tracking. Traditionally the real time portion of a large software system is an intricate and error prone portion of the software. As a result the real time portion is very expensive in terms of effort expended both during construction and during maintenance phases of a project. The ALMA real time control system uses a Linux based real time operating system to interact with the hardware and the CORBA based ALMA Common Software to communicate in the distributed computing environment. Mixing the requirements of real time computing and the non-deterministic CORBA middleware has produced an interesting design. We discuss the architecture, design, and implementation of the ALMA real time control system. Highlight some lessons learned along the way, and justify our assertion that this should be the last large scale real time control system in radio astronomy.

  15. Achieving real-time performance in FIESTA

    Wilkinson, William; Happell, Nadine; Miksell, Steve; Quillin, Robert; Carlisle, Candace


    The Fault Isolation Expert System for TDRSS Applications (FIESTA) is targeted for operation in a real-time online environment. Initial stages of the prototype development concentrated on acquisition and representation of the knowledge necessary to isolate faults in the TDRSS Network. Recent efforts focused on achieving real-time performance including: a discussion of the meaning of FIESTA real-time requirements, determination of performance levels (benchmarking) and techniques for optimization. Optimization techniques presented include redesign of critical relations, filtering of redundant data and optimization of patterns used in rules. Results are summarized.

  16. Real-time medical applications and telecommunications.

    Stravs, M


    Telecommunications play an important role in telemedicine. Many forms of telecommunication services based on different telecommunication technologies are developed for various needs. The paper deals with complex real-time applications which demand high telecommunication requirements. At the beginning, medical applications are categorised and real-time applications qualified as multimedia applications. Requirements for multimedia elements are listed separately. Later on, short introduction of related telecommunication protocols is given. Real-time medical applications can show their ability in case of guaranteed quality of services delivered by telecommunication network as it is explained in the end.

  17. Real time detecting system for turning force

    Yue Xiao Bin


    How to get the real-time value of forces dropped on the tool in the course of processing by piezoelectric sensors is introduced. First, the analog signals of the cutting force were achieved by these sensors, amplified and transferred into digital signals by A/D transferring card. Then real-time software reads the information, put it into its own coordinate, drew the curve of forces, displayed it on the screen by the real time and saved it for the technicians to analyze the situation of the tool. So the cutting parameter can be optimized to improve surface quality of the pieces

  18. Visualization in Real-Time Experiment Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this project will be to migrate some of the outputs from the WFF Mission Planning Lab (MPL) into a real-time visualization system.  The MPL is...

  19. Real Time Study and Related Variables

    WU Xiao-qing


    This paper first, illustrates the advantages of applying real time study to linguistic researches. Second, this paper also compares linguistic variables with linguistic variant; nasality, stronger constraint and weaker constraint have been clearly de-fined as well.

  20. Multiprocessor scheduling for real-time systems

    Baruah, Sanjoy; Buttazzo, Giorgio


    This book provides a comprehensive overview of both theoretical and pragmatic aspects of resource-allocation and scheduling in multiprocessor and multicore hard-real-time systems.  The authors derive new, abstract models of real-time tasks that capture accurately the salient features of real application systems that are to be implemented on multiprocessor platforms, and identify rules for mapping application systems onto the most appropriate models.  New run-time multiprocessor scheduling algorithms are presented, which are demonstrably better than those currently used, both in terms of run-time efficiency and tractability of off-line analysis.  Readers will benefit from a new design and analysis framework for multiprocessor real-time systems, which will translate into a significantly enhanced ability to provide formally verified, safety-critical real-time systems at a significantly lower cost.

  1. Real-Time Sensor-Actuator Networks

    Sastry, Shivakumar; S. S. Iyengar


    Emerging technologies offer new paradigms for computation, control, collaboration, and communication. To realize the full potential of these technologies in industry, defense, and homeland security applications, it is necessary to exploit the real-time distributed computing capabilities of sensor-actuator networks. To reliably design and develop such networks, it is necessary to develop deeper insight into the underlying model for real-time computation and the infrastructure at the node level...

  2. Real Time Information Fusion in Military Systems

    E. Bhagiratharao


    Full Text Available With the proliferation of sensors on platforms like battle ships and aircraft, the information to be handled by the battlefield commanders has significantly increased in the recent time. From a deluge of information flowing from sensors, the battlefield commander is required to make situation assessment in real-time and take appropriate action. Recent studies by cognitive scientists have indicated that decision making by individuals as well as a team suffer from several biases. For these two reasons, the battlefield commanders need assistance of real-time information fusion systems to take objective assessment of highly dynamic battle situation in real-time information fusion systems to take objective assessment of a highly dynamic battle situation in real-time. The real-time information fusion systems at a single platform level as well as that applicable for geographically distributed platforms is discussed in detail in this paper. It was concluded that by carrying out these activities at the platform level as well as at 'global' level involving several platforms, the limitations in performance of any sensor due to propagation effects or due to enemy counter measures can be significantly minimised or totally eliminated. At the same time the functional effectiveness of each sensor onboard different platforms, becomes better than when it had to operate autonomously within the real-time information fusion facility. By carrying out global real-time information fusion activity in a theatre of war, all the platforms operating in the area will have the benefit of the best sensor in that area on each aspect of the capability. A few examples of real-time information fusion system are also discussed.

  3. Scala for Real-Time Systems?

    Schoeberl, Martin


    Java served well as a general-purpose language. However, during its two decades of constant change it has gotten some weight and legacy in the language syntax and the libraries. Furthermore, Java's success for real-time systems is mediocre. Scala is a modern object-oriented and functional language...... with interesting new features. Although a new language, it executes on a Java virtual machine, reusing that technology. This paper explores Scala as language for future real-time systems....

  4. The LAA real-time benchmarks

    Block, R.K.; Krischer, W.; Lone, S. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)


    In the context of the LAA detector development program a subgroup Real Time Data Processing has tackled the problem of intelligent triggering. The main goal of this group is to show how fast digital devices, implemented as custom-made or commercial processors, can execute some basic algorithms, and how they can be embedded in the data flow between detector readout components and fully programmable commercial processors, which are expected to be the final data processing filter in real time.

  5. Analysis of real-time vibration data

    Safak, E.


    In recent years, a few structures have been instrumented to provide continuous vibration data in real time, recording not only large-amplitude motions generated by extreme loads, but also small-amplitude motions generated by ambient loads. The main objective in continuous recording is to track any changes in structural characteristics, and to detect damage after an extreme event, such as an earthquake or explosion. The Fourier-based spectral analysis methods have been the primary tool to analyze vibration data from structures. In general, such methods do not work well for real-time data, because real-time data are mainly composed of ambient vibrations with very low amplitudes and signal-to-noise ratios. The long duration, linearity, and the stationarity of ambient data, however, allow us to utilize statistical signal processing tools, which can compensate for the adverse effects of low amplitudes and high noise. The analysis of real-time data requires tools and techniques that can be applied in real-time; i.e., data are processed and analyzed while being acquired. This paper presents some of the basic tools and techniques for processing and analyzing real-time vibration data. The topics discussed include utilization of running time windows, tracking mean and mean-square values, filtering, system identification, and damage detection.

  6. Real Time Communication Capacity for Data Delivery in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Virmani, Deepali


    Real-time applications are performance critical applications that require bounded service latency. In multi-hop wireless ad-hoc and sensor networks, communication delays are dominant over processing delays. Therefore, to enable real-time applications in such networks, the communication latency must be bounded. In this paper, we derive expressions of real-time capacity that characterize the ability of a network to deliver data on time as well as develop network protocols that achieve this capacity. Real-time capacity expressions are obtained and analyzed for the earliest deadline first, deadline monotonic. This paper presents a treatment of the real-time capacity limits. The limits are derived for two extreme traffic topologies namely, the load balanced topology and the convergecast (i.e., many-to-one) topology. It considers DM and EDF scheduling algorithms, and discusses the implications of the capacity limit expressions.

  7. Real Time Metrics and Analysis of Integrated Arrival, Departure, and Surface Operations

    Sharma, Shivanjli; Fergus, John


    A real time dashboard was developed in order to inform and present users notifications and integrated information regarding airport surface operations. The dashboard is a supplement to capabilities and tools that incorporate arrival, departure, and surface air-traffic operations concepts in a NextGen environment. As trajectory-based departure scheduling and collaborative decision making tools are introduced in order to reduce delays and uncertainties in taxi and climb operations across the National Airspace System, users across a number of roles benefit from a real time system that enables common situational awareness. In addition to shared situational awareness the dashboard offers the ability to compute real time metrics and analysis to inform users about capacity, predictability, and efficiency of the system as a whole. This paper describes the architecture of the real time dashboard as well as an initial set of metrics computed on operational data. The potential impact of the real time dashboard is studied at the site identified for initial deployment and demonstration in 2017; Charlotte-Douglas International Airport. Analysis and metrics computed in real time illustrate the opportunity to provide common situational awareness and inform users of metrics across delay, throughput, taxi time, and airport capacity. In addition, common awareness of delays and the impact of takeoff and departure restrictions stemming from traffic flow management initiatives are explored. The potential of the real time tool to inform the predictability and efficiency of using a trajectory-based departure scheduling system is also discussed.


    Eto, Joseph H.; Parashar, Manu; Lewis, Nancy Jo


    The Real Time System Operations (RTSO) 2006-2007 project focused on two parallel technical tasks: (1) Real-Time Applications of Phasors for Monitoring, Alarming and Control; and (2) Real-Time Voltage Security Assessment (RTVSA) Prototype Tool. The overall goal of the phasor applications project was to accelerate adoption and foster greater use of new, more accurate, time-synchronized phasor measurements by conducting research and prototyping applications on California ISO's phasor platform - Real-Time Dynamics Monitoring System (RTDMS) -- that provide previously unavailable information on the dynamic stability of the grid. Feasibility assessment studies were conducted on potential application of this technology for small-signal stability monitoring, validating/improving existing stability nomograms, conducting frequency response analysis, and obtaining real-time sensitivity information on key metrics to assess grid stress. Based on study findings, prototype applications for real-time visualization and alarming, small-signal stability monitoring, measurement based sensitivity analysis and frequency response assessment were developed, factory- and field-tested at the California ISO and at BPA. The goal of the RTVSA project was to provide California ISO with a prototype voltage security assessment tool that runs in real time within California ISO?s new reliability and congestion management system. CERTS conducted a technical assessment of appropriate algorithms, developed a prototype incorporating state-of-art algorithms (such as the continuation power flow, direct method, boundary orbiting method, and hyperplanes) into a framework most suitable for an operations environment. Based on study findings, a functional specification was prepared, which the California ISO has since used to procure a production-quality tool that is now a part of a suite of advanced computational tools that is used by California ISO for reliability and congestion management.

  9. Visualization of Real-Time Data

    Stansifer, Ryan; Engrand, Peter


    In this project we explored various approaches to presenting real-time data from the numerous systems monitored on the space shuttle to computer users. We examined the approach that several projects at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) used to accomplish this. We undertook to build a prototype system to demonstrate that the Internet and the Java programming language could be used to present the real-time data conveniently. Several Java programs were developed that presented real-time data in different forms including one form that emulated the display screens of the PC GOAL system which is familiar to many at KSC. Also, we developed several communications programs to supply the data continuously. Furthermore, a framework was created using the World Wide Web (WWW) to organize the collection and presentation of the real-time data. We believe our demonstration project shows the great flexibility of the approach. We had no particular use of the data in mind, instead we wanted the most general and the least complex framework possible. People who wish to view data need only know how to use a WWW browser and the address (the URL). People wanting to build WWW documents containing real-time data need only know the values of a few parameters, they do not need to program in Java or any other language. These are stunning advantages over more monolithic systems.

  10. Interactive Real-time Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Brix, Lau

    seeks to implement and assess existing reconstruction algorithms using multi-processors of modern graphics cards and many-core computer processors and to cover some of the potential clinical applications which might benefit from using an interactive real-time MRI system. First an off......-line, but interactive, slice alignment tool was used to support the notion that 3D blood flow quantification in the heart possesses the ability to obtain curves and volumes which are not statistical different from standard 2D flow. Secondly, the feasibility of an interactive real-time MRI system was exploited...... with regard to optimal sampling strategy for detecting motion in four different anatomies on two different MRI scanner brands. A fully implemented interactive real-time MRI system was exploited in a group of healthy fetuses and proved its eligibility as an alternative diagnostic tool for fetal imaging...

  11. Deterministic Real-time Thread Scheduling

    Yun, Heechul; Sha, Lui


    Race condition is a timing sensitive problem. A significant source of timing variation comes from nondeterministic hardware interactions such as cache misses. While data race detectors and model checkers can check races, the enormous state space of complex software makes it difficult to identify all of the races and those residual implementation errors still remain a big challenge. In this paper, we propose deterministic real-time scheduling methods to address scheduling nondeterminism in uniprocessor systems. The main idea is to use timing insensitive deterministic events, e.g, an instruction counter, in conjunction with a real-time clock to schedule threads. By introducing the concept of Worst Case Executable Instructions (WCEI), we guarantee both determinism and real-time performance.

  12. Continuous, real time microwave plasma element sensor

    Woskov, Paul P.; Smatlak, Donna L.; Cohn, Daniel R.; Wittle, J. Kenneth; Titus, Charles H.; Surma, Jeffrey E.


    Microwave-induced plasma for continuous, real time trace element monitoring under harsh and variable conditions. The sensor includes a source of high power microwave energy and a shorted waveguide made of a microwave conductive, refractory material communicating with the source of the microwave energy to generate a plasma. The high power waveguide is constructed to be robust in a hot, hostile environment. It includes an aperture for the passage of gases to be analyzed and a spectrometer is connected to receive light from the plasma. Provision is made for real time in situ calibration. The spectrometer disperses the light, which is then analyzed by a computer. The sensor is capable of making continuous, real time quantitative measurements of desired elements, such as the heavy metals lead and mercury.

  13. Durham adaptive optics real-time controller.

    Basden, Alastair; Geng, Deli; Myers, Richard; Younger, Eddy


    The Durham adaptive optics (AO) real-time controller was initially a proof of concept design for a generic AO control system. It has since been developed into a modern and powerful central-processing-unit-based real-time control system, capable of using hardware acceleration (including field programmable gate arrays and graphical processing units), based primarily around commercial off-the-shelf hardware. It is powerful enough to be used as the real-time controller for all currently planned 8 m class telescope AO systems. Here we give details of this controller and the concepts behind it, and report on performance, including latency and jitter, which is less than 10 μs for small AO systems.

  14. Real-Time Visualization of Tissue Ischemia

    Bearman, Gregory H. (Inventor); Chrien, Thomas D. (Inventor); Eastwood, Michael L. (Inventor)


    A real-time display of tissue ischemia which comprises three CCD video cameras, each with a narrow bandwidth filter at the correct wavelength is discussed. The cameras simultaneously view an area of tissue suspected of having ischemic areas through beamsplitters. The output from each camera is adjusted to give the correct signal intensity for combining with, the others into an image for display. If necessary a digital signal processor (DSP) can implement algorithms for image enhancement prior to display. Current DSP engines are fast enough to give real-time display. Measurement at three, wavelengths, combined into a real-time Red-Green-Blue (RGB) video display with a digital signal processing (DSP) board to implement image algorithms, provides direct visualization of ischemic areas.

  15. Axial Tomography from Digitized Real Time Radiography

    Zolnay, A. S.; McDonald, W. M.; Doupont, P. A.; McKinney, R. L.; Lee, M. M.


    Axial tomography from digitized real time radiographs provides a useful tool for industrial radiography and tomography. The components of this system are: x-ray source, image intensifier, video camera, video line extractor and digitizer, data storage and reconstruction computers. With this system it is possible to view a two dimensional x-ray image in real time at each angle of rotation and select the tomography plane of interest by choosing which video line to digitize. The digitization of a video line requires less than a second making data acquisition relatively short. Further improvements on this system are planned and initial results are reported.

  16. SignalR real time application development

    Ingebrigtsen, Einar


    This step-by-step guide gives you practical advice, tips, and tricks that will have you writing real-time apps quickly and easily.If you are a .NET developer who wants to be at the cutting edge of development, then this book is for you. Real-time application development is made simple in this guide, so as long as you have basic knowledge of .NET, a copy of Visual Studio, and NuGet installed, you are ready to go.

  17. Real-time Shakemap implementation in Austria

    Weginger, Stefan; Jia, Yan; Papi Isaba, Maria; Horn, Nikolaus


    ShakeMaps provide near-real-time maps of ground motion and shaking intensity following significant earthquakes. They are automatically generated within a few minutes after occurrence of an earthquake. We tested and included the USGS ShakeMap 4.0 (experimental code) based on python in the Antelope real-time system with local modified GMPE and Site Effects based on the conditions in Austria. The ShakeMaps are provided in terms of Intensity, PGA, PGV and PSA. Future presentation of ShakeMap contour lines and Ground Motion Parameter with interactive maps and data exchange over Web-Services are shown.

  18. Real Time Implementation Of Face Recognition System

    Megha Manchanda


    Full Text Available This paper proposes face recognition method using PCA for real time implementation. Nowadays security is gaining importance as it is becoming necessary for people to keep passwords in their mind and carry cards. Such implementations however, are becoming less secure and practical, also is becoming more problematic thus leading to an increasing interest in techniques related to biometrics systems. Face recognition system is amongst important subjects in biometrics systems. This system is very useful for security in particular and has been widely used and developed in many countries. This study aims to achieve face recognition successfully by detecting human face in real time, based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA algorithm.

  19. Real-time systems scheduling fundamentals

    Chetto, Maryline


    Real-time systems are used in a wide range of applications, including control, sensing, multimedia, etc.  Scheduling is a central problem for these computing/communication systems since responsible of software execution in a timely manner. This book provides state of knowledge in this domain with special emphasis on the key results obtained within the last decade. This book addresses foundations as well as the latest advances and findings in Real-Time Scheduling, giving all references to important papers. But nevertheless the chapters will be short and not overloaded with confusing details.

  20. Real-time systems scheduling 2 focuses

    Chetto, Maryline


    Real-time systems are used in a wide range of applications, including control, sensing, multimedia, etc. Scheduling is a central problem for these computing/communication systems since it is responsible for software execution in a timely manner. This book, the second of two volumes on the subject, brings together knowledge on specific topics and discusses the recent advances for some of them.  It addresses foundations as well as the latest advances and findings in real-time scheduling, giving comprehensive references to important papers, but the chapters are short and not overloaded with co

  1. Real-time elastography of the prostate.

    Junker, D; De Zordo, T; Quentin, M; Ladurner, M; Bektic, J; Horniger, W; Jaschke, W; Aigner, F


    Palpation of organs is one of the oldest clinical examination techniques, for instance, if you think of the palpation of the breast or the digital rectal examination of the prostate, where hard palpable regions are suspicious for cancer. This is the basic principle of real-time elastography, an ultrasound technique, which is able to visualise tissue elasticity. Since prostate cancer features an increased stiffness due to the higher cell and vessel density than the normal surrounding tissue, real-time elastography has been used for several years for prostate cancer detection. This review introduces the different techniques of ultrasound elastography and furthermore summarises its limitations and potentials.

  2. Real-Time Elastography of the Prostate

    D. Junker


    Full Text Available Palpation of organs is one of the oldest clinical examination techniques, for instance, if you think of the palpation of the breast or the digital rectal examination of the prostate, where hard palpable regions are suspicious for cancer. This is the basic principle of real-time elastography, an ultrasound technique, which is able to visualise tissue elasticity. Since prostate cancer features an increased stiffness due to the higher cell and vessel density than the normal surrounding tissue, real-time elastography has been used for several years for prostate cancer detection. This review introduces the different techniques of ultrasound elastography and furthermore summarises its limitations and potentials.

  3. Real Time Crowding Information (RTCI) Provision : Impacts and Proposed Technical Solution

    Zhang, Yizhou


    The increasing population leads to higher passenger travel demand in Stockholm. The public transport becomes more and more crowded in rush hours. However, passengers carry out decisions usually based on limited traffic information and their travel experience. Passengers cannot take the initiative to avoid crowding based on existing SL traffic information. Real time crowding information (RTCI) research aims to help passenger to have more initiative to plan their travel in metro system, and ass...

  4. Digital Signal Processing Based Real Time Vehicular Detection System

    YANG Zhaoxuan; LIN Tao; LI Xiangping; LIU Chunyi; GAO Jian


    Traffic monitoring is of major importance for enforcing traffic management policies.To accomplish this task,the detection of vehicle can be achieved by exploiting image analysis techniques.In this paper,a solution is presented to obtain various traffic parameters through vehicular video detection system(VVDS).VVDS exploits the algorithm based on virtual loops to detect moving vehicle in real time.This algorithm uses the background differencing method,and vehicles can be detected through luminance difference of pixels between background image and current image.Furthermore a novel technology named as spatio-temporal image sequences analysis is applied to background differencing to improve detection accuracy.Then a hardware implementation of a digital signal processing (DSP) based board is described in detail and the board can simultaneously process four-channel video from different cameras. The benefit of usage of DSP is that images of a roadway can be processed at frame rate due to DSP′s high performance.In the end,VVDS is tested on real-world scenes and experiment results show that the system is both fast and robust to the surveillance of transportation.

  5. Feedback as Real-Time Constructions

    Keiding, Tina Bering; Qvortrup, Ane


    This article offers a re-description of feedback and the significance of time in feedback constructions based on systems theory. It describes feedback as internal, real-time constructions in a learning system. From this perspective, feedback is neither immediate nor delayed, but occurs in the very moment it takes place. This article argues for a…

  6. Advances in Real-Time Systems

    Chakraborty, Samarjit


    This volume contains the lectures given in honor to Georg Farber as tribute to his contributions in the area of real-time and embedded systems. The chapters of many leading scientists cover a wide range of aspects, like robot or automotive vision systems or medical aspects.

  7. Quantitative real-time imaging of glutathione

    Glutathione plays many important roles in biological processes; however, the dynamic changes of glutathione concentrations in living cells remain largely unknown. Here, we report a reversible reaction-based fluorescent probe—designated as RealThiol (RT)—that can quantitatively monitor the real-time ...

  8. The Power of Real-Time PCR

    Valasek, Mark A.; Repa, Joyce J.


    In recent years, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has emerged as a robust and widely used methodology for biological investigation because it can detect and quantify very small amounts of specific nucleic acid sequences. As a research tool, a major application of this technology is the rapid and accurate assessment of changes in gene…

  9. Real-time dynamics of proton decay

    Grigoriev, D


    Substituting Skyrmion for nucleon, one can potentially see -- in real time -- how the monopole is catalysing the proton (or neutron) decay, and even obtain a plausible estimate for catalysis cross-section. Here we discuss the key aspects of a practical implementation of such approach and demonstrate how one can overcome the main technical problems: Gauss constraint violation and reflections at the boundaries.

  10. Refactoring Real-Time Java Profiles

    Søndergaard, Hans; Thomsen, Bent; Ravn, Anders Peter


    Just like other software, Java profiles benefits from refactoring when they have been used and have evolved for some time. This paper presents a refactoring of the Real-Time Specification for Java (RTSJ) and the Safety Critical Java (SCJ) profile (JSR-302). It highlights core concepts and makes...

  11. Studying Complex Interactions in Real Time


    The study of human behavior must take into account the social context, and real-time, networked experiments with multiple participants is one increasingly popular way to achieve this. In this paper a framework based on Python and XMPP is presented that aims to make it easy to develop such behavio...

  12. Feedback as Real-Time Constructions

    Keiding, Tina Bering; Qvortrup, Ane


    This article offers a re-description of feedback and the significance of time in feedback constructions based on systems theory. It describes feedback as internal, real-time constructions in a learning system. From this perspective, feedback is neither immediate nor delayed, but occurs in the very moment it takes place. This article argues for a…

  13. Real Time Grid Reliability Management 2005

    Eto, Joe; Eto, Joe; Lesieutre, Bernard; Lewis, Nancy Jo; Parashar, Manu


    The increased need to manage California?s electricity grid in real time is a result of the ongoing transition from a system operated by vertically-integrated utilities serving native loads to one operated by an independent system operator supporting competitive energy markets. During this transition period, the traditional approach to reliability management -- construction of new transmission lines -- has not been pursued due to unresolved issues related to the financing and recovery of transmission project costs. In the absence of investments in new transmission infrastructure, the best strategy for managing reliability is to equip system operators with better real-time information about actual operating margins so that they can better understand and manage the risk of operating closer to the edge. A companion strategy is to address known deficiencies in offline modeling tools that are needed to ground the use of improved real-time tools. This project: (1) developed and conducted first-ever demonstrations of two prototype real-time software tools for voltage security assessment and phasor monitoring; and (2) prepared a scoping study on improving load and generator response models. Additional funding through two separate subsequent work authorizations has already been provided to build upon the work initiated in this project.

  14. Scene independent real-time indirect illumination

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Christensen, Niels Jørgen; Falster, Peter


    -time rendering of arbitrary dynamic environments and for interactive preview of feature animations. Through DRM we simulate two diffuse reflections of light, but can also, in combination with traditional real-time methods for specular reflections, simulate more complex light paths. DRM is a GPU-based method...

  15. Real time estimates of GDP growth

    Groot, de E.A. (Bert); Franses, P.H.P.H.


    This paper describes the components of the EICIE, the Econometric Institute Current Indicator of the Economy. This measure concerns quarterly and annual growth of Dutch real Gross Domestic Product. The key component of our real-time forecasting model for Dutch quarterly GDP is weekly staffing servic

  16. Real-time Texture Error Detection

    Dan Laurentiu Lacrama


    Full Text Available This paper advocates an improved solution for the real-time error detection of texture errors that occurs in the production process in textile industry. The research is focused on the mono-color products with 3D texture model (Jacquard fabrics. This is a more difficult task than, for example, 2D multicolor textures.

  17. Refactoring Real-Time Java Profiles

    Søndergaard, Hans; Thomsen, Bent; Ravn, Anders Peter


    Just like other software, Java profiles benefits from refactoring when they have been used and have evolved for some time. This paper presents a refactoring of the Real-Time Specification for Java (RTSJ) and the Safety Critical Java (SCJ) profile (JSR-302). It highlights core concepts and makes...

  18. Real time estimates of GDP growth

    E.A. de Groot (Bert); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)


    textabstractThis paper describes the components of the EICIE, the Econometric Institute Current Indicator of the Economy. This measure concerns quarterly and annual growth of Dutch real Gross Domestic Product. The key component of our real-time forecasting model for Dutch quarterly GDP is weekly sta

  19. Real-time analysis of telemetry data

    Kao, Simon A.; Laffey, Thomas J.; Schmidt, James L.; Read, Jackson Y.; Dunham, Larry L.


    This paper descibes a knowledge-based system for performing real-time monitoring and analysis of telemetry data from the NASA Hubble Space Telescope (HST). In order to handle asynchronous inputs and perform in real time the system consists of three or more separate processes, which run concurrently and communicate via a message passing scheme. The data management process gathers, compresses, and scales the incoming telemetry data befoe sending it to the other tasks. The inferencing process uses the incoming data to perform a real-time analysis of the state and health of the Space Telescope. The I/O process receives telemetry monitors from the data management process, updates its graphical displays in real time, and acts as the interface to the console operator. The three processes may run on the same or different computers. This system is currently under development and is being used to monitor testcases produced by the Bass Telemetry System in the Hardware/Software Integration Facility at Lockheed Missile and Space Co. in Sunnyvale, California.

  20. Real time estimates of GDP growth

    Groot, de E.A. (Bert); Franses, P.H.P.H.


    This paper describes the components of the EICIE, the Econometric Institute Current Indicator of the Economy. This measure concerns quarterly and annual growth of Dutch real Gross Domestic Product. The key component of our real-time forecasting model for Dutch quarterly GDP is weekly staffing

  1. Real time estimates of GDP growth

    E.A. de Groot (Bert); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)


    textabstractThis paper describes the components of the EICIE, the Econometric Institute Current Indicator of the Economy. This measure concerns quarterly and annual growth of Dutch real Gross Domestic Product. The key component of our real-time forecasting model for Dutch quarterly GDP is weekly

  2. Investigation Model for DDoS Attack Detection in Real-Time

    Abdulghani Ali Ahmed


    Full Text Available Investigating traffic of distributed denial of services (DDoS attack requires extra overhead which mostly results in network performance degradation. This study proposes an investigation model for detecting DDoS attack in real-time without causing negative degradation against network performance. The model investigates network traffic in a scalable way to detect user violations on quality of service regulations. Traffic investigation is triggered only when the network is congested; at that exact moment, burst gateways actually generate a congestion notification to misbehaving users. The misbehaving users are thus further investigated by measuring their consumption ratios of bandwidth. By exceeding the service level agreement bandwidth ratio, user traffic is filtered as DDoS traffic. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed model efficiently monitors intrusive traffic and precisely detects DDoS attack.

  3. RePIDS: a multi tier real-time payload-based intrusion detection system

    Jamdagni, Aruna; Tan, Zhiyuan; Nanda, Priyadarsi; He, Xiangjian; Liu, Ren Ping


    Intrusion Detection System (IDS) deals with huge amount of network traffic and uses large feature set to discriminate normal pattern and intrusive pattern. However, most of existing systems lack the ability to process data for real-time anomaly detection. In this paper, we propose a 3-Tier Iterative




    Full Text Available Car parking lots are an important object class in many traffic and civilian applications. With the problems of increasing urban trafficcongestion and the ever increasing shortage of space, these car parking lots are needed to be well equipped with automatic parkingInformation and Guidance systems. Goals of intelligent parking lot management include counting the number of parked cars, and identifyingthe available location. This work proposes a new system for providing parking information and guidance using image processing. The proposed system includes counting the number of parked vehicles, and dentifying the stalls available. The system detects cars through images instead of using electronic sensors embedded on the floor. A camera is installed at the entry point of the parking lot. It capturesimage sequences. The image sequences are then analyzed using digital image processing for vehicle detection and according to the status ofvehicle occupancy inside, real time guidance and information is provided to the incoming driver.

  5. Online multipath convolutional coding for real-time transmission

    Thai, Tuan Tran; Lacan, Jerome


    Most of multipath multimedia streaming proposals use Forward Error Correction (FEC) approach to protect from packet losses. However, FEC does not sustain well burst of losses even when packets from a given FEC block are spread over multiple paths. In this article, we propose an online multipath convolutional coding for real-time multipath streaming based on an on-the-fly coding scheme called Tetrys. We evaluate the benefits brought out by this coding scheme inside an existing FEC multipath load splitting proposal known as Encoded Multipath Streaming (EMS). We demonstrate that Tetrys consistently outperforms FEC in both uniform and burst losses with EMS scheme. We also propose a modification of the standard EMS algorithm that greatly improves the performance in terms of packet recovery. Finally, we analyze different spreading policies of the Tetrys redundancy traffic between available paths and observe that the longer propagation delay path should be preferably used to carry repair packets.

  6. System Equivalent for Real Time Digital Simulator

    Lin, Xi


    The purpose of this research is to develop a method of making system equivalents for the Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS), which should enhance its capability of simulating large power systems. The proposed equivalent combines a Frequency Dependent Network Equivalent (FDNE) for the high frequency electromagnetic transients and a Transient Stability Analysis (TSA) type simulation block for the electromechanical transients. The frequency dependent characteristic for FDNE is obtained by curve-fitting frequency domain admittance characteristics using the Vector Fitting method. An approach for approximating the frequency dependent characteristic of large power networks from readily available typical power-flow data is also introduced. A new scheme of incorporating TSA solution in RTDS is proposed. This report shows how the TSA algorithm can be adapted to a real time platform. The validity of this method is confirmed with examples, including the study of a multi in-feed HVDC system based network.

  7. Real time processor for array speckle interferometry

    Chin, Gordon; Florez, Jose; Borelli, Renan; Fong, Wai; Miko, Joseph; Trujillo, Carlos


    The authors are constructing a real-time processor to acquire image frames, perform array flat-fielding, execute a 64 x 64 element two-dimensional complex FFT (fast Fourier transform) and average the power spectrum, all within the 25 ms coherence time for speckles at near-IR (infrared) wavelength. The processor will be a compact unit controlled by a PC with real-time display and data storage capability. This will provide the ability to optimize observations and obtain results on the telescope rather than waiting several weeks before the data can be analyzed and viewed with offline methods. The image acquisition and processing, design criteria, and processor architecture are described.

  8. Real Time Radiation Exposure And Health Risks

    Hu, Shaowen; Barzilla, Janet E.; Semones, Edward J.


    Radiation from solar particle events (SPEs) poses a serious threat to future manned missions outside of low Earth orbit (LEO). Accurate characterization of the radiation environment in the inner heliosphere and timely monitoring the health risks to crew are essential steps to ensure the safety of future Mars missions. In this project we plan to develop an approach that can use the particle data from multiple satellites and perform near real-time simulations of radiation exposure and health risks for various exposure scenarios. Time-course profiles of dose rates will be calculated with HZETRN and PDOSE from the energy spectrum and compositions of the particles archived from satellites, and will be validated from recent radiation exposure measurements in space. Real-time estimation of radiation risks will be investigated using ARRBOD. This cross discipline integrated approach can improve risk mitigation by providing critical information for risk assessment and medical guidance to crew during SPEs.

  9. Real-Time Watercolor for Animation

    Thomas Luft; Oliver Deussen


    We present algorithms that allow for real-time rendering of 3D-scenes with a watercolor painting appearance. Our approach provides an appropriate simplification of the visual complexity, imitates characteristic natural effects of watercolor, and provides two essential painting techniques: the wet-on-wet and the wet-on-dry painting. We concentrate on efficient algorithms based on image space processing rather than on an exact simulation. This allows for the real-time rendering of 3D-scenes. During an animation a high frame-to-frame coherence can be achieved due to a stable segmentation scheme. Finally, we seamlessly integrate a smooth illumination into the watercolor renderings using information from the 3D-scene.

  10. Monte Carlo study of real time dynamics

    Alexandru, Andrei; Bedaque, Paulo F; Vartak, Sohan; Warrington, Neill C


    Monte Carlo studies involving real time dynamics are severely restricted by the sign problem that emerges from highly oscillatory phase of the path integral. In this letter, we present a new method to compute real time quantities on the lattice using the Schwinger-Keldysh formalism via Monte Carlo simulations. The key idea is to deform the path integration domain to a complex manifold where the phase oscillations are mild and the sign problem is manageable. We use the previously introduced "contraction algorithm" to create a Markov chain on this alternative manifold. We substantiate our approach by analyzing the quantum mechanical anharmonic oscillator. Our results are in agreement with the exact ones obtained by diagonalization of the Hamiltonian. The method we introduce is generic and in principle applicable to quantum field theory albeit very slow. We discuss some possible improvements that should speed up the algorithm.

  11. Real time PCR. Application in dengue studies

    Jeanette Prada-Arismendy


    Full Text Available PCR (polymerase chain reaction is a routinely used tool in every diagnostic and research laboratory. This technique has been used in detection of mutations and pathogens, forensic investigation, and even is the base tool for human genome sequencing. A modification of PCR technique, real time PCR, allows the quantification of nucleic acids with higher sensibility, specificity and reproducibility. This article is intended to clarify the foundations of real-time PCR, using an application model for virology. In the actual work, it was quantified the viral load of dengue virus serotype 2 produced from infected murine macrophages; the obtained results in this work established that murine strain BALB/c presents a greater susceptibility to dengue virus infection, which establishes BALB/c murine strain as a best model of study for investigation of dengue virus infection physiopathology.

  12. AMON: Transition to real-time operations

    Cowen, D. F.; Keivani, A.; Tešić, G.


    The Astrophysical Multimessenger Observatory Network (AMON) will link the world's leading high-energy neutrino, cosmic-ray, gamma-ray and gravitational wave observatories by performing real-time coincidence searches for multimessenger sources from observatories' subthreshold data streams. The resulting coincidences will be distributed to interested parties in the form of electronic alerts for real-time follow-up observation. We will present the science case, design elements, current and projected partner observatories, status of the AMON project, and an initial AMON-enabled analysis. The prototype of the AMON server has been online since August 2014 and processing archival data. Currently, we are deploying new high-uptime servers and will be ready to start issuing alerts as early as winter 2015/16.

  13. Collecting data in real time with postcards


    The success of information technology (IT) in transforming healthcare is often limited by the lack of clear understanding of the context at which the technology is used. Various methods have been proposed to understand healthcare context better in designing and implementing Health Information...... Systems. These methods often involve cross-sectional, retrospective data collection. This paper describes the postcard method for prospective real-time data collection, both in paper format and electronic format. This paper then describes the results obtained using postcard techniques in Denmark...... and Australia. The benefits of this technique are illustrated. There are limitations in using postcard techniques and this paper provides a detail discussion about these limitations. Postcard techniques provide unique advantages in understanding real time healthcare context and it is an important technique...

  14. Real Time Radiation Monitoring Using Nanotechnology

    Li, Jing (Inventor); Wilkins, Richard T. (Inventor); Hanratty, James J. (Inventor); Lu, Yijiang (Inventor)


    System and method for monitoring receipt and estimating flux value, in real time, of incident radiation, using two or more nanostructures (NSs) and associated terminals to provide closed electrical paths and to measure one or more electrical property change values .DELTA.EPV, associated with irradiated NSs, during a sequence of irradiation time intervals. Effects of irradiation, without healing and with healing, of the NSs, are separately modeled for first order and second order healing. Change values.DELTA.EPV are related to flux, to cumulative dose received by NSs, and to radiation and healing effectivity parameters and/, associated with the NS material and to the flux. Flux and/or dose are estimated in real time, based on EPV change values, using measured .DELTA.EPV values. Threshold dose for specified changes of biological origin (usually undesired) can be estimated. Effects of time-dependent radiation flux are analyzed in pre-healing and healing regimes.

  15. Real time gamma-ray signature identifier

    Rowland, Mark [Alamo, CA; Gosnell, Tom B [Moraga, CA; Ham, Cheryl [Livermore, CA; Perkins, Dwight [Livermore, CA; Wong, James [Dublin, CA


    A real time gamma-ray signature/source identification method and system using principal components analysis (PCA) for transforming and substantially reducing one or more comprehensive spectral libraries of nuclear materials types and configurations into a corresponding concise representation/signature(s) representing and indexing each individual predetermined spectrum in principal component (PC) space, wherein an unknown gamma-ray signature may be compared against the representative signature to find a match or at least characterize the unknown signature from among all the entries in the library with a single regression or simple projection into the PC space, so as to substantially reduce processing time and computing resources and enable real-time characterization and/or identification.

  16. "Fast" Is Not "Real-Time": Designing Effective Real-Time AI Systems

    O'Reilly, Cindy A.; Cromarty, Andrew S.


    Realistic practical problem domains (such as robotics, process control, and certain kinds of signal processing) stand to benefit greatly from the application of artificial intelligence techniques. These problem domains are of special interest because they are typified by complex dynamic environments in which the ability to select and initiate a proper response to environmental events in real time is a strict prerequisite to effective environmental interaction. Artificial intelligence systems developed to date have been sheltered from this real-time requirement, however, largely by virtue of their use of simplified problem domains or problem representations. The plethora of colloquial and (in general) mutually inconsistent interpretations of the term "real-time" employed by workers in each of these domains further exacerbates the difficul-ties in effectively applying state-of-the-art problem solving tech-niques to time-critical problems. Indeed, the intellectual waters are by now sufficiently muddied that the pursuit of a rigorous treatment of intelligent real-time performance mandates the redevelopment of proper problem perspective on what "real-time" means, starting from first principles. We present a simple but nonetheless formal definition of real-time performance. We then undertake an analysis of both conventional techniques and AI technology with respect to their ability to meet substantive real-time performance criteria. This analysis provides a basis for specification of problem-independent design requirements for systems that would claim real-time performance. Finally, we discuss the application of these design principles to a pragmatic problem in real-time signal understanding.

  17. Real-time optical information processing

    Javidi, Bahram


    Real-Time Optical Information Processing covers the most recent developments in optical information processing, pattern recognition, neural computing, and materials for devices in optical computing. Intended for researchers and graduate students in signal and information processing with some elementary background in optics, the book provides both theoretical and practical information on the latest in information processing in all its aspects. Leading researchers in the field describe the significant signal processing algorithms architectures in optics as well as basic hardware concepts,

  18. Real-Time Neutron Radiography at CARR

    HE; Lin-feng; HAN; Song-bai; WANG; Hong-li; WU; Mei-mei; WEI; Guo-hai; WANG; Yu


    <正>A real-time detector system for neutron radiography based on CMOS camera has been designed for the thermal neutron imaging facility under construction at China Advanced Research Reactor (CARR). This system is equipped with a new scientific CMOS camera with 5.5 million pixels and speed up to 100 fps at full frame. The readout noise is less than 2.4 electron per pixel. It is capable of providing

  19. Robust synthesis for real-time systems

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Legay, Axel; Traonouez, Louis-Marie;


    Specification theories for real-time systems allow reasoning about interfaces and their implementation models, using a set of operators that includes satisfaction, refinement, logical and parallel composition. To make such theories applicable throughout the entire design process from an abstract ...... strategies in timed games. Finally, we consider the parametric robustness problem and propose a counter-example refinement heuristic for computing safe perturbation values....

  20. Real-time RGBD SLAM system

    Czupryński, BłaŻej; Strupczewski, Adam


    A real-time tracking and mapping SLAM system is presented. The developed system uses input from an RGBD sensor and tracks the camera pose from frame to frame. The tracking is based on matched feature points and is performed with respect to selected keyframes. The system is robust and scalable, as an arbitrary number of keyframes can be chosen for visualization and tracking depending on the desired accuracy and speed. The presented system is also a good platform for further research.

  1. Boundary Correct Real-Time Soft Shadows

    Jacobsen, Bjarke; Christensen, Niels Jørgen; Larsen, Bent Dalgaard


    This paper describes a method to determine correct shadow boundaries from an area light source using umbra and penumbra volumes. The light source is approximated by a circular disk as this gives a fast way to extrude the volumes. The method also gives a crude estimate of the visibility of the are...... for implementation on most programmable hardware. Though some crude approximations are used in the visibility function, the method can be used to produce soft shadows with correct boundaries in real time....

  2. Real Time Route for Dynamic Road Congestions

    A. M. Riad


    Full Text Available Minimizing service delivery and travel time during rush hours downtown is strategic target for several organizations, especially the emergency organizations. This paper presents an On-line and Real-time Dynamic Route System (ORDRS which benefits from the advantages and integration between information system and communications technology. It utilizes Global Positioning System (GPS, Geographical Information Systems (GIS, and Global System for Mobile communications (GSM; for producing the real time routes for vehicles. GPS-Tracker is the main input device for ORDRS. It is fixated in a vehicle, sends vehicle's movement data (Geo-info to the control center wirelessly through either Short Message Service (SMS or General Packet Radio Service (GPRS. Geo-info includes time, date, longitude, latitude, speed, and etc., these data is classified over time during weekdays into interval time slices, each slice is 30 minutes. Speeds are treated by GIS tools to determine historical and real time speeds for each street segment in the road network which is being used for calculating time impedance (cost matrix for each street segment dynamically. ORDRS uses a cost matrix of the current time slice for determining the best route to each vehicle in duty attached. Several algorithms was used to calculate the shortest route, a comparison between Dijekstra and Yen algorithms was studied.

  3. The IGS Real-Time Service

    Caissy, Mark; Agrotis, Loukis; Weber, Georg; Fisher, Steven


    The IGS Real-Time Service (RTS) is being rolled out in 2013 following the successful completion of the IGS Real-Time Pilot Project. The RTS has recently completed beta testing and is now operating at the level of initial operating capability. The service will reach full operating capability by the end of 2013. RTS products include GNSS data streams and GNSS orbit and clock correction streams. These products are available in real-time in accordance with the IGS open-data policy using RTCM standard formats and the NTRIP transportation protocol. The RTS is key to IGS's support of the GGOS Natural Hazards theme. Of particular importance in this context is the high degree of redundancy that is build into the RTS in order to reliably support public-good scientific applications commonly associated with natural hazards; for example, precise-point positioning applications requiring high accuracy and low latency related to earthquakes and tsunamis . This presentation will illustrate the data gathering through product generation to user distribution design of the RTS, highlighting built-in robustness at various stages. The presentation will also present an assessment of the performance of the service to date.

  4. Real-time Interactive Tree Animation.

    Quigley, Ed; Yu, Yue; Huang, Jingwei; Lin, Winnie; Fedkiw, Ronald


    We present a novel method for posing and animating botanical tree models interactively in real time. Unlike other state of the art methods which tend to produce trees that are overly flexible, bending and deforming as if they were underwater plants, our approach allows for arbitrarily high stiffness while still maintaining real-time frame rates without spurious artifacts, even on quite large trees with over ten thousand branches. This is accomplished by using an articulated rigid body model with as-stiff-as-desired rotational springs in conjunction with our newly proposed simulation technique, which is motivated both by position based dynamics and the typical O(N) algorithms for articulated rigid bodies. The efficiency of our algorithm allows us to pose and animate trees with millions of branches or alternatively simulate a small forest comprised of many highly detailed trees. Even using only a single CPU core, we can simulate ten thousand branches in real time while still maintaining quite crisp user interactivity. This has allowed us to incorporate our framework into a commodity game engine to run interactively even on a low-budget tablet. We show that our method is amenable to the incorporation of a large variety of desirable effects such as wind, leaves, fictitious forces, collisions, fracture, etc.

  5. A new fast friendly window-based congestion control for real-time streaming media transmission

    LI Yongli; LIU Guizhong; ZHANG Zhongwei; WU Chenggui


    Real-time streaming media over the Internet is an important component of multimedia applications. For the sake of quality of service (QoS), they make rigid demands on bandwidth, delay and packet loss. However, the current Internet does not offer any QoS guarantees to real-time streaming media over it. How to maximize the transmission quality of real-time streaming applications in a best-effort network while friendly sharing bandwidth with non-real time applications like TCP has become an important issue. But now, many real-time streaming applications based on UDP rarely perform congestion control in a TCP-friendly manner, and they do not share the available bandwidth fairly with applications built on TCP. The Internet communication strongly fears that the current evolution could lead to congestion collapse and starvation of TCP traffic. For this reason, TCP-friendly protocols are being developed to behave fairly with respect to coexistent TCP flows. In this paper we present a new window-based congestion control method-fast fair binomial congestion control (FFBCC) for real-time applications. It provides a good performance of bandwidth distribution and TCP-friendliness for real-time streaming transmission while competing bandwidth with TCP flows.

  6. OS design challenges & research opportunities in real-time WSNs & approach for real time support in Nano-RK

    Prof. Manjiri Pathak


    Full Text Available In recent years, wireless sensor network has become an important research domain. WSNs were initially proposed in domains where ordinary networks (not necessarily wired are not convenient, either because of the missing infrastructures, or when numerous nodes (in the order of hundreds or thousands are needed to achieve the assigned task. Nowadays WSNs represent a new generation of distributed embedded systems with a broad range of real-time applications. Some of the applications include process control, fire monitoring, border surveillance, medical care, asset tracking, agriculture, highway traffic coordination etc. Such systems need heavy computations & must meet new kinds of timing constraints under severe resource limitations & limited communication capabilities in highly dynamic environments. Bounded end-to- end delay and guaranteed Quality of Service is also expected. So it is highly necessary to have a common software framework that allows smooth and speedy development of the wide range of proposed sensor applications. An operating system can serve this purpose. Operating systems for WSNs should comprise abstractions that handle digital and analog sensors, provide a communication protocol stack, and make efficient use of the system's limited energy capability. Moreover, OSs should provide an interface and a simple configuration system for application developers [2]. The purpose of this survey is to highlight major concerns pertaining to OS design & research challenges in OS for WSNs in real time applications.

  7. HyperForest: A high performance multi-processor architecture for real-time intelligent systems

    Garcia, P. Jr.; Rebeil, J.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pollard, H. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Electrical Engineering and Computer Engineering Dept.


    Intelligent Systems are characterized by the intensive use of computer power. The computer revolution of the last few years is what has made possible the development of the first generation of Intelligent Systems. Software for second generation Intelligent Systems will be more complex and will require more powerful computing engines in order to meet real-time constraints imposed by new robots, sensors, and applications. A multiprocessor architecture was developed that merges the advantages of message-passing and shared-memory structures: expendability and real-time compliance. The HyperForest architecture will provide an expandable real-time computing platform for computationally intensive Intelligent Systems and open the doors for the application of these systems to more complex tasks in environmental restoration and cleanup projects, flexible manufacturing systems, and DOE`s own production and disassembly activities.

  8. Exploring Earthquakes in Real-Time

    Bravo, T. K.; Kafka, A. L.; Coleman, B.; Taber, J. J.


    Earthquakes capture the attention of students and inspire them to explore the Earth. Adding the ability to view and explore recordings of significant and newsworthy earthquakes in real-time makes the subject even more compelling. To address this opportunity, the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS), in collaboration with Moravian College, developed ';jAmaSeis', a cross-platform application that enables students to access real-time earthquake waveform data. Students can watch as the seismic waves are recorded on their computer, and can be among the first to analyze the data from an earthquake. jAmaSeis facilitates student centered investigations of seismological concepts using either a low-cost educational seismograph or streamed data from other educational seismographs or from any seismic station that sends data to the IRIS Data Management System. After an earthquake, students can analyze the seismograms to determine characteristics of earthquakes such as time of occurrence, distance from the epicenter to the station, magnitude, and location. The software has been designed to provide graphical clues to guide students in the analysis and assist in their interpretations. Since jAmaSeis can simultaneously record up to three stations from anywhere on the planet, there are numerous opportunities for student driven investigations. For example, students can explore differences in the seismograms from different distances from an earthquake and compare waveforms from different azimuthal directions. Students can simultaneously monitor seismicity at a tectonic plate boundary and in the middle of the plate regardless of their school location. This can help students discover for themselves the ideas underlying seismic wave propagation, regional earthquake hazards, magnitude-frequency relationships, and the details of plate tectonics. The real-time nature of the data keeps the investigations dynamic, and offers students countless opportunities to explore.

  9. Real-time image and video processing

    Kehtarnavaz, Nasser


    This book presents an overview of the guidelines and strategies for transitioning an image or video processing algorithm from a research environment into a real-time constrained environment. Such guidelines and strategies are scattered in the literature of various disciplines including image processing, computer engineering, and software engineering, and thus have not previously appeared in one place. By bringing these strategies into one place, the book is intended to serve the greater community of researchers, practicing engineers, industrial professionals, who are interested in taking an im

  10. Linear Regression Based Real-Time Filtering

    Misel Batmend


    Full Text Available This paper introduces real time filtering method based on linear least squares fitted line. Method can be used in case that a filtered signal is linear. This constraint narrows a band of potential applications. Advantage over Kalman filter is that it is computationally less expensive. The paper further deals with application of introduced method on filtering data used to evaluate a position of engraved material with respect to engraving machine. The filter was implemented to the CNC engraving machine control system. Experiments showing its performance are included.

  11. Object detection in real-time

    Solder, Ulrich; Graefe, Volker


    An algorithm working on monocular gray-scale image sequences for object detection combined with a road tracker is presented. This algorithm appropriate for the real-time demands of an autonomous car driving with speeds over 40 km/h may be used for triggering obstacle avoidance maneuvers such as coming to a safe stop automatically in front of an obstacle or following another car. Moving and static objects have been detected in real-world experiments on various types of roads even under unfavorable weather conditions. . Morgenthaler and

  12. CUDA-based real time surgery simulation.

    Liu, Youquan; De, Suvranu


    In this paper we present a general software platform that enables real time surgery simulation on the newly available compute unified device architecture (CUDA)from NVIDIA. CUDA-enabled GPUs harness the power of 128 processors which allow data parallel computations. Compared to the previous GPGPU, it is significantly more flexible with a C language interface. We report implementation of both collision detection and consequent deformation computation algorithms. Our test results indicate that the CUDA enables a twenty times speedup for collision detection and about fifteen times speedup for deformation computation on an Intel Core 2 Quad 2.66 GHz machine with GeForce 8800 GTX.

  13. Real-time inclinometer using accelerometer MEMS

    Hanto, D; Hermanto, B; Puranto, P; Handoko, L T


    A preliminary design of inclinometer for real-time monitoring system of soil displacement is proposed. The system is developed using accelerometer sensor with microelectromechanical system (MEMS) device. The main apparatus consists of a single MEMS sensor attached to a solid pipe and stucked pependicularly far away below the soil surface. The system utilizes small fractions of electrical signals from MEMS sensor induced by the pipe inclination due to soil displacements below the surface. It is argued that the system is accurate enough to detect soil displacements responsible for landslides, and then realizes a simple and low cost landslide early warning system.

  14. Systems Analyze Water Quality in Real Time


    A water analyzer developed under Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Kennedy Space Center now monitors treatment processes at water and wastewater facilities around the world. Originally designed to provide real-time detection of nutrient levels in hydroponic solutions for growing plants in space, the ChemScan analyzer, produced by ASA Analytics Inc., of Waukesha, Wisconsin, utilizes spectrometry and chemometric algorithms to automatically analyze multiple parameters in the water treatment process with little need for maintenance, calibration, or operator intervention. The company has experienced a compound annual growth rate of 40 percent over its 15-year history as a direct result of the technology's success.

  15. Testing Real-Time Systems Using UPPAAL

    Hessel, Anders; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Mikucionis, Marius


    This chapter presents principles and techniques for model-based black-box conformance testing of real-time systems using the Uppaal model-checking tool-suite. The basis for testing is given as a network of concurrent timed automata specified by the test engineer. Relativized input....../output conformance serves as the notion of implementation correctness, essentially timed trace inclusion taking environment assumptions into account. Test cases can be generated offline and later executed, or they can be generated and executed online. For both approaches this chapter discusses how to specify test...... objectives, derive test sequences, apply these to the system under test, and assign a verdict....

  16. Real-time detection of gravitational microlensing

    Pratt, M R; Axelrod, T S; Becker, A; Bennett, D P; Cook, K H; Freeman, K C; Griest, K; Guern, J A; Lehner, M; Marshall, S L; Peterson, B A; Quinn, P J; Reiss, D; Rodgers, A W; Stubbs, C W; Sutherland, W; Welch, D


    Real-time detection of microlensing has moved from proof of concept in 1994 to a steady stream of events this year. Global dissemination of these events by the MACHO and OGLE collaborations has made possible intensive photometric and spectroscopic followup from widely dispersed sites confirming the microlensing hypothesis. Improved photometry and increased temporal resolution from followup observations greatly increases the possibility of detecting deviations from the standard point-source, point-lens, inertial motion microlensing model. These deviations are crucial in understanding individual lensing systems by breaking the degeneracy between lens mass, position and velocity. We report here on GMAN (Global Microlensing Alert Network), the coordinated followup of MACHO alerts.

  17. Low cost real time interactive analysis system

    Stetina, F.


    Efforts continue to develop a low cost real time interactive analysis system for the reception of satellite data. A multi-purpose ingest hardware software frame formatter was demonstrated for GOES and TIROS data and work is proceeding on extending the capability to receive GMS data. A similar system was proposed as an archival and analysis system for use with INSAT data and studies are underway to modify the system to receive the planned SeaWiFS (ocean color) data. This system was proposed as the core of a number of international programs in support of U.S. AID activities. Systems delivered or nearing final testing are listed.

  18. Real Time PCR: Principles and Application

    Safie Amini


    Full Text Available The polymerase chain reaction (PCR has been used as the new golden standard for detecting a wide variety of templates across a range of scientific specialties and also as an essential tool in research laboratories. PCR has completely revolutionized the detection of RNA and DNA viruses(1. Real Time vs. Traditional PCRReal time chemistry allows the detection of PCR amplification during the early phase of the reaction. Measuring the kinetic of the reaction in the early phase of PCR provides a distinct advantage over traditional PCR detection. Traditional methods use agarose gel electrophoresis for detection of PCR amplification at the final phase or end point. End point detection is really time consuming; it takes several hours to have the result. On the other hand, results are based on size discrimination. Also, the result of end point is variable from sample to sample. While gels may not resolve this variability in yield, real time PCR is sensitive enough to detect this change.Some problems with end point detection are: poor precision, low sensitivity, short dynamic range (<2 log, low resolution, non-automated procedure, size-based discrimination only, and post PCR processing (carry-over contamination and results are not expressed as numbers(2.Detection of PCR Products in Real-timeReal-time PCR and RT-PCR allow accurate quantification of starting amounts of DNA, cDNA, and RNA targets. Fluorescence is measured during each cycle, which greatly increases the dynamic range of the reaction since the amount offluorescence is proportional to the amount of PCR product. PCR products can be detected using either fluorescent dyes that bind to double-stranded DNA or fluorescently labeled sequence-specific probes(3.SYBR Green ISYBR® Green I binds all double-stranded DNA molecules, emitting a fluorescent signal of a defined wavelength on binding. The excitation and emission maxima of SYBR Green I are at 494 nm and 521 nm, respectively, and are compatible for

  19. Real time water chemistry monitoring and diagnostics

    Gaudreau, T.M.; Choi, S.S. [EPRIsolutions, Palo Alto, CA (United States)


    EPRI has produced a real time water chemistry monitoring and diagnostic system. This system is called SMART ChemWorks and is based on the EPRI ChemWorks codes. System models, chemistry parameter relationships and diagnostic approaches from these codes are integrated with real time data collection, an intelligence engine and Internet technologies to allow for automated analysis of system chemistry. Significant data management capabilities are also included which allow the user to evaluate data and create automated reporting. Additional features have been added to the system in recent years including tracking and evaluation of primary chemistry as well as the calculation and tracking of primary to secondary leakage in PWRs. This system performs virtual sensing, identifies normal and upset conditions, and evaluates the consistency of on-line monitor and grab sample readings. The system also makes use of virtual fingerprinting to identify the cause of any chemistry upsets. This technology employs plant-specific data and models to determine the chemical state of the steam cycle. (authors)

  20. Video Surveillance for Real Time Objects

    N.R. Raajan


    Full Text Available In this study, we describe an integrated solution for video surveillance in a fortified environment. The focus of this study is on identification of real time objects on different environments. The system is composed of robust object detection module, which normally detects the presence of abandoned objects, concealed objects hidden inside the human clothing, objects in dark environment and performs image segmentation with the intention of facilitating human operator’s task of retrieving the cause of a buzzer. The abandoned objects are detected by image segmentation based on temporal rank order filtering. Image fusion technique which fuses a color visual image and a corresponding IR image for concealed objects in guarded environment and in some cases like dark environment heat signature can be used for detecting real time objects etc. In the clips of interest, the key frame is the one depicting a person leaving a dangerous object and is determined on the basis of a feature indicating the movement around the dangerous region.

  1. Real-time PCR in microfluidic devices

    Becker, Holger; Hlawatsch, Nadine; Klemm, Richard; Moche, Christian; Hansen-Hagge, Thomas; Gärtner, Claudia


    A central method in a standard biochemical laboratory is represented by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), therefore many attempts have been performed so far to implement this technique in lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices. PCR is an ideal candidate for miniaturization because of a reduction of assay time and decreased costs for expensive bio-chemicals. In case of the "classical" PCR, detection is done by identification of DNA fragments electrophoretically separated in agarose gels. This method is meanwhile frequently replaced by the so-called Real-Time-PCR because here the exponential increase of amplificates can be observed directly by measurement of DNA interacting fluorescent dyes. Two main methods for on-chip PCRs are available: traditional "batch" PCR in chambers on a chip using thermal cycling, requiring about 30 minutes for a typical PCR protocol and continuous-flow PCR, where the liquid is guided over stationary temperature zones. In the latter case, the PCR protocol can be as fast as 5 minutes. In the presented work, a proof of concept is demonstrated for a real-time-detection of PCR products in microfluidic systems.

  2. Integrated real-time roof monitoring

    SHEN Bao-tang; GUO Hua; KING Andrew


    CSIRO has recently developed a real-time roof monitoring system for under-ground coal mines and successfully tried the system in gate roads at Ulan Mine. The sys-tem integrated displacement monitoring, stress monitoring and seismic monitoring in one package. It included GEL multianchor extensometers, vibrating wire uniaxial stress meters, ESG seismic monitoring system with microseismic sensors and high-frequency AE sen-sors. The monitoring system automated and the data can be automatically collected by a central computer located in an underground nonhazardous area. The data are then trans-ferred to the surface via an optical fiber cable. The real-time data were accessed at any location with an Internet connection. The trials of the system in two tailgates at Ulan Mine demonstrate that the system is effective for monitoring the behavior and stability of read-ways during Iongwall mining. The continuous roof displacement/stress data show clear precursors of roof falls. The seismic data (event count and locations) provide insights into the roof failure process during roof fall.

  3. An efficient real time superresolution ASIC system

    Reddy, Dikpal; Yue, Zhanfeng; Topiwala, Pankaj


    Superresolution of images is an important step in many applications like target recognition where the input images are often grainy and of low quality due to bandwidth constraints. In this paper, we present a real-time superresolution application implemented in ASIC/FPGA hardware, and capable of 30 fps of superresolution by 16X in total pixels. Consecutive frames from the video sequence are grouped and the registered values between them are used to fill the pixels in the higher resolution image. The registration between consecutive frames is evaluated using the algorithm proposed by Schaum et al. The pixels are filled by averaging a fixed number of frames associated with the smallest error distances. The number of frames (the number of nearest neighbors) is a user defined parameter whereas the weights in the averaging process are decided by inverting the corresponding smallest error distances. Wiener filter is used to post process the image. Different input parameters, such as size of input image, enlarging factor and the number of nearest neighbors, can be tuned conveniently by the user. We use a maximum word size of 32 bits to implement the algorithm in Matlab Simulink as well as the hardware, which gives us a fine balance between the number of bits and performance. The algorithm performs with real time speed with very impressive superresolution results.

  4. Real-time applications of neural nets

    Spencer, J.E.


    Producing, accelerating and colliding very high power, low emittance beams for long periods is a formidable problem in real-time control. As energy has grown exponentially in time so has the complexity of the machines and their control systems. Similar growth rates have occurred in many areas, e.g., improved integrated circuits have been paid for with comparable increases in complexity. However, in this case, reliability, capability and cost have improved due to reduced size, high production and increased integration which allow various kinds of feedback. In contrast, most large complex systems (LCS) are perceived to lack such possibilities because only one copy is made. Neural nets, as a metaphor for LCS, suggest ways to circumvent such limitations. It is argued that they are logically equivalent to multi-loop feedback/forward control of faulty systems. While complimentary to AI, they mesh nicely with characteristics desired for real-time systems. Such issues are considered, examples given and possibilities discussed. 21 refs., 6 figs.


    V. Karthikeyan


    Full Text Available Memory fragmentation is the development of a large number of separate free areas. Memory management in embedded systems demand effective implementation schemes to avoid fragmentation problem. Existing dynamic memory allocation methods fail to suit real time system requirements. Execution times need to be deterministic and this motivates the need for allocation and deallocation to be done in constant time with the help of API’s. In µC/OS-II, memory allocation is semi-dynamic and a buddy allocator dynamic memory allocation algorithm is commonly used. Programmer must statically allocate a memory and partition the region using µC/OS-II Kernel API. Tasks can only request pre-partitioned fixed-size memory space from µC/OS-II. Memory allocation times are influenced by the ratio of memory allocation to the stack size of the task. In this research work memory management in LPC 1768 environment using RTOS µC/OS-II is proposed. Effective sharing of memory blocks among tasks co exists with partition. The captured results shows that the memory allocation and deallocation suits real time. The implication of the work is that, the necessity to reserve a static set of locations ahead of time is eliminated so that memory can be allocated at compile or design time.

  6. Real-Time and Near Real-Time Data for Space Weather Applications and Services

    Singer, H. J.; Balch, C. C.; Biesecker, D. A.; Matsuo, T.; Onsager, T. G.


    Space weather can be defined as conditions in the vicinity of Earth and in the interplanetary environment that are caused primarily by solar processes and influenced by conditions on Earth and its atmosphere. Examples of space weather are the conditions that result from geomagnetic storms, solar particle events, and bursts of intense solar flare radiation. These conditions can have impacts on modern-day technologies such as GPS or electric power grids and on human activities such as astronauts living on the International Space Station or explorers traveling to the moon or Mars. While the ultimate space weather goal is accurate prediction of future space weather conditions, for many applications and services, we rely on real-time and near-real time observations and model results for the specification of current conditions. In this presentation, we will describe the space weather system and the need for real-time and near-real time data that drive the system, characterize conditions in the space environment, and are used by models for assimilation and validation. Currently available data will be assessed and a vision for future needs will be given. The challenges for establishing real-time data requirements, as well as acquiring, processing, and disseminating the data will be described, including national and international collaborations. In addition to describing how the data are used for official government products, we will also give examples of how these data are used by both the public and private sector for new applications that serve the public.

  7. Memory controllers for real-time embedded systems predictable and composable real-time systems

    Akesson, Benny


      Verification of real-time requirements in systems-on-chip becomes more complex as more applications are integrated. Predictable and composable systems can manage the increasing complexity using formal verification and simulation.  This book explains the concepts of predictability and composability and shows how to apply them to the design and analysis of a memory controller, which is a key component in any real-time system. This book is generally intended for readers interested in Systems-on-Chips with real-time applications.   It is especially well-suited for readers looking to use SDRAM memories in systems with hard or firm real-time requirements. There is a strong focus on real-time concepts, such as predictability and composability, as well as a brief discussion about memory controller architectures for high-performance computing. Readers will learn step-by-step how to go from an unpredictable SDRAM memory, offering highly variable bandwidth and latency, to a predictable and composable shared memory...

  8. Online Induction of Probabilistic Real-Time Automata

    Jana Schmidt; Stefan Kramer


    The probabilistic real-time automaton (PRTA) is a representation of dynamic processes arising in the sciences and industry. Currently, the induction of automata is divided into two steps: the creation of the prefix tree acceptor (PTA) and the merge procedure based on clustering of the states. These two steps can be very time intensive when a PRTA is to be induced for massive or even unbounded datasets. The latter one can be efficiently processed, as there exist scalable online clustering algorithms. However, the creation of the PTA still can be very time consuming. To overcome this problem, we propose a genuine online PRTA induction approach that incorporates new instances by first collapsing them and then using a maximum frequent pattern based clustering. The approach is tested against a predefined synthetic automaton and real world datasets, for which the approach is scalable and stable. Moreover, we present a broad evaluation on a real world disease group dataset that shows the applicability of such a model to the analysis of medical processes.

  9. ROAMing terrain (Real-time Optimally Adapting Meshes)

    Duchaineau, M.; Wolinsky, M.; Sigeti, D.E.; Miller, M.C.; Aldrich, C.; Mineev, M.


    Terrain visualization is a difficult problem for applications requiring accurate images of large datasets at high frame rates, such as flight simulation and ground-based aircraft testing using synthetic sensor stimulation. On current graphics hardware, the problem is to maintain dynamic, view-dependent triangle meshes and texture maps that produce good images at the required frame rate. We present an algorithm for constructing triangle meshes that optimizes flexible view-dependent error metrics, produces guaranteed error bounds, achieves specified triangle counts directly, and uses frame-to-frame coherence to operate at high frame rates for thousands of triangles per frame. Our method, dubbed Real-time Optimally Adapting Meshes (ROAM), uses two priority queues to drive split and merge operations that maintain continuous triangulations built from pre-processed bintree triangles. We introduce two additional performance optimizations: incremental triangle stripping and priority-computation deferral lists. ROAM execution time is proportionate to the number of triangle changes per frame, which is typically a few percent of the output mesh size, hence ROAM performance is insensitive to the resolution and extent of the input terrain. Dynamic terrain and simple vertex morphing are supported.

  10. Feedback as real-time constructions

    Keiding, Tina Bering; Qvortrup, Ane


    This article offers a re-description of feedback and the significance of time in feedback constructions based on systems theory. It describes feedback as internal, real-time constructions in a learning system. From this perspective, feedback is neither immediate nor delayed, but occurs in the very...... instant it takes place. This article argues for a clear distinction between the timing of communicative events, such as responses that are provided as help for feedback constructions, and the feedback construction itself as an event in a psychic system. Although feedback is described as an internal......, system-relative construction, different teaching environments offer diverse conditions for feedback constructions. The final section of this article explores this idea with the help of examples from both synchronous oral interaction and asynchronous text-based interaction mediated by digital media....

  11. Real Time Structured Light and Applications

    Wilm, Jakob

    Structured light scanning is a versatile method for 3D shape acquisition. While much faster than most competing measurement techniques, most high-end structured light scans still take in the order of seconds to complete. Low-cost sensors such as Microsoft Kinect and time of flight cameras have made...... 3D sensor ubiquitous and have resulted in a vast amount of new applications and methods. However, such low-cost sensors are generally limited in their accuracy and precision, making them unsuitable for e.g. accurate tracking and pose estimation. With recent improvements in projector technology......]. A high performance flexible open source software toolkit is presented [Contribution C], which makes real time scanning possible on commodity hardware. Further, an approach is presented to correct for motion artifacts in dynamic scenes [Contribution E]. An application for such systems is presented...

  12. Real-time, face recognition technology

    Brady, S.


    The Institute for Scientific Computing Research (ISCR) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory recently developed the real-time, face recognition technology KEN. KEN uses novel imaging devices such as silicon retinas developed at Caltech or off-the-shelf CCD cameras to acquire images of a face and to compare them to a database of known faces in a robust fashion. The KEN-Online project makes that recognition technology accessible through the World Wide Web (WWW), an internet service that has recently seen explosive growth. A WWW client can submit face images, add them to the database of known faces and submit other pictures that the system tries to recognize. KEN-Online serves to evaluate the recognition technology and grow a large face database. KEN-Online includes the use of public domain tools such as mSQL for its name-database and perl scripts to assist the uploading of images.

  13. Near real-time stereo vision system

    Anderson, Charles H. (Inventor); Matthies, Larry H. (Inventor)


    The apparatus for a near real-time stereo vision system for use with a robotic vehicle is described. The system is comprised of two cameras mounted on three-axis rotation platforms, image-processing boards, a CPU, and specialized stereo vision algorithms. Bandpass-filtered image pyramids are computed, stereo matching is performed by least-squares correlation, and confidence ranges are estimated by means of Bayes' theorem. In particular, Laplacian image pyramids are built and disparity maps are produced from the 60 x 64 level of the pyramids at rates of up to 2 seconds per image pair. The first autonomous cross-country robotic traverses (of up to 100 meters) have been achieved using the stereo vision system of the present invention with all computing done onboard the vehicle. The overall approach disclosed herein provides a unifying paradigm for practical domain-independent stereo ranging.

  14. Kalman Filtering with Real-Time Applications

    Chui, Charles K


    Kalman Filtering with Real-Time Applications presents a thorough discussion of the mathematical theory and computational schemes of Kalman filtering. The filtering algorithms are derived via different approaches, including a direct method consisting of a series of elementary steps, and an indirect method based on innovation projection. Other topics include Kalman filtering for systems with correlated noise or colored noise, limiting Kalman filtering for time-invariant systems, extended Kalman filtering for nonlinear systems, interval Kalman filtering for uncertain systems, and wavelet Kalman filtering for multiresolution analysis of random signals. Most filtering algorithms are illustrated by using simplified radar tracking examples. The style of the book is informal, and the mathematics is elementary but rigorous. The text is self-contained, suitable for self-study, and accessible to all readers with a minimum knowledge of linear algebra, probability theory, and system engineering.

  15. Real time speech formant analyzer and display

    Holland, George E. (Ames, IA); Struve, Walter S. (Ames, IA); Homer, John F. (Ames, IA)


    A speech analyzer for interpretation of sound includes a sound input which converts the sound into a signal representing the sound. The signal is passed through a plurality of frequency pass filters to derive a plurality of frequency formants. These formants are converted to voltage signals by frequency-to-voltage converters and then are prepared for visual display in continuous real time. Parameters from the inputted sound are also derived and displayed. The display may then be interpreted by the user. The preferred embodiment includes a microprocessor which is interfaced with a television set for displaying of the sound formants. The microprocessor software enables the sound analyzer to present a variety of display modes for interpretive and therapeutic used by the user.

  16. Embedded and real-time operating systems

    Wang, K C


    This book covers the basic concepts and principles of operating systems, showing how to apply them to the design and implementation of complete operating systems for embedded and real-time systems. It includes all the foundational and background information on ARM architecture, ARM instructions and programming, toolchain for developing programs, virtual machines for software implementation and testing, program execution image, function call conventions, run-time stack usage and link C programs with assembly code. It describes the design and implementation of a complete OS for embedded systems in incremental steps, explaining the design principles and implementation techniques. For Symmetric Multiprocessing (SMP) embedded systems, the author examines the ARM MPcore processors, which include the SCU and GIC for interrupts routing and interprocessor communication and synchronization by Software Generated Interrupts (SGIs). Throughout the book, complete working sample systems demonstrate the design principles and...

  17. Operational and real-time Business Intelligence

    Daniela Ioana SANDU


    Full Text Available A key component of a company’s IT framework is a business intelligence (BI system. BI enables business users to report on, analyze and optimize business operations to reduce costs and increase revenues. Organizations use BI for strategic and tactical decision making where the decision-making cycle may span a time period of several weeks (e.g., campaign management or months (e.g., improving customer satisfaction.Competitive pressures coming from a very dynamic business environment are forcing companies to react faster to changing business conditions and customer requirements. As a result, there is now a need to use BI to help drive and optimize business operations on a daily basis, and, in some cases, even for intraday decision making. This type of BI is usually called operational business intelligence and real-time business intelligence.

  18. Real-Time Optical Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing

    Fredborg, Marlene; Andersen, Klaus R; Jørgensen, Erik


    Rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing is in highly demand in health-care fields as antimicrobial resistant bacterial strains emerge and spread. Here we describe an optical screening system (oCelloScope), which based on time-lapse imaging of 96 bacteria-antibiotic combinations at a time, introdu......Rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing is in highly demand in health-care fields as antimicrobial resistant bacterial strains emerge and spread. Here we describe an optical screening system (oCelloScope), which based on time-lapse imaging of 96 bacteria-antibiotic combinations at a time......, introduces real-time detection of bacterial growth and antimicrobial susceptibility, with imaging material to support the automatically generated graphs. Automated antibiotic susceptibility tests of a monoculture showed statistically significant antibiotic effect within 6 minutes and within 30 minutes...

  19. Real-time forecasts of dengue epidemics

    Yamana, T. K.; Shaman, J. L.


    Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease prevalent in the tropics and subtropics, with an estimated 2.5 billion people at risk of transmission. In many areas with endemic dengue, disease transmission is seasonal but prone to high inter-annual variability with occasional severe epidemics. Predicting and preparing for periods of higher than average transmission is a significant public health challenge. Here we present a model of dengue transmission and a framework for optimizing model simulations with real-time observational data of dengue cases and environmental variables in order to generate ensemble-based forecasts of the timing and severity of disease outbreaks. The model-inference system is validated using synthetic data and dengue outbreak records. Retrospective forecasts are generated for a number of locations and the accuracy of these forecasts is quantified.

  20. Terrestrial Real-Time Volcano Monitoring

    Franke, M.


    As volcano monitoring involves more and different sensors from seismic to GPS receivers, from video and thermal cameras to multi-parameter probes measuring temperature, ph values and humidity in the ground and the air, it becomes important to design real-time networks that integrate and leverage the multitude of available parameters. In order to do so some simple principles need to be observed: a) a common time base for all measurements, b) a packetized general data communication protocol for acquisition and distribution, c) an open and well documented interface to the data permitting standard and emerging innovative processing, and d) an intuitive visualization platform for scientists and civil defense personnel. Although mentioned as simple principles, the list above does not necessarily lead to obvious solutions or integrated systems, which is, however, required to take advantage of the available data. Only once the different data streams are put into context to each other in terms of time and location can a broader view be obtained and additional information extracted. The presentation is a summary of currently available technologies and how they can achieve the goal of an integrated real-time volcano monitoring system. A common time base are standard for seismic and GPS networks. In different projects we extended this to video feeds and time-lapse photography. Other probes have been integrated with vault interface enclosures (VIE) as used in the Transportable Array (TA) of the USArray. The VIE can accommodate the sensors employed in volcano monitoring. The TA has shown that Antelope is a versatile and robust middleware. It provides the required packetized general communication protocol that is independent from the actual physical communication link leaving the network design to adopt appropriate and possible hybrid solutions. This applies for the data acquisition and the data/information dissemination providing both a much needed collaboration platform, as


    Marius Bogdan DINU


    Full Text Available The RTDW concept originated in the early 2000s. By that time, computing power had increased to a level that was allowing extraction of data collections for reporting purposes. Such collections were used almost in real time and at speeds nearly comparable to what an operation system was capable to deliver. The main idea will be to eliminate some of the components of the classic extraction process which is basically the most costly factor less time - consuming. We anticipate that the following factors will be decisive: elimination of batch-type processes [1], data compression techniques, data capture techniques, ability to keep in cache a large volume of data, parallel processing, and data mining algorithms that can adapt to such applications.

  2. A Flexible Real-Time Architecture



    Assuring hard real-time characteristics of I/O associated with embedded software is often a difficult task. Input-Output related statements are often intermixed with the computational code, resulting in I/O timing that is dependent on the execution path and computational load. One way to mitigate this problem is through the use of interrupts. However, the non-determinism that is introduced by interrupt driven I/O may be so difficult to analyze that it is prohibited in some high consequence systems. This paper describes a balanced hardware/software solution to obtain consistent interrupt-free I/O timing, and results in software that is much more amenable to analysis.

  3. Real-time color holographic interferometry

    Desse, Jean-Michel; Albe, Felix; Tribillon, Jean-Louis


    A new optical technique based on real-time color holographic interferometry has been developed for analyzing unsteady aerodynamic wakes in fluid mechanics or for measuring displacements and deformations in solid mechanics. The technique's feasibility is demonstrated here. It uses three coherent wavelengths produced simultaneously by a cw laser (mixed argon and krypton). Holograms are recorded on single-layer panchromatic silver halide (Slavich PFG 03C) plates. Results show the optical setup can be adjusted to obtain a uniform background color. The interference fringe pattern visualized is large and colored and exhibits a single central white fringe, which makes the zero order of the interferogram easy to identify. An application in a subsonic wind tunnel is presented, in which the unsteady wake past a cylinder is recorded at high rate.

  4. Wi-Fi real time location systems

    Doll, Benjamin A.

    This thesis objective was to determine the viability of utilizing an untrained Wi-Fi. real time location system as a GPS alternative for indoor environments. Background. research showed that GPS is rarely able to penetrate buildings to provide reliable. location data. The benefit of having location information in a facility and how they might. be used for disaster or emergency relief personnel and their resources motivated this. research. A building was selected with a well-deployed Wi-Fi infrastructure and its. untrained location feature was used to determine the distance between the specified. test points and the system identified location. It was found that the average distance. from the test point throughout the facility was 14.3 feet 80% of the time. This fell within. the defined viable range and supported that an untrained Wi-Fi RTLS system could be a. viable solution for GPS's lack of availability indoors.

  5. Real-Time Imaging of Quantum Entanglement

    Fickler, Robert; Lapkiewicz, Radek; Ramelow, Sven; Zeilinger, Anton


    Quantum Entanglement - correlations between at least two systems that are stronger than classically explainable - is widely regarded as one of the most prominent features of quantum mechanics and quantum information science. Although, the creation of entanglement between two systems has become possible in laboratories, it has been out of the grasp of one of the most natural ways to investigate nature: direct visual observation. Here we show that modern imaging technology, namely a triggered intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) camera, is fast and sensitive enough to image in real-time the influence of the measurement of one photon on its entangled partner. To demonstrate the non-classicality of the measurements quantitatively from the registered intensity we develop a novel method to statistically analyze the image and precisely quantify the number of photons within a certain region. In addition, we show the high flexibility of our experimental setup in creating any desired spatial-mode entanglement, even...

  6. Real Time Volcanic Cloud Products and Predictions for Aviation Alerts

    Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Habib, Shahid; da Silva, Arlindo; Hughes, Eric; Yang, Kai; Brentzel, Kelvin; Seftor, Colin; Li, Jason Y.; Schneider, David; Guffanti, Marianne; Hoffman, Robert L.; Myers, Tim; Tamminen, Johanna; Hassinen, Seppo


    Volcanic eruptions can inject significant amounts of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and volcanic ash into the atmosphere, posing a substantial risk to aviation safety. Ingesting near-real time and Direct Readout satellite volcanic cloud data is vital for improving reliability of volcanic ash forecasts and mitigating the effects of volcanic eruptions on aviation and the economy. NASA volcanic products from the Ozone Monitoring Insrument (OMI) aboard the Aura satellite have been incorporated into Decision Support Systems of many operational agencies. With the Aura mission approaching its 10th anniversary, there is an urgent need to replace OMI data with those from the next generation operational NASA/NOAA Suomi National Polar Partnership (SNPP) satellite. The data provided from these instruments are being incorporated into forecasting models to provide quantitative ash forecasts for air traffic management. This study demonstrates the feasibility of the volcanic near-real time and Direct Readout data products from the new Ozone Monitoring and Profiling Suite (OMPS) ultraviolet sensor onboard SNPP for monitoring and forecasting volcanic clouds. The transition of NASA data production to our operational partners is outlined. Satellite observations are used to constrain volcanic cloud simulations and improve estimates of eruption parameters, resulting in more accurate forecasts. This is demonstrated for the 2012 eruption of Copahue. Volcanic eruptions are modeled using the Goddard Earth Observing System, Version 5 (GEOS-5) and the Goddard Chemistry Aerosol and Radiation Transport (GOCART) model. A hindcast of the disruptive eruption from Iceland's Eyjafjallajokull is used to estimate aviation re-routing costs using Metron Aviation's ATM Tools.

  7. Real-time visualization of joint cavitation.

    Gregory N Kawchuk

    Full Text Available Cracking sounds emitted from human synovial joints have been attributed historically to the sudden collapse of a cavitation bubble formed as articular surfaces are separated. Unfortunately, bubble collapse as the source of joint cracking is inconsistent with many physical phenomena that define the joint cracking phenomenon. Here we present direct evidence from real-time magnetic resonance imaging that the mechanism of joint cracking is related to cavity formation rather than bubble collapse. In this study, ten metacarpophalangeal joints were studied by inserting the finger of interest into a flexible tube tightened around a length of cable used to provide long-axis traction. Before and after traction, static 3D T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were acquired. During traction, rapid cine magnetic resonance images were obtained from the joint midline at a rate of 3.2 frames per second until the cracking event occurred. As traction forces increased, real-time cine magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated rapid cavity inception at the time of joint separation and sound production after which the resulting cavity remained visible. Our results offer direct experimental evidence that joint cracking is associated with cavity inception rather than collapse of a pre-existing bubble. These observations are consistent with tribonucleation, a known process where opposing surfaces resist separation until a critical point where they then separate rapidly creating sustained gas cavities. Observed previously in vitro, this is the first in-vivo macroscopic demonstration of tribonucleation and as such, provides a new theoretical framework to investigate health outcomes associated with joint cracking.

  8. Real Time Eye Template Detection and Tracking

    Richa Mehta


    Full Text Available There has been a growing interest in the field of facial expression recognition especially in the last two decades. An example of such a system is the improvement of driver carefulness and accident reduction. The driver’s face is tracked while he is driving and he is warned if there seems to be an alerting fact that can result in an accident such as sleepy eyes, or looking out of the road. Furthermore, with a facial feature tracker, it becomes possible to play a synthesized avatar so that it imitates the expressions of the performer. Human-Computer Interaction (HCI systems may also be enriched by a facial feature tracker. For a user who is incapable of using her hands, a facial expression controller may be a solution to send limited commands to a computer. Eye blinking is one of the prominent areas to solve many real world problems. The process of blink detection consists of two phases. These are eye tracking followed by detection of blink. The work that has been carried out for eye tracking only is not suitable for eye blink detection. Therefore some approaches had been proposed for eye tracking along with eyes blink detection. In this thesis, real time implementation is done to count number of eye blinks in an image sequence. At last after analyzing all these approaches some of the parameters we obtained on which better performance of eye blink detection algorithm depend. This project focuses on automatic eye blink detection in real time. The aim of this thesis is to count the number of eye blinks in a video. This project will be performed on a video database of the facial expressions.

  9. Towards real time speckle controlled retinal photocoagulation

    Bliedtner, Katharina; Seifert, Eric; Stockmann, Leoni; Effe, Lisa; Brinkmann, Ralf


    Photocoagulation is a laser treatment widely used for the therapy of several retinal diseases. Intra- and inter-individual variations of the ocular transmission, light scattering and the retinal absorption makes it impossible to achieve a uniform effective exposure and hence a uniform damage throughout the therapy. A real-time monitoring and control of the induced damage is highly requested. Here, an approach to realize a real time optical feedback using dynamic speckle analysis is presented. A 532 nm continuous wave Nd:YAG laser is used for coagulation. During coagulation, speckle dynamics are monitored by a coherent object illumination using a 633nm HeNe laser and analyzed by a CMOS camera with a frame rate up to 1 kHz. It is obvious that a control system needs to determine whether the desired damage is achieved to shut down the system in a fraction of the exposure time. Here we use a fast and simple adaption of the generalized difference algorithm to analyze the speckle movements. This algorithm runs on a FPGA and is able to calculate a feedback value which is correlated to the thermal and coagulation induced tissue motion and thus the achieved damage. For different spot sizes (50-200 μm) and different exposure times (50-500 ms) the algorithm shows the ability to discriminate between different categories of retinal pigment epithelial damage ex-vivo in enucleated porcine eyes. Furthermore in-vivo experiments in rabbits show the ability of the system to determine tissue changes in living tissue during coagulation.

  10. An Efficient Secure Real-Time Concurrency Control Protocol

    XIAO Yingyuan; LIU Yunsheng; CHEN Xiangyang


    Secure real-time databases must simultaneously satisfy two requirements in guaranteeing data security and minimizing the missing deadlines ratio of transactions. However, these two requirements can conflict with each other and achieve one requirement is to sacrifice the other. This paper presents a secure real-time concurrency control protocol based on optimistic method. The concurrency control protocol incorporates security constraints in a real-time optimistic concurrency control protocol and makes a suitable tradeoff between security and real-time requirements by introducing secure influence factor and real-time influence factor. The experimental results show the concurrency control protocol achieves data security without degrading real-time performance significantly.

  11. A Real-Time Lane Detection Algorithm Based on Intelligent CCD Parameters Regulation

    Ping-shu Ge


    Full Text Available Lane departure warning system (LDWS has been regarded as an efficient method to lessen the damages of road traffic accident resulting from driver fatigue or inattention. Lane detection is one of the key techniques for LDWS. To overcome the contradiction between complexity of algorithm and the real-time requirement for vehicle onboard system, this paper introduces a new lane detection method based on intelligent CCD parameters regulation. In order to improve the real-time capability of the system, a CCD parameters regulating method is proposed which enhances the contrast between lane line and road surfaces and reduces image noise, so it lays a good foundation for the following lane detection. Hough transform algorithm is improved by selection and classification of seed points. Finally the lane line is extracted through some restrictions. Experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, which improves not only real-time capability but also the accuracy of the system.

  12. Design of real-time voice over internet protocol system under bandwidth network

    Zhang, Li; Gong, Lina


    With the increasing bandwidth of the network and network convergence accelerating, VoIP means of communication across the network is becoming increasingly popular phenomenon. The real-time identification and analysis for VOIP flow over backbone network become the urgent needs and research hotspot of network operations management. Based on this, the paper proposes a VoIP business management system over backbone network. The system first filters VoIP data stream over backbone network and further resolves the call signaling information and media voice. The system can also be able to design appropriate rules to complete real-time reduction and presentation of specific categories of calls. Experimental results show that the system can parse and process real-time backbone of the VoIP call, and the results are presented accurately in the management interface, VoIP-based network traffic management and maintenance provide the necessary technical support.


    Wang Jiangtao; Yang Geng


    The paper puts forward a variance-time plots method based on slide-window mechanism to calculate the Hurst parameter to detect Distribute Denial of Service (DDoS) attack in real time. Based on fuzzy logic technology that can adjust itself dynamically under the fuzzy rules, an intelligent DDoS judgment mechanism is designed. This new method calculates the Hurst parameter quickly and detects DDoS attack in real time. Through comparing the detecting technologies based on statistics and feature-packet respectively under different experiments, it is found that the new method can identify the change of the Hurst parameter resulting from DDoS attack traffic with different intensities, and intelligently judge DDoS attack self-adaptively in real time.

  14. A RED modified weighted moving average for soft real-time application

    Domanśka Joanna


    Full Text Available The popularity of TCP/IP has resulted in an increase in usage of best-effort networks for real-time communication. Much effort has been spent to ensure quality of service for soft real-time traffic over IP networks. The Internet Engineering Task Force has proposed some architecture components, such as Active Queue Management (AQM. The paper investigates the influence of the weighted moving average on packet waiting time reduction for an AQM mechanism: the RED algorithm. The proposed method for computing the average queue length is based on a difference equation (a recursive equation. Depending on a particular optimality criterion, proper parameters of the modified weighted moving average function can be chosen. This change will allow reducing the number of violations of timing constraints and better use of this mechanism for soft real-time transmissions. The optimization problem is solved through simulations performed in OMNeT++ and later verified experimentally on a Linux implementation

  15. Robustness Results for Hierarchical Diff-EDF Scheduling upon Heterogeneous Real-Time Packet Networks

    Moutaz Saleh


    Full Text Available Packet networks are currently enabling the integration of traffic with a wide range of characteristics that extend from video traffic with stringent QoS requirements to the best-effort traffic requiring no guarantees. QoS guarantees can be provided in conventional packet networks by the use of proper packet scheduling algorithms. As a computer revolution, many scheduling algorithms have been proposed to provide different schemes of QoS guarantees with Earliest Deadline First (EDF as the most popular one. With EDF scheduling, all flows receive the same miss rate regardless of their traffic characteristics and deadlines. This makes the standard EDF algorithm unsuitable for situations in which the different flows have different miss rate requirements since in order to meet all miss rate requirements it is necessary to limit admissions so as to satisfy the flow with the most stringent miss rate requirements. In this study, we propose a new priority assignment scheduling algorithm, Hierarchal Diff-EDF (Differentiate Earliest Deadline First, which can meet the real-time needs of these applications while continuing to provide best effort service to non-real time traffic. The Hierarchal Diff-EDF features a feedback control mechanism that detects overload conditions and modifies packet priority assignments accordingly.

  16. The INGV Real Time Strong Motion Database

    Massa, Marco; D'Alema, Ezio; Mascandola, Claudia; Lovati, Sara; Scafidi, Davide; Gomez, Antonio; Carannante, Simona; Franceschina, Gianlorenzo; Mirenna, Santi; Augliera, Paolo


    The INGV real time strong motion data sharing is assured by the INGV Strong Motion Database. ISMD ( was designed in the last months of 2011 in cooperation among different INGV departments, with the aim to organize the distribution of the INGV strong-motion data using standard procedures for data acquisition and processing. The first version of the web portal was published soon after the occurrence of the 2012 Emilia (Northern Italy), Mw 6.1, seismic sequence. At that time ISMD was the first European real time web portal devoted to the engineering seismology community. After four years of successfully operation, the thousands of accelerometric waveforms collected in the archive need necessary a technological improvement of the system in order to better organize the new data archiving and to make more efficient the answer to the user requests. ISMD 2.0 was based on PostgreSQL (, an open source object- relational database. The main purpose of the web portal is to distribute few minutes after the origin time the accelerometric waveforms and related metadata of the Italian earthquakes with ML≥3.0. Data are provided both in raw SAC (counts) and automatically corrected ASCII (gal) formats. The web portal also provide, for each event, a detailed description of the ground motion parameters (i.e. Peak Ground Acceleration, Velocity and Displacement, Arias and Housner Intensities) data converted in velocity and displacement, response spectra up to 10.0 s and general maps concerning the recent and the historical seismicity of the area together with information about its seismic hazard. The focal parameters of the events are provided by the INGV National Earthquake Center (CNT, Moreover, the database provides a detailed site characterization section for each strong motion station, based on geological, geomorphological and geophysical information. At present (i.e. January 2017), ISMD includes 987 (121


    Mccluney, K.


    In a real-time environment, the results of changes or failures in a complex, interconnected system need evaluation quickly. Tabulations showing the effects of changes and/or failures of a given item in the system are generally only useful for a single input, and only with regard to that item. Subsequent changes become harder to evaluate as combinations of failures produce a cascade effect. When confronted by multiple indicated failures in the system, it becomes necessary to determine a single cause. In this case, failure tables are not very helpful. CRANS, the Configurable Real-time ANalysis System, can interpret a logic tree, constructed by the user, describing a complex system and determine the effects of changes and failures in it. Items in the tree are related to each other by Boolean operators. The user is then able to change the state of these items (ON/OFF FAILED/UNFAILED). The program then evaluates the logic tree based on these changes and determines any resultant changes to other items in the tree. CRANS can also search for a common cause for multiple item failures, and allow the user to explore the logic tree from within the program. A "help" mode and a reference check provide the user with a means of exploring an item's underlying logic from within the program. A commonality check determines single point failures for an item or group of items. Output is in the form of a user-defined matrix or matrices of colored boxes, each box representing an item or set of items from the logic tree. Input is via mouse selection of the matrix boxes, using the mouse buttons to toggle the state of the item. CRANS is written in C-language and requires the MIT X Window System, Version 11 Revision 4 or Revision 5. It requires 78K of RAM for execution and a three button mouse. It has been successfully implemented on Sun4 workstations running SunOS, HP9000 workstations running HP-UX, and DECstations running ULTRIX. No executable is provided on the distribution medium; however

  18. RTMOD: Real-Time MODel evaluation

    Graziani, G; Galmarini, S. [Joint Research centre, Ispra (Italy); Mikkelsen, T. [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Dept. (Denmark)


    The 1998 - 1999 RTMOD project is a system based on an automated statistical evaluation for the inter-comparison of real-time forecasts produced by long-range atmospheric dispersion models for national nuclear emergency predictions of cross-boundary consequences. The background of RTMOD was the 1994 ETEX project that involved about 50 models run in several Institutes around the world to simulate two real tracer releases involving a large part of the European territory. In the preliminary phase of ETEX, three dry runs (i.e. simulations in real-time of fictitious releases) were carried out. At that time, the World Wide Web was not available to all the exercise participants, and plume predictions were therefore submitted to JRC-Ispra by fax and regular mail for subsequent processing. The rapid development of the World Wide Web in the second half of the nineties, together with the experience gained during the ETEX exercises suggested the development of this project. RTMOD featured a web-based user-friendly interface for data submission and an interactive program module for displaying, intercomparison and analysis of the forecasts. RTMOD has focussed on model intercomparison of concentration predictions at the nodes of a regular grid with 0.5 degrees of resolution both in latitude and in longitude, the domain grid extending from 5W to 40E and 40N to 65N. Hypothetical releases were notified around the world to the 28 model forecasters via the web on a one-day warning in advance. They then accessed the RTMOD web page for detailed information on the actual release, and as soon as possible they then uploaded their predictions to the RTMOD server and could soon after start their inter-comparison analysis with other modelers. When additional forecast data arrived, already existing statistical results would be recalculated to include the influence by all available predictions. The new web-based RTMOD concept has proven useful as a practical decision-making tool for realtime

  19. Real-time services in IP network architectures

    Gilardi, Antonella


    The worldwide internet system seems to be the success key for the provision of real time multimedia services to both residential and business users and someone says that in such a way broadband networks will have a reason to exist. This new class of applications that use multiple media (voice, video and data) impose constraints to the global network nowadays consisting of subnets with various data links. The attention will be focused on the interconnection of IP non ATM and ATM networks. IETF and ATM forum are currently involved in the developing specifications suited to adapt the connectionless IP protocol to the connection oriented ATM protocol. First of all the link between the ATM and the IP service model has to be set in order to match the QoS and traffic requirements defined in the relative environment. A further significant topic is represented by the mapping of IP resource reservation model onto the ATM signalling and in the end it is necessary to define how the routing works when there are QoS parameters associated. This paper, considering only unicast applications, will examine the above issues taking as a starting point the situation where an host launches as call set up request with the relevant QoS and traffic descriptor and at some point a router at the edge of the ATM network has to decide how forwarding and request in order to establish an end to end link with the right capabilities. The aim is to compare the proposals emerging from different standard bodies to point out convergency or incompatibility.

  20. The Brave New World of Real-time GPS for Hazards Mitigation

    Melbourne, T. I.; Szeliga, W. M.; Santillan, V. M.; Scrivner, C.; Webb, F.


    analysis centers, which may be distributed via the RabbitMQ system and merged locally at redundant institutions. These combined products have been shown to improve the robustness and reliability of real-time point-position streams, and form the basis for a geodetic earthquake and tsunami monitoring system.

  1. Application of real-time GPS to earthquake early warning

    Richard M. Allen; Alon Ziv


      Real-time GPS can provide static-offset observations during an earthquake Real-time GPS provides a robust constrain on magnitude for warnings GPS networks should be used as a companion to seismic...

  2. The Colliderscope: a real-time show

    Francesco Poppi


    Ninety-six LED lights distributed over the facade of the Niels Bohr Institute (NBI) in Blegdamsvej (Denmark) reproduce the actual signals coming from the Transition Radiation Detector (TRT) in ATLAS. Thanks to the Colliderscope, when a collision occurs below the ground in Geneva, people passing by in Blegdamsvej will be aware of it almost in real-time.   Niels Bohr Institute facade lit up to reflect the latest data from ATLAS-TRT . The pattern, intensity and duration of the Colliderscope’s flashes of light depend on the physical parameters of particles crossing the ATLAS TRT detector. “At the Colliderscope very little happens randomly”, explains Troels Petersen, a physicist at NBI and one of the people who conceived it. “Particularly interesting events, such as electrons, are shown by a bright light that remains on the facade for several seconds”. The Niels Bohr Institute has participated in the development of the TRT detector, and this is why t...

  3. Business Hypervisors for Real-time Applications

    L. Perneel


    Full Text Available System virtualization is one of the hottest trends in information technology today. It is not just another nice to use technology but has become fundamental across the business world. It is successfully used with many business application classes where cloud computing is the most visual one. Recently, it started to be used for soft Real-Time (RT applications such as IP telephony, media servers, audio and video streaming servers, automotive and communication systems in general. Running these applications on a traditional system (Hardware + Operating System guarantee their Quality of Service (QoS; virtualizing them means inserting a new layer between the hardware and the (virtual Operating System (OS, and thus adding extra overhead. Although these applications’ areas do not always demand hard time guarantees, they require the underlying virtualization layer supports low latency and provide adequate computational resources for completion within a reasonable or predictable timeframe. These aspects are intimately intertwined with the logic of the hypervisor scheduler. In this paper, a series of tests are conducted on three hypervisors (VMware ESXi, Hyper-V server and Xen to provide a benchmark of the latencies added to the applications running on top of them. These tests are conducted for different scenarios (use cases to take into consideration all the parameters and configurations of the hypervisors’ schedulers. Finally, this benchmark can be used as a reference for choosing the best hypervisor-application combination.

  4. Real-time flexible preventive maintenance scheduling.

    Kendall, E B; Cronk, J W; White, R N


    There are still obstacles to overcome as we enter the programming phase of this project. We envision an automated system, similar to an expert system, that performs the interval/history analysis and makes the changes. Initially a field will need to be added to the inventory to denote whether a device belongs to one of the previously described groups that are exempt from interval changes. An intermediate step will be the formatting of a periodic report showing equipment that meets the change criteria as described in the two rules. For now, the actual changes would be reviewed and made by our management and technical staff. This report would be retained as documentation of the basis for each change, for our own benefit and to meet JCAHO requirements. We are still discussing whether the repair count should include all repairs (user error, abuse, unpredictable failure, etc.) or just those that are "significant and preventable" and could have been averted by PM. This is perhaps a question whose answer might vary from hospital to hospital, depending upon size and patient mix. With more emphasis being placed on process outcomes, on quality of work, and on getting the most benefit for our efforts, we believe our flexible, real-time PM scheduling program is a major step in the right direction. It is outcome-driven and it focuses resources where they are needed the most.

  5. Real time model for public transportation management

    Ireneusz Celiński


    Full Text Available Background: The article outlines managing a public transportation fleet in the dynamic aspect. There are currently many technical possibilities of identifying demand in the transportation network. It is also possible to indicate legitimate basis of estimating and steering demand. The article describes a general public transportation fleet management concept based on balancing demand and supply. Material and methods: The presented method utilizes a matrix description of demand for transportation based on telemetric and telecommunication data. Emphasis was placed mainly on a general concept and not the manner in which data was collected by other researchers.  Results: The above model gave results in the form of a system for managing a fleet in real-time. The objective of the system is also to optimally utilize means of transportation at the disposal of service providers. Conclusions: The presented concept enables a new perspective on managing public transportation fleets. In case of implementation, the project would facilitate, among others, designing dynamic timetables, updated based on observed demand, and even designing dynamic points of access to public transportation lines. Further research should encompass so-called rerouting based on dynamic measurements of the characteristics of the transportation system.

  6. Recommendations for Real-Time Speech MRI

    Lingala, Sajan Goud; Sutton, Brad P.; Miquel, Marc E.; Nayak, Krishna S.


    Real-time magnetic resonance imaging (RT-MRI) is being increasingly used for speech and vocal production research studies. Several imaging protocols have emerged based on advances in RT-MRI acquisition, reconstruction, and audio-processing methods. This review summarizes the state-of-the-art, discusses technical considerations, and provides specific guidance for new groups entering this field. We provide recommendations for performing RT-MRI of the upper airway. This is a consensus statement stemming from the ISMRM-endorsed Speech MRI summit held in Los Angeles, February 2014. A major unmet need identified at the summit was the need for consensus on protocols that can be easily adapted by researchers equipped with conventional MRI systems. To this end, we provide a discussion of tradeoffs in RT-MRI in terms of acquisition requirements, a priori assumptions, artifacts, computational load, and performance for different speech tasks. We provide four recommended protocols and identify appropriate acquisition and reconstruction tools. We list pointers to open-source software that facilitate implementation. We conclude by discussing current open challenges in the methodological aspects of RT-MRI of speech. PMID:26174802

  7. Real-time optoacoustic monitoring of stroke

    Kneipp, Moritz; Turner, Jake; Hambauer, Sebastian; Krieg, Sandro M.; Lehmberg, Jens; Lindauer, Ute; Razansky, Daniel


    Characterizing disease progression and identifying possible therapeutic interventions in stroke is greatly aided by the use of longitudinal function imaging studies. In this study, we investigate the applicability of real-time multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) as a tool for non-invasive monitoring of the progression of stroke in the whole brain. The middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) method was used to induce stroke. Mice were imaged under isoflurane anesthesia preoperatively and at several time points during and after the 60-minute occlusion. The animals were sacrificed after 24 hours and their excised brains frozen at -80°C for sectioning. The cryosection were stained using H&E staining to identify the ischemic lesion. Major vessels are readily identifiable in the whole mouse head in the in vivo optoacoustic scans. During ischemia, a reduction in cerebral blood volume is detectable in the cortex. Post ischemia, spectral unmixing of the optoacoustic signals shows an asymmetry of the deoxygenated hemoglobin in the hemisphere affected by MCAO. This hypoxic area was mainly located around the boundary of the ischemic lesion and was therefore identified as the ischemic penumbra. Non-invasive functional MSOT imaging is able to visualize the hypoxic penumbra in brains affected by stroke. Stopping the spread of the infarct area and revitalizing the penumbra is central in stroke research, this new imaging technique may therefore prove to be a valuable tool in the monitoring and developing new treatments.

  8. Real-time Detection of Locked Modes

    Angelini, S.; Granetz, R. S.; Wolfe, S. M.


    Disruptions are one of the largest problems facing tokamaks. In a large-scale experiment such as ITER, disruptions would cause crippling damage and severe setbacks in experimentation. One method for disruption mitigation involves the use of a gas jet which has been tested on both normally running plasmas and vertical displacement events (VDEs) on Alcator C-Mod. In both cases, the jet was successful in mitigating disruption effects. The gas jet has not yet been tested on other types of disruptions. Locked-mode major disruptions are easily created in C-Mod and could be used to test the effectiveness of the gas jet as a mitigation method if the jet could be fired early enough. It has been empirically observed that the electron cyclotron emissions (ECE) signal displays a flattening of the normally-present sawteeth before the current quench occurs in certain locked-mode major disruptions. A procedure is being written which will detect the ECE flattening by reading changes in the standard deviation of the signal. This procedure will be programmed into the digital plasma control system (DPCS) for real-time testing.

  9. Real-time DIRCM system modeling

    Petersson, Mikael


    Directed infrared countermeasures (DIRCM) play an increasingly important role in electronic warfare to counteract threats posed by infrared seekers. The usefulness and performance of such countermeasures depend, for example, on atmospheric conditions (attenuation and turbulence) and platform vibrations, causing pointing and tracking errors for the laser beam and reducing the power transferred to the seeker aperture. These problems make it interesting to simulate the performance of a DIRCM system in order to understand how easy or difficult it is to counteract an approaching threat and evaluate limiting factors in various situations. This paper describes a DIRCM model that has been developed, including atmospheric effects such as attenuation and turbulence as well as closed loop tracking algorithms, where the retro reflex of the laser is used for the pointing control of the beam. The DIRCM model is part of a large simulation framework (EWSim), which also incorporates several descriptions of different seekers (e.g. reticle, rosette, centroid, nutating cross) and models of robot dynamics. Effects of a jamming laser on a specific threat can be readily verified by simulations within this framework. The duel between missile and countermeasure is simulated in near real-time and visualized graphically in 3D. A typical simulation with a reticle seeker jammed by a modulated laser is included in the paper.

  10. Real-Time Principal-Component Analysis

    Duong, Vu; Duong, Tuan


    A recently written computer program implements dominant-element-based gradient descent and dynamic initial learning rate (DOGEDYN), which was described in Method of Real-Time Principal-Component Analysis (NPO-40034) NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 29, No. 1 (January 2005), page 59. To recapitulate: DOGEDYN is a method of sequential principal-component analysis (PCA) suitable for such applications as data compression and extraction of features from sets of data. In DOGEDYN, input data are represented as a sequence of vectors acquired at sampling times. The learning algorithm in DOGEDYN involves sequential extraction of principal vectors by means of a gradient descent in which only the dominant element is used at each iteration. Each iteration includes updating of elements of a weight matrix by amounts proportional to a dynamic initial learning rate chosen to increase the rate of convergence by compensating for the energy lost through the previous extraction of principal components. In comparison with a prior method of gradient-descent-based sequential PCA, DOGEDYN involves less computation and offers a greater rate of learning convergence. The sequential DOGEDYN computations require less memory than would parallel computations for the same purpose. The DOGEDYN software can be executed on a personal computer.

  11. Real-Time Accumulative Computation Motion Detectors

    Saturnino Maldonado-Bascón


    Full Text Available The neurally inspired accumulative computation (AC method and its application to motion detection have been introduced in the past years. This paper revisits the fact that many researchers have explored the relationship between neural networks and finite state machines. Indeed, finite state machines constitute the best characterized computational model, whereas artificial neural networks have become a very successful tool for modeling and problem solving. The article shows how to reach real-time performance after using a model described as a finite state machine. This paper introduces two steps towards that direction: (a A simplification of the general AC method is performed by formally transforming it into a finite state machine. (b A hardware implementation in FPGA of such a designed AC module, as well as an 8-AC motion detector, providing promising performance results. We also offer two case studies of the use of AC motion detectors in surveillance applications, namely infrared-based people segmentation and color-based people tracking, respectively.

  12. Real-Time 3D Visualization


    Butler Hine, former director of the Intelligent Mechanism Group (IMG) at Ames Research Center, and five others partnered to start Fourth Planet, Inc., a visualization company that specializes in the intuitive visual representation of dynamic, real-time data over the Internet and Intranet. Over a five-year period, the then NASA researchers performed ten robotic field missions in harsh climes to mimic the end- to-end operations of automated vehicles trekking across another world under control from Earth. The core software technology for these missions was the Virtual Environment Vehicle Interface (VEVI). Fourth Planet has released VEVI4, the fourth generation of the VEVI software, and NetVision. VEVI4 is a cutting-edge computer graphics simulation and remote control applications tool. The NetVision package allows large companies to view and analyze in virtual 3D space such things as the health or performance of their computer network or locate a trouble spot on an electric power grid. Other products are forthcoming. Fourth Planet is currently part of the NASA/Ames Technology Commercialization Center, a business incubator for start-up companies.

  13. Video-based real-time on-street parking occupancy detection system

    Bulan, Orhan; Loce, Robert P.; Wu, Wencheng; Wang, YaoRong; Bernal, Edgar A.; Fan, Zhigang


    Urban parking management is receiving significant attention due to its potential to reduce traffic congestion, fuel consumption, and emissions. Real-time parking occupancy detection is a critical component of on-street parking management systems, where occupancy information is relayed to drivers via smart phone apps, radio, Internet, on-road signs, or global positioning system auxiliary signals. Video-based parking occupancy detection systems can provide a cost-effective solution to the sensing task while providing additional functionality for traffic law enforcement and surveillance. We present a video-based on-street parking occupancy detection system that can operate in real time. Our system accounts for the inherent challenges that exist in on-street parking settings, including illumination changes, rain, shadows, occlusions, and camera motion. Our method utilizes several components from video processing and computer vision for motion detection, background subtraction, and vehicle detection. We also present three traffic law enforcement applications: parking angle violation detection, parking boundary violation detection, and exclusion zone violation detection, which can be integrated into the parking occupancy cameras as a value-added option. Our experimental results show that the proposed parking occupancy detection method performs in real-time at 5 frames/s and achieves better than 90% detection accuracy across several days of videos captured in a busy street block under various weather conditions such as sunny, cloudy, and rainy, among others.

  14. A Real-Time Linux for Multicore Platforms


    Multicore Platforms, 25th Euromicro Conference on Real-TimeSystems. 09-JUL-13, . : , Jeremy Erickson, James Anderson. Reducing Tardiness Under Global...Baruah. "Improved tardiness bounds for Global EDF," Proceedings of the EuroMicro Conference on Real-Time Systems, Brussels, Belgium, IEEE Computer...missed. In a soft real-time application, some deadline tardiness is permissible. In the definition of "soft real-time" that we have focused on

  15. A Replication Protocol for Real Time database System

    Ashish Srivastava


    Full Text Available Database replication protocols for real time system based on a certification approach are usually the best ones for achieving good performance. The weak voting approach achieves a slightly longer transaction completion time, but with a lower abortion rate. So, both techniques can be considered as the best ones for replication when performance is a must, and both of them take advantage of the properties provided by atomic broadcast. We propose a new database replication strategy that shares many characteristics with such previous strategies. It is also based on totally ordering the application of writesets, using only an unordered reliable broadcast, instead of an atomic broadcast. Additionally, the writesets of transactions that are aborted in the final validation phase along with verification phase incorporated in the new system are not broadcast in our strategy rather than only validation phase. Thus, this new approach certainly reducesc the communication traffic and also achieves a good transaction response time (even shorter than those previous strategies associated with only validation phase in some system configurations.

  16. Real-time beyond the horizon vessel detection

    Roarty, Hugh J.; Smith, Michael; Glenn, Scott M.; Barrick, Donald E.


    The marine transportation system (MTS) is a vital component of the United States Economy. Waterborne cargo accounts for more than $742 billion of the nation's economy and creates employment for 13 million citizens. A disruption in this system would have far reaching consequences to the security of the country. The US National High Frequency radar network, which comprises 130 radar stations around the country, became operational in May 2009. It provides hourly measurements of surface currents to the US Coast Guard for search and rescue (SAR). This system has the capability of being a dual use system providing information for environmental monitoring as well as vessel position information for maritime security. Real time vessel detection has been implemented at two of the radar stations outside New York Harbor. Several experiments were conducted to see the amount vessel traffic that the radar could capture. The radars were able to detect a majority of the vessels that are reporting via the Automatic Identification System (AIS) as well as 30 percent of mid to large size vessels that are not reporting via AIS. The radars were able to detect vessels out to 60 km from the coast. The addition of a vessel detection capability to the National HF radar network will provide valuable information to maritime security sector. This dual use capability will fill a gap in the current surveillance of US coastal waters. It will also provide longer-range situational awareness necessary to detect and track smaller size vessels in the large vessel clutter.

  17. Survey of real-time processing systems for big data

    Liu, Xiufeng; Lftikhar, Nadeem; Xie, Xike


    for big data; Its open-source implementation such as Hadoop has become the de-facto standard for processing big data, however, Hadoop has the limitation of supporting real-time updates. The improvements in Hadoop for the real-time capability, and the other alternative real-time frameworks have been...

  18. Real time PV manufacturing diagnostic system

    Kochergin, Vladimir [MicroXact Inc., Blacksburg, VA (United States); Crawford, Michael A. [MicroXact Inc., Blacksburg, VA (United States)


    The main obstacle Photovoltaic (PV) industry is facing at present is the higher cost of PV energy compared to that of fossil energy. While solar cell efficiencies continue to make incremental gains these improvements are so far insufficient to drive PV costs down to match that of fossil energy. Improved in-line diagnostics however, has the potential to significantly increase the productivity and reduce cost by improving the yield of the process. On this Phase I/Phase II SBIR project MicroXact developed and demonstrated at CIGS pilot manufacturing line a high-throughput in-line PV manufacturing diagnostic system, which was verified to provide fast and accurate data on the spatial uniformity of thickness, an composition of the thin films comprising the solar cell as the solar cell is processed reel-to-reel. In Phase II project MicroXact developed a stand-alone system prototype and demonstrated the following technical characteristics: 1) ability of real time defect/composition inconsistency detection over 60cm wide web at web speeds up to 3m/minute; 2) Better than 1mm spatial resolution on 60cm wide web; 3) an average better than 20nm spectral resolution resulting in more than sufficient sensitivity to composition imperfections (copper-rich and copper-poor regions were detected). The system was verified to be high vacuum compatible. Phase II results completely validated both technical and economic feasibility of the proposed concept. MicroXact’s solution is an enabling technique for in-line PV manufacturing diagnostics to increase the productivity of PV manufacturing lines and reduce the cost of solar energy, thus reducing the US dependency on foreign oil while simultaneously reducing emission of greenhouse gasses.

  19. Real-Time Gender Classification by Face

    Eman Fares Al Mashagba


    Full Text Available The identification of human beings based on their biometric body parts, such as face, fingerprint, gait, iris, and voice, plays an important role in electronic applications and has become a popular area of research in image processing. It is also one of the most successful applications of computer–human interaction and understanding. Out of all the abovementioned body parts,the face is one of most popular traits because of its unique features.In fact, individuals can process a face in a variety of ways to classify it by its identity, along with a number of other characteristics, such as gender, ethnicity, and age. Specifically, recognizing human gender is important because people respond differently according to gender. In this paper, we present a robust method that uses global geometry-based features to classify gender and identify age and human beings from video sequences. The features are extracted based on face detection using skin color segmentation and the computed geometric features of the face ellipse region. These geometric features are then used to form the face vector trajectories, which are inputted to a time delay neural network and are trained using the Broyden–Fletcher–Goldfarb–Shanno (BFGS function. Results show that using the suggested method with our own dataset under an unconstrained condition achieves a 100% classification rate in the training set for all application, as well as 91.2% for gender classification, 88% for age identification, and 83% for human identification in the testing set. In addition, the proposed method establishes the real-time system to be used in three applications with a simple computation for feature extraction.

  20. Variational optical flow computation in real time.

    Bruhn, Andrés; Weickert, Joachim; Feddern, Christian; Kohlberger, Timo; Schnörr, Christoph


    This paper investigates the usefulness of bidirectional multigrid methods for variational optical flow computations. Although these numerical schemes are among the fastest methods for solving equation systems, they are rarely applied in the field of computer vision. We demonstrate how to employ those numerical methods for the treatment of variational optical flow formulations and show that the efficiency of this approach even allows for real-time performance on standard PCs. As a representative for variational optic flow methods, we consider the recently introduced combined local-global method. It can be considered as a noise-robust generalization of the Horn and Schunck technique. We present a decoupled, as well as a coupled, version of the classical Gauss-Seidel solver, and we develop several multgrid implementations based on a discretization coarse grid approximation. In contrast, with standard bidirectional multigrid algorithms, we take advantage of intergrid transfer operators that allow for nondyadic grid hierarchies. As a consequence, no restrictions concerning the image size or the number of traversed levels have to be imposed. In the experimental section, we juxtapose the developed multigrid schemes and demonstrate their superior performance when compared to unidirectional multgrid methods and nonhierachical solvers. For the well-known 316 x 252 Yosemite sequence, we succeeded in computing the complete set of dense flow fields in three quarters of a second on a 3.06-GHz Pentium4 PC. This corresponds to a frame rate of 18 flow fields per second which outperforms the widely-used Gauss-Seidel method by almost three orders of magnitude.

  1. ControlShell - A real-time software framework

    Schneider, Stanley A.; Ullman, Marc A.; Chen, Vincent W.


    ControlShell is designed to enable modular design and impplementation of real-time software. It is an object-oriented tool-set for real-time software system programming. It provides a series of execution and data interchange mechansims that form a framework for building real-time applications. These mechanisms allow a component-based approach to real-time software generation and mangement. By defining a set of interface specifications for intermodule interaction, ControlShell provides a common platform that is the basis for real-time code development and exchange.

  2. The Brave New World of Real-time GPS for Hazards Mitigation

    Melbourne, T. I.; Szeliga, W. M.; Santillan, V. M.; Scrivner, C. W.


    Over 600 continuously-operating, real-time telemetered GPS receivers operate throughout California, Oregon, Washington and Alaska. These receivers straddle active crustal faults, volcanoes and landslides, the magnitude-9 Cascadia and northeastern Alaskan subduction zones and their attendant tsunamigenic regions along the Pacific coast. Around the circum-Pacific, there are hundreds more and the number is growing steadily as real-time networks proliferate. Despite offering the potential for sub-cm positioning accuracy in real-time useful for a broad array of hazards mitigation, these GPS stations are only now being incorporated into routine seismic, tsunami, volcanic, land-slide, space-weather, or meterologic monitoring. We will discuss NASA's READI (Real-time Earthquake Analysis for DIsasters) initiative. This effort is focussed on developing all aspects of real-time GPS for hazards mitigation, from establishing international data-sharing agreements to improving basic positioning algorithms. READI's long-term goal is to expand real-time GPS monitoring throughout the circum-Pacific as overseas data become freely available, so that it may be adopted by NOAA, USGS and other operational agencies responsible for natural hazards monitoring. Currently ~100 stations are being jointly processed by CWU and Scripps Inst. of Oceanography for algorithm comparison and downstream merging purposes. The resultant solution streams include point-position estimates in a global reference frame every second with centimeter accuracy, ionospheric total electron content and tropospheric zenith water content. These solutions are freely available to third-party agencies over several streaming protocols to enable their incorporation and use in hazards monitoring. This number will ramp up to ~400 stations over the next year. We will also discuss technical efforts underway to develop a variety of downstream applications of the real-time position streams, including the ability to broadcast

  3. Satellite clock corrections estimation to accomplish real time ppp: experiments for brazilian real time network

    Marques, Haroldo; Monico, João; Aquino, Marcio; Melo, Weyller


    The real time PPP method requires the availability of real time precise orbits and satellites clocks corrections. Currently, it is possible to apply the solutions of clocks and orbits available by BKG within the context of IGS Pilot project or by using the operational predicted IGU ephemeris. The accuracy of the satellite position available in the IGU is enough for several applications requiring good quality. However, the satellites clocks corrections do not provide enough accuracy (3 ns ~ 0.9 m) to accomplish real time PPP with the same level of accuracy. Therefore, for real time PPP application it is necessary to further research and develop appropriated methodologies for estimating the satellite clock corrections in real time with better accuracy. Currently, it is possible to apply the real time solutions of clocks and orbits available by Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy (BKG) within the context of IGS Pilot project. The BKG corrections are disseminated by a new proposed format of the RTCM 3.x and can be applied in the broadcasted orbits and clocks. Some investigations have been proposed for the estimation of the satellite clock corrections using GNSS code and phase observable at the double difference level between satellites and epochs (MERVAT, DOUSA, 2007). Another possibility consists of applying a Kalman Filter in the PPP network mode (HAUSCHILD, 2010) and it is also possible the integration of both methods, using network PPP and observables at double difference level in specific time intervals (ZHANG; LI; GUO, 2010). For this work the methodology adopted consists in the estimation of the satellite clock corrections based on the data adjustment in the PPP mode, but for a network of GNSS stations. The clock solution can be solved by using two types of observables: code smoothed by carrier phase or undifferenced code together with carrier phase. In the former, we estimate receiver clock error; satellite clock correction and troposphere, considering

  4. Real Time Wide Area Radiation Surveillance System

    Biafore, M.


    We present the REWARD project, financed within the FP7 programme, theme SEC-2011.1.5-1 (Development of detection capabilities of difficult to detect radioactive sources and nuclear materials - Capability Project). Within this project, we propose a novel mobile system for real time, wide area radiation surveillance. The system is based on the integration of new miniaturized solid-state radiation sensors: a CdZnTe detector for gamma radiation and a high efficiency neutron detector based on novel silicon technologies. The sensing unit will include a wireless communication interface to send the data remotely to a monitoring base station which also uses a GPS system to calculate the position of the tag. The system will also incorporate middleware and high level software to provide web-service interfaces for the exchange of information, and that will offer top level functionalities as management of users, mobile tags and environment data and alarms, database storage and management and a web-based graphical user interface. Effort will be spent to ensure that the software is modular and re-usable across as many architectural levels as possible. Finally, an expert system will continuously analyze the information from the radiation sensor and correlate it with historical data from the tag location in order to generate an alarm when an abnormal situation is detected. The system will be useful for many different scenarios, including such lost radioactive sources and radioactive contamination. It will be possible to deploy in emergency units and in general in any type of mobile or static equipment. The sensing units will be highly portable thanks to their low size and low energy consumption. The complete system will be scalable in terms of complexity and cost and will offer very high precision on both the measurement and the location of the radiation. The modularity and flexibility of the system will allow for a realistic introduction to the market. Authorities may start with a

  5. Real-time Forensic Disaster Analysis

    Wenzel, F.; Daniell, J.; Khazai, B.; Mühr, B.; Kunz-Plapp, T.; Markus, M.; Vervaeck, A.


    The Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology (CEDIM, - an interdisciplinary research center founded by the German Research Centre for Geoscience (GFZ) and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) - has embarked on a new style of disaster research known as Forensic Disaster Analysis. The notion has been coined by the Integrated Research on Disaster Risk initiative (IRDR, launched by ICSU in 2010. It has been defined as an approach to studying natural disasters that aims at uncovering the root causes of disasters through in-depth investigations that go beyond the reconnaissance reports and case studies typically conducted after disasters. In adopting this comprehensive understanding of disasters CEDIM adds a real-time component to the assessment and evaluation process. By comprehensive we mean that most if not all relevant aspects of disasters are considered and jointly analysed. This includes the impact (human, economy, and infrastructure), comparisons with recent historic events, social vulnerability, reconstruction and long-term impacts on livelihood issues. The forensic disaster analysis research mode is thus best characterized as "event-based research" through systematic investigation of critical issues arising after a disaster across various inter-related areas. The forensic approach requires (a) availability of global data bases regarding previous earthquake losses, socio-economic parameters, building stock information, etc.; (b) leveraging platforms such as the EERI clearing house, relief-web, and the many sources of local and international sources where information is organized; and (c) rapid access to critical information (e.g., crowd sourcing techniques) to improve our understanding of the complex dynamics of disasters. The main scientific questions being addressed are: What are critical factors that control loss of life, of infrastructure, and for economy? What are the critical interactions

  6. Instrumentation development for real time brainwave monitoring.

    Anderson, Lawrence Frederick; Clough, Benjamin W.


    The human brain functions through a chemically-induced biological process which operates in a manner similar to electrical systems. The signal resulting from this biochemical process can actually be monitored and read using tools and having patterns similar to those found in electrical and electronics engineering. The primary signature of this electrical activity is the ''brain wave'', which looks remarkably similar to the output of many electrical systems. Likewise, the device currently used in medical arenas to read brain electrical activity is the electroencephalogram (EEG) which is synonymous with a multi-channel oscilloscope reading. Brain wave readings and recordings for medical purposes are traditionally taken in clinical settings such as hospitals, laboratories or diagnostic clinics. The signal is captured via externally applied scalp electrodes using semi-viscous gel to reduce impedance. The signal will be in the 10 to 100 microvolt range. In other instances, where surgeons are attempting to isolate particular types of minute brain signals, the electrodes may actually be temporarily implanted in the brain during a preliminary procedure. The current configurations of equipment required for EEGs involve large recording instruments, many electrodes, wires, and large amounts of hard disk space devoted to storing large files of brain wave data which are then eventually analyzed for patterns of concern. Advances in sensors, signal processing, data storage and microelectronics over the last decade would seem to have paved the way for the realization of devices capable of ''real time'' external monitoring, and possible assessment, of brain activity. A myriad of applications for such a capability are likewise presenting themselves, including the ability to assess brain functioning, level of functioning and malfunctioning. Our plan is to develop the sensors, signal processing, and portable instrumentation package which could

  7. 3D Road Scene Monitoring Based on Real-Time Panorama

    Yuezhou Wu


    Full Text Available Road monitoring helps to control the regional traffic situation so as to adjust the traffic flow. Real-time panorama is conducive to timely treat traffic accidents and to greatly improve traffic capacity. This paper designs a 3D road scene monitoring framework based on real-time panorama. The system is the combination of large scale panorama, satellite map textures, and 3D scene model, in which users can ramble freely. This paper has the following contributions. Firstly, land-points were extracted followed by motion detection, then comotion algorithm was applied to land-points from adjacent cameras, and homography matrix was constructed. Secondly, reference camera was chosen and transformed to overhead viewpoint; subsequently multiviews were morphed to the same viewpoint and stitched to panorama. Finally, the registration based on high-precision GPS information between 2D road panorama and 3D scene model was also proposed. The proposed framework has been successfully applied to a large road intersection monitoring. Experimental results are furnished at the end of the paper.

  8. Fuzzy Comprehensive Identification Method of Real-time Traffic Conditions for Urban Road Based on Map Matching%基于地图匹配的城市道路实时交通状态模糊综合判别方法

    刘伟铭; 田世艳


    依托于浮动车数据,基于地图匹配对城市道路交通状态模糊综合判别方法进行深入研究.首先根据浮动车数据特点和道路交通信息,基于Mapbasic编程对数据进行地图匹配,并进行MapInfo二次开发,通过相关模型计算指定时段内的道路交通参数.建立模糊综合评价判别模型,对判别结果量化处理,以最大隶属度原则确定道路交通状态.最后,选取广州天河区某条道路进行实例分析,验证了判别方法的可行性和实用性.%According to the data of GPS equipped floating vehicles, a fuzzy comprehensive identification method of urban road traffic conditions based on map matching was researched. First, the traffic parameters in the designated time periods was calculated with related model based on the data characteristics of GPS equipped floating vehicles and road traffic information by using map matching of Mapbasic programming and Maplnfo secondary development. Then, a fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model was built to quantify the evaluated result, and the road traffic condition was determined by the principle of maximum membership degree. Finally, with a case study on a road of Guangzhou Tianhe District, the presented method was proved feasible and practical.

  9. Smart-Grid Backbone Network Real-Time Delay Reduction via Integer Programming.

    Pagadrai, Sasikanth; Yilmaz, Muhittin; Valluri, Pratyush


    This research investigates an optimal delay-based virtual topology design using integer linear programming (ILP), which is applied to the current backbone networks such as smart-grid real-time communication systems. A network traffic matrix is applied and the corresponding virtual topology problem is solved using the ILP formulations that include a network delay-dependent objective function and lightpath routing, wavelength assignment, wavelength continuity, flow routing, and traffic loss constraints. The proposed optimization approach provides an efficient deterministic integration of intelligent sensing and decision making, and network learning features for superior smart grid operations by adaptively responding the time-varying network traffic data as well as operational constraints to maintain optimal virtual topologies. A representative optical backbone network has been utilized to demonstrate the proposed optimization framework whose simulation results indicate that superior smart-grid network performance can be achieved using commercial networks and integer programming.

  10. Mapping motorway lanes and real-time lane identification with single-frequency precise point positioning test

    De Bakker, P.F.; Knoop, V.L.; Tiberius, C.C.J.M.; Van Arem, B.


    Modern advanced motorway traffic control requires lane-specific observations, and provide vehicles with lane-specific control measures. Single-Frequency Precise Point Positioning (SF-PPP) was previously demonstrated to provide sub-meter accurate positions in real-time using a low-cost mass-market re

  11. Visual Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (VSLAM methods applied to indoor 3D topographical and radiological mapping in real-time

    Hautot Felix


    Full Text Available New developments in the field of robotics and computer vision enable to merge sensors to allow fast real-time localization of radiological measurements in the space/volume with near real-time radioactive sources identification and characterization. These capabilities lead nuclear investigations to a more efficient way for operators' dosimetry evaluation, intervention scenarios and risks mitigation and simulations, such as accidents in unknown potentially contaminated areas or during dismantling operations. In this communication, we will present our current developments of an instrument that combines these methods and parameters for specific applications in the field of nuclear investigations.

  12. Wide Area Real Time Kinematic (WARTK): Usage of RTCM format, and real-time implementation

    Valls Moreno, Angel


    Nowadays GNSS1 enhancement techniques have reached a relevant impor- tance and are present in a wide variety of applications. During the last years the Research Group of Astronomy and Geomatics (gAGE) from the Tech- nical University of Catalonia (UPC) has developed and tested new satellite navigation techniques which allow the extension of local services based on the real-time carrier phase ambiguity resolution2 to wide area scale (i.e., base- lines between the rover and reference stations gr...

  13. Real time UAV autonomy through offline calculations

    Jung, Sunghun

    . Once one or several targets are detected, UAVs near the target are manipulated to approach to the target. If the number of detected targets is more than one, UAVs are evenly grouped to track targets. After a specific period of time, UAVs hand off and continue their original tasks. Thirdly, Emergency algorithm is generated to avoid losses of UAVs when UAVs have system failures. If one UAV is out of fuel or control during the mission, the Emergency algorithm brings the malfunctioning UAV to the point of departure and let the rest UAVs to continue an aerial reconnaissance. An UAV which finishes its task the earliest will continue to search a region which the failed UAV is supposed to search. In addition, Emergency algorithm prevents UAVs colliding into each other by using emergency altitude. Overall, the framework developed here facilitates the solution of several mission planning problems. The robustness built into our discretization of space and time permits feedback corrections on real-time to vehicle trajectories. The library of off-line solutions proposed and developed here minimizes computational overhead during operations.

  14. Real Time Flux Control in PM Motors

    Otaduy, P.J.


    Significant research at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center (PEEMRC) is being conducted to develop ways to increase (1) torque, (2) speed range, and (3) efficiency of traction electric motors for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) within existing current and voltage bounds. Current is limited by the inverter semiconductor devices' capability and voltage is limited by the stator wire insulation's ability to withstand the maximum back-electromotive force (emf), which occurs at the upper end of the speed range. One research track has been to explore ways to control the path and magnitude of magnetic flux while the motor is operating. The phrase, real time flux control (RTFC), refers to this mode of operation in which system parameters are changed while the motor is operating to improve its performance and speed range. RTFC has potential to meet an increased torque demand by introducing additional flux through the main air gap from an external source. It can augment the speed range by diverting flux away from the main air gap to reduce back-emf at high speeds. Conventional RTFC technology is known as vector control [1]. Vector control decomposes the stator current into two components; one that produces torque and a second that opposes (weakens) the magnetic field generated by the rotor, thereby requiring more overall stator current and reducing the efficiency. Efficiency can be improved by selecting a RTFC method that reduces the back-emf without increasing the average current. This favors methods that use pulse currents or very low currents to achieve field weakening. Foremost in ORNL's effort to develop flux control is the work of J. S. Hsu. Early research [2,3] introduced direct control of air-gap flux in permanent magnet (PM) machines and demonstrated it with a flux-controlled generator. The configuration eliminates the problem of demagnetization because it diverts all the flux from the

  15. Improving method of real-time offset tuning for arterial signal coordination using probe trajectory data

    Jian Zhang


    Full Text Available In the environment of intelligent transportation systems, traffic condition data would have higher resolution in time and space, which is especially valuable for managing the interrupted traffic at signalized intersections. There exist a lot of algorithms for offset tuning, but few of them take the advantage of modern traffic detection methods such as probe vehicle data. This study proposes a method using probe trajectory data to optimize and adjust offsets in real time. The critical point, representing the changing vehicle dynamics, is first defined as the basis of this approach. Using the critical points related to different states of traffic conditions, such as free flow, queue formation, and dissipation, various traffic status parameters can be estimated, including actual travel speed, queue dissipation rate, and standing queue length. The offset can then be adjusted on a cycle-by-cycle basis. The performance of this approach is evaluated using a simulation network. The results show that the trajectory-based approach can reduce travel time of the coordinated traffic flow when compared with using well-defined offline offset.

  16. RealTimeFrame – A Real Time Processing Framework for Medical Video Sequences

    S. Gross


    Full Text Available Imaging technology is highly important in today’s medical environments. It provides information upon which the accuracy of the diagnosis and consequently the wellbeing of the patient rely. Increasing the quality and significance of medical image data is therefore one the aims of scientific research and development. We introduce an integrated hardware and software framework for real time image processing in medical environments, which we call RealTimeFrame. Our project is designed to offer flexibility, easy expandability and high performance. We use standard personal computer hardware to run our multithreaded software. A frame grabber card is used to capture video signals from medical imaging systems. A modular, user-defined process chain performs arbitrary manipulations on the image data. The graphical user interface offers configuration options and displays the processed image in either window or full screen mode. Image source and processing routines are encapsulated in dynamic library modules for easy functionality extension without recompilation of the entire software framework. Documented template modules for sources and processing steps are part of the software’s source code.

  17. In-depth analysis of drivers' merging behavior and rear-end crash risks in work zone merging areas.

    Weng, Jinxian; Xue, Shan; Yang, Ying; Yan, Xuedong; Qu, Xiaobo


    This study investigates the drivers' merging behavior and the rear-end crash risk in work zone merging areas during the entire merging implementation period from the time of starting a merging maneuver to that of completing the maneuver. With the merging traffic data from a work zone site in Singapore, a mixed probit model is developed to describe the merging behavior, and two surrogate safety measures including the time to collision (TTC) and deceleration rate to avoid the crash (DRAC) are adopted to compute the rear-end crash risk between the merging vehicle and its neighboring vehicles. Results show that the merging vehicle has a bigger probability of completing a merging maneuver quickly under one of the following situations: (i) the merging vehicle moves relatively fast; (ii) the merging lead vehicle is a heavy vehicle; and (iii) there is a sizable gap in the adjacent through lane. Results indicate that the rear-end crash risk does not monotonically increase as the merging vehicle speed increases. The merging vehicle's rear-end crash risk is also affected by the vehicle type. There is a biggest increment of rear-end crash risk if the merging lead vehicle belongs to a heavy vehicle. Although the reduced remaining distance to work zone could urge the merging vehicle to complete a merging maneuver quickly, it might lead to an increased rear-end crash risk. Interestingly, it is found that the rear-end crash risk could be generally increased over the elapsed time after the merging maneuver being triggered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A real-time transaction service for grid computing

    Tang Feilong; Li Minglu; Joshua Huang Zhexue; Frank Tong; Cao Jian


    A real-time transaction service aims at ensuring the consistency of real-time and transactional Grid applications. This paper proposes an efficient real-time transaction service (RTTS). It provides abilities to discover qualified services, I.e., participants, to execute specified sub-transactions, coordinate real-time Grid transactions, calculate deadline and assign priority for scheduling concurrent transactions. The service discovery adopts the two-level registry mechanismto adapt to transient Grid services. The coordination algorithm invokes multiplefunctional alternative services for each sub-transaction so that it remarkablyimproves the successful ratio of real-time transactions. The experiment result shows that the RTTS can well coordinate real-time transactions for Grid service environment and shield users from the complex process.

  19. Real-Time (Vision-Based) Road Sign Recognition Using an Artificial Neural Network

    Islam, Kh Tohidul; Raj, Ram Gopal


    Road sign recognition is a driver support function that can be used to notify and warn the driver by showing the restrictions that may be effective on the current stretch of road. Examples for such regulations are ‘traffic light ahead’ or ‘pedestrian crossing’ indications. The present investigation targets the recognition of Malaysian road and traffic signs in real-time. Real-time video is taken by a digital camera from a moving vehicle and real world road signs are then extracted using vision-only information. The system is based on two stages, one performs the detection and another one is for recognition. In the first stage, a hybrid color segmentation algorithm has been developed and tested. In the second stage, an introduced robust custom feature extraction method is used for the first time in a road sign recognition approach. Finally, a multilayer artificial neural network (ANN) has been created to recognize and interpret various road signs. It is robust because it has been tested on both standard and non-standard road signs with significant recognition accuracy. This proposed system achieved an average of 99.90% accuracy with 99.90% of sensitivity, 99.90% of specificity, 99.90% of f-measure, and 0.001 of false positive rate (FPR) with 0.3 s computational time. This low FPR can increase the system stability and dependability in real-time applications. PMID:28406471

  20. Airborne Camera System for Real-Time Applications - Support of a National Civil Protection Exercise

    Gstaiger, V.; Romer, H.; Rosenbaum, D.; Henkel, F.


    In the VABENE++ project of the German Aerospace Center (DLR), powerful tools are being developed to aid public authorities and organizations with security responsibilities as well as traffic authorities when dealing with disasters and large public events. One focus lies on the acquisition of high resolution aerial imagery, its fully automatic processing, analysis and near real-time provision to decision makers in emergency situations. For this purpose a camera system was developed to be operated from a helicopter with light-weight processing units and microwave link for fast data transfer. In order to meet end-users' requirements DLR works close together with the German Federal Office of Civil Protection and Disaster Assistance (BBK) within this project. One task of BBK is to establish, maintain and train the German Medical Task Force (MTF), which gets deployed nationwide in case of large-scale disasters. In October 2014, several units of the MTF were deployed for the first time in the framework of a national civil protection exercise in Brandenburg. The VABENE++ team joined the exercise and provided near real-time aerial imagery, videos and derived traffic information to support the direction of the MTF and to identify needs for further improvements and developments. In this contribution the authors introduce the new airborne camera system together with its near real-time processing components and share experiences gained during the national civil protection exercise.

  1. Sentiment analysis on students’ real-time feedback

    Altrabsheh, Nabeela


    Previous literature identifies that students’ real-time feedback is important in the learning process. There are numerous studies that have collected students’ feedback in real time. However, they include several limitations of which the most important is analysing the feedback. In this thesis, we address these limitations by proposing a system that will automatically analyse students’ feedback in real time and present the analysis results to the lecturer. To create such a system, we propose ...

  2. Advanced real-time manipulation of video streams

    Herling, Jan


    Diminished Reality is a new fascinating technology that removes real-world content from live video streams. This sensational live video manipulation actually removes real objects and generates a coherent video stream in real-time. Viewers cannot detect modified content. Existing approaches are restricted to moving objects and static or almost static cameras and do not allow real-time manipulation of video content. Jan Herling presents a new and innovative approach for real-time object removal with arbitrary camera movements.

  3. Real Time Synchronization for Creativity in Distributed Innovation Teams

    Peitersen, Dennis Kjaersgaard; Dolog, Peter; Pedersen, Esben Staunsbjerg


    In this paper we introduce a synchronization approach for real time collaborative sketching for creativity in distributed innovation teams. We base our approach on reverse AJAX. This way we ensure scalable solution for real time drawing and sketching important in creativity settings.......In this paper we introduce a synchronization approach for real time collaborative sketching for creativity in distributed innovation teams. We base our approach on reverse AJAX. This way we ensure scalable solution for real time drawing and sketching important in creativity settings....

  4. Real Time Synchronization for Creativity in Distributed Innovation Teams

    Peitersen, Dennis Kjaersgaard; Dolog, Peter; Pedersen, Esben Staunsbjerg


    In this paper we introduce a synchronization approach for real time collaborative sketching for creativity in distributed innovation teams. We base our approach on reverse AJAX. This way we ensure scalable solution for real time drawing and sketching important in creativity settings.......In this paper we introduce a synchronization approach for real time collaborative sketching for creativity in distributed innovation teams. We base our approach on reverse AJAX. This way we ensure scalable solution for real time drawing and sketching important in creativity settings....

  5. Building Real-Time Collaborative Applications with a Federated Architecture

    Pablo Ojanguren-Menendez


    Full Text Available Real-time collaboration is being offered by multiple libraries and APIs (Google Drive Real-time API, Microsoft Real-Time Communications API, TogetherJS, ShareJS, rapidly becoming a mainstream option for webservices developers. However, they are offered as centralised services running in a single server, regardless if they are free/open source or proprietary software. After re-engineering Apache Wave (former Google Wave, we can now provide the first decentralised and federated free/open source alternative. The new API allows to develop new real-time collaborative web applications in both JavaScript and Java environments.

  6. Verifying real-time systems against scenario-based requirements

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Li, Shuhao; Nielsen, Brian;


    subset of the LSC language. By equivalently translating an LSC chart into an observer TA and then non-intrusively composing this observer with the original system model, the problem of verifying a real-time system against a scenario-based requirement reduces to a classical real-time model checking......We propose an approach to automatic verification of real-time systems against scenario-based requirements. A real-time system is modeled as a network of Timed Automata (TA), and a scenario-based requirement is specified as a Live Sequence Chart (LSC). We define a trace-based semantics for a kernel...

  7. Unified Modeling of Complex Real-Time Control Systems

    Hai, He; Chi-Lan, Cai


    Complex real-time control system is a software dense and algorithms dense system, which needs modern software engineering techniques to design. UML is an object-oriented industrial standard modeling language, used more and more in real-time domain. This paper first analyses the advantages and problems of using UML for real-time control systems design. Then, it proposes an extension of UML-RT to support time-continuous subsystems modeling. So we can unify modeling of complex real-time control systems on UML-RT platform, from requirement analysis, model design, simulation, until generation code.

  8. Real-time assessment of fog-related crashes using airport weather data: a feasibility analysis.

    Ahmed, Mohamed M; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Lee, Jaeyoung; Yu, Rongjie


    The effect of reduction of visibility on crash occurrence has recently been a major concern. Although visibility detection systems can help to mitigate the increased hazard of limited-visibility, such systems are not widely implemented and many locations with no systems are experiencing considerable number of fatal crashes due to reduction in visibility caused by fog and inclement weather. On the other hand, airports' weather stations continuously monitor all climate parameters in real-time, and the gathered data may be utilized to mitigate the increased risk for the adjacent roadways. This study aims to examine the viability of using airport weather information in real-time road crash risk assessment in locations with recurrent fog problems. Bayesian logistic regression was utilized to link six years (2005-2010) of historical crash data to real-time weather information collected from eight airports in the State of Florida, roadway characteristics and aggregate traffic parameters. The results from this research indicate that real-time weather data collected from adjacent airports are good predictors to assess increased risk on highways.


    Li, Amei


    Merged with duplicate record 10026.1/829 on 10.04.2017 by CS (TIS) Three readback signal detection methods are investigated for real-time flying height or head disk spacing variation measurement under vibration conditions. This is carried out by theoretical analysis, numerical simulation, and experimental study. The first method (amplitude detection) provides a simple way to study the head disk spacing change. The second method ( PW50 parameter estimation) can be used effective...

  10. Visual Simultaneous Localization And Mapping (VSLAM) methods applied to indoor 3D topographical and radiological mapping in real-time

    Hautot, Felix; Dubart, Philippe; Bacri, Charles-Olivier; Chagneau, Benjamin; Abou-Khalil, Roger


    New developments in the field of robotics and computer vision enables to merge sensors to allow fast realtime localization of radiological measurements in the space/volume with near-real time radioactive sources identification and characterization. These capabilities lead nuclear investigations to a more efficient way for operators' dosimetry evaluation, intervention scenarii and risks mitigation and simulations, such as accidents in unknown potentially contaminated areas or during dismantling operations

  11. Visual Simultaneous Localization And Mapping (VSLAM methods applied to indoor 3D topographical and radiological mapping in real-time

    Hautot Felix


    Full Text Available New developments in the field of robotics and computer vision enables to merge sensors to allow fast realtime localization of radiological measurements in the space/volume with near-real time radioactive sources identification and characterization. These capabilities lead nuclear investigations to a more efficient way for operators’ dosimetry evaluation, intervention scenarii and risks mitigation and simulations, such as accidents in unknown potentially contaminated areas or during dismantling operations

  12. Analysis of Hierarchical Diff-EDF Schedulability over Heterogeneous Real-Time Packet Networks

    M. Saleh


    Full Text Available Packet networks are currently enabling the integration of traffic with a wide range of characteristics that extend from video traffic with stringent QoS requirements to the best-effort traffic requiring no guarantees. QoS guarantees can be provided in conventional packet networks by the use of proper packet scheduling algorithms. As a computer revolution, many scheduling algorithms have been proposed to provide different schemes of QoS guarantees with Earliest Deadline First (EDF as the most popular one. With EDF scheduling, all flows receive the same miss rate regardless of their traffic characteristics and deadlines. This makes the standard EDF algorithm unsuitable for situations in which the different flows have different miss rate requirements since in order to meet all miss rate requirements it is necessary to limit admissions so as to satisfy the flow with the most stringent miss rate requirements. In this paper, we propose a new priority assignment scheduling algorithm, Hierarchal Diff-EDF (Differentiate Earliest Deadline First, which can meet the real-time needs of these applications while continuing to provide best effort service to non-real time traffic. The Hierarchal Diff-EDF features a feedback control mechanism that detects overload conditions and modifies packet priority assignments accordingly. To examine our proposed scheduler model, we introduced our attempt to provide an exact analytical solution. The attempt showed that the solution was apparently very complicated due to the high interdependence between the system queues' service. Hence, the use of simulation techniques seems inevitable. The simulation results showed that the Hierarchical Diff-EDF achieved the minimum packet average delay when compared with both EDF and Diff-EDF schedulers.

  13. 76 FR 42536 - Real-Time System Management Information Program


    ... Federal Highway Administration 23 CFR Part 511 RIN 2125-AF19 Real-Time System Management Information... additional comments relating to the costs and benefits of the Real-Time System Management Information Program... System Management Information Program on November 8, 2010, at 75 FR 68418. The final rule document...

  14. 75 FR 68418 - Real-Time System Management Information Program


    ... Federal Highway Administration 23 CFR Part 511 RIN 2125-AF19 Real-Time System Management Information... System Management Information Program that provides, in all States, the capability to monitor, in real... traveler information. The purposes of the Real-Time System Management Information Program are to:...

  15. Real-Time PCR for Universal Phytoplasma Detection and Quantification

    Christensen, Nynne Meyn; Nyskjold, Henriette; Nicolaisen, Mogens


    Currently, the most efficient detection and precise quantification of phytoplasmas is by real-time PCR. Compared to nested PCR, this method is less sensitive to contamination and is less work intensive. Therefore, a universal real-time PCR method will be valuable in screening programs and in other...

  16. Real-Time Adaptation of Influence Strategies in Online Selling

    Kaptein, M.C.; Parvinen, P.


    Real-time adjustments in online selling are becoming increasingly common. In this paper we describe a novel method of real-time adaptation, and introduce influence strategies as a useful level of analysis for personalization of online selling. The proposed method incorporates three perspectives on r

  17. "Real-Time" Case Studies in Organizational Communication

    Long, Shawn D.


    This article presents an activity that integrates theory and application by examining the multiple communication events affecting a single organization in "real time" over the course of an academic term. The "real-time" case study (RTCS) avails students of the opportunity to examine organizational communication events as they are occurring in…

  18. RT-PLG: Real Time Process Log Generator

    Yahya, Bernardo Nugroho; Khosiawan, Yohanes; Choi, Woosik;


    . This paper aims to develop a real time process log generator for the usage of streaming process mining tool. The real time process log generator (RT-PLG) is constructed in an independent tool. Afterward, the RT-PLG is utilized to generate a synthetic log for streaming process mining. The tool has been...... evaluated using an existing simulation model....

  19. A Real-time Data Model Based on Temporal Data

    ZHANG Xiao-fang; LIU Yun-sheng


    Real-time database systems contain not only transaction timing constraints, but also data timing constraints. This paper discusses the temporal characteristics of data in real-time databases and offers a definition of absolute and relative temporal consistency. In real-time database systems, it is often the case that the policies of transaction schedules only consider the deadline of real-time transactions, making it insufficient to ensure temporal correctness of transactions. A policy is given by considering both the deadlines of transactions and the "data deadline" to schedule real-time transactions. A real-time relational data model and a real-time relational algebra based on the characteristics of temporal data are also proposed. In this model, the temporal data has not only corresponding values, but also validity intervals corresponding to the data values. At the same time, this model is able to keep historical data values. When validity interval of a relation is[NOW,NOW], real-time relational algebra will transform to traditional relational algebra.

  20. Quantitation of viral load using real-time amplification techniques

    Niesters, H G


    Real-time PCR amplification techniques are currently used to determine the viral load in clinical samples for an increasing number of targets. Real-time PCR reduces the time necessary to generate results after amplification. In-house developed PCR and nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA

  1. Intelligent, Real-Time Problem Solving. Phase 3


    approach, and to develop a heuristic algorithm for design-to-time real-time scheduling. E .velopes. During Phase III we extended our work on the real...the anytime algorithm approach, and presents a heuristic algorithm for design-to-time real-time scheduling. The methodology is known as design-to

  2. Distributed, Embedded and Real-time Java Systems

    Wellings, Andy


    Research on real-time Java technology has been prolific over the past decade, leading to a large number of corresponding hardware and software solutions, and frameworks for distributed and embedded real-time Java systems.  This book is aimed primarily at researchers in real-time embedded systems, particularly those who wish to understand the current state of the art in using Java in this domain.  Much of the work in real-time distributed, embedded and real-time Java has focused on the Real-time Specification for Java (RTSJ) as the underlying base technology, and consequently many of the Chapters in this book address issues with, or solve problems using, this framework. Describes innovative techniques in: scheduling, memory management, quality of service and communication systems supporting real-time Java applications; Includes coverage of multiprocessor embedded systems and parallel programming; Discusses state-of-the-art resource management for embedded systems, including Java’s real-time garbage collect...

  3. Real time ray tracing of skeletal implicit surfaces

    Rouiller, Olivier; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    Modeling and rendering in real time is usually done via rasterization of polygonal meshes. We present a method to model with skeletal implicit surfaces and an algorithm to ray trace these surfaces in real time in the GPU. Our skeletal representation of the surfaces allows to create smooth models...

  4. Operational and logical semantics for polling real-time systems

    Anders, P.R.; Dierks, Henning; Fehnker, Ansgar; Rischel, H.; Fehnker, Ansgar; Mader, Angelika H.; Vaandrager, Frits

    PLC-Automata are a class of real-time automata suitable to describe the behavior of polling real-time systems. PLC-Automata can be compiled to source code for PLCs, a hardware widely used in industry to control processes. Also, PLC-Automata have been equipped with a logical and operational

  5. Survey of real-time processing systems for big data

    Liu, Xiufeng; Lftikhar, Nadeem; Xie, Xike


    In recent years, real-time processing and analytics systems for big data–in the context of Business Intelligence (BI)–have received a growing attention. The traditional BI platforms that perform regular updates on daily, weekly or monthly basis are no longer adequate to satisfy the fast......-changing business environments. However, due to the nature of big data, it has become a challenge to achieve the real-time capability using the traditional technologies. The recent distributed computing technology, MapReduce, provides off-the-shelf high scalability that can significantly shorten the processing time...... for big data; Its open-source implementation such as Hadoop has become the de-facto standard for processing big data, however, Hadoop has the limitation of supporting real-time updates. The improvements in Hadoop for the real-time capability, and the other alternative real-time frameworks have been...

  6. Recent achievements in real-time computational seismology in Taiwan

    Lee, S.; Liang, W.; Huang, B.


    Real-time computational seismology is currently possible to be achieved which needs highly connection between seismic database and high performance computing. We have developed a real-time moment tensor monitoring system (RMT) by using continuous BATS records and moment tensor inversion (CMT) technique. The real-time online earthquake simulation service is also ready to open for researchers and public earthquake science education (ROS). Combine RMT with ROS, the earthquake report based on computational seismology can provide within 5 minutes after an earthquake occurred (RMT obtains point source information < 120 sec; ROS completes a 3D simulation < 3 minutes). All of these computational results are posted on the internet in real-time now. For more information, welcome to visit real-time computational seismology earthquake report webpage (RCS).

  7. Real-time feedback from iterative electronic structure calculations

    Vaucher, Alain C; Reiher, Markus


    Real-time feedback from iterative electronic structure calculations requires to mediate between the inherently unpredictable execution times of the iterative algorithm employed and the necessity to provide data in fixed and short time intervals for real-time rendering. We introduce the concept of a mediator as a component able to deal with infrequent and unpredictable reference data to generate reliable feedback. In the context of real-time quantum chemistry, the mediator takes the form of a surrogate potential that has the same local shape as the first-principles potential and can be evaluated efficiently to deliver atomic forces as real-time feedback. The surrogate potential is updated continuously by electronic structure calculations and guarantees to provide a reliable response to the operator for any molecular structure. To demonstrate the application of iterative electronic structure methods in real-time reactivity exploration, we implement self-consistent semi-empirical methods as the data source and a...

  8. Self-Organization in Embedded Real-Time Systems

    Brinkschulte, Uwe; Rettberg, Achim


    This book describes the emerging field of self-organizing, multicore, distributed and real-time embedded systems.  Self-organization of both hardware and software can be a key technique to handle the growing complexity of modern computing systems. Distributed systems running hundreds of tasks on dozens of processors, each equipped with multiple cores, requires self-organization principles to ensure efficient and reliable operation. This book addresses various, so-called Self-X features such as self-configuration, self-optimization, self-adaptation, self-healing and self-protection. Presents open components for embedded real-time adaptive and self-organizing applications; Describes innovative techniques in: scheduling, memory management, quality of service, communications supporting organic real-time applications; Covers multi-/many-core embedded systems supporting real-time adaptive systems and power-aware, adaptive hardware and software systems; Includes case studies of open embedded real-time self-organizi...

  9. Academic Training: Real Time Process Control - Lecture series

    Françoise Benz


    ACADEMIC TRAINING LECTURE REGULAR PROGRAMME 7, 8 and 9 June From 11:00 hrs to 12:00 hrs - Main Auditorium bldg. 500 Real Time Process Control T. Riesco / CERN-TS What exactly is meant by Real-time? There are several definitions of real-time, most of them contradictory. Unfortunately the topic is controversial, and there does not seem to be 100% agreement over the terminology. Real-time applications are becoming increasingly important in our daily lives and can be found in diverse environments such as the automatic braking system on an automobile, a lottery ticket system, or robotic environmental samplers on a space station. These lectures will introduce concepts and theory like basic concepts timing constraints, task scheduling, periodic server mechanisms, hard and soft real-time.ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127

  10. Survey of real-time processing systems for big data

    Iftikhar, Nadeem


    In recent years, real-time processing and analytics systems for big data–in the context of Business Intelligence (BI)–have received a growing attention. The traditional BI platforms that perform regular updates on daily, weekly or monthly basis are no longer adequate to satisfy the fast......-changing business environments. However, due to the nature of big data, it has become a challenge to achieve the real-time capability using the traditional technologies. The recent distributed computing technology, MapReduce, provides off-the-shelf high scalability that can significantly shorten the processing time...... for big data; Its open-source implementation such as Hadoop has become the de-facto standard for processing big data, however, Hadoop has the limitation of supporting real-time updates. The improvements in Hadoop for the real-time capability, and the other alternative real-time frameworks have been...

  11. Real-Time Occlusion Handling in Augmented Reality Based on an Object Tracking Approach

    Tian, Yuan; Guan, Tao; Wang, Cheng


    To produce a realistic augmentation in Augmented Reality, the correct relative positions of real objects and virtual objects are very important. In this paper, we propose a novel real-time occlusion handling method based on an object tracking approach. Our method is divided into three steps: selection of the occluding object, object tracking and occlusion handling. The user selects the occluding object using an interactive segmentation method. The contour of the selected object is then tracked in the subsequent frames in real-time. In the occlusion handling step, all the pixels on the tracked object are redrawn on the unprocessed augmented image to produce a new synthesized image in which the relative position between the real and virtual object is correct. The proposed method has several advantages. First, it is robust and stable, since it remains effective when the camera is moved through large changes of viewing angles and volumes or when the object and the background have similar colors. Second, it is fast, since the real object can be tracked in real-time. Last, a smoothing technique provides seamless merging between the augmented and virtual object. Several experiments are provided to validate the performance of the proposed method. PMID:22319278

  12. Packets with deadlines a framework for real-time wireless networks

    Hou, I-Hong


    With the explosive increase in the number of mobile devices and applications, it is anticipated that wireless traffic will increase exponentially in the coming years. Moreover, future wireless networks all carry a wide variety of flows, such as video streaming, online gaming, and VoIP, which have various quality of service (QoS) requirements. Therefore, a new mechanism that can provide satisfactory performance to the complete variety of all kinds of flows, in a coherent and unified framework, is needed.In this book, we introduce a framework for real-time wireless networks. This consists of a m

  13. A Method for Detecting Intrusion on Networks in Real-time Based on IP Weight


    A new rule to detect intrusion based on IP weight, which is also well implemented in the rule base of author's NMS, is presented. Compared with traditional ones, intrusion detecting based on IP weight enhanced analysis to packet content. The method also provides a real-time efficient way to analyze traffic on high-speed network and can help to increase valid usage rates of network resources. Practical implementation as a rule in the rule base of our NMS has verified that the rule can detect not only attacks on network, but also other unusual behaviors.

  14. Highway traffic model-based density estimation

    Morarescu, Irinel - Constantin; CANUDAS DE WIT, Carlos


    International audience; The travel time spent in traffic networks is one of the main concerns of the societies in developed countries. A major requirement for providing traffic control and services is the continuous prediction, for several minutes into the future. This paper focuses on an important ingredient necessary for the traffic forecasting which is the real-time traffic state estimation using only a limited amount of data. Simulation results illustrate the performances of the proposed ...

  15. Reviewing real-time performance of nuclear reactor safety systems

    Preckshot, G.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)


    The purpose of this paper is to recommend regulatory guidance for reviewers examining real-time performance of computer-based safety systems used in nuclear power plants. Three areas of guidance are covered in this report. The first area covers how to determine if, when, and what prototypes should be required of developers to make a convincing demonstration that specific problems have been solved or that performance goals have been met. The second area has recommendations for timing analyses that will prove that the real-time system will meet its safety-imposed deadlines. The third area has description of means for assessing expected or actual real-time performance before, during, and after development is completed. To ensure that the delivered real-time software product meets performance goals, the paper recommends certain types of code-execution and communications scheduling. Technical background is provided in the appendix on methods of timing analysis, scheduling real-time computations, prototyping, real-time software development approaches, modeling and measurement, and real-time operating systems.

  16. Space Shuttle Main Engine real time stability analysis

    Kuo, F. Y.


    The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) is a reusable, high performance, liquid rocket engine with variable thrust. The engine control system continuously monitors the engine parameters and issues propellant valve control signals in accordance with the thrust and mixture ratio commands. A real time engine simulation lab was installed at MSFC to verify flight software and to perform engine dynamic analysis. A real time engine model was developed on the AD100 computer system. This model provides sufficient fidelity on the dynamics of major engine components and yet simplified enough to be executed in real time. The hardware-in-the-loop type simulation and analysis becomes necessary as NASA is continuously improving the SSME technology, some with significant changes in the dynamics of the engine. The many issues of interfaces between new components and the engine can be better understood and be resolved prior to the firing of the engine. In this paper, the SSME real time simulation Lab at the MSFC, the SSME real time model, SSME engine and control system stability analysis, both in real time and non-real time is presented.

  17. Near Real Time website for IASI observations of atmospheric anomalies

    Hayer, Catherine; Grainger, Don; Marsh, Kevin; Carboni, Elisa; Ventress, Lucy; Smith, Andrew


    Rapid analysis of satellite observations of the state of the atmosphere and the contaminant levels within it can be used for pollution monitoring, forest fire detection and volcanic activity monitoring. There are numerous operational satellite instruments for which this is possible. The IASI instruments, currently flying on board the MetOp-A and MetOp-B satellite platforms, are used to produce Near Real Time (NRT) data using analysis algorithms developed by Oxford University. The data is then displayed on a website within 3 hours of measurement. This allows for the semi-continuous monitoring of the state of the atmosphere over most of the globe, both in daylight and at night. Global coverage is achieved 4 times per day, which is a significant advantage over most of the alternatives, either geostationary, giving limited spatial coverage, or UV instruments which are only able to observe during the daylight side of the orbit. The website includes flags for atmospheric contaminants detectable by IASI, including dust, biomass burning-derived species and volcanic ash and SO2. In the near future, the website will be developed to also include a quantitative estimate of the mass loading of SO2 contained within any volcanic cloud. Emissions of volcanic products, such as ash and SO2, are useful indicators of a change in the activity level of a volcano. Since many volcanoes are only monitored by remote sensing methods, such as satellite instruments, this can be the only such indicator available. These emissions are also dangerous to passing aircraft, causing damage to external surfaces of the plane and to the engines, sometimes leading to failure. Evacuation of regions surrounding volcanoes, and cessation or diversion of air traffic around actively erupting volcanoes is costly and highly disruptive but is sometimes required. Up to date information is of critical importance as to when to make these sensitive decisions. An archive of data will be available to allow for easy

  18. Decentralized Traffic Management Strategies for Sensor-Enabled Cars

    Wang, Ziyuan; Ramamohanarao, Kotagiri


    Traffic Congestions and accidents are major concerns in today's transportation systems. This thesis investigates how to optimize traffic flow on highways, in particular for merging situations such as intersections where a ramp leads onto the highway. In our work, cars are equipped with sensors that can detect distance to neighboring cars, and communicate their velocity and acceleration readings with one another. Sensor-enabled cars can locally exchange sensed information about the traffic and adapt their behavior much earlier than regular cars. We propose proactive algorithms for merging different streams of sensor-enabled cars into a single stream. A proactive merging algorithm decouples the decision point from the actual merging point. Sensor-enabled cars allow us to decide where and when a car merges before it arrives at the actual merging point. This leads to a significant improvement in traffic flow as velocities can be adjusted appropriately. We compare proactive merging algorithms against the conventio...

  19. Merge of terminological resources

    Henriksen, Lina; Braasch, Anna


    In our globalized world, the amount of cross-national communication increases rapidly, which also calls for easy access to multi-lingual high quality terminological resources. Sharing of terminology resources is currently becoming common practice, and efficient strategies for integration...... – or merging – of terminology resources are strongly needed. This paper discusses prerequisites for successful merging with the focus on identification of candidate duplicates of a subject domain found in the resources to be merged, and it describes automatic merging strategies to be applied to such duplicates...... in electronic terminology resources. Further, some perspectives of manual, supplementary assessment methods supporting the automatic procedures are sketched. Our considerations are primarily based on experience gained in the IATE and EuroTermBank projects, as merging was a much discussed issue in both projects....

  20. Real-time simulation of hand motion for prosthesis control.

    Blana, Dimitra; Chadwick, Edward K; van den Bogert, Antonie J; Murray, Wendy M


    Individuals with hand amputation suffer substantial loss of independence. Performance of sophisticated prostheses is limited by the ability to control them. To achieve natural and simultaneous control of all wrist and hand motions, we propose to use real-time biomechanical simulation to map between residual EMG and motions of the intact hand. Here we describe a musculoskeletal model of the hand using only extrinsic muscles to determine whether real-time performance is possible. Simulation is 1.3 times faster than real time, but the model is locally unstable. Methods are discussed to increase stability and make this approach suitable for prosthesis control.

  1. Real-Time Obstacle Detection Approach using Stereoscopic Images

    Nadia Baha


    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new and simple approach to obstacle and free space detection in an indoor and outdoor environment in real-time using stereo vision as sensor. The real-time obstacle detection algorithm uses two dimensional disparity map to detect obstacles in the scene without constructing the ground plane. The proposed approach combines an accumulating and thresholding techniques to detect and cluster obstacle pixels into objects using a dense disparity map. The results from both analysis modules are combined to provide information of the free space. Experimental results are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed method in real-time.

  2. Real-Time Mass Passenger Transport Network Optimization Problems


    The aim of Real-Time Mass Transport Vehicle Routing Problem (MTVRP) is to find a solution to route n vehicles in real time to pick up and deliver m passengers. This problem is described in the context of flexible large-scale mass transportation options that use new technologies for communication among passengers and vehicles. The solution of such a problem is relevant to future transportation options involving large scale real-time routing of shared-ride fleet transit vehicles. However, the g...

  3. The Durham adaptive optics real-time controller

    Basden, Alastair; Myers, Richard; Younger, Eddy


    The Durham adaptive optics real-time controller was initially a proof of concept design for a generic adaptive optics control system. It has since been developed into a modern and powerful CPU based real-time control system, capable of using hardware acceleration (including FPGAs and GPUs), based primarily around commercial off the shelf hardware. It is powerful enough to be used as the real-time controller for all currently planned 8~m class telescope adaptive optics systems. Here we give details of this controller and the concepts behind it, and report on performance including latency and jitter, which is less than 10~$\\mu$s for small adaptive optics systems.

  4. A framework to model real-time databases

    Idoudi, Nizar; Duvallet, Claude; Sadeg, Bruno; Bouaziz, Rafik; Gargouri, Faiez


    Real-time databases deal with time-constrained data and time-constrained transactions. The design of this kind of databases requires the introduction of new concepts to support both data structures and the dynamic behaviour of the database. In this paper, we give an overview about different aspects of real-time databases and we clarify requirements of their modelling. Then, we present a framework for real-time database design and describe its fundamental operations. A case study demonstrates the validity of the structural model and illustrates SQL queries and Java code generated from the classes of the model

  5. Real-time embedded systems design principles and engineering practices

    Fan, Xiaocong


    This book integrates new ideas and topics from real time systems, embedded systems, and software engineering to give a complete picture of the whole process of developing software for real-time embedded applications. You will not only gain a thorough understanding of concepts related to microprocessors, interrupts, and system boot process, appreciating the importance of real-time modeling and scheduling, but you will also learn software engineering practices such as model documentation, model analysis, design patterns, and standard conformance. This book is split into four parts to help you

  6. A traffic model of optical networks based on time-space complexity and traffic grooming

    Zhao Yongli; Zhang Jie; Han Dahai; Wang Lei; Chen Xiuzhong; Gu Wanyi


    This paper researched the traffic of optical networks in time-space complexity, proposed a novel traffic model for complex optical networks based on traffic grooming, designed a traffic generator GTS (generator based on time and space) with "centralized + distributed" idea, and then made a simulation in C language. Experiments results show that GTS can produce the virtual network topology which can change dynamically with the characteristic of scaling-free network. GTS can also groom the different traffic and trigger them under real-time or scheduling mechanisms, generating different optical connections. This traffic model is convenient for the simulation of optical networks considering the traffic complexity.

  7. RadNet-Air Near Real Time Data

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — RadNet-Air is a national network of air monitoring stations that regularly collect air samples for near real time analysis of radioactivity. The data is transmitted...

  8. Estimating correlation for a real-time measure of connectivity.

    Arunkumar, Akhil; Panday, Ashish; Joshi, Bharat; Ravindran, Arun; Zaveri, Hitten P


    There has recently been considerable interest in connectivity analysis of fMRI and scalp and intracranial EEG time-series. The computational requirements of the pair-wise correlation (PWC), the core time-series measure used to estimate connectivity, presents a challenge to the real-time estimation of the PWC between all pairs of multiple time-series. We describe a parallel algorithm for computing PWC in real-time for streaming data from multiple channels. The algorithm was implemented on the Intel Xeon™ and IBM Cell Broadband Engine™ platforms. We evaluated time to estimate correlation for signals recorded with different acquisition parameters as a comparison to real-time constraints. We demonstrate that the execution time of these efficient implementations meet real-time constraints in most instances.

  9. True Time API Link (real time arrival info)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This link will take you to the site where you can create an account to access Port Authority's real time arrival information. To request access to Port Authority's...

  10. The Effects of Real-Time Interactive Multimedia Teleradiology System.

    Al-Safadi, Lilac


    This study describes the design of a real-time interactive multimedia teleradiology system and assesses how the system is used by referring physicians in point-of-care situations and supports or hinders aspects of physician-radiologist interaction. We developed a real-time multimedia teleradiology management system that automates the transfer of images and radiologists' reports and surveyed physicians to triangulate the findings and to verify the realism and results of the experiment. The web-based survey was delivered to 150 physicians from a range of specialties. The survey was completed by 72% of physicians. Data showed a correlation between rich interactivity, satisfaction, and effectiveness. The results of our experiments suggest that real-time multimedia teleradiology systems are valued by referring physicians and may have the potential for enhancing their practice and improving patient care and highlight the critical role of multimedia technologies to provide real-time multimode interactivity in current medical care.

  11. Hard-real-time resource management for autonomous spacecraft

    Gat, E.


    This paper describes tickets, a computational mechanism for hard-real-time autonomous resource management. Autonomous spacecraftcontrol can be considered abstractly as a computational process whose outputs are spacecraft commands.

  12. Real-Time Multi-Directional Equipment Site

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — As part of the George E. Brown, Jr. Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (NEES) Program, Lehigh University has established the Real-Time Multi-Directional...

  13. UML statechart based rigorous modeling of real-time system

    LAI Ming-zhi; YOU Jin-yuan


    Rigorous modeling could ensure correctness and could verify a reduced cost in embedded real-time system development for models. Software methods are needed for rigorous modeling of embedded real-time systems. PVS is a formal method with precise syntax and semantics defined. System modeled by PVS specification could be verified by tools. Combining the widely used UML with PVS, this paper provides a novel modeling and verification approach for embedded real-time systems. In this approach, we provide 1 ) a time-extended UML statechart for modeling dynamic behavior of an embedded real-time system; 2) an approach to capture timed automata based semantics from a timed statechart; and 3) an algorithm to generate a finite state model expressed in PVS specification for model checking. The benefits of our approach include flexibility and user friendliness in modeling, extendability in formalization and verification content, and better performance. Time constraints are modeled and verified and is a highlight of this paper.

  14. Scheduling Algorithms Based on Weakly Hard Real-Time Constraints

    TU Gang (涂刚); YANG FuMin (阳富民); LU YanSheng (卢炎生)


    The problem of scheduling weakly hard real-time tasks is addressed in this paper.The paper first analyzes the characters ofμ-pattern and weakly hard real-time constraints, then,presents two scheduling algorithms, Meet Any Algorithm and Meet Row Algorithm, for weakly hard real-time systems. Different from traditional algorithms used to guarantee deadlines, Meet Any Algorithm and Meet Row Algorithm can guarantee both deadlines and constraints. Meet Any Algorithm and Meet Row Algorithm try to find out the probabilities of tasks breaking constraints and increase task's priority in advance, but not till the last moment. Simulation results show that these two algorithms are better than other scheduling algorithms dealing with constraints and can largely decrease worst-case computation time of real-time tasks.

  15. Comparison of conventional culture and real-time quantitative PCR ...


    Oct 28, 2009 ... Results of real-time PCR were compared to con- ventional analysis .... water bath (Selecta 40W power, 40 kHz ultrasound fre- quency). ..... mental distributions of Legionella strains in France are different. J. clin. Microbiol.

  16. NOAA Ship Nancy Foster Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Nancy Foster Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  17. NOAA Ship Oregon II Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Oregon II Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  18. NOAA Ship Pisces Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Pisces Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  19. NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  20. NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  1. NOAA Ship Rainier Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Rainier Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  2. Real-time water quality monitoring and providing water quality ...

    EPA and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have initiated the “Village Blue” research project to provide real-time water quality monitoring data to the Baltimore community and increase public awareness about local water quality in Baltimore Harbor and the Chesapeake Bay. The Village Blue demonstration project complements work that a number of state and local organizations are doing to make Baltimore Harbor “swimmable and fishable” 2 by 2020. Village Blue is designed to build upon EPA’s “Village Green” project which provides real-time air quality information to communities in six locations across the country. The presentation, “Real-time water quality monitoring and providing water quality information to the Baltimore Community”, summarizes the Village Blue real-time water quality monitoring project being developed for the Baltimore Harbor.

  3. Decision graphs: a tool for developing real-time software

    Kozubal, A.J.


    The use of decision graphs in the preparation of, in particular, real-time software is briefly described. The usefulness of decision graphs in software design, testing, and maintenance is pointed out. 2 figures. (RWR)

  4. RadNet Real-Time Monitoring Spectrometry Data Inventory

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The RadNet Real-Time Monitoring Spectrometry Data Inventory contains measured data used to identify and measure specific radioactive materials in the atmosphere at...

  5. Novel Real-Time Flight Envelope Monitoring System Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is an aircraft flight envelope monitoring system that will provide real-time in-cockpit estimations of aircraft flight envelope boundaries,...

  6. Real-time Position Control of Concentric Tube Robots.

    Dupont, Pierre E; Lock, Jesse; Itkowitz, Brandon


    A novel approach to constructing robots is based on concentrically combining pre-curved elastic tubes. By rotating and extending the tubes with respect to each other, their curvatures interact elastically to position and orient the robot's tip, as well as to control the robot's shape along its length. Since these robots form slender curves, they are well suited for minimally invasive medical procedures. A substantial challenge to their practical use is the real-time solution of their kinematics that are described by differential equations with split boundary equations. This paper proposes a numerically efficient approach to real-time position control. It is shown that the forward kinematics are smooth functions that can be pre-computed and accurately approximated using Fourier series. The inverse kinematics can be solved in real time using root finding applied to the functional approximation. Experimental demonstration of real-time position control using this approach is also described.

  7. Novel Real-Time Flight Envelope Monitoring System Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is an aircraft flight envelope monitoring system that will provide real-time in-cockpit estimations of aircraft flight envelope boundaries....

  8. Real Time Scheduling Services for Distributed RT-CORBA Applications

    Bineta Tresa Mathew


    Full Text Available Distributed computing environment is flexible to control in complex embedded systems and their software components gain complexity when these systems are equipped with many microcontrollers and software object which covers diverse platforms, this system is called as DRE system. These DRE systems need new inter-object communication solution thus QoS-enabled middleware services and mechanisms have begun to emerge. Real-time application domain benefit from flexible and open distributed architectures, such as those defined by the CORBA specification. CORBA is well-suited to conventional request/response applications, but not suited to real-time applications due to the lack of QoS features and performance optimizations. The paper shows the design and implementation of the high performance scheduling technique for the real time applications domain with CORBA systems. Four different algorithms are compared by using attributes of real time tasks constraints based on CORBA specification such as RMS, MLF, MUF and EDF.

  9. 3D Flash LIDAR Real-Time Embedded Processing Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — 3D Flash LIDAR (3DFL) is ideal for determining real-time spacecraft trajectory, speed and orientation to the planet surface, as well as evaluating potential hazards...

  10. Real-Time Smart Tools for Processing Spectroscopy Data Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose novel and real-time smart software tools to process spectroscopy data. Material abundance or compositional maps will be generated for rover guidance,...

  11. NOAA Ship Oscar Dyson Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Oscar Dyson Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  12. Analyzing Real-Time Systems: Theory and Tools

    Hune, Thomas Seidelin

    The main topic of this dissertation is the development and use of methods for formal reasoning about the correctness of real-time systems, in particular methods and tools to handle new classes of problems. In real-time systems the correctness of the system does not only depend on the order in which...... actions take place, but also the timing of the actions. The formal reasoning presented here is based on (extensions of) the model of timed automata and tools supporting this model, mainly UPPAAL. Real-time systems are often part of safety critical systems e.g. control systems for planes, trains......, or factories, though also everyday electronics as audio/video equipment and (mobile) phones are considered real-time systems. Often these systems are concurrent systems with a number of components interacting, and reasoning about such systems is notoriously difficult. However, since most of the systems...

  13. Real Time Control Software for Electromagnetic Formation Flight Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose the development of a maintainable and evolvable real-time control software system for Electromagnetic Formation Flight (EMFF). EMFF systems use...

  14. NOAA Ship Ronald Brown Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Ronald Brown Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  15. NOAA Ship Fairweather Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Fairweather Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  16. A New Scheduling Algorithms For Real Time Tasks

    Yaashuwanth, C


    The main objective of this paper is to develop the two different ways in which round robin architecture is modified and made suitable to be implemented in real time and embedded systems. The scheduling algorithm plays a significant role in the design of real time embedded systems. Simple round robin architecture is not efficient to be implemented in embedded systems because of higher context switch rate, larger waiting time and larger response time. Missing of deadlines will degrade the system performance in soft real time systems. The main objective of this paper is to develop the scheduling algorithm which removes the drawbacks in simple round robin architecture. A comparison with round robin architecture to the proposed architectures has been made. It is observed that the proposed architectures solves the problems encountered in round robin architecture in soft real time by decreasing the number of context switches waiting time and response time thereby increasing the system throughput.

  17. Study on the Bus Real-time Dispatching Model

    YingZou; JianguoLi; JianhuaHuang; ZhenminTang


    The real-time dispatching model on bus system is studied in this article. Realtime dispatching can resume the planned schedule quickly, and then to ensure the reliability of the public transport service and to well raise the service quality.

  18. 3D Flash LIDAR Real-Time Embedded Processing Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Scientific Concepts, Inc. (ASC) is a small business, which has developed a compact, eye-safe 3D Flash LIDARTM Camera (FLC) well suited for real-time...

  19. Cluster Computing for Embedded/Real-Time Systems

    Katz, D.; Kepner, J.


    Embedded and real-time systems, like other computing systems, seek to maximize computing power for a given price, and thus can significantly benefit from the advancing capabilities of cluster computing.

  20. Games and Scenarios for Real-Time System Validation

    Li, Shuhao

    This thesis presents research on the validation of real-time embedded software systems in the context of model-based development. The thesis proposes scenario-based and game-theoretic approaches to system analysis, verification, synthesis and testing to address the challenges that arise from....... By linking our prototype translators with existing model checker Uppaal and game solver Uppaal-Tiga, we show that these methods contribute to the interaction correctness and timeliness of early system designs. The thesis also shows that testing a real-time reactive system can be viewed as playing a timed...... communicating real-time systems can be modeled and specified with LSC. By translating LSC to timed automata (TAs), we reduce scenario-based model consistency checking and property verification to CTL real-time model checking problems, and reduce scenario-based synthesis to a timed game solving problem...

  1. Specification and compilation of real-time stream processing applications

    Geuns, Stephanus Joannes


    This thesis is concerned with the specification, compilation and corresponding temporal analysis of real-time stream processing applications that are executed on embedded multiprocessor systems. An example of such applications are software defined radio applications. These applications typically hav

  2. Transformer real-time reliability model based on operating conditions

    HE Jian; CHENG Lin; SUN Yuan-zhang


    Operational reliability evaluation theory reflects real-time reliability level of power system. The component failure rate varies with operating conditions. The impact of real-time operating conditions such as ambient temperature and transformer MVA (megavolt-ampere) loading on transformer insulation life is studied in this paper. The formula of transformer failure rate based on the winding hottest-spot temperature (HST) is given. Thus the real-time reliability model of transformer based on operating conditions is presented. The work is illustrated using the 1979 IEEE Reliability Test System. The changes of operating conditions are simulated by using hourly load curve and temperature curve, so the curves of real-time reliability indices are obtained by using operational reliability evaluation.

  3. Optical Real-Time Space Radiation Monitor Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Real-time dosimetry is needed to provide immediate feedback, so astronauts can minimize their exposure to ionizing radiation during periods of high solar activity....

  4. Axo: Masking Delay Faults in Real-Time Control Systems

    Maaz, Mashood Mohiuddin; Saab, Wajeb; Bliudze, Simon; Le Boudec, Jean-Yves


    We consider real-time control systems that consist of a controller that computes and sends setpoints to be implemented in physical processes through process agents. We focus on systems that use commercial off-the-shelf hardware and software components. Setpoints of these systems have strict real-time constraints: Implementing a setpoint after its deadline, or not receiving setpoints within a deadline, can cause failure. In this paper, we address delay faults: faults that cause setpoints to vi...

  5. Migrating to a real-time distributed parallel simulator architecture

    Duvenhage, B


    Full Text Available DEVS. Ogata, et al. [7] tested the real-time performance of DIS and different versions of the RTI-NG HLA Run-Time Infrastructure (RTI). Their real-time vehicle model simulation within a 3D graphi- cal environment reached a frame rate ceiling... to mili- tary training simulation: A guide for discrete event sim- ulationists. In Proceedings of the 1998 Winter Simula- tion Conference, 1998. [7] Michihiko Ogata, Akira Higashide, Mike Cammarano, and Toshinao Takagi. Rti performance...

  6. Real time simulator with Ti floating point digital signal processor

    Razazian, K.; Bobis, J.P.; Dieckman, S.L.; Raptis, A.C.


    This paper describes the design and operation of a Real Time Simulator using Texas Instruments TMS320C30 digital signal processor. This system operates with two banks of memory which provide the input data to digital signal processor chip. This feature enables the TMS320C30 to be utilized in variety of applications for which external connections to acquire input data is not needed. In addition, some practical applications of this Real Time Simulator are discussed.

  7. Analysis and Synthesis of Distributed Real-Time Embedded Systems

    Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru; Peng, Zebo

    Embedded computer systems are now everywhere: from alarm clocks to PDAs, from mobile phones to cars, almost all the devices we use are controlled by embedded computers. An important class of embedded computer systems is that of hard real-time systems, which have to fulfill strict timing...... in important reductions of design costs. Analysis and Synthesis of Distributed Real-Time Embedded Systems will be of interest to advanced undergraduates, graduate students, researchers and designers involved in the field of embedded systems....

  8. Multi-Threat Real-Time Separating System


    This paper describes a multi-threat real-time separating system for broadband anti-radiation missile seeker.It presents a method, with a dual-port memory as comparer, to perform PF and PW hardware real-time separation and to determine the time-of-arrival (TOA) by use of sequential difference histogram (SDIF). The method has been applied to practice, which has achieved good results.

  9. Real Time Collision Detection Using Depth Texturing Spheres

    WANG Ji; ZHAI Zhengjun; CAI Xiaobin


    In this paper, we present a novel collision detection algorithm to real time detect the collisions of objects. We generate sphere textures of objects, and use programmable graphics hardware to mapping texture and check the depth of different objects to detect the collision. We have implemented the algorithm and compared it with CULLIDE. The result shows that our algorithm is more effective than CULLIDE and has fixed executive time to suit for real-time applications.

  10. Collaborative Real-time Digital Reference Services in Academic Libraries

    Shiao-Feng Su


    Full Text Available The real-time digital reference service is valued by most academic librarians in United States. To make the collaborative real-time digital reference service viable in academic library service, the libraries need to understand the information seeking behavior of potential users and to train the staff well. The participating libraries also need to coordinate the following issues in advance: quality control, question routing, network standards, cultural and political sensitivities, communication, copyright, and marketing. [Article content in Chinese

  11. Implementation of real-time duplex synthetic aperture ultrasonography

    Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Larsen, Lee; Kjeldsen, Thomas;


    This paper presents a real-time duplex synthetic aperture imaging system, implemented on a commercially available tablet. This includes real-time wireless reception of ultrasound signals and GPU processing for B-mode and Color Flow Imaging (CFM). The objective of the work is to investigate the im...... and that the required bandwidth between the probe and processing unit is within the current Wi-Fi standards....

  12. Real-Time Connect 4 Game Using Artificial Intelligence

    Ahmad M. Sarhan


    Full Text Available Problem statement: The study presented a design that converted connect 4 game into a real-time game by incorporating time restraints. Approach: The design used Artificial Intelligence (AI in implementing the connect 4 game. The AI for this game was based on influence mapping. Results: A waterfall-based AI software was developed for a Connect 4 game. Conclusion: A real time connect 4 game was successfully designed and implanted with GUI using C++ programming language.

  13. Near real-time stereo matching using geodesic diffusion.

    De-Maeztu, Leonardo; Villanueva, Arantxa; Cabeza, Rafael


    Adaptive-weight algorithms currently represent the state of the art in local stereo matching. However, due to their computational requirements, these types of solutions are not suitable for real-time implementation. Here, we present a novel aggregation method inspired by the anisotropic diffusion technique used in image filtering. The proposed aggregation algorithm produces results similar to adaptive-weight solutions while reducing the computational requirements. Moreover, near real-time performance is demonstrated with a GPU implementation of the algorithm.

  14. Design a Fault Tolerance for Real Time Distributed System

    Ban M. Khammas


    This paper designed a fault tolerance for soft real time distributed system (FTRTDS). This system is designed to be independently on specific mechanisms and facilities of the underlying real time distributed system. It is designed to be distributed on all the computers in the distributed system and controlled by a central unit.Besides gathering information about a target program spontaneously, it provides information about the target operating system and the target hardware in order to diagno...


    刘均; 李人厚; 郑庆华


    Aiming at issues on multimedia communication in synchronous real-time teleteaching (SRT) systems over IP network, a 4-tuple structural mode of multimedia communication is proposed in the paper, and an SRT-oriented distributed MCU model is built according to the mode. Moreover, the mechanism of multicast communication across subnets is discussed. The distributed MCU model has been applied successfully in our interactive synchronous real-time telesteaching system RealClass and has shown good extendibility in operation.

  16. The Dynamic Checking of Complex Real Time System

    YU Chao; HUANG Benwen; WU Guoqing


    The paper presents an dynamic execution model of complex real-time software based on requirement description model RTRSM, and then propose a checking method based on configuration covering and its corresponding algorithm. This checking method can check the execution situations between parallel elements in a dynamic execution step of real-time software systems. It also can check all the states and transitions which assure the completeness of checking. In the end, related theorem is proofed.

  17. Real-time radiography at the NECTAR facility

    Buecherl, T., E-mail: [Lehrstuhl fuer Radiochemie (RCM), Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM), Walther-Meissner-Str. 3, 85748 Garching (Germany); Lierse von Gostomski, Ch. [Lehrstuhl fuer Radiochemie (RCM), Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM), Walther-Meissner-Str. 3, 85748 Garching (Germany)


    A feasibility study has shown that real-time radiography using fission neutrons is possible at the NECTAR facility, when using an improved detection system for fast variations (Buecherl et al., 2009 ). Continuing this study, real-time measurements of slowly varying processes like the water uptake in medium sized trunks (diameter about 12 cm) and of slow periodic processes (e.g. a slowly rotating iron disk) are investigated successfully using the existing detection system.

  18. A Remote Real-Time Monitoring System for Power Quality

    黄治清; 贺建闽


    An introduction is made to the composition, design method and engineering application of a remote real-time monitoring system of power quality in substations based on internet. With virtual instrument and network technique adopted, this system is characterized by good real-time property, high reliability, plentiful functions, and so on. It also can be used to monitor the load of a substation, such as electric locomotives.

  19. Streaming Surface Reconstruction from Real Time 3D Measurements

    Bodenmüller, Tim


    In this thesis, a robust method for fast surface reconstruction from real time 3D point streams is presented. It is designed for the integration in a fast visual feedback system that supports a user while manually 3D scanning objects. The method iteratively generates a dense and homogeneous triangular mesh by inserting sample points from the real time data stream and refining the surface model locally. A spatial data structure ensures a fast access to growing point sets and continuously updat...

  20. A real time method for surface cleanliness measurement

    Bilmes, Gabriel Mario; Orzi, Daniel Jesús Omar; Martínez , Oscar E.; Lencina, Alberto


    The measurement of surface cleanliness is a signifi cant problem in many industrial and technological processes. Existing methods are based on laboratory procedures, that are not performed in real time, can not be automated, and usually are restricted to a small portion of the sample. In this study we describe a new method for real time measurement of the amount of surface dirt or contamination deposited on a surface. It relies on the ablation of the surface dirt film by means of a ...

  1. Search-Space Characterization for Real-time Heuristic Search

    Huntley, Daniel; Bulitko, Vadim


    Recent real-time heuristic search algorithms have demonstrated outstanding performance in video-game pathfinding. However, their applications have been thus far limited to that domain. We proceed with the aim of facilitating wider applications of real-time search by fostering a greater understanding of the performance of recent algorithms. We first introduce eight algorithm-independent complexity measures for search spaces and correlate their values with algorithm performance. The complexity ...

  2. High speed, real-time, camera bandwidth converter

    Bower, Dan E; Bloom, David A; Curry, James R


    Image data from a CMOS sensor with 10 bit resolution is reformatted in real time to allow the data to stream through communications equipment that is designed to transport data with 8 bit resolution. The incoming image data has 10 bit resolution. The communication equipment can transport image data with 8 bit resolution. Image data with 10 bit resolution is transmitted in real-time, without a frame delay, through the communication equipment by reformatting the image data.

  3. Real-time simulation of dissipation-driven quantum systems

    Banerjee, Debasish; Jiang, Fu-Jiun; Kon, Mark; Wiese, Uwe-Jens


    We set up a real-time path integral to study the evolution of quantum systems driven in real-time completely by the coupling of the system to the environment. For specifically chosen interactions, this can be interpreted as measurements being performed on the system. For a spin-1/2 system, in particular, when the measurement results are averaged over, the resulting sign problem completely disappears, and the system can be simulated with an efficient cluster algorithm.

  4. Real-time estimation of dynamic functional connectivity networks.

    Monti, Ricardo Pio; Lorenz, Romy; Braga, Rodrigo M; Anagnostopoulos, Christoforos; Leech, Robert; Montana, Giovanni


    Two novel and exciting avenues of neuroscientific research involve the study of task-driven dynamic reconfigurations of functional connectivity networks and the study of functional connectivity in real-time. While the former is a well-established field within neuroscience and has received considerable attention in recent years, the latter remains in its infancy. To date, the vast majority of real-time fMRI studies have focused on a single brain region at a time. This is due in part to the many challenges faced when estimating dynamic functional connectivity networks in real-time. In this work, we propose a novel methodology with which to accurately track changes in time-varying functional connectivity networks in real-time. The proposed method is shown to perform competitively when compared to state-of-the-art offline algorithms using both synthetic as well as real-time fMRI data. The proposed method is applied to motor task data from the Human Connectome Project as well as to data obtained from a visuospatial attention task. We demonstrate that the algorithm is able to accurately estimate task-related changes in network structure in real-time. Hum Brain Mapp 38:202-220, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Real-time feedback from iterative electronic structure calculations.

    Vaucher, Alain C; Haag, Moritz P; Reiher, Markus


    Real-time feedback from iterative electronic structure calculations requires to mediate between the inherently unpredictable execution times of the iterative algorithm used and the necessity to provide data in fixed and short time intervals for real-time rendering. We introduce the concept of a mediator as a component able to deal with infrequent and unpredictable reference data to generate reliable feedback. In the context of real-time quantum chemistry, the mediator takes the form of a surrogate potential that has the same local shape as the first-principles potential and can be evaluated efficiently to deliver atomic forces as real-time feedback. The surrogate potential is updated continuously by electronic structure calculations and guarantees to provide a reliable response to the operator for any molecular structure. To demonstrate the application of iterative electronic structure methods in real-time reactivity exploration, we implement self-consistent semiempirical methods as the data source and apply the surrogate-potential mediator to deliver reliable real-time feedback.

  6. Mechatronic modeling of real-time wheel-rail contact

    Bosso, Nicola; Gugliotta, Antonio; Somà, Aurelio


    Real-time simulations of the behaviour of a rail vehicle require realistic solutions of the wheel-rail contact problem which can work in a real-time mode. Examples of such solutions for the online mode have been well known and are implemented within standard and commercial tools for the simulation codes for rail vehicle dynamics. This book is the result of the research activities carried out by the Railway Technology Lab of the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at Politecnico di Torino. This book presents work on the project for the development of a real-time wheel-rail contact model and provides the simulation results obtained with dSpace real-time hardware. Besides this, the implementation of the contact model for the development of a real-time model for the complex mechatronic system of a scaled test rig is presented in this book and may be useful for the further validation of the real-time contact model with experiments on a full scale test rig.

  7. Real-time Java for on-board systems

    Cechticky, V.; Pasetti, A.


    The Java language has several attractive features but cannot at present be used in on-board systems primarily because it lacks support for hard real-time operation. This shortcoming is in being addressed: some suppliers are already providing implementations of Java that are RT-compliant; Sun Microsystem has approved a formal specification for a real-time extension of the language; and an independent consortium is working on an alternative specification for real-time Java. It is therefore expected that, within a year or so, standardized commercial implementations of real-time Java will be on the market. Availability of real-time implementations now opens the way to its use on-board. Within this context, this paper has two objectives. Firstly, it discusses the suitability of Java for on-board applications. Secondly, it reports the results of an ESA study to port a software framework for on-board control systems to a commercial real-time version of Java.

  8. Utilizing the eigenvectors of freeway loop data spatiotemporal schematic for real time crash prediction.

    Fang, Shou'en; Xie, Wenjing; Wang, Junhua; Ragland, David R


    The concept of crash precursor identification is gaining more practicality due to the recent advancements in Advanced Transportation Management and Information Systems. Investigating the shortcomings of the existing models, this paper proposes a new method to model the real time crash likelihood based on loop data through schematic eigenvectors. Firstly, traffic volume, occupancy and density spatiotemporal schematics in certain duration before an accident occurrence were constructed to describe the traffic flow status. Secondly, eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the spatiotemporal schematics were extracted to represent traffic volume, occupancy and density situation before the crash occurrence. Thirdly, by setting the vectors in crash time as case and those at crash free time as control, a logistic model is constructed to identify the crash precursors. Results show that both the eigenvectors and eigenvalues can significantly impact the accident likelihood compared to the previous study, the proposed model has the advantage of avoiding multicollinearity, better reflection of the overall traffic flow status before the crash, and improving missing data problem of loop detectors.

  9. Merging {DBMs} Efficiently

    David, Alexandre


    In this paper we present different algorithms to reduce the number of DBMs in federations by merging them. Federations are unions of DBMs and are used to represent non-convex zones. Inclusion checking between DBMs is a limited technique to reduce the size of federations and how to choose some DBM...... to merge them into a larger one is a combi-natorial problem. We present a number of simple but efficient techniques to avoid searching the combinations while still being able to merge any number of DBMs...

  10. Merging into platoons

    Modi, A.


    Series of vehicles interacting with each other while driving in a straight line or while maneuvering is termed as a platoon of vehicles and known as platooning. This paper describes platooning and merging into platoons in general. The first part of this paper focuses on developing control strategies for automated driving. In this part a controller for longitudinal driving is designed and analysed. The second part of the paper focuses on the analysis of merging into a platoon on highways. This is done by validating experimental results by integrating a driver model with a single track bicycle model resulting in the calculation of merging path.

  11. Dual Tracking Method for Real Time Object Tracking using Moving Camera

    Shyam Lal


    Full Text Available This study presents dual tracking method for real time object tracking using a moving camera. A real time object tracking using self aligning servo mechanism with webcam, dual tracking and effective localization of object is presented. The proposed dual tracking method works in two phases: In first phase tracking is done by joint color texture histogram with mean shift and in second phase tracking is done by servo setup. The proposed dual tracking method enjoys the benefit of double tracking feature, not only tracking but also to find out the coordinates of the tracking object which is of particular interest. The coordinates of a moving object enable us to estimates the real time location of the object which is helpful in surveillance and shooting purposes of suspected person in security area. The tracking of some specific objects in real life is of particular interest. Due to its enhanced automation the proposed dual tracking method can be applied in public security, surveillance, robotics and traffic control etc. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed dual tracking method improves greatly the tracking area with accuracy and efficiency and also successfully find the coordinates of moving object.

  12. A Real-Time Pothole Detection Approach for Intelligent Transportation System

    Hsiu-Wen Wang


    Full Text Available In recent years, fast economic growth and rapid technology advance have led to significant impact on the quality of traditional transport system. Intelligent transportation system (ITS, which aims to improve the transport system, has become more and more popular. Furthermore, improving the safety of traffic is an important issue of ITS, and the pothole on the road causes serious harm to drivers’ safety. Therefore, drivers’ safety may be improved with the establishment of real-time pothole detection system for sharing the pothole information. Moreover, using the mobile device to detect potholes has been more popular in recent years. This approach can detect potholes with lower cost in a comprehensive environment. This study proposes a pothole detection method based on the mobile sensing. The accelerometer data is normalized by Euler angle computation and is adopted in the pothole detection algorithm to obtain the pothole information. Moreover, the spatial interpolation method is used to reduce the location errors from global positioning system (GPS data. In experiments, the results show that the proposed approach can precisely detect potholes without false-positives, and the higher accuracy is performed by the proposed approach. Therefore, the proposed real-time pothole detection approach can be used to improve the safety of traffic for ITS.

  13. Real Time Fire Reconnaissance Satellite Monitoring System Failure Model

    Nino Prieto, Omar Ariosto; Colmenares Guillen, Luis Enrique


    In this paper the Real Time Fire Reconnaissance Satellite Monitoring System is presented. This architecture is a legacy of the Detection System for Real-Time Physical Variables which is undergoing a patent process in Mexico. The methodologies for this design are the Structured Analysis for Real Time (SA- RT) [8], and the software is carried out by LACATRE (Langage d'aide à la Conception d'Application multitâche Temps Réel) [9,10] Real Time formal language. The system failures model is analyzed and the proposal is based on the formal language for the design of critical systems and Risk Assessment; AltaRica. This formal architecture uses satellites as input sensors and it was adapted from the original model which is a design pattern for physical variation detection in Real Time. The original design, whose task is to monitor events such as natural disasters and health related applications, or actual sickness monitoring and prevention, as the Real Time Diabetes Monitoring System, among others. Some related work has been presented on the Mexican Space Agency (AEM) Creation and Consultation Forums (2010-2011), and throughout the International Mexican Aerospace Science and Technology Society (SOMECYTA) international congress held in San Luis Potosí, México (2012). This Architecture will allow a Real Time Fire Satellite Monitoring, which will reduce the damage and danger caused by fires which consumes the forests and tropical forests of Mexico. This new proposal, permits having a new system that impacts on disaster prevention, by combining national and international technologies and cooperation for the benefit of humankind.

  14. Geomagnetic Observatory Data for Real-Time Applications

    Love, J. J.; Finn, C. A.; Rigler, E. J.; Kelbert, A.; Bedrosian, P.


    The global network of magnetic observatories represents a unique collective asset for the scientific community. Historically, magnetic observatories have supported global magnetic-field mapping projects and fundamental research of the Earth's interior and surrounding space environment. More recently, real-time data streams from magnetic observatories have become an important contributor to multi-sensor, operational monitoring of evolving space weather conditions, especially during magnetic storms. In this context, the U.S. Geological Survey (1) provides real-time observatory data to allied space weather monitoring projects, including those of NOAA, the U.S. Air Force, NASA, several international agencies, and private industry, (2) collaborates with Schlumberger to provide real-time geomagnetic data needed for directional drilling for oil and gas in Alaska, (3) develops products for real-time evaluation of hazards for the electric-power grid industry that are associated with the storm-time induction of geoelectric fields in the Earth's conducting lithosphere. In order to implement strategic priorities established by the USGS Natural Hazards Mission Area and the National Science and Technology Council, and with a focus on developing new real-time products, the USGS is (1) leveraging data management protocols already developed by the USGS Earthquake Program, (2) developing algorithms for mapping geomagnetic activity, a collaboration with NASA and NOAA, (3) supporting magnetotelluric surveys and developing Earth conductivity models, a collaboration with Oregon State University and the NSF's EarthScope Program, (4) studying the use of geomagnetic activity maps and Earth conductivity models for real-time estimation of geoelectric fields, (5) initiating geoelectric monitoring at several observatories, (6) validating real-time estimation algorithms against historical geomagnetic and geoelectric data. The success of these long-term projects is subject to funding constraints

  15. Predicting crash likelihood and severity on freeways with real-time loop detector data.

    Xu, Chengcheng; Tarko, Andrew P; Wang, Wei; Liu, Pan


    Real-time crash risk prediction using traffic data collected from loop detector stations is useful in dynamic safety management systems aimed at improving traffic safety through application of proactive safety countermeasures. The major drawback of most of the existing studies is that they focus on the crash risk without consideration of crash severity. This paper presents an effort to develop a model that predicts the crash likelihood at different levels of severity with a particular focus on severe crashes. The crash data and traffic data used in this study were collected on the I-880 freeway in California, United States. This study considers three levels of crash severity: fatal/incapacitating injury crashes (KA), non-incapacitating/possible injury crashes (BC), and property-damage-only crashes (PDO). The sequential logit model was used to link the likelihood of crash occurrences at different severity levels to various traffic flow characteristics derived from detector data. The elasticity analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect of the traffic flow variables on the likelihood of crash and its severity.The results show that the traffic flow characteristics contributing to crash likelihood were quite different at different levels of severity. The PDO crashes were more likely to occur under congested traffic flow conditions with highly variable speed and frequent lane changes, while the KA and BC crashes were more likely to occur under less congested traffic flow conditions. High speed, coupled with a large speed difference between adjacent lanes under uncongested traffic conditions, was found to increase the likelihood of severe crashes (KA). This study applied the 20-fold cross-validation method to estimate the prediction performance of the developed models. The validation results show that the model's crash prediction performance at each severity level was satisfactory. The findings of this study can be used to predict the probabilities of crash at

  16. Evaluation of the predictability of real-time crash risk models.

    Xu, Chengcheng; Liu, Pan; Wang, Wei


    The primary objective of the present study was to investigate the predictability of crash risk models that were developed using high-resolution real-time traffic data. More specifically the present study sought answers to the following questions: (a) how to evaluate the predictability of a real-time crash risk model; and (b) how to improve the predictability of a real-time crash risk model. The predictability is defined as the crash probability given the crash precursor identified by the crash risk model. An equation was derived based on the Bayes' theorem for estimating approximately the predictability of crash risk models. The estimated predictability was then used to quantitatively evaluate the effects of the threshold of crash precursors, the matched and unmatched case-control design, and the control-to-case ratio on the predictability of crash risk models. It was found that: (a) the predictability of a crash risk model can be measured as the product of prior crash probability and the ratio between sensitivity and false alarm rate; (b) there is a trade-off between the predictability and sensitivity of a real-time crash risk model; (c) for a given level of sensitivity, the predictability of the crash risk model that is developed using the unmatched case-controlled sample is always better than that of the model developed using the matched case-controlled sample; and (d) when the control-to-case ratio is beyond 4:1, the increase in control-to-case ratio does not lead to clear improvements in predictability.

  17. Real-Time Tropospheric Delay Estimation using IGS Products

    Stürze, Andrea; Liu, Sha; Söhne, Wolfgang


    The Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy (BKG) routinely provides zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD) parameter for the assimilation in numerical weather models since more than 10 years. Up to now the results flowing into the EUREF Permanent Network (EPN) or E-GVAP (EUMETNET EIG GNSS water vapour programme) analysis are based on batch processing of GPS+GLONASS observations in differential network mode. For the recently started COST Action ES1206 about "Advanced Global Navigation Satellite Systems tropospheric products for monitoring severe weather events and climate" (GNSS4SWEC), however, rapid updates in the analysis of the atmospheric state for nowcasting applications require changing the processing strategy towards real-time. In the RTCM SC104 (Radio Technical Commission for Maritime Services, Special Committee 104) a format combining the advantages of Precise Point Positioning (PPP) and Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) is under development. The so-called State Space Representation approach is defining corrections, which will be transferred in real-time to the user e.g. via NTRIP (Network Transport of RTCM via Internet Protocol). Meanwhile messages for precise orbits, satellite clocks and code biases compatible to the basic PPP mode using IGS products are defined. Consequently, the IGS Real-Time Service (RTS) was launched in 2013 in order to extend the well-known precise orbit and clock products by a real-time component. Further messages e.g. with respect to ionosphere or phase biases are foreseen. Depending on the level of refinement, so different accuracies up to the RTK level shall be reachable. In co-operation of BKG and the Technical University of Darmstadt the real-time software GEMon (GREF EUREF Monitoring) is under development. GEMon is able to process GPS and GLONASS observation and RTS product data streams in PPP mode. Furthermore, several state-of-the-art troposphere models, for example based on numerical weather prediction data, are implemented. Hence, it

  18. The improved broadband Real-Time Seismic Network in Romania

    Neagoe, C.; Ionescu, C.


    Starting with 2002 the National Institute for Earth Physics (NIEP) has developed its real-time digital seismic network. This network consists of 96 seismic stations of which 48 broad band and short period stations and two seismic arrays are transmitted in real-time. The real time seismic stations are equipped with Quanterra Q330 and K2 digitizers, broadband seismometers (STS2, CMG40T, CMG 3ESP, CMG3T) and strong motions sensors Kinemetrics episensors (+/- 2g). SeedLink and AntelopeTM (installed on MARMOT) program packages are used for real-time (RT) data acquisition and exchange. The communication from digital seismic stations to the National Data Center in Bucharest is assured by 5 providers (GPRS, VPN, satellite communication, radio lease line and internet), which will assure the back-up communications lines. The processing centre runs BRTT's AntelopeTM 4.10 data acquisition and processing software on 2 workstations for real-time processing and post processing. The Antelope Real-Time System is also providing automatic event detection, arrival picking, event location and magnitude calculation. It provides graphical display and reporting within near-real-time after a local or regional event occurred. Also at the data center was implemented a system to collect macroseismic information using the internet on which macro seismic intensity maps are generated. In the near future at the data center will be install Seiscomp 3 data acquisition processing software on a workstation. The software will run in parallel with Antelope software as a back-up. The present network will be expanded in the near future. In the first half of 2009 NIEP will install 8 additional broad band stations in Romanian territory, which also will be transmitted to the data center in real time. The Romanian Seismic Network is permanently exchanging real -time waveform data with IRIS, ORFEUS and different European countries through internet. In Romania, magnitude and location of an earthquake are now

  19. A method for context-based adaptive QRS clustering in real-time

    Castro, Daniel; Presedo, Jesús


    Continuous follow-up of heart condition through long-term electrocardiogram monitoring is an invaluable tool for diagnosing some cardiac arrhythmias. In such context, providing tools for fast locating alterations of normal conduction patterns is mandatory and still remains an open issue. This work presents a real-time method for adaptive clustering QRS complexes from multilead ECG signals that provides the set of QRS morphologies that appear during an ECG recording. The method processes the QRS complexes sequentially, grouping them into a dynamic set of clusters based on the information content of the temporal context. The clusters are represented by templates which evolve over time and adapt to the QRS morphology changes. Rules to create, merge and remove clusters are defined along with techniques for noise detection in order to avoid their proliferation. To cope with beat misalignment, Derivative Dynamic Time Warping is used. The proposed method has been validated against the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database and...

  20. Lightweight distributed computing for intraoperative real-time image guidance

    Suwelack, Stefan; Katic, Darko; Wagner, Simon; Spengler, Patrick; Bodenstedt, Sebastian; Röhl, Sebastian; Dillmann, Rüdiger; Speidel, Stefanie


    In order to provide real-time intraoperative guidance, computer assisted surgery (CAS) systems often rely on computationally expensive algorithms. The real-time constraint is especially challenging if several components such as intraoperative image processing, soft tissue registration or context aware visualization are combined in a single system. In this paper, we present a lightweight approach to distribute the workload over several workstations based on the OpenIGTLink protocol. We use XML-based message passing for remote procedure calls and native types for transferring data such as images, meshes or point coordinates. Two different, but typical scenarios are considered in order to evaluate the performance of the new system. First, we analyze a real-time soft tissue registration algorithm based on a finite element (FE) model. Here, we use the proposed approach to distribute the computational workload between a primary workstation that handles sensor data processing and visualization and a dedicated workstation that runs the real-time FE algorithm. We show that the additional overhead that is introduced by the technique is small compared to the total execution time. Furthermore, the approach is used to speed up a context aware augmented reality based navigation system for dental implant surgery. In this scenario, the additional delay for running the computationally expensive reasoning server on a separate workstation is less than a millisecond. The results show that the presented approach is a promising strategy to speed up real-time CAS systems.

  1. Spatio-temporal modeling for real-time ozone forecasting.

    Paci, Lucia; Gelfand, Alan E; Holland, David M


    The accurate assessment of exposure to ambient ozone concentrations is important for informing the public and pollution monitoring agencies about ozone levels that may lead to adverse health effects. High-resolution air quality information can offer significant health benefits by leading to improved environmental decisions. A practical challenge facing the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) is to provide real-time forecasting of current 8-hour average ozone exposure over the entire conterminous United States. Such real-time forecasting is now provided as spatial forecast maps of current 8-hour average ozone defined as the average of the previous four hours, current hour, and predictions for the next three hours. Current 8-hour average patterns are updated hourly throughout the day on the EPA-AIRNow web site. The contribution here is to show how we can substantially improve upon current real-time forecasting systems. To enable such forecasting, we introduce a downscaler fusion model based on first differences of real-time monitoring data and numerical model output. The model has a flexible coefficient structure and uses an efficient computational strategy to fit model parameters. Our hybrid computational strategy blends continuous background updated model fitting with real-time predictions. Model validation analyses show that we are achieving very accurate and precise ozone forecasts.

  2. Real-time simulation of thermal shadows with EMIT

    Klein, Andreas; Oberhofer, Stefan; Schätz, Peter; Nischwitz, Alfred; Obermeier, Paul


    Modern missile systems use infrared imaging for tracking or target detection algorithms. The development and validation processes of these missile systems need high fidelity simulations capable of stimulating the sensors in real-time with infrared image sequences from a synthetic 3D environment. The Extensible Multispectral Image Generation Toolset (EMIT) is a modular software library developed at MBDA Germany for the generation of physics-based infrared images in real-time. EMIT is able to render radiance images in full 32-bit floating point precision using state of the art computer graphics cards and advanced shader programs. An important functionality of an infrared image generation toolset is the simulation of thermal shadows as these may cause matching errors in tracking algorithms. However, for real-time simulations, such as hardware in the loop simulations (HWIL) of infrared seekers, thermal shadows are often neglected or precomputed as they require a thermal balance calculation in four-dimensions (3D geometry in one-dimensional time up to several hours in the past). In this paper we will show the novel real-time thermal simulation of EMIT. Our thermal simulation is capable of simulating thermal effects in real-time environments, such as thermal shadows resulting from the occlusion of direct and indirect irradiance. We conclude our paper with the practical use of EMIT in a missile HWIL simulation.

  3. Real-time Simulation of Turboprop Engine Control System

    Sheng, Hanlin; Zhang, Tianhong; Zhang, Yi


    On account of the complexity of turboprop engine control system, real-time simulation is the technology, under the prerequisite of maintaining real-time, to effectively reduce development cost, shorten development cycle and avert testing risks. The paper takes RT-LAB as a platform and studies the real-time digital simulation of turboprop engine control system. The architecture, work principles and external interfaces of RT-LAB real-time simulation platform are introduced firstly. Then based on a turboprop engine model, the control laws of propeller control loop and fuel control loop are studied. From that and on the basis of Matlab/Simulink, an integrated controller is designed which can realize the entire process control of the engine from start-up to maximum power till stop. At the end, on the basis of RT-LAB platform, the real-time digital simulation of the designed control system is studied, different regulating plans are tried and more ideal control effects have been obtained.

  4. Basic technology development of a real-time graphic simulator

    Jeon, Jae Wook; Hong, Soon Hyuk; Lee, Kyung Hoon; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Hee Sub [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea)


    In this research, we developed the basic technology of a Real-time graphic simulator for remote monitoring in hostile environment, the Spent Fuel Disassembling facility. The use of a real-time graphic simulator is very useful for building virtual workcell and simulating the virtual devices to preview the behavior of real devices in order to reduce the error in design step of devices and to evaluate and optimize the work processes. And also, it can be used to provide the visualization of operation information from working devices to ensure the reliable monitoring in the teleoperation system. Thus, the development of basic technology related to these is needed. In this system, because the Spent Fuel Disassembling facility should be managed in remote environment due to its characteristics, the transmission of operational information through the network should be used. And for real-time monitoring, the real-time visualization of operational information from real system should be available. Therefore, we defined the efficient message protocol format for real-time transmission of operational information to visualize these in the 3D graphic simulator. 14 refs., 44 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  5. Development of automated system for real-time LIBS analysis

    Mazalan, Elham; Ali, Jalil; Tufail, Kashif; Haider, Zuhaib


    Recent developments in Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) instrumentation allow the acquisition of several spectra in a second. The dataset from a typical LIBS experiment can consist of a few thousands of spectra. To extract the useful information from that dataset is painstaking effort and time consuming process. Most of the currently available softwares for spectral data analysis are expensive and used for offline data analysis. LabVIEW software compatible with spectrometer (in this case Ocean Optics Maya pro spectrometer), can be used to for data acquisition and real time analysis. In the present work, a LabVIEW based automated system for real-time LIBS analysis integrated with spectrometer device is developed. This system is capable of performing real time analysis based on as-acquired LIBS spectra. Here, we have demonstrated the LIBS data acquisition and real time calculations of plasma temperature and electron density. Data plots and variations in spectral intensity in response to laser energy were observed on LabVIEW monitor interface. Routine laboratory samples of brass and calcine bone were utilized in this experiment. Developed program has shown impressive performance in real time data acquisition and analysis.

  6. Real-time structured light intraoral 3D measurement pipeline

    Gheorghe, Radu; Tchouprakov, Andrei; Sokolov, Roman


    Computer aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) is increasingly becoming a standard feature and service provided to patients in dentist offices and denture manufacturing laboratories. Although the quality of the tools and data has slowly improved in the last years, due to various surface measurement challenges, practical, accurate, invivo, real-time 3D high quality data acquisition and processing still needs improving. Advances in GPU computational power have allowed for achieving near real-time 3D intraoral in-vivo scanning of patient's teeth. We explore in this paper, from a real-time perspective, a hardware-software-GPU solution that addresses all the requirements mentioned before. Moreover we exemplify and quantify the hard and soft deadlines required by such a system and illustrate how they are supported in our implementation.

  7. Real time capable infrared thermography for ASDEX Upgrade

    Sieglin, B., E-mail:; Faitsch, M.; Herrmann, A.; Brucker, B.; Eich, T.; Kammerloher, L.; Martinov, S. [Max-Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)


    Infrared (IR) thermography is widely used in fusion research to study power exhaust and incident heat load onto the plasma facing components. Due to the short pulse duration of today’s fusion experiments, IR systems have mostly been designed for off-line data analysis. For future long pulse devices (e.g., Wendelstein 7-X, ITER), a real time evaluation of the target temperature and heat flux is mandatory. This paper shows the development of a real time capable IR system for ASDEX Upgrade. A compact IR camera has been designed incorporating the necessary magnetic and electric shielding for the detector, cooler assembly. The camera communication is based on the Camera Link industry standard. The data acquisition hardware is based on National Instruments hardware, consisting of a PXIe chassis inside and a fibre optical connected industry computer outside the torus hall. Image processing and data evaluation are performed using real time LabVIEW.

  8. Efficient Real-time Video Transmission in Wireless Mesh Network

    Rajanikanth Aluvalu


    Full Text Available We are experiencing rapid improvement in video transmission and picture quality. The technologies are supporting us with real-time video transmissions such as video conferences and webinars. Soon reliable, simple, low cost real-time video will become essential, providing its extensive support to mobiles; PDA’s etc. These enhancements are going to affect the consumer behaviour, business culture. Video transmission includes transmitting packets through Wireless Mesh Network (WMN, which turned out to be a challenging scenario for real-time video services. Due to the existing nature of wireless networks include the presence of unpredictable delays and high packet error rates due to the error-prone nature of the wireless links. In this paper, we will propose a model which provides high capacity data transfer with reduced delay. We have simulated and achieved results with higher through put.

  9. Coordinated scheduling for dynamic real-time systems

    Natarajan, Swaminathan; Zhao, Wei


    In this project, we addressed issues in coordinated scheduling for dynamic real-time systems. In particular, we concentrated on design and implementation of a new distributed real-time system called R-Shell. The design objective of R-Shell is to provide computing support for space programs that have large, complex, fault-tolerant distributed real-time applications. In R-shell, the approach is based on the concept of scheduling agents, which reside in the application run-time environment, and are customized to provide just those resource management functions which are needed by the specific application. With this approach, we avoid the need for a sophisticated OS which provides a variety of generalized functionality, while still not burdening application programmers with heavy responsibility for resource management. In this report, we discuss the R-Shell approach, summarize the achievement of the project, and describe a preliminary prototype of R-Shell system.

  10. Specifying and verifying requirements of real-time systems

    Ravn, Anders P.; Rischel, Hans; Hansen, Kirsten Mark


    An approach to specification of requirements and verification of design for real-time systems is presented. A system is defined by a conventional mathematical model for a dynamic system where application specific states denote functions of real time. Specifications are formulas in duration calculus......, a real-time interval logic, where predicates define durations of states. Requirements define safety and functionality constraints on the system or a component. A top-level design is given by a control law: a predicate that defines an automation controlling the transition between phases of operation. Each...... control the distributed computation through synchronous events. Sensors and actuators relate events with system states. Verification is a deduction showing that a design implies requirements...

  11. Intelligent data management for real-time spacecraft monitoring

    Schwuttke, Ursula M.; Gasser, Les; Abramson, Bruce


    Real-time AI systems have begun to address the challenge of restructuring problem solving to meet real-time constraints by making key trade-offs that pursue less than optimal strategies with minimal impact on system goals. Several approaches for adapting to dynamic changes in system operating conditions are known. However, simultaneously adapting system decision criteria in a principled way has been difficult. Towards this end, a general technique for dynamically making such trade-offs using a combination of decision theory and domain knowledge has been developed. Multi-attribute utility theory (MAUT), a decision theoretic approach for making one-time decisions is discussed and dynamic trade-off evaluation is described as a knowledge-based extension of MAUT that is suitable for highly dynamic real-time environments, and provides an example of dynamic trade-off evaluation applied to a specific data management trade-off in a real-world spacecraft monitoring application.

  12. A Simplification of a Real-Time Verification Problem

    Saha, Indranil; Roy, Suman; 10.1007/978-3-540-75596-8_21


    We revisit the problem of real-time verification with dense dynamics using timeout and calendar based models and simplify this to a finite state verification problem. To overcome the complexity of verification of real-time systems with dense dynamics, Dutertre and Sorea, proposed timeout and calender based transition systems to model the behavior of real-time systems and verified safety properties using k-induction in association with bounded model checking. In this work, we introduce a specification formalism for these models in terms of Timeout Transition Diagrams and capture their behavior in terms of semantics of Timed Transition Systems. Further, we discuss a technique, which reduces the problem of verification of qualitative temporal properties on infinite state space of (a large fragment of) these timeout and calender based transition systems into that on clockless finite state models through a two-step process comprising of digitization and canonical finitary reduction. This technique enables us to ve...

  13. Real-time simulation of large-scale floods

    Liu, Q.; Qin, Y.; Li, G. D.; Liu, Z.; Cheng, D. J.; Zhao, Y. H.


    According to the complex real-time water situation, the real-time simulation of large-scale floods is very important for flood prevention practice. Model robustness and running efficiency are two critical factors in successful real-time flood simulation. This paper proposed a robust, two-dimensional, shallow water model based on the unstructured Godunov- type finite volume method. A robust wet/dry front method is used to enhance the numerical stability. An adaptive method is proposed to improve the running efficiency. The proposed model is used for large-scale flood simulation on real topography. Results compared to those of MIKE21 show the strong performance of the proposed model.

  14. Real-Time Parameter Estimation Using Output Error

    Grauer, Jared A.


    Output-error parameter estimation, normally a post- ight batch technique, was applied to real-time dynamic modeling problems. Variations on the traditional algorithm were investigated with the goal of making the method suitable for operation in real time. Im- plementation recommendations are given that are dependent on the modeling problem of interest. Application to ight test data showed that accurate parameter estimates and un- certainties for the short-period dynamics model were available every 2 s using time domain data, or every 3 s using frequency domain data. The data compatibility problem was also solved in real time, providing corrected sensor measurements every 4 s. If uncertainty corrections for colored residuals are omitted, this rate can be increased to every 0.5 s.

  15. Congestion Management Strategies of Real-Time Market

    Wang, Qi; Zhang, Chunyu; Ding, Yi


    The high penetration of distributed energy resources (DERs) will significantly challenge the power system operation and control due to their stochastic, intermittent, and fluctuation characteristics. This enhances the difficulty of congestion management of power systems in cross-border electricity...... market among different regions. For handling this, the Real-Time Market is proposed for balancing capacity trading against congestions. Several strategies for Real-Time Market dealing with congestions are proposed. The strategy of two-stage crossborder markets in Day-ahead, Intra-day and Real Time Market...... are introduced with the congestion constraints complied. Pre-Contingency strategy is proposed as the advance preparation for the future congestion, and In-Day re-dispatch is used for regulation. Accordingly, the requirements on facilities considering telemetry and remote control in a fast manner are discussed...

  16. Real time lobster posture estimation for behavior research

    Yan, Sheng; Alfredsen, Jo Arve


    In animal behavior research, the main task of observing the behavior of an animal is usually done manually. The measurement of the trajectory of an animal and its real-time posture description is often omitted due to the lack of automatic computer vision tools. Even though there are many publications for pose estimation, few are efficient enough to apply in real-time or can be used without the machine learning algorithm to train a classifier from mass samples. In this paper, we propose a novel strategy for the real-time lobster posture estimation to overcome those difficulties. In our proposed algorithm, we use the Gaussian mixture model (GMM) for lobster segmentation. Then the posture estimation is based on the distance transform and skeleton calculated from the segmentation. We tested the algorithm on a serials lobster videos in different size and lighting conditions. The results show that our proposed algorithm is efficient and robust under various conditions.

  17. Reduction Methods for Real-time Simulations in Hybrid Testing

    Andersen, Sebastian


    Hybrid testing constitutes a cost-effective experimental full scale testing method. The method was introduced in the 1960's by Japanese researchers, as an alternative to conventional full scale testing and small scale material testing, such as shake table tests. The principle of the method...... is to divide a structure into a physical substructure and a numerical substructure, and couple these in a test. If the test is conducted in real-time it is referred to as real time hybrid testing. The hybrid testing concept has developed significantly since its introduction in the 1960', both with respect...... without introducing further unknowns into the system. The basis formulation is shown to exhibit high precision and to reduce the computational cost significantly. Furthermore, the basis formulation exhibits a significant higher stability, than standard nonlinear algorithms. A real-time hybrid test...

  18. Modeling and Real-Time Simulation of UPFC

    Kimura, Misao; Takahashi, Choei; Kishibe, Hideto; Miyazaki, Yasuyuki; Noro, Yasuhiro; Iio, Naotaka

    We have developed a digital real time simulator of Power Electronics Controllers, so called FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission Systems) Controllers and/or Custom Power by using MATLABTM/SIMULINKTM and dSPACETM System. This paper describes the modeling and the calculation accuracy of a UPFC (Unified Power Flow Controller) model. Hence the developed simulator operates at a large time step, in order to improve simulation accuracy, a correction processing of the switching delay is implemented into the UPFC model. Calculation accuracy of the real time UPFC model is the same level as EMTDCTM results. We confirm stable operation of the developed UPFC model with connecting a commercial real time digital simulator (RTDSTM).

  19. An optimal real-time controller for vertical plasma stabilization

    Cruz, N; Coda, S; Duval, B P; Le, H B; Rodrigues, A P; Varandas, C A F; Correia, C M B A; Goncalves, B S


    Modern Tokamaks have evolved from the initial axisymmetric circular plasma shape to an elongated axisymmetric plasma shape that improves the energy confinement time and the triple product, which is a generally used figure of merit for the conditions needed for fusion reactor performance. However, the elongated plasma cross section introduces a vertical instability that demands a real-time feedback control loop to stabilize the plasma vertical position and velocity. At the Tokamak \\`a Configuration Variable (TCV) in-vessel poloidal field coils driven by fast switching power supplies are used to stabilize highly elongated plasmas. TCV plasma experiments have used a PID algorithm based controller to correct the plasma vertical position. In late 2013 experiments a new optimal real-time controller was tested improving the stability of the plasma. This contribution describes the new optimal real-time controller developed. The choice of the model that describes the plasma response to the actuators is discussed. The ...


    K. Susheel Kumar


    Full Text Available This paper presents an automated system for human face recognition in a real time background world fora large homemade dataset of persons face. The task is very difficult as the real time backgroundsubtraction in an image is still a challenge. Addition to this there is a huge variation in human face imagein terms of size, pose and expression. The system proposed collapses most of this variance. To detect realtime human face AdaBoost with Haar cascade is used and a simple fast PCA and LDA is used torecognize the faces detected. The matched face is then used to mark attendance in the laboratory, in ourcase. This biometric system is a real time attendance system based on the human face recognition with asimple and fast algorithms and gaining a high accuracy rate..

  1. Real-Time Statistical Modeling of Blood Sugar.

    Otoom, Mwaffaq; Alshraideh, Hussam; Almasaeid, Hisham M; López-de-Ipiña, Diego; Bravo, José


    Diabetes is considered a chronic disease that incurs various types of cost to the world. One major challenge in the control of Diabetes is the real time determination of the proper insulin dose. In this paper, we develop a prototype for real time blood sugar control, integrated with the cloud. Our system controls blood sugar by observing the blood sugar level and accordingly determining the appropriate insulin dose based on patient's historical data, all in real time and automatically. To determine the appropriate insulin dose, we propose two statistical models for modeling blood sugar profiles, namely ARIMA and Markov-based model. Our experiment used to evaluate the performance of the two models shows that the ARIMA model outperforms the Markov-based model in terms of prediction accuracy.

  2. Towards Real Time Simulation of Ship-Ship Interaction

    Lindberg, Ole; Bingham, Harry B.; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter


    We present recent and preliminary work directed towards the development of a simplified, physics-based model for improved simulation of ship-ship interaction that can be used for both analysis and real-time computing (i.e. with real-time constraints due to visualization). The goal is to implement...... the model into a large maritime simulator for training of naval officers, in particular tug boat helmsmen. Tug boat simulators are used for training of communication and situation awareness during manoeuvre involved with towing of large vessels. A main objective of the work is to improve and enable more...... accurate (realistic) and much faster ship-wave and ship-ship simulations than are currently possible. The coupling of simulation with visualization should improve the visual experience such that it can be perceived as more realistic in training. Today the state-of-art in real-time ship-ship interaction...

  3. Compiling graphical real-time specifications into silicon

    Fränzle, Martin; Lüth, Karsten


    The basic algorithms underlying an automatic hardware synthesis environment using fully formal graphical requirements specifications as source language are outlined. The source language is real-time symbolic timing diagrams [FeyerabendJosko97], which are a metric-time temporal logic such that hard...... real-time constraints have to be dealt with. While automata-theoretic methods based on translating the specification to a finite automaton and constructing a winning strategy in the resulting omega-regular game could in principle be used, and do indeed provide the core algorithm, complexity withstands...... practical application of these methods. Therefore, a compositional extension is explored, which yields modular synthesis of multi-component controllers. Based on this, a second extension is proposed for efficiently dealing with hard real-time constraints....

  4. Real-time Flame Rendering with GPU and CUDA

    Wei Wei


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method of flame simulation based on Lagrange process and chemical composition, which was non-grid and the problems associated with there grids were overcome. The turbulence movement of flame was described by Lagrange process and chemical composition was added into flame simulation which increased the authenticity of flame. For real-time applications, this paper simplified the EMST model. GPU-based particle system combined with OpenGL VBO and PBO unique technology was used to accelerate finally, the speed of vertex and pixel data interaction between CPU and GPU increased two orders of magnitude, frame rate of rendering increased by 30%, which achieved fast dynamic flame real-time simulation. For further real-time applications, this paper presented a strategy to implement flame simulation with CUDA on GPU, which achieved a speed up to 2.5 times the previous implementation.

  5. FPGA Implementation of Real-Time Ethernet for Motion Control

    Chen Youdong


    Full Text Available This paper provides an applicable implementation of real-time Ethernet named CASNET, which modifies the Ethernet medium access control (MAC to achieve the real-time requirement for motion control. CASNET is the communication protocol used for motion control system. Verilog hardware description language (VHDL has been used in the MAC logic design. The designed MAC serves as one of the intellectual properties (IPs and is applicable to various industrial controllers. The interface of the physical layer is RJ45. The other layers have been implemented by using C programs. The real-time Ethernet has been implemented by using field programmable gate array (FPGA technology and the proposed solution has been tested through the cycle time, synchronization accuracy, and Wireshark testing.

  6. Analyzing Real-Time Systems: Theory and Tools

    Hune, Thomas Seidelin

    The main topic of this dissertation is the development and use of methods for formal reasoning about the correctness of real-time systems, in particular methods and tools to handle new classes of problems. In real-time systems the correctness of the system does not only depend on the order in which...... actions take place, but also the timing of the actions. The formal reasoning presented here is based on (extensions of) the model of timed automata and tools supporting this model, mainly UPPAAL. Real-time systems are often part of safety critical systems e.g. control systems for planes, trains......, and successfully tested on a number of case studies. In particular, part of the Sidmar steel production plant, which is a case study of the Esprit VHS project, has been studied. Schedulability, without considering cost and optimality, has also been addressed using standard timed automata and UPPAAL. In order...

  7. A real-time VLC to UART protocol conversion system

    Deng, Jian-zhi; Yao, Meng; Cheng, Xiao-hui; Deng, Zhuo-hong


    A real-time visible light communication (VLC) to universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter (UART) conversion system is made up of a transmitter with a light emitting diode (LED) and a receiver with a photodiode (PD), by which a VLC system is connected to traditional communication modes, and the data are transferred by wireless visible light. UART packets are converted to light packets by the modulation of a 10 kHz on-off-keying (OOK) light signal, and the data losses in the transportation are avoided by the protection of a data buffer mechanism. The experimental results reveal that the real-time VLC to UART conversion system can provide a real-time VLC transmission way for two UART devices in not less than 10 m at a baud rate not less than 19 200 Bd with stable ambient lighting at the same time.

  8. Analysis of hybrid viscous damper by real time hybrid simulations

    Brodersen, Mark Laier; Ou, Ge; Høgsberg, Jan Becker


    Results from real time hybrid simulations are compared to full numerical simulations for a hybrid viscous damper, composed of a viscous dashpot in series with an active actuator and a load cell. By controlling the actuator displacement via filtered integral force feedback the damping performance...... of the hybrid viscous damper is improved, while for pure integral force feedback the damper stroke is instead increased. In the real time hybrid simulations viscous damping is emulated by a bang-bang controlled Magneto-Rheological (MR) damper. The controller activates high-frequency modes and generates drift...... in the actuator displacement, and only a fraction of the measured damper force can therefore be used as input to the investigated integral force feedback in the real time hybrid simulations....

  9. The VLBA Correlator---Real-Time in the Distributed ERA

    Wells, Donald C.


    The Correlator is the signal processing engine of the Very Long Baseline Array [VLBA]. Radio signals are recorded on special wideband digital recorders at the 10 VLBA antennas and are shipped to the Array Operations Center in Socorro, New Mexico, where they are played back simultaneously into the Correlator. Real-time software and firmware controls the playback drives to achieve synchronization, compute models of the wavefront delay, control the numerous modules of the Correlator, and record FITS files of the fringe visibilities at the back-end of the Correlator. The Correlator system contains a total of more than 100 programmable computers, which communicate by means of various protocols. The VLBA Correlator's dependence on network protocols is an example of the radical transformation of the real-time world over the past five years: real-time is becoming more like conventional computing.

  10. Real time capable infrared thermography for ASDEX Upgrade

    Sieglin, B.; Faitsch, M.; Herrmann, A.; Brucker, B.; Eich, T.; Kammerloher, L.; Martinov, S.


    Infrared (IR) thermography is widely used in fusion research to study power exhaust and incident heat load onto the plasma facing components. Due to the short pulse duration of today's fusion experiments, IR systems have mostly been designed for off-line data analysis. For future long pulse devices (e.g., Wendelstein 7-X, ITER), a real time evaluation of the target temperature and heat flux is mandatory. This paper shows the development of a real time capable IR system for ASDEX Upgrade. A compact IR camera has been designed incorporating the necessary magnetic and electric shielding for the detector, cooler assembly. The camera communication is based on the Camera Link industry standard. The data acquisition hardware is based on National Instruments hardware, consisting of a PXIe chassis inside and a fibre optical connected industry computer outside the torus hall. Image processing and data evaluation are performed using real time LabVIEW.

  11. Simultaneous real-time monitoring of multiple cortical systems

    Gupta, Disha; Hill, N. Jeremy; Brunner, Peter; Gunduz, Aysegul; Ritaccio, Anthony L.; Schalk, Gerwin


    Objective. Real-time monitoring of the brain is potentially valuable for performance monitoring, communication, training or rehabilitation. In natural situations, the brain performs a complex mix of various sensory, motor or cognitive functions. Thus, real-time brain monitoring would be most valuable if (a) it could decode information from multiple brain systems simultaneously, and (b) this decoding of each brain system were robust to variations in the activity of other (unrelated) brain systems. Previous studies showed that it is possible to decode some information from different brain systems in retrospect and/or in isolation. In our study, we set out to determine whether it is possible to simultaneously decode important information about a user from different brain systems in real time, and to evaluate the impact of concurrent activity in different brain systems on decoding performance. Approach. We study these questions using electrocorticographic signals recorded in humans. We first document procedures for generating stable decoding models given little training data, and then report their use for offline and for real-time decoding from 12 subjects (six for offline parameter optimization, six for online experimentation). The subjects engage in tasks that involve movement intention, movement execution and auditory functions, separately, and then simultaneously. Main results. Our real-time results demonstrate that our system can identify intention and movement periods in single trials with an accuracy of 80.4% and 86.8%, respectively (where 50% would be expected by chance). Simultaneously, the decoding of the power envelope of an auditory stimulus resulted in an average correlation coefficient of 0.37 between the actual and decoded power envelopes. These decoders were trained separately and executed simultaneously in real time. Significance. This study yielded the first demonstration that it is possible to decode simultaneously the functional activity of multiple

  12. New real time needle segmentation technique using grayscale Hough transformation

    Qiu, Wu; Zhou, Hua; Ding, Mingyue; Zhang, Songgeng


    Real-time needle segmentation and tracking is very important in image-guided surgery, biopsy, and therapy. In this paper, we described an automated technique to provide real-time needle segmentation from a sequence of 2-D ultrasound images for the use of guidance of a needle to the target in soft tissues. The Hough transform is used to find straight lines or analytic curves in binary image. Hough transform is applied usually to binary images. Hence one needs to convert, initially, the gray level image to a binary one (through thresholding, edge detection, or thinning) in order to apply the HT. While in the process of binarization, some information about line segments in the image may be lost when an inappropriate threshold is used. Gray-Scale Hough Transform can detect the line without binarization. Unfortunately, its high computational cost often prevents it from being applied in real-time applications without the help of specially designed hardware. In this paper, we proposed a needle segmentation technique based on a real-time gray-scale Hough transform. It is composed of an improved Gray Hough Transformation and a coarse-fine search strategy. Furthermore, the RTGHT (Real-Time Gray-Scale Hough Transform) technique is evaluated by patient breast biopsy images. Experiments with patient breast biopsy ultrasound (US) image sequences showed that our approach can segment the biopsy needle in real time (i.e., less than 60 ms) with the angular rms error of about 1° and the position rms error of about 0.5 mm an affordable PC computer without the help of specially designed hardware.

  13. High performance real-time flight simulation at NASA Langley

    Cleveland, Jeff I., II


    In order to meet the stringent time-critical requirements for real-time man-in-the-loop flight simulation, computer processing operations must be deterministic and be completed in as short a time as possible. This includes simulation mathematical model computational and data input/output to the simulators. In 1986, in response to increased demands for flight simulation performance, personnel at NASA's Langley Research Center (LaRC), working with the contractor, developed extensions to a standard input/output system to provide for high bandwidth, low latency data acquisition and distribution. The Computer Automated Measurement and Control technology (IEEE standard 595) was extended to meet the performance requirements for real-time simulation. This technology extension increased the effective bandwidth by a factor of ten and increased the performance of modules necessary for simulator communications. This technology is being used by more than 80 leading technological developers in the United States, Canada, and Europe. Included among the commercial applications of this technology are nuclear process control, power grid analysis, process monitoring, real-time simulation, and radar data acquisition. Personnel at LaRC have completed the development of the use of supercomputers for simulation mathematical model computational to support real-time flight simulation. This includes the development of a real-time operating system and the development of specialized software and hardware for the CAMAC simulator network. This work, coupled with the use of an open systems software architecture, has advanced the state of the art in real time flight simulation. The data acquisition technology innovation and experience with recent developments in this technology are described.

  14. Real-time indoor and outdoor measurements of black carbon at primary schools

    Reche, C.; Rivas, I.; Pandolfi, M.; Viana, M.; Bouso, L.; Àlvarez-Pedrerol, M.; Alastuey, A.; Sunyer, J.; Querol, X.


    Epidemiological and toxicological studies have demonstrated the association between Black Carbon in indoor and outdoor air and the occurrence of health risks. Data on air quality in schools is of special interest, as children are more vulnerable to health hazards. In this context, indoor and outdoor measurements of real-time Equivalent Black Carbon (EBC) were collected at 39 primary schools located in Barcelona (Spain), with classrooms naturally ventilated under warm weather conditions. A main contribution of road traffic emissions to indoor and outdoor EBC levels was evidenced through different approaches. Simultaneous measurements of EBC levels at schools under different traffic conditions revealed concentrations by 30-35% higher at schools exposed to higher vehicles intensities. Moreover, a significant correlation was obtained between average outdoor EBC levels at different districts of the city and the percentage of surface area in each district used for the road network (R2 = 0.61). Higher indoor than outdoor levels were recorded at some instances when the indoor sampling location was relatively closer to road traffic, even under low outdoor temperatures. Indeed, the average indoor/outdoor EBC ratios for each school correlate moderately between campaigns in spite of significant differences in temperature between sampling periods. These two facts highlight the strong dependency of the EBC levels on the distance to traffic. The peaks of exposure inside the classrooms seemed to be determined by outdoor concentrations, as shown by the parallelism between indoor and outdoor mean EBC daily cycles and the similar contribution of traffic rush hours to indoor and outdoor daily mean levels. The airtightness of the classroom was suggested as the responsible for the indoor/outdoor ratios of EBC higher than 1 recorded at nights.

  15. Infrared Image Real-time Enhancement Based on DSP

    DAI Shao-sheng; YUAN Xiang-hui; XUE Lian


    Since image real- time processing requires vast amount of computation and high- speed hardware,it is difficult to be implemented with general microcomputer system. In order to solve the problem,a powerful digital signal processing (DSP) hardware system is proposed,which is able to meet needs of image real-time processing. There are many approaches to enhance infrared image. But only histogram equalization is discussed because it is the most common and effective way. On the basis of histogram equalization principle, the specific procedures implemented in DSP are shown. At last the experimental results are given.

  16. The StarLite Project Prototyping Real-Time Software


    An Annual Report ( -A D-A242 032 Grant No. N00014-91-J-1102 t 1III iII I 1IIIII 11111i II’ October 1, 1990 - September 30, 1991 THE STARLITE PROJECT...1990 - September 30, 1991 THE STARLITE PROJECT PROTOTYPING REAL-TIME SOFTWARE I Submitted to: Scientific Officer Code: 1211 Dr. James G. Smith Office...DATES COVERED 4 October 1991 Annual 10/1/90 - 9/30/91 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS The Starlite Project - Prototyping Real-Time Software

  17. Requirements Specifications Checking of Embedded Real-Time Software

    WU Guoqing(毋国庆); SHU Fengdi(舒风笛); WANG Min(王敏); CHEN Weiqing(陈伟清)


    After introducing the overview of our requirements description model HRFSM,the paper presents a dynamic software execution model (DERTS) of embedded real-time software, which can integrate control flow, data flow and time. Based on DERTS, a checking method is also presented. It consists of three kinds of checking and can check the consistency and completeness of the requirement specifications of embedded real-time software. Besides providing information helpful to improve the efficiency of analyzing and checking specifications,the checking method is flexible, and easy to understand and to use for the analyst.

  18. Integration of Real-Time Data Into Building Automation Systems

    Mark J. Stunder; Perry Sebastian; Brenda A. Chube; Michael D. Koontz


    The project goal was to investigate the possibility of using predictive real-time information from the Internet as an input to building management system algorithms. The objectives were to identify the types of information most valuable to commercial and residential building owners, managers, and system designers. To comprehensively investigate and document currently available electronic real-time information suitable for use in building management systems. Verify the reliability of the information and recommend accreditation methods for data and providers. Assess methodologies to automatically retrieve and utilize the information. Characterize equipment required to implement automated integration. Demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of using the information in building management systems. Identify evolutionary control strategies.

  19. Steerable real-time sonographically guided needle biopsy.

    Buonocore, E; Skipper, G J


    A method for dynamic real-time ultrasonic guidance for percutaneous needle biopsy has been successful in obtaining cytologic and histologic specimens from abdominal masses. The system depends on a real-time ultrasonic transducer that has been rigidly attached to a laterally placed steerable needle holder. Using simple trigonometric functions, a chart has been derived that gives the exact angulation and needle length to produce quick, reliable, guided needle placements. Examples of successful renal, hepatobiliary, and retroperitoneal biopsies are presented. Advantages of this technique include speed, accuracy, low cost, three-dimensional format, and the omission of contrast media and radiation.

  20. Weak Serializable Concurrency Control in Real-time Broadcast Environments


    Given the asymmetric communication capabilities in mobile real-time environments, traditional serializability-based approaches are too restrictive, unnecessary, and impractical. Thus propose the use of a new weaker correctness criterion is proposed. This paper first formally defines the new notion of correctness called weak serializability. After the necessary and sufficient conditions for weak serializability are shown, corresponding concurrency control protocol based on this criterion is outlined for real-time broadcast environments. Finally, the simulation results confirmed that the proposed techniques help mobile transactions to meet their deadlines and improve query response time.