WorldWideScience

Sample records for real-time digital signal

  1. Real-time digital signal processing fundamentals, implementations and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kuo, Sen M; Tian, Wenshun

    2013-01-01

    Combines both the DSP principles and real-time implementations and applications, and now updated with the new eZdsp USB Stick, which is very low cost, portable and widely employed at many DSP labs. Real-Time Digital Signal Processing introduces fundamental digital signal processing (DSP) principles and will be updated to include the latest DSP applications, introduce new software development tools and adjust the software design process to reflect the latest advances in the field. In the 3rd edition of the book, the key aspect of hands-on experiments will be enhanced to make the DSP principle

  2. Real time implementation of a linear predictive coding algorithm on digital signal processor DSP32C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, N.M.; Usman, S.R.; Fatima, S.

    2002-01-01

    Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) has been widely used in speech coding. However, due to its high bit rate. PCM has severe limitations in application where high spectral efficiency is desired, for example, in mobile communication, CD quality broadcasting system etc. These limitation have motivated research in bit rate reduction techniques. Linear predictive coding (LPC) is one of the most powerful complex techniques for bit rate reduction. With the introduction of powerful digital signal processors (DSP) it is possible to implement the complex LPC algorithm in real time. In this paper we present a real time implementation of the LPC algorithm on AT and T's DSP32C at a sampling frequency of 8192 HZ. Application of the LPC algorithm on two speech signals is discussed. Using this implementation , a bit rate reduction of 1:3 is achieved for better than tool quality speech, while a reduction of 1.16 is possible for speech quality required in military applications. (author)

  3. Real Time Phase Noise Meter Based on a Digital Signal Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angrisani, Leopoldo; D'Arco, Mauro; Greenhall, Charles A.; Schiano Lo Morille, Rosario

    2006-01-01

    A digital signal-processing meter for phase noise measurement on sinusoidal signals is dealt with. It enlists a special hardware architecture, made up of a core digital signal processor connected to a data acquisition board, and takes advantage of a quadrature demodulation-based measurement scheme, already proposed by the authors. Thanks to an efficient measurement process and an optimized implementation of its fundamental stages, the proposed meter succeeds in exploiting all hardware resources in such an effective way as to gain high performance and real-time operation. For input frequencies up to some hundreds of kilohertz, the meter is capable both of updating phase noise power spectrum while seamlessly capturing the analyzed signal into its memory, and granting as good frequency resolution as few units of hertz.

  4. Front-end data reduction of diagnostic signals by real-time digital filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zasche, D.; Fahrbach, H.U.; Harmeyer, E.

    1984-01-01

    Diagnostic measurements on a fusion plasma with high resolution in space, time and signal amplitude involve handling large amounts of data. In the design of the soft-X-ray pinhole camera diagnostic for JET (100 detectors in 2 cameras) a new approach to this problem was found. The analogue-to-digital conversion is performed continuously at the highest sample rate of 200 kHz, lower sample rates (10 kHz, 1 kHz, 100 Hz) are obtained by real-time digital filters which calculate weighted averages over consecutive samples and are undersampled at their outputs to reduce the data rate. At any time, the signals from all detectors are available at all possible data rates in ring buffers. The appropriate data rate can always be recorded on demand. (author)

  5. Climate Signals: An On-Line Digital Platform for Mapping Climate Change Impacts in Real Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting, H.

    2016-12-01

    Climate Signals is an on-line digital platform for cataloging and mapping the impacts of climate change. The CS platform specifies and details the chains of connections between greenhouse gas emissions and individual climate events. Currently in open-beta release, the platform is designed to to engage and serve the general public, news media, and policy-makers, particularly in real-time during extreme climate events. Climate Signals consists of a curated relational database of events and their links to climate change, a mapping engine, and a gallery of climate change monitors offering real-time data. For each event in the database, an infographic engine provides a custom attribution "tree" that illustrates the connections to climate change. In addition, links to key contextual resources are aggregated and curated for each event. All event records are fully annotated with detailed source citations and corresponding hyper links. The system of attribution used to link events to climate change in real-time is detailed here. This open-beta release is offered for public user testing and engagement. Launched in May 2016, the operation of this platform offers lessons for public engagement in climate change impacts.

  6. Front-end data reduction of diagnostic signals by real-time digital filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zasche, D.; Fahrbach, H.U.; Harmeyer, E.

    1985-01-01

    Diagnostic measurements on a fusion plasma with high resolution in space, time and signal amplitude involve handling large amounts of data. In the design of the soft-X-ray pinhole camera diagnostic for JET (100 detectors in 2 cameras) a new approach to this problem was found. The analogue-to-digital conversion is performed continuously at the highest sample rate of 200 kHz, lower sample rates (10 kHz, 1 kHz, 100 Hz) are obtained by real-time digital filters which calculate weighted averages over consecutive samples and are undersampled at their outputs to reduce the data rate. At any time, the signals from all detectors are available at all possible data rates in ring buffers. Thus the appropriate data rate can always be recorded on demand (preprogrammed or triggered by the experiment). With this system a reduction of the raw data by a factor of up to 2000 (typically 200) is possible without severe loss of information

  7. Real-Time Digital Signal Processing Based on FPGAs for Electronic Skin Implementation †

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ibrahim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Enabling touch-sensing capability would help appliances understand interaction behaviors with their surroundings. Many recent studies are focusing on the development of electronic skin because of its necessity in various application domains, namely autonomous artificial intelligence (e.g., robots, biomedical instrumentation, and replacement prosthetic devices. An essential task of the electronic skin system is to locally process the tactile data and send structured information either to mimic human skin or to respond to the application demands. The electronic skin must be fabricated together with an embedded electronic system which has the role of acquiring the tactile data, processing, and extracting structured information. On the other hand, processing tactile data requires efficient methods to extract meaningful information from raw sensor data. Machine learning represents an effective method for data analysis in many domains: it has recently demonstrated its effectiveness in processing tactile sensor data. In this framework, this paper presents the implementation of digital signal processing based on FPGAs for tactile data processing. It provides the implementation of a tensorial kernel function for a machine learning approach. Implementation results are assessed by highlighting the FPGA resource utilization and power consumption. Results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed implementation when real-time classification of input touch modalities are targeted.

  8. Key technology research of nuclear signal digitized pulse shaping in real time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jianbin; Wang Min; Zhou Wei; Zhu Xing; Liu Yi; Chen Bao; Lu Baoping; Yue Aizhong; Qin Li; He Xuxin

    2014-01-01

    The computer simulation and analysis were carried out for the ideal nuclear pulse signal and the actual detector output signals, and the determination method of digital trapezoidal shape parameter for different nuclear pulse shaping time was summarized. At high count rate measurement occasion, the effective count rate is increased, some pile-up pulses are eliminated and the accumulation of dead time of the system is reduced. Meanwhile, Si-PIN semiconductor detector performance was tested by 256 points and 512 points digital triangle forming methods and the analog circuit forming methods for comparative tests. Test results show that the pulse forming treatment method increases the count rate performance and the resolution of detector. (authors)

  9. A GI Proposal to Display ECG Digital Signals Wirelessly Real-time Transmitted onto a Remote PC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Corneliu Rosu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The sensors, as wireless communication system, comply the 7-layer model Open Systems Interconnection (OSI. In this paper, a point-to-point transmission model was used. The ECG signal is transmitted from the Router Sensor (RS to an end Coordinator Node (CN plugged-in to the laptop via USB port; RS acquires ECG signal in analogical mode, and is also responsible with sampling, quantization and sending it wirelessly direct to CN. The distance between RS and CN is a single-hop transmission, and does not exceed the range of the XBeeS2Pro transceivers. The communication protocol is ZigBee. Remote viewing of the transmitted signal is performed on a Graphical Interface (GI written under MATLAB, after the signal has been digitized; the choice of MATLAB was motivated by future developments. Particular aspects will be highlighted, so that the reader to be edified about the results obtained during laboratory experiments. Recording demonstrate that the purpose exposed in title has been reached: Direct link in Real-Time was established, and the digital ECG signal received is reconstituted accurately on MATLAB GI; signal received on laptop is compared with the analog signal displayed on oscilloscope.

  10. Real-time digital signal recovery for a multi-pole low-pass transfer function system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jhinhwan

    2017-08-01

    In order to solve the problems of waveform distortion and signal delay by many physical and electrical systems with multi-pole linear low-pass transfer characteristics, a simple digital-signal-processing (DSP)-based method of real-time recovery of the original source waveform from the distorted output waveform is proposed. A mathematical analysis on the convolution kernel representation of the single-pole low-pass transfer function shows that the original source waveform can be accurately recovered in real time using a particular moving average algorithm applied on the input stream of the distorted waveform, which can also significantly reduce the overall delay time constant. This method is generalized for multi-pole low-pass systems and has noise characteristics of the inverse of the low-pass filter characteristics. This method can be applied to most sensors and amplifiers operating close to their frequency response limits to improve the overall performance of data acquisition systems and digital feedback control systems.

  11. Axial Tomography from Digitized Real Time Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolnay, A. S.; McDonald, W. M.; Doupont, P. A.; McKinney, R. L.; Lee, M. M.

    1985-01-18

    Axial tomography from digitized real time radiographs provides a useful tool for industrial radiography and tomography. The components of this system are: x-ray source, image intensifier, video camera, video line extractor and digitizer, data storage and reconstruction computers. With this system it is possible to view a two dimensional x-ray image in real time at each angle of rotation and select the tomography plane of interest by choosing which video line to digitize. The digitization of a video line requires less than a second making data acquisition relatively short. Further improvements on this system are planned and initial results are reported.

  12. Research on control law accelerator of digital signal process chip TMS320F28035 for real-time data acquisition and processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuangle; Zhang, Xueyi; Sun, Shengli; Wang, Xudong

    2017-08-01

    TI C2000 series digital signal process (DSP) chip has been widely used in electrical engineering, measurement and control, communications and other professional fields, DSP TMS320F28035 is one of the most representative of a kind. When using the DSP program, need data acquisition and data processing, and if the use of common mode C or assembly language programming, the program sequence, analogue-to-digital (AD) converter cannot be real-time acquisition, often missing a lot of data. The control low accelerator (CLA) processor can run in parallel with the main central processing unit (CPU), and the frequency is consistent with the main CPU, and has the function of floating point operations. Therefore, the CLA coprocessor is used in the program, and the CLA kernel is responsible for data processing. The main CPU is responsible for the AD conversion. The advantage of this method is to reduce the time of data processing and realize the real-time performance of data acquisition.

  13. SignalR real time application development

    CERN Document Server

    Ingebrigtsen, Einar

    2013-01-01

    This step-by-step guide gives you practical advice, tips, and tricks that will have you writing real-time apps quickly and easily.If you are a .NET developer who wants to be at the cutting edge of development, then this book is for you. Real-time application development is made simple in this guide, so as long as you have basic knowledge of .NET, a copy of Visual Studio, and NuGet installed, you are ready to go.

  14. Prototype real-time baseband signal combiner. [deep space network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, L. D.

    1980-01-01

    The design and performance of a prototype real-time baseband signal combiner, used to enhance the received Voyager 2 spacecraft signals during the Jupiter flyby, is described. Hardware delay paths, operating programs, and firmware are discussed.

  15. Real-time GPS Signal Simulator

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — With a minimal FTE investment and no additional procurement funds, the development of a low fidelity orbital GPS Signal simulator would is possible.  This IRAD...

  16. Distributed digital real-time control system for TCV tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, H.B. [École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), Association EURATOM-Confédération Suisse, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Felici, F. [Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Paley, J.I.; Duval, B.P.; Moret, J.-M.; Coda, S.; Sauter, O.; Fasel, D.; Marmillod, P. [École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), Association EURATOM-Confédération Suisse, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • A new distributed digital control system for the TCV tokamak has been commissioned. • Data is shared in real-time between all nodes using the reflective memory. • The customised Linux OS allows achieving deterministic and low latency behaviour. • The control algorithm design in Simulink together with the automatic code generation using Embedded Coder allow rapid algorithm development. • Controllers designed outside the TCV environment can be ported easily. • The previous control system functions have been emulated and improved. • New capabilities include MHD control, profile control, equilibrium reconstruction. - Abstract: A new digital feedback control system (named the SCD “Système de Contrôle Distribué”) has been developed, integrated and used successfully to control TCV (Tokamak à Configuration Variable) plasmas. The system is designed to be modular, distributed, and scalable, accommodating hundreds of diagnostic inputs and actuator outputs. With many more inputs and outputs available than previously possible, it offers the possibility to design advanced control algorithms with better knowledge of the plasma state and to coherently control all TCV actuators, including poloidal field (PF) coils, gas valves, the gyrotron powers and launcher angles of the electron cyclotron heating and current drive system (ECRH/ECCD) together with diagnostic triggering signals. The system consists of multiple nodes; each is a customised Linux desktop or embedded PC which may have local ADC and DAC cards. Each node is also connected to a memory network (reflective memory) providing a reliable, deterministic method of sharing memory between all nodes. Control algorithms are programmed as block diagrams in Matlab-Simulink providing a powerful environment for modelling and control design. The C code is generated automatically from the Simulink block diagram and compiled, with the Simulink Embedded Coder (SEC, formerly Real-Time Workshop Embedded

  17. Real-time pulse deinterleaving using digital delay line techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, L. F.; Palermo, T. J.

    This paper describes an implementation of a tracking pulse sorter based on predictive gating techniques. Real-time pulse sorters or pulse train gating devices have been utilized by the ELINT signal analyst for many years. The more elementary of these devices employed a retriggerable delay interval and an acceptance gate, which were used in predictive fashion to track pulse trains whose PRIs fall within the limits of the programmed delay interval. This design utilizes the pulse hit/miss history of individual track files in a variation of a sequential observer detection algorithm. Use of a digital delay line with pulse history allows multiple pulse trains to be tracked simultaneously and independently without interference. The design also provides flexibility in lock-on and track criteria to allow maintenance of acquisition probability and false alarm rate in dense signal environments and with low SNRs. The hardware provides time interval resolution to 12.5 nsec and covers a PRI range of 50 microsec to 50 msec.

  18. Real-time numerical processing for HPGE detectors signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eric Barat; Thomas Dautremer; Laurent Laribiere; Jean Christophe Trama

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Concerning the gamma spectrometry, technology progresses in the processor field makes very conceivable and attractive executing complex real-time digital process. Only some simplified and rigid treatments can be find in the market up to now. Indeed, the historical solution used for 50 years consists of performing a so-called 'cusp' filtering and disturbing the optimal shape in order to shrink and/or truncate it. This tuning largely determined by the input count rate (ICR) the user expects to measure is then a compromise between the resolution and the throughput. Because it is not possible to tune it for each pulse, that is a kind of 'leveling down' which is made: the energy of each pulse is not as well estimated as it could be. The new approach proposed here avoids totally this restricting hand tuning. The innovation lies in the modelling of the shot-noise signal as a Jump Markov Linear System. The jump is the occurrence of a pulse in the signal. From this model, we developed an algorithm which makes possible the on-line estimation of the energies without having to temporally enlarge the pulses as the cusp filter does. The algorithm first determines whether there is a pulse or not at each time, then conditionally to this information, it performs an optimal Kalman smoother. Thanks to this global optimization, this allows us to dramatically increase the compromise throughput versus resolution, gaining an important factor on a commercial device concerning the admissible ICR (more than 1 million counts per second admissible). A huge advantage of the absence of hand tuning is that the system accepts fluctuating ICR. To validate the concept we built a real time demonstrator. First, our equipment is composed of an electronic stage which prepared the signal coming from the preamplifier of the detector and optimized the signal-to-noise ratio. Then the signal is sampled at 10 MHz and the powerful of two Pentium running at 3 GHz is enough to

  19. An In-Home Digital Network Architecture for Real-Time and Non-Real-Time Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Johan; Jansen, P.G.; Hanssen, F.T.Y.; Hattink, Tjalling

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes an in-home digital network architecture that supports both real-time and non-real-time communication. The architecture deploys a distributed token mechanism to schedule communication streams and to offer guaranteed quality-ofservice. Essentially, the token mechanism prevents

  20. Real-time multiplexed digital cavity-enhanced spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyson, Toby K.; Dagdigian, Paul J.; Pavey, Karl D.; Fitzgerald, Nicholas J.; Spence, Thomas G.; Moore, David S.; Harb, Charles C.

    2015-01-01

    Cavity-enhanced spectroscopy is a sensitive optical absorption technique but one where the practical applications have been limited to studying small wavelength ranges. In addition, this Letter shows that wideband operation can be achieved by combining techniques usually reserved for the communications community with that of cavity-enhanced spectroscopy, producing a multiplexed real-time cavity-enhanced spectrometer. We use multiple collinear laser sources operating asynchronously and simultaneously while being detected on a single photodetector. This is synonymous with radio frequency (RF) cellular systems in which signals are detected on a single antenna but decoded uniquely. Here, we demonstrate results with spectra of methyl salicylate and show parts-per-billion per root hertz sensitivity measured in real-time

  1. Real-time digital x-ray subtraction imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mistretta, C.A.; Kruger, R.A.; Houk, T.L.

    1982-01-01

    A method of producing visible difference images derived from an x-ray image of an anatomical subject is described. X-rays are directed through the subject, and the image is converted into television fields comprising trains of analog video signals. The analog signals are converted into digital signals, which are then integrated over a predetermined time corresponding to several television fields. Difference video signals are produced by performing a subtraction between the ongoing video signals and the corresponding integrated signals, and are converted into visible television difference images representing changes in the x-ray image

  2. Real-time digital x-ray subtraction imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mistretta, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    The invention provides a method of producing visible difference images derived from an X-ray image of an anatomical subject, comprising the steps of directing X-rays through the anatomical subject for producing an image, converting the image into television fields comprising trains of on-going video signals, digitally storing and integrating the on-going video signals over a time interval corresponding to several successive television fields and thereby producing stored and integrated video signals, recovering the video signals from storage and producing integrated video signals, producing video difference signals by performing a subtraction between the integrated video signals and the on-going video signals outside the time interval, and converting the difference signals into visible television difference images representing on-going changes in the X-ray image

  3. SignalR real-time application cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Vespa, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    This book contains illustrated code examples to help you create real-time, asynchronous, and bi-directional client-server applications. Each recipe will concentrate on one specific aspect of application development with SignalR showing you how that aspect can be used proficiently. Different levels of developers will find this book useful. Beginners will be able to learn all the fundamental concepts of SignalR, quickly becoming productive in a difficult arena. Experienced programmers will find in this book a handy and useful collection of ready-made solutions to common use cases, which they wil

  4. Microcomputer-based real-time optical signal processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, F. T. S.; Cao, M. F.; Ludman, J. E.

    1986-01-01

    A microcomputer-based real-time programmable optical signal processing system utilizing a Magneto-Optic Spatial Light Modulator (MOSLM) and a Liquid Crystal Light Valve (LCLV) is described. This system can perform a myriad of complicated optical operations, such as image correlation, image subtraction, matrix multiplication and many others. The important assets of this proposed system must be the programmability and the capability of real-time addressing. The design specification and the progress toward practical implementation of this proposed system are discussed. Some preliminary experimental demonstrations are conducted. The feasible applications of this proposed system to image correlation for optical pattern recognition, image subtraction for IC chip inspection and matrix multiplication for optical computing are demonstrated.

  5. Real-time digital X-ray subtraction imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mistretta, C.A.; Kruger, R.A.; Houk, T.L.

    1979-01-01

    A diagnostic anatomical X-ray apparatus comprising a converter and a television camera for converting an X-ray image of a subject into a series of television fields of video signals is described in detail. A digital memory system stores and integrates the video signals over a time interval corresponding to a plurality of successive television fields. The integrated video signals are recovered from storage and fed to a digital or analogue subtractor, the resulting output being displayed on a television monitor. Thus the display represents on-going changes in the anatomical X-ray image. In a modification, successive groups of fields are stored and integrated in three memories, cyclically, and subtractions are performed between successive pieces of integrated signals to provide a display of successive alterations in the X-ray image. For investigations of the heart, the integrating interval should be of the order of one cardiac cycle. (author)

  6. Evaluation of real-time digital pulse shapers with various HPGe and silicon radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menaa, N.; D'Agostino, P.; Zakrzewski, B.; Jordanov, V.T.

    2011-01-01

    Real-time digital pulse shaping techniques allow synthesis of pulse shapes that have been difficult to realize using the traditional analog methods. Using real-time digital shapers, triangular/trapezoidal filters can be synthesized in real time. These filters exhibit digital control on the rise time, fall time, and flat-top of the trapezoidal shape. Thus, the trapezoidal shape can be adjusted for optimum performance at different distributions of the series and parallel noise. The trapezoidal weighting function (WF) represents the optimum time-limited pulse shape when only parallel and series noises are present in the detector system. In the presence of 1/F noise, the optimum WF changes depending on the 1/F noise contribution. In this paper, we report on the results of the evaluation of new filter types for processing signals from CANBERRA high purity germanium (HPGe) and passivated, implanted, planar silicon (PIPS) detectors. The objective of the evaluation is to determine improvements in performance over the current trapezoidal (digital) filter. The evaluation is performed using a customized CANBERRA digital signal processing unit that is fitted with new FPGA designs and any required firmware modifications to support operation of the new filters. The evaluated filters include the Cusp, one-over-F (1/F), and pseudo-Gaussian filters. The results are compared with the CANBERRA trapezoidal shaper.

  7. Real time pressure signal system for a rotary engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, W. J. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A real-time IMEP signal which is a composite of those produced in any one chamber of a three-lobed rotary engine is developed by processing the signals of four transducers positioned in a Wankel engine housing such that the rotor overlaps two of the transducers for a brief period during each cycle. During the overlap period of any two transducers, their output is compared and sampled for 10 microseconds per 0.18 degree of rotation by a sampling switch and capacitive circuit. When the switch is closed, the instantaneous difference between the value of the transducer signals is provided while with the switch open the average difference is produced. This combined signal, along with the original signal of the second transducer, is fed through a multiplexer to a pressure output terminal. Timing circuits, controlled by a crank angle encoder on the engine, determine which compared transducer signals are applied to the output terminal and when, as well as the open and closed periods of the switches.

  8. Implementation of real-time digital endoscopic image processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chul Gyu; Lee, Young Mook; Lee, Sang Min; Kim, Won Ky; Lee, Jae Ho; Lee, Myoung Ho

    1997-10-01

    Endoscopy has become a crucial diagnostic and therapeutic procedure in clinical areas. Over the past four years, we have developed a computerized system to record and store clinical data pertaining to endoscopic surgery of laparascopic cholecystectomy, pelviscopic endometriosis, and surgical arthroscopy. In this study, we developed a computer system, which is composed of a frame grabber, a sound board, a VCR control board, a LAN card and EDMS. Also, computer system controls peripheral instruments such as a color video printer, a video cassette recorder, and endoscopic input/output signals. Digital endoscopic data management system is based on open architecture and a set of widely available industry standards; namely Microsoft Windows as an operating system, TCP/IP as a network protocol and a time sequential database that handles both images and speech. For the purpose of data storage, we used MOD and CD- R. Digital endoscopic system was designed to be able to store, recreate, change, and compress signals and medical images. Computerized endoscopy enables us to generate and manipulate the original visual document, making it accessible to a virtually unlimited number of physicians.

  9. The Necessity of Real-Time: Fact and Fiction in Digital Reference Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankes, R. David; Shostack, Pauline

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of digital reference services and the use of real-time versus asynchronous services such as email focuses on data from the AskERIC digital reference service to demonstrate that asynchronous services are not only useful but may have greater utility than real-time systems. (Author/LRW)

  10. Adaptive digital image processing in real time: First clinical experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, M.P.; Baily, N.A.; Hier, R.G.; Edwards, D.K.; Tainer, L.B.; Sartoris, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    The promise of computer image processing has generally not been realized in radiology, partly because the methods advanced to date have been expensive, time-consuming, or inconvenient for clinical use. The authors describe a low-cost system which performs complex image processing operations on-line at video rates. The method uses a combination of unsharp mask subtraction (for low-frequency suppression) and statistical differencing (which adjusts the gain at each point of the image on the basis of its variation from a local mean). The operator interactively adjusts aperture size, contrast gain, background subtraction, and spatial noise reduction. The system is being evaluated for on-line fluoroscopic enhancement, for which phantom measurements and clinical results, including lithotripsy, are presented. When used with a video camera, postprocessing of radiographs was advantageous in a variety of studies, including neonatal chest studies. Real-time speed allows use of the system in the reading room as a ''variable view box.''

  11. Interactive Construction Digital Tools With Real Time Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitgaard, Jens; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2007-01-01

    . The aim of this research is to look into integrated digital design and analysis tools in order to find out if it is suited for use by architects and designers or only by specialists and technicians - and if not, then to look at what can be done to make them more available to architects and designers...... an architect-engineer or hybrid practitioner works simultaneously with both aesthetic and technical design requirements. In this paper the problem of a vague or not existing link between digital design tools, used by architects and designers, and the analysis tools developed by and for engineers is considered......The recent developments in computational design tools have evolved into a sometimes purely digital process which opens up for new perspectives and problems in the sketching process. One of the interesting possibilities lay within the hybrid practitioner- or architect-engineer approach, where...

  12. Real-time implementations of acoustic signal enhancement techniques for aerial based surveillance and rescue applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Antonio L. L.; Shao, Zhili; Holthe, Aleksander; Sandli, Mathias F.

    2017-05-01

    The introduction of the System-on-Chip (SoC) technology has brought exciting new opportunities for the development of smart low cost embedded systems spanning a wide range of applications. Currently available SoC devices are capable of performing high speed digital signal processing tasks in software while featuring relatively low development costs and reduced time-to-market. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) are an application example that has shown tremendous potential in an increasing number of scenarios, ranging from leisure to surveillance as well as in search and rescue missions. Video capturing from UAV platforms is a relatively straightforward task that requires almost no preprocessing. However, that does not apply to audio signals, especially in cases where the data is to be used to support real-time decision making. In fact, the enormous amount of acoustic interference from the surroundings, including the noise from the UAVs propellers, becomes a huge problem. This paper discusses a real-time implementation of the NLMS adaptive filtering algorithm applied to enhancing acoustic signals captured from UAV platforms. The model relies on a combination of acoustic sensors and a computational inexpensive algorithm running on a digital signal processor. Given its simplicity, this solution can be incorporated into the main processing system of an UAV using the SoC technology, and run concurrently with other required tasks, such as flight control and communications. Simulations and real-time DSP-based implementations have shown significant signal enhancement results by efficiently mitigating the interference from the noise generated by the UAVs propellers as well as from other external noise sources.

  13. A novel time-domain signal processing algorithm for real time ventricular fibrillation detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte, G E; Scarone, N C; Liscovsky, P O; Rotter, P

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an application of a novel algorithm for real time detection of ECG pathologies, especially ventricular fibrillation. It is based on segmentation and labeling process of an oversampled signal. After this treatment, analyzing sequence of segments, global signal behaviours are obtained in the same way like a human being does. The entire process can be seen as a morphological filtering after a smart data sampling. The algorithm does not require any ECG digital signal pre-processing, and the computational cost is low, so it can be embedded into the sensors for wearable and permanent applications. The proposed algorithms could be the input signal description to expert systems or to artificial intelligence software in order to detect other pathologies.

  14. A novel time-domain signal processing algorithm for real time ventricular fibrillation detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monte, G. E.; Scarone, N. C.; Liscovsky, P. O.; Rotter S/N, P.

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents an application of a novel algorithm for real time detection of ECG pathologies, especially ventricular fibrillation. It is based on segmentation and labeling process of an oversampled signal. After this treatment, analyzing sequence of segments, global signal behaviours are obtained in the same way like a human being does. The entire process can be seen as a morphological filtering after a smart data sampling. The algorithm does not require any ECG digital signal pre-processing, and the computational cost is low, so it can be embedded into the sensors for wearable and permanent applications. The proposed algorithms could be the input signal description to expert systems or to artificial intelligence software in order to detect other pathologies.

  15. A digital real-time reactivity meter for PFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McWilliams, D.

    1975-08-01

    A digital reactivity meter has been prpduced which is believed to constitute a significant advance over others reported in the literature. The main advantage of this system is its versatility which is brought about by the high degree of interactive operator control which is provided. The reactivity and power are continuously displayed in both graphical and alpha-numeric form on a TV-type of display unit. Data output is by means of an incremental graph plotter, a typewriter, or a high speed paper tape punch. The system has been extensively tested on the Prototype Fast Reactor at Dounreay and is now the standard reactivity measuring method for reactor experiments there. (author)

  16. Real-time digital angiocardiography using a temporal high-pass filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardin, C.W.; Kruger, R.A.; Anderson, F.L.; Bray, B.F.; Nelson, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    A temporal high-pass filtration technique for digital subtraction angiocardiography was studied, using real-time digital studies performed simultaneously with routine cineangiocardiography (cine) for qualitative image comparison. The digital studies showed increased contrast and suppression of background anatomy and also enhanced detection of wall motion abnormalities when compared with cine. The digital images are comparable with, and in some cases better than, cine images. Clinical efficacy of this digital technique is currently being evaluated

  17. Real-time measurement and control at JET signal processing and physics analysis for diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felton, R.; Joffrin, E.; Murari, A.

    2005-01-01

    To meet the requirements of the scientific programme, the EFDA JET real-time measurement and control project has developed an integrated set of real-time plasma measurements, experiment control and communication facilities. Traditional experiments collected instrument data during the plasma pulse and calculated physics data after the pulse. The challenge for continuous tokamak operation is to calculate the physics data in real-time, keeping up with the evolution of the plasma. In JET, many plasma diagnostics have been augmented with extra data acquisition and signal-processing systems so that they can both capture instrument data for conventional post-pulse analysis and calculate calibrated, validated physics results in real-time. During the pulse, the systems send sampled data sets into a network, which distributes the data to several destinations. The receiving systems may do further analysis, integrating data from several measurements, or may control the plasma scenario by heating or fuelling. The simplest real-time diagnostic systems apply scale factors to the signals, as with the electron cyclotron emission (ECE) diagnostic's 96 tuned radiometer channels, giving the electron temperature profile. In various spectroscopy diagnostics, spectral features are least-squares-fitted to measure spectra from several lines of sight, within 50 ms. Ion temperatures and rotation speed can be calculated from the line widths and shifts. For diagnostics using modulation techniques, the systems implement digital-signal processing phase trackers, lock-in amplifiers and filters, e.g., the far infrared (FIR) interferometer samples 15 channels at 400 kHz for 30 s, i.e., six million samples per second. Diagnostics have specific lines of sight, spatial channels, and various sampling rates. The heating/fuelling systems have relatively coarse spatial localisation. Analysis systems have been developed to integrate the basic physics data into smaller sets of controllable parameters on a

  18. Ultra-high throughput real-time instruments for capturing fast signals and rare events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Brandon Walter

    Wide-band signals play important roles in the most exciting areas of science, engineering, and medicine. To keep up with the demands of exploding internet traffic, modern data centers and communication networks are employing increasingly faster data rates. Wide-band techniques such as pulsed radar jamming and spread spectrum frequency hopping are used on the battlefield to wrestle control of the electromagnetic spectrum. Neurons communicate with each other using transient action potentials that last for only milliseconds at a time. And in the search for rare cells, biologists flow large populations of cells single file down microfluidic channels, interrogating them one-by-one, tens of thousands of times per second. Studying and enabling such high-speed phenomena pose enormous technical challenges. For one, parasitic capacitance inherent in analog electrical components limits their response time. Additionally, converting these fast analog signals to the digital domain requires enormous sampling speeds, which can lead to significant jitter and distortion. State-of-the-art imaging technologies, essential for studying biological dynamics and cells in flow, are limited in speed and sensitivity by finite charge transfer and read rates, and by the small numbers of photo-electrons accumulated in short integration times. And finally, ultra-high throughput real-time digital processing is required at the backend to analyze the streaming data. In this thesis, I discuss my work in developing real-time instruments, employing ultrafast optical techniques, which overcome some of these obstacles. In particular, I use broadband dispersive optics to slow down fast signals to speeds accessible to high-bit depth digitizers and signal processors. I also apply telecommunication multiplexing techniques to boost the speeds of confocal fluorescence microscopy. The photonic time stretcher (TiSER) uses dispersive Fourier transformation to slow down analog signals before digitization and

  19. Photonics-based real-time ultra-high-range-resolution radar with broadband signal generation and processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fangzheng; Guo, Qingshui; Pan, Shilong

    2017-10-23

    Real-time and high-resolution target detection is highly desirable in modern radar applications. Electronic techniques have encountered grave difficulties in the development of such radars, which strictly rely on a large instantaneous bandwidth. In this article, a photonics-based real-time high-range-resolution radar is proposed with optical generation and processing of broadband linear frequency modulation (LFM) signals. A broadband LFM signal is generated in the transmitter by photonic frequency quadrupling, and the received echo is de-chirped to a low frequency signal by photonic frequency mixing. The system can operate at a high frequency and a large bandwidth while enabling real-time processing by low-speed analog-to-digital conversion and digital signal processing. A conceptual radar is established. Real-time processing of an 8-GHz LFM signal is achieved with a sampling rate of 500 MSa/s. Accurate distance measurement is implemented with a maximum error of 4 mm within a range of ~3.5 meters. Detection of two targets is demonstrated with a range-resolution as high as 1.875 cm. We believe the proposed radar architecture is a reliable solution to overcome the limitations of current radar on operation bandwidth and processing speed, and it is hopefully to be used in future radars for real-time and high-resolution target detection and imaging.

  20. Real-time digital simulation of power electronics systems with Neutral Point Piloted multilevel inverter using FPGA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakotozafy, Mamianja [Groupe de Recherches en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nancy (GREEN), Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, BP 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre Cedex (France); CONVERTEAM SAS, Parc d' activites Techn' hom, 24 avenue du Marechal Juin, BP 40437, 90008 Belfort Cedex (France); Poure, Philippe [Laboratoire d' Instrumentation Electronique de Nancy (LIEN), Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, BP 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre Cedex (France); Saadate, Shahrokh [Groupe de Recherches en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nancy (GREEN), Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, BP 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre Cedex (France); Bordas, Cedric; Leclere, Loic [CONVERTEAM SAS, Parc d' activites Techn' hom, 24 avenue du Marechal Juin, BP 40437, 90008 Belfort Cedex (France)

    2011-02-15

    Most of actual real time simulation platforms have practically about ten microseconds as minimum calculation time step, mainly due to computation limits such as processing speed, architecture adequacy and modeling complexities. Therefore, simulation of fast switching converters' instantaneous models requires smaller computing time step. The approach presented in this paper proposes an answer to such limited modeling accuracies and computational bandwidth of the currently available digital simulators.As an example, the authors present a low cost, flexible and high performance FPGA-based real-time digital simulator for a complete complex power system with Neutral Point Piloted (NPP) three-level inverter. The proposed real-time simulator can model accurately and efficiently the complete power system, reducing costs, physical space and avoiding any damage to the actual equipment in the case of any dysfunction of the digital controller prototype. The converter model is computed at a small fixed time step as low as 100 ns. Such a computation time step allows high precision account of the gating signals and thus avoids averaging methods and event compensations. Moreover, a novel high performance model of the NPP three-level inverter has also been proposed for FPGA implementation. The proposed FPGA-based simulator models the environment of the NPP converter: the dc link, the RLE load and the digital controller and gating signals. FPGA-based real time simulation results are presented and compared with offline results obtained using PLECS software. They validate the efficiency and accuracy of the modeling for the proposed high performance FPGA-based real-time simulation approach. This paper also introduces new potential FPGA-based applications such as low cost real time simulator for power systems by developing a library of flexible and portable models for power converters, electrical machines and drives. (author)

  1. Implementation of a real-time adaptive digital shaping for nuclear spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regadío, Alberto, E-mail: aregadio@srg.aut.uah.es [Department of Computer Engineering, Space Research Group, Universidad de Alcalá, 28805 Alcalá de Henares (Spain); Electronic Technology Area, Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial, 28850 Torrejón de Ardoz (Spain); Sánchez-Prieto, Sebastián, E-mail: ssanchez@srg.aut.uah.es [Department of Computer Engineering, Space Research Group, Universidad de Alcalá, 28805 Alcalá de Henares (Spain); Prieto, Manuel, E-mail: mprieto@srg.aut.uah.es [Department of Computer Engineering, Space Research Group, Universidad de Alcalá, 28805 Alcalá de Henares (Spain); Tabero, Jesús, E-mail: taberogj@inta.es [Electronic Technology Area, Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial, 28850 Torrejón de Ardoz (Spain)

    2014-01-21

    This paper presents the structure, design and implementation of a new adaptive digital shaper for processing the pulses generated in nuclear particle detectors. The proposed adaptive algorithm has the capacity to automatically adjust the coefficients for shaping an input signal with a desired profile in real-time. Typical shapers such as triangular, trapezoidal or cusp-like ones can be generated, but more exotic unipolar shaping could also be performed. A practical prototype was designed, implemented and tested in a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). Particular attention was paid to the amount of internal FPGA resources required and to the sampling rate, making the design as simple as possible in order to minimize power consumption. Lastly, its performance and capabilities were measured using simulations and a real benchmark.

  2. Implementation of a real-time adaptive digital shaping for nuclear spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regadío, Alberto; Sánchez-Prieto, Sebastián; Prieto, Manuel; Tabero, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the structure, design and implementation of a new adaptive digital shaper for processing the pulses generated in nuclear particle detectors. The proposed adaptive algorithm has the capacity to automatically adjust the coefficients for shaping an input signal with a desired profile in real-time. Typical shapers such as triangular, trapezoidal or cusp-like ones can be generated, but more exotic unipolar shaping could also be performed. A practical prototype was designed, implemented and tested in a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). Particular attention was paid to the amount of internal FPGA resources required and to the sampling rate, making the design as simple as possible in order to minimize power consumption. Lastly, its performance and capabilities were measured using simulations and a real benchmark

  3. Real time event selection and flash analog-to-digital converters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imori, Masatosi

    1983-01-01

    In high-energy particle experiments, high-speed analog logic is employed to select events on a real-time basis. Flash analog-to-digital converters replace the high-speed analog logic with digital logic. The digital logic gives great flexibility to the scheme for real-time event selection. This paper proposes the use of flash A/D converters for the logic used to obtain the total sum of the energy deposited in individual counters in a shower detector. (author)

  4. Real-time detection and discrimination of visual perception using electrocorticographic signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapeller, C.; Ogawa, H.; Schalk, G.; Kunii, N.; Coon, W. G.; Scharinger, J.; Guger, C.; Kamada, K.

    2018-06-01

    Objective. Several neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that the ventral temporal cortex contains specialized regions that process visual stimuli. This study investigated the spatial and temporal dynamics of electrocorticographic (ECoG) responses to different types and colors of visual stimulation that were presented to four human participants, and demonstrated a real-time decoder that detects and discriminates responses to untrained natural images. Approach. ECoG signals from the participants were recorded while they were shown colored and greyscale versions of seven types of visual stimuli (images of faces, objects, bodies, line drawings, digits, and kanji and hiragana characters), resulting in 14 classes for discrimination (experiment I). Additionally, a real-time system asynchronously classified ECoG responses to faces, kanji and black screens presented via a monitor (experiment II), or to natural scenes (i.e. the face of an experimenter, natural images of faces and kanji, and a mirror) (experiment III). Outcome measures in all experiments included the discrimination performance across types based on broadband γ activity. Main results. Experiment I demonstrated an offline classification accuracy of 72.9% when discriminating among the seven types (without color separation). Further discrimination of grey versus colored images reached an accuracy of 67.1%. Discriminating all colors and types (14 classes) yielded an accuracy of 52.1%. In experiment II and III, the real-time decoder correctly detected 73.7% responses to face, kanji and black computer stimuli and 74.8% responses to presented natural scenes. Significance. Seven different types and their color information (either grey or color) could be detected and discriminated using broadband γ activity. Discrimination performance maximized for combined spatial-temporal information. The discrimination of stimulus color information provided the first ECoG-based evidence for color-related population

  5. Advanced Research and Education in Electrical Drives by Using Digital Real-Time Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojoi, R.; Profumo, F.; Griva, G.

    2002-01-01

    The authors present in this paper a digital real-time hardware-in-the-loop simulation of a three-phase induction motor drive. The main real-time simulation tool is the dSPACE DS1103 PPC Controller Board which simulates the power and signal conditioning parts. The control algorithm of the virtual...... drive has been implemented on the Evaluation Board of TMS320F240 DSP. The experimental results validate this solution as a powerful tool to be used in research and advanced education. Thus, the students can put in practic the theory without spending too much time with details concerning the hardware...

  6. Traceable calibration for a digital real-time oscilloscope with time interleaving architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongju; Lee, Joo-Gwang; Lee, Dong-Joon; Cho, Chihyun

    2018-01-01

    Impairments of analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) used in digital real-time oscilloscopes (DRTO) have caused inevitable signal distortions in measurements. To calibrate these errors with traceability, we propose a novel method that consists of two steps. First, each transfer function of the ADCs is measured using pulse trains from a photodiode calibrated up to 110 GHz. Each data set of the ADCs is superimposed to convert the repetitive pulse to a single pulse to solve the under-sampling problem of the separated data depending on each ADC. Then, the signals of the device under test (DUT) are also separated and superimposed depending on the ADCs, and they are calibrated in the frequency domain based on the measured transfer functions. After a calibration process, the data set is reconverted to the time domain to achieve traceable calibration. To verify our method, we have measured the output of another 70 GHz photodiode with a calibrated DRTO. In terms of results, time-interleaved errors are suppressed by more than 24 dB up to the bandwidth of the DRTO.

  7. Instrument for Real-Time Digital Nucleic Acid Amplification on Custom Microfluidic Devices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Selck

    Full Text Available Nucleic acid amplification tests that are coupled with a digital readout enable the absolute quantification of single molecules, even at ultralow concentrations. Digital methods are robust, versatile and compatible with many amplification chemistries including isothermal amplification, making them particularly invaluable to assays that require sensitive detection, such as the quantification of viral load in occult infections or detection of sparse amounts of DNA from forensic samples. A number of microfluidic platforms are being developed for carrying out digital amplification. However, the mechanistic investigation and optimization of digital assays has been limited by the lack of real-time kinetic information about which factors affect the digital efficiency and analytical sensitivity of a reaction. Commercially available instruments that are capable of tracking digital reactions in real-time are restricted to only a small number of device types and sample-preparation strategies. Thus, most researchers who wish to develop, study, or optimize digital assays rely on the rate of the amplification reaction when performed in a bulk experiment, which is now recognized as an unreliable predictor of digital efficiency. To expand our ability to study how digital reactions proceed in real-time and enable us to optimize both the digital efficiency and analytical sensitivity of digital assays, we built a custom large-format digital real-time amplification instrument that can accommodate a wide variety of devices, amplification chemistries and sample-handling conditions. Herein, we validate this instrument, we provide detailed schematics that will enable others to build their own custom instruments, and we include a complete custom software suite to collect and analyze the data retrieved from the instrument. We believe assay optimizations enabled by this instrument will improve the current limits of nucleic acid detection and quantification, improving our

  8. Earthquake early warning system using real-time signal processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, R.R. Jr.; Dowla, F.U.

    1996-02-01

    An earthquake warning system has been developed to provide a time series profile from which vital parameters such as the time until strong shaking begins, the intensity of the shaking, and the duration of the shaking, can be derived. Interaction of different types of ground motion and changes in the elastic properties of geological media throughout the propagation path result in a highly nonlinear function. We use neural networks to model these nonlinearities and develop learning techniques for the analysis of temporal precursors occurring in the emerging earthquake seismic signal. The warning system is designed to analyze the first-arrival from the three components of an earthquake signal and instantaneously provide a profile of impending ground motion, in as little as 0.3 sec after first ground motion is felt at the sensors. For each new data sample, at a rate of 25 samples per second, the complete profile of the earthquake is updated. The profile consists of a magnitude-related estimate as well as an estimate of the envelope of the complete earthquake signal. The envelope provides estimates of damage parameters, such as time until peak ground acceleration (PGA) and duration. The neural network based system is trained using seismogram data from more than 400 earthquakes recorded in southern California. The system has been implemented in hardware using silicon accelerometers and a standard microprocessor. The proposed warning units can be used for site-specific applications, distributed networks, or to enhance existing distributed networks. By producing accurate, and informative warnings, the system has the potential to significantly minimize the hazards of catastrophic ground motion. Detailed system design and performance issues, including error measurement in a simple warning scenario are discussed in detail.

  9. Digital image processing for real-time neutron radiography and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujine, Shigenori

    1989-01-01

    The present paper describes several digital image processing approaches for the real-time neutron radiography (neutron television-NTV), such as image integration, adaptive smoothing and image enhancement, which have beneficial effects on image improvements, and also describes how to use these techniques for applications. Details invisible in direct images of NTV are able to be revealed by digital image processing, such as reversed image, gray level correction, gray scale transformation, contoured image, subtraction technique, pseudo color display and so on. For real-time application a contouring operation and an averaging approach can also be utilized effectively. (author)

  10. Evaluation of Digital Compressed Sensing for Real-Time Wireless ECG System with Bluetooth low Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yishan; Doleschel, Sammy; Wunderlich, Ralf; Heinen, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, a wearable and wireless ECG system is firstly designed with Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE). It can detect 3-lead ECG signals and is completely wireless. Secondly the digital Compressed Sensing (CS) is implemented to increase the energy efficiency of wireless ECG sensor. Different sparsifying basis, various compression ratio (CR) and several reconstruction algorithms are simulated and discussed. Finally the reconstruction is done by the android application (App) on smartphone to display the signal in real time. The power efficiency is measured and compared with the system without CS. The optimum satisfying basis built by 3-level decomposed db4 wavelet coefficients, 1-bit Bernoulli random matrix and the most suitable reconstruction algorithm are selected by the simulations and applied on the sensor node and App. The signal is successfully reconstructed and displayed on the App of smartphone. Battery life of sensor node is extended from 55 h to 67 h. The presented wireless ECG system with CS can significantly extend the battery life by 22 %. With the compact characteristic and long term working time, the system provides a feasible solution for the long term homecare utilization.

  11. Near real-time digital holographic microscope based on GPU parallel computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Gang; Zhao, Zhixiong; Wang, Huarui; Yang, Yan

    2018-01-01

    A transmission near real-time digital holographic microscope with in-line and off-axis light path is presented, in which the parallel computing technology based on compute unified device architecture (CUDA) and digital holographic microscopy are combined. Compared to other holographic microscopes, which have to implement reconstruction in multiple focal planes and are time-consuming the reconstruction speed of the near real-time digital holographic microscope can be greatly improved with the parallel computing technology based on CUDA, so it is especially suitable for measurements of particle field in micrometer and nanometer scale. Simulations and experiments show that the proposed transmission digital holographic microscope can accurately measure and display the velocity of particle field in micrometer scale, and the average velocity error is lower than 10%.With the graphic processing units(GPU), the computing time of the 100 reconstruction planes(512×512 grids) is lower than 120ms, while it is 4.9s using traditional reconstruction method by CPU. The reconstruction speed has been raised by 40 times. In other words, it can handle holograms at 8.3 frames per second and the near real-time measurement and display of particle velocity field are realized. The real-time three-dimensional reconstruction of particle velocity field is expected to achieve by further optimization of software and hardware. Keywords: digital holographic microscope,

  12. Distributed digital real-time control system for the TCV tokamak and its applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anand, H.; Galperti, C.; Coda, S.; Duval, B.P.; Felici, F.; Blanken, T.; Maljaars, E.; Moret, J.M.; Sauter, O.; Goodman, T.P.; Kim, D.

    2017-01-01

    A key feature of the new digital plasma control system installed on the TCV (Tokamak à Configuration Variable) tokamak is its possibility to rapidly design, test and deploy real-time algorithms. It accommodates hundreds of diagnostic inputs and actuator outputs, and offers the possibility to design

  13. Fiber-based real-time color digital in-line holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Adam; Bieda, Marcin; Makowski, Michal; Sypek, Maciej; Kolodziejczyk, Andrzej

    2013-07-01

    An extremely simple setup for real-time color digital holography using single-mode fibers as light guides and a directional coupler as a beam-splitting device is presented. With the directional coupler we have two object beams and one residual crosstalk used as a reference beam. This facilitates the adjustment and improves robustness. With the use of graphics processing units, real-time hologram reconstruction was possible. Due to adaptation of the optical setup and scaling, zero-order and complex image influence is highly reduced.

  14. A digital approach for real time high-rate high-resolution radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerardi, G.; Abbene, L.

    2014-01-01

    Modern spectrometers are currently developed by using digital pulse processing (DPP) systems, showing several advantages over traditional analog electronics. The aim of this work is to present digital strategies, in a time domain, for the development of real time high-rate high-resolution spectrometers. We propose a digital method, based on the single delay line (SDL) shaping technique, able to perform multi-parameter analysis with high performance even at high photon counting rates. A robust pulse shape and height analysis (PSHA), applied on single isolated time windows of the detector output waveforms, is presented. The potentialities of the proposed strategy are highlighted through both theoretical and experimental approaches. To strengthen our approach, the implementation of the method on a real-time system together with some experimental results are presented. X-ray spectra measurements with a semiconductor detector are performed both at low and high photon counting rates (up to 1.1 Mcps)

  15. A digital approach for real time high-rate high-resolution radiation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerardi, G.; Abbene, L., E-mail: leonardo.abbene@unipa.it

    2014-12-21

    Modern spectrometers are currently developed by using digital pulse processing (DPP) systems, showing several advantages over traditional analog electronics. The aim of this work is to present digital strategies, in a time domain, for the development of real time high-rate high-resolution spectrometers. We propose a digital method, based on the single delay line (SDL) shaping technique, able to perform multi-parameter analysis with high performance even at high photon counting rates. A robust pulse shape and height analysis (PSHA), applied on single isolated time windows of the detector output waveforms, is presented. The potentialities of the proposed strategy are highlighted through both theoretical and experimental approaches. To strengthen our approach, the implementation of the method on a real-time system together with some experimental results are presented. X-ray spectra measurements with a semiconductor detector are performed both at low and high photon counting rates (up to 1.1 Mcps)

  16. Clinical Practicability of a Newly Developed Real-time Digital Kymographic System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Choon; Wang, Soo-Geun; Sung, Eui-Suk; Bae, In-Ho; Kim, Seong-Tae; Lee, Yeon-Woo

    2017-12-22

    A digital kymogram shows real images of vocal fold vibration. However, DKG is difficult to use in clinical practice because the recorded image cannot be seen instantaneously after examination, as considerable encoding time is required to visualize a digital kymogram. In addition, frame-by frame analysis should be implemented to evaluate high-speed videoendoscopy data, but is time- and labor-intensive. The purpose of the study was to validate the clinical practicability of a real-time multislice digital kymographic system developed by the authors. We analyzed the promptness and accuracy of the examination before and after intracordal injections in patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis. To assess the clinical applicability of this system, six patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis were selected. Real-time DKG was performed before and immediately after intracordal injection. We observed changes in the digital kymogram after the intracordal injection. Using this system, 10 scanning lines and up to five vertical pixel row could be obtained in real time, and the maximum acquisition time for the DKG image was 10 seconds. A digital kymogram of the patients could be instantaneously acquired, and whether the intracordal injection was appropriate or not. This article is the first validation study after the development of the real-time multislice digital kymographic system. Our system may be a promising tool in clinical practice for immediate assessment of the vibratory patterns of the vocal cords. More research is necessary for further clinical validation. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Locally-adaptive Myriad Filters for Processing ECG Signals in Real Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Tulyakova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The locally adaptive myriad filters to suppress noise in electrocardiographic (ECG signals in almost in real time are proposed. Statistical estimates of efficiency according to integral values of such criteria as mean square error (MSE and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR for the test ECG signals sampled at 400 Hz embedded in additive Gaussian noise with different values of variance are obtained. Comparative analysis of adaptive filters is carried out. High efficiency of ECG filtering and high quality of signal preservation are demonstrated. It is shown that locally adaptive myriad filters provide higher degree of suppressing additive Gaussian noise with possibility of real time implementation.

  18. Consultation on urological specimens from referred cancer patients using real-time digital microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten-Rossing, Henrik; Larsen, Lise Grupe; Toft, Birgitte Grønkaer

    2016-01-01

    requirements. The aim was to evaluate whether real-time digital microscopy for urological cancer specimens during the primary diagnostic process can replace subsequent physical slide referral and reassessment without compromising diagnostic safety. METHODS: From May to October 2014, tissue specimens from 130...... Finetek) was employed. The Pathology Department at Næstved Hospital was equipped with a digital microscope and three consultant pathologists were stationed at Rigshospitalet with workstations optimized for digital microscopy. Representative slides for each case were selected for consultation and live...

  19. Robust real-time extraction of respiratory signals from PET list-mode data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, André; Zhang, Bin; Olivier, Patrick; Goedicke, Andreas

    2018-06-01

    Respiratory motion, which typically cannot simply be suspended during PET image acquisition, affects lesions’ detection and quantitative accuracy inside or in close vicinity to the lungs. Some motion compensation techniques address this issue via pre-sorting (‘binning’) of the acquired PET data into a set of temporal gates, where each gate is assumed to be minimally affected by respiratory motion. Tracking respiratory motion is typically realized using dedicated hardware (e.g. using respiratory belts and digital cameras). Extracting respiratory signals directly from the acquired PET data simplifies the clinical workflow as it avoids handling additional signal measurement equipment. We introduce a new data-driven method ‘combined local motion detection’ (CLMD). It uses the time-of-flight (TOF) information provided by state-of-the-art PET scanners in order to enable real-time respiratory signal extraction without additional hardware resources. CLMD applies center-of-mass detection in overlapping regions based on simple back-positioned TOF event sets acquired in short time frames. Following a signal filtering and quality-based pre-selection step, the remaining extracted individual position information over time is then combined to generate a global respiratory signal. The method is evaluated using seven measured FDG studies from single and multiple scan positions of the thorax region, and it is compared to other software-based methods regarding quantitative accuracy and statistical noise stability. Correlation coefficients around 90% between the reference and the extracted signal have been found for those PET scans where motion affected features such as tumors or hot regions were present in the PET field-of-view. For PET scans with a quarter of typically applied radiotracer doses, the CLMD method still provides similar high correlation coefficients which indicates its robustness to noise. Each CLMD processing needed less than 0.4 s in total on a standard

  20. Real-time digital filtering, event triggering, and tomographic reconstruction of JET soft x-ray data (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, A. W.; Blackler, K.; Gill, R. D.; van der Goot, E.; Holm, J.

    1990-10-01

    Based upon the experience gained with the present soft x-ray data acquisition system, new techniques are being developed which make extensive use of digital signal processors (DSPs). Digital filters make 13 further frequencies available in real time from the input sampling frequency of 200 kHz. In parallel, various algorithms running on further DSPs generate triggers in response to a range of events in the plasma. The sawtooth crash can be detected, for example, with a delay of only 50 μs from the onset of the collapse. The trigger processor interacts with the digital filter boards to ensure data of the appropriate frequency is recorded throughout a plasma discharge. An independent link is used to pass 780 and 24 Hz filtered data to a network of transputers. A full tomographic inversion and display of the 24 Hz data is carried out in real time using this 15 transputer array. The 780 Hz data are stored for immediate detailed playback following the pulse. Such a system could considerably improve the quality of present plasma diagnostic data which is, in general, sampled at one fixed frequency throughout a discharge. Further, it should provide valuable information towards designing diagnostic data acquisition systems for future long pulse operation machines when a high degree of real-time processing will be required, while retaining the ability to detect, record, and analyze events of interest within such long plasma discharges.

  1. Real-time quantitative phase reconstruction in off-axis digital holography using multiplexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girshovitz, Pinhas; Shaked, Natan T

    2014-04-15

    We present a new approach for obtaining significant speedup in the digital processing of extracting unwrapped phase profiles from off-axis digital holograms. The new technique digitally multiplexes two orthogonal off-axis holograms, where the digital reconstruction, including spatial filtering and two-dimensional phase unwrapping on a decreased number of pixels, can be performed on both holograms together, without redundant operations. Using this technique, we were able to reconstruct, for the first time to our knowledge, unwrapped phase profiles from off-axis holograms with 1 megapixel in more than 30 frames per second using a standard single-core personal computer on a MATLAB platform, without using graphic-processing-unit programming or parallel computing. This new technique is important for real-time quantitative visualization and measurements of highly dynamic samples and is applicable for a wide range of applications, including rapid biological cell imaging and real-time nondestructive testing. After comparing the speedups obtained by the new technique for holograms of various sizes, we present experimental results of real-time quantitative phase visualization of cells flowing rapidly through a microchannel.

  2. Current status of DIII-D real-time digital plasma control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penaflor, B.G.; Piglowski, D.A.; Ferron, J.R.; Walker, M.L.

    1999-06-01

    This paper describes the current status of real-time digital plasma control for the DIII-D tokamak. The digital plasma control system (PCS) has been in place at DIII-D since the early 1990s and continues to expand and improve in its capabilities to monitor and control plasma parameters for DIII-D fusion science experiments. The PCs monitors over 200 tokamak parameters from the DIII-D experiment using a real-time data acquisition system that acquires a new set of samples once every 60 micros. This information is then used in a number of feedback control algorithms to compute and control a variety of parameters including those affecting plasma shape and position. A number of system related improvements has improved the usability and flexibility of the DIII-D PCS. These include more graphical user interfaces to assist in entering and viewing the large and ever growing number of parameters controlled by the PCS, increased interaction and accessibility from other DIII-D applications, and upgrades to the computer hardware and vended software. Future plans for the system include possible upgrades of the real-time computers, further links to other DIII-D diagnostic measurements such as real-time Thomson scattering analysis, and joint collaborations with other tokamak experiments including the NSTX at Princeton

  3. Robust real-time extraction of respiratory signals from PET list-mode data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Andre; Zhang, Bin; Olivier, Patrick; Goedicke, Andreas

    2018-05-01

    Respiratory motion, which typically cannot simply be suspended during PET image acquisition, affects lesions' detection and quantitative accuracy inside or in close vicinity to the lungs. Some motion compensation techniques address this issue via pre-sorting ("binning") of the acquired PET data into a set of temporal gates, where each gate is assumed to be minimally affected by respiratory motion. Tracking respiratory motion is typically realized using dedicated hardware (e.g. using respiratory belts and digital cameras). Extracting respiratory signalsdirectly from the acquired PET data simplifies the clinical workflow as it avoids to handle additional signal measurement equipment. We introduce a new data-driven method "Combined Local Motion Detection" (CLMD). It uses the Time-of-Flight (TOF) information provided by state-of-the-art PET scanners in order to enable real-time respiratory signal extraction without additional hardware resources. CLMD applies center-of-mass detection in overlapping regions based on simple back-positioned TOF event sets acquired in short time frames. Following a signal filtering and quality-based pre-selection step, the remaining extracted individual position information over time is then combined to generate a global respiratory signal. The method is evaluated using 7 measured FDG studies from single and multiple scan positions of the thorax region, and it is compared to other software-based methods regarding quantitative accuracy and statistical noise stability. Correlation coefficients around 90% between the reference and the extracted signal have been found for those PET scans where motion affected features such as tumors or hot regions were present in the PET field-of-view. For PET scans with a quarter of typically applied radiotracer doses, the CLMD method still provides similar high correlation coefficients which indicates its robustness to noise. Each CLMD processing needed less than 0.4s in total on a standard multi-core CPU

  4. The Real-time Frequency Spectrum Analysis of Neutron Pulse Signal Series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Yuelin; Ren Yong; Wei Biao; Feng Peng; Mi Deling; Pan Yingjun; Li Jiansheng; Ye Cenming

    2009-01-01

    The frequency spectrum analysis of neutron pulse signal is a very important method in nuclear stochastic signal processing Focused on the special '0' and '1' of neutron pulse signal series, this paper proposes new rotation-table and realizes a real-time frequency spectrum algorithm under 1G Hz sample rate based on PC with add, address and SSE. The numerical experimental results show that under the count rate of 3X10 6 s -1 , this algorithm is superior to FFTW in time-consumption and can meet the real-time requirement of frequency spectrum analysis. (authors)

  5. Digital synthesis of pulse shapes in real time for high resolution radiation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordanov, Valentin T.; Knoll, Glenn F.

    1994-01-01

    Techniques have been developed for the synthesis of pulse shapes using fast digital schemes in place of the traditional analog methods of pulse shaping. Efficient recursive algorithms have been developed that allow real time implementation of a shaper that can produce either trapezoidal or triangular pulse shapes. Other recursive techniques are presented which allow a synthesis of finite cusp-like shapes. Preliminary experimental tests show potential advantages of using these techniques in high resolution, high count rate pulse spectroscopy. ((orig.))

  6. Real-time Nyquist signaling with dynamic precision and flexible non-integer oversampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmogrow, R; Meyer, M; Schindler, P C; Nebendahl, B; Dreschmann, M; Meyer, J; Josten, A; Hillerkuss, D; Ben-Ezra, S; Becker, J; Koos, C; Freude, W; Leuthold, J

    2014-01-13

    We demonstrate two efficient processing techniques for Nyquist signals, namely computation of signals using dynamic precision as well as arbitrary rational oversampling factors. With these techniques along with massively parallel processing it becomes possible to generate and receive high data rate Nyquist signals with flexible symbol rates and bandwidths, a feature which is highly desirable for novel flexgrid networks. We achieved maximum bit rates of 252 Gbit/s in real-time.

  7. Online Synchrophasor-Based Dynamic State Estimation using Real-Time Digital Simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khazraj, Hesam; Adewole, Adeyemi Charles; Udaya, Annakkage

    2018-01-01

    Dynamic state estimation is a very important control center application used in the dynamic monitoring of state variables. This paper presents and validates a time-synchronized phasor measurement unit (PMU)-based for dynamic state estimation by unscented Kalman filter (UKF) method using the real-...... using the RTDS (real-time digital simulator). The dynamic state variables of multi-machine systems are monitored and measured for the study on the transient behavior of power systems.......Dynamic state estimation is a very important control center application used in the dynamic monitoring of state variables. This paper presents and validates a time-synchronized phasor measurement unit (PMU)-based for dynamic state estimation by unscented Kalman filter (UKF) method using the real......-time digital simulator (RTDS). The dynamic state variables of the system are the rotor angle and speed of the generators. The performance of the UKF method is tested with PMU measurements as inputs using the IEEE 14-bus test system. This test system was modeled in the RSCAD software and tested in real time...

  8. Analysis of several digital network technologies for hard real-time communications in nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ki Sang; No, Hee Chun

    1999-01-01

    Applying digital network technology for advanced nuclear plant requires deterministic communication for tight safety requirements, timely and reliable data delivery for operation critical and mission-critical characteristics of nuclear plant. Communication protocols, such as IEEE 802/4 Tiken Bus, IEEE 802/5 Token Ring, FDDI, and ARCnet, which have deterministic communication capability are partially applied to several nuclear power plants. Although digital communication technologies have many advantages, it is necessary to consider the noise immunity form electromagnetic interference (EMI), electrical interference, impulse noise, and heat noise before selecting specific digital network technology for nuclear plant. In this paper, we consider the token frame loss and data frame loss rate due to the link error event, frame size, and link data rate in different protocols, and evaluate the possibility of failure to meet the hard real-time requirement in nuclear plant. (author). 11 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  9. A FPGA-based Fast Converging Digital Adaptive Filter for Real-time RFI Mitigation on Ground Based Radio Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, R.; Curotto, F.; Fuentes, R.; Duan, R.; Bronfman, L.; Li, D.

    2018-02-01

    Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) is a growing concern in the radio astronomy community. Single-dish telescopes are particularly susceptible to RFI. Several methods have been developed to cope with RF-polluted environments, based on flagging, excision, and real-time blanking, among others. All these methods produce some degree of data loss or require assumptions to be made on the astronomical signal. We report the development of a real-time, digital adaptive filter implemented on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) capable of processing 4096 spectral channels in a 1 GHz of instantaneous bandwidth. The filter is able to cancel a broad range of interference signals and quickly adapt to changes on the RFI source, minimizing the data loss without any assumption on the astronomical or interfering signal properties. The speed of convergence (for a decrease to a 1%) was measured to be 208.1 μs for a broadband noise-like RFI signal and 125.5 μs for a multiple-carrier RFI signal recorded at the FAST radio telescope.

  10. Real-time radar signal processing using GPGPU (general-purpose graphic processing unit)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fanxing; Zhang, Yan Rockee; Cai, Jingxiao; Palmer, Robert D.

    2016-05-01

    This study introduces a practical approach to develop real-time signal processing chain for general phased array radar on NVIDIA GPUs(Graphical Processing Units) using CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture) libraries such as cuBlas and cuFFT, which are adopted from open source libraries and optimized for the NVIDIA GPUs. The processed results are rigorously verified against those from the CPUs. Performance benchmarked in computation time with various input data cube sizes are compared across GPUs and CPUs. Through the analysis, it will be demonstrated that GPGPUs (General Purpose GPU) real-time processing of the array radar data is possible with relatively low-cost commercial GPUs.

  11. FPGA-Based Real Time, Multichannel Emulated-Digital Retina Model Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Vörösházi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The function of the low-level image processing that takes place in the biological retina is to compress only the relevant visual information to a manageable size. The behavior of the layers and different channels of the neuromorphic retina has been successfully modeled by cellular neural/nonlinear networks (CNNs. In this paper, we present an extended, application-specific emulated-digital CNN-universal machine (UM architecture to compute the complex dynamic of this mammalian retina in video real time. The proposed emulated-digital implementation of multichannel retina model is compared to the previously developed models from three key aspects, which are processing speed, number of physical cells, and accuracy. Our primary aim was to build up a simple, real-time test environment with camera input and display output in order to mimic the behavior of retina model implementation on emulated digital CNN by using low-cost, moderate-sized field-programmable gate array (FPGA architectures.

  12. Real-time remedial action against aperiodic small signal rotor angle instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weckesser, Johannes Tilman Gabriel; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Østergaard, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a method that in real-time determines remedial actions, which restore stable operation with respect to aperiodic small signal rotor angle stability (ASSRAS) when insecure or unstable operation has been detected. An ASSRAS assessment method is used to monitor the stability...... impedance plane to determine an active power redispatch among selected generators to restore stable and secure operation. Since the method is purely based on analytically derived expression, the computation of the remedial actions is fast and well suited for real-time operation. The method was tested...... boundary for each generator in real-time. The ASSRAS boundary represents the condition when a generator reaches the maximum steady state active power injection. The proposed control method exploits analytically derived expressions for the ASSRAS boundary and other characteristic curves in the injection...

  13. Absolute quantification by droplet digital PCR versus analog real-time PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindson, Christopher M; Chevillet, John R; Briggs, Hilary A; Gallichotte, Emily N; Ruf, Ingrid K; Hindson, Benjamin J; Vessella, Robert L; Tewari, Muneesh

    2014-01-01

    Nanoliter-sized droplet technology paired with digital PCR (ddPCR) holds promise for highly precise, absolute nucleic acid quantification. Our comparison of microRNA quantification by ddPCR and real-time PCR revealed greater precision (coefficients of variation decreased by 37–86%) and improved day-to-day reproducibility (by a factor of seven) of ddPCR but with comparable sensitivity. When we applied ddPCR to serum microRNA biomarker analysis, this translated to superior diagnostic performance for identifying individuals with cancer. PMID:23995387

  14. Algorithm for removing scalp signals from functional near-infrared spectroscopy signals in real time using multidistance optodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiguchi, Masashi; Funane, Tsukasa

    2014-11-01

    A real-time algorithm for removing scalp-blood signals from functional near-infrared spectroscopy signals is proposed. Scalp and deep signals have different dependencies on the source-detector distance. These signals were separated using this characteristic. The algorithm was validated through an experiment using a dynamic phantom in which shallow and deep absorptions were independently changed. The algorithm for measurement of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobins using two wavelengths was explicitly obtained. This algorithm is potentially useful for real-time systems, e.g., brain-computer interfaces and neuro-feedback systems.

  15. Versatile real-time interferometer phase-detection system using high-speed digital techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendell, D.S.; Willett, G.W.

    1977-01-01

    This paper describes the basic design and philosophy of a versatile real-time interferometer phase-detection system to be used on the 2XIIB and TMX magnetic-fusion experiments at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. This diagnostics system is a satellite to a host computer and uses high-speed emitter-coupled logic techniques to derive data on real-time phase relationships. The system's input signals can be derived from interferometer outputs over a wide range of reference frequencies. An LSI-11 microcomputer is the interface between the high-speed phase-detection logic, buffer memory, human interaction, and host computer. Phase data on a storage CRT is immediately displayed after each experimental fusion shot. An operator can interrogate this phase data more closely from an interactive control panel, and the host computer can be simultaneously examining the system's buffer memory or arming the system for the next shot

  16. Digital video timing analyzer for the evaluation of PC-based real-time simulation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Shawn R.; Crosby, Jay L.; Terry, John E., Jr.

    2009-05-01

    Due to the rapid acceleration in technology and the drop in costs, the use of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) PC-based hardware and software components for digital and hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) simulations has increased. However, the increase in PC-based components creates new challenges for HWIL test facilities such as cost-effective hardware and software selection, system configuration and integration, performance testing, and simulation verification/validation. This paper will discuss how the Digital Video Timing Analyzer (DiViTA) installed in the Aviation and Missile Research, Development and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) provides quantitative characterization data for PC-based real-time scene generation systems. An overview of the DiViTA is provided followed by details on measurement techniques, applications, and real-world examples of system benefits.

  17. Real-time compression of analog-to-digital converter outputs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Haruhiko

    1997-01-01

    We describe a fast lossless data compression algorithm suitable for digitized data taken at regular time intervals, such as outputs from analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). It is designed on the assumptions that the present value can be predicted approximately from the past values, and that the distribution of the prediction error is approximately Gaussian with zero mean and small and slowly changing standard deviation. Unlike many offline compression tools such as LHA and gzip, our algorithm does not need future values to encode the present value. This property is important for real-time transmission of compressed data on the network. The algorithm is to be integrated into our data acquisition system for the Large Helical Device (LHD) experiments at the National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS). (author)

  18. A 16-channel real-time digital processor for pulse-shape discrimination in multiplicity assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joyce, Malcolm J.; Aspinall, M.D.; Cave, F.D.; Lavietes, A.

    2013-06-01

    In recent years, real-time neutron/γ-ray pulse-shape discrimination has become feasible for use with scintillator-based detectors that respond extremely quickly, on the order of 25 ns in terms of pulse width, and their application to a variety of nuclear material assays has been reported. For the in-situ analysis of nuclear materials, measurements are often based on the multiplicity assessment of spontaneous fission events. An example of this is the 240 Pu eff assessment stemming from long-established techniques developed for 3 He-based neutron coincidence counters when 3 He was abundant and cheap. However, such measurements when using scintillator detectors can be plagued by low detection efficiencies and low orders of coincidence (often limited to triples) if the number of detectors in use is similarly limited to 3-4 detectors. Conversely, an array of >10 detector modules arranged to optimize efficiency and multiplicity sensitivity, shifts the emphasis in terms of performance requirement to the real-time digital analyzer and, critically, to the scope remaining in the temporal processing window of these systems. In this paper we report on the design, development and commissioning of a bespoke, 16-channel real-time pulse-shape discrimination analyzer specified for the materials assay challenge summarized above. The analyzer incorporates 16 dedicated and independent high-voltage supplies along with 16 independent digital processing channels offering pulse-shape discrimination at a rate of 3 x 10 6 events per second. These functions are configured from a dedicated graphical user interface, and all settings can be adjusted on-the-fly with the analyzer effectively configured one-time-only (where desired) for subsequent plug-and-play connection, for example to a fuel bundle organic scintillation detector array. (authors)

  19. Power system analysis of Hanlim superconducting HVDC system using real time digital simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Y.J.; Kim, J.G.; Kim, A.R.; Kim, G.H.; Park, M.; Yu, I.K.; Sim, K.D.; Cho, J.; Lee, S.; Jeong, K.W.; Watanabe, K.

    2011-01-01

    KEPCO has planned to construct a test site for renewable energy in Jeju power system. One kilometer length of total 8 km was designed as superconducting DC cable. We have developed a simulation model of the 8 km HVDC system using real time digital simulator. The simulation result shows that the HVDC line was not affected by wind power variation. Jeju island is located approximately 100 km south from the mainland of Korea, and had a peak load of about 553 MW in 2008. The demand increases 7.2% a year over the last 5 years. Since the wind profiles of Jeju island are more favorable than mainland of Korea, many companies have shown interest in the wind power business at the Jeju island. Moreover KEPCO has a plan for renewable energy test too whose power will be delivered by HVDC system. One kilometer length of total 8 km was designed as superconducting DC cable. Rest 7 km will be the conventional overhead line. In this paper, the authors have developed a simulation model of the power network around 8 km HVDC system using real time digital simulator (RTDS).

  20. A new approach in simulating RF linacs using a general, linear real-time signal processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, A.; Jachim, S.P.

    1991-01-01

    Strict requirements on the tolerances of the amplitude and phase of the radio frequency (RF) cavity field are necessary to advance the field of accelerator technology. Due to these stringent requirements upon modern accelerators,a new approach of modeling and simulating is essential in developing and understanding their characteristics. This paper describes the implementation of a general, linear model of an RF cavity which is used to develop a real-time signal processor. This device fully emulates the response of an RF cavity upon receiving characteristic parameters (Q 0 , ω 0 , Δω, R S , Z 0 ). Simulating an RF cavity with a real-time signal processor is beneficial to an accelerator designer because the device allows one to answer fundamental questions on the response of the cavity to a particular stimulus without operating the accelerator. In particular, the complex interactions between the RF power and the control systems, the beam and cavity fields can simply be observed in a real-time domain. The signal processor can also be used upon initialization of the accelerator as a diagnostic device and as a dummy load for determining the closed-loop error of the control system. In essence, the signal processor is capable of providing information that allows an operator to determine whether the control systems and peripheral devices are operating properly without going through the tedious procedure of running the beam through a cavity

  1. Real-time simulation of a Doubly-Fed Induction Generator based wind power system on eMEGASimRTM Real-Time Digital Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boakye-Boateng, Nasir Abdulai

    The growing demand for wind power integration into the generation mix prompts the need to subject these systems to stringent performance requirements. This study sought to identify the required tools and procedures needed to perform real-time simulation studies of Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) based wind generation systems as basis for performing more practical tests of reliability and performance for both grid-connected and islanded wind generation systems. The author focused on developing a platform for wind generation studies and in addition, the author tested the performance of two DFIG models on the platform real-time simulation model; an average SimpowerSystemsRTM DFIG wind turbine, and a detailed DFIG based wind turbine using ARTEMiSRTM components. The platform model implemented here consists of a high voltage transmission system with four integrated wind farm models consisting in total of 65 DFIG based wind turbines and it was developed and tested on OPAL-RT's eMEGASimRTM Real-Time Digital Simulator.

  2. Real-time trafficking and signaling of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed, Sarah Noerklit; Wismann, Pernille; Underwood, Christina Rye

    2014-01-01

    The glucagon-like peptide-1 incretin receptor (GLP-1R) of family B G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is a major drug target in type-2-diabetes due to its regulatory effect on post-prandial blood-glucose levels. The mechanism(s) controlling GLP-1R mediated signaling are far from fully understood....... A fundamental mechanism controlling the signaling capacity of GPCRs is the post-endocytic trafficking of receptors between recycling and degradative fates. Here, we combined microscopy with novel real-time assays to monitor both receptor trafficking and signaling in living cells. We find that the human GLP-1R...

  3. Real-time and high accuracy frequency measurements for intermediate frequency narrowband signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jing; Meng, Xiaofeng; Nie, Jing; Lin, Liwei

    2018-01-01

    Real-time and accurate measurements of intermediate frequency signals based on microprocessors are difficult due to the computational complexity and limited time constraints. In this paper, a fast and precise methodology based on the sigma-delta modulator is designed and implemented by first generating the twiddle factors using the designed recursive scheme. This scheme requires zero times of multiplications and only half amounts of addition operations by using the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) and the combination of the Rife algorithm and Fourier coefficient interpolation as compared with conventional methods such as DFT and Fast Fourier Transform. Experimentally, when the sampling frequency is 10 MHz, the real-time frequency measurements with intermediate frequency and narrowband signals have a measurement mean squared error of ±2.4 Hz. Furthermore, a single measurement of the whole system only requires approximately 0.3 s to achieve fast iteration, high precision, and less calculation time.

  4. Real-time visualization and analysis of airflow field by use of digital holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Jianglei; Wu, Bingjing; Chen, Xin; Liu, Junjiang; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Jianlin

    2013-04-01

    The measurement and analysis of airflow field is very important in fluid dynamics. For airflow, smoke particles can be added to visually observe the turbulence phenomena by particle tracking technology, but the effect of smoke particles to follow the high speed airflow will reduce the measurement accuracy. In recent years, with the advantage of non-contact, nondestructive, fast and full-field measurement, digital holography has been widely applied in many fields, such as deformation and vibration analysis, particle characterization, refractive index measurement, and so on. In this paper, we present a method to measure the airflow field by use of digital holography. A small wind tunnel model made of acrylic glass is built to control the velocity and direction of airflow. Different shapes of samples such as aircraft wing and cylinder are placed in the wind tunnel model to produce different forms of flow field. With a Mach-Zehnder interferometer setup, a series of digital holograms carrying the information of airflow filed distributions in different states are recorded by CCD camera and corresponding holographic images are numerically reconstructed from the holograms by computer. Then we can conveniently obtain the velocity or pressure information of the airflow deduced from the quantitative phase information of holographic images and visually display the airflow filed and its evolution in the form of a movie. The theory and experiment results show that digital holography is a robust and feasible approach for real-time visualization and analysis of airflow field.

  5. Classification of acoustic emission signals for drive systems coupling crack detection in semi-real time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godinez, V.; Shu, F.; Finlayson, R.; O'Donnell, B.; Anastasopoulos, A.; Tsimogiannis, A.

    2004-01-01

    Early detection of mechanical failure in helicopter drive train components is a key safety and economical issue with both military and civil sectors of aviation. Of these components, couplings are particularly critical. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of designing and developing a reliable, real time monitoring methodology based on Supervised Pattern Recognition (SPR) for early detection of cracks in couplings used in helicopter and engine drive systems. Within this framework, a portable Acoustic Emission (AE) system was used, equipped with a semi-real time SPR software package. Results from AE tests performed in a gearbox-testing bench at different speeds and different torque values are presented. These results indicate that the energy content of different frequency bands in the AE signals power spectra is strongly correlated with the introduction of EDM notches in the main gear. Further tests indicate that a strong shift in the frequency of the AE signals is observed after spalling occurred in the pinion gear. The variation of displacement and velocity between signal classes are discussed as a potential feature in characterizing crack severity. Finally, a scope of the work for optimizing the methodology in detecting and evaluating coupling cracking in real time will be presented. (author)

  6. Improved real-time dosimetry using the radioluminescence signal from Al2O3:C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damkjaer, S.M.S.; Andersen, C.E.; Aznar, M.C.

    2008-01-01

    Carbon-doped aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 :C) is a highly sensitive luminescence material for ionizing radiation dosimetry, and it is well established that the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) signal from Al 2 O 3 :C can be used for absorbed-dose measurements. During irradiation, Al 2 O 3 :C also emits prompt radioluminescence (RL) which allows for real-time dose verification. The RL-signal is not linear in the absorbed dose due to sensitivity changes and the presence of shallow traps. Despite this the signal can be processed to obtain a reliable dose rate signal in real time. Previously a simple algorithm for correcting the RL-signal has been published and here we report two improvements: a better and more stable calibration method which is independent of a reference dose rate and a correction for the effect of the shallow traps. Good agreement was found between reference doses and doses derived from the RL-signal using the new algorithm (the standard deviation of the residuals were ∼2% including phantom positioning errors). The RL-algorithm was found to greatly reduce the influence of shallow traps in the range from 0 to 3 Gy and the RL dose-rate measurements with a time resolution of 0.1 s closely matched dose-rate changes monitored with an ionization chamber

  7. A Low-Cost Digital Microscope with Real-Time Fluorescent Imaging Capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Md Mehedi; Alam, Mohammad Wajih; Wahid, Khan A; Miah, Sayem; Lukong, Kiven Erique

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a prototype of a low-cost digital fluorescent microscope built from commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components. The prototype was tested to detect malignant tumor cells taken from a living organism in a preclinical setting. This experiment was accomplished by using Alexa Fluor 488 conjugate dye attached to the cancer cells. Our prototype utilizes a torch along with an excitation filter as a light source for fluorophore excitation, a dichroic mirror to reflect the excitation and pass the emitted green light from the sample under test and a barrier filter to permit only appropriate wavelength. The system is designed out of a microscope using its optical zooming property and an assembly of exciter filter, dichroic mirror and transmitter filter. The microscope is connected to a computer or laptop through universal serial bus (USB) that allows real-time transmission of captured florescence images; this also offers real-time control of the microscope. The designed system has comparable features of high-end commercial fluorescent microscopes while reducing cost, power, weight and size.

  8. A Low-Cost Digital Microscope with Real-Time Fluorescent Imaging Capability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Mehedi Hasan

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of a prototype of a low-cost digital fluorescent microscope built from commercial off-the-shelf (COTS components. The prototype was tested to detect malignant tumor cells taken from a living organism in a preclinical setting. This experiment was accomplished by using Alexa Fluor 488 conjugate dye attached to the cancer cells. Our prototype utilizes a torch along with an excitation filter as a light source for fluorophore excitation, a dichroic mirror to reflect the excitation and pass the emitted green light from the sample under test and a barrier filter to permit only appropriate wavelength. The system is designed out of a microscope using its optical zooming property and an assembly of exciter filter, dichroic mirror and transmitter filter. The microscope is connected to a computer or laptop through universal serial bus (USB that allows real-time transmission of captured florescence images; this also offers real-time control of the microscope. The designed system has comparable features of high-end commercial fluorescent microscopes while reducing cost, power, weight and size.

  9. A Low-Cost Digital Microscope with Real-Time Fluorescent Imaging Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Md. Mehedi; Wahid, Khan A.; Miah, Sayem; Lukong, Kiven Erique

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a prototype of a low-cost digital fluorescent microscope built from commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components. The prototype was tested to detect malignant tumor cells taken from a living organism in a preclinical setting. This experiment was accomplished by using Alexa Fluor 488 conjugate dye attached to the cancer cells. Our prototype utilizes a torch along with an excitation filter as a light source for fluorophore excitation, a dichroic mirror to reflect the excitation and pass the emitted green light from the sample under test and a barrier filter to permit only appropriate wavelength. The system is designed out of a microscope using its optical zooming property and an assembly of exciter filter, dichroic mirror and transmitter filter. The microscope is connected to a computer or laptop through universal serial bus (USB) that allows real-time transmission of captured florescence images; this also offers real-time control of the microscope. The designed system has comparable features of high-end commercial fluorescent microscopes while reducing cost, power, weight and size. PMID:27977709

  10. Real-time signal communication between diagnostic and control in ASDEX Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treutterer, Wolfgang; Neu, Gregor; Raupp, Gerhard; Zehetbauer, Thomas; Zasche, Dieter; Lueddecke, Klaus; Cole, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The ASDEX Upgrade tokamak experiment is equipped with a versatile discharge monitoring and control system. It allows to develop and use advanced control algorithms to investigate plasma physics under well-defined conditions with the objective of optimising plasma performance. The achievable quality depends on the accuracy with which the plasma state can be reconstructed from measurements under real-time conditions. Today's advanced algorithms need physics quantities - scalar entities as well as profiles. These are obtained processing huge numbers of raw measurements with complex diagnostic algorithms. Adequate network communication for the resulting signals is crucial to satisfy real-time requirements, especially when several diagnostic systems cooperate in a feedback control loop. Support for the technology of choice, however, is not easily available for all of the diverse, highly specialised diagnostic systems. We give an overview about the methods that have been explored at ASDEX Upgrade for real-time signal transfer. In particular, we investigated reflective shared memory and Ethernet technologies. Our solution strives to combine their strengths. For fast communication on dedicated computing nodes, reflective shared memory is used. For the majority of diagnostic systems producing large data blocks at moderate rates, Ethernet connections with UDP protocol are employed. Following ASDEX Upgrade's framework concept, a software layer hides the networks used from both diagnostic and control applications.

  11. Real-time signal communication between diagnostic and control in ASDEX Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treutterer, Wolfgang, E-mail: Wolfgang.Treutterer@ipp.mpg.d [Max-Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching, EURATOM Association (Germany); Neu, Gregor; Raupp, Gerhard; Zehetbauer, Thomas; Zasche, Dieter [Max-Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching, EURATOM Association (Germany); Lueddecke, Klaus; Cole, Richard [Unlimited Computer Systems, Iffeldorf (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    The ASDEX Upgrade tokamak experiment is equipped with a versatile discharge monitoring and control system. It allows to develop and use advanced control algorithms to investigate plasma physics under well-defined conditions with the objective of optimising plasma performance. The achievable quality depends on the accuracy with which the plasma state can be reconstructed from measurements under real-time conditions. Today's advanced algorithms need physics quantities - scalar entities as well as profiles. These are obtained processing huge numbers of raw measurements with complex diagnostic algorithms. Adequate network communication for the resulting signals is crucial to satisfy real-time requirements, especially when several diagnostic systems cooperate in a feedback control loop. Support for the technology of choice, however, is not easily available for all of the diverse, highly specialised diagnostic systems. We give an overview about the methods that have been explored at ASDEX Upgrade for real-time signal transfer. In particular, we investigated reflective shared memory and Ethernet technologies. Our solution strives to combine their strengths. For fast communication on dedicated computing nodes, reflective shared memory is used. For the majority of diagnostic systems producing large data blocks at moderate rates, Ethernet connections with UDP protocol are employed. Following ASDEX Upgrade's framework concept, a software layer hides the networks used from both diagnostic and control applications.

  12. Phasor Measurement Unit and Phasor Data Concentrator test with Real Time Digital Simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diakos, Konstantinos; Wu, Qiuwei; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2014-01-01

    that is able to derive and communicate synchrophasor measurements of different parts of the power network and the development of tests, according to IEEE standards, that evaluate the performance of PMUs and PDCs. The tests are created by using a Real Time Digital Simulation (RTDS) system. The results obtained......The main focus of the electrical engineers nowadays, is to develop a smart grid that is able to monitor, evaluate and control the power system operation. The integration of Intelligent Electronic Devices (IED s) to the power network, is a strong indication of the inclination to lead the power...... network to a more reliable, secure and economic operation. The implementation of these devices though, demands the warranty of a secure operation and high-accuracy performance. This paper describes the procedure of establishing a PMU (Phasor Measurement Unit)–PDC (Phasor Data Concentrator) platform...

  13. The application of digital computers to near-real-time processing of flutter test data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, S. R.

    1976-01-01

    Procedures used in monitoring, analyzing, and displaying flight and ground flutter test data are presented. These procedures include three digital computer programs developed to process structural response data in near real time. Qualitative and quantitative modal stability data are derived from time history response data resulting from rapid sinusoidal frequency sweep forcing functions, tuned-mode quick stops, and pilot induced control pulses. The techniques have been applied to both fixed and rotary wing aircraft, during flight, whirl tower rotor systems tests, and wind tunnel flutter model tests. An hydraulically driven oscillatory aerodynamic vane excitation system utilized during the flight flutter test programs accomplished during Lockheed L-1011 and S-3A development is described.

  14. Power system analysis of Hanlim superconducting HVDC system using real time digital simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Y. J.; Kim, J. G.; Kim, A. R.; Kim, G. H.; Park, M.; Yu, I. K.; Sim, K. D.; Cho, J.; Lee, S.; Jeong, K. W.; Watanabe, K.

    2011-11-01

    Jeju island is located approximately 100 km south from the mainland of Korea, and had a peak load of about 553 MW in 2008. The demand increases 7.2% a year over the last 5 years. Since the wind profiles of Jeju island are more favorable than mainland of Korea, many companies have shown interest in the wind power business at the Jeju island. Moreover KEPCO has a plan for renewable energy test too whose power will be delivered by HVDC system. One kilometer length of total 8 km was designed as superconducting DC cable. Rest 7 km will be the conventional overhead line. In this paper, the authors have developed a simulation model of the power network around 8 km HVDC system using real time digital simulator (RTDS).

  15. Real-time spectral analysis of HRV signals: an interactive and user-friendly PC system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basano, L; Canepa, F; Ottonello, P

    1998-01-01

    We present a real-time system, built around a PC and a low-cost data acquisition board, for the spectral analysis of the heart rate variability signal. The Windows-like operating environment on which it is based makes the computer program very user-friendly even for non-specialized personnel. The Power Spectral Density is computed through the use of a hybrid method, in which a classical FFT analysis follows an autoregressive finite-extension of data; the stationarity of the sequence is continuously checked. The use of this algorithm gives a high degree of robustness of the spectral estimation. Moreover, always in real time, the FFT of every data block is computed and displayed in order to corroborate the results as well as to allow the user to interactively choose a proper AR model order.

  16. Real-time intelligent pattern recognition algorithm for surface EMG signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahed Mehran

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electromyography (EMG is the study of muscle function through the inquiry of electrical signals that the muscles emanate. EMG signals collected from the surface of the skin (Surface Electromyogram: sEMG can be used in different applications such as recognizing musculoskeletal neural based patterns intercepted for hand prosthesis movements. Current systems designed for controlling the prosthetic hands either have limited functions or can only be used to perform simple movements or use excessive amount of electrodes in order to achieve acceptable results. In an attempt to overcome these problems we have proposed an intelligent system to recognize hand movements and have provided a user assessment routine to evaluate the correctness of executed movements. Methods We propose to use an intelligent approach based on adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS integrated with a real-time learning scheme to identify hand motion commands. For this purpose and to consider the effect of user evaluation on recognizing hand movements, vision feedback is applied to increase the capability of our system. By using this scheme the user may assess the correctness of the performed hand movement. In this work a hybrid method for training fuzzy system, consisting of back-propagation (BP and least mean square (LMS is utilized. Also in order to optimize the number of fuzzy rules, a subtractive clustering algorithm has been developed. To design an effective system, we consider a conventional scheme of EMG pattern recognition system. To design this system we propose to use two different sets of EMG features, namely time domain (TD and time-frequency representation (TFR. Also in order to decrease the undesirable effects of the dimension of these feature sets, principle component analysis (PCA is utilized. Results In this study, the myoelectric signals considered for classification consists of six unique hand movements. Features chosen for EMG signal

  17. A real-time error-free color-correction facility for digital consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Rodney

    2008-01-01

    It has been well known since the earliest days of color photography that color-balance in general, and facial reproduction (flesh tones) in particular, are of dominant interest to the consumer, and significant research resources have been expended in satisfying this need. The general problem is a difficult one, spanning the factors that govern perception and personal preference, the physics and chemistry of color reproduction, as well as wide field of color measurement specification, and analysis. However, with the advent of digital photography and its widespread acceptance in the consumer market, and with the possibility of a much greater degree of individual control over color reproduction, the field is taking on a new consumer-driven impetus, and the provision of user facilities for preferred color choice now constitutes an intense field of research. In addition, due to the conveniences of digital technology, the collection of large data bases and statistics relating to individual color preferences have now become a relatively straightforward operation. Using a consumer preference approach of this type, we have developed a user-friendly facility whereby unskilled consumers may manipulate the color of their personal digital images according to their preferred choice. By virtue of its ease of operation and the real-time nature of the color-correction transforms, this facility can readily be inserted anywhere a consumer interacts with a digital image, from camera, printer, or scanner, to web or photo-kiosk. Here the underlying scientific principles are explored in detail, and these are related to the practical color-preference outcomes. Examples are given of the application to the correction of images with unsatisfactory color balance, and especially to flesh tones and faces, and the nature of the consumer controls and their corresponding image transformations are explored.

  18. Fast neutron flux analyzer with real-time digital pulse shape discrimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanova, A.A., E-mail: a.a.ivanova@inp.nsk.su [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Zubarev, P.V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State Technical University, 630092 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Ivanenko, S.V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Khilchenko, A.D. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State Technical University, 630092 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Kotelnikov, A.I. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Polosatkin, S.V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State Technical University, 630092 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Puryga, E.A.; Shvyrev, V.G. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State Technical University, 630092 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Sulyaev, Yu.S. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-11

    Investigation of subthermonuclear plasma confinement and heating in magnetic fusion devices such as GOL–3 and GDT at the Budker Institute (Novosibirsk, Russia) requires sophisticated equipment for neutron-, gamma- diagnostics and upgrading data acquisition systems with online data processing. Measurement of fast neutron flux with stilbene scintillation detectors raised the problem of discrimination of the neutrons (n) from background cosmic particles (muons) and neutron-induced gamma rays (γ). This paper describes a fast neutron flux analyzer with real-time digital pulse-shape discrimination (DPSD) algorithm FPGA-implemented for the GOL–3 and GDT devices. This analyzer was tested and calibrated with the help of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 252}Cf radiation sources. The Figures of Merit (FOM) calculated for different energy cuts are presented. - Highlights: • Electronic equipment for measurement of fast neutron flux with stilbene scintillator is presented. • FPGA-implemented digital pulse-shape discrimination algorithm by charge comparison method is shown. • Calibration of analyzer was carried out with {sup 137}Cs and {sup 252}Cf. • Figures of Merit (FOM) values for energy cuts from 1/8 Cs to 2 Cs are from 1.264 to 2.34 respectively.

  19. Real-time volume rendering of digital medical images on an iOS device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noon, Christian; Holub, Joseph; Winer, Eliot

    2013-03-01

    Performing high quality 3D visualizations on mobile devices, while tantalizingly close in many areas, is still a quite difficult task. This is especially true for 3D volume rendering of digital medical images. Allowing this would empower medical personnel a powerful tool to diagnose and treat patients and train the next generation of physicians. This research focuses on performing real time volume rendering of digital medical images on iOS devices using custom developed GPU shaders for orthogonal texture slicing. An interactive volume renderer was designed and developed with several new features including dynamic modification of render resolutions, an incremental render loop, a shader-based clipping algorithm to support OpenGL ES 2.0, and an internal backface culling algorithm for properly sorting rendered geometry with alpha blending. The application was developed using several application programming interfaces (APIs) such as OpenSceneGraph (OSG) as the primary graphics renderer coupled with iOS Cocoa Touch for user interaction, and DCMTK for DICOM I/O. The developed application rendered volume datasets over 450 slices up to 50-60 frames per second, depending on the specific model of the iOS device. All rendering is done locally on the device so no Internet connection is required.

  20. Portable low-cost flat panel detectors for real-time digital radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iovea, Mihai; Neagu, Marian; Stefanescu, Bogdan; Mateiasi, Gabriela; Porosnicu, Ioana; Angheluta, Elena [Accent Pro 2000 S.R.L., Bucharest (Romania)

    2015-07-01

    The X-ray inspection is one of the most common used non-destructive testing methods in industry applications, but for the portable X-ray digital solution are not so many accessible, low-cost and versatile detection devices. The efficiency of a non-destructive X-ray portable device is represented by the quality of digital images, by its low acquisition time combined with a high resolution, in condition of low noise and at an affordable cost. The paper presents two X-ray portable imaging systems developed by us, suitable also for aerospace NDT applications, which are also very versatile for being easily adapted for other fields that requires mobile solutions. The first device described in the paper represent a portable large-size (210 mm X 550 mm) and high-resolution (27/54 microns) flat panel detector based on linear translation of a X-Ray TDI detector, destined for various components/parts real-time transmission measurements. The second system it is also a flat panel detectors, with a size of 510 mm X 610 mm, with the detector size from 0.2 mm until 1.5 mm, which can operate by applying the dual-energy method, very useful for discriminating materials by evaluating their Atomic effective number. The high resolution and low-cost of this flat-panels widens their applicability by covering large requirements, from identifying unwanted materials within a structure until detection of very thin cracks in complex components.

  1. Portable low-cost flat panel detectors for real-time digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iovea, Mihai; Neagu, Marian; Stefanescu, Bogdan; Mateiasi, Gabriela; Porosnicu, Ioana; Angheluta, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The X-ray inspection is one of the most common used non-destructive testing methods in industry applications, but for the portable X-ray digital solution are not so many accessible, low-cost and versatile detection devices. The efficiency of a non-destructive X-ray portable device is represented by the quality of digital images, by its low acquisition time combined with a high resolution, in condition of low noise and at an affordable cost. The paper presents two X-ray portable imaging systems developed by us, suitable also for aerospace NDT applications, which are also very versatile for being easily adapted for other fields that requires mobile solutions. The first device described in the paper represent a portable large-size (210 mm X 550 mm) and high-resolution (27/54 microns) flat panel detector based on linear translation of a X-Ray TDI detector, destined for various components/parts real-time transmission measurements. The second system it is also a flat panel detectors, with a size of 510 mm X 610 mm, with the detector size from 0.2 mm until 1.5 mm, which can operate by applying the dual-energy method, very useful for discriminating materials by evaluating their Atomic effective number. The high resolution and low-cost of this flat-panels widens their applicability by covering large requirements, from identifying unwanted materials within a structure until detection of very thin cracks in complex components.

  2. A Design of Real-time Automatic Focusing System for Digital Still Camera Using the Passive Sensor Error Minimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K.S. [Samsung Techwin Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea); Kim, D.Y. [Bucheon College, Bucheon (Korea); Kim, S.H. [University of Seoul, Seoul (Korea)

    2002-05-01

    In this paper, the implementation of a new AF(Automatic Focusing) system for a digital still camera is introduced. The proposed system operates in real-time while adjusting focus after the measurement of distance to an object using a passive sensor, which is different from a typical method. In addition, measurement errors were minimized by using the data acquired empirically, and the optimal measuring time was obtained using EV(Exposure Value) which is calculated from CCD luminance signal. Moreover, this system adopted an auxiliary light source for focusing in absolute dark conditions, which is very hard for CCD image processing. Since this is an open-loop system adjusting focus immediately after the distance measurement, it guarantees real-time operation. The performance of this new AF system was verified by comparing the focusing value curve obtained from AF experiment with the one from the measurement by MF(Manual-Focusing). In both case, edge detector was used for various objects and backgrounds. (author). 9 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Real-Time Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing for Digital Controllers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cha, Seung-Tae; Kwon, Park In; Wu, Qiuwei

    2012-01-01

    of the power electronics hardware are not included in the RTDS. Instead, the control algorithms are coded using the native C code and downloaded to the dedicated digital signal processor (DSP)/microcontrollers. The two experimental applications illustrate the effectiveness of the HIL controller testing...

  4. Basic digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Lockhart, Gordon B

    1985-01-01

    Basic Digital Signal Processing describes the principles of digital signal processing and experiments with BASIC programs involving the fast Fourier theorem (FFT). The book reviews the fundamentals of the BASIC program, continuous and discrete time signals including analog signals, Fourier analysis, discrete Fourier transform, signal energy, power. The text also explains digital signal processing involving digital filters, linear time-variant systems, discrete time unit impulse, discrete-time convolution, and the alternative structure for second order infinite impulse response (IIR) sections.

  5. Real-time traffic signal optimization model based on average delay time per person

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengpeng Jiao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Real-time traffic signal control is very important for relieving urban traffic congestion. Many existing traffic control models were formulated using optimization approach, with the objective functions of minimizing vehicle delay time. To improve people’s trip efficiency, this article aims to minimize delay time per person. Based on the time-varying traffic flow data at intersections, the article first fits curves of accumulative arrival and departure vehicles, as well as the corresponding functions. Moreover, this article transfers vehicle delay time to personal delay time using average passenger load of cars and buses, employs such time as the objective function, and proposes a signal timing optimization model for intersections to achieve real-time signal parameters, including cycle length and green time. This research further implements a case study based on practical data collected at an intersection in Beijing, China. The average delay time per person and queue length are employed as evaluation indices to show the performances of the model. The results show that the proposed methodology is capable of improving traffic efficiency and is very effective for real-world applications.

  6. Interacting With A Near Real-Time Urban Digital Watershed Using Emerging Geospatial Web Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Fazio, D. J.; Abdelzaher, T.; Minsker, B.

    2007-12-01

    The value of real-time hydrologic data dissemination including river stage, streamflow, and precipitation for operational stormwater management efforts is particularly high for communities where flash flooding is common and costly. Ideally, such data would be presented within a watershed-scale geospatial context to portray a holistic view of the watershed. Local hydrologic sensor networks usually lack comprehensive integration with sensor networks managed by other agencies sharing the same watershed due to administrative, political, but mostly technical barriers. Recent efforts on providing unified access to hydrological data have concentrated on creating new SOAP-based web services and common data format (e.g. WaterML and Observation Data Model) for users to access the data (e.g. HIS and HydroSeek). Geospatial Web technology including OGC sensor web enablement (SWE), GeoRSS, Geo tags, Geospatial browsers such as Google Earth and Microsoft Virtual Earth and other location-based service tools provides possibilities for us to interact with a digital watershed in near-real-time. OGC SWE proposes a revolutionary concept towards a web-connected/controllable sensor networks. However, these efforts have not provided the capability to allow dynamic data integration/fusion among heterogeneous sources, data filtering and support for workflows or domain specific applications where both push and pull mode of retrieving data may be needed. We propose a light weight integration framework by extending SWE with open source Enterprise Service Bus (e.g., mule) as a backbone component to dynamically transform, transport, and integrate both heterogeneous sensor data sources and simulation model outputs. We will report our progress on building such framework where multi-agencies" sensor data and hydro-model outputs (with map layers) will be integrated and disseminated in a geospatial browser (e.g. Microsoft Virtual Earth). This is a collaborative project among NCSA, USGS Illinois Water

  7. Coherent time-stretch transformation for real-time capture of wideband signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Brandon W; Madni, Asad M; Jalali, Bahram

    2013-09-09

    Time stretch transformation of wideband waveforms boosts the performance of analog-to-digital converters and digital signal processors by slowing down analog electrical signals before digitization. The transform is based on dispersive Fourier transformation implemented in the optical domain. A coherent receiver would be ideal for capturing the time-stretched optical signal. Coherent receivers offer improved sensitivity, allow for digital cancellation of dispersion-induced impairments and optical nonlinearities, and enable decoding of phase-modulated optical data formats. Because time-stretch uses a chirped broadband (>1 THz) optical carrier, a new coherent detection technique is required. In this paper, we introduce and demonstrate coherent time stretch transformation; a technique that combines dispersive Fourier transform with optically broadband coherent detection.

  8. Challenges in using GPUs for the real-time reconstruction of digital hologram images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobson, P R; Nebrensky, J J; D, I

    2013-01-01

    In-line holography has recently made the transition from silver-halide based recording media, with laser reconstruction, to recording with large-area pixel detectors and computer-based reconstruction. This form of holographic imaging is an established technique for the study of fine particulates, such as cloud or fuel droplets, marine plankton and alluvial sediments, and enables a true 3D object field to be recorded at high resolution over a considerable depth. The move to digital holography promises rapid, if not instantaneous, feedback as it avoids the need for the time-consuming chemical development of plates or film film and a dedicated replay system, but with the growing use of video-rate holographic recording, and the desire to reconstruct fully every frame, the computational challenge becomes considerable. To replay a digital hologram a 2D FFT must be calculated for every depth slice desired in the replayed image volume. A typical hologram of ∼100 μm particles over a depth of a few hundred millimetres will require O(10 3 ) 2D FFT operations to be performed on a hologram of typically a few million pixels. In this paper we discuss the technical challenges in converting our existing reconstruction code to make efficient use of NVIDIA CUDA-based GPU cards and show how near real-time video slice reconstruction can be obtained with holograms as large as 4096 by 4096 pixels. Our performance to date for a number of different NVIDIA GPU running under both Linux and Microsoft Windows is presented. The recent availability of GPU on portable computers is discussed and a new code for interactive replay of digital holograms is presented.

  9. Fast, multi-channel real-time processing of signals with microsecond latency using graphics processing units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rath, N., E-mail: Nikolaus@rath.org; Levesque, J. P.; Mauel, M. E.; Navratil, G. A.; Peng, Q. [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, 500 W 120th St, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Kato, S. [Department of Information Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan)

    2014-04-15

    Fast, digital signal processing (DSP) has many applications. Typical hardware options for performing DSP are field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), application-specific integrated DSP chips, or general purpose personal computer systems. This paper presents a novel DSP platform that has been developed for feedback control on the HBT-EP tokamak device. The system runs all signal processing exclusively on a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) to achieve real-time performance with latencies below 8 μs. Signals are transferred into and out of the GPU using PCI Express peer-to-peer direct-memory-access transfers without involvement of the central processing unit or host memory. Tests were performed on the feedback control system of the HBT-EP tokamak using forty 16-bit floating point inputs and outputs each and a sampling rate of up to 250 kHz. Signals were digitized by a D-TACQ ACQ196 module, processing done on an NVIDIA GTX 580 GPU programmed in CUDA, and analog output was generated by D-TACQ AO32CPCI modules.

  10. Fast, multi-channel real-time processing of signals with microsecond latency using graphics processing units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rath, N.; Levesque, J. P.; Mauel, M. E.; Navratil, G. A.; Peng, Q.; Kato, S.

    2014-01-01

    Fast, digital signal processing (DSP) has many applications. Typical hardware options for performing DSP are field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), application-specific integrated DSP chips, or general purpose personal computer systems. This paper presents a novel DSP platform that has been developed for feedback control on the HBT-EP tokamak device. The system runs all signal processing exclusively on a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) to achieve real-time performance with latencies below 8 μs. Signals are transferred into and out of the GPU using PCI Express peer-to-peer direct-memory-access transfers without involvement of the central processing unit or host memory. Tests were performed on the feedback control system of the HBT-EP tokamak using forty 16-bit floating point inputs and outputs each and a sampling rate of up to 250 kHz. Signals were digitized by a D-TACQ ACQ196 module, processing done on an NVIDIA GTX 580 GPU programmed in CUDA, and analog output was generated by D-TACQ AO32CPCI modules

  11. Real-time synchronization of wireless sensor network by 1-PPS signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giammarini, Marco; Pieralisi, Marco; Isidori, Daniela; Concettoni, Enrico; Cristalli, Cristina; Fioravanti, Matteo

    2015-05-01

    The use of wireless sensor networks with different nodes is desirable in a smart environment, because the network setting up and installation on preexisting structures can be done without a fixed cabled infrastructure. The flexibility of the monitoring system is fundamental where the use of a considerable quantity of cables could compromise the normal exercise, could affect the quality of acquired signal and finally increase the cost of the materials and installation. The network is composed of several intelligent "nodes", which acquires data from different kind of sensors, and then store or transmit them to a central elaboration unit. The synchronization of data acquisition is the core of the real-time wireless sensor network (WSN). In this paper, we present a comparison between different methods proposed by literature for the real-time acquisition in a WSN and finally we present our solution based on 1-Pulse-Per-Second (1-PPS) signal generated by GPS systems. The sensor node developed is a small-embedded system based on ARM microcontroller that manages the acquisition, the timing and the post-processing of the data. The communications between the sensors and the master based on IEEE 802.15.4 protocol and managed by dedicated software. Finally, we present the preliminary results obtained on a 3 floor building simulator with the wireless sensors system developed.

  12. Resolving dynamics of cell signaling via real-time imaging of the immunological synapse.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, Mark A.; Pfeiffer, Janet R. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Wilson, Bridget S. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Timlin, Jerilyn Ann; Thomas, James L. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Lidke, Keith A. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Spendier, Kathrin (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Oliver, Janet M. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Carroll-Portillo, Amanda (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Aaron, Jesse S.; Mirijanian, Dina T.; Carson, Bryan D.; Burns, Alan Richard; Rebeil, Roberto

    2009-10-01

    This highly interdisciplinary team has developed dual-color, total internal reflection microscopy (TIRF-M) methods that enable us to optically detect and track in real time protein migration and clustering at membrane interfaces. By coupling TIRF-M with advanced analysis techniques (image correlation spectroscopy, single particle tracking) we have captured subtle changes in membrane organization that characterize immune responses. We have used this approach to elucidate the initial stages of cell activation in the IgE signaling network of mast cells and the Toll-like receptor (TLR-4) response in macrophages stimulated by bacteria. To help interpret these measurements, we have undertaken a computational modeling effort to connect the protein motion and lipid interactions. This work provides a deeper understanding of the initial stages of cellular response to external agents, including dynamics of interaction of key components in the signaling network at the 'immunological synapse,' the contact region of the cell and its adversary.

  13. Real-Time EEG Signal Enhancement Using Canonical Correlation Analysis and Gaussian Mixture Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Teng Lin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Electroencephalogram (EEG signals are usually contaminated with various artifacts, such as signal associated with muscle activity, eye movement, and body motion, which have a noncerebral origin. The amplitude of such artifacts is larger than that of the electrical activity of the brain, so they mask the cortical signals of interest, resulting in biased analysis and interpretation. Several blind source separation methods have been developed to remove artifacts from the EEG recordings. However, the iterative process for measuring separation within multichannel recordings is computationally intractable. Moreover, manually excluding the artifact components requires a time-consuming offline process. This work proposes a real-time artifact removal algorithm that is based on canonical correlation analysis (CCA, feature extraction, and the Gaussian mixture model (GMM to improve the quality of EEG signals. The CCA was used to decompose EEG signals into components followed by feature extraction to extract representative features and GMM to cluster these features into groups to recognize and remove artifacts. The feasibility of the proposed algorithm was demonstrated by effectively removing artifacts caused by blinks, head/body movement, and chewing from EEG recordings while preserving the temporal and spectral characteristics of the signals that are important to cognitive research.

  14. Unified and Modular Modeling and Functional Verification Framework of Real-Time Image Signal Processors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Jain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In VLSI industry, image signal processing algorithms are developed and evaluated using software models before implementation of RTL and firmware. After the finalization of the algorithm, software models are used as a golden reference model for the image signal processor (ISP RTL and firmware development. In this paper, we are describing the unified and modular modeling framework of image signal processing algorithms used for different applications such as ISP algorithms development, reference for hardware (HW implementation, reference for firmware (FW implementation, and bit-true certification. The universal verification methodology- (UVM- based functional verification framework of image signal processors using software reference models is described. Further, IP-XACT based tools for automatic generation of functional verification environment files and model map files are described. The proposed framework is developed both with host interface and with core using virtual register interface (VRI approach. This modeling and functional verification framework is used in real-time image signal processing applications including cellphone, smart cameras, and image compression. The main motivation behind this work is to propose the best efficient, reusable, and automated framework for modeling and verification of image signal processor (ISP designs. The proposed framework shows better results and significant improvement is observed in product verification time, verification cost, and quality of the designs.

  15. Comparison between digital PCR and real-time PCR in detection of Salmonella typhimurium in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Yang, Junjie; Gai, Zhongtao; Huo, Shengnan; Zhu, Jianhua; Li, Jun; Wang, Ranran; Xing, Sheng; Shi, Guosheng; Shi, Feng; Zhang, Lei

    2018-02-02

    As a kind of zero-tolerance foodborne pathogens, Salmonella typhimurium poses a great threat to quality of food products and public health. Hence, rapid and efficient approaches to identify Salmonella typhimurium are urgently needed. Combined with PCR and fluorescence technique, real-time PCR (qPCR) and digital PCR (ddPCR) are regarded as suitable tools for detecting foodborne pathogens. To compare the effect between qPCR and ddPCR in detecting Salmonella typhimurium, a series of nucleic acid, pure strain culture and spiking milk samples were applied and the resistance to inhibitors referred in this article as well. Compared with qPCR, ddPCR exhibited more sensitive (10 -4 ng/μl or 10 2 cfu/ml) and less pre-culturing time (saving 2h). Moreover, ddPCR had stronger resistance to inhibitors than qPCR, yet absolute quantification hardly performed when target's concentration over 1ng/μl or 10 6 cfu/ml. This study provides an alternative strategy in detecting foodborne Salmonella typhimurium. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Inhibition mechanisms of hemoglobin, immunoglobulin G, and whole blood in digital and real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidstedt, Maja; Hedman, Johannes; Romsos, Erica L; Waitara, Leticia; Wadsö, Lars; Steffen, Carolyn R; Vallone, Peter M; Rådström, Peter

    2018-04-01

    Blood samples are widely used for PCR-based DNA analysis in fields such as diagnosis of infectious diseases, cancer diagnostics, and forensic genetics. In this study, the mechanisms behind blood-induced PCR inhibition were evaluated by use of whole blood as well as known PCR-inhibitory molecules in both digital PCR and real-time PCR. Also, electrophoretic mobility shift assay was applied to investigate interactions between inhibitory proteins and DNA, and isothermal titration calorimetry was used to directly measure effects on DNA polymerase activity. Whole blood caused a decrease in the number of positive digital PCR reactions, lowered amplification efficiency, and caused severe quenching of the fluorescence of the passive reference dye 6-carboxy-X-rhodamine as well as the double-stranded DNA binding dye EvaGreen. Immunoglobulin G was found to bind to single-stranded genomic DNA, leading to increased quantification cycle values. Hemoglobin affected the DNA polymerase activity and thus lowered the amplification efficiency. Hemoglobin and hematin were shown to be the molecules in blood responsible for the fluorescence quenching. In conclusion, hemoglobin and immunoglobulin G are the two major PCR inhibitors in blood, where the first affects amplification through a direct effect on the DNA polymerase activity and quenches the fluorescence of free dye molecules, and the latter binds to single-stranded genomic DNA, hindering DNA polymerization in the first few PCR cycles. Graphical abstract PCR inhibition mechanisms of hemoglobin and immunoglobulin G (IgG). Cq quantification cycle, dsDNA double-stranded DNA, ssDNA single-stranded DNA.

  17. Linewidth-tolerant real-time 40-Gbit/s 16-QAM self-homodyne detection using a pilot carrier and ISI suppression based on electronic digital processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Moriya; Kamio, Yukiyoshi; Miyazaki, Tetsuya

    2010-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate linewidth-tolerant real-time 40-Gbit/s(10-Gsymbol/s) 16-quadrature amplitude modulation. We achieved bit-error rates of noise canceling capability provided by self-homodyne detection using a pilot carrier. Pre-equalization based on digital signal processing was employed to suppress intersymbol interference caused by the limited-frequency bandwidth of electrical components.

  18. Digital storage of repeated signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prozorov, S.P.

    1984-01-01

    An independent digital storage system designed for repeated signal discrimination from background noises is described. The signal averaging is performed off-line in the real time mode by means of multiple selection of the investigated signal and integration in each point. Digital values are added in a simple summator and the result is recorded the storage device with the volume of 1024X20 bit from where it can be output on an oscillograph, a plotter or transmitted to a compUter for subsequent processing. The described storage is reliable and simple device on one base of which the systems for the nuclear magnetic resonapce signal acquisition in different experiments are developed

  19. PEANO, a toolbox for real-time process signal validation and estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fantoni, Paolo F.; Figedy, Stefan; Racz, Attila

    1998-02-01

    PEANO (Process Evaluation and Analysis by Neural Operators), a toolbox for real time process signal validation and condition monitoring has been developed. This system analyses the signals, which are e.g. the readings of process monitoring sensors, computes their expected values and alerts if real values are deviated from the expected ones more than limits allow. The reliability level of the current analysis is also produced. The system is based on neuro-fuzzy techniques. Artificial Neural Networks and Fuzzy Logic models can be combined to exploit learning and generalisation capability of the first technique with the approximate reasoning embedded in the second approach. Real-time process signal validation is an application field where the use of this technique can improve the diagnosis of faulty sensors and the identification of outliers in a robust and reliable way. This study implements a fuzzy and possibilistic clustering algorithm to classify the operating region where the validation process has to be performed. The possibilistic approach (rather than probabilistic) allows a ''don't know'' classification that results in a fast detection of unforeseen plant conditions or outliers. Specialised Artificial Neural Networks are used for the validation process, one for each fuzzy cluster in which the operating map has been divided. There are two main advantages in using this technique: the accuracy and generalisation capability is increased compared to the case of a single network working in the entire operating region, and the ability to identify abnormal conditions, where the system is not capable to operate with a satisfactory accuracy, is improved. This model has been tested in a simulated environment on a French PWR, to monitor safety-related reactor variables over the entire power-flow operating map. (author)

  20. PEANO, a toolbox for real-time process signal validation and estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantoni, Paolo F.; Figedy, Stefan; Racz, Attila

    1998-02-01

    PEANO (Process Evaluation and Analysis by Neural Operators), a toolbox for real time process signal validation and condition monitoring has been developed. This system analyses the signals, which are e.g. the readings of process monitoring sensors, computes their expected values and alerts if real values are deviated from the expected ones more than limits allow. The reliability level of the current analysis is also produced. The system is based on neuro-fuzzy techniques. Artificial Neural Networks and Fuzzy Logic models can be combined to exploit learning and generalisation capability of the first technique with the approximate reasoning embedded in the second approach. Real-time process signal validation is an application field where the use of this technique can improve the diagnosis of faulty sensors and the identification of outliers in a robust and reliable way. This study implements a fuzzy and possibilistic clustering algorithm to classify the operating region where the validation process has to be performed. The possibilistic approach (rather than probabilistic) allows a ''don't know'' classification that results in a fast detection of unforeseen plant conditions or outliers. Specialised Artificial Neural Networks are used for the validation process, one for each fuzzy cluster in which the operating map has been divided. There are two main advantages in using this technique: the accuracy and generalisation capability is increased compared to the case of a single network working in the entire operating region, and the ability to identify abnormal conditions, where the system is not capable to operate with a satisfactory accuracy, is improved. This model has been tested in a simulated environment on a French PWR, to monitor safety-related reactor variables over the entire power-flow operating map. (author)

  1. Early Flood Detection for Rapid Humanitarian Response: Harnessing Near Real-Time Satellite and Twitter Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenden Jongman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Humanitarian organizations have a crucial role in response and relief efforts after floods. The effectiveness of disaster response is contingent on accurate and timely information regarding the location, timing and impacts of the event. Here we show how two near-real-time data sources, satellite observations of water coverage and flood-related social media activity from Twitter, can be used to support rapid disaster response, using case-studies in the Philippines and Pakistan. For these countries we analyze information from disaster response organizations, the Global Flood Detection System (GFDS satellite flood signal, and flood-related Twitter activity analysis. The results demonstrate that these sources of near-real-time information can be used to gain a quicker understanding of the location, the timing, as well as the causes and impacts of floods. In terms of location, we produce daily impact maps based on both satellite information and social media, which can dynamically and rapidly outline the affected area during a disaster. In terms of timing, the results show that GFDS and/or Twitter signals flagging ongoing or upcoming flooding are regularly available one to several days before the event was reported to humanitarian organizations. In terms of event understanding, we show that both GFDS and social media can be used to detect and understand unexpected or controversial flood events, for example due to the sudden opening of hydropower dams or the breaching of flood protection. The performance of the GFDS and Twitter data for early detection and location mapping is mixed, depending on specific hydrological circumstances (GFDS and social media penetration (Twitter. Further research is needed to improve the interpretation of the GFDS signal in different situations, and to improve the pre-processing of social media data for operational use.

  2. A real time ECG signal processing application for arrhythmia detection on portable devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georganis, A.; Doulgeraki, N.; Asvestas, P.

    2017-11-01

    Arrhythmia describes the disorders of normal heart rate, which, depending on the case, can even be fatal for a patient with severe history of heart disease. The purpose of this work is to develop an application for heart signal visualization, processing and analysis in Android portable devices e.g. Mobile phones, tablets, etc. The application is able to retrieve the signal initially from a file and at a later stage this signal is processed and analysed within the device so that it can be classified according to the features of the arrhythmia. In the processing and analysing stage, different algorithms are included among them the Moving Average and Pan Tompkins algorithm as well as the use of wavelets, in order to extract features and characteristics. At the final stage, testing is performed by simulating our application in real-time records, using the TCP network protocol for communicating the mobile with a simulated signal source. The classification of ECG beat to be processed is performed by neural networks.

  3. Wide-Area Assessment of Aperiodic Small Signal Rotor Angle Stability in Real-Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Østergaard, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the details of a new real-time stability assessment method. The method assesses a particular mechanism of stability: each generator’s capability to generate sufficient steady state electromechanical torque. The lack of sufficient steady state torque causes aperiodic increase...... of multiple operating points is derived in the paper. Finally, results from time-domain simulation of instability scenarios in the Nordic32 test system are presented and results used for testing the assessment method. The results illustrate the method’s capability to efficiently identify the location...... in rotor angle and a loss of synchronism, referred to as aperiodic small signal instability. The paper provides the theoretical background of the method and an analytical assessment criterion. Furthermore, a mathematical mapping of the generators’ operating points that enables informative visualization...

  4. Measurement of gas phase characteristics using new monofiber optical probes and real time signal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartellier, A.

    1998-01-01

    Single optical or impedance phase detection probes are able to measure gas velocities provided that their sensitive length L is accurately known. In this paper, it is shown that L can be controlled during the manufacture of optical probes. Beside, for a probe geometry in the form of a cone + a cylinder + a cone, the corresponding rise time / velocity correlation becomes weakly sensitive to uncontrollable parameter such as the angle of impact on the interface. A real time signal processing performing phase detection as well as velocity measurements is described. Since its sensitivity to the operator inputs is less than the reproducibility of measurements, it is a fairly objective tool. Qualifications achieved in air/water flows with various optical probes demonstrate that the void fraction is detected with a relative error less than 10 %. For bubbly flows, the gas flux is accurate within ±10%, but this uncertainty increases when large bubbles are present in the flow. (author)

  5. Wavelet transform and real-time learning method for myoelectric signal in motion discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Haihua; Chen Xinhao; Chen Yaguang

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the applicability of the Wavelet transform for analyzing an EMG signal and discriminating motion classes. In many previous works, researchers have dealt with steady EMG and have proposed suitable analyzing methods for the EMG, for example FFT and STFT. Therefore, it is difficult for the previous approaches to discriminate motions from the EMG in the different phases of muscle activity, i.e., pre-activity, in activity, postactivity phases, as well as the period of motion transition from one to another. In this paper, we introduce the Wavelet transform using the Coiflet mother wavelet into our real-time EMG prosthetic hand controller for discriminating motions from steady and unsteady EMG. A preliminary experiment to discriminate three hand motions from four channel EMG in the initial pre-activity and in activity phase is carried out to show the effectiveness of the approach. However, future research efforts are necessary to discriminate more motions much precisely

  6. A study of the real-time deconvolution of digitized waveforms with pulse pile up for digital radiation spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Weijun; Gardner, Robin P.; Mayo, Charles W.

    2005-01-01

    Two new real-time approaches have been developed and compared to the least-squares fit approach for the deconvolution of experimental waveforms with pile-up pulses. The single pulse shape chosen is typical for scintillators such as LSO and NaI(Tl). Simulated waveforms with pulse pile up were also generated and deconvolved to compare these three different approaches under cases where the single pulse component has a constant shape and the digitization error dominates. The effects of temporal separation and amplitude ratio between pile-up component pulses were also investigated and statistical tests were applied to quantify the consistency of deconvolution results for each case. Monte Carlo simulation demonstrated that applications of these pile-up deconvolution techniques to radiation spectroscopy are effective in extending the counting-rate range while preserving energy resolution for scintillation detectors

  7. Comparison of droplet digital PCR and seminested real-time PCR for quantification of cell-associated HIV-1 RNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiselinova, Maja; Pasternak, Alexander O.; de Spiegelaere, Ward; Vogelaers, Dirk; Berkhout, Ben; Vandekerckhove, Linos

    2014-01-01

    Cell-associated (CA) HIV-1 RNA is considered a potential marker for assessment of viral reservoir dynamics and antiretroviral therapy (ART) response in HIV-infected patients. Recent studies employed sensitive seminested real-time quantitative (q)PCR to quantify CA HIV-1 RNA. Digital PCR has been

  8. Real-time radiography, digital radiography, and computed tomography for nonintrusive waste drum characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martz, H.E.; Schneberk, D.J.; Roberson, G.P.

    1994-07-01

    We are investigating and developing the application of x-ray nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and gamma-ray nondestructive assay (NDA) methods to nonintrusively characterize 208-liter (55-gallon) mixed waste drums. Mixed wastes contain both hazardous and radioactive materials. We are investigating the use of x-ray NDE methods to verify the content of documented waste drums and determine if they can be used to identify hazardous and nonconforming materials. These NDE methods are also being used to help waste certification and hazardous waste management personnel at LLNL to verify/confirm and/or determine the contents of waste. The gamma-ray NDA method is used to identify the intrinsic radioactive source(s) and to accurately quantify its strength. The NDA method may also be able to identify some hazardous materials such as heavy metals. Also, we are exploring techniques to combine both NDE and NDA data sets to yield the maximum information from these nonintrusive, waste-drum characterization methods. In this paper, we report an our x-ray NDE R ampersand D activities, while our gamma-ray NDA activities are reported elsewhere in the proceedings. We have developed a data, acquisition scanner for x-ray NDE real-time radiography (RTR), as well as digital radiography transmission computed tomography (TCT) along with associated computational techniques for image reconstruction, analysis, and display. We are using this scanner and real-waste drums at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). In this paper, we discuss some issues associated with x-ray imaging, describe the design construction of an inexpensive NDE drum scanner, provide representative DR and TCT results of both mock- and real-waste drums, and end with a summary of our efforts and future directions. The results of these scans reveal that RTR, DR, and CT imaging techniques can be used in concert to provide valuable information about the interior of low-level-, transuranic-, and mock-waste drums without

  9. Assessment of the real-time PCR and different digital PCR platforms for DNA quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavšič, Jernej; Žel, Jana; Milavec, Mojca

    2016-01-01

    Digital PCR (dPCR) is beginning to supersede real-time PCR (qPCR) for quantification of nucleic acids in many different applications. Several analytical properties of the two most commonly used dPCR platforms, namely the QX100 system (Bio-Rad) and the 12.765 array of the Biomark system (Fluidigm), have already been evaluated and compared with those of qPCR. However, to the best of our knowledge, direct comparison between the three of these platforms using the same DNA material has not been done, and the 37 K array on the Biomark system has also not been evaluated in terms of linearity, analytical sensitivity and limit of quantification. Here, a first assessment of qPCR, the QX100 system and both arrays of the Biomark system was performed with plasmid and genomic DNA from human cytomegalovirus. With use of PCR components that alter the efficiency of qPCR, each dPCR platform demonstrated consistent copy-number estimations, which indicates the high resilience of dPCR. Two approaches, one considering the total reaction volume and the other considering the effective reaction size, were used to assess linearity, analytical sensitivity and variability. When the total reaction volume was considered, the best performance was observed with qPCR, followed by the QX100 system and the Biomark system. In contrast, when the effective reaction size was considered, all three platforms showed almost equal limits of detection and variability. Although dPCR might not always be more appropriate than qPCR for quantification of low copy numbers, dPCR is a suitable method for robust and reproducible quantification of viral DNA, and a promising technology for the higher-order reference measurement method.

  10. REAL TIME MICRODISPLACEMENTS TESTING BY OPTO-DIGITAL HOLOGRAPHIC INTERFEROMETRY TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L BOUAMAMA

    2007-12-01

    Since all the process is controlled numerically, it is possible to follow in real time using the holographic interferometry techniques, double exposure, real time or time average, any changes in the object under study and to start and stop the process at any time by adequate software. This can be done by subtracting a reference image by suitable software directly on the CCD camera. We show also, the ability of the technique to study in real time all evolutional phenomena.

  11. Real-time bicycle detection at signalized intersections using thermal imaging technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collaert, Robin

    2013-02-01

    More and more governments and authorities around the world are promoting the use of bicycles in cities, as this is healthy for the bicyclist and improves the quality of life in general. Safety and efficiency of bicyclists has become a major focus. To achieve this, there is a need for a smarter approach towards the control of signalized intersections. Various traditional detection technologies, such as video, microwave radar and electromagnetic loops, can be used to detect vehicles at signalized intersections, but none of these can consistently separate bikes from other traffic, day and night and in various weather conditions. As bikes should get a higher priority and also require longer green time to safely cross the signalized intersection, traffic managers are looking for alternative detection systems that can make the distinction between bicycles and other vehicles near the stop bar. In this paper, the drawbacks of a video-based approach are presented, next to the benefits of a thermal-video-based approach for vehicle presence detection with separation of bicycles. Also, the specific technical challenges are highlighted in developing a system that combines thermal image capturing, image processing and output triggering to the traffic light controller in near real-time and in a single housing.

  12. A digital, constant-frequency pulsed phase-locked-loop instrument for real-time, absolute ultrasonic phase measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldren, H. A.; Perey, D. F.; Yost, W. T.; Cramer, K. E.; Gupta, M. C.

    2018-05-01

    A digitally controlled instrument for conducting single-frequency and swept-frequency ultrasonic phase measurements has been developed based on a constant-frequency pulsed phase-locked-loop (CFPPLL) design. This instrument uses a pair of direct digital synthesizers to generate an ultrasonically transceived tone-burst and an internal reference wave for phase comparison. Real-time, constant-frequency phase tracking in an interrogated specimen is possible with a resolution of 0.000 38 rad (0.022°), and swept-frequency phase measurements can be obtained. Using phase measurements, an absolute thickness in borosilicate glass is presented to show the instrument's efficacy, and these results are compared to conventional ultrasonic pulse-echo time-of-flight (ToF) measurements. The newly developed instrument predicted the thickness with a mean error of -0.04 μm and a standard deviation of error of 1.35 μm. Additionally, the CFPPLL instrument shows a lower measured phase error in the absence of changing temperature and couplant thickness than high-resolution cross-correlation ToF measurements at a similar signal-to-noise ratio. By showing higher accuracy and precision than conventional pulse-echo ToF measurements and lower phase errors than cross-correlation ToF measurements, the new digitally controlled CFPPLL instrument provides high-resolution absolute ultrasonic velocity or path-length measurements in solids or liquids, as well as tracking of material property changes with high sensitivity. The ability to obtain absolute phase measurements allows for many new applications than possible with previous ultrasonic pulsed phase-locked loop instruments. In addition to improved resolution, swept-frequency phase measurements add useful capability in measuring properties of layered structures, such as bonded joints, or materials which exhibit non-linear frequency-dependent behavior, such as dispersive media.

  13. Real-time muscle state estimation from EMG signals during isometric contractions using Kalman filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegaldo, Luciano L

    2017-12-01

    State-space control of myoelectric devices and real-time visualization of muscle forces in virtual rehabilitation require measuring or estimating muscle dynamic states: neuromuscular activation, tendon force and muscle length. This paper investigates whether regular (KF) and extended Kalman filters (eKF), derived directly from Hill-type muscle mechanics equations, can be used as real-time muscle state estimators for isometric contractions using raw electromyography signals (EMG) as the only available measurement. The estimators' amplitude error, computational cost, filtering lags and smoothness are compared with usual EMG-driven analysis, performed offline, by integrating the nonlinear Hill-type muscle model differential equations (offline simulations-OS). EMG activity of the three triceps surae components (soleus, gastrocnemius medialis and gastrocnemius lateralis), in three torque levels, was collected for ten subjects. The actualization interval (AI) between two updates of the KF and eKF was also varied. The results show that computational costs are significantly reduced (70x for KF and 17[Formula: see text] for eKF). The filtering lags presented sharp linear relationships with the AI (0-300 ms), depending on the state and activation level. Under maximum excitation, amplitude errors varied in the range 10-24% for activation, 5-8% for tendon force and 1.4-1.8% for muscle length, reducing linearly with the excitation level. Smoothness, measured by the ratio between the average standard variations of KF/eKF and OS estimations, was greatly reduced for activation but converged exponentially to 1 for the other states by increasing AI. Compared to regular KF, extended KF does not seem to improve estimation accuracy significantly. Depending on the particular application requirements, the most appropriate KF actualization interval can be selected.

  14. Real-time process signal validation based on neuro-fuzzy and possibilistic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figedy, S.; Fantoni, P.F.; Hoffmann, M.

    2001-01-01

    Real-time process signal validation is an application field where the use of fuzzy logic and Artificial Neural Networks can improve the diagnostics of faulty sensors and the identification of outliers in a robust and reliable way. This study implements a fuzzy and possibilistic clustering algorithm to classify the operating region where the validation process is to be performed. The possibilistic approach allows a fast detection of unforeseen plant conditions. Specialized Artificial Neural Networks are used, one for each fuzzy cluster. This offers two main advantages: the accuracy and generalization capability is increased compared to the case of a single network working in the entire operating region, and the ability to identify abnormal conditions, where the system is not capable to operate with a satisfactory accuracy, is improved. This system analyzes the signals, which are e.g. the readings of process monitoring sensors, computes their expected values and alerts if real values are deviated from the expected ones more than limits allow. The reliability level of the current analysis is also produced. This model has been tested on a simulated data from the PWR type of a nuclear power plant, to monitor safety-related reactor variables over the entire power-flow operating map and were installed in real conditions of BWR nuclear reactor. (Authors)

  15. Real-time classification of signals from three-component seismic sensors using neural nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, B. C.; Dowla, F.

    1992-05-01

    Adaptive seismic data acquisition systems with capabilities of signal discrimination and event classification are important in treaty monitoring, proliferation, and earthquake early detection systems. Potential applications include monitoring underground chemical explosions, as well as other military, cultural, and natural activities where characteristics of signals change rapidly and without warning. In these applications, the ability to detect and interpret events rapidly without falling behind the influx of the data is critical. We developed a system for real-time data acquisition, analysis, learning, and classification of recorded events employing some of the latest technology in computer hardware, software, and artificial neural networks methods. The system is able to train dynamically, and updates its knowledge based on new data. The software is modular and hardware-independent; i.e., the front-end instrumentation is transparent to the analysis system. The software is designed to take advantage of the multiprocessing environment of the Unix operating system. The Unix System V shared memory and static RAM protocols for data access and the semaphore mechanism for interprocess communications were used. As the three-component sensor detects a seismic signal, it is displayed graphically on a color monitor using X11/Xlib graphics with interactive screening capabilities. For interesting events, the triaxial signal polarization is computed, a fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm is applied, and the normalized power spectrum is transmitted to a backpropagation neural network for event classification. The system is currently capable of handling three data channels with a sampling rate of 500 Hz, which covers the bandwidth of most seismic events. The system has been tested in laboratory setting with artificial events generated in the vicinity of a three-component sensor.

  16. A real-time digital control, data acquisition and analysis system for the DIII-D multipulse Thomson scattering diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenfield, C.M.; Campbell, G.L.; Carlstrom, T.N.; DeBoo, J.C.; Hsieh, C.-L.; Snider, R.T.; Trost, P.K.

    1990-10-01

    A VME-based real-time computer systems for laser control, data acquisition and analysis for the DIII-D multipulse Thomson scattering diagnostic is described. The laser control task requires precise timing of up to 8 Nd:YAG lasers, each with an average firing rate of 20 Hz. A cpu module in real-time multiprocessing computer system will operate the lasers with evenly staggered laser pulses or in a ''burst mode'', where all available (fully charged) lasers can be fired at 50--100 μsec intervals upon receipt of an external event trigger signal. One of more cpu modules, along with a LeCroy FERA (Fast Encoding and Readout ADC) system, will perform real-time data acquisition and analysis. Partial electron temperature and density profiles will be available for plasma feedback control within 1 msec following each laser pulse. The VME-based computer system consists of 2 or more target processor modules (25 MHz Motorola 68030) running the VMEexec real-time operating system connected to a Unix based host system (also a 68030). All real-time software is fully interrupt driven to maximize system efficiency. Operator interaction and (non real-time) data analysis takes place on a MicroVAX 3400 connected via DECnet. 17 refs., 1 fig

  17. Real-time digital control, data acquisition, and analysis system for the DIII-D multipulse Thomson scattering diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenfield, C.M.; Campbell, G.L.; Carlstrom, T.N.; DeBoo, J.C.; Hsieh, C.; Snider, R.T.; Trost, P.K.

    1990-01-01

    A VME-based real-time computer system for laser control, data acquisition, and analysis for the DIII-D multipulse Thomson scattering diagnostic is described. The laser control task requires precise timing of up to eight Nd:YAG lasers, each with an average firing rate of 20 Hz. A cpu module in a real-time multiprocessing computer system will operate the lasers with evenly staggered laser pulses or in a ''burst mode,'' where all available (fully charged) lasers can be fired at 50--100 μs intervals upon receipt of an external event trigger signal. One or more cpu modules, along with a LeCroy FERA (fast encoding and readout ADC) system, will perform real-time data acquisition and analysis. Partial electron temperature and density profiles will be available for plasma feedback control within 1 ms following each laser pulse. The VME-based computer system consists of two or more target processor modules (25 MHz Motorola 68030) running the VMEexec real-time operating system connected to a Unix-based host system (also a 68030). All real-time software is fully interrupt driven to maximize system efficiency. Operator interaction and (non-real-time) data analysis takes place on a MicroVAX 3400 connected via DECnet

  18. Real-time resource availability signaling in IP multimedia subsystem networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozcelebi, T.; Radovanovic, I.; Sengupta, D.

    2008-01-01

    IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) allows the use of unlicensed, non-dedicated and nondeterministic access networks for delivering IP multimedia services. Providing end-to-end Quality-of-Service (QoS) for resource demanding real-time services (e.g. real-time multimedia) over such networks is a

  19. Real-time simulation of MHD/steam power plants by digital parallel processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.M.; Rudberg, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    Attention is given to a large FORTRAN coded program which simulates the dynamic response of the MHD/steam plant on either a SEL 32/55 or VAX 11/780 computer. The code realizes a detailed first-principle model of the plant. Quite recently, in addition to the VAX 11/780, an AD-10 has been installed for usage as a real-time simulation facility. The parallel processor AD-10 is capable of simulating the MHD/steam plant at several times real-time rates. This is desirable in order to develop rapidly a large data base of varied plant operating conditions. The combined-cycle MHD/steam plant model is discussed, taking into account a number of disadvantages. The disadvantages can be overcome with the aid of an array processor used as an adjunct to the unit processor. The conversion of some computations for real-time simulation is considered

  20. Simulation and real-time replacement of missing plasma signals for disruption prediction: an implementation with APODIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rattá, G A; Vega, J; Murari, A

    2014-01-01

    So far, the best results for real-time disruption prediction on the Joint European Torus (JET) have been achieved with the Advanced Predictor of Disruptions (APODIS). APODIS is a data-driven system whose latest version has been implemented in JET's real time-data network. It has been designed for the real-time analysis of features (mean and frequency values) corresponding to seven plasma signals in order to foresee upcoming disruptions. In this article, non-linear regression techniques are applied to create (off-line) signal models. The models are able to generate (in real-time) ‘synthetic’ signals. Therefore, these ‘synthetic’ signals can be used to replace the original ones in cases where they are in error or missing. APODIS has been tested under these conditions, emulating real-time operation. The simulation results demonstrate that once a signal in error is replaced by the generated ‘synthetic’ one, APODIS performance is considerably improved. The development of the regression models and the implications of the results are detailed and discussed in this paper. (paper)

  1. Real-time measurement of relative sensor position changes using ultrasonic signal evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yastrebova, O.; Bulavinov, A.; Kroening, M. [Fraunhofer Institute Nondestructive Testing IZFP, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Ultrasonic testing is considered to be one of the most commonly applied nondestructive testing techniques for flaw detection and material characterization. Traditional Nondestructive Testing (NDT) provides detection of material discontinuities that may cause failure within the designed lifetime of a part or component. In addition, Quantitative Nondestructive Testing (QNDT) provides means to obtain required information about type, size and location of deficiencies to the integrity of the inspected structure and further use under specific, given load conditions. The ''Acoustic Mouse'' technique has been developed as a tool for manual ultrasonic inspection to provide test results that can be evaluated quantitatively. The ultrasonic data are processed by real-time variation methods to extract position information from backscattered acoustic noise and geometric scatter signals in the inspection volume. The position and positional changes of the ''Acoustic Mouse'' sensor (transducer) are determined by the sequential analysis of ultrasonic data (highresolution sector-scans), which are acquired and reconstructed using the Sampling Phased Array technique. The results of first experiments conducted with linear scanning and intentional lift-offs demonstrate sufficient accuracy in position measurements. (orig.)

  2. Improving method of real-time offset tuning for arterial signal coordination using probe trajectory data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the environment of intelligent transportation systems, traffic condition data would have higher resolution in time and space, which is especially valuable for managing the interrupted traffic at signalized intersections. There exist a lot of algorithms for offset tuning, but few of them take the advantage of modern traffic detection methods such as probe vehicle data. This study proposes a method using probe trajectory data to optimize and adjust offsets in real time. The critical point, representing the changing vehicle dynamics, is first defined as the basis of this approach. Using the critical points related to different states of traffic conditions, such as free flow, queue formation, and dissipation, various traffic status parameters can be estimated, including actual travel speed, queue dissipation rate, and standing queue length. The offset can then be adjusted on a cycle-by-cycle basis. The performance of this approach is evaluated using a simulation network. The results show that the trajectory-based approach can reduce travel time of the coordinated traffic flow when compared with using well-defined offline offset.

  3. The ASDEX upgrade digital video processing system for real-time machine protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drube, Reinhard, E-mail: reinhard.drube@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Neu, Gregor [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Cole, Richard H.; Lüddecke, Klaus [Unlimited Computer Systems GmbH, Seeshaupterstr. 15, 82393 Iffeldorf (Germany); Lunt, Tilmann; Herrmann, Albrecht [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • We present the Real-Time Video diagnostic system of ASDEX Upgrade. • We show the implemented image processing algorithms for machine protection. • The way to achieve a robust operating multi-threading Real-Time system is described. -- Abstract: This paper describes the design, implementation, and operation of the Video Real-Time (VRT) diagnostic system of the ASDEX Upgrade plasma experiment and its integration with the ASDEX Upgrade Discharge Control System (DCS). Hot spots produced by heating systems erroneously or accidentally hitting the vessel walls, or from objects in the vessel reaching into the plasma outer border, show up as bright areas in the videos during and after the reaction. A system to prevent damage to the machine by allowing for intervention in a running discharge of the experiment was proposed and implemented. The VRT was implemented on a multi-core real-time Linux system. Up to 16 analog video channels (color and b/w) are acquired and multiple regions of interest (ROI) are processed on each video frame. Detected critical states can be used to initiate appropriate reactions – e.g. gracefully terminate the discharge. The system has been in routine operation since 2007.

  4. Exploring valid reference genes for quantitative real - time rt - pce studies of hydrogenperoxide signaling in arabidopsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, H.; Han, B.; Xie, Y.; Zhang, J.; Shen, W.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ ) acts as a signaling molecule modulating the expression of various genes in plants. However, the reference gene(s) used for gene expression analysis of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ signaling is still arbitrary. A reliable result obtained by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) highly depends on accurate transcript normalization using stably expressed reference genes, whereas the inaccurate normalization could easily lead to the false conclusions. In this report, by using geNorm and NormFinder algorithms, 12 candidate reference genes were evaluated and compared in root and shoot tissues of Arabidopsis upon different doses of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/. The results revealed that, in our experimental conditions, three novel reference genes (TIP41-like, UKN, and UBC21) were identified and validated as suitable reference genes for RT-qPCR normalization in both root and shoot tissues under oxidative stress. This conclusion was further confirmed by publicly available microarray data of methyl viologen and drought stress. In comparison with a single reference gene (EF-1a), the expression pattern of ZAT12 modulated by H/sub 2/O/sub 2/, when using TIP41-like, UKN, and UBC21 as multiple reference gene(s), was similar with the previous reports by using northern blotting. Thus, we proposed that these three reference genes might be good candidates for other researchers to include in their reference gene validation in gene expression studies under H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ related oxidative stress. (author)

  5. Real-Time Prediction of Temperature Elevation During Robotic Bone Drilling Using the Torque Signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, Arne; Gavaghan, Kate; Stebinger, Manuel; Williamson, Tom; Weber, Stefan; Zysset, Philippe

    2017-09-01

    Bone drilling is a surgical procedure commonly required in many surgical fields, particularly orthopedics, dentistry and head and neck surgeries. While the long-term effects of thermal bone necrosis are unknown, the thermal damage to nerves in spinal or otolaryngological surgeries might lead to partial paralysis. Previous models to predict the temperature elevation have been suggested, but were not validated or have the disadvantages of computation time and complexity which does not allow real time predictions. Within this study, an analytical temperature prediction model is proposed which uses the torque signal of the drilling process to model the heat production of the drill bit. A simple Green's disk source function is used to solve the three dimensional heat equation along the drilling axis. Additionally, an extensive experimental study was carried out to validate the model. A custom CNC-setup with a load cell and a thermal camera was used to measure the axial drilling torque and force as well as temperature elevations. Bones with different sets of bone volume fraction were drilled with two drill bits ([Formula: see text]1.8 mm and [Formula: see text]2.5 mm) and repeated eight times. The model was calibrated with 5 of 40 measurements and successfully validated with the rest of the data ([Formula: see text]C). It was also found that the temperature elevation can be predicted using only the torque signal of the drilling process. In the future, the model could be used to monitor and control the drilling process of surgeries close to vulnerable structures.

  6. SIBYLLE: an expert system for the interpretation in real time of mono-dimensional signals; application to vocal signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minault, Sophie

    1987-01-01

    This report presents an interactive tool for computer aided building of signals processing and interpretation systems. This tool includes three main parts: - an expert system, - a rule compiler, - a real time procedural system. The expert system allows the acquisition of knowledge about the signal. Knowledge has to be formalized as a set of rewriting rules (or syntaxical rules) and is introduced with an interactive interface. The compiler makes a compilation of the knowledge base (the set of rules) and generates a procedural system, which is equivalent to the expert system. The generated procedural system is a fixed one but is much faster than the expert system: it can work in real time. The expert system is used along the experimental phase on a small corpus of data: the knowledge base is then tested and possibly modified thanks to the interactive interface. Once the knowledge base is steady enough, the procedural system is generated and tested on a bigger data corpus. This allows to perform significant statistical studies which generally induce some corrections at the expert system level. The overall constitutes a tool which conciliates the expert systems flexibility with the procedural systems speed. It has been used for building a set of recognition rules modules on vocal signal - module of sound-silence detection - module of voiced-unvoiced segmentation - module of synchronous pitch detection. Its possibilities are not limited to the study of vocal signal, but can be enlarged to any mono-dimensional signal processing. A feasibility study has been realised for an electrocardiograms application. (author) [fr

  7. Practical Testing and Performance Analysis of Phasor Measurement Unit Using Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Leo; Rather, Zakir Hussain; Stearn, Nathen

    2012-01-01

    Wide Area Measurement Systems (WAMS) and Wide Area Monitoring, Protection and Control Systems (WAMPACS) have evolved rapidly over the last two decades [1]. This fast emerging technology enables real time synchronized monitoring of power systems. Presently, WAMS are mainly used for real time...... visualisation and post event analysis of power systems. It is expected however, that through integration with traditional Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems, closed loop control applications will be possible. Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) are fundamental components of WAMS. Large WAMS...... proposed to realize highly precise phasoreasurements. Further a comparative study based on features of PMUs from different major manufacturers is presented. The selection of optimal parameters, such as phasor format and filter length is also discussed for various applications....

  8. Digital Education Governance: Data Visualization, Predictive Analytics, and "Real-Time" Policy Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Educational institutions and governing practices are increasingly augmented with digital database technologies that function as new kinds of policy instruments. This article surveys and maps the landscape of digital policy instrumentation in education and provides two detailed case studies of new digital data systems. The Learning Curve is a…

  9. Data acquisition and real-time signal processing of plasma diagnostics on ASDEX Upgrade using LabVIEW RT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannone, L.; Cerna, M.; Cole, R.; Fitzek, M.; Kallenbach, A.; Lueddecke, K.; McCarthy, P.J.; Scarabosio, A.; Schneider, W.; Sips, A.C.C.; Treutterer, W.; Vrancic, A.; Wenzel, L.; Yi, H.; Behler, K.; Eich, T.; Eixenberger, H.; Fuchs, J.C.; Haas, G.; Lexa, G.

    2010-01-01

    The existing VxWorks real-time system for the position and shape control in ASDEX Upgrade has been extended to calculate magnetic flux surfaces in real-time using a multi-core PCI Express system running LabVIEW RT 8.6. real-time signal processing of bolometers and manometers is performed with the on-board FPGA to calculate the measured radiated power flux and particle flux respectively from the raw data. Radiation feedback experiments use halo current measurements from the outer divertor with real-time median filter pre-processing to remove the excursions produced by ELMs. Integration of these plasma diagnostics into the control system by the exchange of XML sheets for communicating the real-time variables to be produced and consumed is in operation. Reflective memory and UDP are employed by the LabVIEW RT plasma diagnostics to communicate with the control system and other plasma diagnostics in a multi-platform real-time network.

  10. Data acquisition and real-time signal processing of plasma diagnostics on ASDEX Upgrade using LabVIEW RT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannone, L., E-mail: Louis.Giannone@ipp.mpg.d [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-IPP Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Cerna, M. [National Instruments, Austin, TX 78759-3504 (United States); Cole, R.; Fitzek, M. [Unlimited Computer Systems GmbH, 82393 Iffeldorf (Germany); Kallenbach, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-IPP Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Lueddecke, K. [Unlimited Computer Systems GmbH, 82393 Iffeldorf (Germany); McCarthy, P.J. [Department of Physics, University College Cork, Association EURATOM-DCU, Cork (Ireland); Scarabosio, A.; Schneider, W.; Sips, A.C.C.; Treutterer, W. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-IPP Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Vrancic, A.; Wenzel, L.; Yi, H. [National Instruments, Austin, TX 78759-3504 (United States); Behler, K.; Eich, T.; Eixenberger, H.; Fuchs, J.C.; Haas, G.; Lexa, G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-IPP Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    The existing VxWorks real-time system for the position and shape control in ASDEX Upgrade has been extended to calculate magnetic flux surfaces in real-time using a multi-core PCI Express system running LabVIEW RT 8.6. real-time signal processing of bolometers and manometers is performed with the on-board FPGA to calculate the measured radiated power flux and particle flux respectively from the raw data. Radiation feedback experiments use halo current measurements from the outer divertor with real-time median filter pre-processing to remove the excursions produced by ELMs. Integration of these plasma diagnostics into the control system by the exchange of XML sheets for communicating the real-time variables to be produced and consumed is in operation. Reflective memory and UDP are employed by the LabVIEW RT plasma diagnostics to communicate with the control system and other plasma diagnostics in a multi-platform real-time network.

  11. Real-time photonic sampling with improved signal-to-noise and distortion ratio using polarization-dependent modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Dong; Zhang, Zhiyao; Liu, Yong; Li, Xiaojun; Jiang, Wei; Tan, Qinggui

    2018-04-01

    A real-time photonic sampling structure with effective nonlinearity suppression and excellent signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) performance is proposed. The key points of this scheme are the polarization-dependent modulators (P-DMZMs) and the sagnac loop structure. Thanks to the polarization sensitive characteristic of P-DMZMs, the differences between transfer functions of the fundamental signal and the distortion become visible. Meanwhile, the selection of specific biases in P-DMZMs is helpful to achieve a preferable linearized performance with a low noise level for real-time photonic sampling. Compared with the quadrature-biased scheme, the proposed scheme is capable of valid nonlinearity suppression and is able to provide a better SNR performance even in a large frequency range. The proposed scheme is proved to be effective and easily implemented for real time photonic applications.

  12. Real-time video signal processing by generalized DDA and control memories: three-dimensional rotation and mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hama, Hiromitsu; Yamashita, Kazumi

    1991-11-01

    A new method for video signal processing is described in this paper. The purpose is real-time image transformations at low cost, low power, and small size hardware. This is impossible without special hardware. Here generalized digital differential analyzer (DDA) and control memory (CM) play a very important role. Then indentation, which is called jaggy, is caused on the boundary of a background and a foreground accompanied with the processing. Jaggy does not occur inside the transformed image because of adopting linear interpretation. But it does occur inherently on the boundary of the background and the transformed images. It causes deterioration of image quality, and must be avoided. There are two well-know ways to improve image quality, blurring and supersampling. The former does not have much effect, and the latter has the much higher cost of computing. As a means of settling such a trouble, a method is proposed, which searches for positions that may arise jaggy and smooths such points. Computer simulations based on the real data from VTR, one scene of a movie, are presented to demonstrate our proposed scheme using DDA and CMs and to confirm the effectiveness on various transformations.

  13. Foundations of digital signal processing theory, algorithms and hardware design

    CERN Document Server

    Gaydecki, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    An excellent introductory text, this book covers the basic theoretical, algorithmic and real-time aspects of digital signal processing (DSP). Detailed information is provided on off-line, real-time and DSP programming and the reader is effortlessly guided through advanced topics such as DSP hardware design, FIR and IIR filter design and difference equation manipulation.

  14. IMPLEMENTATION OF A REAL-TIME STACKING ALGORITHM IN A PHOTOGRAMMETRIC DIGITAL CAMERA FOR UAVS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Audi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs have become an interesting tool in aerial photography and photogrammetry activities. In this context, some applications (like cloudy sky surveys, narrow-spectral imagery and night-vision imagery need a longexposure time where one of the main problems is the motion blur caused by the erratic camera movements during image acquisition. This paper describes an automatic real-time stacking algorithm which produces a high photogrammetric quality final composite image with an equivalent long-exposure time using several images acquired with short-exposure times. Our method is inspired by feature-based image registration technique. The algorithm is implemented on the light-weight IGN camera, which has an IMU sensor and a SoC/FPGA. To obtain the correct parameters for the resampling of images, the presented method accurately estimates the geometrical relation between the first and the Nth image, taking into account the internal parameters and the distortion of the camera. Features are detected in the first image by the FAST detector, than homologous points on other images are obtained by template matching aided by the IMU sensors. The SoC/FPGA in the camera is used to speed up time-consuming parts of the algorithm such as features detection and images resampling in order to achieve a real-time performance as we want to write only the resulting final image to save bandwidth on the storage device. The paper includes a detailed description of the implemented algorithm, resource usage summary, resulting processing time, resulting images, as well as block diagrams of the described architecture. The resulting stacked image obtained on real surveys doesn’t seem visually impaired. Timing results demonstrate that our algorithm can be used in real-time since its processing time is less than the writing time of an image in the storage device. An interesting by-product of this algorithm is the 3D rotation

  15. A knowledge-based flight status monitor for real-time application in digital avionics systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, E. L.; Disbrow, J. D.; Butler, G. F.

    1989-01-01

    The Dryden Flight Research Facility of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center (Ames-Dryden) is the principal NASA facility for the flight testing and evaluation of new and complex avionics systems. To aid in the interpretation of system health and status data, a knowledge-based flight status monitor was designed. The monitor was designed to use fault indicators from the onboard system which are telemetered to the ground and processed by a rule-based model of the aircraft failure management system to give timely advice and recommendations in the mission control room. One of the important constraints on the flight status monitor is the need to operate in real time, and to pursue this aspect, a joint research activity between NASA Ames-Dryden and the Royal Aerospace Establishment (RAE) on real-time knowledge-based systems was established. Under this agreement, the original LISP knowledge base for the flight status monitor was reimplemented using the intelligent knowledge-based system toolkit, MUSE, which was developed under RAE sponsorship. Details of the flight status monitor and the MUSE implementation are presented.

  16. An Approach for Real-time Levee Health Monitoring Using Signal Processing Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pyayt, A.L.; Kozionov, A.P.; Mokhov, I.I.; Lang, B.; Krzhizhanovskaya, V.V.; Sloot, P.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    We developed a levee health monitoring system within the UrbanFlood project funded under the EU 7th Framework Programme. A novel real-time levee health assessment Artificial Intelligence system is developed using data-driven methods. The system is implemented in the UrbanFlood early warning system.

  17. Data acquisition and real time signal processing of plasma diagnostics on ASDEX Upgrade using LabVIEW RT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannone, L.; Scarabosio, A.; Eich, T.; Fuchs, C.; Haas, G.; Kallenbach, A.; McCarthy, P.; Mlynek, A.; Neu, G.; Reich, M.; Schneider, W.; Schuhbeck, K.; Treutterer, W.; Zehetbauer, T.; Asdex, Upgrade Team [Max-Planck-Institut fur Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Cerna, M.; Wenzel, L.; Concezzi, S.; Debelle, T.; Marker, B.; Munroe, M.; Petersen, N.; Vrancic, A. [National Instruments Corporation, Austin (United States); Marquardt, M.; Sachtleben, J. [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasmaphysics, Teilinstitut Greifswald (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    There are 5 plasma diagnostics using LabVIEW RT for data acquisition and control on ASDEX Upgrade. These diagnostics are integrated into the VxWorks control system by the exchange of XML files. Real time communication to the control system is possible by Ethernet using UDP or by reflective memory using a dedicated fiber optic cable. The bolometer and manometer data acquisition systems are described, they use FPGA cards to process raw data in real time. The absorbed power of the bolometer foil is calculated in real time on the FPGA. The radiation peaking factor is also calculated in real time and is used for feedback control of the discharge. The manometer uses 8 analog inputs and 4 analog outputs of a FPGA card to provide PID control of the electron current emission of a filament. The electron and ion currents are acquired at 750 kHz and the neutral gas pressures of 4 manometers are calculated in real time on a FPGA card at up to 10 kHz. The magnetic equilibrium diagnostic acquires 80 magnetic probe and flux loop signals at 10 kHz. The 95 plasma position and shape parameters and magnetic flux surfaces are calculated in real time. The function parameterization algorithm used to calculate the magnetic flux surfaces in real time requires the multiplication of a matrix of dimension 2691*231 with a vector of length 231. This matrix and vector multiplication is solved through parallel computing on a dual quad-core computer and the execution time of this operation is reduced by a factor of four compared to calculation on a single core. This document is composed of an abstract followed by a poster. (authors)

  18. Evolution of Neutron Imaging at TRIGA PUSPATI Reactor: A Promising Digital Real-Time Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairiah Yazid; Muhammad Rawi Mohamed Zin; Rafhayudi Jamro; Azraf Azman

    2016-01-01

    Neutron radiography is a powerful tool for non-destructive testing of materials and finds numerous applications in industry and in material research as well. The basic principle is similar to that of X-ray radiography. A beam of neutrons falls on the sample and after passing through the sample, leaves the sample image on a photographic plate or on a detector. The neutrons interact with the nuclei of the atoms that compose the sample and the absorption and scattering properties of the contained elements make it possible to produce images of components containing light elements, like hydrogen beneath a matrix of metallic elements, (lead or bismuth), which cannot be easily done with conventional X ray radiography. Exploiting this property, neutron radiography has been used in applications requiring the identification of (light) materials inside solid samples. This article gives an overview of utilization of the CCD camera system in neutron imaging system for real time radiography/ tomography investigations. (author)

  19. The implementation of CMOS sensors within a real time digital mammography intelligent imaging system: The I-ImaS System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbrand, C.; Royle, G.; Griffiths, J.; Speller, R.

    2009-07-01

    The integration of technology with healthcare has undoubtedly propelled the medical imaging sector well into the twenty first century. The concept of digital imaging introduced during the 1970s has since paved the way for established imaging techniques where digital mammography, phase contrast imaging and CT imaging are just a few examples. This paper presents a prototype intelligent digital mammography system designed and developed by a European consortium. The final system, the I-ImaS system, utilises CMOS monolithic active pixel sensor (MAPS) technology promoting on-chip data processing, enabling the acts of data processing and image acquisition to be achieved simultaneously; consequently, statistical analysis of tissue is achievable in real-time for the purpose of x-ray beam modulation via a feedback mechanism during the image acquisition procedure. The imager implements a dual array of twenty 520 pixel × 40 pixel CMOS MAPS sensing devices with a 32μm pixel size, each individually coupled to a 100μm thick thallium doped structured CsI scintillator. This paper presents the first intelligent images of real breast tissue obtained from the prototype system of real excised breast tissue where the x-ray exposure was modulated via the statistical information extracted from the breast tissue itself. Conventional images were experimentally acquired where the statistical analysis of the data was done off-line, resulting in the production of simulated real-time intelligently optimised images. The results obtained indicate real-time image optimisation using the statistical information extracted from the breast as a means of a feedback mechanisms is beneficial and foreseeable in the near future.

  20. Digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    O'Shea, Peter; Hussain, Zahir M

    2011-01-01

    In three parts, this book contributes to the advancement of engineering education and that serves as a general reference on digital signal processing. Part I presents the basics of analog and digital signals and systems in the time and frequency domain. It covers the core topics: convolution, transforms, filters, and random signal analysis. It also treats important applications including signal detection in noise, radar range estimation for airborne targets, binary communication systems, channel estimation, banking and financial applications, and audio effects production. Part II considers sel

  1. Kurtosis based blind source extraction of complex noncircular signals with application in EEG artifact removal in real-time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soroush eJavidi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A new class of complex domain blind source extraction (BSE algorithms suitable for the extraction of both circular and noncircular complex signals is proposed. This is achieved through sequential extraction based on the degree of kurtosis and in the presence of noncircular measurement noise. The existence and uniqueness analysis of the solution is followed by a study of fast converging variants of the algorithm. The performance is first assessed through simulations on well understood benchmark signals, followed by a case study on real-time artifact removal from EEG signals, verified using both qualitative and quantitative metrics. The results illustrate the power of the proposed approach in real-time blind extraction of general complex-valued sources.

  2. Real-time data exchange of power supply digital adjustor of HIRFL-CSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Xianqiang; Jing Lan; Guo Yuhui; Yao Ze'en; Long Yindong

    2012-01-01

    In order to solve the communications blockage problem of the power supply digital adjustors in Lanzhou Heavy Ion Accelerator CSR, a new system architecture is adopted, P2P technology is embedded to the core processor ARM of the digital adjustor. Based on the technology of UDP holing, a direct communication connect is established between the adjustors, thus the data are no longer forwarded by the main Oracle database system acting as a server. This method decentralizes the communication responsibility of Oracle database system, the risk of network block is reduced, and the effectiveness and reliability of communication is improved. (authors)

  3. Real-Time Signal Processing for Multiantenna Systems: Algorithms, Optimization, and Implementation on an Experimental Test-Bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haustein Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A recently realized concept of a reconfigurable hardware test-bed suitable for real-time mobile communication with multiple antennas is presented in this paper. We discuss the reasons and prerequisites for real-time capable MIMO transmission systems which may allow channel adaptive transmission to increase link stability and data throughput. We describe a concept of an efficient implementation of MIMO signal processing using FPGAs and DSPs. We focus on some basic linear and nonlinear MIMO detection and precoding algorithms and their optimization for a DSP target, and a few principal steps for computational performance enhancement are outlined. An experimental verification of several real-time MIMO transmission schemes at high data rates in a typical office scenario is presented and results on the achieved BER and throughput performance are given. The different transmission schemes used either channel state information at both sides of the link or at one side only (transmitter or receiver. Spectral efficiencies of more than 20 bits/s/Hz and a throughput of more than 150 Mbps were shown with a single-carrier transmission. The experimental results clearly show the feasibility of real-time high data rate MIMO techniques with state-of-the-art hardware and that more sophisticated baseband signal processing will be an essential part of future communication systems. A discussion on implementation challenges towards future wireless communication systems supporting higher data rates (1 Gbps and beyond or high mobility concludes the paper.

  4. Real-time interferometer phase detection using an LSI-11 microcomputer and high-speed digital techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendell, D.S.

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes the basic design and philosophy of a real-time, interferometer phase-detection system used on the 2XIIB and TMX magnetic-fusion experiments at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. This diagnostics system is now a satellite to a host computer and uses high-speed, emitter-coupled logic techniques to derive data on real-time phase relationships. The system's input signals can be derived from interferometer outputs over a wide range of reference frequencies. An LSI-11 microcomputer is the interface between the high-speed phase-detection logic, buffer memory, human interaction, and host computer. Phase data on a storage CRT is immediately displayed after each experimental fusion shot. An operator can interrogate this phase data more closely from an interactive control panel, while the host computer is simultaneously examining the system's buffer memory or arming the system for the next shot

  5. Making Digital Elevation ModelsAccessible, Comprehensible, and Engaging through Real-Time Visualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Thomas Kim; Mikkelsen, Peter Trier; Mosegaard, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present our initial experiments with the new high quality digital elevation model, “Danmarks Højdemodel-2015” (DHM) exposed as an interactive 3D visualization on web and in virtual reality. We argue that such data has great opportunities to spawn new business and new insight...

  6. Research on real-time simulation test for upgrades of digital I and C system in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Ji; Jiang Mingyu; Ma Yunqin

    2005-01-01

    The developing trend that digital instrument and control (I and C) system will supplant traditional analog I and C system in nuclear power plant is emphasized. This paper introduces mathematical model of steam generator of full scope simulator for nuclear power plant. The independent real-time simulation system, which forms the interactive closed loop together with the steam generator control system, can be applied to provide a simulation target for upgrades of instrument and control system and the research of control schemes. At the same time, a simulation method for this purpose is presented in this paper. In this method all of the hardware and software are composed of real distributed control system except the model of controlled object. This will not only create favorable conditions for commissioning on site in the future, but also give a theoretical analysis for upgrades of digital I and C system in nuclear power plant. (authors)

  7. Development of CT and 3D-CT Using Flat Panel Detector Based Real-Time Digital Radiography System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravindran, V. R.; Sreelakshmi, C.; Vibin

    2008-01-01

    The application of Digital Radiography in the Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) of space vehicle components is a recent development in India. A Real-time DR system based on amorphous silicon Flat Panel Detector has been developed for the NDE of solid rocket motors at Rocket Propellant Plant of VSSC in a few years back. The technique has been successfully established for the nondestructive evaluation of solid rocket motors. The DR images recorded for a few solid rocket specimens are presented in the paper. The Real-time DR system is capable of generating sufficient digital X-ray image data with object rotation for the CT image reconstruction. In this paper the indigenous development of CT imaging based on the Realtime DR system for solid rocket motor is presented. Studies are also carried out to generate 3D-CT image from a set of adjacent CT images of the rocket motor. The capability of revealing the spatial location and characterisation of defect is demonstrated by the CT and 3D-CT images generated.

  8. Real time detecting system for turning force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaobin, Yue [China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang (China). Inst. of Machinery Manufacturing Technology

    2001-07-01

    How to get the real-time value of forces dropped on the tool in the course of processing by piezoelectric sensors is introduced. First, the analog signals of the cutting force were achieved by these sensors, amplified and transferred into digital signals by A/D transferring card. Then real-time software reads the information, put it into its own coordinate, drew the curve of forces, displayed it on the screen by the real time and saved it for the technicians to analyze the situation of the tool. So the cutting parameter can be optimized to improve surface quality of the pieces.

  9. Real-time detection of transient cardiac ischemic episodes from ECG signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dranca, L; Goñi, A; Illarramendi, A

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new algorithm to detect and classify transient cardiac ischemia episodes, designed with the goal of providing a real-time execution without penalizing the classifier accuracy much. The algorithm is based on a novel mixture of time-domain analysis and machine learning techniques, specifically bagging of decision trees, and it has been developed using a well-recognized and freely distributed database, namely the long-term ST database. The ST episode detection sensitivity/positive predictivity using the annotation protocol A for this database is 68.26%/74.91%. The sensitivity result increases until 93.97% for the most dangerous episodes in terms of duration and magnitude (annotated according to protocol C). The test of the algorithm over the freely distributed part of the European Society of Cardiology database has shown results of sensitivity and positive predictivity of 83.33% and 77.31%, respectively. Those results are close to the results obtained by related works that present approaches to detect ischemia episodes off-line, which is remarkable if we take into account that in our real-time approach, less information is available during the classification process

  10. Low cost time to digital converter in real time with +-1 ns resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenzi, G; Podini, P; Reverberi, R [Parma Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Fisica; Pernestaal, K [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Fysiska Institutionen

    1977-04-15

    A time to digital converter (TDC) with a time resolution of 1 ns has been designed. The deadtime is T+0.6 ..mu..s where T is the measured time. The time range can be preselected between 0.3 and 10 ..mu..s. The TDC has one START and three mutually exclusive STOP inputs which accept standard pulses (-16 mA). The time information is presented as a bit binary word, including the activated stop input address. The instrument has been successfully used in ..mu../sup +/SR (muon spin rotation) measurements and has proven itself advantageous over the more common TAC+ADC combination.

  11. Quasi-optimum gamma and X spectroscopy based on real-time digital techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Pullia, Antonio; Ripamonti, G

    2000-01-01

    An adaptive, self-calibrated instrument for gamma- and X-ray digital spectroscopy is proposed and demonstrated. Most of the typical processing features (pole-zero cancellation, baseline restoration, and shaping) are digitally implemented and optimized. Initialization is performed through a software procedure, which makes the system particularly flexible and allows periodical adaptivity. It is shown that spectroscopy performances are achieved even while using low-cost, low-frequency (5 Ms/s), and relatively low-resolution (12-bit) AD converters. The ADC differential nonlinearity (DNL), for example, is improved of two orders of magnitude, as estimated over the Compton shoulder of a sup 6 sup 0 Co spectrum, owing to an equivalent built-in sliding-scale effect. Using the system with an high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector a resolution of 1.9 keV FWHM (1.6 per mille) is obtained on the 1.17 MeV spectral line of a sup 6 sup 0 Co source. An Integral Nonlinearity (INL) of 0.3 per mille is measured in the range from ...

  12. Real-Time Amplitude and Phase Imaging of Optically Opaque Objects by Combining Full-Field Off-Axis Terahertz Digital Holography with Angular Spectrum Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagiwa, Masatomo; Ogawa, Takayuki; Minamikawa, Takeo; Abdelsalam, Dahi Ghareab; Okabe, Kyosuke; Tsurumachi, Noriaki; Mizutani, Yasuhiro; Iwata, Testuo; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu; Yasui, Takeshi

    2018-06-01

    Terahertz digital holography (THz-DH) has the potential to be used for non-destructive inspection of visibly opaque soft materials due to its good immunity to optical scattering and absorption. Although previous research on full-field off-axis THz-DH has usually been performed using Fresnel diffraction reconstruction, its minimum reconstruction distance occasionally prevents a sample from being placed near a THz imager to increase the signal-to-noise ratio in the hologram. In this article, we apply the angular spectrum method (ASM) for wavefront reconstruction in full-filed off-axis THz-DH because ASM is more accurate at short reconstruction distances. We demonstrate real-time phase imaging of a visibly opaque plastic sample with a phase resolution power of λ/49 at a frame rate of 3.5 Hz in addition to real-time amplitude imaging. We also perform digital focusing of the amplitude image for the same object with a depth selectivity of 447 μm. Furthermore, 3D imaging of visibly opaque silicon objects was achieved with a depth precision of 1.7 μm. The demonstrated results indicate the high potential of the proposed method for in-line or in-process non-destructive inspection of soft materials.

  13. Real-Time Amplitude and Phase Imaging of Optically Opaque Objects by Combining Full-Field Off-Axis Terahertz Digital Holography with Angular Spectrum Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagiwa, Masatomo; Ogawa, Takayuki; Minamikawa, Takeo; Abdelsalam, Dahi Ghareab; Okabe, Kyosuke; Tsurumachi, Noriaki; Mizutani, Yasuhiro; Iwata, Testuo; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu; Yasui, Takeshi

    2018-04-01

    Terahertz digital holography (THz-DH) has the potential to be used for non-destructive inspection of visibly opaque soft materials due to its good immunity to optical scattering and absorption. Although previous research on full-field off-axis THz-DH has usually been performed using Fresnel diffraction reconstruction, its minimum reconstruction distance occasionally prevents a sample from being placed near a THz imager to increase the signal-to-noise ratio in the hologram. In this article, we apply the angular spectrum method (ASM) for wavefront reconstruction in full-filed off-axis THz-DH because ASM is more accurate at short reconstruction distances. We demonstrate real-time phase imaging of a visibly opaque plastic sample with a phase resolution power of λ/49 at a frame rate of 3.5 Hz in addition to real-time amplitude imaging. We also perform digital focusing of the amplitude image for the same object with a depth selectivity of 447 μm. Furthermore, 3D imaging of visibly opaque silicon objects was achieved with a depth precision of 1.7 μm. The demonstrated results indicate the high potential of the proposed method for in-line or in-process non-destructive inspection of soft materials.

  14. Consultation on urological specimens from referred cancer patients using real-time digital microscopy: Optimizing the workflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Holten-Rossing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Centralization of cancer treatment entails a reassessment of the diagnostic tissue specimens. Packaging and shipment of glass slides from the local to the central pathology unit means that the standard procedure is time-consuming and that it is difficult to comply with governmental requirements. The aim was to evaluate whether real-time digital microscopy for urological cancer specimens during the primary diagnostic process can replace subsequent physical slide referral and reassessment without compromising diagnostic safety. Methods: From May to October 2014, tissue specimens from 130 patients with urological cancer received at Næstved Hospital′s Pathology Department, and expected to be referred for further treatment at cancer unit of a university hospital, were diagnosed using standard light microscopy. In the event of diagnostic uncertainty, the VisionTek digital microscope (Sakura Finetek was employed. The Pathology Department at Næstved Hospital was equipped with a digital microscope and three consultant pathologists were stationed at Rigshospitalet with workstations optimized for digital microscopy. Representative slides for each case were selected for consultation and live digital consultation took place over the telephone using remote access software. Time of start and finish for each case was logged. For the physically referred cases, time from arrival to sign-out was logged in the national pathology information system, and time spent on microscopy and reporting was noted manually. Diagnosis, number of involved biopsies, grade, and stage were compared between digital microscopy and conventional microscopy. Results: Complete data were available for all 130 cases. Standard procedure with referral of urological cancer specimens took a mean of 8 min 56 s for microscopy, reporting and sign-out per case. For live digital consultations, a mean of 18 min 37 s was spent on each consultation with 4 min 43 s for each case

  15. Parallel processing method for high-speed real time digital pulse processing for gamma-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, A.M.; Pereira, R.C.; Sousa, J.; Neto, A.; Carvalho, P.; Batista, A.J.N.; Carvalho, B.B.; Varandas, C.A.F.; Tardocchi, M.; Gorini, G.

    2010-01-01

    A new data acquisition (DAQ) system was developed to fulfil the requirements of the gamma-ray spectrometer (GRS) JET-EP2 (joint European Torus enhancement project 2), providing high-resolution spectroscopy at very high-count rate (up to few MHz). The system is based on the Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture TM (ATCA TM ) and includes a transient record (TR) module with 8 channels of 14 bits resolution at 400 MSamples/s (MSPS) sampling rate, 4 GB of local memory, and 2 field programmable gate array (FPGA) able to perform real time algorithms for data reduction and digital pulse processing. Although at 400 MSPS only fast programmable devices such as FPGAs can be used either for data processing and data transfer, FPGA resources also present speed limitation at some specific tasks, leading to an unavoidable data lost when demanding algorithms are applied. To overcome this problem and foreseeing an increase of the algorithm complexity, a new digital parallel filter was developed, aiming to perform real time pulse processing in the FPGAs of the TR module at the presented sampling rate. The filter is based on the conventional digital time-invariant trapezoidal shaper operating with parallelized data while performing pulse height analysis (PHA) and pile up rejection (PUR). The incoming sampled data is successively parallelized and fed into the processing algorithm block at one fourth of the sampling rate. The following data processing and data transfer is also performed at one fourth of the sampling rate. The algorithm based on data parallelization technique was implemented and tested at JET facilities, where a spectrum was obtained. Attending to the observed results, the PHA algorithm will be improved by implementing the pulse pile up discrimination.

  16. Real-Time Digital Bright Field Technology for Rapid Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canali, Chiara; Spillum, Erik; Valvik, Martin; Agersnap, Niels; Olesen, Tom

    2018-01-01

    Optical scanning through bacterial samples and image-based analysis may provide a robust method for bacterial identification, fast estimation of growth rates and their modulation due to the presence of antimicrobial agents. Here, we describe an automated digital, time-lapse, bright field imaging system (oCelloScope, BioSense Solutions ApS, Farum, Denmark) for rapid and higher throughput antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) of up to 96 bacteria-antibiotic combinations at a time. The imaging system consists of a digital camera, an illumination unit and a lens where the optical axis is tilted 6.25° relative to the horizontal plane of the stage. Such tilting grants more freedom of operation at both high and low concentrations of microorganisms. When considering a bacterial suspension in a microwell, the oCelloScope acquires a sequence of 6.25°-tilted images to form an image Z-stack. The stack contains the best-focus image, as well as the adjacent out-of-focus images (which contain progressively more out-of-focus bacteria, the further the distance from the best-focus position). The acquisition process is repeated over time, so that the time-lapse sequence of best-focus images is used to generate a video. The setting of the experiment, image analysis and generation of time-lapse videos can be performed through a dedicated software (UniExplorer, BioSense Solutions ApS). The acquired images can be processed for online and offline quantification of several morphological parameters, microbial growth, and inhibition over time.

  17. Basic evaluation of signal transmission in a real-time internal radiation dose measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohe, K.; Takura, T.; Sato, F.; Matsuki, H.; Yamada, S.; Sato, T.

    2009-01-01

    In radiation therapy, excessive exposure to radiation occurs because the dose actually delivered to the tumor is not known. As a result, a patient suffers from side effects. To solve this problem, a system is needed in which the delivered dose is measured inside the body and the dose data are transmitted from inside to outside of the body during radiation therapy. If such a system is realized, it will be possible to treat cancer safely and effectively. The proposed real-time internal radiation dose measurement system consists of an implantable dosimeter, a wireless communication system, and a wireless feeding system. In this study, a wireless communication system that uses magnetic fields was investigated. As a result, a communication distance of 200 mm was obtained. It was confirmed that radiation dose data could be transmitted outside the body when the communication distance is the required 200 mm. (author)

  18. Application of radio frequency based digital thermometer for real-time monitoring of dairy cattle rectal temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tridib Debnath

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Dairy cattle health monitoring program becomes vital for detecting the febrile conditions to prevent the outbreak of the animal diseases as well as ensuring the fitness of the animals that are directly affecting the health of the consumers. The aim of this study was to validate real-time rectal temperature (RT data of radio frequency based digital (RFD thermometer with RT data of mercury bulb (MB thermometer in dairy cattle. Materials and Methods: Two experiments were conducted. In experiment I, six female Jersey crossbred cattle with a mean (±standard error of the mean body weight of 534.83±13.90 kg at the age of 12±0.52 years were used to record RT for 2 h on empty stomach and 2 h after feeding at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min using a RFD thermometer as well as a MB thermometer. In experiment II, six female Jersey crossbred cattle were further used to record RT for 2 h before exercise and 2 h after exercise at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min. Two-way repeated measures analysis of variance with post hoc comparisons by Bonferroni test was done. Results: Real-time RT data recorded by RFD thermometer as well as MB thermometer did not differ (p>0.05 before and after feeding/exercise. An increase (p<0.05 in RT after feeding/exercise in experimental crossbred cattle was recorded by both RFD thermometer and MB thermometer. Conclusion: The results obtained in the present study suggest that the body temperature recordings from RFD thermometer would be acceptable and thus RFD thermometer could work well for monitoring real-time RT in cattle.

  19. Algorithm for real-time detection of signal patterns using phase synchrony: an application to an electrode array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Saman; MacKay, William A.; van Dam, R. Michael; Thompson, Michael

    2011-02-01

    Real-time analysis of multi-channel spatio-temporal sensor data presents a considerable technical challenge for a number of applications. For example, in brain-computer interfaces, signal patterns originating on a time-dependent basis from an array of electrodes on the scalp (i.e. electroencephalography) must be analyzed in real time to recognize mental states and translate these to commands which control operations in a machine. In this paper we describe a new technique for recognition of spatio-temporal patterns based on performing online discrimination of time-resolved events through the use of correlation of phase dynamics between various channels in a multi-channel system. The algorithm extracts unique sensor signature patterns associated with each event during a training period and ranks importance of sensor pairs in order to distinguish between time-resolved stimuli to which the system may be exposed during real-time operation. We apply the algorithm to electroencephalographic signals obtained from subjects tested in the neurophysiology laboratories at the University of Toronto. The extension of this algorithm for rapid detection of patterns in other sensing applications, including chemical identification via chemical or bio-chemical sensor arrays, is also discussed.

  20. Experimental demonstration of a real-time high-throughput digital DC blocker for compensating ADC imperfections in optical fast-OFDM receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Ouyang, Xing; Shao, Xiaopeng; Zhao, Jian

    2016-06-27

    Performance degradation induced by the DC components at the output of real-time analogue-to-digital converter (ADC) is experimentally investigated for optical fast-OFDM receiver. To compensate this degradation, register transfer level (RTL) circuits for real-time digital DC blocker with 20GS/s throughput are proposed and implemented in field programmable gate array (FPGA). The performance of the proposed real-time digital DC blocker is experimentally investigated in a 15Gb/s optical fast-OFDM system with intensity modulation and direct detection over 40 km standard single-mode fibre. The results show that the fixed-point DC blocker has negligible performance penalty compared to the offline floating point one, and can overcome the error floor of the fast OFDM receiver caused by the DC components from the real-time ADC output.

  1. Operational characteristic analysis of conduction cooling HTS SMES for Real Time Digital Simulator based power quality enhancement simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, A.R.; Kim, G.H.; Kim, K.M.; Kim, D.W.; Park, M.; Yu, I.K.; Kim, S.H.; Sim, K.; Sohn, M.H.; Seong, K.C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the operational characteristics of conduction cooling Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) through a real hardware based simulation. To analyze the operational characteristics, the authors manufactured a small-scale toroidal-type SMES and implemented a Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS) based power quality enhancement simulation. The method can consider not only electrical characteristics such as inductance and current but also temperature characteristic by using the real SMES system. In order to prove the effectiveness of the proposed method, a voltage sag compensation simulation has been implemented using the RTDS connected with the High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) model coil and DC/DC converter system, and the simulation results are discussed in detail.

  2. Real-time signal processing of accelerometer data for wearable medical patient monitoring devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wieringen, Matt; Eklund, J

    2008-01-01

    Elderly and other people who live at home but required some physical assistance to do so are often more susceptible injury causing falls in and around their place of residence. In the event that a fall does occur, as a direct result of a previous medical condition or the fall itself, these people are typically less likely to be able to seek timely medical help without assistance. The goal of this research is to develop a wearable sensor device that uses an accelerometer for monitoring the movement of the person to detect falls after they have occurred in order to enable timely medical assistance. The data coming from the accelerometer is processed in real-time in the device and sent to a remote monitoring station where operators can attempt to make contact with the person and/or notify medical personnel of the situation. The ADXL330 accelerometer is contained within a Nintendo WiiMote controller, which forms the basis of the wearable medical sensor. The accelerometer data can then be sent via Bluetooth connection and processed by a local gateway processor. If a fall is detected, the gateway will then contact a remote monitoring station, on a cellular network, for example, via satellite, and/or through a hardwired phone or Internet connection. To detect the occurrence of ta fall, the accelerometer data is passed through a matched filter and the data is compared to benchmark analysis data that will define the conditions that represents the occurrence of a fall.

  3. Energy resolution and throughput of a new real time digital pulse processing system for x-ray and gamma ray semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbene, L; Gerardi, G; Raso, G; Brai, M; Principato, F; Basile, S

    2013-01-01

    New generation spectroscopy systems have advanced towards digital pulse processing (DPP) approaches. DPP systems, based on direct digitizing and processing of detector signals, have recently been favoured over analog pulse processing electronics, ensuring higher flexibility, stability, lower dead time, higher throughput and better spectroscopic performance. In this work, we present the performance of a new real time DPP system for X-ray and gamma ray semiconductor detectors. The system is based on a commercial digitizer equipped with a custom DPP firmware, developed by our group, for on-line pulse shape and height analysis. X-ray and gamma ray spectra measurements with cadmium telluride (CdTe) and germanium (Ge) detectors, coupled to resistive-feedback preamplifiers, highlight the excellent performance of the system both at low and high rate environments (up to 800 kcps). A comparison with a conventional analog electronics showed the better high-rate capabilities of the digital approach, in terms of energy resolution and throughput. These results make the proposed DPP system a very attractive tool for both laboratory research and for the development of advanced detection systems for high-rate-resolution spectroscopic imaging, recently proposed in diagnostic medicine, industrial imaging and security screening

  4. Instrument for real-time pulse-shape analysis of slit-scan flow cytometry signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oven, C.; Aten, J. A.

    1990-01-01

    An instrument is described which analyses shapes of fluorescence profiles generated by particles passing through the focussed laser beam of a flow cytometer. The output signal of this pulse-shape analyzer is used as input for the signal processing electronics of a commercial flow cytometer system.

  5. Real-time adaptive concepts in acoustics blind signal separation and multichannel echo cancellation

    CERN Document Server

    Schobben, Daniel W E

    2001-01-01

    Blind Signal Separation (BSS) deals with recovering (filtered versions of) source signals from an observed mixture thereof. The term `blind' relates to the fact that there are no reference signals for the source signals and also that the mixing system is unknown. This book presents a new method for blind signal separation, which is developed to work on microphone signals. Acoustic Echo Cancellation (AEC) is a well-known technique to suppress the echo that a microphone picks up from a loudspeaker in the same room. Such acoustic feedback occurs for example in hands-free telephony and can lead to a perceived loud tone. For an application such as a voice-controlled television, a stereo AEC is required to suppress the contribution of the stereo loudspeaker setup. A generalized AEC is presented that is suited for multi-channel operation. New algorithms for Blind Signal Separation and multi-channel Acoustic Echo Cancellation are presented. A background is given in array signal processing methods, adaptive filter the...

  6. Signal-Conditioning Block of a 1 × 200 CMOS Detector Array for a Terahertz Real-Time Imaging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Ryul Yang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A signal conditioning block of a 1 × 200 Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS detector array is proposed to be employed with a real-time 0.2 THz imaging system for inspecting large areas. The plasmonic CMOS detector array whose pixel size including an integrated antenna is comparable to the wavelength of the THz wave for the imaging system, inevitably carries wide pixel-to-pixel variation. To make the variant outputs from the array uniform, the proposed signal conditioning block calibrates the responsivity of each pixel by controlling the gate bias of each detector and the voltage gain of the lock-in amplifiers in the block. The gate bias of each detector is modulated to 1 MHz to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the imaging system via the electrical modulation by the conditioning block. In addition, direct current (DC offsets of the detectors in the array are cancelled by initializing the output voltage level from the block. Real-time imaging using the proposed signal conditioning block is demonstrated by obtaining images at the rate of 19.2 frame-per-sec of an object moving on the conveyor belt with a scan width of 20 cm and a scan speed of 25 cm/s.

  7. Energy Efficient Scheduling of Real Time Signal Processing Applications through Combined DVFS and DPM

    OpenAIRE

    Nogues , Erwan; Pelcat , Maxime; Menard , Daniel; Mercat , Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    International audience; This paper proposes a framework to design energy efficient signal processing systems. The energy efficiency is provided by combining Dynamic Frequency and Voltage Scaling (DVFS) and Dynamic Power Management (DPM). The framework is based on Synchronous Dataflow (SDF) modeling of signal processing applications. A transformation to a single rate form is performed to expose the application parallelism. An automated scheduling is then performed, minimizing the constraint of...

  8. Using a digital signal processor as a data stream controller for digital subtraction angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, J.D.; Katz, J.E.

    1991-10-01

    High speed, flexibility, and good arithmetic abilities make digital signal processors (DSP) a good choice as input/output controllers for real time applications. The DSP can be made to pre-process data in real time to reduce data volume, to open early windows on what is being acquired and to implement local servo loops. We present an example of a DSP as an input/output controller for a digital subtraction angiographic imaging system. The DSP pre-processes the raw data, reducing data volume by a factor of two, and is potentially capable of producing real-time subtracted images for immediate display

  9. Analysis of potential errors in real-time streamflow data and methods of data verification by digital computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lystrom, David J.

    1972-01-01

    The magnitude, frequency, and types of errors inherent in real-time streamflow data are presented in part I. It was found that real-time data are generally less accurate than are historical data, primarily because real-time data are often used before errors can be detected and corrections applied.

  10. Real-Time Subject-Independent Pattern Classification of Overt and Covert Movements from fNIRS Signals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neethu Robinson

    Full Text Available Recently, studies have reported the use of Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS for developing Brain-Computer Interface (BCI by applying online pattern classification of brain states from subject-specific fNIRS signals. The purpose of the present study was to develop and test a real-time method for subject-specific and subject-independent classification of multi-channel fNIRS signals using support-vector machines (SVM, so as to determine its feasibility as an online neurofeedback system. Towards this goal, we used left versus right hand movement execution and movement imagery as study paradigms in a series of experiments. In the first two experiments, activations in the motor cortex during movement execution and movement imagery were used to develop subject-dependent models that obtained high classification accuracies thereby indicating the robustness of our classification method. In the third experiment, a generalized classifier-model was developed from the first two experimental data, which was then applied for subject-independent neurofeedback training. Application of this method in new participants showed mean classification accuracy of 63% for movement imagery tasks and 80% for movement execution tasks. These results, and their corresponding offline analysis reported in this study demonstrate that SVM based real-time subject-independent classification of fNIRS signals is feasible. This method has important applications in the field of hemodynamic BCIs, and neuro-rehabilitation where patients can be trained to learn spatio-temporal patterns of healthy brain activity.

  11. Real-Time Estimation for Cutting Tool Wear Based on Modal Analysis of Monitored Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjiao Chi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing body of literature that recognizes the importance of product safety and the quality problems during processing. The working status of cutting tools may lead to project delay and cost overrun if broken down accidentally, and tool wear is crucial to processing precision in mechanical manufacturing, therefore, this study contributes to this growing area of research by monitoring condition and estimating wear. In this research, an effective method for tool wear estimation was constructed, in which, the signal features of machining process were extracted by ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD and were used to estimate the tool wear. Based on signal analysis, vibration signals that had better linear relationship with tool wearing process were decomposed, then the intrinsic mode functions (IMFs, frequency spectrums of IMFs and the features relating to amplitude changes of frequency spectrum were obtained. The trend that tool wear changes with the features was fitted by Gaussian fitting function to estimate the tool wear. Experimental investigation was used to verify the effectiveness of this method and the results illustrated the correlation between tool wear and the modal features of monitored signals.

  12. Wide-Area Assessment of Aperiodic Small Signal Rotor Angle Stability in Real-Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Østergaard, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    in rotor angle and a loss of synchronism, referred to as aperiodic small signal instability. The paper provides the theoretical background of the method and an analytical assessment criterion. Furthermore, a mathematical mapping of the generators' operating points that enables informative visualization...

  13. A real-time traffic control method for the intersection with pre-signals under the phase swap sorting strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming Bie

    Full Text Available To deal with the conflicts between left-turn and through traffic streams and increase the discharge capacity, this paper addresses the pre-signal which is implemented at a signalized intersection. Such an intersection with pre-signal is termed as a tandem intersection. For the tandem intersection, phase swap sorting strategy is deemed as the most effective phasing scheme in view of some exclusive merits, such as easier compliance of drivers, and shorter sorting area. However, a major limitation of the phase swap sorting strategy is not considered in previous studies: if one or more vehicle is left at the sorting area after the signal light turns to red, the capacity of the approach would be dramatically dropped. Besides, previous signal control studies deal with a fixed timing plan that is not adaptive with the fluctuation of traffic flows. Therefore, to cope with these two gaps, this paper firstly takes an in-depth analysis of the traffic flow operations at the tandem intersection. Secondly, three groups of loop detectors are placed to obtain the real-time vehicle information for adaptive signalization. The lane selection behavior in the sorting area is considered to set the green time for intersection signals. With the objective of minimizing the vehicle delay, the signal control parameters are then optimized based on a dynamic programming method. Finally, numerical experiments show that average vehicle delay and maximum queue length can be reduced under all scenarios.

  14. A real-time traffic control method for the intersection with pre-signals under the phase swap sorting strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bie, Yiming; Liu, Zhiyuan; Wang, Yinhai

    2017-01-01

    To deal with the conflicts between left-turn and through traffic streams and increase the discharge capacity, this paper addresses the pre-signal which is implemented at a signalized intersection. Such an intersection with pre-signal is termed as a tandem intersection. For the tandem intersection, phase swap sorting strategy is deemed as the most effective phasing scheme in view of some exclusive merits, such as easier compliance of drivers, and shorter sorting area. However, a major limitation of the phase swap sorting strategy is not considered in previous studies: if one or more vehicle is left at the sorting area after the signal light turns to red, the capacity of the approach would be dramatically dropped. Besides, previous signal control studies deal with a fixed timing plan that is not adaptive with the fluctuation of traffic flows. Therefore, to cope with these two gaps, this paper firstly takes an in-depth analysis of the traffic flow operations at the tandem intersection. Secondly, three groups of loop detectors are placed to obtain the real-time vehicle information for adaptive signalization. The lane selection behavior in the sorting area is considered to set the green time for intersection signals. With the objective of minimizing the vehicle delay, the signal control parameters are then optimized based on a dynamic programming method. Finally, numerical experiments show that average vehicle delay and maximum queue length can be reduced under all scenarios.

  15. Detector, collimator and real-time reconstructor for a new scanning-beam digital x-ray (SBDX) prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speidel, Michael A; Tomkowiak, Michael T; Raval, Amish N; Dunkerley, David A P; Slagowski, Jordan M; Kahn, Paul; Ku, Jamie; Funk, Tobias

    Scanning-beam digital x-ray (SBDX) is an inverse geometry fluoroscopy system for low dose cardiac imaging. The use of a narrow scanned x-ray beam in SBDX reduces detected x-ray scatter and improves dose efficiency, however the tight beam collimation also limits the maximum achievable x-ray fluence. To increase the fluence available for imaging, we have constructed a new SBDX prototype with a wider x-ray beam, larger-area detector, and new real-time image reconstructor. Imaging is performed with a scanning source that generates 40,328 narrow overlapping projections from 71 × 71 focal spot positions for every 1/15 s scan period. A high speed 2-mm thick CdTe photon counting detector was constructed with 320×160 elements and 10.6 cm × 5.3 cm area (full readout every 1.28 μs), providing an 86% increase in area over the previous SBDX prototype. A matching multihole collimator was fabricated from layers of tungsten, brass, and lead, and a multi-GPU reconstructor was assembled to reconstruct the stream of captured detector images into full field-of-view images in real time. Thirty-two tomosynthetic planes spaced by 5 mm plus a multiplane composite image are produced for each scan frame. Noise equivalent quanta on the new SBDX prototype measured 63%-71% higher than the previous prototype. X-ray scatter fraction was 3.9-7.8% when imaging 23.3-32.6 cm acrylic phantoms, versus 2.3-4.2% with the previous prototype. Coronary angiographic imaging at 15 frame/s was successfully performed on the new SBDX prototype, with live display of either a multiplane composite or single plane image.

  16. The newest digital signal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chae Uk

    2002-08-01

    This book deal with the newest digital signal processing, which contains introduction on conception of digital signal processing, constitution and purpose, signal and system such as signal, continuos signal, discrete signal and discrete system, I/O expression on impress response, convolution, mutual connection of system and frequency character,z transform of definition, range, application of z transform and relationship with laplace transform, Discrete fourier, Fast fourier transform on IDFT algorithm and FFT application, foundation of digital filter of notion, expression, types, frequency characteristic of digital filter and design order of filter, Design order of filter, Design of FIR digital filter, Design of IIR digital filter, Adaptive signal processing, Audio signal processing, video signal processing and application of digital signal processing.

  17. Instantaneous Real-Time Kinematic Decimeter-Level Positioning with BeiDou Triple-Frequency Signals over Medium Baselines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiyang; Zhang, Xiaohong; Tang, Long; Liu, Wanke

    2015-12-22

    Many applications, such as marine navigation, land vehicles location, etc., require real time precise positioning under medium or long baseline conditions. In this contribution, we develop a model of real-time kinematic decimeter-level positioning with BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) triple-frequency signals over medium distances. The ambiguities of two extra-wide-lane (EWL) combinations are fixed first, and then a wide lane (WL) combination is reformed based on the two EWL combinations for positioning. Theoretical analysis and empirical analysis is given of the ambiguity fixing rate and the positioning accuracy of the presented method. The results indicate that the ambiguity fixing rate can be up to more than 98% when using BDS medium baseline observations, which is much higher than that of dual-frequency Hatch-Melbourne-Wübbena (HMW) method. As for positioning accuracy, decimeter level accuracy can be achieved with this method, which is comparable to that of carrier-smoothed code differential positioning method. Signal interruption simulation experiment indicates that the proposed method can realize fast high-precision positioning whereas the carrier-smoothed code differential positioning method needs several hundreds of seconds for obtaining high precision results. We can conclude that a relatively high accuracy and high fixing rate can be achieved for triple-frequency WL method with single-epoch observations, displaying significant advantage comparing to traditional carrier-smoothed code differential positioning method.

  18. Instantaneous Real-Time Kinematic Decimeter-Level Positioning with BeiDou Triple-Frequency Signals over Medium Baselines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiyang He

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many applications, such as marine navigation, land vehicles location, etc., require real time precise positioning under medium or long baseline conditions. In this contribution, we develop a model of real-time kinematic decimeter-level positioning with BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS triple-frequency signals over medium distances. The ambiguities of two extra-wide-lane (EWL combinations are fixed first, and then a wide lane (WL combination is reformed based on the two EWL combinations for positioning. Theoretical analysis and empirical analysis is given of the ambiguity fixing rate and the positioning accuracy of the presented method. The results indicate that the ambiguity fixing rate can be up to more than 98% when using BDS medium baseline observations, which is much higher than that of dual-frequency Hatch-Melbourne-Wübbena (HMW method. As for positioning accuracy, decimeter level accuracy can be achieved with this method, which is comparable to that of carrier-smoothed code differential positioning method. Signal interruption simulation experiment indicates that the proposed method can realize fast high-precision positioning whereas the carrier-smoothed code differential positioning method needs several hundreds of seconds for obtaining high precision results. We can conclude that a relatively high accuracy and high fixing rate can be achieved for triple-frequency WL method with single-epoch observations, displaying significant advantage comparing to traditional carrier-smoothed code differential positioning method.

  19. Real-Time Rain Rate Evaluation via Satellite Downlink Signal Attenuation Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannetti, Filippo; Reggiannini, Ruggero; Moretti, Marco; Adirosi, Elisa; Baldini, Luca; Facheris, Luca; Antonini, Andrea; Melani, Samantha; Bacci, Giacomo; Petrolino, Antonio; Vaccaro, Attilio

    2017-08-12

    We present the NEFOCAST project (named by the contraction of "Nefele", which is the Italian spelling for the mythological cloud nymph Nephele, and "forecast"), funded by the Tuscany Region, about the feasibility of a system for the detection and monitoring of precipitation fields over the regional territory based on the use of a widespread network of new-generation Eutelsat "SmartLNB" (smart low-noise block converter) domestic terminals. Though primarily intended for interactive satellite services, these devices can also be used as weather sensors, as they have the capability of measuring the rain-induced attenuation incurred by the downlink signal and relaying it on an auxiliary return channel. We illustrate the NEFOCAST system architecture, consisting of the network of ground sensor terminals, the space segment, and the service center, which has the task of processing the information relayed by the terminals for generating rain field maps. We discuss a few methods that allow the conversion of a rain attenuation measurement into an instantaneous rainfall rate. Specifically, we discuss an exponential model relating the specific rain attenuation to the rainfall rate, whose coefficients were obtained from extensive experimental data. The above model permits the inferring of the rainfall rate from the total signal attenuation provided by the SmartLNB and from the link geometry knowledge. Some preliminary results obtained from a SmartLNB installed in Pisa are presented and compared with the output of a conventional tipping bucket rain gauge. It is shown that the NEFOCAST sensor is able to track the fast-varying rainfall rate accurately with no delay, as opposed to a conventional gauge.

  20. Analysis of lightning fault detection, location and protection on short and long transmission lines using Real Time Digital Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Andre Luiz Pereira de [Siemens Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: andreluiz.oliveira@siemens.com

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present an analysis of lightning fault detection, location and protection using numeric distance relays applied in high voltage transmission lines, more specifically in the 500 kV transmission lines of CEMIG (Brazilian Energy Utility) between the Vespasiano 2 - Neves 1 (short line - 23.9 km) and Vespasiano 2 - Mesquita (long line - 148.6 km) substations. The analysis was based on the simulations results of numeric distance protective relays on power transmission lines, realized in September 02 to 06, 2002, at Siemens AG's facilities (Erlangen - Germany), using Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS{sup TM}). Several lightning faults simulations were accomplished, in several conditions of the electrical power system where the protective relays would be installed. The results are presented not only with the times of lightning faults elimination, but also all the functionality of a protection system, including the correct detection, location and other advantages that these modern protection devices make possible to the power system. (author)

  1. Digital Controller Development Methodology Based on Real-Time Simulations with LabVIEW FPGA Hardware-Software Toolset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Caldognetto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we exemplify the use of NI Lab-VIEW FPGA as a rapid prototyping environment for digital controllers. In our power electronics laboratory, it has been successfully employed in the development, debugging, and test of different power converter controllers for microgrid applications.The paper shows how this high level programming language,together with its target hardware platforms, including CompactRIO and Single Board RIO systems, allows researchers and students to develop even complex applications in reasonable times. The availability of efficient drivers for the considered hardware platforms frees the users from the burden of low level programming. At the same time, the high level programming approach facilitates software re-utilization, allowing the laboratory know-how to steadily grow along time. Furthermore, it allows hardware-in-the-loop real-time simulation, that proved to be effective, and safe, in debugging even complex hardware and software co-designed controllers. To illustrate the effectiveness of these hardware-software toolsets and of the methodology based upon them, two case studies are

  2. All-electronic droplet generation on-chip with real-time feedback control for EWOD digital microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jian; Kim, Chang-Jin C J

    2008-06-01

    Electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) actuation enables digital (or droplet) microfluidics where small packets of liquids are manipulated on a two-dimensional surface. Due to its mechanical simplicity and low energy consumption, EWOD holds particular promise for portable systems. To improve volume precision of the droplets, which is desired for quantitative applications such as biochemical assays, existing practices would require near-perfect device fabrication and operation conditions unless the droplets are generated under feedback control by an extra pump setup off of the chip. In this paper, we develop an all-electronic (i.e., no ancillary pumping) real-time feedback control of on-chip droplet generation. A fast voltage modulation, capacitance sensing, and discrete-time PID feedback controller are integrated on the operating electronic board. A significant improvement is obtained in the droplet volume uniformity, compared with an open loop control as well as the previous feedback control employing an external pump. Furthermore, this new capability empowers users to prescribe the droplet volume even below the previously considered minimum, allowing, for example, 1 : x (x < 1) mixing, in comparison to the previously considered n : m mixing (i.e., n and m unit droplets).

  3. Development of an Earthquake Early Warning System Using Real-Time Strong Motion Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yih-Min; Kanamori, Hiroo

    2008-01-09

    As urbanization progresses worldwide, earthquakes pose serious threat to livesand properties for urban areas near major active faults on land or subduction zonesoffshore. Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) can be a useful tool for reducing earthquakehazards, if the spatial relation between cities and earthquake sources is favorable for suchwarning and their citizens are properly trained to respond to earthquake warning messages.An EEW system forewarns an urban area of forthcoming strong shaking, normally with afew sec to a few tens of sec of warning time, i.e., before the arrival of the destructive Swavepart of the strong ground motion. Even a few second of advanced warning time willbe useful for pre-programmed emergency measures for various critical facilities, such asrapid-transit vehicles and high-speed trains to avoid potential derailment; it will be alsouseful for orderly shutoff of gas pipelines to minimize fire hazards, controlled shutdown ofhigh-technological manufacturing operations to reduce potential losses, and safe-guardingof computer facilities to avoid loss of vital databases. We explored a practical approach toEEW with the use of a ground-motion period parameter τc and a high-pass filtered verticaldisplacement amplitude parameter Pd from the initial 3 sec of the P waveforms. At a givensite, an earthquake magnitude could be determined from τ c and the peak ground-motionvelocity (PGV) could be estimated from Pd. In this method, incoming strong motion acceleration signals are recursively converted to ground velocity and displacement. A Pwavetrigger is constantly monitored. When a trigger occurs, τ c and Pd are computed. Theearthquake magnitude and the on-site ground-motion intensity could be estimated and thewarning could be issued. In an ideal situation, such warnings would be available within 10sec of the origin time of a large earthquake whose subsequent ground motion may last fortens of seconds.

  4. Development of an Earthquake Early Warning System Using Real-Time Strong Motion Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroo Kanamori

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available As urbanization progresses worldwide, earthquakes pose serious threat to livesand properties for urban areas near major active faults on land or subduction zonesoffshore. Earthquake Early Warning (EEW can be a useful tool for reducing earthquakehazards, if the spatial relation between cities and earthquake sources is favorable for suchwarning and their citizens are properly trained to respond to earthquake warning messages.An EEW system forewarns an urban area of forthcoming strong shaking, normally with afew sec to a few tens of sec of warning time, i.e., before the arrival of the destructive Swavepart of the strong ground motion. Even a few second of advanced warning time willbe useful for pre-programmed emergency measures for various critical facilities, such asrapid-transit vehicles and high-speed trains to avoid potential derailment; it will be alsouseful for orderly shutoff of gas pipelines to minimize fire hazards, controlled shutdown ofhigh-technological manufacturing operations to reduce potential losses, and safe-guardingof computer facilities to avoid loss of vital databases. We explored a practical approach toEEW with the use of a ground-motion period parameter τc and a high-pass filtered verticaldisplacement amplitude parameter Pd from the initial 3 sec of the P waveforms. At a givensite, an earthquake magnitude could be determined from τc and the peak ground-motionvelocity (PGV could be estimated from Pd. In this method, incoming strong motion acceleration signals are recursively converted to ground velocity and displacement. A Pwavetrigger is constantly monitored. When a trigger occurs, τc and Pd are computed. Theearthquake magnitude and the on-site ground-motion intensity could be estimated and thewarning could be issued. In an ideal situation, such warnings would be available within 10sec of the origin time of a large earthquake whose subsequent ground motion may last fortens of seconds.

  5. Development of earthquake early warning system using real time signal of broadband seismogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunawan, Hendar; Puspito, Nanang T.; Ibrahim, Gunawan; Harjadi, Prih

    2012-01-01

    Earthquake pose serious threat of live and properties for urban area near subduction zone offshore and active fault on land. Jakarta and Bandung is an example of big city that no system of Earthquake early warning (EEW) event very high urbanization, and has many important infra structure in the area. The capital city is potentially high risk ground shaking. EEW can be usefull tool for reducing earthquake hazard, if spatial relation between cities and earthquake source is favorable for such warning and their citizens are properly trained to response early warning message. An EEW and rapid response system can provide the critical information needed to minimized lost of live and property and direct rescue. Earthquake ground shaking with magnitude M>6.0 from zone of Megathrust, southern of West Java should potentially damage in the area of west java especially Bandung and Jakarta City. This research development of EEW parameter such as amplitude displacement (Pd), rapid magnitude determination (M) and Peak ground Velocity (PGV). We explore the practical approach to EEW with the use of Broadband seismogram signal. Time effective EEW which epicenter from megathrust zone has potential to provide EEW in the area of west java such as Jakarta first ground shaking more or less 60 second later and strong shaking 118 second after EEW Alarm on CISI Station. EEW notification at potentially damage in the area of west java can be predicted from the characteristic of Pd > 0.5 cm, M> 6 and PGV > 10 cm/sec. GIS as a tool for presentation of hazard mapping in the affected area.

  6. Application of droplet digital PCR for quantitative detection of Spiroplasma citri in comparison with real time PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogita Maheshwari

    Full Text Available Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR is a method for performing digital PCR that is based on water-oil emulsion droplet technology. It is a unique approach to measure the absolute copy number of nucleic acid targets without the need of external standards. This study evaluated the applicability of ddPCR as a quantitative detection tool for the Spiroplasma citri, causal agent of citrus stubborn disease (CSD in citrus. Two sets of primers, SP1, based on the spiral in housekeeping gene, and a multicopy prophage gene, SpV1 ORF1, were used to evaluate ddPCR in comparison with real time (quantitative PCR (qPCR for S. citri detection in citrus tissues. Standard curve analyses on tenfold dilution series showed that both ddPCR and qPCR exhibited good linearity and efficiency. However, ddPCR had a tenfold greater sensitivity than qPCR and accurately quantified up to one copy of spiralin gene. Receiver operating characteristic analysis indicated that the ddPCR methodology was more robust for diagnosis of CSD and the area under the curve was significantly broader compared to qPCR. Field samples were used to validate ddPCR efficacy and demonstrated that it was equal or better than qPCR to detect S. citri infection in fruit columella due to a higher pathogen titer. The ddPCR assay detected both the S. citri spiralin and the SpV1 ORF1 targets quantitatively with high precision and accuracy compared to qPCR assay. The ddPCR was highly reproducible and repeatable for both the targets and showed higher resilience to PCR inhibitors in citrus tissue extract for the quantification of S. citri compare to qPCR.

  7. Real-time single-molecule co-immunoprecipitation analyses reveal cancer-specific Ras signalling dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hong-Won; Kyung, Taeyoon; Yoo, Janghyun; Kim, Tackhoon; Chung, Chaeuk; Ryu, Ji Young; Lee, Hanki; Park, Kihyun; Lee, Sangkyu; Jones, Walton D.; Lim, Dae-Sik; Hyeon, Changbong; Do Heo, Won; Yoon, Tae-Young

    2013-01-01

    Co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) has become a standard technique, but its protein-band output provides only static, qualitative information about protein–protein interactions. Here we demonstrate a real-time single-molecule co-IP technique that generates real-time videos of individual protein–protein interactions as they occur in unpurified cell extracts. By analysing single Ras–Raf interactions with a 50-ms time resolution, we have observed transient intermediates of the protein–protein interaction and determined all the essential kinetic rates. Using this technique, we have quantified the active fraction of native Ras proteins in xenograft tumours, normal tissue and cancer cell lines. We demonstrate that the oncogenic Ras mutations selectively increase the active-Ras fraction by one order of magnitude, without affecting total Ras levels or single-molecule signalling kinetics. Our approach allows us to probe the previously hidden, dynamic aspects of weak protein–protein interactions. It also suggests a path forward towards precision molecular diagnostics at the protein–protein interaction level. PMID:23422673

  8. Optics based signal processing methods for intraoperative blood vessel detection and quantification in real time (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Amal; Shukair, Shetha A.; Le Rolland, Paul; Vijayvergia, Mayank; Subramanian, Hariharan; Gunn, Jonathan W.

    2016-03-01

    Minimally invasive operations require surgeons to make difficult cuts to blood vessels and other tissues with impaired tactile and visual feedback. This leads to inadvertent cuts to blood vessels hidden beneath tissue, causing serious health risks to patients and a non-reimbursable financial burden to hospitals. Intraoperative imaging technologies have been developed, but these expensive systems can be cumbersome and provide only a high-level view of blood vessel networks. In this research, we propose a lean reflectance-based system, comprised of a dual wavelength LED, photodiode, and novel signal processing algorithms for rapid vessel characterization. Since this system takes advantage of the inherent pulsatile light absorption characteristics of blood vessels, no contrast agent is required for its ability to detect the presence of a blood vessel buried deep inside any tissue type (up to a cm) in real time. Once a vessel is detected, the system is able to estimate the distance of the vessel from the probe and the diameter size of the vessel (with a resolution of ~2mm), as well as delineate the type of tissue surrounding the vessel. The system is low-cost, functions in real-time, and could be mounted on already existing surgical tools, such as Kittner dissectors or laparoscopic suction irrigation cannulae. Having been successfully validated ex vivo, this technology will next be tested in a live porcine study and eventually in clinical trials.

  9. A Real-Time Rejection Circuit to Automatically Reject Multiple Interfering Hopping Signals While Passing a Lower Level Desired Signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    contain the low level desired frequency components that are passed through an inverse transform device for producing a frequency domain signal of the desired signal uncorrupted by unwanted signals. Patent applications. (RRH)

  10. Real-Time Plasma Control Tools for Advanced Tokamak Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varandas, C. A. F.; Sousa, J.; Rodrigues, A. P.; Carvalho, B. B.; Fernandes, H.; Batista, A. J.; Cruz, N.; Combo, A.; Pereira, R. C.

    2006-01-01

    Real-time control will play an important role in the operation and scientific exploitation of the new generation fusion devices. This paper summarizes the real-time systems and diagnostics developed by the Portuguese Fusion Euratom Association based on digital signal processors and field programmable gate arrays

  11. Bringing well service into the digital age : new software and digital pens allow for real-time tracking of field data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-09-15

    This article discussed a paperwork automation system that was implemented at a well services company and the efficiencies that were gained as a result of the implementation. The company's highly mobile delivery and service teams needed access to real-time delivery, inventory, and billing data, which the paper-based data management system then in place was unable to provide. The automated system incorporates new software and digital pens, which digitize handwriting and integrate the data directly into software. The new system allows for the real-time tracking of field data without disruption to existing employee processes or the necessity of a large investment in new computer infrastructure. The new system reduces the costs associated with paper-based data collection processes, including printing, form data re-keying, scanning, and storage. It also eliminates delays in reporting and billing and allows accurate inventory tracking throughout the supply chain as well as improved management of inventory levels. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Digitally programmable signal generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priatko, G.J.; Kaskey, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    A digitally programmable signal generator (DPSG) includes a first memory from which data is written into a second memory formed of n banks. Each bank includes four memories and a multiplexer, the banks being read once during each time frame, the read-out bits being multiplexed and fed out serially in synchronism with a plurality of clock pulses occuring during a time frame. The resulting serial bit streams may be fed in parallel to a digital-to-analog converter. The DPSG can be used in applications such as Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) to create an optimal match between the process laser's spectral profile and that of the vaporized material, optical telecommunications, non-optical telecommunication in the microwave and radio spectrum, radar, electronic countermeasures, high speed computer interconnects, local area networks, high definition video transport and the multiplexing of large quantities of slow digital memory into high speed data streams. This invention extends the operation of DPSGs into the GHz range. (author)

  13. Safety surrogate histograms (SSH): A novel real-time safety assessment of dilemma zone related conflicts at signalized intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanipoor Machiani, Sahar; Abbas, Montasir

    2016-11-01

    Drivers' indecisiveness in dilemma zones (DZ) could result in crash-prone situations at signalized intersections. DZ is to the area ahead of an intersection in which drivers encounter a dilemma regarding whether to stop or proceed through the intersection when the signal turns yellow. An improper decision to stop by the leading driver, combined with the following driver deciding to go, can result in a rear-end collision, unless the following driver recognizes a collision is imminent and adjusts his or her behavior at or shortly after the onset of yellow. Considering the significance of DZ-related crashes, a comprehensive safety measure is needed to characterize the level of safety at signalized intersections. In this study, a novel safety surrogate measure was developed utilizing real-time radar field data. This new measure, called safety surrogate histogram (SSH), captures the degree and frequency of DZ-related conflicts at each intersection approach. SSH includes detailed information regarding the possibility of crashes, because it is calculated based on the vehicles conflicts. An example illustrating the application of the new methodology at two study sites in Virginia is presented and discussed, and a comparison is provided between SSH and other DZ-related safety surrogate measures mentioned in the literature. The results of the study reveal the efficacy of the SSH as complementary to existing surrogate measures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Massively parallel signal processing using the graphics processing unit for real-time brain-computer interface feature extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Adam Wilson

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The clock speeds of modern computer processors have nearly plateaued in the past five years. Consequently, neural prosthetic systems that rely on processing large quantities of data in a short period of time face a bottleneck, in that it may not be possible to process all of the data recorded from an electrode array with high channel counts and bandwidth, such as electrocorticographic grids or other implantable systems. Therefore, in this study a method of using the processing capabilities of a graphics card (GPU was developed for real-time neural signal processing of a brain-computer interface (BCI. The NVIDIA CUDA system was used to offload processing to the GPU, which is capable of running many operations in parallel, potentially greatly increasing the speed of existing algorithms. The BCI system records many channels of data, which are processed and translated into a control signal, such as the movement of a computer cursor. This signal processing chain involves computing a matrix-matrix multiplication (i.e., a spatial filter, followed by calculating the power spectral density on every channel using an auto-regressive method, and finally classifying appropriate features for control. In this study, the first two computationally-intensive steps were implemented on the GPU, and the speed was compared to both the current implementation and a CPU-based implementation that uses multi-threading. Significant performance gains were obtained with GPU processing: the current implementation processed 1000 channels in 933 ms, while the new GPU method took only 27 ms, an improvement of nearly 35 times.

  15. Massively Parallel Signal Processing using the Graphics Processing Unit for Real-Time Brain-Computer Interface Feature Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J Adam; Williams, Justin C

    2009-01-01

    The clock speeds of modern computer processors have nearly plateaued in the past 5 years. Consequently, neural prosthetic systems that rely on processing large quantities of data in a short period of time face a bottleneck, in that it may not be possible to process all of the data recorded from an electrode array with high channel counts and bandwidth, such as electrocorticographic grids or other implantable systems. Therefore, in this study a method of using the processing capabilities of a graphics card [graphics processing unit (GPU)] was developed for real-time neural signal processing of a brain-computer interface (BCI). The NVIDIA CUDA system was used to offload processing to the GPU, which is capable of running many operations in parallel, potentially greatly increasing the speed of existing algorithms. The BCI system records many channels of data, which are processed and translated into a control signal, such as the movement of a computer cursor. This signal processing chain involves computing a matrix-matrix multiplication (i.e., a spatial filter), followed by calculating the power spectral density on every channel using an auto-regressive method, and finally classifying appropriate features for control. In this study, the first two computationally intensive steps were implemented on the GPU, and the speed was compared to both the current implementation and a central processing unit-based implementation that uses multi-threading. Significant performance gains were obtained with GPU processing: the current implementation processed 1000 channels of 250 ms in 933 ms, while the new GPU method took only 27 ms, an improvement of nearly 35 times.

  16. Integrating GPS, GYRO, vehicle speed sensor, and digital map to provide accurate and real-time position in an intelligent navigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingquan; Fang, Zhixiang; Li, Hanwu; Xiao, Hui

    2005-10-01

    The global positioning system (GPS) has become the most extensively used positioning and navigation tool in the world. Applications of GPS abound in surveying, mapping, transportation, agriculture, military planning, GIS, and the geosciences. However, the positional and elevation accuracy of any given GPS location is prone to error, due to a number of factors. The applications of Global Positioning System (GPS) positioning is more and more popular, especially the intelligent navigation system which relies on GPS and Dead Reckoning technology is developing quickly for future huge market in China. In this paper a practical combined positioning model of GPS/DR/MM is put forward, which integrates GPS, Gyro, Vehicle Speed Sensor (VSS) and digital navigation maps to provide accurate and real-time position for intelligent navigation system. This model is designed for automotive navigation system making use of Kalman filter to improve position and map matching veracity by means of filtering raw GPS and DR signals, and then map-matching technology is used to provide map coordinates for map displaying. In practical examples, for illustrating the validity of the model, several experiments and their results of integrated GPS/DR positioning in intelligent navigation system will be shown for the conclusion that Kalman Filter based GPS/DR integrating position approach is necessary, feasible and efficient for intelligent navigation application. Certainly, this combined positioning model, similar to other model, can not resolve all situation issues. Finally, some suggestions are given for further improving integrated GPS/DR/MM application.

  17. Model-driven requirements engineering (MDRE) for real-time ultra-wide instantaneous bandwidth signal simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Daniel Y.; Rowe, Neil C.

    2013-05-01

    While conducting a cutting-edge research in a specific domain, we realize that (1) requirements clarity and correctness are crucial to our success [1], (2) hardware is hard to change, most work is in software requirements development, coding and testing [2], (3) requirements are constantly changing, so that configurability, reusability, scalability, adaptability, modularity and testability are important non-functional attributes [3], (4) cross-domain knowledge is necessary for complex systems [4], and (5) if our research is successful, the results could be applied to other domains with similar problems. In this paper, we propose to use model-driven requirements engineering (MDRE) to model and guide our requirements/development, since models are easy to understand, execute, and modify. The domain for our research is Electronic Warfare (EW) real-time ultra-wide instantaneous bandwidth (IBW1) signal simulation. The proposed four MDRE models are (1) Switch-and-Filter architecture, (2) multiple parallel data bit streams alignment, (3) post-ADC and pre-DAC bits re-mapping, and (4) Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) filter bank. This research is unique since the instantaneous bandwidth we are dealing with is in gigahertz range instead of conventional megahertz.

  18. Real-time systems

    OpenAIRE

    Badr, Salah M.; Bruztman, Donald P.; Nelson, Michael L.; Byrnes, Ronald Benton

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an introduction to the basic issues involved in real-time systems. Both real-time operating sys and real-time programming languages are explored. Concurrent programming and process synchronization and communication are also discussed. The real-time requirements of the Naval Postgraduate School Autonomous Under Vehicle (AUV) are then examined. Autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV), hard real-time system, real-time operating system, real-time programming language, real-time sy...

  19. Technical study of real-time simulation system for digital I and C system of steam generator in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Ji; Jiang Mingyu; Ma Yunqin

    2004-01-01

    The real-time simulation system, which forms a interactive closed circle together with the steam generator control system, has been developed using a dynamic mathematical model of steam generator in this paper. It can provide a simulation target for upgrades of digital Instrument and Control system in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) and is applicable for further research of control schemes. With this program, the authors have studied and analyzed the response of transient parameters to some different disturbance, the calculated results are in good agreement with those calculated by NPP simulator program. This will give a theoretical analysis for upgrades of digital I and C system in nuclear power plant

  20. Variable self-powered light detection CMOS chip with real-time adaptive tracking digital output based on a novel on-chip sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, HongYi; Fan, Youyou; Lu, Zhijian; Luo, Tao; Fu, Houqiang; Song, Hongjiang; Zhao, Yuji; Christen, Jennifer Blain

    2017-10-02

    This paper provides a solution for a self-powered light direction detection with digitized output. Light direction sensors, energy harvesting photodiodes, real-time adaptive tracking digital output unit and other necessary circuits are integrated on a single chip based on a standard 0.18 µm CMOS process. Light direction sensors proposed have an accuracy of 1.8 degree over a 120 degree range. In order to improve the accuracy, a compensation circuit is presented for photodiodes' forward currents. The actual measurement precision of output is approximately 7 ENOB. Besides that, an adaptive under voltage protection circuit is designed for variable supply power which may undulate with temperature and process.

  1. Fast digitizing and digital signal processing of detector signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannaske, Roland

    2008-01-01

    A fast-digitizer data acquisition system recently installed at the neutron time-of-flight experiment nELBE, which is located at the superconducting electron accelerator ELBE of Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, is tested with two different detector types. Preamplifier signals from a high-purity germanium detector are digitized, stored and finally processed. For a precise determination of the energy of the detected radiation, the moving-window deconvolution algorithm is used to compensate the ballistic deficit and different shaping algorithms are applied. The energy resolution is determined in an experiment with γ-rays from a 22 Na source and is compared to the energy resolution achieved with analogously processed signals. On the other hand, signals from the photomultipliers of barium fluoride and plastic scintillation detectors are digitized. These signals have risetimes of a few nanoseconds only. The moment of interaction of the radiation with the detector is determined by methods of digital signal processing. Therefore, different timing algorithms are implemented and tested with data from an experiment at nELBE. The time resolutions achieved with these algorithms are compared to each other as well as to reference values coming from analog signal processing. In addition to these experiments, some properties of the digitizing hardware are measured and a program for the analysis of stored, digitized data is developed. The analysis of the signals shows that the energy resolution achieved with the 10-bit digitizer system used here is not competitive to a 14-bit peak-sensing ADC, although the ballistic deficit can be fully corrected. However, digital methods give better result in sub-ns timing than analog signal processing. (orig.)

  2. Real-time determination of the signal-to-noise ratio of partly coherent seismic time series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter Møller

    1994-01-01

    it is of great practical interest to be able to monitor the S/N while the traces are recorded an approach for fast real-time determination of the S/N of seismic time series is proposed. The described method is based on an iterative procedure utilizing the trace-to-trace coherence, but unlike procedures known so...... far it uses calculated initial guesses and stop criterions. This significantly reduces the computational burden of the procedure so that real-time capabilities are obtained...

  3. High-accuracy and real-time 3D positioning, tracking system for medical imaging applications based on 3D digital image correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yuan; Cheng, Teng; Xu, Xiaohai; Gao, Zeren; Li, Qianqian; Liu, Xiaojing; Wang, Xing; Song, Rui; Ju, Xiangyang; Zhang, Qingchuan

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a system for positioning markers and tracking the pose of a rigid object with 6 degrees of freedom in real-time using 3D digital image correlation, with two examples for medical imaging applications. Traditional DIC method was improved to meet the requirements of the real-time by simplifying the computations of integral pixel search. Experiments were carried out and the results indicated that the new method improved the computational efficiency by about 4-10 times in comparison with the traditional DIC method. The system was aimed for orthognathic surgery navigation in order to track the maxilla segment after LeFort I osteotomy. Experiments showed noise for the static point was at the level of 10-3 mm and the measurement accuracy was 0.009 mm. The system was demonstrated on skin surface shape evaluation of a hand for finger stretching exercises, which indicated a great potential on tracking muscle and skin movements.

  4. Improvement of the characterization of ultrasonic data by means of digital signal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieth, M.; Romy, D.; Weigel, D.

    1985-01-01

    The digital signal processing method for averaging using minima developed by Framatome allows to improve signal-to-noise ratio up to 7 dB during ultrasonic testing of cast stainless steel structures (primary pipes of PWR power plants). Application of digital signal processing to industrial testing conditions requires the availability of a fast analog-digital converter capable of real time processings which has been developed by CGR [fr

  5. A digital signal processing system for coherent laser radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Diana M.; Jones, William D.; Rothermel, Jeffry

    1991-01-01

    A data processing system for use with continuous-wave lidar is described in terms of its configuration and performance during the second survey mission of NASA'a Global Backscatter Experiment. The system is designed to estimate a complete lidar spectrum in real time, record the data from two lidars, and monitor variables related to the lidar operating environment. The PC-based system includes a transient capture board, a digital-signal processing (DSP) board, and a low-speed data-acquisition board. Both unprocessed and processed lidar spectrum data are monitored in real time, and the results are compared to those of a previous non-DSP-based system. Because the DSP-based system is digital it is slower than the surface-acoustic-wave signal processor and collects 2500 spectra/s. However, the DSP-based system provides complete data sets at two wavelengths from the continuous-wave lidars.

  6. Application of droplet digital PCR for quantitative detection of Spiroplasma citri in comparison with real time PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droplet digital Polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) is a unique approach to measure the absolute copy number of nucleic acid targets without the need of external standards. It is a promising DNA quantification technology for medical diagnostics but there are only a few reports of its use for plant pat...

  7. Sequential processing of quantitative phase images for the study of cell behaviour in real-time digital holographic microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zikmund, T; Kvasnica, L; Týč, M; Křížová, A; Colláková, J; Chmelík, R

    2014-11-01

    Transmitted light holographic microscopy is particularly used for quantitative phase imaging of transparent microscopic objects such as living cells. The study of the cell is based on extraction of the dynamic data on cell behaviour from the time-lapse sequence of the phase images. However, the phase images are affected by the phase aberrations that make the analysis particularly difficult. This is because the phase deformation is prone to change during long-term experiments. Here, we present a novel algorithm for sequential processing of living cells phase images in a time-lapse sequence. The algorithm compensates for the deformation of a phase image using weighted least-squares surface fitting. Moreover, it identifies and segments the individual cells in the phase image. All these procedures are performed automatically and applied immediately after obtaining every single phase image. This property of the algorithm is important for real-time cell quantitative phase imaging and instantaneous control of the course of the experiment by playback of the recorded sequence up to actual time. Such operator's intervention is a forerunner of process automation derived from image analysis. The efficiency of the propounded algorithm is demonstrated on images of rat fibrosarcoma cells using an off-axis holographic microscope. © 2014 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2014 Royal Microscopical Society.

  8. Digital signal processing the Tevatron BPM signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancelo, G.; James, E.; Wolbers, S.

    2005-01-01

    The Beam Position Monitor (TeV BPM) readout system at Fermilab's Tevatron has been updated and is currently being commissioned. The new BPMs use new analog and digital hardware to achieve better beam position measurement resolution. The new system reads signals from both ends of the existing directional stripline pickups to provide simultaneous proton and antiproton measurements. The signals provided by the two ends of the BPM pickups are processed by analog band-pass filters and sampled by 14-bit ADCs at 74.3MHz. A crucial part of this work has been the design of digital filters that process the signal. This paper describes the digital processing and estimation techniques used to optimize the beam position measurement. The BPM electronics must operate in narrow-band and wide-band modes to enable measurements of closed-orbit and turn-by-turn positions. The filtering and timing conditions of the signals are tuned accordingly for the operational modes. The analysis and the optimized result for each mode are presented

  9. Chaotic signals in digital communications

    CERN Document Server

    Eisencraft, Marcio; Suyama, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Chaotic Signals in Digital Communications combines fundamental background knowledge with state-of-the-art methods for using chaotic signals and systems in digital communications. The book builds a bridge between theoretical works and practical implementation to help researchers attain consistent performance in realistic environments. It shows the possible shortcomings of the chaos-based communication systems proposed in the literature, particularly when they are subjected to non-ideal conditions. It also presents a toolbox of techniques for researchers working to actually implement such system

  10. PSpice for digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Tobin, Paul

    2007-01-01

    PSpice for Digital Signal Processing is the last in a series of five books using Cadence Orcad PSpice version 10.5 and introduces a very novel approach to learning digital signal processing (DSP). DSP is traditionally taught using Matlab/Simulink software but has some inherent weaknesses for students particularly at the introductory level. The 'plug in variables and play' nature of these software packages can lure the student into thinking they possess an understanding they don't actually have because these systems produce results quicklywithout revealing what is going on. However, it must be

  11. End-User Control over Physical User-Interfaces: From Digital Fabrication to Real-Time Adaptability

    OpenAIRE

    Ramakers, Raf

    2016-01-01

    Graphical user interfaces are at the core of the majority of computing devices, including WIMP (windows, icons, menus, pointer) interaction styles and touch interactions. The popularity of graphical user interfaces stems from their ability to adapt to a multitude of tasks, such as document editing, messaging, browsing, etc. New tools and technologies also enabled users without a technical background to author these kind of digital interfaces, for example, filters for quick photo editing, inte...

  12. PAU/GNSS-R: Implementation, Performance and First Results of a Real-Time Delay-Doppler Map Reflectometer Using Global Navigation Satellite System Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enric Valencia

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Signals from Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS were originally conceived for position and speed determination, but they can be used as signals of opportunity as well. The reflection process over a given surface modifies the properties of the scattered signal, and therefore, by processing the reflected signal, relevant geophysical data regarding the surface under study (land, sea, ice… can be retrieved. In essence, a GNSS-R receiver is a multi-channel GNSS receiver that computes the received power from a given satellite at a number of different delay and Doppler bins of the incoming signal. The first approaches to build such a receiver consisted of sampling and storing the scattered signal for later post-processing. However, a real-time approach to the problem is desirable to obtain immediately useful geophysical variables and reduce the amount of data. The use of FPGA technology makes this possible, while at the same time the system can be easily reconfigured. The signal tracking and processing constraints made necessary to fully design several new blocks. The uniqueness of the implemented system described in this work is the capability to compute in real-time Delay-Doppler maps (DDMs either for four simultaneous satellites or just one, but with a larger number of bins. The first tests have been conducted from a cliff over the sea and demonstrate the successful performance of the instrument to compute DDMs in real-time from the measured reflected GNSS/R signals. The processing of these measurements shall yield quantitative relationships between the sea state (mainly driven by the surface wind and the swell and the overall DDM shape. The ultimate goal is to use the DDM shape to correct the sea state influence on the L-band brightness temperature to improve the retrieval of the sea surface salinity (SSS.

  13. Situational characteristics of young adults' eating occasions: a real-time data collection using Personal Digital Assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laska, Melissa Nelson; Graham, Dan; Moe, Stacey G; Lytle, Leslie; Fulkerson, Jayne

    2011-03-01

    To examine (i) situational characteristics of young adults' eating occasions, including away-from-home eating, social influences and multi-tasking, and (ii) how these characteristics are associated with specific foods/beverages consumed. Participants logged numerous characteristics of eating occasions (n 1237) in real time over 7 d. Minneapolis/St. Paul metropolitan area (Minnesota, USA). Forty-eight participants, aged 18-23 years. Half of all eating occasions (46 %) occurred alone, 26 % occurred while watching television and 36 % involved other multi-tasking. Most participants (63 %) did not think about their food choices in advance of eating occasions. Eating that occurred in the absence of television viewing and/or other multi-tasking was less likely to include sweetened beverages and more likely to include items like water, fruit, vegetables, cereal, grains and entrées. Eating occasions occurring alone, and/or those occurring at home, were more likely to include snack foods that required little preparation (e.g. cookies, baked goods) and less likely to include more traditional meal items (e.g. fruits, vegetables, entrée items). Overall, a large proportion of young adults' eating occasions occurred alone, while engaging in other activities and with little advanced planning. Although many young adults' eating occasions consist of a wide range of highly processed, energy-dense, convenience products, more traditional meal settings (i.e. eating at home with others in the absence of multi-tasking) may result in more structured mealtimes and better food choices, such as more fruits and vegetables. Effective behavioural strategies promoting positive eating patterns, including home meal preparation, are urgently needed among young adults.

  14. Eliminating ambiguity in digital signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, W. J., III

    1979-01-01

    Multiamplitude minimum shift keying (mamsk) transmission system, method of differential encoding overcomes problem of ambiguity associated with advanced digital-transmission techniques with little or no penalty in transmission rate, error rate, or system complexity. Principle of method states, if signal points are properly encoded and decoded, bits are detected correctly, regardless of phase ambiguities.

  15. Assessing the use of digital radiography and a real-time interactive pulmonary nodule analysis system for large population lung cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yan; Ma Daqing; He Wen

    2012-01-01

    Rationale and objectives: To assess the use of chest digital radiograph (DR) assisted with a real-time interactive pulmonary nodule analysis system in large population lung cancer screening. Materials and methods: 346 DR/CR patient studies with corresponding CT images were selected from 12,500 patients screened for lung cancer from year 2007 to 2009. Two expert chest radiologists established CT-confirmed Gold Standard of nodules on DR/CR images with consensus. These cases were read by eight other chest radiologists (participating radiologists) first without using a real-time interactive pulmonary nodule analysis system and then re-read using the system. Performances of participating radiologists and the computer system were analyzed. Results: The computer system achieved similar performance on DR and CR images, with a detection rate of 76% and an average FPs of 2.0 per image. Before and after using the computer-aided detection system, the nodule detection sensitivities of the participating radiologists were 62.3% and 77.3% respectively, and the A z values increased from 0.794 to 0.831. Statistical analysis demonstrated statically significant improvement for the participating radiologists after using the computer analysis system with a P-value 0.05. Conclusion: The computer system could help radiologists identify more lesions, especially small ones that are more likely to be overlooked on chest DR/CR images, and could help reduce inter-observer diagnostic variations, while its FPs were easy to recognize and dismiss. It is suggested that DR/CR assisted by the real-time interactive pulmonary nodule analysis system may be an effective means to screen large populations for lung cancer.

  16. Real-Time Analysis of Beats in Music for Entertainment Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Yue-Der Lin; Ting-Tsao Wu; Yu-Ren Chen; Yen-Ting Lin; Wen-Hsiu Chen; Shih-Fan Wang; Jinghom Chakhap

    2012-01-01

    The dancing actions for entertainment robots are usually designed in advance and saved in a database according to the beats and rhythm of the given music. This research is devoted to developing a real-time algorithm that can detect the primary information of the music needed for the actions of entertainment robots. The computation of the proposed algorithm is very efficient and can satisfy the requirement of real-time processing by a digital signal controller. The digitized music signal is fi...

  17. Seven novel probe systems for real-time PCR provide absolute single-base discrimination, higher signaling, and generic components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, James L; Hu, Peixu; Shafer, David A

    2014-11-01

    We have developed novel probe systems for real-time PCR that provide higher specificity, greater sensitivity, and lower cost relative to dual-labeled probes. The seven DNA Detection Switch (DDS)-probe systems reported here employ two interacting polynucleotide components: a fluorescently labeled probe and a quencher antiprobe. High-fidelity detection is achieved with three DDS designs: two internal probes (internal DDS and Flip probes) and a primer probe (ZIPR probe), wherein each probe is combined with a carefully engineered, slightly mismatched, error-checking antiprobe. The antiprobe blocks off-target detection over a wide range of temperatures and facilitates multiplexing. Other designs (Universal probe, Half-Universal probe, and MacMan probe) use generic components that enable low-cost detection. Finally, single-molecule G-Force probes employ guanine-mediated fluorescent quenching by forming a hairpin between adjacent C-rich and G-rich sequences. Examples provided show how these probe technologies discriminate drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis mutants, Escherichia coli O157:H7, oncogenic EGFR deletion mutations, hepatitis B virus, influenza A/B strains, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the human VKORC1 gene. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Real-time vision systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.; Hernandez, J.E.; Lu, Shin-yee [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    Many industrial and defence applications require an ability to make instantaneous decisions based on sensor input of a time varying process. Such systems are referred to as `real-time systems` because they process and act on data as it occurs in time. When a vision sensor is used in a real-time system, the processing demands can be quite substantial, with typical data rates of 10-20 million samples per second. A real-time Machine Vision Laboratory (MVL) was established in FY94 to extend our years of experience in developing computer vision algorithms to include the development and implementation of real-time vision systems. The laboratory is equipped with a variety of hardware components, including Datacube image acquisition and processing boards, a Sun workstation, and several different types of CCD cameras, including monochrome and color area cameras and analog and digital line-scan cameras. The equipment is reconfigurable for prototyping different applications. This facility has been used to support several programs at LLNL, including O Division`s Peacemaker and Deadeye Projects as well as the CRADA with the U.S. Textile Industry, CAFE (Computer Aided Fabric Inspection). To date, we have successfully demonstrated several real-time applications: bullet tracking, stereo tracking and ranging, and web inspection. This work has been documented in the ongoing development of a real-time software library.

  19. Real Time Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Phillip G.

    1985-12-01

    The call for abolishing photo reconnaissance in favor of real time is once more being heard. Ten years ago the same cries were being heard with the introduction of the Charge Coupled Device (CCD). The real time system problems that existed then and stopped real time proliferation have not been solved. The lack of an organized program by either DoD or industry has hampered any efforts to solve the problems, and as such, very little has happened in real time in the last ten years. Real time is not a replacement for photo, just as photo is not a replacement for infra-red or radar. Operational real time sensors can be designed only after their role has been defined and improvements made to the weak links in the system. Plodding ahead on a real time reconnaissance suite without benefit of evaluation of utility will allow this same paper to be used ten years from now.

  20. Modelling, simulation and experimental verification for renewable agents connected to a distorted utility grid using a Real-Time Digital Simulation Platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero-Rodríguez, N.F.; Rey-Boué, Alexis B.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A MSOGI-FLL is used to detect the frequency. • A PR harmonic-compensator is used. • Grid-connected PV system insensitive to harmonic pollution. • RTDS reinforced the final validation of the control algorithms. • Several algorithms are combined in this paper. - Abstract: The large number of Photovoltaic plants and its utilization as agents of a Distributed Generation Systems justified the increasing efforts towards the optimal design of the overall grid-connected System. In a Distributed Generation environment the low voltage 3-phase utility grid could be affected by some disturbances such as voltage unbalanced, variations of frequency and harmonics distortion and it is mandatory that the control algorithms used in the inverter can be able to maintain the power flow between the renewable agent and the low voltage 3-phase utility grid; in addition a unitary power factor must be attained. A Proportional-Resonant regulator is used to performance a current control with the output current of the inverter and a Multiple Second Order Generalized Integrator Frequency-Locked Loop (MSOGI-FLL) is used to detect the frequency of the low voltage 3-phase utility grid. Some low order harmonics are introduced in the low voltage 3-phase utility grid in order to see the effect of the harmonic compensator. In order to validate the model of the Photovoltaic Renewable agent, the synchronization algorithm and the inverter control algorithm, some simulations using MATLAB/SIMULINK from The MathWorks, Inc. are shown firstly, and secondly, some Real-Time Digital Simulation tests using a Real-Time Digital Simulation (RTDS) Platform are carried out

  1. An experimental digital consumer recorder for MPEG-coded video signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saeijs, R.W.J.J.; With, de P.H.N.; Rijckaert, A.M.A.; Wong, C.

    1995-01-01

    The concept and real-time implementation of an experimental home-use digital recorder is presented, capable of recording MPEG-compressed video signals. The system has small recording mechanics based on the DVC standard and it uses MPEG compression for trick-mode signals as well

  2. Digital signal processing for NDT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgel, B.

    1994-01-01

    NDT begins to adapt and use the most recent developments of digital signal and image processing. We briefly sum up the main characteristics of NDT situations (particularly noise and inverse problem formulation) and comment on techniques already used or just emerging (SAFT, split spectrum, adaptive learning network, noise reference filtering, stochastic models, neural networks). This survey is focused on ultrasonics, eddy currents and X-ray radiography. The final objective of end users (availability of automatic diagnosis systems) cannot be achieved only by signal processing algorithms. A close cooperation with other techniques such as artificial intelligence has therefore to be implemented. (author). 20 refs

  3. Digital Signal Processing applied to Physical Signals

    CERN Document Server

    Alberto, Diego; Musa, L

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that many of the scientific and technological discoveries of the XXI century will depend on the capability of processing and understanding a huge quantity of data. With the advent of the digital era, a fully digital and automated treatment can be designed and performed. From data mining to data compression, from signal elaboration to noise reduction, a processing is essential to manage and enhance features of interest after every data acquisition (DAQ) session. In the near future, science will go towards interdisciplinary research. In this work there will be given an example of the application of signal processing to different fields of Physics from nuclear particle detectors to biomedical examinations. In Chapter 1 a brief description of the collaborations that allowed this thesis is given, together with a list of the publications co-produced by the author in these three years. The most important notations, definitions and acronyms used in the work are also provided. In Chapter 2, the last r...

  4. A Versatile Multichannel Digital Signal Processing Module for Microcalorimeter Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, H.; Collins, J. W.; Walby, M.; Hennig, W.; Warburton, W. K.; Grudberg, P.

    2012-06-01

    Different techniques have been developed for reading out microcalorimeter sensor arrays: individual outputs for small arrays, and time-division or frequency-division or code-division multiplexing for large arrays. Typically, raw waveform data are first read out from the arrays using one of these techniques and then stored on computer hard drives for offline optimum filtering, leading not only to requirements for large storage space but also limitations on achievable count rate. Thus, a read-out module that is capable of processing microcalorimeter signals in real time will be highly desirable. We have developed multichannel digital signal processing electronics that are capable of on-board, real time processing of microcalorimeter sensor signals from multiplexed or individual pixel arrays. It is a 3U PXI module consisting of a standardized core processor board and a set of daughter boards. Each daughter board is designed to interface a specific type of microcalorimeter array to the core processor. The combination of the standardized core plus this set of easily designed and modified daughter boards results in a versatile data acquisition module that not only can easily expand to future detector systems, but is also low cost. In this paper, we first present the core processor/daughter board architecture, and then report the performance of an 8-channel daughter board, which digitizes individual pixel outputs at 1 MSPS with 16-bit precision. We will also introduce a time-division multiplexing type daughter board, which takes in time-division multiplexing signals through fiber-optic cables and then processes the digital signals to generate energy spectra in real time.

  5. Interrogating the Spatiotemporal Landscape of Neuromodulatory GPCR Signaling by Real-Time Imaging of cAMP in Intact Neurons and Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian S. Muntean

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Modulation of neuronal circuits is key to information processing in the brain. The majority of neuromodulators exert their effects by activating G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs that control the production of second messengers directly impacting cellular physiology. How numerous GPCRs integrate neuromodulatory inputs while accommodating diversity of incoming signals is poorly understood. In this study, we develop an in vivo tool and analytical suite for analyzing GPCR responses by monitoring the dynamics of a key second messenger, cyclic AMP (cAMP, with excellent quantitative and spatiotemporal resolution in various neurons. Using this imaging approach in combination with CRISPR/Cas9 editing and optogenetics, we interrogate neuromodulatory mechanisms of defined populations of neurons in an intact mesolimbic reward circuit and describe how individual inputs generate discrete second-messenger signatures in a cell- and receptor-specific fashion. This offers a resource for studying native neuronal GPCR signaling in real time. : Muntean et al. develop an in vivo reagent to study processing of neurotransmitter GPCR signals by monitoring real-time dynamics of cAMP responses. They demonstrate application of this approach, in combination with CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing and optogenetics, to interrogate the functional organization of a striatal circuit. Keywords: cAMP, GPCR, neuromodulation, dopamine, striatum, imaging, optogenetics

  6. Augmented Reality for Real-Time Detection and Interpretation of Colorimetric Signals Generated by Paper-Based Biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Steven M; Doménech-Sánchez, Antonio; de la Rica, Roberto

    2017-06-23

    Colorimetric tests are becoming increasingly popular in point-of-need analyses due to the possibility of detecting the signal with the naked eye, which eliminates the utilization of bulky and costly instruments only available in laboratories. However, colorimetric tests may be interpreted incorrectly by nonspecialists due to disparities in color perception or a lack of training. Here we solve this issue with a method that not only detects colorimetric signals but also interprets them so that the test outcome is understandable for anyone. It consists of an augmented reality (AR) app that uses a camera to detect the colored signals generated by a nanoparticle-based immunoassay, and that yields a warning symbol or message when the concentration of analyte is higher than a certain threshold. The proposed method detected the model analyte mouse IgG with a limit of detection of 0.3 μg mL -1 , which was comparable to the limit of detection afforded by classical densitometry performed with a nonportable device. When adapted to the detection of E. coli, the app always yielded a "hazard" warning symbol when the concentration of E. coli in the sample was above the infective dose (10 6 cfu mL -1 or higher). The proposed method could help nonspecialists make a decision about drinking from a potentially contaminated water source by yielding an unambiguous message that is easily understood by anyone. The widespread availability of smartphones along with the inexpensive paper test that requires no enzymes to generate the signal makes the proposed assay promising for analyses in remote locations and developing countries.

  7. Real Time Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Knud Smed

    2000-01-01

    Describes fundamentals of parallel programming and a kernel for that. Describes methods for modelling and checking parallel problems. Real time problems.......Describes fundamentals of parallel programming and a kernel for that. Describes methods for modelling and checking parallel problems. Real time problems....

  8. Real-time Identification and Control of Satellite Signal Impairments Solution and Application of the Stratonovich Equation Part 1. Theoretical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    As satellite communications systems become both more complex and reliant with respect to their operating environment, it has become imperative to be able to identify, during real-time operation, the onset of one or more impairments to the quality of overall communications system integrity. One of the most important aspects to monitor of a satellite link operating within the Earth's atmosphere is the signal fading due to the occurrence of rain and/or phase scintillations. This, of course, must be done in the presence of the associated measurement uncertainty or potentially faulty measurement equipment such as in the Advanced Communication Technology Satellite (ACTS) experiment. In the present work, an approach originally suggested in 1991, and apparently still considered iconoclastic, will be significantly developed and applied to the satellite communications link on which the deleterious composite signal fade is the result of one or many component fade mechanisms. Through the measurement (with the attendant uncertainty or 'error' in the measurement) of such a composite fading satellite signal, it is desired to extract the level of each of the individual fading mechanisms so they can be appropriately mitigated before they impact the overall performance of the communications network. Rather than employing simple-minded deterministic filtering to the real-time fading, the present approach is built around all the models and/or descriptions used to describe the individual fade components, including their dynamic evolution. The latter is usually given by a first-order Langevin equation. This circumstance allows the description of the associated temporal transition probability densities of each of the component processes. By using this description, along with the real-time measurements of the composite fade (along with the measurement errors), one can obtain statistical estimates of the levels of each of the component fading mechanisms as well as their predicted values

  9. Microcomputer-Based Digital Signal Processing Laboratory Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinari, Jr., Rocco; Rao, S. Sathyanarayan

    1985-01-01

    Describes a system (Apple II microcomputer interfaced to flexible, custom-designed digital hardware) which can provide: (1) Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) computation on real-time data with a video display of spectrum; (2) frequency synthesis experiments using the inverse FFT; and (3) real-time digital filtering experiments. (JN)

  10. New signal acquisition and processing system for the execution of initial criticality after refueling and physical tests at low power in Angra-2, with the incorporation of the real time resolution of the inverse point kinetic equation - IPK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Júnior, Décio Brandes M.F.; Oliveira, Mônica Georgia N.; Silva, Cristiano da, E-mail: deciobr@eletronuclear.gov.br, E-mail: mongeor@eletronuclear.gov.br, E-mail: cdsilva@eletronuclear.gov.br [Eletrobrás Termonuclear S.A. (ELETRONUCLEAR), Angra dos Reis, RJ (Brazil). Departamento DDD.O - Física de Reatores

    2017-07-01

    The goal of this work is present the new System of Acquisition and Signal Processing for the execution of the initial criticality after refueling and physical tests at low power with the incorporation of the real time resolution of Inverse Point Kinetic Equations (IPK). The system was developed using cRIO 9082 hardware (compactRIO), which is a programmable logic controller (PLC) and, the National Lab's LabVIEW programming language. The developed system enabled a better visualization and monitoring interface of the neutron flux evolution during the first criticality of cycle and following the low power physical tests, which allows the Reactor Physics Group and Reactor Operators of Angra 2 guide faster and accurately the reactivity variations at physical tests. The digital reactivity meter developed reinforces in Angra-2 the set of operational practices of reactivity management. (author)

  11. New signal acquisition and processing system for the execution of initial criticality after refueling and physical tests at low power in Angra-2, with the incorporation of the real time resolution of the inverse point kinetic equation - IPK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Júnior, Décio Brandes M.F.; Oliveira, Mônica Georgia N.; Silva, Cristiano da

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this work is present the new System of Acquisition and Signal Processing for the execution of the initial criticality after refueling and physical tests at low power with the incorporation of the real time resolution of Inverse Point Kinetic Equations (IPK). The system was developed using cRIO 9082 hardware (compactRIO), which is a programmable logic controller (PLC) and, the National Lab's LabVIEW programming language. The developed system enabled a better visualization and monitoring interface of the neutron flux evolution during the first criticality of cycle and following the low power physical tests, which allows the Reactor Physics Group and Reactor Operators of Angra 2 guide faster and accurately the reactivity variations at physical tests. The digital reactivity meter developed reinforces in Angra-2 the set of operational practices of reactivity management. (author)

  12. Real-time algorithm for the measurement of liquid metal coolant flow velocity with correlated thermal signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moazzeni, Taleb; Jiang, Yingtao; Ma, Jian; Li, Ning

    2009-01-01

    One flow meter was developed especially for the environment of high irradiation, pressure, and temperature. The transit time of natural random temperature fluctuation in process, for example nuclear reactor, can be obtained based on the cross-correlation method, which has already been shown that it is capable in situations where no other flow meter can be used. Thereby, the flow rate can be derived in pipe flow if the area of cross-section is known. In practice, the evaluation of the integrals over the measurement time in cross-correlation method will lead errors caused by peak detection from flat cross correlation coefficient distribution or additional peaks. One Auto-Adaptive Impulse Response Function estimation is introduced and significantly narrower peak will be obtained. Fiber optic sensors are advantageous for temperature measurements in the reactor pressure vessels. However, the corrosive coolant (as liquid lead/lead alloy or molten salt coolant) is a barrier of the optic sensor in such application. Thermocouple with grounded stainless steel shielding material would have same life time with structure material in reactor, although thermocouple has relatively slow response. The degradation due to corrosion/erosion will not introduce measurement error or necessary calibration, because only the correlation between signals is taken into consideration during measurements. Experiments conducted in a testing hydraulic facility approved the considerable improvement of accuracy by this new algorithm using thermocouple temperature sensors. (author)

  13. Digital signal processing an experimental approach

    CERN Document Server

    Engelberg, Shlomo

    2008-01-01

    Digital Signal Processing is a mathematically rigorous but accessible treatment of digital signal processing that intertwines basic theoretical techniques with hands-on laboratory instruction. Divided into three parts, the book covers various aspects of the digital signal processing (DSP) ""problem."" It begins with the analysis of discrete-time signals and explains sampling and the use of the discrete and fast Fourier transforms. The second part of the book???covering digital to analog and analog to digital conversion???provides a practical interlude in the mathematical content before Part II

  14. Real-time relationship between PKA biochemical signal network dynamics and increased action potential firing rate in heart pacemaker cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaniv, Yael; Ganesan, Ambhighainath; Yang, Dongmei; Ziman, Bruce D.; Lyashkov, Alexey E.; Levchenko, Andre; Zhang, Jin; Lakatta, Edward G.

    2015-01-01

    cAMP-PKA protein kinase is a key nodal signaling pathway that regulates a wide range of heart pacemaker cell functions. These functions are predicted to be involved in regulation of spontaneous action potential (AP) generation of these cells. Here we investigate if the kinetics and stoichiometry of increase in PKA activity match the increase in AP firing rate in response to β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) stimulation or phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibition, that alter the AP firing rate of heart sinoatrial pacemaker cells. In cultured adult rabbit pacemaker cells infected with an adenovirous expressing the FRET sensor AKAR3, the EC50 in response to graded increases in the intensity of β-AR stimulation (by Isoproterenol) the magnitude of the increases in PKA activity and the spontaneous AP firing rate were similar (0.4±0.1nM vs. 0.6±0.15nM, respectively). Moreover, the kinetics (t1/2) of the increases in PKA activity and spontaneous AP firing rate in response to β-AR stimulation or PDE inhibition were tightly linked. We characterized the system rate-limiting biochemical reactions by integrating these experimentally derived data into mechanistic-computational model. Model simulations predicted that phospholamban phosphorylation is a potent target of the increase in PKA activity that links to increase in spontaneous AP firing rate. In summary, the kinetics and stoichiometry of increases in PKA activity in response to a physiological (β-AR stimulation) or pharmacological (PDE inhibitor) stimuli match those of changes in the AP firing rate. Thus Ca2+-cAMP/PKA-dependent phosphorylation limits the rate and magnitude of increase in spontaneous AP firing rate. PMID:26241846

  15. Real-time shadows

    CERN Document Server

    Eisemann, Elmar; Assarsson, Ulf; Wimmer, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Important elements of games, movies, and other computer-generated content, shadows are crucial for enhancing realism and providing important visual cues. In recent years, there have been notable improvements in visual quality and speed, making high-quality realistic real-time shadows a reachable goal. Real-Time Shadows is a comprehensive guide to the theory and practice of real-time shadow techniques. It covers a large variety of different effects, including hard, soft, volumetric, and semi-transparent shadows.The book explains the basics as well as many advanced aspects related to the domain

  16. Real-time monitoring and massive inversion of source parameters of very long period seismic signals: An application to Stromboli Volcano, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, E.; D'Auria, L.; Martini, M.; Chouet, B.; Dawson, P.

    2006-01-01

    We present a comprehensive processing tool for the real-time analysis of the source mechanism of very long period (VLP) seismic data based on waveform inversions performed in the frequency domain for a point source. A search for the source providing the best-fitting solution is conducted over a three-dimensional grid of assumed source locations, in which the Green's functions associated with each point source are calculated by finite differences using the reciprocal relation between source and receiver. Tests performed on 62 nodes of a Linux cluster indicate that the waveform inversion and search for the best-fitting signal over 100,000 point sources require roughly 30 s of processing time for a 2-min-long record. The procedure is applied to post-processing of a data archive and to continuous automatic inversion of real-time data at Stromboli, providing insights into different modes of degassing at this volcano. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. Molecular methods (digital PCR and real-time PCR) for the quantification of low copy DNA of Phytophthora nicotianae in environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaya, Josefa; Lloret, Eva; Santísima-Trinidad, Ana B; Ros, Margarita; Pascual, Jose A

    2016-04-01

    Currently, real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is the technique most often used to quantify pathogen presence. Digital PCR (dPCR) is a new technique with the potential to have a substantial impact on plant pathology research owing to its reproducibility, sensitivity and low susceptibility to inhibitors. In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of using dPCR and qPCR to quantify Phytophthora nicotianae in several background matrices, including host tissues (stems and roots) and soil samples. In spite of the low dynamic range of dPCR (3 logs compared with 7 logs for qPCR), this technique proved to have very high precision applicable at very low copy numbers. The dPCR was able to detect accurately the pathogen in all type of samples in a broad concentration range. Moreover, dPCR seems to be less susceptible to inhibitors than qPCR in plant samples. Linear regression analysis showed a high correlation between the results obtained with the two techniques in soil, stem and root samples, with R(2) = 0.873, 0.999 and 0.995 respectively. These results suggest that dPCR is a promising alternative for quantifying soil-borne pathogens in environmental samples, even in early stages of the disease. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Performance of Droplet Digital PCR in Non-Invasive Fetal RHD Genotyping - Comparison with a Routine Real-Time PCR Based Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta Svobodová

    Full Text Available Detection and characterization of circulating cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA from maternal circulation requires an extremely sensitive and precise method due to very low cffDNA concentration. In our study, droplet digital PCR (ddPCR was implemented for fetal RHD genotyping from maternal plasma to compare this new quantification alternative with real-time PCR (qPCR as a golden standard for quantitative analysis of cffDNA. In the first stage of study, a DNA quantification standard was used. Clinical samples, including 10 non-pregnant and 35 pregnant women, were analyzed as a next step. Both methods' performance parameters-standard curve linearity, detection limit and measurement precision-were evaluated. ddPCR in comparison with qPCR has demonstrated sufficient sensitivity for analysing of cffDNA and determination of fetal RhD status from maternal circulation, results of both methods strongly correlated. Despite the more demanding workflow, ddPCR was found to be slightly more precise technology, as evaluated using quantitative standard. Regarding the clinical samples, the precision of both methods equalized with decreasing concentrations of tested DNA samples. In case of cffDNA with very low concentrations, variance parameters of both techniques were comparable. Detected levels of fetal cfDNA in maternal plasma were slightly higher than expected and correlated significantly with gestational age as measured by both methods (ddPCR r = 0.459; qPCR r = 0.438.

  19. Digital Investigations of AN Archaeological Smart Point Cloud: a Real Time Web-Based Platform to Manage the Visualisation of Semantical Queries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poux, F.; Neuville, R.; Hallot, P.; Van Wersch, L.; Luczfalvy Jancsó, A.; Billen, R.

    2017-05-01

    While virtual copies of the real world tend to be created faster than ever through point clouds and derivatives, their working proficiency by all professionals' demands adapted tools to facilitate knowledge dissemination. Digital investigations are changing the way cultural heritage researchers, archaeologists, and curators work and collaborate to progressively aggregate expertise through one common platform. In this paper, we present a web application in a WebGL framework accessible on any HTML5-compatible browser. It allows real time point cloud exploration of the mosaics in the Oratory of Germigny-des-Prés, and emphasises the ease of use as well as performances. Our reasoning engine is constructed over a semantically rich point cloud data structure, where metadata has been injected a priori. We developed a tool that directly allows semantic extraction and visualisation of pertinent information for the end users. It leads to efficient communication between actors by proposing optimal 3D viewpoints as a basis on which interactions can grow.

  20. Real time expert systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asami, Tohru; Hashimoto, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Seiichi

    1992-01-01

    Recently, aiming at the application to the plant control for nuclear reactors and traffic and communication control, the research and the practical use of the expert system suitable to real time processing have become conspicuous. In this report, the condition for the required function to control the object that dynamically changes within a limited time is presented, and the technical difference between the real time expert system developed so as to satisfy it and the expert system of conventional type is explained with the actual examples and from theoretical aspect. The expert system of conventional type has the technical base in the problem-solving equipment originating in STRIPS. The real time expert system is applied to the fields accompanied by surveillance and control, to which conventional expert system is hard to be applied. The requirement for the real time expert system, the example of the real time expert system, and as the techniques of realizing real time processing, the realization of interruption processing, dispersion processing, and the mechanism of maintaining the consistency of knowledge are explained. (K.I.)

  1. Real time microcontroller implementation of an adaptive myoelectric filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagwell, P J; Chappell, P H

    1995-03-01

    This paper describes a real time digital adaptive filter for processing myoelectric signals. The filter time constant is automatically selected by the adaptation algorithm, giving a significant improvement over linear filters for estimating the muscle force and controlling a prosthetic device. Interference from mains sources often produces problems for myoelectric processing, and so 50 Hz and all harmonic frequencies are reduced by an averaging filter and differential process. This makes practical electrode placement and contact less critical and time consuming. An economic real time implementation is essential for a prosthetic controller, and this is achieved using an Intel 80C196KC microcontroller.

  2. Fast digital recorders of signal shaping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meleshko, E.A.

    1997-01-01

    Methodology of fast digital registration and pulse signals through fast-action analog-to-digital converters is considered. Systems of digital recorders: sampling and storage devices and operational memory units are described. Main attention is paid to developing parallel analog-to-digital converters, making it possible to bring the conversion frequencies up to several gigahertzes are described. Parallel-sequential analog-to-digital converters, combining high action with increased accuracy are also considered. Concrete examples of designing universal and specialized digital signal recorders, applied in experimental physics, are presented. 44 refs., 12 figs

  3. Dual turn-on fluorescence signal-based controlled release system for real-time monitoring of drug release dynamics in living cells and tumor tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiuqi; Dong, Baoli; Song, Xuezhen; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Nan; Lin, Weiying

    2018-01-01

    Controlled release systems with capabilities for direct and real-time monitoring of the release and dynamics of drugs in living systems are of great value for cancer chemotherapy. Herein, we describe a novel dual turn-on fluorescence signal-based controlled release system ( CDox ), in which the chemotherapy drug doxorubicin ( Dox ) and the fluorescent dye ( CH ) are conjugated by a hydrazone moiety, a pH-responsive cleavable linker. CDox itself shows nearly no fluorescence as the fluorescence of CH and Dox is essentially quenched by the C=N isomerization and N-N free rotation. However, when activated under acidic conditions, CDox could be hydrolyzed to afford Dox and CH , resulting in dual turn-on signals with emission peaks at 595 nm and 488 nm, respectively. Notably, CDox exhibits a desirable controlled release feature as the hydrolysis rate is limited by the steric hindrance effect from both the Dox and CH moieties. Cytotoxicity assays indicate that CDox shows much lower cytotoxicity relative to Dox , and displays higher cell inhibition rate to cancer than normal cells. With the aid of the dual turn-on fluorescence at different wavelengths, the drug release dynamics of CDox in living HepG2 and 4T-1 cells was monitored in double channels in a real-time fashion. Importantly, two-photon fluorescence imaging of CDox in living tumor tissues was also successfully performed by high-definition 3D imaging. We expect that the unique controlled release system illustrated herein could provide a powerful means to investigate modes of action of drugs, which is critical for development of much more robust and effective chemotherapy drugs.

  4. Real-Time Digital Simulation of Inertial Response with Hardware-in-the-Loop Implementation on the CART3 Wind Turbine at the National Wind Technology Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Wenzhong; Wang, Xiao; Muljadi, Eduard; Gevorgian, Vahan; Scholbrock, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    With increasing penetrations of wind power on electric grids, the stability and reliability of interconnected power systems may be impacted. In some countries that have developed renewable energy sources and systems, grid codes have been revised to require wind power plants (WPPs) to provide ancillary services to support the power system frequency in case of severe grid events. To do this, wind turbine generators (WTGs) should be deloaded to reserve a certain amount of active power for primary frequency response; however, deloading curtails annual energy production, and the market for this type of service needs to be further developed. In this report, we focus on the temporary frequency support provided by WTGs through inertial response. WTGs have potential to provide inertial response, but appropriate control methods should be implemented. With the implemented inertial control methods, wind turbines are capable of increasing their active power output by releasing some of their stored kinetic energy when a frequency excursion occurs. Active power can be temporarily boosted above the maximum power points, after which the rotor speed decelerates, and subsequently an active power output reduction restores the kinetic energy. In this report, we develop two types of models for wind power systems: the first is common, based on the wind power aerodynamic equation, and the power coefficient can be regressed using nonlinear functions; the second is much more complicated, wherein the wind turbine system is modeled using the Fatigue, Aerodynamics, Structures, and Turbulence Modeling (FAST) tool with several degrees of freedoms. A nine-bus test power system is built in Simulink and the Real-Time Digital Simulator, respectively, which are used to evaluate the frequency support performance of the WPPs. We implement two distinct types of inertial control methods in the modeled wind turbines: frequency-based inertial control (FBIC) and stepwise inertial control (SIC). We compare

  5. Digital signal processing using MATLAB

    CERN Document Server

    Schilling, Robert L

    2016-01-01

    Focus on the development, implementation, and application of modern DSP techniques with DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING USING MATLAB(R), 3E. Written in an engaging, informal style, this edition immediately captures your attention and encourages you to explore each critical topic. Every chapter starts with a motivational section that highlights practical examples and challenges that you can solve using techniques covered in the chapter. Each chapter concludes with a detailed case study example, a chapter summary with learning outcomes, and practical homework problems cross-referenced to specific chapter sections for your convenience. DSP Companion software accompanies each book to enable further investigation. The DSP Companion software operates with MATLAB(R) and provides intriguing demonstrations as well as interactive explorations of analysis and design concepts.

  6. Real-time positioning in logging: Effects of forest stand characteristics, topography, and line-of-sight obstructions on GNSS-RF transponder accuracy and radio signal propagation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloise G Zimbelman

    Full Text Available Real-time positioning on mobile devices using global navigation satellite system (GNSS technology paired with radio frequency (RF transmission (GNSS-RF may help to improve safety on logging operations by increasing situational awareness. However, GNSS positional accuracy for ground workers in motion may be reduced by multipath error, satellite signal obstruction, or other factors. Radio propagation of GNSS locations may also be impacted due to line-of-sight (LOS obstruction in remote, forested areas. The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of forest stand characteristics, topography, and other LOS obstructions on the GNSS accuracy and radio signal propagation quality of multiple Raveon Atlas PT GNSS-RF transponders functioning as a network in a range of forest conditions. Because most previous research with GNSS in forestry has focused on stationary units, we chose to analyze units in motion by evaluating the time-to-signal accuracy of geofence crossings in 21 randomly-selected stands on the University of Idaho Experimental Forest. Specifically, we studied the effects of forest stand characteristics, topography, and LOS obstructions on (1 the odds of missed GNSS-RF signals, (2 the root mean squared error (RMSE of Atlas PTs, and (3 the time-to-signal accuracy of safety geofence crossings in forested environments. Mixed-effects models used to analyze the data showed that stand characteristics, topography, and obstructions in the LOS affected the odds of missed radio signals while stand variables alone affected RMSE. Both stand characteristics and topography affected the accuracy of geofence alerts.

  7. Real-time positioning in logging: Effects of forest stand characteristics, topography, and line-of-sight obstructions on GNSS-RF transponder accuracy and radio signal propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimbelman, Eloise G; Keefe, Robert F

    2018-01-01

    Real-time positioning on mobile devices using global navigation satellite system (GNSS) technology paired with radio frequency (RF) transmission (GNSS-RF) may help to improve safety on logging operations by increasing situational awareness. However, GNSS positional accuracy for ground workers in motion may be reduced by multipath error, satellite signal obstruction, or other factors. Radio propagation of GNSS locations may also be impacted due to line-of-sight (LOS) obstruction in remote, forested areas. The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of forest stand characteristics, topography, and other LOS obstructions on the GNSS accuracy and radio signal propagation quality of multiple Raveon Atlas PT GNSS-RF transponders functioning as a network in a range of forest conditions. Because most previous research with GNSS in forestry has focused on stationary units, we chose to analyze units in motion by evaluating the time-to-signal accuracy of geofence crossings in 21 randomly-selected stands on the University of Idaho Experimental Forest. Specifically, we studied the effects of forest stand characteristics, topography, and LOS obstructions on (1) the odds of missed GNSS-RF signals, (2) the root mean squared error (RMSE) of Atlas PTs, and (3) the time-to-signal accuracy of safety geofence crossings in forested environments. Mixed-effects models used to analyze the data showed that stand characteristics, topography, and obstructions in the LOS affected the odds of missed radio signals while stand variables alone affected RMSE. Both stand characteristics and topography affected the accuracy of geofence alerts.

  8. Developing infrared array controller with software real time operating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sako, Shigeyuki; Miyata, Takashi; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Motohara, Kentaro; Uchimoto, Yuka Katsuno; Onaka, Takashi; Kataza, Hirokazu

    2008-07-01

    Real-time capabilities are required for a controller of a large format array to reduce a dead-time attributed by readout and data transfer. The real-time processing has been achieved by dedicated processors including DSP, CPLD, and FPGA devices. However, the dedicated processors have problems with memory resources, inflexibility, and high cost. Meanwhile, a recent PC has sufficient resources of CPUs and memories to control the infrared array and to process a large amount of frame data in real-time. In this study, we have developed an infrared array controller with a software real-time operating system (RTOS) instead of the dedicated processors. A Linux PC equipped with a RTAI extension and a dual-core CPU is used as a main computer, and one of the CPU cores is allocated to the real-time processing. A digital I/O board with DMA functions is used for an I/O interface. The signal-processing cores are integrated in the OS kernel as a real-time driver module, which is composed of two virtual devices of the clock processor and the frame processor tasks. The array controller with the RTOS realizes complicated operations easily, flexibly, and at a low cost.

  9. Real-time radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossi, R.H.; Oien, C.T.

    1981-01-01

    Real-time radiography is used for imaging both dynamic events and static objects. Fluorescent screens play an important role in converting radiation to light, which is then observed directly or intensified and detected. The radiographic parameters for real-time radiography are similar to conventional film radiography with special emphasis on statistics and magnification. Direct-viewing fluoroscopy uses the human eye as a detector of fluorescent screen light or the light from an intensifier. Remote-viewing systems replace the human observer with a television camera. The remote-viewing systems have many advantages over the direct-viewing conditions such as safety, image enhancement, and the capability to produce permanent records. This report reviews real-time imaging system parameters and components

  10. ISTTOK real-time architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Ivo S., E-mail: ivoc@ipfn.ist.utl.pt; Duarte, Paulo; Fernandes, Horácio; Valcárcel, Daniel F.; Carvalho, Pedro J.; Silva, Carlos; Duarte, André S.; Neto, André; Sousa, Jorge; Batista, António J.N.; Hekkert, Tiago; Carvalho, Bernardo B.

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • All real-time diagnostics and actuators were integrated in the same control platform. • A 100 μs control cycle was achieved under the MARTe framework. • Time-windows based control with several event-driven control strategies implemented. • AC discharges with exception handling on iron core flux saturation. • An HTML discharge configuration was developed for configuring the MARTe system. - Abstract: The ISTTOK tokamak was upgraded with a plasma control system based on the Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA) standard. This control system was designed to improve the discharge stability and to extend the operational space to the alternate plasma current (AC) discharges as part of the ISTTOK scientific program. In order to accomplish these objectives all ISTTOK diagnostics and actuators relevant for real-time operation were integrated in the control system. The control system was programmed in C++ over the Multi-threaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe) which provides, among other features, a real-time scheduler, an interrupt handler, an intercommunications interface between code blocks and a clearly bounded interface with the external devices. As a complement to the MARTe framework, the BaseLib2 library provides the foundations for the data, code introspection and also a Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) server service. Taking advantage of the modular nature of MARTe, the algorithms of each diagnostic data processing, discharge timing, context switch, control and actuators output reference generation, run on well-defined blocks of code named Generic Application Module (GAM). This approach allows reusability of the code, simplified simulation, replacement or editing without changing the remaining GAMs. The ISTTOK control system GAMs run sequentially each 100 μs cycle on an Intel{sup ®} Q8200 4-core processor running at 2.33 GHz located in the ATCA crate. Two boards (inside the ATCA crate) with 32 analog-to-digital

  11. ISTTOK real-time architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Ivo S.; Duarte, Paulo; Fernandes, Horácio; Valcárcel, Daniel F.; Carvalho, Pedro J.; Silva, Carlos; Duarte, André S.; Neto, André; Sousa, Jorge; Batista, António J.N.; Hekkert, Tiago; Carvalho, Bernardo B.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • All real-time diagnostics and actuators were integrated in the same control platform. • A 100 μs control cycle was achieved under the MARTe framework. • Time-windows based control with several event-driven control strategies implemented. • AC discharges with exception handling on iron core flux saturation. • An HTML discharge configuration was developed for configuring the MARTe system. - Abstract: The ISTTOK tokamak was upgraded with a plasma control system based on the Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA) standard. This control system was designed to improve the discharge stability and to extend the operational space to the alternate plasma current (AC) discharges as part of the ISTTOK scientific program. In order to accomplish these objectives all ISTTOK diagnostics and actuators relevant for real-time operation were integrated in the control system. The control system was programmed in C++ over the Multi-threaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe) which provides, among other features, a real-time scheduler, an interrupt handler, an intercommunications interface between code blocks and a clearly bounded interface with the external devices. As a complement to the MARTe framework, the BaseLib2 library provides the foundations for the data, code introspection and also a Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) server service. Taking advantage of the modular nature of MARTe, the algorithms of each diagnostic data processing, discharge timing, context switch, control and actuators output reference generation, run on well-defined blocks of code named Generic Application Module (GAM). This approach allows reusability of the code, simplified simulation, replacement or editing without changing the remaining GAMs. The ISTTOK control system GAMs run sequentially each 100 μs cycle on an Intel ® Q8200 4-core processor running at 2.33 GHz located in the ATCA crate. Two boards (inside the ATCA crate) with 32 analog-to-digital

  12. Homogeneous and Heterogeneous MPSoC Architectures with Network-On-Chip Connectivity for Low-Power and Real-Time Multimedia Signal Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Saponara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two multiprocessor system-on-chip (MPSoC architectures are proposed and compared in the paper with reference to audio and video processing applications. One architecture exploits a homogeneous topology; it consists of 8 identical tiles, each made of a 32-bit RISC core enhanced by a 64-bit DSP coprocessor with local memory. The other MPSoC architecture exploits a heterogeneous-tile topology with on-chip distributed memory resources; the tiles act as application specific processors supporting a different class of algorithms. In both architectures, the multiple tiles are interconnected by a network-on-chip (NoC infrastructure, through network interfaces and routers, which allows parallel operations of the multiple tiles. The functional performances and the implementation complexity of the NoC-based MPSoC architectures are assessed by synthesis results in submicron CMOS technology. Among the large set of supported algorithms, two case studies are considered: the real-time implementation of an H.264/MPEG AVC video codec and of a low-distortion digital audio amplifier. The heterogeneous architecture ensures a higher power efficiency and a smaller area occupation and is more suited for low-power multimedia processing, such as in mobile devices. The homogeneous scheme allows for a higher flexibility and easier system scalability and is more suited for general-purpose DSP tasks in power-supplied devices.

  13. Exploratory Data Analysis of Acceleration Signals to Select Light-Weight and Accurate Features for Real-Time Activity Recognition on Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Won Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Smartphone-based activity recognition (SP-AR recognizes users’ activities using the embedded accelerometer sensor. Only a small number of previous works can be classified as online systems, i.e., the whole process (pre-processing, feature extraction, and classification is performed on the device. Most of these online systems use either a high sampling rate (SR or long data-window (DW to achieve high accuracy, resulting in short battery life or delayed system response, respectively. This paper introduces a real-time/online SP-AR system that solves this problem. Exploratory data analysis was performed on acceleration signals of 6 activities, collected from 30 subjects, to show that these signals are generated by an autoregressive (AR process, and an accurate AR-model in this case can be built using a low SR (20 Hz and a small DW (3 s. The high within class variance resulting from placing the phone at different positions was reduced using kernel discriminant analysis to achieve position-independent recognition. Neural networks were used as classifiers. Unlike previous works, true subject-independent evaluation was performed, where 10 new subjects evaluated the system at their homes for 1 week. The results show that our features outperformed three commonly used features by 40% in terms of accuracy for the given SR and DW.

  14. Exploratory data analysis of acceleration signals to select light-weight and accurate features for real-time activity recognition on smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Adil Mehmood; Siddiqi, Muhammad Hameed; Lee, Seok-Won

    2013-09-27

    Smartphone-based activity recognition (SP-AR) recognizes users' activities using the embedded accelerometer sensor. Only a small number of previous works can be classified as online systems, i.e., the whole process (pre-processing, feature extraction, and classification) is performed on the device. Most of these online systems use either a high sampling rate (SR) or long data-window (DW) to achieve high accuracy, resulting in short battery life or delayed system response, respectively. This paper introduces a real-time/online SP-AR system that solves this problem. Exploratory data analysis was performed on acceleration signals of 6 activities, collected from 30 subjects, to show that these signals are generated by an autoregressive (AR) process, and an accurate AR-model in this case can be built using a low SR (20 Hz) and a small DW (3 s). The high within class variance resulting from placing the phone at different positions was reduced using kernel discriminant analysis to achieve position-independent recognition. Neural networks were used as classifiers. Unlike previous works, true subject-independent evaluation was performed, where 10 new subjects evaluated the system at their homes for 1 week. The results show that our features outperformed three commonly used features by 40% in terms of accuracy for the given SR and DW.

  15. Architecture of the APS real-time orbit feedback system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carwardine, J. A.; Lenkszus, F. R.

    1997-01-01

    The APS Real-Time Orbit Feedback System is designed to stabilize the orbit of the stored positron beam against low-frequency sources such as mechanical vibration and power supply ripple. A distributed array of digital signal processors is used to measure the orbit and compute corrections at a 1kHz rate. The system also provides extensive beam diagnostic tools. This paper describes the architectural aspects of the system and describes how the orbit correction algorithms are implemented

  16. Architecture of the APS real-time orbit feedback system.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carwardine, J. A.; Lenkszus, F. R.

    1997-11-21

    The APS Real-Time Orbit Feedback System is designed to stabilize the orbit of the stored positron beam against low-frequency sources such as mechanical vibration and power supply ripple. A distributed array of digital signal processors is used to measure the orbit and compute corrections at a 1kHz rate. The system also provides extensive beam diagnostic tools. This paper describes the architectural aspects of the system and describes how the orbit correction algorithms are implemented.

  17. Advanced digital signal processing and noise reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Vaseghi, Saeed V

    2008-01-01

    Digital signal processing plays a central role in the development of modern communication and information processing systems. The theory and application of signal processing is concerned with the identification, modelling and utilisation of patterns and structures in a signal process. The observation signals are often distorted, incomplete and noisy and therefore noise reduction, the removal of channel distortion, and replacement of lost samples are important parts of a signal processing system. The fourth edition of Advanced Digital Signal Processing and Noise Reduction updates an

  18. Quantitative Real-Time Fluoroscopy Analysis on Measurement of the Hepatic Arterial Flow During Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Comparison with Quantitative Digital Subtraction Angiography Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yi-Yang; Lee, Rheun-Chuan, E-mail: rclee@vghtpe.gov.tw; Guo, Wan-Yuo, E-mail: wyguo@vghtpe.gov.tw; Chu, Wei-Fa [Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Department of Radiology (China); Wu, Frank Chun-Hsien [Siemens Healthcare Ltd. (China); Gehrisch, Sonja [Siemens Healthcare GmbH (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    PurposeTo quantify the arterial flow change during transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using digital subtraction angiography, quantitative color-coding analysis (d-QCA), and real-time subtraction fluoroscopy QCA (f-QCA).Materials and MethodsThis prospective study enrolled 20 consecutive patients with HCC who had undergone TACE via a subsegmental approach between February 2014 and April 2015. The TACE endpoint was a sluggish antegrade tumor-feeding arterial flow. d-QCA and f-QCA were used for determining the relative maximal density time (rT{sub max}) of the selected arteries. The rT{sub max} of the selected arteries was analyzed in d-QCA and f-QCA before and after TACE, and its correlation in both analyses was evaluated.ResultsThe pre- and post-TACE rT{sub max} of the embolized segmental artery in d-QCA and f-QCA were 1.59 ± 0.81 and 2.97 ± 1.80 s (P < 0.001) and 1.44 ± 0.52 and 2.28 ± 1.02 s (P < 0.01), respectively. The rT{sub max} of the proximal hepatic artery did not significantly change during TACE in d-QCA and f-QCA. The Spearman correlation coefficients of the pre- and post-TACE rT{sub max} of the embolized segmental artery between d-QCA and f-QCA were 0.46 (P < 0.05) and 0.80 (P < 0.001). Radiation doses in one series of d-QCA and f-QCA were 140.7 ± 51.5 milligray (mGy) and 2.5 ± 0.7 mGy, respectively.Conclusionsf-QCA can quantify arterial flow changes with a higher temporal resolution and lower radiation dose. Flow quantification of the embolized segmental artery using f-QCA and d-QCA is highly correlated.

  19. Real-time out-of-plane artifact subtraction tomosynthesis imaging using prior CT for scanning beam digital x-ray system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Meng, E-mail: mengwu@stanford.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Fahrig, Rebecca [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: The scanning beam digital x-ray system (SBDX) is an inverse geometry fluoroscopic system with high dose efficiency and the ability to perform continuous real-time tomosynthesis in multiple planes. This system could be used for image guidance during lung nodule biopsy. However, the reconstructed images suffer from strong out-of-plane artifact due to the small tomographic angle of the system. Methods: The authors propose an out-of-plane artifact subtraction tomosynthesis (OPAST) algorithm that utilizes a prior CT volume to augment the run-time image processing. A blur-and-add (BAA) analytical model, derived from the project-to-backproject physical model, permits the generation of tomosynthesis images that are a good approximation to the shift-and-add (SAA) reconstructed image. A computationally practical algorithm is proposed to simulate images and out-of-plane artifacts from patient-specific prior CT volumes using the BAA model. A 3D image registration algorithm to align the simulated and reconstructed images is described. The accuracy of the BAA analytical model and the OPAST algorithm was evaluated using three lung cancer patients’ CT data. The OPAST and image registration algorithms were also tested with added nonrigid respiratory motions. Results: Image similarity measurements, including the correlation coefficient, mean squared error, and structural similarity index, indicated that the BAA model is very accurate in simulating the SAA images from the prior CT for the SBDX system. The shift-variant effect of the BAA model can be ignored when the shifts between SBDX images and CT volumes are within ±10 mm in the x and y directions. The nodule visibility and depth resolution are improved by subtracting simulated artifacts from the reconstructions. The image registration and OPAST are robust in the presence of added respiratory motions. The dominant artifacts in the subtraction images are caused by the mismatches between the real object and the prior CT

  20. Quantitative Real-Time Fluoroscopy Analysis on Measurement of the Hepatic Arterial Flow During Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Comparison with Quantitative Digital Subtraction Angiography Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Yi-Yang; Lee, Rheun-Chuan; Guo, Wan-Yuo; Chu, Wei-Fa; Wu, Frank Chun-Hsien; Gehrisch, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    PurposeTo quantify the arterial flow change during transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using digital subtraction angiography, quantitative color-coding analysis (d-QCA), and real-time subtraction fluoroscopy QCA (f-QCA).Materials and MethodsThis prospective study enrolled 20 consecutive patients with HCC who had undergone TACE via a subsegmental approach between February 2014 and April 2015. The TACE endpoint was a sluggish antegrade tumor-feeding arterial flow. d-QCA and f-QCA were used for determining the relative maximal density time (rT_m_a_x) of the selected arteries. The rT_m_a_x of the selected arteries was analyzed in d-QCA and f-QCA before and after TACE, and its correlation in both analyses was evaluated.ResultsThe pre- and post-TACE rT_m_a_x of the embolized segmental artery in d-QCA and f-QCA were 1.59 ± 0.81 and 2.97 ± 1.80 s (P < 0.001) and 1.44 ± 0.52 and 2.28 ± 1.02 s (P < 0.01), respectively. The rT_m_a_x of the proximal hepatic artery did not significantly change during TACE in d-QCA and f-QCA. The Spearman correlation coefficients of the pre- and post-TACE rT_m_a_x of the embolized segmental artery between d-QCA and f-QCA were 0.46 (P < 0.05) and 0.80 (P < 0.001). Radiation doses in one series of d-QCA and f-QCA were 140.7 ± 51.5 milligray (mGy) and 2.5 ± 0.7 mGy, respectively.Conclusionsf-QCA can quantify arterial flow changes with a higher temporal resolution and lower radiation dose. Flow quantification of the embolized segmental artery using f-QCA and d-QCA is highly correlated.

  1. Route around real time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrier, Francois

    1996-01-01

    The greater and greater autonomy and complexity asked to the control and command systems lead to work on introducing techniques such as Artificial Intelligence or concurrent object programming in industrial applications. However, while the critical feature of these systems impose to control the dynamics of the proposed solutions, their complexity often imposes a high adaptability to a partially modelled environment. The studies presented start from low level control and command systems to more complex applications at higher levels, such as 'supervision systems'. Techniques such as temporal reasoning and uncertainty management are proposed for the first studies, while the second are tackled with programming techniques based on the real time object paradigm. The outcomes of this itinerary crystallize on the ACCORD project which targets to manage - on the whole life cycle of a real time application - these two problematics, sometimes antagonistic: control of the dynamics and adaptivity. (author) [fr

  2. MATtrack: A MATLAB-Based Quantitative Image Analysis Platform for Investigating Real-Time Photo-Converted Fluorescent Signals in Live Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Jane; Woods, Elena; Scholz, Dimitri; Hall, William W; Gautier, Virginie W

    2015-01-01

    We introduce here MATtrack, an open source MATLAB-based computational platform developed to process multi-Tiff files produced by a photo-conversion time lapse protocol for live cell fluorescent microscopy. MATtrack automatically performs a series of steps required for image processing, including extraction and import of numerical values from Multi-Tiff files, red/green image classification using gating parameters, noise filtering, background extraction, contrast stretching and temporal smoothing. MATtrack also integrates a series of algorithms for quantitative image analysis enabling the construction of mean and standard deviation images, clustering and classification of subcellular regions and injection point approximation. In addition, MATtrack features a simple user interface, which enables monitoring of Fluorescent Signal Intensity in multiple Regions of Interest, over time. The latter encapsulates a region growing method to automatically delineate the contours of Regions of Interest selected by the user, and performs background and regional Average Fluorescence Tracking, and automatic plotting. Finally, MATtrack computes convenient visualization and exploration tools including a migration map, which provides an overview of the protein intracellular trajectories and accumulation areas. In conclusion, MATtrack is an open source MATLAB-based software package tailored to facilitate the analysis and visualization of large data files derived from real-time live cell fluorescent microscopy using photoconvertible proteins. It is flexible, user friendly, compatible with Windows, Mac, and Linux, and a wide range of data acquisition software. MATtrack is freely available for download at eleceng.dit.ie/courtney/MATtrack.zip.

  3. Real time falling leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez Alcocer, Pere Pau; Balsa, Marcos

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing interest in simulating natural phenomena in computer graphics applications. Animating natural scenes in real time is one of the most challenging problems due to the inherent complexity of their structure, formed by millions of geometric entities, and the interactions that happen within. An example of natural scenario that is needed for games or simulation programs are forests. Forests are difficult to render because the huge amount of geometric entities and the large amount...

  4. Real Time Strategy Language

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Roy; Beling, Peter; Scherer, William

    2014-01-01

    Real Time Strategy (RTS) games provide complex domain to test the latest artificial intelligence (AI) research. In much of the literature, AI systems have been limited to playing one game. Although, this specialization has resulted in stronger AI gaming systems it does not address the key concerns of AI researcher. AI researchers seek the development of AI agents that can autonomously interpret learn, and apply new knowledge. To achieve human level performance, current AI systems rely on game...

  5. Real Time Processing

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; ANDERSON, Dustin James; DOGLIONI, Caterina

    2015-01-01

    The LHC provides experiments with an unprecedented amount of data. Experimental collaborations need to meet storage and computing requirements for the analysis of this data: this is often a limiting factor in the physics program that would be achievable if the whole dataset could be analysed. In this talk, I will describe the strategies adopted by the LHCb, CMS and ATLAS collaborations to overcome these limitations and make the most of LHC data: data parking, data scouting, and real-time analysis.

  6. Digital signal processing - growth of a technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peek, J.B.H.

    1985-01-01

    The rapid development of microelectronics has led to an increasing extent in circuits and systems for digital signal processing. This happened first in professional applications, e.g. geophysics, astronomy and space flight, and now, with the Compact Disc player, these techniques have entered the consumer field. In the near future digital TV applications will undoubtedly follow. This article outlines a number of the developments behind the advancing 'digitization' of modern technology. The article also considers the main advantages and disadvantages of digital signal processing the main modules now used and some common applications. Particular attention is paid to medical applications. (Auth.)

  7. The evolution of real-time control systems at JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodyear, A.; Dorling, S.; Felton, R

    2001-07-01

    Real-time feedback control of the JET experiment is based upon a collection of diagnostics providing signals which are processed by various controllers that manipulate actuator parameters for plasma current, shape and heating. The real-time data network (RTDN) connects the diagnostic, controller and actuator systems to form a flexible feedback and protection system for plasma monitoring and control. The controllers are mainly VME systems based on the Motorola 680X0 (68K) processor with some computationally intensive systems utilising Texas Instruments TMS320C40 (C40) digital signal processors (DSP), though lately there has been a move towards PowerPC 750 based processors. The majority of 68K VME systems use VxWorks, a hard real time operating system. There is an ongoing requirement to improve the efficiency of the real-time control systems at JET. This is driven by a desire to either add more input signals, reduce the feedback cycle time or increase algorithm complexity. New technology has a major role to play in the upgrade of the real-time control systems but the novel redeployment of existing equipment can also be used to enhance performance. This paper examines the configuration of existing systems, both hardware and software, and how new technology can be gradually integrated without jeopardising the current functionality. The adoption of Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) as the connection medium for the RTDN is key to the evolutional development of the control systems. The ATM network is extremely flexible to configure and benefits from low message latency and deterministic delivery time, essential properties for a real-time network. (author)

  8. New digital measurement methods for left ventricular volume using real-time three-dimensional echocardiography: comparison with electromagnetic flow method and magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, J. J.; Jones, M.; Shiota, T.; Greenberg, N. L.; Firstenberg, M. S.; Tsujino, H.; Zetts, A. D.; Sun, J. P.; Cardon, L. A.; Odabashian, J. A.; hide

    2000-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility and accuracy of using symmetrically rotated apical long axis planes for the determination of left ventricular (LV) volumes with real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE). METHODS AND RESULTS: Real-time 3DE was performed in six sheep during 24 haemodynamic conditions with electromagnetic flow measurements (EM), and in 29 patients with magnetic resonance imaging measurements (MRI). LV volumes were calculated by Simpson's rule with five 3DE methods (i.e. apical biplane, four-plane, six-plane, nine-plane (in which the angle between each long axis plane was 90 degrees, 45 degrees, 30 degrees or 20 degrees, respectively) and standard short axis views (SAX)). Real-time 3DE correlated well with EM for LV stroke volumes in animals (r=0.68-0.95) and with MRI for absolute volumes in patients (r-values=0.93-0.98). However, agreement between MRI and apical nine-plane, six-plane, and SAX methods in patients was better than those with apical four-plane and bi-plane methods (mean difference = -15, -18, -13, vs. -31 and -48 ml for end-diastolic volume, respectively, Pmethods of real-time 3DE correlated well with reference standards for calculating LV volumes. Balancing accuracy and required time for these LV volume measurements, the apical six-plane method is recommended for clinical use.

  9. Digital signal processing with kernel methods

    CERN Document Server

    Rojo-Alvarez, José Luis; Muñoz-Marí, Jordi; Camps-Valls, Gustavo

    2018-01-01

    A realistic and comprehensive review of joint approaches to machine learning and signal processing algorithms, with application to communications, multimedia, and biomedical engineering systems Digital Signal Processing with Kernel Methods reviews the milestones in the mixing of classical digital signal processing models and advanced kernel machines statistical learning tools. It explains the fundamental concepts from both fields of machine learning and signal processing so that readers can quickly get up to speed in order to begin developing the concepts and application software in their own research. Digital Signal Processing with Kernel Methods provides a comprehensive overview of kernel methods in signal processing, without restriction to any application field. It also offers example applications and detailed benchmarking experiments with real and synthetic datasets throughout. Readers can find further worked examples with Matlab source code on a website developed by the authors. * Presents the necess...

  10. Real-time specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, A.; Larsen, K.G.; Legay, A.

    2015-01-01

    A specification theory combines notions of specifications and implementations with a satisfaction relation, a refinement relation, and a set of operators supporting stepwise design. We develop a specification framework for real-time systems using Timed I/O Automata as the specification formalism......, with the semantics expressed in terms of Timed I/O Transition Systems. We provide constructs for refinement, consistency checking, logical and structural composition, and quotient of specifications-all indispensable ingredients of a compositional design methodology. The theory is implemented in the new tool Ecdar...

  11. Real Time Text Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, K.; Ruchika Mehra Vijayan, E.

    2017-11-01

    This paper aims to illustrate real time analysis of large scale data. For practical implementation we are performing sentiment analysis on live Twitter feeds for each individual tweet. To analyze sentiments we will train our data model on sentiWordNet, a polarity assigned wordNet sample by Princeton University. Our main objective will be to efficiency analyze large scale data on the fly using distributed computation. Apache Spark and Apache Hadoop eco system is used as distributed computation platform with Java as development language

  12. Real time Faraday spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jr., Tommy E.; Struve, Kenneth W.; Colella, Nicholas J.

    1991-01-01

    This invention uses a dipole magnet to bend the path of a charged particle beam. As the deflected particles exit the magnet, they are spatially dispersed in the bend-plane of the magnet according to their respective momenta and pass to a plurality of chambers having Faraday probes positioned therein. Both the current and energy distribution of the particles is then determined by the non-intersecting Faraday probes located along the chambers. The Faraday probes are magnetically isolated from each other by thin metal walls of the chambers, effectively providing real time current-versus-energy particle measurements.

  13. Real time Faraday spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, T.E.; Struve, K.W.; Colella, N.J.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes an invention which uses a dipole magnet to bend the path of a charged particle beam. As the deflected particles exit the magnet, they are spatially dispersed in the bend-plane of the magnet according to their respective momenta and pass to a plurality of chambers having Faraday probes positioned therein. Both the current and energy distribution of the particles is then determined by the non-intersecting Faraday probes located along the chambers. The Faraday probes are magnetically isolated from each other by thin metal walls of the chambers, effectively providing real time current-versus-energy particle measurements

  14. Real-time dynamic range and signal to noise enhancement in beam-scanning microscopy by integration of sensor characteristics, data acquisition hardware, and statistical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissick, David J.; Muir, Ryan D.; Sullivan, Shane Z.; Oglesbee, Robert A.; Simpson, Garth J.

    2013-02-01

    Despite the ubiquitous use of multi-photon and confocal microscopy measurements in biology, the core techniques typically suffer from fundamental compromises between signal to noise (S/N) and linear dynamic range (LDR). In this study, direct synchronous digitization of voltage transients coupled with statistical analysis is shown to allow S/N approaching the theoretical maximum throughout an LDR spanning more than 8 decades, limited only by the dark counts of the detector on the low end and by the intrinsic nonlinearities of the photomultiplier tube (PMT) detector on the high end. Synchronous digitization of each voltage transient represents a fundamental departure from established methods in confocal/multi-photon imaging, which are currently based on either photon counting or signal averaging. High information-density data acquisition (up to 3.2 GB/s of raw data) enables the smooth transition between the two modalities on a pixel-by-pixel basis and the ultimate writing of much smaller files (few kB/s). Modeling of the PMT response allows extraction of key sensor parameters from the histogram of voltage peak-heights. Applications in second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy are described demonstrating S/N approaching the shot-noise limit of the detector over large dynamic ranges.

  15. LabVIEW Real-Time

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Flockhart, Ronald Bruce; Seppey, P

    2003-01-01

    With LabVIEW Real-Time, you can choose from a variety of RT Series hardware. Add a real-time data acquisition component into a larger measurement and automation system or create a single stand-alone real-time solution with data acquisition, signal conditioning, motion control, RS-232, GPIB instrumentation, and Ethernet connectivity. With the various hardware options, you can create a system to meet your precise needs today, while the modularity of the system means you can add to the solution as your system requirements grow. If you are interested in Reliable and Deterministic systems for Measurement and Automation, you will profit from this seminar. Agenda: Real-Time Overview LabVIEW RT Hardware Platforms - Linux on PXI Programming with LabVIEW RT Real-Time Operating Systems concepts Timing Applications Data Transfer

  16. Experimental ultrasound system for real-time synthetic imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Holm, Ole; Jensen, Lars Joost

    1999-01-01

    Digital signal processing is being employed more and more in modern ultrasound scanners. This has made it possible to do dynamic receive focusing for each sample and implement other advanced imaging methods. The processing, however, has to be very fast and cost-effective at the same time. Dedicated...... for synthetic aperture imaging, 2D and 3D B-mode and velocity imaging. The system can be used with 128 element transducers and can excite 128 channels and receive and sample data from 64 channels simultaneously at 40 MHz with 12 bits precision. Data can be processed in real time using the system's 80 signal...... chips are used in order to do real time processing. This often makes it difficult to implement radically different imaging strategies on one platform and makes the scanners less accessible for research purposes. Here flexibility is the prime concern, and the storage of data from all transducer elements...

  17. Real time spectrum analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blunden, A.; O'Prey, D.G.; Tait, W.H.

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for the separation of a composite pulse-height spectrum into its unresolved component parts, which belong to a set of measured library spectra. The method allows real-time estimation giving running estimates during acquisition of the spectrum, minimises computation space, especially for a number of parallel calculations, estimates in advance the rms errors, and produces a significance measure for the hypothesis that the composite contains only the library spectra. Least squares curve-fitting, and other methods, can be compared, with the formalism developed, allowing analytical comparison of the effect of detector energy resolution and detection efficiency. A rational basis for the choice between the various methods of spectrum analysis follows from the theory, minimising rms estimation errors. The method described is applicable for very low numbers of counts and poor resolution. (orig.)

  18. Real time production optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saputelli, Luigi; Otavio, Joao; Araujo, Turiassu; Escorcia, Alvaro [Halliburton, Houston, TX (United States). Landmark Division

    2004-07-01

    Production optimization encompasses various activities of measuring, analyzing, modeling, prioritizing and implementing actions to enhance productivity of a field. We present a state-of-the-art framework for optimizing production on a continuous basis as new sensor data is acquired in real time. Permanently acquired data is modeled and analyzed in order to create predictive models. A model based control strategy is used to regulate well and field instrumentation. The optimum field operating point, which changes with time, satisfies the maximum economic return. This work is a starting point for further development in automatic, intelligent reservoir technologies which get the most out of the abilities of permanent, instrumented wells and remotely activated downhole completions. The strategy, tested with history-matched data from a compartmentalised giant field, proved to reduce operating costs while increasing oil recovery by 27% in this field. (author)

  19. Real time urbanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ruiz Varona

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, given the technological revolution of the society of information, the administrative management of the cities faces a new problem not as related to the projection of the urban space as to the capacity of controlling and measuring the process of direct and centralized production of the cities by part of some non-homogeneous social multitudes, in a hyper-accelerated time towards instantaneity. Against libertarian apologies of the new “participative urbanisms”, the article puts forward a discourse that shows the lost associated to the new problem of temporal instantaneity. In this regard we claim new process of mediation that allow administrations and urbanist monitoring the production of the city. To that end, a previous and necessary step will be the redefinition of the role of a new real time urbanist.

  20. Analyzing gigahertz bunch length instabilities with a digital signal processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stege, R.E. Jr.; Krejcik, P.; Minty, M.G.

    1992-11-01

    A bunch length instability, nicknamed the ''sawtooth'', because of its transient behavior, has been observed at high current running in the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) electron damping ring. The incompatibility of this instability with successful SLC naming prompted its study using a high bandwidth real-time spectrum analyzer, the Tektronix 3052 digital signal processor (DSP) system. This device has been used to study energy ramping in storage rings but this is the first time it has been used to study transient instability phenomena. It is a particularly valuable tool for use in understanding non-linear, multiple frequency phenomena. The frequency range of this device has been extended through the use of radio frequency (RF) down converters. This paper describes the measurement setup and presents some of the results

  1. Digital control card based on digital signal processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Shigang; Yin Zhiguo; Xia Le

    2008-01-01

    A digital control card based on digital signal processor was developed. Two Freescale DSP-56303 processors were utilized to achieve 3 channels proportional- integral-differential regulations. The card offers high flexibility for 100 MeV cyclotron RF system development. It was used as feedback controller in low level radio frequency control prototype, with the feedback gain parameters continuously adjustable. By using high precision analog to digital converter with 500 kHz sampling rate, a regulation bandwidth of 20 kHz was achieved. (authors)

  2. Digital signal processing application in nuclear spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Zeynalova

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Digital signal processing algorithms for nuclear particle spectroscopy are described along with a digital pile-up elimination method applicable to equidistantly sampled detector signals pre-processed by a charge-sensitive preamplifier. The signal processing algorithms provided as recursive one- or multi-step procedures which can be easily programmed using modern computer programming languages. The influence of the number of bits of the sampling analogue-to-digital converter to the final signal-to-noise ratio of the spectrometer considered. Algorithms for a digital shaping-filter amplifier, for a digital pile-up elimination scheme and for ballistic deficit correction were investigated using a high purity germanium detector. The pile-up elimination method was originally developed for fission fragment spectroscopy using a Frisch-grid back-to-back double ionisation chamber and was mainly intended for pile-up elimination in case of high alpha-radioactivity of the fissile target. The developed pile-up elimination method affects only the electronic noise generated by the preamplifier. Therefore, the influence of the pile-up elimination scheme on the final resolution of the spectrometer investigated in terms of the distance between piled-up pulses. The efficiency of developed algorithms compared with other signal processing schemes published in literature.

  3. RF applications in digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Schilcher, T

    2008-01-01

    Ever higher demands for stability, accuracy, reproducibility, and monitoring capability are being placed on Low-Level Radio Frequency (LLRF) systems of particle accelerators. Meanwhile, continuing rapid advances in digital signal processing technology are being exploited to meet these demands, thus leading to development of digital LLRF systems. The rst part of this course will begin by focusing on some of the important building-blocks of RF signal processing including mixer theory and down-conversion, I/Q (amplitude and phase) detection, digital down-conversion (DDC) and decimation, concluding with a survey of I/Q modulators. The second part of the course will introduce basic concepts of feedback systems, including examples of digital cavity eld and phase control, followed by radial loop architectures. Adaptive feed-forward systems used for the suppression of repetitive beam disturbances will be examined. Finally, applications and principles of system identi cation approaches will be summarized.

  4. Ovation Prime Real-Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ovation Prime Real-Time (OPRT) product is a real-time forecast and nowcast model of auroral power and is an operational implementation of the work by Newell et...

  5. An introduction to digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Karl, John H

    1989-01-01

    An Introduction to Digital Signal Processing is written for those who need to understand and use digital signal processing and yet do not wish to wade through a multi-semester course sequence. Using only calculus-level mathematics, this book progresses rapidly through the fundamentals to advanced topics such as iterative least squares design of IIR filters, inverse filters, power spectral estimation, and multidimensional applications--all in one concise volume.This book emphasizes both the fundamental principles and their modern computer implementation. It presents and demonstrates how si

  6. Innovative tools for real-time simulation of dynamic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palli, Gianluca; Carloni, Raffaella; Melchiorri, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present a software architecture, based on RTAI-Linux, for the real-time simulation of dynamic systems and for the rapid prototyping of digital controllers. Our aim is to simplify the testing phase of digital controllers by providing the real-time simulation of the plant with the

  7. Real-time recursive motion segmentation of video data on a programmable device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittebrood, R.B; Haan, de G.

    2001-01-01

    We previously reported on a recursive algorithm enabling real-time object-based motion estimation (OME) of standard definition video on a digital signal processor (DSP). The algorithm approximates the motion of the objects in the image with parametric motion models and creates a segmentation mask by

  8. Noise reduction in real time x-ray images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuda, Motohisa; Kimura, Yutaro

    1986-01-01

    The signal-to-noise ratio of real-time digital X-ray imaging systems consisting of an X-ray image intensifer-television chain was investigated while concentrating on the effect of the X-ray quantum nature. Along with conventional signal accumulation, logarithmic conversion and subtraction, a new technique called the peak hold method is introduced. Theoretical and simulational studies were made with practical parameters. Theory and simulation showed good agreement. An accumulation of signal is most effective for improving the signal-to-noise ratio; the peak-hold method comes next. The peak hold method, however, offers a new image-display mode. Moreover, this method is superior to signal accumulation for specific conditions. (author)

  9. Real-time evolvable pulse shaper for radiation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanchares, Juan, E-mail: julandan@dacya.ucm.es [Facultad de Informática, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), C/Prof. José García Santesmases s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Garnica, Oscar, E-mail: ogarnica@dacya.ucm.es [Facultad de Informática, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), C/Prof. José García Santesmases s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Risco-Martín, José L., E-mail: jlrisco@dacya.ucm.es [Facultad de Informática, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), C/Prof. José García Santesmases s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Ignacio Hidalgo, J., E-mail: hidalgo@dacya.ucm.es [Facultad de Informática, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), C/Prof. José García Santesmases s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Regadío, Alberto, E-mail: alberto.regadio@insa.es [Área de Tecnologías Electrónicas, Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial (INTA), 28850 Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-11-01

    In the last two decades, recursive algorithms for real-time digital pulse shaping in pulse height measurements have been developed and published in number of articles and textbooks. All these algorithms try to synthesize in real time optimum or near optimum shapes in the presence of noise. Even though some of these shapers can be considered effective designs, some side effects like aging cannot be ignored. We may observe that after sensors degradation, the signal obtained is not valid. In this regard, we present in this paper a novel technique that, based on evolvable hardware concepts, is able to evolve the degenerated shaper into a new design with better performance than the original one under the new sensor features.

  10. Low power digital signal processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paker, Ozgun

    2003-01-01

    hardwired ASICs and more than 6 21 times lower than current state of the art low-power DSP processors. An orthogonal but practical contribution of this thesis is the test bench implementation. A PCI-based FPGA board has been used to equip a standard desktop PC with tester facilities. The test bench proved...... to be a viable alternative to conventional expensive test equipment. Finally, the work presented in this thesis has been published at several IEEE workshops and conferences, and in the Journal of VLSI Signal Processing....

  11. Computer Aided Teaching of Digital Signal Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Ian P.

    1990-01-01

    Describes a microcomputer-based software package developed at the University of Surrey for teaching digital signal processing to undergraduate science and engineering students. Menu-driven software capabilities are explained, including demonstration of qualitative concepts and experimentation with quantitative data, and examples are given of…

  12. Study of time-domain digital pulse shaping algorithms for nuclear signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jianbin; Tuo Xianguo; Zhu Xing; Liu Yi; Zhou Wei; Lei Jiarong

    2012-01-01

    With the development on high-speed integrated circuit, fast high resolution sampling ADC and digital signal processors are replacing analog shaping amplifier circuit. This paper firstly presents the numerical analysis and simulation on R-C shaping circuit model and C-R shaping circuit model. Mathematic models are established based on 1 st order digital differential method and Kirchhoff Current Law in time domain, and a simulation and error evaluation experiment on an ideal digital signal are carried out with Excel VBA. A digital shaping test for a semiconductor X-ray detector in real time is also presented. Then a numerical analysis for Sallen-Key(S-K) low-pass filter circuit model is implemented based on the analysis of digital R-C and digital C-R shaping methods. By applying the 2 nd order non-homogeneous differential equation,the authors implement a digital Gaussian filter model for a standard exponential-decaying signal and a nuclear pulse signal. Finally, computer simulations and experimental tests are carried out and the results show the possibility of the digital pulse processing algorithms. (authors)

  13. Digital signal processing theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, K Deergha

    2018-01-01

    The book provides a comprehensive exposition of all major topics in digital signal processing (DSP). With numerous illustrative examples for easy understanding of the topics, it also includes MATLAB-based examples with codes in order to encourage the readers to become more confident of the fundamentals and to gain insights into DSP. Further, it presents real-world signal processing design problems using MATLAB and programmable DSP processors. In addition to problems that require analytical solutions, it discusses problems that require solutions using MATLAB at the end of each chapter. Divided into 13 chapters, it addresses many emerging topics, which are not typically found in advanced texts on DSP. It includes a chapter on adaptive digital filters used in the signal processing problems for faster acceptable results in the presence of changing environments and changing system requirements. Moreover, it offers an overview of wavelets, enabling readers to easily understand the basics and applications of this po...

  14. Digital signal processing at GEND's data center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    The conversion and recording of analog signals in digital form has been an active element in the manufacturing operations of the General Electric Neutron Devices Department (GEND) since 1966. The first computerized data system for these digitized waveforms was implemented at GEND's data center approximately two years later during 1968. The evolution and integration of these two activities at GEND are addressed in this paper. Beginning with the tester--data center interface, emphasis is placed on previous approaches, current capabilities, near-term trends, and future requirements. The digitizing process has developed into a firmly established set of hardware and associated software techniques which has proven itself as an accurate, reliable procedure for capturing waveform characteristics. The most important aspect of this process is the recent trend toward increased sampling rates and a greater number of digitized parameters per operation. The combined effect is a tremendous increase in output data volumes. Since digital signal processing carries the potential for significant contributions to manufacturing quality and reliability, as well as engineering design and development, increased activity in this area appears extremely desirable. 11 figures

  15. Digital Signal Processing For Low Bit Rate TV Image Codecs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K. R.

    1987-06-01

    In view of the 56 KBPS digital switched network services and the ISDN, low bit rate codecs for providing real time full motion color video are under various stages of development. Some companies have already brought the codecs into the market. They are being used by industry and some Federal Agencies for video teleconferencing. In general, these codecs have various features such as multiplexing audio and data, high resolution graphics, encryption, error detection and correction, self diagnostics, freezeframe, split video, text overlay etc. To transmit the original color video on a 56 KBPS network requires bit rate reduction of the order of 1400:1. Such a large scale bandwidth compression can be realized only by implementing a number of sophisticated,digital signal processing techniques. This paper provides an overview of such techniques and outlines the newer concepts that are being investigated. Before resorting to the data compression techniques, various preprocessing operations such as noise filtering, composite-component transformation and horizontal and vertical blanking interval removal are to be implemented. Invariably spatio-temporal subsampling is achieved by appropriate filtering. Transform and/or prediction coupled with motion estimation and strengthened by adaptive features are some of the tools in the arsenal of the data reduction methods. Other essential blocks in the system are quantizer, bit allocation, buffer, multiplexer, channel coding etc.

  16. A real time monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontanini, Horacio; Galdoz, Erwin

    1989-01-01

    A real time monitoring system is described. It was initially developed to be used as a man-machine interface between a basic principles simulator of the Embalse Nuclear Power Plant and the operators. This simulator is under construction at the Bariloche Atomic Center's Process Control Division. Due to great design flexibility, this system can also be used in real plants. The system is designed to be run on a PC XT or AT personal computer with high resolution graphics capabilities. Three interrelated programs compose the system: 1) Graphics Editor, to build static image to be used as a reference frame where to show dynamically updated data. 2) Data acquisition and storage module. It is a memory resident module to acquire and store data in background. Data can be acquired and stored without interference with the operating system, via serial port or through analog-to-digital converter attached to the personal computer. 3) Display module. It shows the acquired data according to commands received from configuration files prepared by the operator. (Author) [es

  17. A real-time integrator of storage-area contents for SA 40B or DIDAC 800 analyzers. Use in the digital single-channel mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigaudiere, Roger; Daburon, M.-L.

    1976-09-01

    An apparatus was developed in order to sum up, during counting, the channel contents from several storage areas of SA 40 B or DIDAC 800 multichannel analyzers. The pulse number stored in the energy bands interesting the operator are known and if necessary subsequent operation can be modified accordingly. Coupled with an autonomous amplitude encoder, this apparatus can be operated in the digital single-channel mode [fr

  18. Dependable Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-30

    0196 or 413 545-0720 PI E-mail Address: krithi@nirvan.cs.umass.edu, stankovic(ocs.umass.edu Grant or Contract Title: Dependable Real - Time Systems Grant...Dependable Real - Time Systems " Grant or Contract Number: N00014-85-k-0398 L " Reporting Period: 1 Oct 87 - 30 Sep 91 , 2. Summary of Accomplishments ’ 2.1 Our...in developing a sound approach to scheduling tasks in complex real - time systems , (2) developed a real-time operating system kernel, a preliminary

  19. REAL TIME SYSTEM OPERATIONS 2006-2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Parashar, Manu; Lewis, Nancy Jo

    2008-08-15

    The Real Time System Operations (RTSO) 2006-2007 project focused on two parallel technical tasks: (1) Real-Time Applications of Phasors for Monitoring, Alarming and Control; and (2) Real-Time Voltage Security Assessment (RTVSA) Prototype Tool. The overall goal of the phasor applications project was to accelerate adoption and foster greater use of new, more accurate, time-synchronized phasor measurements by conducting research and prototyping applications on California ISO's phasor platform - Real-Time Dynamics Monitoring System (RTDMS) -- that provide previously unavailable information on the dynamic stability of the grid. Feasibility assessment studies were conducted on potential application of this technology for small-signal stability monitoring, validating/improving existing stability nomograms, conducting frequency response analysis, and obtaining real-time sensitivity information on key metrics to assess grid stress. Based on study findings, prototype applications for real-time visualization and alarming, small-signal stability monitoring, measurement based sensitivity analysis and frequency response assessment were developed, factory- and field-tested at the California ISO and at BPA. The goal of the RTVSA project was to provide California ISO with a prototype voltage security assessment tool that runs in real time within California ISO?s new reliability and congestion management system. CERTS conducted a technical assessment of appropriate algorithms, developed a prototype incorporating state-of-art algorithms (such as the continuation power flow, direct method, boundary orbiting method, and hyperplanes) into a framework most suitable for an operations environment. Based on study findings, a functional specification was prepared, which the California ISO has since used to procure a production-quality tool that is now a part of a suite of advanced computational tools that is used by California ISO for reliability and congestion management.

  20. Digital Signal Processing for a Sliceable Transceiver for Optical Access Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saldaña Cercos, Silvia; Wagner, Christoph; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    2015-01-01

    Methods to upgrade the network infrastructure to cope with current traffic demands has attracted increasing research efforts. A promising alternative is signal slicing. Signal slicing aims at re-using low bandwidth equipment to satisfy high bandwidth traffic demands. This technique has been used...... also for implementing full signal path symmetry in real-time oscilloscopes to provide performance and signal fidelity (i.e. lower noise and jitter). In this paper the key digital signal processing (DSP) subsystems required to achieve signal slicing are surveyed. It also presents, for the first time...... penalty is reported for 10 Gbps. Power savings of the order of hundreds of Watts can be obtained when using signal slicing as an alternative to 10 Gbps implemented access networks....

  1. Concurrent signal combining and channel estimation in digital communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormesher, Richard C [Albuquerque, NM; Mason, John J [Albuquerque, NM

    2011-08-30

    In the reception of digital information transmitted on a communication channel, a characteristic exhibited by the communication channel during transmission of the digital information is estimated based on a communication signal that represents the digital information and has been received via the communication channel. Concurrently with the estimating, the communication signal is used to decide what digital information was transmitted.

  2. Enhancement of the automatic ultrasonic signal processing system using digital technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, In Soo; Park, H. Y.; Suh, Y. S.; Kim, D. Hoon; Huh, S.; Sung, S. H.; Jang, G. S.; Ryoo, S. G.; Choi, J. H.; Kim, Y. H.; Lee, J. C.; Kim, D. Hyun; Park, H. J.; Kim, Y. C.; Lee, J. P.; Park, C. H.; Kim, M. S.

    1999-12-01

    The objective of this study is to develop the automatic ultrasonic signal processing system which can be used in the inspection equipment to assess the integrity of the reactor vessel by enhancing the performance of the ultrasonic signal processing system. Main activities of this study divided into three categories such as the development of the circuits for generating ultrasonic signal and receiving the signal from the inspection equipment, the development of signal processing algorithm and H/W of the data processing system, and the development of the specification for application programs and system S/W for the analysis and evaluation computer. The results of main activities are as follows 1) the design of the ultrasonic detector and the automatic ultrasonic signal processing system by using the investigation of the state-of-the-art technology in the inside and outside of the country. 2) the development of H/W and S/W of the data processing system based on the results. Especially, the H/W of the data processing system, which have both advantages of digital and analog controls through the real-time digital signal processing, was developed using the DSP which can process the digital signal in the real-time, and was developed not only firmware of the data processing system in order for the peripherals but also the test algorithm of specimen for the calibration. The application programs and the system S/W of the analysis/evaluation computer were developed. Developed equipment was verified by the performance test. Based on developed prototype for the automatic ultrasonic signal processing system, the localization of the overall ultrasonic inspection equipment for nuclear industries would be expected through the further studies of the H/W establishment of real applications, developing the S/W specification of the analysis computer. (author)

  3. Video digitizer (real time-frame grabber) with region of interest suitable for quantitative data analysis used on the infrared and H alpha cameras installed on the DIII-D experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, S.W.; Kevan, D.K.; Hill, D.N.; Allen, S.L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes a CAMAC based video digitizer with region of interest (ROI) capability that was designed for use with the infrared and H alpha cameras installed by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory on the DIII-D experiment at G.A. Technologies in San Diego, California. The video digitizer uses a custom built CAMAC video synchronizer module to clock data into a CAMAC transient recorder on a line-by-line basis starting at the beginning of a field. The number of fields that are recorded is limited only by the available transient recorder memory. In order to conserve memory, the CAMAC video synchronizer module provides for the alternative selection of a specific region of interest in each successive field to be recorded. Memory conservation can be optimized by specifying lines in the field, start time, stop time, and the number of data samples per line. This video frame grabber has proved versatile for capturing video in such diverse applications as recording video fields from a video tape recorder played in slow motion or recording video fields in real time during a DIII-D shot. In other cases, one or more lines of video are recorded per frame to give a cross sectional slice of the plasma. Since all the data in the digitizer memory is synchronized to video fields and lines, the data can be read directly into the control computer in the proper matrix format to facilitate rapid processing, display, and permanent storage

  4. Full-field wrist pulse signal acquisition and analysis by 3D Digital Image Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yuan; Su, Yong; Zhang, Chi; Xu, Xiaohai; Gao, Zeren; Wu, Shangquan; Zhang, Qingchuan; Wu, Xiaoping

    2017-11-01

    Pulse diagnosis is an essential part in four basic diagnostic methods (inspection, listening, inquiring and palpation) in traditional Chinese medicine, which depends on longtime training and rich experience, so computerized pulse acquisition has been proposed and studied to ensure the objectivity. To imitate the process that doctors using three fingertips with different pressures to feel fluctuations in certain areas containing three acupoints, we established a five dimensional pulse signal acquisition system adopting a non-contacting optical metrology method, 3D digital image correlation, to record the full-field displacements of skin fluctuations under different pressures. The system realizes real-time full-field vibration mode observation with 10 FPS. The maximum sample frequency is 472 Hz for detailed post-processing. After acquisition, the signals are analyzed according to the amplitude, pressure, and pulse wave velocity. The proposed system provides a novel optical approach for digitalizing pulse diagnosis and massive pulse signal data acquisition for various types of patients.

  5. Real-time digital imaging of leukocyte-endothelial interaction in ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) of the rat cremaster muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Jan R; Goerendt, Kurt; Stark, G Bjoern; Eisenhardt, Steffen U

    2012-08-05

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) has been implicated in a large array of pathological conditions such as cerebral stroke, myocardial infarction, intestinal ischemia as well as following transplant and cardiovascular surgery. Reperfusion of previously ischemic tissue, while essential for the prevention of irreversible tissue injury, elicits excessive inflammation of the affected tissue. Adjacent to the production of reactive oxygen species, activation of the complement system and increased microvascular permeability, the activation of leukocytes is one of the principle actors in the pathological cascade of inflammatory tissue damage during reperfusion. Leukocyte activation is a multistep process consisting of rolling, firm adhesion and transmigration and is mediated by a complex interaction between adhesion molecules in response to chemoattractants such as complement factors, chemokines, or platelet-activating factor. While leukocyte rolling in postcapillary venules is predominantly mediated by the interaction of selectins with their counter ligands, firm adhesion of leukocytes to the endothelium is selectin-controlled via binding to intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAM) and vascular cellular adhesion molecules (VCAM). Gold standard for the in vivo observation of leukocyte-endothelial interaction is the technique of intravital microscopy, first described in 1968. Though various models of IRI (ischemia-reperfusion injury) have been described for various organs, only few are suitable for direct visualization of leukocyte recruitment in the microvascular bed on a high level of image quality. We here promote the digital intravital epifluorescence microscopy of the postcapillary venule in the cremasteric microcirculation of the rat as a convenient method to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze leukocyte recruitment for IRI-research in striated muscle tissue and provide a detailed manual for accomplishing the technique. We further illustrate common pitfalls and

  6. Real-Time Parameter Identification

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Armstrong researchers have implemented in the control room a technique for estimating in real time the aerodynamic parameters that describe the stability and control...

  7. Prototyping real-time systems

    OpenAIRE

    Clynch, Gary

    1994-01-01

    The traditional software development paradigm, the waterfall life cycle model, is defective when used for developing real-time systems. This thesis puts forward an executable prototyping approach for the development of real-time systems. A prototyping system is proposed which uses ESML (Extended Systems Modelling Language) as a prototype specification language. The prototyping system advocates the translation of non-executable ESML specifications into executable LOOPN (Language of Object ...

  8. A signal normalization technique for illumination-based synchronization of 1,000-fps real-time vision sensors in dynamic scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lei; Kagami, Shingo; Hashimoto, Koichi

    2010-01-01

    To acquire images of dynamic scenes from multiple points of view simultaneously, the acquisition time of vision sensors should be synchronized. In this paper, an illumination-based synchronization derived from the phase-locked loop (PLL) mechanism based on the signal normalization method is proposed and evaluated. To eliminate the system dependency due to the amplitude fluctuation of the reference illumination, which may be caused by the moving objects or relative positional distance change between the light source and the observed objects, the fluctuant amplitude of the reference signal is normalized framely by the estimated maximum amplitude between the reference signal and its quadrature counterpart to generate a stable synchronization in highly dynamic scenes. Both simulated results and real world experimental results demonstrated successful synchronization result that 1,000-Hz frame rate vision sensors can be successfully synchronized to a LED illumination or its reflected light with satisfactory stability and only 28-μs jitters.

  9. A Signal Normalization Technique for Illumination-Based Synchronization of 1,000-fps Real-Time Vision Sensors in Dynamic Scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Hashimoto

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available To acquire images of dynamic scenes from multiple points of view simultaneously, the acquisition time of vision sensors should be synchronized. In this paper, an illumination-based synchronization derived from the phase-locked loop (PLL mechanism based on the signal normalization method is proposed and evaluated. To eliminate the system dependency due to the amplitude fluctuation of the reference illumination, which may be caused by the moving objects or relative positional distance change between the light source and the observed objects, the fluctuant amplitude of the reference signal is normalized framely by the estimated maximum amplitude between the reference signal and its quadrature counterpart to generate a stable synchronization in highly dynamic scenes. Both simulated results and real world experimental results demonstrated successful synchronization result that 1,000-Hz frame rate vision sensors can be successfully synchronized to a LED illumination or its reflected light with satisfactory stability and only 28-μs jitters.

  10. Low-complexity camera digital signal imaging for video document projection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsia, Shih-Chang; Tsai, Po-Shien

    2011-04-01

    We present high-performance and low-complexity algorithms for real-time camera imaging applications. The main functions of the proposed camera digital signal processing (DSP) involve color interpolation, white balance, adaptive binary processing, auto gain control, and edge and color enhancement for video projection systems. A series of simulations demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve good image quality while keeping computation cost and memory requirements low. On the basis of the proposed algorithms, the cost-effective hardware core is developed using Verilog HDL. The prototype chip has been verified with one low-cost programmable device. The real-time camera system can achieve 1270 × 792 resolution with the combination of extra components and can demonstrate each DSP function.

  11. Real-time control environment for the RFX experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barana, O.; Cavinato, M.; Luchetta, A.; Manduchi, G.; Taliercio, C.

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive set of control schemes can be presently implemented on RFX due to the enhanced load assembly and renewed power supply system. The schemes include: plasma equilibrium control and resistive wall mode stabilization, aiming at controlling actively the discharge when the passive action of the shell vanishes; the rotation of the localised helical deformation to minimize the enhanced plasma-wall interaction; the MHD mode control and the 'intelligent shell', aiming at achieving a better comprehension of the underlying physics. To the purpose, an integrated, distributed, digital system has been developed consisting of a set of computing nodes. Each node can act either as pre-processing or control station, the former acquiring raw data and computing intermediate control parameters, the latter executing control algorithms and driving the power amplifiers. An overview of the system architecture is presented in the paper with reference to the software real-time environment providing both basic functions, such as data read-out and real-time communication, and useful tools to program control algorithms, to perform simulations and to commission the system. To simulate the control schemes, the real-time environment is extended to include a so called 'simulation mode', in which the real-time nodes exchange their input/output signals with one station running a suitable model of the experiment, for instance the two dimensional FEM code MAXFEA in the case of the equilibrium control. In this way the control system can be tested offline and the time needed for the commissioning of algorithms reduced

  12. A New Digital Signal Processing Method for Spectrum Interference Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angrisani, L.; Capriglione, D.; Ferrigno, L.; Miele, G.

    2011-01-01

    Frequency spectrum is a limited shared resource, nowadays interested by an ever growing number of different applications. Generally, the companies providing such services pay to the governments the right of using a limited portion of the spectrum, consequently they would be assured that the licensed radio spectrum resource is not interested by significant external interferences. At the same time, they have to guarantee that their devices make an efficient use of the spectrum and meet the electromagnetic compatibility regulations. Therefore the competent authorities are called to control the access to the spectrum adopting suitable management and monitoring policies, as well as the manufacturers have to periodically verify the correct working of their apparatuses. Several measurement solutions are present on the market. They generally refer to real-time spectrum analyzers and measurement receivers. Both of them are characterized by good metrological accuracies but show costs, dimensions and weights that make no possible a use "on the field". The paper presents a first step in realizing a digital signal processing based measurement instrument able to suitably accomplish for the above mentioned needs. In particular the attention has been given to the DSP based measurement section of the instrument. To these aims an innovative measurement method for spectrum monitoring and management is proposed in this paper. It performs an efficient sequential analysis based on a sample by sample digital processing. Three main issues are in particular pursued: (i) measurement performance comparable to that exhibited by other methods proposed in literature; (ii) fast measurement time, (iii) easy implementation on cost-effective measurement hardware.

  13. Digital signal processor for silicon audio playback devices; Silicon audio saisei kikiyo digital signal processor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The digital audio signal processor (DSP) TC9446F series has been developed silicon audio playback devices with a memory medium of, e.g., flash memory, DVD players, and AV devices, e.g., TV sets. It corresponds to AAC (advanced audio coding) (2ch) and MP3 (MPEG1 Layer3), as the audio compressing techniques being used for transmitting music through an internet. It also corresponds to compressed types, e.g., Dolby Digital, DTS (digital theater system) and MPEG2 audio, being adopted for, e.g., DVDs. It can carry a built-in audio signal processing program, e.g., Dolby ProLogic, equalizer, sound field controlling, and 3D sound. TC9446XB has been lined up anew. It adopts an FBGA (fine pitch ball grid array) package for portable audio devices. (translated by NEDO)

  14. Real time automatic discriminating of ultrasonic flaws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhairy Sani; Mohd Hanif Md Saad; Marzuki Mustafa; Mohd Redzwan Rosli

    2009-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the real time automatic discriminating of flaws from two categories; i. cracks (planar defect) and ii. Non-cracks (volumetric defect such as cluster porosity and slag) using pulse-echo ultrasound. The raw ultrasonic flaws signal were collected from a computerized robotic plane scanning system over the whole of each reflector as the primary source of data. The signal is then filtered and the analysis in both time and frequency domain were executed to obtain the selected feature. The real time feature analysis techniques measured the number of peaks, maximum index, pulse duration, rise time and fall time. The obtained features could be used to distinguish between quantitatively classified flaws by using various tools in artificial intelligence such as neural networks. The proposed algorithm and complete system were implemented in a computer software developed using Microsoft Visual BASIC 6.0 (author)

  15. Towards Real-Time Argumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente JULIÁN

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we deal with the problem of real-time coordination with the more general approach of reaching real-time agreements in MAS. Concretely, this work proposes a real-time argumentation framework in an attempt to provide agents with the ability of engaging in argumentative dialogues and come with a solution for their underlying agreement process within a bounded period of time. The framework has been implemented and evaluated in the domain of a customer support application. Concretely, we consider a society of agents that act on behalf of a group of technicians that must solve problems in a Technology Management Centre (TMC within a bounded time. This centre controls every process implicated in the provision of technological and customer support services to private or public organisations by means of a call centre. The contract signed between the TCM and the customer establishes penalties if the specified time is exceeded.

  16. Real-time Astrometry Using Phase Congruency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, A.; Polo, M.; Tang, Y.

    Phase congruency is a computer vision technique that proves to perform well for determining the tracks of optical objects (Flewelling, AMOS 2014). We report on a real-time implementation of this using an FPGA and CMOS Image Sensor, with on-sky data. The lightweight instrument can provide tracking update signals to the mount of the telescope, as well as determine abnormal objects in the scene.

  17. UWGSP7: a real-time optical imaging workstation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, John E.; Kim, Yongmin; Pennington, Stan D.; Alleman, Andrew P.

    1995-04-01

    With the development of UWGSP7, the University of Washington Image Computing Systems Laboratory has a real-time workstation for continuous-wave (cw) optical reflectance imaging. Recent discoveries in optical science and imaging research have suggested potential practical use of the technology as a medical imaging modality and identified the need for a machine to support these applications in real time. The UWGSP7 system was developed to provide researchers with a high-performance, versatile tool for use in optical imaging experiments with the eventual goal of bringing the technology into clinical use. One of several major applications of cw optical reflectance imaging is tumor imaging which uses a light-absorbing dye that preferentially sequesters in tumor tissue. This property could be used to locate tumors and to identify tumor margins intraoperatively. Cw optical reflectance imaging consists of illumination of a target with a band-limited light source and monitoring the light transmitted by or reflected from the target. While continuously illuminating the target, a control image is acquired and stored. A dye is injected into a subject and a sequence of data images are acquired and processed. The data images are aligned with the control image and then subtracted to obtain a signal representing the change in optical reflectance over time. This signal can be enhanced by digital image processing and displayed in pseudo-color. This type of emerging imaging technique requires a computer system that is versatile and adaptable. The UWGSP7 utilizes a VESA local bus PC as a host computer running the Windows NT operating system and includes ICSL developed add-on boards for image acquisition and processing. The image acquisition board is used to digitize and format the analog signal from the input device into digital frames and to the average frames into images. To accommodate different input devices, the camera interface circuitry is designed in a small mezzanine board

  18. Development of a compact and cost effective multi-input digital signal processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvish-Molla, Sahar; Chin, Kenrick; Prestwich, William V.; Byun, Soo Hyun

    2018-01-01

    A prototype digital signal processing system (DSP) was developed using a microcontroller interfaced with a 12-bit sampling ADC, which offers a considerably inexpensive solution for processing multiple detectors with high throughput. After digitization of the incoming pulses, in order to maximize the output counting rate, a simple algorithm was employed for pulse height analysis. Moreover, an algorithm aiming at the real-time pulse pile-up deconvolution was implemented. The system was tested using a NaI(Tl) detector in comparison with a traditional analogue and commercial digital systems for a variety of count rates. The performance of the prototype system was consistently superior to the analogue and the commercial digital systems up to the input count rate of 61 kcps while was slightly inferior to the commercial digital system but still superior to the analogue system in the higher input rates. Considering overall cost, size and flexibility, this custom made multi-input digital signal processing system (MMI-DSP) was the best reliable choice for the purpose of the 2D microdosimetric data collection, or for any measurement in which simultaneous multi-data collection is required.

  19. Real time automatic scene classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbrugge, R.; Israël, Menno; Taatgen, N.; van den Broek, Egon; van der Putten, Peter; Schomaker, L.; den Uyl, Marten J.

    2004-01-01

    This work has been done as part of the EU VICAR (IST) project and the EU SCOFI project (IAP). The aim of the first project was to develop a real time video indexing classification annotation and retrieval system. For our systems, we have adapted the approach of Picard and Minka [3], who categorized

  20. Real time freeway incident detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The US Department of Transportation (US-DOT) estimates that over half of all congestion : events are caused by highway incidents rather than by rush-hour traffic in big cities. Real-time : incident detection on freeways is an important part of any mo...

  1. Real Time Conference 2016 Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchetta, Adriano

    2017-06-01

    This is a special issue of the IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science containing papers from the invited, oral, and poster presentation of the 20th Real Time Conference (RT2016). The conference was held June 6-10, 2016, at Centro Congressi Padova “A. Luciani,” Padova, Italy, and was organized by Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA) and the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare. The Real Time Conference is multidisciplinary and focuses on the latest developments in real-time techniques in high-energy physics, nuclear physics, astrophysics and astroparticle physics, nuclear fusion, medical physics, space instrumentation, nuclear power instrumentation, general radiation instrumentation, and real-time security and safety. Taking place every second year, it is sponsored by the Computer Application in Nuclear and Plasma Sciences technical committee of the IEEE Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society. RT2016 attracted more than 240 registrants, with a large proportion of young researchers and engineers. It had an attendance of 67 students from many countries.

  2. Designing Real Time Assistive Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Tobias; Obel, Carsten; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2015-01-01

    activities and assists the child in maintaining attention. From a preliminary evaluation of CASTT with 20 children in several schools, we and found that: 1) it is possible to create a wearable sensor system for children with ADHD that monitors physical and physiological activities in real time; and that 2...

  3. RTSPM: real-time Linux control software for scanning probe microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, V; Mehta, M M

    2013-01-01

    Real time computer control is an essential feature of scanning probe microscopes, which have become important tools for the characterization and investigation of nanometer scale samples. Most commercial (and some open-source) scanning probe data acquisition software uses digital signal processors to handle the real time data processing and control, which adds to the expense and complexity of the control software. We describe here scan control software that uses a single computer and a data acquisition card to acquire scan data. The computer runs an open-source real time Linux kernel, which permits fast acquisition and control while maintaining a responsive graphical user interface. Images from a simulated tuning-fork based microscope as well as a standard topographical sample are also presented, showing some of the capabilities of the software.

  4. A High Density Low Cost Digital Signal Processing Module for Large Scale Radiation Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Hui; Hennig, Wolfgang; Walby, Mark D.; Breus, Dimitry; Harris, Jackson T.; Grudberg, Peter M.; Warburton, William K.

    2013-06-01

    A 32-channel digital spectrometer PIXIE-32 is being developed for nuclear physics or other radiation detection applications requiring digital signal processing with large number of channels at relatively low cost. A single PIXIE-32 provides spectrometry and waveform acquisition for 32 input signals per module whereas multiple modules can be combined into larger systems. It is based on the PCI Express standard which allows data transfer rates to the host computer of up to 800 MB/s. Each of the 32 channels in a PIXIE-32 module accepts signals directly from a detector preamplifier or photomultiplier. Digitally controlled offsets can be individually adjusted for each channel. Signals are digitized in 12-bit, 50 MHz multi-channel ADCs. Triggering, pile-up inspection and filtering of the data stream are performed in real time, and pulse heights and other event data are calculated on an event-by event basis. The hardware architecture, internal and external triggering features, and the spectrometry and waveform acquisition capability of the PIXIE- 32 as well as its capability to distribute clock and triggers among multiple modules, are presented. (authors)

  5. Real-time relationship between PKA biochemical signal network dynamics and increased action potential firing rate in heart pacemaker cells: Kinetics of PKA activation in heart pacemaker cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaniv, Yael; Ganesan, Ambhighainath; Yang, Dongmei; Ziman, Bruce D; Lyashkov, Alexey E; Levchenko, Andre; Zhang, Jin; Lakatta, Edward G

    2015-09-01

    cAMP-PKA protein kinase is a key nodal signaling pathway that regulates a wide range of heart pacemaker cell functions. These functions are predicted to be involved in regulation of spontaneous action potential (AP) generation of these cells. Here we investigate if the kinetics and stoichiometry of increase in PKA activity match the increase in AP firing rate in response to β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) stimulation or phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibition, that alters the AP firing rate of heart sinoatrial pacemaker cells. In cultured adult rabbit pacemaker cells infected with an adenovirus expressing the FRET sensor AKAR3, the EC50 in response to graded increases in the intensity of β-AR stimulation (by Isoproterenol) the magnitude of the increases in PKA activity and the spontaneous AP firing rate were similar (0.4±0.1nM vs. 0.6±0.15nM, respectively). Moreover, the kinetics (t1/2) of the increases in PKA activity and spontaneous AP firing rate in response to β-AR stimulation or PDE inhibition were tightly linked. We characterized the system rate-limiting biochemical reactions by integrating these experimentally derived data into a mechanistic-computational model. Model simulations predicted that phospholamban phosphorylation is a potent target of the increase in PKA activity that links to increase in spontaneous AP firing rate. In summary, the kinetics and stoichiometry of increases in PKA activity in response to a physiological (β-AR stimulation) or pharmacological (PDE inhibitor) stimuli match those of changes in the AP firing rate. Thus Ca(2+)-cAMP/PKA-dependent phosphorylation limits the rate and magnitude of increase in spontaneous AP firing rate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Real-time multiple image manipulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenson, J.S.; Shalev, S.; Legris, J.; Goertzen, Y.

    1984-01-01

    There are many situations in which it is desired to manipulate two or more images under real-time operator control. The authors have investigated a number of such cases in order to determine their value and applicability in clinical medicine and laboratory research. Several examples are presented in detail. The DICOM-8 video image computer system was used due to its capability of storing two 512 x 512 x 8 bit images and operating on them, and/or an incoming video frame, with any of a number of real time operations including addition, subtraction, inversion, averaging, logical AND, NAND, OR, NOR, NOT, XOR and XNOR, as well as combinations of these. Some applications involve manipulations of or among the stored images. In others, a stored image is used as a mask or template for positioning or adjusting a second image to be grabbed via a video camera. The accuracy of radiotherapy treatment is verified by comparing port films with the original radiographic planning film, which is previously digitized and stored. Moving the port film on the light box while viewing the real-time subtraction image allows for adjustments of zoom, translation and rotation, together with contrast and edge enhancement

  7. A customizable system for real-time image processing using the Blackfin DSProcessor and the MicroC/OS-II real-time kernel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Stephen; Connell, Joseph

    2005-06-01

    This paper presents a development platform for real-time image processing based on the ADSP-BF533 Blackfin processor and the MicroC/OS-II real-time operating system (RTOS). MicroC/OS-II is a completely portable, ROMable, pre-emptive, real-time kernel. The Blackfin Digital Signal Processors (DSPs), incorporating the Analog Devices/Intel Micro Signal Architecture (MSA), are a broad family of 16-bit fixed-point products with a dual Multiply Accumulate (MAC) core. In addition, they have a rich instruction set with variable instruction length and both DSP and MCU functionality thus making them ideal for media based applications. Using the MicroC/OS-II for task scheduling and management, the proposed system can capture and process raw RGB data from any standard 8-bit greyscale image sensor in soft real-time and then display the processed result using a simple PC graphical user interface (GUI). Additionally, the GUI allows configuration of the image capture rate and the system and core DSP clock rates thereby allowing connectivity to a selection of image sensors and memory devices. The GUI also allows selection from a set of image processing algorithms based in the embedded operating system.

  8. SABA: A Testbed for a Real-Time MIMO System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brühl Lars

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing demand for high data rates for wireless communication systems leads to the development of new technologies to increase the channel capacity thus increasing the data rate. MIMO (multiple-input multiple-output systems are best qualified for these applications. In this paper, we present a MIMO test environment for high data rate transmissions in frequency-selective environments. An overview of the testbed is given, including the analyzed algorithms, the digital signal processing with a new highly parallel processor to perform the algorithms in real time, as well as the analog front-ends. A brief overview of the influence of polarization on the channel capacity is given as well.

  9. Quantitative (real-time) PCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, S.E.; McSweeney, C.S.

    2005-01-01

    Many nucleic acid-based probe and PCR assays have been developed for the detection tracking of specific microbes within the rumen ecosystem. Conventional PCR assays detect PCR products at the end stage of each PCR reaction, where exponential amplification is no longer being achieved. This approach can result in different end product (amplicon) quantities being generated. In contrast, using quantitative, or real-time PCR, quantification of the amplicon is performed not at the end of the reaction, but rather during exponential amplification, where theoretically each cycle will result in a doubling of product being created. For real-time PCR, the cycle at which fluorescence is deemed to be detectable above the background during the exponential phase is termed the cycle threshold (Ct). The Ct values obtained are then used for quantitation, which will be discussed later

  10. Real time psychrometric data collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDaniel, K.H.

    1996-01-01

    Eight Mine Weather Stations (MWS) installed at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to monitor the underground ventilation system are helping to simulate real-time ventilation scenarios. Seasonal weather extremes can result in variations of Natural Ventilation Pressure (NVP) which can significantly effect the ventilation system. The eight MWS(s) (which previously collected and stored temperature, barometric pressure and relative humidity data for subsequent NVP calculations) were upgraded to provide continuous real-time data to the site wide Central monitoring System. This data can now be utilized by the ventilation engineer to create realtime ventilation simulations and trends which assist in the prediction and mitigation of NVP and psychrometric related events

  11. Digital signal processing applied to crystal identification in Positron Emission Tomography dedicated to small animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine, Rejean; Viscogliosi, Nicolas; Semmaoui, Hicham; Belanger, Francois; Lemieux, Francois; Tetrault, Marc-Andre; Michaud, Jean-Baptiste; Berard, Philippe; Cadorette, Jules; Pepin, Catherine M.; Lecomte, Roger

    2007-01-01

    The recent introduction of all-digital electronic architecture in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scanners, enables new paradigms to be explored for extracting relevant information from the detector signals, such as energy, time and crystal identification. The LabPET TM small animal scanner, which implements free-running 45-MHz sampling directly at the output of the charge sensitive preamplifiers, provides an excellent platform to test such advanced digital algorithms. A real-time identification method, based on an Auto-Regressive Moving-Average (ARMA) scheme, was tested for discriminating between LYSO (t r ∼40 ns) and LGSO (t r ∼65 ns) scintillators in phoswich detectors, coupled to a single Avalanche Photodiode (APD). Even with a low energy threshold of 250 keV applied individually, error rates 10%, typically with conventional analog pulse shape discrimination techniques. Such digital crystal identification techniques can be readily implemented with phoswich detectors for improving spatial resolution in PET, either by increasing crystal pixellization or by mitigating parallax errors through depth-of-interaction determination. It also allows to reduce the event rate presented to the real-time coincidence engine by applying a low energy limit at the crystal granularity and rejecting more Compton photons

  12. Digital signal processing applied to crystal identification in Positron Emission Tomography dedicated to small animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontaine, Rejean [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Universite de Sherbrooke, 2500 Boul. Universite, Sherbrooke, Que., J1 K 2R1 (Canada)]. E-mail: Rejean.Fontaine@Usherbrooke.ca; Viscogliosi, Nicolas [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Universite de Sherbrooke, 2500 Boul. Universite, Sherbrooke, Que., J1 K 2R1 (Canada); Semmaoui, Hicham [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Universite de Sherbrooke, 2500 Boul. Universite, Sherbrooke, Que., J1 K 2R1 (Canada); Belanger, Francois [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Universite de Sherbrooke, 2500 Boul. Universite, Sherbrooke, Que., J1 K 2R1 (Canada); Lemieux, Francois [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Universite de Sherbrooke, 2500 Boul. Universite, Sherbrooke, Que., J1 K 2R1 (Canada); Tetrault, Marc-Andre [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Universite de Sherbrooke, 2500 Boul. Universite, Sherbrooke, Que., J1 K 2R1 (Canada); Michaud, Jean-Baptiste [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Universite de Sherbrooke, 2500 Boul. Universite, Sherbrooke, Que., J1 K 2R1 (Canada); Berard, Philippe [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiobiology, Universite de Sherbrooke, 2500 Boul. Universite, Sherbrooke, Que., J1 K 2R1 (Canada); Cadorette, Jules [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiobiology, Universite de Sherbrooke, 2500 Boul. Universite, Sherbrooke, Que., J1 K 2R1 (Canada); Pepin, Catherine M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiobiology, Universite de Sherbrooke, 2500 Boul. Universite, Sherbrooke, Que., J1 K 2R1 (Canada); Lecomte, Roger [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiobiology, Universite de Sherbrooke, 2500 Boul. Universite, Sherbrooke, Que., J1 K 2R1 (Canada)

    2007-02-01

    The recent introduction of all-digital electronic architecture in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scanners, enables new paradigms to be explored for extracting relevant information from the detector signals, such as energy, time and crystal identification. The LabPET{sup TM} small animal scanner, which implements free-running 45-MHz sampling directly at the output of the charge sensitive preamplifiers, provides an excellent platform to test such advanced digital algorithms. A real-time identification method, based on an Auto-Regressive Moving-Average (ARMA) scheme, was tested for discriminating between LYSO (t{sub r}{approx}40 ns) and LGSO (t{sub r}{approx}65 ns) scintillators in phoswich detectors, coupled to a single Avalanche Photodiode (APD). Even with a low energy threshold of 250 keV applied individually, error rates<4% can be achieved, as compared to >10%, typically with conventional analog pulse shape discrimination techniques. Such digital crystal identification techniques can be readily implemented with phoswich detectors for improving spatial resolution in PET, either by increasing crystal pixellization or by mitigating parallax errors through depth-of-interaction determination. It also allows to reduce the event rate presented to the real-time coincidence engine by applying a low energy limit at the crystal granularity and rejecting more Compton photons.

  13. Real-time holographic endoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smigielski, Paul; Albe, Felix; Dischli, Bernard

    1992-08-01

    Some new experiments concerning holographic endoscopy are presented. The quantitative measurements of deformations of objects are obtained by the double-exposure and double- reference beam method, using either a cw-laser or a pulsed laser. Qualitative experiments using an argon laser with time-average holographic endoscopy are also presented. A video film on real-time endoscopic holographic interferometry was recorded with the help of a frequency-doubled YAG-laser working at 25 Hz for the first time.

  14. [Real time 3D echocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.

  15. Low-Latency Digital Signal Processing for Feedback and Feedforward in Quantum Computing and Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salathé, Yves; Kurpiers, Philipp; Karg, Thomas; Lang, Christian; Andersen, Christian Kraglund; Akin, Abdulkadir; Krinner, Sebastian; Eichler, Christopher; Wallraff, Andreas

    2018-03-01

    Quantum computing architectures rely on classical electronics for control and readout. Employing classical electronics in a feedback loop with the quantum system allows us to stabilize states, correct errors, and realize specific feedforward-based quantum computing and communication schemes such as deterministic quantum teleportation. These feedback and feedforward operations are required to be fast compared to the coherence time of the quantum system to minimize the probability of errors. We present a field-programmable-gate-array-based digital signal processing system capable of real-time quadrature demodulation, a determination of the qubit state, and a generation of state-dependent feedback trigger signals. The feedback trigger is generated with a latency of 110 ns with respect to the timing of the analog input signal. We characterize the performance of the system for an active qubit initialization protocol based on the dispersive readout of a superconducting qubit and discuss potential applications in feedback and feedforward algorithms.

  16. A study of real-time content marketing : formulating real-time content marketing based on content, search and social media

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thi Kim Duyen

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this research is to understand profoundly the new concept of content marketing – real-time content marketing on the aspect of the digital marketing experts. Particularly, the research will focus on the real-time content marketing theories and how to build real-time content marketing strategy based on content, search and social media. It also finds out how marketers measure and keep track of conversion rates of their real-time content marketing plan. Practically, th...

  17. Development of a Laboratory Synchrophasor Network and an Application to Estimate Transmission Line Parameters in Real Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almiron Bonnin, Rubens Eduardo

    The development of an experimental synchrophasors network and application of synchrophasors for real-time transmission line parameter monitoring are presented in this thesis. In the laboratory setup, a power system is simulated in a RTDS real-time digital simulator, and the simulated voltages and currents are input to hardware phasor measurement units (PMUs) through the analog outputs of the simulator. Time synchronizing signals for the PMU devices are supplied from a common GPS clock. The real time data collected from PMUs are sent to a phasor data concentrator (PDC) through Ethernet using the TCP/IP protocol. A real-time transmission line parameter monitoring application program that uses the synchrophasor data provided by the PDC is implemented and validated. The experimental synchrophasor network developed in this thesis is expected to be used in research on synchrophasor applications as well as in graduate and undergraduate teaching.

  18. A Near Real-Time Seismic Exploration and Monitoring (i.e., Ambient Seismic Noise Interferometry) Solution Based Upon a Novel "At the Edge" Approach that Leverages Commercially Available Digitizers, Embedded Systems, and an Open-Source Big Data Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, F.; Thangraj, J. S.; Quiros, D.; Pulliam, J.; Queen, J. H.; Queen, M.; Iovenitti, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    Seismic interferometry that makes use of ambient noise requires that cross-correlations of data recorded at two or more stations be stacked over a "long enough" time interval that off-axis sources cancel and the estimated inter-station Green's function converges to the actual function. However, the optimal length of the recording period depends on the characteristics of ambient noise at the site, which vary over time and are therefore not known before data acquisition. Data acquisition parameters cannot be planned in ways that will ensure success while minimizing cost and effort. Experiment durations are typically either too long or too short. Automated, in-field processing can provide inter-station Green's functions in near-real-time, allowing for the immediate evaluation of results and enabling operators to alter data acquisition parameters before demobilizing. We report on the design, system integration, and testing of a strategy for the automation of data acquisition, distribution, and processing of ambient noise using industry-standard, widely-available instrumentation (Reftek 130-01 digitizers and 4.5 Hz geophones). Our solution utilizes an inexpensive embedded system (Raspberry Pi 3), which is configured to acquire data from the Reftek and insert it into a big data store called Apache Cassandra. Cassandra distributes and maintains up-to-date copies of the data, through a WiFi network, as defined by tunable consistency levels and replication factors thus allowing for efficient multi-station computations. At regular intervals, data is extracted from Cassandra and is used to compute Green's functions for all receiver pairs. Results are reviewed and progress toward convergence can be assessed. We successfully tested a 20-node prototype of what we call the "Raspberry Pi-Enhanced Reftek" (RaPiER) array at the Soda Lake Geothermal Field in Nevada in June 2017. While intermittent problems with the WiFi network interfered with the real-time data delivery from some

  19. Real-time implementation of an interactive jazz accompaniment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Nikhil

    Modern computational algorithms and digital signal processing (DSP) are able to combine with human performers without forced or predetermined structure in order to create dynamic and real-time accompaniment systems. With modern computing power and intelligent algorithm layout and design, it is possible to achieve more detailed auditory analysis of live music. Using this information, computer code can follow and predict how a human's musical performance evolves, and use this to react in a musical manner. This project builds a real-time accompaniment system to perform together with live musicians, with a focus on live jazz performance and improvisation. The system utilizes a new polyphonic pitch detector and embeds it in an Ableton Live system - combined with Max for Live - to perform elements of audio analysis, generation, and triggering. The system also relies on tension curves and information rate calculations from the Creative Artificially Intuitive and Reasoning Agent (CAIRA) system to help understand and predict human improvisation. These metrics are vital to the core system and allow for extrapolated audio analysis. The system is able to react dynamically to a human performer, and can successfully accompany the human as an entire rhythm section.

  20. Digital signal processing for He3 proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeynalov, Sh.S.; Ahmadov, Q.S.

    2010-01-01

    Full text : Data acquisition systems for nuclear spectroscopy have traditionally been based on systems with analog shaping amplifiers followed by analog-to-digital converters. Recently, however, new systems based on digital signal processing make possible to replace the analog shaping and timing circuitry the numerical algorithms to derive properties of the pulse such as its amplitude. DSP is a fully numerical analysis of the detector pulse signals and this technique demonstrates significant advantages over analog systems in some circumstances. From a mathematical point of view, one can consider the signal evolution from the detector to the ADC as a sequence of transformations that can be described by precisely defined mathematical expressions. Digital signal processing with ADCs has the possibility to utilize further information on the signal pulses from radiation detectors. In the experiment each step of the signal generation in the 3He filled proportional counter was described using digital signal processing techniques (DSP). The electronic system has consisted of a detector, a preamplifier and a digital oscilloscope. The pulses from the detector were digitized using a digital storage oscilloscope. This oscilloscope allowed signal digitization with accuracy of 8 bit (256 levels) and with frequency of up to 5 * 10 8 samples/s. As a neutron source was used Cf-252. To obtain detector output current pulse I(t) created by the motions of the ions/electrons pairs was written an algorithm which can easily be programmed using modern computer programming languages.

  1. A comparative study of digital PCR and real-time qPCR for the detection and quantification of HPV mRNA in sentinel lymph nodes of cervical cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carow, Katrin; Read, Christina; Häfner, Norman; Runnebaum, Ingo B; Corner, Adam; Dürst, Matthias

    2017-10-30

    Qualitative analyses showed that the presence of HPV mRNA in sentinel lymph nodes of cervical cancer patients with pN0 status is associated with significantly decreased recurrence free survival. To further address the clinical potential of the strategy and to define prognostic threshold levels it is necessary to use a quantitative assay. Here, we compare two methods of quantification: digital PCR and standard quantitative PCR. Serial dilutions of 5 ng-5 pg RNA (≙ 500-0.5 cells) of the cervical cancer cell line SiHa were prepared in 5 µg RNA of the HPV-negative human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT. Clinical samples consisted of 10 sentinel lymph nodes with varying HPV transcript levels. Reverse transcription of total RNA (5 µg RNA each) was performed in 100 µl and cDNA aliquots were analyzed by qPCR and dPCR. Digital PCR was run in the RainDrop ® Digital PCR system (RainDance Technologies) using a probe-based detection of HPV E6/E7 cDNA PCR products with 11 µl template. qPCR was done using a Rotor Gene Q 5plex HRM (Qiagen) amplifying HPV E6/E7 cDNA in a SYBR Green format with 1 µl template. For the analysis of both, clinical samples and serial dilution samples, dPCR and qPCR showed comparable sensitivity. With regard to reproducibility, both methods differed considerably, especially for low template samples. Here, we found with qPCR a mean variation coefficient of 126% whereas dPCR enabled a significantly lower mean variation coefficient of 40% (p = 0.01). Generally, we saw with dPCR a substantial reduction of subsampling errors, which most likely reflects the large cDNA amounts available for analysis. Compared to real-time PCR, dPCR shows higher reliability. Thus, our HPV mRNA dPCR assay holds promise for the clinical evaluation of occult tumor cells in histologically tumor-free lymph nodes in future studies.

  2. Analog and digital signal analysis from basics to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen Tenoudji, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    This book provides comprehensive, graduate-level treatment of analog and digital signal analysis suitable for course use and self-guided learning. This expert text guides the reader from the basics of signal theory through a range of application tools for use in acoustic analysis, geophysics, and data compression. Each concept is introduced and explained step by step, and the necessary mathematical formulae are integrated in an accessible and intuitive way. The first part of the book explores how analog systems and signals form the basics of signal analysis. This section covers Fourier series and integral transforms of analog signals, Laplace and Hilbert transforms, the main analog filter classes, and signal modulations. Part II covers digital signals, demonstrating their key advantages. It presents z and Fourier transforms, digital filtering, inverse filters, deconvolution, and parametric modeling for deterministic signals. Wavelet decomposition and reconstruction of non-stationary signals are also discussed...

  3. Real-time laser holographic interferometry for aerodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, G.

    1987-01-01

    Recent developments in thermoplastic recording holograms and advancements in automated image digitalization and analysis make real-time laser holographic interferometry feasible for two-dimensional flows such as airfoil flows. Typical airfoil measurements would include airfoil pressure distributions, wake and boundary layer profiles, and flow field density contours. This paper addresses some of the problems and requirements of a real-time laser holographic interferometer. 13 references

  4. Real-time beam profile imaging system for actinotherapy accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Yong; Wang Jingjin; Song Zheng; Zheng Putang; Wang Jianguo

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a real-time beam profile imaging system for actinotheraphy accelerator. With the flash X-ray imager and the technique of digital image processing, a real-time 3-dimension dosage image is created from the intensity profile of the accelerator beam in real time. This system helps to obtain all the physical characters of the beam in any section plane, such as FWHM, penumbra, peak value, symmetry and homogeneity. This system has been used to acquire a 3-dimension dosage distribution of dynamic wedge modulator and the transient process of beam dosage. The system configure and the tested beam profile images are also presented

  5. A study on the development of a real-time intelligent system for ultrasonic flaw classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Sung Jin; Kim, Hak Joon; Lee, Hyun; Lee, Seung Seok

    1998-01-01

    In spite of significant progress in research on ultrasonic pattern recognition it is not widely used in many practical field inspection in weldments. For the convenience of field application of this methodology, following four key issues have to be suitably addressed; 1) a software where the ultrasonic pattern recognition algorithm is efficiently implemented, 2) a real-time ultrasonic testing system which can capture the digitized ultrasonic flaw signal so the pattern recognition software can be applied in a real-time fashion, 3) database of ultrasonic flaw signals in weldments, which is served as a foundation of the ultrasonic pattern recognition algorithm, and finally, 4) ultrasonic features which should be invariant to operational variables of the ultrasonic test system. Presented here is the recent progress in the development of a real-time ultrasonic flaw classification by the novel combination of followings; an intelligent software for ultrasonic flaw classification in weldments, a computer-base real-time ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation system, database of ultrasonic flaw signals, and invariant ultrasonic features called 'normalized features.'

  6. Real-time operation without a real-time operating system for instrument control and data acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Randolf; Poglitsch, Albrecht; Fumi, Fabio; Geis, Norbert; Hamidouche, Murad; Hoenle, Rainer; Looney, Leslie; Raab, Walfried; Viehhauser, Werner

    2004-09-01

    We are building the Field-Imaging Far-Infrared Line Spectrometer (FIFI LS) for the US-German airborne observatory SOFIA. The detector read-out system is driven by a clock signal at a certain frequency. This signal has to be provided and all other sub-systems have to work synchronously to this clock. The data generated by the instrument has to be received by a computer in a timely manner. Usually these requirements are met with a real-time operating system (RTOS). In this presentation we want to show how we meet these demands differently avoiding the stiffness of an RTOS. Digital I/O-cards with a large buffer separate the asynchronous working computers and the synchronous working instrument. The advantage is that the data processing computers do not need to process the data in real-time. It is sufficient that the computer can process the incoming data stream on average. But since the data is read-in synchronously, problems of relating commands and responses (data) have to be solved: The data is arriving at a fixed rate. The receiving I/O-card buffers the data in its buffer until the computer can access it. To relate the data to commands sent previously, the data is tagged by counters in the read-out electronics. These counters count the system's heartbeat and signals derived from that. The heartbeat and control signals synchronous with the heartbeat are sent by an I/O-card working as pattern generator. Its buffer gets continously programmed with a pattern which is clocked out on the control lines. A counter in the I/O-card keeps track of the amount of pattern words clocked out. By reading this counter, the computer knows the state of the instrument or knows the meaning of the data that will arrive with a certain time-tag.

  7. Real-time data acquisition and feedback control using Linux Intel computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penaflor, B.G.; Ferron, J.R.; Piglowski, D.A.; Johnson, R.D.; Walker, M.L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the experiences of the DIII-D programming staff in adapting Linux based Intel computing hardware for use in real-time data acquisition and feedback control systems. Due to the highly dynamic and unstable nature of magnetically confined plasmas in tokamak fusion experiments, real-time data acquisition and feedback control systems are in routine use with all major tokamaks. At DIII-D, plasmas are created and sustained using a real-time application known as the digital plasma control system (PCS). During each experiment, the PCS periodically samples data from hundreds of diagnostic signals and provides these data to control algorithms implemented in software. These algorithms compute the necessary commands to send to various actuators that affect plasma performance. The PCS consists of a group of rack mounted Intel Xeon computer systems running an in-house customized version of the Linux operating system tailored specifically to meet the real-time performance needs of the plasma experiments. This paper provides a more detailed description of the real-time computing hardware and custom developed software, including recent work to utilize dual Intel Xeon equipped computers within the PCS

  8. Closed orbit feedback with digital signal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Y.; Kirchman, J.; Lenkszus, F.

    1994-01-01

    The closed orbit feedback experiment conducted on the SPEAR using the singular value decomposition (SVD) technique and digital signal processing (DSP) is presented. The beam response matrix, defined as beam motion at beam position monitor (BPM) locations per unit kick by corrector magnets, was measured and then analyzed using SVD. Ten BPMs, sixteen correctors, and the eight largest SVD eigenvalues were used for closed orbit correction. The maximum sampling frequency for the closed loop feedback was measured at 37 Hz. Using the proportional and integral (PI) control algorithm with the gains Kp = 3 and K I = 0.05 and the open-loop bandwidth corresponding to 1% of the sampling frequency, a correction bandwidth (-3 dB) of approximately 0.8 Hz was achieved. Time domain measurements showed that the response time of the closed loop feedback system for 1/e decay was approximately 0.25 second. This result implies ∼ 100 Hz correction bandwidth for the planned beam position feedback system for the Advanced Photon Source storage ring with the projected 4-kHz sampling frequency

  9. Equipamento microprocessado para geração de sinal de correção diferencial, em tempo real, para GPS Microprocessor-based equipment for real time generation of differential GPS correction signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thales C. B. Lima

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta o desenvolvimento de um equipamento microprocessado, de baixo custo, para geração de sinal de correção diferencial para GPS, em tempo real, e configuração e supervisão do receptor GPS base. O equipamento desenvolvido possui um microcontrolador dedicado, display alfanumérico, teclado multifunção para configuração e operação do sistema e interfaces de comunicação. O circuito eletrônico do equipamento tem a função de receber as informações do GPS base e interpretá-las, transformando-as numa sentença no protocolo RTCM SC-104. O software do microcontrolador é responsável pela conversão do sinal recebido pelo GPS base, do formato proprietário para o protocolo RTCM SC-104. A placa processadora principal possui duas interfaces seriais padrão RS-232C. Uma delas tem a função de configuração e leitura das informações geradas pelo receptor GPS base. A outra atua somente como saída, enviando o sinal de correção diferencial. O projeto do equipamento microprocessado mostrou que é possível a construção de uma estação privada para a geração do sinal de correção diferencial, de baixo custo.This work presents the development of low cost microprocessor-based equipment for generation of differential GPS correction signal, in real time, and configuration and supervision of the GPS base. The developed equipment contains a dedicated microcontroller connected to the GPS receiver, alphanumeric display and multifunction keyboard for configuration and operation of the system and communication interfaces. The electronic circuit has the function of receiving the information from GPS base; interpret them, converting the sentence in the RTCM SC-104 protocol. The microcontroller software makes the conversion of the signal received by the GPS base from the specific format to RTCM SC-104 protocol. The processing main board has two serials RS-232C standard interfaces. One of them is used for configuration and

  10. The real time rolling shutter

    OpenAIRE

    Monaghan, David; O'Connor, Noel E.; Cleary, Anne; Connolly, Denis

    2015-01-01

    From an early age children are often told either, you are creative you should do art but stay away from science and maths. Or that you are mathematical you should do science but you're not that creative. Compounding this there also exist some traditional barriers of artistic rhetoric that say, "don't touch, don't think and don't be creative, we've already done that for you, you can just look...". The Real Time Rolling Shutter is part of a collaborative Art/Science partnership whose core tenet...

  11. Real-time software for the COMPASS tokamak plasma control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valcarcel, D.F.; Duarte, A.S.; Neto, A.; Carvalho, I.S.; Carvalho, B.B.; Fernandes, H.; Sousa, J.; Sartori, F.; Janky, F.; Cahyna, P.; Hron, M.; Panek, R.

    2010-01-01

    The COMPASS tokamak has started its operation recently in Prague and to meet the necessary operation parameters its real-time system, for data processing and control, must be designed for both flexibility and performance, allowing the easy integration of code from several developers and to guarantee the desired time cycle. For this purpose an Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture based real-time system has been deployed with a solution built on a multi-core x86 processor. It makes use of two software components: the BaseLib2 and the MARTe (Multithreaded Application Real-Time executor) real-time frameworks. The BaseLib2 framework is a generic real-time library with optimized objects for the implementation of real-time algorithms. This allowed to build a library of modules that process the acquired data and execute control algorithms. MARTe executes these modules in kernel space Real-Time Application Interface allowing to attain the required cycle time and a jitter of less than 1.5 μs. MARTe configuration and data storage are accomplished through a Java hardware client that connects to the FireSignal control and data acquisition software. This article details the implementation of the real-time system for the COMPASS tokamak, in particular the organization of the control code, the design and implementation of the communications with the actuators and how MARTe integrates with the FireSignal software.

  12. Real-time software for the COMPASS tokamak plasma control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valcarcel, D.F., E-mail: danielv@ipfn.ist.utl.p [Associacao EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear - Laboratorio Associado, Instituto Superior Tecnico, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Duarte, A.S.; Neto, A.; Carvalho, I.S.; Carvalho, B.B.; Fernandes, H.; Sousa, J. [Associacao EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear - Laboratorio Associado, Instituto Superior Tecnico, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Sartori, F. [Euratom-UKAEA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB Oxon (United Kingdom); Janky, F.; Cahyna, P.; Hron, M.; Panek, R. [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, v.v.i., Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, 182 00 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2010-07-15

    The COMPASS tokamak has started its operation recently in Prague and to meet the necessary operation parameters its real-time system, for data processing and control, must be designed for both flexibility and performance, allowing the easy integration of code from several developers and to guarantee the desired time cycle. For this purpose an Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture based real-time system has been deployed with a solution built on a multi-core x86 processor. It makes use of two software components: the BaseLib2 and the MARTe (Multithreaded Application Real-Time executor) real-time frameworks. The BaseLib2 framework is a generic real-time library with optimized objects for the implementation of real-time algorithms. This allowed to build a library of modules that process the acquired data and execute control algorithms. MARTe executes these modules in kernel space Real-Time Application Interface allowing to attain the required cycle time and a jitter of less than 1.5 {mu}s. MARTe configuration and data storage are accomplished through a Java hardware client that connects to the FireSignal control and data acquisition software. This article details the implementation of the real-time system for the COMPASS tokamak, in particular the organization of the control code, the design and implementation of the communications with the actuators and how MARTe integrates with the FireSignal software.

  13. Linear Regression Based Real-Time Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misel Batmend

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces real time filtering method based on linear least squares fitted line. Method can be used in case that a filtered signal is linear. This constraint narrows a band of potential applications. Advantage over Kalman filter is that it is computationally less expensive. The paper further deals with application of introduced method on filtering data used to evaluate a position of engraved material with respect to engraving machine. The filter was implemented to the CNC engraving machine control system. Experiments showing its performance are included.

  14. Real time analysis under EDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneberk, D.

    1985-07-01

    This paper describes the analysis component of the Enrichment Diagnostic System (EDS) developed for the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation Program (AVLIS) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Four different types of analysis are performed on data acquired through EDS: (1) absorption spectroscopy on laser-generated spectral lines, (2) mass spectrometer analysis, (3) general purpose waveform analysis, and (4) separation performance calculations. The information produced from this data includes: measures of particle density and velocity, partial pressures of residual gases, and overall measures of isotope enrichment. The analysis component supports a variety of real-time modeling tasks, a means for broadcasting data to other nodes, and a great degree of flexibility for tailoring computations to the exact needs of the process. A particular data base structure and program flow is common to all types of analysis. Key elements of the analysis component are: (1) a fast access data base which can configure all types of analysis, (2) a selected set of analysis routines, (3) a general purpose data manipulation and graphics package for the results of real time analysis. Each of these components are described with an emphasis upon how each contributes to overall system capability. 3 figs

  15. eCTG: an automatic procedure to extract digital cardiotocographic signals from digital images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbrollini, Agnese; Agostinelli, Angela; Marcantoni, Ilaria; Morettini, Micaela; Burattini, Luca; Di Nardo, Francesco; Fioretti, Sandro; Burattini, Laura

    2018-03-01

    Cardiotocography (CTG), consisting in the simultaneous recording of fetal heart rate (FHR) and maternal uterine contractions (UC), is a popular clinical test to assess fetal health status. Typically, CTG machines provide paper reports that are visually interpreted by clinicians. Consequently, visual CTG interpretation depends on clinician's experience and has a poor reproducibility. The lack of databases containing digital CTG signals has limited number and importance of retrospective studies finalized to set up procedures for automatic CTG analysis that could contrast visual CTG interpretation subjectivity. In order to help overcoming this problem, this study proposes an electronic procedure, termed eCTG, to extract digital CTG signals from digital CTG images, possibly obtainable by scanning paper CTG reports. eCTG was specifically designed to extract digital CTG signals from digital CTG images. It includes four main steps: pre-processing, Otsu's global thresholding, signal extraction and signal calibration. Its validation was performed by means of the "CTU-UHB Intrapartum Cardiotocography Database" by Physionet, that contains digital signals of 552 CTG recordings. Using MATLAB, each signal was plotted and saved as a digital image that was then submitted to eCTG. Digital CTG signals extracted by eCTG were eventually compared to corresponding signals directly available in the database. Comparison occurred in terms of signal similarity (evaluated by the correlation coefficient ρ, and the mean signal error MSE) and clinical features (including FHR baseline and variability; number, amplitude and duration of tachycardia, bradycardia, acceleration and deceleration episodes; number of early, variable, late and prolonged decelerations; and UC number, amplitude, duration and period). The value of ρ between eCTG and reference signals was 0.85 (P digital FHR and UC signals from digital CTG images. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Real time speech formant analyzer and display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, George E.; Struve, Walter S.; Homer, John F.

    1987-01-01

    A speech analyzer for interpretation of sound includes a sound input which converts the sound into a signal representing the sound. The signal is passed through a plurality of frequency pass filters to derive a plurality of frequency formants. These formants are converted to voltage signals by frequency-to-voltage converters and then are prepared for visual display in continuous real time. Parameters from the inputted sound are also derived and displayed. The display may then be interpreted by the user. The preferred embodiment includes a microprocessor which is interfaced with a television set for displaying of the sound formants. The microprocessor software enables the sound analyzer to present a variety of display modes for interpretive and therapeutic used by the user.

  17. A real-time radar pulse signal detection method and its performance analysis%一种实时雷达脉冲信号检测算法及其性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 王旭东; 潘明海

    2012-01-01

    提出了一种新的实时雷达脉冲信号检测算法,该算法首先将数据分为两路,对一路进行单点滑动、取共轭,然后与另一路信号相乘,再累加、取模,最后与门限比较,得到检测结果.算法具有递推和流水结构,硬件实现时只需一个复数乘法器、一个复数加法器、一个复数减法器和一个复数取模运算器.在此采用一阶扰动分析,推导了算法起始点检测误差的解析式,给出了算法性能边界,仿真结果验证了理论推导的正确性.与其他信号检测算法相比,该算法结构规整,易于硬件应用,可实现实时检测.%A real-time radar pulse signal detection method is proposed. Firstly, two input data sequence are got by a demultiplexer, then taking conjugate and one point delay operation is applied to one of them. Secondly, multiplying these two sequence, accumulating the multiply result and outputting its complex magnitude. Finally, after comparing with a threshold, the detection result can be gained. Since the detection algorithm is very simple, the hardware can be designed using a small a-mount of circuitry, consisting of only 1 complex multiplier, 1 complex adder, 1 complex subtracter and 1 complex magnitude calculator. Therefore, it can realize the high-speed detection of target signals by constructing a pipeline architecture. The start-point estimation error is derived based upon first order purterbation analysis, and then the performance boundary of this method is presented. Simulation results confirm the derivation. Comparing with other radar pulse signal detection method, this proposed algorithm leads to clear and neat structure, good real-time and suitable for hardware implementation.

  18. Pedagogical reforms of digital signal processing education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Michael

    The future of the engineering discipline is arguably predicated heavily upon appealing to the future generation, in all its sensibilities. The greatest burden in doing so, one might rightly believe, lies on the shoulders of the educators. In examining the causal means by which the profession arrived at such a state, one finds that the technical revolution, precipitated by global war, had, as its catalyst, institutions as expansive as the government itself to satisfy the demand for engineers, who, as a result of such an existential crisis, were taught predominantly theoretical underpinnings to address a finite purpose. By contrast, the modern engineer, having expanded upon this vision and adapted to an evolving society, is increasingly placed in the proverbial role of the worker who must don many hats: not solely a scientist, yet often an artist; not a businessperson alone, but neither financially naive; not always a representative, though frequently a collaborator. Inasmuch as change then serves as the only constancy in a global climate, therefore, the educational system - if it is to mimic the demands of the industry - is left with an inherent need for perpetual revitalization to remain relevant. This work aims to serve that end. Motivated by existing research in engineering education, an epistemological challenge is molded into the framework of the electrical engineer with emphasis on digital signal processing. In particular, it is investigated whether students are better served by a learning paradigm that tolerates and, when feasible, encourages error via a medium free of traditional adjudication. Through the creation of learning modules using the Adobe Captivate environment, a wide range of fundamental knowledge in signal processing is challenged within the confines of existing undergraduate courses. It is found that such an approach not only conforms to the research agenda outlined for the engineering educator, but also reflects an often neglected reality

  19. Autonomous Real Time Requirements Tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattsmier, George; Stetson, Howard

    2014-01-01

    One of the more challenging aspects of software development is the ability to verify and validate the functional software requirements dictated by the Software Requirements Specification (SRS) and the Software Detail Design (SDD). Insuring the software has achieved the intended requirements is the responsibility of the Software Quality team and the Software Test team. The utilization of Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Auto- Procedures for relocating ground operations positions to ISS automated on-board operations has begun the transition that would be required for manned deep space missions with minimal crew requirements. This transition also moves the auto-procedures from the procedure realm into the flight software arena and as such the operational requirements and testing will be more structured and rigorous. The autoprocedures would be required to meet NASA software standards as specified in the Software Safety Standard (NASASTD- 8719), the Software Engineering Requirements (NPR 7150), the Software Assurance Standard (NASA-STD-8739) and also the Human Rating Requirements (NPR-8705). The Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) test-bed utilizes the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Language for development of autonomous command and control software. The Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) system has the unique feature of providing the current line of the statement in execution during real-time execution of the software. The feature of execution line number internal reporting unlocks the capability of monitoring the execution autonomously by use of a companion Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) sequence as the line number reporting is embedded inside the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) execution engine. This negates I/O processing of this type data as the line number status of executing sequences is built-in as a function reference. This paper will outline the design and capabilities of the AFTS Autonomous Requirements Tracker, which traces and logs SRS requirements as they are being met during real-time execution of the

  20. Digital signal processing in power electronics control circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Sozanski, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Many digital control circuits in current literature are described using analog transmittance. This may not always be acceptable, especially if the sampling frequency and power transistor switching frequencies are close to the band of interest. Therefore, a digital circuit is considered as a digital controller rather than an analog circuit. This helps to avoid errors and instability in high frequency components. Digital Signal Processing in Power Electronics Control Circuits covers problems concerning the design and realization of digital control algorithms for power electronics circuits using

  1. GNSS global real-time augmentation positioning: Real-time precise satellite clock estimation, prototype system construction and performance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Zhao, Qile; Hu, Zhigang; Jiang, Xinyuan; Geng, Changjiang; Ge, Maorong; Shi, Chuang

    2018-01-01

    Lots of ambiguities in un-differenced (UD) model lead to lower calculation efficiency, which isn't appropriate for the high-frequency real-time GNSS clock estimation, like 1 Hz. Mixed differenced model fusing UD pseudo-range and epoch-differenced (ED) phase observations has been introduced into real-time clock estimation. In this contribution, we extend the mixed differenced model for realizing multi-GNSS real-time clock high-frequency updating and a rigorous comparison and analysis on same conditions are performed to achieve the best real-time clock estimation performance taking the efficiency, accuracy, consistency and reliability into consideration. Based on the multi-GNSS real-time data streams provided by multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) and Wuhan University, GPS + BeiDou + Galileo global real-time augmentation positioning prototype system is designed and constructed, including real-time precise orbit determination, real-time precise clock estimation, real-time Precise Point Positioning (RT-PPP) and real-time Standard Point Positioning (RT-SPP). The statistical analysis of the 6 h-predicted real-time orbits shows that the root mean square (RMS) in radial direction is about 1-5 cm for GPS, Beidou MEO and Galileo satellites and about 10 cm for Beidou GEO and IGSO satellites. Using the mixed differenced estimation model, the prototype system can realize high-efficient real-time satellite absolute clock estimation with no constant clock-bias and can be used for high-frequency augmentation message updating (such as 1 Hz). The real-time augmentation message signal-in-space ranging error (SISRE), a comprehensive accuracy of orbit and clock and effecting the users' actual positioning performance, is introduced to evaluate and analyze the performance of GPS + BeiDou + Galileo global real-time augmentation positioning system. The statistical analysis of real-time augmentation message SISRE is about 4-7 cm for GPS, whlile 10 cm for Beidou IGSO/MEO, Galileo and about 30 cm

  2. Digital signal processing in power system protection and control

    CERN Document Server

    Rebizant, Waldemar; Wiszniewski, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Digital Signal Processing in Power System Protection and Control bridges the gap between the theory of protection and control and the practical applications of protection equipment. Understanding how protection functions is crucial not only for equipment developers and manufacturers, but also for their users who need to install, set and operate the protection devices in an appropriate manner. After introductory chapters related to protection technology and functions, Digital Signal Processing in Power System Protection and Control presents the digital algorithms for signal filtering, followed

  3. Real-time vibration measurement by a spatial phase-shifting technique with a tilted holographic interferogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakadate, S; Isshiki, M

    1997-01-01

    Real-time vibration measurement by a tilted holographic interferogram is presented that utilizes the real-time digital fringe processor of a video signal. Three intensity data sampled at every one-third of the fringe spacing of the tilted fringes are used to calculate the modulation term of the fringe that is a function of a vibration amplitude. A three-dimensional lookup table performs the calculation in a TV repetition rate to give a new fringe profile that contours the vibration amplitude. Vibration modes at the resonant frequencies of a flat speaker were displayed on a monitor as changing the exciting frequency of vibration.

  4. Analyzer of neutron flux in real time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas S, A.S.; Carrillo M, R.A.; Balderas, E.G.

    1999-01-01

    With base in the study of the real signals of neutron flux of instability events occurred in the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant where the nucleus oscillation phenomena of the reactor are in the 0 to 2.5 Hz range, it has been seen the possibility about the development a surveillance and diagnostic equipment capable to analyze in real time the behavior of nucleus in this frequencies range. An important method for surveillance the stability of the reactor nucleus is the use of the Power spectral density which allows to determine the frequencies and amplitudes contained in the signals. It is used an instrument carried out by LabVIEW graphic programming with a data acquisition card of 16 channels which works at Windows 95/98 environment. (Author)

  5. Neutron coincidence counting with digital signal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagi, Janos; Dechamp, Luc; Dransart, Pascal; Dzbikowicz, Zdzislaw; Dufour, Jean-Luc; Holzleitner, Ludwig; Huszti, Joseph; Looman, Marc; Marin Ferrer, Montserrat; Lambert, Thierry; Peerani, Paolo; Rackham, Jamie; Swinhoe, Martyn; Tobin, Steve; Weber, Anne-Laure; Wilson, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Neutron coincidence counting is a widely adopted nondestructive assay (NDA) technique used in nuclear safeguards to measure the mass of nuclear material in samples. Nowadays, most neutron-counting systems are based on the original-shift-register technology, like the (ordinary or multiplicity) Shift-Register Analyser. The analogue signal from the He-3 tubes is processed by an amplifier/single channel analyser (SCA) producing a train of TTL pulses that are fed into an electronic unit that performs the time- correlation analysis. Following the suggestion of the main inspection authorities (IAEA, Euratom and the French Ministry of Industry), several research laboratories have started to study and develop prototypes of neutron-counting systems with PC-based processing. Collaboration in this field among JRC, IRSN and LANL has been established within the framework of the ESARDA-NDA working group. Joint testing campaigns have been performed in the JRC PERLA laboratory, using different equipment provided by the three partners. One area of development is the use of high-speed PCs and pulse acquisition electronics that provide a time stamp (LIST-Mode Acquisition) for every digital pulse. The time stamp data can be processed directly during acquisition or saved on a hard disk. The latter method has the advantage that measurement data can be analysed with different values for parameters like predelay and gate width, without repeating the acquisition. Other useful diagnostic information, such as die-away time and dead time, can also be extracted from this stored data. A second area is the development of 'virtual instruments.' These devices, in which the pulse-processing system can be embedded in the neutron counter itself and sends counting data to a PC, can give increased data-acquisition speeds. Either or both of these developments could give rise to the next generation of instrumentation for improved practical neutron-correlation measurements. The paper will describe the

  6. The Implementation of a Real-Time Polyphase Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Adámek, Karel; Novotný, Jan; Armour, Wes

    2014-01-01

    In this article we study the suitability of dierent computational accelerators for the task of real-time data processing. The algorithm used for comparison is the polyphase filter, a standard tool in signal processing and a well established algorithm. We measure performance in FLOPs and execution time, which is a critical factor for real-time systems. For our real-time studies we have chosen a data rate of 6.5GB/s, which is the estimated data rate for a single channel on the SKAs Low Frequenc...

  7. Electronic circuit for rapid digital NMR signal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurak, P.; Krejci, I.; Belusa, J.

    1992-01-01

    The circuit is made up of two analog-to-digital converters whose outputs are connected to a process computer and the synchronization inputs to the clock terminal. The one analog-to-digital converter is connected, via the signal input, to the terminal of the nuclear magnetic resonance locking signal. The signal input of the other analog-to-digital converter is connected to the time base generator, which can be switched off, and to the magnetic field sweep circuit. The assets of this citcuit include easy computerized processing of the digitized information independently of the time base generation, and prevention of interfering signals from penetrating into the magnetic field sweep circuits. (Z.S.). 1 fig

  8. Signal Digitizer and Cross-Correlation Application Specific Integrated Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranauskas, Dalius (Inventor); Baranauskas, Gytis (Inventor); Zelenin, Denis (Inventor); Kangaslahti, Pekka (Inventor); Tanner, Alan B. (Inventor); Lim, Boon H. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    According to one embodiment, a cross-correlator comprises a plurality of analog front ends (AFEs), a cross-correlation circuit and a data serializer. Each of the AFEs comprises a variable gain amplifier (VGA) and a corresponding analog-to-digital converter (ADC) in which the VGA receives and modifies a unique analog signal associates with a measured analog radio frequency (RF) signal and the ADC produces digital data associated with the modified analog signal. Communicatively coupled to the AFEs, the cross-correlation circuit performs a cross-correlation operation on the digital data produced from different measured analog RF signals. The data serializer is communicatively coupled to the summing and cross-correlating matrix and continuously outputs a prescribed amount of the correlated digital data.

  9. Digital signaling decouples activation probability and population heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kellogg, Ryan A; Tian, Chengzhe; Lipniacki, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Digital signaling enhances robustness of cellular decisions in noisy environments, but it is unclear how digital systems transmit temporal information about a stimulus. To understand how temporal input information is encoded and decoded by the NF-κB system, we studied transcription factor dynamic...

  10. Opportunist combination of electronic technologies for real time calculations in the Tore Supra Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbuti, A.; Gil, C.; Pastor, P.; Spuig, P.; Vincent, B.; Volpe, D.

    2013-06-01

    The Tore Supra tokamak real-time plasma control is based on measurements coming from various diagnostics. The complexity of all the events that occur during plasma is at the origin of measurements disturbances which have to be corrected in real time in order to ensure an optimal control. The signal correction does not just mean processing but requires complex algorithms. Electronics does not only need to process and adapt electrical signals, but it has to include corrections by mathematical calculation. The FPGA (field-programmable gate array) technology, with the help of basic adapted electronics, allows integrating the entire real time calculation and digital data transmission on the network. FMC (FPGA Mezzanine Card) coupled with in-house motherboard, which is used both as the interface with Tore Supra specific systems and as the support for other signals processing options, is the perfect answer to this request. The FMC includes a FPGA, memory, Ethernet port and multiple I/O for interfacing with the motherboard and Tore Supra signals. The algorithms are developed in VHDL (Very high speed integrated circuit Hardware Description Language), parallel process management that promotes faster calculation than a common μC (Micro-controller) in one clock pulse. The flexibility, the low cost and the implementation speed allow fitting a large number of various applications in fields where no 'off-theshelf' component can be found. And more specifically, in research and experimentation, algorithms can be continuously improved or modified for new requirements. (authors)

  11. Streamlining digital signal processing a tricks of the trade guidebook

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Streamlining Digital Signal Processing, Second Edition, presents recent advances in DSP that simplify or increase the computational speed of common signal processing operations and provides practical, real-world tips and tricks not covered in conventional DSP textbooks. It offers new implementations of digital filter design, spectrum analysis, signal generation, high-speed function approximation, and various other DSP functions. It provides:Great tips, tricks of the trade, secrets, practical shortcuts, and clever engineering solutions from seasoned signal processing professionalsAn assortment.

  12. Digital signal processing for He3 proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadov, Q.S.; Institute of Radiation Problems, ANAS, Baku

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Data acquisition systems for nuclear spectroscopy have traditionally been based on systems with analog shaping amplifiers followed by analog-to-digital converters. Recently, however, new systems based on digital signal processing allow us to replace the analog shaping and timing circuitry the numerical algorithms to derive properties of the pulse such as its amplitude. DSP is a fully numerical analysis of the detector pulse signals and this technique demonstrates significant advantages over analog systems in some circumstances. From a mathematical point of view, one can consider the signal evolution from the detector to the ADC as a sequence of transformations that can be described by precisely defined mathematical expressions.Digital signal processing with ADCs has the possibility to utilize further information on the signal pulses from radiation detectors [1] [2]. In the experiment each step of the signal generation in the 3He filled proportional counter was described using digital signal processing techniques (DSP). The electronic system has consisted of a detector, a preamplifier and a digital oscilloscope. The pulses from the detector were digitized using a OTSZS-02 (250USB)-4 digital storage oscilloscope from ZAO R UDNEV-SHILYAYEV . This oscilloscope allowed signal digitization with accuracy of 8 bit(256 levels) and with frequency of up to 5.10''8 samples/s. As a neutron source was used Cf-252.To obtain detector output current pulse I(t) created by the motions of the ions/electrons pairs was written an algorithm which can easily be programmed using modern computer programming languages

  13. Process and circuiting arrangement for the conversion of analog signals to digital signals and digital signals to analog signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wintzer, K.

    1977-01-01

    Process for analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog conversion in telecommunication systems whose outstations each have an analog transmitter and an analog receiver. The invention illustrates a method of reducing the power demand of the converters at times when no conversion processes take place. (RW) [de

  14. Implementation of real-time duplex synthetic aperture ultrasonography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Larsen, Lee; Kjeldsen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a real-time duplex synthetic aperture imaging system, implemented on a commercially available tablet. This includes real-time wireless reception of ultrasound signals and GPU processing for B-mode and Color Flow Imaging (CFM). The objective of the work is to investigate the im...... and that the required bandwidth between the probe and processing unit is within the current Wi-Fi standards....

  15. Mobile real time radiography system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigil, J.; Taggart, D.; Betts, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-11-01

    A 450-keV Mobile Real Time Radiography (RTR) System was delivered to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in January 1996. It was purchased to inspect containers of radioactive waste produced at (LANL). Since its delivery it has been used to radiograph more than 600 drums of radioactive waste at various LANL sites. It has the capability of inspecting waste containers of various sizes from <1-gal. buckets up to standard waste boxes (SWB, dimensions 54.5 in. x 71 in. x 37 in.). It has three independent x-ray acquisition formats. The primary system used is a 12- in. image intensifier, the second is a 36-in. linear diode array (LDA) and the last is an open system. It is fully self contained with on board generator, HVAC, and a fire suppression system. It is on a 53-ft long x 8-ft. wide x 14-ft. high trailer that can be moved over any highway requiring only an easily obtainable overweight permit because it weights {approximately}38 tons. It was built to conform to industry standards for a cabinet system which does not require an exclusion zone. The fact that this unit is mobile has allowed us to operate where the waste is stored, rather than having to move the waste to a fixed facility.

  16. Mobile real time radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigil, J.; Taggart, D.; Betts, S.

    1997-01-01

    A 450-keV Mobile Real Time Radiography (RTR) System was delivered to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in January 1996. It was purchased to inspect containers of radioactive waste produced at (LANL). Since its delivery it has been used to radiograph more than 600 drums of radioactive waste at various LANL sites. It has the capability of inspecting waste containers of various sizes from <1-gal. buckets up to standard waste boxes (SWB, dimensions 54.5 in. x 71 in. x 37 in.). It has three independent x-ray acquisition formats. The primary system used is a 12- in. image intensifier, the second is a 36-in. linear diode array (LDA) and the last is an open system. It is fully self contained with on board generator, HVAC, and a fire suppression system. It is on a 53-ft long x 8-ft. wide x 14-ft. high trailer that can be moved over any highway requiring only an easily obtainable overweight permit because it weights ∼38 tons. It was built to conform to industry standards for a cabinet system which does not require an exclusion zone. The fact that this unit is mobile has allowed us to operate where the waste is stored, rather than having to move the waste to a fixed facility

  17. Real time 3D photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Balbuena, A. A.; Vazquez-Molini, D.; García-Botella, A.; Romo, J.; Serrano, Ana

    2017-09-01

    The photometry and radiometry measurement is a well-developed field. The necessity of measuring optical systems performance involves the use of several techniques like Gonio-photometry. The Gonio photometers are a precise measurement tool that is used in the lighting area like office, luminaire head car lighting, concentrator /collimator measurement and all the designed and fabricated optical systems that works with light. There is one disadvantage in this kind of measurements that obtain the intensity polar curves and the total flux of the optical system. In the industry, there are good Gonio photometers that are precise and reliable but they are very expensive and the measurement time is long. In industry the cost can be of minor importance but measuring time that is around 30 minutes is of major importance due to trained staff cost. We have designed a system to measure photometry in real time; it consists in a curved screen to get a huge measurement angle and a CCD. The system to be measured projects light onto the screen and the CCD records a video of the screen obtaining an image of the projected profile. A complex calibration permits to trace screen data (x,y,z) to intensity polar curve (I,αγ). This intensity is obtained in candels (cd) with an image + processing time below one second.

  18. Scalable Real-Time Negotiation Toolkit

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lesser, Victor

    2004-01-01

    ... to implement an adaptive distributed sensor network. These activities involved the development of a distributed soft, real-time heuristic resource allocation protocol, the development of a domain-independent soft, real time agent architecture...

  19. Long-range, wide-field swept-source optical coherence tomography with GPU accelerated digital lock-in Doppler vibrography for real-time, in vivo middle ear diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougall, Dan; Farrell, Joshua; Brown, Jeremy; Bance, Manohar; Adamson, Robert

    2016-11-01

    We present the design, implementation and validation of a swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT) system for real-time imaging of the human middle ear in live patients. Our system consists of a highly phase-stable Vernier-tuned distributed Bragg-reflector laser along with a real-time processing engine implemented on a graphics processing unit. We use the system to demonstrate, for the first time in live subjects, real-time Doppler measurements of middle ear vibration in response to sound, video rate 2D B-mode imaging of the middle ear and 3D volumetric B-mode imaging. All measurements were performed non-invasively through the intact tympanic membrane demonstrating that the technology is readily translatable to the clinic.

  20. Influence of Signal Stationarity on Digital Stochastic Measurement Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Župunski

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the influence of signal stationarity on digital stochastic measurement method implementation. The implementation method is based on stochastic voltage generators, analog adders, low resolution A/D converter, and multipliers and accumulators implemented by Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA. The characteristic of first implementations of digital stochastic measurement was the measurement of stationary signal harmonics over the constant measurement period. Later, digital stochastic measurement was extended and used also when it was necessary to measure timeseries of non-stationary signal over the variable measurement time. The result of measurement is the set of harmonics, which is, in the case of non-stationary signals, the input for calculating digital values of signal in time domain. A theoretical approach to determine measurement uncertainty is presented and the accuracy trends with varying signal-to-noise ratio (SNR are analyzed. Noisy brain potentials (spontaneous and nonspontaneous are selected as an example of real non-stationary signal and its digital stochastic measurement is tested by simulations and experiments. Tests were performed without noise and with adding noise with SNR values of 10dB, 0dB and - 10dB. The results of simulations and experiments are compared versus theory calculations, and comparasion confirms the theory.

  1. Hard Real-Time Networking on Firewire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Yuchen; Orlic, Bojan; Visser, Peter; Broenink, Jan

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the possibility of using standard, low-cost, widely used FireWire as a new generation fieldbus medium for real-time distributed control applications. A real-time software subsys- tem, RT-FireWire was designed that can, in combination with Linux-based real-time operating

  2. Modular specification of real-time systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inal, Recep

    1994-01-01

    Duration Calculus, a real-time interval logic, has been embedded in the Z specification language to provide a notation for real-time systems that combines the modularisation and abstraction facilities of Z with a logic suitable for reasoning about real-time properties. In this article the notation...

  3. Students Collecting Real time Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, P.

    2006-05-01

    Students Collecting Real-Time Data The Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary has created opportunities for middle and high school students to become Student Researchers and to be involved in real-time marine data collection. It is important that we expose students to different fields of science and encourage them to enter scientific fields of study. The Humpback Whale Sanctuary has an education visitor center in Kihei, Maui. Located right on the beach, the site has become a living classroom facility. There is a traditional Hawaiian fishpond fronting the property. The fishpond wall is being restored, using traditional methods. The site has the incredible opportunity of incorporating Hawaiian cultural practices with scientific studies. The Sanctuary offers opportunities for students to get involved in monitoring and data collection studies. Invasive Seaweed Study: Students are collecting data on invasive seaweed for the University of Hawaii. They pull a large net through the shallow waters. Seaweed is sorted, identified and weighed. The invasive seaweeds are removed. The data is recorded and sent to UH. Remote controlled monitoring boats: The sanctuary has 6 boogie board sized remote controlled boats used to monitor reefs. Boats have a camera with lights on the underside. The boats have water quality monitoring devices and GPS units. The video from the underwater camera is transmitted via a wireless transmission. Students are able to monitor the fish, limu and invertebrate populations on the reef and collect water quality data via television monitors or computers. The boat can also pull a small plankton tow net. Data is being compiled into data bases. Artificial Reef Modules: The Sanctuary has a scientific permit from the state to build and deploy artificial reef modules. High school students are designing and building modules. These are deployed out in the Fishpond fronting the Sanctuary site and students are monitoring them on a weekly basis

  4. Synthesis of digital locomotive receiver of automatic locomotive signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Goncharov

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Automatic locomotive signaling of continuous type with a numeric coding (ALSN has several disadvantages: a small number of signal indications, low noise stability, high inertia and low functional flexibility. Search for new and more advanced methods of signal processing for automatic locomotive signaling, synthesis of the noise proof digital locomotive receiver are essential. Methodology. The proposed algorithm of detection and identification locomotive signaling codes is based on the definition of mutual correlations of received oscillation and reference signals. For selecting threshold levels of decision element the following criterion has been formulated: the locomotive receiver should maximum set the correct solution for a given probability of dangerous errors. Findings. It has been found that the random nature of the ALSN signal amplitude does not affect the detection algorithm. However, the distribution law and numeric characteristics of signal amplitude affect the probability of errors, and should be considered when selecting a threshold levels According to obtained algorithm of detection and identification ALSN signals the digital locomotive receiver has been synthesized. It contains band pass filter, peak limiter, normalizing amplifier with automatic gain control circuit, analog to digital converter and digital signal processor. Originality. The ALSN system is improved by the way of the transfer of technical means to modern microelectronic element base, more perfect methods of detection and identification codes of locomotive signaling are applied. Practical value. Use of digital technology in the construction of the locomotive receiver ALSN will expand its functionality, will increase the noise immunity and operation stability of the locomotive signal system in conditions of various destabilizing factors.

  5. Unified Digital Periodic Signal Filters for Power Converter Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Xin, Zhen; Zhou, Keliang

    2017-01-01

    Periodic signal controllers like repetitive and resonant controllers have demonstrated much potential in the control of power electronic converters, where periodic signals (e.g., ac voltages and currents) can be precisely regulated to follow references. Beyond the control of periodic signals, ac...... signal processing (e.g., in synchronization and pre-filtering) is also very important for power converter systems. Hence, this paper serves to unify digital periodic signal filters so as to maximize their roles in power converter systems (e.g., enhance the control of ac signals). The unified digital...... periodic signal filters behave like a comb filter, but it can also be configured to selectively filter out the harmonics of interest (e.g., the odd-order harmonics in single-phase power converter systems). Moreover, a virtual variable-sampling-frequency unit delay that enables frequency adaptive periodic...

  6. New technique for real-time distortion-invariant multiobject recognition and classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Rutong; Li, Xiaoshun; Hong, En; Wang, Zuyi; Wei, Hongan

    2001-04-01

    A real-time hybrid distortion-invariant OPR system was established to make 3D multiobject distortion-invariant automatic pattern recognition. Wavelet transform technique was used to make digital preprocessing of the input scene, to depress the noisy background and enhance the recognized object. A three-layer backpropagation artificial neural network was used in correlation signal post-processing to perform multiobject distortion-invariant recognition and classification. The C-80 and NOA real-time processing ability and the multithread programming technology were used to perform high speed parallel multitask processing and speed up the post processing rate to ROIs. The reference filter library was constructed for the distortion version of 3D object model images based on the distortion parameter tolerance measuring as rotation, azimuth and scale. The real-time optical correlation recognition testing of this OPR system demonstrates that using the preprocessing, post- processing, the nonlinear algorithm os optimum filtering, RFL construction technique and the multithread programming technology, a high possibility of recognition and recognition rate ere obtained for the real-time multiobject distortion-invariant OPR system. The recognition reliability and rate was improved greatly. These techniques are very useful to automatic target recognition.

  7. On-Board, Real-Time Preprocessing System for Optical Remote-Sensing Imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Baogui; Shi, Hao; Zhuang, Yin; Chen, He; Chen, Liang

    2018-04-25

    With the development of remote-sensing technology, optical remote-sensing imagery processing has played an important role in many application fields, such as geological exploration and natural disaster prevention. However, relative radiation correction and geometric correction are key steps in preprocessing because raw image data without preprocessing will cause poor performance during application. Traditionally, remote-sensing data are downlinked to the ground station, preprocessed, and distributed to users. This process generates long delays, which is a major bottleneck in real-time applications for remote-sensing data. Therefore, on-board, real-time image preprocessing is greatly desired. In this paper, a real-time processing architecture for on-board imagery preprocessing is proposed. First, a hierarchical optimization and mapping method is proposed to realize the preprocessing algorithm in a hardware structure, which can effectively reduce the computation burden of on-board processing. Second, a co-processing system using a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) and a digital signal processor (DSP; altogether, FPGA-DSP) based on optimization is designed to realize real-time preprocessing. The experimental results demonstrate the potential application of our system to an on-board processor, for which resources and power consumption are limited.

  8. On-Board, Real-Time Preprocessing System for Optical Remote-Sensing Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Baogui; Zhuang, Yin; Chen, He; Chen, Liang

    2018-01-01

    With the development of remote-sensing technology, optical remote-sensing imagery processing has played an important role in many application fields, such as geological exploration and natural disaster prevention. However, relative radiation correction and geometric correction are key steps in preprocessing because raw image data without preprocessing will cause poor performance during application. Traditionally, remote-sensing data are downlinked to the ground station, preprocessed, and distributed to users. This process generates long delays, which is a major bottleneck in real-time applications for remote-sensing data. Therefore, on-board, real-time image preprocessing is greatly desired. In this paper, a real-time processing architecture for on-board imagery preprocessing is proposed. First, a hierarchical optimization and mapping method is proposed to realize the preprocessing algorithm in a hardware structure, which can effectively reduce the computation burden of on-board processing. Second, a co-processing system using a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) and a digital signal processor (DSP; altogether, FPGA-DSP) based on optimization is designed to realize real-time preprocessing. The experimental results demonstrate the potential application of our system to an on-board processor, for which resources and power consumption are limited. PMID:29693585

  9. Heterogeneous real-time computing in radio astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, John M.; Demorest, Paul; Ransom, Scott

    2010-07-01

    Modern computer architectures suited for general purpose computing are often not the best choice for either I/O-bound or compute-bound problems. Sometimes the best choice is not to choose a single architecture, but to take advantage of the best characteristics of different computer architectures to solve your problems. This paper examines the tradeoffs between using computer systems based on the ubiquitous X86 Central Processing Units (CPU's), Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based signal processors, and Graphical Processing Units (GPU's). We will show how a heterogeneous system can be produced that blends the best of each of these technologies into a real-time signal processing system. FPGA's tightly coupled to analog-to-digital converters connect the instrument to the telescope and supply the first level of computing to the system. These FPGA's are coupled to other FPGA's to continue to provide highly efficient processing power. Data is then packaged up and shipped over fast networks to a cluster of general purpose computers equipped with GPU's, which are used for floating-point intensive computation. Finally, the data is handled by the CPU and written to disk, or further processed. Each of the elements in the system has been chosen for its specific characteristics and the role it can play in creating a system that does the most for the least, in terms of power, space, and money.

  10. Digital signal display board design: A knowledge based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaitanya, V. Sree Krishna; Rao, C. Raghavendra

    2007-01-01

    The digital signal display board is assumed to be composed of picture tubes for the purpose of displaying characters. The signal board with the picture tubes constitutes an Information System. A methodology for obtaining the discrimable matrix or table (more decisive attributes) and knowledge reduction for the above information system is proposed

  11. Kalman Filtering with Real-Time Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chui, Charles K

    2009-01-01

    Kalman Filtering with Real-Time Applications presents a thorough discussion of the mathematical theory and computational schemes of Kalman filtering. The filtering algorithms are derived via different approaches, including a direct method consisting of a series of elementary steps, and an indirect method based on innovation projection. Other topics include Kalman filtering for systems with correlated noise or colored noise, limiting Kalman filtering for time-invariant systems, extended Kalman filtering for nonlinear systems, interval Kalman filtering for uncertain systems, and wavelet Kalman filtering for multiresolution analysis of random signals. Most filtering algorithms are illustrated by using simplified radar tracking examples. The style of the book is informal, and the mathematics is elementary but rigorous. The text is self-contained, suitable for self-study, and accessible to all readers with a minimum knowledge of linear algebra, probability theory, and system engineering.

  12. Advanced Engine Health Management Applications of the SSME Real-Time Vibration Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorucci, Tony R.; Lakin, David R., II; Reynolds, Tracy D.; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Real Time Vibration Monitoring System (RTVMS) is a 32-channel high speed vibration data acquisition and processing system developed at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). It Delivers sample rates as high as 51,200 samples/second per channel and performs Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) processing via on-board digital signal processing (DSP) chips in a real-time format. Advanced engine health assessment is achieved by utilizing the vibration spectra to provide accurate sensor validation and enhanced engine vibration redlines. Discrete spectral signatures (such as synchronous) that are indicators of imminent failure can be assessed and utilized to mitigate catastrophic engine failures- a first in rocket engine health assessment. This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  13. SU-E-T-66: A Prototype for Couch Based Real-Time Dosimetry in External Beam Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramachandran, P [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Bendigo (Australia)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The main purpose of this study is to design a prototype for couch-based based real time dosimetry system in external beam radiotherapy Methods: A prototype of 100 ionization chambers was designed on a printed circuit board by etching the copper layer and each ionization chamber was wired to a 50 pin connector. The signals from the two 50 pin connectors collected from the ionization chambers were then transferred to a PXI module from National Instruments. The PXI module houses a current amplifier that amplifies the charge collected from the ionization chamber. The amplified signal is then sent to a digital multimeter module for converting the analog signal to digital signal. A software was designed in labview to read and display the signals obtained from the PXI module. A couch attachment frame was designed to house the 100 ionization chamber module. The frame was fixed underneath the treatment couch for measuring the dose during treatment. Resutls: The ionization chamber based prototype dosimetry was tested for simple radiotherapy treatment fields and found to be a useful device for measuring real time dosimetry at the treatment couch plane. This information could be used to assess the delivered dose to a patient during radiotherapy. It could be used as an invivo dosimeter during radiotherapy. Conclusion: In this study, a prototype for couch based real time dosimetry system was designed and tested. The prototype forms a basis for the development of large scale couch based real time dosimetry system that could be used to perform morning QA prior to treatment, assess real time doses delivered to patient and as a device to monitor the output of the treatment beam. Peter MacCallum Cancer Foundation.

  14. SU-E-T-66: A Prototype for Couch Based Real-Time Dosimetry in External Beam Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramachandran, P

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The main purpose of this study is to design a prototype for couch-based based real time dosimetry system in external beam radiotherapy Methods: A prototype of 100 ionization chambers was designed on a printed circuit board by etching the copper layer and each ionization chamber was wired to a 50 pin connector. The signals from the two 50 pin connectors collected from the ionization chambers were then transferred to a PXI module from National Instruments. The PXI module houses a current amplifier that amplifies the charge collected from the ionization chamber. The amplified signal is then sent to a digital multimeter module for converting the analog signal to digital signal. A software was designed in labview to read and display the signals obtained from the PXI module. A couch attachment frame was designed to house the 100 ionization chamber module. The frame was fixed underneath the treatment couch for measuring the dose during treatment. Resutls: The ionization chamber based prototype dosimetry was tested for simple radiotherapy treatment fields and found to be a useful device for measuring real time dosimetry at the treatment couch plane. This information could be used to assess the delivered dose to a patient during radiotherapy. It could be used as an invivo dosimeter during radiotherapy. Conclusion: In this study, a prototype for couch based real time dosimetry system was designed and tested. The prototype forms a basis for the development of large scale couch based real time dosimetry system that could be used to perform morning QA prior to treatment, assess real time doses delivered to patient and as a device to monitor the output of the treatment beam. Peter MacCallum Cancer Foundation

  15. A Computer- Based Digital Signal Processing for Nuclear Scintillator Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashour, M.A.; Abo Shosha, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, a Digital Signal Processing (DSP) Computer-based system for the nuclear scintillation signals with exponential decay is presented. The main objective of this work is to identify the characteristics of the acquired signals smoothly, this can be done by transferring the signal environment from random signal domain to deterministic domain using digital manipulation techniques. The proposed system consists of two major parts. The first part is the high performance data acquisition system (DAQ) that depends on a multi-channel Logic Scope. Which is interfaced with the host computer through the General Purpose Interface Board (GPIB) Ver. IEEE 488.2. Also, a Graphical User Interface (GUI) has been designed for this purpose using the graphical programming facilities. The second of the system is the DSP software Algorithm which analyses, demonstrates, monitoring these data to obtain the main characteristics of the acquired signals; the amplitude, the pulse count, the pulse width, decay factor, and the arrival time

  16. Cyclic LTI Systems in Digital Signal Processing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vaidyanathan, P

    1998-01-01

    .... While circular convolution has been the centerpiece of many algorithms in signal processing for decades, such freedom, especially from the viewpoint of linear system theory, has not been studied in the past...

  17. The UTMOST: A Hybrid Digital Signal Processor Transforms the Molonglo Observatory Synthesis Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailes, M.; Jameson, A.; Flynn, C.; Bateman, T.; Barr, E. D.; Bhandari, S.; Bunton, J. D.; Caleb, M.; Campbell-Wilson, D.; Farah, W.; Gaensler, B.; Green, A. J.; Hunstead, R. W.; Jankowski, F.; Keane, E. F.; Krishnan, V. Venkatraman; Murphy, Tara; O'Neill, M.; Osłowski, S.; Parthasarathy, A.; Ravi, V.; Rosado, P.; Temby, D.

    2017-10-01

    The Molonglo Observatory Synthesis Telescope (MOST) is an 18000 m2 radio telescope located 40 km from Canberra, Australia. Its operating band (820-851 MHz) is partly allocated to telecommunications, making radio astronomy challenging. We describe how the deployment of new digital receivers, Field Programmable Gate Array-based filterbanks, and server-class computers equipped with 43 Graphics Processing Units, has transformed the telescope into a versatile new instrument (UTMOST) for studying the radio sky on millisecond timescales. UTMOST has 10 times the bandwidth and double the field of view compared to the MOST, and voltage record and playback capability has facilitated rapid implementaton of many new observing modes, most of which operate commensally. UTMOST can simultaneously excise interference, make maps, coherently dedisperse pulsars, and perform real-time searches of coherent fan-beams for dispersed single pulses. UTMOST operates as a robotic facility, deciding how to efficiently target pulsars and how long to stay on source via real-time pulsar folding, while searching for single pulse events. Regular timing of over 300 pulsars has yielded seven pulsar glitches and three Fast Radio Bursts during commissioning. UTMOST demonstrates that if sufficient signal processing is applied to voltage streams, innovative science remains possible even in hostile radio frequency environments.

  18. Digital signal processing algorithms for nuclear particle spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zejnalova, O.; Zejnalov, Sh.; Hambsch, F.J.; Oberstedt, S.

    2007-01-01

    Digital signal processing algorithms for nuclear particle spectroscopy are described along with a digital pile-up elimination method applicable to equidistantly sampled detector signals pre-processed by a charge-sensitive preamplifier. The signal processing algorithms are provided as recursive one- or multi-step procedures which can be easily programmed using modern computer programming languages. The influence of the number of bits of the sampling analogue-to-digital converter on the final signal-to-noise ratio of the spectrometer is considered. Algorithms for a digital shaping-filter amplifier, for a digital pile-up elimination scheme and for ballistic deficit correction were investigated using a high purity germanium detector. The pile-up elimination method was originally developed for fission fragment spectroscopy using a Frisch-grid back-to-back double ionization chamber and was mainly intended for pile-up elimination in case of high alpha-radioactivity of the fissile target. The developed pile-up elimination method affects only the electronic noise generated by the preamplifier. Therefore the influence of the pile-up elimination scheme on the final resolution of the spectrometer is investigated in terms of the distance between pile-up pulses. The efficiency of the developed algorithms is compared with other signal processing schemes published in literature

  19. Real-time control systems: feedback, scheduling and robustness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Daniel; Seuret, Alexandre; Sename, Olivier

    2017-08-01

    The efficient control of real-time distributed systems, where continuous components are governed through digital devices and communication networks, needs a careful examination of the constraints arising from the different involved domains inside co-design approaches. Thanks to the robustness of feedback control, both new control methodologies and slackened real-time scheduling schemes are proposed beyond the frontiers between these traditionally separated fields. A methodology to design robust aperiodic controllers is provided, where the sampling interval is considered as a control variable of the system. Promising experimental results are provided to show the feasibility and robustness of the approach.

  20. Magneto-optical system for high speed real time imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baziljevich, M.; Barness, D.; Sinvani, M.; Perel, E.; Shaulov, A.; Yeshurun, Y.

    2012-08-01

    A new magneto-optical system has been developed to expand the range of high speed real time magneto-optical imaging. A special source for the external magnetic field has also been designed, using a pump solenoid to rapidly excite the field coil. Together with careful modifications of the cryostat, to reduce eddy currents, ramping rates reaching 3000 T/s have been achieved. Using a powerful laser as the light source, a custom designed optical assembly, and a high speed digital camera, real time imaging rates up to 30 000 frames per seconds have been demonstrated.

  1. Reconfigurable signal processor designs for advanced digital array radar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Hernan; Zhang, Yan (Rockee); Yu, Xining

    2017-05-01

    The new challenges originated from Digital Array Radar (DAR) demands a new generation of reconfigurable backend processor in the system. The new FPGA devices can support much higher speed, more bandwidth and processing capabilities for the need of digital Line Replaceable Unit (LRU). This study focuses on using the latest Altera and Xilinx devices in an adaptive beamforming processor. The field reprogrammable RF devices from Analog Devices are used as analog front end transceivers. Different from other existing Software-Defined Radio transceivers on the market, this processor is designed for distributed adaptive beamforming in a networked environment. The following aspects of the novel radar processor will be presented: (1) A new system-on-chip architecture based on Altera's devices and adaptive processing module, especially for the adaptive beamforming and pulse compression, will be introduced, (2) Successful implementation of generation 2 serial RapidIO data links on FPGA, which supports VITA-49 radio packet format for large distributed DAR processing. (3) Demonstration of the feasibility and capabilities of the processor in a Micro-TCA based, SRIO switching backplane to support multichannel beamforming in real-time. (4) Application of this processor in ongoing radar system development projects, including OU's dual-polarized digital array radar, the planned new cylindrical array radars, and future airborne radars.

  2. VERSE - Virtual Equivalent Real-time Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yang; Martin, Bryan J.; Villaume, Nathaniel

    2005-01-01

    Distributed real-time simulations provide important timing validation and hardware in the- loop results for the spacecraft flight software development cycle. Occasionally, the need for higher fidelity modeling and more comprehensive debugging capabilities - combined with a limited amount of computational resources - calls for a non real-time simulation environment that mimics the real-time environment. By creating a non real-time environment that accommodates simulations and flight software designed for a multi-CPU real-time system, we can save development time, cut mission costs, and reduce the likelihood of errors. This paper presents such a solution: Virtual Equivalent Real-time Simulation Environment (VERSE). VERSE turns the real-time operating system RTAI (Real-time Application Interface) into an event driven simulator that runs in virtual real time. Designed to keep the original RTAI architecture as intact as possible, and therefore inheriting RTAI's many capabilities, VERSE was implemented with remarkably little change to the RTAI source code. This small footprint together with use of the same API allows users to easily run the same application in both real-time and virtual time environments. VERSE has been used to build a workstation testbed for NASA's Space Interferometry Mission (SIM PlanetQuest) instrument flight software. With its flexible simulation controls and inexpensive setup and replication costs, VERSE will become an invaluable tool in future mission development.

  3. Digital signal processing with Matlab examples

    CERN Document Server

    Giron-Sierra, Jose Maria

    2017-01-01

    This is the first volume in a trilogy on modern Signal Processing. The three books provide a concise exposition of signal processing topics, and a guide to support individual practical exploration based on MATLAB programs. This book includes MATLAB codes to illustrate each of the main steps of the theory, offering a self-contained guide suitable for independent study. The code is embedded in the text, helping readers to put into practice the ideas and methods discussed. The book is divided into three parts, the first of which introduces readers to periodic and non-periodic signals. The second part is devoted to filtering, which is an important and commonly used application. The third part addresses more advanced topics, including the analysis of real-world non-stationary signals and data, e.g. structural fatigue, earthquakes, electro-encephalograms, birdsong, etc. The book’s last chapter focuses on modulation, an example of the intentional use of non-stationary signals.

  4. Evaluation of the global orbit correction algorithm for the APS real-time orbit feedback system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carwardine, J.; Evans, K. Jr.

    1997-01-01

    The APS real-time orbit feedback system uses 38 correctors per plane and has available up to 320 rf beam position monitors. Orbit correction is implemented using multiple digital signal processors. Singular value decomposition is used to generate a correction matrix from a linear response matrix model of the storage ring lattice. This paper evaluates the performance of the APS system in terms of its ability to correct localized and distributed sources of orbit motion. The impact of regulator gain and bandwidth, choice of beam position monitors, and corrector dynamics are discussed. The weighted least-squares algorithm is reviewed in the context of local feedback

  5. An Application of PSV-S in Fast Development of a Real-Time DSP System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armein Z.R. Langi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Virtual prototyping is natural in developing digital signal processing (DSP systems using a product-service-value system (PSV-S approach. Our DSP virtual prototyping approach consists of four development phases: (1 a generic DSP system, (2 a functional DSP system, (3 an architectural DSP system, and (4 a real-time DSP system. Such an approach results in a more comprehensive approach in the DSP system development. This paper shows an example of prototyping a voice codec on a single-chip DSP processor.

  6. Digital signal and image processing using Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Blanchet , Gérard

    2015-01-01

    The most important theoretical aspects of Image and Signal Processing (ISP) for both deterministic and random signals, the theory being supported by exercises and computer simulations relating to real applications.   More than 200 programs and functions are provided in the MATLAB® language, with useful comments and guidance, to enable numerical experiments to be carried out, thus allowing readers to develop a deeper understanding of both the theoretical and practical aspects of this subject.  Following on from the first volume, this second installation takes a more practical stance, provi

  7. Digital signal and image processing using MATLAB

    CERN Document Server

    Blanchet , Gérard

    2014-01-01

    This fully revised and updated second edition presents the most important theoretical aspects of Image and Signal Processing (ISP) for both deterministic and random signals. The theory is supported by exercises and computer simulations relating to real applications. More than 200 programs and functions are provided in the MATLABÒ language, with useful comments and guidance, to enable numerical experiments to be carried out, thus allowing readers to develop a deeper understanding of both the theoretical and practical aspects of this subject. This fully revised new edition updates : - the

  8. UMTS signal measurements with digital spectrum analysers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licitra, G.; Palazzuoli, D.; Ricci, A. S.; Silvi, A. M.

    2004-01-01

    The launch of the Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UNITS), the most recent mobile telecommunications standard has imposed the requirement of updating measurement instrumentation and methodologies. In order to define the most reliable measurement procedure, which is aimed at assessing the exposure to electromagnetic fields, modern spectrum analysers' features for correct signal characterisation has been reviewed. (authors)

  9. Image Acquisition in Real Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    In 1995, Carlos Jorquera left NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to focus on erasing the growing void between high-performance cameras and the requisite software to capture and process the resulting digital images. Since his departure from NASA, Jorquera s efforts have not only satisfied the private industry's cravings for faster, more flexible, and more favorable software applications, but have blossomed into a successful entrepreneurship that is making its mark with improvements in fields such as medicine, weather forecasting, and X-ray inspection. Formerly a JPL engineer who constructed imaging systems for spacecraft and ground-based astronomy projects, Jorquera is the founder and president of the three-person firm, Boulder Imaging Inc., based in Louisville, Colorado. Joining Jorquera to round out the Boulder Imaging staff are Chief Operations Engineer Susan Downey, who also gained experience at JPL working on space-bound projects including Galileo and the Hubble Space Telescope, and Vice President of Engineering and Machine Vision Specialist Jie Zhu Kulbida, who has extensive industrial and research and development experience within the private sector.

  10. Eight-Channel Digital Signal Processor and Universal Trigger Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skulski, Wojtek; Wolfs, Frank

    2003-04-01

    A 10-bit, 8-channel, 40 megasamples per second digital signal processor and waveform digitizer DDC-8 (nicknamed Universal Trigger Module) is presented. The digitizer features 8 analog inputs, 1 analog output for a reconstructed analog waveform, 16 NIM logic inputs, 8 NIM logic outputs, and a pool of 16 TTL logic lines which can be individually configured as either inputs or outputs. The first application of this device is to enhance the present trigger electronics for PHOBOS at RHIC. The status of the development and the first results are presented. Possible applications of the new device are discussed. Supported by the NSF grant PHY-0072204.

  11. Space Weather and Real-Time Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Watari

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent advance of information and communications technology enables to collect a large amount of ground-based and space-based observation data in real-time. The real-time data realize nowcast of space weather. This paper reports a history of space weather by the International Space Environment Service (ISES in association with the International Geophysical Year (IGY and importance of real-time monitoring in space weather.

  12. Archtecture of distributed real-time systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wing Leung, Cheuk

    2013-01-01

    CRAFTERS (Constraint and Application Driven Framework for Tailoring Embedded Real-time System) project aims to address the problem of uncertainty and heterogeneity in a distributed system by providing seamless, portable connectivity and middleware. This thesis contributes to the project by investigating the techniques that can be used in a distributed real-time embedded system. The conclusion is that, there is a list of specifications to be meet in order to provide a transparent and real-time...

  13. Research Directions in Real-Time Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-09-01

    This report summarizes a survey of published research in real time systems . Material is presented that provides an overview of the topic, focusing on...communications protocols and scheduling techniques. It is noted that real - time systems deserve special attention separate from other areas because of...formal tools for design and analysis of real - time systems . The early work on applications as well as notable theoretical advances are summarized

  14. A Real-Time Systems Symposium Preprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    Real - Time Systems Symposium Preprint Interim Tech...estimate of the occurence of the error. Unclassii ledSECUqITY CLASSIF’ICA T" NO MI*IA If’ inDI /’rrd erter for~~ble. ’Corrputnqg A REAL - TIME SYSTEMS SYMPOSIUM...ABSTRACT This technical report contains a preprint of a paper accepted for presentation at the REAL - TIME SYSTEMS SYMPOSIUM, Arlington,

  15. Pseudo real-time imaging systems with nonredundant pinhole arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, K.S.; Berzins, G.J.; Roach, W.H.

    1976-01-01

    Coded aperture techniques, because of their efficiency and three-dimensional information content, represent potentially powerful tools for LMFBR safety experiment diagnostics. These techniques should be even more powerful if the data can be interpreted in real time or in pseudo real time. For example, to satisfy the stated goals for LMFBR diagnostics (1-ms time resolution and 1-mm spatial resolution), it is conceivable that several hundred frames of coded data would be recorded. To unscramble all of this information into reconstructed images could be a laborious, time-consuming task. A way to circumvent the tedium is with the use of the described hybrid digital/analog real-time imaging system. Some intermediate results are described briefly

  16. Real time equilibrium reconstruction for tokamak discharge control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferron, J.R.; Walker, M.L.; Lao, L.L.; St John, H.E.; Humphreys, D.A.; Leuer, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    A practical method for performing a tokamak equilibrium reconstruction in real time for arbitrary time varying discharge shapes and current profiles is described. An approximate solution to the Grad-Shafranov equilibrium relation is found which best fits the diagnostic measurements. Thus, a solution for the spatial distribution of poloidal flux and toroidal current density is available in real time that is consistent with plasma force balance, allowing accurate evaluation of parameters such as discharge shape and safety factor profile. The equilibrium solutions are produced at a rate sufficient for discharge control. This equilibrium reconstruction algorithm has been implemented on the digital plasma control system for the DIII-D tokamak. The first application of real time equilibrium reconstruction to discharge shape control is described. (author)

  17. Signals, systems, transforms, and digital signal processing with Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Corinthios, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Continuous-Time and Discrete-Time Signals and SystemsIntroductionContinuous-Time SignalsPeriodic FunctionsUnit Step FunctionGraphical Representation of FunctionsEven and Odd Parts of a FunctionDirac-Delta ImpulseBasic Properties of the Dirac-Delta ImpulseOther Important Properties of the ImpulseContinuous-Time SystemsCausality, StabilityExamples of Electrical Continuous-Time SystemsMechanical SystemsTransfer Function and Frequency ResponseConvolution and CorrelationA Right-Sided and a Left-Sided FunctionConvolution with an Impulse and Its DerivativesAdditional Convolution PropertiesCorrelation FunctionProperties of the Correlation FunctionGraphical InterpretationCorrelation of Periodic FunctionsAverage, Energy and Power of Continuous-Time SignalsDiscrete-Time SignalsPeriodicityDifference EquationsEven/Odd DecompositionAverage Value, Energy and Power SequencesCausality, StabilityProblemsAnswers to Selected ProblemsFourier Series ExpansionTrigonometric Fourier SeriesExponential Fourier SeriesExponential versus ...

  18. Real-time motional Stark effect in jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, D.; Stephen, A.; Hawkes, N.; Dalley, S.; Goodyear, A.; Felton, R.; Joffrin, E.; Fernandes, H.

    2004-01-01

    The increasing importance of real-time measurements and control systems in JET experiments, regarding e.g. Internal Transport Barrier (ITB) and q-profile control, has motivated the development of a real-time motional Stark effect (MSE) system. The MSE diagnostic allows the measurement of local magnetic fields in different locations along the neutral beam path providing, therefore, local measurement of the current and q-profiles. Recently in JET, an upgrade of the MSE diagnostic has been implemented, incorporating a totally new system which allows the use of this diagnostic as a real-time control tool as well as an extended data source for off-line analysis. This paper will briefly describe the technical features of the real-time diagnostic with main focus on the system architecture, which consists of a VME crate hosting three PowerPC processor boards and a fast ADC, all connected via Front Panel Data Port (FPDP). The DSP algorithm implements a lockin-amplifier required to demodulate the JET MSE signals. Some applications for the system will be covered such as: feeding the real-time equilibrium reconstruction code (EQUINOX) and allowing the full coverage analysis of the Neutral Beam time window. A brief comparison between the real-time MSE analysis and the off-line analysis will also be presented

  19. Design and implement of infrared small target real-time detection system based on pipeline technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lihui; Wang, Yongzhong; He, Yongqiang

    2007-01-01

    The detection for motive small target in infrared image sequence has become a hot topic nowadays. Background suppress algorithm based on minim gradient median filter and temporal recursion target detection algorithm are introduced. On the basis of contents previously mentioned, a four stages pipeline structure infrared small target detection process system, which aims at characters of algorithm complexity, large amounts of data to process, high frame frequency and exigent real-time character in this kind of application, is designed and implemented. The logical structure of the system was introduced and the function and signals flows are programmed. The system is composed of two FPGA chips and two DSP chips of TI. According to the function of each part, the system is divided into image preprocess stage, target detection stage, track relation stage and image output stage. The experiment of running algorithms on the system presented in this paper proved that the system could meet acquisition and process of 50Hz 240x320 digital image and the system could real time detect small target with a signal-noise ratio more than 3 reliably. The system achieves the characters of large amount of memory, high real-time processing, excellent extension and favorable interactive interface.

  20. Essays in real-time forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    Liebermann, Joelle

    2012-01-01

    This thesis contains three essays in the field of real-time econometrics, and more particularlyforecasting.The issue of using data as available in real-time to forecasters, policymakers or financialmarkets is an important one which has only recently been taken on board in the empiricalliterature. Data available and used in real-time are preliminary and differ from ex-postrevised data, and given that data revisions may be quite substantial, the use of latestavailable instead of real-time can s...

  1. Research in Distributed Real-Time Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukkamala, R.

    1997-01-01

    This document summarizes the progress we have made on our study of issues concerning the schedulability of real-time systems. Our study has produced several results in the scalability issues of distributed real-time systems. In particular, we have used our techniques to resolve schedulability issues in distributed systems with end-to-end requirements. During the next year (1997-98), we propose to extend the current work to address the modeling and workload characterization issues in distributed real-time systems. In particular, we propose to investigate the effect of different workload models and component models on the design and the subsequent performance of distributed real-time systems.

  2. Real-time Pricing in Power Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Anette; Schwenen, Sebastian

    We examine welfare e ects of real-time pricing in electricity markets. Before stochastic energy demand is known, competitive retailers contract with nal consumers who exogenously do not have real-time meters. After demand is realized, two electricity generators compete in a uniform price auction...... to satisfy demand from retailers acting on behalf of subscribed customers and from consumers with real-time meters. Increasing the number of consumers on real-time pricing does not always increase welfare since risk-averse consumers dislike uncertain and high prices arising through market power...

  3. Real-time Pricing in Power Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boom, Anette; Schwenen, Sebastian

    We examine welfare eects of real-time pricing in electricity markets. Before stochastic energy demand is known, competitive retailers contract with nal consumers who exogenously do not have real-time meters. After demand is realized, two electricity generators compete in a uniform price auction...... to satisfy demand from retailers acting on behalf of subscribed customers and from consumers with real-time meters. Increasing the number of consumers on real-time pricing does not always increase welfare since risk-averse consumers dislike uncertain and high prices arising through market power...

  4. Sound card based digital correlation detection of weak photoelectrical signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Guanghui; Wang Jiangcheng

    2005-01-01

    A simple and low-cost digital correlation method is proposed to investigate weak photoelectrical signals, using a high-speed photodiode as detector, which is directly connected to a programmably triggered sound card analogue-to-digital converter and a personal computer. Two testing experiments, autocorrelation detection of weak flickering signals from a computer monitor under background of noisy outdoor stray light and cross-correlation measurement of the surface velocity of a motional tape, are performed, showing that the results are reliable and the method is easy to implement

  5. Robust digital processing of speech signals

    CERN Document Server

    Kovacevic, Branko; Veinović, Mladen; Marković, Milan

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on speech signal phenomena, presenting a robustification of the usual speech generation models with regard to the presumed types of excitation signals, which is equivalent to the introduction of a class of nonlinear models and the corresponding criterion functions for parameter estimation. Compared to the general class of nonlinear models, such as various neural networks, these models possess good properties of controlled complexity, the option of working in “online” mode, as well as a low information volume for efficient speech encoding and transmission. Providing comprehensive insights, the book is based on the authors’ research, which has already been published, supplemented by additional texts discussing general considerations of speech modeling, linear predictive analysis and robust parameter estimation.

  6. The Soft X-ray real time fast trigger system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackler, K.; Edwards, A.; Holm, J.

    1992-05-01

    Most current diagnostics are limited to recording data either at fixed times and data rates, or in response to certain predefined events - such as the injection of a pellet. The previous Soft X-Ray trigger system at Joint European Torus Joint Undertaking (JET)(A.W. Edwards et al., Rev Sci Instrum. 57(8), p2142, 1986) improved upon this by using Analogue Signal Processors to monitor the analogue data in real time and to provide 'triggers' to the data acquisition system in response to an event such as a sawtooth collapse. This system was however limited in the type of events that could be detected. It was also incapable of being rapidly re-configured. Advances in digital electronics caused a study to be undertaken to see if this situation could be improved. The system described below is the result of this study and has successfully run at JET since the summer of 1990, providing a greatly increased quality of data as well as recording some new phenomena such as the spontaneous snake. This note has been produced to describe the function and operation of the trigger system. (author)

  7. Real-time monitoring of seismic data using satellite telemetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Merucci

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the ARGO Satellite Seismic Network (ARGO SSN as a reliable system for monitoring, collection, visualisation and analysis of seismic and geophysical low-frequency data, The satellite digital telemetry system is composed of peripheral geophysical stations, a centraI communications node (master sta- tion located in CentraI Italy, and a data collection and processing centre located at ING (Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica, Rome. The task of the peripheral stations is to digitalise and send via satellite the geophysical data collected by the various sensors to the master station. The master station receives the data and forwards them via satellite to the ING in Rome; it also performs alI the monitoring functions of satellite communications. At the data collection and processing centre of ING, the data are received and analysed in real time, the seismic events are identified and recorded, the low-frequency geophysical data are stored. In addition, the generaI sta- tus of the satellite network and of each peripheral station connected, is monitored. The procedure for analysjs of acquired seismic signals allows the automatic calculation of local magnitude and duration magnitude The communication and data exchange between the seismic networks of Greece, Spain and Italy is the fruit of a recent development in the field of technology of satellite transmission of ARGO SSN (project of European Community "Southern Europe Network for Analysis of Seismic Data"

  8. Design of Real Time Data Acquisition System Framework for Production Workshop Based on OPC Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Yue-xin Yang; Gong-chang Ren

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the low level of production management information in a hydraulic torque converter enterprise is presented. It is needed to develop a digital assembly shop MES to solve this problem. There is a high demand for the real-time data acquisition of the production line in the digital assembly shop MES. According to the actual needs of MES in digital assembly workshop, a real time data acquisition system framework based on OPC technology and database technology is proposed. The framew...

  9. Instrumentation development for real time brainwave monitoring.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Lawrence Frederick; Clough, Benjamin W.

    2005-12-01

    The human brain functions through a chemically-induced biological process which operates in a manner similar to electrical systems. The signal resulting from this biochemical process can actually be monitored and read using tools and having patterns similar to those found in electrical and electronics engineering. The primary signature of this electrical activity is the ''brain wave'', which looks remarkably similar to the output of many electrical systems. Likewise, the device currently used in medical arenas to read brain electrical activity is the electroencephalogram (EEG) which is synonymous with a multi-channel oscilloscope reading. Brain wave readings and recordings for medical purposes are traditionally taken in clinical settings such as hospitals, laboratories or diagnostic clinics. The signal is captured via externally applied scalp electrodes using semi-viscous gel to reduce impedance. The signal will be in the 10 to 100 microvolt range. In other instances, where surgeons are attempting to isolate particular types of minute brain signals, the electrodes may actually be temporarily implanted in the brain during a preliminary procedure. The current configurations of equipment required for EEGs involve large recording instruments, many electrodes, wires, and large amounts of hard disk space devoted to storing large files of brain wave data which are then eventually analyzed for patterns of concern. Advances in sensors, signal processing, data storage and microelectronics over the last decade would seem to have paved the way for the realization of devices capable of ''real time'' external monitoring, and possible assessment, of brain activity. A myriad of applications for such a capability are likewise presenting themselves, including the ability to assess brain functioning, level of functioning and malfunctioning. Our plan is to develop the sensors, signal processing, and portable instrumentation package which could

  10. Real-time communication protocols: an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanssen, F.T.Y.; Jansen, P.G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes several existing data link layer protocols that provide real-time capabilities on wired networks, focusing on token-ring and Carrier Sense Multiple Access based networks. Existing modifications to provide better real-time capabilities and performance are also described. Finally

  11. Towards exascale real-time RFI mitigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nieuwpoort, R.V.

    2016-01-01

    We describe the design and implementation of an extremely scalable real-time RFI mitigation method, based on the offline AOFlagger. All algorithms scale linearly in the number of samples. We describe how we implemented the flagger in the LOFAR real-time pipeline, on both CPUs and GPUs. Additionally,

  12. Real time refractive index measurement by ESPI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torroba, R.; Joenathan, C.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper a method to measure refractive index variations in real time is reported. A technique to introduce reference fringes in real time is discussed. Both the theoretical and experimental results are presented and an example with phase shifting is given. (author). 8 refs, 5 figs

  13. De toekomst van Real Time Intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, J. van den; Berg, C.H. van den

    2013-01-01

    Al direct vanaf de start van de Nationale Politie is gewerkt aan het opzetten van tien real-time intelligence centra in Nederland. Van daaruit worden 24 uur per dag en zeven dagen in de week agenten op straat actief ondersteund met real-time informatie bij de melding waar ze op af gaan. In de visie

  14. Heterogeneous Embedded Real-Time Systems Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    AFRL-IF-RS-TR-2003-290 Final Technical Report December 2003 HETEROGENEOUS EMBEDDED REAL - TIME SYSTEMS ENVIRONMENT Integrated...HETEROGENEOUS EMBEDDED REAL - TIME SYSTEMS ENVIRONMENT 6. AUTHOR(S) Cosmo Castellano and James Graham 5. FUNDING NUMBERS C - F30602-97-C-0259

  15. Validation of RNAi by real time PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Knud; Lee, Ying Chiu

    2011-01-01

    Real time PCR is the analytic tool of choice for quantification of gene expression, while RNAi is concerned with downregulation of gene expression. Together, they constitute a powerful approach in any loss of function studies of selective genes. We illustrate here the use of real time PCR to verify...

  16. Real time programming environment for Windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaBelle, D.R. [LaBelle (Dennis R.), Clifton Park, NY (United States)

    1998-04-01

    This document provides a description of the Real Time Programming Environment (RTProE). RTProE tools allow a programmer to create soft real time projects under general, multi-purpose operating systems. The basic features necessary for real time applications are provided by RTProE, leaving the programmer free to concentrate efforts on his specific project. The current version supports Microsoft Windows{trademark} 95 and NT. The tasks of real time synchronization and communication with other programs are handled by RTProE. RTProE includes a generic method for connecting a graphical user interface (GUI) to allow real time control and interaction with the programmer`s product. Topics covered in this paper include real time performance issues, portability, details of shared memory management, code scheduling, application control, Operating System specific concerns and the use of Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) tools. The development of RTProE is an important step in the expansion of the real time programming community. The financial costs associated with using the system are minimal. All source code for RTProE has been made publicly available. Any person with access to a personal computer, Windows 95 or NT, and C or FORTRAN compilers can quickly enter the world of real time modeling and simulation.

  17. Storm real-time processing cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Quinton

    2013-01-01

    A Cookbook with plenty of practical recipes for different uses of Storm.If you are a Java developer with basic knowledge of real-time processing and would like to learn Storm to process unbounded streams of data in real time, then this book is for you.

  18. KNN BASED CLASSIFICATION OF DIGITAL MODULATED SIGNALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad Ahmed Ghauri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Demodulation process without the knowledge of modulation scheme requires Automatic Modulation Classification (AMC. When receiver has limited information about received signal then AMC become essential process. AMC finds important place in the field many civil and military fields such as modern electronic warfare, interfering source recognition, frequency management, link adaptation etc. In this paper we explore the use of K-nearest neighbor (KNN for modulation classification with different distance measurement methods. Five modulation schemes are used for classification purpose which is Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK, Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK, Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM, 16-QAM and 64-QAM. Higher order cummulants (HOC are used as an input feature set to the classifier. Simulation results shows that proposed classification method provides better results for the considered modulation formats.

  19. A simple approach to digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Marven, Craig

    1996-01-01

    A readable, understandable introduction to DSP for professionals and students alike . . . This practical guide is a welcome alternative to more complicated introductions to DSP. It assumes no prior DSP experience and takes the reader step-by-step through the most basic signal processing concepts to more complex functions and devices, including sampling, filtering, frequency transforms, data compression, and even DSP design decisions. The guide provides clear, concise explanations and examples, while keeping mathematics to a minimum, to help develop a fundamental understanding of DSP. Other features include: * An extensive resource bibliography of more advanced DSP books. * An example of a typical DSP system development cycle, including tool descriptions. * A complete glossary of DSP-related acronyms Whether you're a working engineer looking into DSP for the first time or an undergraduate struggling to comprehend the subject, this engaging introduction provides easy access to the basic knowledge that will l...

  20. Digital Signal Processing for Optical Coherent Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xu

    spectrum narrowing tolerance 112-Gb/s DP-QPSK optical coherent systems using digital adaptive equalizer. The demonstrated results show that off-line DSP algorithms are able to reduce the bit error rate (BER) penalty induced by signal spectrum narrowing. Third, we also investigate bi...... wavelength division multiplex (U-DWDM) optical coherent systems based on 10-Gbaud QPSK. We report U-DWDM 1.2-Tb/s QPSK coherent system achieving spectral efficiency of 4.0-bit/s/Hz. In the experimental demonstration, digital decision feed back equalizer (DFE) algorithms and a finite impulse response (FIR......In this thesis, digital signal processing (DSP) algorithms are studied to compensate for physical layer impairments in optical fiber coherent communication systems. The physical layer impairments investigated in this thesis include optical fiber chromatic dispersion, polarization demultiplexing...

  1. Subband coding of digital audio signals without loss of quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Breeuwer, Marcel; van de Waal, Robbert

    1989-01-01

    A subband coding system for high quality digital audio signals is described. To achieve low bit rates at a high quality level, it exploits the simultaneous masking effect of the human ear. It is shown how this effect can be used in an adaptive bit-allocation scheme. The proposed approach has been

  2. Application of Field programmable Gate Array to Digital Signal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Research in National Development ... This work shows how one parallel technology Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) can be applied to digital signal processing problem to increase computational speed. ... In this research work FPGA typically exploits parallelism because FPGA is a parallel device. With the ...

  3. The study of image processing of parallel digital signal processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jie

    2000-01-01

    The author analyzes the basic characteristic of parallel DSP (digital signal processor) TMS320C80 and proposes related optimized image algorithm and the parallel processing method based on parallel DSP. The realtime for many image processing can be achieved in this way

  4. Some recent work on lattice structures for digital signal processing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Digital signal processing (DSP); lattice structures; finite impulse ... fascinated this author for a long time, and for the known non-canonical ...... where M

  5. Single particle irradiation effect of digital signal processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Si'an; Chen Kenan

    2010-01-01

    The single particle irradiation effect of high energy neutron on digital signal processor TMS320P25 in dynamic working condition has been studied. The influence of the single particle on the device has been explored through the acquired waveform and working current of TMS320P25. Analysis results, test data and test methods have also been presented. (authors)

  6. Digital Signal Processor System for AC Power Drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu Neamtu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available DSP (Digital Signal Processor is the bestsolution for motor control systems to make possible thedevelopment of advanced motor drive systems. The motorcontrol processor calculates the required motor windingvoltage magnitude and frequency to operate the motor atthe desired speed. A PWM (Pulse Width Modulationcircuit controls the on and off duty cycle of the powerinverter switches to vary the magnitude of the motorvoltages.

  7. Digital signal array processor for NSLS booster power supply upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, R.; Dabrowski, J.; Murray, J.

    1993-01-01

    The booster at the NSLS is being upgraded from 0.75 to 2 pulses per second. To accomplish this, new power supplied for the dipole, quadrupole, and sextupole have been installed. This paper will outline the design and function of the digital signal processor used as the primary control element in the power supply control system

  8. Real-Time Hand-Held Magnetometer Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    measurements, we swung a target, pendulum-style, from the ceiling above the array. We could easily observe that the height of the target was varying... crystal oscillator clock signal. The Microblaze processor boots up with the program already present in its RAM at startup. MR-2104 Real-Time

  9. MARTe: A Multiplatform Real-Time Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, André C.; Sartori, Filippo; Piccolo, Fabio; Vitelli, Riccardo; De Tommasi, Gianmaria; Zabeo, Luca; Barbalace, Antonio; Fernandes, Horacio; Valcarcel, Daniel F.; Batista, Antonio J. N.

    2010-04-01

    Development of real-time applications is usually associated with nonportable code targeted at specific real-time operating systems. The boundary between hardware drivers, system services, and user code is commonly not well defined, making the development in the target host significantly difficult. The Multithreaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe) is a framework built over a multiplatform library that allows the execution of the same code in different operating systems. The framework provides the high-level interfaces with hardware, external configuration programs, and user interfaces, assuring at the same time hard real-time performances. End-users of the framework are required to define and implement algorithms inside a well-defined block of software, named Generic Application Module (GAM), that is executed by the real-time scheduler. Each GAM is reconfigurable with a set of predefined configuration meta-parameters and interchanges information using a set of data pipes that are provided as inputs and required as output. Using these connections, different GAMs can be chained either in series or parallel. GAMs can be developed and debugged in a non-real-time system and, only once the robustness of the code and correctness of the algorithm are verified, deployed to the real-time system. The software also supplies a large set of utilities that greatly ease the interaction and debugging of a running system. Among the most useful are a highly efficient real-time logger, HTTP introspection of real-time objects, and HTTP remote configuration. MARTe is currently being used to successfully drive the plasma vertical stabilization controller on the largest magnetic confinement fusion device in the world, with a control loop cycle of 50 ?s and a jitter under 1 ?s. In this particular project, MARTe is used with the Real-Time Application Interface (RTAI)/Linux operating system exploiting the new ?86 multicore processors technology.

  10. Real Time Seismic Prediction while Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, F. R.; Bohlen, T.; Edelmann, T.; Kassel, A.; Heim, A.; Gehring, M.; Lüth, S.; Giese, R.; Jaksch, K.; Rechlin, A.; Kopf, M.; Stahlmann, J.; Gattermann, J.; Bruns, B.

    2009-12-01

    Efficient and safe drilling is a prerequisite to enhance the mobility of people and goods, to improve the traffic as well as utility infrastructure of growing megacities, and to ensure the growing energy demand while building geothermal and in hydroelectric power plants. Construction within the underground is often building within the unknown. An enhanced risk potential for people and the underground building may arise if drilling enters fracture zones, karsts, brittle rocks, mixed solid and soft rocks, caves, or anthropogenic obstacles. Knowing about the material behavior ahead of the drilling allows reducing the risk during drilling and construction operation. In drilling operations direct observations from boreholes can be complemented with geophysical investigations. In this presentation we focus on “real time” seismic prediction while drilling which is seen as a prerequisite while using geophysical methods in modern drilling operations. In solid rocks P- and S-wave velocity, refraction and reflection as well as seismic wave attenuation can be used for the interpretation of structures ahead of the drilling. An Integrated Seismic Imaging System (ISIS) for exploration ahead of a construction is used, where a pneumatic hammer or a magnetostrictive vibration source generate repetitive signals behind the tunneling machine. Tube waves are generated which travel along the tunnel to the working face. There the tube waves are converted to mainly S- but also P-Waves which interact with the formation ahead of the heading face. The reflected or refracted waves travel back to the working front are converted back to tube waves and recorded using three-component geophones which are fit into the tips of anchor rods. In near real time, the ISIS software allows for an integrated 3D imaging and interpretation of the observed data, geological and geotechnical parameters. Fracture zones, heterogeneities, and variations in the rock properties can be revealed during the drilling

  11. Real-time Color Codes for Assessing Learning Process

    OpenAIRE

    Dzelzkalēja, L; Kapenieks, J

    2016-01-01

    Effective assessment is an important way for improving the learning process. There are existing guidelines for assessing the learning process, but they lack holistic digital knowledge society considerations. In this paper the authors propose a method for real-time evaluation of students’ learning process and, consequently, for quality evaluation of teaching materials both in the classroom and in the distance learning environment. The main idea of the proposed Color code method (CCM) is to use...

  12. Real-time Fourier transformation of lightwave spectra and application in optical reflectometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malacarne, Antonio; Park, Yongwoo; Li, Ming; LaRochelle, Sophie; Azaña, José

    2015-12-14

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a fiber-optics scheme for real-time analog Fourier transform (FT) of a lightwave energy spectrum, such that the output signal maps the FT of the spectrum of interest along the time axis. This scheme avoids the need for analog-to-digital conversion and subsequent digital signal post-processing of the photo-detected spectrum, thus being capable of providing the desired FT processing directly in the optical domain at megahertz update rates. The proposed concept is particularly attractive for applications requiring FT analysis of optical spectra, such as in many optical Fourier-domain reflectrometry (OFDR), interferometry, spectroscopy and sensing systems. Examples are reported to illustrate the use of the method for real-time OFDR, where the target axial-line profile is directly observed in a single-shot oscilloscope trace, similarly to a time-of-flight measurement, but with a resolution and depth of range dictated by the underlying interferometry scheme.

  13. The Colliderscope: a real-time show

    CERN Multimedia

    Francesco Poppi

    2010-01-01

    Ninety-six LED lights distributed over the facade of the Niels Bohr Institute (NBI) in Blegdamsvej (Denmark) reproduce the actual signals coming from the Transition Radiation Detector (TRT) in ATLAS. Thanks to the Colliderscope, when a collision occurs below the ground in Geneva, people passing by in Blegdamsvej will be aware of it almost in real-time.   Niels Bohr Institute facade lit up to reflect the latest data from ATLAS-TRT . The pattern, intensity and duration of the Colliderscope’s flashes of light depend on the physical parameters of particles crossing the ATLAS TRT detector. “At the Colliderscope very little happens randomly”, explains Troels Petersen, a physicist at NBI and one of the people who conceived it. “Particularly interesting events, such as electrons, are shown by a bright light that remains on the facade for several seconds”. The Niels Bohr Institute has participated in the development of the TRT detector, and this is why t...

  14. Real-time ultrasonic weld evaluation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katragadda, Gopichand; Nair, Satish; Liu, Harry; Brown, Lawrence M.

    1996-11-01

    Ultrasonic testing techniques are currently used as an alternative to radiography for detecting, classifying,and sizing weld defects, and for evaluating weld quality. Typically, ultrasonic weld inspections are performed manually, which require significant operator expertise and time. Thus, in recent years, the emphasis is to develop automated methods to aid or replace operators in critical weld inspections where inspection time, reliability, and operator safety are major issues. During this period, significant advances wee made in the areas of weld defect classification and sizing. Very few of these methods, however have found their way into the market, largely due to the lack of an integrated approach enabling real-time implementation. Also, not much research effort was directed in improving weld acceptance criteria. This paper presents an integrated system utilizing state-of-the-art techniques for a complete automation of the weld inspection procedure. The modules discussed include transducer tracking, classification, sizing, and weld acceptance criteria. Transducer tracking was studied by experimentally evaluating sonic and optical position tracking techniques. Details for this evaluation are presented. Classification is obtained using a multi-layer perceptron. Results from different feature extraction schemes, including a new method based on a combination of time and frequency-domain signal representations are given. Algorithms developed to automate defect registration and sizing are discussed. A fuzzy-logic acceptance criteria for weld acceptance is presented describing how this scheme provides improved robustness compared to the traditional flow-diagram standards.

  15. Real-time scheduling of software tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoff, L.T.

    1995-01-01

    When designing real-time systems, it is often desirable to schedule execution of software tasks based on the occurrence of events. The events may be clock ticks, interrupts from a hardware device, or software signals from other software tasks. If the nature of the events, is well understood, this scheduling is normally a static part of the system design. If the nature of the events is not completely understood, or is expected to change over time, it may be necessary to provide a mechanism for adjusting the scheduling of the software tasks. RHIC front-end computers (FECs) provide such a mechanism. The goals in designing this mechanism were to be as independent as possible of the underlying operating system, to allow for future expansion of the mechanism to handle new types of events, and to allow easy configuration. Some considerations which steered the design were programming paradigm (object oriented vs. procedural), programming language, and whether events are merely interesting moments in time, or whether they intrinsically have data associated with them. The design also needed to address performance and robustness tradeoffs involving shared task contexts, task priorities, and use of interrupt service routine (ISR) contexts vs. task contexts. This paper will explore these considerations and tradeoffs

  16. A high speed digital signal averager for pulsed NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, R.; Ramakrishna, J.; Ra agopalan, S.R.

    1978-01-01

    A 256-channel digital signal averager suitable for pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is described. It implements 'stable averaging' algorithm and hence provides a calibrated display of the average signal at all times during the averaging process on a CRT. It has a maximum sampling rate of 2.5 μ sec and a memory capacity of 256 x 12 bit words. Number of sweeps is selectable through a front panel control in binary steps from 2 3 to 2 12 . The enhanced signal can be displayed either on a CRT or by a 3.5-digit LED display. The maximum S/N improvement that can be achieved with this instrument is 36 dB. (auth.)

  17. Design of Real Time Data Acquisition System Framework for Production Workshop Based on OPC Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue-xin Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the low level of production management information in a hydraulic torque converter enterprise is presented. It is needed to develop a digital assembly shop MES to solve this problem. There is a high demand for the real-time data acquisition of the production line in the digital assembly shop MES. According to the actual needs of MES in digital assembly workshop, a real time data acquisition system framework based on OPC technology and database technology is proposed. The framework can be used to meet the actual needs of the real time monitoring system and production business information processing in MES.

  18. Improvement of the real-time processor in JT-60 data processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, S.; Kiyono, K.; Sato, M.; Kominato, T.; Sueoka, M.; Hosoyama, H.; Kawamata, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Real-time processor, RTP is a basic subsystem in the JT-60 data processing system and plays an important role in JT-60 feedback control for plasma experiment. During the experiment, RTP acquires various diagnostic signals, processes them into a form of physical values, and transfers them as sensor signals to the particle supply and heating control supervisor for feedback control via reflective memory synchronization with 1 ms clock signals. After the start of RTP operation in 1997, to meet the demand for advanced plasma experiment, RTP had been improved continuously such as by addition of diagnostic signals with faster digitizers, reducing time for data transfer utilizing reflective memory instead of CAMAC. However, it is becoming increasingly difficult to maintain, manage, and improve the outdated RTP with limited system CPU capability. Currently, a prototype RTP system is being developed for the next real-time processing system, which is composed of clustered system utilizing VxWorks computer. The processes on the existing RTP system will be decentralized to the VxWorks computer to solve the issues of the existing RTP system. The prototype RTP system will start to operate in August 2008.

  19. Research of real-time communication software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Maotang; Guo, Jingbo; Liu, Yuzhong; Li, Jiahong

    2003-11-01

    Real-time communication has been playing an increasingly important role in our work, life and ocean monitor. With the rapid progress of computer and communication technique as well as the miniaturization of communication system, it is needed to develop the adaptable and reliable real-time communication software in the ocean monitor system. This paper involves the real-time communication software research based on the point-to-point satellite intercommunication system. The object-oriented design method is adopted, which can transmit and receive video data and audio data as well as engineering data by satellite channel. In the real-time communication software, some software modules are developed, which can realize the point-to-point satellite intercommunication in the ocean monitor system. There are three advantages for the real-time communication software. One is that the real-time communication software increases the reliability of the point-to-point satellite intercommunication system working. Second is that some optional parameters are intercalated, which greatly increases the flexibility of the system working. Third is that some hardware is substituted by the real-time communication software, which not only decrease the expense of the system and promotes the miniaturization of communication system, but also aggrandizes the agility of the system.

  20. Making real-time reactive systems reliable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzullo, Keith; Wood, Mark

    1990-01-01

    A reactive system is characterized by a control program that interacts with an environment (or controlled program). The control program monitors the environment and reacts to significant events by sending commands to the environment. This structure is quite general. Not only are most embedded real time systems reactive systems, but so are monitoring and debugging systems and distributed application management systems. Since reactive systems are usually long running and may control physical equipment, fault tolerance is vital. The research tries to understand the principal issues of fault tolerance in real time reactive systems and to build tools that allow a programmer to design reliable, real time reactive systems. In order to make real time reactive systems reliable, several issues must be addressed: (1) How can a control program be built to tolerate failures of sensors and actuators. To achieve this, a methodology was developed for transforming a control program that references physical value into one that tolerates sensors that can fail and can return inaccurate values; (2) How can the real time reactive system be built to tolerate failures of the control program. Towards this goal, whether the techniques presented can be extended to real time reactive systems is investigated; and (3) How can the environment be specified in a way that is useful for writing a control program. Towards this goal, whether a system with real time constraints can be expressed as an equivalent system without such constraints is also investigated.

  1. Real-time, vibration-compensated CO2 interferometer operation on the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlstrom, T.N.; Ahlgren, D.R.; Crosbie, J.

    1988-01-01

    A multichannel, two-color, quadrature heterodyne interferometer is used to measure the line density in the DIII-D tokamak. The unique feature of this real-time vibration-compensated interferometer is the combination of high speed (1 MHz), high resolution (2π/256), and wide range ( +- 8193 fringes). Quadrature phase information from a CO 2 laser (10.6 μm) and a He--Ne laser (0.63 μm) are digitized with high-speed (6 MHz) flash digitizers. Zero crossings of the signals are counted with digital circuitry yielding quarter fringe resolution with a 4-MHz bandwidth. Further fringe resolution of 1/256 is provided at 350 kHz by a PROM which uses the digital signals as input to a look-up table. Analog line density is presently available at 80 kHz with a system noise equivalent phase shift of +- 2/256. Error monitoring is provided for low signal amplitude and exceeding the maximum fringe rate. In addition, a method to prevent coating of in-vessel mirrors due to plasma and vessel wall cleaning discharges has been developed

  2. Software engineering aspects of real-time programming concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoitsch, Erwin

    1986-08-01

    Real-time programming is a discipline of great importance not only in process control, but also in fields like communication, office automation, interactive databases, interactive graphics and operating systems development. General concepts of concurrent programming and constructs for process-synchronization are discussed in detail. Tasking and synchronization concepts, methods of process communication, interrupt and timeout handling in systems based on semaphores, signals, conditional critical regions or on real-time languages like Concurrent PASCAL, MODULA, CHILL and ADA are explained and compared with each other. The second part deals with structuring and modularization of technical processes to build reliable and maintainable real time systems. Software-quality and software engineering aspects are considered throughout the paper.

  3. Real time loss detection for SNM in process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candy, J.V.; Dunn, D.R.; Gavel, D.T.

    1980-01-01

    This paper discusses the basis of a design for real time special nuclear material (SNM) loss detectors. The design utilizes process measurements and signal processing techniques to produce a timely estimate of material loss. A state estimator is employed as the primary signal processing algorithm. Material loss is indicated by changes in the states or process innovations (residuals). The design philosophy is discussed in the context of these changes

  4. Experimental demonstration of real-time adaptively modulated DDO-OFDM systems with a high spectral efficiency up to 5.76bit/s/Hz transmission over SMF links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; He, Jing; Tang, Jin; Wu, Xian; Chen, Lin

    2014-07-28

    In this paper, a FPGAs-based real-time adaptively modulated 256/64/16QAM-encoded base-band OFDM transceiver with a high spectral efficiency up to 5.76bit/s/Hz is successfully developed, and experimentally demonstrated in a simple intensity-modulated direct-detection optical communication system. Experimental results show that it is feasible to transmit a raw signal bit rate of 7.19Gbps adaptively modulated real-time optical OFDM signal over 20km and 50km single mode fibers (SMFs). The performance comparison between real-time and off-line digital signal processing is performed, and the results show that there is a negligible power penalty. In addition, to obtain the best transmission performance, direct-current (DC) bias voltage for MZM and launch power into optical fiber links are explored in the real-time optical OFDM systems.

  5. Real time sensor for therapeutic radiation delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bliss, M.; Craig, R.A.; Reeder, P.L.

    1998-01-01

    The invention is a real time sensor for therapeutic radiation. A probe is placed in or near the patient that senses in real time the dose at the location of the probe. The strength of the dose is determined by either an insertion or an exit probe. The location is determined by a series of vertical and horizontal sensing elements that gives the operator a real time read out dose location relative to placement of the patient. The increased accuracy prevents serious tissue damage to the patient by preventing overdose or delivery of a dose to a wrong location within the body. 14 figs

  6. Digital circuit for the introduction and later removal of dither from an analog signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgen, Gary S.

    1994-05-01

    An electronics circuit is presented for accurately digitizing an analog audio or like data signal into a digital equivalent signal by introducing dither into the analog signal and then subsequently removing the dither from the digitized signal prior to its conversion to an analog signal which is a substantial replica of the incoming analog audio or like data signal. The electronics circuit of the present invention is characterized by a first pseudo-random number generator which generates digital random noise signals or dither for addition to the digital equivalent signal and a second pseudo-random number generator which generates subtractive digital random noise signals for the subsequent removal of dither from the digital equivalent signal prior its conversion to the analog replica signal.

  7. Constructing a working taxonomy of functional Ada software components for real-time embedded system applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Robert

    1986-01-01

    A major impediment to a systematic attack on Ada software reusability is the lack of an effective taxonomy for software component functions. The scope of all possible applications of Ada software is considered too great to allow the practical development of a working taxonomy. Instead, for the purposes herein, the scope of Ada software application is limited to device and subsystem control in real-time embedded systems. A functional approach is taken in constructing the taxonomy tree for identified Ada domain. The use of modular software functions as a starting point fits well with the object oriented programming philosophy of Ada. Examples of the types of functions represented within the working taxonomy are real time kernels, interrupt service routines, synchronization and message passing, data conversion, digital filtering and signal conditioning, and device control. The constructed taxonomy is proposed as a framework from which a need analysis can be performed to reveal voids in current Ada real-time embedded programming efforts for Space Station.

  8. MTF analysis of the MURR real-time neutron radiography facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsay, J.T.

    1982-01-01

    In neutron radiography, as in other forms of NDE, it is sometimes desirable to observe dynamic events. This need has generated increased interest in real-time neutron radiography systems. As in other forms of radiography, a standard method for measuring the image forming capability of real-time systems is necessary in order to compare the various methods and systems used. A technique which has been used extensively in general photography and has been applied in the characterization of several screen-film combinations used in conventional neutron radiography is to determine the imaging system's modulation transfer function (MTF). This gives a graphical representation of the system's spatial resolution capabilities and was therefore chosen as the method for evaluation of the real-time neutron radiography facility at the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR). The method used was to image a knife-edge, differentiate the edge gradient to obtain the line spread function (LSF) to obtain the system MTF. A Gd foil was used for the knife-edge on several neutron converter screens and was imaged by a low-light level ISIT camera. The video signal was then digitized and presented to a PDP-11/05 microcomputer for the numerical calculations

  9. Implementation of real-time nonuniformity correction with multiple NUC tables using FPGA in an uncooled imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Gyong Jin; Kim, Lyang-June; Sheen, Sue-Ho; Koo, Gyou-Phyo; Jin, Sang-Hun; Yeo, Bo-Yeon; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2009-05-01

    This paper presents a real time implementation of Non Uniformity Correction (NUC). Two point correction and one point correction with shutter were carried out in an uncooled imaging system which will be applied to a missile application. To design a small, light weight and high speed imaging system for a missile system, SoPC (System On a Programmable Chip) which comprises of FPGA and soft core (Micro-blaze) was used. Real time NUC and generation of control signals are implemented using FPGA. Also, three different NUC tables were made to make the operating time shorter and to reduce the power consumption in a large range of environment temperature. The imaging system consists of optics and four electronics boards which are detector interface board, Analog to Digital converter board, Detector signal generation board and Power supply board. To evaluate the imaging system, NETD was measured. The NETD was less than 160mK in three different environment temperatures.

  10. SCI-Clone/32 - a distributed real time simulation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilks, C.F.

    1986-01-01

    Advances in engineering and in particular digital computers has enabled the simulation manufacturers to deliver a realism of a kind undreamt of a decade ago. 32-bit computers ranging in processor power from several hundred thousand instructions per second to many millions are at the heart of each simulator. Gould has pioneered digital computers in simulation with real time systems using shared memory, parallel processors, 64KByte cache, and shadow memory. The market is planning for higher iteration rates, lower life cycle costs, and the development of part task products. These can be met by distributing the tasks amongst nodal computers having a unique architecture for sharing data variables with minimal contention. (Auth.)

  11. Real-time data reorganizer for the D0 central fiber tracker trigger system at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefano Marco Rapisarda, Jamieson T Olsen and Neal George Wilcer email rapisard@fnal.gov

    2002-01-01

    A custom digital data Mixer system has been designed to reorganize, in real time, the data produced by the Fermilab D0 Scintillating Fiber Detector. The data is used for the Level 1 and Level 2 trigger generation. The Mixer System receives the data from the front-end digitization electronics over 320 Low Voltage Differential Signaling (LVDS) links running at 371 MHz. The input data is de-serialized down to 53 MHz by the LVDS receivers, clock/frame re-synchronized and multiplexed in Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). The data is then reserialized at 371 MHz by LVDS transmitters over 320 LVDS output links and sent to the electronics responsible for Level 1 and Level 2 trigger decisions. The Mixer System processes 311 Gigabits per second of data with an input to output delay of 200 nanoseconds

  12. Abstractions for aperiodic multiprocessor scheduling of real-time stream processing applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hausmans, J.P.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Embedded multiprocessor systems are often used in the domain of real-time stream processing applications to keep up with increasing power and performance requirements. Examples of such real-time stream processing applications are digital radio baseband processing and WLAN transceivers. These stream

  13. Real Time Emulation of Dynamic Tariff for Congestion Management in Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Theis Bo; Wu, Qiuwei; Huang, Shaojun

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the real time evaluation of the dynamic tariff (DT) method for alleviating congestion in a distribution networks with high penetration of distributed energy resources (DERs). The DT method is implemented in a real time digital testing platform that emulates a real distribution...

  14. Real-time micro-vibration multi-spot synchronous measurement within a region based on heterodyne interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ma; Xiao, Wen; Chen, Zonghui; Hao, Hongliang; Pan, Feng

    2018-01-01

    Real-time micro-vibration measurement is widely used in engineering applications. It is very difficult for traditional optical detection methods to achieve real-time need in a relatively high frequency and multi-spot synchronous measurement of a region at the same time,especially at the nanoscale. Based on the method of heterodyne interference, an experimental system of real-time measurement of micro - vibration is constructed to satisfy the demand in engineering applications. The vibration response signal is measured by combing optical heterodyne interferometry and a high-speed CMOS-DVR image acquisition system. Then, by extracting and processing multiple pixels at the same time, four digital demodulation technique are implemented to simultaneously acquire the vibrating velocity of the target from the recorded sequences of images. Different kinds of demodulation algorithms are analyzed and the results show that these four demodulation algorithms are suitable for different interference signals. Both autocorrelation algorithm and cross-correlation algorithm meet the needs of real-time measurements. The autocorrelation algorithm demodulates the frequency more accurately, while the cross-correlation algorithm is more accurate in solving the amplitude.

  15. Distortions in power spectra of digitized signals - II: Suggested solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njau, E.C.

    1982-04-01

    In Part I of this report we developed analytical expressions which represent exactly the energy density spectra of ''digitization processes'' that are essentially involved in spectral analysis of continuous signals. Besides, we related the spectral energy density of each digitization process to the parameters of the exact spectral energy density of the corresponding signal. On this basis, we briefly discussed the forms of distortions (or false structures) which are present in normally computed power spectra when the corresponding spectra of the digitization processes are not sufficiently decoupled from or nullified in the computed spectra. The biggest worry with regard to these distortions is not only that they may mask the actual information contained in the original signal, but also they may tempt the researcher to establish false characteristics about the signal involved. It is, in this context, that any reasonable method that could be used (even conditionally) to pinpoint false structures in computed power spectra would be both timely and useful. A simple, handy guidance through which some portions of computed energy density spectra which are dominated by the false structures mentioned above, can be located is presented herein. Equations are presented which give the various frequencies at which false peaks may be located in such ''contaminated'' portions of computed energy density spectra. The occurrence of frequency shifts in computed power spectra is also briefly discussed. (author)

  16. Practical, real-time, full duplex wireless

    KAUST Repository

    Jain, Mayank; Choi, Jung Il; Kim, Taemin; Bharadia, Dinesh; Seth, Siddharth; Srinivasan, Kannan; Levis, Philip; Katti, Sachin; Sinha, Prasun

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a full duplex radio design using signal inversion and adaptive cancellation. Signal inversion uses a simple design based on a balanced/unbalanced (Balun) transformer. This new design, unlike prior work, supports wideband and high power systems. In theory, this new design has no limitation on bandwidth or power. In practice, we find that the signal inversion technique alone can cancel at least 45dB across a 40MHz bandwidth. Further, combining signal inversion cancellation with cancellation in the digital domain can reduce self-interference by up to 73dB for a 10MHz OFDM signal. This paper also presents a full duplex medium access control (MAC) design and evaluates it using a testbed of 5 prototype full duplex nodes. Full duplex reduces packet losses due to hidden terminals by up to 88%. Full duplex also mitigates unfair channel allocation in AP-based networks, increasing fairness from 0.85 to 0.98 while improving downlink throughput by 110% and uplink throughput by 15%. These experimental results show that a re- design of the wireless network stack to exploit full duplex capability can result in significant improvements in network performance. © 2011 ACM.

  17. Multiprocessor scheduling for real-time systems

    CERN Document Server

    Baruah, Sanjoy; Buttazzo, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of both theoretical and pragmatic aspects of resource-allocation and scheduling in multiprocessor and multicore hard-real-time systems.  The authors derive new, abstract models of real-time tasks that capture accurately the salient features of real application systems that are to be implemented on multiprocessor platforms, and identify rules for mapping application systems onto the most appropriate models.  New run-time multiprocessor scheduling algorithms are presented, which are demonstrably better than those currently used, both in terms of run-time efficiency and tractability of off-line analysis.  Readers will benefit from a new design and analysis framework for multiprocessor real-time systems, which will translate into a significantly enhanced ability to provide formally verified, safety-critical real-time systems at a significantly lower cost.

  18. Coordinating Transit Transfers in Real Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-06

    Transfers are a major source of travel time variability for transit passengers. Coordinating transfers between transit routes in real time can reduce passenger waiting times and travel time variability, but these benefits need to be contrasted with t...

  19. Real-Time Penetrating Particle Analyzer (PAN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X.; Ambrosi, G.; Bertucci, B.

    2018-02-01

    The PAN can measure penetrating particles with great precision to study energetic particles, solar activities, and the origin and propagation of cosmic rays. The real-time monitoring of penetrating particles is crucial for deep space human travel.

  20. Development of fast scattering model of complex shape target for seminatural tests of onboard proximity radars in real time mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Likhoedenko Andrei K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Problems of creation of models of real time of complex shape targets on the basis of use of their polygonal models are considered. Formulas for radar cross section of multipoint model of target and power of input signal of onboard radar are described. Technique of semi-natural tests of onboard radar detector on the base of multipoint model of target is proposed. Results of digital simulation of input signals of the onboard radar detector of the target from the aerodynamic target on the basis of their multipoint models are given.